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Stat, Majoritate și

Minoritate Naţională în România ȋͳͻͳͻǦͳͻ͵ͲȌ 

ƒœ—Žƒ‰Š‹ƒ”‹Ž‘”狉‡”ƒ‹Ž‘”†‹”ƒ•‹Ž˜ƒ‹ƒ

   †‹ጔ‹‡”‡˜‹œ—‹–£ç‹ƒ†ƒ—‰‹–£  Prefaѵ£ de Lucian Nastas£             ʹͲͳͲ


̹—„Ž‹•Š‹‰ǡʹͲͳͲǤ  ‘’‡”–ƒǣPalkó Botond (www.palkobotond.ro) ‡†ƒ…–‘”ǣMihaela Herbel   Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii NaĠionale a României IVAN, ADRIAN Stat, majoritate úi minoritate naĠională în România : (1919-1930) : cazul maghiarilor úi germanilor din Transilvania / Adrian Ivan ; pref.: Lucian Nastasă-Kovacs. - Ed. a 2-a, rev. - Cluj-Napoca : CA Publishing, 2010 ISBN 978-606-92737-0-8 I. Nastasă-Kovács, Lucian (pref.) 323.1(=112.2)(498.4)"1919/1930" 323.1(=511.141)(498.4)"1919/1930" 323.1(498.4)"1919/1930

  

      †‹–—”ƒ—„Ž‹•Š‹‰ www.ca-publishing.ro Ž—ŒǦƒ’‘…ƒǡǦ†—Ž”‘‹Ž‘””Ǥ͵Ͷǡƒ’Ǥ͵


Cuprins  PrefaÏ£ Cuvânt Înainte

1 Statul: teorie èi practic£ În secolele XIX-XX   

ͳǤͳ ‡”•’‡…–‹˜‡–‡‘”‡–‹…‡ƒŽ‡…‘Â?•–”—…ጔ‹‡‹Â•Â–ÂƒÂ–Â—ÂŽÂ—Â‹ÇŚÂ?ƒጔ‹—Â?‡ ȋ•‡…‘Ž‡Ž‡ ÇŚČŒ ͳǤʹ ‡’‡”‡‹†‡‘Ž‘‰‹…‡ç‹…—Ž–—”ƒŽ‡ƒŽ‡…‘Â?•–”—…ጔ‹‡‹•–ƒ–—Ž—‹ ”‘Â?Â&#x;Â?Â?‘†‡”Â?Ă Â?•‡…‘Ž‡Ž‡ ÇŚ ͳǤ; Â–ÂƒÂ–Â—ÂŽÇŚÂ?ƒጔ‹—Â?‡Ă Â?•‹•–‡Â?—ŽÂ‘Â…Â‹Â‡Â–ÂŁáŒ”Â‹Â‹ƒጔ‹—Â?‹Ž‘”ȋͳ͝ͳ͝Č‚ ÍłÍťÍľÍťČŒ 1.3.1 Statul român interbelic, majoritate çi minoritÂŁŃši

2 Problema minoritÂŁĂŹilor    

ʹǤͳ Š‡•–‹—Â?‡ƒǡÂ?‹Â?Â‘Â”Â‹Â–ÂŁáŒ”Â‹ÂŽÂ‘Â”†‡Â”ÂƒÂ•ÂŁÇĄŽ‹Â?„£ç‹”‡Ž‹‰‹‡dzŽƒ ‘…‹‡–ƒ–‡ƒƒጔ‹—Â?‹Ž‘” ʹǤʹ „‘”†£”‹–‡‘”‡–‹…‡’”‹˜‹Â?†…‘Â?…‡’–—Ž†‡ǡÂ?‹Â?Â‘Â”Â‹Â–ÂƒÂ–Â‡Çł ʹǤ; ƒ‰Š‹ƒ”‹‹ç‹‰‡”Â?ƒÂ?‹‹†‹Â?”ƒÂ?•‹Ž˜ƒÂ?‹ƒČ‹ÍłÍťÍłÍťÇŚÍłÍťÍľÍ˛ČŒĂ Â? Ž‹–‡”ƒ–—”ƒ†‡•’‡…‹ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‡ ʹǤ͜ ‘Â?•–”—…ጔ‹ƒ‹†‡Â?Â–Â‹Â–ÂŁáŒ”Â‹Â‹ŽƒÂ?ƒ‰Š‹ƒ”‹‹ç‹‰‡”Â?ƒÂ?‹‹ –”ƒÂ?Â•Â‹ÂŽÂ˜ÂŁÂ?‡Â?‹ 2.4.1 Identitatea maghiarilor din Transilvania 2.4.2 Aspecte ale identitÂŁŃšii germanilor din Transilvania

3 Problema exproprierilor din România. Cazul maghiarilor èi germanilor din Transilvania (1919-1930)  



;Ǥͳ ‹Â?Â‘Â”Â‹Â–ÂŁáŒ”Â‹ÂŽÂ‡†‹Â?”ƒÂ?•‹Ž˜ƒÂ?‹ƒĂ Â?”‡Žƒጔ‹‹Ž‡‹Â?–‡”Â?ƒጔ‹‘Â?ƒŽ‡ ;Ǥʹ ‹Â?Â‘Â”Â‹Â–ÂŁáŒ”Â‹ÂŽÂ‡ç‹”‡ˆ‘”Â?ƒÂƒÂ‰Â”ÂƒÂ”ÂŁÇŁÂ?ƒ‰Š‹ƒ”‹‹ç‹‰‡”Â?ƒÂ?‹‹ –”ƒÂ?Â•Â‹ÂŽÂ˜ÂŁÂ?‡Â?‹ 3.2.1 Problematica reformei agrare din România. Cazul Transilvaniei ;Ǥ; ‘…‹‡–ƒ–‡ƒƒጔ‹—Â?‹Ž‘”狉‡•–‹‘Â?ƒ”‡ƒ…”‹œ‡Ž‘”†‹Â?–”‡•–ƒ–—Ž ”‘Â?Â&#x;Â?ç‹Â?ƒ‰Š‹ƒ”‹‹†‹Â?”ƒÂ?•‹Ž˜ƒÂ?‹ƒĂ Â?’”‘„Ž‡Â?ƒ ‡š’”‘’”‹‡”‹Ž‘” 3.3.1 Chestiunea „optanŃšilorâ€? 3.3.2 Cazul „coloniçtilor maghiariâ€? din pÂŁrŃšile vestice ale Transilvaniei la Societatea NaŃšiunilor

ͳͲ ͳ; ʹʹ ʹʹ ;͚ ͜ͳ ͜͝ ͚͚ ͚͚ ͺͲ ͝ͳ ͳͳͳ ͳͳ͝ ͳ;ʹ

ͳ͜ͳ ͳ͜ͳ ͳ͡Ͳ ͳ͡Ͳ

ͳ͡͡ ͳ͸; ͳ͚ʹ




3.3.3 Bunurile private ale Ciucului ͵ǤͶ ‹‘”‹–ƒ–‡ƒ‰‡”ƒ£†‹”ƒ•‹Ž˜ƒ‹ƒç‹’”‘„Ž‡ƒƒ‰”ƒ”£

4 Problemele înv£ì£mântului èi raporturile între stat èi minorit£ìile maghiar£ èi german£ din Transilvania (1919-1930)    

ͶǤͳ ƒ†”—Ž‰‡‡”ƒŽƒŽÁ˜£ጔ£Ÿ–—Ž—‹†‹”ƒ•‹Ž˜ƒ‹ƒ ͶǤʹ ‘Ž‹–‹…‹Ž‡†‡Á˜£ጔ£Ÿ–†‹‘Ÿ‹ƒç‹†‡‡”•—”‹Ž‡ ‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹‹ƒ‰Š‹ƒ”‡Žƒ‘…‹‡–ƒ–‡ƒƒጔ‹—‹Ž‘”ȋͳͻͳͻǦͳͻ͵ͲȌ ͶǤ͵ f…‘Ž‹Ž‡…‘ˆ‡•‹‘ƒŽ‡ƒ‰Š‹ƒ”‡ç‹•–ƒ–—Ž”‘ŸŽƒ‘…‹‡–ƒ–‡ƒ ƒጔ‹—‹Ž‘” ͶǤͶ ƒ’‘”–—”‹Ž‡•ƒç‹Ž‘”–”ƒ•‹Ž˜£‡‹…—•–ƒ–—Ž”‘ŸÁ…‡‡ƒ…‡ ’”‹˜‡ç–‡•‹•–‡—Ž†‡Á˜£ጔ£Ÿ–†‹‘Ÿ‹ƒƒ”‡ ȋͳͻͳͻǦͳͻ͵ͲȌ Concluzii Anexe Bibliografie Index de nume

ͳͺͻ ͳͻ͵

ͳͻͻ ʹͲͷ ʹͳ͵ ʹ͵ͳ

ʹͷͶ ʹ͸͵ ʹ͸ͻ ͵ͺʹ ͵ͻͺ


Lista documentelor anexate

Anexa 1 Documente ale Guvernului României cu privire la Apelul Comitetului American pentru Drepturile Minoritĉԑilor Religioase

269

Anexa 2 Rapoarte ale Ministerului Instrucԑiunii Publice cu privire la instituԑiile de învĉԑĉmânt ale minoritĉԑilor, 1924

279

Anexa 3 Scrisoare a lui N. P. Comnen cĉtre I.G.Duca cu privire la situaԑia minoritĉԑilor, iunie 1924

288

Anexa 4 Referat asupra situaԑiei spitalului „Rudolf” din Tg. Secuiesc, septembrie 1924

289

Anexa 5 Raport al inspectorului Ɣef din Oradea Mare cĉtre Ministrul Instrucԑiunii, BucureƔti, decembrie 1924

290

Anexa 6 Raport al inspectorului Ɣef din Cluj cĉtre Ministrul Instrucԑiunii, BucureƔti, ianuarie 1925

293

Anexa 7 Raport de la Budapesta cĉtre Ministrul Afacerilor Strĉine, I.G. Duca, ianuarie 1925

295

Anexa 8 Raport din partea Inspectoratului General de Poliԑie Ɣi Siguranԑĉ Transilvania cĉtre Ministerul de Interne, BucureƔti, ianuarie 1925

296

Anexa 9 Document al Consiliului Societĉԑii Naԑiunilor cu privire la protecԑia minoritĉԑilor în România (situaԑia coloniƔtilor maghiari din Banat Ɣi Transilvania), mai 1925

299

Anexa 10 Document al Consiliului Societĉԑii Naԑiunilor cu privire la protecԑia minoritĉԑilor în România. Raportul lui Mello-Franco cu privire la coloniƔtii maghiari din Banat Ɣi Transilvania, septembrie 1925

306


Anexa 11 Dispoziԑie din partea Ministerului Afacerilor Strĉine, BucureƔti cĉtre reprezentanԑii României la Berna cu privire la Liceul evanghelic reformat „Kun” din OrĉƔtie, august 1925

320

Anexa 12 Telegramĉ de la Legaԑia Românĉ din Berna cĉtre Ministerul Afacerilor Strĉine, BucureƔti, august 1925

321

Anexa 13 Cerere a Ministerului Instrucԑiunii Publice cĉtre Ministerul de Externe cu privire la chestiunea Liceului reformat „Kun" din OrĉƔtie, septembrie 1925

322

Anexa 14 Informare a Direcԑiunii Generale a PoƔtelor, Telegrafelor Ɣi Telefoanelor cĉtre Ministerul de Externe, octombrie 1925

323

Anexa 15 Cerere de acordare a personalitĉԑii juridice de cĉtre Liga Maghiarĉ pentru Societatea Naԑiunilor din România, mai 1927

324

Anexa 16 Scrisoarea contelui Apponyi cĉtre PreƔedintele Societĉԑii Naԑiunilor, iunie 1928

328

Anexa 17 Rĉspunsul preƔedintelui Consiliului Societĉԑii Naԑiunilor cĉtre contele Apponyi, iunie 1928

329

Anexa 18 Scrisoarea lui Nicolae Titulescu cĉtre preƔedintele Societĉԑii Naԑiunilor ca urmare a scrisorii contelui Apponyi, iunie 1928

330

Anexa 19 Extrase din Jurnalul Oficial al Societĉԑii Naԑiunilor, octombrie 1928, pp. 1455-1462

332

Anexa 20 O discuԑie în Camera maghiarĉ asupra situaԑiei minoritĉԑilor maghiare, decembrie 1929

338

Anexa 21 Documente ale Ministerului Instrucԑiunii Publice cu privire la discursul deputatului Kenez asupra situaԑiei minoritĉԑilor maghiare din statele Micii Înԑelegeri, decembrie 1929

341

Anexa 22 Document al Ministerului Muncii, Cooperaԑiunii Ɣi Asigurĉrilor Sociale cĉtre Ministrul de Externe cu privire la discursul deputatului Kenez din Camera Maghiarĉ referitor la situaԑia minoritĉԑilor maghiare din statele Micii Înԑelegeri, ianuarie 1930

346


Anexa 23 Document al Partidului Naԑional Maghiar, secԑia judeԑeanĉ Bihor, cĉtre preƔedinԑia centralĉ a Partidul Naԑional Maghiar, Cluj, asupra cenzurii presei, iunie 1934

347

Anexa 24 Telegramĉ a Ministerului PoƔtelor cĉtre teritoriu cu privire la predarea corespondenԑei la destinaԑiile scrise cu vechile denumiri germane Ɣi maghiare, iulie 1934

350

Anexa 25 Document al Partidului Naԑional Maghiar, Secԑia Judeԑeanĉ din Odorheiu Secuiesc cĉtre centrul de partid Cluj, cu privire la cenzura presei, februarie 1935

351

Anexa 26 Adresĉ a reprezentanԑilor presei maghiare din judeԑul TimiƔTorontal cĉtre comitetul local de revizuire, cu privire la decizia de tipĉrire a numelor de localitĉԑi în limba oficialĉ, februarie 1935

354

Anexa 27 Adresĉ a unui deputat maghiar cu privire la împĉrԑirea bunurilor Universitĉԑii SĉseƔti Ɣi a Instituԑiei celor bapte Juzi, aprilie 1937

356

Anexa 28 Referat cu privire la situaԑia plângerilor minoritare, februarie 1938.

358

Anexa 29 Date statistice cu privire la minoritatea maghiarĉ, iunie 1939

368


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10


Stat, majoritate ฤฝi minoritate naฤฟionalยพ รฎn Romรขnia. 1919-1930

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ย…ย‘ยรงย–ย‹ย‹ยแŒ”ยƒ ย’ย‘ย•ย–ย‡ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹อณวก ย’ย”ย‘ย˜ย‘ย…ยŸยย† ย†ย‡ย”ย—ย–ยฃ ยƒย–ย—ยย…ย‹ ย…ยŸยย† ยˆย”ยƒย‰ยย‡ยย–ย‡ ย˜ย‡ย”ย‹ย†ย‹ย…ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‡ย’ย”ย‡ยœย‡ยย–ยƒย—ยˆยƒย’ย–ย‡ยŽย‡ย•ย‡ยย•ย‹ย„ย‹ยŽย†ย‹ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย–วค ยƒย‹ยย—ยŽย–ย…ยŠย‹ยƒย”วกย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ยƒย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยƒยย‹ย‡ย‹ยƒย…ย‘ยย•ย–ย‹ย–ย—ย‹ย–ย’ยƒย”ย…ยฃยย‡ย”ย‡ย—ย—ยวทย‡ยšย‡ย”ย…ย‹แŒ”ย‹ย—วณยƒยŽ ย—ยย‹ยŽย‹ย”ย‹ย‹ ย…ย‡ยŽย—ย‹ยŽยƒยŽย–วก ย’ย”ย‹ย ย‘ยย‹ย•ย‹ย—ยย‡วก ย…ยƒย”ยƒย…ย–ย‡ย”ย‹ยœยฃย”ย‹ ยย‡ย‰ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ย‡วก ย”ย‡ยŽย‹ย‡ยˆยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ยย‡ย‡ย•ย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ยƒยŽย—ยŽย—ย‹วก ยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ยˆยƒย˜ย‘ย”ย‹ยœยŸยย† ย…ยƒย”ยƒย…ย–ย‡ย”ย‹ย•ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ยŽย‡ ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย†ย‡ย•ย’ยƒย”ย– ย‰ย”ย—ย’ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย‡ย–ยย‘ย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽย‡ รงย‹ ยย‹ย…ย‹ย†ย‡ย…ย—ย ย’ย‡ ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ยŽย‡ ยƒย’ย”ย‘ย’ย‹ย‡วค วฆยƒ ย—ย‹ย–ยƒย– ยƒย’ย”ย‘ยƒย’ย‡ รยย–ย‘ย–ย†ย‡ยƒย—ยยƒ ย…ยฃ ยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃ ย”ย‡ย‰ย‹ย—ยย‡ศ‹ยƒย‹ย†ย‘ยยƒยƒยŽย–ย‘ย”ยƒศŒย‡ย•ย–ย‡รยย’ย”ย‹ยย—ยŽย”ยŸยย†ย”ย‡ยœย—ยŽย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽรยยˆยฃแŒ”ย‹รงยฃย”ย‹ย‹ย’ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย‹วฆยƒย†ยƒย–วฆย‘ ย‘ยย—ยŽวฃย‘ย”ย‰ยƒยย‹ยœยƒย”ย‡ยƒย•ย’ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยŽย—ย‹วกย•ย–ย”ย—ย…ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡รงย‹ย’ย‡ย‹ย•ยƒยŒย‡ยŽย‡ยƒย‰ย”ย‹ย…ย‘ยŽย‡วกย—ย”ย„ยƒยย‡รงย‹ย‹ยย†ย—ย•ย–ย”ย‹ยƒยŽย‡วก ย•ย–ย‹ยŽย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ยƒย”ยŠย‹ย–ย‡ย…ย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽย‡ศ‹ย†ย‡ยŽยƒย•ย‹ยย’ยŽยƒย…ยƒย•ยฃแŒ”ยฃย”ยฃยย‡ยƒย•ย…ยฃย’ยŸยยฃยŽยƒย…ย‘ยย’ยŽย‹ย…ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‡ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย‡ ย†ย‡ยˆย‘ย”ย–ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ศŒวกย…ย‘ยŽย‘ยย‹ยœยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‡รงย‹ยย‹ย‰ย”ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ย‡ย–ย…วฆย–ย‘ย–ย—ยŽย…ย‘ยย–ย”ย‹ย„ย—ย‹ยย†ยŽยƒย…ย‹ย”ย…ย—ยย•ย…ย”ย‹ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒ ย—ยย—ย‹ ย–ย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย— ย—ยย‹ย–ยƒย”วก ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย•ย‡ ย†ย‡ยˆย‹ยย‡รงย–ย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ย ย…ยƒย”ยƒย…ย–ย‡ย”ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‡วก ย…ยŠย‹ยƒย” ย†ยƒย…ยฃ ยŽยƒ ย‘ย”ย‹ย‰ย‹ยย‡ยƒย—ยƒย˜ย—ย–ย’ย”ย‘ย˜ย‡ยย‹ย‡ยแŒ”ย‡ย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽย‡ย†ย‹ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‡วคย”ย‡ยย•ยƒย—ยย—วกย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ยƒย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยƒยย‹ย‡ย‹ ย‹ยย…ยŽย—ย†ย‡รงย‹ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ยƒยƒยŽย–ย‘ย”ย‡ย–ยย‹ย‹ ศ‹ยยƒย‹ยย—ยŽย–ย•ยƒย—ยยƒย‹ย’ย—แŒ”ย‹ย ย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‡ยœย‡ยย–ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ย‡ยย—ยย‡ย”ย‹ย…ศŒวกย‘ ยย—ยŽย–ย‹ย–ย—ย†ย‹ยย‡ ย†ย‡ ย–ย”ยƒย†ย‹แŒ”ย‹ย‹วก ยŽย‹ยย„ย‹ รงย‹ ย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ย‹ ย”ยฃย•ย’ยŸยย†ย‹ย–ย‡ ย‹ยย‡ย‰ยƒยŽ รยย–ย”วฆย—ย ย•ย’ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย— ย”ย‡ยŽยƒย–ย‹ย˜ ย”ย‡ย†ย—ย•วกย†ยƒย”ย…ย—ย‘ยยƒย”ย‡ย†ย‡ยย•ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡วคย”ย‹ย…ยŸย–ย•วฆยƒย”รยย…ย‡ย”ย…ยƒย‡ย•ย…ยƒยย‘ย–ยƒย”ย‡ยƒยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย—ย‹ยƒย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–วกยƒย— ย‡ยšย‹ย•ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยˆย‡ย…ย–ย‡ยย—ย–ย—ยƒยŽย‡ย’ย‡ย–ย‘ยƒย–ย‡ย’ยŽยƒยย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡วกย•วฆยƒย—ยˆย‘ย”ยยƒย–ย•ย–ย”ย—ย…ย–ย—ย”ย‹ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‡ศ‹ย†ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ย‹ยŽย†ย‡ ย‡ย–ยƒยŽยƒย–ย‡ยย’ย‹ย”ย‹ย…ศŒวกย…ยƒย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‘ยˆย‹ยŽย‡ยƒยœยฃย‹ยยƒย‰ย‹ยย‡ยƒย—ยย—ย‹รยย–ย”ย‡ย‰รยย†ย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡วค Bย ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย– ย…ย‘ยย–ย‡ยšย–วก ย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยƒยย‹ยƒ ยƒย” ย–ย”ย‡ย„ย—ย‹ ย•ยฃ ย†ย‡ย˜ย‹ยยฃ ย—ย ย•ย’ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย— ย‡ยšย’ย‡ย”ย‹ยย‡ยย–ยƒยŽ ยƒยŽ ย…ย‘ยย•ย–ย”ย—ย…แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ย…ย‡ย†ย‡ยƒย˜ยƒยย‰ยƒย”ย†ยฃย–ย‘ย…ยยƒย‹ย’ย”ย‹ยยƒยˆยŽยƒย”ย‡ยƒรงย‹ย‹ยย–ย”ย‘ย†ย—ย…ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒย†ย‡ ยย‘ย‹ รงย‹ ยย‘ย‹ ย˜ยƒย”ย‹ยƒย„ย‹ยŽย‡ ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘วฆย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย…ย‡วก ย…ยƒย’ยƒย„ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ ยƒ ย†ย‡ย•ย…ย‹ยˆย”ยƒ รย ย–ย‡ย”ยย‡ยย‹ ย˜ย‡ย”ย‹ย†ย‹ย…ย‹ ย‡ย˜ย‘ยŽย—แŒ”ย‹ยƒ ย—ยย‡ย‹ ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‡ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ ยย—ยŽย–ย‹ย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽย‡วก ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย…ยฃ ย”ย‡ย‰ย‹ย—ยย‡ยƒ ย’ย”ย‡ยœย‹ยย–ยฃ ย–ย”ยฃย•ยฃย–ย—ย”ย‹ ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ย‡ วฆ รงย‹ รย ยƒยย—ยย‹ย–ย‡ ยŽยƒย–ย—ย”ย‹ ย…ยŠย‹ยƒย” ย—ยย‹ย…ย‡ วฆ รย ย…ย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‡รงย–ย‡ ย’ยŽย—ย”ย‹ย‡ย–ยย‹ย…ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ รงย‹ ย’ยŽย—ย”ย‹ย…ย‘ยยˆย‡ย•ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒวค ย‹ย…ย‹ ย…ย‘ย‡ยšย‹ย•ย–ยฃ ย…ย”ย‡รงย–ย‹ยย‹ย•ยย—ยŽ ย‘ย”ย‹ย‡ยย–ยƒยŽ รงย‹ ย…ย‡ยŽ ย‘ย…ย…ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ยƒยŽวก ยƒย‹ย…ย‹ ยƒ ย’ยฃย–ย”ย—ยย•ย”ย‡ยˆย‘ย”ยย‹ย•ยย—ยŽวกยƒย‹ย…ย‹ย•วฆยƒย—ยˆยฃย…ย—ย–ย’ยƒรงย‹ย•ย‡ยยย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ย‹ย•ย’ย”ย‡ย‡ย…ย—ยย‡ยย‹ย•ยวกรยย–ยŸยŽยย‹ย ยยƒย”ย‹ยŽย‡ย•ย–ย‹ยŽย—ย”ย‹ยƒยŽย‡ย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ย‹ย‹ย‡ย—ย”ย‘ย’ย‡ยย‡ศ‹ย”ย‘ยยƒยย–ย‹ย…วกย‰ย‘ย–ย‹ย…วกย”ย‡ยยƒย•ย…ย‡ยย–ย‹ย•ย–วกย„ยƒย”ย‘ย…รงย‹ย…ยŽยƒย•ย‹ย…ศŒ ย‡ย–ย…วค  ย‡ยย—ยย‡ย”ยƒ ย•ย—ยยƒ ย†ย‡ ยย‘ย–ย‹ย˜ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย‘ ย•ย‹ยย–ย‡ยœยฃ ย„ย‹ยย‡ ยƒย”ย–ย‹ย…ย—ยŽยƒย–ยฃ ยƒ ย–ย—ย–ย—ย”ย‘ย” ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” รงย‹ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย†ย‡ย’ย‡ยย†ย‡ยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย–ย”ยฃย†ย‡ยƒยœยฃ ย†ย‡ยŒยƒ ย‘ ยย‘ย–ยฃ ย†ย‡ ย‹ยยˆยƒยย–ย‹ยŽย‹ย•ยวก ยŠย‹ยŽยƒย” ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ย—ยย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย…ย…ยŸย–ย†ย‡ย…ยŸย–ย‘ยย‡ย•ย–วค ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย—ยŽ ยˆย—ยย†ยƒยย‡ยย–ยƒยŽ ย…ย‡ ย–ย”ย‡ย„ย—ย‹ย‡ ย•ยฃ ย†ย‘ยย‹ยย‡ ย‘ย”ย‹ย…ย‡ ย”ย‡ย…ย‘ยย•ย–ย”ย—ย…แŒ”ย‹ย‡ ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย…ยฃ ยƒ ย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยƒยย‹ย‡ย‹ ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ยƒย…ย‡ยŽยƒ ย†ย‡ ยƒ ย•ย‡ ยƒย†ยย‹ย–ย‡ ย…ยฃ ยƒย–ยŸย– ย‹ยย†ย‹ย˜ย‹ยœย‹ย‹วก ย…ยŸย– รงย‹ ย‰ย”ย—ย’ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย‡ย–ยย‹ย…ย‡วก ย…ย‘ยยˆย‡ย•ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วก ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‡ ย‡ย–ย… ย•ย—ยย– ยยƒย”ย…ยƒย–ย‡ ยย— ยย—ยยƒย‹ ย†ย‡ ย‘ ย…ย‘ยรงย–ย‹ย‹ยแŒ”ยฃ ย’ย”ย‘ย’ย”ย‹ย‡วก ย‘ ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ย…ย‘ยย—ยยฃวกย†ยƒย”รงย‹ย†ย‡ยƒยŽย–ย‡ย…ย‘ยรงย–ย‹ย‹ยแŒ”ย‡วกย†ย‡ยƒยŽย–ย‡ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹วคย‡ยƒย…ย‡ย‡ยƒวกยย‹ย…ย‹ย—ยย—ย‹ ยƒยŽย– ย‰ย”ย—ย’ ย‡ย–ยย‹ย… ยย— ย–ย”ย‡ย„ย—ย‹ย‡ ย•ยฃ ย‹ ย•ย‡ ย”ย‡ยˆย—ยœย‡ ย’ยƒย”ย–ย‡ยƒ ย†ย‡ ยย‡ยย‘ย”ย‹ย‡ ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย…ยฃวก ยˆย‹ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย–ย”ย‡ย„ย—ย‹ยย†ย•ยฃย•ย‡ย”ย‡ย‰ยฃย•ย‡ยƒย•ย…ยฃ รยยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย”ย‡ย…ย‘ยย•ย–ย”ย—ย…แŒ”ย‹ย‹วค ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ย‹ยŽยฃวฆย–ย‡ยŠยย‹ย…ย˜ย‘ย”ย„ย‹ยย†วฆย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย†ย‘ยƒย” ยƒย”ย–ย‹ย…ย—ยŽยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ยƒยยƒยŽย‹ยœย‡ย‹วก ยƒยˆยŽยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ยย‘ย†ยƒยŽย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย‡ยˆย‹ย…ย‹ย‡ยย–ย‡ รงย‹ ย…ย‘ยย˜ย‡ยยƒย„ย‹ยŽย‡ รย ยƒ ย•ย—ย”ย’ย”ย‹ยย†ย‡ ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ย—ยŽ ยˆย‹ย‡ย…ยฃย”ย—ย‹ยƒ รยย–ย”วฆย‘ ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ยฃ ย•ย‹ยย–ย‡ย–ย‹ยœยƒย–ย‘ยƒย”ย‡วก ย—ย–ย‹ยŽย‹ยœยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย†ย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย‘ยˆย‡ย”ย–ย‡ ยย‡ย–ย‘ย†ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ย‡ ย˜ย‡ยย‹ย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ยย•ย’ย”ย‡ ย…ยŸยย’ย—ยŽ ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย‡ย‹วก ยƒยย–ย”ย‘ย’ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย‡ย‹ ศ‹ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย–ย‹ย’ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย†ย—ย‹ย–ยฃ รยย†ย‡ย‘ย•ย‡ย„ย‹ศŒวก ยŽย‹ย–ย‡ย”ยƒย–ย—ย”ยฃวก ย‰ย‡ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ย‡ ย—ยยƒยยฃ ย‡ย–ย…วก ย”ย‡ยˆย—ยœย—ยŽ ย˜ย‹ยœย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย•ย–ยƒย–ย‹ย…ย‡ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒย†ย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ย‡ยŽย‘ย”ยƒย”ย‹ย‹ย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽย‡รยยˆยƒย˜ย‘ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยˆย‡ย”ย‡ยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‘ย”ศ‹ย†ยƒย” ย‡ยœย‹ ย”ย‹ยยƒย—ยŽย‹ย…วก ย•ย–ย˜ยžย ���‘ย”ย˜ยžย–ยŠวกย”ย‹ย•ย–ย‹ยยƒยƒแŒ”วกEthnobarometer,รยย˜ย‘ยŽวคInterethnic Relations in PostCommunist Romaniaวกย‡ย†วคย—ย…ย‹ยƒยยƒย•ย–ยƒย•ยฃยƒยย†ย‡ย˜ย‡ยย–ย‡ยƒยŽยƒย–วกยŽย—ยŒวกย‡ยย–ย”ย—ยŽย†ย‡ย‡ย•ย—ย”ย•ย‡ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ ย–ยย‘ย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽยฃวกอดอฒอฒอฒวกย’วคอดอทอตวฆอตอถอนวค

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Adrian Ivan

รงย‹ ยƒ ย‡ยย…ยŽยƒย˜ย‡ยŽย‘ย”ศŒวก ยยƒยย‹ยˆย‡ย•ย–ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย—ยย‡ย‹ ยย‘ย„ย‹ยŽย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ ย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย’ย–ย—ยƒยŽย‡วก ยƒย’ย‡ยŽย—ยŽ ยŽยƒ ย…ยƒย—ยœยƒยŽย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‡ ยย—ยŽย–ย‹ย’ยŽย‡ รงวคยƒวค ย— ยƒยŽย–ย‡ ย…ย—ย˜ย‹ยย–ย‡วก ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย˜ย‘ย”ย„ยƒ ย†ย‡ ย”ย‡ย†ย‡ยˆย‹ยย‹ย”ย‡ยƒ ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‡ย‹ ย…ยƒ ย†ย‹ยยƒยย‹ย…ยฃ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽยฃวกย‹ยƒย”ย‘ยˆย‡ย”ย–ย‡ยŽย‡ย…ย‘ย‰ยย‹ย–ย‹ย˜ย‡รงย‹ยย‡ย–ย‘ย†ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ย‡ย•ย—ยย–ย†ย‡ยŒยƒย’ย‡ย…ยƒยŽย‡ย†ย‡ยƒวฆรงย‹ยƒยˆยŽยƒ ย’ย”ยƒย…ย–ย‹ย…ยƒยแŒ”ย‹รงย‹รยย•ย’ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยŽยย‘ย•ย–ย”ย—วค ย•ย–ย‡ ย–ย‘ย…ยยƒย‹ ย…ยƒยœย—ยŽ ย˜ย‘ยŽย—ยย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย†ย‡ ยˆยƒแŒ”ยฃวก ย†ยƒย–ย‘ย”ยƒย– ยŽย—ย‹ ย†ย”ย‹ยƒย ย˜ยƒยวก ย’ย”ย‘ยˆย‡ย•ย‘ย” ย†ย‡ ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย–ย‡ยย’ย‘ย”ยƒยยฃ รงย‹ ย†ย‡ ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡ ยŽยƒ ยย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ วทยƒย„ย‡รงวฆย‘ยŽย›ยƒย‹วณ ย†ย‹ยยŽย—ยŒวกย’ย‘ยƒย–ย‡ย—ยย—ยŽย†ย‹ยย…ย‡ย‹ยยƒย‹ยƒย…ย–ย‹ย˜ย‹รยยƒย†ย‡ยœย˜ย‘ยŽย–ยƒยŽยƒยย‘ย‹ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ยยƒย‹ยƒย…ย–ย—ยƒยŽย‡ย–ย‡ยŠยย‹ย…ย‹ ยƒยŽย‡ ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยฃย”ย‹ย‹ รงย–ย‹ย‹ยแŒ”ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ย‡วก ย…ยƒ ย•ยฃ ยย— ยยƒย‹ ย˜ย‘ย”ย„ย‹ย ย†ย‡ ย†ย‘ยย‡ยย‹ย‹ ย‡ยšย–ย”ย‡ย ย†ย‡ ยƒย…ย–ย—ยƒยŽย‡วค ย‡ ยƒยŽย–ยˆย‡ยŽวกย–ย‘ย–ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ยˆย‘ย”ย–ย‹ยย–ย‡ยŽย‡ย…ย–ย—ยƒยŽรงย‹ย†ย‡ย…ยƒย–ย‡ย†ย”ยฃย•ย‡ย”ย‡ย‰ยฃย•ย‡รงย–ย‡ รยยย—ยŽย–ย‡ย†ย‹ยยŽย—ย…ย”ยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย•ยƒยŽย‡วก ย†ย‹ย ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย•ย‡ ย…ย—ย˜ย‹ย ยƒ ยˆย‹ ย”ย‡แŒ”ย‹ยย—ย–ย‡ ยƒย‹ย…ย‹วฃ La question des nationalites de Transylvanie ศ‹อณอปอปอนศŒวกPerspectivele teoretice ale construcันiei europeneศ‹อดอฒอฒอตศŒวกSub zodia โ€žStatelor Unite ale Europeiโ€ ศ‹อดอฒอฒอธศŒวก Uniunea Europeanยฃ: proiecte, guvernanันยฃ รงi dezvoltยฃri instituันionale ศ‹อดอฒอฒอนศŒวก Statele Unite ale Europei. Uniunea Europeanยฃ รฎntre interguvernamentalism รงi supranaันionalismศ‹อดอฒอฒอนศŒวค ย‡ย‡ยƒ ย…ย‡ ยย‡ ย‘ยˆย‡ย”ยฃ ยƒย…ย—ย ย†ย”ย‹ยƒย ย˜ยƒยวก รยย–ย”วฆย‘ ย‡ย†ย‹แŒ”ย‹ย‡ ย”ย‡ย˜ยฃยœย—ย–ยฃ รงย‹ ย•ย‹ยแŒ”ย‹ย–ย‘ย” รยย„ย‘ย‰ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย–ยฃ ย…ย— ย•ย—ย”ย•ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ย ย”ยƒยย‰วก ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย”ย‡ยœย—ยŽย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽ ยˆย‹ย”ย‡ย•ย… ยƒยŽ ย—ยย‡ย‹ ย‡ย˜ย‘ยŽย—แŒ”ย‹ย‹ ย…ยฃย”ย–ย—ย”ยฃย”ย‡รงย–ย‹ ย†ย‡ยยยฃ ย†ย‡ ย–ย‘ยƒย–ยฃ ยƒย’ย”ย‡ย…ย‹ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒวค ยŽ ย˜ย‹ยย‡ รย ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ยƒ ย”ย‘ยยŸยยฃ ย…ย— ย—ย ย†ย‹ย•ย…ย—ย”ย•ย„ย‹ยย‡ยƒย”ย–ย‹ย…ย—ยŽยƒย–วกย–ย‘ย…ยยƒย‹ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ยƒย’ย—ย–ย‡ยƒย‡ย˜ย‹ย–ยƒย…ยƒย’ย…ยƒยย‡ยŽย‡ยย‹ย•ย–ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”รงย‹ยƒยŽย‡ ย’ย”ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย’ย‡ย†ยƒย‰ย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ย‡ ยยƒยย‹ย’ย—ยŽยƒย–ย‘ยƒย”ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย’ยŸยยฃ ยƒย…ย—ยวค Bย ย’ยŽย—ย•วก ยย‡ ย‹ยย’ย—ยย‡ ย…ย—ยย‘ยƒรงย–ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒ วทย…ย‡ยŽย—ย‹ยŽยƒยŽย–วณ ย’ย”ย‹ย ยƒย…ย…ย‡ย•ย—ยŽ ยŽยƒ ย•ย—ย”ย•ย‡ยŽย‡ ย…ยƒย”ย‡วฆยŽ ย…ย‹ย”ย…ย—ยย•ย…ย”ย‹ย— รงย‹วฆยŽ ย†ย‡ยˆย‹ยย‡ย•ย…วค ย‘ยƒย” ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‹ยย†ย—วฆยŽ รย ย–ย‘ยƒย–ยฃ ย…ย‘ยย’ยŽย‡ยšย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ ยŽย—ย‹วก ย’ยฃย–ย”ย—ยยœยŸยย† รย ย‹ยย–ย‹ยย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ ย‰ยŸยย†ย‹ย”ย‹ย‹ รงย‹ ยƒย•ย’ย‹ย”ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย•ยƒยŽย‡ย•ย‡ย˜ย‘ย”ย’ย—ย–ย‡ยƒย‡ยย‹ย–ย‡ย•ย‡ยย–ย‹ยแŒ”ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย•ยฃยˆย‹ย‡รยยƒย…ย‘ย”ย†ย…ย—ย”ย‡ยƒยŽย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒวค รงยƒย†ยƒย”วกย˜ย‘ยŽย—ยย—ยŽยŽย—ย‹ย†ย”ย‹ยƒย ย˜ยƒยยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ย‡ยƒยœยฃย‘ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยยƒย–ย‹ย…ยฃย…ย‘ยย’ยŽย‡ยšยฃวกยŽยƒยˆย‡ยŽย…ยƒ รงย‹ย‡ย’ย‘ย…ยƒวกย…ยƒย”ย‡ยย‡ย…ย‡ย•ย‹ย–ยฃรยย…ยฃยย‹ยย—แŒ”ย‹ย‘ยƒย•ย‡ยƒยย…ยŠย‡ย–ย‡ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒย…ย‡ยŽย‘ย”ยยƒย‹ย†ย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ย‡ยƒย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‡วค ย•ย–ย‡ ย–ย‘ย…ยยƒย‹ ย…ย‡ย‡ยƒ ย…ย‡ ย•ย‡ รยย…ย‡ยƒย”ย…ยฃ ยƒย…ย—ยวก รย ย•ย’ย‡ย”ยƒยแŒ”ยƒ ย…ยฃ ยƒย…ย…ย‡ย•ย—ยŽ ยŽยƒ ย—ย ย…ย‘ย”ย’ย—ย• ย•ย—ย’ยŽย‹ยย‡ยย–ยƒย” ย†ย‡ ย†ย‘ย…ย—ยย‡ยย–ย‡ ย˜ยƒ ย†ย‡ยœย˜ย‘ยŽย–ยƒ ยƒย’ย‡ย–ย‹ย–ย—ยŽ ยยƒย‹ ยย—ยŽย–ย‘ย” ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยฃย–ย‘ย”ย‹ ย•ย’ย”ย‡ ยƒ ย…ย‘ยŽย‡ย…ย–ยƒ รงย‹ ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ยƒ ย…ยŸย– ยยƒย‹ ยย—ยŽย–ย‡ ย–ย‘ยย—ย”ย‹ ย†ย‡ ยยฃย”ย–ย—ย”ย‹ย‹ ยƒย”ยŠย‹ย˜ย‹ย•ย–ย‹ย…ย‡วก ย…ยƒ ยย‘ย†ยƒยŽย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ ย‹ยย†ย‹ย•ย’ย‡ยย•ยƒย„ย‹ยŽยฃ ย†ย‡ ยƒ ย‰ย‡ยย‡ย”ยƒ ย—ย ย’ยŽย—ย• ย†ย‡ รยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ย‰ย‡ย”ย‡ รงย‹ ย…ย‘ยย–ย‡ยšย–ย—ยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒย”ย‡ ยƒ ย‡ยšย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยแŒ”ย‡ย‹ ย–ย—ย–ย—ย”ย‘ย” ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย‡ย–ยย‹ย…ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ย•ย’ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยŽ ย–ย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยƒย รยย–ย”ย‡ ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ ย†ย‘ย—ยฃ ย”ยฃยœย„ย‘ยƒย‹ย‡ ยย‘ยย†ย‹ยƒยŽย‡วค  ย—ย…ย‹ยƒยยƒย•ย–ยƒย•ยฃ  


Cuvânt înainte  ‘Ž‹–‹œƒ–£ǡ‹†‡‘Ž‘‰‹œƒ–£ç‹‡š…‡•‹˜†‡‡†‹ƒ–‹œƒ–£ǡ–‡ƒ‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘”‡–‹…‡†‹ ‘Ÿ‹ƒƒ†ƒ–ƒç–‡”‡†‡ƒ‹—Ž–£˜”‡‡Žƒ—‡”‘ƒ•‡†‡œ„ƒ–‡”‹’‘Ž‹–‘Ž‘‰‹…‡ǡ •‘…‹‘Ž‘‰‹…‡ǡ ƒ–”‘’‘Ž‘‰‹…‡ ç‹ ‹•–‘”‹…‡Ǥ B ƒ…‡•– …‘–‡š–ǡ Ž—…”ƒ”‡ƒ †‡ ˆƒጔ£ Ȃ ˆ£”£ ƒ ƒ˜‡ƒ’”‡–‡ጔ‹ƒ†‡ƒ‡’—‹œƒ—•—„‹‡…–ƒ–Ÿ–†‡˜ƒ•–Ȃ”£•’—†‡——‹†—„Ž—•…‘’ǣ’‡ †‡ ‘ ’ƒ”–‡ǡ ‡•–‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ– •£ •‡ †‡’£ç‡ƒ•…£ …ƒ†”—Ž Á‰—•– ƒŽ †‹•’—–‡Ž‘” ‹•–‘”‹‘‰”ƒˆ‹…‡ǡ ƒ …£”‘” …‘•‡…‹ጔ£ ƒ ˆ‘•– ‡Žƒ„‘”ƒ”‡ƒ —‡‹ Ž‹–‡”ƒ–—”‹ ’‘œ‹–‹˜‹•–‡ …— –‡–£’”‡’‘†‡”‡–’‘Ž‡‹…£ǡ‹•’‹”ƒ–£†‡—‹•–‘”‹•˜‡–—•–ǡ‹ƒ”’‡†‡ƒŽ–£’ƒ”–‡ǡ …”‡†‡…£ƒ•‘•‹–‘‡–—Ž–”ƒ–£”‹‹”ƒ’‘”–—”‹Ž‘”Á–”‡‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹ç‹•–ƒ–‡Ž‡•—„ƒ …£”‘” •—˜‡”ƒ‹–ƒ–‡ •‡ ‰£•‡ƒ— …‘ˆ‘” ’”‹…‹’‹—Ž—‹ sine ira et studio, …ƒ”‡ •£ ’”‹˜‹Ž‡‰‹‡œ‡ — †‡‡”• ‹–‡”†‹•…‹’Ž‹ƒ”ǡ ˆ—†ƒ‡–ƒ– ’‡ •‹•–‡—Ž †”‡’–—Ž—‹ ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽǡ…”‡ƒ–’”‹–”ƒ–ƒ–‡Ž‡”‡œ—Ž–ƒ–‡Á—”ƒ‘ˆ‡”‹ጔ‡‹†‡ƒ…‡†‡Žƒƒ”‹• ȋͳͻͳͻǦͳͻʹͲȌǤ ‹ƒ…‡ƒ•–£’‡”•’‡…–‹˜£ǡƒƒ„‘”†ƒ–Á’”‹—Ž”Ÿ†‘‹Ž‡…‘…‡’–‡•–ƒ–ƒŽ‡…ƒ”‡ •Ǧƒ—‹’—•†—’£’”‹—Ž”£œ„‘‹‘†‹ƒŽǡǷˆ‹Ž‘•‘ˆ‹‹Ž‡dz’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ƒŽ‡”‡’”‡œ‡–ƒጔ‹Ž‘” ƒŒ‘”‹–£ጔ‹‹”‘Ÿ‡ç–‹ǡ…Š‡ƒጔ‹•£ƒ•—‡†‡•–‹‡Ž‡——‹•–ƒ–ƒˆŽƒ–Á’Ž‹’”‘…‡•†‡ …‘•‘Ž‹†ƒ”‡ǡ ’”‡…— ç‹ ”‡’‡”‡Ž‡ ”‡‘†‡Ž£”‹‹ ‹†‡–‹–ƒ”‡ Žƒ †‘—£ †‹ …‡Ž‡ ƒ‹ ‹’‘”–ƒ–‡‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹†‹‘Ÿ‹ƒƒ‹Ž‘”ͳͻͳͻǦͳͻ͵ͲȂ ƒ‰Š‹ƒ”‹‹ç‹‰‡”ƒ‹‹Ȃǡ ”ƒ’‘”–—”‹Ž‡…‡•Ǧƒ—•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–Á–”‡•–ƒ–狃…‡•–‡†‘—£‰”—’—”‹‡–‘…—Ž–—”ƒŽ‡ǡÁ–”‡…‡Ž †‹–Ÿ‹ ç‹ ‘—Ž ƒ…–‘” ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ …‡ ƒ’£”—•‡ ’‡ •…‡ƒ ‘†‹ƒŽ£ǡ ‘…‹‡–ƒ–‡ƒ ƒጔ‹—‹Ž‘”Ǥƒ•–—†‹—†‡…ƒœǡ‡Ǧƒ‘’”‹–Á†‡‘•‡„‹ƒ•—’”ƒ”‡Žƒጔ‹‹Ž‘”†‹–”‡ƒ…‡•–‡ ‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹ç‹•–ƒ–—Ž”‘ŸÁ…‡‡ƒ…‡’”‹˜‡ç–‡’”‘„Ž‡ƒƒ‰”ƒ”£ç‹煑Žƒ”£ǡƒ„‡Ž‡ …‘•–‹–—‹† ˆ‘”‡ ’”‹˜‹Ž‡‰‹ƒ–‡ †‡ ‰‡•–‹‘ƒ”‡ ç‹ …‘•‡”˜ƒ”‡ ƒ ‘”‹…£”‡‹ ‹†‡–‹–£ጔ‹ ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ‡Ǥ ‡ †‡ ƒŽ–£ ’ƒ”–‡ǡ ƒ ƒ…‘”†ƒ– ‘ ƒ–‡ጔ‹‡ ƒ’ƒ”–‡ •‡‹ˆ‹…ƒጔ‹‹Ž‘” …‘…‡’–—Ž—‹ †‡ minoritate, Á ‰‡‡”ƒŽǡ ç‹ ƒ •‹–ƒ‰‡Ž‘” minoritate naѹional£ ç‹ etnic£ Á …ƒ†”—Ž 疋‹ጔ‡Ž‘” •‘…‹‘Ǧ—ƒ‡Ǥ …‡•– †‹ —”£ ƒ•’‡…– ‹ •‡ ’ƒ”‡ ‹†‹•’‡•ƒ„‹Ž ’‡–”— ƒ Áጔ‡Ž‡‰‡ ƒ‹ …‘‡”‡– •–ƒ–—–—Ž ‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘” Á •‹•–‡—Ž ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽƒŽ‡’‘…‹‹ǡ‘†ƒŽ‹–£ጔ‹Ž‡†‡”ƒ’‘”–ƒ”‡ƒŽ‡ƒ…‡•–‘”ƒŽƒ•–ƒ–‡Ž‡•—„ƒ…£”‘” •—˜‡”ƒ‹–ƒ–‡–”£‹ƒ—Ǥ š‹•–‡ጔƒ—‘”–”ƒ–ƒ–‡ƒŽ‡‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘”ǡƒ——‹•‹•–‡†‡’”‘–‡…ጔ‹‡ƒƒ…‡•–‘”ƒǡ Á…ƒ”‡—”‘Ž†‡‘•‡„‹–ŽǦƒ—ƒ˜—–‹•–‹–—ጔ‹‹Ž‡‘…‹‡–£ጔ‹‹ƒጔ‹—‹Ž‘”ǡƒ‹ƒŽ‡•‘•‹Ž‹—Ž ƒ…‡•–‡‹ƒǡƒ’‡”‹•„minorit£ѹilor de ras£, limb£ çi religie” ȋ…‘…‡’–—œ—ƒŽÁ‡’‘…£Ȍ •£ •‡ ƒˆ‹”‡ …ƒ ƒ…–‘”‹ ƒ‹ ”‡Žƒጔ‹‹Ž‘” ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ‡ǡ ˆ£”£ ƒ ƒ˜‡ƒ Á•£ ’‡”•‘ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‡ Œ—”‹†‹…£Ǥ ƒ–£ †‡ …‡ …‘•‹†‡”£ ‡…‡•ƒ” †‡ ƒ •‡ ‹•‹•–ƒ ƒ‹ —Ž– ƒ•—’”ƒ –”ƒ–£”‹‹ minorit£ѹilor naѹionale …ƒ •—„‹‡…– ƒŽ ”‡Žƒጔ‹‹Ž‘” ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ‡ǡ ‹˜‘…Ÿ† ƒ‹…‹ Ȃ †‡ ’‹Ž†£ Ȃ ç‹ ”‡ƒ”…ƒ •’‡…‹ƒŽ‹•–‡‹ „”‹–ƒ‹…‡ ‡‹ˆ‡” ƒ…•‘ ”‡‡…‡ǡ …ƒ”‡ ‡˜‹†‡ጔ‹ƒ

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Adrian Ivan

ยย‘ย—ยƒ วทย†ย‘ย…ย–ย”ย‹ยยฃ ยƒ ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย•ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย”วฆยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‡วณวก ยƒย’ยฃย”ย—ย–ยฃ ย†ย—ย’ยฃ ย’ย”ย‹ยย—ยŽ ย”ยฃยœย„ย‘ย‹ ยย‘ยย†ย‹ยƒยŽวก ย•ย–ย”ย—ย…ย–ย—ย”ยƒย–ยฃ ย’ย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ยย…ย‹ย’ย‹ย—ยŽ ยƒย—ย–ย‘ย†ย‡ย–ย‡ย”ยย‹ยยฃย”ย‹ย‹ ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วก ย…ย‘ยยˆย‘ย”ย ย…ยฃย”ย—ย‹ยƒ ยˆย‹ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‡ยƒย˜ย‡ยƒย†ย”ย‡ย’ย–ย—ยŽยŽยƒย…ย‘ยย–ย”ย‘ยŽย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ยย†ย‡ย’ย‡ยย†ย‡ยย–ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒย’ย‘ย’ย‘ย”ย—ยŽย—ย‹รงย‹ยƒ ย–ย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย—ยŽย—ย‹ย…ยƒย��ย‡ย‹วฆยƒยˆย‘ย•ย–ยƒย…ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย–อณวค ย‘ย–ย‘ย†ยƒย–ยฃวก ย†ย‹ย ยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃ ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ยฃวก ย–ย”ย‡ย„ย—ย‹ย‡ ย•ยฃ ย•ย—ย„ยŽย‹ยย‹ย‡ย ย†ย‹ย ยย‘ย— ยˆยƒย’ย–ย—ยŽ ย…ยฃ ย‘ย…ย‹ย‡ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‘ย”วก รยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ยƒย•ยฃ ย…ยƒ ย‘ Comunitate a statelor suveraneวก ยƒ ย‹ยย–ย”ยƒย– ย’ย‡ ย•ย…ย‡ยยƒย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽยฃย…ยƒย—ยยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ยย’ย‘ย”ย–ยƒยย–วกยˆยฃย”ยฃรยย•ยฃยƒย’ย—ย–ย‡ยƒย†ย‹ย•ยŽย‘ย…ยƒย”ย‘ยŽย—ยŽย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹ รย ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยวค ย‡ย‰ย‹ยย—ยŽ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽ ย”ย‡ยœย—ยŽย–ยƒย– รย ย—ย”ยยƒ ย–ย”ยƒย–ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‡ ยŽยƒ ย‡ย”ย•ยƒย‹ยŽยŽย‡ย• ยƒ ย…ย—ยย‘ย•ย…ย—ย– รงย‹ ยƒยŽย–ย‡ ย–ย‹ย’ย—ย”ย‹ ย†ย‡ ยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ ยย‘ยวฆย•ย–ยƒย–ยƒยŽย‹วก ยˆยฃย”ยฃ รยย•ยฃ ย…ยƒ ยƒย…ย‡รงย–ย‹ยƒ ย†ย‹ย ย—ย”ยยฃ ย•ยฃ ยˆย‹ย‡ ย‡ยšย’ย”ย‡ย•ยŽย‡ย‰ยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒแŒ”ย‹ย†ย‡ย†ย”ย‡ย’ย–ย—ยŽย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽวคย—ยƒยŽย–ย‡ย…ย—ย˜ย‹ยย–ย‡วกย‹ยย•ย–ย‹ย–ย—ย‹ยย†ย—ยย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย†ย‡ ย’ย”ย‘ย–ย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ย‡ ยƒ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วก ยƒย’ยŽย‹ย…ยƒย– ย†ย‹ย ยย‡ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย…ย‹ย”ย‡ ยย—ยยƒย‹ ย—ยย‘ย” ย•ย–ยƒย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ย—ย”ย‘ย’ยƒ ย‡ยย–ย”ยƒยŽยฃ รงย‹ ย†ย‡ ย—ย†วฆย•ย–วก ย‘ย…ย‹ย‡ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‘ย” ยƒ ย’ย‡ย”ยย‹ย• ยƒยˆย‹ย”ยยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย—ยย—ย‹ ยƒย•ย–ยˆย‡ยŽ ย†ย‡ ยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”วกรงย‹ยƒยย—ยย‡ย‰ย”ย—ย’ย—ยŽยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย”ย‡ย–ยย‹ย…ย•ยƒย—วกยˆย‘ยŽย‘ย•ย‹ยย†ย—ยย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย’ย–ย—ย–ย‹ยŽย‹ยœยƒย–รยย†ย”ย‡ย’ย–ย—ยŽ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย„ย‡ยŽย‹ย…วกวทยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒย†ย‡ยŽย‹ยย„ยฃวกย”ยƒย•ยฃรงย‹ย”ย‡ยŽย‹ย‰ย‹ย‡วณอดวคย…ย‡ย•ย–ยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”ยย—ยƒ ยƒย˜ย—ย–ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย‘ยยƒยŽย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยŒย—ย”ย‹ย†ย‹ย…ยฃย’ย”ย‘ย’ย”ย‹ย‡รงย‹ยย‹ย…ย‹ย†ย”ย‡ย’ย–ย—ย”ย‹ย…ย‘ยŽย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ย‡วกรยย•ยฃยย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ยย‡ย”ย‡ยƒย—ยย‘ย” ย‡ยŽย‡ยย‡ยย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ ยƒย—ย–ย‘ยย‘ยย‹ย‡ รย ย–ย”ยƒย–ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‡ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ศ‹รงย…ย‘ยŽยƒย”ยฃวก ยƒย†ยย‹ยย‹ย•ย–ย”ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ยฃ รงย‹ ย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽยฃศŒย‹วฆยƒย’ย‡ย”ยย‹ย•ย•ยฃยˆย‹ย‡ยˆย”ย‡ย…ย˜ย‡ยย–ย’ย‡ยƒย‰ย‡ยย†ยƒย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃยƒย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วค ย”ย‹ย ย—ย”ยยƒย”ย‡วก ยŽย—ย…ย”ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย†ย‡ ยˆยƒแŒ”ยฃ ย˜ยƒ ยƒย˜ย‡ยƒ ย‘ ย†ย—ย„ยŽยฃ ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ยฃวก ยƒย–ยŸย– ย†ย‹ย ย…ย‡ยƒ ยƒ ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วกยƒย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย’ย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย”ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‹ยย†ย†ย”ย‡ย’ย–ย—ยŽย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย„ย‡ยŽย‹ย…วกยƒ ย”ย‘ยŽย—ยŽย—ย‹วทย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วณย‘ย”ย‰ยƒยย‹ยœยƒย–ย‡รยย…ยƒย†ย”ย—ยŽย‘ย…ย‹ย‡ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‘ย”วกย…ยŸย– รงย‹ ย†ย‹ย ย…ย‡ยƒ ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย…ย‡ ย•วฆยƒย— ย•ย–ยƒย„ย‹ยŽย‹ย– รยย–ย”ย‡ ย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽวฆยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‡ รงย‹ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย•ยƒยŽย‡วก รย ย‰ย‡ยย‡ย”ยƒยŽวกรยย–ย”ย‡ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‡ยยƒย‰ยŠย‹ยƒย”ย‡รงย‹ย‰ย‡ย”ยยƒยย‡รงย‹ย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽย”ย‘ยยŸยรยย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยƒยŽวกย”ย‘ยŽย—ยŽย’ย‡ ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽวฆย’ยƒย–ย”ย‹ย‡ยŽวฆยƒยƒย˜ย—ย–ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒย‡ย˜ย‘ยŽย—แŒ”ย‹ย‡ย‹ย‰ย”ย—ย’ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย‡ย–ยย‹ย…ย‡ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย”ย‡วคย‡ยย‡ย”ย•ย—ยŽ ยƒยƒย˜ย—ย–รยย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ย”ย‡รงย‹ยƒย–ย‹ย–ย—ย†ย‹ยย‡ยƒยยƒยŒย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยˆยƒแŒ”ยฃย†ย‡ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹วกย’ยŽย‡ย…ยŸยย†ย†ย‡ยŽยƒย†ย‹ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‡ยŽย‡ ย‘ย’ย‹ยย‹ย‹ ยƒยŽย‡ ยŽย‹ย†ย‡ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ รงย‹ ย‹ยย–ย‡ยŽย‡ย…ย–ย—ยƒยŽย‹ ยƒย‹ ย”ย‘ยยŸยย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‹ย ย’ย‡ย”ย‹ย‘ยƒย†ยƒ ยŽยƒ ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ยย‡ ย”ย‡ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ยวค Bย ย’ยŽย—ย•วก ยƒย ย…ย‘ยย•ย‹ย†ย‡ย”ยƒย– ย…ยฃ ย•ย—ย„ย‹ย‡ย…ย–ย—ยŽ ย–ย”ย‡ย„ย—ย‹ย‡ ยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย– ยย— ย†ย‘ยƒย” ย†ย‹ย ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ยƒ ย•ย–ย”ย‹ย…ย– ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘วฆยƒยย–ย”ย‘ย’ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ยฃวก ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ยƒยœยฃ ยˆย‘ย”ยยƒย”ย‡ยƒ รงย‹ ย‡ย˜ย‘ยŽย—แŒ”ย‹ยƒ ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย”ย‡วก ย•ยƒย— ยƒ ย†ย”ย‡ย’ย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย…ย‘ยย•ย–ย‹ย–ย—แŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽวก ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย…ย‘ย†ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยฃ ย”ยƒย’ย‘ย”ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ รยย–ย”ย‡ย•ย–ยƒย–รงย‹ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹รยย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย‹ย‘ย”ย—ยŽย•ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย”ย•ย—ย˜ย‡ย”ยƒยย‡วกย…ย‹รงย‹ย†ย‹ยย’ย—ยย…ย–ย—ยŽย†ย‡ย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ย”ย‡ ยƒยŽ ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‡ย‹ drept naันional-drept internaันional รงย‹ ยƒยŽ ย…ย‘ยย’ย‘ย”ย–ยƒยย‡ยย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย†ย‹ยˆย‡ย”ย‹แŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹รยย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย—ยŽย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽวค Bย ย…ย‡ย‡ยƒ ย…ย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‡รงย–ย‡ ย•ย–ย”ย—ย…ย–ย—ย”ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ยŽย—ย…ย”ยฃย”ย‹ย‹วก ยƒย ย…ย‘ยย•ย‹ย†ย‡ย”ยƒย– ยย‡ย…ย‡ย•ยƒย” ย…ยƒ รยย–ย”วฆย—ย ย’ย”ย‹ยย…ยƒย’ย‹ย–ย‘ยŽย•ยฃยƒยยƒยŽย‹ยœยฃยย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽยƒรงยƒย…ย—ยยƒย’ยƒย”ย‡ย‡ยŽย†ย‡ยˆย‹ยย‹ย–รยยŽย‹ย–ย‡ย”ยƒย–ย—ย”ยƒย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ยฃวก ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ยฃ รงย‹ ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย…ยฃวก ยˆยฃย…ยŸยย† ย–ย”ย‹ยย‹ย–ย‡ย”ย‡ ยŽยƒ ยƒย—ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ ย’ย”ย‡ย…ย—ย ย”ยย‡ย•ย– ย‡ยŽยŽยย‡ย” รงย‹ ย”ย‹ย… ย‘ย„ย•ย„ยƒย™ยวก ย—ย› ย‡ย”ยย‡ย–วก ยย–ยŠย‘ยย› วค ยย‹ย–ยŠวก ย‘ย•ยฑ ย‘ย”ยยฑวก ย‡ย”ยยƒย”ย† ย‹ย…ยŠย‡ยŽวก ย”ย‡ย†ย‡ย”ย‹ย…ยŠ ยƒย”ย–ยŠ รงวคยƒวควก ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย…ยฃ ยƒย•ย–ยˆย‡ยŽ ย˜ย‘ย รยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ย‰ย‡ ย‡ยŽย‡ยย‡ยย–ย‡ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ยˆย‹ยย‹ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‹ ยƒยŽย‡ ย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹รงย‹ยƒยŽย‡ย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹วฆยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‡รยย•ย‡ย…ย‘ยŽย—ยŽยƒยŽ วฆยŽย‡ยƒรงย‹ยƒยŽวฆยŽย‡ยƒวคยยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย–ยƒย’ย‘ย‹  ย‡ยยย‹ยˆย‡ย” ยƒย…ยย•ย‘ยย”ย‡ย‡ย…ย‡วกNational Minorities and the European Nation-State Systemวกยšยˆย‘ย”ย†วกยŽยƒย”ย‡ยย†ย‘ย ย”ย‡ย•ย•วกอณอปอปอบวกย’วคอตอฒวคย•ย‡ย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ยƒรงย‹ย†ย™ยƒย”ย†ยŠยƒย•ยœยƒย”วกThe International Problem of National Minorities, ย–ยŠย‹ย”ย†ย‡ย†ย‹ย–ย‹ย‘ยย”ย‡ย˜ย‹ย•ย‡ย†ยƒยย†ย‡ยยŽยƒย”ย‰ย‡ย†วกย‘ย”ย‘ยย–ย‘วกย—ยˆยˆยƒยŽย‘วกยƒย–ยŠย‹ยƒย•ย‘ย”ย˜ย‹ยย—ย•ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย•ยŠย‹ยย‰วกอณอปอปอปวกย’ย’วคอณวฆอณอธวค อดวคย›ย‡ย”ย•วกSurvey Methods for ย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ย› PopulationsวกรยยŠย‡ ย‘ย—ย”ยยƒยŽย‘ยˆย‘ย…ย‹ยƒยŽ ย•ย•ย—ย‡ย•วก

วกยย”วคอถวกอณอปอนอนวก ย’ย’วคอณอณวฆอณอปวค อณ


Stat, majoritate ฤฝi minoritate naฤฟionalยพ รฎn Romรขnia. 1919-1930

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ย”ย‡ย’ย‡ย”ย‡ยŽย‡ ย‹ย†ย‡ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ย‡ รงย‹ ย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽย‡ ยƒยŽย‡ statului romรขn modern ศ‹อณอบอทอปวฆอณอปอณอบศŒ รงย‹ ยƒยŽย‡ statului naันional unitar romรขnย†ย‹ยย’ย‡ย”ย‹ย‘ยƒย†ยƒย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย„ย‡ยŽย‹ย…ยฃวคย–ย‹ยŽยฃยย‡วฆยƒยˆย‘ย•ย–รยยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย…ยƒยœ ยย— ยย—ยยƒย‹ ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ยƒ ย”ย‘ยยŸยย‡ยƒย•ย…ยฃ ย’ย”ย‘ย’ย”ย‹ย—วฆยœย‹ย•ยฃ ศ‚ ย†ย‡ย•ย–ย—ยŽ ย†ย‡ ย‹ยย’ย”ย‡ย•ย‹ย‘ยยƒยย–ยฃ รงย‹ ย•ย—ย”ย’ย”ย‹ยย•ยฃรยยŽย‹ยย‹ย‹ยยƒย”ย‹รยย„ย‹ย„ยŽย‹ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ยƒย†ย‡ยŽยƒย•ยˆยŸย”รงย‹ย–ย—ยŽยŽย—ย…ย”ยฃย”ย‹ย‹ศ‚วกย…ย‹รงย‹ยƒยยƒยŽย‹ยœย‡ยŽย‡ย—ยย‘ย” ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹รงย‹ยƒยย–ย”ย‘ย’ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย—ย‘ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ย‡รงย‹ย†ย‹ย”ย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ย‹ย†ย‡ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย’ย”ย‡ย–ยƒย”ย‡ยˆยฃย”ยฃ ย†ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย‘ย”ย‹ย…ย‡ย†ย‡ยย‡ย”ย•รยยยƒย–ย‡ย”ย‹ย‡ย†ย‡ย˜ย‹ยย‡ย…ยƒย†ย—ย…วคย—ยย†ย‡ยŽยƒย•ย‹ยย‡ย•ย‡รยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ย‰ย‡วกยƒย’ย‡ยŽย—ยŽยŽยƒ ย–ย‡ยšย–ย‡ยŽย‡ย—ยย‘ย”ย‰ยŸยย†ย‹ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย”ย‘ยยŸยย‹ย†ย‹ยย’ย‡ย”ย‹ย‘ยƒย†ยƒย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย„ย‡ยŽย‹ย…ยฃศ‚ยŽย‹ย†ย‡ย”ย‹ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹รงย‹ย†ย‡ย‘ย’ย‹ยย‹ย‡ ศ‚ ยƒ ยˆย‘ย•ย– ย’ย”ย‹ย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย”วก ยŽยƒ ยˆย‡ยŽ ย…ย—ย ยย— ยƒย ยย‡ย‰ยŽย‹ยŒยƒย– ยย‹ย…ย‹ ย”ย‡ยˆยŽย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ย—ยย‘ย” ย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‡ยœย‡ยย–ยƒยแŒ”ย‹ ยƒย‹ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วกย’ย”ย‡ย…ย—ย ยƒยย•ย–ย–ย‘ย‘ย–ยŠวก ยฑยœยƒย‹ย•ย•ย•ยƒย—ย—ย‰ย‡ยยŠย”ยŽย‹ย…ยŠวก ย•ย–ย˜ยžยย—ยŽย›ย‘ยวก ย‹ยยŽร—ย• ย”ย‡ยยย‡ย”วก ยžยย†ย‘ย” ยƒย˜ยƒย•ยœย›วก ยƒยŒย‘ย• ยย”ย‡วก ยžย”ย‘ยŽย› ย‘ยŽย–ย‡ย” รงวคยƒวค Bย ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย– ย…ย‘ยย–ย‡ยšย– ยƒย รยย…ยƒย†ย”ยƒย– รงย‹ ย”ยƒย’ย‘ย”ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ย•ย–ยƒย–วก ยยƒยŒย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ รงย‹ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ รย ย‘ยยŸยย‹ยƒ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย„ย‡ยŽย‹ย…ยฃวกยƒย’ย‡ยŽยŸยย†ยŽยƒย–ย‡ยšย–ย‡ยƒยŽย‡ย—ยย‘ย”ยŽย‹ย†ย‡ย”ย‹ยยƒย”ย…ยƒยแŒ”ย‹ยƒย‹ยยƒยŒย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹วกย’ย”ย‡ย…ย—ย ย—ยŽย‹ย— ยƒยย‹ย—วก วค วคย—ย…ยƒวกย‘ยย•ย–ยƒยย–ย‹ยยฃย†ย—ยŽย‡ย•ย…ย—วฆย‘ย–ย”ย—วกย‹ย…ย‘ยŽยƒย‡ ย‘ย”ย‰ยƒรงวคยƒวค รงยƒย…ย—ยยƒยยƒย”ยฃย–ยƒย–ยยƒย‹ย•ย—ย•วกยย—ยŽย‹ย’ย•ย‹ย–ย†ย‡ย•ย‡ยยย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‡ยย‹ย•วฆยƒย’ยฃย”ย—ย–ย•ยฃย—ย”ยยฃย”ย‹ย ย†ย‡ยˆย‹ยย‹ย”ย‡ยƒ รงย‹ ย•ย‡ยยƒยย–ย‹ย…ยƒ ย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย’ย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‡ minoritate, ย’ย‡ ย„ยƒยœยƒ ยŽย‹ย–ย‡ย”ยƒย–ย—ย”ย‹ย‹ ย†ย‡ ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ ศ‚ ย‹ยย…ยŽย—ยœยŸยย† ยƒย‹ย…ย‹ ยŽย—ย…ย”ยฃย”ย‹ ย†ย‡ ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ย‡วก ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย‡วก ยƒยย–ย”ย‘ย’ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย‡วก ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย‡รงย‹รงย–ย‹ย‹ยแŒ”ย‡ยŒย—ย”ย‹ย†ย‹ย…ย‡ศ‚วกย’ย”ย‡ย…ย—ยรงย‹ย”ย‡ย…ย‘ยยˆย‹ย‰ย—ย”ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยยƒย‰ยŠย‹ยƒย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”รงย‹ ย‰ย‡ย”ยยƒยย‹ยŽย‘ย”ยƒย”ย†ย‡ยŽย‡ยย‹วคย‡ยย–ย”ย—ยƒรยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ย‰ย‡ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย†ย‹ยย—ย”ยยฃยƒย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–วกย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ย’ย‡ย”ย‹ย‘ยƒย†ยƒย†ย‡ ย†ย—ย’ยฃอณอปอณอปวกยƒยย’ย”ย‡ยœย‡ยย–ยƒย–ย‘ย•ย—ย…ย…ย‹ยย–ยฃย‡ย˜ย‘ยŽย—แŒ”ย‹ย‡รก la longue,รยย…ย‡ย”ย…ยŸยย†ย•ยฃย•ย—ย”ย’ย”ย‹ยย†ย‡ย ศ‚ ยยƒย‹ ยƒยŽย‡ย• รย ย…ยƒยœย—ยŽ ยยƒย‰ยŠย‹ยƒย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ศ‚ ย•ย…ยŠย‹ยย„ยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย’ย•ย‹ยŠย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ย‡ ย•ย—ย”ย˜ย‡ยย‹ย–ย‡ ยŽยƒ ยˆย‹ยย‡ยŽย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ยย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย”ยฃยœย„ย‘ย‹ ยย‘ยย†ย‹ยƒยŽวค ยƒ ย—ย ย…ย‘ย”ย‘ยŽยƒย”วก ยƒย ยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย– ย’ย‡ ย—ย ย•ย’ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย— ยยƒย‹ ย‡ยšย–ย‹ยย• ย”ยƒย’ย‘ย”ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽ ย”ย‘ยยŸย รงย‹ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‡ ยยƒย‰ยŠย‹ยƒย”ยฃ รงย‹ ย‰ย‡ย”ยยƒยยฃ ย†ย‹ย ย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยƒยย‹ยƒรยย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยย‡ยŽย‡ย”ย‡ยˆย‘ย”ยย‡ย‹ยƒย‰ย”ยƒย”ย‡รงย‹ยƒยŽย‡รยย˜ยฃแŒ”ยฃยยŸยย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹วคย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ยƒยƒย—ยˆย‘ย•ย– ย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย’ย—ย–ย‡ รงย‹ ย’ย‡ ย„ยƒยœยƒ ย—ยย‘ย” ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยฃย”ย‹ ย”ย‡ยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒย–ย‡ รย ย”ยŠย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย‡ ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย…ย‡ ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วก ย…ย‡ยย–ย”ยƒยŽย‡ รงย‹ ยŽย‘ย…ยƒยŽย‡วก รย ย”ยŠย‹ย˜ยƒ ย‹ยย‹ย•ย–ย‡ย”ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ยˆยƒย…ย‡ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ยšย–ย‡ย”ยย‡วก ย‹ย„ยŽย‹ย‘ย–ย‡ย…ยƒ ย‡ย‰ยƒยŽยฃ รงย‹ ย‹ย„ยŽย‹ย‘ย–ย‡ย…ยƒ ยย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ย‹ย„ย‡ย”ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ย”ย—ยšย‡ยŽยŽย‡ย•วก ย‹ย„ยŽย‹ย‘ย–ย‡ย…ยƒ รงย‹ ย”ยŠย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย‡ ย‘ย…ย‹ย‡ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‘ย”วกยƒย…ย…ย‡ย•ย—ยŽยŽยƒยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ยƒย†ย‹ยย—ย”ยยฃยˆย‹ย‹ยย†ย’ย‘ย•ย‹ย„ย‹ยŽย‡ย†ยƒย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃยˆยƒย…ย‹ยŽย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ยƒย…ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽย‡ยŽย˜ย‡แŒ”ย‹ยƒยรยย…ยƒย†ย”ย—ยŽย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย†ย‡ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒย”ย‡ย’ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ยŽย‡วฆยƒยย‡ยˆย‡ย…ย–ย—ยƒย–ย†ย‡ยŽยƒ ยย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ ย†ย‹ย ย‡ยย‡ย˜ยƒ รยย–ย”ย‡ อณอปอปอทวฆอณอปอปอปวก ย•ย—ย„ รยย†ย”ย—ยยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ยŽย—ย‹ ยย†ย”ยฑ ย‹ย‡ย„ย‹ย…ยŠ รงย‹ ยย†ย”ยฑย‡ย•ยœยŽย‡ย”วค ย— ย–ย‘ยƒย–ย‡ ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ยƒวก ยŽย—ย…ย”ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย†ย‡ ยˆยƒแŒ”ยฃวก รยย–ย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‹ยย•ยฃ ย’ย‡ ย„ยƒยœยƒ ย—ยย—ย‹ ย’ย”ย‘ย‹ย‡ย…ย– ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย†ย‹ย•ย…ย‹ย’ยŽย‹ยยƒย” ยƒย•ย—ยยƒย–วก ยย— รงย‹วฆยƒ ย’ย”ย‘ย’ย—ย• ย†ย‡ย…ยŸย– ย‘ ยƒย•ย–ยˆย‡ยŽ ย†ย‡ ยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย”ย‡ ยƒ ย•ย—ย„ย‹ย‡ย…ย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ยŽย‡ย‰ยƒย– ย†ย‡ problematica minoritยฃันilor ย†ย‹ย ย‘ยยŸยย‹ยƒ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย„ย‡ยŽย‹ย…ยฃวค ยŠย‹ยƒย” ย†ยƒย…ยฃ ย–ย‹ย–ยŽย—ยŽ ยƒย” ย’ย—ย–ย‡ยƒ ย•ย—ย‰ย‡ย”ยƒ ย‘ ย’ย”ย‡ยœย‡ยย–ยƒย”ย‡ ย‡ยšยŠยƒย—ย•ย–ย‹ย˜ยฃวก ยยƒย‹ ยƒยŽย‡ย• ย†ย‹ย ย’ย—ยย…ย– ย†ย‡ ย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ย”ย‡ ย‹ยยˆย‘ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽวกยย—ยƒย•ย–ยƒย–รยย‹ยย–ย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ยƒยย‘ยƒย•ย–ย”ยฃย—ยยƒย–ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–วกย…ยŠย‡ย•ย–ย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‡ยˆยƒย…ย–ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ย‡ ยˆย‹ย‹ยย† รยย†ย‡ย‘ย„รงย–ย‡ ย„ย‹ยย‡ ย•ย—ย”ย’ย”ย‹ยย•ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ยƒ ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยย‡ย‹วค ย‡วฆยƒย ย’ย”ย‘ย’ย—ย• รย ย’ย”ย‹ยย…ย‹ย’ยƒยŽยƒยยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒย–ย‡ยย‡ย‹ย’ย‡ย–ย‡ยย‡ย‹ย—ย”ย‹ย‡ย’ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ย‡รงย‹ยย‡ย–ย‘ย†ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ย‡วกยƒย’ย–ย‡ย•ยฃย‘ยˆย‡ย”ย‡ ย—ย ย’ยŽย—ย• ย†ย‡ รยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ย‰ย‡ย”ย‡ ยƒ ย…ย‡ย‡ยƒ ย…ย‡ ยƒย— รยย•ย‡ยยยƒย– ย”ยƒย’ย‘ย”ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ยยƒยŒย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ รงย‹ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ รย ย’ย”ย‹ยย—ยŽ ย†ย‡ย…ย‡ยย‹ย— ยƒยŽ ย‡ย’ย‘ย…ย‹ย‹ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย„ย‡ยŽย‹ย…ย‡วก รย ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยƒยŽวก ยˆยƒแŒ”ยฃ ย†ย‡ ย”ย‡ย‰ยŽย‡ยย‡ยย–ยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วค ย‘ยƒย–ย‡ รงย‹ ย†ย‡ ยƒย…ย‡ย‡ยƒวก ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย‡ย…ย‘ยย‘ยย‹ยƒ ยŽย—ย…ย”ยฃย”ย‹ย‹วก ยƒย ย…ย‘ยย•ย‹ย†ย‡ย”ยƒย– ย‘ย’ย‘ย”ย–ย—ย ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยย‘ยย‡ยย– ย•ยฃ ยย‡ ย‘ย’ย”ย‹ย ย†ย‘ยƒย” ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒ ย…ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‘ย—ยฃ ยยƒย”ย‹ ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยย‡ยƒยย‹ยย–ย‹ย–ย‡วกย…ย‡ยƒยƒย‰ย”ยƒย”ยฃรงย‹ย…ย‡ยƒยƒรยย˜ยฃแŒ”ยฃยยŸยย–ย—ยŽวกยˆยฃย”ยฃยƒย‹ยย–ย”ยƒรยย•ย—ย„ย‹ย‡ย…ย–ย‡ยŽยƒยˆย‡ยŽ


16

Adrian Ivan

ย†ย‡ย’ยƒย•ย‹ย‘ยยƒยย–ย‡ย’ย”ย‡ย…ย—ยย…ย‡ยƒยƒย„ย‹ย•ย‡ย”ย‹ย…ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย”ย‡วกยƒย˜ย‹ย‡แŒ”ย‹ย‹ย‡ย…ย‘ยย‘ยย‹ย…ย‡วกย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽย‡รงย‹ ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‡ ยƒ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วก ยƒ ย†ย‹ย•ย’ย—ย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย’ย‡ ย…ยŠย‡ย•ย–ย‹ย—ยย‹ ยƒย†ยย‹ยย‹ย•ย–ย”ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ย‡ ย‡ย–ย…วควก ย…ย‘ยรงย–ย‹ย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ ยˆย‹ย‹ยย†ย…ยฃยƒย•ย–ยˆย‡ยŽย†ย‡ย–ย‡ยย‡ยƒย—ยˆยฃย…ย—ย–ย†ย‡ยŒยƒรยย—ยŽย–ย‹ยย‹ย‹ยƒยย‹ย‘ย„ย‹ย‡ย…ย–ย—ยŽย—ยย‘ย”ยƒยยƒยŽย‹ยœย‡ย–ย‡ยย‡ย‹ยย‹ย…ย‡วค ย‡ ย†ย‡ ยƒยŽย–ยฃ ย’ยƒย”ย–ย‡วก ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ย—ย”ยยฃ ยƒย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‡ ยƒย— ยˆย‘ย•ย– รงย‹ ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ ยยƒย‹ ย•ย‡ยย•ย‹ย„ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‹ย ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ยƒ ย†ย‹ย•ย’ย—ย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย‹ย†ย‡ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ย‡ รงย‹วก ยยƒย‹ ยƒยŽย‡ย•วก ยƒย— ยˆย‘ย•ย– ย˜ย‹ย…ย‹ยƒย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ ยยƒย‹ ย˜ย‡ย…ยŠย‹ยŽย‡ ย‘ย„ย•ย‡ย•ย‹ย‹ ย”ย‡ย˜ย‹ยœย‹ย‘ยย‹ย•ย–ย‡ รงย‹ ยƒยย–ย‹ย”ย‡ย˜ย‹ยœย‹ย‘ยย‹ย•ย–ย‡วค ย‘ยƒย–ย‡ รงย‹ ย†ย‡ ยƒย…ย‡ย‡ยƒวก ย†ย‘ยƒย” ย•ย‹ยย–ย‡ย–ย‹ยœยŸยย† ยƒย‹ย…ย‹ ยย—ยŽย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ยŒยƒ ย‡ยŽยƒย„ย‘ย”ยƒย–ย‡วก ยƒย รยย…ย‡ย”ย…ยƒย– ยยƒย‹ ย…ย—ย”ยŸยย† ย•ยฃ ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยยƒย–ย‹ยœยฃย ย…ยŠย‡ย•ย–ย‹ย—ยย‡ยƒยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”รงย‹ย•ยฃยย‡ย†ย‡ย–ยƒรงยฃยย†ย‡ย•ย—ย„ย‹ย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ย‹ย•ยย‡ยŽย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย’ยƒย”ย‹ยย‡ย˜ย‹ย–ยƒย„ย‹ยŽ ยƒย–ย—ยย…ย‹ ย…ยŸยย† ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย…ย—ยŽวก ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย—ยŽวก ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย—ยŽวก ย’ย•ย‹ยŠย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย—ยŽวก ยŒย—ย”ย‹ย•ย–ย—ยŽ รงย‹วก ยย— รย ย—ยŽย–ย‹ยย—ยŽ ย”ยŸยย†วก ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‹ย•ย–ย—ยŽ รย ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡ ยƒยยƒยŽย‹ยœย‡ยƒยœยฃ ย•ย—ย„ย‹ย‡ย…ย–ย‡ ย•ย‡ยย•ย‹ย„ย‹ยŽย‡วก ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย•ย—ย•ย…ย‹ย–ยฃย†ย‡ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ยยƒย‹ยย—ยŽย–ย‡ย‘ย”ย‹ย‘ย”ย‰ย‘ยŽย‹ย‹รงย‹ย•ย‡ยย•ย‹ย„ย‹ยŽย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‡ย–ยย‹ย…ย‡วค รงยƒย†ยƒย”วก ยย‡วฆยƒย ย’ย”ย‘ย’ย—ย• ย‘ ยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย”ย‡ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย†ย‹ย•ย…ย‹ย’ยŽย‹ยยƒย”ยฃวก ย…ย—ยŽย–ย‹ย˜ยŸยย† ย…ย— ย’ย”ย‡ย†ย‹ยŽย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ย‡ ยย‡ย–ย‘ย†ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ย‘ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ยƒ ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡ ศ‹ย‘ ย†ย‹ย•ย…ย‹ย’ยŽย‹ยยฃ รยย…ยฃ ยย‘ย†ย‡ย•ย–ย…ย—ยŽย–ย‹ย˜ยƒย–ยฃรยย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย—ยŽย†ย‡รยย˜ยฃแŒ”ยฃยยŸยย–ย•ย—ย’ย‡ย”ย‹ย‘ย”ย†ย‹ยย‘ยยŸยย‹ยƒศŒวกย†ย‡ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‡วกย†ย‡ ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ยƒ ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วก ย†ย‡ ย†ย”ย‡ย’ย–ย—ยŽ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽวก ย†ย‡ ย‡ย–ยย‘ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ยƒ รงย‹ ยƒยย–ย”ย‘ย’ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ยƒ ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย‰ย”ย‡ยƒยœยฃ ย‡ยŽย‡ยย‡ยย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย’ย•ย‹ยŠย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย‡ ย…ย‘ยŽย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ยฃวค Bยย†ย‡ย‘ย•ย‡ย„ย‹ ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ยƒ ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วก ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย’ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย’ย‡ ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย—ยŽ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽ ย…ยƒ ย—ย ยƒยย•ยƒยย„ยŽย— ย†ย‡ย–ย‡ย”ยย‹ยยƒย– ย†ย‡ ยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹วก ยƒ ย…ย‘ยย•ย–ย‹ย–ย—ย‹ย– ย—ย ย•ย–ย‹ยย—ยŽ ย•ย‡ยยย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยย‘ย‹วก รยย–ย”ย—ย…ยŸย– ยย‡วฆยƒ ย‘ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย– ย‹ยย•ย–ย”ย—ยย‡ยย–ยƒย”ย—ยŽ ย…ย‡ยŽ ยยƒย‹ ย…ยƒยŽย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยƒย– ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— รยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ย‰ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒ ย…ย‘ยย’ย‘ย”ย–ยƒยย‡ยย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹ย†ย‹ย˜ย‡ย”รงย‹ยŽย‘ย”ยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹รงย‹ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ยƒย…ย‡รงย–ย‹ยƒวกย…ยŸย–รงย‹ย’ย”ย‹ยย…ย‹ย’ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย…ย‘ย†ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยฃ ย”ยƒย’ย‘ย”ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ รยย–ย”ย‡ ย•ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‡ ยย‡ยย„ย”ย‡ ยƒยŽย‡ ย‹ย‰ย‹ย‹วก ย‘ย…ย‹ย‡ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‘ย”วก ย—ย”ย–ย‡ยƒ ย‡ย”ยยƒยย‡ยย–ยฃ ย†ย‡ ย—ย•ย–ย‹แŒ”ย‹ย‡ ย†ย‡ ยŽยƒ ยƒย‰ยƒวก ยƒย•ย‘ย…ย‹ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ย‡ย…ย‘ยย‘ยย‹ย…ย‡วก ย…ย‘ย”ย’ย‘ย”ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡วก วทยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‡ย†ย‡ยŽย‹ยย„ยฃวกย”ยƒย•ยฃรงย‹ย”ย‡ยŽย‹ย‰ย‹ย‡วณย‡ย–ย…วคศŒอตวคBยย’ยŽย—ย•วกยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃย†ย‹ย•ย…ย‹ย’ยŽย‹ยยฃวฆย—ย–ย‹ยŽย‹ยœยƒย–ยฃ ย†ย‡ย—ยย‹ย‹ย…ย‘ยย–ย‡ยย’ย‘ย”ยƒยย‹รงย‹ย•ย—ย„ย†ย‡ยย—ยย‹ย”ย‡ยƒย†ย‡วทย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ยƒย•ย…ย‡ยย‡ย‹ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วณวฆยƒ ย‹ยย•ย‹ย•ย–ยƒย– ย…ย‡ยŽ ยยƒย‹ ยย—ยŽย– ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒ ย…ย”ย‹ยœย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‹ย ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย—ยŽ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽวก ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒ ย—ยย‘ย” ย•ย–ย”ยƒย–ย‡ย‰ย‹ย‹ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡ ยƒยŽย‡ ย†ย‹ย˜ย‡ย”รงย‹ยŽย‘ย” ยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ ยย‘ยวฆย•ย–ยƒย–ยƒยŽย‹วก ยˆยŽย—ยšย—ย”ย‹ ย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽย‡วก ย‡ย…ย‘ยย‘ยย‹ย…ย‡วก ย‘ย”ย†ย‹ยย‡ ยŒย—ย”ย‹ย†ย‹ย…ยฃวก ย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย’ย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย’ย—ย–ย‡ย”ย‡วก ย‹ยย–ย‡ย‰ย”ยƒย”ย‡วก ย‡ยšย…ยŽย—ย†ย‡ย”ย‡วก รยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ย‰ยŸยย† ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‡ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ ย…ย‘ยย–ย‡ยย’ย‘ย”ยƒยยฃ ย†ย‹ย ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ยƒ ย‰ยŽย‘ย„ยƒยŽย‹ยœยฃย”ย‹ย‹อถวค ยƒ ย‘ย’ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒยœยฃ ย–ย‘ย–ย‘ย†ยƒย–ยฃ ย…ย— ย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย’ย–ย‡ย’ย”ย‡ย…ย—ยย…ย‡ยŽย†ย‡วทย‰ย”ย—ย’ย—ย”ย‹ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‡วณวกย—ย–ย‹ยŽย‹ยœยŸยย†ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ย…ย—ยย‘ยƒรงย–ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ยƒ ยƒย–ยŸย– ยย‡ย–ย‘ย†ย‡ยŽย‡ ย…ยƒยย–ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ย‡ ศ‹ย•ย–ยƒย–ย‹ย•ย–ย‹ย…ย‹วก ย•ย‘ยย†ยƒยŒย‡ ย†ย‡ ย‘ย’ย‹ยย‹ย‡วก ย”ย‡ย…ย‡ยย•ยฃยย‹ยย–ย‡ย‡ย–ย…วคศŒวกย…ยŸย–รงย‹ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ย…ยƒยŽย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ย‡ศ‹ย‘ย„ย•ย‡ย”ย˜ยƒแŒ”ย‹ยƒวกย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย˜ย‹ย—ยŽวกยย‡ย–ย‘ย†ยƒย„ย‹ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ย…ยฃวก ย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย—ยŽย†ย‡ย…ยƒยœวกยƒยยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒย”ย‡แŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ยŽย‘ย”ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‡วกยƒยยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒย†ย‘ย…ย—ยย‡ยย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย”ย‡ย–ย…วคศŒอทวคย‡ ยƒยŽย–ยˆย‡ยŽวกรย ย˜ย‹ยœย‹ย—ยย‡ยƒ ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย‡ย‹ ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วก ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‡ ยˆย‹ย‡ ย‡ย–ยย‹ย…ย‡วก ยˆย‹ย‡ ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡ ย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‡ยœย‹ยย–ยฃ ย—ย ยƒย…ย–ย‘ย” ย†ย‹ย ย…ย‡ รย ย…ย‡ ยยƒย‹ ย‹ยย’ย‘ย”ย–ยƒยย–วก ย†ย‡ ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย†ย‡ย’ย‹ยย†ย‡ ย‡ย…ยŠย‹ยŽย‹ย„ย”ย—ยŽ ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย—ยŽย—ย‹ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽวคย‡ย…ย—ยย‘ยƒรงย–ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วกยƒย”ยƒย’ย‘ย”ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‘ย”ยƒย…ย— ย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽ รงย‹ ย…ย— ย‘ย”ย‰ยƒยย‹ยœยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย‰ย—ย˜ย‡ย”ยยƒยย‡ยย–ยƒยŽย‡ รงย‹

3ยƒย”ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ย”ยŽย‡วกSociologie des relations internationalesวกยƒย”ย‹ย•วกยƒยŽยŽย‘ยœวกอณอปอนอธวกย’วคอดอธอทวข ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย…ยƒยŽย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย› ย‘ยˆ ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒย–ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡ยŽยƒย–ย‹ย‘ยย•วกย‡ย†วคย–ย‡ย’ยŠย‡ย ย‘ย„ย†ย‡ยวก ย‘ยŠยวค ย‘ย„ย•ย‘ยวกยƒยย„ย”ย‹ย†ย‰ย‡วกยƒยย„ย”ย‹ย†ย‰ย‡ยย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ย‹ย–ย› ย”ย‡ย•ย•วกอดอฒอฒอณวค อถย‡ย”ย–ย”ยƒยย†ยƒย†ย‹ย‡วกยƒย”ย‹ย‡ยŽยƒย—ย†ย‡วฆยย‘ย—ย–ย•วกLe retournement du monde. Sociologie de la scรจne internationaleวกยƒย”ย‹ย•วกย”ย‡ย•ย•ย‡ย•ย†ย‡ยŽยƒ ย‘ยย†ยƒย–ย‹ย‘ยยƒย–ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡ย†ย‡ย…ย‹ย‡ยย…ย‡ย•ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย“ย—ย‡ย•ฦฌยƒยŽยŽย‘ยœวกอณอปอปอดวค อทย•ย‡ย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ยƒย‡ย–ย”ย— ยŽย—แŒ”วกAbordarea calitativยฃ a socioumanuluiวก ยƒรงย‹วกย†ย‹ย–วคย‘ยŽย‹ย”ย‘ยวกอณอปอปอนวค


Stat, majoritate ฤฝi minoritate naฤฟionalยพ รฎn Romรขnia. 1919-1930

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ยย‘ยย‰ย—ย˜ย‡ย”ยยƒยย‡ยย–ยƒยŽย‡วก ย‰ย‡ย•ย–ย‹ย‘ยยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย…ย”ย‹ยœย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย‡ย–ยย‹ย…ย‡วก ย…ย‘ยย•ย–ย‹ย–ย—ย‹ย‡ ย–ย‘ย– ยƒย–ยŸย–ย‡ยƒ ย•ย—ย„ย‹ย‡ย…ย–ย‡ย†ย‡ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยƒย”ย‡วคย‘ย†ย‡ยŽย‡ยŽย‡ย—ยย—ย‹ยƒย•ย‡ยย‡ยย‡ยƒย–ย‹ย’ย†ย‡ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย‡วกย‹ยย•ย’ย‹ย”ยƒย–ย‡รยยˆย‘ยย† ย†ย‡ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ยƒย…ยŽยƒย•ย‹ย…ยฃรงย‹ย†ย‡ย‹ยย•ย–ย”ย—ยย‡ยย–ยƒย”ย—ยŽรงย–ย‹ย‹ยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‘ย”ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‡รยย‰ย‡ยย‡ย”ยƒยŽวกย•ย—ยย–ยƒรงยƒย†ยƒย” ย’ย”ย‹ยย‡ยšย…ย‡ยŽย‡ยแŒ”ยฃย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย†ย‹ย•ย…ย‹ย’ยŽย‹ยยƒย”ย‡อธวค ย—ยย†ย‡ยŽยƒย•ย‹ยย‡ย•ย‡รยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ย‰ย‡วกยย—ยƒยยƒย„ยƒยย†ย‘ยยƒย–ยย‹ย…ย‹ย…ย—ยย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ยƒย…ยƒย”ย‡วกย†ย—ย’ยฃ ย’ย”ย‹ยย—ยŽ ย”ยฃยœย„ย‘ย‹ ยย‘ยย†ย‹ยƒยŽ รงย‹ วฆ ยยƒย‹ ยƒยŽย‡ย• วฆ ย†ย—ย’ยฃ ยˆย‘ยย†ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย‘ย…ย‹ย‡ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‘ย” รงย‹ ยƒ ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย—ยŽย—ย‹ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย‹ยƒย†ย‡ย’ย”ย‘ย–ย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ย‡ยƒยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วกยƒย…ย—ยย‘ย•ย…ย—ย–ย‘ย”ย‡ย†ย‹ยย‡ยย•ย‹ย‘ยยƒย”ย‡รงย‹ย‘ ย†ย‹ยยƒยย‹ย…ยฃยƒย…ย…ย‡ยย–ย—ยƒย–ยฃรยยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃย†ย‹ย”ย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ย‡วคBยย•ยฃยƒรงยƒย…ย—ยย•วฆยƒยƒยˆย‹ย”ยยƒย–ย†ย‡ยŒยƒวกยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ยƒย— ยˆย‘ย•ย– ยยƒย‹ ย†ย‡ย‰ย”ยƒย„ยฃ ย’ย‘ยœย‹ย–ย‹ย˜ย‹ย•ย–ย‡วก ย„ยƒยœยƒย–ย‡ ย’ย‡ ย•ย—ย”ย•ย‡ ย…ย—ยŽย‡ย•ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ยƒย”ยŠย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย‡ ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡ รงย‹ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วกย—ยย‡ย‘ย”ย‹ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ยƒย‹ยย˜ย‡ยย–ยƒย”ย‹ยƒยย—ยยฃย”ย—ยŽย’ยŽยŸยย‰ย‡ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วกย‹ยƒย”ยƒยŽย–ย‡ย‘ย”ย‹ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยƒ ย•ย—ย•แŒ”ย‹ยย‡ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ยŽย‡ ย•ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‹ย”ย‡ย…ย– ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย‡ย•ยƒย–ย‡วค ยยƒยŽย‹ยœยŸยย† ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย– ย–ย‹ย’ ย†ย‡ ยŽย‹ย–ย‡ย”ยƒย–ย—ย”ยฃวก รยย†ย‡ย‘ย•ย‡ย„ย‹ ย…ย”ย‡ย•ย–ย‘ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ ย†ย‘ย…ย—ยย‡ยย–ย‡วก ย•ย‡ ย’ย‘ยƒย–ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย•ย–ยƒย–ยƒ ย…ยฃ ยƒ ย‡ยšย‹ย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ย ยƒยย—ยย‹ย– วทย’ย”ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยวณย†ย‡ย•ย‡ยŽย‡ย…ย–ยƒย”ย‡ยƒยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‘ย”ยƒรยยˆย—ยย…แŒ”ย‹ย‡ย†ย‡ย†ย‡ยย‡ย”ย•ย—ยŽย’ยƒย”ย–ย‹ยœยƒยยƒยŽยƒย—ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วกย‹ยƒย” ย†ย‡ ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ ยยƒย‹ ยย—ยŽย–ย‡ ย‘ย”ย‹ ย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ยƒย–ย‡ รย ย—ยŽย–ย‹ยย‹ย‹ ยƒยย‹ ย•ย‡ ยŽย‹ยย‹ย–ย‡ยƒยœยฃ ย†ย‘ยƒย” ยŽยƒ ย†ย‘ย…ย—ยย‡ยย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ยƒย”ยŠย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย‡ ย”ย‘ยยŸยย‡รงย–ย‹ ย†ย‡ ยย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽ ยŒย—ย†ย‡แŒ”ย‡ยƒย รงย‹ ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽวก รยย•ยฃ ย‡ยšย–ย‹ยยœยŸยย† ย…ย‘ยย…ยŽย—ยœย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ยŽยƒ ยย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽอนวค ยŽย–ย‡ ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ย‘ยˆย‡ย”ยฃ ยย—ยยƒย‹ ย‘ ย‹ยย˜ย‡ยย–ยƒย”ย‹ย‡ย”ย‡ ยƒ ย‡ย˜ย‡ยย‹ยย‡ยย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย”วกยƒย’ย‡ย–ย‹แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย”รงย‹ยƒย˜ย‹ยœย‹ย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย”ยˆย—ยย…แŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‹รยย‘ยยŸยย‹ยƒอบวค ยƒยยƒยŽย‹ยœยฃยƒย–ย‡ยย–ยฃยƒยƒย”ยŠย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย‘ย”ยƒย”ยƒย–ยฃย…ยฃย‡ยšย‹ย•ย–ยฃยยƒย‹ยย—ยŽย–ย‡ย–ย‹ย’ย—ย”ย‹ย†ย‡ย•ย—ย”ย•ย‡วกยˆย‹ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ยƒย˜ยŸยย† ยƒยย’ย”ย‡ยย–ยƒ ย‡ยย‹ย–ย‡ยย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹วค ย”ยŠย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย‡ ย‹ยย‹ย•ย–ย‡ย”ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ยˆยƒย…ย‡ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ยšย–ย‡ย”ยย‡ ยƒยŽ ย‘ยยŸยย‹ย‡ย‹ ย…ย‘ยแŒ”ย‹ย ย†ย‘ย…ย—ยย‡ยย–ย‡ ย‡ยย‹ย•ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย‰ย—ย˜ย‡ย”ยย—ยŽ ย”ย‘ยยŸย ย…ยƒ ย”ยฃย•ย’ย—ยย• ยŽยƒ ย’ย‡ย–ย‹แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วกย”ยƒย’ย‘ยƒย”ย–ย‡ย†ย‹ย’ยŽย‘ยยƒย–ย‹ย…ย‡ยƒยŽย‡ยย‹ย•ย‹ย—ยย‹ย‹ย‘ยยŸยย‹ย‡ย‹ยŽยƒย‘ย…ย‹ย‡ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‘ย”วก ย’ย‡ย–ย‹แŒ”ย‹ย‹ ยƒยŽย‡ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ยŽยƒ ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย•ย‡ ยƒย†ยƒย—ย‰ยฃ ย…ย‘ย”ย‡ย•ย’ย‘ยย†ย‡ยแŒ”ยƒ รยย–ย”ย‡ ย‹ยย‹ย•ย–ย‡ย”ย—ยŽ ยˆยƒย…ย‡ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ยšย–ย‡ย”ยย‡ ยƒยŽ ย‘ยยŸยย‹ย‡ย‹ รงย‹ ย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ยƒ ย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‡ ยŽยƒ ย‘ยย•ย‹ยŽย‹ย—ยŽ ย‹ย‰ย‹ย‹ ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‘ย” ศ‹ย‘ย„ย•ย‡ย”ย˜ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ยƒยŽย‡ ย‰ย—ย˜ย‡ย”ยย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย”ย‘ยยŸย ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒ ย’ย‡ย–ย‹แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ศŒวค ย”ยŠย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย‡ย‘ย…ย‹ย‡ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‘ย”วกย’ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ยย‘ย‹ยŽย‡วฆยƒยย…ย‘ยย•ย—ยŽย–ยƒย–รยย’ย‡ย”ย‹ย‘ยƒย†ยƒอณอปอปอนวฆอณอปอปอปวก ย‘ยˆย‡ย”ยฃ ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยฃย”ย‹ย‹ ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยยƒย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย‹ ยยƒย‰ยŠย‹ยƒย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” รงย‹ ย‰ย‡ย”ยยƒยย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‹ย ย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยƒยย‹ยƒ ย—ย ยยƒย–ย‡ย”ย‹ยƒยŽ ย„ย‘ย‰ยƒย–วก ยˆย‘ย”ยยƒย– ย†ย‹ย ย†ย‘ย…ย—ยย‡ยย–ย‡ยŽย‡ ย‘ยˆย‹ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‡ ยƒยŽย‡ ย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย”ย‘ยยŸย ย–ย”ย‹ยย‹ย•ย‡ ย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ย‹ย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ยŽยƒย…ยƒย”ย‡ย•ย‡ยƒย†ยƒย—ย‰ยฃย’ยŽยŸยย‰ย‡ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วคย’ย”ย‡ย†ย‡ย‘ย•ย‡ย„ย‹ย”ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย”ยŠย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย‡ ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วก ยƒย‹ย…ย‹ ย•ย‡ ย‰ยฃย•ย‡ย•ย… รงย‹ ย†ย‘ย…ย—ยย‡ยย–ย‡ยŽย‡ ย”ย‡ยœย—ยŽย–ยƒย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ย†ย‡ยœย„ยƒย–ย‡ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ Comitetului celor Treiวก ยƒยŽย‡ ย‘ยย•ย‹ยŽย‹ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย‹ย‰ย‹ย‹ รงย‹ ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ ย‡ยŽยƒย„ย‘ย”ยƒย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‡ยƒ ย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ศ‹ย”ยƒย’ย‘ยƒย”ย–ย‡ยŽย‡ ย†ย‹ย”ย‡ย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ย‹ ย†ย‡ ย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹วก ย’ย”ย‘ย…ย‡ย•ย‡ยŽย‡ ย˜ย‡ย”ย„ยƒยŽย‡ ยƒยŽย‡ย†ย‹ย•ย…ย—แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ยƒย˜ย—ย–ย‡รยย…ยƒย†ย”ย—ยŽย•ย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ย‹ย‡ย–ย…วคศŒวค BยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ย‰ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒ ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยยƒย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย‹ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” รย ย…ย‘ยย’ยŽย‡ยšย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ ย‡ย‹ ย’ย”ย‡ย•ย—ย’ย—ยย‡ ย…ย‘ยย’ยƒย”ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย•ย—ย”ย•ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ยƒย”ยŠย‹ย˜ย‹ย•ย–ย‹ย…ย‡วก รยย–ย”ย—ย…ยŸย– ยย— ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ยŽย‹ย’ย•ย‹ย– ย†ย‡ ย‹ยย’ย‘ย”ย–ยƒยแŒ”ยฃ ย•ยฃ ย…ย—ยย‘ยƒรงย–ย‡ย ย’ย‘ยœย‹แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ยˆย—ยย…แŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย‹ย‰ย‹ย‹ รงย‹ ยƒย‹ ย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‡ยœย‡ยย–ยƒยแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย•ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‹ย ย‘ยย‹ย–ย‡ย–ย—ยŽย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วกย’ย‘ยœย‹แŒ”ย‹ย‹ ย’ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ยŽย‡ ย‰ยฃย•ย‹ยย‡ยšย’ย”ย‹ยยƒย–ย‡รย ย†ย‹ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‡ยŽย‡ย’ย”ย‘ย…ย‡ย•ย‡วฆ ย˜ย‡ย”ย„ยƒยŽย‡ ยƒยŽย‡ ย”ย‡ย—ยย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‘ย” ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‘ย”ยƒ รงย‹ รย ย…ย‘ย”ย‡ย•ย’ย‘ยย†ย‡ยแŒ”ยƒ ย’ย—ย”ย–ยƒย–ยฃ ย…ย— ย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽ ย”ย‘ยยŸย รงย‹ ยƒย”ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ย”ยŽย‡วกOp. cit.วกย’วคอตวค ย•ย‡ย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ยƒวกรยยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย•ย‡ยย•วกยŽย—ย…ย”ยƒย”ย‡ยƒยŽย—ย‹ย‹ย”ย‰ย‹ยŽยƒยยฃวกMinoritยฃันile etnice din Transilvania รฎntre 1918รงi 1940วกยŸย”ย‰ย—ย—ย”ย‡รงวกย‹ย’ย‘ยย—ย”วกอณอปอปอธวค อบย‹ยยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃย’ย‡ย”ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ยฃย˜ย‡ยœย‹ ยŠวค ยƒยย…ย—วกProblema minoritยฃันilor etnice din Romรขnia รฎn documente ale Societยฃันii NaันiunilorวกยŽย—ยŒวกย†ย‹ย–วคย”ย‰ย‘ยยƒย—ย–วกอดอฒอฒอดวค อธ อน


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Adrian Ivan

”‡’”‡œ‡–ƒጔ‹‹ ‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹‹ ƒ‰Š‹ƒ”‡ ç‹ ƒ‹ ‰ƒ”‹‡‹ǡ Žƒ ˆ‡Ž …— ‡•–‡ †‡ ƒ•‡‡‡ƒ ‹’‘”–ƒ– •£ ’ƒ”…—”‰‡ …‘”‡•’‘†‡ጔƒ ’—”–ƒ–£ †‡ †‡Ž‡‰ƒጔ‹‹ ‘Ÿ‹‡‹ Žƒ ‘…‹‡–ƒ–‡ƒƒጔ‹—‹Ž‘”…—‹‹•–‡”—Žˆƒ…‡”‹Ž‘”š–‡”‡†‹ጔƒ”£Ǥ‘’ƒ”ƒ”‡ƒ…‡Ž‘” †‘—£ –‹’—”‹ †‡ †‘…—‡–‡ ’‡”‹–‡ Áጔ‡Ž‡‰‡”‡ƒ ‡…ƒ‹•‡Ž‘” †‡ ƒ…ጔ‹—‡ ƒŽ‡ †‹’Ž‘ƒጔ‹‡‹ ”‘Ÿ‡ç–‹ǡ ‹ˆ‘”ƒ”‡ƒ •‘Ž‹†£ ç‹ ƒ–‹–—†‹‹Ž‡ ”‡’”‡œ‡–ƒጔ‹Ž‘” ‘ç–”‹ǡ †ƒ” ç‹ •–”ƒ–‡‰‹‹Ž‡ ç‹ …ƒ’ƒ„‹Ž‹–£ጔ‹Ž‡ ˆ—…ጔ‹‘ƒ”‹Ž‘” ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ‹Ǥ ‹ ƒ…‡ƒ•–£ ’‡”•’‡…–‹˜£ǡ …ƒœ—Ž ‹…‡—Ž—‹ ï †‹ ”£ç–‹‡ ‡•–‡ ”‡˜‡Žƒ–‘” …ƒ –‹–Ž— †‡ ‡š‡’Ž—Ǥ ‹ƒŽ‘‰—Ž’—”–ƒ–†‡‹…‘Žƒ‡‡–”‡•…—Ǧ‘‡…—”‹‘Ž„ƒǡƒ„Ž‘†‡œ…ƒ”ƒ–‡ç‹ …—”‹…”—‘†”‡Ž‡˜£ǡ…—‡”ƒç‹ˆ‹”‡•…ǡŠ‘–£”Ÿ”‡ƒ†‹’Ž‘ƒ–—Ž—‹”‘Ÿ†‡ƒ ƒ’£”ƒ ’—…–—Ž †‡ ˜‡†‡”‡ ƒŽ •–ƒ–—Ž—‹ ’‡ …ƒ”‡ ÁŽ ”‡’”‡œ‡–ƒǡ …”‹–‹…Ÿ† ˜‡Š‡‡– ‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‡’‡–”—Ž‹’•ƒ†‡Ž‘‹ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‡ˆƒጔ£†‡‘Ÿ‹ƒǡç‹’‘œ‹ጔ‹‹Ž‡ƒ”‰—‡–ƒ–‡ƒŽ‡ †‹”‡…–‘”—Ž—‹ ‡…ጔ‹‡‹ ‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘”ǡ ”‹ ‘Ž„ƒǤ –—†‹‹† …‘”‡•’‘†‡ጔƒ †‹’Ž‘ƒ–—Ž—‹ ”‘Ÿ …— 燈—Ž •£—ǡ Ǥ Ǥ —…ƒǡ …ƒ”‡ •‡ ‰£•‡ç–‡ Žƒ ”Š‹˜‡Ž‡ ‹‹•–‡”—Ž—‹ ˆƒ…‡”‹Ž‘” š–‡”‡ ƒŽ ‘Ÿ‹‡‹ǡ …‘•–ƒ–£ …£ ‡–”‡•…—Ǧ‘‡ …—‘ç–‡ƒ Á †‡–ƒŽ‹— ’”‘„Ž‡ƒ–‹…ƒ ƒ…‡•–—‹ Ž‹…‡—ǡ •‡•‹œŸ†ǡ †‹ ’—…– †‡ ˜‡†‡”‡ Œ—”‹†‹…ǡ…—Ž’ƒÁ…ƒ”‡•‡‰£•‡ƒ—ƒ—–‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‡”‘Ÿ‡ç–‹†‡Žƒ”£ç–‹‡ǡ…‘’Ž‹…ƒጔ‹‹Ž‡ ’‡ …ƒ”‡ ’—–‡ƒ •£ Ž‡ …ƒ—œ‡œ‡ ‘Ÿ‹‡‹ Á ”‡Žƒጔ‹‹Ž‡ •ƒŽ‡ …— ‘”‰ƒ‹•‡Ž‡ ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ‡Ǥ ”‹ —”ƒ”‡ǡ †‹ ’—…– †‡ ˜‡†‡”‡ ‡–‘†‘Ž‘‰‹…ǡ †‡˜‹‡ ˆ‘ƒ”–‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ– •£ ’ƒ”…—”‰‡ …‘’ƒ”ƒ–‹˜ †‘…—‡–‡Ž‡ ƒ”Š‹˜‹•–‹…‡Ǥ —ƒ‹ ƒçƒ ˜‘ Áጔ‡Ž‡‰‡‡˜‘Ž—ጔ‹ƒç‹•‘Ž—ጔ‹‹Ž‡’‡…ƒ”‡ˆ—…ጔ‹‘ƒ”‹‹‹‰‹‹Ž‡Ǧƒ—‘ˆ‡”‹–…ƒœ—”‹Ž‘”ƒˆŽƒ–‡ ÁŽ‹–‹‰‹—狃–‹–—†‹‹Ž‡‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘”‹–‡”‡•ƒ–‡ç‹•–ƒ–—Ž—‹Ǥ‡†‡ƒŽ–£’ƒ”–‡ǡƒ”‡ƒ Á…£”…£–—”£ ‡˜‡‹‡ጔ‹ƒŽ£ǡ ƒ”…ƒ–£ ’ƒ”…£ †‡ ‡•ˆŸ”ç‹–‡ ’‘Ž‡‹…‹ǡ ‡š…Ž—†‡ Á•£ †‹ƒŽ‘‰—Ž…—…‡Ž‡ŽƒŽ–‡†‹•…‹’Ž‹‡•‘…‹‘Ǧ—ƒ‡ǡ†‹ƒŽ‘‰ƒ–Ÿ–†‡‡…‡•ƒ”ÁÁጔ‡Ž‡‰‡”‡ƒ †‘‡‹—Ž—‹…‘’Ž‡šƒŽ…‡”…‡–£”‹‹‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘”‡–…Ǥͻ  …‘–”‹„—ጔ‹‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ–£ Žƒ Áጔ‡Ž‡‰‡”‡ƒ ‡˜‘Ž—ጔ‹‡‹ •‹•–‡—Ž—‹ ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽǡ ƒ ”ƒ’‘”–—”‹Ž‘”†‹–”‡•–ƒ–‡ǡƒ”‘Ž—Ž—‹‘…‹‡–£ጔ‹‹ƒጔ‹—‹Ž‘”ǡƒ”ƒ’‘”–—”‹Ž‘”†‹–”‡•–ƒ– ç‹ ‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹ǡ ƒ ƒ˜—– ç‹ ƒ”‡ ‹•–‘”‹ƒ ”‡Žƒጔ‹‹Ž‘” ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ‡Ǥ ‡–”— Áጔ‡Ž‡‰‡”‡ƒ ’”‘„Ž‡ƒ–‹…‹‹ Ƿ‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘” †‡ Ž‹„£ǡ ”ƒ•£ ç‹ ”‡Ž‹‰‹‡dzǡ †‡‘•‡„‹– †‡ •‡‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹˜‡ •—– Ž—…”£”‹Ž‡ —‘” ‹•–‘”‹…‹ ˆ”ƒ…‡œ‹ǡ ’”‡…— ‹‡””‡ ‡‘—˜‹ͳͲǤ ‡’ƒ”–‡ †‡ ƒ ˆ‹ —ƒ‹ ‘ ‹•–‘”‹‡ ‡˜‡‹‡ጔ‹ƒŽ£ ƒ ‡†‹—Ž—‹ ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽǡ …ƒ”–‡ƒ Ž—‹ ‡‘—˜‹ ”£Ÿ‡ Á…£ †‡‘•‡„‹– †‡ —–‹Ž£ ’‡–”— Áጔ‡Ž‡‰‡”‡ƒ Ƿ’•‹Š‘Ž‘‰‹‹Ž‘” …‘Ž‡…–‹˜‡dz Á —”‘’ƒ Ƿ…”‹œ‡Ž‘”dz ç‹ ƒ ‘‹Ž‘” …—”‡–‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‘Ǧ‹†‡‘Ž‘‰‹…‡ǡ ƒ”…ƒ–‡ †‡ †‹•…—”•—Ž ™‹Ž•‘‹ƒ ç‹ ”‡˜‘Ž—ጔ‹ƒ „‘Žç‡˜‹…£Ǥ ‡ ƒŽ–ˆ‡Žǡ ˆ‘Ž‘•‹† …‘…‡’–—Ž †‡ Ƿ‹‘”‹–ƒ–‡ ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ£dzǡ ‹‡””‡ ‡‘—˜‹ ƒ ‡š’Ž‹…ƒ– ”‘Ž—Ž ’‡ …ƒ”‡ •‹•–‡—Ž †‡ ’”‘–‡…ጔ‹‡ ƒŽ ‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘”Ǧ‰‡•–‹‘ƒ–†‡‘…‹‡–ƒ–‡ƒƒጔ‹—‹Ž‘”ǦŽǦƒƒ˜—–Áƒ’ƒ”‹ጔ‹ƒ——‹…—”‡– ‘— †‡ ”‡‰Ÿ†‹”‡ ƒ ”‡Žƒጔ‹‹Ž‘” ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ‡ǡ ƒ‹ ƒŽ‡•ǡ †ƒ–‘”‹–£ †‘…–”‹‡‹ Ƿ•—˜‡”ƒ‹–£ጔ‹‹Ž‹‹–ƒ–‡dzƒ•–ƒ–‡Ž‘”†—’£ͳͻͳͺǤ‡‡”•—”‹Ž‡•ƒŽ‡ƒ—ˆ‘•–…‘–‹—ƒ–‡ ͻ‡–”—†‡–ƒŽ‹‹…—’”‹˜‹”‡Žƒ†‡‡”•—Ž‹–‡”†‹•…‹’Ž‹ƒ”ƒ•‡˜‡†‡ƒŽ—…”ƒ”‡ƒƒ—–‘ƒ”‡‹ˆ”ƒ…‡œ‡ƒ†‡Ž‡‹‡

”ƒ™‹–œǡMéthodes des sciences socialesǡͺ‡±†‹–‹‘ǡƒ”‹•ǡƒŽŽ‘œǡͳͻͻͲǤ‡œ‹†‡ƒ•‡‡‡ƒ‹‡””‡†‡ ‡ƒ”…Ž‡•ǡLa politique internationaleǡƒ”‹•ǡ”ƒ†‘Ž‹ǡͳͻͻʹǡ’Ǥ͹Ǥ ͳͲ‹‡””‡‡‘—˜‹ǡHistoire des Relations Internationales. Les crises du XXe siècle. Première Partie. De 1914 à 1929ǡƒ”‹•ǡ ƒ…Š‡––‡ǡͳͻͷ͹Ǥ


Stat, majoritate Ľi minoritate naĿional¾ în România. 1919-1930

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…— •—……‡• †‡ ˆ‘•–—Ž •£— ƒ•‹•–‡–ǡ ‡ƒǦƒ’–‹•–‡ —”‘•‡ŽŽ‡ǡ …ƒ”‡ Á–”Ǧ‘ Ž—…”ƒ”‡ ”‡ˆ‡”‹–‘ƒ”‡ Žƒ ‹•–‘”‹ƒ †‹’Ž‘ƒ–‹…£ ƒ”£–ƒ ç‹ ƒ‹ …Žƒ” ‡˜‘Ž—ጔ‹ƒ •‹•–‡—Ž—‹ ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ †—’£ ͳͻͳͺǡ •‹•–‡ „ƒœƒ– ’‡ ’”‹…‹’‹‹Ž‡ •‡…—”‹–£ጔ‹‹ …‘Ž‡…–‹˜‡ǡ ƒŽ‡ ‘…”‘–‹”‹‹ ‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘” ç‹ ƒŽ‡ ‡‰ƒŽ‹–£ጔ‹‹ Œ—”‹†‹…‡ ƒ •–ƒ–‡Ž‘”ͳͳǤ ‡‘’‘–”‹˜£ǡ Ž—…”ƒ”‡ƒ …‘—£ƒ…‡Ž‘”†‘‹‹•–‘”‹…‹ǡIntroduction a l’histoire des relations internationalesǡ ‡Ǧƒ ƒŒ—–ƒ– •£ Áጔ‡Ž‡‰‡ ”‘Ž—Ž •‡–‹‡–—Ž—‹ ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ Á ˆ‘”ƒ”‡ƒ •–ƒ–‡Ž‘”Ǧƒጔ‹—‹ͳʹǤ ‡Žƒጔ‹‹Ž‡ •–ƒ„‹Ž‹–‡ Á–”‡ †‹ˆ‡”‹ጔ‹ ƒ…–‘”‹ ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ‹ ƒ— Á„”£…ƒ– ƒ†‡•‡‘”‹ ˆ‘”ƒ—‘”ƒ‰ƒŒƒ‡–‡ Œ—”‹†‹…‡Ǥ‘‘’‡”ƒ”‡ƒŽ‘”ƒ†ƒ– ƒç–‡”‡—‘” ‘”‰ƒ‹œƒጔ‹‹ ‹–‡”‰—˜‡”ƒ‡–ƒŽ‡ ç‹ ‘‰—˜‡”ƒ‡–ƒŽ‡Ǥ ƒ–—”ƒ ç‹ Á–‹†‡”‡ƒ ƒ…‡•–‘” ‘„Ž‹‰ƒጔ‹‹ƒ—ˆ‘•–…‘†‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‡Á‘”‡†‡†”‡’–‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ’—„Ž‹…ǡ…ƒ”‡”£•’—†Žƒ ’”‹…‹’‹—Ž Pacta sunt servandaǡ …‡‡ƒ …‡ Á•‡ƒ£ …£ ƒ…‘”†—”‹Ž‡ –”‡„—‹ƒ— ”‡•’‡…–ƒ–‡Ǥ ’‘”–—Ž 疋‹ጔ‡Ž‘” Œ—”‹†‹…‡ ƒ ˆ‘•–ǡ ˆ£”£ Á†‘‹ƒŽ£ǡ ——Ž ‘”ƒ–‹˜ ç‹ ‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ–‹˜ǡ Œ—”‹ç–‹‹ ”£•’Ÿ†‹† Ž‹„ƒŒ—Žǡ …‘†—”‹Ž‡ ç‹ ’”‘…‡†—”‹Ž‡ †”‡’–—Ž—‹ ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽǡ ƒ˜Ÿ† …ƒ †‘‡‹— ’”‡†‹Ž‡…– †‡ …‡”…‡–ƒ”‡ ‡Žƒ„‘”ƒ”‡ƒ ç‹ ‹–‡”’”‡–ƒ”‡ƒ †‹ˆ‡”‹–‡Ž‘” –”ƒ–ƒ–‡Ǥ ‡†‹ጔƒ ƒ…‡•–‘”ƒ Á•£ǡ †‡ ƒ ‡‰Ž‹Œƒ —‡‘”‹ ˆƒ…–‘”‹‹•‘…‹ƒŽ‹ǡ‡…‘‘‹…‹ǡ‹†‡‘Ž‘‰‹…‹ç‹’‘Ž‹–‹…‹ǡ…ƒ”‡ƒ—‹ˆŽ—‡ጔƒ–…—”•—Ž”‡Žƒጔ‹‹Ž‘” ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ‡ǡ •Ǧƒ Ž‘˜‹– ƒ†‡•‡‘”‹ †‡ Á–”‡„£”‹Ž�� Ž‡‰ƒ–‡ †‡ ‘”‹‰‹‡ƒ ƒ…–‘”‹Ž‘”ǡ †‡ ‹†‡–‹–ƒ–‡ƒ ç‹ ”‡Žƒጔ‹‹Ž‡ •‘…‹‘Ž‘‰‹…‡ǡ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ‡ǡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ǡ ‡…‘‘‹…‡ ‡š‹•–‡–‡ Á–”‡ ƒ…‡ç–‹ƒǤ ‡ƒ…‡‡ƒǡÁ’‡”‹‘ƒ†ƒ‹–‡”„‡Ž‹…£ƒˆ‘•–…Ÿ–•‡’‘ƒ–‡†‡”‡Ž‡˜ƒ–ƒ’‘”–—Ž Œ—”‹ç–‹Ž‘”ǡ…‡Ž‡ƒ‹—Ž–‡Ž—…”£”‹˜‹œŸ†Ƿminorit£ѹile de limb£, ras£ çi religiedzǤ”ƒ †‡ ƒŽ–ˆ‡Ž ç‹ ˆ‹”‡•…ǡ †ƒ…£ ƒ˜‡ Á ˜‡†‡”‡ •…Š‹„£”‹Ž‡ ƒŒ‘”‡ ’‡ …ƒ”‡ Ž‡Ǧƒ •—ˆ‡”‹– †”‡’–—Ž ‹–‡”ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ †—’£ ˆ‘†ƒ”‡ƒ ‘…‹‡–£ጔ‹‹ ƒጔ‹—‹Ž‘”ǡ Žƒ „ƒœƒ ˆ—…ጔ‹‘£”‹‹ ƒ…‡•–‡‹ƒ•–Ÿ†–”‡‹’”‹…‹’‹‹ˆ—†ƒ‡–ƒŽ‡ǣ‡‰ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‡ƒŒ—”‹†‹…£ƒ•–ƒ–‡Ž‘”ǡ’”‹…‹’‹—Ž ƒ—–‘†‡–‡”‹£”‹‹ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ‡ç‹…‡ŽƒŽ•‡…—”‹–£ጔ‹‹…‘Ž‡…–‹˜‡Ǥ”ƒ–ƒ–‡Ž‡‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘”ƒ— ‘ˆ‡”‹–ǡÁƒ…‡Žƒç‹–‹’ǡŒ—”‹ç–‹Ž‘”—…Ÿ’Žƒ”‰†‡ƒƒŽ‹œ£ç‹ǡƒ‹ƒŽ‡•ǡ†‡’”‘…‡†—”£ Á …‡‡ƒ …‡ ’”‹˜‡ç–‡ ’”‘–‡…ጔ‹ƒ ‰”—’—”‹Ž‘” ‹‘”‹–ƒ”‡ ç‹ …‘†‹ˆ‹…ƒ”‡ƒ ”ƒ’‘”–—”‹Ž‘” †‹–”‡ƒ…‡•–‡ƒç‹•–ƒ–—Ž•—˜‡”ƒ’‡–‡”‹–‘”‹—Ž…£”—‹ƒ…‘˜‹‡ጔ—‹ƒ—Ǥ ‹ ƒ…‡ƒ•–£ ’‡”•’‡…–‹˜£ǡ „‡‡ˆ‹…‹‹† †‡ ‘ „‘‰ƒ–£ …—Ž–—”£ǡ Á •’‡…‹ƒŽ Á †‘‡‹—Ž‹•–‘”‹‡‹ǡŒ—”‹ç–‹†‡ƒ”…£†‡Žƒ‘‹Ȃ†‹–”‡…ƒ”‡•‡…—˜‹ƒ‹–‹ጔ‹ ‡‘”‰‡ ‘ˆ”‘‹‡ǡ ‹…‘Žƒ‡ ƒç…‘˜‹…‹ǡ ‹‘”‹…ƒ ‘–‡‹ǡ ƒ†— ‡‹–ƒ‹ǡ ‹…‘Žƒ‡ ‹–—Ž‡•…—ǡ ”–Š—”ƒŽ‘‰Š‡–…ǤȂƒ—‡Žƒ„‘”ƒ–Ž—…”£”‹’”‹˜‹†‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‡†‹‘Ÿ‹ƒǡÁ…ƒ”‡ •—„Ž‹‹ƒ— ‹‡š‹•–‡ጔƒ ’‡”•‘ƒŽ‹–£ጔ‹‹ Œ—”‹†‹…‡ ƒ ƒ…‡•–‘”ƒ ç‹ •—•ጔ‹‡ƒ— †”‡’–—”‹Ž‡ ‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ‡…‘ˆ‘”’”‹…‹’‹‹Ž‘”Ƿƒጔ‹—‹‹’‘Ž‹–‹…‡dzǡÁ…ƒ”‡–‘ጔ‹…‡–£ጔ‡‹‹‡”ƒ—‡‰ƒŽ‹ ÁˆƒጔƒŽ‡‰‹‹Ǥ‡ƒŽ–ˆ‡Žǡ‡•–‡ç‹‘–‹˜—Ž’‡–”—…ƒ”‡…‡”…‡–£”‹Ž‡Ž‘”ƒ—…‘•–‹–—‹–— ‰Š‹†”‡ƒ”…ƒ„‹Ž’‡–”—‹–‡”’”‡–£”‹Ž‡‘ƒ•–”‡Ǥ –”‘’‘Ž‘‰‹ƒ‡‘ˆ‡”£ǡÁ‡‰ƒŽ££•—”£ǡ‘…‘–”‹„—ጔ‹‡‡•‡ጔ‹ƒŽ£Žƒ…—‘ƒç–‡”‡ƒ ‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘” ç‹ ƒ …‘•–”—‹”‹‹ ‹†‡–‹–£ጔ‹‹ ƒ…‡•–‘”ƒǤ ‘ˆ‘” ‘’‹‹‡‹ Ž—‹ ”‡†‡”‹…Š ƒ”–Šǡ ‰”—’—”‹Ž‡ ‡–‹…‡ –”‡„—‹‡ ’”‹˜‹–‡ ’”‹ ’”‹•ƒ …‘•–‹–—‹”‹‹ ‹†‡–‹–£ጔ‹‹ ç‹ ƒ  ‡ƒǦƒ’–‹•–‡—”‘•‡ŽŽ‡ǡHistoire Diplomatique de 1919 à nos joursǡƒ”‹•ǡƒŽŽ‘œǡͳͻͻ͵Ǥ ‹‡””‡‡‘—˜‹ǡ ‡ƒǦƒ’–‹•–‡—”‘•‡ŽŽ‡ǡIntroduction à l’histoire des RelationsInternationalesǡͶ‡ ±†‹–‹‘‹•‡Œ‘—”ǡƒ”‹•ǡ”ƒ†‘Ž‹ǡͳͻͻͳǤ

ͳͳ ͳʹ


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Adrian Ivan

ย‰ย”ยƒยย‹แŒ”ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ยŽย‡ ย•ย‡ย’ยƒย”ยฃวค Bย ยƒย…ย…ย‡ย’แŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‡ยƒ ยŽย—ย‹วก ย‰ย”ย—ย’ย—ยŽ ย‡ย–ยย‹ย… ย•ย‡ ย†ย‡ยˆย‹ยย‡รงย–ย‡ ย…ยƒ ย‘ ย…ยƒย–ย‡ย‰ย‘ย”ย‹ย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ย ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย‘ยƒยย‡ยย‹ย‹ ย•ย‡ ยƒย—ย–ย‘ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยฃ รงย‹ ย•ย‡ ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยฃ ย”ย‡ย…ย‹ย’ย”ย‘ย…วก ย…ยƒ ย—ย ย’ย”ย‹ยย…ย‹ย’ย‹ย— ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย‘ย”ย‰ยƒยย‹ยœย‡ยƒยœยฃ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยƒย…แŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‡ ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‡อณอตวค ย•ย–ยˆย‡ยŽวก ยƒย”ย–ยŠ ย†ย‡ย’ยฃรงย‡รงย–ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย’แŒ”ย‹ยƒ ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย’ย”ย‡ย–ยƒ grupurile etnice ยย—ยยƒย‹ ย†ย‹ย ย’ย—ยย…ย– ย†ย‡ ย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ย”ย‡ ย”ยƒย•ย‹ยƒยŽ รงย‹ ย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽวก ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ยƒ ยˆย‹ย‹ยย† ย†ย‡ ยˆยƒย’ย– ย—ยย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‡วก ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย•ย‡ ยˆย‘ย”ยย‡ยƒยœยฃ ย…ยƒ ย”ย‡ยœย—ยŽย–ยƒย– ยƒยŽ ยˆย‘ยŽย‘ย•ย‹ย”ย‹ย‹ วทย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ย‡ย–ยย‹ย…ย‡วณ รย ย’ย”ย‘ย…ย‡ย•ย—ยŽ ย†ย‡ ยƒย—ย–ย‘ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย‡ย–ยย‹ย…ยฃวก ย‹ยƒย” ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ ย‡ย–ยย‹ย…ยฃวก ยŽยƒ ย”ยŸยย†ย—ยŽ ย‡ย‹วก ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย•ย‹ย†ย‡ย”ยƒย–ยฃ ยƒ ยˆย‹ ย•ย‡ย–ย—ยŽ ย†ย‡ ย…ยƒย”ยƒย…ย–ย‡ย”ย‹ย•ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ ย•ย‡ยยย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ย‡ ยƒ ยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‹ย‹ยย’ยŽย‹ย…ยƒแŒ”ย‹. ย…ย‡ยŽยƒรงย‹ยƒย—ย–ย‘ย”ย…ย‘ยย•ย‹ย†ย‡ย”ยฃย…ยฃย•ย‹ยย„ย‘ยŽย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยฃย”ย‹ย‹ย•ย—ยย– รยย–ย”วฆย‘ย…ย‘ยย–ย‹ยย—ยฃย–ย”ยƒยย•ยˆย‘ย”ยยƒย”ย‡รงย‹ย…ยฃย…ย‡ย‡ยƒย…ย‡ย”ยฃยยŸยย‡ย…ย‘ยย•ย–ยƒยย–ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย†ย‹ยŠย‘ย–ย‘ยย‹ยƒรยย–ย”ย‡ ยย‡ยย„ย”ย‹ย‹ ย‰ย”ย—ย’ย—ยŽย—ย‹ รงย‹ ย…ย‡ย‹ ย†ย‹ย ยƒยˆยƒย”ยฃวค ย‘ยยˆย‘ย”ย ยƒย…ย‡ยŽย‡ย‹ยƒรงย‹ ย–ย‡ย‘ย”ย‹ย‹วก ยˆยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”ย—ยŽ ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ยƒยŽวก ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย†ย‡ย–ย‡ย”ยย‹ยยฃ ยˆย‘ย”ยยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย‰ย”ย—ย’ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย‡ย–ยย‹ย… ย…ยƒ ย‘ ย‡ยย–ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ย•ย–ย‹ยย…ย–ยฃวก ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย‹ยยˆยŽย—ย‡ยแŒ”ยƒย– ย†ย‡ ย’ย”ย‘ย…ย‡ย•ย—ยŽ ย†ย‡ ย…ยŽยƒย”ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ รงย‹ ย†ย‡ยŽย‹ยย‹ย–ยƒย”ย‡ ยƒ ย‰ย”ย—ย’ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ยˆยƒแŒ”ยฃ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ยŽยƒยŽย–ย‡วก ย†ย‡ ย†ย‡ย…ยŽยƒย”ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ยƒย’ยƒย”ย–ย‡ยย‡ยแŒ”ย‡ย‹ ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย—ย‹ยƒวค ย ย‹ยย˜ย‘ย…ยƒย– ยƒย‹ย…ย‹ ยยƒย‹ ยย—ยŽย– ย’ย‡ ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย– ยƒย—ย–ย‘ย” ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยƒ ยƒย”ย‰ย—ยย‡ยย–ยƒ ศ‚ ย†ยƒย…ยฃ ยยƒย‹ ย‡ย”ยƒ ย…ย—ยย˜ยƒ ยย‡ย˜ย‘ย‹ย‡ ศ‚ ยˆยƒย’ย–ย—ยŽ ย…ยฃ ยƒยย–ย”ย‘ย’ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ยƒ ย…ย‘ยย•ย–ย‹ย–ย—ย‹ย‡ ย‘ ยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย”ย‡ ยˆย—ยย†ยƒยย‡ยย–ยƒยŽยฃ ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— รยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ย‰ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒ ย’ย”ย‘ย…ย‡ย•ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย’ย”ย‹ย ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย•วฆยƒ ย…ย‘ยย•ย–ย”ย—ย‹ย– ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ยยƒย‰ยŠย‹ยƒย”ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยƒยย‹ยƒ ย†ย—ย’ยฃ อณอปอณอบวก ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย‡ย”ยƒย— ย•ย‹ยย„ย‘ยŽย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย…ย‡ ย’ย‡ย”ยย‹ย–ย‡ยƒย— ย†ย‡ยŽย‹ยย‹ย–ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย‹ยƒ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ยŽยƒยŽย–ย‡ ย‰ย”ย—ย’ย—ย”ย‹ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย”ย‡ รงย‹ ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย‡ย”ยƒย— ย‡ยŽย‡ยย‡ยย–ย‡ยŽย‡ ยƒย—ย–ย‘ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยฃย”ย‹ย‹ รย ย”ยƒย’ย‘ย”ย– ย…ย— ยยƒยŒย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ ย”ย‘ยยŸยย‡ยƒย•ย…ยฃ รงย‹ ย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽ ย—ยย‹ย–ยƒย”วค ย‘ย–ย‘ย†ยƒย–ยฃวก ย•ย‡ ย˜ยƒ ย’ย—ย–ย‡ยƒ ยยƒย‹ ย„ย‹ยย‡ รยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ย‰ย‡ ศ‚ ย†ยƒย…ยฃ ยƒย˜ย‡ย ย‡ยŽย‡ยย‡ยย–ย‡ ย•ย—ยˆย‹ย…ย‹ย‡ยย–ย‡ ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยƒ ย…ยŽยƒย•ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยƒ ย‰ย”ย—ย’ย—ยŽ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย” ยยƒย‰ยŠย‹ยƒย” ย†ย‹ย ย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยƒยย‹ยƒ ย…ยƒ ย‘ วทยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ย‡ย–ยย‹ย…ยฃวณย•ยƒย—วทยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽยฃวณวกยƒย˜ยŸยย†รยย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ย”ย‡ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ยƒย•ยƒย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยƒยŽยฃย…ย—ย’ยƒย–ย”ย‹ยƒ ยยƒยยฃ ย†ย‡วฆยƒ ยŽย—ยย‰ย—ยŽ รยย–ย”ย‡ย‰ย‹ย‹ ย’ย‡ย”ย‹ย‘ยƒย†ย‡ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย„ย‡ยŽย‹ย…ย‡ ศ‚ รย ย…ย‡ ยยฃย•ย—ย”ยฃ ยƒ ยˆย‘ย•ย– ยƒย„ย•ย‘ย”ย„ย‹ย– รงย‘ย…ย—ยŽ ย’ย•ย‹ยŠย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…วก ย”ย—ย’ย–ย—ย”ยƒ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ยยƒย‰ยŠย‹ยƒย”ย‡ ย†ย‡ ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‡ยƒ ยยƒย‰ยŠย‹ยƒย”ยฃวก ย…ยƒ ย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย— ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย… ยƒยŽ ยˆย‡ยย‘ยย‡ยย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย‡ย–ยย‹ย… รย ย–ย‘ยƒย–ยฃ ย…ย‘ยย’ยŽย‡ยšย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ ยŽย—ย‹อณอถวค ย‡ ยƒยŽย–ยˆย‡ยŽวก ยย—ยŽย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย…ย‘ยย’ย‘ยย‡ยย–ย‡ยŽย‡ย”ย‡ย‰ยฃย•ย‹ยย‡ยšย…ย‡ยŽย‡ยย–ยƒย”ย–ย‹ย…ย—ยŽยƒย–ย‡วกรยย…ย‡ย‡ยƒย…ย‡ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‡รงย–ย‡ย…ย—ยย‘ยƒรงย–ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒ ย”ยƒย’ย‘ย”ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ รงย‹ ยยƒยŒย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡วก รย ยŽย—ย…ย”ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ Antropologia politicii identitare naันionaliste, ย•ย…ย”ย‹ย•ยฃ ย†ย‡ ยย‹ยร ยƒย‰ย›ยƒย”ย‹วฆย‹ยย…ยœย‡อณอทวก ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย‘ยˆย‡ย”ยฃ ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ย‡ ย†ย‡ยยย‡ ย†ย‡ ยŽย—ยƒย”ย‡ ยƒยย‹ยย–ย‡ รย ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยยƒย–ย‹ย…ยƒ ยƒยย–ย”ย‘ย’ย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ยฃ ยƒ ย…ย‘ยย•ย–ย”ย—ย‹ย”ย‹ย‹ ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹วก ยƒ ยย‡ย…ยƒยย‹ย•ยย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย•ย–ย”ย—ย‹ย”ย‡ ยƒ ย”ยƒย’ย‘ย”ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ย‰ย”ย—ย’ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‘ยย‹ยยƒยย–ย‡ รงย‹ ย†ย‘ยย‹ยยƒย–ย‡วกย”ย‘ยŽย—ยŽย’ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย—ยŽรยŽยƒย”ย‡รยย†ย‡ยย‡ย”ย•ย—ยŽย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ย–ยƒย”ย‡ย–ย…วค Bย ย†ย‡ยย‡ย”ย•ย—ยŽ ยย‘ย•ย–ย”ย— ยƒย ย—ย–ย‹ยŽย‹ยœยƒย– ย–ย‡ย”ยย‡ยย—ยŽ ย†ย‡ minoritate naันionalยฃ ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยยƒย‰ยŠย‹ยƒย”ย‹ย‹ ย†ย‹ย ย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยƒยย‹ยƒวก ยƒย˜ยŸยย† รย ย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ย”ย‡ ยŽย‡ย‰ยฃย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ยŽย‘ย” ย…ย— วทย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽวฆย’ยƒย–ย”ย‹ย‡วณ ยย‰ยƒย”ย‹ยƒ รงย‹ ยƒย—ย–ย‘ย’ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย’แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ยŽย‘ย” ย…ยƒ ย‰ย”ย—ย’ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย–ยƒย”วค Bย ย…ย‡ย‡ยƒ ย…ย‡ รย‹ ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‡รงย–ย‡ ย’ย‡ ย‰ย‡ย”ยยƒยย‹ย‹ย–ย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยฃยย‡ยย‹วกย…ย”ย‡ย†ย‡ยย…ยฃย…ย‡ยƒยยƒย‹ย„ย—ยยฃย†ย‡ยˆย‹ยย‹แŒ”ย‹ย‡ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย…ย‡ยƒย†ย‡ minoritate etnicยฃวกย”ยƒย’ย‘ย”ย–ยŸยย†ย—วฆยย‡ยŽยƒย•ย–ย”ย—ย…ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ย‹ยย•ย–ย‹ย–ย—แŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡รงย‹ยย‡ยย–ยƒยŽย‡ย†ย‡ยœย˜ย‘ยŽย–ยƒย–ย‡รยยƒย‹ยย–ย‡ย†ย‡ อณอปอณอบวค ย‡วฆยƒย ย”ย‡ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย– ย…ย— ย’ย”ย‹ย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ ยŽยƒ ย•ยƒรงย‹วก ย—ยย†ย‡ ยƒ ยˆย—ยย…แŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒย– ย…ย‡ยŽ ยยƒย‹ ย„ย‹ยย‡ ย•ย‡ยย•ย—ยŽ

 ย”ย‡ย†ย‡ย��ย‹ยยƒย”ย–ยŠศ‹ย‡ย†วคศŒวกEthnic Groups and Boundaries. The Social Organization Cultural Differenceวก ย‘ยย†ย‘ยวกยŽยŽย‡ยฦฌยย™ย‹ยวกอณอปอธอปวกย’ย’วคอปวฆอตอปวค อณอถย‘ย”ย‡ยŽย„ย”ยƒยŠยƒยวก ยŽย‹ย‡ยฃย†ย‡ย•ย…ย—วกย‡ย’ย–ย‹ยย‹ย—ยŠย‡ยŽย…ย‡ยƒ, Interethnic relations in Romania. Sociological Diagnosis and Evaluation of TendenciesวกยŽย—ยŒวฆยƒย’ย‘ย…ยƒวกย†ย‹ย–วคยƒย”ย’ยƒย–ย‹ย…ยƒวกอณอปอปอทวกย’วคอบวค อณอทยย‹ยรยƒย‰ย›ยƒย”ย‹วฆย‹ยย…ยœย‡วกAntroplogia politicii identitare naันionalisteวกยŽย—ยŒวฆยƒย’ย‘ย…ยƒวกย†ย‹ย–วค ย—ยย†ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‡ย‹ ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย‹ย—ย”ย‘ย’ย‡ยย‡วกอณอปอปอนวค อณอต


Stat, majoritate ฤฝi minoritate naฤฟionalยพ รฎn Romรขnia. 1919-1930

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ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹รยย…ยŠย‡ย‰ยƒย–ย‡วกยˆยฃย”ยฃย…ยƒยƒย…ย‡รงย–ย‹ยƒย•ยฃยƒย•ย’ย‹ย”ย‡ยŽยƒย—ยย•ย–ยƒย–ย—ย–รยย…ยƒย†ย”ย—ยŽย—ยย‡ย‹ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ ย…ย‘ยย•ย‘ยŽย‹ย†ยƒย–ย‡วคย”ย‡ย…ย‹ยœยฃยย–ย‘ย–ย‘ย†ยƒย–ยฃย…ยฃยƒยย…ย‹ย”ย…ย—ยย•ย…ย”ย‹ย•Transilvaniaรยย•ย‡ยย•ย‰ย‡ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ย…รงย‹ ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย…วกยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยƒยย‡ยƒย˜ยŸยย†รยย’ย‡ย”ย‹ย‘ยƒย†ยƒยƒยยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒย–ยฃย’ย‡ย”ย•ย‘ยยƒยŽย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยŒย—ย”ย‹ย†ย‹ย…ยฃรงย‹ยย‡ยˆย‹ย‹ยย†ย—ย ย•ย—ย„ย‹ย‡ย…ย– ย†ย‡ ย†ย”ย‡ย’ย– ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽวค รงยƒย†ยƒย”วก ย”ย‡ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย•วฆยƒย— ยˆยฃย…ย—ย– ย…ย— ย’ย”ย‹ย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ ยŽยƒ ย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยƒยย‹ยƒย’ย”ย‘ย’ย”ย‹ย—วฆยœย‹ย•ยฃวกย–ย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย—ยŽยƒย…ย‘ย’ย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย†ย‡ย˜ย‘ย‹ย‡ย˜ย‘ย†ยƒย–ย—ยŽยย‡ย†ย‹ย‡ย˜ยƒยŽวกยˆยฃย”ยฃยƒยƒย˜ย‡ยƒ ย‹ยย–ย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ยƒ ย†ย‡ ยƒ ยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ยƒ ย‡ยšยŠยƒย—ย•ย–ย‹ย˜ ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยยƒย–ย‹ย…ยƒ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” รย ย’ย”ย‘ย˜ย‹ยย…ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ย…ย—ยย‘ย•ย…ย—ย–ย‡ย•ย—ย„ย†ย‡ยย—ยย‹ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ย†ย‡ยƒยยƒย–วกย”ย‹รงยƒยยƒรงย‹ยƒย”ยƒยย—ย”ย‡รงอณอธวครงยƒย•ย‡ย‡ยšย’ยŽย‹ย…ยฃยˆยƒย’ย–ย—ยŽ ย…ยฃ ยƒย ยƒยŽย‡ย• ย•ย’ย”ย‡ ยƒยยƒยŽย‹ยœยฃ grupul etnic ยƒยŽ ย•ยƒรงย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย–ย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยฃยย‡ยย‹วก ย…ยƒ ย‡ยšย’ย‘ยย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ ยƒย‹ ย‰ย‡ย”ยยƒยย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‹ย ย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยƒยย‹ยƒวก ย’ย—ย–ยŸยย† ย—ย”ยยฃย”ย‹ ยˆย‘ย”ยยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ยŽย‘ย” รยย–ย”วฆย‘ ย’ย‡ย”ย‹ย‘ยƒย†ยฃ ยยƒย‹ รยย†ย‡ยŽย—ยย‰ยƒย–ยฃวก ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย†ย‡ย„ย—ย–ย‡ยƒยœยฃ ย‘ย†ยƒย–ยฃ ย…ย— ย…ย‘ยŽย‘ยย‹ยœยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ยŽย‘ย” รย ย•ย‡ย…ย‘ยŽย‡ยŽย‡ 

วฆ

รงย‹ย•ย‡รยย–ย‹ยย†ย‡ย’ยŸยยฃยŽยƒย’ย”ย‹ยย—ยŽย†ย‡ย…ย‡ยย‹ย—ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย„ย‡ยŽย‹ย…วคย‡ย†ย‡ยƒยŽย–ยฃย’ยƒย”ย–ย‡วกย•ยƒรงย‹ย‹ยƒย— ย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‡ยœย‡ยย–ยƒย– รงย‹ ย…ยƒย–ยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒย–ย‘ย”ย—ยŽ ย•ย–ย”ย—ย…ย–ย—ย”ยฃย”ย‹ย‹ ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ย‰ย‡ย”ยยƒยย‡ ย†ย‹ย ย‘ยยŸยย‹ยƒ ย†ย—ย’ยฃ อณอปอณอบวคBยย…ย‡ย‡ยƒย…ย‡รย‹ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‡รงย–ย‡ย’ย‡ยยƒย‰ยŠย‹ยƒย”ย‹วกย…ยƒยœย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ย’ย”ย‡ยœย‡ยย–ยƒย–ย‡ย‡ยšย…ย‡ย†ย—ยย‡ย‘ย”ย‹ย•ย’ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยŽ ย–ย”ยƒยย•ย‹ยŽย˜ยฃยย‡ยƒยย’ย”ย‘ย’ย”ย‹ย—วฆยœย‹ย•วกย†ยƒย”ยยƒย”ย‹ยŽย‡ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยย‡ย†ย‹ย•ย…ย—ย–ยƒย–ย‡ย•ย‡ย…ย‹ย”ย…ย—ยย•ย…ย”ย‹ย—ย’ย”ย‹ย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย” ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย‹ย’ย”ย‘ย˜ย‹ยย…ย‹ย‹วกย‹ยย†ย‹ยˆย‡ย”ย‡ยย–ย…ยฃย‡ย”ยƒย˜ย‘ย”ย„ยƒย†ย‡ย…ยƒยœย—ยŽวทย‘ย’ย–ยƒยแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วณวกย†ย‡ย…ย‡ยŽยƒยŽวทย—ยย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย”ย‹ย˜ยƒย–ย‡ยƒยŽย‡ย‹ย—ย…ย—ยŽย—ย‹วณวกย†ย‡ย…ย‡ยŽยƒยŽวทรงย…ย‘ยŽย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย…ย‘ยยˆย‡ย•ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡วณย•ยƒย—ย†ย‡ยƒยŽวทย…ย‘ยŽย‘ยย‹รงย–ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วณวค Bยย‡ยŽยƒย„ย‘ย”ยƒย”ย‡ยƒยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย‹ยŽย—ย…ย”ยฃย”ย‹วกย…ยƒย”ย‡ยŽยƒย‘ย”ย‹ย‰ย‹ยย‡ยƒยˆย‘ย•ย–ย‘ย†ย‹ย•ย‡ย”ย–ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‡ย†ย‡ย†ย‘ย…ย–ย‘ย”ยƒย–วกยƒย ยˆย‘ย•ย– ยย‡ย”ย‡ย— รยย…ย—ย”ยƒยŒยƒย– รงย‹ ย•ย—ย•แŒ”ย‹ยย—ย– ย…ย— ยย—ยŽย–ยฃ ย†ยฃย”ย—ย‹ย”ย‡ ย†ย‡ ยƒย•ย‹ยŽย‡ ย‡ย•ย‡วก ย…ยฃย”ย—ย‹ยƒ รย‹ ยย—ยŽแŒ”ย—ยย‹ย รงย‹ ย’ย‡ ยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃ ย…ยƒยŽย‡วค ย†ย‹แŒ”ย‹ยƒ ย†ย‡ ยˆยƒแŒ”ยฃ ยƒย†ย—ย…ย‡ ยย‘ย— ยˆยƒแŒ”ยฃ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‡ยƒ ยƒยย–ย‡ย”ย‹ย‘ยƒย”ยฃ ย‘ ย•ย—ยยฃย†ย‡ย†ย‘ย…ย—ยย‡ยย–ย‡ย‹ยย‡ย†ย‹ย–ย‡ย†ย‹ยยƒย”ยŠย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย‡ย”ย‘ยยŸยย‡รงย–ย‹วกยยฃย”ย–ย—ย”ย‹ย‹ยย‡ยย‹ย–ย‡ยƒย•ย—ย•แŒ”ย‹ยย‡รย ยˆยƒย’ย– ยย—ยŽย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ยƒยˆย‹ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ยœย˜ย‘ยŽย–ยƒย–ย‡ ยƒย‹ย…ย‹วค Bย ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย– ย…ย‘ยย–ย‡ยšย–วก ยƒย ย…ย‘ยย•ย‹ย†ย‡ย”ยƒย– ยƒ ยˆย‹ ย‡ยšย–ย”ย‡ย ย†ย‡ ย—ย–ย‹ยŽ ย•ยฃ ย‹ยย…ยŽย—ย†ย‡ย ย…ยฃย–ย‡ย˜ยƒ ย†ย‘ย…ย—ยย‡ยย–ย‡ ย—ยŽย–ย‡ย”ย‹ย‘ยƒย”ย‡ ยŽย‹ยย‹ย–ย‡ย‹ ย…ย”ย‘ยย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ย‡ ย•ย–ยƒย„ย‹ยŽย‹ย–ยฃรยย–ย‹ย–ยŽย—วกย–ย‘ย…ยยƒย‹ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ยƒย…ย‘ยย•ย–ยƒย–ยƒย’ย”ย‘ย‹ย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ยƒรยย–ย‹ยย’ยƒย…ยฃย–ย‘ย”ย˜ยƒย†ย‹ยย–ย‡ยย‡ยŽย‡รย ย†ย‹ย•ย…ย—แŒ”ย‹ย‡วค ย‘ย–ย‘ย†ยƒย–ยฃวกย‰ย”ยƒย–ย‹ย–ย—ย†ย‹ยย‡ยƒยย‘ยƒย•ย–ย”ยฃย•ย‡รยย†ย”ย‡ยƒย’ย–ยฃรยย‡ย‰ยƒยŽยฃยยฃย•ย—ย”ยฃรงย‹ย•ย’ย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‘ยˆย‡ย•ย‘ย”ย—ยŽ ยƒย•ย‹ยŽย‡ย—รงย…ยƒรงวกย—ยย†ยƒย•ย…ยฃยŽย†ย‡ย•ยฃย˜ยŸย”รงย‹ย–วกย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒรงย–ย‹ย—ย–ย•ยฃย’ย‘ย–ย‡ยแŒ”ย‡ยœย‡ย’ย”ย‡ย‘ย…ย—ย’ยฃย”ย‹รงย‹ย”ย‡ย•ย—ย”ย•ย‡ ย‹ยย–ย‡ยŽย‡ย…ย–ย—ยƒยŽย‡ รยย–ย”วฆย‘ ย†ย‹ย”ย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ย‡ ยยƒย‹ ย’ย—แŒ”ย‹ย ย—ยœย—ยƒยŽยฃ ย†ย‡ย‘ย…ยƒยย†ยƒย–ยฃ ยŽยƒ ยย‘ย‹วก ย…ย‡ยƒ ยƒ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย†ย‹ย•ย…ย‹ย’ยŽย‹ยยƒย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡รงย‹วกรยย’ยƒย”ย–ย‹ย…ย—ยŽยƒย”วกย’ย”ย‹ยย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย‡ย•ย—ยŽยƒย”ยฃย–ยƒย– ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยฃย”ย‹ย‹ยย‹ยย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย†ย‹ยย‘ยยŸยย‹ยƒวคย—รยย—ยŽย–ย‹ยย—ยŽย”ยŸยย†วกย—ยย‰ยŸยย†ย†ย‡ย”ย‡ย…ย—ยย‘รงย–ย‹ยแŒ”ยฃ รยย†ย”ย‡ย’ย–ยฃยย•ย’ย”ย‡ย–ย‘แŒ”ย‹ยƒย…ย‡ย‡ยƒย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย—ยƒย˜ย—ย–ย”ยฃย„ย†ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย†ย‡ยƒย…ย‹ย–ย‹ยŽย—ย…ย”ยƒย”ย‡ยƒรยยยƒยย—ย•ย…ย”ย‹ย•รงย‹ ยย‡วฆยƒย—ย•ย—ย‰ย‡ย”ยƒย–ย‘ย‰ยƒยยฃย†ย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ยฃยƒย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‡วกย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย—ยˆยฃย…ย—ย–ย…ยƒย˜ย‘ยŽย—ยย—ยŽย†ย‡ยˆยƒแŒ”ยฃย•ยฃย…ยƒย’ย‡ย–ย‡ ยƒย”ย–ย‹ย…ย—ยŽยฃย”ย‹ ยยƒย‹ ยŽยƒ ย‘ย„ย‹ย‡ย…ย– รงย‹ ยย—ยƒยแŒ”ยฃย”ย‹ ย‹ยย‡ย”ย‡ยย–ย‡วค fย‹ ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย…ยฃ ย—ยย‡ย‘ย”ย‹ ย‘ย„ย•ย‡ย”ย˜ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ยŽย‘ย” ยย‡วฆยƒย—ยˆย‘ย•ย–ย†ย‡ยยƒย”ย‡ย—ย–ย‹ยŽย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡วกย…ย‘ยย•ย‹ย†ย‡ย”ยฃยย‘ยย‡ย•ย–ยƒวฆย‹ยƒยย‹ยย–ย‹ศ‚ย…ยŠย‹ยƒย”ย†ยƒย…ยฃยย—ย’ย‡ย–ย‘แŒ”ย‹ศ‚วก ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย…ยฃ ยย—ยยƒย‹ ยƒย•ย–ยˆย‡ยŽ ย˜ย‘ย ย’ย—ย–ย‡ยƒ ย•ยฃ ยŽย‡ ยƒย”ยฃย–ยฃย ย’ย”ย‡แŒ”ย—ย‹ย”ย‡ยƒ ยย‘ยƒย•ย–ย”ยฃวฃ ย•ย–ย˜ยžย ย•ย—ย…ย•ย—ย›ยƒวก ยŠย‡ย‘ย”ย‰ยŠย‡ ยƒย…ย‘ย„วก ย‘ย”ย‹ย ย‹ย–ย—วก ยƒยย‹ยŽ ย—ย”ย‡รงยƒยวก ย—ย…ย‹ยƒย ยƒย•ย–ยƒย•ยฃวก ยƒย”ย…ย‡ยŽ fย–ย‹ย”ย„ยƒยวกย‹ย˜ย‹ย—ยฃย’ยŸย”แŒ”ยƒยรงวคยƒวค 

ย•ย‡ย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ยƒรยยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย•ย‡ยย•Transilvania and the Banatวกรยศ—ศ—ศ—ย—ย•ย–ย”ย‹ยƒวฆ ย—ยย‰ยƒย”ย›วกยƒย”ย– วกย‡ยƒย…ย‡ ยƒยย†ย„ย‘ย‘ยย•วก

ย•ย•ย—ย‡ย†ย„ย› ย‹ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย…ยƒยŽย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย‘ยย‘ยˆย–ยŠย‡ ย‘ย”ย‡ย‹ย‰ยยˆยˆย‹ย…ย‡วกย‘ยย†ย‘ยวก วควคย–ยƒย–ย‹ย‘ยย‡ย”ย›ยˆยˆย‹ย…ย‡วกอณอปอดอฒวกย’ย’วคอณวฆอดวค

อณอธ


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