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James Stanyer

COMUNICAREA

POLITICÁ MODERNÁ Politici Mediatice în Vremuri Nesigure

Traducere de

Rareú Nicula

2010


© CA Publishing, 2010, pentru versiunea în limba română © James Stanyer, 2007 Prima ediĠie publicată în 2007 de Polity Press Ltd. Published by arrangements with Polity Press, Great Britain Publicat cu acordul Polity Press, Marea Britanie Coperta: Gyulai Tamás (WDS Center) www.wdscenter.ro Redactor: Mihaela Herbel Index: Ioana Herbel

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii NaĠionale a României STANYER, JAMES Comunicarea politică modernă : politici mediatice în vremuri nesigure / James Stanyer ; trad.: Rareú Nicula. - Cluj Napoca : CA Publishing, 2010 Bibliogr. Index ISBN 978-606-92680-5-6 I. Nicula, Rareú (trad.) 316.77:32.01

Editura CA Publishing www.ca-publishing.ro

ClujͲNapoca,BͲdulEroilornr.34,ap.3




Cuprins  Cuprins...........................................................................................................v PrefaԕĉƔimulԕumiri....................................................................................viii  Introducere:Actori,SistemeƔiOrientĉriSistemice......................................1 Sistemeledemocraticenaԑionaledecomunicarepoliticĉ.........................2 Sistemedecomunicarepoliticĉînadouamodernitate............................5 Relaԑiacomunicatorpolitic–public..........................................................8 StructuracĉrƜii.........................................................................................15  Partea I Excludere, intimitate Ği nevoia de suport popular Capitolul1CampaniileelectoralebazatepedateƔicosturile campaniilorexclusivistedecomunicare.....................................................21 Apariԑiavotantului„oscilant”..................................................................22 CercetareadepiaԑĉƔielectoratul............................................................24 Stabilireaagendeipentrumassmedia.....................................................34 Costurilecrescândealecampanieidecomunicare..................................36 AlegĉtoriiincluƔiƔiceiexcluƔi..................................................................45 Concluzie..................................................................................................49 Capitolul2GuvernareaƔinevoiadepromovareeficientĉa mesajelor....................................................................................................50 Atotcuprinzĉtoareaanalizĉpromoԑionalĉ...............................................51




JAMES STANYER

Aaterizaînpicioare.................................................................................54 NaturaimpredictibilĉaguvernĉriiƔiînrĉutĉԑirearelaԑiilorcu massͲmedia..............................................................................................64 LimitareaƔiocolireaƔtirilor.....................................................................74 Apariԑia„procesuluideacoperire”..........................................................79 PromovareaîndepĉrtĉriidelaputerealuiSaddamHusseinƔi strângereadesuportpentruinvaziadinIrak...........................................80 Concluzie..................................................................................................87 Capitolul3PoliticapersonalizatĉƔieroziuneaprivatului..........................88 Afirmareapoliticianuluirecognoscibil.....................................................89 Politicieniiintimi......................................................................................96 DezvĉluireaƔiexpunereaintimitĉԑii........................................................99 Concluzii.................................................................................................111  Partea II ŀtirile Łi politica mass-mediei de piaŃÂ Capitolul4MediadeƔtiri,audienԑelelorƔimodificarearolurilor organizaԑionale:delainformareacetĉԑenilorlamulԑumirea consumatorilor.........................................................................................117 AudienԑeledeƔtiriîncalitatedecetĉԑeni..............................................118 SfârƔitulvechiiordini.............................................................................123 ReconceptualizarearoluluiƔtirilorînvremurinesigure.........................130 Deservireaalegĉtorului?........................................................................141 Concluzie................................................................................................145 Capitolul5MediaƔiimpulsulpoliticpopulist.........................................147 Populismulpolitic...................................................................................149 MediaƔipopulismulpolitic....................................................................152 Emisiunileradio:voceapoporuluisaucanaleale resentimentului?....................................................................................154 RushLimbaughƔiStrĉinulliberal...........................................................157

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COMUNICAREA POLITIC½ MODERN½

PresabritanicĉƔipopulismulreacԑionar................................................160 Strĉinuleuropean..................................................................................163 Concluzie................................................................................................166  Partea a III-a Angajamentul comunicativ Ği exerciĢiul exprimÂrii politice Capitolul6Pornit,închis?........................................................................171 Uncorpdecetĉԑenimaidiversificatdarmaiinegal..............................172 CetĉԑeanulinteresatƔicelneinteresat..................................................174 Diferenԑedeangajamentcomunicativ..................................................180 Cerculvicios...........................................................................................189 Concluzie................................................................................................190 Capitolul7AfirmareapoliticiiautoͲexpresive.........................................192 OportunitĉԑipentruautoͲexprimare.....................................................193 SpuneͲnececrezi:încurajareaexprimĉriiatitudinii..............................198 Publiculcomunicator?...........................................................................203 VociputerniceƔivocislabe....................................................................208 TineriiƔiexprimareaatitudiniipolitice..................................................210 Concluzie................................................................................................213 Concluzii ComunicareapoliticĉîntrͲoepocĉnesigurĉ,divizatĉƔiinegalĉ...............215 Arĉspundeînfaԑaincertitudinii............................................................215 ExacerbareaexcluziuniiƔidiviziunii.......................................................219 Anexĉderesurse......................................................................................223  Bibliografie................................................................................................228 Note..........................................................................................................261 Index.........................................................................................................267

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PrefağÀ ěi mulğumiri  ”‘˜‘…ƒ”‡ƒ’”‹…‹’ƒŽ£’‡…ƒ”‡…‘—‹…ƒ”‡ƒ’‘Ž‹–‹…£–”‡„—‹‡•£‘Áˆ”—–‡ Á •‡…‘Ž—Ž   ‡•–‡ ƒ…‡‡ƒ †‡ ƒ Áጔ‡Ž‡‰‡ ç‹ ƒ ”£•’—†‡ ’—–‡”‹Ž‘” –”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ–‹˜‡ƒŽ‡‘†‡”‹–£ጔ‹‹ǢÁ–”Ǧƒ†‡˜£”ǡ‘’ƒ”–‡†‹–”‡Ž—…”£”‹Ž‡…‡Ž‡ ƒ‹ ‹–‡”‡•ƒ–‡ ç‹ ’”‘˜‘…ƒ–‘ƒ”‡ †‹ ’—…– †‡ ˜‡†‡”‡ ‹–‡Ž‡…–—ƒŽ Á †‘‡‹— ƒ— †‘…—‡–ƒ– –”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ”‡ƒ ”ƒ’‹†£ ƒ …‘—‹…£”‹‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ Á †‡‘…”ƒጔ‹‹Ž‡ ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ‡ ƒ˜ƒ•ƒ–‡ ȋ˜‡œ‹ǡ †‡ ‡š‡’Ž—ǡ ‡‡– ç‹ –ƒǡ ʹͲͲͳǢ Ž—Ž‡” ç‹ —”‡˜‹–…Šǡ ͳͻͻͷǡ ʹͲͲͲǢ ƒŠŽ‰”‡ ç‹ —”‡˜‹–…Šǡ ʹͲͲͷǢ ƒ…‹‹ ç‹ ™ƒ•‘ǡ ͳͻͻ͸Ǣ ƒœœ‘Ž‡‹ ç‹ …Š—Ž–œǡ ͳͻͻͻǢ ™ƒ•‘ǡ ͳͻͻ͹ǡ ʹͲͲͶȌǤ —Žጔ‹ ƒ—–‘”‹ ƒ— ƒ”£–ƒ– ˆƒ’–—Ž …£ •‹•–‡‡Ž‡ †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£ ƒŽ‡ †‡‘…”ƒጔ‹‹Ž‘” ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ‡ ƒ˜ƒ•ƒ–‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡–‡ƒœ£ •…Š‹„£”‹ •‹‹Žƒ”‡ȋ’‡–”—‘‹–”‘†—…‡”‡‰‡‡”ƒŽ£˜‡œ‹™ƒ•‘ǡʹͲͲͶȌǤ—…–—Ž†‡ ’Ž‡…ƒ”‡ ƒ•‡”–‹˜ ‡•–‡ ƒ…‡Žƒ …£ ˆ‘”ጔ‡Ž‡ ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ‹œƒ–‘ƒ”‡ ƒŽ‡ ‘†‡”‹–£ጔ‹‹ †—… …£–”‡ †‡œ˜‘Ž–£”‹ ƒƒŽ‘ƒ‰‡ Á •‹•–‡‡ †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£ •‡’ƒ”ƒ–‡ Žƒ ‹˜‡Ž ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽǢ Á …‹—†ƒ †‹ˆ‡”‹–‡Ž‘” •–”—…–—”‹ †‡ ”‡‰Ž‡‡–ƒ”‡ ç‹ ƒ †‹ˆ‡”‹–‡Ž‘” Ƿ…‘†—”‹ …—Ž–—”ƒŽ‡dzǡ •‹•–‡‡ †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£ †‹•–‹…–‡ Á’£”–£ç‡•… — —£” †‡ …ƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹•–‹…‹ …‘—‡ǡ Žƒ ˆ‡Ž …— Á’£”–£ç‡•… ’”‘˜‘…£”‹ †‹ …‡ Á …‡ ƒ‹ •‹‹Žƒ”‡ ȋ••‡” ç‹ ˆ‡–•…Šǡ ʹͲͲͶǢ ™ƒ•‘ǡ ʹͲͲͶȌǤ ‡‘…”ƒጔ‹‹Ž‡ ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ‡ ƒ˜ƒ•ƒ–‡ Á …ƒ”‡ •—– Á–‹’£”‹–‡ ƒ…‡•–‡ •‹•–‡‡ †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£ •—– œ‰—†—‹–‡ Žƒ ‹˜‡Ž ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ †‡ ‘ ˜ƒ”‹‡–ƒ–‡ †‡ ˆ‘”ጔ‡ †‡ •‘”‰‹–‡ •‘…‹ƒŽ£ǡ ‡…‘‘‹…£ ç‹ –‡Š‘Ž‘‰‹…£Ǥ …‡•–‡ ˆ‘”ጔ‡ ‰Ž‘„ƒŽ‡ ƒ— †‡œŽ£ጔ—‹–ǡ Žƒ ”Ÿ†—Ž Ž‘”ǡ — Žƒጔ …‘’Ž‡š †‡ ”‡ƒ…ጔ‹‹ ‹–‡”‡ ç‹ …‘–”ƒǦ”‡ƒ…ጔ‹‹Ǥ ‹ˆ‡”‹–‡Ž‡ ‡Ž‡‡–‡ ƒŽ‡ …‡‡ƒ …‡ ‡”ƒ ‘†ƒ–£ — •‹•–‡†‡…‘—‹…ƒ”‡’‘Ž‹–‹…£–”‹’ƒ”–‹–•–ƒ„‹ŽǡÁ†‡‘…”ƒጔ‹‹Ž‡‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ‡ ƒ˜ƒ•ƒ–‡ǡ •‡ –”ƒ•ˆ‘”£ Á œ‹—ƒ †‡ ƒœ‹ Á–”Ǧ‘ •–ƒ”‡ †‡ ˆŽ—š ȋŽ—Ž‡” ç‹

—”‡˜‹–…ŠǡʹͲͲͲȌǤ ‡ç‹ ‡š‹•–£ — …‘•‡• ƒ•—’”ƒ ƒ–—”‹‹ ˆŽ—‹†‡ ƒ •‹•–‡—Ž—‹ †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£ǡ ‡š‹•–£ †‡ ƒ•‡‡‡ƒ — ƒ…‘”† Ž‹‹–ƒ– Á …‡‡ƒ …‡ ’”‹˜‡ç–‡…‘•‡…‹ጔ‡Ž‡’‡…ƒ”‡•…Š‹„ƒ”‡ƒŽ‡ƒ”‡ƒ•—’”ƒ˜‹‡ጔ‹‹†‡‘…”ƒ–‹…‡Ǥ




COMUNICAREA POLITIC½ MODERN½

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JAMES STANYER

”ƒ’‹† Ƿ‡•–‡ ‡˜‘‹‡ •£ ˆ‹ ƒŽ‡”ì‹ …— ’”‹˜‹”‡ Žƒ ’‘–‡ì‹ƒŽ‡Ž‡ †‡ ’”‘‰”‡•dz ȋʹͲͲͶǣ ͳͶȌǤ B–”Ǧƒ†‡˜£”ǡ ƒ…‡ƒ•–£ ƒ„‘”†ƒ”‡ ’‘ƒ–‡ ˆ‹ ˜£œ—–£ Á–”Ǧ‘ •‹–‡œ£ ƒ†—•£ Žƒ Ž—‹£ †‡ ‡‡–– ç‹ –ƒ ȋʹͲͲͳȌǤ B ’”‡ˆƒጔƒ Žƒ Meditated Politics, ‡‹ •—„Ž‹‹ƒœ£ …‡‡ƒ …‡ …‘•‹†‡”£ ƒ ˆ‹ ǷŽƒ”‰‹ –‡•‹—‹dz …— …ƒ”‡ †‡‘…”ƒጔ‹‹Ž‡ƒ–—”‡—”‡ƒœ£ƒ•‡…‘ˆ”—–ƒǤ”‹ƒ‡•–‡Á–”‡†‹˜‡”•‹–ƒ–‡ ç‹ …‘—ǡ Á–”‡ ’—…–‡ †‡ ˜‡†‡”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ ˜ƒ”‹ƒ–‡ ˆ—”‹œƒ–‡ †‡ …ƒƒŽ‡ †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ƒˆŽƒ–‡ Á ‡š’ƒ•‹—‡ ç‹ ˆ”ƒ‰‡–ƒ”‡ƒ ‡š’‡”‹‡ጔ‡‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ Á’£”–£ç‹–‡’‡…ƒ”‡ƒ…‡•–‡’—…–‡†‡˜‡†‡”‡‘ƒ†—…ǤBƒŽ†‘‹Ž‡ƒ”Ÿ†ǡç‹ ’‘ƒ–‡•—„ƒ•’‡…–‘”ƒ–‹˜ǡ‡š‹•–£‘–‡•‹—‡Á–”‡‹ˆ‘”ƒጔ‹ƒ‡…‡•ƒ”£…ƒ …‡–£ጔ‡ƒ—Ž •£ ’ƒ”–‹…‹’‡ ‡ˆ‡…–‹˜ Á ˜‹ƒጔƒ †‡‘…”ƒ–‹…£ ç‹ ‡†‹ƒ ‘”‹‡–ƒ–£ …£–”‡‹ˆ‘•’‡…–ƒ…‘Ž…—ƒ……‡–’‡‘ƒ••‡†‹ƒ–‘–ƒ‹…‘‡”…‹ƒŽ£Ǥ–”‡‹ƒ –‡•‹—‡‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ–£†‡…‡‹†‘‹ƒ—–‘”‹‡•–‡Á–”‡‡˜‘‹ƒ†‡ƒ–”ƒ–ƒ’—„Ž‹…—Ž …ƒ …‡–£ጔ‡ƒǡ ’‡ †‡Ǧ‘ ’ƒ”–‡ǡ ç‹ ’—„Ž‹…—Ž …‘•—ƒ–‘”ǡ ’‡ †‡ ƒŽ–£ ’ƒ”–‡Ǥ ‘ጔ‹—‡ƒ†‡–‡•‹—‡‡•–‡—‘†…‘…”‡–†‡ƒ‡”‡ˆ‡”‹Žƒƒ–—”ƒǡƒ†‡•‡ƒ …‘–”ƒ†‹…–‘”‹‡ǡƒ•…Š‹„£”‹‹Ǥ—’£…—‡”‡ƒ‹–‡•…‡‡––狐–ƒ ‡•–‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ– •£ ‡ …‘…‡–”£ ƒ•—’”ƒ ‘’‘”–—‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘” ’‡ …ƒ”‡ •…Š‹„ƒ”‡ƒŽ‡ƒ†—…‡ǡ——ƒ‹•£‡’”‡‘…—’£†‡…‘•‡…‹ጔ‡Ž‡‡‰ƒ–‹˜‡ ƒŽ‡ ‘†‡”‹–£ጔ‹‹Ǥ ‘‡”…‹ƒŽ‹œƒ”‡ƒ ƒ†—…‡ ’”‘˜‘…£”‹ ˆ‘”‡Ž‘” †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡’‘Ž‹–‹…£…‡ƒ—…ƒጔ‹–£…‡–£ጔ‡ƒ—Žǡ†ƒ”ƒ…‡•–ƒ‡•–‡—ƒ‹—ƒ †‹–”‡ —‡”‘ƒ•‡Ž‡ –‡†‹ì‡ …ƒ”‡ ’”‘„ƒ„‹Ž ‘ˆ‡”£ ‘’‘”–—‹–£ጔ‹ ƒ—‹–‘” …‡–£ጔ‡‹Ǥ ˆ‡”ƒ ’—„Ž‹…£ ’‘ƒ–‡ ˆ‹ ’‡”…‡’—–£ …ƒ ˆ‹‹† ƒ‹ ’”‡†‹•’—•£ ’‘Ž‡‹…‹‹ †‡…Ÿ– Á –”‡…—–Ǣ ‹–‡”‡–—Žǡ †‡ ‡š‡’Ž—ǡ ƒ †‡•…Š‹• ‘’‘”–—‹–£ጔ‹ Žƒ”‰ †‘…—‡–ƒ–‡ Á …‡‡ƒ …‡ ’”‹˜‡ç–‡ •‹–—ƒጔ‹‹ Á …ƒ”‡ǡ Á ƒŽ–‡ …‘†‹ì‹‹ǡ •—•ጔ‹£–‘”‹Ž‘”’‘Ž‹–‹…‹Ž‡Ǧƒ”ˆ‹ˆ‘•–‰”‡—•£•‡†‘…—‡–‡œ‡ç‹•£…‘—‹…‡ ȋ‘Ž‡ƒǡʹͲͲʹƒȌǤƒ”ǡÁƒ…‡Žƒç‹–‹’ǡ‹’Ž‹…ƒ”‡ƒ…‡–£ጔ‡‹Ž‘”Áƒ…–‹˜‹–£ጔ‹ online”£Ÿ‡ƒ†‡•‡ƒ†‘‹ƒ–£†‡…‡‹…ƒ”‡†‹•’—†‡”‡•—”•‡ˆ‹ƒ…‹ƒ”‡ ç‹ Á …‘•‡…‹ጔ£ ƒ— ƒ……‡• ƒ‹ Žƒ”‰ Žƒ –‡Š‘Ž‘‰‹ƒ ‹ˆ‘”ƒጔ‹‡‹ ȋŠƒ†™‹…ǡ ʹͲͲ͸Ǣ ƒ”‡” ç‹ •™ƒŽ†ǡ ʹͲͲͳȌǤ — ƒŽ–‡ …—˜‹–‡ǡ ‡š‹•–£ ‘ —Ž–‹–—†‹‡ †‡ …‘•‡…‹ጔ‡ƒ†‡•‡ƒ…‘–”ƒ†‹…–‘”‹‹Ǥ …‡ƒ•–£…ƒ”–‡ƒˆ‘•–•…”‹•£Á…‘–‡š–—Ž•…Š‹„£”‹Ž‘”’‡–”‡…—–‡Áƒ…‡•– †‘‡‹— ç‹ …ƒ ‘ …‘–”‹„—ጔ‹‡ Žƒ Á…‡”…ƒ”‡ƒ †‡ ƒ Áጔ‡Ž‡‰‡ Á…‘–”‘ •‡ Á†”‡ƒ’–£ •‹•–‡—Ž ‘†‡” †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£Ǥ —…”ƒ”‡ƒ —”£”‡ç–‡ …Ÿ–‡˜ƒÁ…‡”…£”‹”‡…‡–‡•‡‹ˆ‹…ƒ–‹˜‡†‡ƒÁጔ‡Ž‡‰‡–”‡†—”‹Ž‡…‘’Ž‡š‡ ç‹ ƒ†‡•‡ƒ …‘–”ƒ†‹…–‘”‹‹ †‹ †‘‡‹—Ž …‘—‹…£”‹‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ ȋ˜‡œ‹ǡ †‡ ‡š‡’Ž—ǡ‡‡––狐–ƒǡʹͲͲͳǢ Ž—Ž‡”ç‹ —”‡˜‹–…ŠǡʹͲͲͲǢ••‡”ç‹ ˆ‡–•…Šǡ ʹͲͲͶǢ ƒ…‹‹ ç‹ ™ƒ•‘ǡ ͳͻͻ͸Ǣ ƒœœ‘Ž‡‹ ç‹ …Š—Žœǡ ͳͻͻͻǢ ™ƒ•‘ǡ ͳͻͻ͹ǡ ʹͲͲͶȌǤ —…”ƒ”‡ƒ ƒ†‘’–£ ‘ Ƿ’‡”•’‡…–‹˜£ •‹•–‡‹…£dzǡ Ž—Ž‡”ç‹ —”‡˜‹…ŠȋͳͻͻͷǡʹͲͲͲȌˆ‹‹†’‹‘‹‡”‹Áƒ…‡•–†‘‡‹—Ǥ…‡ƒ•–£ ’‡”•’‡…–‹˜£ƒ”‡…Ÿ–‡˜ƒƒ˜ƒ–ƒŒ‡…‘’ƒ”ƒ–‹˜…—˜‹œ‹—‹Ž‡–”ƒ†‹ጔ‹‘ƒŽ‡…ƒ”‡ š


COMUNICAREA POLITIC½ MODERN½

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JAMES STANYER

Bยย…ยฃย†ย‡ยŽยƒรยย…ย‡ย’ย—ย–ยƒยย†ย‘ย”ย‹ย–ย•ยฃยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ย‡ยœย‘ย‡ยšยƒยย‹ยยƒย”ย‡ยยƒย‹ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยยƒย–ย‹ย…ยฃย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ยƒย˜ย—ย–รยย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ย”ย‡ย‡ย˜ย‘ยŽย—แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ย•ย‹ยย‹ยŽยƒย”ย‡ย†ย‹ยย–ย”วฆย—ยยƒยย—ยย‹ย–ยย—ยยฃย”ย†ย‡แŒ”ยฃย”ย‹วกย‡ย˜ย‹ย–ยŸยย† ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‡ยŽยƒรยย–ยŸยย’ยŽยƒย”ย‡ย’ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย—ยย‡ยŽย‡ย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ยƒย†ย‘ย’ย–ยฃวคยยƒย˜ย—ย–รยย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ย”ย‡ ย†ย‘ย—ยฃ ย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย‹ ย†ย‡ ย…ยƒยœวก ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยƒ ยƒย˜ย‡ยƒ ย‘ ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยƒย”ย‡ ยยƒย‹ ย•ยƒย–ย‹ย•ยˆยฃย…ยฃย–ย‘ยƒย”ย‡ รงย‹ ยยƒย‹ ย’ย”ย‘ยˆย—ยย†ยฃยƒย‡ย˜ย‘ยŽย—แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วกย†ย‡ย…ยŸย–ย•ยฃรยย…ย‡ย”ย…ย—ยย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย—ย„ยƒยœยƒย–ย’ย‡ยยƒย‹ยย—ยŽย–ย‡แŒ”ยฃย”ย‹ ศ‹ย˜ย‡ยœย‹ ย‡ย–ย‡ย”ย•วก อณอปอปอบศŒวค ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‡ ยย‹ย–ย‡ ยƒยŽย‡ ยย‡ย”ย‹ย…ย‹ย‹ รงย‹ ย‡ย‰ยƒย–ย—ยŽ ยย‹ย– ยƒยŽ ยƒย”ย‹ย‹ ย”ย‹ย–ยƒยย‹ย‹ ยƒย— ย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‡ยœย‡ยย–ยƒย– ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ ย†ย‘ย—ยฃ ย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย‹ ย†ย‡ ย…ยƒยœวก ย‹ยƒย” ยย‘ย–ย‹ย˜ยƒแŒ”ย‹ยƒ ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยƒยŽย‡ย‰ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒยŽย‘ย”ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ยƒย…ย‡ย‡ยƒย…ยฃย‡ยŽย‡ย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‡ยœย‹ยย–ยฃย†ย‘ย—ยฃย•ย–ยƒย–ย‡ย†ย‡ยย‘ย…ย”ยƒย–ย‹ย…ย‡ยƒย˜ยƒยย•ยƒย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‡วกย…ย—ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย‡ย†ย‡ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃย„ย‹ยย‡ย†ย‡ยœย˜ย‘ยŽย–ยƒย–ย‡รงย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย—ยˆย‘ย•ย– ยยƒย”ย–ย‘ย”ย‡ยŽย‡ ย—ยย‘ย” ย–ย”ย‡ยย†ย—ย”ย‹ ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย‹ย…ย‡ ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘วฆย‡ย…ย‘ยย‘ยย‹ย…ย‡ รงย‹ ย–ย‡ยŠยย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ย‡ ย•ย‹ยย‹ยŽยƒย”ย‡วคย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃยƒยŽย‡ย‰ย‡ย”ย‡ย”ย‡ยˆยŽย‡ย…ย–ยฃวกย†ย‡ยƒย•ย‡ยย‡ยย‡ยƒวกย’ย”ย‘ย’ย”ย‹ยƒยย‡ยƒย…ย—ยย‘ยƒรงย–ย‡ย”ย‡ รงย‹ ย’ย”ย‘ย’ย”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ยย‡ยŽย‡ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย‡ย•ย‡ รจย‹วก ย…ยƒ ย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย— ย…ย— ย—ย ย•ย‹ยย‰ย—ย” ยƒย—ย–ย‘ย”วก ย”ย‡ยƒยŽย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย’ย”ยƒย…ย–ย‹ย…ย‡ยƒยŽย‡ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยฃย”ย‹ย‹ศ‚รยยƒยย„ย‡ยŽย‡แŒ”ยฃย”ย‹ย‡ยšย‹ย•ย–ยฃย‘ยƒย„ย—ยย†ย‡ยแŒ”ยฃย†ย‡ย†ยƒย–ย‡ย—รงย‘ย”ย†ย‡ ยƒย…ย…ย‡ย•ยƒย–วค ย”ย‡ย„ย—ย‹ย‡ ยย‘ย–ยƒย–วก ย†ย‡ ยƒย•ย‡ยย‡ยย‡ยƒวก ย…ยฃ ยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃ ยŽย—ย…ย”ยƒย”ย‡ ยย— ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย—ย ย‡ยšย‡ย”ย…ย‹แŒ”ย‹ย—ย…ย‘ยย’ยƒย”ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ย‡ยšย…ย‡ย•ย‹ย˜ย†ย‡ยˆย‘ย”ยยƒยŽศ‹ย‡ย–ย‡ย”ย•วกอณอปอปอบศŒวคย—ย…ย”ย‡ย†ย…ยƒย‘ยƒย•ย–ยˆย‡ยŽ ย†ย‡ยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย”���‡ย•ย–ย”ย‹ย…ย–ยฃย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย’ย‘ย–ย”ย‹ย˜ย‹ย–ยฃย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ย—ยย–ย‡ยšย–ย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย”ย‡รยย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒย–ยŸย– ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ย—ยŽยŽยƒย”ย‰วกย…ยŸย–รงย‹ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ย—ยŽย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒย–วค ยƒย–ย‡ย”ย‹ยƒยŽย—ยŽ ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃ ย…ยƒย”ย–ย‡ ย’ย”ย‘ย˜ย‹ยย‡ ย†ย‹ยย–ย”วฆย‘ ย˜ยƒย”ย‹ย‡ย–ยƒย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย•ย—ย”ย•ย‡ ย‘ยยŽย‹ยย‡วก ย’ย”ย‹ยยƒย”ย‡ รงย‹ ย•ย‡ย…ย—ยย†ยƒย”ย‡วก ย‹ยย…ยŽย—ยœยŸยย† ย†ยƒย–ย‡ ยˆย—ย”ยย‹ยœยƒย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ ยƒย‰ย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ย‰ย—ย˜ย‡ย”ยยƒยย‡ยย–ยƒยŽย‡วก ย…ย‡ยย–ย”ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยƒย”ย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ยƒย–ย‡วก ยƒย”ย–ย‹ย…ย‘ยŽย‡ ย†ย‹ย ย’ย”ย‡ย•ยฃ รงย‹ ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยฃย”ย‹ ยย‘ยย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ย…ย‡วข ย™ย‡ย„ย•ย‹ย–ย‡วฆย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย…ย‡ยย–ย”ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‡ ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยƒย”ย‡ รงย‹ ยƒยŽย‡ ยƒย‰ย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย‰ย—ย˜ย‡ย”ยยƒยย‡ยย–ยƒยŽย‡ย•วฆยƒย—ย†ย‘ย˜ย‡ย†ย‹ย–ยƒยˆย‹ย‘ย•ย—ย”ย•ยฃย†ย‡ย‹ยยˆย‘ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ย‡ยšย–ย”ย‡ย ย†ย‡ ย˜ยƒยŽย‘ย”ย‘ยƒย•ยฃ ยยƒย‹ ยƒยŽย‡ย• รย ย…ย‡ย‡ยƒ ย…ย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‡รงย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ย’ย”ย‹ยย†ย‡ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ ยƒ ย—ย”ยยฃย”ย‹ ย‹ยยˆย‘ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ยˆย—ย”ยย‹ยœยƒย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒ รงย‹ ย…ย‘ยย’ย‘ย”ย–ยƒยย‡ยย–ย—ยŽ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย… ยƒยŽ ย…ย‡ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‡ยย‹ยŽย‘ย” ศ‹ย˜ย‡ยœย‹ ยย‡ยšยƒ ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยยƒย‹ ยย—ยŽย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ย–ยƒยŽย‹ย‹ศŒอณวค Bยย•ยฃวก ย†ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ย—ยŽย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย…ย‘ยย’ยƒย”ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ย‡ ย•ย—ยย– ย„ย‹ยย‡ ย†ย‘ย…ย—ยย‡ยย–ยƒย–ย‡ ศ‹ย˜ย‡ยœย‹ ยŽย—ยยŽย‡ย” ย‡ย– ยƒยŽวควกอณอปอปอดวข ย•ย•ย‡ย” รงย‹ ย•ยˆย‡ย–ย…ยŠวก อดอฒอฒอถวข ย‹ย˜ย‹ยย‰ย•ย–ย‘ยย‡วก อดอฒอฒอตวข ย‡ย–ย‡ย”ย•วก อณอปอปอบวข ย™ยƒยย•ย‘ยวก อณอปอปอดศŒ รงย‹ ย…ย‘ยย’ยƒย”ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡รยย–ย”ย‡ย†ย‹ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‡ย•ย—ย”ย•ย‡ย†ย‡ย†ยƒย–ย‡ย•ย‡ย’ย‘ย–ย†ย‘ย˜ย‡ย†ย‹ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยยƒย–ย‹ย…ย‡วกยยƒย‹ ยƒยŽย‡ย• รย ย…ยƒยœย—ยŽ ย†ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ยƒย†ย—ยยƒย–ย‡ ย•ย‡ย’ยƒย”ยƒย– รย ย†ย‹ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‡ แŒ”ยฃย”ย‹วก ยƒย†ย‡ย•ย‡ยƒ รย ย†ย‹ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย–ย‡ยšย–ย‡วคย—ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย‘ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยยฃย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยฃยย—ยยƒย‹ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย—วคย‘ยƒย–ย‡ ย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย—รยย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ย”ย‡ยยƒย‹ยย—ยŽย–ย‡แŒ”ยฃย”ย‹ย•ย‡ยŽย‘ย˜ย‡ย•ย…ย†ย‡ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยย‡ย•ย‹ยย‹ยŽยƒย”ย‡ ย†ยƒย…ยฃ ยย— ยˆย‘ยŽย‘ย•ย‡ย•ย… ย†ยƒย–ย‡ ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยƒยŽ ยƒย†ย—ยยƒย–ย‡ รย ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย– ย•ย‡ยย• ศ‹ย‹ย˜ย‹ยย‰ย•ย–ย‘ยย‡วก อดอฒอฒอตวข ย‘ย”ย”ย‹ย•วกอดอฒอฒอฒศŒวค ยย–ย‡ย”ย‡ย•ย—ยŽยย‡ย—รยยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃยŽย—ย…ย”ยƒย”ย‡ยƒยˆยฃย…ย—ย–ยย‡ย…ย‡ย•ยƒย”ยฃยˆย‘ยŽย‘ย•ย‹ย”ย‡ยƒ ย—ยย‡ย‹ ย˜ยƒย”ย‹ย‡ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ ย†ย‡ ย•ย—ย”ย•ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย†ยƒย–ย‡วค ย‡ ย‡ยšย‡ยย’ยŽย—วก ย†ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‹ยย† ย˜ย‹ยœย‹ย‘ยยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย’ย”ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยย‡ยŽย‘ย”ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‡รยยˆย—ยย…แŒ”ย‹ย‡ย†ย‡ยย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย—ยŽย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘วฆย‡ย…ย‘ยย‘ยย‹ย…รยยƒยย„ย‡ยŽย‡แŒ”ยฃย”ย‹ ย•ย—ยย–ย…ย‘ยŽย‡ย…ย–ยƒย–ย‡ย‹ยย†ย‡ย’ย‡ยย†ย‡ยย–รงย‹วกย†ยƒย…ยฃยˆย‘ยŽย‘ย•ย‹ย”ย‡ยƒยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย–ย‡ยย—ยƒย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยƒย„ย‹ยŽ ย”ย‹ย‰ย‘ยƒย”ย‡ยƒรงย–ย‹ย‹ยแŒ”ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยฃย’ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย—ยย‹ย‹ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยฃย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‘ย—ย”ยยฃย”ย‡ย•ย…วกย‡ยŽย‡ย•ย‡ย”ย˜ย‡ย•ย…ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยƒยย‡ย’ย‘ยœย‹แŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒย†ย‹ยย…ย‘ยŽย‘ย†ย‡ย’ย”ย‹ยยƒย‹ยย’ย”ย‡ย•ย‹ย‡รงย‹ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ยƒย’ย”ย‘ย†ย—ย…ย‡ย‘ย‹ยยƒย‰ย‹ยย‡ ยยƒย‹ย‹ยยˆย‘ย”ยยƒย–ยฃยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒย˜ย‹ยœย‹ย‘ยยฃย”ย‹ย‹ย’ย”ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยย‡ยŽย‘ย”ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‡วค ยšย‹ย‹


COMUNICAREA POLITICยฝ MODERNยฝ

ย‡ย•ย…ย—ย”ย–วกย…ยƒย”ย–ย‡ยƒย…ยƒย—ย–ยฃย•ยฃย‡ยšย’ยŽย‘ย”ย‡ยœย‡ย—ยย‡ยŽย‡ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ย‡ย˜ย‘ยŽย—แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ย•ย‹ยย‹ยŽยƒย”ย‡ย†ย‹ย ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย‡ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃ ย†ย‹ย ย…ย‡ยŽย‡ ย†ย‘ย—ยฃ ย†ย‡ยย‘ย…ย”ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ ยยƒย–ย—ย”ย‡ ย•ยƒย— ยƒย˜ยƒยย•ยƒย–ย‡ ย‹ยย†ย—ย•ย–ย”ย‹ยƒยŽวค ย…ย‘ย’ย—ยŽ ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย•ยฃ ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ย‡ รงย‹ ย•ยฃ ย…ยƒย”ย–ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ย‡ยœย‡ ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยย‡ยŽย‡ รงย‹ ย•ย—ย„ย‹ย‡ย…ย–ย‡ยŽย‡ ยย‘ย— ยƒย’ยฃย”ย—ย–ย‡ รงย‹ ย•ยฃ ยŽยฃยย—ย”ย‡ยƒย•ย…ยฃ ย…ย‡ รยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ย• ยƒย— ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ยƒ ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃ ย†ย‡ยย‘ย…ย”ยƒย–ย‹ย…ยฃ ย†ย‹ย ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย†ย‘ย—ยฃ แŒ”ยฃย”ย‹วค ย”ย‡ย„ย—ย‹ย‡ย•ย’ย—ย•ย…ยฃยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃยŽย—ย…ย”ยƒย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‡ย•ย—ย’ย—ยย‡ย—ยยƒยย—ยย‹ย–ยย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย†ย‡ย…ย—ยย‘ยƒรงย–ย‡ย”ย‡ ย†ย‡ย•ย’ย”ย‡ยƒยย„ย‡ยŽย‡แŒ”ยฃย”ย‹วค ย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃย…ยƒย”ย–ย‡ยย—ยƒย”ยˆย‹ยˆย‘ย•ย–ย’ย‘ย•ย‹ย„ย‹ยŽยฃยˆยฃย”ยฃยƒยŒย—ย–ย‘ย”ย—ยŽยƒยย—ยย‡ย”ย‘รงย‹ย‘ยƒยย‡ยย‹รงย‹ ย‹ยย•ย–ย‹ย–ย—แŒ”ย‹ย‹วครงย†ย‘ย”ย‹ย•ยฃยย—ยŽแŒ”ย—ยย‡ย•ย…ยย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ย†ย‹ยย‡ย‹ย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย”ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ย…ยฃยย‹วฆยƒ ย’ย‡ย”ยย‹ย•ย•ยฃยƒย„ย•ย‡ยย–ย‡ยœ ย—ยย•ย‡ยย‡ย•ย–ย”ย—ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ยƒย‹ยย‹แŒ”ย‹ยƒยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย’ย”ย‘ย‹ย‡ย…ย– รย อดอฒอฒอถรงย‹ ย‡ย’ยƒย”ย–ยƒยย‡ยย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹ย†ย‡fย–ย‹ย‹ยแŒ”ย‡ย‘ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‡ยƒยŽยย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ย‹ย‘ย—ย‰ยŠย„ย‘ย”ย‘ย—ย‰ยŠย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย…ยฃยย‹วฆยƒย†ยƒย–ย”ยฃย‰ยƒยœย•ยฃย‘ย–ย‡ย”ยย‹ยวครงย˜ย”ย‡ยƒย†ย‡ยƒย•ย‡ยย‡ยย‡ยƒย•ยฃยย—ยŽแŒ”ย—ยย‡ย•ย…ยšยˆย‘ย”ย† ยย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ย‹ย–ย› ย”ย‡ย•ย• รงย‹ ยŽย—ย‹ ยƒย›ยŽย‘ย” ฦฌ ย”ยƒยย…ย‹ย• ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย…ยฃ ยย‹วฆยƒย— ย’ย‡ย”ยย‹ย• ย•ยฃ ย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‘ย†ย—ย…ย’ยฃย”แŒ”ย‹ย†ย‹ยยŽย—ย…ย”ยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‡ยย‡ยŽย‡ย†ย‡ยŒยƒย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ยƒย–ย‡ย†ย‡ย‡ย‹วคย—ยŽแŒ”ย—ยย‹ย”ย‹ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‡ ย•ย‡รยย†ย”ย‡ยƒย’ย–ยฃย…ยฃย–ย”ย‡ ย‘ยŠยวคยŠย‘ยย’ย•ย‘ยวกยˆยฃย”ยฃย†ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย’ย”ย‘ย‹ย‡ย…ย–ย—ยŽยย—ยƒย”ยˆย‹ยˆย‘ย•ย– ย’ย‘ย•ย‹ย„ย‹ยŽวก ย‡ย…ยŠย‹ย’ย‡ย‹ ย†ย‡ ยŽยƒ ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย›วก รย ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยƒยŽ ย…ยฃย–ย”ย‡ ยย†ย”ย‡ยƒ ย”ย—ย‰ยƒยวก ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย”ยฃย„ย†ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ รงย‹ รยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ย‰ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒ ย•ยƒวก รงย‹ ยŽย—ย‹ ยƒย”ยƒยŠ ยƒยย…ย›วค ย• ย†ย‘ย”ย‹ ย•ยฃ ยย—ยŽแŒ”ย—ยย‡ย•ย… ย–ย—ย–ย—ย”ย‘ย”ยย‡ยย„ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ยŽย—ย„ย—ยŽย—ย‹ย—ย”ย”ย›วกย…ย‘ยŽย‡ย‰ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย†ย‹ยย‡ย’ยƒย”ย–ยƒยย‡ยย–ย—ยŽย†ย‡fย–ย‹ย‹ยแŒ”ย‡ ย‘ย…ย‹ยƒยŽย‡วก ยˆย‘รงย–ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย…ย‘ยŽย‡ย‰ย‹ ย†ย‡ ยŽยƒ ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ยŽ ย†ย‡ ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยƒย”ย‡ ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ รย ยƒย•ยฃวกย–ย—ย–ย—ย”ย‘ย”ยƒย…ย‡ยŽย‘ย”ยƒย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย—ย’ยƒย”ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย’ยƒย–รงย‹ยƒย—ยˆยฃย…ย—ย–ย…ย‘ยย‡ยย–ยƒย”ย‹ย‹รยย†ย‹ย˜ย‡ย”ย•ย‡ ย•ย‡ยย‹ยยƒย”ย‹ย‹ รงย‹ ย…ย‘ยยˆย‡ย”ย‹ยแŒ”ย‡ ย—ยย†ย‡ ย†ย‹ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‡ ย…ยƒย’ย‹ย–ย‘ยŽย‡ ย†ย‹ย ยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃ ย…ยƒย”ย–ย‡ ยƒย— ยˆย‘ย•ย– ย’ย”ย‡ยœย‡ยย–ยƒย–ย‡วก ย’ย”ย‡ย…ย—ย รงย‹ ย…ย”ย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ยƒยย‘ยย‹ยย‹ ยƒย‹ ยยƒยย—ย•ย…ย”ย‹ย•ย—ยŽย—ย‹วค ย—ยย– ย†ย‡ ยƒย•ย‡ยย‡ยย‡ยƒ ยย‡ย”ยฃย„ย†ยฃย–ย‘ย” ย•ยฃ ยŽย‡ ยย—ยŽแŒ”ย—ยย‡ย•ย… ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย‘ยยƒยŽ ยŽย—ย‹ ยย†ย”ย‡ย™ ยŠยƒย†ย™ย‹ย…ยวก ย‘ยŠยย‘ย”ยย‡ย”วกย‹ยย‘ยย”ย‘ย•ย•วกยƒย˜ย‹ย†ย‡ยƒย…ย‘ยวกย‘ย‰ย‡ย”ย‹ย…ยย‹ยย•ย‘ยวก ย‘ยŠยย‘ย™ยย‡ย›วก ยƒย–ย”ย‹ย…ยย—ยยŽย‡ยƒย˜ย›วกย‘ย„ ย”ยƒยยยŽย‹ยวกย‡ย–ย‡ย” ย‘ยŽย†ย‹ยย‰วกย‹ย…ยŠยƒย”ย† ย‡ยˆยˆย‡ย”ยยƒยวกยŽย‹ย˜ย‡ย” ยƒยย‡ย•วก ยƒย›ยย‘ยย† ย—ยŠยวก ย‹ย ย… ย—ย‹ย‰ยƒยวก ยƒย„ย‹ยยƒ ย‹ยŠย‡ยŽยŒวก ย”ยƒยŠยƒย ย—ย”ย†ย‘ย…ยวก ยƒยŽย’ยŠ ย‡ย‰ย”ย‹ยย‡วก ย‡ยย”ย‹ย Yย”ยย‡ย„ย”ย‹ยย‰วก ย‡ยƒย–ยŠย‡ย” ย™ย‡ยวก ย‹ยย‡ ย‹ย…ยย‡ย”ย‹ยย‰วก ย‘ยŠย ย‹ย…ยŠยƒย”ย†ย•ย‘ยวกย‘ยย‹ยย‹ย…ย”ย‹ยย‰รงย‹ ย‹ยŽยŽย‹ยƒยย‘ย—ยย‰ย•ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ย…ย‘ยย‡ยย–ยƒย”ย‹ย‹วกยƒยŒย—ย–ย‘ย”รงย‹ รยย…ย—ย”ยƒยŒยƒย”ย‡วค ย‘ย– ยƒย‹ย…ย‹ ย–ย”ย‡ย„ย—ย‹ย‡ ย•ยฃ ยย—ยŽแŒ”ย—ยย‡ย•ย… รย ยย‘ย† ย†ย‡ย‘ย•ย‡ย„ย‹ย– ยŽย—ย‹ ย‘ยŠย ย‘ย‰ย†ย‡ยวก ย‡ย–���‡ย” รงย‹ ย‹ ย–ยƒย›ยย‡ย” รงย‹ รย ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยƒยŽ ยŽย—ย‹ ยŽย‡ย—ย”วก ย…ยฃย”ย‡ย‹ยƒ รย‹ ย†ยƒย–ย‘ย”ย‡ยœ ย”ย‡ย…ย—ยย‘รงย–ย‹ยแŒ”ยƒ ยย‡ยƒ ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย•ย’ย”ย‹ยŒย‹ยย—ยŽ ย‡ย‹ ย…ย‘ยย•ย–ยƒยย– ย†ย‡วฆยƒ ยŽย—ยย‰ย—ยŽ ย–ย‹ยย’ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย’ย‡ย–ย”ย‡ย…ย—ย–ย•ย…ย”ย‹ย‹ยย†ยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃย…ยƒย”ย–ย‡วคย‘ยƒย–ย‡ย‡ย”ย‘ย”ย‹ยŽย‡วกย†ย‡ย•ย‹ย‰ย—ย”วกรยย‹ยƒย’ยƒย”แŒ”ย‹ยวค 

ยšย‹ย‹ย‹


Introducere: Actori, Sisteme ěi OrientÀri Sistemice  ‹•–‡‡Ž‡†‡…‘—‹…ƒ”‡’‘Ž‹–‹…£†‹ጔ£”‹Ž‡…—†‡‘…”ƒì‹‹”‡’”‡œ‡–ƒ–‹˜‡ •—–Á…‘–‹—£†‡œ˜‘Ž–ƒ”‡ǡ†ƒ”‡š‹•–£‹’”‡•‹ƒ…£ǡÁ—Ž–‹‹‹ƒ’”‘š‹ƒ–‹˜ ʹͲ †‡ ƒ‹ǡ —Ž–‡ ƒ— •—ˆ‡”‹– •…Š‹„£”‹ ˆ—†ƒ‡–ƒŽ‡ǡ Ƿ‘ †‡’Žƒ•ƒ”‡ ’ƒ”ƒ†‹‰ƒ–‹…£dz Ȃ †—’£ …— ƒ— ˆ‘•– ‡–‹…Š‡–ƒ–‡ ȋŽ—Ž‡” ç‹ —”‡˜‹–…Šǡ ʹͲͲͲǢƒŠŽ‰”‡ǡʹͲͲͶȌǤ‡•…—”–ǡ’”‘…‡•—Ž‰Ž‘„ƒŽ†‡‘†‡”‹œƒ”‡†‡•…”‹• ƒ†‡•‡‘”‹ †‡ •‘…‹‘Ž‘‰‹ ȋ˜‡œ‹ ‡…ǡ ʹͲͲʹǢ ƒ•–‡ŽŽ•ǡ ʹͲͲͶǢ ‹††‡•ǡ ͳͻͻͳǡ ͳͻͻͻȌƒƒ˜—–‹’ƒ…–ƒ•—’”ƒˆ‹‡…£”‡‹…‘’‘‡–‡†‹•‹•–‡—Žƒጔ‹‘ƒŽ†‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£ǡ †‡…ŽƒçŸ† Á…£ †‡ Žƒ Á…‡’—– ‘ •‡”‹‡ †‡ ”‡ƒ…ጔ‹‹ ç‹ …‘–”ƒǦ”‡ƒ…ጔ‹‹Ǥ…‡•–‡•‹•–‡‡…ƒ”‡ƒ—…ƒ”ƒ…–‡”‹œƒ–…‡ƒƒ‹ƒ”‡’ƒ”–‡ ƒ •‡…‘Ž—Ž—‹ǡ‘†ƒ–£•–ƒ„‹Ž‡Žƒ‹˜‡Žƒጔ‹‘ƒŽǡ•‡–”ƒ•ˆ‘”£†‹…‡Á…‡ƒ‹ —Ž–Á•‹•–‡‡…ƒ”‡ƒ—ˆ‘•–†‡•…”‹•‡ˆ”‡…˜‡–…ƒˆ‹‹†Ƿ–—”„—Ž‡–‡ǡ’—ጔ‹ ’”‡†‹…–‹„‹Ž‡ǡ ’—ጔ‹ •–”—…–—”ƒ–‡dz ȋŽ—Ž‡” ç‹ ƒ˜ƒƒ‰Šǡ ͳͻͻͻǣʹͳͳȌ ç‹ ǷŠƒ‘–‹…‡dz ȋ…ƒ‹”ǡ ʹͲͲ͵ǣͷͷʹȌǤ ‡Žƒጔ‹‹Ž‡ †‹–”‡ ‡„”‹‹ …‘”’—Ž—‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…ǡ ’”‘ˆ‡•‹‘‹ç–‹‹†‹ƒ••‡†‹ƒç‹ƒ—†‹‡ጔƒŽ‘”•Ǧƒ—–”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ–ǡÁˆ—…ጔ‹‡ †‡ ˆ‡Ž—Ž Á …ƒ”‡ ‹•–‹–—ጔ‹‹Ž‡ ç‹ ƒ…–‘”‹‹ ƒ— …£—–ƒ– •£ •‡ ƒ†ƒ’–‡œ‡ Žƒ ‘‹Ž‡ ”‡ƒŽ‹–£ጔ‹ †‹ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ƒ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£Ǣ ƒ…‡•–‡ ƒŒ—•–£”‹ ƒ— ƒ˜—– Žƒ ”Ÿ†—Ž Ž‘” ‹’Ž‹…ƒጔ‹‹’‡–”—„——Ž‡”•ƒŽ†‡‘…”ƒጔ‹‡‹Ǥ ƒ”–‡ƒ•‡…‘…‡–”‡ƒœ£’‡‹’ƒ…–—Ž’‡…ƒ”‡•…Š‹„ƒ”‡ƒÁŽƒ”‡ƒ•—’”ƒ •‘…‹‡–£ጔ‹‹ǡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‹‹ǡ ‡…‘‘‹‡‹ ç‹ –‡Š‘Ž‘‰‹‡‹ †‹ •‹•–‡—Ž †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£ƒŽ–ƒ–‡Ž‘”‹–‡ç‹ƒŽ‡‰ƒ–—Ž—‹‹–Ǥƒ‡šƒ‹‡ƒœ£‘†—ŽÁ…ƒ”‡ ‡„”‹‹…‘”’—Ž—‹’‘Ž‹–‹…ȋ…ƒ†‹†ƒጔ‹ǡ’ƒ”–‹†‡ç‹‰—˜‡”‡Ȍǡ‘”‰ƒ‹œƒጔ‹‹ƒ•• ‡†‹ƒç‹’—„Ž‹…—ŽŽƒ”‰•‡ƒ†ƒ’–‡ƒœ£Žƒƒ…‡•–‡•…Š‹„£”‹†‹•‹•–‡‡Ž‡†‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£Ǥ B ‘† •’‡…‹ƒŽǡ …ƒ”–‡ƒ —”£”‡ç–‡ ”‡Žƒጔ‹ƒ Á †‡œ˜‘Ž–ƒ”‡ †‹–”‡ …‘—‹…ƒ–‘”‹‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‹ ç‹ ’—„Ž‹…—Ž Ž‘” ç‹ •…Š‹„ƒ”‡ƒ ƒ–‹–—†‹‹‹ …‡–£ጔ‡‹Ž‘” Á ”‡Žƒጔ‹‡ …— ’”‘†—…ጔ‹‹Ž‡ …‘—‹…ƒ–‘”‹Ž‘” ’‘Ž‹–‹…‹ ç‹ …— †‘”‹ጔƒ Ž‘” †‡ ƒ •‡ ƒ‰ƒŒƒ ’‘Ž‹–‹…Ǥ ‹‡Áጔ‡Ž‡•ǡ …ƒ”–‡ƒ ‡•–‡ ƒ–‡–£ Žƒ …‘•‡…‹ጔ‡Ž‡ ƒ…‡•–‘” •…Š‹„£”‹ ƒ•—’”ƒ Ƿ•££–£ጔ‹‹dz †‡‘…”ƒጔ‹‡‹ ȋ˜‡œ‹ 


JAMES STANYER

ยƒย…ย‘ย„ย• รงย‹ ยย‘ย…ย’ย‘ยŽวก อดอฒอฒอธศŒวค ย…ย‘ย’ย—ยŽ ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย‹ ย‹ยย–ย”ย‘ย†ย—ย…ย‡ย”ย‹ ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ ยƒ ย…ย‘ยย–ย‡ยšย–ย—ยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒ ยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ยƒย†ย‘ย’ย–ยƒย–ยฃวก ย‹ยย–ย”ย‘ย†ย—ย…ยŸยย† ย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย’ย–ย‡ยŽย‡ ย…ยŠย‡ย‹ย‡ รงย‹ ย•ย…ยŠย‹แŒ”ยŸยย† ย—ยย‡ยŽย‡ ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ยˆย‘ย”แŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ ย‡ยšย–ย‡ย”ยย‡ ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ยƒย— ย‹ยย’ยƒย…ย– ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒ ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย‡ยŽย‘ย”วก รยยƒย‹ยย–ย‡ย†ย‡ยƒย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยƒย•ย…ยŠย‹ยย„ยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‡ย…ยŠย‡ย‹ย‡รงย‹ย…ย‘ยย•ย‡ย…ย‹ยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‡ยŽย‘ย”วค 

Sistemele democratice naฤขionale de comunicare politicร‚  Bยยƒย‹ยย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ ยƒ ย‡ยšยƒยย‹ยยƒ รย ย†ย‡ย–ยƒยŽย‹ย— ย•ย…ยŠย‹ยย„ยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย•ย—ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‹ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹รงย‹ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ย—ยŽยŽย‘ย”วกย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย‹ยย’ย‘ย”ย–ยƒยย–ย•ยฃยƒย”ย—ยย…ยฃยย‘ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‹ย”ย‡ ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒย…ย‘ยย–ย‡ยšย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹ย•ย–ย”ย—ย…ย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽวคย‡ย‹ยˆยƒยย‹ยŽย‹ยƒย”ย‹ยœยƒรฌย‹ย…ย—ย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย’ย–ย—ยŽย†ย‡วทย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃวณ ย†ย‡ยœย˜ย‘ยŽย–ยƒย– ย†ย‡ ยŽย—ยยŽย‡ย” รงย‹ ย—ย”ย‡ย˜ย‹ย–ย…ยŠ ย’ย‘ย– ย•ยฃ ย–ย”ย‡ยƒย…ยฃ ยŽยƒ ย‡ย–ยƒย’ยƒย—ย”ยยฃย–ย‘ยƒย”ย‡วค Bย ย…ย‹ย—ย†ยƒ ย…ย‘ยย‘ย–ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ยˆย—ยย…แŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‹ย•ย–ย‡วก ยย‘แŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‡ยƒ ย†ย‡ วทย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ย ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃวณ ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย—ย ยย‡ย…ยƒยย‹ย•ย ย’ย”ยƒย…ย–ย‹ย… ยˆย‘ยŽย‘ย•ย‹ย–ย‘ย” ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยƒ ย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย’ย–ย—ยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒย†ย‹ยˆย‡ย”ย‹ย–ย‡ยŽย‡ย‹ยย•ย–ย‹ย–ย—แŒ”ย‹ย‹รงย‹ยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ยƒยย‰ยƒยŒยƒแŒ”ย‹รยย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃ รงย‹ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ยƒย…ย‡รงย–ย‹ยƒวคย…ย‡ย•ย–ย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย’ย–ยย‡ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย—ย–ย‹ยŽวกย†ย—ย’ยฃย…ย—ยย•ย—ย‰ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒยœยฃ ยƒย—ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‹ยย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ยยƒย‹ย•ย—ย•วกย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ย…ยฃยƒย†ย—ย…ย‡ยŽยƒยŽย—ยย‹ยยฃวทย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย†ย‡ย’ย‡ยย†ย‡ยแŒ”ยƒวณ ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย‹ยย•ย–ย‹ย–ย—แŒ”ย‹ย‹วก วทยยƒย–ย—ย”ยƒ ย”ย‡ย…ย‹ย’ย”ย‘ย…ยฃ ยƒ ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ย‡ยŽย‡ รงย‹ ย…ย— ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ย—ยŽวณรงย‹ย‡ยšย’ย—ยย‡วทยย‘ย”ยย‡ย†ย‡ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡วกย”ย‘ยŽย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡วกย•ย–ย‹ยŽย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡วกยˆย‘ย”ยยƒย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡วก ย–ย”ยƒย†ย‹แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡รงย‹ย’ย”ยƒย…ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ยŽย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย–ย‹ยย†ย•ยฃย’ย‡ย”ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡รยย–ย‹ยย’วณศ‹ยŽย—ยยŽย‡ย”รงย‹ ย—ย”ย‡ย˜ย‹ย–ย…ยŠวก อณอปอปอทวฃอณอฒอฒศŒวคBยย’ยŽย—ย•วกยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย”ย‡ยย—ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‹ยŽย‡ย‰ย‹ยƒยœยฃยย‹ย…ย‹ย‘ย…ย‘ยย’ย‘ยย‡ยย–ยฃยƒ ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย—ยŽย—ย‹วคย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃย•ย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‡ยƒย…ยฃย”แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยย—ย‹ยย–ย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยย‡ยƒยœยฃย•ยฃย†ย‡ย•ย…ย”ย‹ย‡รยย†ย‡ย–ยƒยŽย‹ย— รยย–ย”ย‡ย‰ย—ยŽ ย…ยƒย†ย”ย— ย†ย‡ ยŽย—ย…ย”ย—วก ยƒรงยƒ ยƒย’ยƒย”ย‡ รย ย‡ย•ย‡ย—ยŽ ย‹ยย‹แŒ”ย‹ยƒยŽ ยƒยŽ ยŽย—ย‹ ยŽย—ยยŽย‡ย” รงย‹

ย—ย”ย‡ย˜ย‹ย…ยŠวทย‹ยยยƒย‰ย‡ย•ย‡ย–ย™ย‡ย‡ยย–ยŠย‡ยƒย•ย•ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒยƒยย†ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย•วณศ‹รยibidวควกย‹ยย‹แŒ”ย‹ยƒยŽ ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ยƒย–รยอณอปอนอนศŒวกย…ย‹ย•ยฃย–ย”ย‡ยƒย…ยฃรยย”ย‡ย˜ย‹ย•ย–ยฃยƒย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‡ยŽย‡ย…ยŠย‡ย‹ย‡วค วทย‹ย’ย—ยŽ ย‹ย†ย‡ยƒยŽวณ ย†ย‡ ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ย ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃ ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ยˆย‘ย”ยยƒย– ย†ย‹ย ย–ย”ย‡ย‹ ย•ย‡ย–ย—ย”ย‹ ย†ย‡ ยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹วฃ ย‹ยย•ย–ย‹ย–ย—แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‡ รงย‹ ย†ย‡ ยยƒย•ย• ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒ รงย‹ ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ย—ยŽ ยˆย‘ย”ยยƒย– ย†ย‹ย ย…ย‡ย–ยฃรฌย‡ยย‹วก ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ยƒ ยˆย‹ย‹ยย† รยย‰ยŽย‘ย„ยƒย– รยย–ย”วฆย—ย ยย‡ย†ย‹ย— ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‘วฆย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย… ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽวค ย‡ยŽย‡วทย†ย‘ย—ยฃย•ย‡ย–ย—ย”ย‹ย†ย‡ย‹ยย•ย–ย‹ย–ย—แŒ”ย‹ย‹ศ‚ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‡รงย‹ย†ย‡ยยƒย•ย•ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒศ‚ย•ย—ยย–ย‹ยย’ยŽย‹ย…ยƒย–ย‡ รย ย’ย”ย‘ย…ย‡ย•ย—ยŽ ย†ย‡ ย’ย”ย‡ย‰ยฃย–ย‹ย”ย‡ ยƒ ยย‡ย•ยƒยŒย‡ยŽย‘ย” รย ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยƒย…แŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‹ รย ย‰ย‡ยย‡ย”ยƒยŽ วผย‘ย”ย‹ยœย‘ยย–ยƒยŽย‡วฝวณ ศ‹ibidวควฃอณอดศŒวค Bย ยƒย…ย‡ยŽยƒรงย‹ ย–ย‹ยย’วก ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย‹ยย•ย–ย‹ย–ย—แŒ”ย‹ย‹ ย•ย—ยย– วทยƒยย‰ยƒยŒยƒย–ย‡ ย•ย‡ย’ยƒย”ยƒย–รงย‹รยย…ย‘ยย—ยรยย†ย‹ย•ย‡ยย‹ยยƒย”ย‡ยƒรงย‹ย’ย”ย‘ย…ย‡ย•ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย‹ยยˆย‘ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‡ย‹รงย‹ยƒย‹ย†ย‡ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย…ยฃย–ย”ย‡รงย‹ย†ย‹ยย•ย’ย”ย‡ยยƒย•ยƒย…ย‡ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‡ยย‡ยƒย•ย…ยฃวณศ‚ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยƒย…แŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‡วทย˜ย‡ย”ย–ย‹ย…ยƒยŽยฃวณศ‹ibidวคศŒวคยŽย‡ ย•ย—ยย– ย†ย‡ย’ย‡ยย†ย‡ยย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ ยยƒย•ย• ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒ รย ย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒ ย‹ยยˆย‘ย”ยยฃย”ย‹ย‹ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‡วก ย†ยƒย” รย ยƒย…ย‡ยŽยƒรงย‹ ย–ย‹ยย’ ย…ย‘ยย–ย”ย‹ย„ย—ย‹ย‡ ยŽยƒ ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย—ยŽ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃ ย’ย”ย‹ย อด


COMUNICAREA POLITIC½ MODERN½

’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ”‡ƒ Žƒ ‡˜‡‹‡–‡ ‘”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‡ ƒ–Ÿ– †‡ ƒ•• ‡†‹ƒǡ …Ÿ– ç‹ †‡ ’ƒ”–‹†‡Ž‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡Ǥ –‡”ƒ…ጔ‹—‹Ž‡ ƒ’ƒ” Á …ƒ†”—Ž ——‹ ‡†‹— •‘…‹‘Ǧ’‘Ž‹–‹… ƒጔ‹‘ƒŽǡƒ‹ƒŽ‡•Á–”Ǧ——Ž…—‘…—Ž–—”£’‘Ž‹–‹…£…‡ƒ†‡œ˜‘Ž–ƒ–‘”‡ç‹ ˜ƒŽ‘”‹ …ƒ”‡ ‰—˜‡”‡ƒœ£ …‘’‘”–ƒ‡–—Ž ç‹ ”‡Žƒጔ‹‹Ž‡ †‹ •‹•–‡Ǥ …ጔ‹—‹Ž‡ ˆ‹‡…£”‡‹ …‘’‘‡–‡ ƒ ƒ…‡•–—‹ •‹•–‡ –”‹’ƒ”–‹– †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ƒ— ‹’ƒ…– —ƒƒ•—’”ƒƒŽ–‡‹ƒç‹ˆ‹‡…ƒ”‡•‡ƒ†ƒ’–‡ƒœ£ƒŒ—•–Ÿ†—Ǧ•‡Á‘†…‘–‹——Žƒ •…Š‹„£”‹Ž‡†‹‡†‹—ç‹Žƒ•…Š‹„£”‹Ž‡ƒ†—•‡†‡ƒ…ጔ‹—‹Ž‡…‡Ž‘”ŽƒŽ–‡’£”ጔ‹Ǥ •–ˆ‡Žǡ •‹•–‡—Ž †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£ –”ƒ•ƒ– ‹‹ì‹ƒŽ †‡ Ž—Ž‡” ç‹

—”‡˜‹…ŠÁƒ‹‹ǯ͹Ͳ‡•–‡†‘‹ƒ–†‡——£”ˆ‹‹–†‡ƒ…–‘”‹†‹…ƒ†”—Ž ‹•–‹–—ጔ‹‹Ž‘”‡†‹ƒç‹’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ǡ‹–‡”ƒ…ጔ‹‘Ÿ†Á–”‡‡‹Á£—–”—Ž‰”ƒ‹ጔ‡Ž‘” ——‹ •–ƒ– ƒጔ‹‘��Ž †‡‘…”ƒ–‹… Ž‹„‡”ƒŽǡ Á …ƒ”‡ …‡–£ጔ‡‹‹ Œ‘ƒ…£ ”‘Ž—Ž †‡ ”‡…‡’–‘”‹ƒ‹‹ˆ‘”ƒጔ‹‡‹’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ç‹†‡–‡”‹£”‡œ—Ž–ƒ–‡Ž‡‡Ž‡…–‘”ƒŽ‡Ǥ 

Contabilizând schimbarea

 …‡•–‡•‹•–‡‡†‡…‘—‹…ƒ”‡ǡ†—’£…—ƒ‹–‡•…Ž—Ž‡”ç‹ —”‡˜‹…ŠÁ Ž—…”ƒ”‡ƒ‡ጔ‹‘ƒ–£ǡ•—–†‹ƒ‹…‡ȋͳͻͻͷǢʹͲͲͲȌǤ‹‘–‡ƒœ£…£•‹•–‡‡Ž‡ •—–Á’‡”ƒ‡–£‡˜‘Ž—ጔ‹‡ç‹…£ǡÁ…‹—†ƒˆƒ’–—Ž—‹…£”‹–—Ž•…Š‹„£”‹‹ ’‘ƒ–‡˜ƒ”‹ƒǡ•‹•–‡‡Ž‡•—–ƒˆ‡…–ƒ–‡†‡Ƿ•—”•‡†‡‹•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–ƒ–‡dzȋͳͻͻͷȌǡƒ–Ÿ– ‡š–‡”‡ǡ …Ÿ– ç‹ ‹–‡”‡Ǥ — ƒŽ–‡ …—˜‹–‡ǡ •…Š‹„£”‹Ž‡ †‹ •‹•–‡‡Ž‡ †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£ •—– †ƒ–‘”ƒ–‡ •–‹—Ž‹Ž‘” ‡š–‡”‹ǡ †ƒ” ç‹ ”‡ƒ…ጔ‹‹Ž‘” ‹–‡”‡ ç‹ …‘–”ƒ”‡ƒ…ጔ‹‹Ž‘” ƒ…–‘”‹Ž‘” ç‹ ‹•–‹–—ጔ‹‹Ž‘”Ǥ Ž—Ž‡” ç‹ —”‡˜‹…Š ƒ”‰—‡–‡ƒœ£ …£ ‡š‹•–£ …‡Ž ’—ጔ‹ ’ƒ–”— •—”•‡ ’”‹…‹’ƒŽ‡ †‡ ‹•–ƒ„‹Ž‹–ƒ–‡ …‘•–”—‹–‡ Á–”Ǧ— •‹•–‡ †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£ǡ †‘—£ ‹–‡”‡ ç‹ †‘—£ ‡š–‡”‡Ǥ —”•‡Ž‡ ‡š–‡”‡ ‹…Ž—† ƒ’ƒ”‹ጔ‹ƒ ƒ ‘‹ –‡Š‘Ž‘‰‹‹ †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ǡ •…Š‹„£”‹ ǷÁ •–”—…–—”ƒ ç‹ …—Ž–—”ƒ •‹•–‡‡Ž‘” •‘…‹ƒŽ‡ ç‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ Á…‘Œ—”£–‘ƒ”‡dz ç‹ •…Š‹„£”‹ Á Ž‡‰‹Ž‡ …ƒ”‡ ‰—˜‡”‡ƒœ£ ƒ•• ‡†‹ƒ ç‹ …‘’‘”–ƒ‡–—Ž’ƒ”–‹†‡Ž‘”’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ç‹ƒŽ…ƒ†‹†ƒጔ‹Ž‘”ȋibidǤǣʹͲͶǦͷȌǤ”‹ƒ •—”•£ ‹–‡”£ ‡•–‡ ’”‘…‡•—Ž †‡ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ”‡ ”‡…‹’”‘…£ǡ …‡‡ƒ …‡ ˆƒ…‡ …ƒ ‡„”‹‹ …Žƒ•‡‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ ç‹ ’”‘ˆ‡•‹‘‹ç–‹‹ †‹ ƒ•• ‡†‹ƒ •£ •‡ ƒ†ƒ’–‡œ‡ Á…‘–‹—— Žƒ •–”ƒ–ƒ‰‡‡Ž‡ …‡Ž‡‹ŽƒŽ–‡ ’£”ጔ‹Ǥ  †‘—ƒ •—”•£ ‹–‡”£ ‡•–‡ •…Š‹„ƒ”‡ƒ”‡Žƒጔ‹‡‹†‹–”‡‡„”‹‹…Žƒ•‡‹’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ç‹ƒ••‡†‹ƒǡ”ƒ’‘”–ƒ– Žƒ’—„Ž‹…—ŽŽ‘”ǤB‡•‡ጔ£ǡ†—’£…—‘–‡ƒœ£Ž—Ž‡”ç‹ —”‡˜‹…Šǣ Schimbările în sistemul de comunicare politică pot fi influenĠate de dispunerea a trei principali actori – politicieni, jurnaliúti úi membri ai publicului – pentru a răspunde în mod adaptiv la percepĠiile úi comportamentul evolutiv al fiecăruia într-un mediu în continuă schimbare úi a cărui dinamicitate este de ordin tehnologic, sociologic úi politic. (ibid.:205-6)

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JAMES STANYER

ç ˜”‡ƒ •£ ‹•‹•– ’—ጔ‹ ƒ•—’”ƒ ’”‘…‡•—Ž—‹ †‡ Ƿƒ†ƒ’–ƒ”‡ ”‡…‹’”‘…£dzǡ †‡•…”‹• †‡ Ž—Ž‡” ç‹ —”‡˜‹…ŠǤ ‘ጔ‹—‡ƒ †‡ Ƿƒ…–‘”‹ …ƒ”‡ •‡ ƒ†ƒ’–‡ƒœ£ ”‡…‹’”‘…dz ”ƒ’‘”–ƒ– Žƒ ƒ…–‹˜‹–£ጔ‹Ž‡ …‡Ž—‹ŽƒŽ–ǡ …Š‹ƒ” †ƒ…£ ‡•–‡ ’£–”—œ£–‘ƒ”‡ǡ –”‡…‡…—˜‡†‡”‡ƒƒ–—”ƒ•–”ƒ–‡‰‹…£ƒƒ…ጔ‹—‹‹†‹•‹•–‡—Ž†‡…‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£Ǥ ‹…‹ ƒç ˜”‡ƒ •£ ƒ–”ƒ‰ ƒ–‡ጔ‹ƒ ƒ•—’”ƒ ”‡˜‹œ—‹”‹‹ Ž—…”£”‹‹ Ž—‹ ‘„ ‡••‘’†‡…£–”‡‘Ž‹ ƒ›ǡ”‡˜‹œ—‹”‡…ƒ”‡‡‘ˆ‡”£—‘†ˆ‘Ž‘•‹–‘”†‡ƒ ‰Ÿ†‹ ƒ–—”ƒ •–”ƒ–‡‰‹…£ ƒ ƒ…ጔ‹—‹‹Ǥ B ‘”‹…‡ •‹•–‡ǡ ƒ…–‘”‹‹ •—– •–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‹ ’”‹ˆƒ’–—Ž…£•—–Ƿ‹–‡ጔ‹‘ƒŽ‹dzǢƒ…ጔ‹—‡ƒŽ‘”‡•–‡‘–‹˜ƒ–£†‡•…‘’—Ž†‡ ƒ ƒ–‹‰‡ — ƒ—‡ ‘„‹‡…–‹˜ •ƒ— ”‡œ—Ž–ƒ– ȋ ƒ›ǡ ʹͲͲʹȌǤ …‡•– ƒ•’‡…– ‡•–‡ ‹’‘”–ƒ–ǡ †‡‘ƒ”‡…‡ ƒ•• ‡†‹ƒ ç‹ ‹•–‹–—ጔ‹‹Ž‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ — •—– —ƒ‹ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ–‹˜‡ǡ …‹ è‹ ‘”‹‡–ƒ–‡ …£–”‡ — ƒ—‹– •…‘’Ǥ ƒ†‹†ƒጔ‹‹ Á ƒŽ‡‰‡”‹ ƒ…ጔ‹‘‡ƒœ£ …— — ƒ—‹– •…‘’ǡ ƒ…‡Žƒ †‡ ƒ ˆ‹ ƒŽ‡è‹ Á ˆ—…ጔ‹‡ǡ †‡ ‡š‡’Ž—Ǥ ƒ•• ‡†‹ƒǡ †‡ ƒ•‡‡‡ƒ ƒ…ጔ‹‘‡ƒœ£ Á ˆ—…ጔ‹‡ †‡ •…‘’—”‹ǡ ——Ž ˆ‹‹† ƒš‹‹œƒ”‡ƒ ƒ—†‹‡ጔ‡‹Ǥ …–‘”‹‹ ƒ…ጔ‹‘‡ƒœ£ ‹–‡ጔ‹‘ƒ– Á–”Ǧ‘ ǷÁ…‡”…ƒ”‡ †‡ƒǦç‹’—‡Á’”ƒ…–‹…£‹–‡ጔ‹‹Ž‡ç‹’”‡ˆ‡”‹ጔ‡Ž‡dzȋibidǤǣͳͷͳȌǤf‹—˜‘”„‹ —ƒ‹ †‡ ƒ•• ‡†‹ƒ ç‹ ‹•–‹–—ጔ‹‹Ž‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ǣ –‘ጔ‹ ƒ…–‘”‹‹ †‹ •‹•–‡—Ž †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£ •—– ƒ‰ƒŒƒጔ‹ Á ƒ…–‹˜‹–£ጔ‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ ‘–‹˜ƒ–‡ †‡ — ƒ—‹– •…‘’ ç‹ ƒ†ƒ’–ƒ”‡ƒ Ž‘” ”‡…‹’”‘…£ –”‡„—‹‡ Áጔ‡Ž‡ƒ•£ ç‹ Á ƒ…‡•– …‘–‡š–Ǥ B’Ž—•ǡ——ƒ‹…£ƒ…–‘”‹‹†‹•‹•–‡—Ž†‡…‘—‹…ƒ”‡’‘Ž‹–‹…£•—– Ƿ‹–‡ጔ‹‘ƒŽ‹dzǡ †ƒ” ‡‹ …ƒ—–£ è‹ Ƿ•£ ‘‹–‘”‹œ‡œ‡dz ƒ…–‹˜‹–£ጔ‹Ž‡ ç‹ ‡†‹—Ž Á …ƒ”‡ ƒ…ጔ‹‘‡ƒœ£Ǥ ‡Ž‡ –”‡‹ •‡–—”‹ ’”‹…‹’ƒŽ‡ †‡ ƒ…–‘”‹ ”‡˜‹œ—‹‡•… ç‹ ƒƒŽ‹œ‡ƒœ£ ‡†‹—Ž Á ‘† …‘–‹——ǡ ”‡ƒ…ጔ‹‘Ÿ† Žƒ ’”‘„Ž‡‡Ǥ ‡ˆŽ‡š‹˜‹–ƒ–‡ƒ ’‘ƒ–‡ ˆ‹ ˜£œ—–£ …ƒ ç‹ ƒ„‹Ž‹–ƒ–‡ ƒ ƒ…–‘”‹Ž‘” †‹ …ƒ†”—Ž •‹•–‡—Ž—‹ †‡ ƒ Á˜£ጔƒ ç‹ ƒ ƒ’Ž‹…ƒ …—‘ç–‹ጔ‡Ž‡ ’‡–”— ƒ ”‡œ‘Ž˜ƒ ’”‘„Ž‡‡Ž‡ …ƒ”‡ ƒ’ƒ” ȋibid.ȌǤ —’£ …— ‘–‡ƒœ£ ‹††‡•ǡ Á •‘…‹‡–£ጔ‹Ž‡ …‘–‡’‘”ƒ‡ ‡š‹•–£ Ƿ‘ •—•…‡’–‹„‹Ž‹–ƒ–‡ ƒ•—’”ƒ ƒ’”‘ƒ’‡ –—–—”‘” ƒ…–‹˜‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘” •‘…‹ƒŽ‡ǤǤǤ‘ ‡˜‘‹‡ …”‘‹…£ †‡ ƒ ”‡˜‹œ—‹ Á Ž—‹ƒ ‘‹Ž‘” ‹ˆ‘”ƒጔ‹‹dzȋͳͻͻͳǣʹͲȌǤ‘…ƒ‹ÁŽ—‹ƒƒ…‡•–—‹’”‘…‡•†‡‘‹–‘”‹œƒ”‡ǡ ƒ…–‘”‹‹ Ƿ‘†‹ˆ‹…£ǡ ”‡˜‹œ—‹‡•… •ƒ— ”‡ˆ—œ£ ‹ŒŽ‘ƒ…‡Ž‡ †‡ ƒǦç‹ ”‡ƒŽ‹œƒ ‹–‡ጔ‹‹Ž‡dzȋ ƒ›ǡʹͲͲʹǣͳͷͳȌǤ—’£…—‘„•‡”˜£ ƒ›ǡƒ…–‘”‹‹•—–•–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‹ Á ƒ…‡‡ƒç‹ £•—”£ Á …ƒ”‡ •—– ”‡ˆŽ‡š‹˜‹ǡ Ƿ‡Žƒ„‘”Ÿ† ç‹ ”‡˜‹œ—‹† ‹ŒŽ‘ƒ…‡Ž‡†‡ƒǦ狃–‹‰‡•…‘’—Ždzȋibid.ǣͳͷʹȌǤ ‘—‹…ƒ–‘”‹‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‹ǡ …ƒ ç‹ ƒ‰‡ጔ‹ •–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‹ ”‡ˆŽ‡š‹˜‹ǡ •—– ƒ‰ƒŒƒጔ‹ Á–”Ǧ‘ •‡”‹‡ †‡ ‹–‡””‡Žƒጔ‹‹ †‹ƒ‹…‡ǡ ”‡Žƒጔ‹‹ …ƒ”‡ •‡ †‡•ˆƒç‘ƒ”£ Á–”Ǧ— Ƿ…‘–‡š– •–”ƒ–‡‰‹…dz ȋ‹„‹†ȌǤ ‘–‡š–—Ž •–”ƒ–‡‰‹… ’‘ƒ–‡ ˆ‹ ˜£œ—– …ƒ ‡†‹—Ž …‘’‡–‹–‹˜Á…ƒ”‡’ƒ”–‹†‡Ž‡ç‹ƒ••‡†‹ƒ‘’‡”‡ƒœ£Ǥ‘–‡š–—ŽÁ…ƒ”‡•‡ †‡•ˆ£ç‘ƒ”£ …‘’‘”–ƒ‡–—Ž ‡•–‡ …”—…‹ƒŽ Á ˆ‘”—Žƒ”‡ƒ ƒ…ጔ‹—‹Ž‘” •–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‡Ǥ …‡•– ‡†‹—ǡ †—’£ …— •—•ጔ‹‡ ƒ›ǡ ‡•–‡ Ƿ•–”ƒ–‡‰‹… •‡Ž‡…–‹˜dzǢ Ͷ


COMUNICAREA POLITIC½ MODERN½

ƒ†‹…£Ƿˆƒ˜‘”‹œ‡ƒœ£ƒ—‹–‡•–”ƒ–‡‰‹‹Á†‡–”‹‡–—ŽƒŽ–‘”ƒǡ…ƒç‹‹ŒŽ‘…†‡ ƒ’—‡Á’”ƒ…–‹…£—ƒ—‹–•‡–†‡‹–‡ጔ‹‹dzȋ‹„‹†ǤǣͳͶͻȌǤ”‹ƒ…‡ƒ•–ƒ— ˜”‡•£•—•ጔ‹‡…£‡†‹—Ž†‡–‡”‹£ƒ•‡‡‡ƒƒ…–‹˜‹–£ጔ‹ǤǷ‘–‡š–—ŽÁ •‹‡ •‡ ’”‡œ‹–£ …ƒ ˆ‹‹† — –‡”‡ ‹‡‰ƒŽ …‘–—”ƒ–ǡ …ƒ”‡ ˆƒ˜‘”‹œ‡ƒœ£ ƒ—‹–‡•–”ƒ–‡‰‹‹Á†‡ˆƒ˜‘ƒ”‡ƒƒŽ–‘”ƒdzȋ‹„‹†ǤȌǤ B …‘…Ž—œ‹‡ǡ •…Š‹„ƒ”‡ƒ ’‘ƒ–‡ ˆ‹ ˜£œ—–£ …ƒ ”‡œ—Ž–ƒ– ƒŽ ”£•’—•—Ž—‹ ƒ…–‘”‹Ž‘”ŽƒǷ’‡”…‡’ጔ‹‹Ž‡ƒˆŽƒ–‡Á‡˜‘Ž—ጔ‹‡…‘–‹—£ç‹Žƒ…‘’‘”–ƒ‡–—Ž ”‡…‹’”‘…ƒ’Ž‹…ƒ–’£”ጔ‹Ž‘”‹’Ž‹…ƒ–‡dzǡ’‡ˆ—†ƒŽ—Ž——‹•‹•–‡‹ˆŽ—‡ጔƒ–Žƒ ”Ÿ†—Ž•£—†‡ˆƒ…–‘”‹‡š–‡”‹Ǥ—–‘ƒ–‡ƒ…‡•–‡ƒǡ”£•’—•—”‹Ž‡•‡†ƒ—…—— ‘–‹˜ǡƒ—‡ƒ…‡Žƒ†‡ƒ”‡ƒŽ‹œƒ—ƒ—‹–•…‘’Ȃ•—……‡•—Ž‡Ž‡…–‘”ƒŽ•ƒ— …‡Ž ‡…‘‘‹…Ǥ ”‡„—‹‡ ‘–ƒ– ƒ‹…‹ …£ –‘ƒ–‡ ƒ…‡•–‡ƒ –”‡„—‹‡ ˜£œ—–‡ Á …‘–‡š–—Ž ‡†‹‹Ž‘” …‘’‡–‹–‹˜‡Ǥ …–‘”‹‹ •—– ”‡ˆŽ‡š‹˜‹ǡ ƒ‰ƒŒƒጔ‹ Á ‘‹–‘”‹œƒ”‡ƒ ’”‘’”‹‹Ž‘” ƒ…–‹˜‹–£ጔ‹ Ȃ ƒŽ‡ ƒ…–‹˜‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘” ”‹˜ƒŽ‹Ž‘” ç‹ ƒŽ‡ ƒ—†‹‡ጔ‡‹Ǥ ”‘…‡•—Ž ”‡ˆŽ‡…–‹˜‹–£ጔ‹‹ ‡•–‡ ’”‹˜‹– …ƒ ˆ‹‹† …‡Ž …ƒ”‡ ƒ•‹‰—”£ ”‡ƒŽ‹œƒ”‡ƒ‡ˆ‡…–‹˜£ƒ——‹ƒ—‹–•…‘’ǡÁ–”Ǧ—‡†‹—•‘…‹‘Ǧ’‘Ž‹–‹…ˆ‘ƒ”–‡ †‹ƒ‹…Ǥ 

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ͷ


JAMES STANYER

…‡ƒ•–£ –”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ”‡ǡ Á’”‡—£ …— ‘ †‡•–”£ƒ”‡ ƒ ˆ‹„”‡‹ ’‡ …ƒ”‡ ”‡˜‘Ž—ጔ‹ƒ•‘…‹ƒŽ£’‘•–„‡Ž‹…£ƒጔ‡•—–Ǧ‘ǡƒƒ†Ÿ…‹–†‹˜‹œ‹—‹Ž‡†‡Œƒ‡š‹•–‡–‡ Á ƒ„‡Ž‡ •–ƒ–‡ ƒ˜—–‡ Á ˜‡†‡”‡Ǥ ‹•…”‡’ƒጔ‡Ž‡ Á …‡‡ƒ …‡ ’”‹˜‡ç–‡ ”‡—‡”ƒጔ‹ƒ •‡ ƒ……‡–—‡ƒœ£ ȋ”ƒ†‘Ž‡‹ ç‹ ‡‡†‹‰ǡ ʹͲͲ͸Ǣ ƒ•–‡ŽŽ•ǡ ʹͲͲͲǢ ƒ…‘„•‡–ƒŽǤǡʹͲͲͶȌǤBƒ”‡ƒ”‹–ƒ‹‡ǡ‹‡‰ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‡ƒÁ”‡—‡”ƒጔ‹ƒ —…‹‹’”‡•–ƒ–‡•Ǧƒƒ……‡–—ƒ–Á‡†‹‡…—ͳǡͻΨ’‡ƒǡ‹ƒ”Á–ƒ–‡Ž‡‹–‡ …— Ͳǡ͹ͻ Ψ ȋƒ•–‡ŽŽ•ǡ ʹͲͲͲǣ͹ͻȌǤ –ƒ–‡Ž‡ ‹–‡ ƒ— ƒ…— …‡ƒ ƒ‹ ƒ”‡ ‹‡‰ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‡ Á …‡‡ƒ …‡ ’”‹˜‡ç–‡ ”‡—‡”ƒጔ‹ƒǡ Á …‘’ƒ”ƒጔ‹‡ …— ƒŽ–‡ †‡‘…”ƒጔ‹‹‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ‡†‡œ˜‘Ž–ƒ–‡ȋ‘‰‰•ǡʹͲͲͲǢ ƒ…‘„•‡–ƒŽǤǡʹͲͲͶǢ‹•–‡”ǡ ͳͻͻ͵ȌǤ‹ˆ‡”‡ጔƒ†‡•ƒŽƒ”‹‹†‹–”‡ƒŽ„‹ç‹ƒŽ–‡‰”—’—”‹‹‘”‹–ƒ”‡•Ǧƒ£”‹–Ǣ ‹‘”‹–£ጔ‹Ž‡‘…—’£Á‘††‹•’”‘’‘”ጔ‹‘ƒ–Ž‘…—”‹Ž‡†‡—…£•Žƒ„’Ž£–‹–‡ 狘‡‹–—”‹Ž‡‰”—’—”‹Ž‘”‹‘”‹–ƒ”‡•—–†‹…‡Á…‡ƒ‹‹…‹ȋ ƒ…‘„•‡–ƒŽǤǡ ʹͲͲͶȌǤ ‹‰”ƒጔ‹‹ ç‹ ‡„”‹‹ ‰”—’—”‹Ž‘” ‡–‹…‡ ‹‘”‹–ƒ”‡ •—– ƒ‹ ‡š’—ç‹瑏ƒŒ—Ž—‹ç‹ˆƒ…’ƒ”–‡†‹…Žƒ•ƒ—…‹–‘ƒ”‡•£”ƒ…£ǡˆ‹‹†•Žƒ„’Ž£–‹ጔ‹ ç‹ ˆ£”£ •£ ƒ‹„£ •‹‰—”ƒጔƒ Ž‘…—Ž—‹ †‡ —…£ ȋƒ•–‡ŽŽ•ǡ ʹͲͲͲȌǤ •‡‡‡ƒ ‰”—’—”‹ •—– Ž‹’•‹–‡ †‡ ’‘•‹„‹Ž‹–£ጔ‹ ‡…‘‘‹…‡ •ƒ— •—– ƒ”‰‹ƒŽ‹œƒ–‡ •–”—…–—”ƒŽ †‹ ƒŽ–‡ ‘–‹˜‡ ç‹ ”‡’”‡œ‹–£ ‘ •—„Ǧ…Žƒ•£ …— ƒ†‡˜£”ƒ– †‡œƒ˜ƒ–ƒŒƒ–£ȋ‹Ž•‘ǡͳͻͺ͹Ǣ…‹–ƒ–Áƒ•–‡ŽŽ•ǡʹͲͲͲȌǤ ‡ƒ•‡‡‡ƒǡ•‡†‡œ˜‘Ž–£‘‘—£‰‡‘‰”ƒˆ‹‡ƒ‡˜‘‹‹Ǥ‘‹Ž‡…‘—‹–£ጔ‹ ƒ”‰‹ƒŽ‹œƒ–‡•Ǧƒ—†‡œ˜‘Ž–ƒ–ǡƒ†‡•‡ƒÁœ‘‡•£”ƒ…‡ǡ’”‹–”‡…‘—‹–£ጔ‹Ž‡ †‡‡‹‰”ƒጔ‹ç‹瑏‡”‹ǤBƒ„‡Ž‡죔‹ƒ…‡•–‡ƒ•—–œ‘‡Á…ƒ”‡•£”£…‹ƒç‹ Ž‹’•ƒ Ž‘…—”‹Ž‘” †‡ —…£ †—”‡ƒœ£ †‡ — –‹’ Á†‡Ž—‰ƒ– Ȃ ƒçƒ —‹–‡Ž‡ ‘”ƒç‡†‡…‡–—”£”—‰‹‹–‡ȋrustbeltcitiesǡ Á‘”‹‰‹ƒŽǡǤ –”ƒ†ǤȌǢ‹ƒ”œ‘‡Ž‡ …—’‘’—Žƒጔ‹‡‹‹‰”ƒ–£Á•‡ƒ–£ǡ•Žƒ„’Ž£–‹–£’‡–”——…ƒ‡…ƒŽ‹ˆ‹…ƒ–£ •ƒ— ƒˆ‡…–ƒ–£ †‡ 瑏ƒŒ Á†‡Ž—‰ƒ– •—– ƒçƒ —‹–‡Ž‡ ‘”ƒç‡ †‡ „ƒ”‹‡”£ ȋgateway citiesǡ Á ‘”‹‰‹ƒŽǡ Ǥ –”ƒ†ǤȌǤ —£”—Ž ‹‹‰”ƒጔ‹Ž‘” †‡ ‘”‹‰‹‡ Š‹•’ƒ‹…£ …ƒ”‡ –”£‹‡•… Á …ƒ”–‹‡”‡Ž�� †‹ ‘”ƒç‡Ž‡ †‹ •—†—Ž ƒŽ‹ˆ‘”‹‡‹ ƒ …”‡•…—–…‘•‹†‡”ƒ„‹ŽÁ—Ž–‹‹‹ƒ‹ȋ‡‡š‹‡”ǡʹͲͲͶǢ‡‰—”ƒ‡–ƒŽǤǡʹͲͲͳȌç‹ ‘„•‡”˜ƒጔ‹‹•‹‹Žƒ”‡•‡’‘–ˆƒ…‡Á…‡‡ƒ…‡’”‹˜‡ç–‡…”‡ç–‡”‡ƒ‡‹‰”ƒጔ‹Ž‘” †‹…ƒ”–‹‡”‡Ž‡ †‹œ‘‡Ž‡‡–”‘’‘Ž‹–ƒ‡ „”‹–ƒ‹…‡ȋ—…ǡʹͲͲͷȌǤ…‡•–‡ …ƒ”–‹‡”‡•£”ƒ…‡•‡•‹–—‡ƒœ£Á…‘–”ƒ•–…—•—„—”„‹‹Ž‡ç‹”‡‰‹—‹Ž‡„‘‰ƒ–‡Ǥ

†‡–‹–£ጔ‹Ž‡ …‘Ž‡…–‹˜‡ …ƒ”‡ ƒ— Á•‘ጔ‹– ‡”ƒ ‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ£ †‹•’ƒ” Á…‡–—Ž …— Á…‡–—Žǡ ÁŽ‘…—‹–‡ †‡ ‹†‡–‹–£ጔ‹Ž‡ Ƿ’‡”•‘ƒŽ‹œƒ–‡dz ƒŽ‡ …‡Ž‡‹ †‡Ǧƒ †‘—ƒ ‘†‡”‹–£ጔ‹ȋǤǤ‡‡––ǡ ͳͻͻͺǣ ͹Ͷͳǡ͹ͷͷȌǤ ƒ…‹‹ç‹ ™ƒ•‘•…”‹ƒ—ǣ Ƿ˜‡…Š‹Ž‡ ”‡’‡”‡ †‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ”‡ ç‹ ˆ‹†‡Ž‹–ƒ–‡ †‹ •–”—…–—”‹Ž‡ •‘…‹ƒŽ‡ –”ƒ†‹ጔ‹‘ƒŽ‡ ȏ•—–Ȑ ÁŽ‘…—‹–‡ †‡ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…£”‹ †‹ƒ‹…‡ …ƒ”‡ •‡ Á–”‡’£–”—†dzȋͳͻͻ͸ǣͺȌǤ Ž”‹…Š ‡…ǡ ƒƒŽ‹œŸ† ƒ‹ Žƒ”‰—Ž ’”‘…‡• ƒŽ •…Š‹„£”‹‹ •‘…‹ƒŽ‡ǡ ˜‡†‡ –”ƒ•ˆ‘”ƒ”‡ƒÁ–‡”‡‹†‡‹ç…ƒ”‡ǡ†‡Žƒ‘’”‹£‘†‡”‹–ƒ–‡•‹’Ž£ǡ ͸


COMUNICAREA POLITICยฝ MODERNยฝ

ยŽยƒ ย‘ ยƒ ย†ย‘ย—ยƒวก ย”ย‡ยˆยŽย‡ยšย‹ย˜ยฃ ศ‹อดอฒอฒอดวข อดอฒอฒอตศŒวค ย”ย‹ยยƒ ยย‘ย†ย‡ย”ยย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡วก ย—ยยƒ วทย„ยƒยœยƒย–ยฃ ย’ย‡ ย•ย‘ย…ย‹ย‡ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒย†ย‹ยย–ย”วฆย—ยย•ย–ยƒย–วฆยยƒรฌย‹ย—ยย‡วกย”ย‡ยˆยŽย‡ย…ย–ยƒย–ยฃรยย–ย”วฆย‘ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ย…ย‘ยŽย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ยฃย…ยƒรงย‹ ย…ยŽยƒย•ยƒวก ยˆยƒยย‹ยŽย‹ยƒวก ย‡ย–ยย‹ยƒวณวก ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย–ย”ยƒยย•ยˆย‘ย”ยยƒย–ยฃ รยย–ย”วฆย‘ ยƒ ย†ย‘ย—ยƒ ยย‘ย†ย‡ย”ยย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡วก ย…ยƒย”ยƒย…ย–ย‡ย”ย‹ยœยƒย–ยฃ ย†ย‡ ย‹ยย†ย‹ย˜ย‹ย†ย—ยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒย”ย‡วก ย‰ยŽย‘ย„ยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒย”ย‡วก ย”ย‹ย•ย… รงย‹ ยย‡ย•ย‹ย‰ย—ย”ยƒยแŒ”ยฃ ศ‹อดอฒอฒอดวฃ อดอฒอธศŒวค ยƒ ยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃ ยŽย‹ย•ย–ยฃ ย’ย—ย–ย‡ย ยƒย†ยฃย—ย‰ยƒ ย†ย‡ยœย˜ย‘ยŽย–ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ยย‘ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย–ย‡ยŠยย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย‹ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡วกย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย—ย‹ยยˆยŽย—ย‡ยแŒ”ยƒย–ย’ย—ย–ย‡ย”ยย‹ย…ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย‡ยŽย‡ย†ย‡ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃวก ย‘ย†ยƒย–ยฃย…ย—ยƒย’ยƒย”ย‹แŒ”ย‹ยƒยย‘ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ยย‘ย†ย—ย”ย‹ย†ย‡ยƒยˆยƒย…ย‡ยย‡ย•ยƒยŒย—ยŽย…ย—ยย‘ย•ย…ย—ย–ศ‚ย–ย‡ยŽย‡ย˜ย‹ยœย‹ย—ยย‡ยƒ ย’ย”ย‹ยย…ยƒย„ยŽย—รงย‹ย–ย”ยƒยย•ยย‹ย•ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡รยย†ย‹ย”ย‡ย…ย–ย’ย”ย‹ยย•ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‹ย–ย†ย‹ยยƒยย‹ย‹ฬตอบอฒรงย‹วกยยƒย‹ย”ย‡ย…ย‡ยย–วก ย–ย‡ยŠยย‘ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ยƒ ย†ย‹ย‰ย‹ย–ยƒยŽยฃ รงย‹ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยย‡ย–ย—ยŽวก ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ยƒย— ยƒย†ย—ย• ย’ยŽย—ย”ยƒยŽย‹ยœยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย•ย’ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡วค ย”ยƒ ย†ย‡ยˆย‹ย…ย‹ย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย†ย‡ ยˆย”ย‡ย…ย˜ย‡ยแŒ”ย‡ รงย‹ ยƒ ย”ย‡ย‰ยŽย‡ยย‡ยย–ยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย‰ย—ย˜ย‡ย”ยยƒยย‡ยย–ยƒยŽย‡ ยƒ ยˆย‘ย•ย– รยยŽย‘ย…ย—ย‹ย–ยฃ ย†ย‡ ยƒย„ย—ยย†ย‡ยแŒ”ยƒ ยˆย”ย‡ย…ย˜ย‡ยแŒ”ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ยย‡ย”ย‡ย‰ยŽย‡ยย‡ยย–ยƒย–ย‡วค1 วท ย‡ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ยƒ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยฃย”ย‹ย‹ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‡ ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ รย ยˆยŽย—ยšวณ ศ‹ยƒยŠยŽย‰ย”ย‡ย‡ยวก อดอฒอฒอถวฃอณอถศŒวก ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ย…ยฃย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย‡ยŽย‡ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡ย†ย‡ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃย•ย—ยย–ย†ย‹ยย…ย‡รยย…ย‡ยยƒย‹ ยย—ยŽย–ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย…ย‘ยย‡ย…ย–ยƒย–ย‡รงย‹ย‹ยย–ย‡ย‰ย”ยƒย–ย‡ยŽยƒยย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย‰ยŽย‘ย„ยƒยŽวคBยยƒยย„ย‡ยŽย‡ย•ย–ยƒย–ย‡วกย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย‡ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃ ย†ย‡ย˜ย‹ย ย†ย‹ย ย…ย‡ รย ย…ย‡ ยยƒย‹ ย’ย‡ย”ยย‹ย•ย‹ย˜ย‡วก ย‹ยยˆย‘ย”ยยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ รงย‹ ย‹ย†ย‡ย‹ยŽย‡ย…ย‹ย”ย…ย—ยŽยŸยย†ยŽย‹ย„ย‡ย”ย’ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย‰ย”ยƒยย‹แŒ”ยฃวคย…ย‘ยย‘ยย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒย†ย‹ยย–ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‡ยย‹ย–ย‡รงย‹ ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย”ย‹ย–ยƒยย‹ย‡ ย•ย—ยย– ย†ย‹ย ย…ย‡ รย ย…ย‡ ยยƒย‹ ย‹ยย–ย‡ย‰ย”ยƒย–ย‡ รย ย‡ย…ย‘ยย‘ยย‹ยƒ ย‰ยŽย‘ย„ยƒยŽยฃวก ย‘ ย–ย‡ยย†ย‹ยแŒ”ยฃ ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย’ย‘ยƒย–ย‡ ยˆย‹ ย‘ย„ย•ย‡ย”ย˜ยƒย–ยฃ ย†ย‹ย ย…ย‡ รย ย…ย‡ ยยƒย‹ ยย—ยŽย– รย ยย‘ย†ย‡ยŽย‡ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ ยˆย‘ย”ยยƒย”ย‡รงย‹ย†ย‡แŒ”ย‹ยย‡ย”ย‡ยƒย–ย”ย—ย•ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย†ย‡ย’ย”ย‡ย•ยฃรยยƒยย„ย‡ยŽย‡แŒ”ยฃย”ย‹ศ‹ย˜ย‡ยœย‹ย…ยŠย‡ย•ยย‡ย›วก อณอปอปอปศŒวค ย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ยˆย‘ย”แŒ”ย‡ ย‹ยยˆยŽย—ย‡ยแŒ”ย‡ยƒยœยฃ ยˆย‹ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‹ ย†ย‹ย ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย‡ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃย„ย”ย‹ย–ยƒยย‹ย…รงย‹ยƒยย‡ย”ย‹ย…ยƒยวกย†ย‡ย–ย‡ย”ยย‹ยยŸยย†ย‘ย•ย‡ย”ย‹ย‡ย†ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒย…แŒ”ย‹ย‹รจย‹ ย…ย‘ยย–ย”ยƒวฆย”ย‡ยƒย…แŒ”ย‹ย‹วค ยย—ยŽ ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ย’ย—ยย…ย–ย‡ยŽย‡ ย‡ย•ย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ยƒยŽย‡ ยƒยŽย‡ ยŽย—ย…ย”ยฃย”ย‹ย‹ ยŽย—ย‹ ยŽย—ยยŽย‡ย” รงย‹

ย—ย”ย‡ย˜ย‹ย–ย…ยŠวกย’ย”ย‡ย…ย—ยรงย‹ยƒยŽย‡ยƒยŽย–ย‘ย”ยƒย—ย–ย‘ย”ย‹วกย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย–ย‘ย‰ย”ยƒยˆย‹ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒย—ยย‡ย‹ยƒย•ย‡ยย‡ยย‡ยƒ ย”ย‡ยƒย…แŒ”ย‹ย‹รยยŽยƒยแŒ”วกรยย•ย’ย‡ย…ย‹ยƒยŽยƒยƒย…ย‡ยŽย‡ย‹ยƒรยย–ย”ย‡ย…ย‘ยย•ย‹ยŽย‹ย‡ย”ย‹ย‹ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹รงย‹ยŒย—ย”ยยƒยŽย‹รงย–ย‹วค 

Procesul de publicitate modernยพ  ย”ย‘ย…ย‡ย•ย—ยŽยƒย†ยƒย’ย–ยฃย”ย‹ย‹ย”ย‡ย…ย‹ย’ย”ย‘ย…ย‡ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ย…ย‘ยย•ย‹ยŽย‹ย‡ย”ย‹ย‹ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹รงย‹ย’ย”ย‘ยˆย‡ย•ย‹ย‘ยย‹รงย–ย‹ย‹ย†ย‹ย ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒวก รย รยย…ย‡ย”ย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‘ย”ยƒ ย†ย‡ ยƒวฆรงย‹ ยƒย–ย‹ยย‰ย‡ ย•ย…ย‘ย’ย—ยŽ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย–ย”ย‘ยŽ ยƒยŽ วทย’ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย’แŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย’ย‘ย’ย—ยŽยƒย”ย‡ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒย…ยŠย‡ย•ย–ย‹ย—ยย‹ยŽย‘ย”รงย‹ย‡ย˜ย‡ยย‹ยย‡ยย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย”ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‡ย…ยŠย‡ย‹ย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ยย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยย‡ย†ย‹ย—ยŽยยƒย•ย•ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒย‹ยย’ย‘ย”ย–ยƒยย–ย‡วณวกย’ย‘ยƒย–ย‡ยˆย‹ย†ย‡ยˆย‹ยย‹ย–ย’ย”ย‹ยยย‘แŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‡ยƒ ย†ย‡ วทย’ย”ย‘ย…ย‡ย• ย†ย‡ ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ ยย‘ย†ย‡ย”ยยฃวณ ศ‹ยŽย—ยยŽย‡ย”วก อณอปอปอฒวฃ อณอฒอตศŒวค ย‘ยย•ย‹ยŽย‹ย‡ย”ย‹ย‹ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย…ย‘ยย…ย—ย”ย‡ยƒยœยฃรยยƒย•ย‡ยƒย•ย‹ย‰ย—ย”ยƒย…ยฃยย‡ย•ยƒยŒย—ยŽยŽย‘ย”ย’ย”ย‹ยย‡รงย–ย‡ย…ย‡ยƒยยƒย‹ยยƒย”ย‡ ย‡ยšย’ย—ยย‡ย”ย‡ ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒ รงย‹ ย…ยฃ ยƒย‰ย‡ยย†ยƒ ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‘ยย‹ยยฃ รย ย†ย‹ยˆย—ยœยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒวค Bยย•ยฃ ยย‡ย–ย‘ย†ย‡ยŽย‡ยˆย‘ยŽย‘ย•ย‹ย–ย‡ย†ย‡ย…ยฃย–ย”ย‡ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย‡ยย‹ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ยƒยƒยŒย—ยย‰ย‡ยŽยƒย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ย—ยŽแŒ”ย‹ยย–ยฃย•ย‡ ยŽย‘ย˜ย‡ย•ย…วก ย‹ยย‡ย˜ย‹ย–ยƒย„ย‹ยŽวก ยย— ยย—ยยƒย‹ ย†ย‡ ย…ย—ยŽย–ย—ย”ยƒ ย’ย”ย‘ยˆย‡ย•ย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽยฃ ยŒย—ย”ยยƒยŽย‹ย•ย–ย‹ย…ยฃวก ย…ย‹ รงย‹ ย†ย‡ อน


JAMES STANYER

ย‹ยย’ย‡ย”ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ ย’ย‹ยƒแŒ”ยฃ ยƒยŽย‡ ยย‘ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย’ย‡ย‹ย•ยƒยŒ ย†ย‹ย ยยƒย•ย• ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒวค ยŽย—ยยŽย‡ย” รงย‹

ย—ย”ย‡ย˜ย‹ย–ย…ยŠย‘ย„ย•ย‡ย”ย˜ยฃย…ยฃวทย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย‡ยย‹ย‹ย•ย—ยย–รยย…ยฃย—ย–ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย—ยย‘ย”ย…ยฃย‹ยยƒย‹ย‡ยˆย‹ย…ย‹ย‡ยย–ย‡ ย†ย‡ยƒวฆรงย‹ยŽย‹ย˜ย”ยƒยย‡ย•ยƒยŒย‡ยŽย‡วค ย—ย”ยยƒยŽย‹รงย–ย‹ย‹ย•ย—ยย–รยย–ย‘ย–ย†ย‡ยƒย—ยยƒรยย‰ยƒย”ย†ยฃวกย†ย‹ยยˆย”ย‹ย…ยƒย†ย‡ยƒ ยย— ยˆย‹ ยˆย‘ยŽย‘ย•ย‹แŒ”ย‹ ย…ยƒ รงย‹ ย‹ยย•ย–ย”ย—ยย‡ยย– ย†ย‡ ย’ย”ย‘ย’ยƒย‰ยƒยย†ยฃวณ ศ‹อณอปอปอทวฃ อดอฒอทศŒวค  ยƒย•ย‡ยย‡ยย‡ยƒ ยƒย„ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย”ย‡ ยƒ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย‡ยย‹ยŽย‘ย” ยƒ ย†ย—ย• ยŽยƒ ย–ย‡ยย•ย‹ย—ยย‹วก ย„ย‹ยย‡ ย†ย‘ย…ย—ยย‡ยย–ยƒย–ย‡วก ย•ยƒย— ยŽยƒ ย”ย‹ย’ย‘ย•ย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ย’ยƒย”ย–ย‡ยƒ ยŒย—ย”ยยƒยŽย‹รงย–ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ศ‹ยŽย—ยยŽย‡ย”วก อณอปอปอนวข ยŽย—ยยŽย‡ย” รงย‹ ย—ย”ย‡ย˜ย‹ย–ย…ยŠวก อณอปอปอทวขย™ยƒยย•ย‘ยวกอณอปอปอนศŒวค ย—ย”ยยƒยŽย‹รงย–ย‹ย‹ย•ย—ยย–ย†ย‹ยย…ย‡รยย…ย‡ยยƒย‹ยย—ยŽย–รยย†ย‡ยˆย‡ยย•ย‹ย˜ยฃ รยย’ย‘ย–ย”ย‹ย˜ยƒรยย…ย‡ย”ย…ยฃย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย†ย‹ยย’ยƒย”ย–ย‡ยƒย…ยƒยย†ย‹ย†ยƒรฌย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹รงย‹ยƒย…ย‘ยย•ย‹ยŽย‹ย‡ย”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย’ย‡ ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยย‡ ย†ย‡ ย‹ยยƒย‰ย‹ยย‡ ย†ย‡ ยƒวฆย‹ ยยƒยย‹ย’ย—ยŽยƒ รงย‹ ยƒวฆย‹ ย‹ยย–ย‹ยย‹ย†ยƒวค ยšย‹ย•ย–ยฃ ย‘ ยŽย‹ย’ย•ยฃ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย•ย‹ย†ย‡ย”ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‡ ย˜ยฃย†ย‹ย–ยฃ ย’ย”ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ยŒย—ย”ยยƒยŽย‹รงย–ย‹ รย ย…ย‡ย‡ยƒ ย…ย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‡รงย–ย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ยย…ย‹ย’ยƒยŽย‡ยŽย‡ ย’ยƒย”ย–ย‹ย†ย‡ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‡รงย‹ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย‡ยย‹ย‹ยยƒย”ย…ยƒยแŒ”ย‹รงย‹ย‘ย…ย”ย‡รงย–ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒย–ย‡ยย†ย‹ยแŒ”ย‡ย‹ย†ย‹ยยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒ ย†ย‡ ยƒ วทย��ย…ย‘ย’ย‡ย”ย‹ ย†ย‹ย•ย’ย”ย‡แŒ”ย—ย‹ย–ย‘ย”วณ ยƒยย—ยย‹ย–ย‡ ย•ย—ย„ย‹ย‡ย…ย–ย‡ ศ‹ย‡ยย‡ย–ยย‘วก ย‡ย– ยƒยŽวควก อณอปอปอณศŒวค  ย•ยˆย‹ย†ยƒย”ย‡ ย˜ย‹ยœย‹ย„ย‹ยŽยฃ ยŽยƒ ยƒย†ย”ย‡ย•ยƒ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย‹ รงย‹ ยƒย’ยƒย”ย‹แŒ”ย‹ยƒ วทยย‡ย–ยƒ ยƒย…ย‘ย’ย‡ย”ย‹ย”ย‹ย‹วณวก ย—ยย†ย‡ ยยƒยยƒย‰ย‡ยย‡ยย–ย—ยŽ ย†ย‡ ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒ ย†ย‡ย˜ย‹ยย‡ รงย–ย‹ย”ย‡วก ย•ย—ยย– ย”ยฃย•ย’ย—ยย•ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡วก ย†ย‘ย…ย—ยย‡ยย–ยƒย–ย‡วก ยƒยŽย‡ยŒย—ย”ยยƒยŽย‹รงย–ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วกยŽยƒย’ย”ย‡ย–ย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย‡ยย‹ยŽย‘ย”ศ‹ย•ย•ย‡ย”ย‡ย–ยƒยŽวควกอดอฒอฒอณศŒวค ย•ย‡ยย‡ยย‡ยƒ ย”ย‡ยƒย…แŒ”ย‹ย‹ ยƒย— ย†ย—ย• ยŽยƒ ยƒย’ยƒย”ย‹แŒ”ย‹ยƒ ยƒรงยƒวฆยย—ยย‹ย–ย‡ย‹ วทย†ย‹ยยƒยย‹ย…ย‹ ย†ย‹ย•ย’ย”ย‡รฌย—ย‹ย–ย‘ยƒย”ย‡วณ ศ‹ย™ยƒยย•ย‘ยวก อณอปอปอนศŒ รย ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃวฃ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย‡ยย‹ย‹ ยย— ยƒย—ยƒยŽย–ยฃย‘ย’แŒ”ย‹ย—ยย‡ย†ย‡ย…ยŸย–ย•ยฃย‹ยย‘ย˜ย‡ยœย‡ย…ย‘ยย–ย‹ยย—ย—รงย‹ย•ยฃย—ย–ย‹ยŽย‹ยœย‡ยœย‡ยย‘ย‹ย–ย‡ยŠยย‹ย…ย‹ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยƒ ย…ย‘ยย–ย”ย‘ยŽยƒ ยƒย‰ย‡ยย†ยƒ ย†ย‡ ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒวค ยƒ ย”ยŸยย†ย—ยŽ ยŽย‘ย”วก ยŒย—ย”ยยƒยŽย‹รงย–ย‹ย‹ ย”ยฃย•ย’ย—ยย† ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‘ย” รยย…ย‡ย”ย…ยฃย”ย‹ ย†ย‡ ยยƒยย‹ย’ย—ยŽยƒย”ย‡ รยย–ย”วฆย—ย ยย‘ย† รงย‹ ยยƒย‹ ย˜ย‹ย”ย—ยŽย‡ยย–วค ยƒย”ย–ย‹ย†ย‡ยŽย‡ รงย‹ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย‡ยย‹ย‹ย–ย”ย‡ย„ย—ย‹ย‡ย•ยฃย‰ยฃย•ย‡ยƒย•ย…ยฃยย‘ย‹ยˆย‡ยŽย—ย”ย‹ย†ย‡ยƒย•ย‡ยƒย†ย”ย‡ย•ยƒย‡ยŽย‡ย…ย–ย‘ย”ยƒย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹วกย…ย‡ย‡ยƒ ย…ย‡ย’ย”ย‘ย˜ย‘ยƒย…ยฃรยย…ยฃย—ยย”ยฃย•ย’ย—ยย•ย†ย‹ยย’ยƒย”ย–ย‡ยƒยŒย—ย”ยยƒยŽย‹รงย–ย‹ยŽย‘ย”วคย‡ย‡ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย‡รยย–ยŸยย’ยŽยฃ ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย‘วทย‘ย•ย’ย‹ย”ยƒยŽยฃย…ย‘ยย–ย‹ยย—ยฃย†ย‡ยยƒยย‹ย’ย—ยŽยƒย”ย‡รงย‹ย”ย‡ยœย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยแŒ”ยฃวณศ‹ย‹ย„ย‹ย†วควฃอณอดอนอฒศŒวค 

Relaฤขia comunicator politic โ€“ public  ย‡ยƒยŽยƒยŽย–ยฃ ย†ย‹ยยƒยย‹ย…ยฃ ย‹ยย’ย‘ย”ย–ยƒยย–ยฃวก ยƒย–ยŸย– รย ย•ย‹ย•ย–ย‡ยย‡ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ยฃวก ย…ยŸย– รงย‹ รย ย…ย‡ย‡ยƒ ย…ย‡ ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‡รงย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ย”ย‡ย…แŒ”ย‹ยƒ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‡ย”ย…ย‡ย–ยƒย”ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃ ย…ยƒย”ย–ย‡วก ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ยƒรยย•ย…ยŠย‹ยย„ยƒย”ย‡ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‹ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹รงย‹ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ย—ยŽย‡ยŽย‡ย…ย–ย‘ย”ยƒยŽวคย‡ ย’ย‘ยƒย–ย‡ ย•ย—ย•แŒ”ย‹ยย‡ ย…ยฃ ยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃ ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‡ ยƒยˆยŽยƒย–ยฃ รย ย…ย‘ยย–ย‹ยย—ยฃ ย‡ย˜ย‘ยŽย—แŒ”ย‹ย‡ ยƒ ยƒย–ย”ยƒย• ยยƒย‹ ย’ย—แŒ”ย‹ยยฃ ยƒย–ย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ย‡ รย ย†ย‘ยย‡ยย‹ย—วก ย…ย— ย‡ยšย…ย‡ย’รฌย‹ยƒ ย…ย‘ยย–ย‡ยšย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย•ย–ย—ย†ย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย‡ยˆย‡ย…ย–ย‡ยŽย‘ย” ยยƒย•ย•วฆยย‡ย†ย‹ย‡ย‹วกรยย…ย‘ยย’ยƒย”ยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‡ย…ย—ยƒย–ย‡ยแŒ”ย‹ยƒย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒยˆย‘ย•ย–ยƒย…ย‘ย”ย†ยƒย–ยฃย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‡ย‹ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย•ย‹ยŽย‹ย‡ย”ย‹ย‹ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ รงย‹ ย’ย”ย‘ยˆย‡ย•ย‹ย‘ยย‹รงย–ย‹ย‹ ย†ย‹ย ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒวค ย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ยƒ ยˆย‹ย‹ยย† ย•ย’ย—ย•ย‡วก ย‡ยšย‹ย•ย–ยฃ ย…ยŸย–ย‡ย˜ยƒย‘ย’ย‹ยย‹ย‹ย‡ย†ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยƒย–ย‘ยƒย”ย‡วกย†ย‹ยย’ยƒย”ย–ย‡ยƒย—ยย‘ย”ยƒย—ย–ย‘ย”ย‹รยยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย†ย‘ยย‡ยย‹ย—ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒ ยˆย‡ยŽย—ยŽย—ย‹รยย…ยƒย”ย‡ย”ย‡ยŽยƒแŒ”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ย’ย‘ย–ย‡ย˜ย‘ยŽย—ยƒศ‹ย˜ย‡ยœย‹วกย†ย‡ย‡ยšย‡ยย’ยŽย—วกยŽย—ยยŽย‡ย”รงย‹ ย—ย”ย‡ย˜ย‹ย–ย…ยŠวก อดอฒอฒอฒศŒวก รยย•ยฃ ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยยƒย–ย‹ย…ยƒ ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ ยƒย–ยƒย…ยƒย–ยฃ รงย‹ รย ยƒยŽย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ย•ย…ย‹ย’ยŽย‹ยย‡วก ย…ย—ย ยƒย” ยˆย‹

อบ


COMUNICAREA POLITIC½ MODERN½

ƒ”‡–‹‰—Ž ’‘Ž‹–‹… ȋ˜‡œ‹ǡ †‡ ‡š‡’Ž—ǡ ‡™ƒǡ ͳͻͻͻǢ Žƒ••‡” ‡– ƒŽǤǡ ͳͻͻͻǢ”‹‰ǡʹͲͲ͵ç‹ʹͲͲͶȌǤ…‡ƒ•–£”‡Žƒጔ‹‡–”‡„—‹‡’Žƒ•ƒ–£Áƒ‹Žƒ”‰—Ž …‘–‡š– ƒŽ •…Š‹„£”‹Ž‘” †‹ •‹•–‡—Ž †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£ ç‹ –”‡„—‹‡ ‹˜‡•–‹‰ƒ–£Á†‡–ƒŽ‹—Ǥ 

De la certitudine la incertitudine

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JAMES STANYER

‹’”‡†‹…–‹„‹Ž‡Ǥ ”‘…‡•—Ž †‡ †‡‹†—•–”‹ƒŽ‹œƒ”‡ ç‹ ƒ’ƒ”‹ጔ‹ƒ ‡…‘‘‹‡‹ •‡”˜‹…‹‹Ž‘” ƒ †—• Žƒ †‡…Ž‹—Ž •–”—…–—”‹Ž‘” †‡ …Žƒ•£ –”ƒ†‹ጔ‹‘ƒŽ‡ǡ ”‡Žƒ–‹˜ •–ƒ„‹Ž‡ǡ ç‹ ƒ ‹†‡–‹–£ጔ‹Ž‘” „ƒœƒ–‡ ’‡ ƒ…‡ƒ•–£ ƒ’ƒ”–‡‡ጔ£ Žƒ …Žƒ•£ǡ ƒ…‡•–‡ƒ ˆ‹‹†ÁŽ‘…—‹–‡†‡…£–”‡ˆ‘”‡ƒŽ‡‹†‡–‹–£ጔ‹‹ç‹ƒŽ‡ƒ•‘…‹‡”‹‹—Ž–ƒ‹ˆŽ—‹†‡Ǥ š‹•–£ †‘˜‡œ‹ †‘…—‡–ƒ–‡ Á Ž‡‰£–—”£ …— †‹•’ƒ”‹ì‹ƒ ‹†‡–‹–£ì‹Ž‘” ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ …‘Ž‡…–‹˜‡Ǥ B…‡’Ÿ† …— ƒ‹‹ ̵͹Ͳǡ ƒ–Ÿ– –ƒ–‡Ž‡ ‹–‡ …Ÿ– è‹ ƒ”‡ƒ ”‹–ƒ‹‡ƒ—ˆ‘•–ƒ”–‘”‡Ž‡ƒ’ƒ”‹ì‹‡‹——‹‘†‡Ž‰‡‡”ƒì‹‘ƒŽƒŽ‡ƒŽ‹‹‡”‹‹ ȋƒŽ–‘ǡʹͲͲͲǢ‘””‹•ǡͳͻͻ͹ȌǤ‡‰£–—”ƒ†‹–”‡‹†‡–‹–ƒ–‡ƒ’‘Ž‹–‹…£è‹…Žƒ•£ è‹ ƒ’ƒ”–‡‡ìƒ Žƒ ‰”—’ •‡ †‡•–”ƒ£ ȋ”‡™‡ è‹ Š‘’•‘ǡ ͳͻͻͻǢ ƒŽ–‘ǡ ʹͲͲʹǢ ”ƒŽ‹ǡʹͲͲʹȌǤ‡ƒ•‡‡‡ƒǡ‡š‹•–£‘‡‡”‰‡ì£ƒƒèƒǦ—‹–—Ž—‹ Ƿ‡Ž‡…–‘”ƒ– ‘•…‹Žƒ–̶ǡ ƒ†‹…£ ƒ…‡‹ ˜‘–ƒì‹ …ƒ”‡ — •—– Ž‘‹ƒŽ‹ ——‹ ƒ—‡ ’ƒ”–‹†’‘Ž‹–‹…•ƒ—…ƒ”‡—•‡ƒ‰ƒŒ‡ƒœ£Á˜‘–—Ž’‡–”—…ƒ†‹†ƒì‹†‹ˆ‡”‹ì‹Á ƒ…‡‡ƒè‹ •‡•‹—‡ ‡Ž‡…–‘”ƒŽ£ ȋƒ––‡„‡”‰ǡ ͳͻͻ͸ȌǤ —Žì‹ †‹–”‡ …‡‹ …ƒ”‡ ˆƒ… ’ƒ”–‡†‹ƒ…‡ƒ•–£…ƒ–‡‰‘”‹‡•—––‹‡”‹ǡÁ‰‡‡”ƒŽ…—‡†—…ƒì‹‡„—£è‹…ƒ”‡ — •‡ „ƒœ‡ƒœ£ ’‡ ’ƒ”–‹†‡Ž‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ Á …‡ ’”‹˜‡ç–‡ ’”‘’”‹‹Ž‡ Ž‘” ‘’‹‹‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡Ǥ B–”Ǧƒ†‡˜£”ǡ ƒŽ–‘ ‘–‡ƒœ£ …£ǡ †ƒ…£ Á ͳͻͷʹǡ ͵ͲΨ †‹–”‡ ƒŽ‡‰£–‘”‹‹–‹‡”‹†‹–ƒ–‡Ž‡‹–‡ȋ•—„˜Ÿ”•–ƒ†‡͵Ͳ†‡ƒ‹Ȍ‡”ƒ—’—–‡”‹… ’ƒ”–‹œƒ‹ǡ ƒ…‡Ž ’”‘…‡– •…£œ—•‡ Žƒ ʹͳΨ Á ͳͻͻʹ ȋʹͲͲͲǣ ͵ͳȌǤ ‡…Ž‹—Ž Á ƒˆ‹Ž‹‡”‹Ž‡ Žƒ …Žƒ•£Ȁ’ƒ”–‹† ‡•–‡ ”‡ˆŽ‡…–ƒ– †‡ ‘ •…£†‡”‡ ƒ —£”—Ž—‹ †‡ ‡„”‹ ƒ‹ •‹†‹…ƒ–‡Ž‘”ǣ ƒˆ‹Ž‹‡”‡ƒ Žƒ ˜”‡— •‹†‹…ƒ– ‡•–‡ …‡ƒ ƒ‹ •…£œ—–£ †‹ –‘ƒ–‡ –‹’—”‹Ž‡ ȋ”›•‘ è‹ ‘‡œǡ ʹͲͲʹǢ ƒ•–‡ŽŽ•ǡ ʹͲͲͲȌǤ ”‘…‡•—Ž ‡ƒŽ‹‹‡”‹‹ƒˆ‘•–ˆƒ…‹Ž‹–ƒ–苆‡‡˜‡‹‡–‡…Š‡‹‡…ƒ”‡ǡŽƒ”Ÿ†—ŽŽ‘”ǡƒ—†—• Žƒ‡”‘œ‹—‡ƒÁ…”‡†‡”‹‹Á’‘Ž‹–‹…‹‡‹è‹Á‹•–‹–—ì‹‹’‘Ž‹–‹…‡Ǥ ‡‡–ǡ ”‡ˆŽ‡…–Ÿ† ’£”‡”‹Ž‡ Ž—‹ ‡…ǡ ‡•–‡ †‡ ’£”‡”‡ …£ Ƿ‡‡”‰‹ƒ …‡–£ì‡‹Ž‘”ǡ…ƒ”‡‘†ƒ–£‡”ƒ…ƒƒŽ‹œƒ–£…£–”‡’”‘‹‡…–‡’‘Ž‹–‹…‡‰”ƒ†‹‘ƒ•‡ǤǤǤ ‡•–‡ ƒ…— †‹”‡…ì‹‘ƒ–£ †‹ …‡ Á …‡ ƒ‹ —Ž– Á•’”‡ ’”‘‹‡…–‡ ’‡”•‘ƒŽ‡ ‡‹–‡ •£ ‰‡•–‹‘‡œ‡ è‹ •£ ‡š’”‹‡ ‹†‡–‹–£ì‹ …‘’Ž‡š‡̶ ȋǤ Ǥ ‡‡––ǡ ͳͻͻͺǣ͹ͷͷȌǤ †‡–‹–ƒ–‡ƒ’‘Ž‹–‹…£•Ǧƒ•…Š‹„ƒ–ǡ†‡Žƒƒˆ‹ƒ•—ƒ–£ǡŽƒƒˆ‹— ƒ‰ƒŒƒ‡–’‘œ‹–‹˜ȋƒ—ƒǡÁ‡…è‹‡…Ǧ ‡”•Š‡‹ǡʹͲͲʹȌǤ’ƒ”‹ì‹ƒ —‡‹ ‘‹ ‰‡‡”ƒì‹‹ †‡ …‡–£ì‡‹ ‡†—…ƒì‹ǡ ‘Ǧ’ƒ”–‹œƒ‹ǡ ƒ †—• Žƒ ÁˆŽ‘”‹”‡ƒ —‡‹ ƒ”‹ †‹˜‡”•‹–£ì‹ †‡ ‹†‡–‹–£ì‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ …ƒ”‡ ƒ†‡•‡ƒ •‡ ƒ•‘…‹ƒœ£ …— ”‡ƒŽ‹œƒ”‡ƒ ’”‹ ˆ‘”ì‡ ’”‘’”‹‹ǡ •–‹Ž †‡ ˜‹ƒì£ è‹ ƒŽ–‡ …‘•‹†‡”ƒì‹‹ ’‘•–ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ‹•–‡è‹‡–‹…‡ȋ ‰Ž‡Šƒ”–ǡͳͻͻ͹ƒȌǤ”‘…‡•—Ž†‡‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ‹œƒ”‡ƒ †—• Žƒ ‘ •—„Ǧ’‘Ž‹–‹œƒ”‡ ƒ •‘…‹‡–£ì‹‹ ȋ‡…ǡ ͳͻͻ͹Ǣ ʹͲͲʹǢ ʹͲͲ͵ȌǤ çƒ …— •—•ì‹‡‡…ȋͳͻͻ͹Ȍǡ’‘Ž‹–‹…—Ž‡š‹•–£ÁŽ‘…—”‹‘‹ǡŽ‘…—”‹…ƒ”‡‘†ƒ–£‡”ƒ— …‘•‹†‡”ƒ–‡ ƒ ˆ‹ Á ƒˆƒ”ƒ •ˆ‡”‡‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…—Ž—‹ǡ …— ƒ” ˆ‹ †”‡’–—”‹ ’‡–”— …—’Ž—”‹Ž‡ †‡ ƒ…‡Žƒè‹ •‡šǡ ‡†‹— è‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‹Ž‡ †”‡’–—”‹Ž‘” ‘—Ž—‹Ǥ —„Ǧ ’‘Ž‹–‹œƒ”‡ƒƒƒ†—•…—•‹‡‘‹ˆ‘”‡†‡ƒ…ì‹—‡’‘Ž‹–‹…£è‹†‡‡š’”‹ƒ”‡Ǥ …ì‹—‡ƒ’‘Ž‹–‹…£—ƒ‹‡•–‡”‡•–”Ÿ•£Žƒƒ˜‘–ƒè‹Žƒƒ…ì‹—‹Ž‡…‘Ž‡…–‹˜‡Ǣ ͳͲ


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Conceptualizarea relaĿiilor cu publicul

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JAMES STANYER

ʹͲͲͲȌǤ •‡‡‡ƒ ’‡”•‘ƒŒ‡ è‹ –‡Š‹…‹ •—– ’”‹˜‹–‡ ƒ…— †‡ …£–”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‹‡‹ …ƒ ˆ‹‹† ‹†‹•’‡•ƒ„‹Ž‡Ǥ †ƒ–£ …— ƒ’ƒ”‹ì‹ƒ Ž‘”ǡ ƒ„‘”†ƒ”‡ƒ è‹ Ž‹„ƒŒ—Ž …ƒ’ƒ‹‡‹ •Ǧƒ •…Š‹„ƒ–ǣ ƒŽ‡‰£–‘”‹‹ •—– ’”‹˜‹ì‹ ƒ…— …ƒ ˆ‹‹† …‘•—ƒ–‘”‹…ƒ”‡ƒ’ƒ”싐—‘”•‡‰‡–‡†‡‘‰”ƒˆ‹…‡†‹ˆ‡”‹–‡ǡƒŽ‡…£”‘” ‘’‹‹‹–”‡„—‹‡•…†‡•…‘’‡”‹–‡è‹ƒŽ…£”‘”•—’‘”––”‡„—‹‡‡ì‹—–ȋƒ”–Ž‡è‹

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COMUNICAREA POLITIC½ MODERN½

‡ƒ–‘ǡ ʹͲͲ͵Ǣ …Š‡•‡›ǡ ͳͻͻͻȌǤ ’‘‹ ƒ —”ƒ– ’”‹˜ƒ–‹œƒ”‡ƒ ‘‘’‘Ž—”‹Ž‘” †‡ …‘—‹…ƒì‹‹ †‡ì‹—–‡ †‡ …£–”‡ •–ƒ– è‹ ‘ …”‡è–‡”‡ †”ƒƒ–‹…£ƒƒ…–‘”‹Ž‘”’‡’‹ƒìƒ‡†‹ƒÁƒ„‡Ž‡ጔ£”‹ȋ ‘Ž†‹‰è‹—”†‘…ǡ ʹͲͲͲǢ—”†‘…ǡʹͲͲͲȌǤ —˜‡”‡Ž‡•—……‡•‹˜‡ƒŽ‡ƒ„‡Ž‘”•–ƒ–‡ƒ—ƒ†‘’–ƒ– ‘ƒ„‘”†ƒ”‡†‡laissezǦfaireÁ”‡‰Ž‡‡–ƒ”‡ƒƒ••Ǧ‡†‹ƒǡ‹–‡”˜‡‹††‹ …‡ Á …‡ ƒ‹ ’—싐 Á ’‹ƒìƒ ‡†‹ƒǤ ‡œ—Ž–ƒ–—Ž ƒ ˆ‘•– ƒ…‡Žƒ …£ ‘‹Ž‡ ‘”‰ƒ‹œƒì‹‹ †‡ 薋”‹ ƒ— ˆ‘•– •—’—•‡ —‘” ’”‡•‹—‹ ‡‘”‡ †‹ ’ƒ”–‡ƒ …‘’‡–‹ì‹‡‹ȋ—”–œǡʹͲͲʹȌǤBƒ”‡ƒ”‹–ƒ‹‡ǡ‹•–‹–—ì‹‹Ž‡‡†‹ƒˆ‹ƒìƒ–‡ ’”‹ •‹•–‡—Ž †‡ –ƒš‡ ”ƒ†‹‘Ǧ •‡ ƒˆŽ£ •—„ ’”‡•‹—‡ –‘– ƒ‹ ƒ”‡ǡ †‹ …ƒ—œƒ…‘’‡–‹ì‹‡‹…”‡•…Ÿ†‡ȋ ”ƒŽ‹ǡͳͻͻ͹ȌǤB…‡”…—”‹Ž‡ˆ‘”ƒ–‘ƒ”‡†‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‹ǡ ‘†‡Ž—Ž †‡ •‡”˜‹…‹— ’—„Ž‹…ǡ …Ÿ†˜ƒ ’”‡†‘‹ƒ–ǡ „ƒ–‡ Á ”‡–”ƒ‰‡”‡ Á ˆƒìƒ ‘ì‹—‹Ž‘” ‡‘ǦŽ‹„‡”ƒŽ‡ †‡ •—˜‡”ƒ‹–ƒ–‡ ƒ …‘•—ƒ–‘”—Ž—‹ è‹ „‡‡ˆ‹…‹‹Ž‡ …‘’‡–‹ì‹‡‹Ǥ B –ƒ–‡Ž‡ ‹–‡ǡ ’”‘…‡•—Ž †‡ ‘”‹‡–ƒ”‡ …£–”‡ ’”‹…‹’‹‹Ž‡ †‡ ’‹ƒì£ •‡ ‹–‡•‹ˆ‹…£ ȋ‡ŽŽ‹ ƒ”’‹‹ è‹ ‹ŽŽ‹ƒ•ǡʹͲͲͳǢ…Š‡•‡›ǡͳͻͻͻȌǤ …‡è–‹ ˆƒ…–‘”‹ ƒ…ì‹‘‡ƒœ£ Á’‘–”‹˜ƒ ”‡Žƒ–£”‹Ž‘” ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ Ƿ†‡‡ǡ †ƒ” •‡…‹dzǤ ‘Ž‹–‹…‹Ž‡ …‘˜‡ì‹‘ƒŽ‡ •—– –”ƒ–ƒ–‡ †‹ …‡ Á …‡ ƒ‹ —Ž– †‹ ’‡”•’‡…–‹˜ƒ ˜ƒŽ‘”‹‹ †‡ 薋”‡ǡ ‹–”Ÿ† Á …‘…—”‡ì£ …— ƒŽ–‡ ‡˜‡‹‡–‡ǡ ’‡–”— ƒ–‡ì‹ƒ ’”‡•‡‹ ȋŽ—Ž‡” è‹ —”‡˜‹–…Šǡ ͳͻͻͷȌǤ ‘‡–ƒǡ ‡š‹•–£ –‡†‹ìƒ †‡ ƒ ”‡†—…‡ ’‘†‡”‡ƒ ƒˆƒ…‡”‹Ž‘” …—”‡–‡ Á „—Ž‡–‹‡Ž‡ †‡ 薋”‹ ȋƒŠ”ƒǡ ʹͲͲͳǢ ‡™Ž‡–ǡ ʹͲͲͷȌ è‹ †‡ ƒ ƒ”‰‹ƒŽ‹œƒ ”‡Žƒ–£”‹Ž‡ ’”‹˜‹† ƒŽ‡‰‡”‹Ž‡ȋ”‘‘‹‰• •–‹–—–‹‘ǡͳͻͻ͹Ǣ‡ƒ…‘‡–ƒŽǤǡʹͲͲͷȌǤ‹…‡Á…‡ ƒ‹ —Ž–ǡ ”‡Žƒ–ƒ”‡ƒ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‹Ž‘” …‘˜‡ì‹‘ƒŽ‡ ‘…—’£ — •’ƒì‹— †‡ ‹è£ ȋ ƒŽŽ‹ǡ ʹͲͲ͸ȌǤ ‹‹–ƒ †‹–”‡ ”‡’‘”–ƒŒ—Ž ’‘Ž‹–‹… •‡”‹‘• è‹ †‹˜‡”–‹•‡– ƒ †‡˜‡‹– †‹ …‡ Á …‡ ƒ‹ ‡…Žƒ”£ ȋŽ—Ž‡”ǡ ͳͻͻͻǢ ƒŽŽ‹ǡ ʹͲͲͲǢ ‡”„‡Žǡ ͳͻͻͻǢ ‹ŽŽ‹ƒ• è‹ ‡ŽŽ‹ ƒ”’‹‹ǡ ʹͲͲͲǢ ƒŽŽ‡”ǡ ͳͻͻͻȌ ç‹ ‡š‹•–£ — ‹–‡”‡• •’‘”‹–Á’”‹˜‹ìƒ˜‹‡ì‹‹’‡”•‘ƒŽ‡ƒ’‘Ž‹–‹…‹‡‹Ž‘”ǡŒ—”ƒŽ‹è–‹‹Á’£”싐†Á ƒ…‡Žƒè‹–‹’Ƿ•…‡ƒ‡†‹ƒdz…———£”†‡‡ǦŒ—”ƒŽ‹è–‹ȋ ‘Ž‡•ǡʹͲͲͲǢ ƒ„ƒ–‘‡–ƒŽǤǡʹͲͲͲȌǤ B …‘…Ž—œ‹‡ǡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‹‡‹‹ è‹ ‹•–‹–—ì‹‹Ž‡ ‡†‹ƒ — ƒ‹ ’‘– …‘–ƒ ’‡ ƒ—†‹‡ì£’‡–”—•—’‘”–苃–‡ì‹‡Ǥƒ…£ƒ…‡è–‹ƒ…–‘”‹•–”ƒ–‡‰‹…‹˜‘”•£Áè‹ ”‡ƒŽ‹œ‡œ‡ ‹–‡ì‹‹Ž‡ è‹ •£ Áè‹ ƒ–‹‰£ •…‘’—”‹Ž‡ǡ •—•ì‹‡”‡ƒ è‹ Ž‘‹ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‡ƒ –”‡„—‹‡ …—Ž–‹˜ƒ–‡ è‹ ‡ì‹—–‡ ȋ‡‡––ǡ ʹͲͲ͵ƒȌǤ ‘—‹…ƒ–‘”‹‹ ’‘Ž‹–‹…‹ –”ƒ†‹ì‹‘ƒŽ‹ –”‡„—‹‡ •£ ‰£•‡ƒ•…£ ‘‹ ˆ‡Ž—”‹ †‡ ƒ ‡ì‹‡ Ž‘‹ƒŽ‹–ƒ–‡ƒ è‹ •—’‘”–—Žǡ ’”‹ ‹–‡”‡†‹—Ž —‡‹ …‘„‹ƒì‹‹ †‡ •–—†‹‹ †‡ ’‹ƒì£ǡ ƒ’‡Ž—”‹ ’‡”•‘ƒŽ‹œƒ–‡è‹Ȁ•ƒ—‡•ƒŒ‡‡‘ì‹‘ƒŽǦ’‘’—Ž‹•–‡Ǥ

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JAMES STANYER

Adaptarea audienĞei

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ConsecinĿele democraĿiei

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COMUNICAREA POLITIC½ MODERN½

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Structura cÂrŃii  …‡ƒ•–£ …ƒ”–‡ ‡š’Ž‘”‡ƒœ£ ‡˜‘Ž—ጔ‹‹Ž‡ …Š‡‹‡ †‹£—–”—Ž •‹•–‡‡Ž‘” †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡’‘Ž‹–‹…£†‹–ƒ–‡Ž‡‹–‡ƒŽ‡‡”‹…‹‹è‹ƒ”‡ƒ”‹–ƒ‹‡ǡ†—’£ …—ƒ†‡•…”‹•è‹Áƒ…‡•–…ƒ’‹–‘ŽǤBŽ‹‹‡…—•–—†‹‹Ž‡ƒ–‡”‹‘ƒ”‡ǡ…ƒ”–‡ƒ•‡ …‘…‡–”‡ƒœ£ ’‡ Ƿ–”‹ƒ†ƒ –‹’—Ž—‹ †‡ ƒ…–‘”‹̶ ȋ‡‹ì£–‘”‹ǡ ‡†‹ƒ–‘”‹ è‹ ƒ—†‹‡ì‡Ȍǡ •‹–—ƒ–£ Á–”Ǧ— …Ÿ’ •‘…‹‘Ǧ’‘Ž‹–‹… è‹ †‡ ‡†‹—ǡ ’‡–”— ƒ •’‡…‹ˆ‹…ƒ ’‘•‹„‹Ž‡Ž‡ ‹ˆŽ—‡ì‡ ƒ•—’”ƒ ”‡Žƒì‹‹Ž‘” Ž‘” ”‡…‹’”‘…‡ è‹ •’”‡ ƒ ‹†‡–‹ˆ‹…ƒ ‘†‡Ž‡Ž‡ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ‡ …ƒ”‡ ’‘– ”‡œ—Ž–ƒ †‹ ‹–‡”ƒ…ì‹—‹Ž‡ Ž‘” ȋŽ—Ž‡” è‹ —”‡˜‹–…Šǡ ʹͲͲͲǣ ͳ͸ͻȌǤ ƒ”–‡ƒ ƒ‹ ƒƒŽ‹œ‡ƒœ£ ˆ‡Ž—Ž Á …ƒ”‡ …‘•‹†‡”ƒì‹‹Ž‡ Á ˆ—…싇 †‡ ƒ—†‹‡ì‡ ˆ‘”‡ƒœ£ ƒ…–‹˜‹–£ì‹Ž‡ ’ƒ”–‹†‡Ž‘” ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ǡƒŽ‡…ƒ†‹†ƒì‹Ž‘”苃Ž‡…ƒƒŽ‡Ž‘”‡†‹ƒ–”ƒ†‹ì‹‘ƒŽ‡Ǥ‡ƒ•‡‡‡ƒǡ Ž—…”ƒ”‡ƒ•–—†‹ƒœ£‹’Ž‹…ƒ”‡ƒƒ—†‹‡ì‡‹è‹’ƒ”–‹…‹’ƒ”‡ƒƒ…‡•–‡‹ƒÁ’”‘…‡•—Ž †‡ …‘—‹…ƒ”‡ ’‘Ž‹–‹…£Ǥ ƒ’‹–‘Ž‡Ž‡ …£”ì‹‹ •—– ‘”‰ƒ‹œƒ–‡ Á –”‡‹ •‡…ጔ‹—‹Ǥ ƒ”–‡ƒ  •‡ ‘…—’£ †‡ ƒ…ì‹—‹Ž‡ ’ƒ”–‹†‡Ž‘” ’‘Ž‹–‹…‡ǡ ƒŽ‡ …ƒ†‹†ƒì‹Ž‘” è‹ ƒŽ‡ ‰—˜‡”‡Ž‘”Ǥ ƒ”–‡ƒ ƒ

Ǧƒ ’”‹˜‡è–‡ ‡˜‘Ž—ጔ‹‹Ž‡ Á ’”‹˜‹ìƒ ”‡Žƒì‹‡‹ …— ’”‘ˆ‡•‹‘‹è–‹‹ †‹ ‡†‹ƒ è‹ ‘”‰ƒ‹œƒì‹‹Ǥ ƒ”–‡ƒ ƒ

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ͳͷ


JAMES STANYER

ย”ย‹ยย—ยŽ ย…ยƒย’ย‹ย–ย‘ยŽ ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‡รจย–ย‡ ยยƒย–ย—ย”ยƒ ย†ย‹ยยƒยย‹ย…ยฃ ยƒ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยฃย”ย‹ย‹ ย†ย‡ ย…ยƒยย’ยƒยย‹ย‡วค ย‡วฆยƒ ยŽย—ยย‰ย—ยŽ ย—ยŽย–ย‹ยย‹ยŽย‘ย” อตอฒ ย†ย‡ ยƒยย‹วก ย…ย‡ย–ยฃรฌย‡ยย‹ย‹ ยƒย— ย†ย‡ย˜ย‡ยย‹ย– ย•ย—ย„ย‹ย‡ย…รฌย‹ย‹ ย—ยย‘ย” ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยฃย”ย‹ ย…ย— รฌย‹ยย–ยฃ รย ย–ย‹ยย’ย—ยŽ ย…ยƒยย’ยƒยย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย‡ยŽย‡ย…ย–ย‘ย”ยƒยŽย‡วข ย…ยƒยย†ย‹ย†ยƒรฌย‹ย‹ รรจย‹ ย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ยย–ย”ย‡ยƒยœยฃ ย‡ยˆย‘ย”ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒ ย…ยŸย–ย‘ย”ย˜ยƒ ย˜ย‘ย–ยƒยรฌย‹วก ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย’ย‘ย– ย‹ยยˆยŽย—ย‡ยรฌยƒย”ย‡ยœย—ยŽย–ยƒย–ย—ยŽย‡ยŽย‡ย…ย–ย‘ย”ยƒยŽวคยƒย”ย‡ยƒยยƒยŒย‘ย”ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒย…ย‡ย–ยฃรฌย‡ยย‹ยŽย‘ย” ย•ย—ยย–ยˆย‘ย”รฌยƒรฌย‹ ย•ยฃ ยˆย‹ย‡ ย•ย‹ยย’ยŽย‹ ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ยƒย–ย‘ย”ย‹ ยƒย‹ ย’ย”ย‘ย…ย‡ย•ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย‡ยŽย‡ย…ย–ย‘ย”ยƒยŽ ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒย–วค ย…ย‡ย•ย– ย…ยƒย’ย‹ย–ย‘ยŽ ย•ย—ย„ยŽย‹ยย‹ยƒยœยฃวก ย†ย‡ ยƒย•ย‡ยย‡ยย‡ยƒวก ยˆย‡ยŽย—ยŽ รย ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย…ย‘ย•ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย…ยƒยย’ยƒยย‹ย‡ย‹ ย‡ยŽย‡ย…ย–ย‘ย”ยƒยŽย‡ ยƒย— ย…ย”ย‡ย•ย…ย—ย– ย†ย”ยƒยยƒย–ย‹ย…วก ยŽย‹ยย‹ย–ยŸยย† ย’ยƒย”ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย’ยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ย‡ยˆย‡ย…ย–ย‹ย˜ยฃ ยŽยƒ ยƒย…ย‡ย‹ยƒ ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย†ย‹ย•ย’ย—ย ย†ย‡ ยˆย‘ยย†ย—ย”ย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ย•ย‡ย”ย‹ย†ย‹ย…ยฃยŽยƒยย‹ยŽย‹ย‘ยƒยย‡ย†ย‡ย†ย‘ยŽยƒย”ย‹ศ€ยŽย‹ย”ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย”ยŽย‹ยย‡วกย’ย‡ย”ย’ย‡ย–ย—ยŸยย†ยƒย•ย–ยˆย‡ยŽ ย‡ยšย…ยŽย—ย•ย‹ย˜ย‹ย•ยย—ยŽวค ย—ยยƒย‹ ยƒย…ย‡ยŽย‡ ย’ยƒย”ย–ย‹ย†ย‡ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‡ศ€ย…ยƒยย†ย‹ย†ยƒรฌย‹ ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย’ย‘ย– ย•ย–ย”ยŸยย‰ย‡ ยˆย‘ยย†ย—ย”ย‹ ย‹ยย‡ยย•ย‡ ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ยƒวฆรจย‹ ย•ย—ย•รฌย‹ยย‡ ย‡ยˆย‘ย”ย–ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ ย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡วก ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย…ยƒย—ย–ยฃ ย†ย‹ย ย…ย‡ รย ย…ย‡ ยยƒย‹ ยย—ยŽย– ย•ยฃ ยƒย…ย–ย‹ย˜ย‡ยœย‡ ย‰ย”ย—ย’ย—ย”ย‹ รฌย‹ยย–ยฃ ย†ย‡ ยƒยŽย‡ย‰ยฃย–ย‘ย”ย‹วก ย˜ย‘ย” ย‘ย„รฌย‹ยย‡ ย˜ย‹ย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ยƒวค ยƒย’ย‹ย–ย‘ยŽย—ยŽ อด ย‡ยšยƒยย‹ยย‡ยƒยœยฃ ยƒย’ยƒย”ย‹รฌย‹ยƒ ย—ยย‡ย‹ ยŽย‘ย‰ย‹ย…ย‹ ย’ย”ย‘ยย‘รฌย‹ย‘ยยƒยŽย‡ ยŽยƒ ยย‹ย˜ย‡ยŽย—ยŽ ย‰ย—ย˜ย‡ย”ยย—ยŽย—ย‹วค ย…ย‡ย•ย–ยƒ ย‡ยšย’ยŽย‘ย”ย‡ยƒยœยฃ ยˆย‡ยŽย—ยŽ รย ย…ยƒย”ย‡วก รย ยƒยย„ย‡ยŽย‡ รฌยฃย”ย‹วก ยƒย†ยย‹ยย‹ย•ย–ย”ยƒรฌย‹ย‹ ย…ย‘ยย•ย‡ย…ย—ย–ย‹ย˜ย‡วก ย‘ย†ยƒย–ยฃ ยƒยŽย‡ย•ย‡วก ยƒย— ย…ยฃย—ย–ยƒย– ย•ยฃ ยย‡ยรฌย‹ยยฃ ย•ย—ย’ย‘ย”ย–ย—ยŽ ย‡ยŽย‡ย…ย–ย‘ย”ยƒย–ย—ยŽย—ย‹วก ย…ยฃย—ย–ยŸยย† ย•ยฃ รรจย‹ ยŽย‹ย˜ย”ย‡ยœย‡ ยย‡ย•ยƒยŒย‡ยŽย‡ รยย–ย”วฆย—ย ยย‘ย† ยยƒย‹ ย‡ยˆย‹ย…ย‹ย‡ยย–วค ย•ย‡ยย‡ยย‡ยƒ ย–ย‡ยย–ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ย‡ยƒย—ย†ย‡ย–ย‡ย”ยย‹ยยƒย–ย”ย‡ยˆย‘ย”ยย‡ย•ย–ย”ย—ย…ย–ย—ย”ยƒยŽย‡ยƒยŽย‡ย‰ย—ย˜ย‡ย”ยย—ยŽย—ย‹วกยˆย‘ยŽย‘ย•ย‹ย”ย‡ยƒย’ย‡ ย•ย…ยƒย”ยฃยŽยƒย”ย‰ยฃยƒย’ย”ย‘ยˆย‡ย•ย‹ย‘ยย‹รจย–ย‹ยŽย‘ย”รจย‹ยƒย–ย‡ยŠยย‹ย…ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย†ย‡ย…ยƒยย’ยƒยย‹ย‡วคBยย•ยฃวกย†ย—ย’ยฃย…ย—ย ยƒย”ยƒย–ยฃยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย…ยƒย’ย‹ย–ย‘ยŽวกยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย–ย—ย”ย—ย”ย‹ย†ย‡ยˆย‘ย”รฌยฃรยยยƒยยƒย‰ย‡ยย‡ยย–ยย—ยƒย—ย‡ยŽย‹ยย‹ยยƒย– ย”ย‹ย•ย…ย—ย”ย‹ยŽย‡รงย‹ยย‹ย…ย‹ยย—ยƒย—ยย‡ยรฌย‹ยย—ย–ย’ย‘ย’ย—ยŽยƒย”ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒยƒย†ยย‹ยย‹ย•ย–ย”ยƒรฌย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย•ย—ย…ย…ย‡ย•ย‹ย˜ย‡วก ย…ย‹ ยƒย— ย’ย”ย‘ย˜ย‘ย…ยƒย– ย–ย”ยƒยย•ยˆย‘ย”ยยƒย”ย‡ยƒ ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‘ย” ย–ย‡ยŠยย‹ย…ย‹ รย ย•ย—ย„ย‹ย‡ย…ย– ย†ย‡ รจย–ย‹ย”ย‹วก ย…ย— ย–ย‡ยย–ยƒย–ย‹ย˜ย‡ย†ย‡ยยƒยยƒย‰ย‡ย”ย‹ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒยยƒย•ย•ยย‡ย†ย‹ย‡ย‹วกย„ย‹ยย‡ย†ย‘ย…ย—ยย‡ยย–ยƒย–ย‡รยย’ย”ย‡ย•ยฃวค ยƒย’ย‹ย–ย‘ยŽย—ยŽอตย‡ยšย’ยŽย‘ย”ย‡ยƒยœยฃยยƒย–ย—ย”ยƒย†ย‹ยย…ย‡รยย…ย‡ยยƒย‹ย‹ยย–ย‹ยยฃยƒย”ย‡ยŽยƒรฌย‹ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย… รจย‹ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย‡ยย‹วค ย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‹ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ ยย— ยย—ย���ƒย‹ ย…ยฃ ยƒย— ย†ย‡ย˜ย‡ยย‹ย– ย—รจย‘ย” ย†ย‡ ย”ย‡ย…ย—ยย‘ย•ย…ย—ย– ย’ย‡ยย–ย”ย— ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…วก ย…ย‹ ย•ย—ยย– ยƒย…ย—ย ย•ย–ย”ยฃย‹ยย‹ ย‹ยย–ย‹ยย‹วก ย˜ย‹ย‡รฌย‹ยŽย‡ ยŽย‘ย” ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ยƒย–ย‡ ยˆย‹ย‹ยย† ย„ย‹ยย‡ ย…ย—ยย‘ย•ย…ย—ย–ย‡ ยย‹ยŽย‹ย‘ยƒยย‡ยŽย‘ย” ย†ย‡ ย…ย‡ย–ยฃรฌย‡ยย‹วค ย‡วฆยƒ ยŽย—ยย‰ย—ยŽ ย•ย‡ย…ย‘ยŽย—ยŽย—ย‹ วก ยƒย–ยŸย–รยย–ยƒย–ย‡ยŽย‡ยย‹ย–ย‡ยƒยŽย‡ยย‡ย”ย‹ย…ย‹ย‹วกย…ยŸย–รจย‹รยยƒย”ย‡ยƒย”ย‹ย–ยƒยย‹ย‡วกยƒย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย‡ย‹ยย–ย‹ยย‡ ยƒยŽย‡ย˜ย‹ย‡รฌย‹ย‹ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ย‡ยย‹ยŽย‘ย”ยยƒย”ย…ยƒยรฌย‹ยƒย—ยˆย‘ย•ย–ยˆยฃย…ย—ย–ย‡ย…ย—ยย‘ย•ย…ย—ย–ย‡วกย’ย”ย‹ยย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ยย‡ย†ย‹ย—ยŽ ยยƒย•ย•วฆยย‡ย†ย‹ย‡ย‹วกย—ยย‡ย‹ยƒย—ย†ย‹ย‡ยรฌย‡ย†ย‡ย…ย‡ย–ยฃรฌย‡ยย‹ยย‘ยวฆย’ย”ย‡ยœย‡ยย–ย‡วคBยย‡ย•ย‡ยแŒ”ยฃวกย…ยƒย’ย‹ย–ย‘ยŽย—ยŽ ย•ย—ย•รฌย‹ยย‡ ย…ยฃ ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย‹ยŽย‡ ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒย–ย‡ ย•ย—ยย– ย…ย‡ยย–ย”ยƒย–ย‡ ย’ย‡ ย…ยŠย‡ย•ย–ย‹ย—ยย‡ยƒ ย…ยƒย”ยƒย…ย–ย‡ย”ย—ยŽย—ย‹ ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย‘ยยƒยŒย—ยŽย—ย‹วค Bยย…ยƒย’ย‹ย–ย‘ยŽย—ยŽอถวกยƒย–ย‡ยรฌย‹ยƒย•ย‡ยย—ย–ยฃย’ย‡ย”ย‡ยŽยƒรฌย‹ยƒรยย•ย…ยŠย‹ยย„ยƒย”ย‡ย†ย‹ยย–ย”ย‡ย…ย‡ย‹ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ยˆยƒย… ย’ยƒย”ย–ย‡ ย†ย‹ย ยยƒย•ย• ยย‡ย†ย‹ยƒ รงย‹ ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ย—ยŽ ยŽย‘ย”วค ยƒย’ย‹ย–ย‘ยŽย—ยŽ ยƒย”ย‰ย—ยย‡ยย–ย‡ยƒยœยฃ ย…ยฃ ยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยฃย”ย‡ยŽยƒรฌย‹ย‡ยƒย–ย”ย‡ย…ย—ย–ย’ย”ย‹ยย–ย”วฆย‘ย•ย…ยŠย‹ยย„ยƒย”ย‡ยˆย—ยย†ยƒยย‡ยย–ยƒยŽยฃรยย—ยŽย–ย‹ยย‹ย‹อทอฒย†ย‡ ยƒยย‹วกย…ยƒย”ย‡ยœย—ยŽย–ยƒย–ยƒยŽย—ยย‡ย‹ย…ย‘ยย„ย‹ยยƒรฌย‹ย‹ย†ย‡ยˆยƒย…ย–ย‘ย”ย‹วคย”ย‹ย‰ย‹ยย‹ยŽย‡ยƒย…ย‡ย•ย–ย‡ย‹ย–ย”ยƒยย•ยˆย‘ย”ยยฃย”ย‹ ย•ย—ยย– ย‹ย†ย‡ยย–ย‹ยˆย‹ย…ยƒย–ย‡ รย ยย‘ย†ยƒยŽย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‡ยƒ รย ย…ยƒย”ย‡ ย‘ย”ย‰ยƒยย‹ยœยƒรฌย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ ย†ย‡ รจย–ย‹ย”ย‹ รรจย‹ ย’ย”ย‹ย˜ย‡ย•ย… ย”ย‘ยŽย—ยŽรยย”ยƒย’ย‘ย”ย–ย…ย—ย’ย—ย„ยŽย‹ย…ย—ยŽยŽย‘ย”รจย‹ย‹ยย’ยƒย…ย–ย—ยŽย’ย‡ย…ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย…ย‡ยƒย•ย–ยƒยŽวฆยƒยƒย˜ย—ย–ยƒย•ย—ย’ย”ยƒ ยย‘ย†ยƒยŽย‹ย–ยฃแŒ”ย‹ยŽย‘ย”ย†ย‡ยƒยƒย…ย‘ย’ย‡ย”ย‹ย’ย‘ยŽย‹ย–ย‹ย…ย—ยŽวคBยยย‘ย—ยŽย’ย‡ย‹ย•ยƒยŒยƒยŽย…ย‘ยย—ยย‹ย…ยฃย”ย‹ย‹วกย†ยƒย–ย‘ย”ย‹ย‹ยŽย‡ อณอธ


COMUNICAREA POLITIC½ MODERN½

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