ď‚™ The Chicago School comprises an intellectually elite group of progressive architects in late-19th-century Chicago, Illinois.
They introduce the skyscraper, a new building type for the new 20th century.
ď‚™ New technology, improvements in communication and transportation, and new or improved manufacturing processes usher in a period of extraordinary growth in industry and commerce. So the modern corporation is born.
New technologies, also contribute to this development
The invention of the passenger elevator in 1857 by Elisha Graves Otis, The typewriter (1868), The telephone (1876), Incandescent light (1879), The dictaphone or gramophone (1888),
This, transform office planning, types of workers, and their methods of working.
ď‚™ The city becomes an important railroad hub and manufacturing center in the 1850s. Many new buildings are constructed with wood frames and castiron columns and faĂ§ades.
CONCEPTS The architectâ€™s dilemma becomes how to articulate a multistory building to reflect a human scale.
At the forefront in Chicago, architect Louis Sullivan believes that the buildingâ€™s form should express the interior function. He creates an architectural language for tall buildings.
DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS Early skyscrapers have gridpatterned faรงades, large windows for light, and little ornament.
Louis Sullivan uses stringcourses, projecting cornices, richness of detail and decoration as a part of the structure
The office hierarchy drives planning, finishes, and furniture with executives having the most space, best treatments, and nicest furniture.
ARCHITECTURE Steel skeletons to replace masonry bearing walls or piers, foundations that can support tall buildings, and elevators to access upper floors come together to create the first skyscrapers, or buildings 16 to 20 stories high.
In 1916, New York City passes a setback ordinance mandating that new buildings in selected zoned districts can rise upward two and a half times the street width and then must have a setback.
INTERIORS Impressive iron or marble staircases lead to upper floors. Small, private offices maintain a domestic appearance with area rugs, wallpaper, or paneling.
FURNISHINGS AND DECORATIVE ARTS
Motion and efficiency studies scrutinize office tasks and procedures to increase productivity and profits. Office machines, such as typewriters and adding machines, become increasingly common.
Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa
Facultad de Arquitectura
Lic. En Arquitectura
Comprensión de Documentos de Arquitectura en Inglés Arq. Claudia Aispuro Espinoza Chicago School Alumna: López Heráldez Carmen María Gpo: 7 Sem: 4