Page 1

Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

LIร‡รƒO 1

Os computadores e a sociedade

Os computadores e a sociedade 

1HVWDOLomRYRFrYDLDSUHQGHU ย„ $KLVWyULDGRVFRPSXWDGRUHVGHVGHDGpFDGD GHDWpRSUHVHQWH ย„ 2IXWXURGDFRPSXWDomR ย„ $VYiULDVPDQHLUDVGHXWLOL]DURVFRPSXWDGRUHV QRGLDDGLD ย„ &RPRpSRVVtYHOWRUQDUFRPSXWDGRUHVDFHVVtYHLV DSRUWDGRUHVGHGHILFLrQFLD ย„ $DSOLFDomRGRVFRPSXWDGRUHVQDVHPSUHVDV HQD(GXFDomR (VWDOLomRDSUHVHQWDRVFRPSXWDGRUHV HVXDXWLOL]DomRDWXDOFRPXPEUHYHKLVWyULFR GDFRPSXWDomR9RFrOHUiWDPEpPVREUH DVTXHVW}HVGHDFHVVLELOLGDGHHQIUHQWDGDV SRUXVXiULRVSRUWDGRUHVGHGHILFLrQFLD WHPSRUiULDRXSHUPDQHQWH HVREUHFRPR RVFRPSXWDGRUHVHDWHFQRORJLDGHDX[tOLR DMXGDPDVXSHUDUGLILFXOGDGHV

8PDEUHYHKLVWyULDGRVFRPSXWDGRUHV 9RFrMiSHQVRXQRSRUTXrGHVHXFRPSXWDGRUVHUFKDPDGRGH3& SHUVRQDOFRPSXWHURXFRPSXWDGRUSHVVRDO "%HPSDUDVDEHUVREUH LVVRpSUHFLVRYROWDUXPSRXFRQRWHPSRHUHOHPEUDUDKLVWyULDJHUDO GRVFRPSXWDGRUHV 4XDQGRRVFRPSXWDGRUHVFRPHoDUDPDDSDUHFHUVREUHDVPHVDV GHXPQ~PHURFDGDYH]PDLRUGHHVFULWyULRVHOHVDLQGDILFDYDP OLPLWDGRVDHVWDEHOHFLPHQWRVFRPREDQFRVHVHJXUDGRUDV$VWHODV YHUGHVSLVFDQWHVGDYDPDFHVVRVRPHQWHjVLQIRUPDo}HVPDLVYLWDLV GDFOLHQWHOD 7DOYH]YRFrDWpVHOHPEUHGHWHUYLVWRDOJXPFRPSXWDGRUDVVLP QDYLGD UHDORXSHORPHQRVHPILOPHVDQWLJRV 0DVHVVHFRPSXWDGRUQDGDWLQKD GHSHVVRDO

1


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

Fundamentos de Computaรงรฃo

(QDYHUGDGHQmRHUDSDUDWHU1DTXHODpSRFDVHDOJXpPWLYHVVH VXJHULGRjVHPSUHVDVSDUDTXHGHL[DVVHPVHXVIXQFLRQiULRVLQIOXtUHP QRPRGRGHIXQFLRQDPHQWRGRVVLVWHPDVFRPSXWDGRUL]DGRVRXSDUDTXH RSHUVRQDOL]DVVHPWHULDVLGRHQ[RWDGRGDVDODGDGLUHWRULDQDKRUD

,PSRUWDQWH $VFRPSDQKLDVFRORFDYDPRSRGHUGHFRPSXWDU QDVPmRVGHSHVVRDVPDVFRQWURODYDPHOLPLWDYDP  TXDOTXHULQWHUDomRFRQFHEtYHOHQWUHIXQFLRQiULRV HFRPSXWDGRUHV(QmRYDPRVQRVHVTXHFHUGHTXH HVWDPRVIDODQGRGHPDLVGHWULQWDDQRVSDVVDGRV 1mRKDYLDWHFQRORJLDGLVSRQtYHOSDUDID]HUFRP TXHRV3&VIRVVHPPDLVGRTXHDLQWHUIDFHGH XPJLJDQWHVFRFRPSXWDGRUFHQWUDOTXHHVWDYD DTXLO{PHWURVGHGLVWkQFLD

2VSULPHLURV3&V 4XDQGRRVSULPHLURVFRPSXWDGRUHVSHVVRDLVVXUJLUDPQRILQDOGDGpFDGD GHRQRPHUHDOPHQWHTXHULDGHL[DUFODURTXHQmRVHWUDWDYDGHXP FRPSXWDGRUGHQHJyFLRV$VFRPSDQKLDVQmRYLDPSURSyVLWRSDUDHOHV HWDPEpPQmRTXHULDPWHUQDGDDYHUFRPDOJRGRJrQHUR 3HUVRQDOL]DUDFRUGDWHODHRVVRQVTXHXPFRPSXWDGRUHPLWLDHUD FRQVLGHUDGRXPDEREDJHP&ULDUSURJUDPDVSUySULRVSDUDID]HUFRP TXHRFRPSXWDGRUIL]HVVHRTXHRXVXiULRTXHULD"ยณ1mRREULJDGRยด HUDDUHVSRVWDGRVKRPHQVGHQHJyFLRQDpSRFD )RLSUHFLVRTXHRVYLVLRQiULRVGHWUrVFRPSDQKLDVยฒ,%00LFURVRIWH $SSOH&RPSXWHUยฒYLVVHPTXHXPFRPSXWDGRUTXHTXDOTXHUXPSXGHVVH FRQWURODURXVHMDXPYHUGDGHLURFRPSXWDGRUSHVVRDOHUDH[DWDPHQWH RTXHRPHUFDGRGHWUDEDOKRHVWDYDHVSHUDQGR 0DVDQWHVGHLVVRVHWRUQDUUHDOLGDGHPXLWDFRLVDDFRQWHFHX9DPRVYHU DVHJXLUXPDSHTXHQDFURQRORJLDGDKLVWyULDGDFRPSXWDomR

$GpFDGDGH $OJXQVGRVSULPHLURVFRPSXWDGRUHVDXWRPiWLFRVFRQVWUXtGRVHQWUH HIRUDPXVDGRVFRPRSDUWHGDVDWLYLGDGHVGHFRGLILFDGRUDVGXUDQWH D6HJXQGD*XHUUD0XQGLDO8PGHVVHVFRPSXWDGRUHVIRLFKDPDGRGH (QLDF VLJODGHHOHFWURQLFQXPHULFDOLQWHJUDWRUDQGFRPSXWHURX LQWHJUDGRUHOHWU{QLFRQXPpULFRHFRPSXWDGRU  2(QLDFWLQKDPHWURVTXDGUDGRVGHEDVHHSHVDYDPDLVGH WRQHODGDV(OHFRQWLQKDPDLVGHPLOYiOYXODVDYiFXR

2


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

Os computadores e a sociedade

2VFRPSXWDGRUHVDQWLJRVFRPRR(QLDFXWLOL]DYDPXPDYDULHGDGH GHUHOpV GLVSRVLWLYRVHOpWULFRVGHFRQWUROH HDODYDQFDVPHFkQLFDV SDUDID]HUGLYHUVRVFiOFXORV1mRWLQKDPIXQomRGHPHPyULDH SRUWDQWRSUHFLVDYDPVHUUHLQLFLDGRVPDQXDOPHQWHSDUDURGDU FDGDSURJUDPDGLIHUHQWH

A origem do termo bug de computador 1DGpFDGDGHRVFRPSXWDGRUHVHUDPLQVWDODGRVJHUDOPHQWH HPSHTXHQRVSUpGLRVVHPDUFRQGLFLRQDGRยฌQRLWHRVSHVTXLVDGRUHV DEULDPDVMDQHODVSDUDUHIULJHUDURSUpGLRHRFRPSXWDGRU1XPDQRLWH QRLQtFLRGDGpFDGDGHRSLRQHLURGHFRPSXWDomR*UDFH+RSSHU SDVVRXPXLWRWHPSRWUDWDQGRGHORFDOL]DUHUHVROYHUXPSUREOHPD TXHHVWDYDLPSHGLQGRTXHRFRPSXWDGRUIXQFLRQDVVHFRUUHWDPHQWH 8PDPDULSRVDKDYLDVLGRDWUDtGDSHORFDORUHSHODVOX]HV GRFRPSXWDGRUHQWUDUDSHODMDQHODHILFDUDSUHVDHQWUHDOJXPDV GDVDODYDQFDVPHFkQLFDVTXHVHPH[LDPSURYRFDQGRHUURV 7RUQRXVHFRPXPWHUGHWLUDURVLQVHWRVTXHILFDYDPSUHVRV QRFRPSXWDGRUGXUDQWHDQRLWH$OJXQVDFUHGLWDPTXHIRLDVVLP TXHRVWHUPRVEXJ LQVHWR SDUDVLJQLILFDUGHIHLWRHGHEXJJLQJ RXGHGHWL]DUQRVHQWLGRGHOLPSDURVGHIHLWRV VXUJLUDPQRPXQGR GDFRPSXWDomR

$GpFDGDGH 7UDQVLVWRUHV VmRGLVSRVLWLYRV FRQVWLWXtGRVSRU VHPLFRQGXWRUHVTXH SRGHPIXQFLRQDUFRPR XPDPSOLILFDGRU GHIRUPDVHPHOKDQWH DXPDYiOYXODHOHWU{QLFD

2VSULPHLURVWUDQVLVWRUHVIRUDPSDWHQWHDGRVHP(OHVWLQKDPD PHVPDIXQomRGDVYiOYXODVDYiFXRPDVHUDPPHQRUHVHPDLV HILFLHQWHV&RPLVVRID]LDPFRPTXHRVFRPSXWDGRUHVIRVVHPPHQRUHV JDVWDVVHPPHQRVHOHWULFLGDGHHJHUDVVHPPHQRVFDORU

ร–3DUDOHPEUDU $SHVDUGDLQYHQomRGRVWUDQVLVWRUHVRVFRPSXWDGRUHVFRQWLQXDUDP XVDQGRYiOYXODVDYiFXRDWpRILQDOGDGpFDGDGH (PDFDOFXODGRUDHOHWU{QLFDGHVHTยrQFLDVHOHWLYDGD,%0 WLQKDDSUR[LPDGDPHQWHSRUPHWURVHDLQGDXVDYDYiOYXODV DYiFXR(VVHFRPSXWDGRUSURGX]LXDVWDEHODVGDVSRVLo}HVOXQDUHV XVDGDVGHSRLVHPQDH[SHGLomR$SROORj/XD



3


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

Fundamentos de Computaรงรฃo

1RILQDOGRVDQRVD,%0FRPHoRXDSURGX]LUVHXVSULPHLURV FRPSXWDGRUHVWUDQVLVWRUL]DGRVยฑDVpULH(VVHWLSRGHFRPSXWDGRU HUDPHQRUHPDLVUiSLGRGRTXHDVYHUV}HVDQWLJDVPDVDLQGD HUDHQRUPHVHFRPSDUDGRDRVSDGU}HVGHKRMH

$GpFDGDGH &LUFXLWRLQWHJUDGR pFRQVWLWXtGR GHFRPSRQHQWHV

2FLUFXLWRLQWHJUDGRWDPEpPFKDPDGRGHPLFURFKLSRXFKLS GHVLOtFLRIRLLQYHQWDGRGXUDQWHRVDQRVGHHSRU GRLVSHVTXLVDGRUHVLQGHSHQGHQWHV

PLQLDWXUL]DGRVPRQWDGRV HPXPDSHTXHQDSDVWLOKD GHVLOtFLRRXGHRXWUR

8PGHVVHVFKLSVFRQWLQKDRVFLUFXLWRVHOHWU{QLFRVGHXPFRPSXWDGRU LQWHLURRTXHLQLFLRXRXWUDUHYROXomRQRIRUPDWRGRVFRPSXWDGRUHV

PDWHULDOVHPLFRQGXWRU

1RVDQRVGHRVPLQLFRPSXWDGRUHVยฑFRPQRPHVFRPR'(&3'3 HR,%06\VWHPยฑIRUDPLQWURGX]LGRVHPXPQ~PHURFDGDYH]PDLRU GHVHWRUHVHPSUHVDULDLV 6RPDQGRVHDLVVRSHVTXLVDVQD1DVDDJrQFLDHVSDFLDOQRUWH DPHULFDQDOHYDUDPjFULDomRGHFRPSXWDGRUHVDLQGDPHQRUHV 2VFRPSXWDGRUHVGHL[DUDPGHFXVWDUPLOK}HVGHGyODUHVHGHSUHFLVDU GHDPELHQWHVHVSHFLDLV

$GpFDGDGH (PR;HUR[$OWRIRLRSULPHLURSURWyWLSRGHFRPSXWDGRUDXVDU DLQWHUIDFHJUiILFDGHXVXiULR FRQKHFLGDSHODVLJOD*8,GRLQJOrVJUDSKLF XVHULQWHUIDFH SRUPHLRGDTXDOVmRXVDGRVVtPERORVSDUDDVIXQo}HV GRFRPSXWDGRUHPYH]GHRXVXiULRWHUGHGLJLWDUFRPDQGRVFRPSOHWRV (VVHWDPEpPIRLRSULPHLURFRPSXWDGRUDXWLOL]DUXPPRXVHFRPR GLVSRVLWLYRSDUDLQWURGXomRGHGDGRV 0HVPRTXHHVVHVLVWHPDQmRWLYHVVHVLGRGLVSRQLELOL]DGRSDUDRS~EOLFR HPJHUDOLQIOXHQFLRXHQRUPHPHQWHRGHVHQYROYLPHQWRGRVVLVWHPDV RSHUDFLRQDLV0LFURVRIW:LQGRZVH$SSOH0DFLQWRVK 20,76$OWDLURSULPHLURHTXLSDPHQWRDVHUFKDPDGRGHFRPSXWDGRU SHVVRDOHVWUHRXHP(OHHUDYHQGLGRSULQFLSDOPHQWHFRPRXPNLW GHFRPSXWDGRURXVXiULRWLQKDGHPRQWiORDQWHVGHSRGHUXVDU 2FRPSXWDGRUXVDYDRFKLSPLFURSURFHVVDGRU,QWHOHPHVPRYLQGR FRPGLVSRVLWLYRVOLPLWDGRVGHHQWUDGDHVDtGDGHGDGRV QmRKDYLD WHFODGRQHPPRQLWRU HOHREWHYHVXFHVVRLPHGLDWRHQWUHRVDILFLRQDGRV SRUFRPSXWDGRUHV

4


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

7HOD&57GDVLJOD HPLQJOrV&DWKRGH5D\ 7XEHRX7XERGH5DLRV &DWyGLFRVWDPEpP pFRQKHFLGDFRPR

Os computadores e a sociedade

ร–3DUDOHPEUDU $FRPSDQKLDQRUWHDPHULFDQD7DQG\&RUSRUDWLRQDSUHVHQWRX VHXSULPHLURFRPSXWDGRUSHVVRDOHP )RLXPVXFHVVRSRUTXHHUDDFRPSDQKDGRGHXPWHFODGRHGHXP YLVRU XPDWHOD&57 

0RQLWRU&572 GLVSRVLWLYRWHP IXQFLRQDPHQWR VHPHOKDQWHDRGHXPD 79PDVVHXREMHWLYR pVHUYLUGHPHLR

7UDEDOKDQGRHPXPDSHTXHQDJDUDJHP6WHYH:R]QLDNH6WHYHQ-REV FULDUDPHYHQGHUDPRVFRPSXWDGRUHV$SSOH,SDUDDILFLRQDGRV(VVH FRPSXWDGRUWHYHVXILFLHQWHr[LWRSDUDTXHRVIXQGDGRUHVGD$SSOH &RPSXWHUFULDVVHPR$SSOH,,HPTXHIRLXPWUHPHQGRVXFHVVR

GHFRPXQLFDomRYLVXDO HQWUHRFRPSXWDGRU HRXVXiULR

6RIWZDUHpRFRQMXQWR GHFRPSRQHQWHVTXHQmR ID]HPSDUWHGR HTXLSDPHQWRItVLFR GRFRPSXWDGRUHTXH LQFOXHPDVLQVWUXo}HV HSURJUDPDV HRVGDGRV DHOHVDVVRFLDGRV  HPSUHJDGRVGXUDQWH DXWLOL]DomRGRVLVWHPD 3RUH[WHQVmRpTXDOTXHU SURJUDPDRXFRQMXQWR GHSURJUDPDV GHFRPSXWDGRU

2$SSOH,,RIHUHFLDPHPyULDH[SDQGLGDSURJUDPDVGHGULYHGHGLVFRH JUiILFRVHPFRUHV

$GpFDGDGH $,%0ODQoRXVHXSULPHLUR3&HP(VVHFRPSXWDGRU XVDYDXPVRIWZDUHFKDPDGR'26 'LVN2SHUDWLQJ 6\VWHPRXVLVWHPDRSHUDFLRQDOGHGLVFR SDUDFRQWURODU RFRPSXWDGRU (PERUDQmRHPSUHJDVVHDPHOKRUHPDLVUHFHQWHWHFQRORJLDGLVSRQtYHO HOHIRLLPSRUWDQWHSRUTXHSURYRXTXHRFRPSXWDGRUSHVVRDOHUDPDLV GRTXHXPPRGLVPRLDVHWRUQDUXPHOHPHQWRLPSRUWDQWHGHWRGDH TXDOTXHUHPSUHVD

ร–3DUDOHPEUDU (PIRLODQoDGRRFRPSXWDGRU0DFLQWRVKFRPXPD*8, LQWHUIDFHJUiILFD TXHIDFLOLWDYDDXWLOL]DomRGRFRPSXWDGRUSDUD XVXiULRVSULQFLSLDQWHV &RPRVXUJLPHQWRGDLPSUHVVRUD/DVHU:ULWHUHPD$SSOH LQLFLRXXPDUHYROXomRQRODQoDPHQWRGHSURGXWRVSDUDHVFULWyULR 2IRUWDOHFLPHQWRGRFRPSXWDGRUSHVVRDOFRQWLQXRXSHODGpFDGDGH DWpILFDUQRPHVPRQtYHOGRVPLQLFRPSXWDGRUHVHPWHUPRVGHYHORFLGDGH HSRGHUGHFRPSXWDomR

$GpFDGDGH $SSOH,%00LFURVRIWHRXWUDVFRPSDQKLDVFRQWLQXDUDPSURGX]LQGR HDSHUIHLoRDQGRRVVRIWZDUHV SURJUDPDV TXHID]LDPFRPTXH RVFRPSXWDGRUHVILFDVVHPPDLVIiFHLVGHXVDU



5


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

Fundamentos de Computaรงรฃo

(PD0LFURVRIWODQoRXRVLVWHPDRSHUDFLRQDO:LQGRZV TXHUHSUHVHQWRXXPDPXGDQoDHQRUPHQDPDQHLUDGHRVXVXiULRV WUDEDOKDUHPFRPVHXVFRPSXWDGRUHV8PGHVHXVWUXQIRVHUDXPD*8, TXHVHWRUQDULDDIDYRULWDHQWUHRVXVXiULRVGHFRPSXWDGRU 'XUDQWHDGpFDGDGHDIDEULFDomRGHFRPSXWDGRUHVSHVVRDLV PHQRUHVPDLVUiSLGRVHPDLVEDUDWRVFRQWLQXRX2VFRPSXWDGRUHV SRUWiWHLV FRPRRVODSWRSV WDPEpPILFDUDPPDLVDFHVVtYHLVHSRSXODUHV 

+RPHPYHUVXVFRPSXWDGRU (PSHODSULPHLUDYH]RPXQGRDVVLVWLXDXPDSDUWLGDGH[DGUH] HQWUHXPFDPSHmRPXQGLDOHXPFRPSXWDGRU$SHVDUGHRFRPSXWDGRU SRGHUFDOFXODUFHPPLOK}HVGHMRJDGDVGH[DGUH]SRUVHJXQGRRUXVVR *DU\.DVSDURYGHUURWRXRFRPSXWDGRU'HHS%OXHGD,%0 (PXPDUHYDQFKHHPR'HHS%OXHYHQFHX(UDDSULPHLUDYH] TXHXPFRPSXWDGRUGHUURWDYDXPKXPDQRHPXPDSDUWLGDGH[DGUH] 

$GpFDGDGH 2VSULPHLURVDQRVGRQRYRPLOrQLRPRVWUDP TXHRVFRPSXWDGRUHVHRDFHVVRj,QWHUQHWHVWmR jGLVSRVLomRGHXPQ~PHURGHSHVVRDVFDGDYH] PDLRUHPWRGRRPXQGR 6HUYLoRVGD:HEFRPRPHQVDJHQVLQVWDQWkQHDV SHUPLWHPTXHDVSHVVRDVVHFRPXQLTXHP HPWHPSRUHDOGHTXDOTXHUOXJDU 2XWURVDSOLFDWLYRVGD:HESRVVLELOLWDPUHDOL]DUTXDVHWRGDVDVWDUHIDV GLiULDVGHWUDEDOKRHSHVVRDLVVHPVDLUGHFDVDRXGRHVFULWyULR

ร–3DUDOHPEUDU eSRVVtYHOID]HUFRPSUDVHHQFRQWUDUSUDWLFDPHQWHWXGRRTXH VHTXLVHUOHURMRUQDORXRXYLUWUDQVPLVV}HVGHUiGLRDRYLYR GHYiULRVSDtVHV3RUPHLRGRFRPSXWDGRUSHVVRDOTXDOTXHU XPSRGHDGPLQLVWUDUVXDVILQDQoDVRXQHJyFLRVUHDOL]DUUHXQL}HV GHWUDEDOKRjGLVWkQFLDUHFHEHUHHQYLDUGRFXPHQWRVSURILVVLRQDLV RXSHVVRDLVSODQHMDUHID]HUUHVHUYDVGHYLDJHQVSDVVHLRVHWF

6


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

+DUGZDUH pRFRPSRQHQWHRXR FRQMXQWRGHFRPSRQHQWHV ItVLFRVGHXPFRPSXWDGRU RXGHVHXVSHULIpULFRV

Os computadores e a sociedade

1RYDVWHFQRORJLDVGHKDUGZDUHFRPRR DVVLVWHQWH SHUVRQDOGLJLWDODVVLVWDQWRX 3'$ ยฑPDLVFRQKHFLGRFRPRSDOPWRSยฑHR FRPSXWDGRUGHPmR WDEOHWFRPSXWHU  SHUPLWHPDRXVXiULROHYDUVHXFRPSXWDGRU SDUDTXDOTXHUOXJDUHDFHVVDUD,QWHUQHW FRPIDFLOLGDGHXVDQGRWHFODGRRXXPD FDQHWDSUySULDTXHDSHQDVWRFDDWHOD $VWHFQRORJLDVGHVDWpOLWHHGHWHOHIRQLDFHOXODUPHOKRUDUDPWDQWR TXHSHVVRDVSRGHPOLJDUSDUDDPLJRVSDUHQWHVHFROHJDVGDVUHJL}HV PDLVUHPRWDV

,PSRUWDQWH &RPPDLVSHVVRDVQD,QWHUQHWXPDTXDQWLGDGHPDLRU GHLQIRUPDomRFRUUHULVFRVHDVHJXUDQoDYLURXXPD  TXHVWmRGHJUDQGHLPSRUWkQFLD2VYtUXVGHFRPSXWDGRU SRGHPVHHVSDOKDUSHORPXQGRLQWHLURHPSRXFDVKRUDV FXVWDQGRPXLWRWHPSRHGLQKHLURDHPSUHVDV HJRYHUQRVSRUSHUGDGHDUTXLYRVHSRUWHQWDWLYDV GHUHFXSHUDomR 2VIDEULFDQWHVGDiUHDHVWmRFRQVWDQWHPHQWH GHVHQYROYHQGRQRYRVVRIWZDUHVGHVHJXUDQoD HSDWFKHV UHPHQGRV SDUDFRUULJLUYXOQHUDELOLGDGHV GHVHXVSURJUDPDV

'HVHQYROYLPHQWRIXWXURGDFRPSXWDomR (P*RUGRQ0RRUHXPSHVTXLVDGRUGRFKLSGHVLOtFLRSUHYLX TXHDIRUoDHDYHORFLGDGHGRVFKLSVOLWHUDOPHQWHGREUDULDPDFDGD GRLVDQRV(OHILFRXPXLWRSHUWRGDUHDOLGDGHDWXDOPHQWHRSRGHU GHSURFHVVDPHQWRGHFRPSXWDGRUHVHFKLSVHVWiGREUDQGRDFDGD GH]RLWRPHVHV (QTXDQWRDOJXQVFLHQWLVWDVSUHYrHPTXHDWHFQRORJLDGDFRPSXWDomR FKHJDUiDRVOLPLWHVGDItVLFDFRQYHQFLRQDOSRUYROWDGHDSHVTXLVD HPItVLFDTXkQWLFDHRVFRPSXWDGRUHVTXkQWLFRVSRGHUmRWRUQDU RVSURFHVVDGRUHVPHQRUHVHPDLVSRWHQWHVGRTXHTXDOTXHUFRLVD FRQFHELGDDQWHULRUPHQWH 2VFRPSRQHQWHVGHFRPSXWDGRUFRQWLQXDPILFDQGRPHQRUHVPDLV UiSLGRVHPDLVEDUDWRV(QTXDQWRLVVRDFRQWHFHRVFRPSXWDGRUHVILFDP PDLVIOH[tYHLVHVmRXVDGRVSDUDXPQ~PHURFDGDYH]PDLRUGHIXQo}HV $SDUHOKRVFRPXQVFRPRWHOHYLVRUHVWHOHIRQHVHDWpIRUQRVGHFR]LQKD XVDPFKLSVSDUDPHOKRUDUVXDIXQFLRQDOLGDGH



7


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

Fundamentos de Computaรงรฃo

1RIXWXURRXVRGRVFRPSXWDGRUHVFRQWLQXDUiVHQGRDPSOLDGR FRPUHFXUVRVFRPRRUHFRQKHFLPHQWRGDIDODDUHDOLGDGHYLUWXDO HRXWUDVSRVVLELOLGDGHV

2XVRDWXDOGRVFRPSXWDGRUHV 4XDQGRIRUDPLQWURGX]LGRVQRPXQGRGRVQHJyFLRVRVFRPSXWDGRUHV HUDPJUDQGHVHFDURVHQmRWLQKDPVLGRGHVHQYROYLGRVFRPTXHVW}HV GHDFHVVLELOLGDGHHPPHQWH*HUDOPHQWHHUDPXVDGRVSDUDILQV HVSHFtILFRVWDLVFRPRSHVTXLVDVHFiOFXORVGHJUDQGHVTXDQWLGDGHV GHQ~PHURV 3RUH[HPSORQDGpFDGDGHXPDJUDQGHFRPSDQKLDSRGHULDWHU XP~QLFRFRPSXWDGRUDVHUYLoRGHVHXGHSDUWDPHQWRGHSDJDPHQWR GHSHVVRDO1HQKXPRXWURGHSDUWDPHQWRGDFRPSDQKLDXVDYDHVVH FRPSXWDGRURXSDUDID]rORWLQKDPGHRUJDQL]DUKRUiULRVSDUD FRPSDUWLOKDUVXDXWLOL]DomRSHORVYiULRVGHSDUWDPHQWRV

ร–3DUDOHPEUDU ยฌPHGLGDTXHDWHFQRORJLDGHFRPSXWDomRWRUQRXRVFRPSXWDGRUHV PHQRUHVHPDLVEDUDWRVHOHVFRPHoDUDPDVHUHPSUHJDGRVHPXP Q~PHURFDGDYH]PDLRUGHVLWXDo}HV8PGHSDUWDPHQWRSRGLDWHU VHXVLVWHPDGHSURFHVVDPHQWRGHWH[WRRXXPPLQLFRPSXWDGRU SDUDSURMHWRVHVSHFtILFRVHPYH]GHVLPSOHVPHQWHWHQWDU FRPSDUWLOKDUWHPSRQRFRPSXWDGRUGHJUDQGHSRUWHGDHPSUHVD 2VFRPSXWDGRUHVWDPEpPVDtUDPGRVDPELHQWHVHPSUHVDULDLVSDUD RXVRFRWLGLDQR$WXDOPHQWHHOHVHVWmRSUHVHQWHVHPPXLWDVVLWXDo}HV GDYLGD&RQILUDDVHJXLU

1RFDPSR &DOFXODUTXDQWLGDGHVGHDGXERPD[LPL]DURVOXFURVQDSURGXomR DFRPSDQKDUDFDSDFLGDGHSURGXWLYDGRVDQLPDLVSUHSDUDUXPDHVFDOD GHYDFLQDVSDUDRUHEDQKRHVWDEHOHFHUXPDWDEHODGHFRQVXPRGHUDomR SUHSDUDUFXUYDVGHDYDOLDomRVREUHDIHUWLOLGDGHGDVPDWUL]HVHDYDOLDUR JDQKRGHSHVRGRVDQLPDLVSDUDGHFLGLUTXDLVVHUmRYHQGLGRV $VDSOLFDo}HVGRFRPSXWDGRUSDUDRVID]HQGHLURVpHQRUPH(OHVSRGHP YDULDURWLSRHDTXDQWLGDGHGHUDomRGDGDDFDGDDQLPDOREVHUYDURV UHVXOWDGRVDRORQJRGRWHPSRHXVDUHVVDLQIRUPDomRSDUDHOHYDUD SURGXomRRXROXFUR7DPEpPSRGHPDFRPSDQKDUTXDLVDQLPDLV SURGX]HPPDLRUTXDQWLGDGHGHOHLWHHXVDUHVVDLQIRUPDomRSDUD GHWHUPLQDUHPTXHFULDomRGHYHPLQYHVWLU2VFRPSXWDGRUHVVLPSOLILFDP HVVHWLSRGHUHJLVWURHSHVTXLVD

8


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

Os computadores e a sociedade

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Parte I: Lição 1

Fundamentos de Computação

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10


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

Os computadores e a sociedade

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11


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

Fundamentos de Computaรงรฃo

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12


Parte I: Lição 1

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Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

Fundamentos de Computaรงรฃo

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14


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

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Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

Fundamentos de Computaรงรฃo

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16


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

Os computadores e a sociedade

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0DWHPiWLFD ([LVWHPKRMHyWLPRVSURJUDPDVGHFRPSXWDGRU SDUDDMXGDUDOXQRVFRPH[HUFtFLRVGH0DWHPiWLFD UHSHWLWLYRV2SURIHVVRUWDPEpPSRGHXVDUJUiILFRV FRPSXWDGRUL]DGRVSDUDH[SOLFDUTXHVW}HVGDVPDLV VLPSOHVjVPDLVFRPSOH[DVFRPRGHGX]LUWUDMHWyULDV GHSRXVRQD/XD3RGHDLQGDXVDUJUiILFRVWULGLPHQVLRQDLV SDUDDMXGDUHPOLo}HVGH*HRPHWULD2VDOXQRVWDPEpPSRGHPFULDU H[HUFtFLRVSDUDRXWURVUHVROYHUHP

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17


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

Fundamentos de Computaรงรฃo

*HRJUDILD $OJXQVSURJUDPDVGHFRPSXWDGRUSHUPLWHPTXH RVDOXQRVYHMDPRVFRQWLQHQWHVVHPRYHUHP HIRUPDUHPQRYRVFRQWLQHQWHV9RFrSRGHREVHUYDU FRPRDVGLIHUHQWHVFDPDGDVGHSHGUDVVmRIRUPDGDV HYHUFRPRXPYXOFmRVXUJHHRSRUTXrGHHOHHQWUDU HPHUXSomRยฑEDVWDYLVLWDUVLWHVGD:HETXHPRQLWRUDPYXOF}HVDWLYRV SHORPXQGRDIRUD7DPEpPGiSDUDYHUVLPXODo}HVGDVFDXVDV GHWHUUHPRWRVHDtEXVFDUHPVLWHVLQIRUPDo}HVDWXDOL]DGDVVREUH WHUUHPRWRVTXHUHDOPHQWHRFRUUHUDP (P*HRJUDILD+XPDQDpSRVVtYHOSHVTXLVDUQD,QWHUQHWHH[SORUDU DVGLIHUHQoDVHQWUHSDtVHVLGLRPDVFXOWXUDVUHOLJL}HVRFXSDomRGR HVSDoRHFRQRPLDSROtWLFDQ~PHURVUHODWLYRVHDEVROXWRV GDSRSXODomRยฑHQILPXPDTXDQWLGDGHGHGDGRVLPSUHVVLRQDQWH SDUDFRPSRUWDEHODVHODERUDUJUiILFRVPDSDVHLQIRJUiILFRV

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$UWH 9RFrSRGHID]HUH[FXUV}HVHPPXVHXVGHWRGRRPXQGRGLUHWDPHQWH GHVHXFRPSXWDGRU$UWLVWDVLQLFLDQWHVSRGHPXVDURFRPSXWDGRUSDUD FULDUVHXVJUiILFRVS{VWHUHVYtGHRVHRXWURVUHFXUVRVDUWtVWLFRV

&RPRFRPSXWDGRUYRFrSRGHFULDUVXDV P~VLFDVLPLWDQGRSUDWLFDPHQWHTXDOTXHU LQVWUXPHQWRDWpRUTXHVWUDVLQWHLUDV&RPELQH VXDP~VLFDFRPRXWURVWLSRVGHPtGLD YLVXDLV SRUH[HPSOR HFULHRXWUDVIRUPDVGHDUWH 2VDOXQRVWDPEpPSRGHPLQWHJUDULPDJHQV GLJLWDLV HPPRYLPHQWRRXIL[DV FRPiXGLR HWH[WRFULDQGRVHXVYLGHRFOLSHV

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18


Parte I: Liรงรฃo 1

Os computadores e a sociedade

RFRPSXWDGRUSDUDDFHVVDUDUWLJRVSURJUDPDVGHYtGHRWH[WRVFRP UHODWRVGHHVSHFLDOLVWDVHXPDYDULHGDGHGHPDWHULDO~WLO(OHVSRGHP DWpFRQWDWDURXWURVDOXQRVQRPXQGRTXHHVWmRID]HQGRSHVTXLVDVSDUD WUDEDOKRVHPHOKDQWH&DGDDOXQRWHULDDFHVVRDRWLSRGHPDWHULDO TXHSUHIHULVVHXVDUSDUDDSUHQGHU(QTXDQWRRVDOXQRVSHVTXLVDP RSURIHVVRUSRGHGHGLFDUWHPSRDTXHPSUHFLVDGHRULHQWDomRSDUD FRPSOHWDUVHXWUDEDOKR 8PDVLWXDomRDVVLPQmRpVRQKR9RFrSRGHID]HULVVRIDFLOPHQWH FRPRPDWHULDOGLVSRQtYHOKRMHHPGLD3UDWLFDPHQWHTXDOTXHUGLVFLSOLQD WHPXPVRIWZDUHHGXFDFLRQDOFRUUHVSRQGHQWH9RFrSRGHDWpFRQVHJXLU XPVRIWZDUHTXHOKHSHUPLWDFULDUVHXSURJUDPDHGXFDFLRQDO HSHUVRQDOL]DUH[SHULrQFLDVGHDSUHQGL]DGRSDUDFDGDWXUPD RXDWpSDUDDOXQRVLQGLYLGXDOPHQWH

7HVWHUiSLGR 

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19

Introd_Comp_1  

Introd_Comp_1

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