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ARCHITECTURE JOURNAL


Architecture Design Studio: Air Semester 1, 2012 Architecture Journal Carl Madsen 357577


EXPRESSION OF INTEREST

DESIGN PROPOSAL

LEARNING OUTCOMES

1_1 rhino3d personal state of the art 1_2 grasshopper case for innovation 1_3 the gateway 1_4 cut definitions 1_5 a study in moire 1_6 realising a model 2_1 design concept 2_2 design development 2_3 model construction 2_4 final design proposal 3_1 learning outcomes


PART I: EXPRESSION


OF INTEREST

Creating an idea


WEBINARS

RHINO 3D

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Rhino 3d (coupled with the Grasshopper plugin, although unused in the week 1 tutorials) uses a system of point called N.U.R.B.S. - (Non-Uniform Rational Basis Spline) an alternative to the mass amounts of points that go into modelling a curve in, say, SketchUp. Based on my previous experiences with computer design software such as AutoCAD, SketchUp and the Macromedia and Adobe suites, the interface was relatively easy to comprehend and follow in the videos. Although being used to the SketchUp orbiting tool, I found myself miscliking when trying to pan and orbit in the perspective view quite often, but seems to be something that I will get used to over time. The application seems to be very focused on the technical aspects of digital 3D modelling, as seen by the simultaneous projections of the model, and how seemingly powerful the application is.

I found the webinars embedded on the LMS very easy to follow, and the addition of their presenter’s Rhino files was a great help in fully understanding the different methods of creating surfaces. It really felt like a progression of learning, and although a lot of the information given was very basic stuff within the program, it was still nice to watch it be done, and then do it myself. A great aspect of the online video tutorials was the ability to really learn at my own pace; to re-watch the same section a couple times if I didn’t fully understand what was happening in the video. Overall, I am looking forward to working more with Rhino; it seems like a powerful program that I will be using a lot during the rest of my degree, and likely my career.


BEIGING NATIONAL THEATRE

PERSONAL

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CITY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES

STATE OF THE ART

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Santiago Calatrava’s City of Arts and Sciences in Valencia, Spain is not only state of the art in its sleek design, but also its functions as allowed by its architecture. The long complex, made of pure white concrete and shattered tiling, is devoted to both cultural and scientific dissemination. Classically seperate, this structured city is host to the multifunctional space of both. Its immense size provides a landmark to the city, relating with the water in a way of emergence; that the building was always there, but simply arose at the time of construction. The planetarium section of the complex, the pointed oval-shaped building (left), focuses on the windows pointing towards the sky, using thin, long supports to direct the eye’s attention to where it is pointing, using the building’s openings to create a directon.


HESSING SHOWROOM

STATE OF THE ART

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The luxury automobile showroom in Utrecht, the Netherlands, designed by ONL Oosterhui-Lénárd is a perfect example of how form can be developed from a function and a place using methods made available by computational architecting. Situated along the A2 highway, the extremely sleek design of the structure reflects the speed of its location, running along it in a streamlined fashion. It shows itself as iconic to the highway, presenting the qualities of the road it travels along. Similarly, its function as an automobile showroom has large influence on the form of the building. Much like a luxury car, the showroom looks fast, aerodynamic and powerful. It even slightly resembles a car, with the ‘open’ central cockpit representing the sleek top of the expensive and modern cars it displays inside. Using parametric scripting, ONL effectively described the building in two details informed by the 3D model: one describing the highway façade, and the other the acoustic barrier which makes up the opposite side of the structure. Reference points were extracted from the surfaces, visualizing all the elements of the exterior in simple tables, which are then run through CNC production machines to create all the parts of the building.


AN INTRODUCTION

GRASSHOPPER

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Grasshopper is a notably powerful plugin for the Rhino3D program introduced last week. What was quickly evident when first playing with the Grasshopper interface and elements was its ability to constantly and fluidly change extensively complex designs; the system of nodes below represents the multiple rotations of curves around the same curve. By simply changing the sliders, the design reacts in a rpedictable way, allowing the user to develop and explore the intricacies of the design. In a traditional modelling application (such as SketchUp or vanilla Rhino3D) changing the width of a certain element that is connected throughout the model would require a large amount of time and patience; however with Grasshopper, this is achieved by simply moving a slider and changing a number within the program. The possibilities for this plugin seem vast, and will no doubt be a staple environment for my future designs.


DIGITAL TEAHOUSE WORKSHOP

CASE FOR INNOVATION

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The Digital Teahouse Workshop held at the University of Tokyo in 2010 was a competition between three groups to produce a Japanese style tea house using the Grasshopper plugin for Rhino3D. The entirely computationally designed projects showed the varying designs of the same structure using parametric logic and concepts, as based on the differing interpretations of the brief. The constraints of the plywood offered unique challenges in the fabrication of the designs: one team etched lines in the flat CNC-routed plywood panels in order to allow them to be able to curve with the structure in waves, which would not be possible with a flat surface. Other teams decided to produce visual curves by incorporating gradual directional changes in the structure, which they adjusted to a fine point by modifying parametric values in grasshopper. As an overall, the teahouses produced made a compelling argument for the applicability of parametric design for both large and small installations, that an ideal result can be achieved not only faster, but to a higher precision.


THE WATER CUBE

CASE FOR INNOVATION

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“The Water Cube is one of the well recognized buildings in China where it was primarilly designed for the 2008 Olympics. It was also important to consider the use after the Olympics as a national aquatics centre.The building project of this architecture was important to express China’s growing international role. An international competition for the aquatics centre began in 2003 to find a design appropriate for the criteria. The current design of The Water Cube was able to win the competition as it was the most outstanding and feasible design and came up with a great concept inspired by soap bubbles. Even though the shapes of soap bubbles seem random, their nature always touch each other without leaving any empty spaces in between and are three dimentionally repeatable. However, to make a feasible Water Cube, there needed to be over a hundred of different ‘bubbles’. To create this numerous complicated shapes, parametric modelling had to be used. Its role as an ‘Olympics stadium’ and its publicity and advertisement of 2008 Olympics was not the only reason of the architecture’s discourse. The unique soap bubble structure suits well with its use as an aquatics centre and creates interesting aesthetics with its complicated patterns.” (Kim, 2012)


ANALYSING THE BRIEF

THE GATEWAY

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Based on the outlining of the brief, we identified four key considerations to take into account when researching and developing our design ideas. They were the prominent location of the site at the entry to metropolitan Melbourne, the sculpture as an iconic feature of the area, the use of the lighting in the area to create observable patterns and the taking of an experiential approach to our structure. The site is located on the Princes Freeway at the edge of the Wyndham urban growth boundary west of metropolitan Melbourne, and the design is to act as a gateway from the undeveloped plains of the west, into the Wyndham municipality. Based on this prominent location that acts as a changing point between the relaxed landscape to the west and the faster-paced Wyndham and Melbourne areas, the sculpture should reflect this through a combination of the sharp and soft ideas that represent the contrast. To contribute to architectural discourse and to stand as an eye-catching visual instalment, the sculpture needs to be iconic. In the context of the brief, the iconic qualities of the structure should represent its location (as described above) as well as its surrounding environment. As the sculpture is to be situated within the area of the Princes Highway, the iconic features involved should match the features of the highway. We have determined two main characteristics of the highway as iconic: speed and direction. In line with our previous considerations, we have decided to go against our sculpture being objectcentred and static, opting to adopt a more experiential approach to our thinking. An experiential structure involves or is based on experience and/ or observation; our sculpture should involve the audience and not just be shown to them. As such, we have focused our process on the relation of the sculpture to its audience; how it can change relative to not only the viewer’s location, but also their personal interpretation. Again in relation to speed and direction, the low-lying ground enabled us to consider the effect light has as it passes through a non-filled structure; specifically, shadows that would lie across the road. Based on the structure, the shadows crossing the road could invoke certain feelings in the driver at certain times of the day, as well as having potentially dynamic qualities; that is, not only does the shadow move throughout the day, but changes as well.


CREATING A MATRIX

CUT DEFINITIONS

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We began our design process by creating and critiquing a matrix of computational design definitions in Rhino3D and Grasshopper, producing a wide breadth of candidates that we could explore further in hopes of finding a base for our initial concept. The matrix consisted of input definitions (how the space is arranged), associative definitions (how the arrangement of space is modified) and output definitions (how the modified space is represented).


MULTIPLE MATHS FUNCTION MATHS FUNCTION

CURVE ATTRACTOR

POINT ATTRACTOR

ARBITRARY POINTS COMPONENTS EXTRUSION ROTATION


MULTIPLE MATHS FUNCTION MATHS FUNCTION

CURVE ATTRACTOR

POINT ATTRACTOR

BOOLEAN PATTERNING COMPONENTS EXTRUSION ROTATION


Extrusion

EXPLICIT GRIDS

Component

Rotation

Image Sampler

Maths Function

Multiple Maths Function

00

A R C H I T E C T U R E

D E S I G N

S T U D I O

Curve Attractor

SURFACE GRID ATTRACTOR POINT + COMPONENTS

CURVE ATTRACTOR + COMPONENT

IMAGE SAMPLER + COMPONENT

ATTRACTOR POINT + EXTRUDE

CURVE ATTRACTOR + EXTRUDE

IMAGESAMPLER + EXTRUDE

ATTRACTOR POINT + ROTATION

CURVE ATTRACTOR + ROTATION

IMAGE SAMPLER + ROTATION


The components output produced a system of curves along another curve, be it the same one or different, scaling them based on certain associative definitions. It produced a wide array of varying results; however they seemed to lack official clarity in their arrangement. Without an in-depth understanding of how they are produced, they risk being inaccessible to an average audience. Interesting as they may be, these abstract qualities were not exactly in line with our design focus. However, with further experimentation, these systems could align themselves with our focus. A system of arbitrary points across a surface or plane was one we decided to avoid after experimentation with it. Not only did it contrast with the ideas of parametric modelling that we focused on previously (by using human decision to constrain the design), but also did not appropriate with our consideration of the directive nature of the highway, immethodical.

Two explicit grid as an input is the arrangement of points in a square and hexagonal fashion, and how the associations and outputs react to this difference. When juxtaposed on top of one another, the hexagonal and square patterns create differing views as the perspective on the grid changes, which relates to the experiential qualities we are looking to produce in our structure. The image sampler association was the use of any image found to produce a varying result, based on the colour or darkness of certain parts of the image. We felt similarly to the image sampler as we did to the input of arbitrary points; it was too constrained by human intervention. There was little order involved in its representation.


OBSERVING THE OPTIONS

A STUDY IN MOIRE

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After our analysis on the matrix of definitions in Grasshopper and looking into the perspective differences created by overlapping surfaces and their potential to satisfy our design intent, we deemed them very similar to a moiré pattern. A moiré pattern is an interference pattern that is created when two or more grids of lines (be them curved or straight) are overlaid in a non-regular fashion. This can be achieved through different shapes of lines (for example, a grid of circles overlapping a grid of straight lines), different mesh sizes or the rotation of one of the grids. The pattern is created at the intersections of the lines, where they appear thicker due to the higher density in the area. Such intersections form patterns with neighbouring intersections, creating a virtual line through the grids. The moiré effect (which creates the patterns) is typically an undesired effect of digitally created or altered images, but can also be used to advantages; it can be both a positive and negative effect, crafted or unwanted. Seemingly merely a visual phenomenon created by the juxtaposition of two patterned elements, a fair amount of mathematics is involved (differing throughout the shapes being patterned), reflecting the iconic direction approach we are looking to achieve with our design. Although the effect is visible on two unmoving grids, its more interesting qualities come from one or both of those two grids moving. However, with spacing between the two patterns, the eye moving shifts the panels relative to the viewer, recreating the effect on a still structure. This allows for a dynamic moiré pattern to be structured into the construction, changing the pattern it produces as the perspective differs (through both the relative speed and location of the viewer to the sculpture), resulting in a sculpture that is fast, directive, dynamic and experiential in design. One important factor to note is that if there is to be a space between the two grid elements that form the moiré pattern, then the perspective of the viewer could potentially change the initial pattern. That is, the lines further away from the viewer would appear smaller due to them being further away, when in reality they are actually the same size as the ones closer to the viewer. This could change the pattern away from what is desired, unless it is duly accounted for.


To start our experimentations with moirÊ patterning, we again instituted a breadth approach by creating a matrix of patterns that showcased some basic elements and how they interact with each other through changing variables. We didn’t just look at the shapes of the interacting lines, but also the thickness, angle and how far apart they were spaced. Once again we selected certain resulting patterns that both satisfied and avoided our design intent, critiquing them for further investigation.

thick lines into thick lines basic open/close, like shutters same width = full open, full close

thin lines into thick lines semi close/semi open never fully closed, never fully open, thinner lines moving between thicker


thin spaced lines into thick lines same as thin into thick, but with intermittent breaks

thin spaced lines into thin spaced lines open/close but with a large amount of time spent open as gap is larger relative to line thickness


thick lines into thick circles creates a repeating “opening� sector pattern perpendicular to the interfering lines thin lines into thick circles same deal, but pattern is much less pronounced as there is always a gap between the two geometries


15 degree thick lines into thick circles same as first circle pattern, but a bit slower as lines take longer to be placed in the same spot (at same horizontal speed)

45 degree thick lines into thick circles same same but slower once again


thick circles into thick circles

thin circles into thck circles

creates “opening” pattern in centre, reverberates around entire combined geometry

“opening” pattern not visible, but shapes made from the gaps are very pronounced


thin circles into thin circles same as first but hyper mode (faster, more, etc)

thin spaced circles into thin spaced circles same deal with lines, still there but little interference


128 line radial into same crazy intricate patterns all over the shop

64 line radial into same less patterns, but clearer


32 line radial into same

thin spaced circle into 16 line radial

again less patterns, too many to be pronounced it seems

some patterning, trumped by the difference in geometries


Our initial generalised views were that lines that were similar (but not necessarily an exact) thickness and distance apart seemed to produce more pronounced patterns within themselves, whilst lines that were exceedingly different thicknesses and distances apart had patterns that were very vague and hardly noticeable; on a high-speed highway these light patterns would be overlooked and lost. Rotation of lines into lines The rotation of a set of lines into a similar set of lines shows the shrinking of the moirĂŠ lines into themselves as the angle of rotation between the grids increases (or the stretching of lines as the angle decreases). Although an interesting concept, the rotation of one grid without the other cannot be plausibly achieved in a static structure. Lines into circles The introduction of a set of lines into a set of circles creates a very interesting opening/closing effect that runs horizontally against the vertical lines, matching the flow of the highway. The speed at which the moirĂŠ lines open and close is determined by the speed at which the grids pass each other (represented by the speed at which the motorist travels). Lines into lines The movement of lines between lines created a very simplistic shutter-like opening and closing, which we determined to although have relevance to the vectorial (created by speed and direction) qualities we were looking to achieve, its pattern was too basic and uninteresting to be developed beyond that. Radials in general Lines arranged in a radial fashion superimposing on each other produced very intricate and omnidirectional curves in their boundaries, but this effect was overshadowed by the extreme clutter that developed at their centres. This clutter looks out of place in relation to the cleanliness of the surrounding ellipses to the point where it almost overshadows the moirĂŠ pattern created, resulting in a very undesirable connection.


DEFINING A TYPE

A STUDY IN MOIRE

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Based on the horizontal directional and easily distinguishable patterning qualities of the moiré effect created by the juxtaposition of a group of circles of varying radii with a grid of lines moving into them, we decided to have a more in-depth look at why this particular effect is created, and what the altering of variables within it produces, finding some very interesting. Based on a pre-existing paper Research on the Moiré fringes formed by circular and linear grating (Chen et al 2011), we discerned that the spacing of the lines played an important role in the moiré patterning visible between circles and lines. A succinct summary of the paper is the focus on two variables, P and a, where P is the distance between the circles and a is the distance between the parallel lines (summarised visually below). Three distinct shapes were realised when changing the variable P (the distance between the parallel lines) against a static a. When the ratio P/a was greater than 1 (that is, when P > a), ellipses formed horizontally along the grids. When the ratio P/a was equal to 1 (that is, when P = a), parabolas formed, focusing to the centre of the circle. When the ratio P/a was less than 1 (that is, when P < a), hyperbolas formed, focusing to the centre of the circle. However, when the ratio P/a became too far away from 1, the patterns became difficult to distinguish, resulting in the need to care for the distances. This radical change in moiré patterning based solely on the distance between parallel lines prompted us to develop a parametric definition in Rhino3D and Grasshopper that would allow us greater control over the variables involved and the outcomes produced.


The definition we created in Grasshopper had six useful variables: P, the distance between the centres of the parallel lines, a, the distance between the centres of the circular lines, the thickness of the parallel lines, the thickness of the circular lines, the number of parallel lines and the number of circular lines. This enabled us to quickly test a large number of various iterations of the created patterns in real time by merely moving a slider. On reflection of the potential issue (brought up in the introduction to the moiré effect) that due to the viewer’s distance from each grid of lines they would see a different pattern than what was intended on a flat surface, our experimentation with the moiré grasshopper definition presented an exceptionally exciting solution. We noticed that as the parallel lines became closer together (that is, as P decreased); the moiré pattern would quickly turn from ellipses into parabolas. However, with calculated spacing between the parallel lines and the circular lines, the viewer’s perspective of how many parallel lines were attributed to how many circular lines would be relative to their position. Somebody standing on the side of the parallel lines would see many circular lines for every parallel line, as the circular lines would be further away, appearing smaller to the viewer in relation to the parallel lines. However, somebody standing on the side of the circular lines would see the opposite; more parallel lines for every circular line. With sensitive variables such as P and a, this effect compounds into a viewer on the circular side seeing hyperbolas, whilst at the same time a viewer on the parallel line side seeing ellipses. The way these two moiré patterns change as the viewer moves across horizontally relates perfectly into changing views depending on whether or not the sculpture is viewed coming into the city, or whether they are leaving the city. The sharpness of the moving hyperbolas would relate the driver coming into the fast-paced nature of Melbourne city, whereas opening ellipses would give a softer feeling, ideal for somebody travelling away from the commotion of the city. To visualise this idea, we rendered perspective views of the two different sides of the concept in Rhino, showing the dramatic change that occurs just by being on the other side of the sculpture.


BANQ RESTAURANT

REALISING A MODEL

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“The design intent of BANQ Restaurant shows layers of contour lines on top of each other and this to shows curving shapes that resemble waves or carved out sediments affected by the movement of water. The form itself creates calming sensation in the environment and also the changes in the shapes and physical form shows interesting silhouette. This silhouette can be affected by different directions and strengths of light creating soft and beautiful shades that shows strong silhouette depending on the lighting source. We want to focus on it’s movement and changes in form and how it affects the shadows and silhouette with changes in the light source. We were given definitions to experiment on with parametrics and to explore and focus on the ideas, such as movement, silhouette and speed, we reverse engineered BANQ Restaurant (as it had similar design intent) to generate and extend our ideas. Data Driven Component was the major definition that reflected our ideas of various curve lines. From these lines created, we made surfaces and subtracted surfaces in between the lines to create a form - which then repulicated and layed them on top of each other to see the form it creates. We needed to experiment with the lighting and the silhouette, so a physical model had to be made. The overlapping of the shadows of the physical model creates interesting silhouette. If cars were to drive through it, it could create flickering of lights, increasing sense of speed and movement. This process was taken to generate ideas and this was not enough to create contour lines that we intended, so we moved on to creating different Grasshopper definitions.” (Kim, 2012)


“Using the Moire patterning and the BANQ Restaurant contours as concept, we were able to combine these two ideas together to generate this parametric model using the definition above. The steps taken: 1. Two thin boxes were drawn on Rhino layered next to each other. 2. The front facade will show the contour lines inspired by BANQ Restaurant. By using the commands ‘Rebuild’ and ‘PointsOn’, the surface of the front box became free to change the form to create the contour. 3. We used the above definitions to create linear Y-Z contour lines on the boxes.” (Kim, 2012)


PART II: PROJECT PR


ROPOSAL

Journey towards a final design proposal


NARROWING A DIRECTION

DESIGN CONCEPT

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After our Expression of Interest presentation, we began to organise the conceptual foundations of our work to properly incorporate them into a full design. We wanted to explore how we could incorporate into the sculpture our refined ideas:

The location fo the site and its relation to the relaxed landscape to the west and the faster-paced Melbourne area to its east. The characteristics of the highway, namely speed and direction. How the viewerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s location and personal experience can not only change their interpretation of the sculpture, but also modify its characteristics. The moirĂŠ effect and how it can achieve the above intentions in combination with differing concepts

With these ideas in mind, we began to construct a physical embodiment for the site.


We wanted to see if we could take two patterns that when combined produce a moiré effect, and disrupt them in a way that would relate to the site and not simply be, well, two flat panels. We did this by using the definition created during our moiré experimentations and changing their form by ways of trimming and morphing. We evolved the structure from the ground, and curved it around mirrored lines to have the sculpture similar to the 2D view of a prolate spheroid, resulting in interesting patterning changes.

Although the model showed us first hand on how visually applicable moiré patterning can be, overall we were not pleased with it. Although a highway is a generally linear concept (getting from point A to point B as quickly as possible), the design was too simple. A moiré pattern was used to create the design instead of being as a result of it. To properly materialise our design intentions, we needed to look at additional dynamic concepts that can build with our existing design to create something new.


TURBULENT VORTICES

DESIGN CONCEPT

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To overcome the limitations in our initial concept model, I once again looked at the characteristics of the highway, as well as attempting to link them to the core idea of the studio; air. It was when I started thinking more heavily about the viewerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s form when I started to note that they disrupt the elements on the highway; air as an object is modified by the driver along the highway. The sound of the air rushing past oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s car is very pronounced at high speeds, and even creates a system of vortices around the vehicle. the creation of a vortex (a spinning and often turbulent flow of fluid, such as air) is when a fluid flows past an obstacle, creating an area of low pressure behind the flow, causing the fluid to be attracted to that area, rotating in the process. In figure 2.1.2, the low pressure area is shown in blue, with the flow of the air shown in red. As the flow of air passes the low pressure area, it is attracted into it, forming vortices behind the vehicle.

Side on, these vortices show the dynamic and changing flow of the highly-irregular turbulence created along the passing vehicle. These curves are different for every single car driving along the highway (even ones of the same model, as the non-zero wind vector would slightly alter its course), as well as aerodynamically-designed cars showing little drag due to their form. As the patterns of these curves are shown to be static, they are inherently dynamic, creating a stronger link between the design and the highway, as well as opening new avenues for experimentation between these and the moirĂŠ effect.


VORTICES CHARACTERISED

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

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In order to start producing a form from my refined concepts, I took a closer look at the delicate curves that formed from vortices; how they are defined and how those characteristics can elevate the curve out from a 2D plane. I determined the most important elements of the curves to be: Arbitrary chaos Because the curves can be shaped as an infinite amount of possiblities (as described in the concept section of this journal), and their flow is highly irregular, it is possible to create arbitrary curves based on the underlying concept; still represntative of the [NAME HERE]. This allows for a lot more freedom in the design process, as well as keeping the core mathematical principles true. Flowing curvature An integral part of any curve is its curvature (represented by the circles in figures 2.2.1 and 2.2.2); the degree to which it deviates from a straight line or plane. Taking the curvature at points along the length of the curve creates a set of angles that change with the curve, increasing as it turns and decreasing as it flattens. Overall length Due to the possibly arbitrary nature of the curves, their lengths will also differ between each other, and the changing nature of these distances can be used to vary each curve, affecting each one differently to display a dynamic similarity.

As I thought more about the nature of the [NAME HERE] moving along the cars, I especially noted their visibility; you do not see the lines, although they are there as a hidden feature. Following this notion, I decided against have the lines visibly patterned with each other to create a moirĂŠ effect (which too closely resembled our failed initial concept model), but rather to have the lines lie on a plane. This would allow me to develop a sculpture from the curves, whilst at the same time hiding them from the immediate view of the drivers, instead holding them as an underlying feature that would only be realised with further investigation by the viewer.


Based on the characteristics of these curves, it was possible to use Grasshopper to define the elements of the curves, and used those values in a 3-step process: inputs, associations and outputs.

Input - curves A curve drawn in Rhino (or created in Grasshopper) is referenced, and then the length is divided for a specific, changeable distance between the points. The points of division along the curve have three properties; their location in XYZ space, their tangent vectors along the curve, and their parameter values.

Association - defining a length The midpoint of the curveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s overall length is evaluated, then the distance between the division points and the overall midpoint is calculated. As this would create a smaller length closer to the midpoint, the distance is made negative, square rooted (to produce a clean height curve), and remapped into a suitable domain. This process is repeated to smooth out the height curve. Output - creating geometry The division points, length and angle associations are fed into a line function, where a square situated along the tangent plane is swept along these lines, creating solid geometry that flows with the curve, opening and closing depending on theangle of curvature.


Association - defining an angle New vectors are created at the division points on planes perpendicular to each tangent vector, then rotated inversely proportional to the radius of each circle of curvature for that point (after the angle of rotation is remapped into a suitable domain).


CREATING A LINK

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

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Because the Grasshopper definition exlplained on the previous pages works with any curve inputted from Rhino, it is possible to create a large selection of curves to test with each other extremely easily; any arbitrarily drawn line can yield interesting and varied results. This allowed me to thoroughly test the interactions between multiple groups of geometries and analyze the results. Due to the dynamic nature of the uprights and how the distance between them and their angle changes based on their location on the curve, the different groups of uprights played very excitingly off of each other. The relation of vertical lines and more angled ones produced greatly varying and interesting moire effects throughout the intersections of their silhouettes, linking back to our initial moirĂŠ concept.


Plan

South elevation


Material I chose a lightweight plastic for this sculpture, as it saves cost by having less steel beams and concrete in construction, as well as being durable and flexible in colour. Colour Very dark grey; contrasts well against the light sky during the daytime, as well as the soft glow of the city lights during the night-time.

Size and scale 800mm thickness at 4000mm centres Thin enough to enable moire effect, yet thick enough to be durable and noticeable at high speeds. 1m to 20m tall, as the setback from the road is rather far, enables the sculpture to appropriately stand out. 600m long: takes up almost the entirety of Site A to give the fullest possible experience equally to both sides of traffic.


CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

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The first step of construction is to excavate the pre-existing hill that is currently on site, as it will interfere with the lateral visual effects presented by the sculpture. The proposed structure replaces the curves of the hill, ensuring the elemnt does not disappear completely.

Lateral section 800mm x 800mm lightweightplastic column 200mm x 200mm (or to str. eng. spec.s) hollow square steel beam to provide bracing on both axis steel bolt connection column and beam in pre-cut joints

Construction process

Concrete poured and set around steel beam and appropriately weatherproofed

Excavated ground ready for sculpture construction

Hole bored to depth for suitable soil strength (consult geotechnical engineer) and supported with round cardboard tubing

Hollow square steel beam (to structural engineerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s spec.s) inserted into borehole with temporary supports

Plastic column with pre-cut hollow interior (slightly larger than steel beam) aligned with crane

Plastic column accurately slid onto steel beam and connected to concrete and appropriately weatherproofed

Bolts attached through plastic column and steel beam for structural support, and finished with PlastiBond


FABRICATION

MODEL CONSTRUCTION

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The ability to physically create such a structure was in mind when creating and laying out the design in the Rhino workspace. As the pieces of the structure were seperated into approximately 400 different objects in Rhino, thought must be put in before fabrication of the sculpture was even possible. Laser cutting was the best way to make this sculpture: it could be defined on a 2D plane, and the laser would allow for a high precision of the angles, enabling a smooth-flowing physical model. Each piece being a simple square column made this process a lot easier: the objects were exploded, the surface on the tangent plane was extracted manually, and the initial surface was deleted. This produced a structure comprising of flat surfaces rather than solids, allowing me to utilise a user-made Rhino script that unrolled all surfaces in a selected group of objects into sets of edge curves, which could rapidly be placed onto a flat plane to be cut. Once each piece was unrolled, the rest of the fabrication process was simple. The size of the objects allowed for them to be easily nested, grouping them so that their edges would align (with duplicate edges removed as to not burn the material), and reference numbers were made for each piece to keep track of what goes where with a reference number added on each object in the 3D model. Using the bases of the XY plane in the 3D model, reference boxes were etched onto seperate pieces of plywood to show where and how each column should be placed. Etches of the road lines were also added to show the sculptureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s context.


ASSEMBLY

MODEL CONSTRUCTION

_2_3


PHOTOGRAPHY

FINAL DESIGN PROPOSAL

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PART III: LEARNING O


OBJECTIVES

To see


Most of the learning that I did throughout this semester is expressed in the first 2 parts of my journal; I relfected upon myself whilst completing the objectives, and wanted to keep my journal in clean chronological order, so it appears to be more of a journey. I plan on reading through this journal when I am older to see where I have come from with my new skillset. That being said, there were a few hiccups with this subject this semester, which I plan on avoiding in the future... not so much avoiding, but overcoming without falter. I have learnt some very valuable things from this subject, most notably parametric modelling and laser cutting to fabricate a model. I actually had a lot of fun in Grasshopper, moving away from the provided definitions to try and creating something dynamic on my own, which I believe I achieved. The final model I submitted was easily the best architecture model I have done to date; I am not usually a fan of arbitrary curves in my work (in a previous journal I noted that I was more geometrically-inclined towards simpler shapes and the combinations therein), and the turnout of this design will no doubt give me many ideas for my future works. Carl Madsen.

Architecture Design Studio: Air Journal  

Architecture Design Studio: Air Journal

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