STRING THEORY [ a constructed type ]
CHRISTIANA DEL VECCHIO
STRING THEORY [ a constructed type ]
All information contained in this book was obtained from Wikipedia. The concents of this book were retrieved at Wikipedia at http://wikipedia.org. The purpose of this book is for a typography project in Diane Zatzâ€™s Typography III class. One copy will be turned over to Diane Zatz and any other copy will be distributed among friends and family only with the understanding that the book cannot be sold. The fonts used in this book were: Futura Condenced Medium Futura Medium Bebas Neue Theologian The Constructed Alphabet was made using white string and thumbtacks on a black board. The font Theologian was constructed on Fontstruct.com.
a r ·e ·a
Area 51 is a US Air Force base in southern Nevada, rumored to be where the government stores aliens and UFOs. It has been a main topic of alien and UFO conspiracies, though the government denies it. The base serves as a research facility for aircrafts. Some of the known programs conducted at Area 51 was the U-2 program, X-15 program, OXCART program, D-21 Tagboard, Foreign technology evaluation, and the Have Blue/F-117 program. Area 51 has been a location in science fiction movies in pop culture. The location was featured in Indiana Jones as well as Independance Day. Many believe it is America’s headquarters of all that is science fiction. Experiments on aliens, time travel, and tests have been linked to Area 51.
bi ·o ·che m ·i s ·t r y Biochemistry is the science of living matter. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of cellular components such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules —although increasingly processes rather than individual molecules are the main focus. Among the vast number of different biomolecules, many are complex and large molecules (called biopolymers), which are composed of similar repeating subunits (called monomers). Each class of polymeric biomolecule has a different set of subunit types. For example, a protein is a polymer whose subunits are selected from a set of 20 or more amino acids. Biochemistry studies the chemical properties of important biological molecules, like proteins, and in particular the chemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
chal ·l e ng ·e r Space Shuttle Challenger was built by Rockwell International’s Space Transportation Systems Division in California. It was NASA’s second space shuttle flight with Columbia being it’s first. It’s maiden voyage was April 4, 1983, succeeding in 9 missions. Unfortunately, it broke apart 73 seconds after the launch of its tenth mission, STS-51-L on January 28, 1986, resulting in the death of all seven crew members. It’s crew members were Francis R. Scobee – Mission Commander, Michael J. Smith – Pilot, Ellison S. Onizuka – Mission Specialist 1, Judith A. Resnik – Mission Specialist 2, Ronald E. McNair – Mission Specialist 3, Christa McAuliffe – Payload Specialist 1, and Gregory B. Jarvis – Payload Specialist 2.
D a r 路wi n Charles Darwin, an English Naturalist, established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. His 1859 book, The Origin of Species, brought many critics to reject his findings while others grew curious of evolution. He spent a 5-year voyage on HMS Beagle where he studied different species which lead him to publish a journal of his voyage which deemed him a popular scientist. In 1838 he came up with the theory of Natural Selection, a topic that is taught in many science classrooms today.
E i n·s te i n Albert Einstein was born March 14, 1879 in Ulm Germany. Hailed as one of the greatest scientists in history, he was best known for his theory of relativity E = mc2. In 1921 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”. It was a stepping stone in establishing quantum theory. Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity.
f o r ce Force is physical power or strength possessed by a living being or strength exerted upon an object. Force is measured with the SI unit Newtons. It is that which can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate, or which can cause a flexible object to deform. Newtonâ€™s second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time. The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional the mass of the object.
gr a v ·i ·t y Gravity is the natural phenomenon by which physical bodies appear to attract each other with a force proportional to their masses. It is most commonly experienced as the agent that gives weight to objects with mass and causes them to fall to the ground when dropped. In 1687, English mathematician Sir Isaac Newton published Principia, which hypothesizes the inverse-square law of universal gravitation. In his own words, “I deduced that the forces which keep the planets in their orbs must [be] reciprocally as the squares of their distances from the centers about which they revolve: and thereby compared the force requisite to keep the Moon in her Orb with the force of gravity at the surface of the Earth; and found them answer pretty nearly.”
hy ·dr o ·g e n Hydrogen is a chemical element with the symbol H. It’s atomic weight is 1.00794 and is the lightest element in the periodic table. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Naturally occurring atomic hydrogen is rare on Earth because hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most non-metallic elements and is present in the water molecule and in most organic compounds. Hydrogen plays a particularly important role in acid-base chemistry with many reactions exchanging protons between soluble molecules.
i Âˇo n An ion is an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom a net positive or negative electrical charge. Ions can be created by both chemical and physical means. In chemical terms, if a neutral atom loses one or more electrons, it has a net positive charge and is known as an cation. If an atom gains electrons, it has a net negative charge and is known as an anion. An ion consisting of a single atom is an atomic or monatomic ion; if it consists of two or more atoms, it is a molecular or polyatomic ion. In the case of physical ionization of a medium, such as a gas, what are known as â€œion pairsâ€? are created by ion impact, and each pair consists of a free electron and a positive ion.
j o ul e The joule, symbol J, is a derived unit of energy, work, or amount of heat in the International System of Units. It is equal to the energy expended (or work done) in applying a force of one newton through a distance of one metre (1 newton metre or NÂˇm), or in passing an electric current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm for one second. It is named after the English physicist James Prescott Joule (1818â€“1889). This SI unit is named after James Prescott Joule. As with every International System of Units (SI) unit whose name is derived from the proper name of a person, the first letter of its symbol is upper case (J). However, when an SI unit is spelled out in English, it should always begin with a lower case letter (joule), except in a situation where any word in that position would be capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in capitalized material such as a title.
k i 路ne t 路i c In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. Having gained this energy during its acceleration, the body maintains this kinetic energy unless its speed changes. The same amount of work is done by the body in decelerating from its current speed to a state of rest. In classical mechanics, the kinetic energy of a non-rotating object of mass m traveling at a speed v is 陆 mv虏. In relativistic mechanics, this is only a good approximation when v is much less than the speed of light.
l a t ·i ·t ude In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth’s surface. Lines of constant latitude, or parallels, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude is an angle (defined below) which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the poles. Latitude is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. Since the actual physical surface of the Earth is too complex for mathematical analysis, two levels of abstraction are employed in the definition of these coordinates. In the first step the physical surface is modelled by the geoid, a surface which approximates the mean sea level over the oceans and its continuation under the land masses.
Ma·r i e
C u·r i e
Marie Skłodowska-Curie, often referred to as Marie Curie, (7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish physicist and chemist, working mainly in France, who is famous for her pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the only woman to win in two fields, and the only person to win in multiple sciences. She was also the first female professor at the University of Paris (La Sorbonne), and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in Paris’ Panthéon. Her achievements included a theory of radioactivity (a term that she coined), techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world’s first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms, using radioactive isotopes.
nu·cl e ·a r Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and electricity. Nuclear power plants provided about 5.7% of the world’s energy and 13% of the world’s electricity, in 2012. In 2013, the IAEA report that there are 437 operational nuclear power reactors (although not all are producing electricity in 31 countries. More than 150 naval vessels using nuclear propulsion have been constructed. Nuclear power plant accidents include the Chernobyl disaster (1986), Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (2011), and the Three Mile Island accident (1979). There have also been some nuclear-powered submarine mishaps. Research into safety improvements is continuing and nuclear fusion, believed to be safer, may be used in the future.
o r ·bi t In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in space, for example the orbit of a planet around the center of a star system, such as the Solar System. Orbits of planets are typically elliptical.Current understanding of the mechanics of orbital motion is based on Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which accounts for gravity as due to curvature of space-time, with orbits following geodesics. For ease of calculation, relativity is commonly approximated by the force-based theory of universal gravitation based on Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Historically, the apparent motions of the planets were first understood geometrically (and without regard to gravity) in terms of epicycles, which are the sums of numerous circular motions.
pl an路e t A planet is an astronomical object orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals. The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, science, mythology, and religion. The planets were originally seen by many early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of deities. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) officially adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System. This definition has been both praised and criticized, and remains disputed by some scientists because it excludes many objects of planetary mass based on where or what they orbit.
PHYSICS quan·t um
p hy s ·i cs
Quantum mechanics (QM – also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory) is a branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena at microscopic scales, where the action is on the order of the Planck constant. Quantum mechanics departs from classical mechanics primarily at the quantum realm of atomic and subatomic length scales. Quantum mechanics provides a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter. In advanced topics of quantum mechanics, some of these behaviors are macroscopic and only emerge at extreme (i.e., very low or very high) energies or temperatures. The name quantum mechanics derives from the observation that some physical quantities can change only in discrete amounts, and not in a continuous (cf. analog) way.
r o ck 路e t A rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine. Rocket engine exhaust is formed entirely from propellants carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction. Rocket engines push rockets forward simply by throwing their exhaust backwards extremely fast. While comparatively inefficient for low speed use, rockets are relatively lightweight and powerful, capable of generating large accelerations and of attaining extremely high speeds with reasonable efficiency. Rockets are not reliant on the atmosphere and work very well in space. Rockets for military and recreational uses date back to at least 13th century China. Significant scientific, interplanetary and industrial use did not occur until the 20th century, when rocketry was the enabling technology of the Space Age, including setting foot on the moon.
s pace Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects exist and events occur and have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum known as spacetime. In mathematics, â€œspacesâ€? are examined with different numbers of dimensions and with different underlying structures. The concept of space is considered to be of fundamental importance to an understanding of the physical universe. However, disagreement continues between philosophers over whether it is itself an entity, a relationship between entities, or part of a conceptual framework. In the 19th and 20th centuries mathematicians began to examine non-Euclidean geometries, in which space can be said to be curved, rather than flat.
20 T t i m e Time is a dimension in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, and also the measure of durations of events and the intervals between them. Time has long been a major subject of study in religion, philosophy, and science, but defining it in a manner applicable to all fields without circularity has consistently eluded scholars. Nevertheless, diverse fields such as business,industry, sports, the sciences, music, dance, and the live theater all incorporate some notion of time into their respective measuring systems. Some simple, relatively uncontroversial definitions of time include “time is what clocks measure” and “time is what keeps everything from happening at once”. The SI base unit for time is the SI second. From the second, larger units such as the minute, hour and day are defined, though they are “non-SI” units because they do not use the decimal system, and also because of the occasional need for a leap second.
u路ni 路ve r s e The Universe is commonly defined as the totality of existence, including planets, stars, galaxies, the contents of intergalactic space, and all matter and energy. Definitions and usage vary[how?] and similar terms include the cosmos, the world and nature. Scientific observation of the Universe, the observable part of which is about 93 billion light years in diameter, has led to inferences of its earlier stages. These observations suggest that the Universe has been governed by the same physical laws and constants throughout most of its extent and history. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model that describes the early development of the Universe, which in physical cosmology is believed to have occurred about 13.77 billion years ago.
ve ·l o c·i ·t y In kinematics, velocity is the rate of change of the position of an object, equivalent to a specification of its speed and direction of motion. Speed describes only how fast an object is moving, whereas velocity gives both how fast and in what direction the object is moving. If a car is said to travel at 60 km/h, its speed has been specified. However, if the car is said to move at 60 km/h to the north, its velocity has now been specified. To have a constant velocity, an object must have a constant speed in a constant direction. Constant direction constrains the object to motion in a straight path (the object’s path does not curve). Thus, a constant velocity means motion in a straight line at a constant speed. If there is a change in speed, direction, or both, then the object is said to have a changing velocity and is undergoing an acceleration.
wa ve ·l e ng t h In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave’s shape repeats.It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings, and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves, as well as other spatial wave patterns. Wavelength is commonly designated by the Greek letter lambda. The concept can also be applied to periodic waves of non-sinusoidal shape. The term wavelength is also sometimes applied to modulated waves, and to the sinusoidal envelopes of modulated waves or waves formed by interference of several sinusoids. The SI unit of wavelength is the meter.
x-r a y X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays have a wavelength in the range of 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. The wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and longer than of gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is called Röntgen radiation, after Wilhelm Röntgen, who is usually credited as its discoverer, and who had named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation. Correct spelling of X-ray(s) in the English language includes the variants x-ray(s) and X ray(s).X-ray photons carry enough energy to ionize atoms and disrupt molecular bonds. This makes it a type of ionizing radiation and thereby harmful to living tissue.
chr o 路m o 路s o me
The Y chromosome is one of the 2 sex-determining chromosomes in most mammals, including humans. In mammals, it contains the gene SRY, which triggers testis development if present. The human Y chromosome is composed of about 50 million base pairs. DNA in the Y chromosome is passed from father to son, and Y-DNA analysis may thus be used in genealogy research. With a 30% difference between humans and chimpanzees, the Y chromosome is one of the fastest evolving parts of the human genome. The Y chromosome was identified as a sex-determining chromosome by Nettie Stevens at Bryn Mawr College in 1905 during a study of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor.
zo 路o l 路o 路g y Zoology, occasionally spelled zo枚logy, is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure,embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct. The history of zoology traces the study of the animal kingdom from ancient to modern times. Although the concept of zoology as a single coherent field arose much later, the zoological sciences emerged from natural history reaching back to the works of Aristotle and Galen in the ancient Greco-Roman world. This ancient work was further developed in the Middle Ages by Muslim physicians and scholars such as Albertus Magnus.