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‘NJONICA Ghost Town Lab Riace-Badolato


Ghost Town Laboratory ‘NJONICA Town Planning design Workshop A.Y. 2016-2017

Professors Isabella Inti, Riccardo Mazzoni, Silvia Sbattella with Filippo Romano Tutors Carlo Gallelli, Mara Reina

Web ghostownlabriacebadolato.wordpress.com

Students Robin Beelen, Martina Biava, Federico Bordoni, Francesca Braglia, Mirko Calasso, Bianca Carosini, Sirawat Chanwipat, Hussam Chebeib, Ana Costa, Koufalitaki Dafni, Matteo De Bellis, Aikebaier Erken, Goran Fatah, Borui Feng, Laura Fiamenghi, Sllovinja Fjolla, Bianca Gentili, Beatriz González, Wei Han, Jiahong Huang, Zofia Kasinska, Anniina Kortemaa, Anja Kunić, Erpinio Labrozzi, Nolwenn Le Boeuf, Yulong Li, Julie Linsen, Yuyao Lu, Francesca Luci, Xintian Lyu, Mickaela Macka, Mira Maletković, Margherita Marri, Francesca Morselli, Laura Murari, Diana Andreea Navlea, Payam Norouzi, Maria-Nikoletta Nteli, Albeg Ofir, Francesca Olivieri, Margherita Pasquali, Elise Peeters, Lilit Poghosyan, Francesca Porro, Danni Qiu, Yuanping Quian, Evgeniya Sokolova, Claudia Storelli, Hanming Su, Bochao Sun, Ignacio Sungjae Lee, Milena Tomašević, Lalie Trinca, Tran Vy, Xu Wanli, Fan Yan, Haotian Yang, Xingyu Yuan, Lara Zentilomo, Xiao Zhang, Fan Zhang, Yuchen Zhu.

graphic layout: Carlo Gallelli, Mara Reina archive images: arhivio di stato Catanzaro photo courtesy: Filippo Romano


‘NJONICA Ghost Town Lab Badolato Riace


Index 01 Ghost Town Laboratory Badolato Riace Shrinking Cities: Ghost Towns pag.5

02 Shrinking Cities: Ghost Town in my country pag.11

03 Ghost Town Badolato Riace: Photographic inquiry by Filippo Romano pag.23

04 Field Trip pag.37

05 Territorial Investigation pag.43

06 ‘NJonica: Vison and Guidelines pag.89

07 ‘NJonica: projects pag.103


Ghost Town Lab Badolato Riace

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Ghost Town Laboratory Badolato Riace Isabella Inti “In 2016 in Italy there will be 1,650 ghost town”, E. Torsello, Il Sole 24ore, 6.8.2008 “Migrants: 130,536 landed in 2016”, La Repubblica 19.09.16 “Riace, the village that asks for more immigrants. And 40 Mayors from Calabria follow the example: stop the depopulation”, La Repubblica, 15.04.2011 “Tourism, Italy is fifth in the world. In a year in our country 48 million tourists spent 33 billion”, La Stampa 23.04.2015

“Badolato village for sale in Calabria”, D. Lanciano, Il Tempo, 7 October 1984 “Badolato, the charm of the old town attracts people from all over the world”, F. Laganà and G. Misticò, il Quotidiano del Sud, 24.02.2016

According to the report “1996-2016 Excellencies and ghost town in Italy of small towns” , released by Confcommercio and Legambiente, in Italy 1,650 small and medium-sized cities risk becoming ghost town by 2016 due to a phenomenon of desertification called “housing problems”. In addition 4,395 municipalities will shed in poor conditions. The reason? Lack of services for people and companies, low birth rates and immigration, inability to attract new capital. Future ghost towns constitute one-fifth of Italian municipalities, amounting to one-sixth of the national territory. Resides there, at least for now, the 4.2% of the population, with 560 thousand residents over 65,20% more than the average Italian. Little chance of work employment, little social fluidity .. The Italian ghost towns are part of an European (and American) phenomenon called Shrinking cities. A significant number of cities and regions currently face population decline, economic contraction, or both. The “greying of Europe”, where nearly a third of the population will be 65 year old or over by 2060, is increasing pressure on social services, urban infrastructure, and the labor supply. The trend is raising new concerns for planning and architectural design. For Central and Eastern European cities, the out-migration of young workers seeking better employment opportunities has made the equation even more difficult. As tax bases shrink, planners and politicians in the EU will need to attract and retain a younger workforce, in part by reforming immigration policy, and make the urban environment accessible for the elderly. News reports tell us that 130.536 migrants have arrived in Italy since the beginning of year 2016, both are political refugees, but also men and women seeking better economic conditions, more dignified. Today they live in Italy about 4 million foreigners,of which at least half a million illegal immigrants. Of almost 60 million inhabitants, it is 6.7% of the population. Proportionally, Italy is the country in the world that attracts more migrants. A swirling flow, unmanageable by the State, oriented by individual ethnic communities and their leaders, intermediaries between the country of origin and the ”Belpaese country” of reception or transit. In Italy they reside six major ethnic stocks of immigrants - largely composed of young, of which one out of ten born in Italy - from Romania, Albania, Morocco, China, Ukraine and the Philippines. All

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indicators confirm that given the need for industry, agriculture and services, our future depends on the integration of immigrants. Italy is also crossed by other flows of people and capital, is in fact the world’s fifth tourist destination for number of visitors. In 2015 were 48 million tourists who spent 35,7 billion euro. One of the most visited regions is Calabria, where foreign tourists come from Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Holland, Austria, Poland, England and France. From the media headlines, we read that in Calabria depopulation factors of Southern Italy small town intersect the news of continuous landings on the coast of migrants fleeing from war and famine, as well as data of the growing economy linked to tourism and northern European real estate investments. Here the small towns of Badolato and Riace, as Santa Caterina of the Ionian Sea, Guardavalle, Monasterace, Isca, Davoli, San Sostene, Soverato, Squillace are some of the Calabria 52 double towns on the Ionian coast, today in part depopulated (ghost towns). The reasons of abandonment of the villages since the 50 were either natural causes such as earthquakes, floods and landslides, such that human migration in search of work to the North Italy and abroad. The villages are situated on a hill and built in medieval times to escape the incursions of the Turkish conquerors. Up behind them stand the rugged mountains of the pre Calabrian Serre, the Apennines that in this region form the Sila National Park. In the 50s and 60s due to floods and landslides the Italian state did move the residents from villages a few kilometers along the Ionian coast, giving rise to the formation of double towns or marine, along Highway 106 Jonica (SS 106) that extends for 491 km from Reggio Calabria to Taranto. Riace is an Italian municipality of 1,820 inhabitants in the metropolitan city of Reggio Calabria in Calabria. The town has risen to hit the headlines for the discovery, in 1972, of two Greek bronze statues of the Greek era, known today as the Riace Bronzes. Today at the National Museum of Reggio Calabria (project arch. Marcello Piacentini and equipping arch. Paolo Desideri, ABDR studio). Riace since 2004, has been the focus of immigrant reception policies. In 2016 more than 800 immigrants welcomed by the local community, supported by social policies that have been included in the workforce, contributing to the development of the economy of the village. Reception stories also tell by German filmmaker Wim Wenders here shot the film “Il Volo/The Flight” involving the mayor, residents and migrants. The mayor, Domenico Lucano in 2016 was cited among the top 50 world leaders (to 40th place) by Fortune magazine. Badolato is a village of 3,157 inhabitants in the province of Catanzaro. Seriously damaged during its history by earthquakes (1640,1659 and 1783) Badolato was also hit in more recent times by a flood in 1951. On 7 October 1984 the village librarian wrote an article in the newspaper Il Tempo launching a provocation “Badolato village for sale in Calabria”. From that moment the consciousness of the continuous agricultural decline of olive trees, vineyards, orchards and the abandonment of the more than 513 buildings on 1059 becomes an obsession and an opportunity for a revival of the village. Here began both welcoming policies towards Kurdish refugees, both the sale of the real estate to Swedish, British, Dutch, American tourists. The close union of natural, archaeological and antropic aspects therefore, distingui-

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shes the whole Riace-Badolato area as a unique landscape of a chain of double villages. A territorial opportunity that today needs new Strategies and Tools of Urbanism, architectural design and urban design for development. Also leaders in others Shrinking cities have attempted different strategies, with varying success, to reinvent their image and their economy around creative industries, a manufacturing renaissance, a sustainable tourism or the service sector. The aim of the course wanted to answer the following town planning design question: what vision, what tools and strategies we need to adopt for the enhancement of Badolato-Riace area? Which strategies and projects to recover, maintain and enhance the entire set of villages and landscapes for environmental, cultural, social and tourist purposes? In the goal of enhancing the area, what can be the design relation between the historical and archaeological remains, the agriculture and shepherding landscapes and the shrinking contemporary small towns? Should interventions be public or private? How you can involve the different populations and flows of refugees, tourists, residents for a new sharing economy and the care and management of the heritage? What are the consequences of reception policies and sustainable tourism and how can they be controlled or guided with planning and design? The Town Planning Design team composed by 63 students, 3 professors and 2 tutors start with the Vision and identification of an homogeneous geographical and environmental area: N’JONICA including the double settlements area from Badolato to Riace. A few guide lines may define the institution of an Agricultural District through which we could promote new public policies and local coordination for new pilot projects for adoption and conversion of abandoned agricultural land and farms, the testing of new landscaping systems to stop the landslides, strengthening of the timber sector in the San Bruno forests with the conversion of abandoned buildings into new wood chain factories, but also experiment a landart and wood cutting program with residences for artists and new light camping structures for tourist summer hospitality. New proposals for a system of Fiumare territorial parks and public spaces combining the rough and wild Serre areas to the agricultural landscapes of olive trees and citrus groves to the mouth of the Ionian sea with a reuse and re-naturalization project of the harbor. To combat desertification and to attract new national and international tourist flows we need to develop an efficient services and infrastructures system. With the redefinition of intermodal transport between regional and local trains along the coast, a transversal buses and electric cars line between double towns, the regeneration of ancient donkeys tracks with sustainable mobility, and last but not least the enhancement of the web access network. To counteract landslides, seasonal flooding and lead an effective water collection system to the double hilly villages is important to enhance the water management and develop projects related to drainage, the redefinition of riverbanks, and projects for water purification in connection both to the harbour and the railway station. A dense fabric of historic buildings of medieval origin, eighteenth-century palaces of land-owning families, but also farmsteads and huts for the shelter of pigs and sheep and even INA social housing of the post-war period, isolated unfinished buildings and new tourist villages along the marina. There is a taxonomy of varied building types that could be redesigned and made more healthy, efficient from an energy

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standpoint, and not least for innovative solutions that can hybridize memory enhancement with contemporary forms and materials. How to systematize this heritage? Diffused hotel solutions in doubles villages and new public spaces and open space systems will then bring new flows of tourists and investors, but also new rules for the regeneration of built legacy. How to reinvent and promoting a dynamic cultural heritage? A Slowfood School with a program of courses, workshops and internships on local farms and wineries, could be the trigger for the regeneration and networking of numerous farms and the requalification and the architectural and landscape reinvention of some of the historic hill village buildings, mills, former piggeries, but also wineries, vineyards, citrus groves. For us ‘Njonica is an already existing agricultural district. Books G. De Carlo, Architecture is Too Important to Leave to the Architects, in: O. Bouman and R. van Toorn, The Invisible in Architecture, London 1994, 382-389 A. Geuze, WEST8 Landscape urbanism, 1995 R. Koolhaas, Whatever happened to urbanism?, in R. Koolhaas S,M,L,XL, New York, 1998 J. Corner, Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture, ed.Princeton, 1999 Multiplicity, USE-Uncertain States of Europe, Milan, 2003 C. Waldheim, The Landscape Urbanism Reader, PrincetonArchitectural Press, New York 2006 P. Oswalt , “Shrinking Cities, Vol. 2: Interventions” ed. Hatje Cantz Publishers, June 2006 A. Meroni, Creative communities. People inventing sustainable ways of living, Ed. Poli Press 2007 P. Ciorra, M. Guccione, Re-Cycle. Strategies for Architecture, City and Planet, ed. Electa, 2012 B. Steiner, “Superkilen a project by BIG, TOPOTEK1, SUPERFLEX”, ed. Arvinius+Orfeus Publishing, Stockholm/Oslo, 2013 I. Inti, G. Cantaluppi, M. Persichino,”Temporiuso. Manuale per il riuso temporaneo di spazi in abbandono, in Italia”, ed. Altreconomia,2014 C. Bianchetti e AAVV, “Territori della condivisione. Una nuova città?”, ed. Quodlibet, 2014 Magazines Topos 26 Internationale Bauausstellung Emscher Park / 1999 Lotus Navigator 02 – I nuovi paesaggi / 2001 Lotus Navigator 05 – fare l’ambiente / 2002 Lotus 128 Reclaiming Terrain / 2006 Lotus 153 Commons / 2014 Limes 6/2015, “Chi bussa alla nostra porta” Articles and essays I. Inti, “RE-USE: The construction of a Common Good trough the temporary Reuse of leftover urban setting”, in ZAWIA#00. CHANGE. Sept. 2012 T. Maheshwari “Redefining Shrinking Cities”, December 3, 2013 in Urban Fringe L. Canali “Da dove vengono i migranti”, in Limes 6/2015 Websites: http://www.fieldoperations.net/ http://www.filipporomano.net/ http://www.landscapeandurbanism.com/ http://www.limesonline.com/ http://www.temporiuso.org/ http://www.toposmagazine.com/ http://www.topotek1.de/ http://www.west8.nl/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKH2A0diTts (W. Wenders “Il Volo/The Flight film”, 2010)

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Shrinking Cities Ghost town in my country

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Shrinking Cities. Ghost Town in my country Isabella Inti The phenomenon of shrinking cities generally refers to a metropolitan area that experiences significant population loss in a short period of time. Suburbanization in tandem with deindustrialization, catastrophic natural events, wars and geopolitical barriers, human migration, and the 2008 Great Recession all contribute to origins of shrinking cities. In the 21st century, the historically unique epoch of growth that began with industrialization 200 years ago will come to an end. At the end of the 21st century, processes of urban shrinking and of growth will be in equilibrium, as they were before the industrial epoch (Oswalt, 2002-08). The number of people around the world who live in cities has grown since 1800, an incomparable process of growth. In the next 50 years, the number of urban residents will double again, but at the same time the processes of growth will come to an end. The UN predicts that the population of the world will stabilize and cease to grow at about 9 billion in around 2070. At the same time, particularly in the highly populated countries like China and India, urbanization will be mostly complete; more than three-quarters of the world’s population will live in cities. It will not be followed by a phase of stagnation, but of dynamic transformation with increasing polarization. Growth and shrinking will be in a state of equilibrium and mutual determination. Most shrinking cities in the last 50 years have been in Western industrial countries, especially in the USA, Britain, Germany and Italy. Since 1990, shrinking cities have increasingly been found in former Warsaw Pact countries, like Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan. Between 1950 and 2000, there have also been an above average number of shrinking cities in South Africa and Japan. But the centers of gravity of this development have been in Europe and the USA. And this trend will increase, because in the future Europe will hardly participate in worldwide population growth. In 35 years, only 10% of the world’s population will live in the Western world, and some countries must prepare for a general decrease in population. During the Town Planning design workshop we asked to the 63 international students to bring case studies of shrinking cities, the exercise is called “Ghost Town in my country”. Students have investigated the reasons, the actors, the size of the phenomenon in their country of origin. In Europe and western countries the essential causes of shrinking traced by students, have been suburbanization (regional shifting of activities and people into the surroundings of the cities), metropolitanization (countrywide shifting of activities and people migration to the great urban agglomerations), and deindustrialization (the crisis of mono-industrially oriented sites). In the near future have already facing new causes, visible in many case studies traced by students in South America, China, South Korea and Australia. Wars and geopolitical barriers have led to the cancellation of civilization, to migration, the definition of twin cities, no mans land paramilitary forces. Climate change, with its heterogeneous effects like natural catastrophic events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, will be a new parameter of the development of settlements. While a large part of existing settlement structures will be only trivially and in part even favorably influenced by climate change, a large number of sites will be greatly impaired and in part existentially threatened by heterogeneous climate

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effects. Among the causes will be a lack of drinking water (especially in the arid regions of the South), the danger of flooding (in coastal regions), the thawing of the permafrost (in northern zones), the loss of snow and ice in alpine tourism sites (high mountains like Alps and alpine foothills in Italy), etc. The end of the fossil energy era will have particular effects on the sites that have fossil energy repositories: in the end phase of extraction, these sites profit from constantly rising revenues. When the local supplies will be exhausted, however, the cities will completely reorient their economies. We wish that in future shrinkage will be considered as normal process of development as growth. It will lose its stigma and come to be seen as a scenario that has advantages as well as disadvantages and that leads to distinct forms of renewal and change. The territorial transformations that come with shrinkage will nonetheless involve long term social and economic conflicts, about the distribution of wealth in society, vested interests and their costs. In growing urban regions, the principle of the entrepreneurial city can develop remarkable dynamics of development. By some case studies we learned how in shrinking regions, the classical economic elites of major companies and banks are replaced by local, often collectively organized micro-enterprises. In small-scale projects, they use the specific local situation and their intense social networking, realizing longterm projects with little capital on the principle of a “weak urbanism”. Urban planning and architecture in shrinking cities face new tasks. The necessity to develop new “tools” of planning and building is evident. Then we must try to define new ideas, concepts for action, theories, laws, and practices. The key concepts of the modern age’s urban development were colonization, the founding of cities, allotting land for construction, new construction zones, opening land, construction boom, urban expansion, and density. Construction has so far mostly been understood as an act of colonization, the opening and building up of new areas. But now that the industrial countries have urbanized more or less completely and their populations are stagnating or shrinking, the idea of colonization has lost its legitimacy. In Europe, where the landscape diversity and intangible traditions are the most precious heritage, in the “postcolonial age”, the focus will be more on construction that has already accumulated over a long period. We should talk today about urban densification and not land consumption, sustainable tourism, landscape design, hub and fab-lab districts and more architectures with renewable energies. To shape processes of shrinking, new tools must be developed that enable an effective intervention in the first place, the Calabrian settlements and landscapes from Badolato to Riace we thought they were a fertile ground to test a new vision, new tools, new intervention projects.

Milan, February 2017

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.Africa 07. Jingdezhen Location: Jiangx, China Dimension: 5,2 km2 Reason of shrinking: Deindustrialization, discarder of brisk caves.

01. Kleinzee Village Location: Northern Cape, South Africa Dimension: 9.10 km2 Reason of shrinking: closing of the diamond mines in 2009

08. Harbin

.Asia

Location: Heilongjiang, China Dimension: 1,9 km2 (Huayuan Street) Reason of shrinking: Abandonment of historical district related to deindustializazion.

02. Gyumri

09. Linpan in Chengdu

Location: Armenia Dimension: 36 km2 Reason of shrinking: Earthquake, uneployment and labor migration.

Location: Chengdu, China Dimension: 16 km2 Reason of shrinking: lack of support to agriculture, metropolization.

03. Backside Bay Village

10. Ying Kou

Location: Shengshan Island, China Region Dimension: 2,5 km2 Reason of shrinking: Marine pollution and decline of fishing business.

Location: Liaoning, China Dimension: 4,9 km2 Reason of shrinking: Lower grows of population compared to the city’s growth.

04. Huidong

11. Gui Zhou Province

Location: Huizhou City, Huidong County, Guangdong Province, China Dimension: 7,5 km2 Reason of shrinking: Lack of basic services, monofunctional real estate investment.

Location: China Dimension: 176,1 km2 Reason of shrinking: Lack of transportation and brocken industry chain.

12. Yichun 05. Kashgar City Location: Xinjiang Uyghur Region, China Dimension: 294,2 km2 Reason of shrinking: Changing of the old silk route.

Location: Heilongjiang, China Dimension: 36,4 km2 Reason of shrinking: Resource exhausted, wrong policies and unbalanced industrial structure.

06. Yunnan

13. Tang Shan

Location: Dongchuan area, Kunming, China Dimension: 1858,7 km2 Reason of shrinking: Deindustrialization, closing of the mine and lack of services.

Location: Hebei, China Dimension: 13,4 km2 Reason of shrinking: 1976: a magnitude 7.8 earthquake stuck and destriong the city.

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14. Dapin

21. Citadel of Erbil

Location: Liangjiazhaixiang, Shanxi, China Dimension: 9 km2 Reason of shrinking: flood and waterlog disaster in 1999.

Location: Kurdistan Region, Turkey Dimension: 1,3 km2 Reason of shrinking: Metropolization caused shrinking and abandonement of the old town.

15. Urmia Lake

22. Mekong Delta

Location: Azerbaijan, Iran Dimension: 5,2 km2 Reason of shrinking: Desertification due to a dike type causeway construction.

Location: Vietnam Dimension: - km2 Reason of shrinking: Environmental stresses and migration to the big cities.

16. Kibbutz HaSolelim Location: Israel Dimension: 1,5 km2 Reason of shrinking: Social and demographic crises related to huge debts and low repayment ability.

.Europe 23. Upper Grabova

17. Rostov Location: Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia Dimension: - km2 Reason of shrinking: Abandonement after post sovietic period.

Location: Gramsh, Albania Dimension: - km2 Reason of shrinking: isolation, migration phenomena, lack of invesments and job opportunities.

18. Langwon Land

24. Doel

Location: South Corea Dimension: 3,2 km2 Reason of shrinking: Abandoned mines village converted in entertainment facilities resort.

Location: Beveren, East-Flanders, Belgium Dimension: 25,61 km2 Reason of shrinking: threat of demoliton due to the possible expansion of the nearby port infrastructure.

19. Aleppo Location: Syria Dimension: 190 km2 Reason of shrinking: Migration from the beginning of the syrian crisis in 2011.

25. Dvar Location: Bosnia and Herzegovina Dimension: 600 km2 Reason of shrinking: migration phenomena after the 1995 civil war.

20. Sathorn Unique Location: Bangkok, Thailand Dimension: 49 stories buildings Reason of shrinking: High costs of renovation, keep the building for future use.

26.Broves Location: Var Region, France Dimension: 34,81 km2 Reason of shrinking: deindustrialization, expropriation of the properties and conversion of the city into a military zone in 1974.

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27. Sodankylä

34. Gibellina

>Location: Lapland, Finland Dimension: 11.698 km2 Reason of shrinking: lack of infrastructure and of job opportuinities, labour migration.

Location: Sicily, Italy Dimension: 46,57 km2 Reason of shrinking: the unsuccesseful reconstruction of the city after the earthquake of 1968 led to the depopulation of the new site.

28. Spinalonga Location: Crete, Greece Dimension: 0,085 km2 Reason of shrinking: abandoned twice: 1903 migration of Turks after the end of the Ottoman domination in Greece and in 1957 after the closure of the leaper colony.

35. Irpinia Location: Campania, Italy Dimension: - km2 Reason of shrinking: in 1980 the region was damaged by an earthquake.

36. L’Aquila

29. Amatrice

Location: Abruzzo, Italy Dimension: 466 km2 Reason of shrinking: destroied by an earthquake in 2009.

Location: Rieti, Lazio, Italy Dimension: 174 km2 Reason of shrinking: destroied by an earthquake in 2016.

37. La Spezia

30. Bussana Vecchia

Location: Liguria, Italy Dimension: 51,39 km2 Reason of shrinking: seasonal tourism, air and soil pollution, deindustrialization and high presence of abandoned and unsafe areas, lack of job opportuinities.

Location: Sanremo, Liguria, Italy Dimension: - km2 Reason of shrinking: after the damage caused by an earthquake in 1887 the village has been abandoned. After some attempt to reoccupy the village the governament defined the village as “unavailable historical heritage”.

38. Mirandola Location: Modena, Emilia Romagna, Italy Dimension: 137,09 km2 Reason of shrinking: an earthquake in 2012 severely damged the city and its industies.

31. Civita di Bagnoregio Location: Viterbo, Lazio, Italy Dimension: 3 km2 Reason of shrinking: landslides, originate by the erosion of the base of the tuff hill, are progressively destroying the city.

39. Officine Reggiane Location: Reggio Emilia, Emilia Romagna, Italy Dimension: 0,25 km2 Reason of shrinking: delocalization of production.

32. Consonno Location: Lecco, Lombardia Italy Dimension: 1,7 km2 Reason of shrinking: a landslide damaged the only access road to the village.

40. Uschione Location: Chiavenna, Sondrio, Lombardia, Italy Dimension: - km2 Reason of shrinking: lack of job opportunities, migration towards the valley.

33. Gargano region Location: Apulia, Italy Dimension: 2000 km2 Reason of shrinking: lack of policies to support agricoltural activities led to the abandonment of the lands. -18-


41. Islands of the venetian lagoon

.Oceania

Location: Veneto, Italy Dimension: 414 km2 Reason of shrinking: frequent flooding due to the raising of the water level, accessibility problems, privatization of the lands.

47. Karratha Location: Pilbara, Australia Dimension: - km2 Reason of shrinking: temporary population of FIFO (fly-in fly-out) workers

42. Ktomino Location: Poland Dimension: 0,82 km2 Reason of shrinking: abandoned after the Red Army withdrew his forces from Poland.

43. Jiu Valley Location: Hunedoara county, Romania Dimension: - km2 Reason of shrinking: mine closures, lack of reinvestment.

44. Aviles Location: Asturias, Spain Dimension: 26,81 km2 Reason of shrinking: deindustrialization, migration of the population towards other cities.

45. Janjevo Location: Lipjan, Kosovo Dimension: km2 Reason of shrinking: new infrastructural connections caused the isolation of the city and the downfall of commercial activities that led to the migration of the population

46. Rajacke Pimnice Location: Serbia Dimension: - km2 Reason of shrinking: mine closures, migration of the population.

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Ghost Town in my country taxonomy

70’s social housing

Neighborhood retails

Industrial district

Unfinished tower

Hilltop village

Rural settlement

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Military camp

Entertainment district

Renaturalized areas

Abandoned Island

New district abandoned or unfinished

Inadequate reconstruction of settlements

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Ghost Town Badolato Riace Photographic inquiry by Filippo Romano

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romano foto

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Ghost Town Lab Field Trip

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Are we waiting for something?.

Badolato Riace

SS 106/E 90 Jonica 34.6 km 0.45h

DAY 2 18/11/16

AGAIN STAIRS ???

The municipality really wants to do somethings

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THERE IS A LOT OF TRAFIC ON STATALE 106!!

THE HARBOUR HAS BEEN BUILT TOO CLOSE TO THE FIUMARA!

DAY 3 19/11/16 ITINERARY 1

DAY 3 19/11/16 ITINERARY 2

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DAY 3 19/11/16 ITINERARY 3

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Territorial Investigation

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Photo courtesy : Filippo Romano

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Agriculture and Forestry

Data Calabria 4,15% of agricultural G.D.P. Exports of fruits & vegetables: 17.912.000 € (2015-2016) Exports of oil: 11.803.000€ (2015-2016) Exports of grapes for wine production: 4.730.000€ (2015-2016) Badolato Landslide: 69ha Abandoned: 297.38 ha Agriculture: 892.45 ha

Critical points Risk of desertification and soil erosion Management of water Lack of cooperatives Abandonment of lands

Opportunities Farming Forestry Agricultural cooperatives Landscape Traditional production of Calabria

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Productive Lands

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Local Products

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Spontaneous Vegetation

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Spontaneous vegetation

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Landscape

Data Landcover Calabria: Total area covered by woodlands: 40%, Total area covered by agricultural land: 49%, Italy: Total area covered by woodlands: 30% Protected woodland Calabria: 31,35% (146.638 ha) Italy: 28,5% (8.759.000 ha) National park coverage Calabria: 6% of the total area Italy: 6,9% of total area

Critical Points Non-permeability between the coast and the plains due to the presence of the Statale 106 and the railway The overall fragmentation of the territory allows poor touristic accessibility to scattered elements of incredible value Environmental Risks: floods, landslides Man-made barriers do not allow the free movement of the local fauna Current preservation policies focus more on constraining the landscape than suggesting good practices for its future development

Opportunities The regional territory is widely occupied by natural landscape Richness and variety of agricultural landscape Water streams system as a physical liaison between different surfaces

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Waterscape

Data Water resources 3 wells,1 municipal, 2 artesian, 15 springs, 3 drinkable water, 2 irrigation, 4 reservoirs, 1 regional, 1 municipal, 1 big size: >10 l/s, 1 small size: <5 l/s Water consumption 266 000 m3/year of billed water 278 307 m3/year required drinkable water 5 % loss due to physical loss and low level of water systems maintenance Precipitation: 110mm/year Rivers 3 rivers 33 % average slope 16 km2 overall area of three rivers 30% of the river banks is under the high risk of floods Coast 10 % of economies of Badolato derives from coast economies 70 % of the cost is under the high risk of coastal erosion Critical points Water systems management Lack of drinkable water Lack of maintenance of the water systems Poor water distribution networks Low efficiency of depuration system and sewage Harbour issues Opportunities Water mills Water wells Presence of ground waters all around the territory Shallow groundwaters that are enabling easy access and new wells

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Calabrian ports economies,capacities and ship typologies

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Climate change influences

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Flood and soil erosion risks

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Photo courtesy : Filippo Romano

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Infrastructure

Data Accessibility Train 22 train per day, which only 4 of them has a stop in Badolato Roads Statale 106 (491 km) Harbour Badolato, berths:450 - Maximum Length:44m - Depth:4-5m Airport Lamezia Airport, 11 destinations (international, 11 country) Reggio Calabria, 3 destinations (national, only Italy) Bus Lamezia to Badolato: 1/day Reggio Calabria to Badolato: 0/day Deaths on the Statale 106: 485 since 1996

Critical points Low accessibility Lack of connections with upper town Low connection between marina cities High traffic and low dimension of the Statale 106 Railway as a barrier Lack of light system Lack of phone connection

Opportunities Innovative mobility vehicles Innovative management system Fiumaras Green voids between railways and Statale 106

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Ionic coast Digital infrastructures

Cosenza Crotone Catanzaro

Vibo V. Badolato

Reggio Calabria

Internet service High speed connection (fibra ottica) Weak signal Medium signal Strong signal

Phone service Strong signal No signal

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Public transport system TRAINS AND BUSES SYSTEM

LP 795 Lamezia Terme Centrale

Catanzaro Catanzaro Lido

Soverato

Badolato

Autobus Information AUTOBUS LP795: Mon-Sat: Frequency:1/day Travel time: 1h 40min Ticket cost: 7.20 Euro

LAMEZIA - BADOLATO Train Schedule Information Lamezia Terme Airport

Lamezia Terme Airport

REG 22611 Lamezia Terme Nicastro

Lamezia Terme Nicastro

Lamezia Terme Centrale

Catanzaro

Lamezia Terme Centrale

Catanzaro

Montepaone-montauro REG 22609

Montepaone-montauro 1h31min

Soverato

REG 22495

Badolato Marina

Lamezia Terme Centrale

Lamezia Terme Airport 42min

REG 22779 Lamezia Terme Nicastro

Lamezia Terme Centrale

Catanzaro

8min

Montepaone-montauro

Soverato

REG 22761

Soverato

31min Badolato Marina Badolato Marina

47min

Catanzaro Lido

Catanzaro Lido

REG 3669

10min 34min

REG 22611 + REG 22495: Mon-Sat: Frequency:1/day Travel time: 1h 31min Ticket cost: 5.20 Euro

REG 3831 Lamezia Terme Nicastro Catanzaro

Soverato

Badolato Marina

REG 22609: Mon-Sat: Frequency: 1/day Travel time: 1h 31min Ticket cost: 5.20 Euro

Lamezia Terme Airport

47min

Catanzaro Lido

Catanzaro Lido

5min

RC 062 Guardavalle Marina 16min Monasterace-stilo

REG 22779 + REG 22761: Sun: Frequency: 1/day Travel time: 3h 32min Ticket cost: 5.20 Euro

REG 3831 + REG 3669 + Autobus RC062: Mon-Sat: Frequency:1/day Travel time: 1h 42min Ticket cost: 7.40 Euro

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10min 34min


Infrastructures

Taranto

S PACE BETWEEN S TATALE 106 & RAI LWAY

Corigliano Scalo

LARGE SCALE Between 1 km - 2 km - Field (agriculture) - Villages

Mirto Crocia

Ciro Marina

EXTRA LARGE SCALE San Leo Cruto Lamezia Terme

> 2 km (maximum 13 km) - Field (agriculture) - Several villages

Catanzaro

Vibo Valentia

EXTRA SMALL SCALE Badolato Turistic harbor Badolato

Between 0 - 100 m. - Field (agriculture) - Green Voids - Houses

SMALL SCALE

Riace

Between 100 - 500 m. - Field (agriculture) - Houses - Sport fields - Petrol station

Rocella Jonica turistic harbor Siderno parco nazionale dell aspromonte

MEDIUM SCALE

Bovalino Marina Reggio Calabria

Between 500 - 1.000 m. - Field (agriculture) - Industries - Houses/small villages

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The railway and the statale106

s

0 - 500

M

500 - 1000

L

XL

1000 - 2000

> 2000

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Photo courtesy : Filippo Romano

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Urban Settlement

Data 409 municipalities in Calabria 52 double village ( â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Njonica coast) Low Density: 129 ab./km² 22 building typologies

Critical Points Low quality of living in both towns Fragmented identity Lack of landmark places No connection with waterfront Lack of public spaces Disconnection between districts and waterfront Disconnection between new and old town Lack of maintainance Abandoned ruins Unfinished buildings

Opportunities Heritage of the existing buildings Public spaces Green areas Abandoned buildings Abandoned green areas Building typologies

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Construction sites Sheds Industrial buildings/ warehouses Abandoned buildings Place of worship Public facilities Other places of interest Detached shop buildings

ROWHOUSING

ABANDONED BUILDING

APARTMENT ROW HOUSING

INDUSTRIAL WAREHOUSE

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COMMERCIAL - RESIDENTIAL

SHED

DETACHED SPLIT DWELLING

CONSTRUCTION SITE


DETACHED APARTMENT

TERRACE BUILDING

SHOP

UNKNOWN

DETACHED HOUSE

PUBLIC FACILITIES

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COURTYARD HOUSING

CHURCH OR MONASTERY


Badolato marina Taxonomy of the public space

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Badolato superiore Taxonomy of the public space

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Photo courtesy: Filippo Romano

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Heritage

Data 1521 relevant architectures 2133 Churches 133 Sanctuaries 96 Museums 64 Castles 34 Archaeological Sites 0 UNESCO Sites

Critical Points Lack of job opportunities and shrinkage phenomenon Heritage abandonment Absence of awareness of existing heritage Immigrants integration projects

Opportunities Abandoned lands and buildings Heritage related to food and agriculture Built heritage Dynamic heritage Touristic potentiality

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Population Stratification

VISIGOTHS V a.D.

BRUZI

SARACENS X a.D.

BIZANTINE EMPIRE

IV-III b.C.

ANCIENT GREECE

XII

OSTROGOTHS

NORMANS

VIII-IV b.C.

XI-XII a.D.

VI a.D

ROMANS I I I b . C . - V .a . D

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SW

IX a.D.

LONGOBARDS IX a.D.


SPANISH (ARAGON REIGN) XV-XVII a.D.

PAKISTAN FRENCH

WA B I A N S

(BOURBON REIGN) XVIII-XIX a.D.

-XIII a.D.

FRENCH

GAMBIA

NIGERIA

(ANGIOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; REIGN) X I I I - X V .a . D

AUSTRIAN

ERITREA

(ASBURGO REIGN) XVIII a.D.

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50% are olive’s production

60% of abandonment

Chiesa di San Domenico

Palazzo Caporeale, sea t of municipali ty

Chiesa di San Leonardo

Chiesa di Santa Caterina

Chi esa SS.mo Salva tore

Chiesa di Santa Maria in Crignetto

Chiesa degli Angeli

Chiesa della Provvidenza

Chiesa del Carmine

Chiesa dell’Annunziata

Chi esa di San Ni cola Vescovo

Palazzo Gallelli

Chiesa dell’Immacolata

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3% of abandonment

Agri cultural production

Buildings

Olives

Abandonned buildings

Crops i n non irraga ted area

Existi ng agri cultural acti vi ti es

Vineyard

Cultural bui ldi ngs

Pasture

Other bui ldings

Citrus Crops i n irriga ted area

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Photo courtesy: Filippo Romano

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Tourism

Data Area â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Njonica_4200 km2 29 double towns_ Coastline from Reggio Calabria to Catanzaro 188 Km 526 abandoned structures in upper city 397 abandoned Jazzi and Farms in rural area 877 abusive skeleton buildings in Marina city

Critical points Accessibility to the region, to the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Njonica area, from town to town; Identity (Brand for holidays); Lack of advertisement; Small dimension of the cities and the current isolated attempt to improve tourism; Shrinkage produced abandonment and loss of interest in the environment; Railway and Statale 106 are barriers; Lack of services; Low architectural quality in the non-historical settlement in terms of visual aspect and public spaces; Opportunities International attraction; Same geographical, historical, architectural features between the cities (possibility to be a system); Quality and variety of the landscape in its vertical development (and so possible activities); Shrinkage produced the availability of different spaces that can be re-used by touristic facilities, without any other soil consumption; Strategic position of the stations between the settlement and the seaside.

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-88-


â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Njonica Vision and guidelines

06

-89-


-90-


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Identification of an omogeneous geographical and environmental area: â&#x20AC;&#x2122;NJONICA The close union of natural, archaeological and antropic aspects therefore, distinguishes the whole Riace-Badolato area as a unique landscape of a chain of double villages.

Enhancement of water management To counteract landslides, seasonal flooding and lead an effective water collection system to the double old hilly villages and marinas is important to develop projects related to drainage, the redefinition of riverbanks, and projects for water purification.

Institution of an agro-forestry district To promote new public policies and local coordination for new pilot projects for adoption and conversion of abandoned agricoltural land and farms, the testing of new landscaping systems to stop the landslides, strengthening of the timber sector in the San Bruno forests

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Regeneration of built legacy To systematize the built legacy is important to define a a taxonomy of different building types that could be use to redesign and made more healthy, energy efficient, and for innovative solutions that can hybridize memory enhancement with contemporary forms and materials.

Promoting a dinamic cultural heritage To propose a new palimpsest of courses, workshops and internships on local farms and wineries, could be the trigger for the regeneration and networking of numerous farms, a new diffused hotel in the old hill village and the promotion and reinvention of the material and immaterial heritage

Developing an efficient services and infrastructures system To redefine an intermodal transport between regional and local trains along the coast, a transversal buses and electric cars line between double towns, the regeneration of ancient donkeys tracks with sustainable mobility, and the enhancement of the web access network

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Identity, Complexity and Beauty Silvia Sbattella

Recombining different resources of the ‘Njonica cost in new socio economic dynamics in order to fight the shrinking phenomenon is the main goal of this town planning workshop. If we state this, we can’t forget that we have to deal with a very fragmented, disoriented and frustrated identity of the area. The core of the planning activities is to help the emergency of the new contemporary identity of the Njonica coast for inhabitants, tourists, emigrants, immigrants, investors and institutional actors at all. According to the most recent epistemological approach, we need to adopt a point of view that interprets reality as a complex and adaptive system. In it we can recognize different sub-systems interacting one to the others with non-linear and frequent retroactive interactions. In it the whole adaptive system is greater than its parts (as emergency) and at the same time, the whole is less of its parts (as constraints). None of the sub-systems can change the whole, but it’s possible to speak about emergent phenomenon. It’s difficult to define features or single actions that can cause deterministically the evolution of the whole system in a specific direction, but butterfly effects are possible too. This is the field of our town planning work: to describe complex scenarios, their main recognizable critics and potentialities, their interacting dynamics, highlighting possible actions and guidelines that could generate something similar to a “butterfly effect”. The lack of identity, we clearly perceived going from Badolato to Badolato marina or from Riace to Riace marina, as well as along the Statale ‘Njonica 106 from Reggio Calabria to Catanzaro is the starting point. The strong fragmented sequence of places we can experience is the evidence of the several heterogeneous events that struck the area, fragmented the identity and multiplied the identitary images that different groups associate to this territory. Only referring to the most recent history, the abandonment of the medieval villages, due to the earthquake and to the landslide occurred in the first half of the XX century, caused a specific phenomenon: the spread of population and the identity doubling of the village. On the one hand, the identity referred to people who accepted to move, looking forward to a new course of events, a new story; on the other, the one referred to who strongly want to keep the historical village identity alive. Old farmers and breeders that, differently that in the past, can’t survive only with their production in the new globalized economy, are called to abandon their lands and their identity to search new job, new identity far away or in the seaside settlements.

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All the people who left Calabria to seek work away, in the north of Italy or in Europe, elaborated the identity of this village as the land to return to, the land which keeps roots of the family in the large family houses; something that needs to be recognized also after a long time in the human relations, rites and rhythms, but not necessarily in the material forms. New comfort standards and appealing elements often contaminated historical contexts without any attention to their beauty. People who arrives from the sea as immigrants consider this territory as the land of hope, where life is again possible, in a global uncertainty, but with their own identity to offer and that ask to be known and respected. In this process of meeting, as in all the long history of arrivals in Calabria starting from Greek period, all the resources of the territory are shuffled and seen in different new ways. Tourists who arrive randomly from north Europe are looking for picturesque spatiality with its romantic abandoned aspect and different not globalized economy, in anachronistic images of the medieval village. Summer tourists search spectacular and naturalistic scenarios or cultural testimonials but they also meet often abandoned lands and scarred coasts by illegal unfinished buildings, polluted seawater and failed economical projects. This is the reason why we have to look for a more complex, articulated and relational identity for each south calabrian “double village” and for the N’Jonica coast at all, that corresponds to the complexity of people who live the region and to the several resources that are still existing there. The strong presence of natural elements of beauty is clearly perceivable. It invites all the people and designers too, to find a file rouge, to search a hidden complex identity to meet and, at the same time, suggests an answer. Beauty can be the tool to meet the new ‘Njonica coast identity. The beauty of ‘Njonica landscape is its complexity. Its richness of beautiful details and large views, whose framework is readable today only from few magic points of view, as the churchyard of the church dedicated to the Immacolata in Badolato. From the Serra mountains through the rivers, the fiumare and the calanchi, the cultivated hills, the plain and the seaside, we meet different combinations of these natural elements of beauty often stressing the contrasts in a series of surprising shots, not always valorized, but available in extraordinary short distances. All these elements are the traces of a rich heritage of agricultural productive traditions, developed to survive or to commercialize surprising goods; they are the signs of water, wind and earth movement interactions with anthropic settlements and natural contests; they are the testimonials of cul-

-95-


tural and religious meetings in a long peaceful tradition and in fighting times; they are witnesses of unexpected process of integrations. All these resources ask us to be reconsidered in new virtuous circles of social and economic dynamics, following new models of management, cooperation, networking and communication activities, in a sustainable way. The ‘Njonica guidelines we presented work exactly in this direction, designing landscape to make visible and livable the new contemporary identity of ‘Njonica Coast. In this way people who arrive, stay, pass or depart can share, know or enrich its identity adding values. The projects of the Ghost Town Lab Riace-Badolato students represent original combinations of very different resources that work in the suggested direction: educational and touristic activities are planned together to valorize historical buildings and donkey roads, around old traditional rural activities and new ones. A higher continuity and quality of public spaces network both in the marina, in the countryside and in the medieval village becomes a tool to strengthen articulated identity of double village system and to enrich cultural and wellness touristic offer. The launch of an Agro-forestry District, with the most updated and tested methods of cooperation, is a tool to innovate economy but also to design landscape in a continuous multiscale play of beauty references. Green infrastructures are planned to become productive trainers, new management tools and landscape beauty experiences. Innovative services and mobility infrastructures are designed with diversified water management systems in a new infrascape. Waterscape and marina settlement are redesigned to be considered a unique place able to be clearly recognized along the ‘Njonica Coast and to activate specific economies in relation with its inner territory. Finally, this is the idea of the new ‘Njonica Coast identity emerged: complexity and beauty corresponding to the strong collaboration between the innovative socio, economic and environmental systems and to the strong differentiation of the inner virtuous dynamics, in a clear sustainable scenario. R. Barbanti, L. Boi, M. Neve (a cura di), Paesaggi della complessità. La trama delle cose e gli intrecci tra natura e cultura, Mimesis, 2011 M. Carmona, T. Heath, T. Oc, S. Tiesdell, Public Places Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design, Oxford Architectural Press - Elsevier, 2010 G.Consonni, Urbanità e bellezza, Ed. Solfanelli, 2016 Lotus 150, Landscape Urbanism, 2012

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Upper Villages Abandonment and Coastal Urban Sprawl. Some reasons for Renewal. Riccardo Mazzoni

The study of resilience policies against the abandonment of land cannot disregard the identification of strategies on the built heritage recovery. Although there is definitely the depopulation behind the ruin of entire villages throughout the Italian territory, it is nevertheless true that incentives for the renovation of the built legacy can first and foremost be a strong boost to the repopulation. Thus breaking the assumed relation of cause and effect between the two phenomena, it emerges that disciplines such as urban planning and architecture can in effect make the difference. We should first identify the motivations that make recovery essential. Probably the most important lies in the fact that territory is a finite resource and the abandonment of a human settlement often corresponds to the birth of a new one. It’s not a novelty that changes in society, politics or technology meet the emergence of new spaces better suited to the rise of evolved needs. Ancient civilizations didn’t necessarily arise on the ashes of the previous ones. Without going too far from the site of investigation, we can mention the example of the Greek colony of Kaulon, on the coast, not so distant from Badolato. After the Roman period expansion, the old Caulonia fell into disgrace. Subsequently to its ruin, the most relevant nearby conurbation was the early medieval village of Monasterace. Just 3 kilometers separate the town from the colony remains, but this short distance denoted the radical change of life in the area. Over the centuries, the prosperous port on the shore was replaced by the rural village on the hill, while the sea, previously seen as an essential resource, became the bearer of threats. The Kaulon corpse stood there, slowly engulfed by nature that finally regained it. So, in what today’s cases differ from those that history tells us? The contemporary development of urban settlements occurs much faster than in any other civilization period; And also in conditions of demographic decline generated by intense emigration or births decrease, the use of land from War World II has become much more extensive. Primarily, the widespread vehicular movement has led to a sharp reduction in travel times and this has allowed the often unnecessary distancing of buildings in the new conurbations. This is exactly the process still in progress all over the Calabria’s Ionian coast. The alluvial landslides in the early 50s legitimized the transfer of part of the population on the shore again after 900 years of hilly settlement history. By this time, a wasteful and disarticulated urban development found here a “fertile land”: State Road 106, which runs along

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the sea since 1928, turned almost spontaneously in a spine for the new urban spread. Those were the years of diffusion of the automobile as good of mass consumption and this narrow strip of land, without any particular obstruction, well suited to the realization of a grid of vehicular roads. Isolated four-story apartment buildings with garage on the street and single-family houses with careless pertaining plots came up soon beside the two-story row houses for flood victims. Although the overall population decreased from Upper Badolato maximum expansion period, the current Marina occupies an area nearly five times greater than the original village. We still attend this fast and wasteful development, which is accompanied by a lack of clear planning strategies and a great misunderstanding of the territory’s nature. Examples of such a senselessness are the construction of the port at the mouth of Gallipari stream (so debris are constantly blocking the access to the docks) and the urbanization on riverbeds and unstable sandy soils. The growing awareness about these issues is demonstrated by an increasing number of local associations for the territory’s promotion. Nevertheless, this has to deal with the widespread phenomenon of the unauthorized construction. Who builds outlaw does it at such a speed that overcomes the flooded engine of local bureaucracy, otherwise so slowly to simulate inaction, probably believing to be unnoticed. Sometimes this process is interrupted before completion by a bad economic planning or by some environmental causes having chosen a too dangerous portion of land. The “unfinished” is therefore one of the great plagues of this region both for reasons of soil consumption that for the dramatic impact on the landscape it produces. Overbuilding and industrial contemporary materials slow down the possible “metabolization” of any construction waste by the environment. Although Calabria appears among the greenest Italian regions, statistics takes into account the entire territory, but the wild untouched inland falsifies the result: the coastline is in fact at serious risk of building sprawl. The challenge should be fighting the banality and anonymity of this construction process almost exclusively of private initiative and without any care for public space. Essentially, the Marina and the upper village suffer somehow from opposite problems: on the coast, the struggle to prevent the rise of unauthorized and unnecessary buildings, on the hill instead the collapse of historical constructions because of maintenance lack. With them, also a part of the site identity crumbles.

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We can in fact find a second great motivation to the recovery of urban fabric in the value of the memory it represents. The hilltop villages of the Ionian Calabria are the bastion of a rural culture that is now at risk of disappearing, but that must be defended at all costs because it is first protection and sustenance of this fragile land. The abandonment not only causes the collapse of houses, but also of stone walls of agricultural terraces, and with them the hills slide down as well. Surely authorities should work to make palatable and economically sustainable to live today in these villages that are not easy to reach and lack the most basic services that modern life requires. Virtuous circles must be created so that such investments will have a medium-long term economic return for municipalities too. Furthermore, this housing stock renewal might represent a great occasion to revitalize the construction and real estate field that in these years is suffering the most severe stagnation in Italy since WWII. Policies based on tax reductions and various renovation incentives could attract investors and then new residents, owners and tenants in search of cultural/food tourism out of the great mass circuits. The recent events once again underline the seismic instability of the whole peninsula and the fragility of all its settlements. Moreover, climate change has exacerbated rainfalls: an increasing number of floods and landslides is complicating an already critical situation. For these reasons, the structural consolidation of the whole historical heritage and the implementation of infrastructural assets for storm water runoff must be considered priorities. Another problem of this complex territory is certainly the connection to the supply networks. Todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s technology, now at affordable costs, may overcome through the use of photovoltaic installations and rainwater collection systems. Finally the energy efficiency should be also gained through the thermal insulation of the old stone walls to reduce drift and therefore consumption. But how can we get all this without changing the current state of buildings? That is probably impossible, but perhaps the question should be viewed from another perspective: we should necessarily go beyond the stale idea of conservative restoration; it would be more correct to speak of regeneration, as a set of operations admitting a more brave dialogue between the old and the new. Cause traditions arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t stable, but they evolve over time through a never ending layering process.

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Bibliographic References F. Cuteri, B. Rotundo, “Il territorio di Kaulonia fra Tardoantico e Medioevo: insediamenti, risorse, paesaggi”, Quaderni degli Annali della Scuola Superiore di Pisa n. 11-12, Pisa 2001 L. Malighetti, “Recupero edilizio. Strategie per il riuso e tecnologie costruttive”, Il Sole 24 Ore, Milano 2010 V. Teti, “Il senso dei luoghi: memoria e storia dei paesi abbandonati”, Donzelli Editore, Roma 2004

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â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Njonica: projects

07

-103-


Agriculture and Forestry Matteo De Bellis Mickaela Macka Borui Feng Bochao Sun Sllovinja Fjolla Yulong Li Koufalitaki Dafni Nteli Maria-Nikoletta

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â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;NJonica Agroforestal Quality District

We see a great potential in Nâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Jonica coast regarding agriculture and forestry. Unfortunately, even though these two sectors are strongly related to the rich traditional values of the people and their lands since ancient times, the general tendencies are towards a progressive abandonment and degradation of the territory. Our project aims the revitalization of the agricultural abandoned lands and a good management of the forests, reconstructing the broken traditional links and proposing a new modern vision of the future. Therefore, the most important factor is the creation of a good network between people that can help each other and share competencies and techniques to improve their actual production chain. Both projects are concerned with the idea of local network of producers and certification of products that gain value and grant, plus the involvement of young producers and new models of responsible businesses. We conceived two prototypal project, one for agricultural production and one related to the management of the protected forestry areas, which provide the guidelines for a correct enhancement and valorization of this territory based in a series of national and international policies. The agricultural issue is related to the problem of association of very small producers that, if implemented, can lead to a competitive, self-supporting and stronger market for local products and a recovery of the degraded and abandoned lands. We believe that the creation of a sustainable local and national business for managing wood logging is an important empowering factor for the economy. Local wood is going to be the main material used for the prevention and the recovery of landslides through a simple technology that is both more sustainable and more economical than the widespread usage of concrete or the traditional stone terraces. The two projects presented are used as instruments to present the most effective and specific technical strategies to face the plurality of problems. This can lead to revitalization in the poor productive environment.

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Landscape Federico Bordoni Francesca Braglia Ana Costa Laura Fiamenghi Jiahong Huang Erpinio Labrozzi Yuyao Lu Tran Vy Yuchen Zhu

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Vodà river park and Gallipari ecological corridor In a region where agricultural land and woodlands occupy roughly 89% of the territory, the vegetal potential could work as an active regulating component to improve the cohesion of the double towns system and to create a plateau for future architectural interventions. A matrix of water streams, reaching the sea from the preserved area of the Serre woodlands, once supplied water to both the medieval towns and the agricultural fields nearby, often actively influenced their shape in time. The rivers and the seasonal rivers (fiumare) that form this system are a green infrastructure that could act as a podium for the subsistence of the de-centralized network of productive entities that already exist. We might define two specific strategic approaches: how to deal with landscape preservation in this territory and how to enhance relationships between nature and society. The first one represents a natural evolution of the present attitude towards preservation: we wish to limit the interaction of man with nature even further, making space for ecological corridors and patches that would provide temporary or permanent shelters to local animals. The fiumara Gallipari is a suitable context for this experiment. It represents a long water-to-water system connecting a little lake in the Serre forest with the sea, with plenty of unproductive landscape on both sides. It is a wilderness park that features only scattered oases and paths, where humans can effectively interact with the surrounding environment while, for the most part, it is a public space for the natural world. It shapes areas of different intensities of preservation according to the specific needs of endangered fauna species, mitigating any product of human craftsmanship that may disturb it. The second approach would insist on tuning more effectively our current stance on the preservation of nature to the cultural necessities of society, with the presumption of creating a “middle landscape”. The fiumara Vodà represents an optimal framework to put this strategy into practice. It is a shorter way than the fiumara Gallipari and more densely hemmed with orchards and olive tree groves on its sides. It is a human corridor that connects Badolato Marina with Badolato Superiore: a public space in the form of a park, where both locals and tourists can experience the richness of the agricultural heritage immersed in a “wunderkammer” of eccentric spaces. Enriching the existing spontaneous vegetation with introduced specific species and organizing the filter zones with new plantations, the park would tell the story of a changing landscape, translating it into a formal abacus of the various indigenous flora species that populate the land from the mountains to the sea. The paths that are created focus on describing different experiential qualities, each offering its own sub-interpretation of a fragmented landscape. Sometimes they enlarge, when they see the opportunity of colonizing abandoned spaces, hosting local initiatives. They are defined on the basis of their accessibility, steepness and overall difficulty. -111-


Waterscape Albeg Ofir Fan Zhang Fatah Goran Kunić Anja Maletković Mira Poghosyan Lilit Tomašević Milena Yan Fan Yuan Xingyu

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Badolato Hydroline

Waterscape in Calabria, and more specifically in the Njonica Coast is definitely one of the crucial points for urban, economical and political growth. Both the two main waterscape typologies, the one of the sea and the one of the land had, has and will have a strong influence on the development of this area. From landside and seaside the area is surrounded by high level of risk caused by combination of natural effects and human actions. Soil erosion, flooding, water quality, bad water management and the rising of sea level are just some of the issues that have to be considered in further planning and visions for future. Nevertheless, the beauty and authenticity of these places, the diversity of the landscape and the continuous interaction of natural and artificial phenomena is certainly not to be neglected and is to be directed towards one of the promising pathways of development. In particular, we focus on several crucial interventions with the goal of improving urban texture, rural areas and the connection between the two, all the time bearing in mind the water issues of specific land typology and proposing an intervention to resolve it. Our main focus is set to three points: I. the replacement and revitalisation of the port and coastline, having a new vision and new facilities so to make it the new central point of the town, while providing a better connection from the railway station and the upper town through a set of strategies and landscape configurations aimed for both protecting and developing the urban texture. II. the revival and reuse of the main square of the Old Town with the idea of tackling water issues and providing a new urban attraction for both tourists and local people and invite them to use this space in a more active, free and contemporary way. III. some interventions along the river banks in order to improve water flows, diminish flood risk through the study and implementation of vegetation and landscaping tools, and increase accessibility throughout the territory.

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Infrastructure Wei Han Hanming Su Yuanping Quian Sirawat Chanwipat Zofia Kasinska Martina Biava Lara Zentilomo Margherita Marri Francesca Luci

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‘Infrascape’

In Calabria the infrastructural system is not developed in an efficient way: the railway is not able to serve the coast fairly, and the Statale 106, with its inadequate dimension, rather than a connection, it represents a boundary between two different parts of the land. The goal of the project is to make a long-time proposal for a new infrastructural system, applicable to the whole coast which will deal with multiple levels of movement and transport. The first infrastructure level is the regional trains: a new train service management will provide a fast and long distance service, combined with local short distance and frequent services along the historical rain tracks. The displacement of the Statale’s traffic will be possible also thanks to the transformation in an electric mobility system: in such way, the barrier of today will become permeable in the future. The second level is the local connection of “double cities”, that will be served by mini electric buses along the “C” paths, which will give the opportunity to every citizen to have a direct access to the neighboring cities. The system of bicycle will provide a continuous path all along the Njonica coast. In case of accidents on the Statale, this path will be used as emergency line, to decongest the traffic. The pathways will be realized using thousands of tiny “luminophores”. The synthetic material can emit a low level of light for 10 hours and then “recharge” itself during the day purely from sunlight. According to this, during the night, Badolato’s landscape will be marked by luminescent filaments. Changing scale, the project focus on the areas that are generated in the context between infrastructures: we can define these areas as voids (urban or green), which the project aims to enhance and / or rethink. The three project areas are connected by the lighting infrastructure and they are differentiated according to the type of infrastructure that they are touching. The first area is a strip between the Statale and the railway, a green strip today inaccessible, used for informal agriculture. The aim in this area is to create a landmark that will become a tourist attraction, transforming the informal agriculture in a showroom of the potential of the Calabrian soil. The second area is a river infrastructure, where, on top of hills, there will be a system of livable water tanks, which not only will collect water, but also will provide wifi network that nowadays lack in the region, and which can provide a system of diffuse accomodations. The third area taken into account is along the coast: the project aims to create wetlands with a natural system of fitodepuration, which will give back to this waterfront a natural environment, reachable with a light bridge that cross the railway barrier.

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Urban Settlement Anniina Kortemaa Evgeniya Sokolova Ignacio Sungjae Lee Margherita Pasquali Claudia Storelli Lalie Trinca Xu Wanli Haotian Yang Xiao Zhang

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‘Njonica Networking twin towns

Starting from an analytical work based on the parallel development in upper town and Badolato Marina of the building typologies and public spaces by the decades, from 1850 to contemporary times, the whole design strategy primarily focuses on one of the main problems of this huge land: the lack of unity and relations between parts, which consequently leads to a detachment of them all, forming a system in which the main parts don’t work together. For both the towns the strategy is to improve connections, developing an articulated system, which for the newer Badolato Marina is firstly based on the division in four main districts, all directly connected to the waterfront: four main paths, all starting from a point which is the landmark public space for that proper district, ending with a pier on the beach. From the first district, ‘’South Marina’’ to the last one ‘’Foreign Village’’, we reorganized the landmark public spaces in order to give inhabitants a reference place in all the parts of the town, giving a new quality to a town which has no specific identity. Moreover it will be possible for them to come across the whole town arriving to the waterfront through a direct pedestrian path, crossing the huge green land, marked by a series of pavilions providing different public services. The connections are not limited at the urban scale, but they also come across the land: so with a system of pedestrian and bicycle path, it will be also possible to directly come to the upper town, crossing the land and all its viewpoints. Then, on the other hand for the upper town, even maintaining the same strategy of network, the main issue was quite different. The shrinkage of this town will continue to be an issue in the years to come. Therefore, our study explores how to promote an increase in the population density of Babolato. The aim is to give the opportunity to possible investors to come to Badolato and see its potential, in order to give it a new system of inhabitants therefore improving its economy. In view of this, we developed the existing diffused hotel sprawled throughout the town, using abandoned buildings and ruined ones. With an individualized design strategy for each, with the intention of preserving their rural identity. We also provided a network in which every accommodation unit is connected to the main road. Furthermore, a series of public spaces is designed to improve this connection system, giving new spatial qualities and functions to existing medieval places. Also in this context the topic of landmark buildings remains central, four existing buildings along the main road have been renewed to become part of a wholistic touristic system.

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Heritage Robin Beelen Mirko Calasso Bianca Gentili Beatriz Gonzรกlez Nolwenn Le Boeuf Francesca Morselli Diana Andreea Navlea Julie Linsen Elise Peeters

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E. O. S. Ecomuseum Open School

To revalue the heritage of the Ionic Coast, we need to focus both on material and immaterial heritage. The hospitality of the local people and the rich history of food and agriculture represent in fact a strong part of the identity of this place. Nowadays, this potentialities are overshadowed with critical points as a lack of job opportunities, abandoned lands, buildings and in general entire villages. The heritage related to ‘taste’ in terms of buildings and natural heritage help us to recognize in educational activities a strong strategical opportunity. If we combine education with tourism, considering the hospitality of the people, we can improve both the material and immaterial heritage and they will strengthen each other. ‘EOS’, the goddess of dawn, but also ‘Ecomuseum Open School’, will bring new daylight to the area. A combination of an educational program on agriculture with long-, medium-, and short courses, and the touristic machine. This project is a chance to combine the people with different kinds of heritage. Specific buildings will be renovated also by medium-term architectural workshops. They will create a Njonica network. First in Badolato and later all over the southeast coast of Calabria. Different actors will take part in the project. Students will study in the renovated buildings and tourists will take part in touristic tours we created along these infrastructures and landscapes. They can also take part in the short-term courses of the school. The local population will be happy to teach their rich history and to work back on the fields, but also will be curious to know how things work in other countries. This can be the part to involve the growing percentage of immigrants in Calabria. To learn, to improve and also to produce. Producers will be able again to bring their local food-products to the people. After research, we understand the importance of food and agricultural traditions. We know that there are a lot of investors who want to take part in this story. With public funds at European, national and regional scale. Associations like ‘Slow Food’, ‘Università di Scienze Gastronomiche’... and possible private investors, this dream can be turned in to reality. Calabria, the centre of the mediterranean sea will soon show its culture to the rest of the world thanks to EOS.

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Tourism Bianca Carosini Hussam Chebeib Aikebaier Erken Xintian Lyu Laura Murari Payam Norouzi Francesca Olivieri Francesca Porro Danni Qiu

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Tourism

The theme of tourist machine in Calabria asked for a multiscale approach from infrastructure to architectural perception and quality, passing through a strategic middle scale which give the possibility to think about the case study not only as a site specific but as a prototypal project for all the system. The design of middle scale is based on the creation of a network of the twenty-nine double cities which lays between Reggio Calabria and Catanzaro. This designed system has its strength in both the opportunities and critical points that characterize all the cities of which it is composed, which can be defined as spread and uniform characteristics. Those characteristics are, for what concerns the opportunities, mainly based on the landscape which provides variety in its vertical development (old town, rural area, seacoast), while is repeating from city to city; while the critical points that decrease the touristic system are the advertisement, accessibility, services, low quality of the non-historical settlements and the general condition of abandonment given by the phenomenon of the shrinking. The strategy adopted by the project to overcome these weaknesses is based on the central idea of cooperation between all the double cities. The accessibility seemed to be the first key factor to be solved at all the scales. The project foresees for the horizontal mobility the implementation of the railway system, with both fast and slow rides, while the vertical one is supported by soft mobility provided by electric cars and bicycle sharing. The architectural design project starts from the concept of using the shrinkage effects as opportunities of densification without new soil consumption. The depopulation produced different kind of abandoned typologies. The project develops five among those, spread in all the landscapes of Badolato, which has been chosen as case studies. The re-use is designed to strengthen the identity of these buildings and to redefine their program, in order to give a new and suggestive experience of the space. In the old town the Renaissance buildings assume the role of core accommodation building, while the Medieval ones are designed to be diffused accommodations; in the rural area jazzi and farms are enhanced as characteristic place where producing and tasting the typical food; in the seacoast the skeleton buildings become the new structure of the wellness experience connected with the design of green and public spaces to the station. This last one has a really strategic role both inside the Badolato urban settlement and the system of the coastal transportation. Its architecture features a plaza which aim is to became a city core and a bridge to overcome the railwayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s barrier, arriving to the coast path.

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'Njonica  

Ghost Town Laboratory - Town Planning design Workshop A.Y. 2016-2017. Professors: Isabella Inti, Riccardo Mazzoni, Silvia Sbattella. With F...