Presentation & Communication Skills
HUMAN MIND Authors – 4 - Alpesh Bapna 7 - Nikita Chaturvedi 27 – Abhishek Karekar 31 – Pranoti Kulkarni 32 – Anish Kumar 34 – Rachana Mahale 35 – Abhishek Mallick 36 – Dharmesh Mehta 37 – Nikhil Mirashi 39 – Anjali Mishra 54 – Sailee Rane
1. Introduction 1.1. How Human Mind works? 1.2. Difference between Human Mind & Human Brain 2. Parapsychology 2.1. Telepathy 2.2. Extrasensory Perception (ESP) 2.3. Precognition 2.4. Psycho kinesis 2.5. Lucid Dreaming 3. Noetic Science 4. Disorders 4.1. Personality Disorders 4.2. Schizophrenia 4.3. Phobia 5. Mind Control 6. Conclusion
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Introduction 1 Human Mind
1. Introduction The human mind is the most incredible computer it would be possible to imagine. Yet no one knows where it is! Scientists have made detailed studies of the brain, but have been unable to locate where the mind is. Our brain is composed of some 14 trillion brain cells! A very few people are making use of perhaps less than 10% of their mental capability. Most of us are probably using nearer 1%. So the potential we have is virtually unlimited. For our purposes, imagine that the human mind is in two parts: the Conscious mind and the Subconscious (or Inner) mind. The conscious mind does all our day to day thinking, our communication with others and general thoughts each day of our lives. Do you realize that you are thinking at the rate of about 1,200 words a minute? The Subconscious human mind looks after all our involuntary functions: the beating of our hearts, the breathing of our lungs. It also has stored in it every single experience and every thought we have ever made from the moment we were born. Some people believe that the human mind also contains all the memories of our past lives as well! As the human mind contains memories of everything that has ever happened, we can use it to locate information we need. For instance, you may be walking down the street and suddenly bump into someone you haven`t seen for a long while. Whilst talking, you are frantically thinking of their name, and suddenly it will come to you, hopefully whilst your are still in conversation! If it is something that occurred many years ago, your subconscious mind may have to spend a long time locating the necessary information. That is why we can sometimes have a problem when we go to bed. In the morning the answer will suddenly pop into our heads. The human mind has been working for you! Admittedly, it doest work exactly the way we want it to. Yet the human mind is perfect, it remembers and files away everything. Sometimes, though, our recall is faulty. When something is “on the tip of our tongue” our brain is not working as well as we would like it to. The best way to handle this is to temporarily “forget” what we are trying to remember and soon it will come back to us whilst we are thinking about something completely different. There is a third part of the human mind also. This is the Super-Conscious mind. Hardly anything is known about it, but this is where everything really important happens. Ideas come from here. So does creativity, and ESP. (Extra Sensory Perception) When you come up with a good idea, it comes directly from your Super-Conscious mind, through your Sub-Conscious mind to your Conscious mind, and it is then up to you to act upon it. Your Super-Conscious mind is your creative force, and is the most important part of your mind. It contains all the answers to anything you may ever want to know. You use the Super-Conscious mind when you are practicing Meditation Writers, artists, composers, inventors, clairvoyants, and all sort of other people use this part of their mind when doing whatever it is they do. Sometimes these people feel totally inspired. A composer may start on a melody and then, all of a sudden, the rest of the tune just comes with no apparent effort on his part. It has all come from directly from the Super-Conscious mind.
Introduction 2 Human Mind
Your Super-Conscious mind contains all the information of the universe and you have access to it whenever you want. All you have to do is ask. You have already used it many, many times. Say, for instance, that you have a major problem that has to be resolved the following day. You worry about it and think about it, and find it hard to get to sleep as it is still bothering you. When you wake up the following morning, the answer suddenly pops into your head. â€œEurekaâ€? you cry and you happily go and solve the problem. Where did the answer come from? You did not have it when you fell asleep. It was not in your Conscious mind, nor was it in your Sub-Conscious.What happened was, while you were asleep, the Sub-conscious human mind contacted the Super-Conscious mind and asked for the answer.Next time you have a problem of this sort, tell your Sub-Conscious mind about it and say that you need an answer by a certain time. Overnight is fine, but two days would be better. Don`t tell it how you want the problem resolved. Just ask for the answer and confidently expect it to come. Ask again several times during the time limit you have set, and your Super-Conscious mind will solve your problem.
1.1. How Human Mind works? How much energy do you use when you think? At what time of day is your mental performance best? Does talking to yourself help your thinking? Are your thoughts influenced by body position? If you have an exam to take, or some problems to solve, how can you let the human mind work, without your realizing it, to find the answers? Of all things known in the universe, the human brain is by far, the most complex. As a subject for scientific study it presents infinite intricacies and difficulties. Wide differences of opinion exist among investigators who are trying to probe its mysteries to establish basic facts. But recent research provides some new facts about how our brains work
1.1.1. How Much Energy Does Brainwork Take? One of the most surprising recent discoveries is that you apparently use little more energy when you think than when you don't. University of Pennsylvania investigators believe this is so after checking on brain-energy requirements by measuring oxygen consumption in a group of subjects while they idled, did problems or slept. The finding: virtually no change throughout. The conclusion: Your brain, unlike a machine, uses most of its energy "merely in keeping its circuits alive and sensitive," and needs insignificantly little more when you use the circuits.
1.1.2. At What Stage of Problem-Solving Does The Human Mind Work Hardest? Here's another surprise finding: You do more brainwork preparing to solve a problem than in actually solving it. So believe Michigan State University psychologists who tested 60 volunteer students by ringing a doorbell at various times while they were reading a set of problems, again later as they worked on the answers. There were many more errors when the distraction came during the reading time than when it came during the solving period. Actually, ringing the bell during the answer period speeded responses, apparently because of increased tension.
1.1.3. Does Your Body Become Tense When The Human Mind is Busy?
Introduction 3 Human Mind
A Lehigh University psychologist used an electrical device to measure activity in muscles and found that during severe mental effort - for example, when you're doing arithmetic problems "tensions seem to flow over the muscular system like the waves of the sea. One muscle is in a state of rise while another is subsiding, at a very slow rate." Most likely to be most tense: the arm muscles.
1.1.4. Is There A Best Time of The Day For Mental Performance? Yes, although it may vary with the individual. Scientists at The University of Chicago have found that fluctuations in mental performance seem to be related to variations in body temperature. Generally, the temperature tends to be falling when you go to sleep and to be on the rise when you wake, and top mental performance seems to occur when body temperature is at its peak. But peak temperature time may vary with the individual which may explain why some people are "early birds," keen first thing in the morning, while others are late starters. On the average, the peak of body temperature and mental acuity, according to the Chicago studies? occurs in the middle of the waking period.
1.1.5. Do You Think Faster Than You Talk? Much faster, according to studies in the Pennsylvania State University psychology department, which indicate that the average person speaks at a rate of 125 to 169 words per minute while thinking four times more rapidly.
1.1.6. Do You Talk To Yourself When You Think? Probably, yes. The measure of human intelligence, suggests Dr. Albert Goss, University of California professor of psychology, may be based on how broadly we can converse with ourselves. You may not talk out loud - although some people do on occasion. But verbal cues - verbal instructions we give ourselves - provide the basis for most of our learning, according to Goss. For example, if you drive to work, for the first several times you take a new route you tell yourself to turn left at the green house and right at the gasoline station. Afterward, the route becomes automatic. Similarly, when you choose a tomato at the market, you generally follow
Introduction 4 Human Mind
instructions you've given yourself. The color, you've told yourself, should be a certain shade of red; size may be important; there should be a certain degree of firmness. Children, the California scientist reports, seem to learn faster once they learn to talk to themselves - that is, make use of verbal cues.
1.1.7. How Much Storage Capacity Does Your Brain Have? Although, on the average, brain weight at birth is only about 12 ounces and even in an adult only about three pounds - usually a few ounces more in men than in women - its storage capacity is phenomenal. According to one estimate reported in The Human Brain, by John Pfeiffer, the brain is capable of storing more impressions, facts and total information than are in all the Library of Congress' nine million volumes.
1.1.8. Do Intelligence and Hand Dexterity Go Together? Yes. The popular idea that children who fail in the three R's will excel in use of their hands is wrong, according to Dr. M. H. Fouracre of Columbia University, who has recently reported studies showing a high correlation between Intelligence and manual dexterity.
1.1.9. Can You Learn While You Sleep? Although many claims have been made that you can, latest scientific evidence is against the possibility. In a careful study made by Dr. C. W. Simon and W. H. Emmons of California, 21 men were tested on 96 factual questions on history sports, science, etc. Then recorded questions and answers were played to them at five-minute intervals throughout the night while continuous brain-wave measurements were made. The waves showed that drifting off to sleep involves a definite progression through light-drowsy, drowsy, and deep-drowsy states before the line between being awake and asleep is approached, after which there is first light, then deep and finally very deep sleep, each state marked by its own brainwave pattern. Next morning, when the men were tested again to determine which questions previously missed could be answered correctly, it was found that those questions and answers played during the drowsy levels as shown by the brain-wave recordings could be recalled by the men, but those played during actual sleep could not be recalled. Conclusion: Learning is possible during a drowsy state but not during actual sleep.
1.1.10. Is There A Close Relationship Between Genius and Insanity? Not according to a 17-year study in Germany by Dr. Adele Juda. It covered 294 geniuses and their families. One hundred thirteen were artists; 181 scientists. Out-of-the-ordinary personality traits were frequently found. There was a higher incidence of psychoneurosis than in the general population, too. But severe mental illness was relatively rare - under four percent. Some other findings: The greatest number of geniuses come from thickly populated areas and racially mixed groups. Geniuses show a definite tendency to be first or second-born children. Seldom are both their parents especially young or especially old, although one often is. Rarely does extremely high endowment appear suddenly in a family; ancestors as a rule show parallel talents (high manual dexterity for the artist group, for example, and successful professional career for the scientific group). Brothers and sisters of genius and their children and grandchildren have high endowment too. Wives of geniuses also show a high incidence of superior intellectual and artistic talents. And, on the whole, marriages of geniuses are happy.
Introduction 5 Human Mind
1.1.11. Is It True That Someone Else Can Read Your Mind? Definitely not, according to a Michigan State University psychologist, Professor Milton Rokeach, although something resembling mind reading can be done with practice, by "muscle reading." In fact, one of history's most outstanding muscle readers was Clever Hans, a horse which performed amazing feats in Germany at the turn of the century. Owned by a man who believed sincerely that higher animals had intelligence equal to men, the horse was carefully schooled in arithmetic, spelling, other subjects, and could tap out correct answers to questions with his hoofs After many scientific investigations, Hans was found to be clever in only one respect: He had learned to watch for small, almost invisible movements, chiefly of the head, which the questioner unintentionally and unconsciously gave when he knew the answer and which the horse followed in tapping out his answer. Well known to psychologists all over the world, Clever Hans has contributed a psychological principle called the "Clever Hans error," referring to the unintentional effect that an observer can have on an animal. Determined mind readers can take advantage of the same principle with humans, Professor Rokeach reports. As an example, if a person concentrates on the letter "P." his lips, in spite of himself, might form a different shape than if he were concentrating on "Q." And illustrating the influence of small, unconscious body motions, there is the parlor trick in which the "mind reader" leaves the room while the subject hides an object, then returns, blindfolded, and grasps a handkerchief tied to the subject's wrist. Told to concentrate on the hiding place, the subject literally leads the performer to it by imperceptible movements.
1.1.12. Are Your Thoughts Processes Influenced By Your Body Position? Yes, in the belief of Dr. Hugo C. Beigel of Long Island University. He has charted responses to various situations by a group of subjects while in different positions. When you recline, if Dr. Beigel is right, your thinking Is more complacent, you tend to have more associations and to let your mind range wider for ideas. In standing position, your energies are stimulated toward action, the thinking field is narrowed, influx of new suggestions is partly blocked, decisions come faster and are more vigorous. Sitting seems to favor a compromise between the opposing tendencies of standing and lying down.
1.1.13. Do Mental Warm-Up Exercises Aid Problem Solving? Recent investigations suggest that they may. In one study made by three UCLA psychologists Dr. I. Maltzmar, Lloyd Brooks and Stanley Summer - a group of people were given, as a warmup, a written test in which they were asked to suggest uses for unrelated objects such a table leg, piece of balsa wood, and string. After this, they were presented with a problem involving two strings suspended from the ceiling in opposite corners of a large room, a screwdriver, and a piece of balsa wood. The problem was to grasp the two strings - one in each hand - without detaching or breaking them. The solution was 1) to tie the screw driver to the end of one string, 2) swing it, 3) then grab the other string and extend it to its maximum length, and catch the first string on its upswing. Subjects who'd experienced the written test solved the problem significantly faster than a control group with no warm-up.
Introduction 6 Human Mind
1.2. Difference between Human Mind & Human Brain „The brain is the engine, while the car is the physical body of the human being where the mind is the driver of this car of life.‟ A computer required hardware to perform its function. And the hardware need software to make it run. Without software, hardware would be useless and without hardware, software can not be used. Brain is like the hardware and mind is like the software. But in reality, the difference between brain mind are more complicated than software and hardware. In our culture we sometimes use the words brain and mind interchangeably even though they really do refer to separate, although often overlapping, concepts. The brain is an organ but the mind isn't. The brain is the physical place where the mind resides. It is a vessel in which the electronic impulses that create thought are contained. With the brain you coordinate your moves, your organism, your activities and transmit impulses. But you use the mind to think. You can muse at what happened, what is scheduled and what maybe can happen. The mind is the manifestations of thought, perception, emotion, determination, memory and imagination that takes place within the brain. Mind is often used to refer especially to the thought processes of reason. The mind is the awareness of consciousness we know, the ability to control what we do, and know what we are doing and why. It is the ability to understand. Animal are able to interpret their environments, but not understand them. whereas human are able to understand what happens around them, even if not the scientific reasoning for it, and therefore adapt. The mind made humans capable to solve complex logical problem which differentiates us than other living beings. Logic makes us understand that things are not as what they seem. Our ability to analyze situations makes it possible to develop solutions to problems and lead us toward practical solutions. We may not be able to see in the ultraviolet range, but we may design instruments to do so. We may not be able to see atoms, but we can design experiments that enable us to know their properties. Each stage of scientific advancement has usually been made by trying to reach a logical conclusion consistent with our observations. We no longer believe in demons as the cause of disease. We now believe in viruses, bacteria, genetic defects, and environmental pollution as the real causes of disease. Our irrational and unfounded "superstitions" have given way to "knowledge". In order to understand wisdom education we must know the true nature of wisdom and we must figure out how wisdom is generated. The most essential factor is we must know the true nature of the mind and the brain. We must also know the difference between the brain and mind and the relationship between them. The brain‟s domain is emotional intelligence and the mind‟s domain is intelligence. The mind knows and the brain understands. The mind speaks in words while the brain speaks in electric currents generated by the biochemical process. The brain is unconscious and works innately. The mind works consciously. Emotional intelligence is generated innately. Knowledge is acquired consciously. It is the brain that provides the power of emotional intelligence to the mind, innately through biochemical actions/reactions. Wisdom nor its attributes cannot be learned because wisdom is a product of a biochemical process. This is the reason wisdom cannot be taught. It can be created through making the brain free of all emotional baggage. In order for the mind to become emotionally intelligent the mind has to consciously focus on its own brain and clean the brain of all emotional baggage. For the vast majority of humanity the brain is the defective motor that runs the car of life. While it is the driver, the mind that should be in charge of running the body which includes the brain.The engine should run perfectly driven by the perfect mind but
Introduction 7 Human Mind
unfortunately the car of life has many breakdowns/runs into the ditch/the breaks fail/there are headlong collisions/the car jerks/sputters etc. as the engine is defective. This causes even the driver/mind tension/fatigue/anger/frustration/depression/unhappiness/jealousy/restlessness and all the other known and yet to be known emotional problems. Thus the brain condition affects the mind condition which effects the driving/living quality of the car of life.
Parapsychology 8 Human Mind
2. Parapsychology Parapsychology is the study of behaviors, events or perceptions that are outside of what most would traditionally accept a human can perceive. In other words, it evaluates such things that may be considered sixth sense abilities, like mental telepathy, medium abilities, psychometry and telekinesis. These abilities taken together are called psi or paranormal abilities. Para is a prefix that translates to "above and beyond," and thus paranormal can be described as things above and beyond what is considered normal in mainstream scientific thought. Most of parapsychology can be viewed as an attempt to study paranormal events or abilities. Some feel this is not true science, since it is seldom possible to practice parapsychology adhering to regular scientific methods. Others complain that work in parapsychology is simply too subjective, and there are few ways to make it objective and truly scientific. No studies based in parapsychology have been considered verifiable, since the results of most studies cannot be duplicated, which is considered a hallmark of scientific testing. Parapsychology does not tend to concern itself with things like aliens, the verity of astrology or whether or not witchcraft works. It is an attempt to find and describe things that are unusual and outside the realm of traditional experience. There are many subjects which a parapsychologist might undertake to study. Some of the more publicly accepted studies have evaluated things like out of body or near death experience. Many associate parapsychology with the idea of haunting and poltergeists. It is true that some parapsychologists may attempt to investigate allegations of such, but not every person studying parapsychology is a potential â€œghost buster.â€? Others are more interested in evaluating human abilities that are outside the normal range, and might evaluate or attempt to test a personâ€™s ability to read minds, to communicate mind to mind (telepathy) without speech, to predict the future, or to move objects with their minds. There are a vast range of supposed human abilities which have never been scientifically proven to exist, and yet are of extensive interest in parapsychology. Parapsychology emerged as a field of interest in the late 19th century, and was normally called psychical research. The 19th century had brought excessive interest in the paranormal and the Spiritualism movement. Many people in the mainstream, including several sects of Christianity began to believe that communication with the dead was possible. Though some in the Spiritualism movement were exposed as fraudulent, many still believed that paranormal events were possible, even when they could not be scientifically proven. Parapsychology arose about 40 years after spiritualists had begun to try to study and account for the paranormal. Paranormal phenomenon remains of intense interest to the general public. There is a fascination with what might be possible. This is evidenced in the numerous books, films and television shows that deal with one or more aspects of the paranormal. In the 2000s, there have been as many as 7-8 television series running at the same time which concern themselves with main characters who have paranormal abilities. This interest has led to the support and formation of parapsychology departments at some universities, and several large parapsychology organizations. Organizations like the Institute for
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Psychical Research, the Parapsychology Foundation, and the International Association for Near Death Studies are proliferating. Additionally, numerous journals publish results of parapsychology research, including, the Journal of Parapsychology and the International Journal of Parapsychology.
2.1 Telepathy Telepathy is transmission of information from one person to another without using any of our known sensory channels or physical interaction. The term was coined in 1882 by the classical scholar Frederic W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research, and has remained more popular than the earlier expression thought-transference.
2.1.1. Scientific Explanation Itâ€™s a fact that brain emits delta waves (waves of high amplitude and low frequency) when one sleeps. A theory is that if one is able to control these delta waves, even when awake, these can be used to read other peoples mind and even mind control. Another way of attaining telepathy is technologically enabled telepathy. Devices that can transmit and receive delta waves can be implanted in ones brain that will allow one to intercept someone's brain signals and manipulate them. The notion of telepathy is not dissimilar to two psychological concepts: delusions of thought insertion/removal and psychological symbiosis. This similarity might explain how some people have come up with the idea of telepathy. Thought insertion/removal is a symptom of psychosis, particularly of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric patients who experience this symptom falsely believe that some of their thoughts are not their own and that others (e.g., other people, aliens, demons or fallen angels, or conspiring intelligence agencies) are putting thoughts into their minds (thought insertion). Some patients feel as if thoughts are being taken out of their
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minds or deleted (thought removal). Along with other symptoms of psychosis, delusions of thought insertion may be reduced by antipsychotic medication. Psychological symbiosis, on the other hand, is a less well established concept. It is an idea found in the writings of early psychoanalysts, such as Melanie Klein. It entails the belief that in the early psychological experience of the child (during earliest infancy), the child is unable to tell the difference between his or her own mind, on one hand, and his or her experience of the mother/parent, on the other hand. This state of mind is called psychological symbiosis; with development, it ends, but, purportedly, aspects of it can still be detected in the psychological functioning of the adult. Putatively, the experience of either thought insertion/removal or unconscious memories of psychological symbiosis may have led to the invention of "telepathy" as a notion and the belief that telepathy exists. Psychiatrists and clinical psychologists believe and empirical findings support the idea that people with schizotypal personality disorder are particularly likely to believe in telepathy.
2.1.2. Types Parapsychology describes several different forms of telepathy, including latent telepathy and precognitive telepathy. Latent Telepathy, formerly known as â€œdeferred telepathyâ€? is described as being the transfer of information, through Psi, with an observable time-lag between transmission and receipt. Retro cognitive, Precognitive, and Intuitive Telepathy is described as being the transfer of information, through Psi, about the past, future or present state of an individual's mind to another individual. Emotive Telepathy, also known as remote influence or emotional transfer, is the process of transferring kinesthetic sensations through altered states. Super conscious Telepathy, involves tapping into the super conscious to access the collective wisdom of the human species for knowledge. Converging Technologies, a 2002 report exploring the potential for synergy among nano-, bio-, informational and cognitive technologies (NBIC) for enhancing human performance. Recent BCI (brain-computer interface) toys like those developed by NeuroSky have brought real life telepathy to the general public. The MindFlex made by Mattel in collaboration with NeuroSky was even ranked in Time Magazine's top 100 toys of all time. In this game the player floats a ball by concentrating on it; an electroencephalogram is used to judge the persons level of concentration through direct measurement of the electrical activity in their brain, this headset then communicates with a platform controlling the speed of a fan and thus the ball. In 2011 a Guinness Book of World Records category was created for BCI based telepathy. The NeuroSky MindWave was awarded it for them, "Heaviest machine moved using a brain control interface". Futurists think that brain-computer interfaces may make telepathy possible. There has already been progress in connecting brains with machines, and a man-machine-man bridge is considered very possible. And if man-machine-man bridges can be made, then such a link can be achieved over great distances using the Internet. Technologically enabled telepathy is also called "techlepathy," "synthetic telepathy," or "psychotronics."
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Some people occasionally referred to by themselves or others as "transhumanists", believe that technologically enabled telepathy is a technology that humans should pursue in order to improve themselves. Kevin Warwick of the University of Reading, England is one of the leading proponents of this view and has based all of his recent cybernetics research around developing technology for directly connecting human nervous systems together with computers and with each other. He believes techno-enabled telepathy will in the future become the primary form of human communication. The God Helmet: Dr Michael Persinger
2.1.3. Skepticism and controversy Although not a recognized scientific discipline, people who study certain types of paranormal phenomena such as telepathy refer to the field as parapsychology. Parapsychologists claim that some instances of telepathy are real. Skeptics say that instances of apparent telepathy are explained as the result of fraud, self-delusion and/or self-deception and that telepathy does not exist as a paranormal power. Parapsychologists and skeptics agree that many of the instances of more popular psychic phenomena, such as mediumism, can be attributed to non-paranormal techniques such as cold reading. Magicians such as Ian Rowland and Derren Brown have demonstrated techniques and results similar to those of popular psychics, without paranormal means. They have identified, described, and developed psychological techniques of cold reading and hot reading. A technique which shows statistically significant evidence of telepathy on every occasion has yet to be discovered. This lack of reliable reproducibility has led skeptics to argue that there is no credible scientific evidence for the existence of telepathy at all. Skeptics also point to historical cases in which flaws in experimental design and occasional cases of fraud were uncovered.
2.1.4. Uses Police have used telepaths to interpret criminals. Counselors and Psychics have used similar methods to analyze their subjectâ€™s mental state. Military warfares
2.1.5. Drawbacks Memory Leakage, Criminal Acts, Materialistic Approach.
2.2. Extrasensory Perception Extrasensory perception is the hypothetical ability of a person to gain information independently of his five senses (hearing, seeing, tasting, smelling and touching) and without any previous knowledge of a person, place or situation. ESP, as well as other paranormal phenomena like ghosts and crypto zoology, fall within the field of parapsychology. ESP is sometimes referred to as a sixth sense that has unlimited range. The information perceived may be from the present, past or future. People who use ESP are said to be psychic. Presently, experts have identified at least three different types of ESP: telepathy, precognition and clairvoyance.
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The possibility of paranormal abilities has intrigued people since the beginning of civilization. The term ESP was first used in 1927 by the researcher J. B. Rhine at Duke University. Currently, no indisputable, repeatable scientific evidence exists that extra sensory perception is an actual sense, but it is widely accepted as popular belief.
2.2.1. How ESP Works? ESP is based on the idea that people can perceive things beyond the scope of their normal bodily senses. Some believe that, while every person has ESP capabilities, some people are just more in tune with their abilities than others. Others believe that one must be a psychic, shaman or medium to possess ESP. These people must put themselves into a special mental state to channel their extra sensory powers. Most people believe that ESP is a result of something from beyond the known physical world. Like the concept of the afterlife, this hypothetical reality does not adhere to our physical laws of the universe. Testing Extra Sensory Perception There are several ways to determine who has ESP. One experiment uses 25 Zener cards, each of which has one of five patterns on it. Normal individuals pick one out of five correctly when they guess which pattern the sender is thinking about. Alternately, those with ESP can look into the sender's mind and "see" which card is held up to guess the correct pattern repeatedly.
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Zener Cards In Ganzfeld experiments, the subject is deprived of sensory information to make it easier to focus on the message. In yet another test, the subject attempts to influence the behavior of a random number generator or other machine.
2.2.2. Uses Of ESP Having the extra sensory perception could be useful in many situations. For example, while psychics can help the police solve crimes, as many people have seen in sitcoms, ESP could also give an employee some additional insight into what co-workers and employers want and need. Personal relationships could also flourish with the help of a little ESP. On a darker note, extra sensory perception could be used in national intelligence, defense and warfare.
2.2.3. Types Of ESP Telepathy literally means distance feeling. Mental telepathy refers to mind reading. It is the transfer of thoughts or feelings without the use of the five physical senses. Here is a look at some of the differences between other types of ESP:
Clairvoyance allows psychics to locate people, places or things using ESP. Mediumship is the ability to channel dead spirits. Precognition is the knowledge of future events. Psychometry is the ability to read information about a person or place by having access to a certain object. Retrocognition is the ability to see the distant past.
2.3. Precognition 2.3.1. What is Precognition?
The term precognition means "prior knowledge" and is used to refer to any form of knowledge about future events that cannot be explained by normal means. This definition
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includes cases of as basic as a feeling - "something bad's going to happen" - or a detailed vision of future events, for example in the form of a precognitve dream. Such visions can be clear and straightforward or as cryptic and ambiguous as the prophecies of Nostradamus.
Where precognition is taking place at an emotional level of gut feeling, it is sometimes referred to as presentiment ("prior feeling"). Premonitions and prophecy are common in history and folklore. On a small scale most of us have probably experienced them ourselves - knowing what someone is about to say or thinking about a friend moments before they phone.
2.3.2. Precognition Tests
There are three main problems with establishing the validity of precognition. The first is that very often what appears to be some form of ESP may in fact simply be subconscious intuition. It can be difficult to tell them apart. For instance, there are a lot of non-verbal cues that could give us an idea of what someone is about to say or do, especially if we know them well. The situation is made worse by the fact that many premonitions and predictions are vague. Was an event really predicted, or was the prediction vague enough to have referred to any number of possible events? It's easy to make a vague prediction appear right after the fact. The third major problem is statistical. Many, many instances of precognition occur every day - most are false and never reported. How many times have we "felt" that we shouldn't fly today, or that this will be our lucky week to buy a lotto ticket? Most of the time these premonitions come to nothing. Yet on the rare occasion one proves right and we tell the media about it, that particular premonition becomes big news. Parapsychology researchers attempt to devise experiments to avoid these problems. The most well-known involves Zener cards. A deck is shuffled and the psychic attempts to predict the order in which they will be dealt. In such an experiment no-one knows the
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order of the cards so there can be no subconscious cues, the outcomes are specifically defined and the results can be analyzed statistically. Numerous such studies have taken place down the years yet the results remain contentious.
2.3.3. Philosophy and Physics ď‚ˇ
If precognition does exist, it poses great philosophical questions and challenges much of our world view. Does it mean that the future is fixed? Is the prophecy definite or simply a likely possibility? Can we change the predicted future or will our actions simply bring it to pass? Such questions have formed the basis of much science fiction. It's interesting to note that precognition might not actually be in conflict with the laws of nature. Many of the fundamental equations of the universe are "time reversible" - time could equally well run backwards as forwards. Why should we not remember the future? Our perception of time as being one-way is itself the oddity, a phenomenon known as the "arrow of time".
2.4. Psycho kinesis Psychokinesis is the ability to use mental power to move or even distort an object with no physical contact. This can be done consciously or unconsciously. This occurrence has been recorded since ancient times and is even mentioned within the Bible, in the New Testament. Here is a breakdown of the word; psyche means mind, soul, heart, or breath. And kinesis means motion. This is also known as telekinesis. This means actually, literal distant movement.
These words are abbreviated PK & TK. Term was coined by Henry Holt. This is thought to be the most powerful of psychic powers. Some say the power of God. But that can not be true, because these types of powers are usually associated with Witchcraft/Satanism style of beliefs. God himself may have these powers, but most believe he does not grant humans these powers. This is an aspect of parapsychology. Some paranormal researchers believe psycho kinesis exists and needs more study. This connects to studies and experiments like the random number
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generator. A bestselling author and MD, Michael Crichton, and Scientist at the Institute of Noetic Sciences, Dean Radin, are two men who claim to have actually witnessed psychokinesis. Spontaneous movements of objects and other unexplained effects have been reported, and many parapsychologists believe these are possibly forms of psychokinesis/ telekinesis. Parapsychologist William G. Roll coined the term "recurrent spontaneous psychokinesis" (RSPK) in 1958.The sudden movement of objects without deliberate intention in the presence or vicinity of one or more witnesses is thought by some to be related to as-yetunknown PK/TK processes of the subconscious mind. Researchers use the term "PK agent," especially in spontaneous cases, to describe someone who is suspected of being the source of the PK action. Outbreaks of spontaneous movements or other effects, such as in a private home, and especially those involving violent or physiological effects, such as objects hitting people or scratches or other marks on the body, are sometimes investigated as poltergeist cases.
2.4.1. Notable claimants of psychokinetic ability
Martin Caidin (1927–1997), the author whose 1972 novel Cyborg was used as the basis for the television series The Six Million Dollar Man and The Bionic Woman, claimed to be able to cause movement by means of telekinesis in one or multiple small tabletop "energy wheels," also known as psi wheels beginning in the mid 1980s. Parapsychologist Loyd Auerbach, a friend of Caidin's who sometimes accompanied him in demonstrations and workshops, reiterated a strong endorsement of him in his June 2004 Fate magazine column: "Martin Caidin was capable of moving things with his mind." James Randi offered to test Caidin's claimed abilities in 1994. In September 2004, Randi wrote: "He frantically avoided accepting my challenge by refusing even the simplest of proposed control protocols, but he never tired of running on about how I would not test him." Uri Geller (1946 – ), the Israeli famous for his spoon bending demonstrations, allegedly by PK. Geller has been caught many times using sleight of hand and according to author Terence Hines, all his effects have been recreated using conjuring tricks. Many of India's "godmen" have claimed macro-PK abilities and demonstrated apparently miraculous phenomena in public, although as more controls are put in place to prevent trickery, fewer phenomena are produced. Perhaps the most notable is the spectacular allegation of Mahaavatar Babaji's materialization of an entire palace, mentioned in Paramahamsa Yogananda's classic Autobiography of a Yogi. Eusapia Palladino (1854–1918; alternate spelling: Eusapia Paladino) was an Italian medium who allegedly could cause objects to move during seances and was endorsed by world famous magician Howard Thurston (1869–1936), who said he witnessed her levitation of a table. Nina Kulagina (1926–1990), who came to wide public attention following the publication of Sheila Ostrander and Lynn Schroeder's best seller, Psychic Discoveries Behind The Iron Curtain. The alleged Soviet psychic of the late 1960s and early 1970s was filmed apparently performing telekinesis while seated in numerous black-and-white short films, mentioned in the U.S. Defence Intelligence Agency report from 1978.
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Nina Kulagina ď‚ˇ
Swami Rama (1925â€“1996), a yogi skilled in controlling his heart functions who was studied at the Menninger Foundation in the spring and fall of 1970, and was alleged by some observers at the foundation to have telekinetically moved a knitting needle twice from a distance of five feet. Although Swami Rama wore a facemask and gown to prevent allegations that he moved the needle with his breath or body movements, and air vents in the room had been covered, at least one physician observer who was present at the time was not convinced and expressed the opinion that air movement was somehow the cause.
2.4.2. Notable witnesses to PK events Alleged psychokinetic events have been witnessed by psychologists in the United States, and elsewhere in the world by professionals with medical degrees, physicists, electrical engineers, military personnel, police officers, and other professionals and ordinary citizens. Robert M. Schoch Ph.D., professor at Boston University, has written "I do believe that some psychokinesis is real" referring to the evidence for micro-psychokinesis obtained by the Princeton PEAR laboratory experiments and similar studies and some reports of macro-RSPK observed in poltergeist cases. He reports once seeing a book "jumping off a shelf" while in a room where a female psychokinesis agent was also present. Best-selling author and medical doctor Michael Crichton described what he termed a "successful experience" with psychokinesis at a "spoon bending party" in his 1988 book Travels. Senior Scientist at the Institute of Noetic Sciences, author Dean Radin has reported that he, like Michael Crichton, was able to bend the bowl of a spoon over with unexplained ease of force with witnesses present at a different informal PK experiment gathering. He described his experience in his 2006 book Entangled Minds: Extrasensory Experiences in a Quantum Reality and online (with  photos). Author Michael Talbot (1953â€“1992) described a variety of spontaneous
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psychokinetic events he experienced and were witnessed by family and friends in two of his books, Beyond the Quantum and The Holographic Universe. French biologist Remy Chauvin carried out a number of experiments to test psychokinesis. Because of the results of one of the experiments, Chauvin came to believe that mind can influence matter. Chauvin's experiment involved using a uranium isotope, a Geiger counter and several assistants. Some parapsychologists have written that ordinary people may be able to influence biological organisms from distance such as the growth rates of fungi and bacteria. Carroll Nash (1984) reported that human subjects could use their psychokinetic ability to influence the rate at which bacterial genes mutate. Anecdotes such as these - stories by eyewitnesses outside of controlled conditions - are considered insufficient evidence by the majority of scientists to establish the scientific validity of psychokinesis.
2.5. Lucid Dreaming A lucid dream is any dream in which one is aware that one is dreaming.
2.5.1. What is Lucid Dreaming? Lucid dreaming is the ability to consciously direct and control your dreams. It transforms your inner dream world into a living alternate reality - where everything you see, hear, feel, taste and even smell is as authentic as real life. Lucidity occurs during altered states of consciousness when you realize you are dreaming - and your brain switches into waking mode inside the dream. In normal dreams, your self awareness is shut down. That's why they often feel fuzzy and distant. But when lucid, the conscious brain wakes up during sleep! This is a safe and natural state. It is not a literal out of body experience - because you are always asleep in bed. And if you want to, you can wake yourself up. When you become lucid, your senses become alive. You can explore the inner workings of your subconscious mind with total freedom.
2.5.2. Is Lucid Dreaming Scientifically Proven? Tibetan Monks have used dream control for more than a thousand years, in a philosophy called Dream Yoga. It is certainly not a new phenomena. However, the modern term "lucid dreaming" was not coined until the 20th century by the Dutch psychiatrist, Frederik van Eeden, meaning mental clarity in dreams. The concept of lucid dreams became popularized by Celia Green in the 1960s, who pointed out the scientific potential of self awareness in dreams. She was the first to make the link with both REM sleep and false awakenings. The first scientific evidence of lucid dreaming was produced by the British parapsychologist Keith Hearne. He did it by catching eye movement signals from his volunteer, Alan Worsley, in a lucid dream state in laboratory conditions. But Hearne's research slipped under the radar of the mainstream science journals, and it was Dr Stephen LaBerge at Stanford University who became famous for replicating this experiment and formally publishing his findings. A prolific lucid dreamer himself, Stephen LaBerge founded The Lucidity Institute in 1987 to explore the question: what is lucid dreaming? His mission is to research the nature and potential
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of consciousness in dreams... A riddle that may one day offer considerable advances in our understanding of the human mind.
2.5.3. Can Anyone Learn to Lucid Dream? Yes, I believe so. We all have dreams (whether we remember them or not) and so I think we all have the capacity to become conscious within them. Children have reported lucid dreams. And certain medications for degenerative conditions like Parkinson's Disease can cause lucid dreams. Age is certainly not a factor. Having a lucid dream is not actually all that hard, once you tap into the right mechanism. Research shows that everyone will have at least one lucid dream in their lives, just by accident. And to have lucid dreams on demand, all you have to do is get into the habit of recognizing the dreamstate. There are many ways you can achieve this subconscious recognition, such as: meditation self hypnosis brainwave entrainment visualizations reality checks dream herbs dream journaling You can practice one or all of these methods during the waking day or just before you fall asleep, in order to plant the seed of lucidity. It is up to your subconscious mind to trigger you during sleep. This subconscious programming gets easier over time. In fact, many people are able to have their first lucid dream between three days and three weeks. With practice you will be able to induce lucid dreams on demand - and it gets easier the more you do it.
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2.5.4. What is Lucid Dreaming Good For? At first, many people are drawn to the idea of lucid dreaming for the escapism it offers. In your virtual reality dream world, you can realistically fly over cities, meet your favorite celebrity in the flesh, or become a ninja assassin. It is way more realistic than day dreaming or playing your favorite video game. But once you get over the novelty value, you'll understand that lucid dreaming has many personal development applications, such as: creative problem solving increasing your creativity facing your fears improving your confidence practicing new skills developing your sense of self exploring your own subconscious
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3. Noetic Science Noetic theory or noëtics (from Greek νοητικός “mental” from νοεῖν “to think” from νοῦς – noûs) is a branch of metaphysical philosophy concerned with the study of mind and intuition, and its relationship with the divine intellect. Among its principal purposes one can mention the study of non-rational ways of knowing and how they relate to reason; it also refers to the study of relationships between human and divine intuition. That is why noetic theory often had very close links with metaphysics. In the Western tradition and Arab philosophy noetic theory was strongly influenced by the theories of philosophers such as Anaxagoras, Plato and Aristotle. In modern dictionaries, “noetic” is often defined as meaning “intellect,” whereas noesis is translated as “insight” or “intellection”. This practice derives from medieval theologians and philosophers who used the Latin word “intellectus” – but for them, this typically meant what we today would call “intuition.” For centuries, philosophers from Plato forward have used the term noetic to refer to experiences that pioneering psychologist William James (1902) described as: …states of insight into depths of truth unplumbed by the discursive intellect. They are illuminations, revelations, full of significance and importance, all inarticulate though they remain; and as a rule they carry with them a curious sense of authority. So far, we have heard of many stories and incidents about the power of thoughts. We don’t have any hard evidence to prove that thoughts have potential power to affect the physical reality. Fortunately, noetic science has emerged with a ray of hope and substantial proof of how our mind interacts with physical world and can change the occurrence of any incident.
3.1. Basics of noetic science Noetic science talks about the power of human thoughts affecting the real world. Our normal belief about thought is that it is simply a logical process. According to noetic theory, thoughts have weights, and since every weighted material on earth are affected by gravitational force, thoughts are also attracted by gravitation at a lesser degree than other materials.
3.2. Origin of noetic science The idea of noetic science was envisaged by an US astronaut, Edger Mitchell. The idea of universal connection between humans and matters engulfed him when he saw earth floating on space, while returning earth from a space voyage in 1971. In 1973, he founded Noetic Science Institute. His belief and idea that reality is far more complex than what we actually experience has lead him giving birth of startling concept of noetic science. According to Mitchell, the current idea of our universe developed by science and religious institutes are incomplete and flawed. And that is why he felt the necessity of a brand new view and concept of the living world through noetic theory.
3.3. How important noetic science is? The key research focus of noetic institute is to identify and model how a shift or change in human perception can bring change in the reality we are living now. Transformation in consciousness helps people to understand and find positive meaning of life and how to become more compassionate to society.
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There is no place of skepticism in noetic science about the power of consciousness to change our reality-the power of consciousness mind has been cemented by numerous noetic research publications. And the question of how actually consciousness transformation happens and what are the barriers for shift in consciousness is the primary focus of noetic investigations. Noetic researchers believe that the more research on this subject will help us developing a perfect model of consciousness transforming concepts, which will contribute establishing harmony and peace that we need the most in today’s world.
3.4. Researches on noetic science The undergoing research in noetic science explains the relationship between matter and human consciousness. Most of the researches on this subject are based on empirical relationships between human and the universe. The main three areas noetic science focuses on are: Enhancing conventional human belief and capacity Mind and health healing Transformation of worldviews-it deals with how ancient and contemporary knowledgebase will help us finding a model of living in this 21st century.
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3.5. Current research on noetic science
Placebo effects and distinct healing-this research group studies how distant and no-distant healing procedures help accelerate healing women with breast cancer Effects of companionship & loving intention- this group of researchers focuses on how partners of women with cancer can be more compassionate on their spouses. Experiment on gut intuition- this research investigates the function of “gut feelings” in realizing a person’s emotional state and intention. Lucid dreaming- this project investigating the potential of a lucid dreamer performing experiments at the time of lucid dreaming. Exploring the altered state of consciousness –this project highlight on how a hypnotic state can work as a platform for positive outcomes. Creating cultural peace- this group studies qualitative survey result on how applied intention can promote peace. Currently, noetic researchers are working on with United Nations peace projects. Mind matter interaction-how mind and matter interact with each other to create reality.
3.6. Accomplishments of Noetic Science Noetic science has already published many successful research papers with significant findings. The research outcome indicates the followings: The possibility of survival of human consciousness after physical death. Developed a model to determine human psi abilities. Evidence of how our assumption on reality shapes our society. Spontaneous heart healing process Relationship between spirituality and healing All the noetic research and training program are integrated with the retreat center, where you can find both learning and experimental experiences that help transform consciousness.
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4. Disorders 4.1 Multiple Personality Disorder 4.1.1. Definition Multiple personality disorder, or MPD, is a mental disturbance classified as one of the dissociative disorders in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It has been renamed dissociative identity disorder (DID). MPD or DID is defined as a condition in which "two or more distinct identities or personality states" alternate in controlling the patient's consciousness and behavior. Note: "Split personality" is not an accurate term for DID and should not be used as a synonym for schizophrenia.
4.1.2. Description The precise nature of DID (MPD) as well as its relationship to other mental disorders is still a subject of debate. Some researchers think that DID may be a relatively recent development in western society. It may be a culture-specific syndrome found in western society, caused primarily by both childhood abuse and unspecified long-term societal changes. Unlike depression or anxiety disorders, which have been recognized, in some form, for centuries, the earliest cases of persons reporting DID symptoms were not recorded until the 1790s. Most were considered medical oddities or curiosities until the late 1970s, when increasing numbers of cases were reported in the United States. Psychiatrists are still debating whether DID was previously misdiagnosed and underreported, or whether it is currently over-diagnosed. Because childhood trauma is a factor in the development of DID, some doctors think it may be a variation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). DID and PTSD are conditions where dissociation is a prominent mechanism. The female to male ratio for DID is about 9:1, but the reasons for the gender imbalance are unclear. Some have attributed the imbalance in reported cases to higher rates of abuse of female children; and some to the possibility that males with DID are underreported because they might be in prison for violent crimes. The most distinctive feature of DID is the formation and emergence of alternate personality states, or "alters." Patients with DID experience their alters as distinctive individuals possessing different names, histories, and personality traits. It is not unusual for DID patients to have alters of different genders, sexual orientations, ages, or nationalities. Some patients have been reported with alters that are not even human; alters have been animals, or even aliens from outer space. The average DID patient has between two and 10 alters, but some have been reported with over one hundred.
4.1.3. Causes and symptoms The severe dissociation that characterizes patients with DID is currently understood to result from a set of causes:
An innate ability to dissociate easily Repeated episodes of severe physical or sexual abuse in childhood The lack of a supportive or comforting person to counteract abusive relative(s) The influence of other relatives with dissociative symptoms or disorders
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The relationship of dissociative disorders to childhood abuse has led to intense controversy and lawsuits concerning the accuracy of childhood memories. The brain's storage, retrieval, and interpretation of childhood memories are still not fully understood. The major dissociative symptoms experienced by DID patients are amnesia, depersonalization, derealization, and identity disturbances.
4.1.4. Amnesia Amnesia in DID is marked by gaps in the patient's memory for long periods of their past, in some cases, their entire childhood. Most DID patients have amnesia, or "lose time," for periods when another personality is "out." They may report finding items in their house that they can't remember having purchased, finding notes written in different handwriting, or other evidence of unexplained activity.
4.1.4. Depersonalization Depersonalization is a dissociative symptom in which the patient feels that his or her body is unreal, is changing, or is dissolving. Some DID patients experience depersonalization as feeling to be outside of their body, or as watching a movie of themselves.
4.1.6. Derealization Derealization is a dissociative symptom in which the patient perceives the external environment as unreal. Patients may see walls, buildings, or other objects as changing in shape, size, or color. DID patients may fail to recognize relatives or close friends.
4.1.7. Identity disturbances Identity disturbances in DID result from the patient's having split off entire personality traits or characteristics as well as memories. When a stressful or traumatic experience triggers the reemergence of these dissociated parts, the patient switchesâ€”usually within secondsâ€”into an alternate personality. Some patients have histories of erratic performance in school or in their jobs caused by the emergence of alternate personalities during examinations or other stressful situations. Patients vary with regard to their alters' awareness of one another.
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4.1.8. Diagnosis The diagnosis of DID is complex and some physicians believe it is often missed, while others feel it is over-diagnosed. Patients have been known to have been treated under a variety of other psychiatric diagnoses for a long time before being re-diagnosed with DID. The average DID patient is in the mental health care system for six to seven years before being diagnosed as a person with DID. Many DID patients are misdiagnosed as depressed because the primary or "core" personality is subdued and withdrawn, particularly in female patients. However, some core personalities, or alters, may genuinely be depressed, and may benefit from antidepressant medications. One reason misdiagnoses are common is because DID patients may truly meet the criteria for panic disorder or somatization disorder. Misdiagnoses include schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, and, as noted, somatization disorder and panic disorder. DID patients are often frightened by their dissociative experiences, which can include losing awareness of hours or even days of time, meeting people who claim to know them by another name, or feeling "out of body." Persons with the disorder may go to emergency rooms or clinics because they fear they are going insane. When a doctor is evaluating a patient for DID, he or she will first rule out physical conditions that sometimes produce amnesia, depersonalization, or derealization. These conditions include head injuries; brain disease, especially seizure disorders; side effects from medications; substance abuse or intoxication; AIDS dementia complex; or recent periods of extreme physical stress and sleeplessness. In some cases, the doctor may give the patient an electroencephalograph (EEG) to exclude epilepsy or other seizure disorders. The physician also must consider whether the patient is malingering and/or offering fictitious complaints. If the patient appears to be physically normal, the doctor will next rule out psychotic disturbances, including schizophrenia. Many patients with DID are misdiagnosed as schizophrenic because they may "hear" their alters "talking" inside their heads. If the doctor suspects DID, he or she can use a screening test called the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). If the patient has a high score on this test, he or she can be evaluated further with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D). The doctor may also use the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP) or a similar test of the patient's hypnotizability.
4.1.9. Treatment Treatment of DID may last for five to seven years in adults and usually requires several different treatment methods.
4.1.10. Psychotherapy Ideally, patients with DID should be treated by a therapist with specialized training in dissociation. This specialized training is important because the patient's personality switches can be confusing or startling. In addition, many patients with DID have hostile or suicidal alter personalities. Most therapists who treat DID patients have rules or contracts for treatment that include such issues as the patient's responsibility for his or her safety. Psychotherapy for DID patients typically has several stages: an initial phase for uncovering and "mapping" the patient's alters; a phase of treating the traumatic memories and "fusing" the alters; and a phase of consolidating the patient's newly integrated personality.
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Most therapists who treat multiples, or DID patients, recommend further treatment after personality integration, on the grounds that the patient has not learned the social skills that most people acquire in adolescence and early adult life. In addition, family therapy is often recommended to help the patient's family understand DID and the changes that occur during personality reintegration. Many DID patients are helped by group as well as individual treatment, provided that the group is limited to people with dissociative disorders. DID patients sometimes have setbacks in mixed therapy groups because other patients are bothered or frightened by their personality switches.
4.1.11. Medications Some doctors will prescribe tranquilizers or antidepressants for DID patients because their alter personalities may have anxiety or mood disorders. However, other therapists who treat DID patients prefer to keep medications to a minimum because these patients can easily become psychologically dependent on drugs. In addition, many DID patients have at least one alter who abuses drugs or alcohol, substances which are dangerous in combination with most tranquilizers.
4.1.12. Hypnosis While not always necessary, hypnosis is a standard method of treatment for DID patients. Hypnosis may help patients recover repressed ideas and memories. Further, hypnosis can also be used to control problematic behaviors that many DID patients exhibit, such as self-mutilation, or eating disorders like bulimia nervosa. In the later stages of treatment, the therapist may use hypnosis to "fuse" the alters as part of the patient's personality integration process.
A man being Hypnotized
4.1.13. Alternative treatment Alternative treatments that help to relax the body are often recommended for DID patients as an adjunct to psychotherapy and/or medication. These treatments include hydrotherapy, botanical medicine (primarily herbs that help the nervous system), therapeutic massage, and yoga. Homeopathic treatment can also be effective for some people. Art therapy and the keeping of
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journals are often recommended as ways that patients can integrate their past into their present life. Meditation is usually discouraged until the patient's personality has been reintegrated.
4.1.14. Prognosis Some therapists believe that the prognosis for recovery is excellent for children and good for most adults. Although treatment takes several years, it is often ultimately effective. As a general rule, the earlier the patient is diagnosed and properly treated, the better the prognosis.
4.1.14. Prevention Prevention of DID requires intervention in abusive families and treating children with dissociative symptoms as early as possible.
4.2 Schizophrenia 4.2.1. Definition Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by a breakdown of thought processes and by poor emotional responsiveness.
4.2.2. Symptoms Schizophrenia is often described in terms of positive and negative (or deficit) symptoms. Positive symptoms are those that most individuals do not normally experience but are present in people with schizophrenia. They can include delusions, disordered thoughts and speech, and tactile, auditory, visual, olfactory and gustatory hallucinations, typically regarded as manifestations of psychosis. Positive symptoms generally respond well to medication.Negative symptoms are deficits of normal emotional responses or of other thought processes, and respond
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less well to medication. They commonly include flat or blunted affect and emotion, poverty of speech (alogia), inability to experience pleasure (anhedonia), lack of desire to form relationships (asociality), and lack of motivation (avolition). Research suggests that negative symptoms contribute more to poor quality of life, functional disability, and the burden on others than do positive symptoms. People with prominent negative symptoms often have a history of poor adjustment before the onset of illness, and response to medication is often limited.
4.2.3. Causes A combination of genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of schizophrenia. People with a family history of schizophrenia who suffer a transient psychosis have a 20â€“40% chance of being diagnosed one year later. Genetic:The greatest risk for developing schizophrenia is having a first-degree relative with the disease (risk is 6.4%); more than 40% of monozygotic twins of those with schizophrenia are also affected. It is likely that many genes are involved, each of small effect and unknown transmission and expression. Environmental:Environmental factors associated with the development of schizophrenia include the living environment, drug use and prenatal stressors. Parenting style seems to have no major effect, although people with supportive parents do better than those with critical or hostile parents. Living in an urban environment during childhood or as an adult has consistently been found to increase the risk of schizophrenia by a factor of two, even after taking into account drug use, ethnic group, and size of social group. Other factors that play an important role include social isolation and immigration related to social adversity, racial discrimination, family dysfunction, unemployment, and poor housing conditions.
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Substance Misuse:A number of drugs have been associated with the development of schizophrenia, including cannabis, cocaine, and amphetamines. About half of those with schizophrenia use drugs and/or alcohol excessively. The role of cannabis could be causal, but other drugs may be used only as coping mechanisms to deal with depression, anxiety, boredom, and loneliness.
4.2.4. Prevention Currently the evidence for the effectiveness of early interventions to prevent schizophrenia is inconclusive. While there is some evidence that early intervention in those with a psychotic episode may improve short term outcomes, there is little benefit from these measures after five years. Attempting to prevent schizophrenia in the prodrome phase is of uncertain benefit and therefore as of 2009 is not recommended. Prevention is difficult as there are no reliable markers for the later development of the disease. Theoretical research continues into strategies that might lower the incidence of schizophrenia. One approach seeks to understand what happens on a genetic and neurological level to account for the illness, so that biomedical interventions can be developed. However, multiple and varied genetic effects each of small size, interacting with the environment, makes this difficult. Alternatively, public health strategies could selectively address socioeconomic factors that have been linked to higher rates of schizophrenia in certain groups, for example in relation to immigration, ethnicity or poverty. Population-wide strategies could promote services to ensure safe pregnancies and healthy growth, including in areas of psychological development such as social cognition. However, there is not enough evidence to implement such ideas at the current time, and a number of the broader issues are not specific to schizophrenia. A number of psychosocial interventions may be useful in the treatment of schizophrenia including: family therapy, assertive community treatment, supported employment, cognitive remediation, skills training, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), token economic interventions, and psychosocial interventions for substance use and weight management. Family therapy or education, which addresses the whole family system of an individual, may reduce relapses and hospitalizations. The evidence for CBT's effectiveness in either reducing symptoms or preventing relapse is minimal. Art or drama therapy have not been well-researched
4.2.4. Conclusion: Schizophrenia has great human and economic costs. It results in a decreased life expectancy of 12–14 years, primarily because of its association with obesity, sedentary lifestyles, and smoking, with an increased rate of suicide playing a lesser role. Schizophrenia is a major cause of disability, with active psychosis ranked as the third-most-disabling condition after quadriplegia and dementia and ahead of paraplegia and blindness. Approximately threefourths of people with schizophrenia have ongoing disability with relapses and 16.7 million people globally are deemed to have moderate or severe disability from the condition. Some people do recover completely and others function well in society. Most people with schizophrenia live independently with community support. Schizophrenia affects around 0.3– 0.7% of people at some point in their life, or 24 million people worldwide as of 2011. It occurs 1.4 times more frequently in males than females and typically appears earlier in men—the peak ages of onset are 20–28 years for males and 26–32 years for females.
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4.3 Phobia 4.3.1. Definition According to the American Psychiatric Association, a phobia is an irrational and excessive fear of an object or situation. In most cases, the phobia involves a sense of endangerment or a fear of harm. For example, those suffering from agoraphobia fear being trapped in an inescapable place or situation.
4.3.2. Symptoms of Phobias Phobic symptoms can occur through exposure to the fear object or situation, or sometimes simply thinking about the feared object can lead to a response. Common symptoms associated with phobias include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Dizziness Breathlessness Nausea A sense of unreality Fear of dying
In some cases, these symptoms can escalate into a full-scale anxiety attack. As a consequence of these symptoms, some individuals begin to isolate themselves, leading to severe difficulties in daily life. In other cases, the individual may seek out medical care due to a constant concern with imagined illnesses or imminent death.
4.3.3. Types of Phobias There are three types of phobias: 1. Social phobias—fear of social situations. 2. Agoraphobia—fear of being trapped in an inescapable place or situation. 3. Specific phobias—fear of a specific object (such as snakes). There are four major types of specific phobias: 1. 2. 3. 4.
The natural environment—fear of lightening, water, storms, etc. Animal—fear of snakes, rodents, spiders, etc. Medical—fear of seeing blood, receiving injections, visiting a doctor, etc. Situational—fear of bridges, leaving the home, driving, etc.
4.3.4. Prevalence of Phobias Phobias are actually quite common, affecting more than 10% of the U.S. population. Phobias are the most common mental disorder in the United States, but far more women than men are affected by phobias. In many cases, people are able to recognize that their fear is irrational and therefore take steps to overcome their phobia. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, only about 10 percent of reported cases become life-long phobias.
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4.3.4. Treatments for Phobias There are a number of treatment approaches for phobias. The effectiveness of a treatment depends on the individual and the type of phobia. These are just a few potential phobia treatments: In exposure treatments, the patient is exposed to the fear object in order to help them overcome their fear. One type of exposure treatment is flooding, in which the patient is confronted by the fear object for an extended length of time without the opportunity to escape. The goal of this method is to help the individual face their fear and realize that the fear object will not harm them. Another method often used in phobia treatment is counter-conditioning. In this method, the patient is taught a new response to the fear object. Rather that panic in the face of the feared object or situation, the client learns relaxation techniques to replace anxiety and fear. This new behavior is incompatible with the previous panicked response, so the phobic response gradually fades. Counter-conditioning is often used with patients who are unable to handle exposure treatments.
Mind Control 33 Human Mind
5. Mind Control 5.1. What is mind control/psychotronic torture? The term “Mind control” basically means covert attempts to influence the thoughts and behaviour of human beings against their will (or without their knowledge), particularly when surveillance of an individual is used as an integral part of such influencing and the term “Psychotronic Torture” comes from psycho (of psychological) and electronic. This is actually a very sophisticated form of remote technological torture that slowly invalidates and incapacitates a person. These invisible and non-traceable technological assaults on human beings are done in order to destroy someone psychologically and physiologically.
5.2. Origins of mind control The Oxford English Dictionary records its earliest known English-language usage of brainwashing in an article by Edward Hunter in Miami News published on 7 October 1950. During the Korean War, Hunter, who worked at the time both as a journalist and as a U.S. intelligence agent, wrote a series of books and articles on the theme of Chinese brainwashing. The Chinese term 洗 腦 (xǐ năo, literally "wash brain") was originally used to describe methodologies of coercive persuasion used under the Maoist regime in China, which aimed to transform individuals with a reactionary imperialist mind-set into "right-thinking" members of the new Chinese social system. To that end the regime developed techniques that would break down the psychic integrity of the individual with regard to information processing, information retained in the mind and individual values. Chosen techniques included dehumanizing of individuals by keeping them in filth, sleep deprivation, partial sensory deprivation, psychological harassment, inculcation of guilt and group social pressure. The term punned on the Taoist custom of "cleansing/washing the heart/mind prior to conducting certain ceremonies or entering certain holy places. The current technology grew out of experiments that the Nazis started before World War II and intensified during the time of the Nazi concentration camps when an unlimited supply of children and adults were available for experimentation. We've heard about the inhumane medical experiments performed on concentration camp prisoners, but no word was ever mentioned by the media and the TV documentaries of the mind control experiments
5.3. Uses in the early days of seeding Those who picked up the Chinese term used it to explain why, unlike in earlier wars, a relatively high percentage of American GIs defected to the enemy side after becoming prisoners-of-war. It was believed that the Chinese in North Korea used such techniques to disrupt the ability of captured troops to effectively organize and resist their imprisonment. British radio operator Robert W. Ford and British army Colonel James Carne also claimed that the Chinese subjected them to brainwashing techniques during their war-era imprisonment. The most prominent case in the U.S. was that of Frank Schwable, who confessed to having participated in germ warfare while in captivity.
5.4. What are the areas of use planned by humans for future use?
Mind Control 34 Human Mind
Based on the above facts, a new arsenal of psychotropic weapons are being made which are based on devices designed to introduce subliminal messages or to alter the body’s psychological and data-processing capabilities, might be used to incapacitate individuals. The plans to create a mind controlled workers society have been in place for a long time
5.5. How is it done?
Actually, the goal of mind control is to access those areas of the brain that are outside of the conscious control of the individual by circumventing the normal inhibiting response of the cerebral cortex: “an individual’s voluntary conscious self-control must be bypassed or shortcircuited.” This unconscious coercion is done through electromagnetic-wave bombardment of the brain, .i.e. bombarding of the brain with low-frequency radio waves. This waves goes directly to the subconscious parts of the human brain for receiving or transcoding the messages and without the person exposed to such influence having a chance to control the information input consciously. This can alter a person thoughts, emotions, and behaviour. To achieve truly lasting mind control requires the creation of “profound and deep emotional states.” Recommended are fear, shock and anxiety, which have “an intense disinhibitive effect on the human brain.” What this means, in essence, is that emotional trauma facilitates the accessing of dissociative states. In order to disable the brain’s “cortical block,” Verdier recommends alcohol, euphoric drugs, isolation, solitary confinement, and – “the most dramatic and unique item in the brainwashing arsenal”-hypnosis.
5.6. Categories of mind control operations Thus there are several categories of mind control operations, for example covert drugging, hypnosis and trauma conditioning, one-shot EM-type brain blasting, short-term mind fucks, and on-going feedback control setups for long-term torture and exploitation of victims, to mention a few. What they have in common is the attack against the mind of the victim, as well as the deniable and denied nature of the attack. The exact means being used in any particular case are beside the point here. These techniques do not just violate one or two of what everyone knows is fundamental human rights: In one fell swoop they violate almost every fundamental human right a person has.
Conclusion 35 Human Mind
6. Conclusion â€œChange the Invisible and the visible followsâ€? Human Mind is the most strange and mysterious object existing in this universe. Its powers are Unlimited, Infinite. Creation and Destruction both are managed by the same Mind. Its upto us know to channel our thoughts in proper way(right way). Whether you realise it or not you are already creating your reality through your thought power. Every effect you see in your outside world has its original cause within you - no exceptions. To gain access to the greatest creative power at your disposal, you must learn to control the nature of your habitual thoughts and to align yourself with the One Source of All Power of which you are a part. Your thoughts create your reality - know, internalize and apply this Truth and you will see your life transform in miraculous ways. As Napolean Hill has said-
"We do not have to wait for future discoveries in connection with the powers of the human mind for evidence that the mind is the greatest force known to mankind. We know, now, that any idea, aim or purpose that is fixed in the mind and held there with a will to achieve or attain its physical or material equivalent, puts into motion powers that cannot be conquered."