Introduction Climate change is a complex issue and the solutions are equally complex. Transport has a major part to play in its causes and mitigation. The golden bullet would be to stop carbon emitting travel altogether. However this is unrealistic and unachievable. The solutions are multifaceted and one of these is to make the travel that we have to undertake have less impact. There are many ways to do this, make engines more efficient, use different fuels or change to different modes of travel. Our Top Trumps pack aims to be a simple and fun way to negotiate the plethora of alternatives available. This guide also highlights some of the reasons why you might do this and additional ways to stimulate lower emission travel. This includes green travel planning, eco driving and of course walking and cycling! Should you wish to find out more about any of the technologies or individual vehicles or companies involved in the production of this pack you will find their details in the second section of this guide. We hope you enjoy the pack and the guide.
Contents 02 Climate change 03 Transport and Climate Change 04 Reducing CO2 05 Travel hierarchy iceberg 06 Travel planning 06 Biking & Walking 07 Eco-driving 08 How to use the Pack 09 Guide to the Stats 10 Fuels + Engines 14 Supporters
The Green Bus
20 Table of Contacts
Climate change It is generally accepted that climate change is occurring. Temperatures are rising globally, ice caps are receding and freak weather events are occurring with alarming frequency. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have been shown to be inextricably linked to temperature fluctuations in the atmosphere. Emitting more CO2 into the atmosphere will contribute to the continuing rise in temperatures and extreme weather events. A gradual increase in temperature also has major implications for ecosystems, growing seasons, wildlife and their habitats.
Transport and climate change Carbon dioxide emissions from transport have risen throughout the 1990s and now account for around one quarter of the UK’s total carbon dioxide emissions. These emissions contribute to climate change that has grave domestic and global consequences. The Government has recently shown international leadership by committing the UK to work towards a 60 per cent reduction in its carbon dioxide emissions by 2050. Transport also contributes to poor air quality. The Department of Health estimates that there are between 12,000 and 24,000 early deaths each year resulting from poor air quality in our cities.
Some changes to the climate are inevitable – even if we stop emitting gases now, the gases we have already released will have an effect. However, we must do everything we can to avoid further changes and to adapt to the new situation we find ourselves in.
4 Natural causes 4 What is the ‘climate’? The term ‘climate’ normally describes the average weather we get over a long period of time. When our climate changes, the weather we experience locally day to day can also change. Over the millions of years of the earth’s existence, the climate has changed many times. However, when we use the term ‘climate change’ now, it is to describe shifts in temperature over approximately the last 100 years and the next 100 years or so.
4 What causes climate change? There will always be some degree of uncertainty in understanding a system as complex as the world’s climate. However, there is now strong evidence and almost unanimous agreement that significant global warming is occurring. It is also likely that most of the recent warming can be attributed to human activities.
Some changes to the earth’s climate are caused by the effects on each other of the sun, land, oceans and atmosphere. These often occur over very long periods of time.
Road transport is predicted to grow by a further 33 per cent in the next 20 years (Environment Agency). A threefold increase is forecast in demand for air travel by the year 2030. These trends indicate that, despite technological advances, the environmental impacts of transport will grow unless action is taken at all levels – by government, business and individuals. There is a continuing need to reduce the environmental impacts of some forms of transport – particularly road and air travel – and promote more environmentally friendly transport options such as cycling, public transport and walking.
4 CO2 emissions by sector Other (4%)
4 Human causes
Human activity has changed the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. By burning fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas for energy, we release greenhouse gases. Currently, burning fossil fuels emits about 6.5 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year. Since the 18th century, concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased by 30 per cent.
Manufacturing (15%) Transport other (1%) Road transport (21%) Industrial processes (2%) Commercial & Institutional (4%) Energy Industries (38%)
“Road transport is expected to grow by 33% in the next 20 years”
“The 1990’s was the hottest decade of the last century...” Robert Watson, IPCC
Green Driving Guide
Reducing CO2 The easiest way to cut road transport CO2 is to stop using the roads for carbon emitting transport. However, for most this is simply not possible. Transport emissions can be cut in many ways;
Car share Visit www.liftshare.com
Route plan and travel plan across your whole organisation
Use more efficient vehicles
Use alternative fuel or low emissions vehicles
“Avoid short journeys - this is bad for your engine and the atmosphere”
Travel hierarchy iceberg Future
Use alternative fuels This may require vehicle conversion or infrastructure development.
Drive efficient vehicles or Alternative Vehicles
Use the Top Trumps pack as an initial guide. There are many realistic mainstream alternatives available.
Drive more Economically
Avoid short journeys – this is bad for your engine and the atmosphere!
Modern engines do not need to be revved or warmed up before pulling off.
Regular servicing – for safety as well as efficiency.
Maintain correct tyre pressures.
Practice smooth acceleration and braking.
If in queuing traffic, turn the engine off.
The Government is encouraging organisations and individuals to switch to cleaner fuelled vehicles by lowering the fuel duty on cleaner fuels, such as LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and natural gas, which makes them
Ensuring action on all of the following will help to keep emissions down:
Efficient journey planning and eco driving techniques will improve overall efficiency, and might get you there quicker and less stressed
Journeys between two commonly visited sites can offer useful opportunities for lift sharing
Use public transport
more financially attractive, as well as reducing Vehicle Excise Duty (road tax) for vehicles with lower CO2 emissions. Benefit in Kind (BIK) company car tax has made the use of cleaner fuelled and more fuel efficient vehicles more attractive to the company car driver. The Energy Saving Trust (EST) offer free green fleet reviews. Visit www.energysavingtrust. org.uk/fleet for more information.
Trains allow you to continue working whilst traveling. Buses and tube can be used if traveling shorter distances.
Walk and Cycle more
Good use of alternatives to driving should be the top priority, where possible using bicycles and walking. Present
Breadth of Impact
The first way of reducing emissions is avoiding vehicular journeys in the first place. Is the journey necessary? Tele-conferencing, video-conferencing or internet linking are increasingly available. After that follow the suggestions above from bottom to top, not progressing to the next until you have fully investigated the one below it. The iceberg is a useful image to use – the largest impact will be made by the things that we can’t really see.
Green Driving Guide
We have produced a travel planner (see below) – which has already led to an £18,000 saving within the 12-staff organisation inside a year. It has also reduced emissions of CO2 by 14,500 kilogrammes. We have developed this simple travel planning guide that you can pledge to in your organisation:
1. Is the journey necessary? Try to use teleconferencing, and combine meetings in the same place on the same day.
2. If the journey is necessary, get there by walking. If not, then by bike. Further still, go by bus or train. Should a car have to be used, is an electric van or hybrid car available? Only then should a personal car be used. And finally, fly if only absolutely necessary.
The policy is backed up with measures of support: =
Secure cycle storage
Bike-to-work scheme whereby people can buy bikes through the organisation and effectively get them tax free
Company fleet of vehicles includes fold-up Brompton bikes, an electric van, a petrol hybrid and a bio-diesel powered van Bio-diesel available to staff for their personal cars
Eco-driving is a style or method of driving that minimises fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and accident rates - smart, smooth and safe driving techniques that can deliver average fuel savings of 10%. Eco-driving offers benefits to all drivers – regardless of the vehicle: cost savings and fewer accidents as well as reductions in emissions and noise levels.
How to get more out of your car and less out of your pocket: = Shift up gear as soon as possible
The hierarchy of travel is in the staff induction manual and supported by everyone within the organisation
Plus disincentives for personal car use:
Restriction on staff parking spaces
Low mileage allowance
For more information about travel planning, or setting up a green travel plan in your organisation visit www.travelwise.org.uk
Once the engine is warm, turn it off if you are going to stop for longer than a minute.
Walking and cycling automatically reduce vehicular travel and its associated problems. Such physical activity can also increase staff health and productivity. One of the most frequent diagnoses of preventative medicine check ups is a lack of movement or activity.
There are many ways in which the work place can assist staff to make the switch to alternative modes of travel. Organising bike to work days or walking at lunch time is just the start.
The bike to work scheme allows people to effectively purchase a bike for 50% of the RRP using a salary sacrifice scheme. The scheme is also extended to cycling peripherals such as locks, lights and safety equipment. To assist bikes use it is important that adequate and secure cycle parking is provided, lockers and a changing area will also help those hardy types who cycle in the rain.
Maintain a steady (but not excessive) speed. Use the highest gear possible and drive with low engine RPM. Anticipate traffic flow. Look ahead as far as possible and anticipate actions of other traffic, enabling you to use the vehicle’s momentum to drive continuously.
Biking & Walking
between 1,500 and 2,500 revolutions (no more than 2,000 RPM for a diesel), avoiding harsh acceleration and braking.
Check for the correct tyre pressures every week. Remove any excess baggage from the car, and take racks and boxes off the roof. Minimise use of air conditioning and heating. Service and check vehicles at regular intervals.
Potential savings across Europe The European Climate Change Programme calculated in 2001 that within Europe driver education and eco-driving programmes could lead to 50 tonnes CO2 avoidance per vehicle by 2010. This would be the equivalent of 15 million cars’ annual CO2 emissions.
Driving style and fuel efficiency Even if the vehicle you are driving is an efficient vehicle, savings will not be achieved unless your driving style improves. Aggressive driving can increase fuel consumption by over 25%, whilst unlikely to make a significant difference to your journey time. It will also increase wear and tear on the vehicle, in particular brake pads, tyres, clutch and gears and increases the risk of having an accident. A calm, relaxed driving style will provide many benefits. It will reduce the amount of fuel used. Driving will become less stressful and will be safer for you and other road users. Further information is available at www.ecodrive.org.
Aggressive driving can increase fuel consumption by over 25%
For more information visit www.ctc.org.uk and www.walk21.com for more information.
Green Driving Guide
How to use the pack Most of the vehicles in the Top Trumps pack are available now to buy in the UK. Some, like the Killacycle, the Tesla and the Honda FCX, show what potential there is for low emissions motoring in the very near future. Eco-Vehicles Top Trumps is obviously a game, and we hope that you can have some fun playing it. We hope that it will also highlight the many alternatives to reducing CO2 emissions. The pack showcases options that you may not have previously considered. Some options require a conversion of your existing fleet – to run on pure plant oil (PPO), bioMethane, LPG or a bi-fuel blend. Other options will be to invest in lower emission standard vehicles such as hybrids or super-minis. Further still, you may wish to opt for emission free motoring using a fleet of electric vehicles, some of which offer great value and performance. If you really want to do the right thing, it may require infrastructure development, which will have knock on benefits for the local economy also. Local biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil, bioMethane or PPO are all possibilities and the contacts at the end of this guide will be able to assist you. The inclusion of buses and a bike in the pack are deliberate. If you examine the CO2 per passenger of the buses, you will see what a significant reduction converting people to use public transport will result in. Bike use is obviously emission free and has significant health benefits also. You may wish to support overall CO2 reduction by stimulating the use of these modes of transport more.
With most Top Trumps stats, the higher the number, the better. However, this is not the case with this pack, sometimes, lower is better!
Fuels and engine types
Each card details what type of engine it has or the fuel that it uses. Some will require no changes to a standard car and can be fuelled at a standard filling station. Others, such as BioDiesel, Honda Civic Hybrid BioEthanol or 1.4i-DSI plus IMA Petrol Hybrid Pure Plant Oil will require alternative arrangements to be set up. Electric charging points are relatively easy to set up.
Maximum number of passengers the vehicle can legally carry. Highest wins.
Top Speed (mph) Based on statistics provided by the manufacturer. Highest wins.
Whatever your response is, we hope that the Top Trumps Pack will assist in some way.
TOP SPEED (mph)
CO 2 (g/km)
PASSENGERS PRICE (£) RANGE (km) FUEL COST (p/km)
16,600 1,087 4.27
The Honda Insight's big brother, stylish and a 5 seater too!
Price On the road price, where available. Highest wins (or lowest depending on your outlook!)
Range Based on the fuel consumption and tank capacity under combined driving conditions. For electric vehicles, the range is the manufacturer’s average under combined conditions. Highest wins.
CO2 (g/km) For conventional vehicles, this is the g/km official figures. For electric vehicles the emissions are assumed to be zero – this is only correct if renewable electricity is used to recharge the vehicle. For all other vehicles we have based the CO2 g/km on the work of the Well to Wheels study by the EU Joint Research Centre. Lowest wins.
“Bike use is emission free and has significant health benefits”
Guide to the stats
Green Driving Guide
Fuel Cost (p/km) Based on the fuel and electricity costs as at the time of going to press in combination with the range, this gives a fuel cost. Note; servicing, tax, depreciation and wear and tear are not included in this calculation. Lowest wins.
FUELS + ENGINES
4BioEthanol BioEthanol is the biofuel equivalent of petrol and is generally produced from starchy crops like wheat, sugar beet or sugar cane. It has the potential to be made from virtually any organic substance, for example drinking alcohol, grass, and wood. At the moment, the fuel available is a fossil petrol mix with up to 5% bioEthanol (which can be used by any vehicle without adaptation), and a higher blend called E85. This is a blend of 85% bioEthanol with 15% fossil petrol and is used to fuel specially designed vehicles called ‘flex-fuel’ vehicles. These vehicles can run on petrol containing anything from 0% to 85% ethanol.
What type of fuel you use, how it is generated and distributed and the type of engine are factors that will have an impact on your overall CO2 emissions. Here we provide a brief guide to them all.
There is a significant variance in the CO2 emissions of bioEthanol. With a feedstock such as sugar cane, the emissions offer a 70% reduction compared with conventional petrol. However, UK feedstock such as straw will require significant energy input and results at best in only 50% reduction. Other UK feedstock, such as sugar beet will result in only marginal CO2 savings. More worryingly, with current coal fired power stations providing the electricity for production, CO2 emissions would actually be higher than conventional petrol.
Conventional Fuels 4Petrol
Petrol is a fossil fuel refined from crude oil. It evaporates easily and is mixed with air before it enters the engine to burn more cleanly.
Diesel is also a fossil fuel that is refined from crude oil. It does not evaporate easily and is ideally suited for burning in diesel engines. Generally, diesel engines have lower CO2 emissions than their petrol counterparts.
If bioEthanol is to be a UK solution, feedstock needs to be carefully considered as does the source of energy for processing. For the purposes of the pack, we have rated bioEthanol under the best case scenario, i.e. 70% CO2 reduction.
Biofuels are produced from biological, renewable sources such as crops. They don’t necessarily produce less CO2 emissions when they burn, but their ‘lifecycle’ is usually greener as the crops themselves remove CO2 from the atmosphere when they’re growing. Currently there are three types of biofuel: bioDiesel, bioEthanol and bioMethane. There are considerable concerns about the potential future use of biofuels. BioDiesel, for example, can be made from waste vegetable oil. However, this is not available in sufficient quantities to replace current diesel demands. Therefore, biodiesel will need to be also made from ‘virgin’ oil crops, putting pressure on agricultural land. Particular concerns are currently being raised about biofuel crops being grown in Brazil and Asia resulting in deforestation. Biofuel as a local solution and use of waste products is a very good idea. On the other hand, deforestation and use of agricultural land is not the answer to reducing CO2 emissions.
BioMethane is the biofuel equivalent of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is generally produced by collecting methane naturally emitted from landfill sites or other forms of rotting vegetation. BioMethane is only suitable for use in CNGpowered vehicles, which once converted can also run on standard diesel.
4 BioDiesel BioDiesel is the biofuel equivalent of diesel and is generally produced from ‘oily’ crops like rapeseed, sunflower or palm, or from recovered cooking oil. These oils are thicker than fossil diesel and need processing (called esterification) in order to make them less viscous and more able to mix with air and burn cleanly. A biodiesel blend (with 95% fossil diesel) is currently available from around 100 filling stations in the UK and can be used by any diesel vehicle without adaptation. Some vehicles can use 100% biodiesel with no adaptation required. In the Well to Wheel Study by the EU joint Research Centre, bioDiesel is rated as resulting in up to 70% less CO2 emissions than conventional diesel. BioDiesel from waste vegetable oil as a local solution to fuel provision represents a significant measure where facilities exist.
The Maltin® System used by Organic Power collects methane from liquid and plant manure. As methane is being directly removed from the atmosphere and methane has a global warming effect 21 times that of carbon dioxide, this combustion is rated as having negative carbon dioxide equivalent emissions. This is to the tune of -150g/km according to the EU Well to Wheels report. For more information visit www.organic-power.co.uk
“Bioethanol... has the potential to be made from virtually any organic substance...”
For more information visit www.biodieselfillingstations.co.uk 10
Green Driving Guide
Hydrogen can be used as a vehicle fuel, either in an internal combustion engine or in a fuel cell. In a fuel cell the only emissions would be water. However, hydrogen production (either from oil refineries or from electrolysis of water) is an energy intensive process and as a result there is not necessarily any ‘lifecycle’ CO2 emission saving by using hydrogen as a road fuel. To achieve lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions savings, hydrogen needs to be produced from renewable energy sources. As yet, this process has not been realised and also more energy is required in the making of the hydrogen than the energy that results from its use. Currently, hydrogen use will result in an increase in CO2 emissions.
Electricity to power vehicles is generally taken from the national grid and stored in batteries on the car. Electric vehicles have no tailpipe emissions but electricity generation by power stations does produce CO2. Therefore, for truly emission free motoring, your electricity supply needs to be a green tariff or self-generated by renewable means. Some electric vehicles suffer from limited range due to their battery technology. However, as can be seen with the Modec and the Tesla, significant improvements have been made in recent years, making electric vehicles a realistic possibility for most users. Charging points are becoming more commonplace, with on-street points available in several London boroughs. Charge time is a factor for some, but again this is dropping – the Killacycle, for example, takes 10 minutes for a full charge, enabling it to travel over 40 miles.
In line with other fuels with potential low CO2, the best case scenario is taken and Hydrogen is rated as zero CO2. This will only occur if the above stated problems can be addressed. The best estimate at the moment is that hydrogen vehicles will realistically be on the market by 2015. However, since 1996 hydrogen fuel cells have consistently been described as being ‘5 years away’.
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a fossil fuel that is refined from crude oil. It is used in specially designed or modified ‘bi-fuel’ vehicles capable of running on either petrol or LPG. LPG produces more CO2 than diesel, but slightly less than petrol. When it comes to air quality pollutant emissions it scores better than petrol, or diesel. LPG is significantly cheaper than petrol or diesel (due to differential fuel duties), but efficiencies are less. Overall however, you should make a saving on your fuel costs. Significant investment in infrastructure has meant that LPG is now readily available, with some care and planning required.
Hybrids have become popular in recent years, but have seen a protracted period of development since the 1920s. Basically, a hybrid uses both an electric engine and an internal combustion engine (ICE) to power the vehicle. Most commonly this is found with a petrol engine, but diesel hybrids will be seen on the market in the near future.
Pure Plant Oil (PPO) As with biofuels, when burnt, PPO is simply returning CO2 to the atmosphere as part of a natural cycle with the plant re-growth re-absorbing the emissions. There is therefore no net increase in CO2. PPO to some just means any vegetable oil, and this can be used in converted diesel engines. However, experts recommend that specially produced PPO for vehicle use is used. You can now use up to 2500 litres per year of PPO without paying road duty on it. Hence if your consumption is around this level you stand to make savings on your road travel. Adding road duty to the price of PPO takes the cost to around 90 pence per litre, still cheaper than standard diesel. As with bioDiesel, there are issues with deforestation in foreign countries and impact on agricultural land through the need for land for growing the crop. However, if set-aside land was used in the UK for growing oil seed, this could meet 5% of the current demand for diesel. Cold pressed oil extraction techniques are less energy intensive and do not require the use of chemicals. As such, a UK based, cold pressed oil production system represents a significant low impact solution to reducing CO2 emissions. We rate the ‘well to wheel’ CO2 of PPO to be less than bioDiesel, but there are still CO2 emissions relating to the growth, production and distribution of the fuel. Research shortly to be released will estimate the net CO2 from PPO to be 20% of that of standard diesel. For more information visit www.bloomingfutures.com 12
Green Driving Guide
There are several ways in which the electric engine can work in combination with the ICE. Some, like the Prius, start the car moving and can power the car for up to two miles or 30 mph using solely the electric engine. Others, like the Honda IMA system, assist the petrol engine, working in conjunction with it to enable lower revs and hence better mpg. Developments over the next few years will see a third option available with an individual electric engine sitting at each wheel. Other technology helps to improve the performance of the car and lower its CO2 emissions, some of which are being applied in cars generally. Stop-start technology, which cuts off the engine when at standstill, is being applied particularly in commercial vehicles. Regenerative braking, which recharges the larger batteries needed for hybrids, takes kinetic energy from the car and converts it to potential energy in the battery. This also assists braking and reduces wear on the pads. Gear shift indicators are becoming more commonplace in cars - this tells you when to shift up or down gear to optimise the efficiency of the engine. Hybrids require larger batteries, a problem that will be addressed with up coming better battery technology. Typical savings of 15% can be seen with hybrids, but some of this is dependent on driving style. Battery upgrades and conversions can increase the efficiency of the car still further, with the Amberjac Plug-In Prius achieving 130mpg.
4The Prius The latest Prius is a blend of futuristic design and technology that delivers D-segment levels of space, comfort and performance with B-class economy and exhaust emissions levels that drop to zero in congested city streets. Its achievements in reducing the environmental impact of motoring without compromising the levels of performance, comfort and convenience demanded by today’s motorists earned Prius the 2005 European Car of the Year award. Prius was a comprehensive winner and the first model using an alternative power system to take the title.
4The AYGO Compact on the outside, but big enough inside to carry a quartet of six-footers, AYGO couldn’t be simpler to hustle around crowded city streets. Speed-sensitive power steering and a wheel-at-each-corner design make tight parking spots simpler to tackle, while optional Multimode (M/M) transmission means clutch-free gear changes – a real boon in urban traffic. AYGO is built to last, created with the same superior quality throughout that is the hallmark of all modern Toyota machinery. From the bright and open interior to the sculpted sporty exterior, the AYGO stands out among the city car crowd as a machine that’s modern, stylish and built to last.
And, demonstrating that technological advances do not adversely affect safety, Prius was accorded the top five-star rating for passenger protection in official Euro-NCAP crash testing with the equal highest score in its class. Moreover, it established a new benchmark in the level of child passenger protection. With its unique and advanced Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive, the latest Prius is the cleanest family car currently available to the motoring public and successfully demonstrates that being ‘green’ does not equate to dull performance or compromised packaging. The Toyota Prius can return a fuel consumption that is comparable to the best B-segment diesels. Production of CO2 and NOx is also radically low, while particulate matter emissions are non-existent. Figures for fuel consumption are 65.7mpg for combined and 67.3mpg for extra-urban driving. In the urban cycle, Prius returns 56.5mpg, which beats every B-segment car on the market by a large margin. At the same time, this D-segment car can accelerate from nought to 62mph in less than 11 seconds.
Its 1.0-litre VVT-i engine is capable of 61.4mpg, the best combined cycle fuel economy of any petrol unit in its class. Even if you can only scrape together a tenner at the pumps, you should be able to make it from London to Brighton and back with fuel to spare. However, this exceptional economy is not at the expense of performance as AYGO will accelerate from nought to 62mph in 14.2 seconds and has a top speed of 98mph. It’s one of the cleanest engines on the market too: its carbon dioxide emissions rating of 109g/km places it in band B, the lowest band for Vehicle Excise Duty achieved by any petrol car currently available. AYGO’s insurance costs are rock-bottom too with a 1E rating – the lowest group possible.
A powerful 1.5-litre petrol engine works together with the smaller, more efficient electric motor to deliver performance that positions the Prius as a serious contender in the D-segment. The electric motor is more powerful than most 1.0 to 1.2-litre internal combustion engines and, at 400Nm from nought to 1,200rpm, the Prius’s torque surpasses that of modern V6 diesels. As a result its 0-62mph acceleration is comparable to a conventional 2.0-litre diesel engine.
4AYGO ESSENTIALS AYGO breaks away from the concept of small, affordable cars skimping on quality and equipment. The AYGO entry model not only looks the business, it comes as standard with features such as a sound system with CD player and handy socket to connect your own portable MP3 player; speedsensitive power steering, a folding rear seatback to increase the load space, heated rear window with wiper and a tilt adjustable steering column. On the safety front you’re protected by driver and front passenger airbags and the car is equipped with the latest generation ABS system with EBD.
Green Driving Guide
Blooming Futures is a not-for-profit co-operative formed in 1999. Blooming Futures is a leading light in Vegetable Oil, or Pure Plant Oil (PPO) technologies. We are continually carrying out work to offer a complete solution to the use of locally grown cold pressed Pure Plant Oil (PPO) in both domestic and commercial vehicles. PPO, as the name suggests, is just pure plant oil without any chemical processing – it is produced literally by crushing seeds and filtering the oil. In order to use PPO, diesel engines need to be modified. We can modify around 60% of diesel engines and we use the very best technology available in the UK – developed in Germany over the past 25 years where the use of PPO is much more commonplace, with tens of thousands of vehicles running on PPO. Blooming Futures only sources plant oil from rape seed that’s grown and crushed in the UK. The technology we use makes it safe to use PPO or diesel in the same engine – so once converted the engine is multi-fuel compatible. Honda’s commitment to reducing the environmental impact of our activities is core to the philosophy of the company. This approach is not a new development but dates right back to the inception of the company in the late 1940s.
We offer engine modification kits for those of you that are mechanically competent alongside offering a full conversion service for anybody wishing to convert a diesel engine, be it for a car, van or haulage truck.
Honda’s environmental ethos was confirmed in 1992, when Honda’s Global Environment statement was established. The key essence of this is that Honda will seek to reduce our environmental impact at each stage of our corporate activity. For example, reducing the environmental impact of our production sites is a key area of our focus. At our manufacturing plant in Swindon, the amount of energy used during the production process has decreased by 47% since 2000. The amount of waste created during the manufacturing process was 60kg per car in 1995, this now stands at 7kg and will be reduced to zero by 2010. At a global level, Honda was the first manufacturer to establish voluntary, global, per unit CO2 reduction targets for our products and for the plants that produce them. Our product development is aimed at reducing reliance on fossil fuels and significantly reducing CO2 emissions. In the short to medium term we are focussed on bringing more hybrid products to the market with the aim of making them even more efficient and more accessible to the mass market. Hybrid vehicles use an electric motor to assist a traditional petrol engine. The electric motor is powered by a battery which is recharged every time the car brakes or slows down. The hybrid system delivers significantly reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The Civic Hybrid is Honda’s third generation hybrid product, with an all new Honda hybrid being launched in 2009.
We offer two types of engine modification but both are custom matched to your specific engine - this is not a one size fits all option. We offer a tailor made service utilising the most developed equipment available in the UK. In Germany, there are tens of thousands of diesel vehicles converted to run on rapeseed oil, often referred to as straight vegetable oil (SVO) or pure plant oil (PPO). Hundreds of companies have been formed in response to the demand for vehicle conversions.
4 Bio-Fleet Blooming Futures have now completed the second phase of the Bio-Fleet project, providing subsidies for diesel-to-vegetable oil conversion costs for around 50 commercial vehicles in the South East. The Bio-Fleet project has converted these vehicles to run on PPO and set in place the first UK fuel standard compliant vegetable oil delivery network.
In the long term, Honda believes that hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles are the ultimate environmental solution. This is because they produce zero harmful emissions, the only emission being water. Honda is making huge strides in our fuel cell product development; there are currently 31 Honda FCX fuel cell vehicles being used on a daily basis in the US and Japan and Honda will start limited production and marketing of our next generation FCX vehicle, again in the US and Japan in 2008.However, due to costs of production, we are still a number of years away from when the FCX will be affordable to the mass market. 16
Green Driving Guide
Organic Power Ltd is a British company formed in 1997 to develop and license the patented Maltin® System which it has developed from the ideas originally conceived by Christopher Maltin and his team at Maltin Pollution Control Systems (1967) Ltd.
“Performance without Guilt” Vectrix is the world’s first Zero Emission, High Performance electric maxi-scooter. It has a top speed of 62mph,and rapid acceleration of 0-50mph in just 6.8 seconds, the Vectrix offers a real alternative to petrol powered vehicles. Designed with looks in mind, the Vectrix is responsive, good-looking, reliable and fun to ride for up to two people.
The multi-tank process treats a wide range of organic materials, either solid or liquid, particularly industrial wastes, energy crops, food processing residues and agricultural slurries. Adopting a completely natural process and without additional chemicals, the organic materials are degraded by naturally occurring aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The process eliminates the pollution normally associated with organic residues and produces high quality methane gas, food grade carbon dioxide and clean fertilisers with no waste products. Organic Power has worked in conjunction with Mercedes to produce a version of their Vito van which runs on bioMethane. These are in production now and can be procured by contacting Organic Power directly. Methane gas given off by the decomposition of organic waste is captured using the Maltin® System. Methane is a greenhouse gas some 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Hence vehicles running on bioMethane are effectively negatively carbon rated as they are actively preventing the emission of methane into the atmosphere.
The Green Bus It has a range of up to 68 miles depending on driving style and its unique patented DAart™ system gives easy twist and go control, twist back for instant acceleration, twist forward to slow down smoothly and safely. Once stationary, engage reverse for easy manoeuvring and parking. Added to this using the regenerative braking adds up to 12% recharge back into the battery to extend the overall range.
The Green Bus is a bespoke transport planning company, which differentiates itself through its geographically inspired bus route design. We offer transport consultancy to increase usage and awareness of ‘green’ modes of transport, with the intention of creating a modal shift from private to public methods of transport. We also believe in offering exceptional customer service and back-office support and administration.
The Vectrix has its own on-board charger, and recharging the Vectrix to 80% takes less than two hours from a standard 3-pin socket. At less than a 1/3 of a penny per mile, the Vectrix is cheap to run, quiet and emission free. And with a 125cc classification, the bike is available to anyone who has held a full driving licence for more than 5 years or who holds a CBT licence, a real alternative for City commuting.
We maintain our exceptional levels of quality and customer satisfaction through innovative approaches to our work. An example of this is through our vehicle tracking systems using GPS technology, which we are making accessible to travellers on any Green Bus.
“Vectrix is responsive, good-looking, reliable and fun to ride”
In summary, we are a transport company with a difference, with quality customer service and a unique approach to creating bespoke bus services forming the core of our business.
Green Driving Guide
table of Contacts Marches Energy Agency
020 8574 3232
NICE 0845 6423 227
01494 480 515
001 303 329 9158
0808 000 8080
Lightning Chris Dell
0845 1557 755
01273 462 197 email@example.com www.bloomingfutures.com
Lotus 01953 608462 firstname.lastname@example.org
Tesla Collette Niazmand 001 650 413-4000
0208 232 8484 email@example.com
LPGA Mike Chapman
0800 325 600
01962 777600 firstname.lastname@example.org
0870 626 0011
0845 234 2222
Green Driving Guide
Marches Energy Agency is an independent charity with 13 years experience in the field of addressing climate change and energy use. We work with a broad cross-section of stakeholders, from community organisations to co-ordinating EU-wide projects. We have developed four distinct themes to enable us to further create the climate for change.
Thanks This project was part funded by the EU through their Intelligent Energy Europe, Competence theme. It is also funded by Toyota, Honda, Organic Power, Vectrix, Blooming Futures, and the Green Bus, without all of whom this initiative would not have been possible. It is supported by all the companies featured in the pack and their assistance and co-operation is greatly appreciated. Thanks also to G-Fleet for a guiding hand and insight into fleet management. This project was conceived by Tristan Haynes and developed by Kris McGowan at Marches Energy Agency. Very special thanks to David James, who has enabled the Top Trumps pack to be distributed to every school in the UK.
Carbon Forum provides decarbonation inspiration. We provide public speakers, workshops, and longer term training. We do interactive stalls for events and provide leaflets, posters and eco-packs. We can organise competitions, exhibitions and festivals.
Project Carbon delivers the technical side of MEA. It will provide carbon footprints, energy audits and undertakes feasibility studies. It can enable the installation process to actively prevent CO2 emissions.
Low Carbon Communities
Low Carbon Community (LCC) projects lead communities through a pre-defined Community Climate Change Mitigation Strategy. Our ultimate aim is to give communities the necessary springboard they need to take long term and lasting action to reduce CO2 emissions.
We have consultation services mapping out the best renewable solution to light the way forward. We provide education and study tours for groups of interested parties. Ultimately, Marches Renewables seeks to facilitate the increase in installation of micro-generation across the English Marches and beyond. www.mea.org.uk E: email@example.com T: 01743 246007
Marches Energy Agency â€“ Registered in England and Wales at 23 Swan Hill Shrewsbury SY1 1NN Registered Charity number 1070942, Company Limited by Guarantee number 3443349, VAT number 709 8289 00 W www.mea.org.uk. E firstname.lastname@example.org T 01743 246007 Editor: Kris McGowan, MEA Design: Adam Constantine Design (www.adamconstantine.co.uk) Printed on 100% recycled, 100% process chlorine free paper and using vegetable based inks. This guide is recyclable and biodegradable, please pass it on or recycle it when out of date, thank you.