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Aerobic training

Carlos RodrĂ­guez Physical Education 3Âş ESO.

Aerobic exercise Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of relatively low intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. Aerobic literally means "living in air", and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time (more than 30 minutes).

Aerobic versus anaerobic exercise

Fig. 1. Fox and Haskell formula showing the split between aerobic and anaerobic exercise and heart rate. Aerobic exercise and fitness can be contrasted with anaerobic exercise, of which strength training and short-distance running are the most salient examples. The two types of exercise differ by the duration and intensity of muscular contractions involved, as well as by how energy is generated within the muscle. In most conditions, anaerobic exercise occurs simultaneously with aerobic exercises because the less efficient anaerobic metabolism must supplement the aerobic system due to energy demands that exceed the aerobic system's capacity. Major muscles in a rested, untrained human typically contain enough energy for about 2 hours of vigorous exercise. Exhaustion of glycogen is a major cause of what marathon runners call "hitting the wall". Training, lower intensity levels, and carbohydrate loading may allow to postpone the onset exhaustion beyond 4 hours.


Aerobic training

Carlos Rodríguez Physical Education 3º ESO.

Aerobic exercise comprises innumerable forms. In general, it is performed at a moderate level of intensity over a relatively long period of time. For example, running a long distance at a moderate pace is an aerobic exercise (i.e. 10 k, 140 beats per minutes heart rate), but sprinting is not (50 meters). Playing singles tennis, with near-continuous motion, is generally considered aerobic activity, while golf or two person team tennis, with brief bursts of activity punctuated by more frequent breaks, may not be predominantly aerobic. Some sports are thus inherently "aerobic", while other aerobic exercises, such as fartlek training (called too “play with distance and speed”) or aerobic dance classes, are designed specifically to improve aerobic capacity and fitness. It is most common for aerobic exercises to involve the leg muscles, primarily or exclusively. There are some exceptions. For example, rowing to distances of 2,000 m or more is an aerobic sport that exercises several major muscle groups, including those of the legs, abdominals, chest, and arms. Among the recognized benefits of doing regular aerobic exercise are: • • • • • • • •

Strengthening the muscles involved in respiration, to facilitate the flow of air in and out of the lungs Strengthening and enlarging the heart muscle, to improve its pumping efficiency and reduce the resting heart rate, known as aerobic conditioning Strengthening muscles throughout the body Improving circulation efficiency and reducing blood pressure Increasing the total number of red blood cells in the body, facilitating transport of oxygen Improved mental health, including reducing stress and lowering the incidence of depression Reducing the risk for diabetes. Burns body fat, while building leaner muscle.


Aerobic training

Carlos Rodríguez Physical Education 3º ESO.

As a result, aerobic exercise can reduce the risk of death due to cardiovascular problems. In addition, high-impact aerobic activities (such as jogging or using a skipping rope) can stimulate bone growth, as well as reduce the risk of osteoporosis for both men and women. In addition to the health benefits of aerobic exercise, there are numerous performance benefits: • • •

• •

Increased storage of energy molecules such as fats and carbohydrates within the muscles, allowing for increased endurance Neovascularization of the muscle to increase blood flow through the muscles Increasing speed at which aerobic metabolism is activated within muscles, allowing a greater portion of energy for intense exercise to be generated aerobically Improving the ability of muscles to use fats during exercise, preserving intramuscular glycogen Enhancing the speed at which muscles recover from high intensity exercise

Both the health benefits and the performance benefits, or "training effect", require a minimum duration and frequency of exercise. Most authorities suggest at least twenty minutes performed at least three times per week.

Aerobic capacity Aerobic capacity describes the functional capacity of the cardiorespiratory system (the heart, lungs and blood vessels). Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen the body can use during a specified period, usually during intense exercise. It is a function both of cardiorespiratory performance and the maximum ability to remove and utilize oxygen from circulating blood. To measure maximal aerobic capacity, an exercise physiologist or physician will perform a VO2 max test, in which a subject will undergo progressively more strenuous exercise on a treadmill, from an easy walk through to exhaustion. The higher the measured cardiorespiratory endurance level, the more oxygen has been transported to and used by exercising muscles, and the higher the level of intensity at which the individual can exercise. More simply stated, the higher the aerobic capacity, the higher the level of aerobic fitness.


Aerobic training

Carlos RodrĂ­guez Physical Education 3Âş ESO.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerobic_exercise

AEROBIC TRAINING Aerobic training is any training that is performed that utilizes aerobic energy. Training primarily in an aerobic zone most efficiently improves aerobic capacity, trains the body to utilize fat for energy, reduces injury, improves recovery, and better prepares you for endurance activities. Aerobic Capacity Your performance during any type of endurance event is directly related to your aerobic capacity. An endurance event is one that utilizes aerobic energy as the major energy source; this can be any event from a 2 mile run to an ultramarthon or ironman triathlon. It is important to understand that even during shorter events, such as a 2 miler or 5k, although your heart rate is above the aerobic zone, aerobic energy is the major energy source. Anaerobic energy only contributes a small amount of energy in these events, therefore a greater aerobic capacity allows you to produce more aerobic energy which enhances performance in any endurance event. The best way to improve your aerobic capacity is to train in your aerobic zone. By training in this zone, you are specifically and exclusively training your aerobic system, thus maximizing the benefit of the training on your aerobic capacity. Enhancing your aerobic capacity will make you run faster. If you are doing a lot of speed workouts and not focusing on improving your aerobic capacity, you will not significantly improve your performance. This may be hard for a lot of athletes to understand and believe, but it is true - the best way to improve your speed and performance is through aerobic training.


Aerobic training

Carlos RodrĂ­guez Physical Education 3Âş ESO.

Many athletes do not utilize a heart rate monitor and do a majority of their workouts in the anaerobic zone. Many athletes do use a heart rate monitor yet still train above the aerobic zone. By spending a lot of time training at an anaerobic intensity level, these athletes are not gaining the maximum benefits on their aerobic capacity.

How can you become faster without doing all those speed workouts? The increased speed and performance comes from a larger aerobic capacity. When you begin aerobic training you may feel like you are running slowly to maintain your heart rate in the aerobic zone. However, you can be assured that you are working your aerobic system. Over time, as you build your aerobic capacity, you will improve your ability to run faster. If you start out running 8:30 per mile pace, over time you will improve to 8:15 and then to 8:00 per mile at the same heart rate zone. This increase in aerobic capacity will significantly improve your race paces as well; if you previously ran a 6:30 per minute pace during a 10k, you will soon notice that at the same level of exertion you are running 6:15 per mile or better.

Source: http://www.endurancedoc.com/Training/Training_aerobic_training.htm


aerobic training 3ºESO