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Dr. Bjørn Gunnarsson is the Managing Director at Centre for High North Logistics (CHNL). I met him in Oslo the 13. of September for a talk about how my project could be developed. CE: Carina Elgvin BG: Bjørn Gunnarsson CE: Do you have a proposal for a preferable site along the NSR? BG: If you’re servicing the transit of the big vessels of the future, the ships have to sail quite far from the coast because of the depths constraints. They could be located on one of the islands, but then when it comes to closeness to the islands you will have problems when it comes to depths. They can not go close. And also the straits are very limited. To service the big cargo ships, they have to be floating! You should not go too far south either. The ice- strengthen ships can not sail for a long time in open waters, cause they are specially designed to plough trough winter ice. You know, how I would approach this; I would design, in general terms, a floating platform that wold act as a SAR, and then I would draw a facility that can work with that floating structure and look at how the communication between those two centers will function through satellites and so on. In general terms. Then you say, these types of structures, could be duplicated in various locations. On the map where you would need this kind of facilities and how many you will need. The floating structures are much

more cheaper and more flexible than the land based structures. So I would look at an ideal SAR platform, and needed infrastructure on land. This is the most important, then you can modify it in relation to the site you choose. CE: How do you think I can find the right position on sea? BG: I actually don’t think that is so important either. I think that you can suggest sites based on the geography and talking to people and so forth, but the main core of the contribution is to make the actual design. Just to make it generically. CE: But what about this floating structures in winter time? Will they still be there? Could they move? BG: They should be placed in strategical locations, permanently. If we are looking at a year round operation they should be able to tolerate ice movement. You cant even approach land in winter time, so they should absolutely be permanent on sea. Big ships can not go into the arctic ports. They cant even go close to the islands cause of the very shallow continental shelf of the arctic ocean. You have to have floating. The icebreakers do not follow the tankers all the way through the route. They are tree or four that goes in transit and helps if something goes wrong. The russians operates this system. If there’s open water they should not even be there, thats not what they’re meant to do. This floating structures should be organized in conjunction with the russians. 312

CE: But what about the ice then? BG: Yes, They need to be designed to withstand the ice. The same thing about the oil and gas drills, and platforms. To withstand the sea ice movement. Thats a very good point. It has to be designed in such a way that it isn’t damaged by sea ice movement. Wind, Coastal eruption, or storms, the ice is gonna move more. its gonna pile up into some ridges. So all of these things have to be taken into consideration. CE: Could the SAR- Center be used for other types of program, like research? BG: This is interesting, about research. It wold be interesting to combine it with other programs, yes. For some years ago, I wrote in an article, that research and moni-

"As you know, they aren't really starting to think about it. Not seriously."

toring centers should be located in all the right spaces to collect data. Real time data. In unusual places, to monitoring the changing arctic environment. So that we get continuous information about the arctic. There are so many changes accruing in the there, so fast, and so they indicate what could happen in other places too. CE: Are these kind of research centers existing today? BG: No. Well there are some monitoring stations in the arctic. but we would need to put up a system of monitoring stations that wold monitor the changing arctic environment all over. CE: How many stations do you see in this network? BG: Well, that hasn’t really been worked out by anyone yet. In 2006 there was some program given out by the U.S called “Search” that suggested something similar. I followed a little bit what they were planning, but I didn’t really like what they had been doing. What I was visioning, regardless of the cost, is these monitoring stations that need to be placed in the arctic to give us all the data we would need. Some of them have to be on land, some of them would be floating, but they all need to be strategically located. And all the data would be transmitted to satellites, and then back to the research stations on land. Then, in areas were you have unusual oceanographical features you wold have smaller stations to monitor the conditions in those areas. So this SAR stations and this research stations that you are thinking about should be a part of that kind of system. And back to how many we need; Ok, The russians are looking at ten SAR-

Centers. That’s good, but how many of this should be connected to floating platforms. Should it be five, or eight? I don’t know! But thats something that needs to be figured out. we’ve been promoting the work of simulation needed infrastructure in the arctic. Based on certain scenarios: Transport, cargo, cargo- types, volumes and so on. And we also need of course transshipment hubs on either sides, one in west and one in east. And then this support facilities in between. And you are sort of starting this process of finding a design and needed support, so this is good. We absolutely need this. CE: Do you think there wold be more floating structures than land based? BG: That is something your research wold have to show! But if you design a typical structure, then you can look at how many is needed. Do we always need a floating and do we always need to have the land based? But your role as and architect should be to look at the general design of these kind of senators. CE: How is the communication from the satellite to the different centers? BG: You monitoring the environment on the floating structure, and then send that information to the satellite. And the satellite is sending the data to the land based center. And you could also send this to other researchers and universities. You could send it directly to Murmansk or Arkhangelsk, where the information is being processed. So the floating structures will be collecting data, but they will also be receiving the results of the data analysis, so that they can support 313

the ships. They would get the weather forecast, they would get the big idea about the ice conditions, so that they can communicate that information with the ships. They need helicopters, they need boats to monitor the surrounding areas. They have to be very strategically located, where information to ships is critical. And that could be relatively close to islands, close to some straits, or where ice conditions in the winter are the most severe. CE: Who can I talk to about these communication systems? BG: “Kongsberg” in Tromsø. They have a mayor system of satellites that they are taking data from. And also the weather news have a lot of satellites in the north. So, all of these satellite companies. CE: Can you say anything about the geographical range a SAR system like this should have? BG: Well, it’s very important to make it faster than it is today. It can take up to 3 days to make an rescue operation in the arctic today. That’s way to much. It should not take more than 12 hours. It certainly has to be within 12 hours! So where in the future will the tracks of this ships be, and can you make the centers within a 12 hour range from this tracks? In the summertime, when the ships go trough the NSR in 40 knobs, it only takes 8 days to do the transit. In the winter time the speed might be reduced down to 3 or 4 knobs, so it’s gonna take much longer time! CE: Is this done before, I mean, some kind of floating platforms in the arctic? BG: No, not in the arctic. But on the Orkney Islands near Scotland.

Alf Baird has been working with similar kind of structures here. He’s trying to promote the building of floating transshipment hubs instead of land based. They have worked out the economics of it, and it seems much more cheaper, and also more flexible. CE: But this are transshipment hubs, so these structures are bigger than a SAR base? BG: Yes, but the concept is of use to you. Because what are we supposed to do if theres a mayor oil spill? We need some rather good facilities to respond to that. Currently it’s just the icebreakers. CE: So the floating structure should also prevent Oil spills? BG: Yes, they should also respond to oil spills. But it’s so limited what you can do. It depends on the conditions and when the spill takes place. Where there’s a 12 hour range from the hot spot. Thats a good way to ignore the question. CE: So you can’t prevent it? BG: No, you can never prevent it, really. If you have a tanker with a mishap etc. and oil starts leaking out, and there’s ice all over the place except just around the track where the tanker has been plug through, (obviously with the assistant of an icebreaker), then the oil is there! but it may then migrate under the ice also, so that’s very, very hard. That’s why we have to have a preventive program to minimize this types of mishaps that does occur. Cause when it occurs there’s much more limited what we can do in the arctic, particular in the wintertime, compared to other oceans. CE: What kind of equipment could you then use? BG: We should use all the mechanical clean- up equipment that

already exists. There are these ships that scoops up the oil, like a vacuum cleaner. And then there is a way to put something on the oil, from a helicopter, that connects with the oil, and makes it easier to pick up. So that the material acts with the oil. It still floats, but it is like an absorbent. You have to do this from air, and if this is a polar night, you can understand that its a hard operation in complete darkness. And then obviously a very poplar way to get rid of the oil is to burn it. But again, it depends of the characteristics of the oil, if its even possible. Some oil is very easily burned, other oil types is difficult. CE: So what else could be preventive? When the ship if they are in distress etc.? BG: You have to put it in some kind of a shelter. So if the ship is sinking, or taking in water, then you have to pull it to a location where maintenance work can be done. So those floating platforms should have at least some basic maintenance of propellers, and be able to fix hulls etc. Then they should also have some medical facilities to operate if theres accidents. If the ship is to far off the land, the land based helicopters can´t reach them because they can´t fly that far at once. They will need more fuel. That’s why we will need helipads on the floating base. And we also need housing facilities to accommodate people in terms of crisis. CE: Does this repairs work as a shipyard? BG: Well, yeah, they should be able to sort of preliminary repairs to the propellers etc. This is what the big ship companies are looking at in terms of what they call “a safe operation”. If there’s a ship in distress then you should be able to pull the ship into some facility where this 314

can be repaired cause otherwise the insurance companies are gonna cry wolf, and then the ship could just go down. So all in all this SAR Centers we would need some kind of minimum facilities to repair the ships in distress. CE: Is it helicopters or boats that mainly are making the rescue operations? BG: Both, but in the winter time it has to be icebreakers. The ice is about 1, 5 meter. Likely a nuclear one, or at elate a very powerful one run on diesel. But we might only be looking at four, or five of there centers. Russia already have six nuclear icebreakers that they use in the arctic. The polar night and the darkness will also effect the need of this ships. Will they stay there all the time? How many ships? This isalso a design feature. Lets say that there are four main floating SAR- bases along the route, possibly we would need icebreakers in every one. And one helicopter. At least. That is kept indoors. And then just pulled out. But that are features that need to be looked at. CE: What kind of program do you need besides the ships and helicopter? BG: A Lighthouse and satellite, and maybe some small boats. CE: Do you need people working there 24/7? BG: Yes, I would think there will need to be people there all time time. Around 20 people. CE: Do you know of any big disasters that could be compared to the ones we could experience in the arctic? BG: Yes, in Antarctica you have some cruise ships that have sunk. And there has happened some mishaps in the arctic, but nothing too

serious. One of the problem in the arctic is when an icebreaker is in front of a tanker. The distance between the two has to be relatively short so that the opening doesn’t close in. So some times there are just a few meters between the ships. If the icebreaker then encounters some unforeseen problems, then there’s big risks for collisions. And that has been very common. This is also quite dangerous because these icebreakers are nuclear. And then you have to look at the shipyard. How do they handle hulls and other damages on ships? What type of facilities can repair that? How do they handle that in other shipyards and in other ports? That could actually extend the area and the size of this structure quite dramatically cause these tankers can be 300 meters long and 50 meters wide. CE: Do they need to be inside? BG: No, you can’t have them inside, you would have to anchor them, secure them, at a pier, so you may

“...So what about the political stability in Russia? If this countries invest in the infrastructure, does it guaranty that the political situation in russia is gonna be stabile?”

need to have a 400 meter pier? You cant take them on land, or inside. It’s just a few shipyards that can do that to this big tankers. But you need to have the necessary girth or length on the terminal. The tankers are about 15-20 meters deep, the largest are 25 meters. And they can’t even go through Suez. They have to go all the way round Cape of good hope. But it’s very beneficial that these large tankers or cargo ships would go trough northern sea route, when they cant go through Suez. In northern sea route it’s 30 meters depth, at least, all the way. And they are also talking about doing some explosions to deepen it, but 30 meters in the shallowest are ok. There are no ships that have draught at 30 meters. CE: The foreseen development of transits in the NSR for 2012 didn’t really live up to the expectations, yet. Why? BG: That has to do with the trademarked. So, trademarked is bad, and the availability of ice class cargo ships is also a limiting fact. We need to build more of these ships. It’s going to be slow going until we have this infrastructure in place. For the transits to really pick up, we need to build new ships. And that’s also why countries like Japan, China and South Korea are so interested in the NSR, because they can build these ships, and are doing it. CE: When do you think its going to be all-year-round based? BG: It could be in ten years time. But the infrastructure is probably not ready at that time. The building of this floating SAR-centers, transshipment hubs etc. is going to take more than ten years. As you know they aren’t really starting to think about it, not seriously. 315

CE: How can we as norwegians be a part of all this? BG: Thats the same question we get from the South Koreans, the Chinese and the Japanese. They are interested in seeing this infrastructure being build up so that the route could be used. CE: But could we cooperate with Russia on this issue? BG: Ok, so what about the political stability in Russia? If this countries invest in the infrastructure, does it guaranty that the political situation in russia is gonna be stabile? Are we gonna enter a new area of conflict in the Arctic? Similar to the cold war? CE: Do you have some last advices to give me on this diploma project? BG: You should research a little bit on what is done on ice- strengthened structures. Like drill platforms and so on. I don’t have any references for you, I don’t think it has been done, really. And then, make it good!



























1. Land Based Monitoring Center on Diomede Islands 2. Floating Search and Rescue- Center -somewhere inside the black markings 3. Satelite, orbiting in space. 4. NSR ship trail 5. NSR + NWP alternative ship trails 6. Bering Strait border 7. 12 hour radius from land based Center 8. Bathymetry line deeper than 60 m





3000 m2 50 m2 300 m2 50 m2 50 m2 25 m2 225 m2 75 m2 50 m2 50 m2 50 m2 3000 + 925m2

1. Pier for ship repair / 2. Base for icebreaker 3. Base for helicopter 4. Oil resue equiptment base 5. Lighthouse 6. Control center 7. Medical room 8. 15 rooms for crew 9. 5 extra rooms 10. Common space 11. Dining facilities 12. Energy units

11. 5.


3. 6. 4.




12. 1. 2.


200 m2 100 m2 150 m2 450 m2 50 m2 50 m2 50 m2 1050 m2

1. Meeting facilities 2. Monitoring center 3. 10 rooms for crew 4. 30 rooms for visitors 5. Common space 6. Dining facilities 7. Energy units

7. 2.

1. 3.
















A caisson construction for the repair of ships. These are constructed such that the water can be pumped out, keeping the working environment dry.



A caisson construction for the repair of ships. These are constructed such that the water can be pumped out, keeping the working environment dry.

There are two parts to the answer for this question. First, let’s take a look at why anything floats. Then, let’s examine why ice floats on top of liquid water, instead of sinking to the bottom. Answer: A substance floats if it is less dense, or has less mass per unit volume, than other components in a mixture. For example, if you toss a handful of rocks into a bucket of water, the rocks, which are dense compared to the water, will sink. The water, which is less dense than the rocks, will float. Basically, the rocks push the water out of the way, or displace it. For an object to be able to float, it has to displace a weight of fluid equal to its own weight. Water reaches its maximum density at 4°C. As it cools further and freezes into ice, it actually becomes less dense. On the other hand, most substances are most dense in their solid (frozen) state than in their liquid state. Water is different because of hydrogen bonding. A water molecule is made from one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms, strongly joined to each other with covalent bonds. Water molecules are also attracted to each other by weaker chemical bonds (hydrogen bonds) between the positively-charged hydrogen atoms and the negatively-charged oxygen atoms of neighboring water molecules. As water cools below 4°C, the hydrogen bonds adjust to hold the negatively charged oxygen atoms apart. This produces a crystal lattice, which is commonly known as ‘ice’. Ice floats because it is about 9% less dense than liquid water. In other words, ice takes up about 9% more space than water, so a liter of ice weighs less than a liter water. The heavier water displaces the lighter ice, so ice floats to the top. One consequence of this is that lakes and rivers freeze from top to bottom, allowing fish to survive even when the surface of a lake has frozen over. If ice sank, the water would be displaced to the top and exposed to the colder temperature, forcing rivers and lakes to fill with ice and freeze solid.



When building an offshore structure, there are tree main concerns: Materials used to build the structure, if it´s fixed or floating and the distribution of construction elements. Within these aspects, the most important one is the boundary conditions of an offshore structure, since fixed and floating structures has totally different dynamic characteristics and different interaction processes with ice floe. Fixed structures- Fixed structures are installed by different ways: Some of them are fixed rigidly by a group of steel piles buildt deep into the soil (such as jacket platforms), whereas some fixed structures are positioned by their enormous weight (such as caissons). Some new- conceptual fixed foundations have recently been adopted to offshore engeneering, as the bucket foundation structures which are fixed into the seafloor by the difference between hydraulic pressure and vacuum inside the bucket. Floating structures- Floating structures include vessels which move under their own power, and passive objects positioned by mooring lines or other dynamic positioning systems. A floating structure can be considered as a rigid body approximately when it interacts with an ice floe in spite of the possible local deformation of the structure. An ice floe impaction a floating structure may not fail, but crushed fragments are often created when an ice floe hits fixed vertical structures.



MONITORING An Arctic floater can be classified based on its shape, mobility and function. The floater may have a hull form that is either ship-shaped or non-ship-shaped. The non-ship-shaped floaters can further be classified as column stabilised, self-elevating, deep draught and tension leg floaters. The ship-shaped floaters can act as free-going vessels, and they also have the possibility of maintaining a geofixed position by the use of a mooring or a dynamic positioning (DP) system. Free-going vessels provide support and a means of transportation both for personnel and hydrocarbons. It is worth mentioning here that ship transportation by tankers is inherently more flexible than pipeline transportation and is also cheaper for long distances. Icebreakers are often used to apply physical ice management in ice-covered waters. Floaters that apply station-keeping by means of mooring or DP systems are useful for the drilling, production, storage, offloading, service andintervention operations. The latter is typically performed from floaters on DP.



The unique design of the JBF Arctic drilling unit allows exploitation of the unit at two operating drafts. It combines the advantages of a conventional Semi Submersible resulting in very low motions in waves and a heavily strengthened ice resistant unit when operating in ice at deep draft. The JBF Arctic drilling unit is designed to drill wells in sub-arctic conditions, moored in ice infested areas up to ice thickness of 1.5-2.0 meter. When operating in ice the unit will ballast to ice draught (partly submerged deckbox) to protect the riser against fixed ice, rubble and ice ridges. The deckbox has an angled, ice strengthened structure at waterline level to deflect and/or break the ice.


When no ice is present the unit operates as a conventional semi submersible unit. The unit will operate in water-depths between 60 and 1500m. JBF Arctic, with its integrated drilling equipment, will be suitable for: Exploration, Development drilling, and Coiled tubing operations. Installation of X-mas trees, well testing and completions.


Leiv Eiriksson Semi- Submersible rig .







USS George Washington monitoring center.



NUUK Ministrial Meeting.



NUUK Ministrial Meeting.

Frozen conditions, soils that contain ice, and fiercely cold weather all impact the design of equipment used in the arctic. Drilling equipment, drill bits, and a host of related hardware have been or are being redesigned for colder climates. Even building foundations and workers’ outerwear are developed to withstand the bitter cold and shifting elements. Theese materials are mostly used down to minus 40 degrees: CONCRETE S T E E L (S355J4) POLYMERS POLYMER COATINGS







Most satellites are orbiting the Equator. The signals will be unavailable the further north you move, because the angle between the reception systems and satellite signal will be to small. LEO systems orbit only 200 to 2,000 miles above the earth, but these systems have proven to be unstable. High elliptical satellites that move in oblong paths and in a large height away from the poles, may be a solution. HEO: High elliptical satellites in elongated orbits at high altitudes over the poles. LEO: Satellites in orbit over the poles, tightly. 200-2000 km above the Earth. GEO: Satellites in orbit around the equator.





Safety related messenges and voice communication.

VHF, digital VHF, GSM, 3G

Line-of-sight, voice and low data rate communications.

GEO satellites, including Inmarsat.

Medium capasity. Low to medium latency.

LEO satellites; Iridium Openport

Currently max. 128 kbps. High and variable latency.

HEO satellites.

Properties comparable to GEO. Currently unavailable.


OK, but unsuitable for digital communications.

No base stations, ship-to ship OK.

OK, but unsuitable for digital communications.

Few base stations, ship-to ship OK.

OK, but unsuitable for digital communications.

VHF is OK close to the coast. GSM /3G limited coastal coverage.

Not available.

Potential problems with quality and availability.

OK, (except in fjords and similar special areas).

Potential problems with quality.

Potential problems with quality.

OK, except for areas around equator

Expected to provide good coverage, capacity and quality in the Polar and Sub- Polar areas. Space capasity can be used in other sea areas. Not yet implemented.




AisSat Satelite system.



CryoSat will provide data to determine the precise rate of change in the thickness of the polar ice sheets and floating sea ice.























Semi- Submersible oil rig.



Semi- Submersible oil rig.







The HiLoad technology was originally developed as an offshore loading system for crude oil, but is also used for ship repairments and stabilisation of ships offshore. The core technology is based on suction cups that are capable of transferring several thousand tons between the HiLoad and the connected object. The attachment principles are based on basic laws of nature - hydrostatic pressure and friction - combined with the common design feature of all tanker vessels: a flat bottom and straight sides. A HiLoad vessel can therefore dock onto and provide station keeping to any non-dedicated tanker or barge, without any need for modifications to the hull structure. The HiLoad units replace the hydrostatic pressure working on the tanker bottom, resulting in a robust friction force more than 20 times larger than needed to station keep the tanker in rough sea states. If additional friction should be needed due to bad weather and local operational criteria, the attachment system is also designed to provide additional vacuum force. The HiLoad systems can adopt operation anywhere in the world, at any field installation, in any water depth and under harsh environmental conditions.



HiLoad Dp in Kristiandsand November 2012.

























































Arctic mobile Research station.



Global Seed Vault, Spitsbergen.

Dominique Perrault Architecture - Galician cultural City



Pionen – White mountain / Albert France-Lanord Architects



Pionen – White mountain / Albert France-Lanord Architects

Pionen – White mountain / Albert France-Lanord Architects



Google Data storage in Helsinki.

M4 Fővám tér underground station



COP15 Pavilion by MAPT in Copenhagen.






















505 Center for High North Logistics Barents Observer Fram Center in Tromsø National Snow and Ice Data Center Kongsberg-gruppen Det Norske Veritas Aker Solutions Remora (HiLoad) Redrock (Davit) Marintek Sintef “COUPLING -Strategies for Infrastructural Opportunism” Pamphlet Architecture 30 “Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report” Arctic Council


Vorkuta rescue center.



Director of Rosatomflot, Vyacheslav Rukhsa, with the nuclear powered icebreaker "50 Let Pobedy" with the floating dock in the background.



Icebreaker tracks.



The Canadian Coast Guard Ship “Louis S. St-Laurent” ties up to the Coast Guard Cutter Healy in the Arctic Ocean Sept. 5, 2009.


Ice covering the Bering Strait.

Arctic Hurricane.


NSR, Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait.



NSR, Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait.


Diploma book pt.2