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z Vilniaus rusø folkloro ansambliui „Arinuðka“ (vadovai Irena ir Nikolajus Zacharovai) 2008 metais sukako dešimt metø. Ákurtas 1998 m. Vilniaus Justiniðkiø vidurinëje mokykloje, ansamblis jau po metø tapo prestiþiniø respublikiniø festivaliø ir konkursø „Dþiaukimës drauge“ ir „Dainø dainelë“ laureatu. Kolektyvas reprezentuoja Lietuvos rusø tradicinæ kultûrà tarptautiniuose festivaliuose „Skamba skamba kankliai“, „Baltica“, „Pokrovskije kolokola“, „Tradicija“ Lietuvoje; „Ruskaja piesnia“, „Zolotaja osien“, „Pskovskije zemèiuþiny“, „Mirovaja derevnia“ ir kt. Rusijoje, taip pat ávairiuose Baltarusijos, Lenkijos, Latvijos festivaliuose. „Arinuðka“ koncertavo Maskvos dienø, Vilniaus dienø renginiuose; ansamblio repeticijas, koncertus ne kartà filmavo Lietuvos, Estijos, Rusijos televizijos. 2006 m., pakviestas italø kino studijos, kolektyvas dalyvavo kino filmo „Karas ir taika“ filmavime, taip pat filme „Transsibiro magistralë“. Ansamblieèiams ypaè svarbus tautieèiø etninëje tëvynëje pripaþinimas: nuo 2000 m. kolektyvas yra Rusijos folkloro sàjungos narys, „Arinuðkos“ meniná lygá gerai ávertino maestro Mstislavas Rostropovièius, kolektyvas ne kartà dalyvavo koncertuose prestiþinëse Maskvos ir kt. Rusijos salëse, o 2008 m. jis yra pakviestas parodyti programà Maskvos Èaikovskio konservatorijos abonementiniame koncerte. Rusijos spaudoje ansamblis „Arinuðka“ vadinamas „Lietuvos rusø varpu“. Ansamblio istorijoje – daugiau kaip 500 koncertø. Kolektyvo vadovai nesiekia pasirodymø gausos, juos visada jaudina þiûrovø reakcija, jø susidomëjimas folkloru. „Arinuðkos“ dalyviø profesionalumà uþtikrina gilus tradicijos paþinimas: deðimtys ekspedicijø pas Lietuvos sentikius, baltarusius, ðimtai uþraðytø ir iððifruotø dainø, reguliarûs susitikimai ir draugystë su dainø pateikëjais ir, þinoma, „Arinuðkos“ vadovø Nikolajaus ir Irenos Zacharovø atsidavusiø darbui su savo „kûdikiu“, energija, gilus savo profesijos išmanymas. Ansamblio repertuare kalendorinës, vestuviø, karinës, lyrinës, rateliø dainos, ðokiai, uþraðyti paèiø kolektyvo dalyviø ið Lietuvos rusø sentikiø ir baltarusiø, taip pat dainos ið Pietø Rusijos regiono, kurias iðmokti padeda folkloro specialistai, etnografai ið Rusijos ir rusø etnografiniai, folkloro ansambliai.

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„Arinuðka“ ðiandien – tai ne tik folkloro ansamblis, bet ir iðtisa etninio muzikinio lavinimo sistema. Per 10 darbo Vilniuje metø kolektyvo vadovams pavyko ákurti Vilniaus rusø folkloro centrà, Slavø tradicinës muzikos skyriø Br. Jonuðo muzikos mokykloje, Slavø tradicinës muzikos mokyklà. Èia dirba lietuviø etnomuzikologai, mokslø daktarai, Lietuvos muzikos ir teatro akademijos, Rusijos Gnesinø muzikos akademijos, Maskvos kultûros instituto absolventai, kurie jau keletui „Arinuðkos“ kartø dësto teorines disciplinas: solfedþio, notacijà, muzikos istorijà; taip pat moko groti fortepijonu, bajanu, akordeonu, rusø liaudies instrumentais. Á „Arinuðkos“ veiklà dëmesá atkreipë Lietuvos tautiniø maþumø ir iðeivijos departamentas prie Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausybës. 2006 m. ðis departamentas ásteigë Lietuvos tautiniø maþumø folkloro ir etnografijos centrà, kurio tikslas – rinkti ir saugoti Lietuvos tautiniø maþumø folklorà, suteikti metodinæ ir praktinæ pagalbà folkloro kolektyvams. Nuo 2000 m. Irena ir Nikolajus Zacharovai rengia tarptautinæ folkloro stovyklà ir festivalá „Tradicija“ Palangoje, nuo 2004 m. Lietuvoje organizuoja tarptautiná folkloro festivalá „Pokrovskije kolokola“, kuris þinomas daugelyje uþsienio ðaliø. Ðiø renginiø „ðerdis“ – folkloro ansamblis „Arinuðka“: nuo maþiausiø iki didþiausiø. Dalyviø tëvai irgi visa ðirdimi prisideda organizuojant festivalá. Maþieji, tarp kuriø yra ir dvimeèiø, supranta, kad vyksta kaþkas ypaè svarbaus. Kolektyvo vadovø tikslas – ugdyti meilæ liaudies dainai, prilygstanèià meilei tapytai ikonai, ugdyti tikrus ðio darbo tæsëjus. Tikriausiai tik taip galima áskiepyti meilæ bendriems siekiams ir folklorui.

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„Arinuðkos“ dalyviø surinkto folkloro pagrindu iðleista knyga „Dainuoja Lietuvos sentikiai“ (2003), CD „Ukmergës rajono sentikiø dainos“ (2007), CD „Rytinës Lietuvos sentikiø dainos“ (2008).

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Ðis dviejø daliø CD – savotiðka Vilniaus rusø folkloro ansamblio „Arinuðka“ deðimtmeèio darbo suvestinë. Pirmoji dalis „Linksmoji pavësinë“ – ansamblio áraðytos ávairiø Rusijos regionø dainos. Belgorodo apskrities tradicijai atstovauja kaimø Podseredneje (Nr. 2, 4), Prudki (Nr. 3, 15), Sietiðèe (Nr. 1, 11), Gluchovka (Nr. 6), Ilovka (Nr. 8) dainos. Voroneþo apskrities kaimø – Rosoð (Nr. 9), Rossoðki (Nr. 12), Verchnij Mamon (Nr. 5, 13) dainos. Kursko apskrities – Pliochovo (Nr. 10) kaimo daina. Altajaus kraðto tradicijà atspindi Pervokamenkos kaimo daina (Nr. 14). Yra dainø ið Briansko apskrities (Nr. 17, 18, 19) ir Volgogrado apskrities (Nr. 20, 21). Ðie dainingiausi Rusijos regionai pasirinkti neatsitiktinai. Tradicijos, kurios èia susiklostë per amþius, yra tradicinës rusø vokalinës muzikinës kultûros virðûnë. Belgorodo apskrityje, nepaisant to, kad kaimai iðsidëstæ netoli vienas nuo kito, folkloras priklauso skirtingoms vietinëms tradicijoms. Akivaizdûs tarmës, vestuviø ir kalendoriniø paproèiø, tautinio kostiumo, folkloro þanrø pasiskirstymo, dainø repertuaro, kuriame vyrauja iðplëtotos tæstinës ir ðokiø bei rateliø dainos, skirtumai. Tæstiniø dainø þodþiai visiðkai paklûsta melodijai ir dël to tekstas taip pakinta, kad jo net neámanoma suprasti: atskiri skiemenys itin ilgai iðdainuojami, melodija pasibaigia viduryje þodþio. Tæstinëse dainose svarbiausia iðreikðti jausmà, parodyti vokalo meistriðkumà. Vietinëje dainavimo tradicijoje itin vertinamas gebëjimas improvizuoti: kiekvienas dalyvis stengiasi sukurti savità balso linijà (Nr. 4, 15). Tie patys bruoþai bûdingi Volgogrado (Nr. 20) ir Voroneþo (Nr. 9) apskrièiø kazokø tæstinëms dainoms. Ðokiø ir rateliø dainos ið Belgorodo apskrities (Nr. 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 11) yra tipologiðkai artimos vestuviø dainoms: ir vienos, ir kitos turi tà patá refrenà „alilyja“ ir yra palydimos energingo ðokio, kuriame nuolat kinta ðokanèiøjø kulnais muðamas ritminis pieðinys. Briansko apskritis turtinga apeiginiø kalendoriniø dainø, kurios susijusios ne tik su ðventëmis, bet ir darbu (ðienapjûte, rugiapjûte). Ðiose dainose posmø ar eiluèiø pabaigose daþnai pasitaiko charakteringø nuûkimø, dël to ðios dainos vadinamos ûkiamosiomis. Uþgavëniø metu skambëjo dainos su juokingais pravardþiavimais: uþgavënës kreivakaklës, iðpûstpilvës, laiþûnës ir t. t. Lëtesnës dainos per Uþgavënes dainuotos einant ratelius (Nr. 17, 18).

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Èia skamba ir keturi romansai: kalëjimo lyrika (Nr. 23, 24) ir þiaurusis romansas (Nr. 22, 25). Rusø þiaurusis romansas – tai ypatingas XIX a. pabaigos – XX a. pradþios miesto kultûros reiðkinys. Kai valstieèiai, ieðkodami geresnio gyvenimo, këlësi ið kaimo á miestà, jø dvasinei kultûrai darë átakà miesto aplinka ir gyvenimo bûdas. Mieste greièiau suirdavo nusistovëjæ paproèiai, susidarydavo palankios aplinkybës ðeimos iðdavystei, vaidams smuklëse, kurie daþniausiai baigdavosi tragiðkai. Liaudies þiauriajame romanse ir atskleistos ðios temos. Antroji dalis „Prie didelio kelelio“ – tai Rytø Lietuvos rusø sentikiø (Nr. 1–14) ir baltarusiø, gyvenanèiø Lietuvos ir Baltarusijos pasienyje (Nr. 15–20), dainos, surinktos ansamblio „Arinuðka“ vadovø ir dalyviø. Ilgà laikà buvo manoma, kad sentikiai dainuoja tik dvasinæ poezijà ir religinio turinio dainas. Pasaulietinës dainos (jas vadino „velniðkomis“) buvo draudþiamos autoritetingø bendruomenës dvasiniø vadovø. Nepaisant to, liaudies daina iðliko paprastø þmoniø atmintyje ir yra dainuojama iki ðiol. Sentikiø tradicijoje svarbiausià vietà uþima lyrika. Daina „Sudie, ðalele“ (Nr. 1) priskiriama lyrinëms iðkeliavimo dainoms, dainuota valstieèiø, kurie buvo samdomi sezoniniams darbams, vykdant 1861 m. baudþiavos panaikinimo reformà, po kurios dalis valstieèiø liko be þemës. Kitose lyrinëse dainose vyrauja nelaimingos moters dalios, neiðskiriamos meilës, skurdo, pasmerktumo temos. Ðokiø dainose ir rateliuose (Nr. 3, 13, 14) vyrauja meilës motyvai bei temos su lengvabûdiðkais elementais, þaisminga, humoristinë nuotaika. Pagrindinë vietiniø

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tæstiniø dainø (Nr. 2, 11) savybë – poetinio teksto iðdainavimas plaèia melodija. Rugiapjûtës daina (Nr. 4) priskiriama vasaros kalendoriniø dainø ciklui. Ðiø dainø tematika – ne tik sunkus darbas, socialinë neteisybë, paþeminimas ðeimoje, bet ir moters savigarbos pasireiðkimas. Humoristinëse dainose (Nr. 6) vyrauja buitinës ðeimos temos, kuriose smerkiama tinginystë, aplaidumas, girtuoklystë, neiðtikimybë. Kareiviðkø lyriniø dainø (Nr. 2, 20) temos – kareiviai, þuvæ svetimoje ðalyje. Baladës (Nr. 12) liaudyje vadinamos ilgomis dainomis. Èia daþniausios moralës temos: gërio ir blogio kova, meilës ir neapykantos susidûrimas, þmogaus, kenèianèio likimo smûgius, iðtvermë. Dvasinë dainuojamoji poezija (Nr. 8) – tik sentikiø bendruomenei bûdingas þanras. Pagal siuþeto ypatybes, kompozicijà ir eilëdarà jis artimas bylinoms, baladëms, ið dalies – istorinëms ir lyrinëms dainoms. Pagrindinë idëja, plëtojama dvasinëje dainuojamojoje poezijoje – laikina bûtis ðioje þemëje ir sielos iðgelbëjimas aukðtesniam pomirtiniam gyvenimui. Lietuvos ir Baltarusijos pasienio folkloras atspindëtas pavasario ciklo daina, þyminèia pavasariniø darbø pradþià (Nr. 15), Sekminiø daina (Nr. 16), rateliu su dramos ir choreografijos elementais (Nr. 17) ir trimis lyrinëmis dainomis (Nr. 18, 19, 20). Dainos surinktos Birþø (1, 6, 10), Ukmergës (3, 14), Ðvenèioniø (4, 7, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20), Molëtø (2, 5, 13) ir Zarasø (8, 9, 11, 12) rajonuose. „

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z Vilnius Russian folk music group “Arinushka” is celebrating ten years of work in 2008. The group was established in Vilnius Justiniškës Secondary School in 1998. In a year, it became a laureate of the prestigious national festivals and competitions “Dþiaukimës drauge” and “Dainø dainelë”. After one more year, the artistic level of “Arinushka” was well appraised by Mstislav Rostropovich. The company represents the traditional culture of Russians in Lithuania in international festivals “Skamba skamba kankliai”, “Baltica”, “Pokrovskiye kolokola”, “Tradiciya” in Lithuania; “Russkaya pesnya”, “Zolotaya osen”, “Pskovskiye zemchuzhiny”, “Mirovaya derevnia”, etc in Russia, Belarus, Poland and Latvia. “Arinushka” gave concerts on the festivities of Moscow Days and Vilnius Days, their rehearsals and concerts were recorded many times by Lithuanian, Estonian and Russian TV companies. In 2006, the group was invited to take part in the movie “War and Peace” by Italian film company; “Arinushka” also participated in the movie “Trans-Siberian”. In October 2008, “Arinushka” was invited to present their first subscription concert in the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory. which are taught by folklore specialists and etnographers from Russia and Russian folk music groups. Today “Arinushka” is not only a folk music group, but also a continuous developing system of education. During the 10 years of work in Vilnius, the leaders of the group have also established the Vilnius Russian Folklore Center, the Department of Traditional Slavic Music at the Br. Jonušas Music School, and the Traditional Slavic Music School. Many Lithuanian ethnomusicologists, Doctors of Humanities, graduates of the Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre, as well as graduates of the Gnesin Academy of Music and the Moscow Academy for Russian Culture, are working there, teaching several generations of “Arinushka” solfeggio, notation, music history, piano, accordion, and Russian folk instruments. The activity of “Arinushka” drew attention of the Department of National Minorities and Lithuanians Living Abroad to the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, therefore this department established the Centre of the Folklore and Ethnography of National Minorities in 2006, with the purpose of collecting and preserving the folklore of national minorities in Lithuania, and providing the folk art groups with methodical and practical assistance.

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Since 2000, Irena Zacharova and Nikolaj Zacharov have been organizing the international folklore camp and festival “Tradiciya” in Palanga, and since 2004, the international folklore festival “Pokrovskiye kolokola”, which is well-known in many countries abroad. “Arinushka” is always at the core of these events, from its youngest to oldest members. The youngest participants - among them you can even find a two-year-old - understand that something significant occurs during a festival. It is probably the only way to inculcate traditional values into the members of the community. On the base of the folklore material collected by the members of “Arinushka”, there was a book “Dainuoja Lietuvos sentikiai” published (2003), and CDs were released: “Ukmergës rajono sentikiø dainos” (2007) and “Rytinës Lietuvos sentikiø dainos” (2008).

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This 2-CD set is a summary of the 10 years of work of the Vilnius Russian folk music group. The first CD called “The Joyful Bower” features songs recorded in various regions of Russia by the ensemble. Belgorod district’s tradition is represented by the songs of these villages: Podserednia (No. 2, 4), Prudki (No. 3, 15), Sietisce (No. 1, 11), Gluchovka (No. 6), Ilovka (No. 8); Voronezh district: Rosos (No. 9), Rososki (No. 12), Verchni Mamov (No. 5, 13); Kursk district: Pliochov (No. 10); Altai territory: Pervokamenka (No. 14); songs from Bryansk district (No. 17, 18, 19) and Volgograd district (No. 20, 21).

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These regions of Russia were selected not accidently. The traditions, which developed here through centuries, are at the top of Russian vocal musical expression. In the district of Belgorod, despite the fact that villages are situated close to one another, their folklore belongs to different local traditions. The differences are evident in their dialects, wedding and calendar customs, national costumes, the distribution of folklore genres, the song repertoire with the prevalence of dances, roundelays and the so-called drawling songs. The words in a drawling song totally obey to the melody, therefore the text transforms sometimes to the extent that it is difficult to recognize it: individual syllables are prolonged and the melody ends in the middle of a word. The most important thing in a drawling song for singers is to express their feelings and show their vocal mastership. The ability to improvise is especially valued in local singing tradition: each participant tries to create his/her own distinctive voice line (No. 4, 15). The same features are characteristic of the drawling songs of Cossacks in Volgograd (No. 20) and Voronezh (No. 9) districts. The dances and roundelays from Belgorod district (No. 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 11) are typologically close to the wedding songs: both have the same refrain “alilyia”, and are accompanied with an energetic dance and constantly changing rhythm of footwork. The district of Bryansk is rich in ritual calendar songs, which are associated not only with holidays but also with seasonal works (haymaking, rye-harvesting). The particular kind of hooting is often heard in the endings of the verses or lines of these songs; therefore they are called hooting songs. In the songs of Shrovetide carnival, the festival itself is often personified and called funny names such as crooked-necked, big-belly, licker, etc. Shrovetide roundelays are accompanied with slower songs (No. 17, 18). There are four romances on the CD: the lyrics of being imprisoned (No. 23, 24) and the cruel romance (No. 22, 25). Russian cruel romance is a particular phenomenon of urban culture in the end of the 19 and the beginning of the 20 centuries, when peasants were looking for a better life and started moving from villages to cities. Their culture was inevitably influenced by the urban environment and the way of life. Traditional customs faded faster in a city, there were also favourable conditions for a family treason and quarrels in taverns, which usually ended tragically. Those themes were revealed in the cruel romances. The second CD “By the Big Road” is made up of the songs of Russian Old Believers from Eastern Lithuania (No. 1-14) and Belarusians living by the Lithuanian-Belarusian border (No. 15-20), collected by the leaders and members of “Arinushka”.

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For a long time, it was believed that the Old Believers were only singing spiritual verses and religious songs. Secular songs (which were called “devilish”) were prohibited by the community’s authoritative spiritual leaders. In spite of this, folk songs have remained alive in common people’s memory and have been sung until now. Lyricism is in the foreground of the tradition of the Old Believers. The song “Farewell, dear land” (No. 1) is ascribed to the lyrical departure songs and was sung by the peasants, who were employed for the seasonal works in the process of fulfilling the 1861 reform of serfdom abolition. As a result, a part of the peasants were left landless. In the other lyrical songs, the predominating themes are unfortunate fate of a woman, inseparable love, poverty and doom. Motives of love and slightly frivolous themes, playful and humorous moods predominate in the songs of dances and roundelays (No. 3, 13, 14). The local drawling songs (No. 2, 11) are rich in ample melodic swells. The rye-harvest song (No. 4) is ascribed to the summer calendar songs. The themes of these songs are not only hard work, social imparity, oppression in the family, but the display of a woman’s self-respect, as well. The themes of everyday family life prevail in the humorous songs (No. 6), where idleness, negligence, drunkenness and adultery are condemned. The themes of the soldiers’ lyrical songs (No. 2, 20) are the fate of the soldiers, who died in foreign lands. The ballads (No. 12) are commonly called the long songs. The most frequent themes are the struggle between good and evil, the clash of love and hate, and the tenacity of a man who undergoes the blows of fate. The genre of spiritual verses (No. 8) is characteristic only of the community of the Old Believers. According to the features of the plot, the composition and the metrical structure, spiritual verses are related to ballads and partly to historical and lyrical songs. The main ideas developed in the spiritual verses are temporary existence in this world and saving of the soul for the ultimate afterlife. The folklore of the Lithuanian-Belarusian border is represented by the spring’s cycle song, marking the beginning of the spring works (No. 15), the song of Whitsunday (No. 16), roundelay (No. 17) with the elements of drama and choreography, and three lyrical songs (No. 18, 19, 20). The songs were collected in Birþai (1, 6, 10), Ukmergë (3, 14), Ðvenèionys (4, 7, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20), Molëtai (2, 5, 13) and Zarasai (8, 9, 11, 12) regions. „

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Tel./fax: + 370 5 2313447 Mob. tel.: +370 61421516 El. p.: arinuskafolk@inbox.ru

www.arinuska.lt

Ансамбль «АРИНУШКА»  
Ансамбль «АРИНУШКА»  

Вильнюсский русский фольклорный ансамбль «АРИНУШКА» Vilniaus rusų folkloro ansamblis „ARINUŠKA” Vilnius russian folklore group “ARINUSHKA

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