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STUDIO AIR TUTOR: PAUL LOH, LECTURER: ALISON

ON DIGITAL

ARCHITECTURE AN EXPLORATION ON PARAMETRIC DESIGN


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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This journal is a record of my progress understanding of digital architecture, especially parametric design in architecture. Special thanks should be given to my tutor Paul and lecturer Alison, for not only leading me to a new world of virtual environments but supporting me in the presentation with all the kindness and warm cares. Also, Bond and Aland, nice being in a group with you guys. Hope our cooperation would rock out a nice result in the end. Just keep going!


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CONTENT STUDIO AIR 1

CONTEXT AND INTRODUCTION ARCHITECTURE’S NEW DISCOURSE

COEXISTENCE OF THE DIGITAL AND THE REAL SEATTLE CENTRAL LIBRARY

FABRICATION AND ARTICULATED FACADE DE YOUNG MUSEUM

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ON PARAMETRIC DESIGN MODELLING

COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE: ROLE OF COMPUTER IN ARCHITECTURE DESIGN FORM FINDING COMPUTING IN BIOMIMICRY KINETIC

SCRIPTING IN ARCHITECTURE

FABRICATION INNOVATION -A SECOND REVOLUTION

4 CUT CASE STUDY 2 REVERSE ENGINEERING ELAVULATING OF FORM

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BIOMIMICRY VORONIOR CELLULAR AUTOMAREVERSE ENGINEERING METRIX OF METHODOLOGY

METRIX OF CHOOSEN METHODOLOGY FURTHER IDEA DEVELOPMENT


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PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

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3D MODELING AND RATIONALIZATION DEFINE BOUNDARY VIEW CULLING OCULLUS CULLING

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CONCEPT FORMATION CHOSEN TECHNIQUE

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FABRICATING LAZER CUT 3D PRINT

PERSONAL FEEDBACK

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PREVIOUS GRASSHOPPER TRIAL AND RETHINKING

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REFERENCE

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1.1 ARCHITECTURE’S DISCOURSE


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ARCHITECTURE’S DISCOURSE IN PREVIOUS WORKS

ARCHITECTURE AS VISUAL ART ARCHITECTURE AS A PROFESSION ARCHITECTURE AS PSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENON ARCHITECTURE AS CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

WHAT IS ARCHITECTURE?

WHY STUDY ARCHITECURE DISCOURSE ?

The first project I did in my architecture career was the headpiece project. By designing, modelling and fabricating a headpiece in sketch-up, I started to step my first step into the realm of architecture. I think this project sets a good example in exemplify how far the architecture discourse can go. The headpiece is neither a traditionally perceived building, nor a sophisticated structure. ‘Is it architecture?’ I asked myself.

form of visual art, should be regarded as a discourse of architecture. ( Rampley, 2005,p103)

Can it be architectural? The thinking on ‘whether it belongs to architecture’ lies on the question: WHAT IS ARCHITECTURE?

The second project shown here is a public civil project: a water remediation center for a small city, Berkeley, near San Francisco. The concept of this project is to create an intertwining ‘land bridge’, through which water is remediated. The building strokes both vertically and horizontally between the two existing land bridges and its function goes beyond its actual function as water treatment

Dating back to mid 20th, Nikolaus Pevsner claims that ‘…architecture is the most comprehensive of all the visual arts and has a right to claim superiority over the others.’ In this respect, headpiece, as a

However, with the rise of functionalism and for the aim of maximum profits in global capitalism, some shopping malls, petrol stations and skyscrapers go the opposite way where visual arts should go. Here, architecture is more a ‘complex social and professional practice.’ ( Rampley, 2005,p6)


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plant. It creates a psychological connection between the people accessing from two sides of the building through the negative space it creates when stroking. In this design, each fold suggests strong directional view to the surrounding view, aiming to engage people in the unified space it creates. I summaries this project into a discourse as a profession. As the building designed here needs to be finished with the collaboration between different industries and subtrades. Also, interms of design concepts, I think it belongs to architecture’s social and psychological discourse. Richard Williams states that architecture is not only a matter of materials, but it is ‘as much as a philosophical, social or professional realm’. ( Rampley, 2005,p103)Despite the traditional attitudes that appreciate architecture as a form of art, people should more regard it as experience and engagement. Here, architecture is not isolated as merely sumptuous facades and steady structures. It concerns more about how people would move within the space, how accumulated effects reflect on their minds, how would people make decisions within the system that the architect designed. As in my mind, architecture is a humanized approach in reflecting human culture. From the prehistory bungalows, shabby shelters to the sensitive poetic gestures spring in our surroundings, those structures are like mirrors, reflecting the social needs among the generations. With buildings and avenues define our movements, building façade evoke our feelings, multifunction malls meet out need for social connecting, architecture can be labelled as part of human culture. Despite architecture as a piece of art and a profession, sometimes we can see architects design furniture, such as lamps, chairs, textiles, glassware and tables. They conclude these small scale structures as ‘a total work of art’. For example, during the Bauhaus period, architects’ concern about a ‘Gesamtkunstwerk’ can explain how broad architecture discourse can exist. Each piece of furniture advocates the designers’ theories: Alavar Aalto’s chair and organic shape glass speaks out his concern about organic while Mies’s world renowned table is another example of ‘less is more’. Thus the third studio work I choose here is a trampoline I made last semester. It is hard to say if a trampoline belongs to the discourse of architecture, but consider the elaborated joints we made when designing the trampoline, the discourse, I assume, lies in the construction discourse in architecture, where joints are designed according to materials, functions and appearance.


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ARCHITECTURE’S NEW DISCOURSE Nowadays, we are in a time of transition, where computer work is gradually substituting the place of paper work. Some digital architecture is hard to be categorised into either a piece of art, a profession or construction details. The urge to look back at architecture’s discourse owes to Patrik Schumacher’s call for a new discourse in architecture – ARCHITECTURE AS A SYSTEM OF COMMUNICATION.( Patrik, 2011) In his ‘Introduction: Architecture as Autopoietic System', he argues that architecture is a closed system of communication , where ‘ ‘… distinct elemental COMMUNICATIONS of architecture functions as DESIGN DECISIONS, and the distinction of FORM VS FUNCTION is the LEADDISTINCTION of the discipline, while the inter-articulation of the values of UTILITY AND BEAUTY is understood to constitute the code that secures the discipline’s operational closure.’ (Patrik, 2011, p10) Both discourses of architecture - as a form of art and as a profession- need communication. The communication can be traditionally paper work; can be verbal presentation and arguments; and can be an exhibition. Schumacher lists the communication as sketches, drawings, CAD files, renderings, buildings, photographs of buildings, as well as face to face communications to discuss a design, academic seminar contributions and lectures. Communications will ensure the client visualise and understand the design idea and help them to make decision. Within 70years’ development of digital architecture, computer has become a mean of communication in this industry. With the help of computer, architects can draw out more complex forms and accordingly they will seek ways to build what they’ve drawn out.

SEATTLE CENTRAL LIBRARY

COEXISTENC

"The stacks, arranged along a continuous spiral ramp contained within a four-story slab, reinforce a sense of a world organized with machine-like precision." Nicolai Ouroussoff Los Angeles Times

The reason I like OMA’s Seattle public library is not only for its delicate construction details,its foldIn identifying and understanding various aspects of ing form( that follows function), but, most imporarchitecture’s discourse, I realised that architecture tantly, how architect speaks out his convictions in is a not only about arts, structures, professions, but the time of digital architecture. The Seattle public it is a comprehensive study of a system. The system library is said to reveal an intention to confront the dilemmas of producing architecture in digital era can includes series social and political issues, construction technologies, aesthetic values, interpreta- by playing with spatially and temporarily excittions of forms and functions, communication tools, ing visual scheme rather than simply decorating a etc. Below are two buildings I choose to discuss my building’s façade. thinking in contemporary architecture discourse ‘Instead of demoting architecture into mere backdrop for immersive digital media, Rem Koolhaas provides visually engaging urban experiences in


11 DISCOURSE as city qualities ‘Within the building one can find many of the qualities that could be found when travelling in a city, such as simultaneity, vibrancy and voyeurism.’ (Murphy 2006) Koolhass pushes the simultaneity of by visually exposing different program elements at the same stage. I like his strategies in creating multi-visual experience and temporarily visual illusion at the same time. This approach can be seen as a new architecture discourse negotiating with both old and new. DISCOURSE as social needs Since the library tries to accommodate all the possible types of patrons that will utilize the library, the Seattle public library confronts the issue in treating homeless people humanized and equalized. The building itself is rich in space and every program is designed openly under one edifice, thus there is little isolated areas, which makes the building feel user-friendly, safe and diverse.(Vaneessa, 2006) In this regards, I think the library reflects another layer of architecture discourse as a social need.

CE OF THE DIGITAL AND THE REAL real time and space’. says Amy Murphy( 2006) I see the Seattle public library as a blend of both virtual and actual experience. The architect tries to dissolve the conflicts between digital technology and traditional technology (being threatened by new technologies.) The exterior grid, neatly wielded and bolted together, can be seen as a construction discourse, which falls into an old school architecture discourse. However, taking a closer inspection, the translucent facade here is trying to solve the distinctions between the inside virtual space and outside city fabric. The facade attempts to confirm user’s actual site in the city fabric. Upon entering the library, users will experience the spatial contrast of ‘a civic destination’ and ‘conceptual intersection of space’. The richness of spatial experience Koolhass creates( through sectional layering of many visually connected spaces ) falls into psychological discourse.

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1. I like the visual illusion the library creates in forming a contrast with the spatial identity within the urban context 2.3. The richness of spatial experiences in this library enhance its discourse as visual arts 4. neatly wielded steel grid exemplifies a discourse as construction details


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DE YOUNG MUSEUM

FABRICATION AND ARTICULATED FACADE

DISCOURSE as materials and fabrication

Despite the striking form with a dramatically extruded ‘chimney structure’, de young museum is famous for its experimentation with materials in their designs. The choice of local material, such as copper, wood, stone and glass allows the design to merge into the land it occupies. Wood flooring and finishes create a warm atmosphere that attracts visitors from room to room, while the cooper façade is the most interesting part of the design. I appreciate how the materials are manipulate in order to blend the building into local surroundings. Due to oxidation process, copper will rust into green, which will slowly fade into its natural surroundings. The project uses the perforation and debossing techniques on the façade in achiev-

ing the effect of natural light filtering through a canopy of trees. In this case, architecture can be understood as a display of materials and new technologies. Though Richard argued that architecture should not be seen as a mass of materials, the ‘material discourse’ here means ‘architecture can be interpreted as how human manipulate materials and fabricate out their ideas wisely.’ The issue of how people manipulate materials and fabricate out the form they want is crucial, especially in the digital architecture era, where many of the seamless structures are produced on screen yet hard to fabricate out. Ben pell used to argues the importance of fabrication in architecture:


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‘However, by the end of the decade a series of rough translations from the virtual to the real challenged the easy plasticity of these seamless digital surfaces, making apparent the difficulties of transitioning an otherwise freely complex form into logics of fabrication and assembly. ‘ (Ben Pell, 2010) I think the discourse of using new construction technology and materials will exist long in architecture industry as form will always be informed by new technologies that are available. Think about the Sydney opera house where for the first time that computer analysis method was used in architecture design. The use of digital technology allows the Sydney opera house shoots higher with elegant shell structure.


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To summarise the two building examples I choose, they both explore the notion ‘digital architecture’ to certain extent. Seattle public library is a negotiation between virtual and actual experience. It creates rich visual illusions that make the visitors feel their existence in the digital age while avoiding being criticised as superfacial. While De Young Museum finds its way in exploring new fabrication techniques as a respond to digital architecture design. The discourse of these two building lies not only as land arts, an organised trade, exhibition of new materials and technologies, but also as an announcement of one’s architecture conviction. I appreciate how these two architectures speak out themselves, yet still keep their humble attitudes in the age when digital architecture is so overwhelming. For the gateway project, I want to keep the idea of negotiating between virtual and actual experiences. Thus the discourse of the gateway is not only interpreted as merely art work as decorating façade but a psychological phenomenon. At the mean time, I want to keep exploring the use of new technologies in materials and fabrication., as I think the fabrication and construction has always played a central role in architectural discourse.


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1.2 COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE


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1.2 COMPUTING IN ARCHITECTURE

THE CURRENT TRANSITION FROM COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN TO COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN IN ARCHITECTURE REPRESENTS A PROFOUND SHIFT IN DESIGN THINKING AND THE METHODS. ACHIM MENGES

FROM COMPUTERIZATION TO COMPUTING - ROLE OF COMPUTER IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN As discussed in the introduction of this journal, computer plays an important role in nowadays architecture industry. Architects are prone to rely on computers to share information, communicate design ideas and search precedents due to its nature of precision and rationalization. In the design phases, computer’s role ranges from drafting and modelling system, to analytical system (such as energy and fire analysis). (Kalay, 2004) In the above situation discussed, computers is constrained into more a RATIONAL ANALYTICAL ENGINE AND MEANS OF COMMUNICATION that has little to do with the design concept and a lack of creativity calls for another computational design system which is ‘intelligent’.

An intelligent computational design system can PROPOSE DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR APPRAISAL AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT BY HUMAN DESIGNERS. (Kalay, 2004, P6) Kalay referred this method of seeking result as puzzle making rather than problem solving. That is, instead of seeking the result according to the problem directly, computer will produce series of possibilities that may be the result of the problem according to the provided logic. (p15) The latter approach utilised computers’ fast speed and precision, and can make up computer’s disadvantage of lacking creativity. It produces vast possibilities of design outcome and passes on the decision making process to human. This will cut down designer’s time in exploring results manually on their own and

computer itself can generates more complex form according to its nature of precision. Furthermore, in the fabrication phase, computer can help the construction process to keep track of the process and alert to potential inconsistencies and errors. Computer helps the fabrication process in various ways, but loosely falls into 3 categories: panel cutting (which I interpreted as laser cutting), subtractive fabrication and additive fabrication.( Jacobo,p34) all of them provide a ‘file- to – factory’ way for digital model fabrication. Cutting refers back to the idea of penalization that can help with parsing complex sur-


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face into smaller buildable components. But some information lost during the transition process of breaking a seamless digital model into a rigid wireframed language. i think this issue is a very important problem for nowadays digital architecture that during the fabrication process, the main idea of the design is lost due to constrain of fabrication method. In order to keep the smoothness of their virtual predecessors, some architects choose to use CNC (computer numerical controlled), which allows architects to control over processes of a full scale. STUDNET WORK FROM UNI MELB FABLAB But the application of CNN is limited due to technical constrains. Sometimes when the installation is too big in scale, it is hard to fabricate out with CNC mills. Despite all the constrains computer faced in fabrication process, addictive fabrication(also known as rapid prototyping) find its ways in constructing more complex forms in larger scale. ( Jacobo,p35) Guggenheim museum in Bilbao sets a good example in how large structures is fabricated using GPS to position each elements. This cannot be realised by using traditional measuring techniques. ‘TVERRFJELLHYTTA’, NORWEGIAN WILD REINDEER CENTER

PAVILION In conclusion, computer is playing a more and more important role in architecture from just being communication and storage tool, to engaging in the design process. Its function goes far beyond drafting and analysing tools. It speeds up people’s design process, provides more variations of design outcomes and can help to construct structure that cannot be done in the past. However, in my opinion, computing in fabrication still needs more development in order to catch up its step in designing great virtual models. Architects should build what they draw, otherwise, the discourse of digital architecture can just lies on screen.

In the following spreads i will cfurther discuss the innovations computers bring to architectural design process, and how I think them should related1 to the gateway project. 2 3

GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM IN BILBAO 1,2,3 all illustrates the use of computer in architecture fabrication 1. installation created from 2 dimentional elements 2. CNC fabrication and its constrains 3. GPSf abrication makes construction of complex forms in large scale possible


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DIGITAL MODELLING SOFTWARE HAS OPENED NEW TERRITORIES OF FORMAL EXPLORATION IN ARCHITECTURE. - KOLAREVIC (2003)

COMPUTNG IN FORMAL FINDING - GENERATIVE & RECURSIVE

MARC FORNES THE VERY MANY The innovations that computer brought to architecture design process is numerous: from formal exploration to performance analysis. Here I am interesting in how computer generate geometries in a closed, self performance system. I like the recursive growth idea behind this project, which makes me think of last week’s reading where Patric Schmacher points out that architecture is a close system of communication. In this recursive system, the defining logic applies to the logic it defines. The communication method, which I think, in this design, refers to the ‘defining function’, is the design decision. Thus, computer in this design create tremendous complex yet interesting geometry that is impossible to control by direct manual manipulation. Though the formal and geometry discourse never fades in the architecture discourse, computing architecture cannot just be criticised as a form finder. It is not just being framed in the aesthetical discourse. Below are two l discourse I found interesting in using computers- Biomimicry and Kinetic. 1

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1. Computer helps the design to generates various design outcomes through rational logics 2. Visualisation of the main wind-flow around proposed building. In this stage, computers help to analysis and evaluate the design outcomes 3. Computers in exploring formal complexity


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BIOLOGICAL SELF ORGANIZATION

COMPUTER ANALYSIS ON STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF PLANT

Computers are used to model and analyze the cellular patterns and structural performance in biological structures. This project studies the geometrical morphologies and cellular organisations of plants’ cells when they are responding to stress. A study of these patterns and components can improve the architecture structure by using weak material to make strong and robust structures. (Michael Hensel,p27) ) Digital models are of value in understanding the structural performance of plants, and the construction of appropriate digital models enables analysis by experiment virtually. By using computers as a modeling

and analyzing tool, designers will understand components’ hierarchies and adaptive strategies of biological structures easily, and this also permits the exploration of the mechanical performance of growth under stress. The most interesting result of this project I think is that computing analysis found that the occurrence of certain small, simple components in the process of self-organization is remarkable and each cell assembles together in 3-d patterns to form a larger organization. (Michael Hensel,p28)

I find this idea interesting not only because the cellular formation idea in larger scale will create rich spatial experience, but also a structure built on this logic will save many materials and yet still be strong. This idea particular suits for the gateway project where minimised budgets is desirable. In mimicking the biological performance, the installation will save much budget, but still be elegant and robust.

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1. Three-dimensional models of the morphology and internal fibre architecture of a bamboo stem 2. Kinetic sculpture outcomes forming


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THE KINETIC SCULPTURE

BMW KINECT SCULPTURE MUNICH ART+ COM

materials: metal spheres kinetic factor: steel + electronic The kinetic sculpture interesting display the process of design inspiration and decision making through visually communication process. I appreciate how the kinetic sculpture creates an artistic visualisation of the process of form-finding in actual space and time. With the help of computer, the visual exhibition is a negotiation between virtual and actual. This character can refer back to my interest in the first week in Seattle Public Library.

One could argue that in this project, computer has nothing to do with the design process, but I think the use of computer in this design is wise but tricky. It departs away from traditional computer form finding process and provides viewers with different possibilities of outcomes during the exhibition. The ‘outcome of the design’ lies differently in everyone’s’ perspective depending on personal interpretation. The design releases an open outcome with various possibilities and let the viewers to decide the final one. The idea was pointed out by Schumacher: ‘Design decision lies in communication.’

Controlled by computer and electronic, the precise coordinates of every sephere is mapped out and directed to move over time. With the precise calculation of computer, the whole installation move precisely within time and space. I appreciate this design as the way it narrates the story and interacts with the viewers with greater appealing, evoking more emotional responds. In this view, the discourse of kinetic sculpture lies not only in computing, kinetics, form finding but also a psychological phenomenon.

I would like to pass on this unique discourse in the gateway project in forming a spatial and time experience negotiating between virtual and actual. Also, I would like to pass on this design idea of ‘ letting the viewer to decide.’ ( Let the viewer to decide the final outcome through the communication process of viewer and the architecture)I want to use computer to provide various possibilities of design outcome and let the viewers to pick what they think should be the final decision of the design.


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Black, D, 2008, Kinetic sculpture, BMW Museum Munich,art+com, accessed Aug, 2012 <http://www.artcom.de/en/projects/project/detail/kinetic-sculpture/> Kalay, Y.E. ,2004. Architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s New Media : Principles,Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge,Mass.: MIT Press), pp. 2,6,14-15 Kolarevic, B, 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press).pp. 3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 62 Krauel J, Contemporary digital architecture design & techniques, p 11-13 Menges, A , Weinstock,M, Guest-edited by Michael Hensel 2006,Techniques and Technologies in Morphogenetic Design, AD, March/April 2006, pp12-18, 26-33 University of Melbourne Fablab Gallery, Student work,accessed 19 Sep, 2012 <http://www.msd.unimelb.edu.au/current-students/fablab/gallery/#>


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1.3 ON PARAMETRIC DESIGN


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1.2 ON PARAMETRIC DESIGN

TTHE ARRIVAL OF PARAMETRIC DIGITAL MODELLING CHANGED DIGITAL REPRESENTATIONS OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN FROM EXPLICIT FORMAL NOTATION TO INSTRUMENTAL RELATIONSHIP. MICHAEL HENSEL

Parametric provides for a powerful conception of architectural form by describing a range of possibilities, replacing in the process stable with variable, singularity with multiplicity.( p17) In my opinion, parametric design is a design approach that designer creates his own design vocabulary. By setting up parametric equations that describe the relationships and principles between different design components, one can derive particular design solutions as a responds to specific variations and conditions. I think parametric design goes beyond the limitation of conventional CAD thinking by providing huge flexibility and potentials for final outcomes. The arrival of parametric digital

modelling changed digital representations of architectural design from explicit formal notation to instrumental relationship. (Menges, P43) This urges architects to shift his thinking from ‘a design as an explicit form’ to instrumental logic. In my view, the logic of parametric design overturned the conventional expectation on an architect. Architects need to accept this new set of concept and pay more attention to their design theories, computational theories, in order to produce rational outcome. Personally, I think parametric design thinking requires for stronger concepts compared to previous ‘conventional’ design. That is every form should have logic to build. As a new learner of parametric design, I found most of the para-

metric design in this industry is limited to form finding, especially using the logic such as cellular automata, self-organization and genetic algorithm to create voronior. Though in the lecture, professor mentioned that parametric design is not limited to super facial façade but some parametric plug- ins can be used to purify structures, test architectural performance. However, little project can actually escaped the criticised being super facial. I owe this phenomenon to lack of experiences considering parametric design has just started his pace in our age. Some other advantages of parametric design, in generally, can be fast fabrication, various possibilities of design outcomes, complex geometries, etc.


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‘Geno-Matrix is a modular structure for skyscrapers. The structure was inspired by Lego, and uses mostly prefabricated parts. It consists of a large vertical grid, in which modular units are placed at varying depths. These units can be pushed or pulled to different levels in order to create an infinite number of patterns, and their arrangement is driven by factors in the building’s environment, as well as spatial requirements.’ I appreciate this project’s idea of using modular fabrication method yet still create an organic form. I like how the building can respond to surrounding environments as the factor driven the outcome is the environments constrains, such as sunlight and rains.

MINIMUM COMPLEXITY VLAD TENU MODULAR Parametric design can not only be used to create aesthetic beauty, but it can be used to support for technical superiority and elegance of detalings. This is a winner entry for the second annual TEX- FAB competition. It explore the ideas of modular assembly and material efficiency. A minimal periodic surface structure is created with the repetition of only 16 different components. A macro-scaled modular cellular pattern emerges through symmetry that is infinitely expandable and open-ended while becoming differentiated at its edges. Ornament functions as a simultaneous expression of the whole and the part working in dynamic equilibrium. I am fansinated by its structural robustness material efficiency an inherent logic of assembly. As what I have mentioned in previous journal, that I am into construction as a discourse and also concerns about the efficiency digital architecutre brought us. This modular fabrication saves time and labor as well as create an emotional gesture as a poetic design.


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CONCLUSION: THREE WEEKS JOURNEY OF DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE

After three weeks of intense digital architecture design journey I was kind of overwhelmed by the boundaries this filed can reach. Digital architecture traditionally is regarded as for merely aesthetic values by most of people, which also includes me. But after weeks' study of digital architecture, I started to understand that digital architecture is far beyond form and aesthetic. It renovates the construction process, making it faster to fabricate and certain programmes can even improve performance of structure by eliminating excessive structures, purifying the system and modelling force system within structures. Computerization can also involves in the design process rather than just transform the hand drawing on the computer screen. Take previous journal case study as examples: the 'minimal complexity' actually generates complex geometries and shapes in hierarchy accord-

ing to the script of computer. In terms of parametricism which advocates by Schumacher, I propose some of my thinkings: Parametricsim is a style, but it can not be stated as an end to international style that people strived to seek for nearly ten decades. Computer indeed improves the design process for a more efficient expression, and speed up both construction and design to respond to the term of ‘ globalization’ where everything is preferred to be modulized and fabricated fast. But think of the new technology and industrialization rought to us: glass, steel, reinforced concrete. Those technology and new materials inform the design into a rationized approach that minimised the exaggerated geometries, creating neat straight lines responding to industrial movements. The structure, or we say structrual discourse in

architecture, these technologies produced were regarded a fashionable style dating back to 1940s. But do we see them as a new style today? No, we say ‘ it belongs to a branch of international style’. So in this case, I assume, even though parametricsim improves architecture design in a new stage, it is never an end of seeking for international style. To use updated technology for new forms and faster design process is part of the ‘evolutional principle’ in this industry. Based on this belief, I still have confidence in the future of parametric design in architecture that I can use new technology to inform new forms and optimise my structures by using minimum materials, cutting down unwanted structures. Thus this will also save the labour and cost in construction phase.


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2.1 CUT CASE STUDY 1.0


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2.1.1 ARGUMENT FOR BIOMIMICRY

NATURAL SYSTEMS DISPLAY HIGHER-LEVEL INTEGRATION AND FUNCTIONALITY EVOLVING FROM A DYNAMIC FEEDBACK RELATION WITH A SPECIFIC HOST ENVIRONMENT. MICHAEL HENSEL

Biomimicry, by its natural meaning, is taking inspirations from an examination of nature, abstracting its systems and processes, and imitating its order to solve human problems. This idea loosely suits our parametric design principle where a strong logic clue guides the whole design concept, that we find a clear direction and abstract its logic in developing our design. This topic is interesting as this will embody our gateway

project as a ‘unique’ icon that suits nowhere other than this particular site. It is a gateway of ‘Wyndham’, neither ‘Wyntan’ nor ‘ Wyngan’. To reach our goal of making this gateway unique to the place informs us to make strong links between the local natural system and our gateway project Potentials that we think the design would be benefited by ‘biomimicry’:

1. Formal inspiration and performance architecture: Some projects have shown advantages in using the idea of biomorphic mineralization which is to produce structures resembling natural living organisms by using biostructures as templates for mineralization. Take The Voussoir Cloud as example where they used less material where less force is applied. (Mimicking cellular patterns and structure performance in self


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organization process) This will particularly suits for the city project where limited budget is required. Also, the biomorphic mineralization is environmentally benign in cutting down the consumed material. 2. Icon and poetic gestures: Making links to our project to the history of the site or the natural setting of the site is never out of date. The city wants the project to be an eye-

catching installation that will become the city icon in the future. (gateway project brief). Thus strong links should be made between the local site and the project. We want to sort out a strong force growing in this particular natural setting and spurge this force out into our design. 3. Ideal structures and engineering: Structures should always stand up in order to be called a ‘structure’. Thus the construction aspect of

this design is a significant part. As the logic behind ‘natural selection’ is lucid where only the reasonable and wanted structures are selected and kept. By mimicking the logic behind natural objects, we could sort out an efficient and stable structure.

Illustration: Coloured X-ray of hyacinth flowers at different stages of growth. (Environmentally sensitive growth can deliver a paradigm for architectural design )


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2.1.2.1 BIOMIMICRY CELLULAR FORMATION

IWAMOT SCOTT ARCHITECTS | VOUSSOIR CLOUD One potential advantage that biomimicry held for the gateway design is that cellular formation and cell’s self organization. Following the logic of natural cell formations, the structure will stands robust economically. It eliminates unnecessary material for structure and hence adds aesthetic values to the structure, such as permeability and loft structure. Lisa’s Voussior Cloud exemplifies how biomimicry as cellular formation adds value to the whole design from structure to aesthetics. The whole installation follows the logic of cellular formation and structural performance in biological self-organization. The logic of self organization: the internal component of a system adapts to the environment to promote a specific function without being controlled from outside. In this case, plants cells responds to the gravity in such a way that at the bottom of the structure cell density is higher and size is smaller compared to the top part. ‘The self-organisation processes underlying the

growth of living organisms can provide important lessons for architects’, claims MICHAEL HENSEL. Here I like the idea of self-organization since it can give permeability at the top structure with framed views at the bottom. Also, since each cell is fabricated in modular, different types of cell as a basic modular can be gathered to form different 3 dimensional experiences. Permeability, framed views, as long as richness in spatial experience can add visual value to the gateway project. Also, the thin laminated wood material works in tension reminds me of another project byAchim Menges in the Universität Stuttgart where the same material is used. This material is flattened when the weather is humid and rolled up when it is dry. This movement of the material is caused by water in wood fibre much like paper. Though it has nothing to do with parametric design, I still think it an interesting one. Further considering the fast fabrication of timber structure and various joints that can be prefabricated, I perfer timber structure for the gateway


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2.1.2.3 BIOMIMICRY DODECAGONS TESSALATIONS

CHINESE NATIONAL AQUATIC PTW ARCHITECTS , CSCEC , CCDI, INTERNATIONAL FIRM ARUP The second precedent for biomimicry is the Beijing National aquatic centre. The Watercube’s structure is derived from principles of geometry and crystalline systems. Wrapped in the steel frames, the bubbles are made from ETFE (Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene) pillows measuring 0.2 mm thick. The membrane will lets in more light and heat than traditional glass, which keeps the pools insider warmer and thus reduces energy cost. I like how the form and structure of the building follows the principles of bubble structure and how the use of membrane structure allow for energy- efficient and ecologically significants. Taken advantages from both the precedents above, I started to think about how the form of the cell can affect larger effect when the basic modules accumulating and how the arrangement of the basic module can give aesthetic value. In Voisvios’ case, it givers permeability and creates contrast between dark and bright. While in the water cube’s case, it uses layers of structure frame to create a sense of complexity. Here I am inspired to think about layering truncated octahedron, as a basic modular, to give a contrast of void and dense.

In terms of materiality, different from Lisa’s wooden structure, I like how the building makes full use of the membrane. But the fabrication and installation process is time consuming considering the structural steels needs to be cut in angle and the whole structure needs to be temporary braced with huge structure before it is totally welded in a strong integrated one. This kind of construction method probably does not suit for the gateway project where the traffic is desirable not to be blocked for a long period of time. As a summary of these two precedents, the following journal will develop thinking on how to generate various cellular forms using parametric logic and what larger effect can different basic structure creates. We abstract the form logic in the Voussoir cloud as voronior and Beijing water cube as truncated octahedrons. Experiments of forms can be found in the following methodology metrix.


36


37

2.1.2.3 BIOMIMICRY CELLULAR AUTOMATON Despite searching for logic that generates desirable cell forms, we also concerns how the cells are generated and ‘according to what logic will the cell growth’. The voronior system allows for the cells to grow according to the location of the prescribed points, while truncate cubic can grow along an indicated pipe. Cells in these two systems grow with the human interaction that it is the designer’s first referenced item that determine the growth path of cells. However, the case ‘game of space’ demonstrates a different system that cells can grow on their own decision. The cells grow according to the logic of cellular automaton which was discovered by John Conway in 1970s that: a living cell remains alive only when surrounded by 2 or 3 neighbours, otherwise it dies of loneliness or overcrowding. A dead cell comes to life when it has exactly 3 living neighbours. In this logic, the cells grow without the human interaction and determine their own formation. As shown in the picture on the left, the outcome of ‘game of space’ express a chaotic form yet everything generates under reasonable logic. I am interest in the form the cellular automaton can generate and the idea of self generating is exactly what I was looking at during the past case studies in this journal that I would like to pass on this self generating idea in the gateway project. 1. expressive form cellular automaton can generate

3

2. since the art piece is scaleless, the system can work in various design field( as shown, as a single shelter)

4

3. system working as a plazza

2 1

4.original prototype and relative location of cells changing with time according to the logic


38

VORONOIS


39

TRUCATED OCTAHEDRON

CELLULAR AUTOMATA


40

GROW WITH TIME: FROM BOTTOM TO ABOVE: 0S, 10S, 20S, 40S

CELLULAR AUTOMATA Cellular automata with rabbit reflection : Three issues are to define the cellular automaton: cell prototype, grid dimensions and initial configuration of the cell states. The above two matrixes show how cells are generated and how the change of logic change the formation of cells. For diagram 1, the logic is if there are 3 cells surround a dead cell, then the cell can be alive. Only cell that is surrounded by 2 or 3 cells can alive. For diagram 2, the logic is if there are 5 cells surround a dead cell , then the cell can be alive. Only call that is surrounded by 3 cells can alive. Both the diagram show the growth in certain time frame: First phase 0s( the original cell), second phase 10s, third 20s, forth 40s.

As can be shown above, the form cellular automaton creates is intriguing but the growth can be hardly control. The growth is mainly manually controlled by time and it is hard to predict the outcome. Another way to change the outcome is through manipulation the relative position of the original cell. But the outcome is still unpredictable as shown in the matrix in previous page. Here the matrix trial informs us that in the gateway project where a real structure is wanted, we need to consider the structural stability. Cellular automaton somehow stays unrealistic as for real construction industry.


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RULES FOR THE SELF GENERATING REVIVE WITH 3 CELLS AROUND CAN SURVIVE WITH 2 OR 3 NEIGHBORS

DEFINE THE BASIC SIZE OF THE BLOCK

ONLY MANUALLY CONTROLl TIMER


42

X>Y

X>Y

VORONIOR

Y >X

Another way of mimicking cellular formation is the voronior system. Here we were interested in how to form a controlled form using culling from the voronior. First column shows how the voronior is gradually culled using attractor points by increasing the threshold value. Second column was accidentally generated. It is the bounding box of voronior. Though it looks like an invaluable trial, it actually inform us in the later design to morph geometry in the culled ( or controlled ) boxes. The third column shows how the inversed logic works: as in 1, reverse the ratio of X and Y, 2, cull inside or outside of a brep, 3, cull randomly. 1

2

3

CREATING VORONIOR SYSTEM

USING ATTRACTOR POINTS TO CULL DISTANCE THAT IS LESS THAN 42

KEEP THE DATA WITHIN THE BREP


43

The truncated octahedron was generated using a simple definition and it was supposed to be in a more flexible arrangement, such as arrange along a curve. But due to incompatability to the 64 bit platform of rhino 5, the form can only be generated in a rigid cubic form which means it does not follow the command. This shows that although convenient sometimes 3rd party plug-ins run an inherent risk of instability.But this serial trials show how basic geometries can give different larger effect. Benefits these form can provide, spatial experience and intriguing form, while the disadvantage is obvious:


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2.2 CASE STUDY 2.0 YORKSHIRE DIAMOND


45


46 TETRAHEDRAL LATTICE& BIOMIMICRY

YORKSHIRE DIAMOND VARIOUS ARCHITECT 2009 YORKSHIRE RENAISSANCE PAVILION COMPETITION Yorkshire diamond was a finalist in the open international competition for a mobile pavilion for Yorkshire Forward. The diamond - like lattice structure is mined out to form a grotto- like interior space reminiscent of the coal mines of Yorkshire. In this aspect, the concept of this pavilion is embodied with local culture and regional symbol with biomimicry approach. Also, the design refere back to the concept of ‘celluar formation’, where a basic C atom structure is stable and strong in resisting outer force. The whole structure of the pavilion is inflatable. Thus this will make the structure light in weight and easier to be transported to site, which inturn adds value to sustainability, and environmentally benighed. The inflatable structure is portable and can be suited to various environments. Also the inflatable structure of the pavilion saves labor and time in installation process. The entire structure is inflated only in2-3 hours. The backout space within the lattice structures is flexilble and can be used for everything from small gatherings, large conference to public presentation hall. The pavilion can also be turned extrovert to open up a large outdoor space creating ultimate mobile venue for concerts or big screen events. Despite the celluar formation concept as well as the use of new materials, the main argument for this pavilion is sustainability. The material itself is recyclable ,light in weight and easy to pack. Thus it has lower embodied energy. Also, the pavilion itself features innovative uses of natural light, natural ventilations. This adds up its sustainability values. Sum up the characters we want to keep in this design:

• • • • • • •

Mobile performance venue with black out space Inflatable materials, sustainability Flexibility and portable Cellular formation, high efficiency in natural structure Embodied with local symbol of mines Structurally independent Modular lattice structure

We appreciate the use of inflatable material in this design and hope the use of inflatable material and construction method could benefit our gateway project. Thus we went on further research on developing these ideas :


47


48 STRUCTURES & NEW MATERIALS

INNOVATIONS in techniques and material have facilitated the born of a new type of architecture that is able to house increasingly larger and caulturally more significant facilities. Inflatable structure of Yorkshire pavilion exemplifies how recent innovations in materials have expanded fabric architecture into larger profile with higher cultural importance. I like how the mobile membrane building can benefit our gateway project in certain ways that: 1. FREE PLAN: It makes it possible for building to enclose large space with low building mass. Low pressure pneumatic structure can be column free when high internal air pressure keeps the roof aloft. This will eliminate the traditional columns which block the views. 2. FAST FABRICATION: High pressure air columns, beams and walls can be erected very quickly. 3. FLEXIBLE: It starts the eara of portable and flexible architecture that suits to various sites 4. SUSTAINABLE: Also tries to deal with issues of power supply, climate control, lighting and information display. 5. ENVIRONMETAL BENIGH: Being more independent of external services, membrane mobile building save on infrastructure,which in turns

benefits in efficiency, sustainability and the environment. Though, as exemplified in the Yorkshire diamond, inflatable material is beneficial, inflatable material is not suitable for large installation as when the structure goes larger, it requires higher pressure which goes beyond the anti- pressure limitation of the material. In Yorkshire diamond, the pavilion uses an inner layer as structural diaphragm. Thus for our gateway project, we want to strengthen the benefits inflatable structure could bring along, yet also tries to combine inflatable membrane structure with traditional construction method, seeking for a more economical, environmentally friendly way for the design. Going back to Yorkshire Diamond’s design concept and its parametric design approach, we summarised its arguments and want to keep these characters into our gateway project: • The subtractive space: MOBILE PERFORMANCE VENUE provide a new spatial experience • Material SUSTAINABILITY • By using inflatable material, it is STRUCTURALLY INDEPENDENT, and easy to dismantled and


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MOBILE PERFORMANCE VENUE

FAST FABRICATION & FLEXIBILITY

reconstructed • Fast FABRICATION • Complex FORMS • Associated SYMBOLIC LOCAL MEANING of diamond • BIOMIMICRY: high level of efficiency in mimicking natural structure • Adaptability of PARAMETRIC APPROACH With an additional consideration of the shortcoming of applying Yorkshire Diamond’s design concept into our gateway project , we proposed our questions: • How to change the Yorkshire diamond’s rigid and monolithic form into and organic evoking gesture

SUSTAINABILITY

isometric of inner claddings

inflatable triangulated structure

STRUCTURAL DEPTH

• How to add identity of Wyndam city (an innovative new city) to the project? • Hard to fabricate with inflatable structure which is not modular.

internal cladding formed of inplane inflatable triangleswith PVC cushions in 2 layers structure provides in plane stiff-

INNER DIAPHRAME


50

GRASSHOPPER DEFINITION

pipe basic geometry

orient to a surface


51

jump to vertical layers


52

TEREAHEDRAL LATTICE


53


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MAIN TECHNIQUES DEVOLPED THROUGH METRIX MORPHING CULLING ATTRACTING

To morph geometries on both planar and non-planar surface can form exciting outcomes. While we also get some forms that do not suits for the gateway concept, such as sphere, cone and cylinder volume. This shows computing as a means of design generation approach has its shortage in being design with blindness.

THE SECOND SIGNIFICANT SKILL WE DEVELOPED IS CULLING. BY USING ATTRACTOR LINES AND ATTRACTOR POINTS, WE CULLED PART OF THE STRUCTURE AS A NEGETIVE SPACE. THIS IS INFLUENCED BY LAST WEEKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S MOBILE PERFORMANCE VENUE IDEA.

The third skill we developed is related to the second skillthe attractors. We want to use the local views as attractor points in future for the design.


55

CONCERNS IN PRODUCING METRIX Experiments with the effect basic geometries produce in large scale. As discussed in previous journal, we are interesting in the self organization concept of cells, where through the repetition of basic cell unit, the whole structure will present different effect in large scale. We want to experiment with various spatial effects through changing the morph basic geometries.

Exploration in joint making, allows for interlocking structure performance between each cubic.

Our final aim for the matrix is to produce layer of morph geometries that can change in size and density gradually. This not only correspond to the idea of biological cell formation, but also the change of geometries will create rich spatial experience and form contrast between solid and void. We had technical issues in making the morph box changing in size and density, so we cull the morph box alternatively and fill up with larger morph box. In order to achieve our aim, we still need to develop our technical skill. However, every software has its limitation, and I assume, weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve hit this limitation.

The effect we want to achieve by culling is to create a mobile performance venue, through which viewers view to some extent is framed. Also we wanted to create directional view towards Werribeeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s places of interest.


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PRECEDENTS SUMMARY

RECURSIVE - BIOMIMICRY t

SELF GENERATING, REGULATING

RWEATHER DRIVEN PARAMETRIC FORM FINDING USING SUNPATH

CELLULAR FORMATION, VORONIOR MATERIAL, STRUCTURE, AESTHETIC

CELLULAR AUTOMATON SELF GENERATING, EFFICIENCY

DODECAGONS TESSALATIONS LARGER EFFECT , MATERIAL

TETRAHEDRAL LATTICE MODUALISED


57

•FORM FINDING USING LOCAL WEATHER PARAMETRIC BIOMIMICRY SELF - GENERATING SELF - ORGANIZATION STRUCTURALY RUBOST NATURALLY ESTHETIC EFFICIENCY AND ECONOMIC

•SELF GENERATING EFFICIENCY SPACE •TETRAHEDRAL LATTICE AS FOR EASY FABRICATION


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FORM FINDING METHODOLOGY MATRIX


59

1.Dodecagons Tessalations

2.Voronois

DIAGONAL CONNECTIONS FORMAL COMPLEXITY COMPLEXITY IN TECTONICS FABRICATION

EASY GENERATION, CULLING LOGIC GENERATED FROM METRIX COMMON USE

INSPIRE LATER DESIGN 3.Cellular Automata

AUTOMATIC GENERATION LACK OF CONTROL IN FORM

USING CULLING AS A METHOD OF CONTROL OVER THE SELF GENERATING SYSTEM TETRAHEDRAL LATTICE AS BASIC CELLULAR GEOMETRY

POROSITY, EASY FABRICATION 3.Tetrahedral Lattice CONNECTION LIMITED TO EUCLIDEAN PLANE LACK OF CHANGE


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2.3 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT


61

2.3.1 CONCEPT FORMATION


62

2.3.1 CONCEPT FORMATION

OUR CONCEPT is the process of exploration through the journey from highly urbanised Melbourne city to the naturalised romantic Wyndham. As such the gateway is one that should be experienced as a place of wonder that luring driversâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; curiosity to the site and further, the Wyndam city. The gateway also manifest a changing experience for the driver that at the end nearer to Melbourne city should represent something that makes it different from the countryside rural impression that is given by Wyndam. In achieving this goal, we abstracted the grotto idea from the 18th century England garden as the grotto effects not only refer back to many of the places of interest built in Romanism style in Wyndam, but also represent a sense of mysterious arousing driversâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; interest in Wyndam city. Diagrams on the right shows the main effect we want to show to drivers: mainly framing views and creating contrast in dark and bright. ( such as illuminating the wanted view while blocking unwanted happenings) In order to keep the cohesiveness of the journal, and make the design process smooth and easier to follow, I rearrange the way the story should be told: I the put the EOI and intellectual background research in the last chapter, and aim to make the concept formation process as concise and explicit as possible. For grotto effect research and EOI model fabrication process, please refer the last chapter.

FRAMING VIEWS


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EXPLORATION - GROTTO

CONTRAST OF ILLUMINATNG AND DARKNESS

A JOURNEY OF EXPLORATION THAT AROUSE CURIOSITY A SYMBOL OF HOSPITALITY FOR THE WHYDHAM CITY

BLOCKING OUT VIEW + DARKNESS MYSTERIOUS SPACE ILLUMINATING SPACE + BRIGHTNESS CONTRAST FRAMING VIEWS OF PLACES OF INTEREST IN WYNDHAM

WYNDHAM CITY IS SEEKING RESPONSES FROM DESIGN PROFESSIONALS FOR THE DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION OF AN EXCITING, EYE CATCHING INSTALLATION AT WYNDHAM’S WESTERN GATEWAY …… AND ENCOURAGE AND CHALLENGE YOU TO DEVELOP A PROPOSAL THAT INSPIRES AND ENRICHES THE MUNICIPALITY. WESTERN GATEWAY DESIGN PROJECT BRIEF


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2.3.2 DIGITAL MODELING AND RATIONIZATION

You Yangs

You Yangs

Enclosed ‘grotto’ space

CIRCULATION PATH

BOUNDARY DEFINE - OUTER SHELL Inspired by the previous precedent ‘logo skyscraper’ the site boundary is designed driven by local weather parameters. 1. SCALE UP A SECOND LANDSCAPE: The concept of enlarging the you-yang was to explored the concept of ‘ borne out of the land’’. Youyang represents the natural aspect that Wyndham embraces. It is also an exception to the otherwise flat topography of the land, a natural focal point that fit with our context of showing. The articficial landscape that informed the shape of our shell-structure was based on lofting the contours of the existing topography. 2. CULL VIEWS Before culling the openings and oculus, we created a tunnel openings at the height of 7m to allow for smooth circulation. This could be done by simply using the extrude along curve command in rhino. The circulation path is later set as a clearance space that do not allow geometries to be generated. The culling views definition is mainly focus on framing views that we want to show to the drivers,

such as youyangs, natural vistas of the grasslands and werribee. There was a purpose in deliberately opening up the path for more light upon arriving to Werribee to instil a sense of entrance. This can be referred back to the GORDON CULLEN THEORY. The views are culled by setting up series of cones and by manipulating the size of the cone we can control the size of the openings. 2. CULL OCULUS For a more varied change in experience and for the practical reasons of lighting purposes, oculus opening were drawn, extruded and sheared according to sun-angles to allow for maximum sunlight coverage. The design intent was also to allow for the gradual build-up of light that will cover the automobile until the greater opening of the north for automobile going towards Werribee. While illuminating the original topography in the center of the structure.


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ILLUMINATED AREA IN PLAN VIEW THEN EXTRUDE AND 3 SHEAR ACCORDING TO SUNPATH ANGLE

2

1


66 SECOND LANDCAPE DRIVEN BY LOCAL TOPOGRAPHY

TUNNEL OPENINGS AT THE HEIGHT OF 7M TO ALLOW FOR SMOOTH CIRCULATION.

VIEW FRAMING DRIVEN BY SITE VIEWS WITH YOUYANG

according to calculation, the distance for a object moving at a speed 100km/hr, its distance is 27,777mm. Varying the division of the curve, we could get the distance points such that distance between points are approximately 27,000 mm listed cones

dividing up the curves


67

SCALE UP ORIGINAL TOPOGRAPHY

The baked diagram shows that the listed cons represent how many seconds we can have the view. referencing the various cones onto the points, theoretically that would give us a frame per second and by varying the width of the cone angle we could control the amount of view per second to the view angle of cars going at that speed


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2.3.2.2 ARRANGING MORPH BOXES WITHIN BOUNADRY SPACE

1

2

Discussed in the previous journal that we wanted to invent a self generating system for the cells and having being tried voronior and cellular automaton, we found all the logic has its shortage and benefits. Since automaton can go beyond control and we have had our shell boundary define space, we decide to let the boxes generate within the space by themselves. The logic of morphing box in the shell space is to put the biggest box in the space first, following by the arrangement of the second large box to the smallest box. The logic starts from the first layer of arrangement. 1. Morph a berep into a divided surface’s bounding box. This technique was developed from the reverse engineering 2. The size of the original berep changes according to how we divide the surface. Smaller UV means smaller box. Here for the first layer, we define the UV as the largest one.

3

2. Then move the morphed layer of boxes into several layers to create volumness. 3. Cull the boxes that locate outside the shell surface. The logic here is if the centre of the box locates outside the shell, it is culled.

4

5

6

4. Above 3 steps are the first layer morphing and later the second layer morphying starts with exactly the same as 1 and 2. But as the second layer’s box is meant to be smaller. The UV component for the surface divided should be smaller and vertical vector for series should also be smaller that it jumps in a shorter distance. 5. Culling for the second layer is different from the first layer, as we not only need to keep the box that is inside the shell space but also need to aware that we should cull the box that locates within the previous layers box. This is realised by gate not component and and component. 6 repeat step 4and 5 in getting third layer of boxes 7 final outcome of morphing series sizes of box within the defined space. In order to show the process clearly, I didn’t used the site shell we made to demonstrate this process. Instead, I used a simple ellipse to show how the box is culled. The sophisticated shape of the shell will also make the computer run very slow.

7


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UV AND HEIGHT OF THE SERIES DECIDES THE SIZE OF THE BOX

SUBDIVIDE SURFACE AND CREATE BOUNDING BOX ON THE SURFACE FOR

JUMP TO LAYERS OF HEIGHT AND CREATE THE VOLUME , PREPARE FOR CULL

BREP HERE STANDS FOR THE SHELL SPACE BOXES INSIDES THE BREP ARE KEPT

FIRST LAYER CULL

SECOND LAYER CULL OUTSIDE THE FIRST LAYER’S BOX

WITHININ THE SHELL SPACE


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2.3.2.3 MORPH GEOMETRY IN MORPH BOX

D-D

c-c

B B-

A-A

D-D

CC

B

B-

A A-


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Section A-A Sense of Entrance

Section B-B Anticipation

Section C-C Continuation

Section D-D Culmination

using the grasshopper techniques developed in the previous weeks we morphed the space inside base1.Varying geometries invoid the grotto boxes we generated in the shell accordeach triangle frame space andto used points ing theattractor distance to the to creates change of aperture major views: points in the middle of every trusses. .Varying void space inside each triangle frame according to the distance to the major views:


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REFINEMENT- VOLUMNESS ATTRACTIONS & ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION PLANTER BOX

vegetation planter box, color change w

COPPER BOX

copper box oxid oxidization within time, w

METAL BOX

metal box color keeps unchanged but qua installed manually to represents Melbourne

BOUNDARY DEFINE SHELL

CAPPED PILLARS

ORIGINAL TOPOGRAPHY


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with seasons and quantatives will grow

will change color from yellow to green

antities can be larger since can be eâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s urbanization

CITY OF MELBOURNE

WYNDHAM CITY

WESTERN EXCHANGE, PRINCESS HWY

GEELONG PORT PHILLIP BAY


74

The digital modelling for the design process loosely falls into two parts: boundary define shell and the inner detail forms such as formation of the geometry itself and the installation of planter box. Five main grasshopper definitions: 1 . SCALE out a second landscape according to the original topography 2. CULL VIEWS on the second landscape 3.CULL OCULUS according to sun path in order to illuminate the place we want to brighten 4. BASIC CELLULAR GEOMETRY + attractor points for controlling the aperture opening within the geometry 5. METAL, COPPER AND PLATER BOX DISTRIBUTION according to the location of Melbourne city and Wyndan city

OCULUS CULLING

SCALE


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PLACEMENT OF PLANTING BOX VIEW CULLING

MORPH BOXES VOXELIZATION


76

2. 3.3.1 MODEL FABRICATION - DESIGN

MATERIALS AND JOINTS: Model fabrication design was influenced by the AA pavilion where elaborated joints are shown. Joints used here are biscuits, nail plates and strong bolts. The material shown here is LVL timber as timber material itself is economical and will last long. It arouses a sense of nature and countryside feeling, which corresponds our idea of grotto Romanism and second artificial landscape.

750*750*750m

According to the PERSISTENCE OF VISION THEORY, we produced four sets of geometries ranging in different sizes. The smallest geometry is supposed to be invisible when drivers drive on the high way. According to the regulation that a car driving on the eastern freeway should be slower then 100km/h, then this should be 28m per second. During a second ( which a driver is supposed to drive 28M) , he will pass by 37 frames of the smallest geometry. (Modern theatrical film runs at 24 films a second.) Then the geometry is dense enough to be invisible. The following geometry sizes are noticeable for the drivers since the size of the geometry is bigger enough and the frames that a driver will pass during a second will be less than 18( which is slower than a flick book) TIMBER SIZE SELECTION: The truss panel for our design is prefabricated .Since there are four sizes of inner cellular structures, the thickness of timber also ranges in four types. They are 38mm for the smallest size, 89,140mm for the medium size and 184mm for the largest size. This is due to a consideration of standard softwood dimensional lumber sizes. Thus the chose lumber for prefabricating the truss should be 2*4, 4*6, 6*6 and 8*8( by nomination) ARRANGEMENT:One other consideration of fabrication was the arrangement of basic geometries. There are various possibilities of arrangement to join the modular geometry. 1, the top arm of the geometry can all align into one direction 2. The top of arm of the geometry can arranged in perpendicular position and align in a row 3, Four geometry can form a cross at the top as shown on the right. Since the size of the modular geometry ranges in exponential relationship, it is easy to join the geometries in different size: one larger one connects two smaller ones, and the smaller geometry can be located both within and without the larger geometry.

1100*1800*38

500*1800*38m

28/0.75=37 fram Unnoticable for

JOINT A Biscuit + nail plate

JOINT B


mm

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1500*1500*1500mm

3000*3000*3000mm

6000*6000*6000mm

8mm

2200*1800*89mm

4400*1800*140mm

8800*1800*184mm

mm

1050*1800*89mm

2100*1800*140mm

4200*1800*184mm

mes r driver

28/1.5=18 frames noticable for driver

28/1.5=9 frames noticable for driver

28/1.5=4.5frames noticable for driver


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PLANTER BOX CONSTRUCTION DETAIL TIMBER PREFABRICATED TRUSS 8800*1800*184mm PLANTING BOX STEEL BOX COPPER BOX 10mm

NOTCH 90MM STEEL ANGLE BOLTED AND WIELDED TO STEEL BOX AND BOLT TO TRUSS NAIL PLATE

BISCUIT JOINT 10mm


79

STEEL ANGLE 10MM OVERLAPPING 90MM

PLANTS MULCH SOIL SUBSTRATE 20MM Box at highier position:5-10cm substrate, SUCCULANT PLANTS & POACESE Lomandra fluviatilis Lomandra longifolia Themeda triandra Myoporum parvifolium Scaevola calendulacea Zoysia tenuifolia Box at lower position: 10-20cm substrate SEDUM/MOSS COMMUNITIES, DRY MEADOW COMMUNITIES, LOW GROWING DROUGHT TOLERANT PERENNIALS, GRASSES AND ALPINES, SMALL BULBS Westringia fruticosa Gazania tomentosa Liriope muscari Dianella caerulea Carpobrotus rossii Bower Spinach Enchylaena tomentosa Ruby Saltbush Myoporum parvifolium

AGGREGATES AND SAND BED 10MM GEOTEXTILE LAYER WATER PROOFING MATERIAL WEEPHOLE AND DRAINAGE

CLIMBERS: SUN POSITIONS: Zygophyllum billardierei, Coast Twin-leaf Clematis microphylla Kennedia macrophylla Kennedia nigricans SHADY POSITIONS: Clematis glycinoides Passiflora cinnabarina


80

2. 3.3 .2 MODEL FABRICATION LAZER CUT LAYER 1-1

LAYER 2-1

LAYER 3-1

LAYER 5-1

LAYER 4-1

The model is fabricated according layer and every geometry is labe so that they wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be messes up. continual adjustment to the diam the joints the depth of the notche the grid structure, the truss panel oriented on to a flat plane ready laser cut, This process is accelerat the grasshopper definition availed

Fabricating the final model seems be a repetition work for the midte process, however, this final mode more sophisticated to be fabricat manually fabrication work is as ha the laser cutting labelling work sin change of aperture points within


81

JOINTS TAKEN OUT PREPARED TO BE USED

GEOMETRIES ON LASER CUT PANELS ARE LABELLED

FABRICATE ACCORDING TO LAYERS

NEED TO REFER BACK TO DIGITAL MODEL, OTHERWISE WILL BE CHAOTIC

g to elled . After meter of es, and ls are to be ted with d.

ometries follows a certain pattern, there is no way to mass them up in the fabrication process. Different from our EOI laser cutting fabrication, this model need to be fabricated layer by layer according to the labelled portion, and one need to fabricate the model by always referring back to the original digital model in computer.

s like to erm EOI el is far ted . The ard as nce the the ge-

Another issue in fabricating this model is that the smallest geometry is so tiny and the laser cutting material is too thin for the basic geometry to stay strong when gluing. Thus this will take considerable amount of time when fabricating it.

Thinking in retrospect, The laser cutting fabrication process is tremendously time consuming and laboriousness. One of the arguments for parametric design is time saving, but in terms of fabrication sometimes it takes much more time to fabricate the model out compared to traditional fabrication. Here the ‘traditional’ refers mainly to the international style that starts around 1900s, where the main argument is fast fabrication and ‘money saving’ and everything is pre-casted and modulised to cooperates human civilisation’s fast pace. Parametric model fabrication may fail in this point that it is designers who saved their time, but it is a really trouble for the workers and fabricators to cast the unstandard structure elements.


82

2. 3.3.3 MODEL FABRICATION 3-D PRINTING


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In regards to 3D printing, it was quite interesting and frustrating at the same time as there were many processes to allow it to be printed. Firstly, converting the 3d print to a mesh allowed it to be a lighter file, although after that there was the need to troubleshoot the mesh to take out non-manifold meshes, this was much easier with the lecturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s help in Magic, a software that was more adept in correcting meshes. Although we made the mistake of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;sky-hookâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;where the structure of the set was not securely connected, causing the main body of the 3d print to split where there it was not as strong. Regarding the 3d print, a new definition was required to generate the form without the previous frequent crashing in the voxelation defininition. This was done through a few methods, one was allowing the boxes to overlap as it took more computational power to calculate the where to take out boxes that overlap, since it did not matter if it did as all of it were going to be printed. Secondly, using rhino 5 gave a slight boost in speed as it was 64 bit in combination with grasshopper 0.9. Thirdly, by splitting up the site into multiple parts, we were able to prevent the crashing of the program and by making slow but sure progress, the mesh was generated. By using the convert mesh function, the file was more manageable instead of a heavy poly-surface file.


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3 . 1 DEFINITION TRIAL AND REFLECTION


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FIRST DEFINITION TRIAL

In order to keep the cohesiveness of the previous journal and tell the story as smoothly as possible to show that how I started off from being interested in certain fields of knowledge in architecture( for example, in this case Biomimicry) to abstracting useful information and logic to inform my own design, I collected those grasshopper definitions produced before EOI that seems irrelevant to my grotto exploration concept in previous journal. Thought the definitions are very simple, I see them a record or my personal understanding of grasshopper and possibly parametric design.

1. reference surface, image, circle 2. Divide surface to points + sample the image, 3. Extrude according to value iaccording to its intensity of colour in the Z direction.

1. reference surface, image, pattern. 2. Divide surface to points + sample the image, 3. Extrude according to value iaccording to its intensity of colour in the Z direction. 4. Connect the extruded points to its original point with LINE

1. reference surface, image, line. 2. Divide surface to points + sample the image, 3. Extrude according to value iaccording to its intensity of colour in the Z direction. 4. Use JITTER component to rearrange points

1. reference surface, image, line. 2. Divide surface to points + sample the image, 3. Extrude according to value iaccording to its intensity of colour in the Z direction. 4. Connect extruded points as control points with POLYLINE


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REVERSE ENGINEERING 2 The logic of the first trial is to reference the atom structure in a box and then morph the box into a series of grid. The main difference it has with the previous one is that we try to draw every line by grasshopper. This requires lots of labour in listing points and connecting lines, which leads to a chaos in grasshopper window. 1. draw out the base geometry using trigrid 2. Then move the basic geometry into grid. With steps of MOVE, SCALE, ROTATE, COPY, hoping to draw out every geometry using grasshopper only. I thought this will make the final outcome. flexible and easy to control, but this trial proves to be FAIL as it became harder to move on when grasshopper window shows massive crossing lines.but I see this trial meaningful that, I realise we can not only rely on grasshopper to do everthing. Sometimes we need to combine traditional approach (draw out geometry in Rhino) with advanced technology (reference them into grasshopper).

massive of crossing lines


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TRUE

FALSE

TRUE FALSE

FALSE

For the second trial, we found the basic tetrahedral structure of diamond atom and referenced the structure in a triangular grid. While the problem occurs when we repeat the geometries within the prescribed grid where some grids are unwanted. To eliminate the unwanted grid, we used cull tool. By setting the multiple booleans to True and False, the programme erases the grids alternatively.

TRUE FIRST LAYER DEFINITION

Upon constructing the first layer, we abstract the top point of the first layer making it the start point of the second layer. Same method of trigrid and culling.Then we decomposite the height of the top point, and use the its height in z direction as vector to move the 2 layers in series.

FIRST LAYER DEFINITION

SECOND LAYER DEFINITION

MOVE IN SERIES


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This is the definition our tutor gave us. The main idea is to create series of surface boxes on a surface then morph the geometries in a bounding box to the surface. As can be seen the definition is neat and brief and bares more flecibility for later changes.

REVERSE ENGINEERING TECHNICAL REFLECTION The reverse-engineered case study allows us to lift our first step in designing with grasshopper. Even though finally we all get to the final result, the approaches are different. This leads me to a further rethinking about grasshopper in the view of a new learner. 1. Finding the simplest logic is the key to make definition brief and neat. To evaluate and sum up my experience in exploring with the definitions that create the same effect, I found that a beforehand thoroughly analysis of the structure is crucial. The stronger your logic is, the shorter your gh definition will be. The longest definition we did follows a traditional drawing thinking which traces the whole process as what people would do in Rhino: draw lines and copy. This cost us a lot of time in figuring out later work in culling out unwanted geometries. The shortest definition: morph idea figures out the basic logic behind this structure and it is flexible as the geometries can be morph to a non-planar surface. 2. Traditional approach combined with High- Tech. Also, gh definition should be used in conjunction with traditional Rhino drawings. As discussed in the previous weeks, the innovation that computation and parametric design bring us is not only efficiency but also the logic of design. Grasshopper can purify and simplify the structure by providing strong logic and with which to generate complex geometries and massive of outcomes. In considering this, drawing our basic geometries in rhino and reference the geometry in grasshopper logic is an ideal time saving design. The purpose of using grasshopper is not to ‘produce’ design directly but rather ‘deduce’ massive of possibilities of design outcomes.


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REVERSE ENGINEERING 2 METRIX

Reference twisted box onto the surface

Reference gemotry onto non-planner surface

create a cull pattern according to the distance between base geometry and attractor point s

Create surface domain

Referenceb ase gemotry onto p lanner surface, intervaland height are maintainedat same dimension as base gemotr y

Duplications on multiple level

Gemotries within solid are culled


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EOI GROTTO PROTOTYPE DEFINITION

Tertiary set of attractor, lines for circulation

Merging di attractor p

Seconday set of attractor points, (for medium geometry replacement) Primary set of attractor points Primary set of attractor points

Primary set of attracto points

Base geometry

Reference base gemotry onto planner surface, interval and height are maintained at same dimension as the base gemotry


ifferent points

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Output: replace some part of culling space with large size base geometry

Output: replace some part of culling space with medium size base geometry

or

Output

Cull referenced Brep according to distance between base geometry and attractors


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EOI GROTTO MODEL FABRICATED ACCORDING TO DEFINITION

1

2 3

4

5

1.Panels being laser cut out and collected 2.First step is to make basic geometry 3.Pretty professional photography settings 4.Group working together 5.Fabricating models according to digital model 6.Final physical model for EOI


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1 2

3

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1,2,3 ,4 An observation of the model in different angle enables different spatial experience 5Basic geometry change in size


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3 . 2 GROTTO RESEARCH ARGUMENTS + LATER ON PRECEDENTS


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BACKGROUND RESEARCH STUDY OUTCOME Before finishing the narritation of this design process throughout the semester , I will make up the project background research which is done prior to the EOI. This will represents the process of how we generated the concept and how we generally developed step by step to reach the grotto effect. WHY EXPLORATION While the city wants an installation that is EXCITING AND EYE CATCHING, yet, it should also INSPIRES AND ENRICHES THE MUNICIPALITY. We want to embody our design with local meaning but ‘what is the local selling point that we will promote to driver?’ Based on our research, we confirmed out design idea as ‘a journey of exploration’. This is supported by several points: First, the Wydham City itself wants to be explored. Located near to Melbourne, Wydham city used to be a small town famous for its water creeks. With the fast speed of urbanization, the area soon develops into a city that is significant on world scale. It constructs relationship with both a city in California and Japan, which announced her importance and desire to be seen as an independent city rather than town, or suburb. The aim of this gateway project is to speaks out city’s charm and attract potential visitor on the freeway. Second, there are lots of undiscovered attractions in the city, that waits people to explore. During our research and site visit , we were amazed at the rich sceneries Werribee boast. The idea of ‘exploration’ is trying to arouse people’s curiosity towards the city. Third, the form we were experimenting on suits the idea of exploration. The complex geometries can create rich spatial experiences and sometimes the structure itself creates a visual effect of contrast. Based on this realization , we wanted to make our gateway WHAT EFFECT After confirming our concept as ‘a journey of exploration’, we started to research on how to create such a spatial experience of ‘ discovery’ and ‘explore’ that arouse viewers ‘curiosity. We were moved by the local landscape, which is quite picturesque. The feeling of vast land merging into landscape reminds us 18th century English picturesque, where nature is admired as an ideal home. To respond the surrounding landscape, yet arouse a feeling of curiosity and exploration, we turn to the idea of Grotto effect. ‘The grotto is an artificial structure or excavation in a garden made to resemble a cave. It is always elaborately, absurdly fake. The grotto found its heyday in eighteenth-century English gardens, providing a dark narrative to the landscape gardener’s palette.’ (tooling, ) This proposal for a highway art piece takes advantage of the grotto’s essential features, there is always something to discover within. Grotto like idea can also correspond to our culling matrix where the negative space in grotto is caved out. HISTORY RESEARCH OF GROTTO Grottos were installed in gardens as an appreciation of antiquity and shrine of Gods since ancient. It is developed upon the ‘ancient caves’ described by Alberti. They are profoundly decorated in Italian and French gardens in late Renaissance as an essential expression of mannerism. In the grottos, natural forms of material are put together to suggest bizarre, exotic, and frightening shapes, reflecting Renaissance’s preoccupation with the exploration of the natural world phenomena. ( p79) Automata fountains in the grotto celebrate both ‘the nature and the art’ with water and the sound it creates. (which exemplified by Pratolino) And grotto itself provides series of transformation scenes (exemplified by Grotte des Flambeaux in The garden of Henry IV) which create rich visual experience for the visitors. OUR AIM FOR THE GROTTO Grotto, as a highly artificially controlled environments in which viewers are subjected to closed and isolated happenings, forms a striking contrast to the surrounding natural settings. Our aim is to create ‘art and nature together in one composition, the artificial beauty of which is as great


97 as the natural beauty. Digging into a deeper sense, we want the gateway grotto to be a modern recreation of classical antiquity, linking back to Werribee’s rich culture backgrounds and picturesque natural settings. And through the expression of bizarre geometries, pass on the information of exploration and discovery. The ‘antiquity’ effect also forms a strong contrast to Melbourne’s modern metropolitan experience and will arouse drivers’ interests to explore Wyhdam city. This idea evokes Wydham city council’s preservation in many of its local cultural heritages and attractions built in Romanticism style, such as the Werribee Park, K Road Cliffs and Mambourin Sensory Gardens. In achieving the aims listed above, we sum up the grotto effect we want our viewers to experience: • A sense of antiquity that link back to Wyhdam’s culture heritage • A link to the natural settings of weaving topography • Sense of enclosure in forming contrast to the bright exterior • Framing views • Transformations of views • Bizarre geometries that manifest the idea of exploration • The sound effect in grotto APPROACHES THAT WE THINK CAN REACH THE EFFECTS: • ADJUSTING THE BRIGHTNESS - CREATE A SENSE OF ENCLOSURE. 1. First option is to change the density and the size of the basic geometry, as larger basic geometry arranged less denser is more permeable; 2. Second to change the opacity of the panels between structures (this approach considers to install panels in structural frame); 3. The last is to change the patterns located between the structures. THE PARAMETER to control the brightness can be the sun path (rise the density of geometries according to the sun path), or local views (This requires to desaturate the local view picture and change the brightness in to parameter. The brighter the view, the denser our structure is. ) • THROUGH THE USE OF WATER OR CHOICE OF MATERIAL TO REFLECT CAR ROARING SOUNDS – CREATE SOUNDS THAT STRENGTHENED GROTTO EFFECT As there is no neighbourhood located around nearby the site, there is no need to ‘turn down’ the noise that cars create on site. In contrary, we want to blow out the noise into echo effect that drivers can confirm their existence in grotto in an auditory sense. And the echo effect also gives us a hint on choosing materials that can reflect sound. * Here the water and sound effect was the thinking and reflection after EOI, finally these ideas were rejected for being too much elements in one design. Our design had already being over ambitious ( that we couldn’t manage the overwhelming information using the knowledge and techniques we just developed during one semester), and the thing we need to do after the EOI was to focus on several ideas and do deeper. •

CREATE BIZARRE GEOMETRIES- MANIFEST THE IDEA OF EXPLORATION

This requires the continuing experiment on the basic modular geometry and the effect it creates when accumulated in large scale. •

CULL- USING FRAMES TO SET BOUNDARIES BETWEEN TAMED AND UNTAMED NATURE.


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Many of the precedents we looked at did pushed the design process, but the design idea and form formation process will be interrupted if I cut in those precedents in the previous journal. The ''excessive'' precedents we were looking can be categorised into MATERIALS, CONSTRUCTIONS, and PATTERNS

PANEL The firs plified b our thin 18th ce the artw criticise inspired The fab how he Since th ily.

MATER De you installin structu and pl

GROTT

The gr boulde cordin facet o way ea to the


ORNAMETATION AND MODULAR JOINTS st series of precedents we were looking at mostly came from Simeon Nelson’s art work, exemby the desiring machine. His used of patterns as both decorations and larger effects pushed nking of using patterns to create larger effect. This idea also corresponds to our research of entury English garden grotto effect where the pattern itself speaks out the design initial. Also work combines both the mechanical and ornate feeling. Since our mid term model’s being ed as more mechanical like which departs away from the Romanism grotto idea. This precedent d us to think about using patterns to add a tint of Romanism. brication process of most of Simeon’s work gives us hints on fabricating our own job. We like e used the modular panels and weld (if metal) and glue (if timber or board) them together. he size of the panel are exponentially increased, smaller panels can be joint to larger panel eas-

RIALS AND CHANGE WITH TIME ung museum as discussed in previous journal stand for a material precedent. The copper panel ng as the façade can be deoxidised into greenish colour. Thus the whole appearance of the ure will change with time. This precedent informed our design for placing the metal, copper lanting box as a representation of a change from Melbourne to Whydam.

TO AND BIOMIMICRY

rotto project by Chris Lasch was the project that directly inspired us into the idea of grotto. Each er of the grotto formally looks like a cell and the whole system is interestingly generated acng to certain logic to form a grotto. There are four modules of boulders in this design and each of the stone can be connected perfectly to the other stone( no matter the same size or not) The ach boulder’s face is connected is interesting. This project made us to move on biomimicry idea grotto yet still hold the cellular formation and self generating idea.

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3 . 3 PERSONAL LEARNING OUTCOME


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A BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF PARAMETRIC DESIGN Before talking about the personal study outcome of this subject this semester, I would start with a little bit of the introduction of myself . As a young architecture student born in this time of transition, I feel lucky in taking this class which brings me up to an up-to- date, yet controversial issue: Parametric design as a new era. One could argue that traditional communicational approach in the architecture industry, such as sketches, doodling, and handmade models should not be substituted by computers. Three years ago, before I entering the architecture school, I thought architecture is about holding compass, protractor and stacks of sketches, doodling and calculating. But looking back at my three years of young architect’s career, I spent half of my time on computer. From transferring the sketch plans into computer, raising 3-d models, exporting sections, adjusting line weights and finally renderings, despite the very basic conceptual and brain storming steps, I almost spend all my time with computers. This phenomenon applies to almost all my faculty mates. Yes, we are in the time of digital architecture. Nevertheless, digital architecture leaps far away beyond traditional perspective where computers are used as drawing tools, offering optimization of the drawing process. In contrary, computers can have series of impacts on the either the form or the construction of the building. I started off my personal experience with digital architecture two years ago when I took virtual environments. During the course, I formed a basic idea of digital modelling and fabrication. Here I don’t dare to use the term ‘digital architecture’. As a freshman, I hardly understood the professional terms of ‘style’, ‘form’ or ‘function’. Now, after 3 years of accumulated study, I started to know that how fashion is ‘digital architecture’ in our time. Before this course, I never thought about looking back at the theory that supports digital architecture. I accepted the truth that digital technology has accelerated our life with high efficiency and the world should evolve with new technology inevitably. Now, looking back at what Schumacher advocates, and all the critics coming towards him. I think it is time to look inside the mist and make a decision on my own. As young architect, this will help me gradually form my own style and convictions.


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PARAMETRIC FABRICATION VS TRADITIONAL FABRICATION This is a structural diagram that was generated after the midsemester where I was thinking about using the dado and tenant joints in every end of the timber stud. This construction method explodes the timber truss into three separated studs out of the consideration of easy transportation. But this idea was rejected because we have already had our mid semester model where obviously prefabricated truss was used as a basic module. Our tutor's suggestion was to stick back to our original design and rethink about the meaning of the model. Since parametric design model fabrication is different from other traditional model fabrication where they build what they can fabricated. For parametric design, if model is made, then there was a thinking of joints beforehand. This is because parametric design always produces seamless structures which is hard to be fabricated, if the model is fabricated other than3D print, then there should be logic of joints. HERE I LEARNT TWO THINGS: 1. model fabrication for parametric design is different from traditional model fabrication. After producing a seamless and smooth surface structure in virtual world, the next step is to think about make it real. Though 3D print and CNC is becoming popular, the cost of which can scared most of the potential clients. In such a way, architects must think about how to fabricate our the model while still keep its original idea and effect. 2. good to try to stick to one idea and go deeper, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s better than wander around on the surface of many ideas. The model outcome of mid semester and final semester seems to show little differences other than the changed size of aperture points within basic geometry. However, there are more embedded logic in the final design that we finally sorted out the whole design logic and tried to make it cohesive.


104 INTO AN IDEA AFTER FORM FINDING During the first half of the semester, I had a very blurry image of the whole picture of our design though I engaged in all the processes from precedents research, history background backup, to grasshopper matrix formation. But the whole logic jumps from a narrowly defined aspect: protocell in biomimicry to the idea of exploration to the final grotto effect. I found all the arguments very strong but hard to make them a good cohesive story to convince myself. Actually the mid semester model was not generated in such a strong logic and for some parts of the model we have to manually fix in rhino. The next half of the semester was a journey of sorting out logic and finalising the design as a whole story. We didn’t depart far away to sort new things out but stick on the original idea and go deeper. This probably is also a parametric thinking that we find one satisfied outcome among various possibilities , and go deeper with that only outtome.

PARAMETRIC’S BENEFIT IN OUR DESIGN? , Though the whole design managed to tell the cellular formation and self generating story with a grotto effect, the logic of morphing boxes into the shell surface still needs some work in realising totally self generating idea. The definition we made obviously need to be copied in layers to realise generating boxes of various forms within one shell space. In this case, the definition is recalculating every time and designer is controlled by the definition instead of let the geometries generate by itself such as the cellular automaton. As one benefit that computing has over computation is saving time. However, in some of the definition we created, culling random boxes takes minutes to run, while sometimes I just wanted to shut down the grasshopper and do it manually. For example, the loft in grasshopper is obviously faster than in grasshopper. Maybe the way we generated our definition was not proper and it calls for more calculation for the computer. I think this scenario worth a rethink. As I mentioned in one of my grasshopper reverse engineering that a combination of computation and computing is the fast way. Though one advantage of grasshopper is that it provides more possibilities of forms and let the designer to decide, I found it hard that when you have a design idea and try to make that out using grasshopper. This might inform me not to think in a traditional way when designing. I should try the upside down method. Also, Grasshopper’s form finding can be far beyond control and some of them are just useless. They go against gravity and can just be built in a visual world. This is exemplified by the rabbit plug-in we used. Further looking back at the final space shell we get from series of logic of lofting and culling, the form was not as poetic as what we wanted to be. This might due to the our technical limitation that we haven’t totally let the computer to find the form.


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