eye Carlo Cambi Editore
Man Ray. 1944 Amedeo Modigliani Tauromaquia. Picasso, DalĂ, Goya, Filla, Capek Pizzi Cannella. Le Regine
eye Carlo Cambi Editore
Carlo Cambi Editore
FISHEYE 04-2013 the official art house organ Di / By: Carlo Cambi Testi di / Texts by: Serenella Baccaglini, Cesare Biasini Selvaggi, Janus
Crediti fotografici, traduzioni e ulteriori informazioni in / Photographic credits, translations and further information in: Man Ray. 1944, by Man Ray, Janus, CCE, Poggibonsi 2012, 978-88-6403-132-3 Amedeo Modigliani, by Serenella Baccaglini, Monika Burian Jourdan, CCE, Poggibonsi 2011, 978-88-6403-084-5 Tauromaquia. Picasso, Dalí, Goya, Filla, Čapek, by Serenella Baccaglini, Monika Burian Jourdan, CCE, Poggibonsi 2012, 978-88-6403-125-5 Pizzi Cannella. Le Regine, by Cesare Biasini Selvaggi, CCE, Poggibonsi 2012, 978-88-6403-141-5 Direzione artistica / Art director: Laura De Biasio Coordinamento di redazione / Editorial coordination: Valentina Sardelli Responsabile relazioni esterne / In charge of public relations: Marta Fiaschi Impaginazione e stampa / Layout and printing: Tap Grafiche - Poggibonsi (Siena) - Italy Nessuna parte di questo catalogo può essere riprodotta o trasmessa in qualsiasi forma o con qualsiasi mezzo elettronico, meccanico o altro senza l’autorizzazione scritta dei proprietari dei diritti e dell’editore. L’editore resta a disposizione degli eventuali detentori di diritti che non sia stato possibile identificare o rintracciare e si scusa per involontarie omissioni. Reproduction and diffusion of this catalogue or any part of it by electronic storage, hardcopies, or any other means, are not allowed unless a written consent is obtained from publisher and copyright holders. The publisher is at the disposal of further copyright holders who have not been identified or reached and apologises for any unintentional inaccuracies. © 2013 Carlo Cambi Editore © of the works, their authors © of the texts, their authors www.carlocambieditore.it / www.fisheyeart.it / email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org
INDICE / CONTENT 6-23
Tauromaquia. Picasso, Dalí, Goya, Filla, Čapek
Pizzi Cannella. Le Regine
Fisheye in Italia e nel mondo / Fisheye in Italy and all over the world
73-81 Alberto Burri 3
Man Ray. 1944
In the light of the public’s and critics’ acclaim received by the previous editions of Carlo Cambi Editore’s house organ, we have resolved to continue this experience with Fisheye Number 4, by paying tribute to a selection of suggestive artists who have been witnesses of contrasting periods such as Man Ray, Amedeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso, Pizzi Cannella. All of them have been described by the words of those who know them and were able to interpret them, that is to say Serena Baccaglini, Cesare Biasini Selvaggi, Janus. Our primary aim continues to be that of diffusing the contents and works which have been reproduced with the utmost care in the volumes which we publish: acknowledged works, which have sprung from a profound feeling, works which are able to be contemplated in a publication. So as to further enhance these concepts, we will boost our visibility throughout 2013 by being present whenever there are crucial events related to the international artistic panorama, such as Art Basel Hong Kong. After having launched a communicative medium which has proven able to catch the attention of those who love and esteem culture, it is now being strengthened, with the certainty of paying tribune to that which is capable of spurring stimuli, without any involvements or pressures, whilst seeking to show the way that Carlo Cambi Editore can be an active presence, at the service of true art and its interpreters. Consequently, nothing else remains to be done but wait for the Fisheye Number 5 to come out.
Alla luce dei consensi di pubblico e di critica riscontrati dalle precedenti edizioni dello house organ della Carlo Cambi Editore, abbiamo ritenuto di continuare questa esperienza con Fisheye numero 4, rendendo omaggio ad una selezione di artisti suggestivi, testimoni di periodi contrastanti, come Man Ray, Amedeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso, Pizzi Cannella. Tutti descritti dalle parole di chi li conosce e li sa interpretare, ovvero Serena Baccaglini, Cesare Biasini Selvaggi, Janus. Nostro obiettivo primario resta la divulgazione dei contenuti e delle opere riprodotte con la massima cura nei volumi da noi pubblicati: opere indiscusse, nate da un sentimento profondo, opere da contemplare in una produzione editoriale. Per valorizzare ancora di più questi concetti, nel corso del 2013 potenzieremo la nostra visibilità con la presenza in occasione di eventi cardine del panorama artistico internazionale, come Art Basel Hong Kong. Dopo aver inaugurato un mezzo comunicativo che ha saputo richiamare l’attenzione di coloro che amano e stimano la cultura, questo mezzo viene adesso potenziato, con la sicurezza di rendere omaggio, senza coinvolgimenti o pressioni, a ciò che può creare stimoli, cercando di mostrare come la Carlo Cambi Editore sia realtà attiva, al servizio dell’arte vera e dei suoi interpreti. È per questo che non ci resta che darvi appuntamento a Fisheye numero 5.
Man Ray 1944
Hollywood, 1944 (an unpublished novel)
is a novel, but above all it is the idea of a novel. Despite being incomplete – it was never finished – it touches on some of the important points in Man Ray’s poetics: it is a project but it is nevertheless very clear and well-defined in the exposition of its ideas which overlay the action and in some points substitute it in a project of internal construction, a linguistic project, an almost Utopian structure, the hypothesis of a future city, a city of the sun perennially bathed in light and colours, the imagination of a painter in search of confirmation of his literary vocation, searching for a precise place for his words, something Man Ray deeply believed in as a connective element, but perhaps even deeper – between form and idea. He states this rather clearly in his autobiography: “I felt an increasing urge to state my ideas in words” then later in the same text “Putting my ideas into words was like preparing canvases and paints for a new work”. This project moves in various directions, one is clearly autobiographical, another is the hunt for a precise reality and another, third direction, is purely imaginary: memories, imagination, and reality put forward various levels of meaning in the novel, various ways for approaching his very particular style and in its own way irregular prose. However,
before we try to interpret the novel it would be a good idea to state immediately that this long text which was unpublished until the Italian edition of 1981 published by Feltrinelli, and unpublished in the original English, was written by Man Ray during 1944 in Hollywood. He wrote it by hand in a large black bound exercise book. On the spine of the book there is a small label with the title, hand drawn by Man Ray himself. It consists of 64 pages, written in unusually clear close handwriting, written without interruption and almost without corrections. I remember that Man Ray loved this work and even in his last years he would occasionally pick up this exercise book, he would have liked to have finished it but he did not have the necessary physical strength even for a purely literary enterprise, to enable him to complete the story of his hero in an imaginary city on our planet, in a period which is extraneous to our timeline despite the precise chronological indication which was probably only a provisional device. Using a date as a title is not completely unknown in literature: from Victor Hugo’s Ninety-three (Quatre-vingt-treize, about the French Revolution) to George Orwell’s 1984 (about an ever closer society), from the past to the future. This device always represents a crisis for man, it is a point of reference
Lâ€™Homme Infini, oil on canvas, 180 x 125.5 cm, 1942
8 1944 Othello oil on canvas 50 x 40 cm 1948
which we are forced to confront. 1944 is the year the novel was written, but not the year when the events in the story take place. This 1944 is an imaginary year, but because of the contacts Man Ray has always maintained with reality he wanted it to be anchored in a precise point in time. There are many 1944s in the history of humanity, time has multiple facets that only a novel can at times untangle. On the other hand in 1914 Man Ray, in another war era, did a painting using only the numbers making up that date. The novel has a short preface which mainly deals with arguments of a linguistic nature followed by three fairly long chapters. In 1973 he allowed me to use this preface as the introduction to a monograph I wrote about him (published by Fratelli Fabbri Editori). After his death I came into possession of this exercise book once again, but I found that the first pages had been inexplicably ripped out. I never actually found out the reason for this, nor which vandal or fetishist who, probably during Man Ray’s funeral, had the idea of getting himself a small handwritten memento of Man Ray. Of these missing pages only the Italian translation remains in the volume mentioned earlier, and a French translation, probably
not the work of Man Ray, in the edition of the book published by Hachette of Paris, and a third German version (Praeger). My research with these publishers in the attempt to find the original English text sadly brought no results. The protagonist of the story is an imaginary character who appears to be an echo of the author himself. His name was originally Rober, a word with little meaning, subsequently though it was changed and became Robor. This word has a more precise meaning: for Latin peoples it means virile strength, robustness, but also and above all, intellectual and moral vigour and the most precious essence of an individual. Despite the similarity between the names there is no connection with Jules Verne’s Robur le Conquérant, however, Man Ray’s protagonist is an ex-aviator, a hero who has survived the war and now wanders lost and distressed through the streets of this unknown city. This though is the imaginary element. The element of reality tells us that this Robor was a painter before getting caught up in the war (a war that when it comes down to it everyone has to fight over the course of their life). Robor has another characteristic which gives us the real key to his name: it is a word that can be read backwards, from the last letter to the first without changing its meaning and this unusual quality is almost certainly the reason why it was chosen. Man Ray loved to invert the order of things, moving shapes and the meaning of objects, to compose anagrams and plays on words. In its lexical immobility Robor is a word that moves in two directions, always different and the same as itself. At the centre of the first page there is a large black ink blot, it is the blot from which all the words come out, one after the other like minute particles procreated by this static amorphous cloud that rises on the edges of its reign. The ink blot, in its randomness, is a good representation of art according to Dadaism, and has a tight affinity to the identical blot published in 1915 in The Ridgefield Gazook. The short preface that now exists in the partial Italian/English and French/Italian version represents an excursion by Man Ray into the field of linguistics, and his attempt to define the character of the word, to explain even to himself this continual passage that
L’équivoque, tempera on cardboard, 35 x 28 cm, 1943
Man Ray 9
Untitled tempera on paper 24.2 x 32 cm 1946
exists between painting and words, between form and name. In the meantime Man Rayâ€™s intuition was a sound one: words are pleasure, and this notion could explain his inclination to use them so frequently over the course of his life. We have never thought that a painter must be mute and the literary contribution of artists has always been very important, but in Man Ray the contemplation of language tells us that behind this pleasure there is a creative need, a willingness to invent an autonomous instrument. He recognises the multiple facets of the languages that surround man on all sides like a stormy ocean, and the multiple meanings that are held within each language, as if the problem were continually enlarged by
inexorable intensification. He therefore had the sensation of having an immense material in his hands of which no man will ever completely be the master, but that exists even above man. Language is the sum of many other languages, of all the languages that have been adopted by humanity, past and present, and this nebula of words and meanings, more crowded than a universe of stars, is a kind of great wall, partially insurmountable but against which man continues to push with his mind. Thought and Language are for Man Ray two different activities, one secret, one public, one interior, the other external: words are evidently the element that unite one to the other, but, perhaps, did he not also say or suspect that
Thought and Language are for Man Ray two different activities, one secret, one public, one interior, the other external... ignorance. Putting an end to this condition puts an end to his interest for writing too. The novel did not remain unfinished because Man Ray did not know what else to write, but because at this point he knew exactly what he needed to write. At a certain point the plan of the novel became so clear and so evident that it was not necessary to continue writing it. The novel in our society dies because of an excess of existence, not for poverty of inspiration; its crisis in our time is knowledge, not aridness. To continue writing Man Ray had to forget, and this operation evidently becomes impossible at a certain point for anybody because the novel, in following its path, page after page, acquires an increasingly defined, more decipherable physiognomy. At the start it might only be a game or a bit of fun or an automatic movement of the mind and the hand, like in the experiments of the surrealists in automatic writing, but it is a foregone conclusion, at a certain point, that all that which is purely spontaneous becomes rational, all that which is irrational becomes preordained and logical, that the novel cannot accept this violation of its ancient rules with impunity, that it increasingly demands to have its own order, to have an organisation that is not only in the mind, but internal and structural. Even the digression, whether that of Sterne or of Calvino, must have a precise goal, its own if modest target, aiming at organising all the restless material within a Result, in a furrow that leads to a precise Motive, before the gaze of a Law that wants it enclosed within high walls, and it is the task of the reader not the author to climb over these with effort or pleasure. The novel is always a kind of organised city, or even disorganised if you like, but it is a city inhabited by well-defined flesh and blood or ghost characters who give rise to the events and things going on and that have to have easily identifiable roots. It cannot rise out of nothing. It needs a builder, someone who before thinking about writing knows what he has to think and what to write. The novel can never be an empty
Man Ray 11
words are an unstable thing? What painter does not have the sensation that with words he could do everything, even so far as saying the opposite to what is real and visible? At the same time painting probably does not possess the same freedom or the same power, but in any case words are essentially ambiguous because they are contradictory, because they never say just one thing but many. It is from this starting point that Man Ray begins to tell us this story. The first chapter is dedicated to introducing an imaginary city that could however easily be New York or Paris, or above all Los Angeles, and introducing the protagonist, Robor, tired, hungry and distressed, lost amongst the streets of this city. The first chapter also presents us with a philosophical digression on the desperate condition of man in an apparently hostile place, imprisoned by a merciless mechanism between the resurgence of memories and a reality that seems to set itself against his wandering. Robor is alone and wanders blindly, abandoned by everyone else, but at the end of the road a vestibule that seems more welcoming opens before his eyes and beyond the vestibule a long corridor flooded with light towards which he heads almost mechanically. The city has no name, the people have no names (except for the protagonist), the place that automatically opens its doors inviting him to enter, has no name. Everything is anonymous, but everything is part of a civilisation supported by mysterious and absurd laws, a civilisation which is paradoxically unequipped with words despite its undoubted power. Only the protagonist possesses the gift of words, but it is a fragile and uncertain gift. The second chapter contains another important digression that, amongst other things, derives from his linguistic concepts and allows us to better understand what the building blocks of the novel are: unpredictability. For Man Ray the story has to come out of a dark unknown side of the mind, it must be a revelation to share with the reader, it cannot be planned in advance: both the reader and the author must be unaware of what happens in later pages. Both are on the same plane of uncertainty and
desert, a place where poetry might find itself far more at ease, as poetry does not need to owe anything to anybody and does not have to answer to anyone for its wonderful caprices. Poetry must continually rebel, the novel when it tries to rebel, dies. Man Ray also perpetrates another literary infraction: he places the writer and the reader on the same level, as if they were peers and as if they looked alike. It can happen that sometimes there are similarities between the reader and the author, but it is always a suspicious exception and the fact of it needs to be explained and the reasons displayed. This is not the time or the place to go into this subject. It seems to us that these two figures should never appear similar; know each other, yes, even profoundly, but they should never be too similar to each other. It is forbidden by what has become a convention, but also by a kind of reality and probably also a kind of etiquette and secret tacit agreement between the two opposing protagonists. If they were completely similar the act of writing would immediately become futile: everyone could write the novels they wanted to read for themselves, while those written for the public, which in a certain sense are the exclusive and egocentric projection of an abstract creative being, would become completely illegible. The novel is always aimed at a far off reader who becomes increasingly remote with the passing of the years though distance does not in any way mean incommunicableness but without a doubt greater understanding and greater knowledge. If the novel does not die first, with the passing of the centuries this dissimilarity becomes unassailable and is basically a good thing because it continues to keep our curiosity and our interest engaged with the texts composed with so much perseverance by the high or lesser priests of literature, far off and almost forgotten, while their words are still burned into our minds. Man Rayâ€™s novel therefore contains an anomaly that probably prevented him from developing his themes through to their conclusion. Perhaps then Man Ray thought the same thing when he was painting his paintings or creating his objects? Definitely not. In his identity
as a painter Man Ray was well aware of an insurmountable difference between the painter and the observer of his works. Therefore the presumption that this fact could happen in a novel comes purely from an impulse towards risk and danger. Even an object with an improbable shape is, when it comes down to it, always constituted of easily definable forms carefully chosen previously, and possibly with all the help desired by the artist for the case in point. In a novel though this means going down a forbidden route, there is no immediate exchange between the author and the reader, even if only because of the simple fact that the writing of it is too far ahead of its reading, and going from one to the other takes a route that is far more complex, passing through the mediation of many other people and many other institutions. In the end the passage from a painting to the person observing it is shorter and more immediate and can give the illusion that the action of painting and the action of the observer are almost contemporaneous. In any case there is a smaller movement from the reciprocal point of observation, which subsequently becomes a significant temporal difference. It is not however these contrasts that are very important here, more it is the observation of how Man Ray as a painter possessed theories that were different from those that he adopted when he occasionally transformed to become a writer. However, this diversity is only perceivable in this novel, and not in his other literary and poetic writings composed in the same year or previously. His other prose pieces are perfectly constructed according to the traditional rules, from start to finish, leaving to chance all that chance takes care of, without demanding to establish a perfect identity between the author and the reader, rather the reader is at times elegantly deceived, like in Ruth, Rose and Revolvers, where the reader is sucked into the unpredictable unfolding of the story in a game that exclusively concerns those who read this story, not the person who skilfully built it up with the intention of catching our interest and attention. [â€Ś]
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Man Ray 15
A non-imaginary story
Torso pastel on paper 62 x 48.5 cm 1942
This story could never have been written if in 1944 the world had not still been in the grip of one of the worst wars of all time. The protagonist is a character from the real world who moves into an imaginary world in an attempt to forget what he has seen: an air battle, probably as an aviator, the war’s climate of fear, the constant threat of death, and the atomic age advancing with its dark talons, but the story, as its author takes care to point out, was written “before Hiroshima” an event which did not happen until 1945. For now the war, like a raging fire scattered and spread over the whole planet, is still a living animal. For some it is all already over, for Man Ray it is an attempt to project his mind into the future, to distance himself from the memories of this war running its course in Europe and in the heart of the Pacific. Perhaps he wrote this story to exorcise these memories, an apotropaic aim, it is a kind of track crossing the entirety of his memory, it is a subterranean sentiment, it is something paradoxical, it takes place thousands of kilometres from California, but it is as if it is right there by the coast of California where Man Ray lives, it is far off and close at the same time. Wars never come to an end, they just change their appearance, they leave visible marks on works of art, or else they become history, philosophy, or literature. The sense of this story lies in things being turned upside down, in the same way that Robor is a word that reads the same in both directions, the story has a similar ambivalence, it is peace and war at the same time. Robor is a perfect palindrome and the story is a palindrome too. It can be read backwards. Dadaists liked these types of word games. Man Ray’s friend Marcel Duchamp used the same linguistic system for his film Anémic Cinéma. Man Ray used an anagram to draw, after many years, the same object in a slightly modified version: his famous iron moved from the lemma Cadeau to Audace. It is a curious stylistic exercise that Man Ray applies to his story, the period slips continually
between the past and present: in his wandering Man Ray talks to a stranger, but this stranger is in fact Man Ray. One is an artist, the other is an art critic, in reality he is a writer and an intellectual, their professions are very close as in the 20th century artists are also considered as intellectuals. “A writer is a detective, a painter is an observer” wrote Man Ray, but the roles can be upended. The protagonist says he is involved in “war work” without however specifying what type of war work, but it lets us understand that the war is not yet over, that it is still in the consciousness of the people. The protagonist of the story wanders through an imaginary metropolis which is already a city of the future, and is at the same time a city of the past (the chess match of the last lines of the story, the evocation of sensuality which is always a very strong element in Man Ray’s work). It is actually describing the reality of a city under siege. It is still all very mysterious. This story is an enigma whose roots are in the terrifying war that was wreaking its havoc all around the planet: there was a good reason for it to be called a World War. In order to better understand what Man Ray wrote we must widen our gaze. The year 1944 is interminable, the Second World War, which started in an improvident 1939 with the invasion of Poland unexpectedly changed direction from an initial defeat to head towards victory, but the war is not over and a definitive end still seems far off, many thousands of men are still destined to die. On 6 June 1944 the enormous Allied Army crosses the English Channel and lands in Normandy. It is a huge operation that manages to break Germany’s lines, it is one of the most bloody battles in history. The fighters are ferocious but the fate of humanity has already been decided. The aggressor, Germany, which had so proudly occupied France is forced to retreat, and the nations that had been the victims of its aggression are having their comeuppance.
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Why this title? Because it was a year of the war. Man Ray usually used much more imagination when giving titles to his writings or pieces of art work, but with his usual intuition is aware that this is an important year
Red-top on a Cloud ink on paper 46 x 30.5 cm 1941 Untitled ink on paper 28 x 35.5 cm 1940
On 25 August Paris is liberated and the death toll is ringing for Hitler and his following, but, perhaps they are not convinced of this, they still hope in a miracle, in the non-existent secret weapons that are supposed to annihilate the invaders. On 14 September the American armed forces reach the German border. Despite the most recent German attack of the Ardennes in December of 1944, the situation for Germany is desperate and already in the January of 1945 the German army is forced to retreat. The end is coming rapidly closer, but in that fiery 1944 that Man Ray writes about, people are still living with bated breath, they donâ€™t know
Empire spreads through South East Asia; it almost seems as though Japan might win, it might burst through and reach the American coasts. The whole ocean is on fire and America suddenly discovers that it is not invulnerable. In the years that followed there were other battles, but 1944 came to this area too, with America gaining its revenge by inflicting a punishing defeat on Japan with the battle of the Philippine Sea of 19-20 June 1944. Japan is forced to retreat further and further back. The war in the Pacific takes on terrifying dimensions due to the size of the ocean and the number of small islands that have to be defeated one by one. We have to remember the fierce resistance of the Japanese who preferred to die rather than surrender. The war in this area was not in any way less terrible than that being fought in Europe, and its reverberations could be felt along the whole Californian coast which had over recent years been subjected to other insidious threats from the sea in the form of the German U-boats which destroyed merchant ships and warships in that area. Though the war in Europe ended in April of
Man Ray 19
how much longer they will have to resist. Right until the end Nazism lives on rage, frustration, arrogance, and crime, never relinquishing its brutality. It will sacrifice its men and it will sacrifice a Berlin reduced to rubble, but many months are to pass before they surrender, the world will have to wait until April 1945 for this massacre to come to an end. In the afternoon of 30 April Hitler chooses to commit suicide rather than face up to his responsibilities, it marks the definitive defeat of Germany, but there is another war running in parallel in the Pacific. Just as ruthless, just as ferocious, just off the Californian coast, and not far from the city of Los Angeles where Man Ray lived in that period in the heart of Hollywood. This second part of the war started on 8 December 1941 (in the United States this was on 7 December) precipitated by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour. The aggression perpetrated by Japan appears unstoppable, on 10 December the battleship HMS Prince of Wales and the battle cruiser HMS Repulse are sunk off the Malaysian coast. Other ships sink under the fire of the Japanese air force, and the Japanese
Le Beau Temps ink on paper 30.3 x 46 cm 1940
Pythagore, gouache and ink on paper, 50.5 x 35.5 cm, 1943
From “The Fifty Faces of Juliet”, photograph, vintage print, 33.3 x 22.6 cm, 1945
Alberto Burri 21
22 1944 Cactus Diamond oil on canvas 56 x 76 cm 1948
1945, the war in the Pacific only came to an end with the atomic bomb being dropped on Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 and the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki on 9 August 1945, two events which forced Japan into surrender on 2 September 1945. Right until the end California lived through a tragic sense of apprehension. It was not easy to smile in those years and this also explains the dark atmosphere of this unfinished book. Thousands of miles from both wars Man Ray starts to write his book entitled 1944, in the far off sanctuary of Los Angeles. Why this title? Because it was a year of the war. Man Ray usually used much more imagination when giving titles to his writings or pieces of art work, but with his usual intuition is aware that this is an important year. In fact it was a year that changed the history of the world, a year that announced the end of the brutal massacre, offering a glimmer of light at the end of the tunnel. Man Ray will perhaps be able to return to Europe. […]
Edizione integrale / Unabridged edition: Man Ray. 1944, a cura di / by Man Ray, Janus, con contributo di / with literary contribution by Giorgio Marconi; CCE, Poggibonsi (Siena - Italy). In occasione della mostra / on the occasion of the exhibition: Man Ray. 1944, Fondazione Marconi Arte moderna e contemporanea, Milano / Milan 2012
From Shakespearean Equations, Romeo and Juliet, oil on canvas, 81 x 60 cm, 1954
Man Ray 23
24 Amedeo Modigliani
[…] Amedeo Modigliani and Frantisek Kupka exhibited together for the first time in Paris at the Salon d’Automne in 1912: Modigliani with his first sculptures, and Kupka with Warm Chromatics and Amorpha, Fugue in Two Colours, which are considered the first abstract pieces in the history of mankind. 1912 was, then, a special year, full of significance not only because it was for both artists the starting point of an innovative path of individual exploration for them and all modern art, but also because it was the year that Obecni Dum opened, the Municipal Hall which is also, and not by coincidence, hosting this exhibition. Kupka came here frequently and met many artists when in 1922, though still based in Paris, he returned to Prague to stay with the Waldes family for a few months. Modigliani and Kupka, two great artists, solitary in their experimentation, who lived most of their lives in Paris, but who never forgot the
Salon d´Automne, 1912
cultures they came from. Kupka revisited some important aspects of Czech culture, especially in the contrast between an interest in the world of nature, corporeality, and the sensorial, and an interest in more spiritual, more abstract values, a theme that is present throughout Czech culture from the Middle Ages to the baroque period(1). Modigliani on the other hand, never forgot his Italian training with the “Macchiaioli” masters: Micheli in Livorno, and Fattori in Florence and then Venice. This timbre was special, made of judgement, order, balance and harmony, as if the art of the Italian Renaissance and the ancient masters were always with him, to the point that his friend Soutine felt compelled to say “Modigliani, the whole soul of Italy”. Both were avant-garde artists, with the same kind of restlessness, and great artistic and intellectual aspirations, who lived through an era full of artistic ferment and movements, but who, despite responding to the stimuli,
František Kupka, Abstract Composition, 1925-1930
Amedeo Alberto Modigliani Burri 25 25
26 Amedeo Modigliani
deliberately, kept to the edges. Two great innovators, difficult to classify and comprehend: it was only much later that their greatness and originality compelled profound interest and they received the attention they deserved. At first they were both ignored by the critics and the influential galleries, and they lived periods of their lives in profound isolation, beyond the conventions of the polite society of the time, with great restlessness and often uncomfortable lives. Both have had a lot of attention paid to their lives, rather than the unusual paths of their artistic evolution: it is time to go back in history and reach outside the legend, as Modigliani’s daughter, Jeanne Modigiliani, proposed to. This exhibition aims to bring Modigliani and Kupka back together, for the first time in almost 100 years, in an ideal dialogue that helps us to understand their path, their innovative charge, their assiduous and passionate artistic explorations, both moving towards the simplification of forms, and reaching individually distinctive results. Kupka was a pioneer of European abstract painting along with Wassily Kandinsky, but his path was completely original and he took a different direction to, for example, Picasso’s cubist experimentation, which seduced so many artists in turn of the century Paris. It would be interesting to analyse how both our artists took different directions to Picasso, despite appreciating his genius. As Kupka himself said in an interview in 1936 for Svetozor magazine, his constant experimentation was aimed at reaching higher artistic levels, despite his difficult financial circumstances, and to move beyond the figurative period: “The drawing and illustrative work of my early period as an artist was a manifestation of renouncing the right to paint due to a lack of financial means… even at that time it was important to me to remain at the highest possible level of artistic comprehension and aesthetic, and so I worked over some of the drawings up to twenty times before I did the definitive version…” (Svetozor, 9 January 1936). His experimentation, capable of involving
His energy and passion and his fiery spirit are still alive his whole being, led him to create running uninterrupted lines, representing a pure, fluid, rhythmic movement, a result that he called “new reality”. In other pieces he experimented with the temporal progression of music, using colour lines thrown into space with a completely original harmony. In subsequent studies on the same theme (“lines, planes, spaces” from 1912 and 1923, and taken up again in 1934) his experiments moved towards a progressive simplification of forms, freeing them from everything that is non-essential and pushing onwards towards a form based on rhythm, with results possessing great intensity. His arrival in Paris in 1896 was, despite his extreme poverty, for Kupka a moment of stimulation and greater freedom compared to the Viennese atmosphere. He began to move towards the Salons, and Montmartre, and “the study of the past became a passion“, as Kupka wrote to his friend Machar (to Machar, 11 September 1905), who he told about his attraction towards abstract forms “it seems unnecessary to me to paint a tree when on their way to the exhibition people can see much more beautiful ones. I paint only concepts, syntheses, accords… however I do it only for myself, I don’t want to show anyone” (to Machar, 24 April 1905). His first exhibition at the Salon d’Automne was in 1906, but the critics did not understand his art, finding it “de mauvais goût”, and they did not comprehend the absolutely original direction he had taken. Initially Modigliani received the same kind of incomprehension from the critics, but this did not demotivate the urge to experiment of either of the artists, who continued along their paths with great consistency. In 1909, again in a letter to Machar, Kupka admitted that he still felt like an outsider in Paris, even after many years of work. The Futurist manifesto published in Le Figaro in February 1909(2), made a big impression on Kupka, who hung it on the door of his studio;
Amedeo Modigliani 27 František Kupka, Composition only white, 1951-1952
28 Amedeo Modigliani František Kupka Prism 1947
he never became a part of that movement, neither did Modigliani for that matter, though he kept a catalogue of the Futurists presented at the Galerie Bernheim Jeune in Paris, on which he drew a face, and underlined with two exclamation marks “LES PEINTRES FUTURISTES ITALIENS!!”. The Futurists constituted a new movement, it was against all the -isms, reclaiming the right to total creative freedom, something that could not but captivate our two artists. Balla (on display one of his rare drawings) was one of the Futurists who interested both of them: Kupka, convinced that painting had to be as abstract as music,
prized Balla’s ability to communicate rhythm and dynamism with his very personal way of using colour. Kupka’s 1909 piece Piano Keyboard/Lake, marked a net mutation of style: his work became progressively more abstract in 1910-11, reflecting his ideas on movement, colour, and the relation between music and painting (Orphism). “I don’t want to paint music but to create like a musician…”(3). Painting means clothing the processes of the human soul in plastic forms - to be a poet, a creator, to enrich life with new views...”. In Venice Modigliani encountered Balla and Boccioni… Balla, who had already been meditating on the
Leaning towards what lay outside of time done in music”(5). “Orphism exploited … curves, not Cubist angles”. The hostile reaction did not stop Kupka, who knew exactly what he wanted and continued silently along his path of experimentation, following his ideas. “The creative ability of an artist is manifested only if he succeeds in transforming natural phenomena into another reality...”. (1921) Kupka was convinced that an artist should recreate the universe after having first taken in its cosmic order. People were translated into abstract forms “planes, circles, lines and pure colours… to capture the magic emanating from the human body” (Création dans l’art plastique, pag. 30.) Four monumental pieces represent the synthesis of all his exploration, completed towards 1912/13: Amorpha, Warm Chromatics, Amorpha, Fugue in two colours 1912, Vertical Planes and Organisation of Mobile Graphc (1913). This special and historic period, which initiated the so-called “short century”, represents in the history of man perhaps one of the periods of the greatest acceleration and wealth of upheavals that we have ever known; rural life was joined by the acceleration of machines and smokestacks of industrialisation exalted by the Futurists and Impressionists. In 1912, Paris, London, Brussels, and the Galerie der Sturm in Berlin, played host to a number of Futurist exhibitions. Boccioni drew up the Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture, which he sent to Paris to Medardo Rosso, the great Impressionist sculptor admired by the Futurists; Marinetti completed the Technical Manifesto of Futurist Literature. At the X Salon d’Automne at the Grand Palais in Paris, groups of work by De Chirico, Martini, Andreotti, Modigliani and Boccioni (who painted Matter), appeared in a critical dialogue with Cubism. Duchamp painted Nude Descending Staircase N 2. Max Ernst had his first exhibitions in Bonn and Cologne. Modigliani, friend of the most innovative and brilliant artists, always searching for new stimuli, marked out an interesting path, clearly showing the transition from a vision still bound to the psychological content of the model and a style
Amedeo Modigliani 29
theme of dynamism for some years (the famous Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash is from 1912), went beyond Boccioni’s work: almost completely disregarding the visual image in order to create a psychological image of movement. His experimentation, as Argan wrote, was prevalently linguistic: it attempted to establish a code of signs signifying velocity and dynamism, passing from the subdivision of the coloured pigments of Divisionism to the geometrical construction of the abstract. The later futuristic pieces such as Girl Running on the Balcony and The Hand of the Violinist from 1912, show a new direction of exploration with the decomposition of movement into its successive stages. In the same year, commissioned to decorate the Lowenstein house, Balla went to Düsseldorf where he initiated a series of abstract pieces, the Iridescent Interpenetrations that distilled the effects of light and velocity into the hermetic purity of geometric forms. The first Abstract Speeds, images of speeding cars and swallows in flight, appeared towards the end of 1913. This was the climate in artistic circles in 1912, a special year for both our artists: at the Salon d’Automne Kupka exhibited two fundamental pieces that express his artistic creed: Amorpha, Fugue in Two Colours and Warm Chromatics, in which he created new forms to express new ideas. Modigliani, who reflects that same restlessness demonstrated by the Futurists, born of the vacuum of the romantic experience, which was perhaps not lived to the full by Italian culture, exhibited his sculptures and faced the stone he sculpted with an inspiration, a willingness, that led him to “purify” form itself in his last paintings. Two artists affected by the ferment that animated Paris at the start of the 1900s, who pushed out towards new forms of expression, but following a path that kept them out of every artistic movement, in an ideal attraction towards forms that are pure and simplified with great poetry. In 1913 in the pages of the New York Times(4) Kupka was considered as the founder of Orphism, a school of thought born in Paris based on the idea that “colour affects the senses like music… I am still groping in the dark, but I still believe I can find something between sight and hearing and I can produce a fugue in colours as Bach has
30 Amedeo Modigliani František Kupka, Verticals, 1906
Amedeo Alberto Modigliani Burri 31 31
32 Amedeo Modigliani Amedeo Modigliani Pupil with a Picture Book
that travelled uncertainly between the diverse currents of the avant-garde, to an individual and rigorous language. In both Kupka and Modigliani we see a subversion of the codes of traditional representation, with a strong impulse towards abstraction and simplification. Two years devoted entirely to sculpture absorbed all of Modigliani’s creative energy (25 sculptures in about 30 months!), but led him to create from 1914 onwards pieces of rare elegance, with a touch that is surprising for its confidence and simplicity, with sharp, almost incisive outlines. The design, simplified to the limit, reached levels of elegance that are sophisticated and elegant at the same time, as some of the drawings in the exhibition show very clearly. This work has been referred to as having “muted pride and archaic inexpressiveness”, but it is in his use of lines that Modigliani pursued and reached a difficult balance between the classical and the modern, sacred and profane love, flesh and ideas. A line that he had searched for from his youth, which is now the unmistakable cypher of this artist. In his touch we can identify echoes of Byzantine or Gothic verticality, of protoRenaissance or mannerist sinuousness(6). On Modigliani’s presentation at the 1930 Biennale Lionello Venturi wrote(7): “Mauroner the painter who shared a studio with Modigliani in Venezia in 1905 told me that at that time his friend was obsessed by attempting to achieve the “line”: though by line he did not mean the solidity of the outline, rather he gave that term a purely spiritual value, of synthesis, of simplification, of liberation from the contingent, of passion for the essential. Beyond time and space, the flesh and blood, soul and spirit of woman brought together, almost sculpture, despite the fleshliness: even though it is displayed in a provocative way… exhibits a contained, melancholic, almost abstract sensuality, a second temple to beauty where the idea of beauty is the daughter of poetry, not the other way around”. This tendency towards “synthesis, simplification, liberation from the contingent, and passion for the essential” links our two artists and both achieved results of intense poetry, and, as Kupka wrote to his friend Roessler in Vienna on 5 February 1913: “the titles of works I
have recently exhibited are Planes by Colours, Amorpha, Fugue in Two Colours, Warm Chromatic etc. […]
The combination of the beauty of the body with more abstract forms is present in the work of Czech artists that Kupka greatly admired, such as: Josef Mánes, Josef Václav Myslbek and Vojtech Hynais, in Modern and Contemporary Czech Art, 1890-2010, Veltržní Palace, part one. 2 The futurist manifesto was published by L’Arena of Verona 20 days before it appeared in Le Figaro on 9 February 1909. 3 From a letter to the Czech critic Nebesky, 18 August 1923. 4 In 1913 New York Times published an article “Orphisme, the Latest Painting Cults”, subtitled “The Paris School, led by Kupka, holds that colour affects the senses like music”. 5 October 19, 1913 as Kupka confided to Warshawsky. 6 Fagiolo dell’Arco in Amedeo Modigliani, by Rudy Chiappini, Skira, Lugano 1999. 7 L. Venturi, presentation of room 31 in the Catalogue of the XVII Venice Biennale, 1930. Bibliography: Frantisek Kupka from the Jan and Meda Mladek Collection, published by Museum Kampa, 2007.
Amedeo Modigliani, L’ecolier “The pupil”, 1919
Amedeo Modigliani 33
34 Cellotex František Kupka, Steel drinks II, 1927-1929
Amedeo Modigliani, Cariatide, 1912-1913
Alberto Burri 35
Amedeo Modigliani, Femme Brune, 1918
36 Amedeo 36 Cellotex Modigliani
Amedeo Modigliani, Portrait of Maria, 1918
Amedeo Alberto Modigliani Burri 37 37
38 Amedeo Modigliani
Amedeo, Women, Models, and the Bohemian Lifestyle Modigliani became a conqueror of women’s hearts in Paris. His first great love was Mado, a fair-haired laundry girl and model for Picasso and later Gilbert. Then there were Lola and Elvira, young girls whose lives were full of excesses, and for whom Amedeo was willing to fight with a force that he was extremely proud of. After one sentimental escapade caused some trouble for the other visitors to ‘Moulin de la Galette’ and ‘Lapin Agile’, he span on his heels and was gone! In 1910, in the Latin Quarter, Modigliani met the Russian poetess Anna Achmatova while she was in Paris on her honeymoon. He immediately began courting her and asked her to model for him. Thus began an intermittent love affair, with long periods of separation punctuated by brief encounters in Paris, but which nonetheless continued for almost two years. In 1914 he met Beatrice Hastings, who became a legend as the second Lady Brett, seductive and imperious. According to some sources, she forced Amedeo to drink and take drugs, but in reality during the two years they were together she tried to get him to slow down and get to work. Around the same time Amedeo was also having an affair with Simone Thiroux, who bore him a son. On 31 December 1916 Modigliani met Jeanne Hébuterne, a 19-year-old student at the Accademia Colarossi in Montparnasse. They moved in together on Rue de la Grande Chaumière. In 1918 Amedeo’s health deteriorated and Zborowski persuaded him to go off to Nice, where he remained for almost one year. While in Nice his daughter Jeanne was born. In the spring of 1919 Modigliani returned to Paris. He threw himself intensively into his work, but shortly after, on in the night of 23 January 1920, he died. Jeanne Hébuterne, eight months pregnant with their second child, committed suicide a day later.
Happiness is an angel with a severe face Young Jeanne was taken in by Zborowski until Amedeo’s brother Emanuel was able to get have the child officially named Modigliani and was then able to take her with him to Livorno. In the meantime, over the course of just a few years, exhibitions of Modigliani’s work were being held one after another. They received an enormously positive response, which culminated in his being officially recognised in Italy in 1930 with an exhibition at the 17th Venice Biennale […].
Edizione integrale / Unabridged edition: Amedeo Modigliani, a cura di / by Serenella Baccaglini, Monika Burian Jourdan, con contributi di / with literary contribution by Rudy Chiappini, Harry Hare, Jaakov Levy (Ambasciatore israeliano / Israeli ambassador), Christian Parisot, Fabio Pigliapoco (Ambasciatore italiano / Italian ambassador), Jana Sorfova; CCE, Poggibonsi (Siena - Italy). In occasione della mostra / on the occasion of the exhibition: Amedeo Modigliani, Exhibition Hall of the Municipal House, Praga / Prague 2011
Jeanne HĂŠbuterne, Portrait of Amedeo Modigliani, 1918
Alberto Burri 39
40 Amedeo Modigliani
Amedeo Modigliani, Carnet armenien with preliminary sketches â€žprememoriaâ€œ for oil painting, depicting a man, a woman, a Kabbalist symbol, Paris
Amedeo Modigliani 41
MOD ร LA MUSIQUE
42 Amedeo Modigliani
Mod รก la musique, 1916 Sheet music book, Portrait de Marevna, pencil on paper, 17.5x12.5 cm, Private Collection
Amedeo Modigliani 43
44 Tauromaquia. Picasso, Dalí, Goya, Filla, Čapek
The Fascinating World of the Spanish Bullfight
Pablo Picasso Bullfight (Corrida) oil on cartoon on canvas 48.5 x 64.7 cm Zervos VI, 378:DB IV, 6, Palau 559 Collection Stavros S. Niarchos Barcelona, spring 1901
oltanto la morte e la vicinanza a questa, può rivelare lo splendore invisibile della vita!’ (G. Bataille) It is a fascinating experience to view works by the greatest world masters (Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí, Francisco Goya) and famous Czech interwar artists (Emil Filla, Karel Čapek). The exhibited works by these artists share a common theme: the bullfight. It is on this passion-filled theme that the exhibition will provide vivid and fascinating testimony. As well as offering an extraordinary aesthetic experience, Tauromaquia will convey to visitors the atmosphere of an inherent feature of Spanish culture. The exhibition juxtaposes works by the artists named above, who have much in common, sharing a distinctive imaginative world that resides in the realm of the unreal, dream, supernatural energy, and on the edge of vertigo. The bullfight is a theme that conveys this aspect of magic and is used by these artists as a vehicle of the creative and life force. The bullfight, the exciting and charming Spanish spectacle, has fascinated artists around the world. The bull has always occupied a special place and meaning in
Painting is a blind man’s profession: one does not paint what he sees, but what he feels, what he tells himself about what he saw many of the great master paintings and this theme appealed to Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dalí, and Francisco Goya, and to the Czech artists Emil Filla and Karel Čapek. In most civilisations, the bull, the exhibition’s central motif, is a mystical symbol that signifies strength, bravery, and fertility. The animal force that the bull exudes is given fascinating form in these artists’ works. But for artists the bullfight constitutes more than just the passionate spectacle of man versus animal. Pablo Picasso, who was influenced by Goya, drew on knowledge of Goya’s use of chiaroscuro in his Tauromaquia, and he makes us feel that the bull, bullfighter and public are actors in a show experienced collectively. Picasso used Tauromaquia as an instrument of struggle against the dictatorship of General Franco. Many of Picasso’s drawings of bullfights were intented to draw the world’s attention to the bombing of the Basque town of Guernica.
Alberto Burri 45
At the exhibition visitors will be able to view the complete famous series of Picassoâ€™s sugar aquatints of Tauromaquia, important ceramic works, and the special â€˜Carton de Guernicaâ€™. His interest in the bullfight and in bulls is fundamental. Since childhood, the iconography and poetic symbolism of the bull and the torero face to face with death and the dramaturgy of the bullfight left such a strong mark in the mind of the painter that he later used them in a number of works in his enormous artistic biography.
Picasso admired the torero for his elegance, his beauty, and the plasticity of his art, involving singular sensations and courage. The painter defined the superhuman value of the matador, his heroic attitude in living the bloody sacrifice typical of every bullfight and his supreme protagonism in this moving ritual of death, a condition like that of a demi-god. For example, for Francisco Goya the Tauromaquia was initially a tool with which to express his political dissidence. The exhibition will present the complete series of
46 Tauromaquia. Picasso, Dalí, Goya, Filla, Čapek
Goya’s Tauromaquia etchings, one of his most famous series.
Pablo Picasso Tauromaquia Corrida toros 1954 Private Collection Pablo Picasso Avant la pique Ink on paper 1960 Private Collection
The exhibition will present to visitors a special series of five fantastic bullfight images by Dalí. Dali’s 1966-67 transformation of Picasso’s famous ‘Tauromaquia Suite’ of 1957-59 was an extension of the lifelong artistic dialog carried out between the two artists. These astonishing works are teeming with Dalí‘s most iconic imagery. The Tauromaquia also held special significance for Czech artists. For example, Emil Filla, like Goya and Picasso, used the theme of the bullfight to express the deep suffering of his age and resistance to Fascism. Karel Čapek, whose bullfight paintings will also be on display at the Municipal House, attended a bullfight on his trip through Spain, writing in his book Letters from Spain (1930): ‘The bullfight is about the struggle between man and animal, essentially as old as time itself; it has all the beauty of combat, and also all its pain’. Items on loan for the Tauromaquia exhibition have been provided by a number of important domestic galleries – the National Gallery, GASK, the Gallery of Hradec Králové, the Regional Gallery in Liberec, the Gallery of Fine Arts in Ostrava, the Regional Gallery in Zlín, or the Gallery of North Bohemia in Litoměřice. Other
works are coming to Prague, for instance, from Picasso’s birthplace museum, the Museo Casa Natal in Malaga, the Musée Réattu in Arles, and from private collections. There is a very special dimension of friendship in this exhibition: friends of the great masters in this exhibition are not only loaning us important, unique pieces, born out of friendship (four works Picasso dedicated to Lucia Bosè, Carton de Guernica, Dalí’s Tauromaquia, ceramics), but they are also bringing with them their stories and their special view of those geniuses […].
Pablo Picasso Tauromaquia Engraving, aquatint Art CamĂš, Art Collection 1959 Pablo Picasso Tauromaquia Technique: engravings sugar aquatint more a drypoint Plates: 26 more titles Year: 1959 Measures Sheet: 35.5 x 50 cm Edition: 263 pieces published in Paris by Atelier Roger LacouriĂ¨re Notes: The tables are dated in plate from 11 April to 18 August 1968
48 Tauromaquia. Picasso, Dalí, Goya, Filla, Čapek
An allegory of human life
Pablo Picasso Bull and Horse in the Arena Etching on paper Musée Réattu, Arlès Pablo Picasso Bulls in Vallauris Linocut Musée Rèattu, Arlès, 1954
“In Spanish culture there is something close to death. When you are in Spain, you feel the omnipresence of death, which makes you more alive, though”. The bull is an animal whose strength has impressed the man since time immemorial. As early as prehistoric times the man tried to symbolize taming of wild animals by collective rites. Initially, in the Middle Ages, hunting and bullfighting were organized by Spanish noblemen who used spears to fight bulls. Chronicles mention that El Cid loved this type of game. Later on, King Charles IV organized bullfighting in public arenas to celebrate a victory or to welcome leading personalities and dignitaries.
Painting is not an aesthetic operation: it is a kind of magic intended to do a work of mediation between this world, foreign and hostile to us. Picasso Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, the corrida was reserved to noblemen who fought bulls on horses and tried to distract bulls’ attention with spears; these were “valletti”, ancestors of modern picadores. At the end of the 18th century, wild bulls attracted considerable attention not only in Spain, but also in Italy!! Many records mention bulls at St. Mark’s Square in Venice, and bullfighting in Verona arena, or, two centuries later in Arles, which saw Picasso and Hemingway as great fans of Dominquin and Ordonez. These ancient spectacles revived in two Roman amphitheaters. Neither the aristocratic corrida
on horses in Baroque times, nor the folk corrida on foot – it is the traditional corrida which is the most popular nowadays, its comprehensive set of rules were codified in the 18th century. It involved “running” untamed bulls, chased by hounds or crowds – this ancient tradition mirrors in many bullfights which spread around the Mediterranean and which still take place in some regions in Spain. Two Venetian scholars, Emanuele Antonio
entertainment, while the nobility gradually retires from the ring. The matador becomes the centre of attention, all the others moving around him fulfill nothing but a role of extras who assist the matador in killing the bull. On November 20, 1975, General Franco dies, Spain becomes a constitutional monarchy again and with the restoration of democracy many people anticipated the end of the corrida, which used to be considered Franconian entertainment. However, the following data prove that the corrida took the roots in Spanish people’s souls […].
Cicogna and Fabio Mutinelli, depict in the Venetian Lexion (Lessico Veneto, 1851) such festive performances which took place at almost all Venetian playgrounds. The spectacles are captured in a beautiful Flemish painting, which is also displayed in the exhibition. Starting from the 17th century, the matadors stand on foot during the fight, and the corrida becomes more and more popular form of folk
Tauromaquia. Picasso, Dalí, Goya, Filla, Čapek 49
Art is the lie that enables us to know the truth. Picasso
50 Cellotex Pablo Picasso La Tauromaquia Engraving, aquatint Art Cam첫, Art Collection 1959
Alberto Burri 51 Pablo Picasso A los toros Series of 11 Lithographs: Pen and scraper on the previous state, printed on Arches wove paper watermarked Paper: 32.5 x 44.5 cm Stone: 29 x 42 cm From the book Picasso, Toros Museo Picasso, Malaga, Spain, 1945-1946
Francisco de Goya:
The Art of the Bullfight, Tauromaquia 1814-16
Goya La Tauromaquia 40 works Technique: etchings, aquatint, drypoint, and stylus Year: 1815-1816 Print size: 38 x 57 cm Edition: 100 copies printed by Pérez Agua in chalkography for Ricarda de los Rios in 1905 Bibliography: Harris Tomas, Goya. Engravings and Lithographs, Wofksy Fine Arts, San Francisco 1983: vol. II, 204-243
Francisco de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828) is a great painter whom the Spanish love with their heart and soul. He is regarded a culture hero, an artist who played a vital role in the history of fine arts and who spoke to souls and mind of people like no one else before, and after him. In 1799 he was appointed First Court Painter, which was the highest position he could aspire to. Goya’s early portraits are distinguished by airiness of the scene and pastel colors. His favorite characters include Kings Charles IV and Ferdinand VI, figures in his paintings are captured in various places, ranging from festivals to royal courts, and they made their
way into historical chronicles, such as a cycle of 80 aquatint etchings entitled Los Caprichos. After Goya lost his hearing, the subject-matter of his pain-tings changed dramatically, his paintings became darker, spooky and gloomy; their themes included insanity, foolishness and fantasies. The style of Black Paintings is a predecessor of expressionism. Some of Goya’s most outstanding and famous paintings depict Napoleon’s invasion of Spain, and they render horrors of war in most accurate and vivid details. Goya spent most of his adult life in Madrid, and after the French were forced out of Spain, Goya died, blind and deaf, in voluntary exile in Bordeaux. According to Robert Hughes, the writer of Goya’s monumental biography, no artist before him “had approached what Goya created in his Los Desastres de la Guerra”, touching and gloomy engravings, in which the artist pictured unspeakable misery of the Spanish who rose against Napoleon, and it was these etchings that made Goya the first
war reporter. Hughes characterizes Goya as a master in depicting “pain, humiliation and physical suffering”. Michael Kimmelman, an art reviewer of New York Times, writes in his article about the importance of Goya and his art for our times: “He’s a man for our day, the great, unflinching satirist of everything irrational and violent and absurd in life and politics”. Despite relative advancement, Spain was still the least developed country of Western Europe at the end of the 18th century. Spain was a catholic, conservative, monarchial country, where the king was of the same fa-mily as the king of France. Works of great philosophers of the 18th century and the Age of Enlightement had hardly any influence there and they did not meet any response in Spain. The Inquisition continued to keep its unshakeable position and caused serious suffering for Spanish people. Goya had excellent powers of observation, and as he says in Goya’s ghosts, a movie made by Miloš Forman : “I paint what I see”, he was sort of a modern-day journalist. He was the first artist allowed to portray the king, along with the wealth and fame of the Spanish monarchy, that means everything that contributed to the creation of modern Spain, however, Goya also depicted the poverty of the street and horrors of his times in the same style and from the same angle as he portrayed His Majesty. A complete series of 40 aquatints entitled Tauromachia, created between 1814 and 1816, and presented at the exhibition is one of the masterpieces of etchings. He created one of the most outstanding etchings, depicting all the techniques of the corrida known so far: matadors on foot and on horses, on a chair and on tables, spinning above the bull or fighting dogs. Goya
Goya La Tauromaquia 40 works Technique: etchings, aquatint, drypoint, and stylus Year: 1815-1816 Print size: 38 x 57 cm Edition: 100 copies printed by Pérez Agua in chalkography for Ricarda de los Rios in 1905 Bibliography: Harris Tomas, Goya. Engravings and Lithographs, Wofksy Fine Arts, San Francisco 1983: vol. II, 204-243
Tauromaquia. Picasso, Dalí, Goya, Filla, Čapek 53
The fantasy without the rudder of reason creates improbable monsters: united with it is the mother of all art and all the wonders that follow from them. Goya
Goya La Tauromaquia 40 works Technique: etchings, aquatint, drypoint, and stylus Year: 1815-1816 Print size: 38 x 57 cm Edition: 100 copies printed by Pérez Agua in chalkography for Ricarda de los Rios in 1905 Bibliography: Harris Tomas, Goya. Engravings and Lithographs, Wofksy Fine Arts, San Francisco 1983: vol. II, 204-243
pictures realistic scenes and episodes which he experienced, such as the Unlucky Death I acknowledge three masters: of Pepe Illo in the ring of Madrid (Plate 33), Velasquez, Rembrandt and nature. in the shade or dimness are often figures with Goya chiseled features portrayed using strong and distinct contours, in the style so typical for unshakeable; new thoughts and ideas were this great master. born. Goya can be considered the first modern Goya said he acknowledged three masters: painter, a connecting element between the Velázquez, Rembrandt and nature. He might classic and modern-day era, who managed to well have added, “human nature,” because no anticipate the horrors which were to happen artist before Goya had delved with so much in the next 250 years […]. insight into the darkest recesses of man’s character. All Goya’s works, regardless of the subjectmatter, show his deep emotional involvement and empathy. This is one of the major periods in the modern history, as it saw a collapse of many institutions which had appeared to be
La Tauromaquia is a series of 26 aquatint etchings illustrating one of the most important themes of the Spanish culture, the art of bullfighting. Picasso created this body of work in 1957 as homage to the 17th century book written by the famous matador, Jose Delgado.
It is a little known fact that the very first oil ever created by the young master was of a matador (1889-1890). The art of the bullfight remained an important theme for the artist and was one that Picasso continued to explore throughout his creative years.
Also, Goya created first engravings as illustrations to a text by Nicolás Fernández de Moratín entitled “La Carta Histórica sobre el origen y progresos de las Fiestas de Toros en España” which was published in 1777.
Picasso used the “lift ground aquatint” technique to create his portfolio. Roger Lacouriere taught Picasso this difficult and obscure etching process, first used in the Vollard suite in 1933, then in the 1936 to illustrate Natural History by Buffon.
Picasso’s fascination with the bullfight started when he was a young boy in Malaga. His The technique itself is a wonderful invention childhood notebooks from school are filled with that produces subtle tones and varied texture. sketches of matadors, bullrings, and picadors. Picasso would first paint on the clean plate with
Pablo Picasso La Tauromaquia 27 plates: 26 works + 1 introduction Technique: sugar aquatint engravings Year: 1959 Dimensions: 35.5 x 50 cm Edition: 263 copies published in Paris by Atelier Roger Lacourière the plates are signed and dated in plate from 11 April to 18 August 1968. Private Collection
Tauromaquia. Picasso, Dalí, Goya, Filla, Čapek 55
The worst enemy of creativity is good taste. Picasso
a mixture of sugar and ink using variations of ink and water to achieve different effects. He first used this technique when creating his 1933 Vollard suite. Formally, Picasso’s use of this process proved incredibly successful, creating the tension and action of the bullring through suggestive shapes and lines.
56 Tauromaquia. Picasso, Dalí, Goya, Filla, Čapek
When Picasso reduced the literary works of Tauromaquia into a series of simple etchings, he captured the essential fundamentals of the rules and ceremonial rituals to be included in the sport of bullfighting throughout Spain for every citizen to completely understand. This completed set of work serves as icons for the national sport of bullfighting in Spain. Picasso created a finished and accomplished works of art for the masses of the people in Spain to follow […].
Pablo Picasso La Tauromaquia 27 plates: 26 works + 1 introduction Technique: sugar aquatint engravings Year: 1959 Dimensions: 35.5 x 50 cm Edition: 263 copies published in Paris by Atelier Roger Lacourière, the plates are signed and dated in plate from 11 April to 18 August 1968. Private Collection
Salvador Dalí: Tauromaquia 1966-67 “I have never seen such a prototype of Spanish. What kind fanatic!”“Dalí” -. Sigmund Freud speaking about
Intelligence without ambition is like a bird without wings. Dalí
227 years after the birth of Spanish master Francisco Goya, Salvador Dalí had an idea to transform Goya’s “Los Caprichos” and present a new work. Goya’s “Los Caprichos” was an artistic experiment exposing the foolish superstitions in 18th century Spanish society. In 1973 Salvador Dalí created a metamorphosis of Goya’s suite into a colorful surrealist masterpiece.
the whole ring and the events taking place in it. These three famous series of Tauromaquia, presented by three most prominent Spanish painters help us grasp how strongly the theme enthralled them […].
Goya is a master inspiring great Spanish masters Dalí and Picasso. Tauromachie Dalí’s 1966/7 transformation Picasso’s famous “Tauromaquia Suite” of 1957 was an extension of the lifelong artistic dialog carried on between the two artists. These amazing works are teeming with the most iconic of Dalinian imagery. Encompassing all aspects of the sport as seen through the eyes of the Surrealist master. The aesthetic of bullfighting is based on the interaction of the man and the bull. Rather than a competitive sport, the bullfight is more of a ritual based on artistic impression and command. Ernest Hemingway said of it in his 1932 book Death in the Afternoon “Bullfighting is the only art in which the artist is in danger of death and in which the degree of brilliance in the performance is left to the fighter’s honour”. A series of paintings exhibited, carrying artist’s signature, prove the elegance of the form and composition, with prevailing red and black; they also show a notable divergence from Picasso, who uses a few solid lines to capture
Edizione integrale / Unabridged edition: Tauromaquia. Picasso, Dalí, Goya, Filla, Čapek, a cura di / by Serenella Baccaglini, Monika Burian Jourdan; CCE, Poggibonsi (Siena - Italy). In occasione della mostra / on the occasion of the exhibition: Tauromaquia. Picasso, Dalí, Goya, Filla, apek, Exhibition Hall of the Municipal House, Praga / Prague 2012
Tauromaquia. Picasso, Dalí, Goya, Filla, Čapek 57
Salvador DalĂ Bullfight No. I Gouasch Phyllis Lukas Gallery, New York 1965
SALVADOR DalĂ, Don Escamillo, private collection
Pizzi Cannella Le Regine
60 Pizzi Cannella
Cesare Biasini Selvaggi
Regina The Queen Tecnica mista su tela Mixed media on canvas cm 165x95 2012 Regina The Queen Tecnica mista su tela Mixed media on canvas cm 165x95 2012
artista impressionista Giuseppe De Nittis conobbe la musa ispiratrice della sua opera, la moglie Léontine, presso un servizio di noleggio di costumi teatrali gestito dai genitori adottivi. La confidenza di entrambi con il mondo dei tessuti e delle vesti giocò un ruolo fondamentale, sia nella loro appassionata storia d’amore, sia nella carriera del pittore. Sembra infatti che Léontine amasse personalizzare i propri abiti e De Nittis, dal canto suo, le dettagliava puntualmente come si dovesse vestire per trasferirne sulla tela quell’immagine di donna che, a detta di Charles Baudelaire, “è nel suo diritto e, in certo modo, compie una specie di dovere industriandosi di apparire magica e soprannaturale; bisogna che stupisca, che affascini; idolo, ella deve dorarsi per essere adorata”. La ricerca della significatività simbolica, della funzionalità celebrativa, della bellezza e della preziosità dell’abito riservato alla donna è sempre stata particolarmente curata nel mondo artistico (un tipico esempio è il noto ritratto in mosaico dell’imperatrice Teodora nella basilica di San Vitale a Ravenna), così come nella prassi liturgica di un po’ tutte le religioni.
The impressionist artist Giuseppe De Nittis met the inspiring muse of his work of art, his wife Léontine, at the rental service of theatrical costumes managed by his adoptive parents. The intimacy of both of them with the world of fabrics and of clothes played a fundamental role both in their passionate love story and in the career of the painter. It seems in fact that Léontine loved to personalize her own dresses and De Nittis, on the other hand, would punctually give them in detail as if he had to dress her in order to transfer on the canvas that image of a woman that, according to Charles Baudelaire, “it is her right and, in a certain way, she carries out a sort of duty striving to appear magical and supernatural; it is necessary that she stupifies, that she fascinates; an idol, she must adorn herself in order to be adored”. The search for the symbolic meaningfulness, for the celebrative functionality, for beauty and for the preciousness of the dress reserved for the woman has always been particularly seen to in the artistic world (a typical example is a well-known portrait in mosaic E proprio questo idolo femminino, il cui of the empress Theodora in the basilica of
Le Regine 61
vestito lo completa e lo interpreta, rappresenta lo spirito della sua eleganza, l’espressione della sua raffinatezza, torna a essere celebrato all’interno di una liturgia contemporanea, nell’ultima ossessione pittorica di Pizzi Cannella: le Regine. Tra eleganti abiti trasparenti e leggeri oppure importanti ed elaborati che riproducono ricami di fili di seta o trame brillanti per farli risplendere sotto la luce e per attirare gli sguardi dello spettatore, l’artista prosegue così la sua esplorazione della femminilità assoluta, la femminilità “regale”. Questa maieutica dell’anima muliebre avviene, però, sempre per sottrazione, allusivamente, lungo una scacchiera di rimandi simbolici. Il corpo della donna è, infatti, assente, svanito come a conclusione di un’epifania, lasciando una sola prova evidente
San Vitale in Ravenna), just like in the liturgical praxis of almost all religions. And it is precisely this feminine idol whose dress completes it and interprets it, that represents the spirit of her elegance, the expression of her refinement, it returns to be celebrated inside a contemporary liturgy, in the latest pictorial obsession of Pizzi Cannella: the Queens. Among the elegant dresses transparent and light or important and elaborated the reproduce embroidery of silk thread or brilliant wefts in order to make them shine under the light and in order to attract the glance of the spectator, the artist continues in this way his exploration of the absolute femininity, the “royal” femininity. This maieutic of the womanly soul comes about,
62 Pizzi Cannella Le regine The Queens Tecnica mista su tela Mixed media on canvas cm 290x445 2012
Le regine 63
The search for the symbolic meaningfulness, for the celebrative functionality, for beauty and for the preciousness of the dress reserved for the woman has always been particularly seen to in the artistic world
64 Pizzi Cannella
though, always through subtraction, allusively, along a chess-board of symbolic recallings. The body of the woman is, in fact, absent, vanished like a conclusion of an epiphany, leaving a single evident proof only of its apparition: her dress still impregnated with an intense wake of eroticism that emanates among Pizzi Cannella’s magmatic pictorial moods.
Regina The Queen Tecnica mista su carta indiana Mixed media on India paper cm 101.5x70 2012
The dresses, moved by the shiver of their strong sensual recalling, acquire the nature of the idol, of the simulacrum and of the ectoplasm: they are fetish garments that represent the emptying out of that which belongs exclusively to the world of the sensible vision and, at the same time, constitute an initiatory journey through the sites of individual memory and, furthrmore, in its symbols. The artist searches for his feminine ideal in a della propria apparizione: la sua veste ancora woman’s dress just taken off or yet to be worn impregnata di un’intensa scia di erotismo, che and confronts it with his own interior memories, esala tra i magmatici umori pittorici di Pizzi so as to be able to define, through a personal Cannella. interpretation, that other half of himself that he wants to find in the object of his desire. Le vesti, mosse dal fremito del loro forte richiamo sensuale, acquistano la natura In Pizzi Cannella’s paintings the dresses that dell’idolo, del simulacro e dell’ectoplasma: the escaping bodies have left behind, more than sono indumenti feticcio che rappresentano manifesting or unveiling the truth and the uplo svuotamento di ciò che appartiene to-dateness of a subject in the same way that it esclusivamente al mondo della visione sensibile is presented to the artist, have the function of e, nel contempo, costituiscono un percorso protecting, of hiding the identity, symbolizing on iniziatico nei luoghi della memoria individuale the other hand the moral or spiritual qualities e, anzi, nei simboli di essa. through their strong relational intensity. L’artista cerca il suo ideale femminile nel The dress, in fact, is a habit (from the Latin vestito di una donna appena dismesso o ancora habitare, “to inhabit”), because it is an element da indossare e lo confronta con i propri ricordi of relationship with space and with the contingent interiori, così da poter definire, attraverso environmental conditions, it is a habit (from una personale interpretazione, quella metà habitus in the sense of “behavior”, “habit”) in di sé che vuole trovare nell’oggetto del suo that it is a relational passapartout with the others desiderio. and, finally it is a habit (from habitus with the meaning of “virtue” of the soul) as an emblem of
Le Regine 65 Regine The Queen Tecnica mista su tela Mixed media on canvas cm 150x100 2012
66 Pizzi Cannella
Regine The Queen Tecnica mista su carta indiana Mixed media on India paper cm 93x67.5 2012
Le regine 67 Regine The Queen Tecnica mista su carta indiana Mixed media on India paper cm 103x71.5 2012
68 Pizzi Cannella Una regina The Queen Tecnica mista su carta indiana Mixed media on India paper cm 58x39 2012 La regina The Queen Tecnica mista su carta indiana Mixed media on India paper cm 58x39 2012
Nei quadri di Pizzi Cannella le vesti che i corpi fuggendo si sono lasciati alle spalle, più che manifestare o svelare la verità e l’attualità di un soggetto così come si presenta all’artista, hanno la funzione di proteggerne, nasconderne l’identità, simboleggiandone piuttosto le qualità morali o spirituali attraverso la loro forte intensità relazionale. Il vestito, infatti, è abito (dal latino habitare, “abitare”) in quanto elemento di relazione con lo spazio e le condizioni ambientali contingenti, è abito (da habitus nel senso di “comportamento”, “abitudine”) in quanto passepartout relazionale con gli altri e, infine, è abito (da habitus nel significato di “virtù” dell’animo) come emblema di affermazione delle qualità morali o spirituali di colei a cui appartiene. A livello antropologico è dunque evidente che la veste concepita dall’artista assolva a una funzione morale, potremmo anche dire di pudore (modulando l’istintualità secondo
affirmation of the moral or spiritual qualities of whom it belongs to. At an anthropological level it is therefore evident that the dress conceived by the artist fulfills a moral function, we can also say of decency (modulating the instinctual according to reason, affectivity, passion), so that the exteriority results as being intimized and, therefore, humanized. Pizzi Cannella has been painting dresses for much longer than a day. «They always return to Pizzi, – wrote Rossella Fumasoni, the artist’s wife – and when he forgets them in order to paint cathedrals and lizards, Turkish baths and seashells, wrought iron, jewels and fans, the jealous dresses, start to appear continuously. They wait for him outside the door of the house and they walk next to him, they are in the foam of the white coffee or in the folds of the wrinkled sheets. Pizzi catches sight of them everywhere, in the clouds, in the courtyards hung to dry or in the center of a stage at the moment of the applauses».
Le regine 69 Regina The Queen Tecnica mista su carta indiana Mixed media on India paper cm 93.5x67 2012
La ricerca della significatività simbolica, della funzionalità celebrativa, della bellezza e della preziosità dell’abito riservato alla donna è sempre stata particolarmente curata nel mondo artistico
70 Pizzi Cannella
la ragione, l’affettività, la passione), cosicché l’esteriorità risulti intimizzata e, dunque, umanizzata.
These dresses do not have a name, they are “for Her”, they are everyday clothes. In this logic the very recent and never-before-seen Queens, with their ostentation of sumptuousness become, theologically, festive dresses. This inventive transition from the period of the ordinary daily-life to that of the festivity is carried out in the season, 2012, that marks the renewed pleasure of the artist in painting with strokes of paintbrushes soaked in a dense and precious material, with a vigor of the mixture that remembers the lighted polychrome of the crudest images of the Seventeenth century Spanish painting. Nevertheless, it is not the spectacular effect that interests Pizzi Cannella, but the emotional dimension that a certain light above all is able to provoke. On the canvases of the Queens painting recovers in this way the mondaine hedonism of the beautiful fleshy form. The image shows his fabric of pure painting, it explicitly demonstrates the substance of its own appearing made of course of sign and colour, of full and empty matter, of light and of shadow.
Non è da un giorno che Pizzi Cannella dipinge vestiti. «Tornano sempre da Pizzi, – ha scritto Rossella Fumasoni, la moglie dell’artista – e quando lui li dimentica per dipingere cattedrali e lucertole, bagni turchi e conchiglie, ferri battuti, gioielli e ventagli, i vestiti gelosi gli cominciano ad affiorare di continuo. Lo aspettano fuori del portone di casa e gli passeggiano accanto, sono nella schiuma del cappuccino o nelle pieghe delle lenzuola stropicciate. Pizzi li intravede ovunque, nelle nuvole, nei cortili stesi ad asciugare o al centro di un palcoscenico al momento degli The nobility of the yarn, the fineness of the fabrics, the richness of the designs and of the embroidery, applausi». the preciousness of the silver and of the gold, Questi vestiti non hanno nome, sono “per everything concurs in this latest pictorial cycle Lei”, sono vestiti di tutti i giorni. In questa to express the sense of “Her” personal joy and of logica le recentissime e inedite Regine, con “Her” communial festivity with “Him-the other”. la loro ostentazione di sontuosità diventano, «The present day ones are Queens – using the words of the artist – ready for a rite, for a ceremony, for teologicamente, abiti di festa. Questa transizione ideativa dal tempo della a long night (we must not be afraid if the sacred quotidianità ordinaria a quello della festa si and the mondaine touch each other, after all in compie nella stagione, il 2012, che segna il painting this has been happening for a long time)». rinnovato piacere dell’artista di fare pittura a Pizzi Cannella, among the vibrant drapings of the colpi di pennello intriso di una densa e preziosa Queens’ dresses with curved and wavy lines, gives materia, con un vigore di impasto che ricorda back to the spectator an idea of a woman with l’accesa policromia delle più crude immagini hieratical poses, sacred like those of the goddesses della pittura spagnola seicentesca. Non è tuttavia in their essentiality and sumptuousness, adding l’effetto spettacolare a interessare Pizzi Cannella, a sense of lightness, as if “She” were absorbed in bensì la dimensione emotiva che soprattutto una a slow and sensual dance of an atavistic religious certa luce riesce a suscitare. Sulle tele delle Regine rite. la pittura recupera in questo modo l’edonismo The Queens are though, at the same time, the mondano della bella forma carnosa. L’immagine personification of sexuality, the emblem of carnal mostra il suo tessuto di pura pittura, dimostra love, of passion and of instinct, of that secret part esplicitamente la sostanza del proprio apparire of the soul where irrationality, the instinctual fatto appunto di segno e colore, di materia piena pulsations, the arcaic night of the intellect all live together.[…] e di vuoto, di luce e di ombra.
Edizione integrale / Unabridged edition: Pizzi Cannella. Le Regine, a cura di / by Cesare Biasini Selvaggi; CCE, Poggibonsi (Siena - Italy). In occasione della mostra / on the occasion of the exhibition: Pizzi Cannella. Le Regine / Quadreria Roma / Almanacco 4, Galleria Mucciaccia, Roma / Rome 2012-2013
Le Regine 71
La nobiltà dei filati, la finezza dei tessuti, la ricchezza dei disegni e dei ricami, la preziosità dell’argento e dell’oro, tutto concorre in quest’ultimo ciclo pittorico a esprimere il senso della gioia personale “di Lei” e della sua festa comunionale con “Lui-l’altro”. «Quelle di oggi sono Regine – per dirla con le parole dell’artista – pronte per un rito, per una cerimonia, per una lunga notte (non dobbiamo aver paura se sacro e mondano si toccano, in fondo in pittura succede da molto tempo)». Pizzi Cannella, tra i vibranti panneggi delle vesti da Regine dalle linee curve e ondulate, restituisce allo spettatore un’idea di donna dalle pose ieratiche, sacrali come quelle delle dee nella loro essenzialità e sontuosità, aggiungendo un senso di leggerezza, come se “Lei” fosse assorta in una danza lenta e sensuale di un atavico rito religioso. Le Regine sono però, nel contempo, la personificazione della sessualità, l’emblema dell’amore carnale, della passione e dell’istinto, di quella parte segreta dell’anima dove convivono l’irrazionalità, le pulsioni istintuali, la notte arcaica dell’intelletto […].
Regina, Reginella Queen, Little Queen Tecnica mista su carta indiana Mixed media on India paper cm 58x39 2012
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Fisheye in Italia e nel mondo in Italy and all over the world
74 Fisheye in Italia e nel mondo
Fisheye in Italia e nel mondo Fisheye in Italy and all over the world 1/9 Unosunove - Rome (Italy) 1000 Eventi - Milan (Italy) 2000 & Novecento Galleria d’Arte - Reggio Emilia (Italy) 21st Century Museum of Contemporary Art Kanazawa - Ishikawa (Japan) A Arte Invernizzi - Milan (Italy) A.A.M - Rome (Italy) Acquavella Galleries - New York (USA) ADN - Barcelona (Spain) Agnellini Arte Moderna - Brescia (Italy) Aike Dellarco - Palermo (Italy) Air De Paris - Paris (France) Akron Art Museum - Akron (USA) Al Ain National Museum - Al Ain (United Arab Emirates) Alejandro Sales - Barcelona (Spain) Alessandro Bagnai - Florence (Italy) Alfonso Artiaco - Naples (Italy) Allard Pierson Museum - Amsterdam (Holland) Allegrini Arte Contemporanea - Brescia (Italy) Alquindici / Galleria Arte Contemporanea Silvia Romagnoli Piacenza (Italy) Alt Arte Lavoro Territorio / Spazio Fausto Radici - Alzano Lombardo (Bergamo - Italy) Alte Pinacothek - München (Germany) Amedeo Porro - Milan (Italy) Amsterdams Historisch Museum - Amsterdam (Holland) Amt - Milan (Italy) Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi Facts - Ankara (Turkey) Analix - Genève (Switzerland) Ancient Architecture Museum - Beijing (China) Andrea Arte Contemporanea A - Vicenza (Italy) Anfiteatro - Milan (Italy) Àngels Barcelona - Barcelona (Spain) Annarumma - Naples (Italy) Annely Juda Fine Art - London (UK) Anti / Galleria d’Arte Contemporanea - Mestre (Venezia - Italy) Antologia Arte Moderna e Contemporanea - Monza (Italy) Anton Kern Gallery - New York (USA) Antonella Cattani - Bozen (Italy) Antonio Colombo Arte Contemporanea - Milan (Italy) Aomori Contemporary Art Center - Aomori City (Japan) Appel - Frankfurt am Main (Germany) Arcam - Amsterdam (Holland) Area/B - Milan (Italy) Aria Art Gallery - Florence (Italy) ARKEN / Museum of Modern Art - Ishøj (Danemark) Arma Museum Ubud - Bali (Indonesia) Armanda Gori Arte - Prato (Italy) Art Plaza - Venaria Reale (Turin - Italy) Art&Co - Milan (Italy) Arte Centro - Milan (Italy) Arte e Arte - Bologna (Italy) Arte Santerasmo - Milan (Italy)
Arte Silva - Seregno (Milan - Italy) Arts Santa Mònica - Barcelona (Spain) Asian Civilization Museum - Singapore (Republic of Singapore) Associazione Culturale Il Trifoglio - Chieti (Italy) Astuni - Bologna (Italy) Ateneo Art Gallery / Ateneo De Manila University Quezon City (Manila - Philippines) Atlanta Contemporary Art Center - Atlanta (USA) Atlantica - Altavilla (Vicenza - Italy) Austin Desmond Fine Art - London (UK) Bangladesh National Museum - Dhaka (Bangladesh) Barbara Mathes Gallery - New York (USA) Barbara Paci Galleria d’Arte - Pietrasanta (Lucca - Italy) Baronian Francey - Brussels (Belgium) Bärtschi - Genève (Switzerland) Base Gallery - Tokyo (Japan) Beck & Eggeling - Düsseldorf (Germany) Beckers - Frankfurt am Main (Germany) Belau National Museum - Koror (Palau - Micronesia) Bengal Gallery of Fine Arts - Dhaka (Bangladesh) Bernier Eliades - Athens (Greece) Biasa Art Space - Bali (Indonesia) Biasutti & Biasutti - Turin (Italy) Birmingham Museum of Art - Birmingham (USA) Blindarte - Naples (Italy) Blu - Milan (Italy) Blum & Poe - Los Angeles (USA) Boca Raton Museum - Boca Raton (USA) Boccanera - Trento (Italy) Bodemuseum - Berlin (Germany) Boesso Art Gallery - Bozen (Italy) Bonioni Arte - Reggio Emilia (Italy) Bonomo - Bari (Italy) Bonomo Alessandra - Rome (Italy) Bonomo Valentina - Rome (Italy) Bortolami - New York (USA) Boulder Museum of Contemporary Art - Boulder (USA) Boxart Galleria d’Arte - Verona (Italy) BQ - Berlin (Germany) Brancolini Grimaldi - Rome (Italy) British Museum - London (UK) Brooklyn Museum - Brooklyn (New York - USA) Brown - London (UK) Buchmann Galerie - Berlin (Germany) Bugno Art Gallery - Venice (Italy) Byblos Art Gallery - Verona (Italy) Ca’ di Fra’ - Milan (Italy) Caixa Penedès / Obra Social - Vilafranca Del Penedès (Spain) CaixaForum / Fundació La Caixa - Barcelona (Spain) Camara Oscura - Madrid (Spain) CAMEC / Centro per l’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea - La Spezia (Italy) Camera 16 - Milan (Italy)
Dep Art - Milan (Italy) Di Caro - Salerno (Italy) Di Marino - Naples (Italy) Di Meo - Paris (France) Di Paolo Arte - Bologna (Italy) Dia Art Foundation - New York (USA) Die Galerie - Frankfurt am Main (Germany) Docva Documentation Center For Visual Arts - Milan (Italy) Dublin City Gallery The Hugh Lane - Dublin (Ireland) Edieuropa Qui Arte Contemporanea - Rome (Italy) Edward Tyler Nahem Fine Art - New York (USA) Edwynn Houkgallery - New York (USA) Eidos Immagini Contemporanee - Asti (Italy) Eleonora D’Andrea Contemporanea - Prato (Italy) Emmeotto - Rome (Italy) Ermanno Tedeschi Gallery - Turin (Italy) Espai [b] galeria d’art contemporanei - Barcelona (Spain) Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art - London (UK) EX3 Centro per l’Arte Contemporanea - Florence (Italy) Extraspazio - Rome (Italy) Fabbrica Eos - Milan (Italy) Fabjbasaglia - Rimini (Italy) FaMa Gallery - Verona (Italy) Federico Bianchi - Milan (Italy) Federico Luger - Milan (Italy) Fernandez - Madrid (Spain) Ferrario Arte - Rovereto (Italy) Fiol - Palma De Mallorca (Spain) Fioretto Arte Contemporanea - Abano Terme (Padova - Italy) Flora Bigai - Pietrasanta (Lucca - Italy) FOAM - Amsterdam (Holland) Fondazione Antonio Ratti - Como (Italy) Fondazione Bandera per l’Arte - Busto Arsizio (Varese - Italy) Fondazione Bevilacqua La Masa - Venice (Italy) Fondazione Burri - Città di Castello (Perugia - Italy) Fondazione Carisbo - Bologna (Italy) Fondazione Davide Lajolo - Milan (Italy) Fondazione Dino Zoli Arte Contemporanea - Forlì (Italy) Fondazione Ferrero - Alba (Cuneo - Italy) Fondazione Galleria Civica / Centro di Ricerca sulla Contemporaneità di Trento - Trento (Italy) Fondazione Magnani Rocca - Mamiano di Traversetolo (Parma - Italy) Fondazione Marconi - Milan (Italy) Fondazione Matalon - Milan (Italy) Fondazione Merz - Turin (Italy) Fondazione Mudima - Milan (Italy) Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia - Venice (Italy) Fondazione Nicola Trussardi - Milan (Italy) Fondazione Palazzo delle Stelline - Milan (Italy) Fondazione Prada - Milan (Italy) Fondazione Querini Stampalia - Venice (Italy) Fondazione Ragghianti - Lucca (Italy) Fondazione Sandretto Re Rebaudengo - Turin (Italy) Fondazione Teseco per l’Arte - Pisa (Italy) Fondazione Torino Musei / Galleria d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea Turin (Italy) Fondazione Volume! - Rome (Italy) For Gallery - Florence (Italy) Forni - Bologna (Italy) Forsblom - Helsinki (Finland)
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Campaña - Köln (Germany) Canadian Centre for Architecture - Montréal (Canada) Cano - Palma De Mallorca (Spain) Caos Contemporar Art - Rome (Italy) Cardelli & Fontana - Sarzana (La Spezia - Italy) Cardi - Milan (Italy) Cardi Black Box - Milan (Italy) Carel Gallery - Miami Beach (Miami - USA) Carini & Donatini Arte Contemporanea - San Giovanni Valdarno (Arezzo - Italy) Carles Tacé - Barcelona (Spain) Carlier Gebauer - Berlin (Germany) Carlina - Turin (Italy) Carpenters - London (UK) Casa Del Mantegna - Mantova (Italy) Casey Kaplan - New York (USA) Castello di Miramare - Trieste (Italy) Castello di Rivoli - Rivoli (Turin - Italy) Caterina Tognon Arte Contemporanea - Venice (Italy) Cavenaghi Arte - Milan (Italy) Cccs Palazzo Strozzi - Florence (Italy) Center for Contemporary Art - Kitakyushu (Japan) Centre Georges Pompidou - Paris (France) Centro Arti Visive Pescheria - Pesaro (Italy) Centro Culturale d’Arte e Cultura Exmà - Cagliari (Italy) Centro per l’Arte Contemporanea / Casa Masaccio - San Giovanni Valdarno (Arezzo - Italy) Centro per l’Arte Contemporanea Luigi Pecci - Prato (Italy) Centrum Sztuki Współczesnej Zamek Ujazdowski / Contemporary Art Centre - Warszawa (Polen) CESAC / Associazione Culturale Marcovaldo - Caraglio (Cuneo - Italy) Changing Role - Naples (Italy) Chi Mei Museum - Tainancounty (Taiwan) Cincinnati Art Museum - Cincinnati (USA) Cirulli - New York (USA) Citriniti Arte - Spotorno (Savona - Italy) Cittadellarte / Fondazione Pistoletto - Biella (Italy) Claudio Poleschi Arte Contemporanea - Lucca (Italy) Cobra - Amsterdam (Holland) Cohan - New York (USA) Collezione Maramotti - Reggio Emilia (Italy) Collezione Peggy Guggenheim - Venice (Italy) Colossi Arte Contemporanea - Brescia (Italy) Contemporary Arts Museum Houston - Houston (USA) Contemporary Concept - Bologna (Italy) Contemporary Fine Arts - Berlin (Germany) Contini Galleria d’Arte - Venice (Italy) Cooper-Hewitt / National Design Museum - New York (USA) Corrias - London (UK) Corsoveneziaotto - Milan (Italy) Crane - London (UK) Curtze - Wien (Austria) D’Ascanio - Rome (Italy) D406 Arte Contemporanea - Modena (Italy) Daelim Contemporary Art Museum - Seoul (Korea) De Apple Arts Centre - Amsterdam (Holland) De Cardenas - Milan (Italy) De Crescenzo & Viesti - Rome (Italy) De Faveri Arte - Sovramonte (Belluno - Italy) Dea Orh - Prague (Czech Republic)
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Fraenkel Gallery - San Francisco (USA) Francesco Pantalone Arte Contemporanea - Palermo (Italy) Frascione Arte - Florence (Italy) Frey - Wien (Austria) Friedrich Petzel Gallery - New York (USA) Frith Street Gallery - London (UK) Frittelli Arte Contemporanea - Florence (Italy) Fu Xin - Shanghai (China) Fundació Antoni Tàpies - Barcelona (Spain) Fundació Joan Miró - Barcelona (Spain) Gagliardi Art System - Turin (Italy) Gagosian Gallery - New York (USA) Galeri Nasional Indonesia - Jakarta (Indonesia) Galeria Alonso Vidal - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria Barcelona - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria Elba Benitez - Madrid (Spain) Galeria Elvira Gonzalez - Madrid (Spain) Galeria Eude - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria Ferran Cano - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria Fidel Balaguer - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria Fortes Vilaça - São Paulo (Brasil) Galeria Hartmann - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria Helga de Alvear - Madrid (Spain) Galeria Joan Gaspar - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria Juana de Aizpuru - Madrid (Spain) Galeria Llucià Homs - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria Maeght - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria Marlborough Barcelona - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria Mito - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria Parra & Romero - Madrid (Spain) Galeria Projecte SD - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria René Metras - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria Safia - Barcelona (Spain) Galeria Soledad Lorenzo - Madrid (Spain) Galeria Toni Tàpies - Barcelona (Spain) Galerie Alice Pauli - Lausanne (Switzerland) Galerie Almine - Paris (France) Galerie Anhava - Helsinki (Finland) Galerie Art & Public - Geneva (Switzerland) Galerie Carzaniga - Basel (Switzerland) Galerie Chantal Crousel - Paris (France) Galerie Christian Ehrentraut - Berlin (Germany) Galerie Daniel Templon - Paris (France) Galerie Gebr. Lehmann - Dresden (Germany) Galerie Gisela Capitain - Köln (Germany) Galerie Gisüle Linder - Basel (Switzerland) Galerie Giti Nourbakhsch - Berlin (Germany) Galerie Greta Meert - Brussels (Belgium) Galerie Hopkins Custot - Paris (France) Galerie Mark Müller - Zürich (Switzerland) Galerie Natalie Seroussi - Paris (France) Galerie Nelson Freeman - Paris (France) Galerie Neu - Berlin (Germany) Galerie Nordenhake - Berlin (Germany) Galerie Paul Andriesse - Amsterdam (Holland) Galerie Peter Kilchmann - Zürich (Switzerland) Galerie Sapone - Nice (France) Galerie Thaddeus Ropac - Paris (France) Galerie Thomas - München (Germany) Galerie Vera Munro - Hamburg (Germany)
Galerija Gregor Podnar - Berlin (Germany) Galica - Milan (Italy) Galleria 42 - Modena (Italy) Galleria Alberto Peola - Turin (Italy) Galleria Antonio Battaglia - Milan (Italy) Galleria Biagiotti - Florence (Italy) Galleria Biasutti - Turin (Italy) Galleria Bonelli Arte Contemporanea - Canneto Sull’Oglio (Mantova - Italy) Galleria Cavana - La Spezia (Italy) Galleria Centro Steccata - Parma (Italy) Galleria Christian Stein - Milan (Italy) Galleria Civica d’Arte Contemporanea / Museo dell’Arte Ceramica - Ascoli Piceno (Italy) Galleria Civica d’Arte Contemporanea Montevergini - Siracusa (Italy) Galleria Civica di Modena - Modena (Italy) Galleria Claudia Gian Ferrari - Milan (Italy) Galleria Comunale d’Arte Contemporanea di Monfalcone - Monfalcone (Gorizia - Italy) Galleria Continua - San Gimignano (Siena - Italy) Galleria Curti, Gambuzzi & C. - Milan (Italy) Galleria d’Arte Cinquantasei - Bologna (Italy) Galleria d’Arte Mentana - Florence (Italy) Galleria d’Arte Moderna Aroldo Bonzagni - Cento (Ferrara - Italy) Galleria d’Arte Moderna Palazzo Forti - Verona (Italy) Galleria d’Arte Moderna Parco / Museo Civico d’Arte di Pordenone Pordenone (Italy) Galleria d’Arte Moderna Ricci Oddi - Piacenza (Italy) Galleria d’Arte Niccoli - Parma (Italy) Galleria d’Arte San Carlo - Milan (Italy) Galleria De Nisi Arte Contemporanea - Rome (Italy) Galleria De’ Bonis - Reggio Emilia (Italy) Galleria De’ Foscherari - Bologna (Italy) Galleria dell’Accademia - Turin (Italy) Galleria dell’Incisione - Brescia (Italy) Galleria Dello Scudo - Verona (Italy) Galleria Emilio Mazzoli - Modena (Italy) Galleria Fabio Tiboni - Bologna (Italy) Galleria Farsetti - Prato (Italy) Galleria Federica Schiavo - Rome (Italy) Galleria Ferrari - Treviglio (Bergamo - Italy) Galleria Franco Noero - Turin (Italy) Galleria Fumagalli - Bergamo (Italy) Galleria Gagliardi - San Gimignano (Siena - Italy) Galleria Gentili - Prato (Italy) Galleria Giacomo Guidi - Rome (Italy) Galleria Gioacchini - Ancona (Italy) Galleria Giraldi - Livorno (Italy) Galleria Goethe - Bozen (Italy) Galleria Granelli - Livorno (Italy) Galleria Il Chiostro Arte Contemporanea - Saronno (Italy) Galleria Il Segno - Rome (Italy) Galleria Il Torchio - Milan (Italy) Galleria In Arco - Turin (Italy) Galleria L’Ariete - Bologna (Italy) Galleria La Giarina Arte Contemporanea - Verona (Italy) Galleria Massimo De Carlo - Milan (Italy) Galleria Massimo Minini - Brescia (Italy) Galleria Melesi - Lecco (Italy) Galleria Milano - Milan (Italy)
Istituto Culturale Tedesco / Villa Romana - Florence (Italy) Istituto Francese di Firenze - Florence (Italy) Itami City Museum of Art - Hyogo (Japan) Jan Mot - Brussels (Belgium) Jarach Gallery - Venice (Italy) Jinsha Site Museum - Chengxi (Chengdu - China) Joan Prats - Barcelona (Spain) John Berggruen Gallery - San Francisco (USA) John Martin Gallery - London (UK) Jonathan Levine - New York (USA) Kalfayan - Athens (Greece) Kanalidarte - Brescia (Italy) Kaohsiung Museum of Fine Arts - Kaohsiung City (Taiwan) Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art - Kansas City (USA) Kennedy Gallery - Miami Beach (Miami - USA) Kerlin Gallery - Dublin (Irland) Kewenig Galerie - Köln (Germany) Kicken Berlin - Berlin (Germany) Kinsky Palace / Collection of Modern and Contemporary Art - Praha (Czech Republic) Knoedler & C. - New York (USA) Koelen - Mainz (Germany) Konrad Fischer Galerie - Düsseldorf (Germany) Kröller-Müller Museum - Otterlo (Holland) Kunst Merano Arte - Meran (Bozen - Italy) Kunstagenten - Berlin (Germany) Kunsthalle Wien - Wien (Austria) Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein - Vaduz (Liechtenstein) L.A. Louver - Venice (USA) L’Elefante - Treviso (Italy) L’Incontro - Chiari (Brescia - Italy) La Scaletta - San Polo d’Enza (Reggio Emilia - Italy) La Triennale di Milano - Milan (Italy) Lagorio Arte Contemporanea - Brescia (Italy) Le Case D’Arte - Milan (Italy) Lehmann Maupin - New York (USA) Lelong - Paris (France) Leonard Hutton Galleries - New York (USA) Lia Rumma - Milan (Italy) Lipanjepuntin - Trieste (Italy) Lisson Gallery - London (UK) Lopez Memorial Museum - Pasig City (Philippines) Lorenzelli Arte - Milan (Italy) Lowenstein - Miami (USA) Lu.C.C.A Center of Contemporary Art - Lucca (Italy) Ludwig Museum of Contemporary Art - Budapest (Hungary) Luhring Augustine - New York (USA) MACBA / Museu d’Art Contemporani de Barcelona - Barcelona (Spain) MACn Museo di Arte Contemporanea e del Novecento - Monsummano Terme (Pistoia - Italy) MACRO / Museo Arte Contemporanea Roma - Rome (Italy) MAEC / Museo dell’Accademia Etrusca e della Città di Cortona - Cortona (Arezzo - Italy) Maga / Museo Arte Gallarate - Gallarate (Varese - Italy) Magazzino d’Arte Moderna - Rome (Italy) Magi 900 - Pieve Di Cento (Ferrara - Italy) Mai 36 Galerie - Zürich (Switzerland) Maison Europeenne de a Photographie - Paris (France) MAMBO / Museo d’Arte Moderna di Bologna - Bologna (Italy)
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Galleria MOdenArte - Modena (Italy) Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna - Rome (Italy) Galleria Nozzoli - Empoli (Florence - Italy) Galleria Open Art - Prato (Italy) Galleria Pack - Milan (Italy) Galleria Poliart - Milan (Italy) Galleria Raucci Santamaria - Naples (Italy) Galleria Ravagnan - Venice (Italy) Galleria Rizziero - Pescara (Italy) Galleria Rusconi - Milan (Italy) Galleria Russo - Rome (Italy) Galleria San Gallo - Florence (Italy) Galleria Soave - Alessandria (Italy) Galleria Stefano Forni - Bologna (Italy) Galleria Susanna Orlando - Forte dei Marmi (Lucca - Italy) Galleria Tega - Milan (Italy) Galleria Tonelli - Milan (Italy) Galleria Torbandena - Trieste (Italy) Gallerianumero38 - Lucca (Italy) Gallerja - Rome (Italy) Gallery Henoch - New York (USA) Gallery of Photography - Dublin (Ireland) Gallo - Berlin (Germany) GAMEC / Galleria d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea - Bergamo (Italy) Gariboldi - Milan (Italy) Gavin Brown’s Enterprise - New York (USA) GCAC / Galleria Comunale di Arte Contemporanea - Arezzo (Italy) Gemäldegalerie Berlin - Berlin (Germany) Georg Kargl Fine Arts - Wien (Austria) Gestalt Gallery - Pietrasanta (Lucca - Italy) Gimpel Fils - London (UK) Giorgio Persano - Turin (Italy) Gladstone Gallery - New York (USA) Greene Naftali - New York (USA) Greengrassi - London (UK) Grey Art Gallery / New York University - New York (USA) Grossetti Arte Contemporanea - Milan (Italy) Guastalla Centro Arte - Livorno (Italy) Guggenheim - Bilbao (Spain) Guidi & Shoen - Genova (Italy) Hara Museum of Contemporary Art - Tokyo (Japan) Harvard Art Museums - Cambridge (USA) Helly Nahmad Gallery - London (UK) Hermitage Amsterdam - Amsterdam (Holland) Hermitage St Petersburg - St Petersburg (Russia) High Museum of Art Atlanta - Atlanta (USA) Hollenbach - Stuttgart (Germany) Hoppen - London (UK) Horrach Moya - Palma De Mallorca (Spain) Hungarian National Gallery - Budapest (Hungary) Il Gabbiano - Rome (Italy) Il Mappamondo - Milan (Italy) Il Ponte - Florence (Italy) Il Ponte Contemporanea - Rome (Italy) Imago Art Gallery - London (UK) Institute of Contemporary Arts Singapore - Singapore (Republic of Singapore) Ishikawa Prefectural Museum of Art - Ibaraki (Japan) Istanbul Modern - Istanbul (Turkey)
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MAN / Museo d’Arte della Provincia di Nuoro - Nuoro (Italy) Mani Bhavan - Mumbai (India) MAR / Museo d’Arte Ravenna - Ravenna (Italy) Marchese Arte Contemporanea - Prato (Italy) Marchina Arte Contemporanea - Brescia (Italy) Marcorossi Arte Contemporanea - Milan (Italy) Marella - Milan (Italy) Maria Grazia Del Prete - Rome (Italy) MART / Museo d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto Rovereto (Trento - Italy) Martano - Turin (Italy) masART Galeria - Barcelona (Spain) Mass Moca - North Adams (USA) Massimo Carasi / The Flat - Milan (Italy) Matsumoto City Museum of Art - Matsumoto City (Japan) Maureen Paley - London (UK) Maurizio Corraini - Mantova (Italy) MAXXI / Museo Nazionale delle Arti del XXI secolo - Rome (Italy) Mazzoleni Galleria d’Arte - Turin (Italy) MCA Museum of Contemporary Art - The Rocks (Australia) Mcasd La Jolla - La Jolla (USA) Menard Art Museum - Aichi (Japan) Menhir Arte Contemporanea - La Spezia (Italy) Metropolitan Museum of Art NY - New York (USA) Miami Art Central - Miami (USA) Miami Art Museum - Miami (USA) MIC / Museo Internazionale delle Ceramiche in Faenza - Faenza (Ravenna - Italy) Michael Dunev Art Projects - Torroella de Montgrí (Spain) Michael Kohn Gallery - Los Angeles (USA) Michela Rizzo - Venice (Italy) Miguel Marcos - Barcelona (Spain) Miho Museum - Shigaraki (Shiga - Japan) Mimmo Scognamiglio - Naples (Italy) Minneapolis Institute of Arts - Minneapolis (USA) Mitchell - Innes & Nash - New York (USA) Mito Arts Foundation - Ibaraki (Japan) MLB - Ferrara (Italy) MNBA - Buenos Aires (Argentina) Moa Museum of Art - Atami City (Japan) Moca Taipei - Taipei (Taiwan) Moderna Museet - Stockholm (Sweden) MOMA - New York (USA) Morone - Milan (Italy) Moscow Museum of Modern Art - Moscow (Russia) Movimento Arte Contemporanea - Milan (Italy) Multatuli Museum - Amsterdam (Holland) Musee d’Art Contemporain - Montréal (Canada) Musée du Louvre - Paris (France) Musee Magritte Museum / Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium Brussels (Belgium) Musee National d’Art Moderne - Paris (France) Musei Capitolini - Rome (Italy) Musei Civici di Reggio Emilia - Reggio Emilia (Italy) Musei Civici di Villa Paolina - Viareggio (Lucca - Italy) Musei di Strada Nuova / Palazzo Rosso - Genova (Italy) Musei Vaticani - Rome (Italy) Museion / Museo d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea - Bozen (Italy) Museo Arte Contemporanea Villa Croce - Genova (Italy)
Museo Brunori - Bertinoro (Forlì / Cesena - Italy) Museo Carlo Bilotti / Aranciera di Villa Borghese - Rome (Italy) Museo Civico Ala Ponzone - Cremona (Italy) Museo Civico di Palazzo Te - Mantova (Italy) Museo d’Arte Contemporanea di Lissone - Lissone (Milan - Italy) Museo de Orsay - Paris (France) Museo del Novecento / Civiche Raccolte d’Arte - Milan (Italy) Museo della Permanente - Milan (Italy) Museo Emblema - Terzigno (Naples -Italy) Museo Giacomo Manzù - Rome (Italy) Museo Giovanni Boldini - Ferrara (Italy) Museo Marino Marini - Florence (Italy) Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia - Madrid (Spain) Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes - Buenos Aires (Argentina) Museo Nacional del Prado - Madrid (Spain) Museo Piaggio - Pontedera (Pisa - Italy) Museo Revoltella - Trieste (Italy) Museo Salvatore Ferragamo - Florence (Italy) Museo Stefano Bardini - Florence (Italy) Museu de Arte de São Paulo Assis Chateaubriand / MASP São Paulo (Brasil) Museu Europeu d’Art Modern - Barcelona (Spain) Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya - Barcelona (Spain) Museu Picasso - Barcelona (Spain) Museum der Moderne - Salzburg (Austria) Museum Moderner Kunst - Wien (Austria) Museum of Arts and Design - New York (USA) Museum of Art Fort Lauderdale - Fort Lauderdale (USA) Museum of Contemporary Art - Chicago (USA) Museum of Contemporary Art - Seoul (Korea) Museum of Contemporary Art - Tokyo (Japan) Museum of Contemporary Art Kiasma - Helsinki (Finland) Museum of Contemporary Art North Miami - North Miami (Miami - USA) Museum of Contemporary Canadian Art - Toronto (Canada) Museum of Contemporary Photography - Chicago (USA) Museum of Ethnography Facts - Istanbul (Turkey) Museum of Fine Arts - Boston (USA) Museum of History and Art - Izmir (Turkey) Museum of London - London (UK) Museum of Modern Art - Ibaraki (Japan) Museum of Photographic Art - San Diego (USA) Muzium Brunei - Brunei Darussalam N.O. Gallery - Milan (Italy) N2 Galeria - Barcelona (Spain) Naoshima Museum - Naoshima (Kagawa - Japan) Nara City Museum of Photography - Nara (Japan) Nara National Museum - Nara City (Japan) National Archaeological Museum - Athens (Greece) National Art Gallery - Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) National Gallery of Art - Landover (USA) National Gallery of Ireland - Dublin (Ireland) National Gallery of Modern Art - Mumbai (India) National Museum - Warszawa (Polen) National Museum / Národní muzeum - Praha (Czech Republic) National Museum of Art - Osaka (Japan) National Museum of Australia - Canberra (Australia) National Museum of East Java - Surabaya (East Java - Indonesia) National Museum of Modern Art - Tokyo (Japan)
RAM radioartemobile - Rome (Italy) Rama Ix Art Museum - Bangkok (Thailand) Repetto - Acqui Terme (Alessandria - Italy) Restarte - Bologna (Italy) Riccardo Crespi - Milan (Italy) Rice University Art Gallery - Houston (USA) Richard Gray Gallery - Chicago (USA) Richard L. Feigen & C. - New York (USA) Rijksmuseum - Amsterdam (Holland) Rino Costa - Valenza (Alessandria - Italy) Riyadh Museum for History and Archaeology - Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) Roberta Lietti Arte Contemporanea - Como (Italy) Roepke - Köln (Germany) Ronchini Arte Contemporanea - Terni (Italy) Rosenbaum Contemporary - Boca Raton (USA) Royal Academy of Arts - London (UK) Ruth Benzacar Galeria De Arte - Buenos Aires (Argentina) Ruzicska - Salzburg (Austria) S.A.L.E.S. - Rome (Italy) S.M.A.K. - Gent (Belgium) Sabanci University - Istanbul (Turkey) Sabrina Raffaghello Arte Contemporanea - Alessandria (Italy) Sadie Coles HQ - London (UK) Sage Paris - Paris (France) Salamon & C. - Milan (Italy) San Francisco Museum of Modern Art - San Francisco (USA) Santo Ficara - Florence (Italy) Sanxingdui Museum - Guanghan City (Sichuan - China) Sapporo Art Park - Sapporo (Japan) Scuderie del Quirinale - Azienda Speciale Palaexpo - Rome (Italy) Sean Kelly Gallery - New York (USA) Senda - Barcelona (Spain) Setagaya Art Museum - Tokyo (Japan) Sharjah Art Museum - Sharjah (United Arab Emirates) Sharjah Museum of Islamic Civilization - Sharjah (United Arab Emirates) Shiodome Museum - Tokyo (Japan) Sicart - Vilafranca del Penedès (Spain) Simon Lee Gallery - London (UK) Singapore Art Museum - Singapore (Republic of Singapore) Skarstedt Gallery - New York (USA) Smithsonian - Washington (USA) SMS Contemporanea - Siena (Italy) Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum - New York (USA) Sompo Japan Fine Art Foundation - Tokyo (Japan) Soprintendenza per i Beni Artistici Storici Artistici ed Etnoantropologici per le province di Milano, Bergamo, Como, Lecco, Lodi, Monza, Pavia, Sondrio, Varese - Milan (Italy) Soprintendenza Polo Museale Fiorentino - Florence (Italy) Soprintendenza Speciale per il Patrimonio Storico, Artistico ed Etnoantropologico e per il Polo Museale della Città di Napoli Castel Sant’Elmo (Naples - Italy) SpazioA - Pistoia (Italy) Sperone - New York (USA) Spiny Babbler Museum - Kathmandu (Nepal) Spirale Milano - Milan (Italy) Sprovieri - London (UK) Spruth Magers Berlin London - Berlin (Germany)
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National Museum Philippines - Manila (Philippines) National Palace Museum - Taipei (Taiwan) Nationalmuseum - Stockholm (Sweden) Newark Museum - Newark (USA) Nezu Museum - Tokyo (Japan) NGV International / National Gallery of Victoria - Melbourne (Australia) Nogueras Blanchard - Barcelona (Spain) Noire Contemporary Art - Turin (Italy) Noirmont - Paris (France) Nus Museum / University Cultural Centre - Singapore (Republic of Singapore) O’Neill - Rome (Italy) Obecní Dum / Municipal House - Prague (Czech Republic) Oredaria Arte Contemporanea - Rome (Italy) Oriol - Barcelona (Spain) Otto Gallery - Bologna (Italy) Overlook Agenzia d’Arte - Quarrata (Pistoia - Italy) PAC - Milan (Italy) Paciarte Contemporary - Brescia (Italy) Palazzo dei Diamanti - Ferrara (Italy) Palazzo Ducale - Genova (Italy) Palazzo Fabroni / Arti Visive Contemporanee - Pistoia (Italy) Palazzo Leone Da Perego - Legnano (Milan - Italy) Palazzo Pino Pascali - Polignano a Mare (Bari - Italy) Palazzo Reale - Genova (Italy) Palma Dotze - Vilafranca del Penedès (Spain) PAN / Palazzo Arti Napoli - Naples (Italy) Pantheon - Paris (France) Paola Raffo Arte Contemporanea - Pietrasanta (Lucca - Italy) Paola Verrengia - Salerno (Italy) Paolo Maria Deanesi Gallery - Rovereto (Trento - Italy) Paula Cooper Gallery - New York (USA) PAV Parco Arte Vivente / Centro Sperimentale d’Arte Contemporanea Turin (Italy) Peithner-Lichtenfels - Wien (Austria) Pelaires - Palma De Mallorca (Spain) Pera Museum - Istanbul (Turkey) Perlini Arte - Reggio Calabria (Italy) Perrotin - Paris (France) Perugi - Padova (Italy) PH Neutro - Verona (Italy) Phoenix Art Museum - Phoenix (USA) Photo&Contemporary - Turin (Italy) Photology - Milan (Italy) Piece Unique - Paris (France) Pio Monti - Rome (Italy) Pitti Immagine - Florence (Italy) Poggiali e Forconi - Florence (Italy) Poleschi - Lucca (Italy) Powerhouse Museum - Haymarket (Australia) Praz-Delavallade - Paris (France) Prince of Wales Museum - Mumbai (India) Princeton University Art Museum - Princeton (USA) Progetto Arte Elm - Milan (Italy) Prometeogallery- Milan (Italy) Proposte d’Arte - Legnano (Milan - Italy) Pushkin Museum - Moscow (Russia) Quanzhou Taiwan Friendship Museum - Quanzhou (China) Queen Gallery - Bangkok (Thailand)
80 Fisheye in Italia e nel mondo
Stampa - Basel (Switzerland) Stedelijik Museum Bureau Amsterdam - Amsterdam (Holland) Stephen Friedman Galerie - London (UK) Studer - Geneva (Switzerland) Studio d’Arte Campaiola - Rome (Italy) Studio d’Arte Cannaviello - Milan (Italy) Studio d’Arte Raffaelli - Trento (Italy) Studio G7 - Bologna (Italy) Studio Giangaleazzo Visconti - Milan (Italy) Studio Guenzani - Milan (Italy) Studio La Città - Verona (Italy) Studio Trisorio - Naples (Italy) Studio3 Indian Contemporary Art - Churchgate (Mumbai - India) Sturm - Stuttgart (Germany) Suntory Museum of Art - Tokyo (Japan) Tampa Museum of Art - Tampa (USA) Tania Bonakdar Gallery - New York (USA) Tate Britain - London (UK) Tate Gallery - London (UK) Team Gallery - New York (USA) Tethys Gallery - Florence (Italy) The Aldrich Contemporary Art Museum - Ridgefield (USA) The Andy Warhol Museum - Pittsburgh (USA) The Approach - London (UK) The Art Institute of Chicago - Chicago (USA) The Central Exhibition Hall Manege - Saint Petersburg (Russia) The Cleveland Museum of Art - Cleveland (USA) The Contemporary Museum - Honolulu (USA) The Cynthia Corbett Gallery - London (UK) The Dali Museum - St. Petersburg (USA) The Eric Carle Museum of Picture Book Art - Amherst (USA) The Field Museum - Chicago (USA) The Fiji Museum - Suva (Fiji Islands) The Frick Collection - New York (USA) The Gallery Apart - Rome (Italy) The Getty - Los Angeles (USA) The Israel Museum - Jerusalem (Israel) The J. Paul Getty - Los Angeles (USA) The Marble Palace - Saint Petersburg (Russia) The Metropolitan Museum of Manila - Manila (Philippines) The Munch Museum / City of Oslo - Oslo (Norwegen) The Museum of Art - Kochi (Japan) The Museum of Modern Art - New York (USA) The Museum of Photography Metenkov’s House - Sverdlovsk Region (Russia) The National Gallery - London (UK) The National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design - Oslo (Norwegen) The National Museum of Modern Art - Kyoto (Japan) The National Museum of the Republic of Tatarstan - Kazan (Russia) The National Museum of Western Art - Tokyo (Japan) The Pace Gallery - New York (USA) The Patricia & Phillip Frost Art Museum / Florida International University Miami (USA) The Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts - Moscow (Russia) The State Hermitage - Saint Petersburg (Russia) The State Russian Museum - Saint Petersburg (Russia) The State Tretyakov Gallery - Moscow (Russia) The Taipei Fine Arts Museum - Taipei (Taiwan) The University Art Museum - Tokyo (Japan) The Vladimir and Suzdal State Historical, Architectural and Art Museum /
Reserve - Vladimir (Russia) Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography - Tokyo (Japan) Tokyo Opera City Art Gallery - Tokyo (Japan) Tony Shafrazi Gallery - New York (USA) Tornabuoni Arte - Florence (Italy) Toyota Municipal Museum of Art - Aichi (Japan) Trama - Barcelona (Spain) Trigano - Paris (France) Tucci Russo - Torre Pelice (Turin - Italy) Valente Artecontemporanea - Finale Ligure (Savona - Italy) Valentina Moncada - Rome (Italy) Van Gogh Museum - Amsterdam (Holland) Vecchiato Art Galleries - Padova (Italy) Victoria and Albert Museum - London (UK) Victoria Miro Gallery - London (UK) Vidal-Saint Phalle - Paris (France) Villa del Arte Galleries - Barcelona (Spain) Villa Giulia / CRAA / Centro Ricerca Arte Attuale - Verbania (Italy) Villa Manin / Centro per l’Arte Contemporanea - Codroipo (Udine - Italy) Vistamare - Pescara (Italy) Von Bartha Collection - Basel (Switzerland) Voss - Düsseldorf (Germany) Whitney Museum of American Art - New York (USA) Willet-Holthuysen Museum - Amsterdam (Holland) Wolfsonian - Miami Beach (Miami - USA) Yvon Lambert Paris - Paris (France) Z2O Galleria - Rome (Italy) Zonca & Zonca - Milan (Italy) Zwinger - Dresden (Germany)
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