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MIAMI I EDGE AN INTRODUCTION TO SEA LEVEL RISE LIVING

CARLO D. HERNANDEZ FIU - CARTA SPRING 2013 ARC 6970 MIAMI, FLORIDA


Context Analyzation

1

Oolitic Limestone vs Peat Qualitative Condition of Miami River

Hydraulic Invasion / Division Network System vs Organic Growth

Oolitic Limestone vs Peat Qualitative Condition of Miami River

It’s All Business The Positive and The Negative

Hydraulic Invasion / Division Network System vs Organic Growth

POOR

AVERAGE

It’s all business The Positive and The Negative

GOOD

SALINITY DAM

NON-VISIBLE

SOME VISIBLE

VISIBLE

South Florida Region Scale 1”:12000’

South Florida Region Scale 1”:12000’

Oolitic Limestone vs Peat - This layer shows the conditions found beneath the soil.The oolitic limestone is showned in gray, while the rest is covered in peat. Buildings with high elevations can be built with piling construction but it is difficult to do so with peat Qualitative Condition of Miami River - The diagram shows the transition of the condition of the Miami River. The river’s well kept conditions start to diminish as one goes westward. There is a pattern with the conditions of the river with the visibility it has to its citizens

Hydraulic Invasion / Division - This layer implies that Sea Level Rise is a way of nature reconstituting its once established land. This invasion also creates a division in land between North and South Miami Network System vs Organic - The Jeffersonian Grid System established by its inhabitants differs from the organic growth established by nature

It’s All Business - Documentation of businesses established along the edge of the river. Businesses include restaurants, auto shops, and marinas The Positive and The Negative - Layer of land mass displayed in gray punctured by bodies of water

Expansion of Population Radial Perimeter

Hiearchy of Skyscrapers Symmetrical Intentions

Collapse of Maps

Expansion of Population Radial Perimeter

1935

Hiearchy of Skycrapers Symmetrical Intentions

Skyscrapers with the length of 600 ft Skyscrapers with the length of 400 ft Skyscrapers with the length of200 ft

1925

South Florida Region Scale 1”:12000’

Skyscrapers with the length of 600 ft Skyscrapers with the length of 400 ft Skyscrapers with the length of200 ft

Collapse of Maps

1935

1925 POOR

AVERAGE

GOOD

SALINITY DAM

1920

NON-VISIBLE

1920

SOME VISIBLE

VISIBLE

South Florida Region Scale 1”:12000’

Expansion of Population - This diagram displays the growth of urban sprawl. Starting from the mouth of the river and radially spreading westward within time Radial Perimeter - The line correlates to the miami river and bisects the territories occupied throughout time

South Florida Region Scale 1”:12000’

Hiearchy of Skyscrapers - Documentation of skyscrapers in Miami. The skyscrapers documented range from 200 ft to 600 ft. Symmetrical Intentions - Looking at the correlation of the miami river and findind a symmetrical value to its point in space

South Florida Region Scale 1”:12000’

Result of overlaying diagrams and documentations onto one another


2

Chapter 1 Skyscrapers with the length of 600 ft Skyscrapers with the length of 400 ft Skyscrapers with the length of200 ft

Conclusion of Maps Conclusion of Maps

1935

1925 POOR

SALINITY DAM

1920

NON-VISIBLE

SOME VISIBLE

GOOD

VISIBLE

The general conclusion ofRegion the South Florida overlayed mapsScale depict the 1”:12000’ tensions happening between the settlement of man and the reconstitution of nature. Therefore, tension resides in the point where they intertwine, whether it deals with issues of inhabitation or issues of voyeurism and transparency.


Case Study: Rotterdam

Rotterdam WaterCity 2035 Studio Marco Vermeulen

3

Rotterdam WaterCity 2035 Studio Marco Vermeulen Perspective 1

Perspective 2

The first perspective proposes a new maritime defensive work which acts as a barrier defined by dikes. These dikes become the threshold between distinguishing what is the meaningto be inside or outside the city

In the second perspective, the tidal fluctuation is treated with a welcoming gesture rather than a apocalyptic problem. The Maas River becomes an urban strip for riverside floating housing typologies.

Typology A Housing being mounted on large boats

1

Carlo Hernandez Case Study Sea Level Rise - Miami River

Typology B Map of Dikes set along the Maas River

Web of linear public realms

Rendering of the New Border Typology C Row of floating houses

Typology D Web of Institutional Citadels

Typology E

Dike Diagram

Suburban Sprawl

2

3


4

Chapter 1

Maas River, Netherlands Maas River, Rotterdam

Miami River, United States Miami River, Miami - Florida

4

Rotterdam has managed to maintain in being the world’s busiest port. They have been fighting storm surges and inundations for almost a hundred years. Knowing that losing their port could cause heavy affliction to their economy. Rotterdam is accepting innovative approaches to Sea Level Rise. Studio Marco Vermeulen have conducted approaches to sustain the livelihood of their port and their economy. These approaches not only address Sea Level Rise concerns but create an innovative way to live within the river. The Miami Rotterdam to maintain in being the world’s They have been fighting stormand surges for almost a hundred years. Knowing that losing their River may nothas be managed as busy The Maas River but could learn busiest from it, port. as it holds similar characteristics may and veryinundations well introduce a new identity to Miami port could cause heavy affliction to their economy, Rotterdam is accepting innovative approaches to Sea level Rise. Studio Marco Vermeulen have conducted these five approaches to sustain the livelihood of their port and their economy. These approaches not only address Sea Level Rise concerns but create an innovative way to live within the river. The Miami Perspective 3 Perspective 4 River may not be as busy as The Maas River but could learn from it, as it holds similar characteristics and may very well introduce a new identity within Miami. The third perspective proposes a more expansive public transport system by water. It promises to smoothen pedestrian infrastructure between land and water. This network of systems implements boat stations all along the Maas River.

The fourth perspective proposes water squares set along the sewerage system in Rotterdam. Instead of further expanding the costly underwater infrastructure, these squares would retain the rainwater discharge. The retention, storage, and discharge of rainwater becomes visible and interactive within public space.

Map of Rentention Squares Rendering of Park Square Typology

5

Square Typologies

6


Research and Data Sustainable Strategies under Extreme Wind Conditions

5

In terms of Harbouring Energy... Wind Renewal Energy Map

Proposal

Map Density Legend Modest Potential

Florida contains moderate potential in regards to wind renewal energy due to its humid climate. Although Florida does not experience wind at a constant annual rate, it is heavily affected by strong winds every year, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and storms. Power outages often occur after hurricanes have taken place. If Florida focused on running wind turbines during hurricanes, the power would remain intact.

Planned Facilities St. Lucie Wind Facility Sugarland Wind Project High Potential Data acquired from NRDC.org

According to Forbes Magazine, when hurricane Sandy hit the Caribbean, Cuba suffered power outtages but in the providence of Holguin, two wind farms prevailed with no major damages.

7

Gibara Wind Farm, Cuba 8

Airborne Wind Turbines Another way to harbour wind energy would be through airborne wind turbines. These turbines use rotational force and distributes it down its tether unto a generator. According to JOBY Energy, upper boundary layer wind is typically 1.5 - 3 times faster than at the Earth’s surface. Once suspended at the boundary layer, they double wind turbine’s effeciency factor

74% Drive Alone

3% Work at home

15% Carpool

2% Walk

4% Bus

1% Other Means

9

11

10

Altitude Comparison from JOBY Energy

Population Growth in Miami

Daily Commute to work

Buildings equipped with Airborne Wind Turbines in the mouth of the Miami River

2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000

1960

1970


6 Sustainable Strategies under Extreme Wind Conditions In terms of preparing...

Chapter 1

Constructing unground powerlines

Constructing solid frames

Existing condition

Suggestive condition

12

According to Popular Mechanics, the roof is often the primordial factor to consider when hurricane proofing one’s house. It is believed that while concrete foundations remain solid on the ground, the roof would be the first to fly off. Here are some tips on how to build a sturdy wooden frame: - For a hip roof, every rafter strapped to the top plate, every wall stud strapped to top and bottom plate - Double up wall studs every third stud even better - 5/8" roof sheathing or better nailed every 6 inches. - Peel and stick roof covering under roof shingles, no on felt - 5/8" wall sheathing with 5/8" cedar or similar finish boards on outside walls - Galvanized steel hurricane clips increase the effectiveness of the connection 13 between the top plate and rafters or trusses

Equipment Room Proposing condition

Introducing a smart grid

After Hurricane Sandy, much of the infrastructure was damaged. Many people went without light for several days. Many states that were affected started to rethink about their electrical infrastructure. Elevating substations, selectively creating underground power lines, and proposing a smart grid was in their agenda.

Elevating substations

14

Since 1960 until now there has been population change rate of 1980

1990

2000

2012

63%

15


Sea Level Rise and Affected Areas at 3ft

7

SEA LEVEL RISE LEGEND MIAMI RIVER WATER INTRUSION PROSPECTIVE WATER INTRUSION

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 3FT

1 km 1 mi

Percentages of Areas Affected Green Spaces - 3%

Residential - 3% High Rise - 4%

Commercial - 2% Industrial - 2%

Institutional - 1% Office - 0%


8

Chapter 2

Green spaces

Green Space

City Greeneway

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 3FT

Sea Level Rise

Prospective Sea Level Rise

Industrial Extraction

Industrial Commercial Condominium

Industrial Intensive Office type use

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 3FT 1 mi

Commercial

Residential

Single family homes

Surviving Land

Commercial + Industrial

Industrial

1 km

1 mi

Sea Level Rise

Prospective Sea Level Rise

Surviving Land

1 km

Two family duplexes

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 3FT

Low density

High density

Government owned

Institutional + Offices

Institutional

Offices

1 km

1 mi

Sea Level Rise

Prospective Sea Level Rise

Town houses

Mobile homes

Transient

Mixed use

Sea Level Rise

Prospective Sea level Rise

Surviving Land

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 3FT

1 km

1 mi

Surviving Land

16


Sea Level Rise and Affected Areas

9

SEA LEVEL RISE LEGEND MIAMI RIVER WATER INTRUSION PROSPECTIVE WATER INTRUSION

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 5FT

1 km 1 mi

Percentages of Areas Affected Green Spaces - 27%

Residential - 22% High Rise - 20%

Commercial - 23% Industrial - 18%

Institutional - 23% Office - 12%


10

Chapter 2

Green spaces

Green Space

City Greeneway

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 5FT

Sea Level Rise

Prospective Sea Level Rise

Industrial Extraction

Industrial Commercial Condominium

Industrial Intensive Office type use

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 5FT 1 mi

Commercial

Residential

Single family homes

Surviving Land

Commercial + Industrial

Industrial

1 km

1 mi

Sea Level Rise

Prospective Sea Level Rise

Surviving Land

1 km

Two family duplexes

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 5FT

Low density

High density

Government owned

Institutional + Offices

Institutional

Offices

1 km

1 mi

Sea Level Rise

Prospective Sea Level Rise

Town houses

Mobile homes

Transient

Mixed use

Sea Level Rise

Prospective Sea level Rise

Surviving Land

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 5FT

1 km

1 mi

Surviving Land

17


Sea Level Rise and Affected Areas

11

SEA LEVEL RISE LEGEND MIAMI RIVER WATER INTRUSION PROSPECTIVE WATER INTRUSION

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 6FT

1 km 1 mi

Percentages of Areas Affected Green Spaces - 35%

Residential - 30% High Rise - 27%

Commercial - 31% Industrial - 27%

Institutional - 25% Office - 16%


12

Chapter 2

Green spaces

Green Space

City Greeneway

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 6FT

Sea Level Rise

Prospective Sea Level Rise

Industrial Extraction

Industrial Commercial Condominium

Industrial Intensive Office type use

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 6FT 1 mi

Commercial

Residential

Single family homes

Surviving Land

Commercial + Industrial

Industrial

1 km

1 mi

Sea Level Rise

Prospective Sea Level Rise

Surviving Land

1 km

Two family duplexes

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 6FT

Low density

High density

Government owned

Institutional + Offices

Institutional

Offices

1 km

1 mi

Sea Level Rise

Prospective Sea Level Rise

Town houses

Mobile homes

Transient

Mixed use

Sea Level Rise

Prospective Sea level Rise

Surviving Land

SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 6FT

1 km

1 mi

Surviving Land

18


Proposed Site Master Plan

13 SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 3FT 1 mi

Designated water squares space

SLR

Retention pond

Future SLR

Future SLR

1 km


14

Chapter 2

Living with 3ft Sea Level Rise When Sea Level Rise reaches 3 ft, the proposal suggests dredging two rivers. One in the north side connecting the canal that stretches north to the river and one in the south side also connecting two parts of the river. The rivers have been implemented to propose a limit to the where dredging will occur once sea level rise increases. Also, two retention ponds will be introduced to maintain water runoff in the north and south point of the river.

New Dredged River Section Residential

New Dredged River

Residential

Residential

Section at 3ft SLR


Proposed Site Master Plan

15 SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 5FT 1 mi

New surviving land

Expected surviving land

SLR

Retention ponds

Green patches/ Public spaces

Commerce

Residential High Density

1 km


16

Chapter 2

Living with 5ft Sea Level Rise

During 5ft SLR, part of the SR 836 will be used for pedestrian use. People who lived in the newly dredged river will be replaced in highrises in the surviving land Residential

Surviving Land Section Surviving Land

Residential

Section at 5ft SLR


Proposed Site Master Plan

17 SEA LEVEL RISE MAP AT 6FT 1 mi

New surviving land

Expected surviving land

SLR

SLR

Retention ponds

Green patches/ Public spaces

Commerce

Residential High Density

1 km


18

Chapter 2

Living with 6ft Sea Level Rise Once Miami introduces its newly defined riverwalk, the surviving land will begin to populate and underground infrastructural necesities will be established. An amphibious museum will accentuate the new water culture which Miami will live in. A new port will emerge to sustain an economical balance between public amenities and private corporation. Ecoboulevards will be introduced, which consist of streets being closed off in order to be used as a water canal and park hybrid

Eco Boulevards Section Residential

Dredged River

Surviving Land

Dredged River

Eco Boulevards

Section at 6ft SLR


Project Description

Transparency of Space

Once streets and houses are inundated, and Sea Level Rise has taken its toll, the citizens of Miami will encounter a change in reality and space. In order to accommodate these extreme changes, its inhabitants must be educated in both these realms. In terms of reality, we are already stepping into a stage where information is easily attained. This tool gives transparency to the type of world we are living in. In terms of space, we learn that cities grow to the demand of its inhabitants. Miami has more than doubled its inhabitants With this being acknowledged, we learn that transparency of space determines the condition of the Miami River. In the mouth of the river, the conditions are suitable for its visitants, riverside pathways and parks are kept clean but as one moves up the river the well kept condition starts to deteriorate, it becomes a sketchy industrial territory. The proposal focuses on a more transparent living, where private industry intertwines with recreational public parks. It is a place where housing and infrastructure become a typology. All this has to be accomplished with a slow space and educate its inhabitants as these changes occur.

19


20

Chapter 3

As the SR 836 also known as the Dolphin Expressway becomes a pedestrian riverwalk, miami’s identity will discover a riverside culture. This new edge will define an experience with water and nature but also function as communal engine. It is a place where people will commute, visit, and live in.


The Function

21

We drink to SLR Distillation

1 Saline water drawn from Miami River

2 Water is heated under lower air and vapor pressure

Reverse Osmosis

1

19

Saline water drawn from Miami River

Desalination

Desalination refers to any of the process of removing salt and other minerals from saline water and converting it to freshwater. The freshwater then becomes suitable for human consumption 20

Rainwater Harvesting

Desalination refers to the process of removing salt and other minerals from saline water and converting it to freshwater 21

2

3

4

Impurites have been removed after water codensation

Water is cooled down for freshwater usage

3

4

Pre-treatment of water solids adjustment of pH level for equipment protection

Post-treatment of water by stabilizing the pH level and Water is pressured adjusting the through membranes alkalinity prohibitng the passage of salt

Rainwater passes through scuppers

Rainwater is filtered

1

2

5

22

Water is stored in containers for further distribution to the public

5

23

Water is stored in containers for further distribution to the public

Water is distributed

3

24


22

Chapter 3

We share SLR US-41 Route Map

25

Interstate Water Pipeline

26

S.R 836

US-41

137th Ave

Climate change has brought two major effects on the US. These effects are Sea Level Rise and a Drought concern, mostly generated in the midwestwestern region of the country. The proposal asks for an interstate pipeline to run along US-41 and distribute the water to the drought affected areas


The Form

23 Arduino

27

Rendered Plan

Underground Piping System


24

Chapter 3

Since the part of the SR 836 highway being intervened is built in a linear fashion, it builds a strong edge condition within Miami. But the linear condition does not resemble the time or phase in which Architecture is changing into. The form wants to mimic a time which architecture branches from a post-modern style and stems onto more intricate branches, these branches resemble the interdisciplinary alignment that Architecture and different professions are producing. This is being achieved by the technology driven age that we are living in. In this case, an Arduino board, which is a single board microcontroller, is used as an example of the new nature of Architecture. The board is designed to make the process of using electronics in multidisciplinary projects more accessible to the public, it even pushes the envelope of communal entities by establishing an open source market. The connections of the Arduino are abstracted and mimicked by the underground water piping system being engineered at the bottom part of the highway. In the upper part, program is adopted in a layered fashion. This gives chances for different typologies to occur by the given width of the highway.

River Edge Bicyle Path Stormwater Retention Building Edge Width of Highway

Typologies

Residential/Commerical

250 ft 250 ft Zoning Assesment - Retail - Restaurant - Gymnasium - Bar - Movie Theater - Nightclub - Supermarket - Bank - Housing must include hydroponic farming - Buildings must be 50 feet and above to provide shade - Structures must provide outdoor seating area

180 ft 180 ft Zoning Assesment - Water Square - Ampitheater - Picnic - Playground - Outdoor fitness equipment - Water Fountains - Structures must provide seating area

130 ft 130 ft Zoning Assesment - Drinking Fountains - Bicycle racks - Seating areas - Structures must be permeable


The Section

25 Residential

Street

River Walk

Household

28

Plan View

Dredged

Street

Entrance Setback

Building Edge

Water S


26

Chapter 3

Dredged River

Surviving Land

Dredged River

3 ft SLR

Urban Section Water Square

Stormwater Retention

Bicycle Path

Pedestrian Walkway

Stormwater Drainage

Saltwater Drainage

Stormwater Filter

Desalination Plant

River Walk

Dredged River

3 ft SLR

Architectural Section

Rendered Section


Renderings Walking down the Edge

27


28 Water Square

Chapter 3


1. Vermeulen, Marco. Studio Marco Vermeulen, “Rotterdam WaterCity 2035.” Accessed April 27, 2013. http://www. marcovermeulen.nl/themes/11/waterindestad/39/rotterdamwaterstad2035/english/. 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid. 4. Hoit, Richard B. Florida Memory, “Aerial View of The Miami River - Miami, Florida.” Last modified 1918. Accessed April 27, 2013. http://www.floridamemory.com/items/show/40817. 5. Vermeulen, Marco. Studio Marco Vermeulen, “Rotterdam WaterCity 2035.” Accessed April 27, 2013. http://www. marcovermeulen.nl/themes/11/waterindestad/39/rotterdamwaterstad2035/english/. 6. Ibid. 7. Natural Resources Defense Council, “Renewable Energy Map.” Accessed April 27, 2013. http://www.nrdc.org/en ergy/renewables/energymap.asp. 8. Hicks, Jennifer. Forbes, “Cuba’s Two Wind Farms Survive Hurricane Sandy.” Last modified November 06, 2012. Ac cessed April 27, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/sites/jenniferhicks/2012/11/06/cubas-two-wind-farms-survive hurricane-sandy/. 9. Averette, Marc. wikipedia.org, “Mouth of Miami River.” Last modified February 11, 2010. Accessed April 27, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mouth_of_Miami_River_20100211.jpg. 10. JOBY Energy, “High Altitude Wind: Fast and Consisten.” Last modified 2013. Accessed April 28, 2013. http://www. jobyenergy.com/haw/resource. 11. city-data.com, “Means of transportation to work.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://www.city-data.com/county/Miami Dade_County-FL.html 12. Dematto, Amanda. Popular Mechanics, “8 Ways to Protect Your Home Against Tornadoes and Hurricanes.” Ac cessed April 28, 2013. http://www.popularmechanics.com/home/improvement/interior/8-ways-to-protect-your home-against-tornadoes-and-hurricanes 13. Jareb, . “wood frame homes vs. concrete homes .” (online forum message). city-data forum. February 07, 2008. http://www.city-data.com/forum/florida/250406-wood-frame-homes-vs-concrete-homes-3.html (accessed April 28, 2013). 14. Merchant, Brian. Vice - Motherboard, “It’s Time to Hurricane-Proof the Grid.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://moth erboard.vice.com/blog/it-s-time-to-hurricane-proof-the-grid. 15. CensusScope, . Social Science Data Analysis Network, “Population Growth - Miami,FL.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://www.censusscope.org/us/m5000/chart_popl.html. 16. Green Spaces, Residential, Commercial and Industrial, Institutional and Offices maps made by Dayanah Eloi 17. Ibid. 18. Ibid.


19. Trail Appliances, “Water Treatment Solutions.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://www.trail-appliances.com/Water. shtml. 20. wikipedia.org, “Desalination.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desalination. 21. wikipedia.org, “Rainwater Harvesting.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainwater_harvesting. 22. Gerbis, Nicholas. HowStuffWorks, “Why can’t we convert salt water into drinking water?.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/survival/wilderness/convert-salt-water1.htm. 23. scwd2, “About Desalination.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://www.scwd2desal.org/Page-Desal_Tech.php. 24. wikipedia.org, “Rainwater Harvesting.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainwater_harvesting. 25. Nolte, Nick. wikipedia.org, “US 41 map.” Last modified July 3, 2006. Accessed April 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/File:US_41_map.png. 26. Fire Earth, “Nearly half of U.S. in ‘Severe’ to ‘Exceptional’ drought.” Last modified July 26, 2012. Accessed April 28, 2013. http://feww.wordpress.com/tag/u-s-weekly-precipitation-map/. 27. Arduino, “Arduino Uno.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://arduino.cc/en/Main/arduinoBoardUno. 28. Salter, Jessica. The Telegraph, “British drinking water ‘may be tainted with prescription drugs.” Last modified Sep tember 18, 2008. Accessed April 28, 2013. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/3099454/British-drinking water-may-be-tainted-with-prescription-drugs.html.


Bibliography Averette, Marc. wikipedia.org, “Mouth of Miami River.” Last modified February 11, 2010. Accessed April 27, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mouth_of_Miami_River_20100211.jpg. Arduino, “Arduino Uno.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://arduino.cc/en/Main/arduinoBoardUno. CensusScope, . Social Science Data Analysis Network, “Population Growth - Miami,FL.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://www.censusscope.org/us/m5000/chart_popl.html. city-data.com, “Means of transportation to work.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://www.city-data.com/county/Miami Dade_County-FL.html Dematto, Amanda. Popular Mechanics, “8 Ways to Protect Your Home Against Tornadoes and Hurricanes.” Ac cessed April 28, 2013. http://www.popularmechanics.com/home/improvement/interior/8-ways-to-protect-your home-against-tornadoes-and-hurricanes Fire Earth, “Nearly half of U.S. in ‘Severe’ to ‘Exceptional’ drought.” Last modified July 26, 2012. Accessed April 28, 2013. http://feww.wordpress.com/tag/u-s-weekly-precipitation-map/. Gerbis, Nicholas. HowStuffWorks, “Why can’t we convert salt water into drinking water?.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/survival/wilderness/convert-salt-water1.htm. Hicks, Jennifer. Forbes, “Cuba’s Two Wind Farms Survive Hurricane Sandy.” Last modified November 06, 2012. Ac cessed April 27, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/sites/jenniferhicks/2012/11/06/cubas-two-wind-farms-survive hurricane-sandy/. Hoit, Richard B. Florida Memory, “Aerial View of The Miami River - Miami, Florida.” Last modified 1918. Accessed April 27, 2013. http://www.floridamemory.com/items/show/40817. Jareb, . “wood frame homes vs. concrete homes .” (online forum message). city-data forum. February 07, 2008. http://www.city-data.com/forum/florida/250406-wood-frame-homes-vs-concrete-homes-3.html (accessed April 28, 2013). JOBY Energy, “High Altitude Wind: Fast and Consisten.” Last modified 2013. Accessed April 28, 2013. http://www. jobyenergy.com/haw/resource. Merchant, Brian. Vice - Motherboard, “It’s Time to Hurricane-Proof the Grid.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://moth erboard.vice.com/blog/it-s-time-to-hurricane-proof-the-grid. Natural Resources Defense Council, “Renewable Energy Map.” Accessed April 27, 2013. http://www.nrdc.org/en ergy/renewables/energymap.asp. Nolte, Nick. wikipedia.org, “US 41 map.” Last modified July 3, 2006. Accessed April 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/File:US_41_map.png. Salter, Jessica. The Telegraph, “British drinking water ‘may be tainted with prescription drugs.” Last modified Sep tember 18, 2008. Accessed April 28, 2013. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/3099454/British-drinking water-may-be-tainted-with-prescription-drugs.html. scwd2, “About Desalination.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://www.scwd2desal.org/Page-Desal_Tech.php.


Trail Appliances, “Water Treatment Solutions.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://www.trail-appliances.com/Water. shtml. Vermeulen, Marco. Studio Marco Vermeulen, “Rotterdam WaterCity 2035.” Accessed April 27, 2013. http://www. marcovermeulen.nl/themes/11/waterindestad/39/rotterdamwaterstad2035/english/. wikipedia.org, “Desalination.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desalination. wikipedia.org, “Rainwater Harvesting.” Accessed April 28, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainwater_harvesting.


Masters Studio Project: Miami [2100]