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Hello, I’m Mark Sanders I am very honoured to be invited to talk today I have THE best job in the world … I get to Engineer, Design and Ride bikes This talk discuss’ design and how we attract more people to cycle. Some points may be controversial, I hope they stimulate discussions afterwards.

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I also invent and design other products Originally for Older people, but designed for all , This is called universal (or inclusive) design Also very successful commercially – Sales are 14 million in 1st 2 years and climbing. Can universal design be applied to the bike industry ?

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Bicycle design is my 1st love Bicycles are THE most useful product humans have ‌. They are Human Amplifiers – For same energy as walking, they go 4 x faster, and 4 x the distance !

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But, most people still prefer cars ! They see bicycles for: ‘people who cannot afford a car’ or ‘enthusiasts, .. My 18 year old daughter says nerds ? ’ How do we make bikes ‘Cool for All’ ,

….. Universal Products ?

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Some Answers – I believe the Image of cycling, is also CRITICAL … are we ALL really un-cool nerds as a my daughter thinks ?

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How do we get these NON窶田yclists to use bikes as an everyday form of transport. What can we do to reach this new HUGE market ?

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A perfect analogy for the bike market is the 80%+ non-cyclists represent a big Blue Ocean Blue Ocean Strategy is … “where profits and growth are, but where the competition isn’t”

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The book is sold worldwide. We can learn from Blue Ocean Strategy.

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Blue Ocean represents the 80%+ non-cyclists,

In most developed countries only 1% of journeys are by bike Even in Holland, only 26% of journeys are by bike

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Red Ocean represents 20% of existing cyclists. Enthusiasts, like us, who the industry focus’ on.

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The industry competes for market share from this 20% market, bikes and ranges, are almost matched company to company, Change and innovation towards the blue ocean market is slow. Lets see the WHO, WHAT and WHEN etc.. .. Of Red and Blue Oceans

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Red Ocean Market is Basically: Sporty Males The Blue Ocean Market is: Everyone else !! …. Women – “cycling everyday is messy” Cycling is just ‘not cool’ …. This is VERY important Car owners … have invested in their car – so want to use it !! Can we make bikes and cycling as cool and as appealing as cars ?

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In the Red Ocean, Our industry tends to Glamorise: fitness, speed and distance, BUT this actually puts many people OFF cycling !! The Blue Ocean uses bicycles for: Transport and Leisure Everyday Journeys - for all Shopping Working Linking with Cars and Trains Sightseeing, social and .. FUN !

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Red Ocean use bikes at the weekend - For Sport and Leisure. Blue Ocean use bikes as everyday transport. They also use cars and trains, for other journeys.

I always find it amazing that many people I ride with at the weekend, usually travel to work by car during the week ! ‌ The message seems to be: its cool to ride at the weekend, but if you ride to work you may look (and smell) like a nutter, a bike tribe/eco-warrior: a car has a much higher status, failing that , the train allows you to keep your own identity.

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Clothes = image Lycra and Dayglow for ‘Red-Ocean’ customers…. But ‘Blue-Ocean’ customers want to wear their own clothes, and express their own style. ‘Blue-Ocean’ customers don’t want to join bicycle ‘tribes’, and wear ‘uniform’.

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Enthusiast cyclists want speed, so crouch down. Is this appropriate for everyday cycling ? I think not, especially for shorter journeys comfort and visibility are more important than speed Blue Oceans are about Ease of Use, Style not necessarily Speed.

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My wife still struggles to understand trigger shift gears. Single speed is fine for non hilly areas or intuitive controls for gears are needed The NuVinci twist grip with moving graphic is a good universal design. Enclosed chains and belt drives avoid oil.

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Walking, Public transport and other vehicles Are ALL potential competition to cycling. ‌.. This is where both infrastructure and bicycle design can to make cycling more appealing

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City infrastructure is important In reverse order.. 11 ….. Switzerland ……. And at No. 1 …. it is ……. > Amsterdam – Holland

I’m disappointed that London … or … Taipei are not on there.

How can Bicycle Design get blue ocean people, into cycling ?

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Trek Lime is based on universal design, for all incl. women A great product – but not appreciated by enthusiast bike shops, - maybe needs to be a single speed at minimum cost - Sold in supermarkets ? • Cruiser bikes • Velib in Paris - the bike is good universal design.

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As Image is so important, … more radical designs, may tempt people out of cars. Cool bikes that change the perception of cycling …… Bicycle.design.blog is a good place for new bicycle designs… Traditional bikes - made cool, Load Carrying bikes Electric bikes And of course - Folding Bikes

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I believe Folders are a key to future, personal transport – they transport people 'door-to-door‘. They are ‘portable human-amplifiers’ …. They can be taken anywhere you go, And give 4x ‘amplification’ …. as regular bikes !

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Folding bike Benefits ‌.


Strida and X-Bike were targeted at ‘Blue Ocean’ markets . IF Reach, IF Cross and IF Mode aim to appeal to both Red and Blue ocean markets. IF Mode aims to get a typical non-cycling ‘Porsche Driver’ to try bicycles.

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Strida has found a ‘Blue Ocean’ This is Strida Club Taiwan at last years show. Strida Clubs, and Cafés have started around the world. For both Men and women – great for relationships !

Strida is very simple – even gears are an option.

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Nowadays, Nobody carries Suitcases ‌ ! I predict that soon, nobody will carry folding bikes either. Portability and ease of use are a common theme on all my bike designs‌..

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More folding bicycles are adopting this approach. A bike has 2 wheels anyway .. Why not use them when folded ? Now ‌ Let me show you the Invention, Engineering and Design Process

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This is the basic process I use for all bikes (and all products) It starts with 100’s of dreams, and 100’s of sketches – ‘what would be better ? ‘

‘what would be cool ?’

Strida was Inspired by Original Maclaren Stroller - 1st Sketch Simple, - Long and thin – easy to transport when folded


Engineering Calculations to choose materials and frame sizes and Tiny wire ‘sketch models’ to explore the 3D form, and folding

I still use the same process, but I also use Computer Aided Design (CAD) much more now.


Adjustable test rigs – for posture, steering geometry and ‘feel’. 1st prototype, simple just 3 tubes and 3 joints (cf 11 of the traditional bike behind) …

triangular frame, folds like an umbrella


Strida has had many improvements over 20 years and now …. Strida5, is very popular … 20,000 Stridas are made a year, by Ming-Cycles (and 50,000 illegal copies by 20 factories in China ! ) Ming-cycles innovate to keep ahead… they are developing lighter, faster and lower cost versions,


The next is the X-Bike, With the aim to make a bicycle even simpler ‌.. But money ran out and it did not make it into mass production

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Concept 1 Can a bike be even simpler than 3 tubes ? The red is the belt, and lower tension member. Under-seat steering ‌‌ maybe too radical ?.

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Concept 2 - Controls in the normal places. Fully Adjustable Test Rig, Rideable Prototype – hub centre steering.

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Still born – X-Bike 2 tubes, 1 Action ‘scissor’ fold, roll - never carry. Now, Lets look at the current range of bikes ….

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In any cycling-city 90%+ are large wheel bikes. This got me dreaming …… what if we could have full sized bike, that when folded, is still as portable as a small wheeled bike ….

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Small folding bikes are the same size as 26� or 700c Wheels Add a handle and NEVER carry. All the parts are between the handle and wheels – compact and convenient. Same DNA as Strida.

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Ideas are easy !! A designer must make take an idea and make it REAL. 3D CAD is a great tool, I also use Sketch Models – to explore mechanisms.

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I make full sized models to quickly test mechanism and portability CAD, FEA, and CNC .. All Great tools to test the design

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But nothing is as accurate, ‌ or FUN, as real testing. This IF Mode is almost 100% custom .. A premium product,

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Next task was to adapt this IF (Integrated Folding) technology to suit any bike. Allows use of standard parts – wheels, gears, brakes etc. etc. which have 100 years of development (and cost saving). We still get full sized wheels, AND compact folding.

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Again, All parts between wheels and handle So, Roll .. Never carry

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The mechanism to do this is very simple, The Patented Geometry is a 3 Dimensional, 4-bar link ‌ impossible to design without CAD.

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I find Design is quite straightforward, compared to manufacturing, (and, manufacturing is quite straightforward, compared to marketing and distribution)

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I met George Lin, President of Pacific-Cycles‌ George has a vision of cycling as a major part of world transport. Pacific-Cycles has some of THE best mechanical engineering in the bicycle industry. Design, CAD, CAM, testing, heat treatment all in one place. In a few months Pacific re-designed, and built a whole range of If Bikes.

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One of the 1st prototypes Pacific made was an IF version of their race winning, Full Suspension Reach - IF Reach

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Adding The IF mechanism, allows The Reach to quickly fold into a wheelable package Easier to transport by car or by train.

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IF Cross has either 26� or 700c wheels, And several gearing options – a conventional looking bike, It too Folds to: a rolling pair of wheels, with a handle.

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Making IF Mode is quite difficult, only Pacific could make it happen so easily. IF Mode has been very well received …. In both Red and Blue Ocean markets. Gold award’s are normally given to products like Apple’s iPhone and Sony Cameras Our aim is ….. IF Mode is acting as an ‘ambassador’ to get non-cyclist’s into folding bikes, and into cycling .. Pacific are working on lots of future developments.. Some you’ll see at the show

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I’d like to finish off by sharing some advice to young Bicycle Designers, And to the bicycle industry. Tips for Bike Designers ……….

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Tips for the Bike Industry (from a Blue Ocean Design Perspective)……….

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I have been Mark Sanders This presentation is available for download, from my website www.mas-design.com Enjoy the vast Blue Ocean

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Mark Sanders's notes and slides from Taipei presentation