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Carlo Di Gregorio

Carlo Di Gregorio

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Carlo Di Gregorio

Contents page Week 1: 3-7 Week 2: 8-11 Week 3: 12-21 Week 4: 22-24 Week 5: 25-27 Week 6: 28-31 Week 7: 32-33 Week 8: 34-37 Week 9: 38-49 Week 10: 50-52 Construction Workshop: 53-55 Key Terms: 56-61 References 62-66 A1 drawing 67

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Lecture 1 Task 1 Aim: support a brick with an A4 sheet of paper Overview: I cut my A4 sheet into two before rolling it into two cylinders

Conclusion: Although I did not get to test my structure I’m sure it would have supported at least a brick as I tested it with my hands.

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Tutorial 1 Task 1: “MASS CONSTRUCTION TOWER” Team members: John Mulqueeny, Michael Fels, Adam Bittisnich and Carlo Di Gregorio Aim: To create a shelter for a toy dinosaur whilst making the shelter as tall as possible using only wooden blocks and clay bricks. (N.B. we did not use clay bricks in the final model) Overview: Immediately we separated into subgroups of two as four people working on the same project proved impossible, my group (John and I) opted for a structure that had a far smaller radius then the tower of Michael and Adam’s. Michael and Adam’s structure

Our Structure

Not only was the radius different but also how the blocks where placed down

This meant that for every 2 ‘layers’ of wooden blocks we placed down Michael and Adam’s group would have to place down Three

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Carlo Di Gregorio Due to the fact that our ‘layering’ of wooden blocks provided more height and that our radius was far smaller our tower quickly emerged as the taller and more complete tower.

Whilst we had completed the roof and were starting to create a spire Michael and Adam’s subgroup had not yet even finished the roof. It was eventually evident though that our structure had reached its peak and because of its poor foundation could no longer continue. The spire we created was tilting and adding to it would put it at risk of collapse. John and I eventually abandoned our project and assisted the others better theirs. Our subgroup’s efforts were not entirely wasted however as we had discovered a very efficient way of creating a spire that we would later implement on Michael and Adam’s tower.

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Carlo Di Gregorio Eventually When Michael and Adam’s tower did create a roof we decided that it was only logical to use the spire that John and I had successfully used on our structure. Using this method of spire we were able to create 28 extra layers (14 on the side and 14 upright). These layers contributed to around a third of the structures eventual height of approximately 165cm. We had created the tallest tower of the entire room by a couple of centimetres.

To add even more strength to their structure Michael and Adam decided to join up their semicircular structure at multiple points by sliding wooden bricks in between the gaps that were created when building the structure this proved to even further strengthen the tower. The top of the building and the heavy spire provided the force to keep these blocks in place

1. The part of the brick on the outside wants to fall out 2. To do this part of the tower is pushed up 3. Weight of tower and spire is too much to push up 4. Brick does not move

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Carlo Di Gregorio Conclusion: We discussed later on how we succeeded in created the tallest tower, John and I both concluding (biased or not) that it had been the way we had created a spire as the others had made as successful shelters (arguably more successful) but none had used our method of spire. We were able to make the spire gradually smaller and smaller when needed and as efficiently as possible. Others method

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Our method


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Lecture 2 Task 1 Aim: Use pins, straws and a cylindrical container to support as much weight as possible Overview: I did not get to attempt this task however by viewing other’s results it’s safe to say that the smaller the straws bent the more stable the structure was in the end

Conclusion: The shorter the distance from which the straw is supporting the force the less chance of it bending.

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Tutorial 2 Task 2: “BALSA WOOD TOWER� Team members: John Mulqueeny, Michael Fels, Adam Bittisnich and Carlo Di Gregorio Aim: To create a tower out of strips of balsa wood, pins and tape large enough to reach to top of the classroom. Overview: Initially we aimed to design the tower like this

Potential force

But from shear chance when I was playing around with the design I found that we could in fact make it a whole lot more stable by using our new found knowledge that triangles were a very stable shape

Potential force Force has to travel over a shorter length. This will reduce the risk of snapping 9


Carlo Di Gregorio In order not to break the tower during construction Adam decided that building the tower piece by piece and on the ground would be the best way to prevent the tower from breaking pre-maturely.

Pin joints were used here so we could adjust the whole structure when needed to make it level to the ground thus more stable and less prone to toppling

When the adjusting was finished we would tape up the middle. This essentially made two triangle based pyramids attached to each other very securely peak to peak adding strength to the whole structure.

Whilst the rest of us continued to make more triangular prisms Michael decided that the base of our structure should have “feet”. He used what was left of our balsa wood to make as much surface area as possible touch the ground. This was an extremely good idea. To finish off to created a spire by making one last triangle on top before using one rod of balsa wood as the highest point.

Base of tower + Michael’s “feet”

These “feet” distributed the force over a much larger area 10

Last triangle and spire

The weight of the spire was equally distributed through the triangle “roof” of our structure


Carlo Di Gregorio Conclusion: We had once again constructed the tallest and most stable tower, reaching the top of the room with ease. This was done by every member of the team contributing with their insightful ideas once again.

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Week 3 – tutorial 3 Overview: In this tutorial we visited various sites on campus and discussed the various properties of buildings around the campus including:

Lot 6 cafe:

In situ concrete

Steel Beam

Lot 6 cafe: this structure showed primarily in situ concrete and glass on its facade, with a decorative steel beam spanning around 10 meters on to masonry. You can tell that the concrete is in situ due to the way it’s weathered.

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Underground car park south lawn:

South lawn columns (Chen, 2014) South Lawn: Here the major problem was the ability to have trees in south lawn whilst having to excavate as little as possible. This was achieved by placing the trees where the columns were placed as shown above the trees roots were able to reach down inside the in situ concrete column (that was constructed by using a mould) to provide stability. A down pipe was also inserted into the column allowing for water to escape easily and not water log south lawn.

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Arts West Student centre: Steel beam that spans approximately 26 meters

Although these may seem to support the

Rendered brick

beam they are for aesthetic purposes only Art West’s major structure would be the steel beam that spans approximately 26 meters from the building itself to a rendered brick block. This would have been a very costly structure with steel being a very expensive material and a lot of it being needed to make the beam structurally sound. The wooden beams under the steel beam provide no structural support and even provided another load for it to carry.

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Stairs on west end of Union House: Some of the Load path

Although it may seem like the steel cabling is doing a lot of the work to keep the stairs stable the main structural elements in this system are the two cantilevers in the middle that supports the stairs load.

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Beaurepaire Center Pool:

Here we can see weep holes in the brick cavity wall. These holes will rid the building of the water that has gone through the first layer of brick. Plexiglass is used to insure that it’s safe even when it shatters.

Due to a pool having to be in one open space the beams used have to be very strong as well as the roofing being as light weight as possible to compensate for the 23m span (Approximately).

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Oval pavilion:

The pavilion which is a recently constructed building is still undergoing some touch ups which includes the brown stains that have seeped from the treated timber to the white concrete that has been made from white cement and white sand. This will most likely have to be covered with treated timber.

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Back of Union House (Membrane structure):

This structure is very light weight and cost efficient to cover a large area. Tension of the steel cables holds the thin membrane up. The drain in the middle is where the water will drain to.

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Frank Tate building:

The most interesting fact about the Frank Tate building is the type of brick used. The metric brick is a much longer brick then a standard one (110*76*230) and due to this is harder to lay as two hands are needed as opposed to one. This type of brick is more expensive as it is more labour intensive.

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Week 3 E-learning

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Week 3 – lecture

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Week 4 – Tutorial In this tutorial we discussed scale initially we found that 1:1000 would be the ideal ratio’s needed to see where the site plan for the building to be. For example the site plan for the pavilion was 1:1000. 1:250 is to see the entire building in more detail. 1:100 is to see the floor plan/basement/ceiling plan and 1:5 is to see the fine detail. 1:20 would be ideal to se wall thickness. We then learnt about main building conventions, abbreviations and symbols Some of the symbols included

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Week 4 – E-Learning

Week 4 – Lecture 23


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Week 5 – Tutorial In this tutorial we made part of the canopy for the pavilion, my group consisted of members: Isabel, Michel, Hugh, John and I. Using the lightweight material of cardboard and using a hot glue gun as an adhesive we were able to manufacture it with relative ease. The canopy under construction

Construction was done with relative ease; Hugh positioned the parts whilst the rest of us manufactured them.

The final product: this depicts our side of the canopy on the left there is a load path diagram for part of the canopy (not all of it was done due to it most likely becoming messy). The new steelwork that has been inserted (the columns and roof beams) ‘carry’ the entire load of the canopy so much so that no steel can be removed unless a structural engineer has given explicate consent. On the right shows our work without the load path diagrams. Connections are done with blots from timber to steel and are welded for steel on steel

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Week 5 E-Learning

Week 5 - Lecture 26


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Week 6 – Tutorial In this tutorial we discussed our site visits:

North Melbourne In our site visit (North Melbourne) we mainly discussed the concrete pour that was done in the second site visit we made. We discussed how there were different jobs for the concrete pour such as vibration, pouring, making sure it was level and flattening it. We also showed the formwork needed for a concrete pour and the general plans for the building. Our building used mass construction as concrete blocks were used as a load bearing wall. These blocks were filled with concrete and steel bars horizontally and vertically to bond them together making them even stronger

Prahran: In this site the group discussed how asbestos cement fibres were used and how it was not dangerous. They also showed a universal column that was used as a universal beam. They had discovered a brick cavity wall that had a cavity larger than the standard 50mm this is due to the time of construction and how different measurements were still being tested. Plaster lining was used as it is very cheap and only 10mm thick.

Carlton This group explained how there structure was all fire rated and was being constructed at a fast pace using the polystyrene blocks filled with concrete and steel reinforcement rods for structural support. Yellow tongue chipboard was used to floor the area and gang nails were used for timber to timber joints from bearer to joist. They talked about how the gang nails provided a fixed joint that would resist all movement thus providing more stability.

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Week 6 – E-Learning

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Week 6- Lecture

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Week 7 – no tutorial

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Week 7 – E-Learning

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Week 8 tutorial – In this tutorial we were given each a detailed section to draw 1:1. My section was the following

(Oval Pavillion Construction Drawings, 2014) This section shows a part of the ceiling that is supported by a parallel flange channel (pfc) that is shown in blue. There is also a metal deck roof that is supported by rafters that are not seen in this drawing but run parallel to the Parallel flange channel. On top you can see double glazed windows and under that you can see measures to get rid of the water including sealant.

(Oval Pavillion Construction Drawings, 2014) 33


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My Version

Timber wall lining Leaking Trim (Brass) Double glazing

Steel angle fixed to structural frame

PFC

Sealant Acoustic insulation

Ply backing Flashing

Thermal insulation Metal decking roof

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The photo of the exact location on the pavilion

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Week 8 – E-learning

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Week 9 – Tutorial In this tutorial we ventured on to two sites one just off Nicholson street the other was located on Faraday Street. Both projects had to deal with very different problems as they were building structures for different purposes.

Site 1 Nicholson Street This building was designed to be a residential building. Made use of post tension concrete slabs, these slabs are stronger than normal slabs allowing them to be thinner. Thus allowing the maximum amount of levels within the height limit of the area

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This was an example of a Public Private Partnership in which both public and private sectors work together in synergy. Here was the notice board put up at the temporary office of the workers.

At a total of 6 levels many measures had to be put in place to ensure the building was safe for the future occupants including it being fire resistant enough for the occupants to evacuate.

Here is a fire resistant plasterboard panel 38


Carlo Di Gregorio The wall to the left would have had an air gap in-between the two panels to stop vibrations passing through from apartment to apartment allowing for more acoustic insulation thus providing the required privacy needed.

Here we can see different finishes on pre-cast concrete (a wavy finish and a cross hatched finish)

Here at the roof of the apartment we can see all the different pipes that enter the unit they are as follows.

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Carlo Di Gregorio     

Yellow – Gas Purple – grey water White Large – national broadband network (one of the first buildings to receive it) White Small – Power Small Orange – Intercom

This Large pipe over here is for the fan.

Here we see all the different services in the units bathroom

Cold water

Shower

Floor waste

Concrete waterproofed for bathroom with screed underneath it Aluminium stud framing 40


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Load path diagram

Polystyrene with foil outer to be put on outside for insulation

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The basement

Shotcrete

Soldier piers made out of steel reinforcement and concrete. Each pier holds around 100 ton. Capping beam is at the top of the piers joining them all together. The sides are made from Shotcrete (concrete that is sprayed onto the walls at high velocity. Needs to be sticky in order for it to stay in place). The piers are supported by a rock pile that is situated 12 m horizontally from them, this adds horizontal stability.

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Drain

This is a wet basement so water is allowed to travel through the walls into the car park due to this drains need to be put into place to get rid of this water eventually.

- The temporary lift used by workman to lift materials to the upper levels

- The space left for the actual lift 43


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Stitch plate -Not Covered -Covered

Here we can see pre-cast concrete panels being joined by steel stitch plates some are covered others haven’t been covered as of yet. Two fixings per panel are required.

-shaft left so concrete can be pumped through it to the upper levels as needed

-Steel bars that are yet to connect the current in situ concrete with the new part. 44


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Site 2 - Faraday Street Here this two story heritage listed building was going to be transformed into a community centre. Due to it being heritage listed the front of the building was to remain intact. Most of the work being done was to happen at the back.

The facade that was to be left intact

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Here we can see steel framing there are steel universal beams visible here

Joists Here we can see the steel to steel frame. Connections between steel would have been bolted as it is much less labour intensive as opposed to welding on site. In the roofing there is lead but this cannot be changed as its heritage listed.

- The original building had 3 courses of brick 46


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Bluetongue plywood is being used as flooring as it is cheap and effective

Here we can see the geothermal pipes that will be used to heat the establishment in winter, water from these pipes will get heated by the earth then pushed back up the establishment. The black pipes are temperature rated.

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Week 9 – E-Learning

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Week 10 – Tutorial

Timber wall lining Leaking Trim (Brass) Double glazing

Steel angle fixed to structural frame

PFC

Sealant Acoustic insulation

Ply backing Flashing

Thermal insulation Metal decking roof

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Carlo Di Gregorio Double glazing was used to prevent heat from being lost through the glass as well as stopping noise from the pavilion exiting the pavilion via the windows. The metal roof decking was used so the smallest gradient is needed for the roof thus maximizing the ceiling space in the pavilion whilst not going above any height restrictions. Water proofing elements such as the flashing and the sealant prevent water from entering the roof. The slant on the metal decking roof makes sure that water is not sitting on top of the roof for too long causing an unnecessary load. If the sealant was to wear away or water to find a hole in the metal decking roof water could penetrate into the building causing detrimental effects such as the insulation becoming waterlogged and having to be replaced. There are many cheaper alternatives to what is being used in the pavilion such as the slanted double glazed windows due to this the project will be costly.

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Week 10 – E-Learning

Constructing Workshop 51


Carlo Di Gregorio In this workshop we had to make a 1m beam that would be as strong as possible or as innovative as possible with the materials given. Given two lengths of pine and two lengths of plywood we decided to go for strength. This was one of our palimony sketches

After being told that failures most commonly occur at the joints we wanted to make sure no joints were in the middle where the most stress would be. To make sure that the plywood outer was protected and not crushed we decided on placing a small piece of pine on the top to absorb the load of the machine. The knots of the plywood were placed at the top of the beam as this would mean where the pine was most at stress it would not be compromised by the weaker knots in the wood. We used nails as joints as although they were less stable then screws they were both easier to place and affected the wood less.

The final product

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- An innovative design

The test Group 1 (our group)

41mm of bend and broke at 370 kg. Our main failure was to put more screws in the plywood at the top this allowed it to bend out of shape and provide less support. Group 2 53


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- bend 78 mm and broke at 340kg

Group 3

- 33mm of bend and broke at 180kg Group 4

-70mm of bend and supported 80kg Summary: you could tell when the structure was about to fail as it would creek and moan (this in actual fact is due to many small failures within the structure). The structures that were able to bend the most were also the more resilient timbers

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Key terms Masonry- A subset of mass construction containing mainly bricks and concrete (YouTube, 2014). Load path- The path the weight of the load is transmitted (Ching, 2008). (shown in yellow). Compression- The material is being squashed or shortened (at the top of the beam). Reaction force – The equal and opposite reaction this in the context of building would be the reaction force from the building from the 3 natural forces wind, water and simic activity (Ching, 2008) (Shown on diagram in green). Point load – The point in which the load is applied.

Beam (UB) - are stiff structures that are designed to transfer loads to different part of the structure (Ching, 2008). Bracing- Counteracts lateral force (Ching, 2008). Frame- Provides structure and support (Ching, 2008).

Structural Joint – A joining of two materials (shown in black circle) (Ching, 2008). Stability- The strength in which the building is to be securing both laterally and horizontally (Ching, 2008). Tension- A material is being pulled apart/lengthened (At the top of the beam) Column (UC) -transmits through compression the weight of a structure (Ching, 2008). Framework – Structures put into place that supports another structure. This may be temporary or could be permanent for example scaffolding. Moment – The tendency for an object to rotate or move due to an unbalance force applied Mo = F x d (i.e. moment = force x distance) (Ching, 2008)

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Carlo Di Gregorio Retaining wall – A wall to keep out soil

(Ching, 2008) Pad Footings - footings that are isolated but manages to spread the point of load below used when soil is unstable. (youtube, 2014)

Strip footings - footings that are connected amd manages to spread the point of load below used when soil is unstable. (youtube, 2014)

Slab on ground – The concrete slab that is on the ground this provides a platform for other structures to be erected. Steel reinforcement will be used to aim to counter any potential forces from underground. Substructure – The supporting components, also called framework.

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Carlo Di Gregorio Joists – The secondary members, supported by bearers. They are the horizontal members that support other members i.e. (concrete slab or timber floor) (Youtube, 2014).

Steel deck – cold formed metal that is used to support the members of the roof. Can provide extra support between the roofs joists (Ching, 2008). Span – The distance a member has to stretch before reaching support (In red). Girder – A large metal beam that is used for framework for buildings (Ching, 2008). Concrete plank – A piece of concrete used as a beam. It is reinforced with steel to add tensile strength that concrete alone doesn’t have. Spacing – The space in-between each member (As shown above) (youtube, 2014). Stud – the vertical members, can be made from timber or metal (such as aluminium). They run from the bottom plate to the top plate, Can be load bearing (Youtube, 2014). Nogging – the horizontal members that join the studs (Youtube, 2014). Lintel – A horizontal member that can be load bearing, usually found over gaps in the building (Ching, 2008). Axial Load – The force that is administered perpendicular to the object (Ching, 2008).

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Buckling – when an object is failing it tends to bend or buckle (Youtube, 2014).

Seasoned Timber – Timber that has only 15% of the original water left (Youtube,2014). Rafter – A sloped structural member that has been manufactured to support the roof (Youtube, 2014). Purlin – The structural member the supports the Purlins by running horizontally across the length of the roof (Youtube, 2014). Cantilever – A beam that is only supported at one end. Portal Frame – A way of building in which the connections in between the rafters and columns are made to resist moments. (Ching, 2008). Eaves – the bottom edge of the roof, this is usually beyond the edge of the building (Youtube, 2014). Alloy – two or more metals that have been joined together (Youtube, 2014). Soffit – the underside of a construction element (Ching, 2008). Top Chord – The highest beam in a truss (Ching, 2008). Vapour barrier – any material that are used to stop moisture getting into the building for example plastics (Ching, 2008). Gutter – a duct that collects water off the roof and places it away from it (Ching, 2008). Parapets – an extension of a wall used primarily as guard rails (Ching, 2008). Down Pipe – A pipe used to carry water from the drains to ground level (Ching, 2008) Flashings – A piece of metal used to stop the penetration of water in the junction of a roof. Insulation – The protection from receiving or losing primarily heat or sound to outside. Sealant – A material used to seal a gap left primarily at a joint (Youtube, 2014). Window sash – The framework that is responsible for supporting the window inside the window frame (Ching, 2008)

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Carlo Di Gregorio Deflection – When a horizontal or vertical member warps or twists due to a force being applied (Ching, 2008).

Moment of Inertia – The force that makes a body resist acceleration (Ching, 2008). Door Furniture – handles and other fixtures that are apparent on doors (Ching, 2008). Stress – Occurs when tension is applied to an object (Ching, 2008) Shearing Force – When two parallel forces acting in opposing directions act on a member at the same time (Ching, 2008). Sandwich Panel – A composite material made from plastic bonded to aluminium sheets (Youtube, 2014). Bending – A member that goes on a curve due to the action of an unbalanced force (Ching, 2008). Skirting – A protective layer running across the bottom of the wall usually made from wood that protects the plaster from damage (Youtube, 2014). Composite Beam – A beam made from two materials that are joined together and act as one (Youtube, 2014). Cornice – A decorative piece that is on the wall situated near the ceiling (Ching, 2014). Shear Wall – Panals that have been braced to counteract the effects of lateral forces affecting the structure (Youtbe, 2014). Soft Story – A living area that needs to have shear walls to counteract any potential lateral forces, usually due to it being placed a couple of floors up (Youtube, 2014). Braced Frame - A system that is designed to resist wind and earthquake forces (Youtube, 2014). Life Cycle – The path in which the material takes to get manufactured used and potentially re-cycled (Youtube, 2014). Defect – A failure usually due to poor planning (Youtube, 2014) Fascia – A flat piece of material that covers the ends of fittings(Ching, 2008) Corrosion – Caused when water, oxygen and a metal are together this will cause an oxide to form on the outside of the metal (Youtube, 2014)

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IEQ – The health of the occupants of the building (Youtube, 2014)

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References Chen, L. (2014). LOVELL CHEN - Architects & Heritage Consultants. [online] Lovellchen.com.au. Available at: http://www.lovellchen.com.au/newsArchiveOct11.aspx [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. Ching, F. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated. 4th ed. United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons. Oval Pavillion Construction Drawings. (2014). 1st ed. Melboune: Cox Architecture Pty Ltd. YouTube, (2014). W03_c1 FOOTINGS & FOUNDATIONS. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAcuwrecIz8&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W03_m1 INTRODUCTION TO MASS CONSTRUCTION. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Au2upE9JN8&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W03_m2 INTRODUCTION TO MASONRY. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DC8Hv8AKQ8A&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W03_m4 STONE. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Vn5_dk4RtQ&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W03_m5 CONCRETE BLOCKS. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=geJv5wZQtRQ&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W03_s1 STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wQIa1O6fp98&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W04_c1 FLOOR SYSTEMS. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otKffehOWaw&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014].

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YouTube, (2014). W04_m1 CONCRETE. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c1M19C25MLU&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W04_m2 IN SITU CONCRETE. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3zW_TBGjfE&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W04_m3 PRE CAST CONCRETE. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scYY-MMezI0&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W05_c1 WALLS, GRIDS AND COLUMNS. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vq41q6gUIjI&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W05_m1 From Wood to Timber. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJL0vCwM0zg&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W05_m2 Timber Properties and Considerations. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ul0r9OGkA9c&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W05_m3 Engineered Timber Products. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YrYOGSwtVc&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W06_c1 Roof Systems. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q5ms8vmhs50&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W06_m1 Introduction to Metals. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RttS_wgXGbI&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W06_m2 Ferrous Metals. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SQy3IyJy-is&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 62


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2014]. YouTube, (2014). W07_c1 Detailing for Heat and Moisture. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lhwm8m5R_Co&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W07_m1 Rubber. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPhjDijdf6I&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W07_m2 Plastics. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pfnCtUOfy4&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W07_m3 Paints. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WrydR4LA5e0&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 17 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W08_c1 OPENINGS: DOORS & WINDOWS. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7QQIue58xY&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W08_m1 GLASS. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_I0Jqcrfcyk&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W09_c1 Construction Detailing. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqVwAV7yJCI&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W09_m1 Composite Materials. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uem1_fBpjVQ&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W10_c1 Collapses and Failures. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yNEl-fYRi_I&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W10_m1 Heroes and culprits. [online] Available at: 63


Carlo Di Gregorio

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FhdfwGNp_6g&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 18 May. 2014]. YouTube, (2014). W10_m2 A Tale of Corrosion. [online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IqhvAeDjlg&feature=youtu.be [Accessed 18 May. 2014].

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