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MARIN COUNTY FREE LIBRARY

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3 1111 01986 5946

itttonal Arts

BAITERSON lUXJKR

A COMI'IJ/I K

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iraditional Arts 3

of Japan A Complete

BATTERSON BOGER

BY

H.

Here

for the

the

Guide

Illustrated

first

time

a

is

book

compasses

that

all

and ceremonies of Japan, giving fun-

arts, crafts,

damental information and a

clear, descriptive picture

of every category for the interested layman, the expert, and the connoisseur. In 170,000

words of readable

and with

narrative,

369 black-and-white photographs, 26 color reproductions, and 40 line drawnigs. The Traditional Arts oj

Japan shows the steps by which the Japanese

and

artisans created their

works, both

artists

utilitarian

and

decorative.

Supplemented by an introduction to the cultural lientage of Japan, a chronological outline history, a tab!

and

prefectures,

'

•''-al

periods,

nipleic

ail.

indispensable guide to tu.

'

i.

of Japanese

maps of provinces '

"-he

text

is

an

-Mfication aiiu a^j^..

of Japanese works of art aiiu ^. to the thinking, symbolism, and technical processes beliuiu

ciation

'"

md

them.

Chapter by chapter, the book presents the following subjects,

among

others:

Meaning and mathematics behind

the

great

Japanese gardens •

How

swords and sword mounts were formed

and decorated •

Making of arms and armor

• Structuring

and symbolism

of

architecture,

domestic and public • Firing

and designing of pottery and porcelain

• Steps in the incense

and

tea

ceremonies

Weaving and designing of textiles

Making of dolls and

• Design • Firing

their role in Japanese life

and use of fans of enamels

{cominuvd on hack flap)

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Boger The traditional art of Japan

8 1978

y

ȴm.

Mafin Cwinty Free Library Civic Center Administration S..n

Building

Rafael, Californis

No

23-221


The

Traditional Arts of Japan


The

Traditional


Arts ofJapan A

Complete

Illustrated

Guide

H. Batterson Boger

DOUBLEDAY

&

COMPANY,

INC.

GARDEN

Marin County Free Library Civic Center AdiT.imstration Sr.n

Building

Rafael, California

CITY, N.Y.

1964


1

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1^

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NOJMBER:

,"••

^

>•••'-

'-

•v-

i^ ;3 :>

64-11726.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

BOOK IS FULLY PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT UNDER THE TEPJvlS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT UNION. PERMISSION TO USE PORTIONS OF THIS BOOK MUST BE OBTAINED IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. THIS

DESIGNED BY LIBRA STUDIOS, INC.

PRODUCED BY CHANTICLEER PRESS. INC., NEW YORK. PRINTED BY BRUDER ROSENBAUM, VIENNA, AUSTRIA. DOUBLEDAY & COMPANY, INC. GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK. 1964


Acknowledgments

MUCH

OF THE SUCCESS I may have attained in comwork

piling the material for this

ance accorded

by

art

friends

due

is

to the generous assist-

various stages of my interest in Japanese

me

at

and

associates in the

United

and abroad.

States

number of photographs was selection was made to give this col-

In the course of time a great

gathered, and a careful

wish to record

me by I

my gratitude for the courtesy extended to

various staff

the Metropolitan

members of the photographic

Museum

of Art,

take pleasure in expressing

for the generous assistance

my

service at

me by

staff

Mr.

grateful to

for his helpful criticism

my many Japanese friends and

have so graciously opened to

me

their

given by Mr. Takeo Takamatsu, editor-in-chief of the Japan

eral

who has supplied such beautiful pictures.

Sev-

of the fine photographs of domestic architecture were

given to

me

through the kindness of Mr.

Jiro

Tokyo National Museum. And I am indebted

Redman of the

British

Embassy

to

make

abbot to another for the past

years.

wish to thank Mr. K. Imai of Kyoto, and Yamanaka and for their kindness in

me to use certam illustrations from their collections. the color plates, I am deeply grateful to Mr. John

allowing

As

for

of the Cleveland Museumof Art; Mr. Richard

E. FuUer, director

of the

Seattle

L. Smith, Life magazine;

New York

Art

Museum

;

Miss Dorothy

Mr. and Mrs. Shizuo Nomura,

and Kyoto; Mr. Kazuo Iwata, director of the

Japan National Tourist Association ;andMr. Charles A. Greenfield,

New York.

in

Harada of the

illustrations that selection

assistance

and guidance,

I

gratitude. His suggestions

Tokyo, who,

as a director

importance,

me

years ago. For illustrations

of those to be used has been most

And to Mr. Nagatake Asano, director of the Tokyo National Museum, who was so kind as to read the original manuscript of this work and who so generously offered his difficult.

Mr. H. Vere

use of uncommonly fine line drawings that appeared

many

is due the staff members of Tokyo National Museum, who have given such valuable material assistance and supplied me with so many choice

the

to

of the Asiatic Society of Japan, has graciously permitted

in their journal Transactions

I

down from one

hundred

Floral Art Institute at the

Kyoto, where the Ikenobo method has

My wholehearted appreciation

of special knowledge. I must mention the kind assistance

Travel Bureau,

been handed thirteen

at

;

Services at the Victoria

am most

I

Museum,

have long been indebted to

who

Rokkakudo temple

E. Lee, director

sincere appreciation

and suggested emendations.

stores

owe my deepest appreciation

most

Soame Jenyns, Deputy Keeper of the Department of Oriental

acquaintances

I

A. Pope, director of the Freer Gallery of Art Mr. Sherman

and cooperation given

and Albert Museum, in England.

I

of floral arrangement

New York.

members of the Museum Extension

Antiquities at the British

art

Mr. M. Nishikida of the Ikenobo

to

Company of Osaka and New York,

lection a true aesthetic value. I

of the

trations,

as

which

Finally,

I

was

extend

and

my

deepest expression of

criticism

his supervision

were of the utmost

of the photographic

illus-

are of immeasurable value to the text.

am grateful to Mr. Henry La Farge for his discern-

ing help in the preparation of the manuscript for pubUcation.


Prefiace

THE PURPOSE

of

book

this

promote

to

is

understanding and appreciation of the

a fuller

of Japan.

arts

was

It

developed, and most of the pertinent material was accumu-

during an estabhshed residence in Japan. The writer was

lated,

especially fortunate in having several Japanese collector friends

whose

refined taste enabled

approach and the

him

to cultivate their cultural

aesthetic appreciation necessary to

standing of the subtle beauty of their

The book

well as for the

as

general reader and enquirer seeking to gain a

more

intimate

unique culture that has developed in Japan

insight into the

throughout the centuries.

It

provides a complete introduction

from the earhest

to the arts of Japan, surveying their evolution

times through the period of their greatest development. art

is

meant not only the

every form of

arts

By

of painting and sculpture, but including such aesthetic

expression,

artistic

pastimes as the tea ceremony and flower arrangement, which the Japanese have raised to the dignity of an

given to the popular in the daily

life,

and the many

art.

Emphasis

charm of Japan

the

arts, for

is

found

is

customs, and famihar beliefs of its people,

arts

which play such an important

role in

the subject pact.

is

is

planned

as a

comprehensive guide and

broad in scope, the treatment

is

necessarily

Each chapter presents a particular Japanese

and traces the chief influences which have ment. Such

historical

an appreciation of the

and

affected

its

arts are also

Japan

is

provided. Emphasis

is

so closely connected with religion that

knowledge of the behefs which certain pertinent aspects first

chapter,

which

world. While

ing

like-

little

A

it is

without some

main has followed the

some of the more familiar The fmal chapter is devoted

since

dictates

work

true that contemporary native origin,

its

the

con-

of con-

Western

portraying

much of it, show-

known and

To go

further than the arts of

appreciated as traditionally Japa-

beyond the scope of

this

book, for a definitive

history cannot be written until sufficient time has elapsed to

allow the subject to In less

all

into

fall

proper perspective.

its

have been

their arts the Japanese

satisfied

than technical perfection, whether the

minute

scale or

of heroic proportions. In

branch of Japanese

with nothing

work was on

life

a

that respect each

art merits universal interest.

bolism wliich permeates the

The sym-

and behavior of the Japanese

has been recorded in an enduring

maimer

in their arts.

It is

not a fixed and formal symbolism but rather a fme network associations giving

Japan received the

tions

and

to absorb

this island

garded art

a unique appeal. Although

and guidance in her

art

nation through the centuries has added

own

the aesthetic ideals

created to express native tradi-

of her people. Because the Japa-

artistic sense to assimilate

and nationalize

of Japan displays a

it

initial inspiration

nese possessed the imiate

that

sufficient degree

as a national art

and

as

and adapt,

which they borrowed, the

art

of originahty to be re-

such to take

its

place with the

of other nations in the history of the world.

It is

it reflects.

work beyond

modern times,

evidence of Oriental derivation, follows the precepts

nese, seems

of the

art.

it is

design that are

brief outline of

motifs occurring in Japanese

New York

it

to extend this

of international movements.

of the cultural history is the subject of

also includes

art in the

a rich vocabulary of her

develop-

unique repository of Oriental

formists to international fashions originating in the

form

aesthetic aspects as are necessary for

impossible to obtain an understanding of

the

temporary

from China,

wise placed on the evolution of religious traditions, because art in

There has been no attempt

com-

art

a

periods of indigenous traditions into

of subtle

them. Because the book

of the Shosoin,

culture.

Japanese subjects suggests

art.

designed for the student

is

an under-

to the history

hoped arts

that

tl>is

book may not only increase knowledge

of Japan, but do much to promote an informed

understanding of the people

who

created

it

and thus gave to

the world a great art heritage.

H.

BATTERSON BOGER


Contents

PAGE

CHRONOLOGICAL OUTLINE TABLE OF PROVINCES AND PREFECTURES THE CULTURAL HERITAGE II MOTIFS IN JAPANESE ART

23

PAINTING

27

COLOR PRINTS

51

I

III

IV

V

SCULPTURE VI MASKS

METALWORK VIII ARMS AND ARMOR IX SWORD DECORATION AND MOUNTS X SHINTO AND BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE VII

DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE XII LANDSCAPE GARDENING XIII FLORAL ART

XI

CEREMONY XV INCENSE CEREMONY XVI POTTERY AND PORCELAIN XVII LACQUER TOBACCO POUCH AND PIPE CASE, AND HIUCHI-BUKURO XIV

XVIII

INRO, NETSUKE, YATATE,

TEA

XIX

8

lo 13

67 79 91

105

117 129 147 161 173

209 221

227 253

265

TEXTILES

277

XX COSTUME

287

XXI

DOLLS XXII FANS

299

XXIII CLOISONNE ENAMEL XXIV SHOSOIN, THE IMPERIAL REPOSITORY XXV AINU FOLK ART

311

BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX

339

307

315 333

341


I

chronological Outline

PREHISTORY AND PROTOHISTORY c.

7000 B.C. 660 B.C.

300 B.C. first-fourth century A.D. A.D. 220 c.

Jomon

culture (Neolithic age).

Japanese Empire founded

Yayoi culture (Bronze

607 621 623

645

552-794

Empress Jingo invades kingdom of

c.

670 701

Emperor,

Silla;

beginning of Korean influence.

(552-645)

gift of gilt bronze Buddha to Japanese Emperor. Buddhism introduced. Empress Suiko reigns; affairs of state vested in Prince Shotoku. Construction of Horyuji temple, Nara. Prince Shotoku dies. Sakyaimmi Triad bronze icon by Tori. EarHest example of lacquer in Tamamushi shrine. Taika Reform edict issued to reorganize life and government on Chinese model. Gigaku dance drama introduced from continent. Incense burning introduced by Buddhist priests. First period of Chinese influence in architecture.

King Paikche of Korea sends

HAHUKO PERIOD 672-685 668-672

Jirmiiu, first

Ancient Burial Mounds; Haniwa culture.

ASUKA PERIOD 552 593 -628

by

age).

Emperor

Temmu

(673-685)

of Ise Shinto shrines every twenty Tenjo era. Invention of folding fan. Horyuji destroyed by fire. Taiho code. Guild of Needleworkers and Weavers instituted. reigns. Decrees rebuilding

NARA PERIOD

years.

(710-794)

Strong influence of Chinese T'ang dynasty culture.

710

Empress

Gemmyo

establishes

Nara

as

permanent

capital

and

court. Heijo built;

Amida

TnW bronze icon

cast.

and Chronicles of Japan,

Kojiki

724-749 742 745-752

Emperor Shomu, 701-756, reigns. Shinto and Buddhism assimilated; Konkomyo

749 752 751-52 755 756

794 894 897-1185 early eleventh century

980-101

first

sutra written.

Construction of Todaiji monastery, Nara.

Emperor Shomu

abdicates; his daughter ascends throne as

Empress Koken.

Great Buddha of Nara consecrated.

Construction of Shosoin. Empress Koken institutes festival of Weavers' star. Empress dowager Komyo (Shomu's widow) makes initial Deed of Gift of Imperial Treasures to Shosoin. Bugaku dance drama introduced from continent.

HEIAN PERIOD 794-897

8

books written in Japanese.

712, 720

(794-1185)

Jogan or Konin (Early Heian) period. Heian-kyo capital moved to Kyoto. Suspension of relations with China. Native themes make their appearance in secular painting. Introduction of esoteric Buddhist sects and painting. Fujiwara (Late Heian) period. Spread of Amida Buddha cult; raigo ceremonies.

Amida Nyorai, famous wooden icon Emperor Ichijo reigns; flowering of

statue.

brilliant aristocratic society.


C.

1020 1053

II80

794-1185 tenth-twelfth centuries

Tale ofGenji written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu. Construction of Hoodo, or Phoenix Hall of Byodo in temple; sumptuous lacquer decorations. Great age of scroll-painting; Yamato-e style of painting developed. Animal Scroll by Toba Sojo (1053-1140). Hall of the Great Buddha at Nara destroyed by fure. First

period of nationalization in architecture.

Shinden-zukuri style of domestic architecture developed.

KAMAKURA PERIOD Minamoto Yoritomo civil c. 1

191

1252 1274, 1281 1309 1

185-1573

Zen

wars. Penetration of

founded by

sect

T567

Eisai; tea planted for first time; tea ritual initiated.

Kublai

Khan

attempts conquest of Japan.

Kasuga temple. The No plays written and Second period of Chinese influence in architecture.

Scroll-paintings of

(ASHIKAGA) PERIOD

1576 1584 1573-1591

1596-1615 1598

I 624- I 644

1637 1639

(1573-1615)

Death of Hideyoshi, on expedition

to Korea.

Second period of nationalization in

Tokugawa

potters start kilns in

Kyushu, making

architecture.

(1615-1867)

Edo becomes the Shogun's capital. Beginnings of Japanese porcelain. Ninsei, 1 596-1666. Kan-ei era; luxurious mode of Uving develops. Sotatsu, 1 589-1651, painter active 1630. Beginnings of Kabuki, popular drama. Christian RebelUon at Shimabara. Cessation of intercourse with outside world. Revival of Confucianism. Rise of Ukiyo-e art. Development of the woodcut print. Hishikawa Moronobu, 1618-1694; Ogata Korin, 1658-1716. leyasu,

1

542-1616, appointed Shogun.

Genroku

era; prosperity

Kambun

era; feud

1720 1716-1736

Introduction of the

textiles

and dissemination of culture. between the Machi-yakko and the banner knights of Edo. Development of kambun

with bold designs for

Nanga

dress.

Korin, 1658-1716, painter.

school of hterati painters.

Kyoho

era of affluence and extravagant living. Master printmakers: Suzuki Harunobu, 1725-1770; Kitagawa Utamaro, 1753-1806; Saito Sharaku, active 1794-95; Hokusai, 1760-1849; Ando Hiroshige,

1797-1858.

764- I 772

Meiwa

era.

1830-1844

Tempo

era;

1853

Korean knmigrant

glazed pottery.

1688-1704 1661-1673

I

(1338-1573)

Rise to power of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Construction of castle at Azuchi. Construction of castle at Osaka. Tensho era, during which karaori (Chinese weave) textiles were introduced from Ming China. Raku pottery ware began to be produced. Kano tradition in painting continued by Kano Eitoku, 1543-1590, and Kano Sanraku, 1559-1635. Keicho era. Kirym silks for warrior banners. Puppet shows developed, to accompaniment o(jojuri chanting.

EDO (TOKUGAWA) PERIOD 1615 1616

masks perfected.

Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa. New dependence of Chinese models. "Higashiyama" age. Tea cult formalized by Zen monk Shuko, 1422-1502, who built the Dojinsai tearoom at Silver Pavihon. Incense ceremony founded by Shino Soshin. Lacquer by Michinaga Koami. Development of the new Suiboku (monochrome) style of painting, with Sesshu Toyo, 1420-1 506, its greatest exponent. Tosa school of painting, led by Tosa Mitsunobu (1434-1525). Kano school of painting, founded by Kano Masanobu (1434-1530). Goto Shirobei (1439-1512), master metalworker for sword mounts. Hall of Great Buddha at Nara again destroyed by fire.

first

1573-1867

No

Gingakuji, or Silver Pavilion, built by

MOMOYAMA PERIOD 1582

Kamakura. Reconstruction of monasteries damaged during

Zen Buddhism,

Great Buddha of Kamakura, bronze icon.

MUROMACHI 1479

(1185-1333)

estabhshes capital at

Arrival of

MEIJI

economic reforms.

Commodore

PERIOD

Perry.

(1868-1912)


of Provinces and Prefectures THE EARLY TRADITIONAL DIVISIONS

of the

known

as kutii,

Japanese empire were in the form of regions

or provinces, but during the Meiji period the country to be divided into prefectures designated as

Of

the 46 prefectures there are one

to

to,

do, fu,

came

and

(Tokyo-to),

ketu

one do

(Hokkaido), two/w (Kyoto-fu and Osaka-fu), and 42 ken or rural prefectures. In the following table are listed the

names

of the provinces with the names of the prefectures that approximately correspond to the same geographical regions.

Kawachi

MAP OF THE OLD PROVINCES OF JAPAN. Courtesy of Hideo Kasai, Tokyo


PREFECTURE

PROVINCE

PREFECTURE

PROVINCE

Aki

Hiroshima

Kozuke

Gumma

Awa

Chiba Tokushima

Mikawa

Aichi

Mimasaka

Okayama

Hyogo

Mino

Gifu

Hiroshima

Musashi

Tokyo, Saitama and

Awa Awaji Bingo Bitchu

Bizen

Okayama Okayama

Bungo

Oita

Buzen Chikugo Chiuzen

Fukuoka and Oita Fukuoka Fukuoka

Echigo

Niigata

Mutsu Nagato Noto Oki

Kanagawa Aomori and Iwate Yamaguchi Ishikawa

Shimane

Omi

Shiga

Kagoshima

Echizen

Fukui

Osumi Owari

Etchu

Rikuchu Rikuzen

Iwate and Ishikawa

Harima

Toy a ma Hyogo

Hida

Gifu

Sado

Niigata

Higo

Kumamoto

Sagami

Hitachi

Ibaraki

Sanuki

Kanagawa Kagawa

Aichi

Miyagi and Iwate

Hizen

Saga and Nagasaki

Satsuma

Hoki

Tottori

Settsu

Kagoshima Osaka and Hyogo

Hyuga

Miyazaki

Shima

Mie

Iga

Mie

Shimosa or

Iki

Nagasaki

Inaba

Tottori

Shimotsuke

Tochigi

Ise

Mie

Shinano

Iwaki

Suo

Nagano Yamaguchi

Iwashiro

Fukushima and Miyagi Shimane Fukushima

lyo

Ehime

Izu

Izumi

Iwami

Izumo Kaga

Shimofusa

Chiba and Ibaraki

Suruga

Shizuoka

Taj i ma

Hyogo

Tamba Tango

Kyoto and Hyogo Kyoto

Shizuoka

Tosa

Kochi

Osaka Shimane

To to mi

Shizuoka

Tsushima

Nagasaki

Ishikawa

Ugo

Akita

Uzen Wakasa

Yamagata

Kazusa

Yamanashi Osaka Chiba

Yamashiro

Ku

Wakayama and Mie

Yamato

Kyoto Nara

Kai

Kawachi or Kochi

Fukui

^ [

Ishikawi

MAP SHOWING THE PREFECTURES OF JAPAN. Courtesy of Hideo Kasai, Tokyo

11


I

I

OR OVER

centuries

thirteen

The

of recorded

Cultural Heritage

century, there existed narratives in verse and stories of past

history the arts of Japan have served to

events and the circumstances connected with them. These

transmit her customs, myths, legends, and rehgious behefs,

were carefuUy committed to memory and handed down to

.^L.

besides chronicHng the everyday hfe land. This represents

the history of

art.

and scenic beauty of the

one of the longest

aesthetic traditions in

Architecture, sculpture, and painting are

not the only manifestations of

extraordinary legacy;

this

account must also be taken of the picture prints, besides classified as

many

scrolls

and color

other categories usually rather arbitrarily

"minor" or "decorative":

virtu, such as lacquers, textiles, ceramics,

objects

of use and

metalwork, masks,

miniature carvings, sword mounts. Because of the extra-

posterity reciters,

on

these objects, the arts

regarded

Western

as art

of the

furst

Aside from their high

manship,

distinction

many of these

of subjects and

artistic

quahty and exquisite work-

arts offer

associations.

an inexhaustible repertoire

There are scenes of the daily Hfe battle scenes, episodes

the hves of Chinese sages and poets, folklore, legendary

stories,

Buddhist and Shinto gods and symbohsm, scenes from

these treasured accounts the

piled

by means of Chinese

the Japanese language. as the Kojiki,

in A.D. 712

The

partly also

of their motifs, with derivatives and to the earhest times.

fabulous

art,

records

due

to the antiquity

attributes that reach

The stream of

back

consciousness of this

appealing essentially to the taste of noble and

apphed

to

and are known

the celestial deities presented a jeweled spear to the

all

birth to a land. Standing

upon

commanding them

god

to give

the Floating Bridge of Heaven,

they stirred the cool blue waters of the sea with the spear

was named Onogoro-jima, or

until the land appeared. This

land-which-appeared-of-itself,

meaning Sun Origin. From birth to the eight islands

The

first

ancestress

was

chronicles,

now

this

called

Nihon or Nippon,

land the

which

two

gave

deities

constitute Japan,

called

great-eight-islands, as the Japanese often call

of the Imperial family, according to the Amaterasu-o-mi-kami,

Princess

literally

heaven-shining-great-deity, or the sun goddess, daughter of Izanagi and Izanami,

whose radiance was such

sent to dwell in Heaven.

moon

The next

the

was Susano-o-no-Mikoto, brought

god.

much

that she

was

There she ruled with her brother

from

PREHISTORIC CULTURE

exist

were formed from chaos,

universe. After heaven and earth

warrior patrons, resides in the hfe of its traditions descending prehistoric times.

still

and 720 respectively.

Oyashima, or

is

characters successfully

From com-

chronicles begin with the story of the creation of the

their country.

simphcity that their meanings are apt to remain veiled to the

traditions.

written chronicles were

or Record ofAncient Matters, and the Nihon-Shoki,

of such subtle and suggestive

uninitiated Westerner. This

The

first

often abbreviated to Nihongi, or Chronicles ofJapan, compiled

the theater, mythical anunals, heraldic motifs. These subjects are often treated in a style

charged by the Imperial court to keep a

Izanagi and the goddess Izanami,

order.

and occupations of the people, epic

from

between major and

does not hold in Japan, and these works must be

a class of historians called katari-be, or story-

and pure history of the nation's early

clear

ordinary craftsmanship traditionally lavished by the Japanese

minor

by

who were

child a

bom

fierce

misfortune to the

to Izanagi

and Izanami

and cruel deity

earj:h.

It

who

was because' of

of Susano-o that Amaterasu hid herself in

the

offenses

the

Cave of Heaven, throwing

the

whole world into

darkness as the sun disappeared. literature in Japan before

According to the legend, eighty myriads of deities assem-

the introduction of the Chinese characters early in the fifth

bled before the Cave of Heaven to persuade the sun goddess to

Although there was no written

13


come out and bring together

many

and

Yamato court

merry with singing and dancing

sun goddess in

until the

curiosity opened the door of the cave just a bit

going on. At

that instant

hand and flung

the door

Around

back into the world. They gathered

and recited prayers, and even made

light

offerings

one of the

wide open

to see

deities seized

to

make

what was

her by the

come

the goddess

Silla.

whose envoys were

man of

from

He was

classics.

Shinto, called shimenawa. Amaterasu then

said to

Leaving the Plains of High Heaven, he thrust

apart the many-layered clouds with his to the land of Japan.

sword and descended

Amaterasu entrusted to him three

a mirror, a sword, and a jewel or necklace,

as

objects,

tokens of his

divine mission, with her prophecy that his dynasty should flourish and rule forever.

These are the Three Sacred Treasures

understand

all

the books of

and Chinese

script

were known in Japan prior to

official

introduction of the Chinese written language.

culture, but the descendants

Not

of Wani and other scholars from

Korea and China formed a nucleus of learning, and with the

in the Imperial palace in Tokyo, the sword venerated in the

is

whose

this date,

marked the

only did this make possible a more rapid absorption of Chinese

was evolved. The

the genealogy of the Imperial line,

This event took

the arrival of Wani with his assigmnent at court

aid of the Chinese ideograms, a

early chronicles further record

classics.

sug-

who was

over

place in the year 405, and although both the Chinese language

enshrined at the Daijingu shrine of Ise, the necklace preserved

The

with

come on

at Achiki's

Wani was brought

that constitute the Imperial Regalia of Japan, the mirror being

Atsuta shrine at Nagoya.

to

petitioned to reconmiend a

court and instruct the heir apparent, and gestion a scholar' named

as its first ruler.

men

outstanding literary knowledge to remain at the

re-entering. This has since been used as the Sacred

grandson, Ninigi-no-Mikoto, to descend to the land below

skilled craftsmen

the learned

one of these missions was a Korean named Achiki, a student of the Chinese

Rope of commanded her

and

tribute

Among

each of their missions.

was banished to the Land of Darkness, and

a rope across the entrance of the cave to keep Amaterasu

constantly trying to please the Japanese

by bringing

sovereigns

out and cause the sun to shine again upon the world. Susano-o the gods stretched

the end of the fourth century a.d. the

established friendly relations with Paikche,

the Kojiki (712), although the

lost

method of writing Japanese

work

earhest surviving

written in Japanese

book

first

in Japanese

—^now

—was a chronicle compiled in 620.

prehistoric portion

concludes with the Emperor Jimmu, the great-grandson of Prince Ninigi,

660

B.C.

who founded

the

Empire of Japan

in the year

Emperor Jimmu's dynasty has continued

A

generations until the present time.

one

Archaeological evidence indicates that Japan possessed

of the most advanced Neohthic cultures in the world, espe-

making of weapons,

cially in the

tools,

creating unusually intricate designs

on

and

utensils,

and in

pottery. Prior to the

Christian era her civilization had been fairly

but gradually there developed relations and

homogeneous, traffic

between

Korea and Japan, which probably began even before the century

B.C.,

fled to

Korea because of wars

most of them were

men

first

and there appears to have been a constant flow

of immigrants. These were Koreans, and

had

of learning,

in their

Chinese

own

country, and

skilled artisans, potters,

painters, farmers,

and

who

also

weavers, scribes,

speciahsts skilled in

the raising of silkworms. EHj/gre artisans and specialists appear to have

come over

in fairly large numbers,

element of the early population of Yamato,

around Nara was

ARRIVAL OF BUDDHISM

for 124

called, consisted

and a strong as the

region

of foreigners. These

ented immigrants stimulated the cultural

tal-

development of

further impetus to learning and cultural development

was provided by the introduction of Buddhism

stated that although the rehgion

explain and

worthy and

its

conception of deliverance from

architects,

Buddha and

submit the merits of

new

two powerful

gifts

from

this

The Emperor, upon

the sutras, decided to

rehgion to

his ministers for

factions at court.

On

the one

between

hand were the

Mononobe clan, who were the leading mihtary family, and the Nakatomi

clan, the hereditary liturgists;

rival the

Soga family.

presented

When

on the

other, their

the question

was put

who had been appointed O-omi or

Chieftains, favored

him with

Chief

Buddhism; therefore the Emperor

the sacred image,

which Soga

set

up

in

own house. The opposing faction strongly objected on the

mihtary expeditions to Korea and Japan's poUtical relations

his

with the three kingdoms of the peninsula KokuH, Paikche,

ground

14

These

and nuns, besides

consideration. This decision brought about a conflict

of

:

priests

receiving the image of the

was quickly

development were the early

was most

image carvers, and men learned in medicine,

before them, Soga,

this

difficult to

it

followers a beautiful

calendar-making, music, and divination.

brought from the mainland in the form of Chinese learning

importance in

its

all desires.

Paikche were soon followed by

temple

to apprehend,

excellent, bringing to

common

Of great

of Buddhism was

meaning was hard

Japan to such a degree that the high order of civilization

assimilated.

in the year

when the King of Paikche sent an image of the Buddha, with a number of volumes of the sutras and a message recommending the adoption of this new religion. This message 552,

that the

worship of foreign gods would only bring


down

the wrath of native deities,

who had

been worshipped

progress, as

it

was caused by the anger of the native gods, ordered

thrown

the image to be

into the canal at

Naniwa,

now

in

was

who was learned in

Chinese

successfully re-established

of Soga-no-Umako,

literature, the

with the powerful

new

tire

world.

Buddhism, year 587,

for

emerged

it

when

as the great

new

Yomei,

a behever in the

Shinto,

fell ill

dynasty.

The envoys and with great care

his faith in the

new religion. With

leader having a

by the Emperor,

a great impetus

was given to the progress of Buddhism. Soga-

faith

artists,

movement, and

the result

More holy images and

by

culture adopted

was

age of

numbers of missions

staffs

of these

as to their

staff

official

embassies were

rank and learning, the

of subordinate envoys including

numbering

as

many

as five

hundred

the Japanese

was

in a

new

the important aspects of the

of the

a modification

Chinese administrative system, incorporating most of its categories,

other religious articles sculptors,

whole

One of

single mission.

advancement of all forms of culture, with Buddhism

were brought from Korea, along with

buildings are

craftsmen, founders, carpenters, smiths, doctors, and

diviners, frequently

no-Umako, having reached a position of great power in Japan, placed his resources beliind the

its

this great

administrative institutions that flourished under the T'ang

selected

new

Suiko, and in

China to acquire a knowledge of the cultural and

well as in the native

of devotion to the

as the source.

sent to

as

that

in the

607 by Prince Shotoku in obedience

All through the seventh century great

were

religion in the

this expression

a rapid

most ancient wooden structure

in

time the Emperor

At

law of Buddha

and avowed

was founded

It

Buddhism.

another

the Soga family attained the most powerful

position after a brief civil war.

by the

as indicated

preserved images and other treasures of

proved the merits of

pestilence occurred. These trying times

freedom of style

its

have survived the ravages of

that

command by Empress

to a

During the following decade the fortunes of Buddhism

when

to

architecture

and the elements. The most celebrated are those of the

Japan, besides being the

assistance

who had followed his father as an ardent

the pressure of opposing factions

Temple

Horyuji, near Nara, the oldest existing teniple nucleus in

faith

behever in Buddhism.

waned under

medium was confmed

comparison to the Chinese prototypes,

few splendid monuments

called

Osaka. However, with the succession in 572 of the Emperor Bidatsu,

this

quickly showed unusual development in

of sickness spread throughout the land, and the Emperor, believing

most of the work in

the decoration of temples and images.

since the founding of Japan. Shortly thereafter, an epidemic

bronze

official

from the formation of a court hierarchy based on rank distinguished by

titles

and costumes, to

specific

reform and taxation. Travelers returning

workers, painters, temple carpenters, monks, and other learned

details as to land

men. The building of monasteries and the making of images

from China with detailed accounts ofthe splendors ofthe T'ang

advanced with great

capital at

strides, particularly

Empress Suiko to the throne in 593, when

with the advent of

vested in Prince Regent Shotoku Taishi.

Shotoku Japan.

is

At an

their

Buddhism

in

in the doctrines

of

considered the real founder of early age he

became learned

the faith and in the Chinese classics, and as

made Buddhism

Along with

teachings. tellectual asteries,

a

his propagation

were made

for learning the Chinese script

Chinese literature,

as all the

A

written in Chinese. scholars, artists,

and

continuous stream of

mon-

regulated

settled in Japan, creating the

cultural foundations.

(552-645),

named

Nara, marks the

after the seat

initial stage

by Chinese

the

was

monks,

now

art

a complete system of municipal government. it

had been the custom for the Emperor

new

palace

transferred with each

new

reign,

no

myo was

that the first

in accordance

of the Asuka

seat

established in the province

kyo, which was

the in-

permanent

later called

towns or It

cities

was not untU

new

city

was

with a plan based upon the Chinese

Gem-

laid

out

capital

of

Ch'ang-an, with palaces and mansions erected on a magnificent scale in the Imperial "inner city." itself

was metalwork. Painting showed

great

of Yamato and called Heijo-

Nara. The

apphed

there

site,

of court and government

period was principally sculpture in bronze and wood. In the arts

at the

on some new

the year 710 during the reign of the Empress-Regnant

of the Imperial court near

The

An important fea-

developed, such as had been the case in China.

of refmement and greatness of

culture.

and regulations, which

Taika Reform edict issued in the year

usually in one of the Imperial domains. Because the capital

Asuka period

Buddhism and

a code of laws

time of accession to erect a

most important nucleus of Japan's

The beginning of

Japanese art with the introduction of fluence exerted

priests,

by

Until this time

and studying

from Korea

efforts

ture of the Taika edict was the provision for a capital to be

Buddhist sutras or scriptures were

specialized craftsmen

on which

and to complete the great

645, and the Taiho code completed in 701.

of Buddhist

and religious houses of charity. Buddhism provided

new medium

to carry out reforms

finally resulted in the

of the moral and in-

advantages of Buddhism, he built temples,

scale

effected, inspired

to create even greater things for Japan.

work of compiling

Regent he not only

basis

countrymen

were

During the second quarter of the seventh century

the religion of the court, but also issued a

code and organized the government on the

Ch'ang-an and of the stupendous

the most magnificent undertakings

of state were

affairs

httle

was

also

on

a

grand

scale,

The

plan of the city

symmetrically arranged and

15

i

<ii/

ij

y

(J


classified in the

by broad,

Chinese manner in a great rectangle intersected

straight avenues.

Chinese culture exert

So strongly did the influence of

itself in

every phase of Japanese Ufe that

not only were the temples and palaces in the style of Chinese architecture, but even religious texts

were read in Chinese;

and poems, chronicles, and official documents, and even court etiquette

and costumes were modeled

after

T'ang precepts.

Hall was of enormous proportions, originally 284 feet long,

166 feet wide, and 152 feet high. Twice ashes as the result of conflicts in

1 1

80 and again in 1567, and each time

it

to

lords,

was carefuUy

Although its present dimensions are only about two-

restored.

the size of the original building, the height remains

tiiirds

152

was reduced

it

between powerful feudal

and

feet,

which

it

enshrines

is

wooden building under a The seated figure of the Great Buddha

the largest

it is still

single roof in the world.

53 feet high.

THE NARA PERIOD construction of Buddhist temples in and around

The

continued

at

many

the capital, as the

an almost

being

Nara

as

Nara remained

moved from nearby

locations, such

frantic pace as

long

Kofukuji temple from Asuka. The

latter

became one of

the seven great temples of Nara and, at the height of its prosperity as the tutelary temple of the Fujiwara family,

many

as 175 buildings

within

its

precinct.

three-storied for

its

Among

as

the other

Nara period

principal architectural survivals ot the

had

is

the

pagoda of the Yakushiji monastery, outstanding

delicate

and graceful proportions. The Nara period was

RECONCILIATION OF BUDDHISM AND SHINTOISM The

erection of a great

image of Buddha in the Japanese

capital presented a difficult situation

profound

problem

effect

on

the rehgious

w^as to find a

way of

which was

assimilating

Shintoism, for the great image was to national worship with counterparts in

to

have a

of the Japanese. The

life

Buddhism and

become an

all

object

of

the provincial tem-

presenting in substance an affront to the native gods

ples,

the golden age of Buddhist art and architecture in Japan, and

worshipped by the people since remote antiquity. Foreseeing

although most of its buildings have been destroyed by

this,

other destructive elements, a great ures have been preserved. chiefly of bronze,

The

art

number of their

of the Nara period consisted

mural painting of Buddhist themes. increasingly Japanese in style, with

being erected in the new its

capital,

Its

many

great monasteries

each having numerous build-

compound.

Symbohc of sect

some

became

architecture

this

golden age in the Imperial city

and well known

much thought

the Buddhist priests gave

of reconciling the two

would be

faiths

for

its

is

the

of the

chief object of worship,

the Daibutsu or Great Buddha, the largest bronze

and allow Buddhism and

universally acceptable

was achieved by Gyogi,

a

distinguished Buddhist priest

the idea of syncretizing

them

as different

Buddhism and Shintoism by defming

forms of the same

belief,

image

in the

at Ise, to

of the Emperor Shomu, and

its

Great Hall was

completed in 752. For generations the Todaiji not only con-

one of the seven great temples of Nara, but

also

was

the center of Buddhism, the state reUgion during

those times, with various provincial temples as

its

branches.

Following the example of the Chinese Sui and T'ang Emper-

who had

set

up

as

an Imperial

at the

threshold of the shrine,

a Buddhist temple and a shrine for

Taoist rites in each provincial capital, an Imperial edict in 741

Gyogi

received an oracle from her sacred lips proclaiming her desire to unite

and harmonize the principles of the two

the Buddha.

ors,

and

solemnly request her opinion. After seven days and

seven nights of prayer

command

as

named

who became patriarch of the Hosso sect. He conceived

obtained recognition of the native deities

stituted

problem

Shintoism to coexist in perfect harmony. This reconcihation

world. Construction of the Todaiji was begun in 745 by

regarded

to the

and developing a doctrine which

emissary he journeyed to the sacred shrine of the sun goddess

Todaiji, or Great Eastern Monastery, headquarters

Kegon

or

wood, and dry-lacquer images of divine

personages, religious articles in fme metalwork, and

ings within

fu:e

art treas-

faiths,

and

as manifestations

of

The overwhelming ascendency of Buddhism over Shintoism culminated in the creation of Ryobu, or

Double Aspect

Shinto, the theory that the Buddhist pantheon

in general represents the indestructible parts of the gods,

while the

pantheon are their

deities in the Shinto

partial

appearances or incarnations. Shinto, or

Way

of the Gods,

is

the native cult of Japan,

combining nature and ancestor worship in a pantheon of

prescribed the erection of a temple and a seven-storied pagoda

"eight milhon gods," wdth the sun goddess Amaterasu-o-mi-

together with a monastery and nunnery in every province.

kami

The Todaiji was conceived on a stupendous scale. Its compound wall enclosed an area more than two rmles square, with numerous subordinate buildings, the largest and most magnif-

Shrine, of the Daijingu shrines at

icent being the Great Hall, or Hall

16

of the Great Buddha. This

as its principal deity,

country

itself,

enshrined in the Naiku, or Inner Ise.

Shinto

is

as

old as the

having gradually evolved from an unorganized

worship of nature and the

spirits

of legendary times. This early

of the dead in the dim past

cult

had a pantheon of many


nature gods and goddesses-

mountains

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;of the sea, rivers, winds,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;besides many deified

no founder, no

creed,

and no teachings;

it is

and

fire,

historical personages.

has

It

simply the

Way

of the Gods, and a Shinto shrine has no image venerated in but

karni or deity

its

such

as a mirror, a

is

represented by a symbol of some kind,

sword,

Most Japanese

object.

gem,

a

a tablet, or other similar

are both Shintoist

and Buddhist with-

home

out contradiction, and almost every Japanese Shinto family

altar

it,

god

or shrine where a

has

its

symbohcaUy

is

oracle reconciling the

the edict announcing that a

was

two

Buddha image would be made Although the

issued in the following year.

Great Buddha was completed in 749, the dedication

ceremony took

image were touched

occurred in 742, and

faiths

was not

it

place, at

casting

of the

until 752 that

which the eyes of the

to symbolize bringing

it

to

life.

The

title

of Emperor, and reascended the throne

Empress Shotoku.

To

wooden pagodas called hyakumati-

one-milhon-pagodas)

(literally,

to

object of dedicating

them

stories,

of her peni-

as a sign

each four and a half inches high, with the base three

and

a half inches in diameter,

was placed

in each.

from

A

copy of the Dharani

a

sutra

milUon copies of this sutra were thus

copper or wooden blocks, to save the

either

them by hand. The

trouble and time of writing

sutras

and

pagodas were dedicated to ten large Buddhist temples,

their

a

be made, with the

to

Buddhism

to

These small pagodas were of three, seven, and more

tence.

and

as the

express her joy and thanks the Empress

ordered a million miniature

printed

venerated.

The

him of his

hundred thousand being presented

the year 770.

Of the original

more than

to the Horyuji temple,

to each

of the temples in

one hundred thousand presented ten thousand are

still

pre-

served there after almost tu'elve cenmries.

occasion presented a fabulous spectacle of Oriental splendor

amid

were performances of the ancient

great rejoicing; there

gigaku (dance-drama), and a maigre feast

court for 10,000

priests.

was provided by the

of the eyes of the Great Buddha was performed

of the Empress Koken, and her Imperial

Shomu. Many

who had

parents, the

articles

used

"eye-opening" ceremony

at the

the Imperial Repository,

a

treasure house a short distance behind the

Hall of the Great Buddha.

The Shosoin was

built

about 751

or 752 to preserve several thousand objects of art and other

belongings of the Emperor

daughter, the

Shomu, donated

at his

death to

Komyo-kogo and their Empress Koken. Preserved for more than a

the Todaiji temple

by

his consort

thousand years, these treasures of the eighth century, the period of Japanese culture, constitute a collection

classical

v^dthout parallel in the history of

art.

In the closing years of the eighth century the Heian period

in the presence

ascended the throne in 749,

former Emperor and Empress

are preserved in the Shosoin,

famous wooden

THE HEIAN PERIOD

The solemn ceremony of the opening

Included in

this great

(794-1185) began with the foundation of a

Heian-kyo, meaning later

to

Nagaoka,

new

building of the

when an

present

site

edict

series

of Kyoto. The reasons for

known

were attributed

site

was

selected

deity at the

Kamo

shrine, to the

for

that

it

is

textiles,

life

and

and

a

in popularity

and pros-

remarkable cultural progress was taking place,

Nara period was marred by dynastic intrigues and quarrels

of succession causing continuous of one of these

conflicts for

specimens of the

art

strife. It

power

of printing

In the year 758 the Empress

in the

Koken

was

a direct result

that the oldest surviving

world were produced.

abdicated in favor of the

Emperor Jonin; but a few years later, in

764, a revolt occurred.

This was successfully suppressed by the former Empress

Koken,

who

its

sun goddess

at Ise,

The new

ancestors.

new

local tutelary

and to the

site,

nestled

among surrounding mountains, was remarkable

natural beauty and an abundance of crystal-clear streams

that offered ideal spots for fme mansions with gardens

Like Nara, the

new

capital

was

laid

and lakes.

out on the plan of

Ch'ang-an, capital of the Sui and T'ang dynasties in China.

art.

Although Buddhism was growing

the

size

gives a remarkably complete picture of eighth-century

Japanese

perity

and household

of such great variety and

to a

Emperor had

and the move announced to the

tumes used

documents,

was probably due

to vengeful spirits. After the

picturesquely

collection

it

removal to the

sudden change in

consulted with persons skilled in the art of divination, the

ornaments, weapons, musical instruments, masks and cosin dances,

but

its

this

of misfortunes within the Imperial household which

tombs of the Emperor's

The

had moved

from Kyoto, where the

continued until the begiiming of

city

assortment are sutras, temple and altar appointments, personal

utensils.

capital called

ear her the capital

five miles

was issued ordering

plans are not officially

new

of peace and tranquilUty, which

became Kyoto. Ten years

from Nara

793,

capital

banished Jonin to the island of Awaji, deprived

Its

plan was in the

form of

a rectangle, crisscrossed

with moats of water running alongside. houses already existed portant being the

at

Kamo

by roads

A number of religious

or near the

new

shrine, the

Gion or Yasaka

and the Koryuji temple, better knoMTi

site,

as the

the

most imshrine,

Uzumasadera.

In 805 the celebrated

Kiyomizu temple was founded and

on

the

a cliff halfway

the old

main

up

hall

Otowayama, with

the materials

of the former Imperial palace

constituting the nucleus of the

at

built

from

Nagaoka

new buildings. One of the most

important, from a historical as well

as

rehgious standpoint.

17


was the Enryakuji temple,

by Dengyo-

established in 788

To

Daishi, the distinguished founder of the Tendai sect.

new

protect the to

come from

capital

from

evil spirits,

the northeast, the

which

Emperor

ordered

the Enryakuji temple buildings to be located

on the summit

of Mount Hiei to

of Kyoto. The

kimon, literally meaning devil gate, or northeast,

by many Japanese

considered

is

and intimate picture of life

which

presents a

Heian court.

at the

In this era of luxury and abundance the feudal system began

are supposed

Kammu

close the ''kimon" direction

Pillow Book, a charming and lively novel clear

to develop,

and the

political history

of events having

a series

of the period

drastic effects

on

great clans, the Fujiwara, the Taira, and the

in reality

Minamoto. The

between these powerful

struggle to the death

is

the fortunes of three

rival houses

to cast an evil spell, so that they will not

created a warrior class which, under the stress of the turbulent

build a house in that direction, nor sleep in that direction, nor

times, formulated a code of behavior pecuhar to feudal Japan.

move

The

in that direction,

and

on the northeast

a gate

side

of a

wall around a dwelling must always be securely closed to

keep out the Oni or

devils.

Even

as late as the begiiuiing

of the

stirring events

these great clans,

northeast of Edo, to close the kimon gate of the Shogunate

Taira,

In the opening years

of the

iiinth

the largest cities in the world, with a population of over half

many fme mansions having handsome

a million,

beautiful gardens, great tUe-roofed temples,

presented a constant pageant of the everyday Aristocratic

life

and

streets that

of the people.

Heian times was marked by gaiety and

the nobles residing in palatial residences and en-

festivities,

joying

in

life

and

gates

the privileges and pleasures their birth

all

and wealth

could command. In the northern center of the city was the

rise

of courage and art

and

and

of

fall

loyalty, left a

literature. After

1160

the domination of the house of

which had wrested power by military strength from

the Fujiwara clan.

century Kyoto was one of

with the

this period,

Emperor came under

the

by order of the Tokugawa regmie.

of

epic stories

deep impression upon Japanese

seventeenth century the Kanyei-ji temple was built at Uyeno,

capital

its

The whole of Japan was convulsed with when the Minamoto

war, famine, and pestilence until 1185,

clan overthrew the Taira clan after protracted warfare, at the

great sea battle of

Dannoura. From

was governed by

successive dynasties of powerful mihtary

dictators

who

that time

onward Japan

wielded Imperial power but never usurped

Imperial dignity.

by the military

The

life at

court continued to be respected

classes for its social

and

and the throne was always occupied by

aesthetic traditions,

a direct descendant

of

the sun goddess.

great enclosure with fourteen gates containing the Imperial buildings, the

most magnificent of wliich was the Great Hall

of State, resplendent with red-lacquered balustrades and greenblue roof

Here

tiles.

also

were the

taining the groups of buildings

residence

itself.

series

making up

The

as the first

Shogun

in 1192. This

jugation of Eastern Barbarians, gave him complete control over

that

made

secular artists of the time,

gave the interiors a native charm and

elegance. Landscape pamting

became very popular and great

in the applied arts such as

metalwork,

all

mihtary forces in the country. The privilege of having

retainers hold the posts

of high constables and stewards

charge of the collection of taxes paid in

dations of virtual rule over the entire country.

up

Shogunate government, was originally

from foreign influence and flourished

control over the warrior groups, with the

as

never before with a

truly native vocabulary and a typical Japanese expression. This

was prompted by the suspension of

with China, for in the year 894

it

discontinue the missions to the T'ang court.

abounds

in literary masterpieces

ment, and

a large

freedom of official

was decided

to

The Heian

era

of great elegance and refine-

number of celebrated works were

Japanese and were Japanese in subject.

An

written in

interesting feature

of this epoch is the appearance of several women prose writers,

among them Lady Murasaki

Shikibu, 975-1031, authoress of

the famous Genji Monogatari or Tale ofGenii, and Sei Shoangon, circa 1000, authoress

18

of the Makura-no-Soshi, or Miscellany or

merely

as its

set

commander, and did not mean

government had been abandoned by the

by securing economic and became

politically

iTuhtary

was

By

as

in

hakufu, or

an organ of

Shogun

to act

that the reins

of

court. Nevertheless,

dominance the Shogunate

supreme, although the court

certain negative authority as well as prestige.

The

his

foun-

rice, laid the

lacquer, and textiles. All the arts began to free themselves

relations

com-

wall panels, sliding partitions, and coffered

works

progress was

Yoritomo Minamoto

mission as Sei-i-Taishogun, or GeneraHssimo for the Sub-

series

were decorated by the great

in splendid

the

of large apartments connected by

of a

zukuri, consisting galleries.

The Kamakura period (1185-1333) begins with the rise of Minamoto family to supremacy and the appointment of

the Imperial

These great houses of the nobility developed

the distinctive Japanese style of architecture called shinden-

ceilings

THE KAMAKURA PERIOD

of enclosures con-

its

still

retained

and

cultural

social

the end of the twelfth century the feudal system

fully developed,

with more than 260 provincial feudal

houses hereditarily governed by the daimyo, or local barons,

appointed by the Shogun.

When

Yoritomo died

in the last

year of the twelfth century, he was succeeded by his first

two

sons,

Yoriie and then Sanetomo, but Sanetomo was assassinated


:

by

nephew, the chief priest of the Hachimangu

his

the year

which brought

1219,

Minamoto.

A

shrine, in

of the

to a close the rule

council of regency was formed and presided

over by Hojo Tokiniasa, the father-in-law of Yoritomo,

was

power behind

a

the

Shogun and

responsible for

With

the Kaniakura administrative policies.

Sanetomo

to the office

sole regent,

many of

the succession of

of Shogun, Tokiniasa had become the

and from that time on for over a hundred years

power of

the actual

who

cessive regents

was controlled by suc-

the Shogunate

the appearance of a code of ethics for the samurai called

Way of the Warrior, corresponding to chivalry

hushido, or the

Although samurai

warrior,

man

it

actually

or knight.

is

usually translated as

means one who serves, in

But

reality the gentle-

was armed with two

since the samurai

swords, and guarded, protected, and loyally served his lord, the term eventually ethical

came

to

mean

warrior.

The unwritten

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;or man of the military the â&#x20AC;&#x201D;with principles of virtuous

code of the hushi

conduct,

its

its

high sense of obligation, and

devotion and

tradilion

of

and strengthened the

fostered

self-sacrifice,

its

national spirit of the Japanese people and contributed

much

moral standard. The military families of the

to their high

Kaniakura age constituted a desire to cultivate the arts

new

social class

whose strong

and to emulate the cultural

the aristocracy brought on a period of vigorous

development. Paradoxically, the warlike

kura age had a stimulating

effect

upon

spirit

life

of

artistic

of the Kania-

the arts of peace, for

not only were works of art demanded by the feudal families as a

symbol of culture and

success,

artistic activity

even

period also played an important role in

the development of the arts and provided a place of refuge for scholars

and

artists.

A

leading sect was

was introduced into Japan in a meditative

wisdom and

this

epoch.

Zen Buddhism, which Its

atmosphere and encouraged

monasteries offered a

type of practical

subtle simplicity necessary for the pursuit

creative expression.

of

Within the walls of the Zen monasteries

many famous landscape

own

liis

gardens were created, and also land-

other Buddhist

1141-1215, leader of the Rinzai

who

sect,

and Dogen, 1200-

had studied in Cliina under

noted Zen philosophers. The principles ofZen were enthusiasti-

by

the military caste in the Kaniakura era, and

sects,

scriptures, the

upon

entirely

and practice

discipline,

the teaclungs of

tries to

supreme

Zen appealed

Zen

worship of images, or ceremonies, but

comprehend

it.

The

the

and

is

it

belief that the

and many other similar

spirit,

and nature,

Japanese. Their appreciation of art

many of their social conventions

ment, and

as

have effected the outlook on

principles,

to the

did not depend

it

the effort of the individual to

pervaded by one

is

self-

terminology of the

since

tind beauty in every aspect of

universe

much in

must work out

meaning of the universe. Zen accepts the world

as

of the

life

their refine-

well as spiritual

illumination are attributes of Zen.

A

of the Kaniakura regime of feudal

characteristic feature

warriors was

its

simplicity, vigor,

the influence of Kyoto, with the

and cultivated

society,

had

and

a certain austerity,

glamour of and

a strong

to the simple provincial soldier.

At

its

but

aristocratic

persistent attraction

first

the

manners and

behavior of the vassals was rigidly controlled according to the frugal and simple

of the

attractions

began to

life

of Kaniakura, but with the increasing

social life

of Kyoto, the power of the regency

The gradual adoption of metropolitan

decline.

and manners continued

to raise the standard

families despite legislative measures taken

rulers to stem

By

what they

called a trend

tastes

of living of feudal

by the Kaniakura

toward extravagances.

the second half of the thirteenth century troubles har-

assed the

a series

Hojo regents from abroad,

now

in relations

with China,

ruled by Kublai Khan, and internally, from

of catastrophes. In i257asevereearthquakecausedwide

destruction in the Kaniakura region, and in 1259 a serious

famine and relations

a great

learning, there

priests

Kublai Khan sent letter,

in 1274 a

in

off^

official

to Chinese centers

relations in the year 894.

his first

envoy

of

exchange of envoys since

But

in 1268

to Japan carrying a threaten-

which was followed by others during the next

five

of wliich were refused by the Japanese regents. Then

Mongol army of fifteen thousand

thousand Korean ships

and students

had been no

the Japanese broke

all

plague spread through the country. In

with China, although Japanese ships were contin-

uously carrying

years,

1250, head of the Soto sect,

by austere mental

salvation

temper and ideals of the feudal warrior,

ing

priests

simple and practical qualities, there was

realization. In contrast to the difficult

of mind and love of nature. Zen was founded by two

cally practiced

its

introspection and meditation in order to attain

scape and figure paintings in harmony with the Japanese temper

Eisai,

to

to appeal to a warrior, for each believer

which was

during times of strife. this

Zen

but also the inherent love

of beauty of the Japanese people fostered

Buddliism in

Owing

caste, as

samurai was often called

and Zen monks were favored

as the state religion,

guests at the Imperial palace and at the houses of the nobility.

upon

of the Hojo family.

This was the era of the formation of the samurai caste, and

in medieval Europe.

peared

sailors

and

troops with fifteen

auxiliaries sailed for Japan

m 450

and landed on the shores of Hakozaki Bay near Hakata

Kyushu, where they were met by

soldiers

from the

local

found their strongest adherents among the powerful feudal lords

estates.

and samurai. Zen flourished to such an extent under the

well-trained

patronage of these lords and the Shoguns that

firearms of the Chinese, they fought with such fury that the

it

almost ap-

Although the

local soldiers

Mongol bowmen and

were no match

for the

the missile machines and

19


to retreat to their ships with high

Mongols were forced from

casualties

the fierce Japanese swords.

The

knew

bafuku

Khan would make another attempt at the conquest and by the end of 1280 they had learned the Mongols

that Kublai

of Japan,

would

of 1281 two

attack in the following spring. In June

one from southern China with

great armies sailed for Japan,

about a hundred thousand Chinese, and the other from Korea with about

On the 23rd

thousand Mongols and Koreans.

fifty

of June the ships began to arrive

in separate divisions

and put

Muromachi period was

distinguish the

in the Kitano district

origmally the

of a court noble but was greatly improved

by

spent the latter part of his

life

out

its

garden in 1394, and

his will, his

son turned the

Pavilion, situated in the section of

and on the water

their small fighting boats inflicted

wide and

general destruction on the more unwieldy ships of the Mongols.

The

more than

battles lasted for

typhoon

arose,

with the wind and

ships into the narrows,

when

fifty days,

a terrific

tide driving the

Mongol

where they were wrecked and

their

yama.

of four thousand ships was destroyed, with only two

It

was

period

originally built

Yoshimasa, in the year 1479,

ment from

is

the Ginkakuji, or Silver

Kyoto known

as a

country

the Shogunate. Yoshimasa

versed in literature and a patron of the

arts,

Because so this

with lands taken from the enemy

clans.

had so impoverished the whole country compensate the

to

planned

vassals for their

Hojo regents from

pressed the

war all

services,

the

allies

were unable

and

quarters.

difficulties

Kyoto nobles

Kamakura with

and by the summer of 1333

Kamakura had been captured and destroyed by regent

its

But the Mongol war that they

well-organized campaign against

a

the aid of powerful feudal lords,

crisis after

always rewarded

fire,

while the

Hojo Takotoki with over two hundred of his family

and loyal

retainers

The throne was then occupied by

surrender.

Godaigo,

committed suicide rather than submit

who assumed supreme

of his ovÂŤi

But

ministers.

the

to

Emperor

authority with the assistance

there remained in the

background

number of feudal warriors who had supported him, and among these was Ashikaga Takauji, a powerful Minamoto a

vassal.

con-

a

many masterpieces of art appeared in

those days,

period of art history has been called the Higashiyama Age.

scapes, executed

it

which was

tributing factor in the great cultural accomplishments of the age.

Among the great painters of this age was

The Kamakura regime had survived each

to a life

he was well

a political failure,

army surviving

intermittent civil wars because

villa for his retire-

was addicted

hundred escaping and not more than one-fifth of the invading the holocaust.

Higashi-

as

by the eighth Shogun, Ashikaga

of luxury, and although he was

crews became easy prey for the Japanese. Almost the entire fleet

obedience to

Buddhist temple called

Rokuonji. The mother outstanding expression of elegant simplicity in architecture in this

fiercely,

from

Golden Pavilion and

after his death, in

villa into a

prepared, having constructed a stone wall over ten feet high

The Japanese fought

was

It

there in retirement

the cares of state. Yoshimitsu built the laid

of Kyoto.

second owner, the third Shogun, Ashikaga Yoshimitsu,

its

who

villa

strong forces ashore near Hakata, but the Japanese were

along the coast for several miles.

the Kinkakuji, or

Golden Pavilion,

reflect the

Sesshu,

whose land-

with a few rapid strokes and washes of ink,

Zen philosophy

There also arose during

in terms

this

of the utmost

simplicity.

period a distinctive Japanese school

of painting called Kano, founded by Kano Masanobu and

his

son Motonobu, after the traditions of Chinese masters, from

which they created time

when

a style

with true native character.

definite Japanese standards

of

taste

It

was

a

were being

formed, particularly under the influence of Zen culture with principles

its

of simplicity and

And under

restraint.

the pa-

tronage of Yoshimasa the cult of the tea ceremony developed into a refmed social gathering based

upon

a prescribed eti-

quette and conducted for the appreciation of aesthetic pleasures.

The prototype of the classic tearoom upon which

ceremonial tearooms are based

is

the one in the

all

later

Togudo,

a

small building near the Silver Pavilion used by Yoshimasa for

ceremonies and incense

his tea

parties.

While the Ashikaga family were devoting themselves life

to a

of spendthrift luxury rather than to the duties of govern-

ment, the provincial domains were turned over to constables cases preferred living at the capital.

The con-

stables in turn delegated their duties to local barons,

who were

who

THE MUROMACHI REGIME

in

many

of office and cause new feudal One of these, toward the end of the was Oda Nobunaga in Owari province,

able to usurp the rights

The

installation

inaugurated the

of Ashikaga Takauji

Muromachi

as

Shogun

in 1338

period, ushering in an age of

elegance and profusion in which the arts flourished as never before, even

though

structive warfare.

Kyoto palatial

in

was

also an era

name

is

of protracted and de-

derived from that quarter of

which the Ashikaga Shoguns

established their great

mansions and gardens and indulged in a luxurious

mode of 20

it

Its

living.

Among

the

many

cultural features

which

chieftains to rise to

Muromachi

power.

period,

who gained power with the help of the neighboring provinces under restore

his control. In

1568 he entered

become more nominal than in

1

Kyoto intending

the powers of the Shogunate, but real,

since the office

to

had

he overthrew the Ashikaga

573 and devoted himself to the task of unifying the country

by force of arms.


5

With

the gradual collapse of the Ashikaga Shogunate and

inability to enfore

its

waning power

its

country was plunged into

lords, the

against the regional

a struggle for the re-

distribution

of feudal power. This was so widespread and pro-

tracted that

where there had been 260 daimyo or feudal houses

about a hundred years

by the year 1600

earlier,

but about

all

ten or twelve of these had disappeared and in their place other

had

families

power. The

risen to

were so far-reaching

With

and

social

changes

was refashioned.

that the entire country

breakdown of former

the

political

and groupings, and

alliances

the elimination of the weaker feudal houses, the conflict turned

Momoyama period; black,

the

woodwork is

and red lacquer, and the

embellished with gold,

and sliding

walls, ceihngs,

doors are covered with paintings. Great screen painters flour-

Momoyama era, such as Kano Eitoku, Kano Sanraku, 1559-1635, both of whom

ished during the

1543-1590, and

worked on of design

of overwhelmmg splencompound of the Nishi-Honganji temple in Kyoto

dor. In the

there

is

with boldness of stroke and brilliance

a large scale

in decorative compositions

a beautiful building called

inally a pavilion in the

Hiunkaku which was

orig-

grounds of Hideyoshi's Jurakudai, or

Mansion of

Pleasures, that illustrates the quiet elegance

some of the

palace buildings, in contrast to the gorgeousness

preme dominance of

of others.

was

After

master Sen-no-Rikyu further refined the tea ceremony and

into a rivalry

between

few groups, culminating

a

in the su-

the Tokugawa Shogunate after 161 5. Nobunaga had banished the Ashikaga from Kyoto in

was more capable of conquering

1573, he

houses than anyone had been before, and

he could have unified the country. But

came

to an

end

in 1582

when he was

was possible

by one of his

passed to

Toyotomi

who

Hideyoshi, one of Nobunaga's illustrious generals,

up the

task

where

his

master had

making himself master of the

left off,

that

raised

took

and succeeded

in

entire country.

it

also

during

this

period that the famous tea

to the dignity of a national art

under the patronage of

Hideyoshi.

A series of events occurred at this time which were of major

chances suddenly

his

assassinated

The power of leadership now

generals.

the other feudal

all it

It

of

importance to the applied 1

592 and again in

force to Korea.

arts, especially in

ceramics.

Once

in

597 Hideyoshi dispatched an expeditionary

Although the operations of the second were

successful, they

Hideyoshi.

1

were terminated

1598 by the death of

in

When the army returned to Japan, its commanders,

mostly the local daimyo of the island of Kyushu, brought

back hundreds of expert potters and

THE MOMOYAMA PERIOD

on

their

much The

short period

from 1573

and Hideyoshi flourished, after the site in

is

Kyoto where Hideyoshi

called Fushimi. Also associated

on

place

1

which Nobunaga

with

this

built a

period

famous is

576.

It

castle

Azuchi, the

Biwa where Nobunaga

the shore of Lake

other great stone castle in as

to 1615, in

known as the Momoyama period,

built an-

was an era of prosperity such

had never before been known and the general

taste

tended

toward grandeur and splendor. Following the example of Azuchi,

became the custom

it

castles as the center fiefs.

One of the

of the

finest

local

for provincial

government

daimyo

to build

Osaka

in 1584,

Some

idea

more than seven lines

may

granite blocks, the

task

of building the walls of this

be gained from the

two

in 1594,

and many

to this castle are

now

all

at

of the immense

castle, built at

palatial structures said to

preserved.

One

forms the Shoin, or State Hall,

temple are

still

size

measuring 98 and 75 square

largest

yards respectively. Hideyoshi's Fushimi

yama

and upon

his

was marked by

death there ensued

who should be his successor. The politMomoyama era resolves itself

history near the end of the

ical

into a allies

trial

of strength between Tokugawa leyasu with

on the one

other.

A

side

and

a

group of powerful

families

appointed Shogun by the Emperor, but

with his

on

his

the

great and decisive battle was fought at Sekigahara in

1600 in which leyasu was victorious. Three years

his victory at the seige

of Osaka

it

later

was not

castle, that

he was

until 161 5,

he subdued

remaining enemies and became supreme ruler of Japan.

Kyoto. Fushimi and

excellent examples

THE EDO PERIOD The Tokugawa

miles in circumference and

of outer walls each with deep moats.

o( the herculean

colossal structure

fighting and intrigue

a furious dispute as to

artisans to establish kilns

career of Hideyoshi

in their respective

the Himeji castle, also called the Hakurojo or Egret castle. But of all these strongholds the greatest was built by Hideyoshi

at

The

and most beautiful surviving examples

is

surrounded by two

domains.

many

is

Momo-

be related

the building

at the

which

Nishi-Honganji

other similar structures

of the architectural beaury of the

until 1867

or

Edo period extends from

and represents

a

the year 161

250-year rule by the powerful

Tokugawa family, who established their military headquarters at

Edo, the present Tokyo, making

country.

Edo

Tokugawa

the military

it

leyasu's policy

and administrative

the de facto capital of the

was not only capital, distant

to

make

from the

dangers of court intrigue, but to effect a readjustment of the country's various institutions

by making

it

cultural center as well. In the social structure

the nobles occupied the political

most exalted

power and economic

the economic and

of the Edo period

social

rank but lacked

influence because the regu-

21


lations

governing the functions of the Emperor and the court

had reduced

nothing more than an office of

their status to

The

Imperial formahties and ceremonials.

The

the hakiifu as their central authority.

divided into provincial domains or

by about two with

entire

and

Plain.

a conspicuous part

was the famous

district

which were governed

or

choiiiri,

with the

steadily increasing prosperity

steady

commerce was

maturity under the

on from the

carried

in

Osaka the Shin-

of

as

they do

reality.

Along

of the townspeople and

their so-called plebeian culture, the great progress in learning

sciousness

A

of Shimabara and

to the present day, an astonishing illusion

broadened the national

Tokugawa.

Tokyo

and in Kyoto there

whfle the puppet shows succeeded in producing,

groups being subject to the rule of the military. Thus the full

pleasure quarters of

ingly accomplished acting of the Kabuki, or popular drama,

and industry, while the provuicial

its

The

this city life

country was

landowners and peasants followed agricultural pursuits, both

feudal system of Japan reached

of

machi. This era also wimessed the development of the amaz-

The townspeople,

retainers.

in trade

were

with

affairs,

hundred and seventy dainiyo or feudal lords

their families

were engaged

fjefs,

on the

warriors,

other hand, controlled the political and economic

Yoshiwara or Reedy

The

spirit.

spread of national con-

was not limited to domestic

affairs

;

there

were more

and more discussions and deliberations on pressing questions of relations with the outside world which, together with the

beginning of the era with Portuguese, Dutch, English and

many

other problems and social changes, began to have their

Chinese traders, continuing until the so-called Christian re-

effect

on

bellion

of Shimabara and Amakusa in Kyushu

in 1637

internal conditions.

At the advent of Emperor

trig-

Meiji,

were

who

ascended the throne

so exhausted they

no longer

gered Japan's cessation of intercourse with the outside world

in the year 1867, the bakiifu

in 1639.

possessed authority to carry

on

country. In that same year the

Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu

During the more than two hundred years was

in

complete seclusion,

that the

branches of the

all

arts

country

enjoyed

a

period of striking activity and progress, especially during the

Genroku era, from 1688 era under the

to 1704. This

was the most prosperous

Tokugawa, when luxury and extravagance

reached a high point and the culture of the townspeople with their

growing wealth gravitated around the

ing World, or Ukiyo, as theaters, restaurants,

it

was

called.

arts

of the Drift-

This was a world of

and various fugitive pleasures

in

which

the samurai and sons of rich merchants mingled with courtesans, actors, dancers, singers,

prints

and

jesters.

The wood-block

its

pleasure-hunting citizens

22

district

on the

outskirts

of Edo

to the

Emperor, bring-

ing to a close almost seven hundred years of rule by the military class and

marking the end of the feudal system. The

Meiji period begins with the Restoration of 1868

Emperor

issued the administrative principles

commonly

called the Imperial

of that year the Emperor

Oath of Five

visited

the

Articles. In July

Edo and changed

Tokyo or Eastern Capital, in contradistinction known as Saikyo or Western Capital, and in the to

when

of sovereignty

the

name

to Kyoto,

following

year he settled in Tokyo, which became the capital of the

life

country. However, the ancient capital of Kyoto, teeming with the historical and religious traditions of centuries, has remained

gathered to see the plays and dances and other forms of enter-

tainment in the great

government

who

and popular novels of the time chiefly depicted the

of this Drifting World with

relinquished the reins of

the administration of the

called

the cultural center of Japan's arts

atmosphere

still

lingers there.

and crafts, and an Old World


Motifs in Japanese Art

II

C

^^ INCH

Wi,^^ of creative expressed

THE mtroduction of Chinese

assimilation. In

a

shown

Japanese have

branches of the

all

art the

arts

they have

genius for inventiveness, culminating in the

when

MOTIFS FOR THE DECORATIVE ARTS

power

a remarkable

Edo

The innumerable minous

treatise

motifs of Japanese art

reached a truly national character.

The Japanese

manner.

aesthetic sensibility, in particular, rises to such a

high level of

prodigious development of the applied

period

it

refinement that their arts are replete with beauties often too subtle for casual Occidental perception. teristic

of Japanese

art

is

that

leaves so

it

allusion or a slight suggestion

cultivated Japanese, for

it is

is

A

principal charac-

much unsaid. A remote

often sufficient to satisfy the

held that true beauty can be dis-

covered only by mentally completing the incomplete. This

quaUty of

aesthetic appreciation

of Zen Buddhism ceremony, It

floral

owes much

to the principles

in such cultural pursuits as painting, the tea

arrangement, and the

can be characterized

as austere

art

of garden design.

without being

simple

rigid,

without being crude, something subtle and quiet. In Japanese this is called shihumi

in everything.

and constitutes the

One who

smallest incidents

of

of beauty

cannot conceive greatness in the

life is said

garden rock without moss

real essence

is

to be

devoid of shihumi

;

a

considered lacking in shihumi; a

painting that shows everything instead of leaving something

unsaid or possessing a hidden philosophy

The

artist will

a distant

and sometimes

aspects

nature

of is

life

and the

contour

a simple

and personal

prints,

and

articles, in

illustrated books.

netsuke carver patience and

as

is

a

whole

utilize the

decorative themes

on

a

were small articles of household

use, such as netsuke, into,

boxes, and other small

opened

sword mounts, lacquer

addition to paintings, color

The miniature

sculpture of the

often so full of detail as to present marvels of

skill,

and under the brush of the lacquer

artist

the

inro was transformed into a thing of astonishing beauty, while tsuha

and other sword mounts present the most exquisite

metalwork ever produced. The introduction of

illustrated

books early in the seventeenth century provided another tile field

for the imaginative treatment

of motifs

lore, the artists frequently writing the texts

and illustrating the

legends, traditions, and other subjects they recorded. illustrated

books were intended

as

fer-

in ancient

Many

models for the use of pupils

An

With

the development of color prints

from wood blocks

still

symbol

another avenue was opened for recording not only folklore,

expression of the infmite

legends, and other Chinese and Japanese themes, but an ob-

essential character

and symbolism

of Japanese motifs

great variety of objects. These

arts

and craftsman to

or craftsmen in the applied arts, and by the end of the eighteenth

achieved by simplifying

aesthetic qualities

vast storehouse

artist

century books of design were being produced in quantity.

mountain with

eloquent use of empty space.

until after the sixteenth century that a

which enabled the

field

a volu-

summary

without shihumi.

is

a single flower or tree suffices as a

of the inner essence of nature.

was not

fill

in a

whole sky with one stroke

often represent the

of the brush or line,

new

It

would

and can only be discussed here

its

An is

and emotion of

profusion and

of such

appreciation facilitated

by

by an

a

knowl-

jective study

The

of the people and the customs of the times.

Japanese have always lived so close to nature that they

have developed

Through

a

profound appreciation of

their belief in Shinto

its

qualities.

and the teachings of Zen

edge of the myths, legends, and meaning of the decorative

Buddhism, an emblematic

motifs that inspired Japanese

animals often appears in some legendary symbolism handed

art.

association

of

specific plants

and

23


down from

early times.

Some of the combinations of plants

and animals most frequently associated together

in art are

plum blossom and dragon,

deer and maple, boar and lespedeza,

plover and waves, swallow and bamboo, tiger and bamboo,

and peony, peacock and peony, quail and

lion

group of emblems,

which the

in

association

more

of the animal-guardians or messengers with

that

tive Shinto deities.

deer

is

Among

Another

millet.

is

strict, is

Hie shrine

Edo

of the

country keeps

was such

feudal lord, deity

the

is

god of war because Minamoto Yoritomo,

sidered a

a devotee

became erroneously

many

is

the great

Of

associated with militarism.

hardly a village or a hamlet that does

how

grow

to

shrine has a pair of sculptured stone or

front of it, as the fox

is

is

Every

rice.

wood

a deified

who

Ugatama-no-Mikoto,

to have taught the Japanese

said

Inari

foxes placed in

The many red

the messenger of Inari.

before the entrance of these

torii often erected in enfilade

picturesque red-colored shrines represent donations from believers.

resting

The on

gateway

torii,

a pair

set

up

usually consisting of

approach to

two wood

wood

of slightly splayed

at the

posts,

is

bottle.

The fox

an animal with a dual character, for with the

is

They

as evil.

aro reputed to have demoniacal powers, such as

sorcery and witchcraft

art

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;every

moving when

the sun shines

hi the

Creatures, which include the

who

pass

through them.

extremely rich in

is

stories

of

and

water, and often

in the

Many

stories

all

manner of disguises to way-

aimoy wayfarers. He

monk

ing the role of an itinerant

a peculiarly

is

often depicted assum-

dressed in a

kimono and

Especially popular

is

A

popular role of Tanuki

hind legs with his

24

as

is

they walk across paddy

standing

by

a greatly distended belly

fields.

the roadside on his

which he

strikes

with

shown

it is

in

their respective

of a

in the tail

which there

lives for ten

thousand.

long, flowing

tail,

hundred years old;

said to its

grow when

origin

A

is

it

is

The most

more than

probably due to the

ponds become covered with

is

one

is

a

five

fact that

a weed-like

made

peasant's mino or raincoat

symbol of longevity and good luck, the

tortoise

plays a conspicuous role in Japanese art and legend.

One of

of reeds.

the most famous tortoise legends

fisherman

the story of the

named Urashima who rode on

and was taken

several

is

hundred

to

Ryugu,

or Dragon-Land, the undersea

from which he returned

years, to find everything strange

and

This legend popularized the tortoise motif, which

used

as a decorative design

young

the back of a tor-

on the

clothes

after

different.

is still

much

of Japanese children.

drum, or most often

a greatly distended

Thus, since early times an over-all pattern of hexagons derived

depicted in most of the carved

wood or sculptured

from

forepaws

scrotum,

as

on

down

presentment of the sacred tortoise, or minogame,

paradise of the Dragon-King,

of night

scaly

live in the heavens,

the kame or tortoise, of

toise

astray in the dark

huge

a proverbial saying that while the tsuru or crane lives for

empty and then laughing at their misfortune or leading people ;

as

represented calling

sword of Japan was found

begging for alms or causing fishermen to draw up their nets ;

or

kirin

about dragons that lived in them, and tradition holds

growth which resembles the

is

it is

throughout Japan have

lakes

One of these

Tanuki the badger. Gifted

and shapes, some

the clouds or ascending into the sky; very often clouds.

tortoises kept in

is

more com-

or phoenix, the

dragon has the miraculous power to land,

animals that possess particular characteristics or are sacred.

with magical and supernatural powers, Tanuki

is

one of the Four Sacred

with sharp claws, others winged or with horns. The

reptiles

thousand years, the tortoise

and thus symbohcally purify those

Ito-o

are represented in various forms

common

represent the three crowings of the rooster,

It is

pegasus, the kame or tortoise, and the ryu or dragon. Dragons

have three

lay, deceive, or

with the

rain,

mythical fauna of Japanese lore, none

monly represented than the dragon.

legendary story of Amaterasu. Therefore most Shinto shrines

mischievous creature that takes

wedding pro-

amid the

MYTHICAL LORE

dragon.

ideo-

torii specifically allude to

legendary animals

of persons

particular subject in

bride being carried to her husband's house.

The

a rooster perched in the

Japanese folklore and legend

A

a fox.

the familiar foxes' wedding, portraying a

cession

that the Imperial

Shinto shrine.

a

crossbars

on which

torii, to

locality has stories

have been bewitched by

said to

the simple

gram for torii means bird perch, and the entrance of the cave

cooUe

of the Hachiman shrine that

not have an Inari (rice-bearer) shrine, dedicated to prehistoric princess called

a

in the other a sake

con-

also

Shinto shrines, the Inari are the most popular and

most numerous. There

and

a purse

shrine throughout the

number of them. Hachiman

a large

in

Oyamakui, an

consecrated to Hachiman, a

is

Hachiman

deity of peace, and every

its

Sanno-Sama or

period, dedicated to

The dove

ancient Shinto deity.

and carrying in one paw

creature and messenger of the deity of rice, foxes are regarded

Tokyo, which was the most popular shrine

in

the capital during the

coat of lotus

a

flower on his head that looks like

a lotus

the animals in this category, the

the messenger of the

is

hat,

most frequently represented wearing

is

with

exception of the Inari fox, a well-disposed and benevolent

the messenger of the Kasuga shrine in Nara, dedicated

The monkey

Tanuki leaves,

their respec-

to Takemikazuchi, a brave general in the legendary age

gods.

stone images of him. In these carved or sculptured images,

like a

tortoise-shell

markings has been widely used in

textiles


and

porcelains.

The motif evolved from

formed by the head,

from one of the

projecting

toise-shell pattern

is

may

may

feet

more

in a

hexagon

the stylized

of the

tortoise, each

Frequently the tor-

six corners.

worked

example, the hexagon ders or

and four

tail,

elaborate manner. For

display a series of decorative bor-

by

usually accompanied

longevity, of longevity,

is

which he

depicted as a

accompanied by Hotei

is

tall

a deer.

and

old

Of

life,

symbols of

tortoise as

who

also stands for

man in the dress of a scholar, good

the seven gods of

He

probably the most popular.

and symbol of a happy

center a floral motif

a crane

a god. Jurojin,

is

portrayed

is

as fat

luck,

of children

a lover

and with

gen-

a

Because of its graceful figure, one of the most popular bird

erous allowance of his prominent belly showing, joyously

symbol

laughing, whether alone or surrounded by children. In one

designs in Japan

the crane, and, like the tortoise,

is

it is

a

of longevity. The combination symbol oitsunikanw, or craneand-tortoise,

is

a

popular motif, while the

one thousand cranes,

is

seinlm-siini, literally

symbol of good luck and

a

The Japanese

frequent pattern of kimono fabrics. is

is

is

a

carp, or koi,

another design motif used in various branches of the applied

arts. Its greatest

popularity

symbol

as a

in the shohu-no-

is

sckku, or tango-tio-sekku, the Boys' Festival held

day of the

fifth

made of paper carp for each

month

on the

fifth

each year. At this time, huge carp

or cloth are attached to masts and poles, one

boy

emblematic allusion

in the household, as an

to the perseverance

of the

and attempting to leap

swimming

koi

against the current

hand he usually holds holds

a Chinese fan

bag over

a large

and with the other he

the Precious Things or Takaramono, or receptacle for playful children.

of twenty

objects, each

the representation of

which he uses

The Takaramono

endowed with emblematic meaning,

which

is

fairly

common, such as an ingodown of

the gods,

and so

cious Things

is

bag with the Pre-

forth. Included in Hotei's

the cargo of the Takarabutie, the treasure ship

who

of the gods of good luck

are usually represented along

with the TakaraDiouo. In religious art the Buddhist pantheon contains a countless

number

host of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas and a bewildering

of other

RELIGIOUS MOTIFS

is

In the category of religious subjects that play such an

portant role in the field of art, the most interesting of all

assemblage of household divinities called

shichifukujiii

prominent place

a

human

worship and, being endowed with

failings

a pleasantly

humorous,

carrying

a tai fish

and

is

a

the

is

Daikoku

is

hand

a

and endless

Of

way.

the deity of

magic mallet

that

produces everything desired, and holds a large bag over left

messengers are said to be mice. Bishamon

who

keeps

in full

and

his

shoulder. Images of Daikoku are usually black and placed

in the family kitchen to insure a plentiful

evil

and the devil under

armor carrying

a

supply of food. His is

the

pagoda-shaped shrine

a partisan in his left ; the latter attribute

god of dignity

He

control.

in

and

is

represented

liis

his

he

sat in

right

hand

armor

are

among member of the

humorous treatment in Japanese

makers of dolls; the dharuma the

form of

a roly-poly,

the white serpent. gevity,

regarded

is

shown

as

Fukurokuji, meaning an old and bearded

bald head, sometimes unbelievably tied a

book which

as the

contains the

goddess of music,

attributes are the

dragon and

fortune-fief-lon-

man with a very high To liis long staffs is

tall.

life limits

of all persons, and he

theme

without arms or legs and in

one of the most popular. Other

is

Niwo

or

Deva Kings, ;

is

always depicted standing enveloped

in flames;

and the Shi

Tenno, representing the Four Kings of Heaven or Four Guardians,

each for a cardinal position of the heavens. Bishamon, for

the north, as

is

Hindu or Chinese god of wealth,

also seen as the

one of the Twelve Deva Kings, and

good

luck.

a brush,

Komoku,

and

a red fan

with a spear and

a

for the west, ;

is

as

one of the gods of

represented with a book,

Zocho, for the south,

in a suit

white fan and Jikoku, for the ;

carrying a sword and a green fan.

The wind

of armor

east, in

deity

armor,

is

often

depicted carrying on his back a large bag, which he can open

a

is

a perpetual

two wooden guardians standing at the temple gate Fudo, who

to let out wind,

and beauty, while her

doll,

is

extending even to the

art,

frequent Buddhist subjects include the

the gods of war. Benten, the only female

group, carries a lute and

who

where, in the temple of Mien-Pei,

meditation for nine years without moving, finally

responsible for his being often erroneously included

culture,

to China,

name.

to his Indian

of the rank of dharuma,

for

the kitchen. Standing or sitting on straw-covered bags containing rice, he carries in his right

went from India

monk

popular

symbol of fishing, depicted

a fishing pole.

represents a Buddhist

losing the use of his legs. This long retreat

in

if irreverent,

multitude one of the more popular

or seven

by the painter

inclinations for enjoyment, they are portrayed

these seven personages, Ebisu

im-

Of this

subjects.

Daruma, or Bodhi Dharuma according

He

and carver in

as a

a collection

is

exhaustible purse of money, the sacred key to the

waterfalls.

gods of good luck. They occupy

away

shoulder in which he stows

his

and the thunder deity often

number of drums, which he can

According to

carries

strike to

on

make

a legend, little children are told to

his

back

thunder.

keep their

fronts carefully covered because the thunder deity

is

always

aiming for children's navels. Within the category of malevolent influences

name of on/,

is

a large

group of

devils

the representation of which

is

having the generic

common. Oni have

sharp claws, squarish heads, sharp teeth, and

two horns, and 25


on the

day of winter, with the ceremony called

last

or setsuhun, they are expelled

oni tsuina

from the houses by

casting

vast field of religious motifs

more

is

clearly

compre-

hended when one realizes that it embraces a very great number

such

as

happy omens, the hun-

the eight

dred antiques, the vajra or thunderbolt, the Buddhist jewel in a leaf-shaped halo

of flames, and the many Taoist and Con-

the flower

rites,

mournful occasions and therefore

lotus

is

is

is

associated with

seldom seen

as a

whole realm of Japanese symbolism there

In the

more interesting than form of animals

motif in

use or decoration.

articles for secular

of symbolical ornaments having Buddhist, Taoist, and Confucianist significance,

The white

symbolic of death, and since most funerals in Japan are conducted under Buddhist

roasted black beans.

The

for articles used in the Buddhist service.

is

nothing

the horary and zodiacal characters in the

that are used singly

and

in combinations.

Besides the solar,or Gregorian calendar adopted in 1868, there

two

fucian immortals. In the sacred wheel of Buddha, or Buddhist

are

Wheel of Law,

dar which was introduced into Japan along with Chinese learn-

the eight spokes represent the different stages

of the Noble Eight-fold Path, which

are: right beliefs, right

means of livelihood, right

aspirations, right

acts, right

en-

deavor, right mindfulness, right speech, and right concentration.

Seen everywhere are the left-handed swastikas, called

meaning letter-ten-thousand or

which

creation,

ancient calendars

in use in Japan, the lunar calen-

still

ing in the sixth century, and the zodiac calendar, also of Chinese origin. For a variety of reasons the farmers prefer, and still

which they follow

use, the old lunar calendar,

sowing of seeds because

it tells

for the

the climatic changes of the four

the

seasons better than the solar calendar. Since the adoption of

symbol of Buddhism, and the tomoye, the disc-shaped Shinto

the zodiac calendar along with Chinese learning in ancient

symbol of creation consisting of three intertwining forms

times, each year in history

manji,

is

re-

and each day of the year has had

sembling commas, taken from the Chinese sign around which

zodiac sign assigned to

are arranged the Eight Trigrams or pa kua.

custom of dividing the years into is

named

after

of twelve, each year

cycles

one of the animals of the twelve Oriental

of the zodiac. These animals are arranged

NATURE SYMBOLISM

following order:

Since practically everything in

meaning, beautiful plants,

it

Japan

given symbolic

is

follows that because of the Japanese love of nature,

and thoughtful

A

and flowers.

attributes

have been applied to

symbol of longevity

is

chrysanthemum which, when represented with is

emblem of the

the official

teen. nioti

number of petals must be

The Empress of Japan

A

tree.

prominently in

all

plum. The pine green and love,

and

its

because

its

the arts a

and three leaves of the

kiri

or

of three lucky symbols that occurs is

the shochikubai or

pine-bamboo-

symbol of devotion, because

it

is

ever-

needles are usually in pairs, representing conjugal

it is

for devotion

is

set

other families or

greater or less than six-

has an elegantly designed crest or

consisting of three flowers

paulownia

sixteen petals,

Imperial family called the kiku-

When used as a crest or badge by

no-go-moti.

societies, the

trees,

the kiku or

also a

symbol of longevity; the bamboo stands

and strength, and the plum

fragrant flowers

come out

for perseverance,

in the early spring after

are the ten trunks,

cycles

senior junior,

name from Komo-Hana-no-Sakulegendary princess to whom Mount Fuji is dedi-

ya-Hime,

a

cated; although

it

has

no

particular attribute,

it

expresses the

beauty and charm of the Japanese countryside. The lovely flower that is

is

the hasu or lotus, invariably seen in

form on the 26

emblematic of purity, wisdom, and Buddhahood

altars

its

of Buddhist temples,

natural or artificial

as well as in designs

boar. Correlated with these

a reciprocal set

of zodiac

signs, so

and each day of the year has one sign

names taken from the

their

in the following order

:

wood

senior

"five ele-

and junior,

fire

and junior, earth senior and junior, metal senior and

and water senior and

From

junior.

ancient China the Japanese adopted

that survive to the present day,

many

traditions

one of the more important

and meaningful being the "five colors." The proper order of sequence of the five cardinal colors

and black. Each one of the significant

manner

is:

yellow, blue, red, white,

five colors

is

mutually related in a

to the five directions, the five seasons

time, the five virtues, and the five elements. quential arrangement of each set to

of the

five colors, as well as

Direction

at its

its

often each, with

ments"

Time

blossom, which derives

making

of each set. The ten trunks are an arrangement of the years into

withstanding the cold of winter. Seen often enough to be conthe sakura or cherry

signs

in the cycle in the

ox, tiger, hare, dragon, serpent, horse,

that each year in history

sidered the national flower of Japan

is

rat,

monkey, cock, dog, and

sheep,

a

In accordance with the Chinese

it.

tue

—center,

east,

conform

The proper

of se-

to the sequence

with one another,

is

as

follows:

south, west, and north. Seasons of

doyo (each season has doyo consisting of eighteen days beginning), spring, faith,

ments

summer, autumn, and

humanity, decorum,

—earth, wood,

fire,

justice,

winter. Vir-

and wisdom. Ele-

metal, and water.

The symbolism

attached to these important sets of five Oriental subjects has

had

a

profound

effect

upon

the cultural and legendary tradi-

tion of Japan, and their general or abstract principles are found associated in life.

many

respects with

all

phases of Japanese daily


Paintim

Ill

JAPANESE

PAINTING had

its

beginning in the

Asuka period (552-645) with the stimulus provided by the introduction of Chinese learning and the spread of Buddhism. These

from the

new

flourishing arts of the Asiatic continent.

The

art

were accepted by the Japanese

and were adapted, modified, and

in order to

Since

conform

Buddhism gave

literature,

it

in

own natural

to their

some

built

to

ideals

cases rejected,

art

and

these

great monasteries

were

of mountains and were designed

conform with the beautiful and impressive natural sur-

The

often remote mountain

basic

in prin-

Among

sides

place for scholars to retire

of these Buddhist paintings are extant and

preserved in ancient temples and monasteries.

on the summits or

roundings.

aesthetic expression.

and encouraging

Many of these

life.

ideas

followed that the earUest paintings had religious

Many

and contemplative

and read the

afforded an ideal

sites

works

sutras or create

of art. Although Buddhism long remained the chief inspiration in art, traces

of secular

art

began to appear

as early as the

ninth century.

With

the vital incentive to the development

of culture by inspiring high

subjects.

court,

to acquire

elements of Chinese ciple,

came by way of the Korean

which Japan began

the channel through

devote themselves to a solitary

retreats for meditation or to

the prosperity and luxury

which developed

in the

begmning of the Fujiwara or Late Heian period (897-1185), there occurred a distinct trend

away from

the assimilation of

the T'ang style to one of greater Japanese inspiration.

movement became more

firmly established and

As

this

more purely

on the doors and panels of the Golden Beetle

Japanese in expression, even Buddhist subjects were frequently

miniature shrine in the Treasure Depository of the Horyuji

painted in a natural landscape setting of trees, rocks, and

are the paintings

temple near Nara. They are

among

the finest examples of the

plants.

The

great houses of the Fujiwara aristocracy contained

spacious apartments

Asuka period.

whose

ceilings, sliding doors, partitions,

and wall panels were embellished with beautiful paintings by a

THE EARLY CHINESE INFLUENCE

new

class

of secular

their increasing

Buddhism continued painting for

to provide the principal themes for

the next seven hundred

years,

throughout the

Asuka, Nara, Heian, and Kamakura periods. Because the Buddhist monasteries

were the

their great walled

received

its

centers of culture,

compounds

inspiration

it

was within

that this religious painting

and was produced. The monks derived

their creative

impulse from great Chinese examples and placed

the emphasis

on representations of Buddhist

Buddliist Paradise.

The

divinities

and the

artist-monks of the various

mon-

asteries created these paintings for use in their religious services

and to spread the

faith.

Within the monastery buildings were

enshrined the images, paintings, and other treasures for the edification

of teachers and

artists.

But Buddhist

art did

not lose

strength or animation, because the great monasteries, with

men of learning who came

to these

power and wealth, expended enormous sums

to construct fine buildings

works of

and decorate

their interiors

with

art.

In Buddhist art the iconography a careful interpretation

of the great

of the text of the

divinities

scriptures.

From

was the

very beginnings of Buddhism in Japan, images of the Yakushi Nyorai or Healing Buddha occupied the central great temples.

Next

Compassionate

One who

liever,

alleviates the sufferings

and Miroku, the Buddha of the next world

salvation to the believer,

people

at large.

many Kamwn or

altar in

in importance, the Bosatsu

of the be-

who brings

were the most popular among the

Very few examples survive of the numerous

paintings and tapestry hangings

which decorated the great

temples of Nara in the eighth century,

when Buddhism 27


Right:

Horokaku matidara: The Buddha and

Attendant Divinities. Color and gold on Fujiwara

period,

Institution, Freer

Below:

Two

ekvetith

century.

Gallery oj Art, Washington, D.C.

Nika Byakudo,

or

White Path Crossing

Rivers, an allegory of the Jodo

Amida Buddha believer

if he

about

successfully

passion or the river with

sect,

showing

soul of the true

to greet the

walks the White Path

without falling into the river of

greed. Color

silk.

Smithsonian

many

and gold leaf on

fire representing

reptiles representing

silk.

Kamakura period

(1185-1333). Seattle Art Museum.

was the

state rehgion.

One of

the

few

is

the exquisite httle

figure of Kichijo-ten, goddess of beauty and fecundity, in the

Yakushi-ji,

from the end of the Nara period.

imbued with is

Still

completely

the classic perfection of Chinese prototypes, this

no provincial

interpretation but one fully informed with

the worldly grace of the T'ang civilization.

At the beginning of the ninth century a new type of religious painting followed the founding of the esoteric Buddhist sects

of the Tendai and Shingon,

in

which

their

complex sym-

bolism was rigidly represented in pictures and images. The

2H


But with

the triumph of the Fujiwara family

and suspension

of relations with China, there came into being such works

near Kyoto. There, the mandara

portrayed on lotus

one

the

feels

seats

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

celestial

hierarchy of gods

treated in so familiar a

way

that

iconography had by then become

esoteric

thorouglily assimilated by the Japanese

artists.

During the course of the eleventh century the new called Jodo,

Nyoirin Kannon.

and gold on

color, silver, silk.

Ink,

which proclaimed

Merciful One, opened a

century. Smithsonian Institution,

Freer

Gallery

ofArt, Washington, D.C.

faith in the

way of

the descent of

who

Amida, of

liever at the time

sect

the

common

new iconography of faithful be-

death to Paradise in the Western

his

the Phoenix Hall, called

Uji, the central building

a

promised to take the

Heavens. The most complete is

Buddha Amida,

salvation for the

man. The doctrine offered the painters

Heian period, twelfth

as

mandara of the Daigo-ji pagoda,

the large eleventh century

monument of the cult of Amida

Hoodo,

of which

Byodoin temple

at

fdled with paintings.

It

in the is

contains nine versions of the descent of Amida, in one of

which, instead of the esoteric images of the previous century, the divinity

surrounded by music-making attendants, or

is

below them

raigo;

a naturalistic landscape suggesting the

is

A more

region of Kyoto.

personal image

is

tury triptych in the Hokkeji a red lotus,

at

Nara.

Amida Welcoming

of an eleventh cen-

the Faithful to Paradise, in the central part

The

divinity, seated

on

seen in a perfectly symmetrical composition

is

gazing directly

at

the spectator's eyes: the unmystical face and

the delicate drawing of the brilliant red robe create a devo-

(Emma-

Suyaiiiadeva

and

ten) ants,

Two

Attend-

and (below) Ya-

tional icon

Such

of deeply moving

paintings,

spirituality.

which were intended

maraya (Emma-o) and

the

Two

departure from the material world.

Attendants. Color

and gold on

Early

silk.

Kaniakura period,

hour of

century.

played

his death,

a

profound role

A

later,

at the latter's

more humanized

conception of the same theme, and one of the largest of such

thir-

scenes, teenth

to establish a spiritual

the compassionate divinity and the believer at

bond between

is

the early thirteenth-century Descein of Amida across

Smiththe

Mountahis, in the Zenrinji at Kyoto.

The golden-bodied

sonian Institution, Freer

Gallery ofArt, Washington,

celestial

behind

D.C.

two

apparition of

a

Amida emerges,

like a

moonrise, from

mountainous, typically Japanese landscape, in which

small Bodhisattvas and

some

tiny

attendant

figures

symmetrically arranged combine earthly and heavenly motifs. In

some of these paintings one sees

scape at sunset,

Japanese painter adhered to this mystical

all

divinities

and theological conceptions. of

imposed on him by

iconography of Indian origin, with

of numerous and varied

a feeling

the details

trancjuil

To

its

pantheon

symbolizing divine power

certain divinities he imparted

beauty and serenity unruffled by cares,

the

Land of Perfect

Amida's

at the

Amida,

Among

Western

the esoteric paintings

of highest religious importance

presentations of the universe in

its

two

cycle and the material cycle, understood

influence, graphic

is

also expressed

moment of death by

of colored

silk

in the

Bliss; the attendant figure

the compassionate Kannon.

spiritual uniting tie

while others appear imposingly powerful and dynamic.

were the mandara produced under Shingon

left is

the lovely Japanese land-

which suggests Amida's Paradise

the

among

The

Paradise.

idea

at

of

a

pious Buddhists

custom of holding

five strands

fastened to the joined hands of an

in order to

West,

kneeling

image of

be drawn up by the Buddha into the

But

in contrast to these enchanting scenes

depicting the infinite beauties of a paradise designed to attract the Amidists did not neglect to frighten

aspects, the spiritual

people to the

by the

people with hideous graphic representations of the nether

initiated only.

faith,

29


^1

Ahove:

Toba Sojo, 1053-1140: Detail from

called the

Caricature of Birds and Beasts, or Animals

the scroll-painting at

Play,

painted in ink on paper. Kozanji temple, Kyoto.

Left:

A

raigo showing Amida Buddha descending from

Western Paradise

to receive the

departing soul.

used in the so-called raigo ceremonies

and color on

silk.

in

Buddhist temples. Gold

Fourteenth-fifteenth century. Seattle Art

i

the

The painting was

Museum.

-^

y

i

A Section from the

Jigoku Zoshi,

or

Hell

Scroll, traditionally attributed to Mitsu-

naga, depicting the fate ofvarious sinners.

This detail shows Buddhist priests

who

disobeyed their vows being driven into the "Shrieking-sound Hell" by horse-

headed demons. Color on paper.

Kama-

kura period, about 1200. Seattle Art

Museum.

30


world, the world of future punishment imagined

as

below the

earth.

According to Buddhist teaching, the six realms to which

spirits

of the dead can transmigrate are those of the infernal

hells, all

of ghosts, of beasts, of demons, of humans, and of deities,

of which are vividly described in the religious paintings of

painters

o( the Fujiwara period were

learning, equally able to

men of

great

produce masterpieces of religious

for Buddhist monasteries,

and secular

art for

is

one of the great accomplishments, with no counter-

who

has

A

skilled calligrapher

is

essentially an artist

gone through the most strenuous training

art

the aesthetic

of the written character

is

Japanese philosophy of

taste.

essential in

order to understand the

Each stroke of the character

beauty of a thought or a stanza of poetry; the abstract patterns

of the strokes communicate

feeling.

The fmished

of

painting was the practice of calligraphy,

literary composition, paralleled the pictorial art

powerful influence on

pictorial art. Calligraphy in Japan, as in

Example o/fukinuki-yatai Kasuga

shrine.

a

(roofless house); detail

from

Kamakura period (1183-ijjj). Kasuga

the

line in calligraphy

was

a

fuUy developed

art

expression

which, in

of narrative

scroU-painting toward the end of the Fujiwara period.

Kasuga Gongen Reigenki,

shrine,

is

meticulously placed and must be so drawn as to reflect the

appreciation of the nobility. Closely associated with the art of

which exerted

in brush-

work, design, and composition. Consequently, an appreciation

the time.

The

China,

part in the West.

a picture scroll depicting the history

of the

Nara.

31


"^>^iiÂŁ^

Example of the kzsumi incidents in the life

technique,

from the

of Tenjin-Sama,

to

KitAnoTemmnn-guEngi,

whose

Kitano shrine

spirit the

NARRATIVE SCROLLS

by Nobuzane Fujiwara, 1176-1268, a picture is

dedicated.

above with the roof omitted, permitting an unobstructed picture of the interior.

Scroll-painting, called e-maki, or makimono, which received its

inspiration

from

of illus-

literature, originated in the idea

trating historical accounts, stories, ratives.

A makimono

is

illustrating

scroll

Kitano shrine. Kyoto.

poems, and popular nar-

a horizontal hand-scroll having pic-

is

The term

numogatari-e, or story-picture,

given to scroll-paintings of pictures alternating with text,

thus serving as a visual realization of the literature.

most famous extant examples of this gat ari scroll

of the great

literary

style

is

One of the

the Genji

who was active

tures of successive scenes arranged in chronological sequence.

The work is

There are two kinds of makimono, one having continuous or

during the middle of the twelfth century. Actually

successive illustrations,

and the other having individual pic-

tures alternating with portions is

text.

The

rolling

to fifty

this

scrolls

famous novel written by Lady Murasaki

century.

The

it

consists

with excerpts from the fifty-four chapters of in the eleventh

story portrays the elegant and romantic atmos-

to facilitate

phere of the Heian court life and the dramatic passages through the seasons of the year of the courtship and sorrows of Prince

It is

to left like the text. to the realistic,

paintings:

affixed to a rod at

Ranging

one end

in treatment

from the

poetical

many different themes are represented in scroll-

religion,

romances, children's

events, popular customs,

great

of paper

scroll

from ten

attributed to Fujiwara Takayoshi,

and unrolling, and the pictures are viewed from right

feet in length.

A

of a

generally about twelve inches deep and

of two

Mono-

romance of the Tale ofGoiji.

number

stories,

famous views, and

historical

historic places.

of Japanese scroll-paintings are executed in a

Genji,

who

is

deeply in love with Murasaki-No-Ue. All of

these scenes are pictorial device

viewed obliquely from above o( fukinuki

In contrast to the rich gatari scroll,

which

and

in the usual

yatai.

brilliant colors

are in perfect

of the Genji Mono-

harmony with

its

delicate

peculiar perspective called fukinuki yatai, or roofless houses.

brushwork, many scroll-paintings are in black and white.

This unique style of illustration gives an oblique view from

outstanding example of the

32

latter

is

An

the Caricature of Birds and


Right:

A

painting

Zcii

hy

1420-1506:

Sesshu,

Daruma

(Dharma) and His Disciple Eka (Hui-K'o). Dhartna, an Indian Buddhist

priest,

the reputed founder

is

of

the

Zen

sect.

Sainenji

temple, Aichi prefecture.

Quail, hy Tosa Mitsuoki, i6iy-i6gi.

Tokyo National Museum.

P Beasts, or

Animals

at Play, a

nique of independent

line. It

man-priest, the abbot

Toba

+t

â&#x20AC;˘^"

'ÂŤ--'-

notable achievement in the techis

generally attributed to a noble-

Sojo, 1053

1

140.

I^i

this scroll are

depicted animated and spirited rabbits, foxes, monkeys, and frogs frolicking at a picnic. There are four of these

and witty

scrolls,

of human beings. the activities of

amusing

believed to represent a satire on the behavior It is

surmised to be a pictorial caricature of

members of the upper

doubtedly recognized by the

Although many of the

were

artist's

classes,

who were un-

contemporaries.

scroll-paintings

of the Heian and

religious in subject, the principal usage

was

for the illustration of literature. Creative writing in Japan

was

later periods

closely associated

produced

scroll literature

and

much of it was

solely for that purpose. Picture-scroll art reached

zenith in the

Right:

with

Kamakura period

Kakemono,

Mincho, 1352- 1 43 1

in the :

(1185-1333), which

Suihoku

style, attributed to

is

Kitsuzan

Hermitage by the Mountain Brook,

paper. Konchi-in monastery, Kyoto.

its

noted

ink on

'^.


Detail from a makimono by Sesshu, 1420-1^06: Landscape,

for a

its

great

number and variety of makimono. These portray

wide range of subjects and present

feudal

life in

medieval times.

and the

lives

A

a graphic illustration

number of

of important

priests

Shiiito

and holy men. Most

of the famous temples and shrines have preserved among treasures a

makimono which

the rehgious trate

life

records

its

stories

and

battle scenes,

beautifully embellished sutras or scriptures. living

and fashions

is

on paper. Collection of Motomichi Mori,

Yaniaguchi.

but harmonious colors, in contrast to paintings done with

weaker colors or

in ink

monochrome.

In

many of the

paintings with illustrated narratives the transitions

scroll-

from one

scene to another and the passage of time are described with characters written in a beautiful, often very expressive callig-

raphy inserted between the

which naturally contain the

pictures. shifting

Sometimes the

stories

of scenes and the passage

which

of time resort

to a device technically called kasumi,

peculiar to the

Yamato-e style of painting. The literal meaning

The mode of

a purely Japanese

manifestation called Yamato-e, as distinguished

light color

scrolls illus-

from popular literary works.

in the picture scrolls

and

and many are

in dress are colorfully depicted in these

priceless records, as are the scenes

The technique used

their

sacred beginning or

of its founder. Other Kamakura

romantic military

of

religious scrolls

famous Buddhist temples and

depict the history of shrines

i)ik

from

the var-

o( kasumi

means a

is

mist or light fog; but in scroll-painting, kasumi

a special treatment

of space between pictures to signify

change of location or passage of time.

of several long

streaks, or

it

may

It

consists

of a pattern

be a well-balanced semi-

circular form.

The kasumi

ious styles of Chinese origin.

is

design

is

taken from the natural atmospheric

formations which are so typical of Japan's moisture-laden

cli-

mate, with long horizontal sweeps of dense mist cutting across

THE "YAMATO-E" STYLE

the sky.

A beautiful example o{ kasumi in the Japanese country-

side occurs at twilight in the springtime,

Yamato-e,

literally

Japanese painting,

is

the most distinctive

Japanese style of painting, without counterpart in any other art.

The

earliest

known mention of the word

text in the fourth year

Almost

all

style, in

which human

Yamato-e

is

in a

of Chotoku, corresponding to a.d. 999.

scroll-paintings

were executed

figures, houses, trees,

in the

Yamato-e

and other objects

are outlined with hair-thin lines and filled in with bright

34

form of white Scenery of

by

this

nature

the artists of the

screens.

reflects a feeling

Occasionally the kasumi device

quillity.

when it is seen in

streaks lying heavily at the foot

Yamato-e

the

of a mountain.

of solitude and tranis

seen in other

school, such as

works

on folding

The Yamato-e painters received their inspiration from

the things closely associated with the everyday lives of the Japanese.


A n ^

«^

•t.5>

-If

11^

*

i % t

>.^

4-

•''•

*.

-T

^

-

^

,

*

.

t-

'-;:. -

••'

f-

^^« «-/..

* «

/T.^

^^ *;

•"

1

"i'

"-

>;•

<t.

'

'f

/

,

''

'Jf.

i^'

.

>

i*.

fi

.'

n

*-

•>

<

;ft,V

1-

r

,i

/^.

Kakemono by Tcmho Shiibun, c. 1415-1460: Before the House of a Recluse, ink oti paper. Seikado Collection,

Kakemono by

Tokyo.

Sesshu, 1420-1306:

Winter LandMuseum.

cape, ink on paper. Tokyo National

35


Otic

of forty-nine

I4j6-i5^g,

that

kakemono

depicting landscapes, flowers, color on paper.

>

A

o

O O'O

â&#x20AC;˘-

kakemono by Kano Masanohu, 1434-1530. The

Mao-shu, a Chinese Confucian in color

scholar,

subject

is

Chou

viewing lotus flowers. Painted

on paper. Collection of Tomijiro Nakumura, Tokyo.

Kano

hy

Motonohu,

were originally mounted on fusuma

and

birds;

ink and light

Keiun-in Monastery, Kyoto.


â&#x20AC;˘n-

THE ZEN INFLUENCE In the

Kamakura period

Japan, and

among

its

the

THE SUIBOKU STYLE

Zen

sect

of Buddhism arose

in

prosperity and progress was especially significant

the warrior

class.

The

Zen upon Japan

influence of

and her people has been so pervasive that

it is

actually a fun-

damental part of her culture. The word Zen means meditation,

and Zen

differs

from other Buddhist

sects in

not relying upon

Suiboku painting gives an

entirely different value to the

meaning of line. In Suiboku painting

line

is

an

essential ele-

ment, marked by great individuality. In contrast to the simple

contour

lines

of the Yamato-e

style,

which may or may not

enclose color, the line in Suiboku varies with the slow or

rapid strokes of the brush.

The

line thus

becomes the

essential

formal doctrines or the worship of icons. Instead, followers of

element of expression, with infmite variations in the tone of

Zen

are supposed to erdighten themselves

black taking the place of color.

tion

and meditation in penetrating the meaning of the universe.

by

intuitive cogni-

Suiboku

art

Because images of Buddhist divinities did not form an all-im-

harmony in

portant part of Zen teaching, their religious art consists chiefly

in accordance

of

chinso, or portraits

painting

is

of great

priests.

Another form of Zen

the doshaku-ga, or a painting illustrating the deeds

of famous Zen

priests

or portraying certain natural scenes or

subjects associated with the pursuit

of enlightenment. With

the spread of Zen in Japan there appeared a

nese paintings of the

Sung and Yuan

which was adapted by Zen outlook and

taste.

artists

demand

These painters usually

own

this

bamboo, and

the beginning of the as suiboku,

new

Suiboku did not follow any prescribed conventions of composition, the artists

were able to convey

their spiritual thoughts

and present a visual conception of the unity of the individual with

all

nature.

The inherent Japanese sensitivity

From

developed in

of the fourteenth century Suiboku

by

the

fusuma by Kano

art

to the beauty

was greatly stimulated

work of Kitsuzan Mincho, who was

the head priest of

the Tofukuji monastery in Kyoto. Landscape lar subject,

and

at

about

this

became

a

popu-

time poetic inscriptions were

beginning to make their appearance on the hanging picture scroll,

of sixteen

black,

preciation as well as spiritual enlightenment. In the latter part

some

Muromachi period (1338-15 73), known

set

by

with the teachings of Zen Buddhism. Since

the spirit that permeates everything, heightened aesthetic ap-

or black painting.

Landscape and Flowers, four of a Tenkyu-in monastery, Kyoto.

a spiritual

colors

of

specialized,

style

all

particular

religious or secular subjects.

dependence on Chinese models, a

who saw

of nature, coupled with Zen teachings about the universe and

producing only certain kinds of flowers, others devoting themselves to trees,

artists,

black and white and described

Chi-

for

dynasties, the style

to their

The development of Japanese

was due to the Zen

or kakemono.

Eitoku, 1543-1^^0; painted in ink on paper.


The

as

where

origin in China,

its

the fourth century.

It is

a vertical scroll, often

on

kakemono, or hanging

traditional Japanese

with

edges to frame the painting.

heavy paper to over to give

narrow

stiffen

of

strips

on

The whole

and to

is

roll

it

The

its

folded

attached

two

several

has a-rod, usually tipped

A

up.

poem

shi-ga-jiku

The

fifteenth centuries.

of the painting or complimentary remarks about the it

was the custom

frequently and replace or occasion,

to change the

designed to hold

it.

that single night

of each year.

Special preparations are

mono

having pine

made

in every household,

time are hung in the tokonoma. For the

throughout the year which

symboUc

and kake-

trees or other pictures characteristic

call for a

subject, large houses

have a few hun4red hanging

many

kakemono

of this

occasions

depicting a

with numerous rooms often

scrolls stored in the

godown.

SHUBUN, SESSHU

artist

In the early part

of the

fifteenth century

painting received a great impetus

Suiboku landscape

from the work of Tensho

or

kakemono

with one appropriate to the season

it

was rolled up and placed

it

union on

was fashionable among Zen

around the fourteenth and

work. Since

a joyous

The most important occasion in Japan is the New Year Festival, which is celebrated on the first three days of the year.

or verse

written characters frequently comprise a poetical description

his

Way, have

particular kind of

on the upper part of the

inscribed in calligraphic characters

painting proper.

is

which hang down

called shi-ga-jiku, or shi-jiku, has a

kakemono

mounted

backed with

in turn

this fold are

silk called fiitai,

with ivory, which serves to

priests

records as early

or paper

of silk brocade around

The bottom of the kakemono

inches.

silk

The top of the kakemono

it.

strength,

it

strips

m

mentioned

it is

a painting

had

scroll,

The box was then

many

or store house, along with the

box

in a

especially

stored in the

other

godown,

kakemono and

household possessions.

The kakemono

is

hung

the tokonoma, where

enjoyed. are

its

in a special place in the house,

appropriate times for changing the

The

caUed

*^-,.:

beauty can be most appreciated and

on ceremonial occasions and with

kakemono

new

the advent of the

seasons of the year. Especially important occasions for the

kakemono

display of symbolic

Herb

Early

March, the

Festival in January, the

the Iris Festival in

Chrysanthemum

which has grown

Iris,

a wealth

days are the

festival

Peach-Blossom

May, the

Festival in

are the Peach-Blossom,

and

are the go-sckkii, or Five Sea-

These popular family

sons' Offerings.

Festival in

Star Festival in July,

and

September. The most popular

and

around each of

Star festivals,

of interesting

traditions, legends,

The Peach-Blossom is popularly known as Dolls', Festival, when ceremonial dolls in traditional and

stories.

or Girls',

ancient costume are displayed. Since peach blossoms

sym-

bolize happiness in marriage, pictures are chosen that are re-

presentative of feminine charms

depicting

The

young

girls

and beauty,

kakemono

especially those

in classical literature.

or Boys' Festival,

Iris Festival,

playing a

famed

is

appropriate for dis-

depicting the deeds of a traditional Chi-

nese or Japanese hero or other epic subject taken from classical literature or history. larly

known

as

night of the seventh places

where

occasions and

38

two

Star Festival,

month by

7. It is

owes

lovely

which

is

more popu-

the lunar calendar, but in

the Gregorian calendar

the night of July

that

The

Tanabata, was originally fixed for the seventh

its

is

used

it is

most

celebrated

on

the most romantic of all the annual

inception to an ancient popular behef

stars, set far

apart

on

either side

of the Milky

^fcX^..^^^|


Shubun. As a

priest in the

Shokokuji, a

Shubun studied painting under same temple. He

raised the

Zen temple

in

Kyoto,

Josetsu, another priest in the

Suiboku

highly developed form and was the

of painting to

style

its

was perfected

of this Chinese school

Yamaguchi

to be appointed as official painter to the

Shogun. Active from

his life.

about 141 5 to 1460, he

as

is

regarded

as

founder of

this school.

extant paintings are traditionally attributed to Shubun,

well as

some

large folding screens.

The

principles

Zen

painting and a graphic illustration of the

vision of the

universe are reflected in the great works of Sesshu, a pupil of Shubun. Sesshu, 1420- 1506,

was born

province,

now Okayama prefecture, and at

to Kyoto,

where he became a

He

is

priest in the

of Zen in

who was in Bitchu

an early age went

Shokokuji temple.

considered to be the greatest master of the Suiboku

school,

under whose leadership

Plum Tree and

this

black-ink type of painting

Birds, set of four

went

to

return about a year later he went to the Unkokuji temple in

first

Many

into a truly Japanese style. In 1467 he

China, where he studied landscape painting, and upon his

prefecture,

where he remained most of the

rest

of

While studying in China he achieved great proficiency

in landscape painting

and was determined to make the natural

With

scenery of China his master.

his ability to

understand

the elements of this Suiboku style in China, and with his

appreciation of nature as seen through the eyes of a

he became the foremost black line in Sesshu's

artist

work

which he interpreted both

is

Zen priest,

of the Japanese landscape. The

the expression of great talent, in

line

and color in various tone de-

The works of Sesshu include many subjects numerous extant examples which bear his sig-

grees of black.

and there are

nature or are attributed to him. His landscapes of the four

fusuma by Kano Samaku, 1559-1635;

color on paper.

Teiikyu-iii monastery,

Kyot 39


jH^**

m^

Fishing with Cormorants, one of a pair

of six-panel screens

by

Kano Tan-yu, 1602-1674;

<'"/'"'

"" paper.

Okura Shuko-kan Museum, Tokyo.

seasons and his folding screens with flowers and birds are exquisite

works

that reflect his

Zen outlook upon

the world.

Appreciation of art and the other branches of cultural activity

had been the chief pastime of the aristocracy

since the

period and continued on through the Kamakura and

machi

THE TOSA SCHOOL

eras. It

is

therefore not surprising that

appointed the chief

artist

also held the position

The

prestige of the Chinese style of

tinued to exert

its

Muromachi period

Suiboku painting con-

family were also court this

For the

first

sixty years

of

this

period the Ashikaga Shoguns were involved in warfare

and

in

numerous

However, arts

intrigues

among

class

wealth, creating a resent their

in a far greater

The

:

one

style

newly acquired

is

for

riches

and turmoil, the

than ever before.

power and

risen to

works of art

that

would

with colorful beauty.

their origin in the

rep-

Two

Muromachi

the Tosa school, and the other the Kano.

of painting of the Tosa school

the Yamato-e.

Muromachi

way

of feudal lords had

demand

famous schools of painting had period

the local feudal barons.

despite a country torn with strife

began to flourish

The new warrior

The

era

is

in the

leading master of this school during the

was Tosa Mitsunobu,

143 4- 1525, the son

favors and commissions

40

fact that

from the

of

nobility, gaining prestige

many of them belonged

A

bureau.

great

artists

to noble families.

official

bureau of painting

Other members of the Tosa

and

in turn served as heads

depicting the history of certain temples in

Kyoto were

work of Mitsunobu. These scrolls were executed in the Tosa

of Yamato-e with precise contour

style

of

many of the most famous scroll-paintings

with serene and subtle

colors.

famous Kitano Tenjin shrine

Among

in the

the

typical

lines filled in

the treasures of the

weaving quarter of Kyoto

are fourteen scrolls of the illustrated history of the shrine.

Two

of these

scrolls

century,

fourteenth

were done by Tosa Yukimitsu and three are

1617-1691. Talented painters of

manner of

Tosa Mitsuhiro. Tosa-school painters enjoyed innumerable

from the

of head of the

force during the opening years of the

Mitsunobu was

of the Shogun's government and

in the hiiperial court in 1469.

(13 3 8- 1573).

Heian

Muro-

the beautiful

and rare

history of Japan.

this

by

Tosa

school created

scrolls depicting the religious

in the

Mitsuoki,

many of

and secular

The popularity of the Tosa school gradually power of the monasteries and

declined with the diminishing the nobles

way

who were its patrons.

to the

Kano

Its

school, although

place of prominence gave its

style

contmued

to in-

fluence subsequent schools. In conformity with the established


f>iiiwr.ftmfmm

r"

Spring and Autumn, a pair of six-panel folding screens

hy

Kano Hisanohu,

active

early

in

the

eighteenth century. Color on paper. Author's collection.

Japanese tradition of inheritance by a chosen

member of the

work appealed

two

schools of Tosa

interpretation of nature.

family, or

by recourse

to adoption, the

and Kano became allied

to each other

with the marriage of the

of the military

to the taste

The Kano

for

its

beautiful

school became firmly

estabhshed both aesthetically and socially by Masanobu's son

Kano Motonobu, 1476-1559, who revived the lyricism inMotonobu lived in Kyoto and served the Ashikaga Shogun as court painter. He was a

daughter of Tosa Mitsunobu to Kano Motonobu.

herent in the Japanese tradition.

THE GREAT KANO DECORATIONS

skilled painter in black

He improved The Kano

school had

its

period, and in the succeeding

beginnings in the

Momoyama

Muromachi

and white

as

to Suiboku the traditional elements

by the Tosa

well as a superb colorist.

Kano

the technique of the

school by applying

of the Yamato-e

Motonobu was

era attained a pre-

interpreted

eminent position in Japanese painting which continued to the

excelled in

end of the Tokugawa Shogunate. The paintings of the Kano

landscapes, figures, and flowers-and-birds,

school perfectly reflect an indigenous style which played a

in a

The

the

decisive role in shaping the typically Japanese assthetic.

great influence of the that

Kano

school was also due to the fact

many of its painters were officially active either in the of the Tokugawa government or of feudal lords. These

service

positions, together

with the

social prestige

of this new hereditary

service, insured the continuing success

academy of

painting.

The founder of

Masanobu, 1434-1530, who was born cratic family.

He

derived from such

the school

in

was Kano

Kyoto of an

aristo-

studied painting under Shubun, and while

treating the traditional Chinese subjects, gave a purely Japanese inflection to

Suiboku

art,

freeing

it

from Zen mysticism. His

all

school.

style as

a master

who

the categories of painting, including scrolls,

which he produced

charming native manner. The third illustrious member of

Kano family, who

also contributed greatly to the art

of the

Momoyama period,

was Kano Eitoku, 1543 -1590, a grandson of Motonobu. Although Motonobu had a brother and three sons

who

preceded Eitoku, they did not achieve the

fame. Eitoku was the most distinguished painter of the

yama lords

latter 's

Momo-

period, serving as painter to the great military feudal

Oda Nobunaga and

The

style

Hideyoshi (Plate

of the Kano school

Yamato-e and the Suiboku and precise black brush

was the contributing

styles.

is

i).

combination of the

Yamato-e with

lines filled in

factor

a

its

dehcate

with dense rich colors

which produced the

detail

and

41


i^nHuniiuua

harmony. The Suiboku

effective color

style

embodied

the

monochrome paintings with forms of Zen expression, hi Kano the two styles

strong black brush strokes of their simple

were

blended to produce impressive compositions

skillfully

of great splendor with high color fdling the spaces within

heavy black

lines.

The

subjects include landscapes, figures,

and scenes of everyday

birds, plants, flowers,

monumental decoration

typifying the

life.

Kano was

Momoyama

period,

an age of luxury and splendor in which the Zen principles of simplicity gave

way

and colorful

to a rich

of painting.

style

These beautiful and vigorous paintings were produced with gold backgrounds on folding screens and on the wall panels

and

sliding doors

of great houses. The paintings

of the feudal families and

spirit

rative

reflected the

their desire for colorful

deco-

appointments that were inspired by nature. Especially

remarkable was the development of domestic interior decoration for the great private military strongholds, the castles

both

built

as fortresses

and

as residences for

the feudal lords.

These castles were impressive structures with high and massive stonework, white-walled donjons, and surrounding moats.

The

first

of these great

in 1576 at

the in a

citadels

was

Azuchi on Lake Biwa.

built

by Oda Nobunaga

All the panel spaces within

many roomswerelavislily decorated with paintings. Withfew years almost every feudal domain had

which created an urgent demand

its

great castle,

for paintings to

till

the

proper interior spaces.

The splendor of the interior as

decorations of the Azuchi castle

well as of Osaka and Fushimi castles and the Juraku mansion

built

by Hideyoshi may

still

be appreciated,

as

many

sections

of them today form part of certain famous temples in Kyoto.

The magnificent

buildings of the Nishi Honganji temple in

Kyoto, for instance, were formerly the residence of Fushimi castle

and

are representative of ihe taste

part of the interior

is

of this period. Every

elaborately decorated with gold or with

black or red lacquer, and the ceiling panels, sliding doors, and

wall panels were painted by masters of the school.

The

beautiful Nijo castle in Kyoto,

Kano family which

example of the splendor of these times, was

Tokugawa Shogun to his visits to

treasures,

Kyoto.

with

the greatest

built

its

a striking

by the

first

on the occasion of

well-preserved buildings are veritable

their interiors entirely decorated

with some of

works of Kano Tan-yu and other members of the

Kano family

From

Its

serve as his residence

is

or

or Kano-school

monly

applied as a collective term to include the paintings on

wall spaces, sliding doors, and screens.

It is

because of the

peculiar interior appointments of Japanese domestic architec-

ture that the paintings of greatest importance appear in these

forms.

The

sliding doors, called fusuma (Plate 3), are

movable

made of a wooden frame covered on both sides with heavy paper. They are generally in sets of four and serve as partitions between rooms or between a room and a corridor. partitions

FusHina are fairly wide, and the obverse and reverse sides form

artists.

early times Japanese secular painting has been chiefly

an important part of the interior architectural surfaces for

work

paintings.

produced on kakemono has been reserved for the tokonoma.

especially

with the rich and colorful paintings in the

Religious paintings were used for the same purpose in Bud-

the

Kano

school executed in sequential compositions.

used for the decoration of interior panel spaces, while the

dhist monasteries. Therefore

it

was only natural

for the great

houses of the nobles and feudal chiefs to have the architectural spaces filled in with paintings.

42

The name Sho-Hcki-Ga

is

com-

These /5U3 are beautiful decorative appointments,

The splendor of the Momoyama period can be

style

further wit-

nessed in magnificent paintings on large folding screens.

were

just as

of

They

important to the sumptuous interior decoration


Above:

One of a

pair of six-paiwl screens by Taii'araya Sotatsii,

1589-16^1, depicting a scene

front the

Tale of Genji;

color on

paper. Seikado Foundation, Tokyo.

Right:

Pink and White Plum Blossoms, by Ogata Korin,

1658-1716. One of a pair of two-panel Collection of Yoshitaka

screens: color on paper.

Tsngaru, Tokyo.

43


HHHUBUHMMla

1

^auaimtma^uu^^

Pine Trees in Snow, a pair hy

iiiidifefiiUiM

of six-patiel screens

Maruyama Okyo, 1733-1795;

ink and light

on paper. Collection of Takakimi Mitsui, Tokyo.

as the sliding

doors and wall panels.

hyohu, appeared in great

sequent

Tokugawa

The

numbers during

folding screens, or

period, and their exquisite beauty con-

sumptuous surroundings and

tributed to the

and the sub-

this era

afduence of the owner (Plate

4).

reflected the

The dimensions of the

usual

type of six-paneled screen are about five feet high and twelve feet long, affording a

most

suitable space for the bold

splendid decorative compositions of the

Kano

school.

and

Many

of the greatest works of the Kano family were executed on screens.

On

plum

were magnificent

matching or related design, or

extends across the

full

screen, a

ground, which produces strong colors.

a rich

The manner

in

screens

abstraction greatly enhances the principal subject, undisturbed

by any unnecessary ancient pine tree

is

details.

A

subject such as a gnarled

treated independently

in a portrayal so impressive that

physical shock.

It

of its natural

monly sition

called genji-gtiino, or

thought since one cannot

tell

a

whether the pines are reaching

remote mountaintop. The com-

of a pair of screens may be executed

ently or as a sequential subject. In the one

either independ-

form it

is

represented

of

golden clouds. The gradual tran-

from one hue or shade of gold

mellowness and

a feeling

which nature

to another gives a

of three-dimensional depth. Kano

is

and elegant manner. Even

this

period of Japanese

interpreted in such a vigorous

in his

day he was considered the

of the times, enjoying the patronage of

greatest painter

Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, and he and

his followers held the

highest artistic and social positions.

Among

setting,

has almost the effect of a

causes a natural inward impulse to deep

out over the sea or are on positions

it

and

large leaves

gold are applied produces a beautiful gradation of tone com-

painting, in

Kano compositions on

Many

and elegant contrast with the

Eitoku was the fountainhead of

majestic

by

a gold-leaf back-

which the rather

brilliantly

Many

in the other

length of both screens of the pair.

trees, fan-

colored birds.

and

continuous design which

of the most beautiful screens are executed on

with blossoms, ancient pine

trees

are executed without a naturalistic background. This sense of

44

a

rock formations, and an endless variety of

landscapes, tastic

a large scale, boldly depicted,

by an independent design on each

great 1

other

works

members of the Kano family who produced

are

Eitoku's

who became

son, Kano Mitsunobu, Kano Takanaobu, 15711618,

oldest

565- 1608, and his second son,

official painter to the

Imperial court. This office

had formerly been held by members of the Tosa family when Tosa had been the favored school.

When

the

Tokugawa

Shogunate assumed the supreme rule and selected Edo

as

the


;

seat

of government, many Kano-school

live

and work. The

seat

of the Imperial court and center of traditional culture, and

city

artists

went there

and culture was established around the Shogun's court. This

to

new

of Kyoto nevertheless remained the

which developed with the many changes of the

order,

had

times,

its

beginning in the

Momoyama

period and was

the removal of the centralized government, did not hinder the

fully

progress of the arts in Kyoto, hi this era they flourished and

"Within the framework of this feudal system the

reached greater heights.

The two most

distinguished

members

the redistribution of

of the greatest paintings of the time, were Kano Sanraku,

Kano

1559-1635, and his son-in-law

With

power

Sansetsu, 1589-1651.

demand

for decorative paintings for the

Kano

school.

huge new

was therefore only natural

a position

fiefs,

and

of the seventeenth century.

new

and the spread of

traders.

order

of provincial powers,

shift

The

rise

financial

of the merchant

of wealth provided an ever-expanding

demand for works of art, and stimulated a greater appreciation

now was as great Momoyama period or pos-

of them. The influence of the Kano school

houses of the daimyo afforded ample opportunity for continuance of the

many

to the merchants

class to

the rapid development of the city of Edo, the ever-in-

creasing

in these early years

was established mainly from the

who produced some

of the Kano family to remain in Kyoto,

advanced

as

that

it

had been

in the preceding

With

the patronage of the Shogunate, the

sibly

greater.

one member of the family, Kano Tan-yu, 1602- 1674, should

Kano

school was securely established.

have become the most famous and most

was only sixteen or seventeen years of age when he received

of the Edo period his

father,

It

Tan-yu studied painting under

(Plate 10).

Takanobu, and

influential artist

moving

after

honored by an appointment

as

to

his

Edo he was

lasted for

highly organized feudal system.

fifty years

The new

tremendous proportions and with

it

a

city

new

Lundscupe with Figures, by Ikc-iio-Taiga,

1

under

Other

Edo

just outside

castle.

Kano-school painters of the Edo period

were Kano Naonobu, younger brother of Kano Tan-yu;

Kano Hisanobu, who flourished in the early years of the eighteenth century and became head of the

its

of Edo grew to

and Kano Eigaku,

order of society

72 J- 1776, from a

illustrious

Tan-yu

he was twenty he was given a

the Kaji-bashi Gate of the great

painter-in-ordinary to the

over two hundred and

when

stated that

house by the Shogun. The dwelling was located

Tokugawa Shogunate. The year 161 5, when Tokugawa leyasu was appointed Shogun, marks the beginning of the Edo or Tokugawa regime, which

appointment, and

It is

who

nineteenth century (Plate

set

of ten fusuma;

ink

and

Kano

achieved fame in the

family in 1743 first

half of the

7).

color

on paper.

Henjoko-in monastery,

Wakayama.

45


SOTATSU, KORIN, AND THE Edo period reached

Painting in the

NEW

dimax in the early work of Tawaraya

a

years of the seventeenth century in the

and Ogata Korin, 1658-1716. Sotatsu,

Sotatsu, 1589-1651,

who lived in

Kyoto, was

a

high-ranking Buddhist

gained a high reputation

at the court.

of the old Yamato-e

work of Kano

style,

flat

backgrounds ot gold, are

Genroku making

full

of charm and elegance.

who also worked in Kyoto,

era (1688-1704),

spirited designs for pottery,

many

painting. His

rose to

sketches

first

excelled

and then turned

from nature,

especially

and flowers, became powerfully stylized in ings. In

fame during

which was the most prosperous

Tokugawa Shogunate. Korin

period under the in

a

by the

of wonderful brilliance against

classical figures, in colors

the

work is essentially

His

strongly influenced

Eitoku. His flowers-and-bird compositions

and

Ogata Korin,

monk who

of the emperor Go-mizunoo and thus

attracted the attention

revival

REALISM

to

of birds

his finished paint-

bold compositions and rich colors, Korin created some

of Japan's most beautiful masterpieces on large screens. The decorative style of Sotatsu and Korin, with

upon

realism, always based

foundation of the

Realism

new

in painting

art

subjects

its

high degree of

from nature, was the

of the Edo period.

was

important in the

also especially

of the Shijo-Maruyama school. Maruyama Okyo,

style

1733-1795, was born in

and moved

to

master of the ings of the

Kyoto

Kano

province, the son of a farmer,

an early age.

He

studied under the

school and later studied the

Sung and Yuan

trees, plants, flowers,

almost

Tamba

at

and birds

scientific precision.

realistic paint-

dynasties. His treatment is

of rocks,

very true to nature, with

This school of

realistic painting,

unconcerned with either metaphysical abstractions or bold stylizations,

was

Kyoto, where

it

enthusiastically appreciated

ultimately

by the people of

became the dominant

style.

This

Matsumura Goshun,

naturalism was further developed by

1752-1811, founder of the Shijo school.

Goshun was born

in

Kyoto, where he studied poetry and painting under Buson of the

Nanga

school,

associated with

and

after the

death of

Okyo. He softened

realism in gentle, intimate landscapes.

school

is

Buson he became

the impact of the latter's

The

style

thus based on the best elements of the

and Okyo. Since

this

is

one of the most iinportant schools of

painting in the latter part of the

Edo and

early Meiji periods,

produced many of the most distinguished

it

of the Shijo

work of Buson

artists

in an

atmosphere of unclouded

movement which appeared a return to Confucianism.

tranquillity.

in the

Genroku

During

this

The

era

intellectual

was

in reality

time the commoners

became prosperous and wealthy, and were

free to devote lei-

sure hours to cultural pursuits. Great playwrights and novelists

were inspired by

this

Confucian learning, and the

teachings of Chinese sages ciety.

were prevalent

Chinese paintings of the

were imported

into Japan

in

all classes

Ming and Ch'ing

ethical

of so-

dynasties

and were greatly admired.

of that

time.

After centuries of war and political turmoil, peace finally prevailed under the domination of the

This

state

men

of spiritual truth and knowledge.

stimulated men's desire to paint for the pleasure of diversion

46

THE NANGA SCHOOL OF LITERATI

regime.

of quiet and freedom from disturbance enabled

to pursue the enlightenment It

Tokugawa

Many of these priests,

paintings

were brought

in

and other learned men when they

by Chinese

artists,

visited the city

of

Nagasaki, which was the only port open to foreign intercourse.


Tea and Wine I7i6-iy8j;

Parties, a six-panel screen hy

Yosa-iio-Biisaii,

color on a satin-weave silk. Collection

of

Tatsiijiro

Hashimoto, Tokyo.

Right:

Sketches of Insects and Fishes,

from an album by

1793-1841;

Wataiiabe

Kazan,

color on silk. Collection

Junzo Kosaka, Tokyo.

of


were distinguished

^

^ ^^P,}^k^l

a.

i-

V -f^ r^

Hi

and pursued

-<^\

worked

well as in ethics and

as

in his

this artistic field for his

Many of these

faction.

and prose,

in verse

the sciences. Each painter

own

individual style

own enjoyment and satis-

became masters of the

literati

and

art

attained a certain place in the history of Chinese painting. In

Japan the iJ

<

artists

who

are responsible for the

development of

school of painting are Ike-no-Taiga, or Taigado, 1723-

this

1776, and Yosa-no-Buson, 1716-1783. Taiga

landscape painter, while Buson,

'^liMk^

trayed natpre- ^o closely in his

who was work

Edo

own

taste

any of the conventional or traditional

end of the Edo period many :-

were

as-

number of Nanga-

period, each one creating his

compositions or portrayals to his for

chiefly a

that observers

tonished by his realism. There arose a great

school painters in the

was

famous poet, por-

a

own

without regard

styles.

Toward

the

brilliant painters appeared, the

most noted among them being Tanomura Chikuden, 1777-

/.

1835, and a

Nanga

Watanabe Kazan. Chikuden gained

landscape painter, while Kazan,

great

who was

fame

as

learned in

Confucianism, excelled not only in landscape but also in flower-and-bird compositions and figures.

The Nanga

school of painting continued to flourish after

the twilight of the

Among

the

these times

Edo period and on through

the Meiji era.

many artists who distinguished themselves during was Tomioka Tessai, 1836- 1924. Tessai's life-span

covered those eventful and anxious years which witnessed the

breakdown of the

great feudal system and the restoration of

The new era was ushered in with the recogniof Emperor Meiji as absolute ruler of Japan by virtue of

Imperial rule. tion

the ordnance of the sun goddess, Amaterasu. Tessai produced a

number of superb works

and white and was

in black

a

master of calligraphy.

The

appreciation of painting was not something enjoyed

by the upper

classes alone; the

inherent liking for

it

too.

But

common

people possessed an

was not

until the beginning

it

of the seventeenth century that genre pictures of peared

at a price

more than sketches

Window,

from the Boat

Tanomura Chikucien, 1777-183$; Collection of Komakichi

in ink

from

and

an

album

light color

by

on paper.

Tamura, Osaka.

colors

a sort ap-

they could afford to pay. These were nothing

swiftly

and known

drawn ink-brush as

sketches

daubed with

Ukiyo-e. Their popularity soon spread

throughout the country; particularly appreciated were the ones called Otsu-e, produced by

many

families in the village

of Otsu, one of the resting places of the Tokaido Highway on the shore of Lake Biwa, a few miles

The

school of painting which developed from these circum-

stances

is

times by

had

its

known its

as

some-

others traveling along the highway.

school

of the seventeenth century depicted subjects from Buddhist

as

48

it

was

provenance in southern China in the Yuan dynasty and

Ming and

actually an art of amateurs, as

ers.

early Ch'ing periods.

It is

opposed to the northern Chinese

which is represented by the works of academic paint-

The Nanga

from Kyoto, where they

cheap souvenirs to the retainers of daimyo and

called in China, or

continued through the

school,

as

name of Bunjin-Ga. The Nanga

Nanga,

Japanese

were sold

school was founded by

men of

letters

who

lore

and were probably intended

Most of the

for

early Otsu-e

worship by those

who

could not afford costly images. The popularity of the Buddhist subjects lasted until the

end of the seventeenth century, when

they were replaced in favor by pictures of an entertaining nature, vigorously

drawn ink-brush

sketches

showing great


strength and originality.

Most of these

were used

sketches

as

tahsmans and depicted characters from folklore, legends, and

mythology. Often they were inscriptions flourish

satirical

and had calligraphic

of humorous poems. The work continued to

through the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth

when

century,

the art of Otsu declined sharply.

MEDIUMS AND MATERIALS OF PAINTING The in

essential character

which the

subject

is

of Japanese painting and the manner

represented

mediums

the materials and

is

largely conditioned

watercolor, mineral pigments, paper or brush.

When

strips are

silk,

and the fude or

silk is used, it is usually in strips

inches wide, and

sewn

when

a larger size

together.

by

used. These include India ink,

is

The paper

required, is

about twelve

two or more

made from

the thin

fibrous inner bark of the Asiatic paper-mulberry tree and

from other

plant substances such as grass, rice straw, or

bamboo. The India or sumi,

is

made by

soot together.

mizu

sashi are

inkstone has a

An

ink, in the

form of a hard oblong

inkstone or suzuri and a water dropper or

used to prepare the ink for use. flat

toward one end

inkstick

boiling a type of glue or fish oil and pine

A

black oblong

depressed center portion which slopes gently

to

form

a well.

To make the ink ready for use,

drops of water are allowed to run into the well and the inkstick is

dipped into the water and rubbed on the stone until the

desired blackness

is

attained.

The

coloring materials are water

colors or mineral pigments, the latter being prepared

by

Tomioka

Tcssai,

i8}6-ig24:

The Chi-

nese Poet Su Tung-P'o. Musluviokoji Collection,

Tomioka Collection,

Tessai,

Tokyo.

18)6-1924: Mountain

Villa.

Naito

Tokyo.

49


mixing with

a

kind of glue

most important

as a

article, the

binding medium.

brush,

is

used in

all

The

last

and

manner

branches of

Japanese painting and consists of a conical tuft of hair, usually that

of the badger, securely fixed in the end of a bamboo tube.

certain effects.

The

Left:

is

essential to

An

characteristic expression

produce

achieved with

Otsu-e, or popular image of the Edo period,

An Otsu-e

of the Edo period,

late

late

50

Art Museum.

was used

and the shading of line or the tone

of line or stroke

this particular

(1

180-1185).

type of brush

is

a function

artist.

The image was used

as a

Museum.

seventeenth or eighteenth century, It

was used

depicting

Daitoku

The

in Japanese painting

seventeenth or eighteenth century, ink and color on

Gempei Wars

head of Fukurokuji, god of longevity; ink and color on paper. Seattle

manipulates his brush. Certain

touch and feeling transmitted by the

talisman to scare off the evil spirit of smallpox. Seattle Art

Right:

artist

gradations denote the angle at which the brush was held.

black ink lines or strokes clearly reflect the

paper, depicting Tametomo, a famous warrior of the

which the

to accentuate a meaning,

Since brush strokes represent the basic principle of Japanese painting, the brush's conical shape

in

strokes are indicative of the speed or pressure that

shaving

as a talisman for a long healthful

the life.

of the


IV Color

I

N THE the

.

made

its

early years of the seventeenth century

new style of painting known as Ukiyo-e

appearance, depicting everyday

Ukiyo-e was

common

people.

prosperous middle

essentially a

upper

its

of society, the

strata

of genre painting aimed

a school

pictures for the

particularly of

Yamato-e school with

the lower classes. In contrast to the secular subjects intended for the

life,

at

providing

The people of Edo were

class

addicted to amusement.

Their interests revolved around a certain social or pleasure

world

Ukiyo. The term Ukiyo-e

called

World," or simply "passing or tially

the

city,

with

its

is

essen-

theaters,

puppet shows, wrestling pavilions, and houses of

assignation. actors,

variously translated

world." This

fleeting

of fugitive pleasures of the

life

restaurants,

is

of the Drifting World," "Pictures of the Floating

as "Pictures

The indigenous population of

singers,

the

Ukiyo were

dancers, prostitutes, courtesans, bath-girls,

favorite beauties, taste

was

easily

understood and appealed to the

of the populace. Such

pictures that the

it

became necessary

these pictures

would be prints

more

practical.

to find

and

at

century, in the

of woodcut

As the demand

some means of producing

such a low price that they

The method of reproducing

from wood blocks was the solution art

arose for the

rapidly drawing ink sketches

available to everyone.

Although the

China,

easily

demand

great

a

method of

daubed with colors was no longer increased

Prints

to the

in Japan dates

Nara period when

problem.

from the eighth

was introduced from

it

use had been restricted chiefly to reproductions of

its

Buddhist religious paintings.

It is

stated that the first

book

be illustrated with woodcuts was the he Akviogatari, which a collection

pubhshed

of ancient romances and

in the tenth century.

tales

to is

of feudal chivalry

But Moronobu was the

first

of the woodcut, and in

to realize the unlimited possibilities

buffoons, and a variousassortment of entertainers. The Ukiyo-e

1670 he designed the

or Pictures of the Drifting World, and the ukiyo-soshi or life

With an excellent knowledge of the methods of the Tosa and Kano schools, he became a skillful Ukiyo-e artist and created

environment that the

an original style of genre painting especially adapted to the

sketchbooks of the Drifting World, chiefly depicted the

of these gay

Ukiyo-e

quarters.

artists

lived

artist

was

and developed the color prints which

Although

it is

actual founder of the

popularly regarded

significantly

name any

Ukiyo-e school, the to

spite

of the

were executed exclusively

difficult to

its

fact

for the

individual as the

first

master to con-

development was Hishikawa

Moronobu, 1618-1694, one of trators

is

of Edo. The Tosa-

of the Ukiyo-e school, in

that his fine genre paintings

tribute

streets

Iwasa Matabei, 1578-1650,

as the originator

nobility.

in this

few coins on the

originally sold for a

school

It

the

most famous book

illus-

wood

black-and-white single-sheet print.

block. In the early period of

clearly defined in a rather

in order to facilitate the

Ukiyo-e the

PRINT

publishers first

were pressed by the demand

toward

step

satisfying this

for color pictures.

demand was

its

its

portraits

of contemporary actors and

The

to color the prints

times the

work was done by

the artist

drawing and sometimes by other so popular that the

who made

artisans.

increasing

demand. The

limited to

two

first

method of

colors, green

of these

and

the original

Hand-colored prints printing in colors,

a natural result

realized,

of the

prints to appear

were

rose.

In a short time the potentialities of the two-color

The Ukiyo-e with and amusements,

short

by hand. The process of hand-coloring was very slow; some-

were plebeian subjects of everyday pursuits

detail,

work of the wood engraver. A

which was introduced about 1740, was

DEVELOPMENT OF THE WOOD-BLOCK

were

lines

bold manner, without fme

time after the development of the black-and-white print the

became

of that time.

first

and around 1765 multicolored

method

prints

were

being produced in Edo. The multicolored print, developed

by Harunobu, furnished unlimited

possibilities for

new

styles

51


and designs. The heavy

by

replaced

and

fine

The

slender and graceful.

was made

print

known

is

no longer

printer.

of the wood-block

Although

work of the

the

artist

a particular

who

During

were

by collaboration between the

and the

as

necessary,

and figures became

finished quality

possible only

painter, the engraver,

color print

lines,

delicate outlines,

conceived

the early period of wood-block printing an edition

was limited

to about forty copies, or at the

demand was

so great that publishers often ran as

thousand copies from a single

set

work employed

the painstaking

in the earlier periods, the

later publishers

wood

The meticulous

ing from the deterioration of the blocks.

printer.

its

cutting of the

block by

The normal by

size

of the Japanese wood-block print

with precision of registry by the printer, were equally con-

ten

tributing factors to the beauty of the fmished print.

placed side by side in series were

To

qualities,

which

necessary to understand the unique process

it is

by

A color-print artist first drew the original

was made.

it

the Japanese color print's essential

appreciate

fully

composition in black outline on a piece of translucent paper.

The

black-outline drawing, executed with brush and India

ink,

was complete

in every detail

and represented the

artist's

fmished work. This foundation picture was then given to the engraver,

who

pasted

it

down upon

face

block of wood,

a

usually cherry, sawed in the direction of the grain and not across

it

Europe. The paper was carefully rubbed until

as in

every detail of the design became clearly

was

oiled.

by the engraver, and the wood

incised with a knife

spaces

between the lines was cut away with tiny

On

relief.

the

first

proof from

this

actual colors

on

a proof,

but

suitable to his process

left it to

artist

fifteen'inches. Prints consisting

or

much

more panels are occasionally found.

panel

is

the

same

separate blocks later

ance.

by

size as the

normal

demand

in

in the

In these examples, each

print; they

and printed on separate

was designed

It

thirty inches,

as a vertical

made of two

One of the most

composition.

were cut on

made

its

which was

five inches

panel measuring about ten

interesting

and popular types

part of the

of the poorer

kakemono

of the upper

hashira-

wide by twenty-eight inches long.

This became very popular for hanging on the upright posts in the houses

appear-

separate sheets for a single

of color print of the mid-eighteenth century was the kake,

same

sheets. In this

period a color print called kakcmotw-e

classes,

wooden

and was the counter-

or hanging scroll-painting in the houses

classes. It

was

difficult to lay

conform with the unusual shape of the painters well versed in the art

did not apply the

one of balanced composition.

artist

about

is

of two or three panels

second half of the eighteenth century, and prints having four

designated

block the

the colors to be used. As a rul? the

most

in the

chisels so that

of the design on the fmished block stood out in

the lines

all

and then

visible,

black line in the design were

The borders of each

as ten

remained oblivious to the inferior work result-

was neither the engraver of the

the engraver, and the careful application of colors

many

of blocks. In contrast to

the original composition, he

block nor

most to about

seventy or eighty, but by the early nineteenth century the

out

a

design to

hashirakake,

and only

of proportion could produce

the printer to select those

of blending. Separate blocks were

cut for each color, engaging the

skill

of the engraver to make

UKIYO-E SUBJECTS

each one in perfect register with the other.

The beauty of the fmished

color print depended

paper. In printing, the colors

wood

were applied with

block, and each impression was taken

a

the

The

on the

scenes

upon

touch of the printer in applying the proper pressure

brush to the

by pressing the

back of the paper with a kind of pad made of hempen cord.

Although in tone

block was used for each color, gradations

a separate

were sometimes produced from an individual color-

block by blending different colors or different shades of the

same

color.

Blended color

tones, such as those seen in sky

water, were obtained

by wiping away the

where

were

prints

lighter shades

required. In Japanese

no two impressions are exactly

and

superfluity of color

wood-block

alike in color,

and some-

times entirely different colors are found on prints of the same design.

The

surface

and rich

quality of the paper with

It

in great

in those days

demand because

were

the lower-class citizens of Edo

fanatic lovers

of the popular drama. Color-

print portraits of famous actors provided the theatergoer with

mental image of features, costumes, and character

a vivid

parts, as well as the plots

and scenes of a particular

play.

It

was

not important that these pictures expressed an exact likeness

of the

actors, so

cally in

long

as the actors

were represented dramati-

make-up and costume. There was

also a great variety

of pictures of women and famous beauties, which were equally as

popular

engaged

as the portraits

of actors. The

women

in the things associated, with their

pastimes, their domestic activities.

They

are depicted

everyday

life,

their

are seen elegantly

to

dressed in beautiful contemporary fashions, in typical Japanese

garden settings and other domestic surroundings peculiar to

creamy tone was of great importance

of the Asiatic paper-mulberry

tree,

which produces

paper suitable to the wood-block process.

.S2

highly absorbent

prints are actors,

Pictures of actors

prevailing subjects of

was made from the thin fibrous inner bark

soft

the fmal product.

its

were

Ukiyo-e color

from the Kabuki drama, and women.

a

tough

their

manner of living. Charming teahouse girls and geisha are

interestingly portrayed at their calling.

Each great Ukiyo-e


own

painter represented his female subjects in his

way, so

by

that the

work of these

particular

can usually be identified

artists

a certain facial type or other characteristic form.

famous Yoshiwara

on the

district

outskirts of Edo, depicted

and richly colored

in their magnificent their beautiful

The

was centered upon the courtesans of the

greatest attention

dress.

The

pictures of

costumes provide a graphic record of the

extravagant fashions of the times,

one of the most important

when

textile design

of decorative

outlets

becanie

much Ukiyo-e

mological derivation of Ukiyo-e

itself

is

art.

The

ety-

an indication of this,

the original Buddhist connotation being the "transient, unreliable

world," which, for the newly liberated townspeople

The growth of the

capital.

with their families, and

two

bering some

By

feudal estates.

world

in the

gressive

Kabuki

the courtesan districts and especially pleasures

of the

flesh,

of more than half the Ukiyo-e

The

eighteenth centuries.

at first

the

Shogun's retainers and the

development of commerce and local industry through

As the

the standard of living.

grew

in

larger cities prospered, there

of merchants and

a class

Tokugawa

many ways

much so new capital

that quarters like city

of Edo

easily

Actually, for this lively public,

Ukiyo-e began as downright

and detailed handbooks such

The

Edo, a great surge of building activity was created by the

and daimyo moving

influx of retainers

men, and dwellings

for the workers, the city rapidly reached

vast proportions.

From

the opening years of the seventeenth century the

Yoshiwara, or Reedy Plain, on the outskirts of

district called

which was

a

as the

Yoshiwara

manual of sex and

fact that the first print or

two of

a pleasure

sumo bouts, eating

haunt for people. In

places,

populated with actors, singers, dancers,

entertainers, pleasure girls,

attempt to circumvent the censor. However, the feudal govern-

new

ment

century

little

concerned with pornography but

is

indicated

by the

fact that

many of the

early erotic

bear the names of both the publisher and the

artist,

books

whereas

decent books are often anonymous. Single prints followed the illustrated books,

and the huge contemporary popularity of

this art available at

nominal prices can to

attributed to the stimulus provided

a large extent be

by the

social position

of

resorts it

of

district

precinct

it

had

The

customs.

as

it

was formerly

a provincial

daimyo, chose the

Tokugawa

leyasu selected

headquarters, feudal

called,

a village until 1457 site

is

not an ancient

when Ota Dokan,

for a castle fortress. In 1590

Edo for his provincial military and from 1603, when he became the supreme

power and was appointed Shogun, he made

it

his per-

By

and

its

former population of

the courtesans

a

its

needed

as the Nightless City,

own

services.

and within

its

code or principles of behavior and

and there existed

a strict social

which was observed with

They were attended by

were

their trades in the

the beginning of the eighteenth

beautiful houses of the courtesans reflected a

habitants

was merely

its

certain elegance

"moral problems."

it

gaiety.

was known

costly clothing,

Tokyo, or Edo

a great

was a thriving and practically self-contained district,

the courtesan plus the traditional Japanese insouciance about

city, since

jesters, storytellers,

and others plied

complete with tradespeople to provide

The

theaters,

destroyed most of the city in 1657, the Yoshiwara was

rebuilt in a different section

rather with sedition and other crimes against the state. This

world of lively

puppet

and panders. After

bath-girls, courtesans, prostitutes, fire

this

theaters,

and licensed houses of entertainment

completely unprintable pictures, would seem to indicate an

time was

with their soldiers

in

and servants by the thousands. With the construction of the

such books were ordinarily only vaguely erotic, followed by

at this

With

court and administrative government centered

and fickle pleasures were the Kabuki

class.

"courtesan critique."

to reach

great houses for the daimyo, in addition to buildings for

by wealthy samurai, but from the

in 1660,

which was

artisans

powerful, dimensions.

merchant

pubUshed

cities

The peace and pro-

the seventeenth century contributed to a substantial rise in

Edo, was

Pillow,

their

the year 1787 the population had risen to

middle of the seventeenth century taken over by the rising

erotica in frank

their

lodging troops, shops and houses for merchants and trades-

established personage in

centers of refmed if dcniimondaiti entertain-

ment, frequented

Edo court and to leave when they returned to

was an

the Yoshiwara district in the

became accepted

cities,

seventeenth and

art in the

of old Japan. So

life

of Japanese

constitute the subject

the

num-

to spend

courtesan, trained and educated

in polite accomplishments,

the social

theaters

which

were compelled

in the eighteenth century.

the

in

in size

of the daimyo, making Edo one of the largest

To

world meant amusements

was astonishing

the feudal lords or daimyo,

at

1,400,000, in addition to

important, and in

this transient, fleeting

all

families in the city as hostages

of the seventeenth century, took on hedonistic implications. them,

city

to three hundred,

months each year

several

families

art.

Collectors and connoisseurs of Japanese prints are well

aware of the erotic nature of

manent

and splendor. The eighty thousand retainers of the Shogun

among

personal maids adorned with rich and

and were accorded great respect by the

and patrons of the

district.

prominent part of city

the other larger

cities,

famous

called

district

rank

a regulated formality.

such

life

as

The

in-

pleasure quarters

not only in Edo, but also in

Kyoto, which contained the

Shimabara. These famous pleasure

quarters offered a variety of subject material to the Ukiyo-e painter,

and wood-block prints of famous

women

and actors

were eagerly purchased. 53


LANDSCAPE SUBJECTS

tracted to examples being sold at a shop in Paris.

to be collected

Although the pleasure quarter or Ukiyo with its magnificent costumes and women who lived by

the allurements of

charm

and beauty offered the most lucrative subject matter for the color-print

Many

artists,

new

fields

by

stories,

attract their attention.

by legendary and

historical

by

the occupations and customs of the times, and

was

landscapes. It

that the beautiful

in the latter part

of the Tokugawa period

and interesting scenic color

and Hiroshige made

sai

began to

color prints were inspired

their appearance,

prints

by Hoku-

with their innova-

tions in the representation of hght and atmospheric conditions.

Until

with a few exceptions, landscape had been

this time,

used only

background or as a scenic setting to complement

as a

the depiction of

women, who were

Although

subject.

the principal Ukiyo-e

these early landscapes

showing beautiful

by connoisseurs and

them was stimulated by Edmond de Goncourt's monographs on Hokusai and Utamaro. Both

by

in

Europe and America, and

informed appreciation gradually increased until

also in Japan,

the turn of the century large

sums were paid

new Much of the awakened interest in the color

only a few decades, exerted an important influence on the trends in paintifig.

by foreigners and

print

the

work and

efforts

making

assisted in

the Japanese themselves

of Professor Ernest

collections

Museum in Tokyo. He was Tokyo, and was

of Japanese

associated

among

untU an

edict

was

of prints of actors and courtesans lar.

Around

It

was not

became popu-

that landscape

end of the eighteenth century the principal

the

highways of the country had been greatly improved, which caused commercial

traffic to increase

people to travel. This in turn created a

it

as the

most picturesque highway

Edo

in the

world, offered iimumerable subjects for the color print, which

memento of the

the traveler appreciated as a seen.

Color prints of these views

sent or taken

to travel

and

well

as

had

places he

as scenes

of Edo were

home to friends, and this in turn created a

desire

and were made to

not considered to have

and exotic

were not

scenic views

at first

satisfy the

lower

aesthetic quahties.

which

appreciated

handicraft. In the closing years

classes,

Even

they were

the Japanese for their intrinsic

as a

open

to foreign trade,

with

only Dutch merchants privileged to trade with the Japanese. this

print,

Paris

medium of trade

European

artists

and

became acquainted with the Japanese color

the nineteenth century that

properly evaluated,

54

that

which, dispensed from Holland, found a market in

and London. However,

when

a

long

known

on the south shore of Lake Biwa was

The

peaceful

for the impressive

The

artists

is

artisans

of the Ukiyo-e were not

aristocrats or learned

with the Yamato-e, Tosa,

They were commoners with

schools.

who

of the Miidera temple,

the subject of Hiroshige's Eight

priests like the painters identified

and Kano

site

boom of its famous bell in the

the rank of

frequently executed designs for wood-block

prints in addition to their regular occupation as designers

book

many

graphical information in

although

it is

of the

sufficiently

cases

completely lacking,

is

complete regarding the outstanding

The following

later period.

important features of the print painters give

of

or theater posters. Unfortunately, bio-

illustrations

lives

sketches containing

of the most prominent color-

some idea of their individual contributions.

it

was not

its

THE EARLY PRINT MAKERS

form of cheap commercial

of the Tokugawa period large

in Nagasaki, then the only port

was from

faithfully carried out.

the beautiful

numbers of color prints were sent to Europe by Dutch traders

collectors first

his

possess such great artistic merit

by

worth, but were looked upon

It

and when he died in London in 1908,

ancient Miidera temple

artists

see these beautiful scenic spots.

Because the color prints chiefly depicted actors and courtesans,

a behever,

Famous Views of Lake Biwa.

ran eastward along the coast from Kyoto to

and was regarded

became

A

request to have his fmal resting place in the graveyard of the

twihght of early evening,

Tokaido or Eastern-Sea Way,

great highways, especially the

because

art for the Imperial

with the University of

he

demand

color prints of famous views and prominent places. These

of

who

his years in Japan,

and encouraged more for the scenic

a result

connoisseurs in the West.

devout student of Buddhism during

issued in 1842 prohibiting the publication

was

FenoUosa,

admirer and scholar of Japanese

a great

interest in Japanese art

the Yoshiwara courtesans.

F.

painting and sculpture. His writings stimulated considerable

continued a preference for pictures of their favorite actors,

women, and

for rare

The scenic color prints of Hokusai and Hiroshige, which antedate the rise of the Impressionist movement by impressions.

views of the country were greatly appreciated, the populace

beautiful

They began

knowledge of

a wider

ufltil

the middle of

importance began to be

group of French

artists

were

at-

Hishikawa Moronobu, 1625 -1695, was born in the province of Chiba and moved to Edo when he was very young.

He

studied under masters of the Tosa school of painting and was

an admirer of the

classical

Moronobu became

genre paintings of Iwasa Matabei.

a distinguished painter and, as the leading

exponent in the establishment of the wood-block

one of the most

prolific

realized the possibilities

Ukiyo-e

subjects

of Japanese book

of satisfying the demand for the

by producing

be purchased by the lower

was

print,

He new

illustrators.

single-sheet prints that could

classes at a

nominal

price.

Of


around

a

hundred and fifty sets of illustrations by him, perhaps

two dozen were

erotic, appealing to a wealthy,

audience. In such sets the

first

highly select

illustration was apt to be an

He created an original wood blocks with designs

innocuous, presentable frontispiece.

of genre painting adaptable to

style

of simple lines devoid of detail to enable the

still

inexperienced

engravers of that time to produce the woodcuts

and more easUy.

He was

a skillful designer

more

and although

drawings of women are lacking in appeal, he had

which gave

style

Moronobu's

and animation

life

prints

were originally

demand

for color increased, they

some

possibly

by the

others possibly

The

line

1664- 1729,

under

were colored

by

assistants. Still

its

founder, whose

an actor

posters.

as

He was

work suggests his early training,

well as a designer of signboards the

first

Ukiyo-e print

as his principal subject,

vigorous style

reflects the influence

second of the Torii early 1720's),

line,

Kiyomasu

was probably

a prolific designer

a

and

maker

his sturdy

and

from 1696

to the

younger brother of Kiyonobu

of prints of Kabuki actors and Yoshi-

wara courtesans. Another

artist,

who

produced prints until

about 1750, was probably a son of Kiyonobu and adopted

name.

When Kiyomasu ceased producing

a designer thought to be a son-in-law of

the

to

of poster design. The

(active

name of Kiyomasu and continued

prints

his

around 1730,

Kiyonobu adopted

in the

were executed by these two

same

style.

The

known by those who is

later artists

names. Torii Kiyomitsu, 173 5- 178 5,

the third Torii

is

credited with the development of the three-color print. Torii

who was a leading pupil of Kiyomitsu,

Kiyonaga, 1752-1815,

of the Torii masters, developed a style of reahsm, abandoning the earUer idealism in the depiction of Kabuki actors. His influence on the Ukiyo-e school was as

and the fourth and

great as

the

was

that

work of

last

of Harunobu and was

his contemporaries.

He

as tall, graceful,

background

and

beautiful.

He

marked on

specially

developed a

also

approach in the representation of women,

whom

new

he showed

developed the landscape

as a beautiful setting for the figures.

Okumura Masanobu,

after his lifetime.

portray actors

and

figure.

and white, and

of the Torii masters begins with Kiyonobu,

his father,

and theater

his

dynamic

were painted by hand,

himself, others

artist

a

human

to the

in black

as the

rapidly

Kiyonobu or Kiyomasu

color prints bearing the signature

c.

who

1686- 1764,

lived in

Edo and

studied under Kiyonobu, was a pubhsher as well as a designer

and

his

name

is

closely associated

work

color-printing. His early

manner

is

with the development of in black

subjects, introducing a picturesque style at their

Nishikawa Sukenobu,

who at

flourished during the

Osaka,

is

mental work on printing in six colors.

and

many

figure

women

scenes of

social life.

of the eighteenth century

illustrator

skill in

and depicting

pastimes and occupations, as well as

contemporary

noted for

first

half

his experi-

He was a popular book had

a

His perpetual theme, whatever the subject,

is

his single-sheet prints,

distinctive style.

which

the grace and beauty of Japanese girlhood. erotica

and white in the

of the Torii school but shows great

on commission from

are rare,

Sukenobu designed

the publishers, but his fmest

Hishikawa Monmohu, 1625 i6gs'-

The

to

Saffron Flower, a

hlack-and-white hook illustration depicting an incident in the elev-

enth-century novel

The Tale of

Genji. Victorid and Albert

Mu-

seum.

55


works

are his

the daily

many volumes of graceful illustrations depicting

women

of the

life

of Kyoto.

Utagawa Toyoharu, 1735-1814, founder of line,

gone

is

said to

to

have been born

Kyoto when he was

a

Utagawa

the

Oita prefecture and to have

in

young man

He moved

to study the paint-

ing of the

Kano

influenced

by Toyonobu, 1711-1785, and created

school.

characteristic style

to Edo,

of Ukiyo-e female figures.

where he was

his own He was a skillfull

painter and one of the earliest color-print artists to produce

pure landscape.

He

of perspective

in

cleverly adapted the

Toyoharu was one of

European technique

of print called

a particular style

uki-e.

group of painters commis-

a selected

Mausoleum of the Shogun at Utagawa Toyokuni, 1769- 1825, and Utagawa

sioned in 1796 to repair the

Nikko.

Toyohiro, 1773 -1828, both studied under Toyoharu. As a pupil of the

latter,

Hiroshige acquired great knowledge of

landscape painting.

who was born and

Nishimura Shigenaga, 1697- 1756, in

Edo, was an amazingly

lived

versatile artist. After studying the

work of Masanobu and Kiyonobu he developed a style of his own. He was a great innovator of new forms of the Ukiyo-e, especially in landscape-with-figures,

prints

and stone-rubbing

but also in the perspective

work

His

prints.

exerted a great

upon Harunobu and Toyonobu, and

influence

the

name of

Shigenaga ranks high in the history of Ukiyo-e also because

of his close connection with the introduction of color-printing.

KORYUSAI,

HARUNOBU

Isoda Koryusai, a former samurai

who

flourished between

1760 and 1780, was a pupil of both Shigenaga and Harunobu,

and

a friend

work

and favorite of the

so closely resembles the

latter (Plate 6).

His

work of Harunobu

earliest

that

it is

difficult to

distinguish any difference. After the death of

Harunobu,

his

assumed

style

a distinctive character

beautiful drawing and rich decorative color schemes.

noted for

his elegant, dramatically

with

He

is

designed compositions for

the vertically elongated hashirakake, or pillar prints. Besides excelling in artistic erotica, Koryusai

of color-print fashion of young

women

was

also the originator

plates issued in sets for the

enjoyment

New

Patterns for

in the provinces, entitled

Young Leaves. Suzuki Harunobu, 1725 1770, was the greatest of the

Ukiyo-e designers durmg the century. prints

He lived in Edo

and studied the

under Shigenaga and

was only during the the magnificent

last five

work

latter half

for

of the eighteenth

method of two-color Torii Kiyonohu, 1664-

a theater scene with the actors Sodezaki Iseno, a female impersonator,

which he

is

famous. Prior to 1765

Harunobu devoted himselfchiefly to the fll ustrations of books, 56

A

later the three-color process. It

years of his life that he produced

and Ogino Isahuro

1

7 zg:

hand-colored wood-block print of

as lovers. Published by Ise-ya Kimbei, about

1726. Victoria and Albert

Museum.


;

Okumura Masanobu, 1764:

1686

c.

to

A black-and-white wood-

block print showing a

woman Victoria

man and

with a female attendant.

and Albert Museum.

having until then produced no more than about forty broadsheets.

But in

1765, with the aid of certain craftsmen skilled in

refreshing fashion in their domestic surroundings, pursuing their

customary

by the

His graphic delineation

activities.

of

is

charac-

with heads

wood-block cutting and efficient in the method of registration,

terized

Harunobu developed and produced the

inclined or slightly turned, the lovely curves of their forms

With their rich and known as nishiki-e or brocade

first

multicolor prints.

brilliant colors, these prints

prints, because

of their resem-

blance to the beautiful silk fabrics of the time.

and three-color prints portraits

and

of

seems that

children,

and

historical

marked resem-

work of a contemporary, Kiyomitsu. However, his great work in the multicolor print originated

in the designing in

The few two-

produced before 1765 included

women,

allegorical subjects. His early prints bear a

blance to the it

that he

actors, lovely

became

of picture-calendars, which are unusual both

composition and in meaning. They became a part of the

activities

who

of groups of poets

and appreciation of the

arts. It

gathered for the enjoyment

became

a fad for the

members

compete among themselves by producing elaborate

to

endars which they exchanged at

Harunobu produced

a great

for

From

which he

this is

Year gatherings.

number of these

intricate designs at the request

group.

New

cal-

calendars with

of the most prominent poets'

experience he began to produce the works

women and children in domestic

famous, with

beauty, and the

the gentle mannerisms, the delicate

charm of the feminine world

as representative

of women in general andnotany particularindividual. Women are presented with unusually thin necks feet, like

dainty china dolls.

They

charm skirt

and tiny hands and

are portrayed in a pure and

When

caused by the

which the

An

important feature of Harunobu's designs

He was

the

first

of painting, which had only been used

a limited

He

to develop this

in earlier times in

manner in religious paintings or depictions of temples.

women

portrayed his

suitable

their

fold of the

movement of the legs, and the mamier in when carrying an umbrella or

the background setting.

style

by the gently opened

sleeves fall back

holding a book. is

walking or otherwise in motion,

further accentuated

is

his figures,

costumes gently flowing to complement

their exquisite

the posture.

and proper to the

in an endless variety activity or pastime in

of

settings

which they

were engaged. Indoors, they are shown occupied with domestic chores, or writing letters by the light of a paper lantern

outdoors, strolling on beautiful spring days against cherry-

blossom backgrounds, playing with children in gardens, and

walking in gently

poem from space with a

Two

settings depicted in a delicate style.

Harunobu expressed

and

sensitive attitudes

wavy

attractive

Harunobu's

falling

snow.

Many of his

prints contain a

ancient times written across the top in a blank line

resembling the line of a cloud.

young

girls

served

as

prints; one, the daughter

was named Ofuji, and the

models

of

other, Osen,

for

many of

a toothpick

was

maker,

a great beauty

of

about eighteen years of age. Osen was so beautiful that she

became

a principal topic

of conversation

referred to in the news-sheets and her

in Edo.

name was

She was often later

used for

57


V

-.^

fA

'^^^

Ahoue

Isoda Koryusai, active

left:

rakake, or pillar print, of a young

c,

1760-1780:

woman wearing

A

hashi-

a crest or

mon

on her kimono of the character ju, which means long

She

is

representing

Seunin of Horaizan,

the female

garden with a crane, a pine

tree,

evity. It refers to the fabled

life.

in

a

and bamboo, emblems of long-

mountain of Horai on the Island

of Everlasting Life, or Paradise. Victoria and Albert Museum.

Above print,

right:

of the

Isoda

Koryusai:

A

rising sun, a pine tree,

hashirakake,

and a

flight

or

pillar

of cranes,

all

symbols of longevity. Victoria and Albert Museum. Left:

Nishimura Shigenaga, 1697-17^6: Hotel, one of

the

seven gods of good fortune, carrying a lady across a stream.

A

print in

two

colors published

and Albert Museum.

58

by Yamashiro-ya. Victoria


Suzuki Harunohu, 1725 IJ70:

Museum.

Tokyo National

worked in the teahouse at the Kasamori

entertainment, he portrayed

people came to see her under the pre-

And

characters in plays. She

shrine and tense of

many Edo

making

Osen were series

to

Osen of Kasamori.

a visit to the shrine.

in great

Harunobu's pictures of

demand. He produced many famous

of prints with delicate brush strokes and tender

lines

expressing the world of feminine beauty. These include

Manners and Customs, Eight Views of Indoor of the Tanwgawa, and in his

book

last

Life,

and Six Views

year he produced a picture

entitled Beauties of the Yoshiwara

Gay

Utamaro trayers

mond,

this

them

in

the best

known

in the

West of

of sensual feminine beauty. As the

the Ukiyo-e porartist

of the

derni-

Utamaro was discovered by Edniond de Goncourt in liis

of pleasure

girls

Niwaka

for a

much of his best work.

element of "the eternal female" that has made

among

Peintre des Maisons Vertes. Included

in

Quarters.

it is

and courtesans

Celebration.

Yoshiwara held

is

many Women

pictures

his

a set titled

The women of the

Dressing

red-light district

this celebration annually,

and on

this

oc-

men and performed various satirical and humorous acts for their own enjoyment. Utamaro was an ugly man and throughout his life this physical handicap seems to have exerted a strong influence on the many things

casion they dressed themselves as

UTAMARO, SHARAKU Kitagawa Utamaro, 1753-1806, one of the greatest of

Ukiyo-e

painters,

brought the technique of the color print to

the highest degree of achievement. to

Edo and became

painter

a pupil

At an

early age he

of Toriyama Sekien,

a

came Kano

and a noted designer of picture books; but he was

greatly influenced

designs for

book

by Kiyonaga. Utamaro

illustrations, the earliest

first

also

produced

being for the text

he did and

of the theater

as

possibihties

him

famous works

it is

known

Yoshiwara,

biographical sketches

that he spent his life in the as

gay quarters of the

had been the custom of the other

artists

Ukiyo-e school. He had many friends among the entertainers, playwrights, bath

and teahouse

girls,

of the

women from

foremost publisher of color

many

insects to landscape

now

subjects ranging

and domestic

are his portrayals of

scenes,

women.

Harunobu depicted women

as a

common

from animals but his most

His pictures were

fixed type,

his beauties the features

the various

ideal

of feminine beauty and posture. They

qualities

ness,

prints.

having great

being signed Utamaro, an adopted name.

Just as

gave

the famous houses of

as

Utamaro was very

to live in his house.

actors,

frequenters of the district, and the prostitutes. Greatly attracted to the beauty of the

as the

versatile, excelling in

which was the name he

From

ac-

and furnished him with board and lodging, and

later invited

and

used.

well

Tsutaya recognized the work of Utamaro

of a play. They were dated 1775 and bore the signature Hosho, first

Edo he became

said. In his earliest years in

quainted with Tsutaya Juzaburo, poet and an important patron

to

all,

all

Utamaro

representing his possess the

same

of sophistication, worldly-wisdom, and coquettish-

whether they are

women

of the pleasure houses of

59


Above:

Kitagawa Utamaro, ij^j- 1806: from

Insects, an

album published

Fuzoku Sandan Musume,

Lower

He as

girls

of genteel and good character

portrayed thein with invariably long

narrow

as

voluptuous solid color,

slits,

faces,

(Plate 9).

and with eyes

while their bodies are unnaturally

(Plate 8).

The background

tall

and

usually consists of a

and the costumes worn by the

women

are rather

when compared to the colorful fabrics painted by other Some of his drawings are executed with very few lines,

plain

artists.

the contour of his figures being emphasized

with

soft

warm

more by

color,

Among Utamaro's models was a popular waitress named who worked in the Naniwaya teahouse, one of the eating places clustered around the Asakusa

Kannon

temple. Utamaro's prints of animals, birds, fishes, and insects,

which were executed curate detail,

famous

60

in a

most

were produced

series titled

A

China, and

this

all

over Japan and even in

enormous popularity

resulted in his inability

to maintain his high quality

demand was life

that

of workmanship. In

so great that

were the work of pupils. his

of the Upper, Middle, and

rising

It

young

many

was

also

his later years

prints attributed to

during these

color-print

artists,

last

him

years of

particularly

Hokusai and Toyokuni, began to gain popularity and over-

shadow Utamaro. As he could not

fail

to see his position as

foremost print designer being challenged, he became resentful

flesh tones.

Okita,

many

or Girls

Tokyo National Museum.

Classes.

His designs were in great demand

the

Collection of

Kitagawa Utamaro, ij^j-iSoS: The Middle Class, /row

Left:

Yoshiwara or

A

Tokyo National Museum.

1788.

in

lifelike

manner with very

for albums,

one of which

acis

a

Collection of bisects, published in 1788.

of many of his contemporaries and often resorted to malicious

and

false accusations against

published a

set

them. In 1804 he painted and had

of three conjoined

prints

which portrayed

Hideyoshi, the great military lord of the late sixteenth century,

being entertained by his five concubines in a luxurious setting. This was considered an affront to the

Utamaro was

sent to prison,

where

Tokugawa Shogun and his

hands were bound


with chains fqr

His early death

fifty days.

the age of fifty-

at

three was probably due to broken pride and dejected spirits

following the humiliation of being thrown into prison.

Toshusai Sharaku, active from 1794 to 1795 in Edo, chiefly painted portraits of Kabuki actors, and today, his originality, artists,

regarded

is

as

one of the

on account of of Ukiyo-e

greatest

although he was hardly recognized by the public

during his lifetime. Sharaku remains an enigma because until the present day the only

known

surrounding

facts

to February 1795.

Although nothing

which sheds some

light

1794

an item appeared

life,

on him, although

its

authenti-

cannot be proved. Whatever his source, one Tatsuta

city

Shashukin wrote that Sharaku's that

May

way of essential

in the

information has been found about his in 1868

his life are

executed in a ten-month period from

his 140 prints

name was

real

he lived in Hatchodori in Edo, and was

Saito Jurobei,

No actor in

a

the

work was

largely

disregarded by students of Japanese art until 1910,

when

retinue of the feudal lord of Awa. Sharaku's

Kurth published

Julius

that

Munich, declaring

in

he considered Sharaku one of the world's greatest porSince then he has been a favorite of print collectors.

traitists.

Most of months three

two

book on him

a

the pictures he produced in that short space of ten

are portraits

Kabuki

of actors

theaters in

Edo;

who were then a

appearing

few depict sumo

are historical prints. In studying the style

interesting to observe that in the series

and the prints

ones are smaller in

show

not attempts

His

size.

of busts of actors are considered

traits are

earlier

and

of his work

it is

and

later prints

he changed from bust to full-length portrayals

later

succeeding ones

selves,

between the

the

at

wrestlers,

first

twenty-eight

work and the quahty. The por-

his finest

a gradual decline in at characterizations

of the actors them-

but rather of the expressions of psychological caricature

peculiar to the characters they impersonated. pressions are exaggerated with small eyes, slanting, large protruding noses,

movements and emotions.

and

The

actors'

ex-

almond-shaped and

lips

depicting various

In his later prints these bold

Toshusai Sharaku, active I7g4-i7g$: Matsumoto Koshiro Gorobei, a fishmonger, in

Kiri-za theater.

May

A

1794.

IV

as

Medley of Tales of Revenge, Tokyo National Museum.

and

and are replaced by more closely resembling the conventional actor prints

interesting facial expressions disappear

features

produced by other the earlier prints

is

artists

of the time.

A

that all are signed

distinctive feature

of

"Drawn by Toshusai "Drawn

guished and popular of the Ukiyo-e school.

to a

wood-engraver when about thirteen years

Sharaku," while all those of the later group are signed

began to study painting under Shunsho

by Sharaku." All the

From

earlier prints

have mica backgrounds

and were brought out by Tsutaya Juzaburo, the great Ukiyo-e publisher

who

sponsored Utamaro and others.

in

the latter he took the art

at

old,

and then

about nineteen.

name of Shunro, which he

used for about fifteen years. During his long lifetime he used

about thirty different names to sign Japan

at that

his

work, which even

in

time was an astonishing number in comparison

to the four or five customarily used.

HOKUSAI

He was born

Katsushika, in Shimafusa province near Edo, was apprenticed

name Hokusai

until

He

did not adopt the

about 1797. Hokusai's

life

was most

unconventional according to Japanese standards of etiquette Katsushika Hokusai, 1 760- 1 849,

known names

is

one of the few universally

outside Japan, as well as one of the most distin-

and proper behavior.

He was

restless

and forever striving

to

gain further knowledge of the various schools of paintmg.

61


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

such

as the

masters.

At

He

Tosa and the Kano.

studied under several

time European copper-plate engravings made

this

which afforded Hokusai the oppor-

their appearance in Japan,

tunity to study European perspective and the technique of light

and shade. Throughout the

were many changes matter, and

it

was not

which he achieved

until after

many

great local popularity its

there

in his subject

a pioneer,

and in

and world-wide

traditional form, used for centuries

Japanese painting,

had not been introduced

Japanese color prints until Hokusai rediscovered quisite scenic views. His

life

years that he fmally

which he was

field in

fame. Pare landscape in in Chinese and

of his work and

in the style

turned to landscape, a

of his

earlier part

it

in

in his ex-

approach to realism, with distances

expressed in three-dimensional perspective, can be seen in his

famous

Thirty-six Views of Fuji. In each

majestic peak of Fuji

is

related in scale to

Whether

in the surrounding landscape.

of these its

plates the

true appearance

the cone

as a magnificent towering peak, or seen from

depicted

is

among storm-

A

prolific artist

painters,

and the most

Hokusai

is

best

known

versatile

of the color-print

equally accomplished in any subject (Plate

book containing an

was

for his landscapes, but he

His Manga, a

2).

endless variety of rapid sketches, con-

stitutes a historically priceless

the^ntire field of Japanese

life,

encyclopedic

work embodying

legend, historical figures, gods,

animals, birds, fishes, flowers, insects, natural flora, and con-

temporary human

manner of

figures.

The people

movements, meticulously observed expressive line (Plate pictorial caricature, life.

The Manga

was published

are depicted in

5).

in a powerfully graphic,

The word manga means

18 14

and the

last

first

last

day of

and toward the end of his time he produced a three-

volume his

volume

three appeared post-

humously. Hokusai continued to work until the his life,

a cartoon,

spontaneous drawing, or sketch of daily

contains fifteen volumes; the

in

all

occupations, and pastimes, with their

activities,

series entitled

A

Hundred Views of Fuji, which bears

fmal signature, "The Art-Crazy

Old Man."

ghmpsed through a grove ofgraceful bamboo, genius emerges in the originality of the com-

tossed waves, or his creative

HIROSHIGE

positions.

Hokusai introduced sense

effects

of light which give

a

powerful

rain, heat, cold. Incorporating these effects

masterfully expressive portrayals of daily

life,

of nature

in

he was able to

produce a beautiful and interesting record of contemporary scenes art

Ando

of atmospheric conditions: humidity, passing showers,

wind,

and

activities in Japan.

His greatest contributions to the

of the color print are his celebrated landscape

Famous

Sights of the Eastern Capital,

Views along

the

Banks of the in

Their Thousand Aspects, and Vieivs of Famous Bridges. His later

works include

pictures of flowers

borrowed from the

Katsushika Hokusai, IJ60-1849: boats at

Sano,from

and

classical literature

the set entitled

A

birds,

and subjects

of Japan and China.

color print

of the bridge of

Victuresque Views of Famous

Bridges in Several Provinces, published by Yeijudo (Nishimuraya) Yohachi, about 1828. Victoria and Albert Museum.

Hiroshige, 1797-1858, with Hokusai and Utamaro,

one of the three

artists best

known

outside Japan.

duced many charming and picturesque color

He

pro-

which

prints

have gained wide popularity for their revelation of the inherent poetry of nature.

He depicted thescenicbeauty of the Japanese

countryside with greater realism than any other

series

Sumida, The Fifty-three Stations along the Tokaido, Waters

is

work was

closer to the intimate enchantments

artist,

and

his

of nature than

the subtle and exalted rhythms of the earlier Chinese and

He was born in Edo, where his member of a fire brigade retained by the

Japanese landscape masters. father served as a

Tokugawa government.

Hiroshige's talent developed at an

Katsushika Hokusai, 1760-1849:

A

bridge joining the provinces of Hida tains. It is part

of a

set.

color print

of the suspension

and Etchu high

in the

moun-

Picturesque Views of Famous Bridges in

Several Provinces, published about 1828

by Yeijudo

mura-ya) Yohachi. Victoria and Albert Museum.

(Nishi-


Katsushika Hokusai, 1760-1849: Color print from the the village of Sekiya on the banks

series called

The

Thirty-six Views of Fuji.

It

shows

the

view of Fuji from

of the Sumida River. Victoria and Albert Museum.

drawings attracted wide attention. In 18 12

proportion. His mountains, trees, and rocks are related in true

he entered the studio of Utagawa Toyohiro and progressed

perspective, giving a distinctive impression of distances. People,

early age

and

his

so rapidly that he

of Utagawa stiU

was granted the privilege of taking the name

after

studying there for only one year. While

with Toyohiro he produced a number of portraits and

other subjects in the customary Ukiyo-e style which were

pubhshed, but

after the death

developed his

own

first

landscapes,

titled

style

of Toyohiro in 1828, Hiroshige

and around

Ten Famous

in

in

Places in

Edo

in the

sets,

one en-

series

of color

prints

Edo, sets of beautiful bird-

and-flower pictures, Famous Places

Famous

two

and the other Eight Views of

Places in Edo,

Lake Biwa. Subsequent albums of sets or appeared, such as Famous Places

time produced his

this

which were pubUshed

in

Japan, Views of Famous

Four Seasons, One Hundred Views of Edo,

Places in Kyoto,

Famous

Places in Osaka,

exquisite single-sheet prints. Hiroshige

is

best

and many

known

for his

travelogue guidebooks called The Sixty-nine Stages of the Kiso Kaido,

The Reisho Tokaido, and especially The

Fifty-three

Stages of the Tokaido.

saw with

a remarkable sense

of

and cityscapes with their everyday life are realistically

portrayed in an endless variety of scenes.

which

light

prints

is

The vivid manner in

and atmosphere are expressed in

a remarkable achievement that

his scenic color

few

artists

have

equaled. Hiroshige's masterly portrayal of atmospheric conditions such

clouds,

as

snow, driving wind, rainstorms,

and sudden showers

Even the moisture

fleeting

one of his great contributions.

is

in the air, the feeling of the seasons,

and

meteorological variations are expressed in a most subtle and sentimental

way pecuUar

prints that Hiroshige

to the Japanese. In the series

of color

produced from the hundreds of sketches

made on journeys over the great feudal highways, the wellknown scenic spots are observed not only with this feeling of atmospheric realism but also with a sense for the picturesque, depicting chance encounters, peasants, a roadside shrine, and

many this

Hiroshige's landscapes have a fascinating naturalism and depict the places and things he

villages,

other incidental features.

The human touch in views of

nature appealed especially to travelers

their journeys

and the

Hiroshige undertook

life

as

remembrances of

they encountered along the way.

liis first

trip in the year 1832,

when he 63


received the privilege of going along with a courier of the

Shogun and

his retinue

from Edo

to Kyoto.

It

was on

journey that he amassed a wealth of sketches for The three Stages

this

Fifty-

of the Tokaido, the series of color prints which

brought him world fame. 'The Tokaido, or Eastern-Sea coast

from Kyoto

origin, this remarkable

Japan's

Way,

to Edo, a distance

highway

ran eastward along the

of 345 miles.

Of unknown

bears striking testimony to

medieval greatness in the twelfth and thirteenth

centuries.

Under

tention, since

it

the

Tokugawa regime

connected the Shogun's

with the Imperial court

at

Kyoto.

It

it

received great at-

seat

of government

was considered the most

picturesque highway in the world, being a wide, well-kept

thoroughfare, lined for the greater part of giant pine trees.

The Tokaido,

like other

its

length with

main highways con-

necting other parts of Japan with Edo, was thronged with couriers, retainers

on

official business,

of daimyo passing to and from as

Ando

Hiroshige,

1797-1858:

A

Descending from Flight toward Purple

White Egret

Iris.

Published in

the early nineteenth century by Fujioka-ya Keijiro (Shorindo). Victoria

and Albert Museum.

Right:

Ando

Iris

Albert

64

Hiroshige, 1797-1 858:

The

Horikiri Shobuen or

Gardens of Horikiri, near Tokyo; dated 18^7.

Museum.

Victoria

and

domains,

as' well

merchants, pilgrims, players, musical performers, itinerant

priests,

Above:

and the colorful retinues

their feudal

and other

travelers.

Extended along these principal


highways was

a succession

of towns and post

stations, in a

highly organized system, each containing inns, shops, eating

of entertainment, and

places, houses

a regulated

horses and carriers for the convenience of travelers.

number of The course

its

winding manner, with

giant ancient Japanese cedars, to

its

Hakone

sides lined

snow

riers

where

travelers

jects

in the guardhouses

journey. sea,

and

From

making

of the

mode of travel,

their costumes,

and in

and

in others the quaint

manner

in

which

his

sub-

carry their paper umbrellas. At almost every turn on the

One of

these, Ishiyama, appears in Hiroshige's Eight

Famous Views of Lake Biwa. Conforming to the established

the

Japanese

manner of depicting

certain

famous

spots in a tra-

with the time of day or atmospheric

time the travelers would catch magnificent

condition, Ishiyama

is

The Treasure Ship with

sacred treasures, and other tokens of good luck for the

and

end of

prints

ditional relationship

it

Color print by Ando Hiroshige, ijgj-iSsS:

scroll,

site.

their passports to officials

their reasons for

from Kyoto. Hiroshige's

continued on through Mishima to the

there

all this

and give

rrdles

Tokaido there was an appropriate scenic view or well-known

Tokaido, and one of the principal bar-

had to present

inland through im-

or rain pictures the farmers and laborers with straw

raincoats,

was

formerly one of the largest and most important of the poststations along the old

few

coast

continued to

passes to Ishiyama, at the south

along the way, their

with

Barrier. This

a

sea, it

Tokaido portray with much charm the many people he saw

Hakonemachi, on the eastern shore of Lake Ashi, and con-

tinued on in

mountain

Lake Biwa

the Tokaido progressed through beautiful mountain country to

from the

Nagoya and Kuwana, and then turned

From Edo,

Hiroshige to record in his color prints.

Fuji.

route, with mountains rising

pressive

of the Tokaido afforded an endless variety of scenes and subjects for

Along the rugged

views of the majestic peak of

the robe

New

Year.

the Seven

The gods

in the

associated

with the autunm moon,

Gods of Good Fortune,

depicting their emblems, the

upper row are: Fukurokuju, with

of a scholar; Bcnten, the only female, with a stringed instrument called a biwa; and Bishamon,

tall

in

head,

staff,

and

armor and holding

a trident. Those in the front row are: Hotel, with his large bag which sometimes contains the sacred treasures; Daikoku, with his mallet

and bags of

rice;

ideogram on the

Yebisu, with his fishing rod and a tai fish in a jar; sail is

mwmgm

kotobuki, which means hope, happiness, long

wmmmmmmmmmm

and Jurojin, holding a fan and dressed life,

good fortune, and so

m

in the robe

forth. Victoria

of a

scholar.

The

and Albert Museum.

^mmmmmm

65


tsugawa and terminated

at

Nagoya, where

travelers could

continue their journey to Kyoto.

made numerous journeys through

Hiroshige

various parts

of the country, and from the vast material acquired he was able to produce a great variety of color prints and

partially

fmished

new

or revised versions of the Tokaido

Around 1850 Hiroshige published which

series

is^

known

on each

as reisho.

This

and one each

name of

for the tenninal points

hundred

hundred

fifty-three post-

of Edo and Kyoto.

and

copies,

later to

But the enormous demand

copies.

work caused

the

of the usual number of

set consists

In the early period of wood-block prints, an edition ited to fewer than a

set.

Tokaido

print in a formal calligraphic

one for each of the

fifty-five color prints,

stations

a version of the

called the Reisho Tokaido, the

subject being written style

new versions

evidenced by the twenty complete or

of* existing series, as

his publishers to print as

many

was lim-

around two

for Hiroshige's as ten

thousand

copies of his later sets or series, with consequent deterioration in quality.

believed that altogether he produced over five

It is

thousand drawings for color Hiroshige's

Two

prints.

from

whom

he was

later separated;

Two

years before his

and Shigemasa her second husband. death, Hiroshige retired

from

his

worldly

Contemporary with Hiroshige during

lived in

Edo and

who

artist

Kabuki

Canal

A

Snow-covered

Shiba District of Edo, from

in the

Hundred Views of Edo. Date Victoria

Street

his series entitled

Snake 12

seal:

by the

(a.D.

The

1857).

1

at the

actors.

half of the

first

distinguished and versatile Ukiyo-e

of female figures and

Another pupil of Toyokuni was Kuniyoshi,

798 -1 86 1, a landscape painter, but best

There was

guished landscapist, called

the

age of fifteen became a pupil of Uta-

specialized in color prints

battle scenes.

album

and Albert Museum.

medi-

Utagawa Kunisada, 1786- 1864, who

gawa Toyokuni. He was a

Hirosbige, ijgy-iSsS:

activities to

and become enlightened through Zen Buddhism.

nineteenth century was

Ando

used

artists

:

Hiroshige's daughter,

tate

other

name after his death Shigenobu, who had married

known

for striking

also Keisai Eisen, 1792-1848, a distin-

who

is

said to

have begun the famous

The Sixty-nine Stages of

with

the Kiso Kaido,

Hiroshige completing the remaining forty-six.

Wood-block because the Ishiyama temple

moonlight

is

at its best

bathed in

at that season.

Stages of the Kiso Kaido.

among

the Tokaido

series

is

The Sixty-nine

The Kiso Kaido was second only

the ancient highways and

mountain way, or Nakasendo its

rapidly lost

its

printing declined sharply after Hiroshige, and

popularity as

it

deteriorated into an endless

variety of prints of confused artistic composition,

Another outstanding Hiroshige

From Edo

when

as it

to

was the mid-

was sometimes

called.

route went inland to the center of the island of

ors, 1

and tawdry

8 80s, after

quality.

It

was not

until

the restoration of Imperial rule

gaudy

col-

sometime

in the

by Empress

Meiji,

and continuing through the turn of the century,

that a renas-

cence occurred in the art of wood-block printing in the traditional

manner.

Among

the foremost

artists in this

period of

Honshu, through Hachioji, Enzan, and on to Okaya and

revival of Ukiyo-e were Kobayashi Kiyochika, 1847-1915;

Winding over rugged mountains, it passed through Kiso-Fukushima, which stands midway between Tokyo and Kyoto, in the very heart of the beautiful Japanese Alps. During

Inoue Yasuji, 1864-1889; Ogura Ryuson, active

Shiojiri.

the

Tokugawa regime

Yamamura, 66

a barrier gate

the local daimyo.

was maintained here by

The road then went

to

Naka-

Hashiguchi Goyo,

1

in the i88os;

880-1921, and Ito Shinsui, b. 1896.

fmished work of these

artists is

equal artistically and technically to that done in the tradition

The

comparable and in many pieces

by the great masters of the

past.

classic


V

VARIOUS FORMS of primitive sculpture from the very early periods of Japanese history,

prior to the introduction of

Of particular

existed.

Buddhism,

Jomon type with

and the sculptured clay figures

representations of deities with

human

first

to gain capital.

the

era.

These

tombs of rulers were of

stupendous proportions, often measuring more than seventy acres,

the

and surrounded with moats. For some unknown reason,

Haniwa

figurines are not

found within the tombs, but

groups on top of the mounds. The

instead

were placed

greater

number of Haniwa

in

represent

men and women wear-

ing ancient costumes and hairdos, and as a rule the lower part

of the figure

is

cylindrical in shape.

domestic animals such

some

are in the

monkey.

It

as horses,

Some Haniwa

chickens, and dogs, and

form of wild animals such

it,

as

the boar or

was undoubtedly the experience of this

sculpture, reflecting the advanced civilization that enabled the Japanese to

assimilating the techniques

represent

make such

prehistoric

which produced

rapid progress in

of the high culture

later

brought

from the mainland.

a period

A

The

year 552,

peror of Japan a

when gilt

derives

the King of Paikche sent to the

Em-

bronze image of the Buddha together

Asuka period (552-645). The name

from the region

called

painters,

to

of the noble houses began erecting magnificent Buddhist

and many daughters of nobleijien entered monasteries

shrines,

to

become nuns. For

activity,

a century

and temples housing 816 Nearly

Nara was

of building

a hive

and by the year 624 there were forty-six monasteries

all

priests

and monks and 569 nuns.

of the early buildings have long since disappeared

because their construction was of wood, which rendered them

and gradual deterioration

susceptible to the ravages of fire

from the elements. earliest

Among

the

few splendid structures of this

period of Buddhism that have survived are the famous

Golden Hall or Kondo, the

Yumedono

five-storied Pagoda,

or Hall of Dreams, which

form

buildings of the Horyuji temple near Nara.

Empress Suiko. that

was current

Its

in

architecture

China

is

many

The Horyuji,

was founded

oldest surviving temple in Japan,

Prince Shotoku Taishi, in obedience to the

and the

of the

a part

in

607 by

command of the

representative of the style

in the sixth century

and was most

likely the

work of Chinese

craftsmen.

Although some of the sculptured images

and temple

emigre architects

for

were brought over from Korea or

China, most of the masterpieces of the Asuka period were

with a number of volumes of the sutras or scriptures, marks the beginning of the

artists, priests,

more knowledge from the learned men at the With the rapid spread of Buddhism the lords

these early temples

THE ASUKA PERIOD

which witnessed the building of

steady stream of scholars,

Japan, and in return Japanese students and missions visited

Chma

Haniwa

was

and temple carpenters, came from the Asiatic mainland

T'ang

which

It

and monks, along with sculptors, bronze workers,

are

few centuries of the Christian

mounds of earth covering

located.

the great temples.

Subsequent

called dogu, attributes.

from the Ancient Burial Mounds period, correspond-

ing in time to the burial

is

intricate sculptural

to these appeared the earthenware figurines of the culture,

to have

importance from the Neolithic age

the earthenware of the designs,

known

are

were

Sculpture

Asuka

in

Yamato

province,

now Nara prefecture, where the successive Imperial residences

working

created

by foreign

sistance

of native craftsmen. The sculpture of

artists

was derived from Buddhist around

this time. Its fully

art

in Japan

as

developed

with the this

as-

period

in

China

style in Japan

in this

practiced

period was the result of harmoniously absorbing the fuiest qualities

of the various Chinese dynastic

styles into a

work

of singular beauty.

67


The Shaka Nyorai Triad, also called the

or

Amida Triad

Sakyamuni Triad,

exe-

cuted by Tori Busshi in gilt

bronze.

Asuka period (532-

645). Horyuji temple, Nara.

The

earliest historical reference to

tions a Chinese sculptor

from China

in the year 522

Buddhism among

his

own

a

duced

Buddhist image in

who had embraced

the

is

is

said to

over

have introduced

mentioned

as

having pro-

memory of the Emperor Yomei, new religion. It is also recorded that

Tatto's daughter

was one of the

received into the

new

dhist sculptor

who came

Tatto,

of friends. His son Tasuna

circle

master craftsman and

became a

and

men-

sculpture in Japan

named Shiba

first

faith in Japan.

three Buddhist nuns

The

outstanding

of the Asuka period was Tori Busshi,

a

Budson of

Tasuna,

who received the highest favors from Prince Shotoku

for his

work and

for his devotion to the

advancement of

Buddhism. In 605 he received an Imperial commission

make two images of the Buddha, one

in gilt

to

bronze and the

other in embroidery. These images, which were enshrined in the Gangoji monastery,

were made

in the size called joroku,

the standard height for a statue of the Buddha. This height,

equal to sixteen

feet, is said to

have been attained by Sakya-

muni, the founder of Buddhism. Tori, for his skill in producing these works,

was rewarded with the high court rank o( taijin,

and was given an 68

estate in

Omi

province containing a large

number of rice

fields.

His most notable

work

is

famous

the

Shaka Nyorai Triad, or Sakyamuni Triad, in the Horyuji temple, consisting of a gilt bronze

image of the seated Buddha with

an attendant Bosatsu standing on either side. the halo attached to the

Buddha

An inscription on

states that the

icon was

made

command of the widow of Prince Shotoku, in memory of her husband, who had died in the pre-

by Tori

in the year 623 at the

ceding year and was intended to secure his happiness in the Bud,

dhist Paradise.

The triad is noted as a representative masterpiece

of the Asuka period and

which

as characteristic

of Tori-style images,

are magnificently stylized with a realistic portrayal of

the features and a peculiar freedom of proportion that

impressive.

A

distinctive feature

is

most

of Asuka-period sculpture

is

seen in the delicate modeling of the hands and in most cases the gentle features that reflect a sense of kindness and sincerity.

The images most

frequently depicted in Buddhist sculpture

during the Asuka and Nara periods Japanese

means

names

as

a perfect manifestation

verse as attained through

dha. Butsu

is

may be identified by

their

Butsu or Nyorai, Bosatsu, and Ten. Nyorai of the absolute truth of the uni-

Buddhism, and

the Japanese

name

for

is

equivalent to

Buddha, or one

Bud-

who

has


attained true enlightenment.

tama who,

Buddha images

Gau-

represent

contemplation under the bo

after

tree, attained

the Buddha or Sakyamuni. In Japaname Sakyamuni is referred to as Shaka Nyorai

Six Manifestations

is

the Nyoirin Kannon,

Buddhahood and became

desire

nese the Indian

Nyoirin Kannon in the

and Shakamuni Butsu,

names apphed

all

Gautama, the

to

founder of Buddhism. The Buddhist sutras or scriptures

state

Buddha has thirty-two distinguishing physical features, among which is the hair, depicted with many small curls that a

called rahotsu,

meaning

snail hair,

because of the resemblance

of these evenly spaced conventionalized curls to

Among

of light, fmgers and toes

characteristic

that every

is

Buddha

though certain symbols are

Buddhas most frequently found

to

hidden in

in cloth

this hall for ten centuries until

it

was

rediscovered in the early years of the Meiji period. Carved

from

a single log of wood,

and the

features

it

has a

crown of pierced bronze,

of the face represent a calm,

beauty. Light falling

upon

it

from

intellectual, classic

certain oblique angles

Another Chuguji

that are slightly

nunnery of the Horyuji temple. Carved in camphor wood,

of the

soles

own

has his

common

secretly

and enchanted gem. The famous

Yumedono had been wrapped

very famous and imposing Nyoirin Kannon

snail shells.

wheel-marks of Buddha.

thousand-spoked

virtue of the wheel

gives a weirdly mysterious dignity to the features.

webbed, long and slender fmgers, and on the the

and

by

on the forehead

other features are a curl of white hair

that gives off a ray

One of the who satisfies human

and in the Thirty-three Manifestations of Kannon.

is

in the

feet

Another

symbol,

al-

Buddhas. The

all

in Japanese art are called

Sakyamuni, Dainichi, Amida, and Yakushi. The Japanese

name

Bosatsu

the equivalent of the Sanskrit

is

are believed to represent at the

Gautama, the Buddha Sakyamuni,

time he was a prince in the Indian kingdom of Kapila-

vasta, are usually depicted as lovely

Kannon ages

name Bodhi-

meaning enlightened being. Images of Bosatsu, which

sattva,

is

Bosatsu.

The upper

and graceful,

part of the

body

usually naked, and the hair flows

shoulders or

down

arranged in some form of knot.

is

as in the

in Bosatsu

im-

over the

The hands

frequently hold such symbols as the lotus flower of Kannon, or the vase and lotus of Juichimen Kannon, the eleven-headed

Kannon. The name Ten, often used as

in Japanese,

is

the

same

Deva, meaning heavenly or divine being. Ten are heavenly

gods and goddesses,

as distinguished

from personages of earth

or hell, which are either fierce or benevolent and beautiful.

Among

other important images of the Asuka period in the

Horyuji temple

is

bronze Buddha

is

the Yakushi Nyorai in the Golden Hall. This a typical

example of the

superb modeling of the face having

An

expression. the

a strong

style

on the halo

incised mscription

of Tori, the

but tenderly alive indicates that

image dates from the time of the foundation of the temple.

Yakushi Nyorai

is

the

Buddha who heals may hinder the faith devotee. He is usually de-

name given

to the

physical as well as spiritual ailments that

and enlightenment of

a

Buddhist

picted with a medicine pot in the

forearm front.

is

raised

left

hand, while the right

with the palm of the hand open toward the

Within the precinct of the Horyuji

or Hall of Dreams, which

The most

sacred

image

is

the

main

in this hall

hall is

is

the

Yumedono

of the East temple.

the famous Nyoirin

known as the Yumedono Kannon and Guze Kannon. Kannon, whose Chinese name is Kuan-Yin, is the goddess of mercy who in the Buddhist hierarchy of gods appears in a KamiOH, also

variety of forms, such as in the Six Manifestations of Kannon

Bronze image of the Yakushi Nyorai, in the Golden Hall of the Horyuji temple, Nara. Asuka period (552-645).

69


also

from a single log, the goddess is shown in a sitting position,

her right leg resting on her

polychromed and gilded

wood

and the

left

The

knee.

statue's originally

worn away,

surfaces have long since

has darkened

from centuries of incense smoke

to a lustrous purphsh-black like ancient bronze. This lovely

portrayed with her elbow resting on her right knee,

goddess

is

and the

first

two fmgers of her right hand

are lightly touching

her cheek. Her eyes are half closed in meditation, and a most tender, compassionate

smde animates her

and salvation to aU living things are the dess

Of all

Kannon.

lips.

Benevolence

attributes

of the god-

Kannon

inspires the

the Buddhist gods,

widest devotion in Japan, despite the higher rank of Buddha or Nyorai in the Buddhist hierarchy. Another manifestation

of the goddess

which she often appears

in

two

Bosatsu, one of the

most

attendants in the

cases she stands alone as a single object

From

Buddhism

the earliest phases of

is

Amida

the

Kannon but in

Triad,

of worship.

in Japan sculptural

images of Kannon were produced in great numbers. In contrast to

which

the serene magnificence and expressive strength

characterize the best images of the subtle qualities flecting the

Buddha, Kannons have

of realism and individual expression often re-

feminine beauty of contemporary models. The

Asuka period was

a

high point of Buddhist

art

and an

era in

which many

great masterpieces

after the first

images were brought over from the mainland,

were produced. V^ry soon

the native genius of the Japanese began to transform the style

Nyoirin Kamion,

of sculpture adopted from the Chinese. Aside from

Kannon,

certain

native innovations expressing a purely Japanese aesthetic taste,

Yumedono Kannon

also called the

carved from

a

log

single

Guze

or

of wood.. Asuka period

(552-645). Horyuji temple, Nara.

the sculptor frequently created in his images a genuine expression of graceful sentiment, tenderness, and

warmth.

Flourishing as a living art after a span of fourteen centuries,

Japanese sculpture has

no counterpart

of the world. Sacred images constituted most of the output of Japanese sculpture art

was

for the first several centuries,

largely nonexistent at that time.

careful preservation as sacred objects,,

of the temples and monasteries ing, that these great centuries.

The

was reached

and

in

was

it

wood

own them

fact that

are

still

so

clay.

The

preferred

single log, as indicated

70

were among the craftsmen

instruct the Japanese in the techniques

which persisted for generations. were carved from

a

above for the early Kannons, only the

method of

knife or chisel,

the introduction of Buddhism into Japan,

many

wood continued to flourish until the Fujiwara period, when the great sculptor Jocho created a new technique which eliminated many of the earlier difficulties. carving in

With

by

medium was wood, endowment pe-

toes usually being cut separately. This

the sculptor.

stand-

carving was the supreme native

centuries the statues

wooden images carved with

Korean bronze

Stone was not used for Buddhist sculp-

in China.

In contrast to

those of bronze were the creation of the modeler rather than

many

Buddhist images, executed in wood, bronze,

first six

arms and

because of their

and the

works of sculpture have survived

culiar to the Japanese, a genius

For the

It is

and secular

highest expression of the sculptor's art in Japan

dry lacquer, or ture, as

that

BUDDHIST BRONZE IMAGES

in the cultural history

the

casters

King of Paikche, both

stage in the process lost

of bronze

wax, was to make

to

casting,

a finished

thick layer of fine-quality clay as a

mold and baked,

at

make

which

sent over

sacred images and to

of the

known

art.

wax model of the

was then applied stage the

The

first

as cire perdue,

statue.

to the

or

A

wax

wax would run out

through apertures in the clay mold. Molten bronze was then

poured into the hollow mold.

When

the bronze had cooled

and hardened, the dehcate process of cutting away the clay

was undertaken

as the

because soUd bronze

fmal stage. Large images were hollow

would have been

and a useless extravagance. In

impracticable to

this process the sculptor

move

modeled

the images in wax laid over a rough core of clay. When the wax image was completed in finished detail, more clay was


Kannon, Goddess of Mercy, bearing a lotus, as an attendant of the

Amida Buddha,

standing with

slightly bended knees,

welcomes the

soul of the deceased. Gold-lacquered

wood darkened by Fourteenth

incense smoke.

century.

Museum. Eugene

Art

Seattle

Memo-

Fuller

rial Collection.

Nyoirin Kannon, the

also called

Miroku Bosatsu

Chuguji nunnery of the Horyuji temple

a single trunk of the camphor

in turn laid over the

wax

at

or

Maitreya,

in

Nara. Carved from

Asuka period (552-645).

tree.

modeled wax.

In the heating process the

ran out through vents and small removal gates, and

metal rods secured the space between the inner and outer clay

and procedures. With of China beaming on of T'ang

art

this all

strong influence of the great culture

phases of Japanese

also visible in the

is

life,

the inspiration

Buddhist images.

A

purely

cooled,

native style of sculpture could not be developed in those times

both the inner and outer cores of clay were chipped away.

because there were certain prescribed canons necessary to fol-

This method of casting was used to make

low according

molten bronze

cores. After the

except such enormous statues

cast in this

and Kamakura, which had to be made with only the heads and hands

all

the Great

as

mold had

the large images,

Buddhas of Nara

in cast

bronze plates

of the Nara period

(710 794), and the powerful influence

which Buddhism had

genius of the

creative

begun

to wield,

preme

aesthetic quality

were major of the

factors contributing to the suart

of this epoch. With

skilled

Chinese and Korean sculptors creating masterpieces of sacred

images for the

new

temples and monasteries, the persuasive

influence of the T'ang dynasty

was strong.

Chinese civilization were active in

all

Many

to true

Buddhist

was exclusively

ideals.

religious,

it

And

aspects

of

phases of Japanese court

since the art

of

followed these fixed

forms brought from China, which were in turn adopted from the Buddhist sculptured images of India.

cast as single units. artists

The

that time

development of sculpture

in the

But with

Nara period,

the rapid

a distinctive

native character began to appeaj; and the Japanese craftsmen

became masters

in their

own

right.

In the Toin-do, or East Hall, of the Yakushiji temple at

Nara one of the famous masterpieces of the Nara period was

known

how

as the

Sho Kannon. This handsome statue exemplifies

far Japanese sculpture

T'ang China and India into

was able

to assimilate the art

a vigorous

and noble

style

of

of its

and scholars were vigorously striving to acquire more

own. The superb modeling and the beautiful and graceful

and more knowledge from China. This resulted in many

proportions combine to give the figure a feeling of majestic

reforms and the adoption of T'ang administrative organization

poise, heightened

life

by the rhythmic

folds

of the "wet" clinging

71


;

drapery revealing the forms of the body. In such examples, the master sculptors of the

handsome and

Nara period reveal

a style far

more

The Japa-

majestic than the Chinese prototypes.

nese sculptor displayed a great talent and taste in proportion

and

in the

there

is

manner of handling

hung garments

these loosely

an extraordinary delicacy and refinement of line.

Perhaps the most famous example of this characteristic style

of modeling in the Nara period

is

Amida Triad in the

the small

Tamamushi-no-Zushi, or Golden Beetle Miniature Shrine of

Lady Tachibana, about 710,

tTiis

by standing

Kondo of Horyuji

in the

temple. Dated

superb group shows a seated Buddha flanked

attendants in small scale, each clothed with cling-

ing garments and each image

upon

set

The

a lotus calyx.

stems of the flowers are depicted as rising out of a sacred pool

which

is

beautifully represented in the horizontal surface

of

an oblong bronze base engraved with ripples and lotus leaves.

Behind the group,

backdrop,

as a

bronze screen which

a

is

a

masterpiece of low-reHef sculpture shows heavenly figures

on

seated

lotus blossoms, surrounded

by swirUng

scarves

amid

many were produced when

gently undulating lotus stems and flowers. These and

other masterpieces of the Nara period

Buddhist

art flourished

under the patronage of the various

Emperors.

During

this

period Buddhism reached great heights under

the sponsorship of the

ceeded

Emperor Shomu and eventually suc-

as the state religion,

as the headquarters.

with the Todaiji temple regarded

The Todaiji was

started in 745

object in the Todaiji is

is

sacred

the Daibutsu or Great Buddha,

which

in 752.

the largest bronze image in the world.

Under command of

the Emperor, the casting of this great image was at

on order of

The most

Emperor Shomu, and was completed

begun in 743

Shigaraki palace near Lake Biwa, but the effort ended in

failure for lack

Nara

of technical

skill.

The work was resumed

and successfully completed

in 745

at

in 749 after eight

The figure is seated cross-legged on an enorcomposed of fifty-six lotus petals, each high and alternately turned upward and downward.

diflferent castings.

mous bronze ten feet

pedestal

The work required

to execute this colossal

a stupendous effort

and was a tremendous technical

that time. terials,

The

image represents

statue contains over a million

including about 900,000 pounds of bronze, 165 pounds

of mercury, and 288 pounds of pure gold.

Its

immense pro-

portions measure fifty-three feet in height; the head feet

feat for

pounds of ma-

long and over nine

feet

is

four feet wide and the hands almost seven feet long. necessary to construct the

by applying

successive

sixteen

wide, while the eyes are almost It

was

body of this huge work in segments,

molds one above the other

after

each

preceding segment had cooled. Only the head and the hands

Bronze image of the Sho Kannon temple, Nara.

72

in the

Nara period (710-794).

Toin-do of the Yakushiji

were

cast as single shells.

turies the

On three occasions through the cen-

Great Buddha has suffered

damage

necessitating


restoration.

then in

1 1

An earthquake in the year

855 shook off the head;

80 the head and right hand were melted in the

which destroyed the Great

fire

and in 1567 the head was

Hall,

again knocked off by an earthquake.

the

method appears

smaller works.

ancient two-storied

among

are

to

The

have been used more frequently for

clay images of

Chumon

the earliest specimens of the

from the year

precinct,

Nara period

are a

number of clay images

in the

Hokkedo, or

Nara period, dating

object of worship in the

gates.

Hokkedo

the cele-

is

Fuku Kensaku Kannon, which

surrounded by fourteen other images.

Of colossal size v\dth was made

Third Month temple, which are of exquisite workmanship

its

and regarded as representative of the art of that time. Although

in the dakkatsu kamhitsu lacquer technique. Clay

the

method of using clay was abandoned soon after this period,

much of the Nara work in

this

technique reached a height of

perfection. In this clay process a frame

of wood and

provide a ground to hold the clay. rice-straw fibers

with the fine

was made with

strips

wound with cords of rice straw or other fibers to was

fibers

first

laid

of the paper-mulberry

on with

many

The

The

Nara

distinct

methods of producing dry-lacquer

kaushitsu or

hollow dry lacquer, and

hoUow

Nara period, the desired form of the image was

modeled in

clay,

and dry

dry-lacquer technique, which was the type used chiefly in the half of the

were made of

it

mokushin kamhitsu or wood-core dry lacquer. In the

first

pigments or was covered with

large images

There were two

work, namely, dakkatsu

first

finished surface clay

six arms,

period for images, almost completely replacing wood.

ap-

final

of three eyes and

lacquer were the principal materials used during the late

either glue or

tree.

mixed with

a brush.

either contained the fmal color

gold leaf Although

of clay mixed

applied, then a layer

plication consisted of a fine clay

mica dust and

A layer of clay containing

esoteric attributes

of

who serve as guardians of a Buddhist

brated dry-lacquer image of is

are in the

Rikishi, are a pair

and usually keep watch over the

The main

Among the many treasures lavished upon the Todaiji in the

Kongo

711. Ni-o, or

fierce-looking demigods

CLAY AND DRY-LACQUER SCULPTURE

Ni-o which

or Middle Gate of the Horyuji,

clay,

and several layers of hemp cloth covered

with liquid lacquer were apphed over

this core.

After this

lacquer shell became perfectly dry and hard, the clay core was carefully chipped

away and

a

wooden framework was con-

m^r^f Bronze image of Yakushi Nyorai

Nara period (710-794).

in the

Yakushiji temple, Nara.

Bronze image of the Great Buddha completed in 749;

Nara

in the Todaiji temple,

Nara,

period.

73


the distinctive expression and beautiful features of

structed inside to give additional strength. Such parts as the

teresting

head and arms were made separately and then stitched to the

the image of Ashura, one of the Hachibu-shu,

body and made

unlike those of present-day Japanese

details,

rigid

with coats of lacquer. Various surface

such as hair and

articles

of jewelry, were modeled

surface

quered and colored, or covered with gold

leaf.

form was

first

were already elements of esoteric Buddhism

was then

lac-

time. This

wood-

In the

carved of wood,

then covered with layers of hemp cloth saturated with liquid lacquer.

The

entire process

was

similar to the

making hollow dry-lacquer work. the gradual changes in methods

It is

from

method of

interesting to observe

the hollow dry lacquer

form of Buddhism, with

and understood only by the

thousand-armed Harmon, and many

The Heian period the capital

Konin

was abandoned in the

wood carving. One of the many famous dry-lacquer images is the Hachibu-

tenth century for

shu,

or Eight Supernatural Guardiatis of Sakyamuni, in the

Kofukuji temple

at

Nara.

A

characteristic

of the

art

of the

early Nara-period sculptors can be clearly seen in the realistic

treatment of the animated and youthful

Clay image o/Ni-o with mouth open,

in the

Gate, of the Horyuji temple at Nara, made

74

faces. Especially in-

Chumon,

in

jii;

as

was a period

in

others.

which the

by

all

of

its

It is

divided

arts

and culture were

the course of political

and religious developments. Thus retained

an eleven-headed

six arms, a so-called

era (794-897) and the Fujiwara era

(897-1185).

It

doctrines designed for

(794-1185) begins with the removal of

stimulated and influenced

It

as there

existing at that

from Nara to Heian, now called Kyoto.

into the Jogan or

are not

introduced a variety of

Karmon, an Ashura with three heads and

of the early eighth century to the wood-core dry lacquer in

became

its

initiated,

images of supernatural beings, such

the second half of the century. Finally the lacquer shell

nothing more than a fmishing coat.

Nara period,

and

core dry-lacquer method, which was used chiefly in the latter half of the period, the desired

natural beings began to appear in the

which

Images of super-

girls.

flour,

with a mixture of liquid lacquer and sawdust,

powdered incense wood. The fmished

is

far

Buddhism

power

in Japan

had

principal Chinese features, but with the

opening years of the Heian period

its

were

to be

spiritual

needs

doctrines

brought to conform more closely with the

and temperament of the Japanese. It

was during

this

time that the

work of two

Saicho, founder of the Tendai sect, and

great priests,

Kukai or Kobo Daishi,

Chumon,

or

Middle

Clay image o/Ni-o, with mouth

Nara

period.

Gate, of the Horyuji temple at Nara, made in yii;

closed, in the

or

Middle

Nara

period.


founder of the Shingon

sect,

gave birth to strong and charac-

forms of Japanese Buddhism. Both of these

teristic

to wield considerable influence, and Buddhism

aU powerful, with two

Shingon

sect

with

complex symbolism, and

its

Mount of the

esoteric philosophy

Hiei in Kyoto, the seat of the Tendai

were based on

monastery on

rival centers, the

Koya, near Nara, which taught the

sects rose

now became

pantheistic realism.

that

on Mount

whose doctrines

sect,

These two monasteries

became the fountainheads of Buddhist learning and teachings greatly influenced the forms of Buddhist contrast to the earlier Buddhist sects called exoteric,

comprehended, the

from

the theories peculiar to these

new

esoteric sects, or those

having occult or secret philosophies. The regarded the Buddha Sakyamuni

as a

earlier

Buddhists

supreme and miraculous

him

personage, while the esoteric Buddhists proclaimed

god and regarded

phenomena

all

In

meaning

of the Heian period was inspired

easily

art

their

art.

a

mani-

in the universe as

of the power of Dainichi Nyorai, the Supreme

festations

Buddha. In the bewildering pantheon of later Buddhism with its

immense canon,

sentative

Buddhas and Bodhisattvas

all

culiar functions prescribed features, a strictly

by

new iconography

secret canons.

their pe-

Because of these

appeared and the images took

(

prescribed forms of mystery and austerity to represent

special attributes,

This

are repre-

of individual aspects of Dainichi and have

later

and

Buddhist

at

times had forbidding expressions.

art sacrificed

expression in the earlier images, kindness, and a tender,

warm

much of

the freedom of

whose features radiated

grace,

Dry-lacquer image o/Ashura, one of the eight supernatural guardians of

Sakyamuni,

in the

Kofukuji temple, Nara. Nara period

(710-794).

feeling.

the Jogan period continued to be carved in the technique called ichiboku, in

HEIAN CARVED-WOOD IMAGES

Any "With only a few exceptions Japanese temple sculpture from this

was

period onward was entirely executed in wood, and there a great

demand

were

buflt

Buddhist images to furnish the nu-

for

merous monasteries

all

over the country.

on the summits and

remote regions,

as

it

sides

to indulge in meditation or solitary tices in distant retreats.

religious

men

and contemplative prac-

The serene atmosphere within the waUs

to create beautiful works.

wooden

monasteries

of mountains, often in

of these monastery compounds inspired

ence for

New

became the fashion among

artists

and sculptors

The principal reason

for the prefei'-

sculpture

was the

traditional taste for the

medium and the traditional skill in the use of the chisel. Much of the wood sculpture of the Heian period was rather simple and tended toward the decorative.

work

is

A particular feature of this

the gracefully carved loose hanging garments

done

in

a technique called homa-shiki, or rolling-waves style, consisting

of beautifully controlled approaching a beach

at

which the head, body,

legs,

and even the pedestal

of a standing figure were carved from a single piece of wood. portions that protruded, such as forearms stretched out

from the elbows and separately.

It

was

objects held in the hands,

also

common

were carved

practice for the protruding

knees on a seated image to be carved separately from the

which was made from

The Late Heian

rest,

a single piece.

or Fujiwara period (897-1185) covers the

three centuries of Japanese history

which saw the

rise

and

fall

of the Fujiwara family, the warfare of the Taira and Minamoto

and the fmal victory of Minamoto Yoritomo,

families,

established the military

government

at

Kamakura.

age of luxury and abundance for the upper

classes.

It

who

was an

The begin-

ning of the Fujiwara period preceded by a few years the

of the T'ang dynasty in China, and the

began to

reflect a true native taste

arts

of Japan

fall

now

and the ancient Japanese

love of nature; landscape painting became so popular that

it

influenced paintings with Buddhist subjects, which frequently

have

naturalistic

backgrounds. Buddhist

art

continued to

resembling sea waves

flourish

under the growing wealth and power of the mon-

regular intervals. Heian sculpture of

asteries.

Religious art was greatly stimulated by a

parallel curves

new

style

75


interior

is

the famous image oÂŁ Amida Nyorai,

which

con-

is

sidered to be one of the fmest examples of Japanese religious

wood sculpture was executed who was celebrated even during his lifetime. It was Jocho who set the style of Buddhist sculpture during the Fujiwara period, and he was rewarded with many art.

This great masterpiece of

by Jocho,

d. 1057,

honors in recognition of his great work.

Almost

the sculpture of the Fujiwara period

all

wood; however,

new

a

technique appeared called

was in

yosegi,

or

assembled wood'blocks, in contrast to the single-wood-block

method, In this

teclinique perfected

were cut according

make

to

during the Early Heian period.

called ichihokti, used

new

a hollow

and assembled

form approximating the shape of the image

to be carved. Designating parts to be cut

by Jocho, many small blocks

to geometrical principles

marks were applied

away and

those to be

left

to indicate the

untouched. The

whole was then disassembled and each piece was carved by an

assistant.

up again and

After the roughly carved

separately

form was

securely reinforced with iron clamps,

it

set

repre-

sented the true form of the image on which the master sculptor

had only

workshop of

hussho, or

These

by Gilt the

wood image o/Aniida Nyorai, by

Byodoln temple,

Joclio, in the

Hoodo of

ateliers,

new

a master sculptor

and

his assistants.

or schools of Buddhist sculptors, were founded

great artists

and flourished for many generations, often

taking their names from the places where they were located.

were buUt with government funds, each contained an brought about by the

rise

of the Japanese

sect

known

as

Jodo,

or Pure Land, under the teachings of Genshin, 942-1017, a

very learned

man of

the Tendai sect. This Buddhist faith

teaches the worship of Aniida,

Buddha of Infinite

power of the Buddha Amida, and

Qualities,

upon

Buddhist

art is clearly seen in the

his

beautiful expression of tenderness and compassion. All this

faith

is

characterized in

quent scenes of Amida and

much of the

his attendants

among

famous Phoenix

temple

Uji near Kyoto.

at

known

as the

The

original

Hoodo, was

the Fujiwara family

was

Buddhist images enshrined in

76

welcome

became the

Hoodo, of the Byodoin

Hall, or

main

The

was often

big monasteries of these

of the

and

clusively for certain families entered the priesthood

honored with a high Buddhist rank. Jocho, whose a priest

working

in sculpture,

became

which

sculptors

asteries, there

form of private sculptors.

worked

ateliers

comiected with the houses of master

fmished form. This custom came in with the introduction of the yosegi sculptural technique, providing a

method

With

for the

employment of many

more

assistants

practical

and pupils.

the prosperous conditions existing during the Fujiwara able to produce great

were

satisfy the

the

mon-

Here pupils were trained and sculpture produced in

images of all kinds to

Among

was

in his field

exclusively for particular

of the period,

magnificently decorated

first artist

appeared another kind of estabhshment in the

period, these atehers

is

the

and were

father

to receive such a distinguished honor. Parallel with the system in

re-

in the ascendancy. this

hall

built in 1053

presentative of the best rehgious architecture

when

it

to

the nobles to build halls dedicated to Amida,

such as the

Byodoin,

The

painting, with fre-

coming

the dying to Paradise. In architecture, also, fashion

is

and stern expression in

the esoteric Buddhist sculpture of the early Heian period.

Jodo

priestly rank.

and feudal famihes, and many of the sculptors working ex-

Land of

images of Amida with their

in noticeable contrast to the severity

were usually laymen, but during

to these administrative offices

the second half of the Heian period a great sculptor

rewarded with a

office

sculptors attached

times became closely associated with particular great noble

name. The influence of Jodo on

calling

making of images. The

faith in the all-

believer will be reborn in AiTiida's Paradise, the Pure

Jodo, by

entrusted with the

a promise that the

with a doctrine of salvation through absolute saving

the

system originated in the

During the preceding Nara period when the great monasteries

Late Heian period.

at Uji.

With

to execute the skillful fmishing details.

introduction of this technique a

numbers of

demand of this age of luxury.

The years that preceded the close ofthe Heian period brought loss of power of the Fujiwara family and a series

with them


of

fought between the rival clans of the Taira and

battles

Minamoto

famihes.

The

final defeat

Minamoto Yoritomo marks

of the Taira family by

the beginning of the

Kamakura

period (1185-1333) and the establishment ofthe seat of govern-

ment

at

Kamakura. The center of culture remained

and Kamakura became important

in

anxious to cultivate the

arts

which included the Shingon and Tendai.

school

made

its

on in the

carried

development of the

realistic

class

of peace.

A

strong reaction ap-

wood

Vivid realism in sculptured

the Fujiwara period.

the

Kamakura period became

a popular religion, assuming a truly Japanese character

quahty, and

Zen Buddhism became

the mihtary

class.

simple,

their followers

While

less

sects,

particularly popular

doctrines of the

new

sects

and

with

were prac-

and easUy understood, and because of this they

found

among

the samurai and commoners.

emphasis was given to icon worship in the

the art of sculpture attained

its

new

highest reahstic develop-

ment in the images of the founders and high priests of the new sects,

who were greatly respected for their religious teachings.

Icon sculpture retained its traditional form in the images

Wood

image o/Ni-o,

Kamakura

ivith

new

a further

FUJIWARA REALISM

expressing itself in the revival of the old Nara sects and in the

tical,

less

of society and were

Kokei, a Nara sculptor, attained

The

or

for religious activities. This

new

Buddhism in

more

trend of the Heian period.

peared against the formal Buddhism of the Heian period,

birth of new sects.

traditional style, a

appearance which was

Kyoto,

period produced a culture that was vigorous, in which the military families constituted a

for the older sects,

Along with the work

made

mouth open, by Unkei and Kaikei

period, thirteenth century.

Todaiji temple, Nara.

Among

its

the great

belonging to the Kofukuji temple quarters of the Hosso sect of

images, introduced

at

number of treasures

Nara, which

Buddhism,

are

is

the head-

some examples

of the work of Kokei. Within the Kofukuji compound

Nan-endo, a magnificent octagonal hall containing cipal object

is

the

as its prin-

of worship the Fukukenjaku Kannon, a wooden

image made by Kokei in the year

11

representative of Kokei's style

Hosso

89, as well as the

Rokuso, or Six Patriarchs of the Hosso

perfected

by

highest development in

Sect.

These works are

of realism, which was

later

by his son Unkei, and his pupil Kaikei. Unkei's work

not only achieved perfect realism,

as seen in his

images of

famous priests, but also a dignified strength which harmonized

Wood

image of Ni-o with mouth

Kamakura

closed,

by Unkei and Kaikei;

period, thirteenth century. Todaiji temple, Nara.

11


by one thousand

gilt-bronze images of Kannon, each five feet

seven inches in height and arranged in evenly spaced

'^^^t

one enormously long haU which was rebuilt in 125 1 original temple

One of the is

had been destroyed by

tiers

in

after the

fire.

outstanding representative works of this period

the Kamakura Daihutsu, or the Great Buddha of Kamakura,

located in the precincts of the Kotokuin temple. This enor-

mous bronze seated figure of Amida Nyorai is about forty-two and about ninety-seven

feet in height

The image was

the base.

cast in

much

feet in

1252 by an

circumference at

unknown sculptor

work of art than the larger The Kamakura image was originally enshrined in a large building, but this was damand

is

regarded

image

at

as a

finer

the Todaiji temple at Nara.

aged by a storm in 1369 and the great image has remained in the open since the year 1495,

what was

left

when

tidal

waves carried away

of the old structure.

Besides the sculptured images of Buddhist and Shinto

and

deities,

era

portraits

of contemporary

leaders, the

produced many other subjects which

Kamakura

reflect the great

carving of that time. There are, for instance, the Shi Tenno or

Four Deva Kings,

in the

form of warrior gods who protect

the four directions of the Buddhist universe, and a host of

other religious deities as well as imaginary animals.

Among

the several Shinto animal-guardians or messengers of deities,

Bronze image of the Great Buddha of the Kotokuin temple.

Kamakma

at

Kamakura,

in the precincts

those most frequently seen are the Kara-Shishi, or Chinese

Lion, and the Koma-inu, or Korean dog, which are placed at

period, cast in 1252.

the entrance of Shinto shrines as guardians. Although the term

Koma-inu with the traditional Nara-period work. Kaikei,

who had been

a pupil of Kokei, was a contemporary of Unkei; but in contrast to the

by

dynamic

style

of Unkei,

his

work

is

characterized

graceful realism with delicate form. Exquisite examples of

Kaikei's

work include the Sogyo Hachiman, which portrays

the

Shinto god as a Buddhist priest, and the Jizo Bosatsu, both of

which well

as

priest,

in his right are

is

as the

decline.

The

rise in the

power and popularity of the Zen

as the

declined during the

Momoyama

many names

a precious pearl in his left hand.

There

for Jizo according to his functions,

and

regarded

reached

was

offset

other

sects.

ture for architectural purposes.

The

earlier

type of architec-

called kara-yo or Chinese style,

and

images either in temples or by the roadside are often seen with

known

cloth bibs around their necks, placed there

by parents praying The work of these two great sculptors of the Kamakura period was carried on by Unkei's sons, Tankei, Koben, and Kosho, and a number of

developed in north China and introduced into Japan

for the recovery of sick children.

same time

the

few works known

to have

been executed

as

is

temple carving. This was the

as

style

is

also

of decoration at the

Zen. This style was not only fashionable in

buildings associated with

Zen Buddhism but also in the build-

ings of the other sects, in Shinto shrines, and in palaces and

Many of the resplendent examples of the architecMomoyama and Edo periods reflect this exquisite work with its delicately wrought human figures,

mansions.

by Tankei is the Thousand-handed Kannon in the Sanju-Sangendo temple at Kyoto. The figure of Kannon is seated and ac-

ture of the

companied by twenty-eight followers; they are surrounded

animals, birds, and flowers in pictorial compositions.

78

this

by an important development of decorative sculp-

tural sculpture

Among

sect

Religious sculpture

and Edo periods, but

throughout Japan roadside images of Jizo are numerous. Jizo

others.

its

much to sculpture as it did to the developbecause Zen did not attach as much im-

portance to images

hand and

is

as

his head shaven, and holding a staff with rings

is

art

culmination in the thirteenth century and then began to

ment of painting,

of children

their respective

apex of Japanese sculpture, when the

one of the most popular

a deity

by

Koma-inu by a closed one. The Kamakura period

did not contribute

is

originally called

most commonly seen in the

Buddhist gods in Japan.

form of a

He

were

names, Shishi being characterized by an open mouth, the

as

are in the Todaiji temple. Jizo

a guardian of souls, and

applied to this pair of guardians of the sacred

is

precincts, they

kara-yo


VI Masks

A

^^^m in

DISTINCT

and often grotesque phase of

.^_ _Al. Japanese wood sculpture had its provenance ancient rehgious dances which employed wooden masks.

Their use and development corresponds with the unique

whose origin can be

history of dramatic art in Japan,

back through the

Both of the

many

traced

centuries to the mythological age.

oldest chronicles

of Japan, the Kojiki and the

designs have been carefully preserved and imitated

the present day.

The masks used by

down

to

the Japanese throughout

the recorded history of their dance and lyric-drama are not

only rich in

artistic

achievement but cover a wide variety of

forms. Masks have been used only in the lyric-dramas and

drama proper

dances; the It is

from

never performed with masks.

is

the Asiatic mainland that the

furst ritual

were introduced into Japan. Although

and

festi-

their use in

Nihovshoki, written at the beginning of the eighth century,

val masks

contain interesting legends of the rehgious dance called kagura,

the countries of the mainland gradually declined, their devel-

or sacred dance with music, from which the Japanese drama developed.

They record

that

when Amaterasu-o-mi-kami,

the sun goddess, retired into the Heavenly

was thrown

Cave and the world

into darkness, the heavenly deities

were greatly

perplexed and in their consternation debated various means to persuade her to

come

out.

At

this

time the witty and jovial

goddess Ameno-uzumeno-mikoto, by performing a comic

dance

at the entrance of the cave, succeeded in enticing the

sun goddess from her hiding place, and light was restored to the universe.

The traditional origin of the

to these mythological times,

and

it is

kagura

is

thus traced

certain that the kagura

its earliest

form

it

in Japan continued until

The

masks

earliest factual

in Japan begin

Then

tinent.

was a pantomime,

in

which the per-

it

reached the stage of a real

accounts relating to the history of

with the seventh century,

the dance-drama called gigaku

at

which time

was introduced from the con-

in the following century the gigaku

was super-

seded by another dance-drama brought from the mainland, called hugaku,

However,

it

which has been performed until the present time.

was not

the use of masks

when

until the eighth

and ninth centuries that

became popular throughout the country,

they were introduced

as a part

of the Buddhist cere-

mony known as gyodo. The gigaku and hugakii were principally performed for the

has existed since very ancient times. In

opment art.

privilege the

aristocracy,

and because of

commoners were unable

this exclusive

to acquire an appre-

of these dance-dramas. However, with the practice of

formers impersonated the deities and imitated their deeds by

ciation

wearing masks and dancing to the accompaniment of instru-

using masks in the Buddhist ceremony of gyodo, other plays

mental music and chanting. This simple and primitive sacred

were developed and the popularity of masks increased

kagura dance with

its

town and village in in early times

crude masks

Japan.

were made

is still

practiced in every

The masks used in

mythical birds and animals, for

men imagined

sacred beasts as possessing attributes different

among human sacred dance

beings.

from

its

the ritual dances

to suggest supernatural beings

With

the gods and

the present-day

No and kyogen

dances. In these dances, acting

perfection has reached a high level of accomplishment and the

perfected

mask

serves to create fantastic impressions.

from those seen

the gradual development of the

primitive beginning to the refmed

drama, the carving of the masks improved, sculptural masterpieces.

and

until

eventually they attained their ultimate refinement as seen in

Certam

No

"GIGAKU" DANCE-DRAMA

many becoming

families specializing in this

category of sculpture have been famous, and their original

According to the

Nihotishoki, gigaku

was introduced into

Japan in the twentieth year of the reign of Empress Suiko, or

79


Bugaku mask

called Bato. It

is

with violent movements and said

used in a vigorous dance to represent the

anger of

a son whose father has been killed by wild beasts, or an

Empress whose jealousy turned her

Heian

period,

twelfth

into a

demon. Late

Itsukushima

century.

shrine,

Miyajima.

6i2,

by

a

Paikche.

Korean named Mimashi from the Kingdom of

It is

said that

Chinese kingdom of

Mimashi had learned the

Wu, which

gigaku in the

was an important country

prior to the T'ang dynasty.

It is

called this dance gogaku, or

music of ^o, since go

said that the Japanese originally

tated the advanced cultural life assistants or pupils

instruction

of the Chinese. Thus, two able

were quickly appointed to receive complete

from Mimashi in the technique of its performance.

Gigaku dances continued to be the most popular performances

two

their

mean-

ing of the Chinese character for wu. However, the

name

but in the Buddhist temples

dance

the hugaku dance during the eighth and ninth centuries.

gigaku, or accomplished music,

because itive

its

music was so

was

is

later applied to the

much more advanced than

the prim-

music of Japan. The gigaku was but one of many

arts

for over

centuries, not only at Imperial-court functions as well, until

humor

unrestrained

been preserved since that time.

famiUes,

the

who were keenly

members of the Imperial-court

desirous to acquire as

learning and culture of China as possible.

It

was

much of the when

a time

in every phase of their daily existence the noble famiUes imi-

80

exist today,

idea of their colorful display of theatrical pageantry and

dhism and Chinese culture. Gigaku performances received an

by

was superseded by

Although the gigaku performances no longer

some

being rapidly introduced from the mainland along with Bud-

enthusiastic reception

it

is

appreciated

from

Of the 223

the masks that have

extant gigaku masks

of the seventh and eighth centuries, 164 are preserved in the Shojoin Treasure Repository at Nara, 28 in the Todaiji temple,

and

31

in national

museums. The masks

in the national

mu-

seums were originally preserved in the Horyuji temple near


Nara, and are traditionally said to have been brought to Japan

colorful costumes

by Mimashi. Some of

these surviving

and

works of art and

some

possess

the religious images of the gigaku masks

masks are veritable

characteristics in

cover

all

masks are rather

boys called

were designed

called

effectiveness

its

especially as the

performance

called

was a comic performance.

been an elaborate spectacle when

it

It is

A

king

known

next, followed

as

The

first

by two lion-taming

Goko and an

by Kongo,

actor

a strong

and

a fantastically

Konron, whose comic gestures

ugly

stirred the

Gojo entered with her

began to

have

also said to

a particular mask.

much laughter. When a genteel and beautiful girl escort named Rikishi, Konron

audience to

Accounts of the gigaku dance recorded in ancient chronicles it

shishiko.

Chido came

character called

was held out of doors.

relate that

by

Shishi, a lion, attended

of the dance increased, there appeared

deep and prominent carving, increased the

of the portrayal,

masks contributed to the gay

robust fellow, with Karura, a mythological bird. As the tempo

to

or most of the head of the wearer. This large-size

mask, with

fantastic

clearly identified

was

to appear

In contrast to later

large, as they

was

character

few

a

were made of dry lacquer and painted, most of

them were carved from wood and painted. types, gigaku

common with

Asuka period. Although

and

atmosphere of the open-air performance. Each

festive

act a

comic love scene in pantomime with crude and

unrestrained humor. His actions caused Gojo's escort to be-

was performed in the

come so angry that a humorous fight ensued in which Konron

The

suffered a rather comical but indehcate accident, to the great

courtyards of Buddhist temples or of noble mansions.

>^f00

^

'

,_.^

Gigaku mash of Goko, Contemporary this

or

King of Go.

records say the actor wearing

mask appeared

at the beginning

gigaku performance and played

of the

the role

of

i^^'^.

.^**

Bugaku ninomai mask of Ouiia, the Old Woman. The ninomai, or second dance, is performed by an old wife

Ouna,

in

man

called Jo

and

which they comically

a piper. Asuka period, seventh century.

imitate the first dance called

Tokyo National Museum.

formed by two

his

try to

amma,

per-

actors in full court dress.

Gigaku mask of Gojo depicts the purity

or Maid of Go. It and beauty of a noble-

woman ofthe ancient Chinese kingdom ofGo, where the gigaku

originated,

and

is

the only

female gigaku mask. Nara period, eighth century. Shosoin,

Nara.

Late Heian period, twelfth century. Itsuku-

shima shrine. Miyajima.

81


Gyodo mask

Left:

Kuhanda, one of or eight hearers

representing

Hachihu-shu,

the

of the sacred palanquin

in the

gyodo

at the

memorial ceremony held

procession. It

was used at the

pagoda of the Toji or Kyo-o Gokokuji

temple

in

Late

1334.

Heian

Kyo-o Goko-

period, twelfth century. kuji temple, Kyoto.

Gyodo mask

Right:

ofKaten.

One

of the original masks used by the twelve hearers of the sacred palanquin

Twelve Deva Kings,

representing the in

the

gyodo

procession at the

me-

morial ceremony at the pagoda of the Toji or

Kyo-o Gokokuji temple

in

1086, and again in 1334. Late Heian period, tenth century.

Kyo-o Goko-

kuji temple, Kyoto.

delight

and laughter of the audience. This scene was quickly

followed by more laugh-provoking trance of Taikofu, an old

The

Taikoji.

The next India,

ness

supported by a boy called

old man's unsteady walk created a comical

to appear

skit.

was Baramon, portraying a Brahman of

who held the attention of the audience with his nimble-

and

acter to

land,

man

incidents with the en-

skill

The fmal charSuiko-o, king of some foreign

in twirling a long piece of cloth.

come upon the

with eight

scene

retainers.

connote that they were

is

The names of the

all

drunkards, and

latter in

Japanese

their actions to-

repertoire of dances given with or without the aid of masks.

From

the descriptions in ancient chronicles

hugaku in

the T'ang court, they

proper

sequence. Small and easily carried musical instruments were

used in

this dance,

which required only three pieces,

or bronze gong, a feo5/Âť'-tsusumi or hip-drum, and

a dohatsu

a.fue

or flute.

THE "BUGAKU" DANCE After

more than

were

in turn introduced into Japan.

without the comic vulgarity of the gigaku. Various names

have been applied by the Japanese

to the dances

which make

the complete hugaku performance. These names are desigtitles

that also indicate the

from which the dances Bokkaigaku

realm in the T'ang empire

originated, such as

for Manchuria,

Togaku

for China,

Koraigaku and Shiragigaku for

Korea, Rinyugaku for Indo-China, and so forth. The music

and dances of these many regions became the favorite form of entertainment not only

at the

Imperial-court functions but

also in the

Buddhist temples. During the succeeding centuries

the hugaku

formed an intricate part of the cultural life of Japan,

and the nobles themselves became proficient in the

a century of continuous appreciation

by

at

The

hugaku was thus a highly refined andcomplicatedperformance,

nating

after the other in

of

dances of eight countries within the structure of the T'ang

Judging from these early descriptions of the gigaku, the manner

with the actors being introduced one

appears that the

a compilation

empire. As these individual dance-dramas were perfected

up

which it was performed resembled a continuous procession,

it

most finished form was actually

the traditional music of fourteen countries and the curious

gether with their humorous masks provoked great laughter.

in

its

art

of

music and performing the dances. The hugaku

rendering

its

reached

fmal form during the Heian period (794-1185) and

its

the aristocracy, the gigaku fmally gave way to the hugaku dance,

has survived to the present day. Regular performances are

which was

given

also

of Chinese origin. In contrast to the rather

simple form of the gigaku, the hugaku

82

is

a difficult

and complex

at

at Imperial-court functions in

Tokyo and

occasionally

important Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines.


Tsuiiia mask of Oiii,

Demon, used

or

ceremony of the same name on the

last

in

the

day of winter

hean-throwing at the

Horyuji

temple at Nara, in which three demons, a father demon, a mother

demon, and a son demon, are driven out hy the god Bishamon.

Kamakura

Although bugaku reached

period, thirteenth century. Horyuji temple, Nara.

highest development during

chief instruments were the fue or flute, hiwa or lute, koto or

the Heian period, most of the masks preserved in the

museums

large zither, sho or panpipe, kugo or harp, shichiriki or flageolet,

and temples date from the eleventh to fourteenth

centuries.

and three kinds of drums,

Whereas the masks used

its

in the gigaku

conform with the character

parts

were rather

realistic to

of the dance, bugaku masks

dadaiko, kekko,

and

taiko.

This array

of Oriental instruments produced an exotic rhythm wliich enhanced the beauty of the dance.

are symbolic. This serves as a subtle accessory to the rhythmic

inovements expressing bugaku dance

is

human actions and emotions.

performed with

a fair

masks were made very thin and

light,

weight, and only covered the face.

The fme

express their syinbolic

Since the

amount of action, with a

details

moving

"GYODO" MASKS

of

There is

required to

meaning were executed with

touch, and the masks even had various

the

minimum

a delicate

which

parts

larly is

a

known

Buddhist ceremony that as neri-kuyo,

gyodo. Introduced into Japan

were manually manipulated by the wearer. Some bugaku

period (710-794),

masks have eyes that move, and others are made so the mouth

relic

will

open and

ings.

close,

or the hair

move to

express certain

mean-

A remarkable characteristic of some is the vertical move-

ment of the

cheeks,

and the mouth

which

are being

gives the impression that the eyes

opened and

closed.

Every

these masks could be clearly seen and appreciated dience, because the bugaku dance

detail

of

by

the au-

was performed on

a stage

in small quarters, in contrast to the gigaku performance,

which

was given out of doors. The more complex nature of the

although

it

consists

or image, which

or shrine,

is

is

still

its

exists in

Japan popu-

correct Buddhist

name

from China during the Nara

of a procession in which a sacred

normally kept from view in a temple

carried through the streets for the people to see.

Shortly after its introduction, this ceremony was also practiced at

Shinto shrines, and although originally Buddhist,

chiefly a Shinto procession.

Many

it is

now

gyodo masks dating from

the tenth century are preserved in the ancient temples at Nara.

Since the eighth century the Horyuji temple has celebrated an

occasion called the Shoryo

ceremony in which

the sacred ashes

and a small image of Prince Shotoku, the founder of Bud-

musical accompaniments for the dance required additional

dhism in Japan, are carried around the precincts of the temple

instruments of an advanced type. Since bugaku was performed

in a procession. These are borne in an elaborately ornamented

on

palanquin, with the faces of the bearers hidden by gyodo masks.

a stage, the orchestra

was placed on

either side,

and the

83


Since ried

it

have the palanquin car-

this

were covered by masks

commoners,

intended to portray the eight attendants of the Buddha, as the

known

Hachibu-shu. The gyodo ceremonial masks include a

great variety of grotesque and fantastic representations of

many

deities.

aifairs,

with

The

processions

brilliant

were elaborate and colorful

costumes, and the leaders usually

masks representing such things as lions and goblins. famous pagoda of the Kyo-o-Gokokuji temple popularly

known

palanquin with

as Toji,

was dedicated

its sacred relic

wore

When the at

Kyoto,

in the year 1086, the

was borne by bearers

who wore

masks representing the Twelve Deva Kings. Some types of gyodo dances are parts

still

of Japan. The

performed in Buddhist temples in various raigo

ceremony

is

performances in which the actors wear masks.

when

cincts.

religious pageants

easily

understood by the

were given in the temple pre-

These raigo ceremonies became popular in many temples

throughout the country. During two of the

fectare of Nara, a raigo

ceremony

is

days at

festival

town of Shimoda

the Taimadera temple near the

in the pre-

enacted each year.

It is rti

honor of Chujo-Hime, daughter of Fujiwara Toyonari, a minister to the Emperor,

who

according to legend

is

said to

have painted a large picture of the Buddhist Paradise in the year 763. Chujo'-Hime became a

nun

nt this

temple

after

assuming the name of Honyo, and, because of her accomplishments,

is

given

this

performance in which the Twenty-five

Bosatsu welcome her.

one of these types of

gyodo which have survived until the present day as religious

the tenth century

and other Jodo doctrines more

a sacrilege to

coolies, their faces

was considered

by common

It

the Jodo, or Pure Land, doctrine

being forcibly expounded by Eshin-Sozu.

SACRED DANCES

originated in

was

To assist in making

Sacred dances and performances

as practiced for centuries

in the Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines, as well as those

M)

mask

depicting Kagekiyo, a

renowned

warrior of the Heike family, ivho fought in their losing conflicts with the

Early

Edo

period,

Tokyo National Museum.

84

Genji family.

seventeenth

century.


performed

at

the Imperial court,

were the sources from which

No drama and the kyogen comic interlude developed. Among these early entertainments are the primitive performthe

ances called dengaku,

meaning

dengaku probably had

rustic music,

and sarugaku. The

origin in a primitive dance held in

its

and processions

is

ceremony,

of Chinese origin, was introduced during the

also

Nara period and

the

consists

sarugaku probably had

principal character

provenance in the ancient kagura.

ments

at

Shinto

festivals.

On

as incidental entertain-

the picturesque island of

Miya-

jima in the Inland Sea is the famous Itsukushima shrine, which is

of very ancient origin. Old records mention

its

existence as

early as the year 8ii. This beautiful Shinto shrine, with build-

ings connected

when

the tide

floating

on the

by broad galleries, is built out over the sea, and coming in the whole structure appears to be

is

surface of the water. Regular performances of

the kagura and bugaku dances are given as part of the traditional ritual in this impressive

and beautiful

setting.

Along with the

masks that were prominent in the history of Japanese dances

..^ju^^a

No

mask representing Yamauha, a witch

sixteentli

Museum.

At

the

first

ceremony was only

exorcise the evil

mask fashioned

a regular

and temples. In its early prescribed form the

was

spirits.

called Hososhi,

whose duty

it

was

to

Hososhi wore an extremely grotesque

in the likeness of a

most

fierce

and horrible-

looking four-eyed demon. In the original ceremony Hososhi

waved

a halberd

much

with

had driven away the

ability

invisible

and nimbleness

As time went on and the popularity of the tsuiiia the

mask

actually

became

until

he

enemy.

a devil

mask and

increased,

the performance

developed a more dramatic and exaggerated form, with the devil being impersonated instead of invisible.

times the ceremony presented an even

more

of action with the introduction of two

During

later

exciting display

devils into the cast.

t^MKnlii hi'

siding in the remote mountains.

period,

ceremony. This

performed in the Imperial court, but it soon became practice at shrines

its

in the tsuim

of scattering dried beans to drive out

devils or other evil spirits.

the fields to pray for divine grace for the crops, while the

Both of these performances developed

mask used

century.

re-

Momoyama

Tokyo National

No

mask portraying a young

offeminine beauty. skill,

it

is

small mask. tury.

known

girl

of the purest

A masterpiece of the carver's as a

ko-omote, meaning

Muromachi

period, fifteenth cen-

Tokyo National Museum.

85


custom

also to select

famous sumo

wrestlers,

Kabuki

actors, or

other prominent persons to scatter the beans at these temple

Many

functions. parts

years ago

when

the tsuina had spread to

of Japan and was practiced in temples and

popularity became so great that the ceremony in

form, called setsuhun, was observed, and Japanese households.

On

of the house

scatters a

house and in

eacl^

this last

it is still

handful of beans

a

its

present

custom in

of the

at the entrance

room, crying loudly, "Devils

name

its

night of winter the master

luck inside," or "Oniwa-soto, fukuwa-uchi." the Japanese

all

shrines,

outside,

The

good

prefix oni

is

applied to devils or demons.

THE NO MASK Of all the masks used by the Japanese in their various dancedramas since ancient times, the

No

mask

as perfected in the

fourteenth century expresses the greatest aesthetic refmement.

The

best of the

No masks are masterpieces of the sculptor's art

and developed from the

traditional

masks used for centuries

in gigaku, hugaku, gyodo, and other ceremonial performances.

The term

no means performance or accomplishment, and

derived from the

word sarugaku-no-no

which

performance ofsaragaku or dengaku.

fore

signifies a

came

drama. The origin of the but

No

Old Woman. The typical No mask for an oU woman. Miiromachi period, fifteenth century.

mask of

representing

No

Hosho

Ubti,

or

sarugaku and dengaku dances in

portant role.

therea lyric

No has not been clearly determined,

generally believed to have developed

it is

It

imply an accomplished performance of

to

is

or from dengaku-no-no,

from the

early

which masks played an im-

Both of these dances doubtlessly originated from

primitive dances held in the fields to pray for divine favor on

School, Tokyo.

the crops and

were developed during the Heian period

(794-1185) by musicians as entertainment for the

common

people in a form of dramatic dance. The sarugaku was perTstiina

masks were then made

a pair had

its

own

in pairs, although each

one of

individual characteristics; the pairs repre-

sented a devil-father and devil-son or a devil-husband and

Many

devil-wife.

temples throughout Japan

elaborate tsnina ceremonies,

They

are observed

now

still

popularly called

on the evening of the

last

celebrate

known

as

Narita Fudo,

is

ceremony

is

performed here on

a

more popu-

famous for

its

mame-

The

larger scale than in

other temples or shrines. This present-day survival of the

not employ the masks

that

scattered

music. In contrast to the complex danceiof the Imperial court

and the Buddhist temples, these dances became extremely popular with the commoners, for they were performed in an

at the setsuhun festival.

much

which means

unrestrained manner, with a quality of seriousness as well as

new solar calendar. The

especially

maki or bean-throwing ceremony

accompaniment of a kind of popular music

day of winter

Shinshoji temple at Narita in Chiba prefecture, larly

to the

originated in China called sangaku,

setstihun.

according to the old lunar calendar, which corresponds to the third or fourth day of February in the

formed

comic

interludes.

The majority of the

No plays were written during the fourby two famous No actors,

teenth and fifteenth centuries

Kanami, 1333-1384, and

was

his

son Zeami, 1363 -1444. Kanami

a Shinto priest attached to the

which

is

Kasuga shrine

at

Nara,

the tutelary shrine of the Fujiwara family, and to-

gether with his son, was an accomplished actor.

The

talent

of

former days; instead,

both Kanami and Zeami came to the attention of the Shogun

the head priest, dressed in an elaborate costume, performs the

Yoshimitsu, under whose patronage they were able to develop

tsuina does

ceremony by

as in

tossing blanched beans over the heads

people gathered around. In more recent years

86

it

of the

has been the

their earlier

performances into more dramatic plays. Through

their close association

with the Imperial court they achieved


;

of the eighteenth century it continued as a ceremonial function

of the mihtary

class.

No plays are said to

About one thousand

have been composed, and of the eight hundred

Among

survived, 242 are stiU actually performed.

have

that

those cur-

more than one hundred were com-

rently being performed,

posed by Zeami, including the Matsukaze or The Pine Breeze,

Hagoromo or The Feather Robe, Miidera or The Mii Temple

among

the

solemn

lyric

most

No may

The

celebrated.

and dancing accompanied by the

The No

recitation

of

utai, recitative

with

utai,

plays are mostly historical romances with

a strong influence of Buddhist, especially Zen, views

The No,

as a

roles to indicate the characters

masks being used in the chief portrayed.

be described

performance played by men, consisting of music

chants

which form an

on

essential part

life.

of the

of very ancient

are as old as the original sarugaku. Utai are

origin and are archaic in style while rhythmical in tone,

composed of

usually being syllables.

drums,

The

orchestral

of

alternate lines

music of the

No

is

and seven

five

produced by hand

and larger drums.

flutes,

Before the play begins the musicians seat themselves on the floor at the

back of the

of the stage

is

the

ported by four

M)

mask ofOkiiia

kijo, the

or

Hakushi-

Old Man, used

in the

same

pillars at

stage, facing the audience. as that

on

the corners. After the

the chorus appear and take their places

The

rows on the

machi period, fifteenth century.

individual parts, while the chorus chants the explanatory

Maeda

portions in utai accompanied

Collection,

Tokyo.

right of the stage.

sists first

No is

arranged according to a

of prescribed order. This usually con-

of a god-play or kami-mono; second, a battle-play in

sisting chiefly

of

new form of lyric

growing popularity of such dances

Kanami and Zeami

their traditional elements

drama. Realizing

as the dengaku

and

perfected a harmonious blend

The shirabyoshi, which were then very popular among by two court

the nobility, are said to have been introduced ladies at the

beginning of the twelfth century.

Some

early

woman;

third, a

wig-play con-

of posturing, with the principal character being

fourth, a hmatic-play

and a kind of revenge-play

an earthly-play. The sixth, in which the program comes

is known as the last-play. The masks were developed as an integral

to an end,

of poetry, music, and dancing

with the refmed melodies and graceful forms of the shirabyoshi dances.

a

fifth,

actors speak their

by the rhythmic beat of the

The program of the

which the ghost of a warrior appears;

sarugaku,

and are characterized by

was made to cover the

skillful carving.

face only,

and was worn for

siderable time during the enactment lightness

was

a

most important

No No mask

part of the

Since the

factor.

men, women,

of lengthy

a

into types, including

persons, devils, and mythological creatures. Great care

in a white scabbard, impersonating

white-time-beating and in

its

early

to have been performed to the

men.

Shirabyoshi

form the dance

is

means

believed

accompaniment of a

tsusumi

or drum.

deities

and

sages, insane

was

exerted by the famous mask makers so as to appropriately

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;beautiful, â&#x20AC;&#x201D;and many

express the essential quality of each character

noble, humble, fierce, tragic,

young or old

also

forms of emotion. With the great acting technique of famous

Originally the flourishing at

its

No masks are classified

by ladies in long robes with

headgear and swords sheathed

con-

plots,

accounts mention the shirabyoshi as originally being performed tall

two

in

No play ofthe same name. Muro-

traditional convention

the

members of

by kneeling

No

sup-

is

members of the

orchestra have taken their proper positions, the

orchestra.

great success in creating a

The roof

a Shinto shrine and

tlie

No

was a kind of ceremonial performance

court of the Ashikaga

and from the Muromachi period

(i 3 3

Shogun Yoshimitsu,

8- 1 573) to the begirming

No performers a

mask

the

that

way

combined with the

would portray

the light struck

it,

sculptor's skill in creating

different

emotions depending on

many of these No masks seem

to

87


possess the

power of changing

facial expressions. In contrast

Nikko, Yasha, and Miroku. These ten are

to the masks used in the earher dances such as the gigaku,

working about the same time

bugaku, and gyodo,

developing the

which were produced by the

by

carvers

who

oughly understood and had

No

By

were men

of joy,

are masterpieces

about the beginning of the Edo or

No

wood

in

all

or

of expression conveying

and love.

grief, fear, hate,

become estabhshed

thor-

complete knowledge of the

their details

Like

No

Tokugawa

No

and from

period

masks had

that time

on

masks were made in exact reproduction. There are

said to

have been

Kanami and Zeanii were

performance into

its

perfected form.

many other traditional things in the history of Japanese

culture, there are

numerous mask

stories

which have been

Two of these are narratives about the Kwanze family of No actors. One relates to

handed down through the

an early the

No

family

who was

presence of the Shogun. bell,

performing

When he

retired

being unable to fmd the proper mask

for the next act, he bit his

blood, and appeared

more

the bell was again lifted.

who

centuries.

member of the Kwanze

dojoji in t|ie

under the pfoperty

(1615-1867) the various character forms of the

all

who

performance. The masks, carved in

made of dry lacquer, feelings

a

of

work. The No-mask

specialized in such

carvers, or men-uclii as they are called,

intricate

sculptors

No masks were made

Buddhist images in their spare time, the

that

fmger and streaked

his face

horrible than with a

The

other story

is

with

mask when

about a Kwanze

requested the elderly carver Gensuke to

make him

a

many stories attached to certain characteristic No masks which are suggestive of their origin.

The

okitia

mask which portrays

man is said to have had its provenance in the second month of the third year of Daido, 806-810, when a great hole a very old

appeared in the earth near the Sarusawa Pond is

noted for

the its

its

From

this

when

nights,

shadow of the Kofukuji five-storied pagoda

water.

Nara, which

at

subhme beauty on moonlight

is

reflected in

opening in the earth there issued forth a

dark smoke which spread over the countryside causmg

illness

among the people. The Emperor was greatly concerned about this strange occurrence and summoned a sage of wide renown to make the necessary observations. The sage explained that the negative fire of the earth,

which

is

normally concealed,

was escaping through the hole because the ground had caved in, and therefore a positive fire should be applied to restore the equihbrum. Thereupon, a great pyre of wood around the

hole was lighted, and after ceased to

it

had burned away, the hole

smoke and the illness abated. To celebrate this strange

event the okina sambasu dance was performed, and ever since that time

it

present day

has survived as an ancient tradition. it

called takigino, or

second

Even

to the

No

dance

has been customary to perform the

fuU-burning No, on the seventh day of the

month of every

year. Traditionally the oldest okitia

mask, bearing the date Genkyu

3,

or 1206,

is

said to be the

preserved in the Asakusa temple in Tokyo, where at the festival

it is

held on the fifteenth day of the sixth

one

used

month

every year.

Although many

No

masks of the

earliest

period of

this

lyric

dance are preserved in certain temples and shrines, the

ones

known

to have been carved

by the famous makers

mostly preserved by descendants of the great

There

is

no biographical information

famous mask makers; only master carvers,

as

their

names

are

No performers.

available about the

are

known. The ten

they are called, were Koushi Kiyomitsu,

Kyogen mask known as Oto, an abbreviation of Otogozeti, meaning Noble Lady. As a popular favorite in the kyogen comedy

Himi Munetada, Tokuwaka Tadamasa, Echi Yoshifune,

plays, the character

Akasuru Yoshinari, Fukuhara Bunzo, Ishikawa Tatsuemon,

period, fifteenth century.

is

often given other familiar names.

Kasuga

shrine,

Nara.

Muromachi


hamiya mask, which belongs to the classification of devil and

mythological masks.

and

The

one which he could not

ill-fitting

him

old carver sent

a

poorly

use. In a

made

of rage

fit

own son and messenger. The disgrace was so great that the old man

Kwanze broke committed

it

and sent the pieces back by Gensuke's

suicide. After

many

years had passed

Kwanze

required a certain type of mask to play before the court and a carver

was recommended

most perfect mask

that

make

to

Kwanze had

performance he found that

it

it

It

was the

worn and

after the

for him.

ever

could not be removed from his

The

No performance, from the time its perfected form was

developed in the Muromachi period, was the dramatic entertainment of the Shoguns and the Imperial court. regular part of the artistic class

life

its patrons. During the Edo period some of Tokugawa Shoguns even went so far as to give

certain favorite

No

actors the rank

their enthusiasm to further

access to the private apartments

of the

danger to the Shogunate and to the

type has since been called

castles.

Shortly after

the begimiing of the eighteenth century, Arai Hakuseki,

made by

its

of samurai, and carried

extremes by allowing these actors

was

old Gensuke's son and

was a

having been

the earlier

The maker was summoned and with much effort he succeeded in pulling it away from Kwanze's face together with a good portion of the actor's skin. This mask had been face.

It

of the samurai, the military

a distinguished scholar

official

who

of Confucian learning and an

advisor to the Shogunate, compiled three voluminous

reports, presenting in detail the reasons

why

the

No

was

a

After considering

state.

niku-tsuki-no-meti or face-tearing mask.

THE "KYOGEN" COMIC INTERLUDE With sister

the development of the

No

play there appeared a

performance called kyogen, which consisted of one-act

comic

Kyogen had

interludes.

dances and, along with the

its

No

origin in the old samgaku

play, the

comic gesturing of

kyogen was perfected and refined. These one-act interludes are usually performed

on the same

No plays and are No performances.

stage as the

presented as comic relief to the solemn

Many

of them are

satires

on

social evils

and human behavior,

although the majority are primitive aiid naive farces performed to

amuse the audience.

classic

the

In contrast to the

No

plays with their

and poetic quotations and dialogue in the language of

Kamakura period,

the kyogen consists entirely of dialogue

and monologue in coUoquiahsms of the Muromachi period, without lyric or epic poetry. Although

this

language was used

a few hundred years ago, the kyogen comic interludes with their

mimicry and gestures are well understood by the present-

day audience. In the same manner contrast with each other, their

as the

masks

masks are more simple than the

No

No

and the kyogen

also differ.

The

kyogen

masks, and as each

is

intended to portray but a single expression, they are rather naive, depicting faces of conmaon people, usually

manner. This also

is

in direct contrast to

are not as

as the

No

numerous

essential to the portrayal

as in

in their variety

m a comic

Kyogen masks

of characters

masks, numbering only about twenty that are

zens, sniihng

animal and

No masks.

of the

parts, including

ordinary

citi-

gods of good fortune, comical ghosts, and

demon masks with whimsical expressions. Just No masks, many of the earliest kyogen

the case of the

masks have been preserved, a few in the temples and shrines

and the families.

rest chiefly

by the descendants of

the old kyogen

The comic kyogen mask

called Nobori-hige,

meaning Climbing-

ivhiskers, used for the laughable spirits or ghosts.

teenth century.

Edo period, seven-

Tokyo National Museum.

89


Kyogen mask

called Kctitoku,

posed

to depict

a Buddhist priest

toku,

who

is

is

sup-

named Ken-

made such a

said to have

whenever he was exposed

Muromachi

which

face

a cold wind.

to

period, sixteenth century.

Tokyo

National Museum.

this

evidence the Shogun,

at a

court function in the year 171 1,

agreed to substitute certain pieces of ancient music in place of the

No. From

official

this

time on the

patronage, and

it

servative circles as a cultivated

No

No

appears to have lost

was performed only

plays and their texts

form of entertainment. The

became famihar

to

better-educated persons in the rich merchant teurs soon

began to take a great

dialogue, and chants. all

No

many of

class,

interest in learning

the

and amaits

dances,

survives to the present day in

of its ancient beauty, and performances again are provided

as part

The

of the

official entertatninents at the

cultural history

of traditions

90

The

its

in certain con-

Imperial court.

of Japan records an endless repertoire

that survive to the present day.

The mask

is

no

exception, as uidicated dances, processions,

by

and

its

popularity in

festivals in

throughout the country. There not have princess

its

is

many forms of

every town and village

hardly a hamlet that does

Inari Shinto shrine dedicated to the prehistoric

named Ugatama-no-Mikoto, the goddess of rice. At little shrines the Hatsuuma Festival is cele-

these picturesque

brated on the

first

zodiac horse-day after the cold season

according to the old lunar calendar, or about the 12th of February.

It is

held for the observance of prayers for a

one of the most popular

crop of rice and

is

Those taking part

in the shrine dance

who

is

the messenger of Inari.

people in open-air

stalls set

up

good

folk-festivals.

wear masks of the fox,

The masks

are sold to the

especially for the festival.


<^

VII Metalwork

from the

I

HE ART of preparing metals

^

their ores has

earhest times.

for use

from

been practiced by the Japanese

The Neohthic

culture of Japan

con-

is

sidered to have been one of the most advanced in the world,

because extant metal tools and weapons reveal unusual

skills

and knowledge. From these early beginnings the Japanese metalworker and

artist

gradually developed the art to a

of beauty and perfection. Gold,

superlative degree

silver, iron,

copper, and tin are the only substances recognized as true metals

by

early Chinese

or the five metals and were believed to have relationship with the five colors

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;and

also

century

with the

some mystical

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;black, red, blue, white, and

five planets.

According to Chinese

all officials

any gold or

costume.

official

below

silver

sixth rank

The

ornament permitted

a Japanese lady consisted

sword and on

They were

wear

of a simple his

his pipe case.

One of the earliest uses of gold was for coating other metals, to protect

them from oxidation

the early centuries

it

as

was employed

well as for display, and in as a

coating

on bronze and

copper objects of personal adornment and on the iron trappings of horses.

It is

bits

and

evident that the craftsmen of these

and the fashioning of metals,

earth's crust.

to

on the mounts on

hairpin; a gentleman might have gold

ancient periods

on the materials of the

were forbidden

of these and similar subsequent

effects

the sun and the male and female principles of nature, or yaiig yin, acting

were

use. In the ninth

its

except on their armor and swords and

philosophy, they were believed to have originated through

and

sources of supply

its

laws survived until very recent times, so that the only gold

and Japanese writers. In the Japanese

language they are designated collectively by the term go kin

yellow

mineral veins in later periods. Since

not too plentiful, sumptuary laws limited

were highly

skilled in the art as

of metallurgy

well as in the art of decorating

them. Their process of applying thin sheets of copper to iron

not considered simple elements, but capable under certain

for protection,

conditions and influences of being transmuted one into an-

them

at

and coating

it

with gold, passed away with

the end of the period of the Ancient Burial

Mounds

many centuries of Japanese metalwork did not work solely in precious metals,

during the early centuries, the Japanese also had developed the

nor were there any special guilds of goldsmiths or silversmiths.

technique of "onlaying," by which gold was applied directly

The value of the

onto the surface of another metal. In

other. All

through the

the master craftsmen

were content

material

to use

was secondary, and metalworkers

any metal,

their sole desire being to

(c.

A.D.

with a

manship. So true

selected

is

this that

it is

not in gold and

silver that

are found, but in less costly metals

alloys. In this the Japanese

craftsman was a true

and

artist.

Although

this

method was

this

chisel.

method

the surface

fine lines into

it

Then a sheet of gold of the desired thickness was

and carefully heated, and while

the roughened metal surface.

and rubbing with

a

smooth

stone,

it

hot was laid on the gold

became firmly this

gold was practiced, in the same manner After the introduction of

still

By lightly hammering

Already in the period of the dohnens

THE NOBLE METALS

extensively used

of the metal was roughened by crosshatching

produce objects which would be valued for beauty of work-

most masterpieces

lOo).

Buddhism

affixed.

method of applying

as at the present time.

in the sixth century

gold was employed more extensively, especially for gilding

Gold was regarded by Japanese writers five metals.

in

many

as the

Although never abundant in Japan,

localities, in

king of the

it

was found

the sands of rivers in early times and in

bronze and wooden images of Buddliist vessels

divinities,

copper

used for ceremonial and ornamental purposes, and

copper architectural appliques for the decoration of temples

91


Iron kettle for the tea ceremony, with the design

of a chrysanthemum and a kiri Attributed

to Yojiro, a

Momoyama

period

tionally said to

famous

crest

kettle

(1573-1615).

have belonged

to

in

relief

maker of the It

is

tradi-

Hideyoshi. Tokyo

National Museum.

Ashiya

iron kettle, with a design

and maple fifteenth

in

relief.

century.

of a deer

Muromachi

Collection

period,

of Ryoichi

Hosomi, Osaka.

and

shrines. In

somewhat

later

times the most important use

of gold was as a medium of exchange, for which purpose it was in the

form of gold dust enclosed

in quills or tiny bags, in

each case containing a precise weight.

1570 and 1580 the

first

government mint was

the coinage of gold and silver coins.

were

objects

Then between Only

the years

established for

in very rare cases

of solid gold ever made, the exception being a

few wine cups and very small

kettles for heating

wine or

the beautiful alloy called shakudo.

pieces

and sparingly worn

as jewelry, its

use in the art of the

metal craftsman was confmed almost exclusively to the decoration

on sword mounts and on pipe

fifteenth century, solid

cases.

Even

gold was used sparingly on sword

mounts, with the exception of the nienuki principal use being for inlaid decoration

92

as late as the

(rivet-heads),

its

on mounts made of

the second quarter

(1688-1704),

which were periods of luxury and abundance,

the tsuba, kogai, and kozuka were frequently gold. Although

the

many

it

is

made of

solid

was generally used sparingly throughout

centuries, the use

nique that

of gold in lacquer work

Japan and renowned

peculiar to

for

its

is

a tech-

exquisite

beauty.

water which belonged to the houses of certain nobles or

daimyo. Since gold was seldom used for any ornamental

During

of the seventeenth century and again in the Genroku era

Silver, or gin as

it is

called in Japanese,

referred to as shiro-kane, silver

Burial

by the Japanese

Mounds

that period as

period;

is

also

sometimes

meaning white metal. The use of

dates at least as early as the Ancient

many

objects have

on which silver has been used

sword scabbards with bands of

been found from

for decoration, such

silver,

silver

beads for

personal ornament, bronze and copper rings coated with silver.

Like gold,

silver

is

found

in Japan as pure metal but

is


Above:

Bronze

of human

mirror, with a relief design

figures. Pre-Buddhist period, before

A.D. 552. Tokyo National Museum.

Bronze dotaku,

Left:

ti'ith

a relief design

representing flowing water. Pre-Buddhist period, before

A.D. 552. Tokyo National Mu-

seum.

very limited in its distribution and occurs only in small quan-

used, even in the palaces of the nobles or in the great mansions

of the daimyo.

was seldom used even

It

for religious vessels

or utensils at Buddhist ceremonies, since due to

somber color

With

it

was considered

the beginning of the

two hundred and Shogunate,

silver

arts for inlay,

and

its

cold and

unfit for ornamental objects.

Edo period (1615-1867) and its of peace under the Tokugawa

fifty years

came to be extensively used in the decorative especially in the

form of alloys with copper,

used for tsuba and other sword mounts. Certain peculiar to Japan

and bearing the generic name

silver alloys

shibuichi

were

widely used by metal craftsmen to provide unusual decorative effects

of color, these

alloys being

gray patina. Along with inlay

work,

silver

was

its

COPPER, TIN, AND LEAD

meaning of the term, was never

Silver plate, in the true

tities.

made

to

produce a beautiful

use in alloys and as decorative

also extensively

used in lacquer.

Copper, or akagane

as it is called,

meaning red metal, has

played a most important role in the art of Japanese metalwork. In addition to being the principal uses are far

component of bronze,

its

more numerous than in other countries, and many

of these applications are without

like or equal. In the early

centuries of our era the Japanese achieved skill in the arts of

preparing copper and employed in advance

of any other people.

it

in a decorative

By

manner

far

the end of the period of

the dolmens the use of thin sheets of copper coated with gold

applied to iron as a protective and decorative feature ceased to exist, as

we

have seen, but the use of thin copper sheets to

protect and ornament surfaces of

present day.

The

art

period (710-794),

wood

has continued to the

of gilded copper culminated in the Nara

when

it

was

lavishly used to embellish the

93


wooden architecture oftemples and shrines with richly worked was

appliques. Gilded copper

make ceremonial

artisans to

also extensively

used by skUled

vessels, articles for the altar,

and

metal lanterns for the courtyards and interiors of temples and

Toward

shrines.

tensively

for domestic use, rative

the end of the

employed

and for many other

sword mounts. During

seldom gilded,

Edo period copper was ex-

for the decoration

as the

of vessels and

utensils

including deco-

articles,

these later times copper

was

craftsman preferred to exploit the rich-

colored patinas ^n shades of red and

brown

to enhance the

beauty of his work. The alloy of copper and zinc which produces brass was

Buddhism.

unknown in

Japan before the introduction of

Brass, or shinshu, never

Japanese metal craftsmen because

harsh and

The

it

its

found much favor among color tone

was considered

does not blend harmoniously with other metals.

use of brass in decorative objects has been almost ex-

and

clusively restricted to ceremonial vessels dhist temples

and Shinto

or five ornaments of the Buddhist

The

utensils

of Bud-

shrines, especially for the go-gusoku

principal use of tin

altar.

and lead in Japan was in the prep-

aration of pewter. Neither of these metals appear to have

been used separately, except in rare cases. Tin

many places,

in

Ekaganii, mirror with a handle, having the design of a raft under a barren willow. Bronze.

Edo

period,

seventeenth

century.

By

Itani

Hoju.

Tokyo National

is

is

found in Japan

only one ancient mine in the

country, situated in the old province of Satsuma. Lead was also rarely used, except as

an inlay for decorative purposes in

early lacquer ware. This lack

lead

Museum.

although there

was not due

occur extensively in

ed

of interest in the use of tin and

to the scarcity

many

of either of the

With primary interest centered in from

ores, for they

these ores

were

treat-

being argentiferous or silver-producing.

as silver ores,

process

But

districts.

early times

the extraction of silver, the

was practiced

manner, which resulted in the

loss

in a

most wasteful

of the greater portion of

the tin and lead. Pewter, as an alloy of tin and lead, had been

used in very ancient times in China, where a Superstition against

its

it

seems there was

use for domestic vessels

owing

to a

curious belief regarding the origin of tin. This belief prevailed

not only in early times but even persisted until recently. Occasionally pewter vessels had been found to communicate

poisonous properties to wine kept in them, which the old

Chinese philosophers attributed to tin originates ciple

arsenic.

They claimed

that

from arsenic by the influence of the female prin-

of nature

called yin, acting for a period

years; therefore, tin used in

of two hundred

making pewter must sometimes

be a mixture of arsenic and tin if sufficient time has not elapsed for the complete conversion of the arsenic.

According to early records, the use of pewter in Japan was rather

Bronze mirror with six design

in

relief.

having a conventionalized geometric

Pre-Buddhist period, before

National Museum.

94

hells,

A.D. 552. Tokyo

common

during the Nara period,

utensils are said to

period until

it

was used

more

as

have been made from

when it.

vessels

By

an inlay decoration in lacquer.

recent times that pewter

became

and

the Heian It

was not

a favorite alloy


The characteristic Japanese tea jar or made of pewter is rather ovoid in section with a round

for keeping tea leaves. canister

Up rim having contained in a

a tightly fitted cover. silk

net of very large

the neck with a cord so the

tea jars are usually-

mesh which is tied around

may be hung

jar

for safe-keeping.

unequaled.

as

The

fame of this family

great

begimiing in Kyoto around the middle of the twelfth

its

when Myochin Munesuke

century

more than

established

its

name. For of

six centuries the successive generations

Myo-

chin not only continued to be the greatest armor makers

priesthood for ritual utensils, which probably further

but occupied with honor and distinction the position of ar-

case

discouraged the Japanese craftsman from applying his its

out pre-eminently

had

of silver, pewter was not in favor with the Bud-

As in the dliist

These

Among the famous armor makers, the Myochin family stands

skill

ornamentation except on rare occasions. Li rare

to

cases,

pewter pieces are found with inlays of copper, bronze, and even gold, but usually

surface

its

is left

entirely plain.

The

beauty and value of old pewter depends entirely on the soft gray mottled patina which

its

surface acquires after a length

of time by constantly being rubbed with a

morers to the Shogimates. Every piece of hammered ironwork

known

is

a

Myochin, whether

plain or

workmanship

a perfect example of the fmest

of the ironsmith.

known

Cast iron does not appear to have been

to the Japa-

nese in prehistoric times, but one of the earliest records to

mention

silk cloth.

made by

to have been

ornamental,

it

states that in

stricting the

making of

the year 700 an edict

was

cast-iron coins to the

issued re-

government.

Cast iron has been principally used by Japanese craftsmen for

IRON

making small

objects, such as kettles

According to the old Cliinese philosophers, the metallic element iron called yatig,

a product of the masculine principle of nature

is

and therefore

and

tenacity. Its

from the time of the dolmens, which

kettles

were made

kettles

were

ancient dolmens have

come many

excellent examples

of iron

cast

in the chapter

on

it

cooking purposes

was not

the lost-wax method,

sculpture.

until the

that artistically

for the ritual of the tea

by

vessels

are masterpieces of

kettles for

early times but

of the Muromachiperiod(i338-i573)

around the beginning of our era. From the chambers of these

use in Japan dates at least is

possesses hardness

modeling and decoration. Iron

were used from very

and other similar

many

for heating water or wine, and

end

wrought

ceremony. These

which

is

explained

When these castings are removed

with the exception of the molded

weapons, armor, spearheads and arrowheads, and especially

from the molds, they

swords that display the splendid workmanship of the early

ornamental designs, imsuitable to receive any further deco-

Japanese ironsmith.

Of all

the articles

since early times the foremost place

made of iron and must be given

steel

to the

ration

by

inlaying, chasuig, or other similar process without

additional treatment.

At

this stage

hard and

sword has occupied a pre-

of the casting

is

eminent position of honor and renown. For more than eight-

decarbonized.

The

warrior's sword, for in Japan the

are,

brittle

of the process the surface

and must be softened and

furnace used in this process, which has

een centuries the Japanese craftsman has lavished his highest

make it perfect not only as a weapon but also as a work

skill to

of art to be worn in times of peace. Iron swords comprise the articles

burial

of greatest importance among the objects found in the

chambers of the ancient dolmens.

Although the swordmaker and armorer were both smiths, their crafts

rivalry

were

entirely distinct.

There was an intense jealous

between the two craftsmen and

it is

rare to

fmd

either

one encroaching on the rights of the other. In early times the fame of the armorer

which

was measured by the

resistance

his masterpieces offered to the cutting blades

rival, the

swordsmith. However, in

later

times

it

of

his

was the

beauty of the ornament with which his armor was adorned that

brought him

fa:ne.

The

plates

of which the helmet and

body armor were constructed were made from both wrought iron and care

although

steel,

was used

steel

in the selection

extreme toughness which

was used

less

frequently. Great

of the pieces of metal, but the

many

possess

is

imparted by the

repeated doubling and welding to which the iron was subjected before

it

was fmally hammered into the fmished

piece.

Engraved

gilt-hroiize

period (794-11S5).

head of a nyoi, or

priest's scepter.

Heian

Tokyo National Museum 95


remained unchanged for more than four hundred sists

years,

con-

of a cast-iron pan from which the bottom has been broken

away, with a lining of refractory

pieces are in turn set

upon

workshop. The cast-iron nace so that

it rests

space between

an hour or more,

makes

is

slab,

is

and the

fdled with lumps

bum

ignited and allowed to

is

of the

floor

then placed inside the fur-

of the pan

for

consumed; then the object

until nearly

reversed and the operation

and these

on the perforated

sides

of charcoal. The charcoal

placed on

on the

bricks

article is

directly

and the

it

few

a

is

holes,

This pan

clay.

numerous

a fire-clay slab perforated with

is

repeated. This heat treatment

and malleable for the

the surface sufficiently soft

crafts-

man to incise clean lines and channels with sharp and unbroken edges for the decoration desired. After the decorative

brown oxidized

work

has been completed, the imique

which

surface to

these castings

owe

so

much

of their beauty has yet to be produced. In the case of the fmest objects, the entire surface

the Japanese. fire,

The

and when

casting

it

worked with

is

produce an irregular rough

effect

is

which

a pointed

is

punch

to

highly esteemed by

then again heated over a charcoal

has reached the desired temperature

it is

rubbed with a liquid composed of plum vinegar containing iron in solution and ferric oxide in suspension. This operation is

repeated on each part of the object until the entire surface

amount of rusting. The whole is thoroughly rubbed with a dry cloth, then cover-

has been properly treated to the desired

ed with a thin coat of lacquer and carefully heated over a

with fme

brazier,

particles

of water being splashed on

it

with

a brush during this treatment.

The development of the

techniques of casting was due to

which was conducted in

the popularity of the tea ceremony,

simple, quiet surroundings, with the refined beauty of the utensils in

simphcity.

harmony with Zen principles of restraint and The cast-iron objects were chiefly kettles, many

being designed by such famous

artists as

Sesshu,

Tosa Mitsu-

nobu, and others of equal fame. The foremost name associated

with these

appHed to

kettles kettles

prefecture.

by the

is

Ashiyagama, which

made

Ashiyagama, or Ashiya

soft effect

produce a natural

is

the generic term

at Ashiya, a coastal village in

of the

Fukuoka

kettles, are characterized

surfaces, so skillfully treated as to

rustic quality.

Together with the

Ashiya, which have been highly prized since the

kettles

of

Muromachi

made at Temmyo in Sano, north of Tokyo, and Temmyogama, have also been greatly appreciated by

by Shiotsuchi-no-Okina in producing was he

who first

salt

in prehistoric times.

taught the Japanese how

to

make

salt.

The

period, those

It

called

four kettles are about four feet in diameter and four or five

the tea masters. (i

It

was not

573-161 5) that the kettles In the

is

a

Momoyama

period

Kyoto became popular.

minor Shinto shrine

from the main Shiogama

ancient iron kettles

96

at

town of Shiogama on Matsushima Bay

eastern Japan there

distance

until the

made

in north-

just a short

shrine, dedicated to four

which according

to tradition

were used

inches deep, with the iron about three inches thick. Early the

morning of the tenth of July each year,

of the iron-kettle shrine

will,

on

the Shinto officials

while they take cold ablutions,

observe the ceremony of changing the water of the four kettles,

when

which,

it is

traditionally said, will

a national calamity

is

change in color

about to take place.


probably of the same period, are dotaku, which are curiously bell-shaped. Their exact date

and

archaeologists

dotaku

were

is still

is

of dispute among

a subject

not known.

It is

presumed

originally used as percussion instruments

some

sibly, at

their use

later time, as

that

and pos-

ornamental objects. They are

without like or equal and are only found in Japan

at certain

Honshu and Shikoku. None have

ever been

excavation sites in

found in Kyushu, which mainland.

is

the island nearest to the Asiatic

appears that they were deliberately buried, but

It

the reason remains

been found and

unknown.

A great number o( dotaku have widely from one or two

their size varies

inches in height to three feet, the latter being the most

mon. These

com-

and usually decorated with

bells are flat in section

an over-all pattern of lattice design or one typically Oriental

Many

in feeling called ryusuimon or flowing-water pattern. are

ornamented with

such things

interesting primitive pictures depicting

human

houses,

as fish, deer, turtles,

ing scenes, and scenes of the everyday times.

beings, hunt-

of those ancient

life

These castings are thin and are of great importance in

the history of bronze founding, for they could only have been

produced by the lost-wax process and by the use of a hot mold.

Somewhat

around the begimiing of our

later,

era, in the

period of Ancient Burial Mounds, the bronze spears, halberds,

and swords of the Above:

Bronze kenian with chased and openwork

Heian period (794-1185). Owned by

the

designs.

Konjiki-do of the

Chusonji monastery at Hiraizumi, Iwate prefecture.

earlier

period had disappeared, and in their

stead the chief articles of bronze are mirrors,

helmets, horse trappings, and small

hollow spheres with a

bells.

sword pommels,

These bells are simple

cut in the lower half, and they

slit

contain a loose piece of metal or a small round pebble. as accessories to the warrior's

trappings,

and for other ornamental purposes. The bronze

mirrors found in the ancient burial

mounds offer an interesting

study of the development of bronze centuries. Left:

Detail showing one of the finely pierced and line-engraved

gilt-bronze plates from

a

kanchoban pendant. Asuka period

(552-645). Tokyo National Museum.

They

costume, on horse

were used

bronze mirrors

as early as the

(206 B.c.-A.D. 220).

the end of the

by

work through many

Metalworkers in China had been casting beautiful

Han

the Japanese

beginning of the

They were introduced

dynasty.

Many

of the

Han

dynasty

into Japan about

earliest

mirrors cast

were exact copies of Chinese prototypes, but

there soon appeared a certain native expression

which the

Japanese always developed immediately after adopting an art

from the

continent.

The

characteristic

Chinese mirror was

decorated with symbolic representations of legendary figures

BRONZE The

art

of casting bronze, which was

called kara-kane or

Chinese metal, has been practiced by the Japanese ever since several centuries before our era, as evidenced

exaniples found in simple burial mounds. spears, halberds,

and swords, and

by the various

They include bronze

are another

proof of the

and animals, gods, and mythical

characters. For

knovwi reason the early Japanese

casters

some un-

merely copied the

Chinese mirrors but without reproducing the designs with their original sharp lines, preferring instead to soften

apparently for aesthetic reasons.

assumed a truly indigenous dances,

scenes

A

The mirror

style

them,

designs gradually

with hunting scenes,

festival

with house designs, and conventionalized

mirror of unusual design that also dates from the

advanced knowledge of metallurgy and the techniques of

patterns.

founding in prehistoric Japan. The largest cast-bronze objects.

time of the Ancient Burial

Mounds is the so-called bell mirror. 97


The bell mirror is found with from four to twelve small round bronze the

bells attached

Nara period

around

outer edge.

its

of

and eight-lobed, and

that are square, while others are six-

eight-

Many mirrors

are typically Japanese in taste, with shapes

and twelve-pointed, generally decorated with

birds,

and landscapes.

flowers,

By the

time of the Heian period the mirror had developed

come

a distinctive Japanese style and

wakyo, or Japanese mirror. plain but thinner

The

to be

known

as the

mirrors of Heian times had

and higher rims, and the knob or boss in the

center for the cord,

which was

large, plain,

Nara period, became smaller and was

and round in the

usually in the

form of

a flower. As the mirrors became thinner during the Heian period, the designs

were more dehcate, with

flowers, pine

branches, butterflies, leaves of grass, and cranes. During the

Kamakura period

the wakyo

type of design called Gilt-bronze sutra box, with chased and

openwork

floral

designs.

of poetry along with the

was often made with a particular

or picture poem, combining a piece

pictorial subject.

The mirror with

a

Heian period

(jg4-ii8^). Collection of the Aichi-do of the Chusonji monastery

e-uta,

at

Hiraizumi,

handle most frequently seen in Japan to the present time

around the end of the

called ekagami. This type first appeared

Muromachi period and became popular during

Iwate prefecture.

yama

the

Momo-

period. Since the handle eliminated the need for the

cord knob, a greater freedom of design was possible and beautiful compositions

the

is

Edo period

the

were

demand

created.

With

many

the beginning of

grew

for these mirrors

to such

proportions that the quahty of workmanship suffered.

The

its

beginning in

Ise are the

famous Jingu

history of the mirror in Japan has

legendary times. At Uji-Yamada in shrines, the

Geku

sericulture,

and the Kodaijingu, or Naiku, dedicated to the

dedicated to the goddess of crops, food, and

sun goddess, Amaterasu-o-mi-kami. In the Naiku the mirror called Yata-no-Kagami,

no-Shinki or Three Sacred Treasures

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;which

necklace

is

enshrined

which is one of the Sanshu-

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

i.e.,

mirror, sword, and

constitute the Imperial Regalia

of Japan.

According to Japanese mythology the mirror was given by

Amaterasu-o-mi-kami to Prince Ninigi, her grandson, when the latter came a mirror

is

down to earth to reign. Because of this heritage, many Shinto shrines throughout

venerated in

Japan, and in olden times a mirror

was offered

to a Shinto

shrine with a prayer.

TEMPLE BRONZES Both the Asuka and Nara periods form in bronze founding, paralleling the arts ing.

Due to

the introduction of Buddhism in the sixth century

and the estabhshment of a fixed Bronze

98

sutra

box with designs of dragons and clouds;

Heian period (794

gilt-bronze and silver in

relief.

1185). Tokyo National

Museum.

to

a brilhant epoch

of sculpture and paint-

capital

and court

at

Nara

in

the year 710, the building of numerous temples proceeded at

a rapid pace, and the

many

skilled artisans

brought from

China and Korea included workers in bronze and others pro-


Gilt-bronze head of a shakujo, a staff used

by Buddhist

priests.

Nara

period (710-794). Tokyo National

Museum.

./I fi

Gih-bronze reliquary stupa, with openwork and chased designs offlowers, dragons, lions, and flames.

Kamakura period (1185-1333}.

Saidaiji temple,

Nara.

ficient in the

production of images of Buddhist divinities and

examples of bronze work

is

the temple ornament called

form o(ban,

meaning baimer or

such a strong

kanchoban

which

emphasis placed on the production of religious art, the develop-

streamer.

Ban were commonly made of

ment of bronze-founding was

there are a

vessels for the

priests,

ceremonies of

its rituals.

largely

due to the Buddhist

and the chief w^orks in bronze for the succeeding

centuries other than Buddhist images bells,

With

were temple

lanterns,

and other objects for the sacred buildings. Very soon

few

is

a

rare examples fashioned

a great central baldachin

there

are preserved in the early temples at

many

Nara and

smaller articles such as bells,

gongs, braziers or incense burners, bronze banners, and other objects

for

ritual

purposes.

Among

the

more

elaborate

from which hang

long pendants of metal plates. In the extremely large kanchoban

several smaller ban, each with

of this period

although

used in the kancho ceremony. These bronze kanchoban are

the Japanese craftsmen themselves began to produce in bronze.

Horyuji, in addition to

textiles,

of metal, which were

elaborate pieces consisting of a square top

The most important

ancient bronze images and ritual vessels

literally

is

ornamentation

consists

its

from which

are suspended

pendants of metal

of an over-all

series

plates.

The

of patterns and

designs in sharply cut pierced work with the remaining slender surface spaces delicately engraved. quisite

Other examples of ex-

openwork with fme engraving

are the

many

halos of

99


Brass

with

censer

long

a

handle in the shape of a bird's

Asuka period (552-645).

tail.

Tokyo National Museum.

Buddhist icons and the keman, or pendant ornament. The

keman was originally a wreath of flowers used

in Buddhist temples, but later the real flowers

by

leather,

wood, and metal

an ornament

as

were replaced

substitutes. In the

bronze keman the openwork design

in the

is

majority of

form of con-

Many

of the early pieces of bronze are

One

type

the shakujo, a staff used

is

metal head of the

jangling sound

Buddhist figures are mcluded, beautifully chiseled within the

this

pattern.

itinerant

the Heian to the

Muromachi period

there flourished

made

staff is

principal characteristic

ventionalized vines with leaves and flowers, and frequently

From

them

the temples that have preserved

is

the set of six rings

to frighten

away wUd

of bronze object seen in temples

is

of Decadence, which was prevalent

There are

sutras

or scriptures were buried so that the owner might be prepared for the appearance of the Maitreya

Buddha. Buried

It is

was

said that

carried

by

form of a

which

is

deco-

flat

hung on a rack in front of an image of the Buddha

and struck by the

and the

it

the kei or gong,

rated piece,

was influenced by the Buddhist conception of Mappo, or Age at that time,

its

animals. Another type

box or

practice

The

which give off a

when the staff strikes the ground.

type of staff originated in India, where

monks

centuries.

priests.

in a variety of shapes but

a Buddhist percussion instrument in the

mound. This

many

by Buddhist

a curious custom of placing hand-copied sutras in a bronze container to be buried in a sutra

being used by

still

for so

priest

with a mallet while reciting the

also beautifully

wrought bronze

sutras.

censers with long

handles that are placed before the image of Buddha while the

conducting a service. The ends of their long handles

in the

priest

is

mounds together with these sutra boxes were Buddhist images,

curve

downward

mirrors, coins, small containers with lids, and other similar

ornamental nature and frequently designed in the shape of a

articles.

Sutra boxes used for this purpose were

made in a wide

bird's tail or

to serve as a support

some other simQar form.

variety of forms in bronze, and decorated with incised niotifs

esting articles used in esoteric

which were sometimes

vajra bell,

Nara prefecture there

gilded. In the is

of a

gilt

box of unusually

a sutra

form which was excavated from

Kimbusanji temple in

a

mound

nearby.

beautiful It

consists

bronze oblong case resting on a support resembling

a Chinese table with four legs similar to those of the

period. There

were

also great

numbers of sutra boxes

in the temples and houses of the nobles; they

decorated and represent the highest

Many

of these were of gilt bronze in a

lotus flowers

and interlacing vine

fmely worked with sutra boxes

large

100

skill

reliefs in

to contain

for use

were beautifully

of the bronze worker. delicate

openwork of

designs, while others

were

gilded bronze and silver. These

were usually oblong or

enough

Ming

cylindrical

more than one

and some were

sutra scroll.

and the

dorje.

They

and

of an

are usually

Two of the most inter-

Buddhism

are the goko-rei or

among

the various articles

are

reserved for Buddhist exorcism, the ritual act or process of driving off evil Jupiter, the

spirits.

The

dorje is the pajra

symbol of the strong and

or thunderbolt of

indestructible,

the priest grasps and manipulates in various prayer. like a

The emblem

is

which

ways during

a bronze instrument, shaped

dumbbell with both ends pointed or having

much

five

con-

verging prongs representing the thunderbolt. The vajra bell in the

form of

a hand-bell

and

is

so

named because

it

is

has

the same five-pointed symbol of the vajra or thunderbolt at the end of the handle.

In Buddhist temples are also found ceremonial ornaments

placed on the altar

known

as san-gusoku,

or the three

articles.


consisting

of a

and a candlestick; and

vase, an incense burner,

namely an incense

also the go-gusokii, or the five articles,

burner, a pair of vases, and a pair of candlesticks. There were also

many

interesting bronzes

made

in the

stupa to contain sutras or other religious

form of a tope or and although

relics,

they were intended for the temple or house of a nobleman, they were frequently buried in the sutra mounds. dhist stupa

is

usually in the

form of a

The Bud-

cylindrical or prismatic

tower topped by a cupola erected to contain or form a Buddhist shrine. Aside

from the variety of articles of bronze used and

in the temples for ornamental

ritual purposes, in the

courtyard there was frequently a bronze lantern of enormous size. is

Of particular importance in this category of bronze work

the octagonal lanteni that stands in front of the Hall of the

Great

Buddha

tern, cast consists

in the Todaiji temple at Nara. This great lan-

by the lost-wax method,

is

thirteen feet in height and

of an octagonal pedestal supporting an octagonal light

"

698.

One of the two

at the Todaiji

temple

in diameter at

the belfry

was

on

New Year's Eve,

two hours temple

a beautiful

sound, with a rich tonal vibration which in some bells continues for

many

Many

minutes.

quality; for example, the old bell

shore of Lake

Biwa

is

bells

melodious tone

its

Among

the

of Japan, the oldest to bear a date

in the belfry

of the Myoshinji temple

scription dated the second year

Bronze kei, or gong, with

famous for

this

of the Miidera temple on the

noted for

heard in the early evening.

bells are

many

Kyoto, with an in-

of the Emperor

relief designs

of

period (794-1185}. Zenrinji temple, Kyoto.

great temple

the one that hangs

is

at

when

Mommu,

lotus plants.

or

Heian

light

the largest

it is

8.9 feet in

At midnight

of large bonfires, the

bell

is

to complete the operation. In section, the Japanese

bells differ

from Western forms

in having the

rim

It is this

construction which causes the gentle rising and falling tones

neither

boom

wood beam under bell that

form of a

is

like a battering

men

are

a

is

low

boss,

the

ram. At the huge

needed to propel

the direction of a leader.

struck

rung by

which

is

The

point

frequently in

lotus flower.

casting

of

a large bell in early times in Japan

important event and was

and popular

are

beam of wood suspended from

with a

tower and propelled

The

of Japanese beUs. They are

swung nor furnished with tongues, but

Chion-in belfry, a number of

the is

by the

characterizing the beautiful

on the

a great Japanese temple bell

;

and

feet in height

thickened internally so their mouths are constricted.

have been made

The boom of

believed that

It is

other one hangs in the

struck 108 times according to Buddhist ritual, requiring almost

the

in 749.

The

recast in 1239.

was

when

in 989

diameter, and weighing seventy-four short tons.

bamboo flute and lions gamboling among clouds. One of the fmest works of art of the Nara period, it is said to time of the erection of the Great Buddha

thick. This bell

was badly damaged

measuring 17.9

striking the outside

at the

and 10 inches

famous belfry of the Chion-in temple at Kyoto bell in Japan,

bell

playing the

a famous one in the belfry 13.6 feet in height, 9.2 feet

was blown down by a typhoon.

the present bell

two-doored. The

of the doors portray Bodhisattvas

Nara;

originally cast in 732 but

chamber, in which the panels are alternately one-doored and grilles

at

base,

its

is

it is

largest bells

rejoicing.

on the day appointed

A

celebrated

by

great festival

was held

at

the temple

for running the metal into the

the temple grounds. People of

was an

religious ceremonies

all classes

came from

mold far

in

and

near with contributions, often consisting of bronze mirrors, hairpins,

and other ornaments to be added

to the

bronze in

the furnaces, and in succeeding years this occasion was ob-

served

by temple

festivals.

Gilt-bronze implements for Buddhist exorcism. bell

and a dorje

A goko-rei or vajra

or vajra (symbolic thunderbolt), resting on a four-

footed tray between a pair of flower holders.

Kamakura period

(1185-1333). Tokyo National Museum.

101


LATER BRONZE WORK During the Heian period (794-1185) the founding entered a

art

of bronze-

of stagnation despite the great rich-

state

ness of this period in other fields of creative activity.

But

after

the protracted warfare and feuds between the Fujiwara, Taira,

and Miuanioto farmhes, there came a revival of the old

art

of

Nara period. During the first hundred years of the Kama-

the

kura period (1185-1333) there appeared a renaissance in

and

it

was during

kura was

cast.

this

But from the beginning of the Muromachi

period until the end of the

Momoyama period only the metal

arts contributiiig to the needs of war flourished, for the

was torn with

art,

period that the Great Buddha of Kama-

unrest. It

Tokugawa Shogunate

is

country

not until the Edo period, with the

firmly estabhshed and the coimtry

again at peace, that the art of bronze again flourished. In the

Edo period

the foremost examples of the bronze-founder's

art are in the

mausoleums of the Tokugawa Shoguns at Nikko.

The

Toshogu

shrine, which is the mausoleum of Tokugawa leyasu, 1 542-1616, founder ofthe Tokugawa Shogunate,

great

is

the major architectural accomplishment of the

It

required fifteen thousand

to complete

all

arts.

period.

of its buildings. This magnificent structure has

an infmity of carved flects

Edo

men for a period of rv\'enty years

detail

and gold-leaf decoration and re-

the high level of achievement attained in the decorative

Another notable example of

leyasu in the

Toshogu

this

period

is

the

tomb of

shrine, completely cast in bronze,

with

bronze gates and distinguished by an impressive simplicity of design.

Almost the

geometric and

entire surface

ornamentation

is

molded

is

covered with a delicate

ground upon which the bolder

floral motif, as a

in relief

Large standing lanterns of bronze, contributed by the pro-

daimyo and nobles, who vied with one another in thus

vincial

doing honor to their departed the

Nikko

were given

shrines.

chiefs, line the courr^-ards

of

hundreds of these lanterns, which

votive offerings

as

dhist temples

Many

and to Shinto

by

the wealthy, both to

shrines,

were

cast

Bud-

during the Edo

period. Lanterns of this rj^pe adorn the approaches and grounds

of every temple of importance in Japan. Each group or pair differs

from any

harmony and

other, yet in

form and decoration

the bronze modelers and founders.

of

this

casting,

bronze work but

is

is

The extraordinary

or Chinese metal, which indicates that

alloy

tains lead as a]^ essential

not signify any

102

it

alloy

is

kara-kane

probably originated

from the bronzes of the earher

which were a simple

quality

on the physical character of

The fmest and most perfected

in China. Distinct

are in

not due solely to the modeling and

largely dependent

the alloys used.

all

of the fme work of

are characteristic examples

of copper and

tin,

periods,

kara-kane con-

component. The term kara-kane does

specific alloy, since

it

has a generic rather than

Miniature bronze stupa. Excavated

at a sutra

mound

on

Mount

Kurama. Heian period (.794-1185). Kuramadcra temple, Mount

Kurama, Kyoto.


Bronze hangmg

lantern, with a pierced design

of bamboo and cherry

Muromachi period (1338-1573). Iwayadera temple

branches.

at

lantern, with

a specific

meaning and is applied

to a varied

of metals of the lead-tin-copper of copper

may

series, in

group of mixtures

which proportions

range from 71 to 89 per cent, tin 2 to 8 per

and lead from

5 to 15 per cent.

beautifully chased tsuba

BRONZE ALLOYS

tin,

and lead. This

is

the centuries, the Japanese developed and perfected a

of fme and interesting beautiful color tones.

alloys,

zinc,

its

It is

soft

number

some of which produced most

One of these

distinctive for

sheen of its surface.

is

a

bronze called sentoku,

is

in

which the

similar articles, either

with plain

after the destruction

altar vessels It is

allow

it

of a temple

of bronze, gold, and brass

frequently used for vases and

with very

surfaces, to

and

shibuichi.

When

these are simply

beauty and decorative value being entirely

dependent on the unusual patinas produced by special ment. Shakudo

is

sometimes called

u-kin, or

because of the black tone of its patina. But

and before

its

treat-

cormorant gold,

when it is first cast,

surface has been suitably treated,

it

has a dark

order to attain the black surface with a violet sheen of the

was introduced from Ming China in

melted together in a mass.

frequently used for Buddhist ceremonial

composed of copper,

the fifteenth century. According to an old Chinese legend,

fire,

is

copper color rather similar to that of ordinary bronze. In

a yellow bronze

was discovered by accident

and other sword mounts. There

golden tones and the satin-like

occupying an intermediate position between

kara-kane and brass, and

by

and

nothing specially attractive in the alloys them-

selves, their great

and

trees

National

the alloys peculiar to Japan the fmest and most

all

cast there

As the science and art of preparing metals advanced through

tin,

Tokyo

articles.

Of

is

(133S-1373).

another Japanese alloy called sawari, which consists of copper,

beautiful are shakudo

which

an openwork design ofplum

Muromachi period

bamboo.

Museum.

Kasama.

cent,

Bronze hanging

little

ornament in

play to

full

However, the fmest specimens of

its

sentoku are

relief or

pleasing tones.

found among

fmest examples, the presence of not is

mandatory. There are no

the lowest being

of gold. The Satsuma

is

known

less

than 4 per cent of gold

than fifteen grades oi shakudo,

chusho,

shakudo produced

which contains only

by

traces

the metal craftsmen of

generally considered to be the richest in tone and

the most valuable. tained and

a,s

less

it

The

date of its origin has never been ascer-

has never been

employed

for large castings.

The

fmest objects in which shakudo was used are sword mounts

from

the time of Goto Yujo, 1440-1512, the

first

of a famous 103


perfect

ground

for inlaid designs

physical properties

Its

of gold,

silver,

make it an ideal metal

and copper.

for the craftsman

and allow him to work and fashion it with complete freedom. It

can be

hammered

into sheets,

drawn

into wire, or cast into

any form. In the process of producing the violet-black the object

leaching

first

is

by

wood ashes, and then carefully polished, if necessary,

with fme charcoal powder. After vinegar containpg lye,

patina,

boiled in a solution of lye prepared

salt

immersed

this it is

in solution, then

and placed in a tub of water so

that

in

washed with all

traces

removed. In the fmal stage of the process

it is

a

plum weak

of alkali are placed in a

boiling solution of copper sulphate, verdigris, and water, to

which

is

sometimes added potassium

tone of patina

is

nitrate, until the desired

produced.

Shihukhi occupies a position of equal importance with

main

shakudo in the field of ornamental metalwork. In the refers to

an alloy consisting of one part

copper. But shibuichi

is

be included two other

one part

which

silver

consists

a generic alloys,

and two

silver

name under which must

one

called sambo-gin,

parts copper,

it

and three parts also

which

and the other

is

hoji-gin,

of equal parts of silver and copper. Within the

defmition oÂŁ shibuichi are also included several lower alloys

of the same metals, although the alloy most generally used

by

the

than

more important metal craftsmen was

shibuichi.

in decorative

As in

sambo-gin rather

the case o( shakudo, the value of this alloy

metalwork

entirely

is

dependent upon

metal;

no

it

to

has

particular beauty until given a suitable treat-

produce a patina of tones of gray. The process of

producing the beautiful color tones o( shibuichi bell,

that used for shakudo,

dated 698. Myoshiiiji temple, Kyoto.

and the alloy

itself

physical qualities for inlaid decoration.

remarkable family of sword-mount to

artisans.

His descendants continued

make sword ornaments and uphold the family name

greatest in this field for seventeen generations, until the

as the

middle

of the nineteenth century. Fine shakudo, containing 4 or

5

per

cent gold, far surpassed any other alloy in the exceptional

beauty of

its

patina.

The deep

and the handsome polish

104

it is

violet-black tones of shakudo

capable of receiving provide a

un-

When it is first cast, its color is that of pale gun-

ment Bronze monastery

its

usual patina.

alloys, shakudo

and

inlaid designs in gold, silver,

worker was

By

shibuichi,

is

the

same

as

has the same ideal

using these

two

together with

fme

and copper, the Japanese metal-

able to achieve tonal effects unrivaled

by any

other metalwork in the world. Ever since the earlier periods, the Japanese metal founder and craftsman has displayed great skill

and possessed the quality and

Much

versatility

of a true

artist.

Japanese metalwork, particidarly in sword mounts,

represented

by masterpieces of unrivaled beauty.

is


Arms and Armor

VIII

I

T

WRITTEN

IS

.chronicle that

most ancient

the

ill

official

the Japanese sword had

legendary origin in the cosmogonic

its

Age of the Gods. Accord-

shrines within

its

precincts, the

bidding of the King a priest was ordered

ing to the Kojiki, or Records of Ancient Matters, compiled in the

of Korea, and

year 712, Prince Susano-o-no-Mikoto, brother of the sun

to cross over to Japan

goddess, killed an eight-headed dragon in the province of

and

Izumo and found

a

sword

in

its tail.

This sword, which was

originally called Amc-no-Murakunio-no-Tsurugi, or Heaven's

Cloud-gathering Sword,

is

one of the three heirlooms of the

Imperial family. Legend recounts that

when

Prince

Yamato-

Takeru, 82-113, a son of Emperor Keiko, was starting on an expedition against rebel clans in the province of Suruga, he visited the Jingu shrines

sword by

sacred in the

enemy territory,

rebels,

death. flint

this act

but

it

and was presented with

the warrior-prince

and tinder from

berry

Ise

Yamato-Hime. While on

this

moor

a

was surrounded by

who set fire to the grass so that he would be burned to He cut the grass around him with his sword, and with

against the

Upon

of

Princess

oncoming

his

pouch, he kindled a counterfire

The

flames.

prince was saved through

and was able to beat off and conquer

his return the prince left the tree,

whereupon

shone so brightly that

sword

it

sword hanging on

Princess Iwato secretly carried

to a cedar,

it set fire

into the field bunaing. Because

history of the

his enemies.

it

at

second century,

away,

which

fell

was renamed the Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi,

Nagoya. The Atsuta is

mid-

of this episode in the legendary

or Grass-mowing Sword, and has been preserved

Atsuta shrine

a

said to

shrine,

by the

founded in the

be the most sacred Shinto shrine

next to the great Jingu shrines of Ise. The sacredness attached to the shrine

is

due to the Grass-mowing Sword which, with

Ya-Tsurugi or Eight Swords

most important. The fame of the Grass-mowing shrine is Sword spread as far as Silla, then one of the three kingdoms the

fled to

at the

and

steal

it.

He succeeded in his mission

Hakata in Kyushu, but before he could

sail

away,

the gods of Atsuta discovered the loss and dispatched the

of the Sumiyoshi-Myojin

shrine,

who

recovered the sword. Having failed in sent one of his generals to Japan

god

overtook the priest and this,

the

King of

Silla

armed with seven swords, but

when he reached the proviiice of Owari the Atsuta gods killed him and captured his seven swords. These swords, together with the Kusanagi, constitute the eight swords for which the

Ya-Tsurugi shrine was erected.

The times

oldest

is

form of Japanese sword used during

called the tsurugi or ken,

which has

historical

a straight double-

edged blade usually wider near the point. However, until the opening years of the eighth century,

it

was not

when the Taiho

code instituting the Chinese form of government was being established, that the carefully recorded history

blade began.

It is

generally accepted that

of the Japanese

Amakuni,

the

first

of some twelve thousand Japanese swordsmiths whose names

and dates are known, produced the

Two

first

single-edged blades.

name are extant. In the second half of the eighth century the Amakuni blade was further developed by Yasutsuna, who worked under the divine or three swords bearing his

inspiration

of the gods and established the form of Japanese

sword blade

that has

been retained through the centuries.

Japanese scholars divide sword blades into

produced before 1600 being designated

two

koto,

classes,

those

or old swords,

new swords, although

the mirror at the Jingu shrines of Ise and the necklace or

and those made

jewels at the Imperial palace, constitute the Three Sacred

more recently the term kinkoto, or near-old swords, is generally used instead o( shinto. The superior quality of the koto blades was confmed to the work of a limited number of famous

Treasures of the Imperial Regalia of Japan.

meaning Hot

Field,

is

The name

Atsuta,

derived by popular etymology from

the legend of the sword, and

among

the

many

subsidiary

after that

time

shinto,

or

swordsmiths and their immediate followers, and was due

105


Tangs and points of koto visible

blades, with the pattern

on two of the blades, (i)

Sagami);

iijj-izjo.

c.

(2)

of watered

steel

Made by Kunimune (ofBizen and Made by Sadamune (Hosho of

principally to the exceptional tempering of the blades. This fine art tion.

was perfected only by long experience and observa-

The

art

(j)

Mino);

Seki,

the

Made by Kageniitsu Made by Kanemoto

early sixteenth century. Victoria

or small black-lacquered headpiece, while a

yeboshi

shimenawa, the sacred rice-straw rope of Shintoism, was

as

stretched across the smithy, with zigzag pieces of paper, called

and from master

to

gohei,

from

was

it

lost

father to son,

through death or became modified.

suspended from

good ones.

It is

it

to scare

said that the

away

evil spirits

Munechika of Satsuma was once performing ation in the forging of the blade

men

and the blades made by these

are always

of great value.

Because of their remarkable workmanship and practical value

weapons, the best of the koto blades have neither

equal, being the fmest blades ever

The word is

hatana,

strict

two swords,

or

sense

nor

his strong belief

Shinto

faith,

such blades,

al-

story is

of the blade

is

a critical oper-

as

Kokitsune-maru or

his assistant failed

him. But because

and adhcrance to the principles of the

he was

frequently acted

invite

assisted at this critical

moment by

the

form of a woman. This

not only a popular historical narrative but

on

the stage in a

No

play.

designates the longer of the

it

by

carried

all

of

known

Fox-Spirit of the Inari shrine, in the

applied to the single-edged

is

a rather generic term applied to

though in the more dai-sho,

which

like

produced anywhere.

Fox sword when

Little

and

famous tenth-century swordsmith

Many of these traditions were handed down for a considerable

sword,

(of

and Albert Museum.

length of time through schools or families of swordsmiths,

as

(of

of blade-making was transmitted exclusively

a professional secret pupil, until

Yaiiiato); early fourteenth century,

Osafune, Bizen); fourteenth century. (4)

the samurai, the shorter

one being the wakizashi. The elaborate nomenclature used by

PROCESSES OF SWORD-MAXING

Japanese sword experts for designating the almost endless types of blades

their points

are

made

is

by

distinguished

a science in

itself.

They

their relative length,

are described

and

and by the shape of

and backs. The metal from which these fme blades

is

principally derived

from

deposits

of magnetic

iron ore and ferruginous sand,

which produced iron and

of the most excellent

It is

quality.

steel

recorded that the forging

of these blades was considered an occupation pleasing to the gods and that lead a

as a requisite for success, the

more or

less religious life

according to the

Gods, and abstain from excesses of

swordsmith clad himself in

106

his

swordsmith must

all

kinds.

Way of the The master

ceremonial costume and wore

The

forging of the Japanese blade required the utmost

and calculation and the operations.

entire process

skill

was one of many tedious

The method of forging an

aU-steel blade,

and the

one preferred by the famous swordsmith Masamune, began with welding a a handle.

Other

strip

of steel to a rod of iron which served

strips

of steel were placed upon

it

into a bar of the required dimensions, usqally

eight inches in length

by one and

a quarter to

as

and welded

from

six to

two and

a

quarter inches in width, the thickness being from one-quarter to three-quarters sions

of an inch,

all

depending on the fmal dimen-

of the fmished blade. This bar was raised to a welding


Tangs and points c/shmto visible

black's,

on three of the blades, (i)

Made

Kyoto); dated 1632. (2)

with the pattern of watered steel

of Osaka); seventeenth century, (j)

Made

of Osaka);

by Mioju (Umetada, of

by Yoshimichi (Tamba-no-kami,

heat and notched in the middle with a chisel, then folded itself and welded,

upon

and then forged into its original dimensions.

At the beginning of the forging operation

the smith coated

the metal with a thin layer of clay containing ashes of burnt straw, before placing

it

on the

process of forging great care

fire,

and through the

was used so

that

no

entire

grit or dirt

got on the anvil, and the metal was never touched by the hand lest

some

vital

grease should adhere. All these precautions

importance because of the great

specks appearing in welding,

The

usual

method was

to

risk

of

were of

slight flaws or

which would impair the work.

weld four

repeat the doubling, welding,

bars together,

and then

and forging nineteen times, so

was composed of 4,194,304 layers of metal in its It is said that between each forging the bar was

the bar

thickness.

cooled in

oil

and water alternately. At

this stage

of the process

was drawn out under the hammer to

the bar

its

required

length and shape, and the prescribed curve was given to

Although whole blades were made of steel

described above,

as

a large proportion of Japanese swords are composite,

being made of steel and iron, or of steel, iron, and

of the two metals. There were

it.

a

some

compound

number of methods used by the swordsmiths in the process of forging, each having a name by which it is identified. Some of them are extremely complicated,

a

while others are comparatively simple, such

as the

popular form favored by the Bizen smiths in which a plate

of steel

is

the edge.

placed between

However,

it is

two of iron, with

the steel

said that the best

produced by welding together

plates

forming

examples were

of iron and

steel alter-

late

Made by Kuniteru (Kobayashi, (4) Made by Masayoshi

seventeenth century.

(Taira-no, of Satsuma) ; dated 1784. Victoria and Albert

and forging them nineteen times,

nately, folding, welding,

and then hammering them on the narrow edge

became the broad bar being

of the

hammered on

which

angle,

face

On many

is

Museum.

the edge,

it

was hammered on the

fme

called hoso-masa, or

blades, especially those

schools of the Senju-in of

imtil that

Sometimes, instead of the

bar.

fiber forging.

produced by the famous

Yamato and

the Awataguchi of

Yamashiro, there are beautiful markings. These are the

result

of peculiar methods of forging and of the juxtaposition of layers

of iron and steel of different

qualities,

in blades of the East. In early times steel

much

small furnaces

like those

which

and burnt

in

of a blacksmith's forge. This

having, from the bottom up, cast iron, hard iron,

coinmon

of quality and produced

resulted in an irregularity

wrought

is

was produced

iron. This

a

mass

steel, soft steel,

mass was broken into

small pieces and the desired qualities were selected

by the

experienced eye of the swordsmith, whose knowledge of metals was unequaled.

The swordmaker coidd then produce

almost any variety of blade he desired by welding the hard

and

soft pieces,

more

times.

was etched,

then doubling, welding, and forging several

When it

was

from this process The most common

the fmished product called

watered

steel.

etching substance was a hot solution of an impure native ferric sulphate applied with a rag.

developed, he was able to

mixing

selected qualities

and doubling the bars in ing. In

some

As the

make

of iron and a

manner

art

of the blade maker

recognizable patterns steel plates

by

and welding

that controlled the water-

types of Japanese blades the watering

efl^ect

was 107


;

by gouging out portions of the

eiiliaiiced

of forging and then bringing

stages

hammer

which

who

is

carefully

examined

its

surface in search

step

direction,

which produced fde marks

to shape the tang

by fding

fde marks as well as the shape of the tang in recognizing the

rounded and

are

maker of a

blade.

of defects.

in a particular

called yasmi-me. assist

These

Japanese experts

The ends of some

called chestnut-shape or kuri-jiri,

stroke of the sword. Since the tempering process

most important

tangs

is

one of the

stages in blade-making, great skill

perience were required to determine

visible.

kind of draw knife, and fded by the

a

The next

was

with the

was completed, the blade was scraped

the forging

a sen,

smith,

of metal would be

so the different layers

When with

surface at the later

to a level

it

and ex-

from the color alone

when the proper moment had arrived to plunge the blade into the water. Not otdy the temper of the blade, but also its form, deffended upon this decision. The tempering was so higlily important that the signature of the swordsmith

who tempered

the blade was sometimes placed on the tang along with the

smith

The

who

did the forging,

if it

was done by a

different

process -of grinding and polishing a Japanese

man.

sword

is

while

others are angular and called ken-kiyo. After the tang

was

shaped, the blade was roughly ground, and if the swordsmith

was

with

satisfied

he placed his name on the tang.

it,

ornamental work, such at that time. It

their blades;

was not the

The

practice for

all

swordsmiths to sign

Masamune and other famous

their blades because,

it is

said, these

crucial stage in the process

tempering, for

it is

Any

engraving on the blade, was done

as

smiths did not sign

could not be mistaken.

of making a blade

is

the

there that the skill of the swordsmith

taxed to the utmost to give the blade

its

This tempering produces the yakiba or tempered

of the blade, which is

a

is

real practical value. steel

edge

clouded band, usually from one-fourth

to one-half inch in width, rurming along the edge of the sword,

sometimes

a simple straight

as

special outlines. All

band and sometimes with

of the numerous forms of yakiba have

their special characteristics

and are designated by particular

names which, together with

their exceptions as to special

schools of swordsmiths, are almost endless. Although each

swordsmith probably had

his

ovra secret method, the general

process of producing the yakiba was to coat the blade to a thickness of about one-eighth inch with a clay having a

ferruginous character,

made of fme

river sand

mixed with

about one-tenth part of fmely powdered charcoal. Before the clay coating

moved by

on the blade had hardened,

was

a portion

re-

bamboo stick along the edge on either side to expose the metal. The inner margin of this strip of clay was either made straight, notched, waved, or formed with some a

peculiar outline.

the blade

over a

When the clay coating became dry and hard,

was securely held and moved backward and forward

fire

of fir charcoal, with the edge downward,

until the

proper temperature had been reached, which was determined

by

the color of the exposed part of the metal.

The

blade was

then plunged into a tub of warm water, in a vertical position if it

were a

straight blade, or in a horizontal position

Among

with the

many stories of swords, there is one about an occasion when Masamune was

point

first if it

were a curved

blade.

the

tempering a blade in the presence of another swordsmith noticing the latter stealthily put his hand into the water to learn

108

its

temperature,

Masamune

cut the

hand off with

a quick

Complete

and

suit

of armor

in

flame color and gold shou'i)ig the front

rear views with typical leg covering

century. Metropolitan

Museum of

and shoes; seventeenth

Art. Rogers Fund, 1904.


a meticulous operation, and a fine blade sometimes required

slightly

two months to fmish. The work was done on a large fme whet-

but the unusually sharp edge forms

stone that

was

peculiar to Japan

and whose exportation was

prohibited by Shogunate decree. Kneeling

sharpener held the blade in his

moved

it

upon

two hands with

backward and forward on the

lengthwise along the face of the blade are shitiogi,

which

is

the floor, the a rag

stone.

two

and

Rumiing

angles, the

along the back part, and the broader plane

called the jigane, sloping to the edge.

The

blade, usually

measuring from twenty-eight to thirty inches in length,

is

curved and a little broader

no

to point with

and always

flattening,

than

a perfect

at the point,

curve from heel

at the saine relative

from the curve of the back. Another amazing

distance

which

that the line

is

at its base

divides the shiiiogi and the jigatie

detail is

an

equally true intermediate curve, always at the same relative

from the other two

distance

back and edge.

at the

It

was an

achievement of the highest excellence of craftsmanship to

A vertical line

produce three such perfect curves.

cut off the

plane of the shinogi about one inch from the point, while the

of the edge continued in

line

curve to the back, and an

a

unparallel inner curve continued the dividing line of the shinogi

and the jigane to the back of the blade. The remarkable

strength o( the jigane

when it is ground by a higlily

is

achieved

skilled sharpener

who

will give

lessen the chances

of fracture. After the blade is perfectly sharp

it is

it

a slightly

convex shape to

fmished with a polishing stone dressed with

powder of

oil

and a fme

with a polishing

stone, then fmally burnished

On the fmished blade are a number of peculiar mark-

needle.

ings that

become

work

only after the

visible

and among the many

names applied

special

is

completed,

to these appear-

ances are the nini and the niye. Although these markings

do

not contribute to the quality of the blade, their existence considerably enhances fat

its

value.

The

resemble the minute

nini

globules seen in milk and produce cloudy spots, while the

niyc,

which

The

are

more

minute specks.

rare, are brilliant

of a sword blade was of the

practical effectiveness

utmost importance to the military man, for

depended upon

its

trustworthiness.

factors entered into the

it

to determine the origin

was signed or unsigned,

to impart this

It is

said the first

knowledge

origin of a given blade.

the marks that indicated

The

function of the mekiki

to estimate

its

pecuniary value, and

to the samurai.

in gold,

kakihan

Reading its

Even the most outat

times as to the

a blade, seeing

maker, was an

and long experience.

ticated, the

of these sword

and quality of a blade, whether

standing and reputable of the mekiki differed

faculties

essential

was appointed by the Ashikaga Shogun

Takauji in the fourteenth century.

was

many

there developed

whose knowledge and experience

to the samurai.

experts, or mekiki,

his life frequently

as so

make-up of a sword,

the official sword expert

was invaluable

And

and knowing

art requiring special

When a blade had been authen-

name of the maker was placed on

the tang, usually

and often with the signature of the mekiki and (seal)

Among

his

added in gold.

the celebrated mekiki

were the sword sharpeners of

Honami and Miyoshi families, whose traditions were handed down for many generations. One of the best known is Honami Kosetsu, who was appointed by Hideyoshi in the the

sixteenth century.

It

was probably he

who

introduced the

custom of signing unsigned blades in gold, although some 109


Honami Kotoku, who wrote a treatise on blades The certificate, or ori-kami, of the tnekiki was written on a sheet of a special kind of thick paper known as kaga hosho, made for the Shogun in the province of Kaga, attribute

it

to

some time

earlier.

and of which only a hundred

The

certificate

the blade,

which

it

its

sheets

were produced each

gave the name and residence of the maker of

by

dimensions, and any peculiar characteristics

could be identified.

It

further stated the blades'

estimated value in gold, and was signed by the

sometimes by more than one. The

on

year.

the reverse side.

The

seal

or

seals

tnekiki frequently

or

tnekiki,

were impressed

mentioned,

among

other things, that he considered the blade worthy of becoming

an heirloom, since aristocracy

it

was the

traditional practice

among

and noble famihes to regard fme swords

the

as heir-

retainers

and military

friends. In the year 1702 a

list

of

this

nature was compiled in which values were given in mai of gold, a measure of value introduced in the sixteenth century

during the time of Nobunaga.

It

was equivalent to the gold

oban, which contained about 4.82 ounces of gold, and

its

value at that time was equal to about one hundred dollars. In that

no value was given

list

to the blades

of

six

famous

swordsmiths, but the highest value of fifty mai was attached

Sadamune of

to the swords of

adopted as

soft

the

Kamakura

of Masamune. Other values in the

smiths, an

list fall as

low

one mai, in which fmal category there were about twenty

names, including Muramasa, whose blades, although unsurpassed for quality, bore a reputation for bloodthirstiness

and

ill-luck.

Blade experts differed widely in their evaluation

looms. Prior to the end of the sixteenth century there were a

of the positions of the various swordsmiths, on account of their

number of famous famiUes of swordsmiths and from time

partiahty for certain schools.

time the experts prepared

lists

to

of blade makers, arranged

according to the experts' estimate of their merits, and added to

it

the average value of their blades. Such a list

for Hideyoshi toward the

enable

him

was compiled

SWORDMAKERS AND TRADITIONS

end of the sixteenth century to

to select suitable blades for presentation to his

The

signatures of the early swordsmiths appearing

on the

tang are remarkably brief, usually consisting of two characters,

and

some

in

cases

only one, forming the maker's name, to-

gether with the place of residence. Swordsmiths of the twelfth

century

was

all

had

official titles

rarely indicated

when

it

also

or honorary rank, although this

on the blade

became the

until the succeeding century,

practice to

add such names

as Fuji-

wara, Minamoto, and Taira to their own. Honorary such

as

kami and

daijo

titles

were in frequent use in the sixteenth

century and almost every swordsmith of importance added a tide to his signature. Besides the signature

of the swordsmith,

Japanese blades often carry curious and interesting items

engraved on the tang. Occasionally they

was made

by two

state that the

especially for a particular person, that

smiths, or that

giving the

it

was tempered by a

number of times

famous swordmakers are

it

as

it

blade

was made

certain smith,

had been forged. The names of

well

known

to the Japanese as

those of the foremost painters, writers, calligraphers, and historical figures, for the art

upon

as the

of the blade maker was looked

most honorable of all

makers appeared in the

crafts.

latter part

The

greatest blade

of the Kamakura period

(1185-1333), notably Yoshimitsu of Awataguchi in Kyoto,

Masamune of Sagami, 1264-1343, and his pupil Go Yoshihiro, 1299-1325. The name of Masamune has passed 1229-1291,

into the Japanese language as a term signifying supreme excellence, for a

Masamune

operated his forge

blade was unequaled.

at the feudal military capital

where blade makers from the provinces came

Masamune

of Kamakura,

to acquire

more

knowledge from the great master. In the beginning of the thirteenth century a great impetus to

Kabuto

or helmet of iron,

insigtie.

Signed

Museum

of Art. Gift of Bashford Dean, 1914.

Unohouiye;

lacquer,

and

eighteenth

silk

with a wild-hoar

cetitury.

Metropolitan

swordmaking was given


who summoned

by the Emperor Gotoba,

number ot the him in rotation.

a

foremost swordmakers to Kyoto to attend Besides demonstrating their

skill

gave him instructions in the

in his Imperial presence, they

of blade-making. Emperor

art

Gotoba himself produced blades of excellent

which

sixteen-petal

some of

quality,

and marked on the tang with the Imperial

are extant

chrysanthemum. These blades are most highly

make of the

treasured in Japan, and are called kiku-go-saku, or

august chrysanthemum.

The succeeding

centuries

swordmaking, not

in

the names of

many

were

also periods

of great

as brilliant as in earlier times,

activity

although

great smiths appeared, especially in the

seventeenth century. In 1877 the Imperial government under

Emperor Meiji

issued an edict prohibiting the samurai

wearing the sword, which had been not only also the distinctive

mark of his

from

his privilege

traditional military caste.

but

The

sword had been the center of the old military life of Japan and it

was

a part of the education of samurai youths to

history and

its

etiquette, for

fifteen they entered

man's

when

know

and were honored

estate

to

down from

the coveted weapon. Swords were handed to son as heirlooms and treasured as a

its

they reached the age of

wear father

the

Nuke-mam or

the Springer Out, belonging to the great

feudal Taira family.

It is

said the

Kogarasu-mam was made

Kammu

during the time of Emperor

and once was

in 782

away by a crow. The Nuke-mam was made in the year 820 and is said to have sprung from its scabbard to destroy a

carried

was about to

serpent that

was

asleep.

Then

there

is

strike

Taira-no-Tadamori while he

sword of the

the famous heirloom

Minamoto family called the Hize-Kiri or Beard Cutter, which was made iii the tenth century and whose edge was so keen passed through his beard

that after cutting off a

man's head

before the head

Another famous Minamoto heirloom

sword

is

fell.

Hiza-mam or Knee

the

the same period and

when

is

said to

it

Cutter,

used to behead a kneeling criminal,

knees in

its

downward

stroke.

which was made

have had such

There are

it

fme edge

a

would also

cut his

number of in-

also a

teresting stories regarding certain superstitions associated

particular swords or their nukers.

in

that

Some were

with

considered to

bring good fortune, happiness, and longevity to the owner,

while others were believed to be unlucky and bring misfortune.

blades of Muramasa of Ise,

The

latter part

who flourished in the

of the fourteenth century, were considered to be

most cherished possession.

A sword was also traditionally given by a father to his daughter

the

on her wedding day as a symbol of that purity of life which

woman was

expected to keep, and

with which she might take her

do

to

so.

it

was

also the blade

own life should it be necessary

In feudal times a samurai's

life

was pledged

to his

lord and he was never sure of the fortunes that the following

day would bring, for his

own hand

his life

might be taken in a

fight, or

by

under orders of the death penalty for some

breach of the rigid code of samurai etiquette.

was therefore

It

sword be well

and

of utmost importance

that his

properly cared

edge should be so keen that a man's

for. Its

head could be cut off

one blow, and

at

selected

if skillfully

leave a shred of skin at the throat for the head to

the breast.

cutting

The

Japanese blade

weapon of the

swords of Damascus,

is

generally regarded as a

highest order, unsurpassed Persia,

extraordinarily thorough

and

India. This

privately,

persons ties are

its

by even the

was due to the

workmanship, the swordsmith's

primary desire being to produce a blade that was a credit to

done,

hang upon

reliable

and

maker. At times the samurai's blade was tested

and sometime

officially,

by

cutting

up corpses of

who had paid the death penalty. The blade's capabilioccasionally found engraved

swords a statement

is

two, or three bodies

on the

inscribed that

at a single

it

tang,

and on some

had cut through one,

blow.

Japanese literature contains a wealth of accounts, both historical

and legendary, of famous swords connected with

the lives of great figures of the past. These include the famous

heirloom swords

as the

Kogarasu-mam or the Little Crow, and

Kabuto of

iron

with horii-like oniauieiit and a mask made

resemble a mythical winged being called tengu. the seventeenth-eighteenth century, while the

Metropolitan

Museum of Art.

The helmet

mask

is

dated

Gift of Bashford Dean, 1914.

1

is

to

of

713.


WiUow-leaf-type

Left above: reeds; signed

steel

arrowhead depicting herons and

Umetada Hikohei no-jo Motoshige, and dated 1645.

Metropolitan Museum ofArt. Giot'antiiP.MorosiniCollection, 1932. Bifurcated steel arrowhead with

Right:

eighteenth

Metropolitan

century.

a design

Museum

of wisteria;

Giovanni

of Art.

P. Morosini Collection, 1932. Left:

Steel arrowhead in shape of a gem, 'depicting the story of

Kwakhyo; 1645.

unworthy quality.

as

well as bloodthirsty, although of the highest

Muramasa, a pupil of Masamune, was a most

swordsmith but he possessed

a violent

skillful

mind verging on

madness, which was believed to have passed into his blades.

Tokugawa leyasu,

for instance, having

by them, held them to be unlucky. the

Muramasa

suicide or even

the

been accidentally cut

was a popular belief that

blades could induce their

murder and

owner would

blade with

It

that

owners

to

commit

once a blade had killed a man,

die of starvation unless he appeased the

more blood. The lucky and unlucky

attributed to the blades of certain

characteristics

famous swordsmiths have

signed Umetada Hikohei no-jo Motoshige, and dated

Metropolitan

Museum

Ciovanni P. Morosini

of Art.

Collection,

1932.

(522-645),

armor made of small

these suits

time. Portions of

first

of armor are preserved in the Shosoin

gether with a large

number of arms,

of the Emperor Shomu, variety

together and

plates, laced

overlapping, was introduced for the

who

all

dating

at

Nara

from

to-

the time

reigned from 724 to 749. This

of armor was adopted by the Japanese and modified

according to their

own desires and requirements. It was during

the Fujiwara era (897-1185), in the latter part of the Heian

period, that the

developed.

The

two

principal types

of Japanese armor were

one called oyoroi or great harness was used

by

and consisted of

generals and other warriors of superior rank

influenced their monetary value through the centuries and at

a full suit including the helmet and the large protecting pieces

one time the Muramasa blades were even stricken from the

for the

blade experts' Hsts,

maki or wrapping the belly, was worn by the

arms and shoulders. The other form,

and consisted principally of

cuirass

and

known

as hara-

common soldiers

tasses

without the

shoulder pieces and without the use of a helmet. During the

ARMOR

fifteenth century fighting

hehiiets

With

the increase of commercial intercourse between

Japan and the Asiatic mainland during the Asuka period

112

on horseback began

of armor. The Japanese helmet, or piece of

to decline

and

and shoulder pieces were then worn with both types

armor and

is

made

kabuto,

in a variety

is

a

of

most

interesting

types.

The form


gether with

silk cords.

together in the same

The whole

manner

suit

of armor itself was held

as the shikoro, that

of iron were laced together by

plates

with the cords forming a pattern. latter part

It is

the

is,

many

or leather cords,

silk

said that during the

of the ninth century the great feudal families adopt-

ed particular colors for the cords on their armor, the Fujiwara using light green, the Tachibana yellow, and the Taira purple. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries during the

kura period the mihtary increased

class

it

was not

trace their origin

press Jingo,

and sixteenth centuries

of hereditary armorers rose to

positions of importance, the

was claimed

swordmaker and armorer. Al-

until the fifteenth

that the great famflies

all,

Kama-

feudal system steadily

its

power, and with the growing number of samurai

its

created a golden era for both

though

and

Myochin

back several centuries

to descend

their

family, the greatest of

The family

earlier.

from the Prime Minister of the Em-

who invaded Korea

at the

head of an army in the

middle of the third century. However,

was not

it

until the

middle of the twelfth century that the recorded history of the Steel arrowhead with a pierced design

Left: the

of sages playing

game of go signed IJmetada Hikobei no-jo Motoshige, dated

family begins with Munesuke,

who had

time been

at that

;

Museum of

Metropolitan

1645.

Collection,

Giovanni P. Morosini

Art.

given the family

The

1932.

name of Myochin by

Myochins

pre-eininent position of the

Japanese art

is

Emperor Konoye.

the

in the history of

not only based upon the superb quality of their

armor, but also on their claim to being the founders of ironRight:

Steel arrowhead with a pierced design of peonies

Chinese

lion or shishi; signed

and dated

1645.

and a

Umetada Hikohei no-jo Motoshige,

Museum

Metropolitan

of Art.

Giovanni

work

as

an

art.

They were armorers

more

eighteenth century, and retained during aU that time the fore-

most position in the armorer's

P. Morosini Collection, 1932.

to the court for

than six hundred years, from the twelfth to the end of the

art.

The hammer work

in iron

executed on a piece of armor or on an okimono attributed to

most frequently seen has the

hachi or

crown made of a number

of gores of iron riveted together with joints,

which

a ridge

while keeping the hehnet light in weight. ation, there

formed

at their

offered powerful resistance to the cut of a

is

To

sword

serve as ventil-

usually an aperture at the top of the helmet

called the hachimanza. This

generally in the

is

chrysanthemum with the aperture

in the center.

on

its

it

was

a visor.

These iron masks were tied to the hehiiet and were

fantastic animals.

Above

which

is

a generic term

tokonoma or

that served as

apphed

to

alcove, developed

amusement

for the

Some of the most exquisite

and most ingenious of these earlier okimono, such as the wonderfully articulated fish,

came from

models of birds, dragons, the studios of the

serpents,

Myochin, and

and cray-

are master-

pieces of the metal art.

the peak were fastened

the curious ornaments resembling a pair of called tsunomoto, while in a socket

fixed the forecrest or mayedate.

teenth centuries the as a

okimono,

decorative ornaments for the

to represent not only terrible-looking faces, but also

demons and were

The making of

glyptic artists of the older schools.

a

on

made

armor is extremely tough, capable

into a special art and afforded occasional

is

underside to reflect gro-

on the iron mask

their

of resisting powerful blows from swords and other weapons.

There

tesquely

the face, as well as

though thin and light,

form of a

mayezashi or peak riveted to the lower part of the hachi; frequently lacquered red

the Myochin is unexcelled. The practical excellence of their work and their manipulation of the iron is unsurpassed. Al-

horns which

During the fifteenth and six-

mon or family

crest

motif in the decoration of armor.

tector

flat

ARCHERY

between the horns was

came into general

A shikoro

use

or neck pro-

was attached to the back of the helmet, and was com-

posed of from three to seven rows of metal plates laced to-

The most primitive weapon of sport and warfare is and arrow, and in no other country did

it

the

bow

attain greater

im-

portance than in Japan. Although firearms were introduced into Japan until a

by the Portuguese

very

late period,

in 1543, the

bow and

arrow,

remained the most important of

113


weapons, and the skill offamous archers was celebrated through the centuries. Archery

was an

essential part

of the Ufe of the

and the custom of shooting from horseback so

nobles,

as to

examples of bows of the eighth century are preserved in the Shosoin five

at

Nara. These ancient

and a half to seven

bows range

send an arrow accurately in any direction while in swift

deciduous woods, those of azusa or catalpa

motion was part of

sidered the best.

Japan, archery sentations

their education. Like the other arts

was probably introduced from China. Repre-

of famous Chinese archers are frequently portrayed

on metalwork, the most noted being Yoyuki, have shot

of

down

aim accurately directed by the cry of the Japanese nuhtary

who

is

said to

a goose flying invisible above a cloud, his

commanders armed with

bird. Pictures

a

bow and

of

with a

quiver of arrows on the back are frequently seen in old scrollpaintings.

The bow and arrow

ciated with the lives of

Thus Jinmiu Tenno, the trayed holding his

And

bow

the Empress Jingo

Korea

has been traditionally asso-

famous Japanese since ancient times. first

Emperor of Japan,

is

hand, and in another picture she

is

Steel

Left:

at the

it.

with her

bow in her

seen writing the characters

highly

is

the

peculiar features, the

form of the bow. The

usual

which averaged about

elastic piece,

wood being

bow was

six

con-

first

a long,

and a half feet

in length with a curvature

which was reversed when the

weapon was

It

strung for use.

arrow was discharged

at a

was held

vertically,

and the

point nearly two-thirds of the

way

dowTi the bow, and always on the right side of the bow. The bowstrings were

made of hemp

fibers twisted together

loops at the ends, and since Japanese arrows were of greater length than

with

much

Western ones, the bowstring was drawn

well behind the ear. Another peculiar feature of the Japanese

bows is

that are preserved in

their single curve,

but a

flatter

curve

at

which

many of the is

temples and shrines

not a true segment of a

one end than

at the other.

bow and the

circle,

Therefore the

not in the

upon

the face of a rock

greatest distance

time of her conquest.

A numberof fine

middle but about two-thirds of the way from the top, where

koku-o, or sovereign of the country,

bow

often por-

depicted during her invasion of

in the third century riding a horse

with her

is

with a giant crow perched upon

many

7apanese archery presents

of which

from

in length

and are made with a variety of

feet

arrowhead pierced

with

between the

string

is

a

cherry blossom design and the characters of the

Tenjin shrine; signed Toshiyoshi or

Shunkichi; eighteenth century. Metropolitan

Museum of Art. Giovanni

sini Collection,

Center:

P.

Moro-

1932.

Willow-leaf-type steel arrowhead

pierced with Japanese characters. Eighteenth century.

Metropolitan

Museum of

Giovanni P. Morosini Collection,

Right:

Art.

1932.

Steel arrowhead with the design

of a dragon entwined around a sword; eighteenth century. Metropolitan

Museum ofArt.

Giovanni P. Morosini Collection,

1932.

Right:

Steel arrowhead in the shape of a jewel pierced with the

design of a dragon; eighteenth century. Metropolitan

Giovanni P. Morosini Collection, 1932.

114

Museum ofArt.


the grip

placed.

is

The Japanese bow is of excellent composite up of two thin strips of bamboo be-

construction, being built

tween which are set three somewhat thicker strips of deciduous

wood

placed edgewise so as to increase

two

outside of these are set danea,

all

strips

being secured with

bound with

its

strength.

On

of haze wood, Rhus

fish glue,

the

succe-

the case of the

the great military figures of medieval times are famous for

famous twelfth-century archer whose adventures are told

a

some examples

the literary classic called Yumiharizuki, sank a boat with a

the

bow

touches these metal facings for some distance from the ends,

weight.

produces a sound

when

striking against them. This

signaling,

Emperor required water

and

twanging

their

it is

would

that

sound

when

the

morning during

signal his desire

by

bows.

belonged to famous

number of very long

historical figures,

and

it is

easUy seen from their form and size that they are very powerful.

Two

of these are

Miyajima on the Inland

at the great

Sea.

Itsukushima shrine at

One, eight

feet

nine inches in

length, belonged to Yuasa Matashichiro ; the other five inches long.

The

eight feet nine inches in length and an

On

usual length

is

is

eight feet

six feet five inches, as in

in

arrow of great

another occasion in the twelfth century during

the battle of Yashima, a beautiful island in the Inland Sea

renowned

for

its

magnificent views and a place of refuge of

the Taira clansmen, the Taira fastened a fan to a in the

bamboo

pole

bow of one of their boats and challenged the Minamoto

to exhibit their skill at archery. Yoichi, the best

Preserved in temples and shrines are a

bows

said that

for washing in the

ancient times, three of his retainers

One of these, Minamoto-no-Tametomo,

their archery feats.

then lacquered and

rattan at various points. In

was frequently used in

1147-1199,

Hachimangu shrine at Kamakura,

which was founded in 1063 by Minamoto Yorioshi. Many of

ends are faced with metal, and since in some bows the string

it

bow of Minamoto Yoritomo,

preserved at the Tsurugaoka

bowman, distance

of nearly a hundred yards,

squarely

on

its

rivet

The arrowhead,

and

it

that

it

dropped into the

called yauo-ne or yajiri,

interesting products

is

struck the fan sea.

one of the most

of the Japanese metalworker. Produced

by famous swordsmiths, the fmest examples richness in

arrow

is

Minamoto

discharged his arrow with such accuracy, from a

form and ornament. The

in accounts

earliest

display great

mention of an

of the mythological age shortly

after the

gods gave birth to the islands of Japan. The sun goddess had sent

two

deities to earth to prepare the

way

Ninigi-no-Mikoto, upon

whom

power of the realm

handed down

to be

for her grandson

she bestowed the sovereign to posterity.

of these divine messengers, having decided to

and

rule himself,

of heaven.

plains

was

killed

Among

But one

on

earth

by an arrow dropped from the

the

many

great makers of orna-

Umetada Myoju, 1558-1632, sword-

mental arrowheads

is

smith to Hideyoshi,

who

is

often regarded as the

first

to raise

The fame of his arrowheads was almost as of his sword blades, and it is among these later

the craft to an great as that

stay

art.

arrowheads that the most elaborate examples are found. This beautiful

yama

work on yano-ne became popular during the Momo-

period (1573 -161 5) with the developing taste for rich

and gorgeous decoration. During the two hundred and

Edo

years of peace of the

became more

elaborate,

most of the decorative arrowheads

being pierced and saw-cut with a great variety of designs. yanagi or willow-leaf arrowhead,

shapes and proportions,

is

the

which appears

Imperial

kiri

Among

the

the

crests,

(paulownia) and the Imperial kiku (chrysanthe-

the yang and yin symbols of creation, the written

characters for sorts

The

many

most often seen are the sakura or cherry blossom, the

heart-shaped petal of the sakura, dragons, family

mum),

in

most frequent form, ornament-

ed with an endless variety of openwork designs. designs

fifty

period, ornamental ironwork

Hachiman Dai Bosatsu or god of war, and

of typical Japanese motifs, such

These arrowheads are

as the

all

plum and bamboo.

also frequently seen

with beautifully

115


Willow-leaf-type

Left:

arrowhead

steel

with pierced cherry-blossom design; eighteenth century. Metropolitan

Museum ofArt.

Giovanni P. Morosini Collection,

1932.

Willow-leafsteel arrowhead pierc-

Center:

ed with the Itnperial kiri

crest; eighteenth

Museum of

Metropolitan

century.

Giovanni P. Morosini Collection, Right:

arrowhead

Whistling

Art.

1932.

made

of

wood; seventeenth century. Metropolitan

Museum of

Art. Gift of Bashford Dean,

1914.

executed characters in openwork bearing the names of owners, deities,

and so

in pierced

forth.

work

to be floating.

Many

contain Buddhist prayers written

so skillfully

done

that the characters appear

Many of these Buddhist inscriptions were made

for warriors to use as an offering to a temple, others as

trophies in

others for hunting, and ornamental ones such as those

worn

palace guards, with the arrows spread out and the

feathers protruding behind their backs like the

tail

They are

little

conical

or quadrangular in shape, though most of the quivers found in temples are shaped like an armchair with a high back

made

to hold

from twenty

and

to thirty

arrows and they were apparently intended to stand on the floor.

The common arrows were

similar to those used in

and

war

archery and had

conical iron points. For the chase

the arrowheads

were of steel and appear in a great variety of

shapes and

sizes.

for

Although there are many subdivisions, the

chief categories were the yanagi-ya or wihow-leaf arrows,

116

and a half to the same.

six

The

and

sharp,

a half inches,

kari-mata

some of the willow-

forin,

and some of the pointed

but

its

varies

principle

was not only used

for

from one

was always

war but

also

for big game, and had both the inner curve and the outer edge

of equal sharpness.

framework of bamboo, while the others were

frequently lacquered or otherwise decorated.

latter are

and

be almost heart-shaped. In the kari-mata

as to

had very long

more than

The

arrows so wide

usually

quivers and those used in

short legs.

leaf arrows being long

of a peacock.

war were

The hunting a

cated or two-pointed arrows, and togari-ya or pointed arrows.

Each of these types varies greatly in

arrowhead the distance between the points

honor of victories in war.

There were many types o(yebira or quivers, some for war,

by the

watakusi or flesh tearers or barbed arrows, kari-mata or bifur-

more

Many

of the larger and

sometimes measuring

tangs,

earlier

in length, as a necessary counterpoise, since in

specimens the head weighed particular interest

which

is

is

as

much

sometimes called hiki-me. This

shaped contour, with

is

its

usually

is

the

flat

a pear-

shoulder or broadest part near the

top or foremost portion. Around the shoulder

on

Of

the sounding or

made of wood with

with four oblong holes, each hole having aperture

some

as eight ounces.

the kahura-ya or turnip-headed arrow,

whistling arrow, which

shrill

examples

fifteen inches or

its

it is

pierced

corresponding

top or nose of the arrowhead.

The

sharp,

whistling they produced as they ascended and descended

was used

as a signal, as

well as serving to terrify the enemy.


IX Sword Decoration and Mounts

I .

N THE

early centuries

mounts were simple and few

its

when

the

sword was

in almost constant use as a fighting

weapon,

number, being primarily

in

functional accessories to the weapon.

But

as the feudal

system

developed and the samurai increased in power and wealth, the art of

sword mounts came

not wear jewelry, so the

art

to embellish the sword,

into being.

The

Japanese did

of the metalworker was employed

and the most eminent

chasers contributed their talents to

period the sword was rarely used

its

and scabbard being

it

The

alloys,

combined with exquisite inlay-

ing and chasing, are of remarkable beauty.

beautiful

and unique

palette,

artist

unknown

had

With

this extra-

at disposal a

in the

most

metalwork of

in gold

sword

a Japanese

as is

was never practiced on the blade of

customary in other Oriental countries,

although the swordsmiths occasionally damascened their

names on some of the

koto,

or old blades.

of decorating a blade was by engraving,

The

earliest

as seen in

method

examples

preserved in temples dating from the Nara and Heian periods.

Common

on

early blades are engraved invocations to

dhist divinities, such as Fudo,

Diva Kings. his victory as these

It is

Shotoku Taishi attributed

over Moriya in the year 587 to invocations such his helmet.

gods of good fortune, and

is

and in the

and

as

such he

is

one of the supreme

trinity,

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a perfect mani-

of the absolute truth of the universe, equivalent to Dainichi.

Of

the three divinities forming the

known as the destroyer, but since death is a transition to a new form of life, the destroyer is really a recreator, and thus Fudo is styled the Bright or Happy One. He trinity,

is

Fudo

is

represented seated over the brink of a precipice, or standing

on

a rock, surrounded

by

flames. In his right

a vajra hilted sword, and in his

left is

hand he

carries

a rope for the binding

and chastisement of the powers of evil.

The most form of

hi,

usual type of decoration

on the blade

is

in the

or grooves, with the larger grooves serving to

left

strength. In section these grooves are always segments circle,

those of moderate width being mostly semicircles, while

in the wider ones there are frequently motifs

worked in

relief

These grooves, which were sometimes treated with red quer,

its

of a

were

called chi-tiaga-shi, or

lac-

blood chamiels, by the com-

mon people. In another mode of early decoration, chasing was combined with pierced work, the

subject usually represented

being Ama-Kurikara, the dragon entwining a sword.

found either in a wide groove or in a panel having

It is

a triangular

end, with the design cut through the blade.

Bishamon is one of the seven

shown in full armor, with a fierce

expression, carrying in his right shrine,

Bud-

Bishamon, or one of the four

said that Prince

engraved on

Siva,

render the blade lighter in weight without weakening

any other country.

Damascening

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;or Fudo, a

or Dainichi Nyorai in Japanese Buddliism

Buddha or

lavishly decorated.

ordinary range the Japanese metal

Hindu god festation

combinations, unusual patinas, and color treatment of the metals used on sword mounts,

the rain dragon entwining a sword

is

and

weapon, and

around the beginning of the thirteenth

Buddhist divinity. Fudo corresponds to Achala, a form of the

Edo

as a fighting

until

but also with intaglios usually representing Ama-Kurikara

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;^which

artists

adornment, with an increased number of ornamental mounts its hilt

was not

decoration. In the

gradually evolved into the most important object of personal

on

It

century that blades were decorated not only with engraving

a lance.

hand a small pagoda-shaped

He

is

equivalent to the

god of riches, but because he is depicted with armor and lance, he has been erroneously included

among

TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS

Hindu

the gods of war.

The

earliest

Japanese sword was the double-edged ken,

which was succeeded by the

first

single-edged sword in the

117


Three

From be

mounted tachi

beautifully

on a sword rack.

(slung swords)

Tachi

top to bottom: (i)

worn

to

at court ceremonies, signed

on ura (back side of tang) "Etchu-

no-Kami made

Fujiwara-no-Masatoshi,

of Lord Tsunemitsu

to order

of Shonu rank," and dated 1682. (2)

Tachi

Tachi

he ivorn ivith armor,

to

only partly

signature

worn

be

to

legible,

remnants of signature on

monies,

omote

(front face

of tang), possibly

and Albert

fifteenth century. Victoria

Museum.

eighth century, called the

was supplanted

then has been used

as a state

similar except for the tachi

Many

tachi.

as a fighting

ago the

centuries

tachi

weapon by the katana, and since sword. The tachi and katana were

manner

was suspended from the

in

which they were

sash

carried; the

by two cords with

its

blade

edge downward, and the katana was thrust in the sash with edge upward. The mounts or different shapes

Dai-sho called

(pair

of swords carried by a warrior), the long sword

katana and the short sword

called

wakizashi. The blades are

of the fifteenth century and the mounts are of the eighteenth century. Metropolitan

Museum of Art.

Gift of Howard Mansfield, 1936.

by

different

and

is

blade,

fittings

from those on the

names. The katana

distinguished

by

its

is

on

A

similar

sword

its

of

a tachi are also

usual swords

and are known

the national

sword of Japan

long, slightly curved, single-edged

which averages from twenty-eight

length.

to thirty inches in

called the wakizashi

was

also carried

the samurai, along with the katana, as a supplementary

by

weapon whose the

word

blade usually measured about eighteen inches

The combination of these swords

in length.

dai referring to the katana or

on

the custom to leave the long

their

sword

owner,

its

called dai-sho,

mounts. But, since at the

a house and to place the shorter one

beside

is

longer sword, and sho

Very often the dai-sho pair had

to the ivakizashi or shorter one. identical or similar designs

it

was

door when entering

on the

tatami or

mat

was frequently more elaborately

the latter

decorated. It

was the

tradition for a samurai to give a small

age. This

a

first

of

sword of the military man's son was known

as

charm sword and had

male children under

the hilt and scabbard covered in bro-

caded sUk with a kinchaku, or purse, attached to

wear

the son

Goda

bard and mounted with fmely worked

118

Collection, gift of a trustee,

1917.

started to

his

it.

But when

ceremonial dress, he was pre-

Fuchi and kashira made o/shakudo, by Mitsuotomo Kikuoka; eighteenth century. Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Masauji

first

sword

five years

called mamori katana to his

(j)

court cere-

at

sented with a short sword having a plain black-lacquer scabfittings. Tliis is

the


]

A

Left:

tanto having

having a kozuka

and sheath of ebony with

hilt

gold mounts depicting

and flowers, and

butterflies

(small

knife).

Made

Natsuo, and signed and dated 1866.

Museum of Art.

A

Right:

H. O. Havemeyer,

Bequest of Mrs.

H. O. Havemeyer

1909, The

by Kano

Metropolitan

Collection.

nhieteenth-century aikuchi ivith scabbard

and kozuka (small knife) with a seventeenth-century

The

blade.

and

hilt

and scabbard

are

made of steel,

Museum of

Metropolitan

lacquer.

silver,

Art. Gift of

William B. Osgood Field, 1949.

sword

was

that

also carried

by men when wearing

the kama-

shimo, or court dress. Smaller blade weapons, such as daggers,

were is

mounted. The

also beautifully

tanto,

rarely longer than twelve inches,

and usually had the

hilt

was

whose curved blade fitted

with a guard

and scabbard mounted with

all

the

fittings

used on the sword, generally elaborately decorated.

Also in

this

category

is

the aikuchi, a knife or dagger without

with a hilt and scabbard which were frequently made

a guard,

of metal and elaborately decorated. During the Tokugawa period the aikuchi was carried by persons of rank and tired soldiers,

and was

committing

also used in

by

re-

hara-kiri, or

ceremonial suicide. Another interesting weapon witliin the category of daggers

is

which

the kwaiken,

is

an early form of

either a single-edged or double-edged knife carried

nese

women

by Japa-

and used for ceremonial suicide by severing

The

hilt

which is

of the Japanese sword

more

in length

which

is

an oval rarely exceeding one and five-

combines the most beautiful designs with the fmest workmanship.

With minute

by the foremost

chasing of extraordinary

usually

is

from

eight to ten

and generally covered with same,

a rendered sharkskin.

It is

white in color and is cover-

on the fuchi.

on the

kashira,

ornaments called menuki, which are held in place by a project-

wound round

ing pin or by braid

the

hilt.

matched pair and frequently conform fittings.

Fine examples of menuki

They

worked by

metals are occasionally signed pieces

in gold or other

celebrated artists

are remarkable for their jewel-like quality.

often in the

form of dragons,

variety of the

most

Sometimes a broad

as

They

human and animal

the rivet or mekugi fre-

it

dragons or a dragon entwining a sword, and

up, and

then ground dowoi to a smooth surface and polished. This

known

as same-nuri,

ance of tiny rounded discs of ivory tsukaito,

is

or sharkskin lacquer, and has the appearset in

which is placed over the same, is

black lacquer.

a braid

The

wound round

the hilt in various patterns, leaving rhomboidal spaces through

which the same

mount

is

visible.

On

the

pommel

called the kashira, while at the

is

the protective

lower part of the

hilt

next to the guard is thefuchi, or ring into which the base of the hilt

fits.

In spite of the small surface at the disposal of the

artist.

found on the

The

hilt

subjects.

of metal, called the dogame, encircles

with black lacquer

filled

usually decorated with a design of

of a

and

most

flying cranes, rabbits, tigers,

the middle of the hilt and through It is

are

temple guardians, and an endless

interesting

collar

are usually a

in design to the other

quently passes.

hollow centers are

and the sub-

On either side of the hilt is a pair of

ed with small lumps which are rasped down, partially covered until the

when done

combinations of colored metals, the principal

also for their

part of the design being executed

ordinate part

skill

masters, the kashira andfuchi are remarkable

Buddhist divinities such

the veins in the neck.

inches or

the kashira,

eighths inches in length and five-eighths of an inch in breadth,

tanto, a variety

is

two

principally

of dagger.

decoration of the scabbard of the sword varied both in

extent and character depending

upon

which the weapon was intended.

the size and purpose for

In the dai-sho or pair

of

swords, mentioned above, the scabbards were almost always

made o( hinoki,

the Japanese cypress.

They were

lacquered in

black and frequently decorated with the crest or mon of the

owner

in gold lacquer,

and had a fmely decorated metal cap

at the tip called the kojiri.

The wakizashi was usually fitted with 119


Left:

o/menuki in gold and other metah depicting the famous Chinese Kwanyu and Chorio; eighteenth century. Metropolitan Museum

Pair

warriors

of Art. The Sylmaris Collection,

Below:

Pair of gold

of George C. Graves, 1931.

gift

menuki representing quail; made by Motonori, nineMuseum of Art. The Masauji Goda Collection,

teenth century. Metropolitan gift

two

small sheaths

which were hollowed

the scabbard at the top, and in these

oj.it

on

either side

of

were carried two small

knives called the kogai and the kozuka. At the edge of the sheath for the kogai

is

a guard or protective

mental metal called the is

kurikata,

had

aiid

The

kurikata also served

wound round the scabbard so as to hold in place when thrust in the sash. When

swordsman prepared from the

kurikata

of the wide

fullness

neither.

through which the sage-o, or long flat silken cord,

over the shoulder and

for action,

and throw

it

knots, and nooses

artist

slightly less than

made

to be carried as a pair.

of the kozuka handle gave the

surface

greater scope for his design.

It is

in these

mounts

he would draw the

that

had been trained from boyhood

which enabled

varieties

use

it

its

in

of loops,

for binding

made of

Its

which

The

is

could be used.

which

kozuka was carried in a sheath in

like the

handle

The

is

elaborately decorated and

kozuka, although

its

Its flat,

elongated

one piece with the handle. The

made

to

conform

to the

end terminates by curving into and form-

ing a tiny disc-shaped fmial. At times the kogai was finely lengthwise,

from the center of the end of the handle

the point, forming sticks, in

which

two

case

it

to

equal parts resembling a pair of chop-

was

called a wari-kogai.

Many

curious

because no records have been found to estabhsh their validity,

by welding

steel side

of the

beautifully inlaid or engraved with decorative

designs and often with engraved graphic symbols or the charflat

in

applied to

unpolished. Frequently the iron side of

of Japanese writing. The

is

made

is

stories

with a high polish, while the iron side tapers to the is

a knife

kogai,

But its

comwhen de-

straight single-

kataha plates, produced

together a plate of steel and one of iron. is flat

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

blade and handle

tached from the handle, and the term ko-katana

the blade

in

skewer-shape part

many him to

thrown with

was to serve the swordsman in every manner

and thus baring the forearms. In

refers to the small knife carried in its sheath

cutting edge and

as a missile,

swordsmen, or sometimes driven

sleeves

the combination of the blade and handle. is

skillful

principal purpose

with remarkable rapidity

frequently restricted to the blade only,

edged blade

by

the scabbard, resembles a head pin or skewer.

sword scabbard, including is

have been used

said to

into the heart of a fallen foe to deliver the coup de grace.

split

which generally

is

great accuracy

the

In the literature of Japanese sword mounts the term kozuka

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

the kozuka

the

prisoners.

120

to or matches the kogai if they are

The more extended

behind the back, catching up the

the art of forming the sage-o into

acters

width and

elaborately decorated, and conforms

tie it

feudal times the samurai

blade

is

most frequently bear the artist's signature. Among other things,

sword securely

bined

usually about one-half inch in

four inches in length,

with both the kogai and kozuka, the katana seldom had

was passed

in the

1917.

the fmest examples of chasing and engraving occur, and they

as the fitting

feudal

while the one for the kozuka

trustee,

usually-

the kogai and frequently

sage-o

piece of orna-

Although the wakizashi was

called the uragawara.

fitted

flat

of a

metal handle, which

is

have been written about the kogai and

uses,

its

and

although most of these stories have to be considered as fictional,

how

they

still

serve to illustrate

used.

It is

said that in the days

revenge for slain his

real

it

relentless

or imagined wrong, the avenger, after having

enemy, would

those finding

the kogai might have been

of hereditary feuds and

thrust his kogai into the corpse, so that

would recognize

badge of the owner of the

would then be known and

kogai.

the distinguishing

The

suspicion

mark

or

identity of the slayer

would not

fall

on an

imiocent person. Sometimes the slayer even went so far

as to


write a full statement of the reasons for the deed, bearing his signature and

means of the

seal,

kogai.

and pinned

At times the

authorities for trial

would

it

body of his victim

to the

slayer

would surrender to the

and punishment; in other instances he

retire to a secluded place

and commit

hara-kiri.

a rule, having left his kogai behind as evidence, he

endeavor to lose ally

his

former identity and become a

meaning wave-man, which was

owing

allegiance to

that in the old days

no

feudal lord.

as

would

ronin, liter-

has also been written

of continued feudal warfare,

custom to decapitate a

But

a masterless samurai

It

was the

it

were a warrior of any

fallen foe, if he

THE "TSUBA"

by-

Of all the fittings on a Japanese sword, from

its size

and shape and from the

work on

lavished his best

metal plate, generally

elliptical,

majority o( tsuba are

tsuba

and around

this

dai. If the tsuba

on the scppa

thereby forming a

and

his residence

handle by which the ghastly trophy could be carried without

also

have a perforation

stories

about the kogai,

factual that the ii'ari-kogai, or split kogai, sticks,

and the regular kogai was used

established as

it is

were used

as

and

to loosen

chop-

dress

up

when he removed

the ruffled or matted hair of the warrior his helmet.

riobitsu,

which tsuba,

at either side

and kozuba to

two sword

side.

pass through.

fittings

earlier

called

found

of the opening

The

of the seppa

tsuba

may

dai called

Above and

resembling washers,

are called scppa. Their original use

which was, in the

artist, it is

left side

and date on the right

tsuba are

narrow space

a plain

with his name on the

for the kogai

below the

is

bears the signature of the

kogai into the tnage, or topknot

dai,

opening through which the tang

opening

not touch a corpse without being defded, he would stick the

of contamination. Notwithstanding the questionabdity

flat

round, or often resembling a

The made of steel, and the fmest are oishakudo

a specially shaped

is

seppa

of these and other

artist

a

It is

or shibuichi or a combination of both. In the center of the

general as proof of prowess in battle. Since the samurai could

fear

metal

the tsuba or guard.

averaging about two and a half inches in diameter.

passes,

hair,

most important,

rectangle with gently curving sides and rounded comers,

importance, and to present his head to the feudal lord or

of

it, is

the

fact that the

was to support the

examples, thinner in the center.

Seppa are usually ornamented like the other

fittings,

the larger

one, called o-seppa, being placed under the tsuba. Tsuba on the

Kozuka and kogai

Left:

a design

of

having

by Mitsuyuki

lilies

1790-1862, of the Goto

Tojo,

school; the

kozuka

blade

is

signed

by Sukehiro, 1635-1682. Victoria

and Albert Museum.

A kogai made o/shakudo

Below :

by Rinjo (Mitsuzane) Kanzaye-

mon Goto, with conventional

bamboo tury.

Art.

designs

Chinese

leaves;

of the

lion

and

seventeenth cen-

Metropolitan

Museum of

The Masauji Goda Collec-

tion, gift

of a

trustee,

1917.

Above:

Four kozuka with handles o/shakudo and

of Mount Fuji, a pine

tree,

and

the

moon;

the

iron with scenes

moon and

a flying goose;

a sword; and a plaque with inscription; seventeenth-eighteenth century.

Metropolitan

Museum of Art. The Masauji Goda

Collection, gift of

a trustee, 1917.

121


early swords

were generally of iron, and they continued

used almost exclusively during the

yama periods. They were more peaceful times when

to

used occasionally in later and

still

sword became more of a deco-

the

All of the

be

Muromachi and Momo-

numerous

fittings

or mounts on a Japanese sword

serve a constructive purpose, and

or attached, making placed on another

it

hilt

all

removed

are rather easily

possible for

them

to be changed or

or scabbard. There are certain specific

rative accessory to the costume.

Japanese terms used to describe collectively different

Tokugawa Shogunate, from 1615 to 1867, other metals made their appearance for use on tsuba and other sword mounts. The greatest development was made in the alloys of copper, including brass, sentoku, shakudo, and shihuichi. The last three, being peculiar

sword mounts which were made

During the

era of peace under the

of

gether since they are of conforming decoration. Mitokoromofio,

which means

the kozuka, ko^ai,

objects for three places,

on metal work.

soroimono,

Owing

of violet-black,

refer to a set

is

used to describe

and mamki when they comprise a

conforming or matching decoration.

to Japan, are fully described in the chapter to their unusually beautiful patinas

sets

particularly to be used to-

meaning

a set

which may

When

of conforming consist

having

set

word

using the

objects, the Japanese

of any combination of sword

and menuki.

ranging to tones of gray and golden bronze, a variety of

mounts, with the exception of the

magnificent combinations were created to produce metalwork

A

never achieved in any other country. The variety of treat-

of swords, which may comprise as many as twenty-four pieces,

ment and

the ingenuity with

were created by and the

skillful

which such

different groupings

beautiful effects

of these unusual

methods of working them,

from

faces, the

the front

on

every variety of technique, such

The

are a perpetual

kodogu,

which they apply

designs were executed in

as inlaying, carving, piercing,

tsuba designs present a story

of Japan through

several centuries, portraying her historical, religious, legendary, mythological,

extremely

and contemporary customs.

rare.

the hatana and ivahizashi.

is

and engraving. With an almost endless repertory of subjects and themes,

sets are

kogai, kozuka,

the complete set of fittings for a pair

dai-sho,

design being either identical or continued to the back.

although such

is

alloys,

source of wonder and admiration. Tsuba are usually decorated

on both

daisho-no-soToimono

to all

This pair of swords, or

Then

mounts

the

word

collectively

on a

there

sword or dagger, with the exception of the

mounts which

are not characteristic

is

tsuba.

and are without recog-

nized names are called kanamom, which

literally

means hard-

ware. In the slung sword, or court sword, called the fittings are

and are

Sword

tachi,

the

of different shapes from those on the usual swords

known by

scabbard of the

tachi

different

names. The lacquering on the

was regulated by a

particular color

and

Iron tsuba of the

Higo

style

strict etiquette,

with a

being used on different occasions

Iron tsuba with a pierced design

of rudders.

Muromachi

fifteenth century.

period,

Tokyo National

Museum.

Iron tsuba with a pierced design

ofsacredfungus and young bracken; fifteenth

Albert

122

century.

Victoria

and

Museum.

Edo

school with

openwork design of pine

trees;

period, seventeenth century. Ishikawa Collection, Tokyo.


and the number and the position of the Corresponding to the

kashira,

swords, the one on the

word

a half inches

crests prescribed.

pommel, on other Japanese from the

tachi is called the kahuto gone,

meaning hehnet. These

kahuto,

one and

or

of the

hahuto gane cover about

depth; the outline of the

hilt in

manipulation of design, that the Japanese refer to the best

work

with the

as painting

family,

which

school of metalwork design, and for the

opening. In this open space, reaching from one side of the

greatest master in the art

hand, which

is

loop of metal called the saru-te, or

with the hands joined. From tassel,

monkey

sometimes in the form of two monkey's arms this saru-te

hangs the cord and

usually of leather, having ornamental ends of metal.

the tachi scabbard are the ashi, or loops, through

were passed

so that

it

On

which cords

could be suspended from the

Shogun and

main

worked

his courts. Starting

samurai family from the province of

son, Sojo, 1460-1538,

and more

Mino (now known

450 years from the

middle of the Muromachi period to the year 1877, when the Imperial edict was issued

wearing of swords.

men of during

by Emperor Meiji

Of the more

abolishing the

than three thousand crafts-

repute recorded as having produced sword mounts

this

long period, the greater number belong to distinct

and exclusive

schools.

great artists in

working the metals and

Such superb

skill

was expended by

in their extraordinary

as

the year 1856 leaving

no son

him. Naturally the position

in the style of his

the third

greatly appreciated

is

relief.

This great family continued

as the

founder, the

The work of

elaborate.

field, until finally, the sixteenth

sword mounts may be considered

daimyo, and

the family had an un-

whose work was

because of its designs in high

making of decorative

its

Gifu prefecture), and the second master of this family was his

SWORD-MOUNT MAKERS the

for the

with

of sixteen generations. Yujo came of a

line

master, Joshin, 1511-1562, son of Sojo,

The principal period of activity in

Goto

the

is

of sword mounts, Goto Shirobei,

name was Yujo,

1439- 1 5 12, whose art interrupted

father but freer

sash.

the greatest kinko,

for generations provided leaders in the classical

top is ogee in form, while the broader sides contain a decorative

hilt to the other, is a

Among

chisel.

or makers of sword mounts, the most famous

as

undisputed leader in their

and

last

master, Hojo, died in

skilled in this

work

family was one of great honor, and

much

to succeed

Goto Shirobei

as successor to the

coveted. Three

years after the death of Hojo, three candidates presented

and competed for the position

selves

to his

who

were pupils of Goto Ichigo,

master. All three

honor

them-

seventeenth Goto

as the

gave the

nephew Mitsunori, but unfortunately Mitsunori

was never recognized

as the

seventeenth master because he

had not received the personal approval of Hojo during lifetime.

The

eight

first

Goto masters seldom signed

his

their

work, although some of it has been identified by the foremost experts, Jujo

who were

the twelfth and thirteenth

Goto family and

the best qualified for such

and Yenjo,

generations of the

a task. These experts engraved Iron tsuba with brass incrustations

showing

floral

ornament

in

the

on the back of the pieces the

name of the artist and their own names and wrote out orikami, certificates, giving the name of the masters, a description

or Otiin

style.

Victoria

Sixteenth

century.

of the decoration, and the value.

and Albert Museum.

Around thirteenth

were

the latter part of the eighteenth century,

flourishing,

collect

when

the

and fourteenth generations of the Goto masters

complete

was the pride of some of the daimyo

it

sets

thirteen or fourteen

of mitokoromono or kozuka of the

Goto

masters.

Some of

these sets

to

first

were

completely decorated with the dragon or the Chinese dog of

Fo in sets

Iron tsuba carved with a design of

monkeys.

three

Shozui

Hamano;

eighteenth tional

century.

Museum.

Attributed

Edo

to

period,

Tokyo Na-

different forms, or

with other popular

had a combination of designs. Although

great satisfaction to

be able to

collect

subjects; other it

was always a

complete

sets

of

mitokoromono of the old Goto masters and to fix them on the

new

styles

of scabbards,

mounts created

as

it

was

Tokugawa regime

there

were

steadily

ornamental mounts made for the

new

style

also the

custom

to acquire

new fashions. Around the latter part of the changing fashions in

dai-sho,

was usually introduced

or

two swords. The

for the time

of the

New

Year, and the daimyo, vassals of high rank, and important

123


Tsuba of shibuichi of a

tiger

of the

in

tiger

and

form

the

and bamboo. The

stripes

his eyes are inlaid

with gold and metal alloys. Signed

Yasuchika Tsuchiya. Edo period, eighteenth tional

Tokyo Na-

century.

Museum.

Pierced iron tsuba in the form of

Chinese fan

a

or

hand-screen.

Signed Masayoshi (of Satsuma); eighteenth

century.

and

Victoria

Albert museum.

Iron tsuba having eight openwork designs of family crests in brass

and an over-all

brass inlaid ground depicting pine needles; eighteenth

century. Victoria

officials

of the Shogun's court placed

new swords

their orders for those

during the eleventh and twelfth month of the old

year, so as to have

them for their customary visits of New Year

congratulations.

illustrated

costly sets sets

fittings

during

Tokugawa

times

not only in the rivalry of daimyo in collecting

of the old masters, but

of mitokoromono and

also in the practice

one or more

sets

set

soroimotio as presents. It

battles, scenes

Tokugawa period, the daimyo and when they rode in their

the kamashimo-zashi.

from on

sword or

wakizashi,

which they

The kamashimo-zashi derived

masters reigned supreme.

The

dog of Fo,

scenes

plays, flowers,

from

great

and other similar

Edo

period, in the

daimyo vied with one another

name

era

was

and costly sword

Those of solid gold were mostly used by daimyo, but even

some of

it

in rich

of the

the

more wealthy and important merchants of this

were allowed to wear one sword with pure-gold orna-

ments. Between 1830 and 1844 the

state finances

a distressful condition that the so-called

were

in such

Tempo economic

elegant ornaments

on

these

reforms were instituted.

made by

the

Goto

indulge in luxuries, were forbidden to use gold on sword

family, and the tsuba, fuchi, and kashira

were of plain

with exquisite nanako work, sometimes with the

Tokugawa

No

fittings.

called

mounts of the Goto

kamashimo-zashi were almost exclusively

124

its

the court dress of the nobles called kamashimo, and

these swords that the ornamental

the

Japanese subjects. At the beginning of the

palanquins to audiences with the Emperor or the Shogun, the short

from

finest

The principal

relief.

Tokugawa Shoguns, and his court adopted a very luxurious mode of living, and during that time sword mounts were often made of solid gold. This period of luxury continued on through the prosperous Genroku era (1688- 1704), when

also

the highest vassals of the Shogun,

wore

and menuki, of the

was

of mitokoromono by famous Goto masters.

century to the end of the

kagai,

so-called Kan-ei era (1624- 1644), lemitsu, the third

the time of Hideyoshi in the latter part of the sixteenth

usually

o{ mitokoromono, or kozuka,

nanako on sliakudo with gold decoration in

of giving

customary for princes to include in the dowry of a daughter

From

bards were always in plain black lacquer, with the matching

designs included dragons, the

The importance of sword is

and Albert Museum.

sliakudo

crest

of the

family or of the daimyo. Kamashimo-zashi scab-

The people were ordered not

ornaments, and were enjoined to follow a more austere

of

life.

Luxurious dress was

of wealth circumvented

this

also banished,

to

way

although ladies

by wearing the most costly silks


With rily

crustations

Goto

of peony sprays on a

branched from the Goto school, and they were responsible for

c.

ground

in

the

1800. Victoria and

Museum.

Albert

an object of artistic merit and three great schools of chasers

were founded, the Yokoya, Nara, and Hamano. All had

(fish-roe)

style;

become prima-

era,

with gold in-

Tsuba of shahudo nanako

Tokugawa

the continuation of peace under the

Shoguns, the sword had, by the Genroku

on sword

the wonderful variety and beauty of workmanship

mounts. The Yokoya school was founded by Yokoya Soyo,

who formed

his

own

school in about 1640 together with his

son, Sochi; the foremost

Somin,

c.

member of this

family was

Yokoya

1670- 173 3, whose designs were executed with great

freedom. The Nara school was founded by Nara Toshiteru,

who

from

also seceded

He

the Goto.

entered the service of

Tokugawa Shogun lemitsu in 1624 and worked chiefly in iron. The glory of the Nara school was Nara Yasuchika, a great chaser active between 1670- 1744. He worked mostly in the

Tsuba of shibuichi

inlaid with

shakudo,

the

depicting

foxes'

sentoku.

Around

Hamano

the middle of the eighteenth century

nighttime

Shozui founded the school known by that name, and produced

and having tiny pierced oblong

extraordinary effects on iron tsuba that resemble fragments of

wedding procession

at

holes to represent lighted lanterns

by

carried

Victoria

the

foxes;

c.

1830.

and Albert Museum.

mounts makers

Then

difficult to

it is

distmguish the characteristics of some

of some of the foremost

style

varies so greatly, thus blending into the style

again, in certain pieces the style

blance to the style of another

under a cheap costume when appearing in pubhc, and the

cause of the

men

down

maimer

in

artist

little

in the

or no resem-

same school. Be-

which the Japanese connoisseurs break

these principal schools into

term

of others.

of a given master which

can be recognized without difficulty has

fittings

of bronze

often with a very high fmish. In the classification of sword

of these schools, because the

ehided the law by covering sohd-gold sword

tsuba

cast iron and, in strange contrast to these,

many

sub-schools,

it

seems

school in general refers less to artistic style or

with black lacquer.

that the

Among the foremost makers of sword mounts, Kane-ie, who flourished around the middle of the Muromachi period, was the first maker of artistically decorated tsuba. Many un-

treatment than to a form of art genealogy. Although the fore-

signed iron tsuba of the fifteenth century are believed to be

occur in the

the

work of armorers. While some of these have

conventional

saw-cut silhouettes of animals, birds, flowers, and leaves, a large

number

regulated tsuba

ornamented with punch marks or

are only

hammer

dents.

workmanship

Hideyoshi, in the tsuba decorated

are

The most

perfect examples of iron

by Umetada Myojo, swordsmith

latter part

of the

Momoyama

to

period. Iron

with translucent enamel on gold were made

in the early seventeenth century to be knov^Ti as Hirata enamel.

producing the same

style

made

its

appearance on tsuba and kozuka executed by Hirada Tokosai

and

also

some

thin and delicate cloisons.

design fittings

in each school

work of each

relief to

is flat

have a

distinct style

further complicated

by the

master, ranging

very bold

relief,

of their own,

variations

which

from engraving

while in other

work

in

the

with the ground cut away. In the Japanese sword

of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are found

examples of chasing technically unsurpassed anywhere, and it is

to the artists

of these schools and to

the superb quality of Japan's metal art

their followers that

owes

its

unchallenged

position.

METAL CHASING

of decoration mostly on shakudo

the late seventeenth century, champleve enamel

others,

very low

is

Hirata family continued

of the nineteenth century,

instead of iron. In the eighteenth century, or at the earliest in

and

attribution

by Hirata Donin and came

The

his traditions until the first half

most masters

beautiful pieces of cloisonne with

The nese

merits of sculpture in metal are evaluated

by the

quality of the chiseling, rather than

rative design itself,

supplied

by

by by

the Japathe deco-

which on sword fittings was almost always

painters.

Thus the Japanese draw

tion between the decorative design and

its

a clear distinc-

technical execution,

125


;

the degree of excellence residing in the quality of the chisel-

work. There are about two hundred and

fifty cutting

METAL TREATMENT

and

The many

engraving tools used by the Japanese metal sculptor. In the

work of the

chaser one feature, scarcely less important than

the chiseling of the decoration

ground on which strict

itself, is

the preparation of the

was

applied. In earlier times there

it is

a

canon with reference to these grounds, the so-called

nanako style being essential for the mountings of swords for

ceremonial occasions, while the ishime andjiniigaki considered

Nanako, or

less aristocratic.

styles

were of

fish roe, is a pattern

generic to

of carving are

varieties

name of

bori,

and

them on decorated sword mounts. Guri bori is a work in is done on sword fittings in imi-

which carving and welding tation

of

guri lacquer

work.

It

consists

gether.

Sometimes

as

many

which

The

These microscopic dots covered the whole

V-shaped channels with sloping

itself.

In chiseling, the Japanese

metalworker always attached great importance to the patina

and shakudo, because of

beautiful violet-black color,

its

was

layers.

When

one form o(guri

which produces

and seldom more than one one-liundredth of

slightly

carving,

more than

which

sides, cuts

done in

is

through these

side, revealing the

black and

red metals and leaving one layer of shakudo in the center. In

nanako dots are exactly spaced at equal intervals, absolutely size,

is

fifteen sheets are used, the chamiels are cut

through seven layers on each

the most frequently used for nanako work. These minute

uniform in

more of these very

or

as fifteen

thin sheets are foimd in a tsuba,

one-eighth of an inch thick.

portion carrying the motif

of several sheets of

metal, usually alternating shakudo and copper, welded to-

minute raised dots executed by a sharply struck cupped punch. surface, except the

under the

classified

distinctive appellations are given

bori the

channels are rounded at the bottom,

a different effect than the

form having

was sub-

being accurately arranged in

metals in guri bori

more

either straight or concentric lines, the greatest technical skill

jected to a process

of pickling. In the method knowai

an inch in diameter, so

was required

that,

The punching

to execute the patterns.

tool

was

guided solely by the hand and eye, and three or more blows

arated

by

is

a pattern

of dots arranged in

untouched. This term

V

grooves

is left

an orderly pattern of

also used for

is

tiny quadrangular pyramids attained

diagonally with

lines sep-

of equal width in which the surface

spaces

effective, the finished piece

kiri-bori the incised chiseling

produced decorative

unrivaled beauty. This exquisite

work was

created

as kata-

effects

by

of

the use

of the burin or cutting tool to produce lines of varying width

of the mallet were required for each dot.

Daimyo nanako

a sharp

bottom. In order to make the black and red colors of the two

by cutting the

at right angles to

and depth of individual value, much This

work

is

as a painter uses his brush.

even more astonishing

no subsequent retouching or

when one

finishing

was

realizes that

possible.

Another

surface

form the pyra-

mids. In the decoration called gotiome nanako the dots are

arranged in perfect diagonal lines forming lozenges, with a dot in the center

of each lozenge, making

dots to each lozenge. There in

which a smaller dot

is

is

also

raised

an

group of

a

five

intricate nanako pattern

on each of the

regular dots,

while another type has two smaller dots superimposed on each of the original dots. StiU a third variation has separate dots with the

ground space stamped with flowers so minute

they cannot be seen with the naked eye. There limit to the ingenuity

producing these

and

skill

fantastic surfaces.

many

although the most characteristic form

produced by a blunt

surface

tool.

Of these

ishime resembles stone pitting, nashi-ji hari ishime appears as

scarcely

is

is

a

any

artist

The grounds of

resemble the texture of a stone. There are ishime,

is

of the Japanese metal

in

ishime

varities

of

roughened

varieties tatsuta

like the skin

of a pear,

though small holes were picked out by

a needle, gozame ishime resembles Japanese rice-straw mats or tatami,

and gama

ishime

is

like the skin

of

a toad.

Zaramaki

imitates stone,

and in the variety of ground known asjimigaki

the surface

given the highest possible polish, and

is

ceptionally beautiful shakudo.

126

when produced on

is

ex-

the violet-black

An

iron

tsuba with gold and

silver inlay in the design

and vine; signed Sadatsune ofSatsuma; nineteenth and Albert Museum.

of a gourd

century. Victoria


form of

fineness.

or

engraving of lines of equal depth

bori is the hairline

and width

There was

openwork

copper wire inlaid in iron, and resembling pine needles

which was produced with remarkable

called kebori,

of perforated

also the sukashi-bori, a type

chiseling,

which was generally used

tion with a variety of metal carving in

ing on a pond or lake.

in conjunc-

which the designs

When

which

is

usu-niku-bori or

is

and

atsu-niku-bori or

The

its

inlaying

is

was a process

with the surface

known

a variety

is

difficult, the

designs

seem

to

known

which

when

teenth

the

century.

Museum.

Akasaka Victoria

nine-

on and

and Albert

soft

floral fits

design or

the

The

hammering Sometimes,

as ten processes

decorative process

as kiribame-zogan

some

similar

motif in

a

is

a thin sheet

petal

of the flowers, which produces an

flowers outlined in a contrasting metal.

gold,

swastika diaper design and heraldic in

known

many

a deUcate banding of a contrasting metal

and copper inlay having a

Kaga

century. Victoria

surface

nunome-

method of

work and outlining the openwork with a veneer of a contrasting metal, such as gold, to emphasize the outline. When the metalworker cuts an openwork

Tsuba made of shakudo with

crests

called

chiseling a design in pierced

very intricate

silver,

is

silver into the design.

the designs are very intricate, as

of inserting inlay

covered with tiny pieces of brass and

style;

of gold or

are used in this technique of inlaying.

as taka-

or ground-out

is

and elaborate geometric patterns

a very thin sheet

called hira-zogan,

it is

emerge from under the

Pierced iron tsuba representing five cranes in

laid

The method of inlaying gold and silver on an iron

iron sufficiently to develop a softness, and then

decoration called gomoku-zogati, used on tsuba and other is

is

ground down and

zogan. This process requires the heating of the surface of the

The of hammering fittings.

metal surface and float in the atmosphere. In another form of

mounts, the surface

of the design. The cut design o( shakudo

in delicate

distinctive for the exquisite

character of its designs. In this process,

and

it is

as togidashi-zogan

which

ed.

of the

highest degree of perfection

projected above the surface

style

A block o{ shibuichi

fixed into the grooves of the shibuichi, then

wire into grooves cut in the surface of metal.

zogati.

base.

parts

gold or

it is

wider at its

relief,

artist

of elaborate designs on sword

this inlay is flat

is

then cut with channels which correspond perfectly to the

relief,

called hon-zogan

and when

ground

cut out of a

is first

low

form of inlay

When

with shakudo in which the design

polished untU the inlaid design and ground are perfectly blend-

feudal periods raised the art to

silver

usually a shibuichi

is

high

was among the

silver

of decoration in Japan, the metal

in the execution

float-

which the

on with India ink is called

is

also called taka-bori.

Although inlaying with gold and early forms

in

design appears to have been painted

sloping so that each cut

Japanese also use the term maru-bori. In the category of carv-

chiu-niku-bori or half relief,

work

small block of shakudo in rehef with aU the sides of the cuts

referring to carving in the round, the

ing in relief or niku-bori there

type of inlay

sumi-zogan, or ink inlaying. This inlaid

appeared on both sides of the piece, approximating carving in the round.

One

style;

effect

of metal, he

around each

of transparent

A variety of decoration

Pierced iron tsuba with the design of

an egret and a

lily

century. Victoria

pond; nineteenth

and Albert Museum.

nineteenth

and Albert Museum.

ni


much

practiced

by

the early metal

artists is called

moktmw-ji,

then the manifold plate

is

punched from one

or wood-grained ground. In this type, which produces a

opposite side resembles broken

ground resembling the grain of wood, two thin

hammered dowai

similar metal

While

of equal

the mass

is still

size are

hot,

it is

plates

of

welded together by hammer. coated with a kind of marl and

blisters.

until each produces

Although iron was used exclusively

work on sword mounts,

its

a variety of metals

charcoal furnace. In this stage the clay or marl

a shakudo ground with a gold graining, bi

repeated.

hammered

in,

is

removed and

and the process

is

then

A number of plates may be worked together in

this

manner, depending upon the quaUty of graining desired, and

has

no

were used

in the

with the fmest and most beautiful of all having

technical processes of decorating quisite

effect.

in the earlier mokume-ji

later periods,

is

blisters are

own wave

straw ash before being brought to a glowing heat over a

another similar plate

side so that the

These

workmanship

fme sword

constitutes a level

all

these highly

fittings,

the ex-

of art in which Japan

rival.

I

128


X

Shinto and Buddhist Architecture

I .

native

N THE realm of Japan's

civilization

tive people

charm and beauty of Japanese

refmements of

resides in the subtle

Among the impressive

its Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines.

features

artistic heritage,

religious architecture

the quality of

is

proportions depending essentially upon mathematical ratios in the dimensions

of the building, and harmony in the general

balance of the architectonic composition. contrasts of light

by the

ment being tecture.

and shade were most

from

religious architects

The

subsidiary elements

The

disposition

skillfully

accomplished

early times, color

employed

and

and orna-

in Buddhist archi-

principal architectural features of Shinto shrines

and beauty derived from the

are their elegant simplicity

rela-

tion of contours, surfaces, and intervals.

Japanese architecture originated in the endeavors of the early inhabitants to provide for their physical wants,

first

with

cave dwellings, then with pit houses, ground-level houses and, fmally, raised-floor houses.

and the materials

at

hand

There can be no doubt affected the forms

that climate

of the primitive

buildings, as indicated in the earliest historical literature, such as the Kojiki,

or Records of Ancient Matters, and the Nikon

Shoki, or Chronicles of Japan, dating tively.

archaeological

evidence,

Haniwa houses found are the

from 712 and 720 respec-

Further knowledge of early houses

tombs of the

in particular

is

provided by

the miniature clay

in the great sepulchral

mounds which

rulers, built in the ancient

Yamato, the present Nara

prefecture,

third and fourth centuries. There are also

and the dotaku or bronze beU-shaped

province of

attained, while the efforts

had been

the

most profound expression of the country's

of the primi-

of Japan were directed toward the construction

of dwellings which

at first

The

physical needs.

were determined

solely

by

their

primitive pit house had as a foundation

an area of ground dug out to a

maximum depth of one meter

in an elliptical or rectangular shape with rounded comers,

generally with a diameter of the superstructure

this,

shape, erected

is

from

said to

five to six meters.

Over

have resembled a tent in

on an arrangement of four or more

posts to

support a sloping roof. During the succeeding Neolithic period,

which is characterized by more and

better

implements

and the development of agriculture and domestic animals, there evolved alongside of the pit house and the ground-level

dwelling, the house with raised floor, a kind of building

on

and

its

piles. first

The

latter

was

use as a dwelling

The

originally used as a storehouse,

was probably only by the ruling

architectural history

of Japan

is

generally conveniently

divided into the following six periods period, extending

from the

class.

:

i

.

The pre-Buddhist

earhest times to the introduction

of Buddhism in 552, during which there developed a

style

of

The first period during which was introduced through the medium of Bud-

architecture peculiar to Japan. 2.

Chinese culture

dhism from 552 to 794, thus including the historical periods of Asuka (552-645) and Nara (710-794). 3. The first period of nationalization of the imported

styles,

during the Heian

period (794-1185), which embraces the Jogan or Early Heian

The

and dating from the

(794-897) and the Fujiwara or Late Heian (897-1185).

many bronze mirrors

second period of Chinese influence, lasting from 11 85 until

objects

on which

are

depicted houses, thus providing a source of information on Japan's early civilization.

Like the other arts, architecture did not spring into existence in the earliest period, since the ideas of synunetry

and propor-

tion could not evolve until at least a moderate degree of

4.

Kamakura (1185-1333) and Muromachi 5. The second nationalization of the imported styles, which occurred from 1573 until 1867, including the Momoyama (1573-1615) and Edo (1615-1867) 1573, including the

(1338-1573) periods.

periods. 6.

The period of European

influence,

from the Meiji

period (1868-1912) onward.

129


SHINTO ARCHITECTURE

The is

Because of the abundance of trees and other forest growths in Japan, the primitive domestic dwelling houses

were

class

built

of wood, with

of the ruling

pillars thrust into the

and the whole framework, consisting of posts, beams, and so

rafters,

with cords made from the twisted

forth, tied together

fibrous stems of

ground

chmbing

plants.

The

Japanese propensity

for clinging to ancient traditions gives us

many

insights into

her early culture; and because of this a general idea of ancient Japanese architecture before the introduction of

may be

Buddhism

obtained from the Shinto shrines or jinsha which have

survived.

The

finest

examples are the Daijingu shrines of Ise

and most primitive form of Shinto architecture

earliest

called the tenchi kongcn style,

were fastened two horizontal

which served

roof as well

as

as walls.

walls

on four sides and a

of Shinto the gods were worshipped

ducted in an enclosure

made by

at

ceremonies con-

thrusting branches of ever-

A number of

Subsequently

raised floor, thus

house with gabled roof. This

this

is

the

producing a simple

form of

the original

the shrines at

Ise.

A

except for a symbol, and has no provision for joint worship

by

a congregation, so that only

the shrine, but cistern,

which

The

wiU

is

altar

enough space and the

stop at the mitarashi or sacred water

in front

of every Shinto

shrine,

and wash

purification

and ring the gong or round

soul.

bell

by pulling or shaking the long rope or drapes

and goddesses,

it

became the custom

to use such objects as

mirrors or jewels to symbolize the presence of a god, and therefore a dwelling in

The

Japanese

word

for both a shrine centuries there

and a

which

wiya,

to enshrine

meaning honorable house,

and the house of a

was no

them was provided.

distinction

is

chieftain, since for

used

many

between a domestic dwelling

shrine.

from

it

will stand outside

and clap

his

of his body

and

enormous pantheon embracing many nature gods

actually

or other

individual worshipper does not enter

first

mouth and hands symboUcally for the

He

is

priests

green trees into the ground. As Shinto developed into an

its

by

Shinto shrine contains no image or idol

organized native cult combining nature and ancestor worship,

with

whole

Shinto-shrine style called yuiitsu shimmei, as represented

officiating persons.

cult

ground.

set in

which

structure o(the tetichi kongen house was elevated by introducing

although they have been frequently reconstructed,

pre-

of two posts

tied to these rafters to support a thatch

needed to accommodate an

still

consists

rafters sloping to the

beams were

and the Izumo-Taisha shrine in Izumo province, which,

serve their primitive form. In the earliest stages of the ancient

and

the ground supporting a ridge pole, to each end of

his hands, usually twice, before

that

hang

worshipping

the deity of the shrine.

The Shinto dhist temple

shrine has

none of the magnificence of the Bud-

and from remote antiquity has represented the

The

Jingu shrines of Ise

of Kodaijingu or the Naiku (Inner

shrine) dedicated to

the sun goddess, Amaterasu-o-mi-kami,

and the Toyouke-

purest type of Japanese architecture. consist

daijingu or the

Geku (Outer

shrine) dedicated to

Toyouke-

ÂŤ5...^ÂŤ^

The Naiku to the

130

(or Inner shrine) of the Jingu shrines of Ise, dedicated

sun goddess, Amaterasu-o-mi-Kami.

Izumo Taisha, prefecture.

or

Great Shrine of Izumo,

at

Taisha,

Shimane


o-mi-kami, the goddess of farnis, crops, food, and

They

sericulture.

beheved to possess today precisely the appearance

are

they presented in the year 478 in obedience to a revelation

reign of the

when they were moved thither

from the sun goddess. During the

Emperor Temmu, 672-686,

was decreed

it

that

the Ise shrines should be rebuilt every twentieth year, alter-

on each of two

nately

of the old

features

scrupulous accuracy.

apart for the purpose, the

sites set

reproduced in the

edifice beijig

With few

new with

exceptions, the Imperial re-

building decree has been observed, and the shrines have actually

been reconstructed fifty-nine times during these thirteen

hundred

The

years.

Ise shrines are

constructed oiiiinohi

wood

or Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa, from the state forests

form they represent the ancient

in the Kiso mountains. In

Japanese style, built with thick piUars to hold the framework,

with

a great pillar at either

end

to support the ridge pole.

peculiar feature of their construction

of the two

jection

each end of the roof,

rafters called chigi at

which provides additional support

A

the extended pro-

is

for the ridge pole

and

re-

sembles an animal's horn at each gable end. The roof is thatched,

and

in order to bind the ridge

and

rafters

finrdy together and

two boards

to keep the thatch in position,

are laid lengthwise

apex of the roof with a wider board lying along the

at the

apex and extending beyond the ends of the roof.

topmost ridge board in place with

heavy logs

called katsuogi are laid

two

upon

it

To keep

this

subsidiary boards,

At

at right angles.

improved methods of construction, the

a later date, due to chigi

its

or crosspieces of the ancient style came to be regarded

merely

as

ornaments placed upon the ridge board, often

having their ends embellished with carvings.

The

center of the cult of Shinto

the great shrines at

Ise,

where only Imperial personages and Imperial envoys

are

is

permitted beyond a certain fence, and the sacred mirror or Yata-tw-kagami ures

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;which

is

one of the Three Sacred Treas-

enshrined in the Naiku shrine, dedicated to the sun

goddess. But the oldest shrine in Japan

is

the Izumo-Taisha,

or Oyashiro or Great Shrine of Izumo, which the

is

dedicated to

god Onamuchi-no-Mikoto. He is the strongest and bravest

of the sons of Susano-o, brother of the sun goddess, said to

have founded

retired to Taisha,

him. This

is

where a

said to

to have been

reduced.

on

It is

a state in

large palace

was

built to receive

a large scale at first

and then been gradually

recorded that the Emperor Suinin rebuilt

sometime around the

as the

Emperor's palace," and

first

this

century "in the same manner

it is

thereby proved that the

shrine building possesses the original architectural

dwelling house of ancient times.

It is

before the shrine was reduced in scale feet,

is

be the origin of the shrine, which seems

shrine

was about 160

who

the province of Izumo and later

and although

form of

a

further recorded that

when rebuilt,

this figure

its

height

should not neces-

The

principal types oj Shinto shrines, showing the front view, the

side vicii',

and the plan. From top

to

bottom: Shimmei, Taisha,

Nagare, Kasuga, Hachiman, and Hie types.

Tokyo National

Museum.

131


Main the

sanctuary of the Kainogaino shrine at Kyoto, an example of

Nagare type of Shinto

architecture.

Founded

in the

Nara period,

eighth century.

sarily

be taken

literally, it

appears that the structure was of a

size. Its architectural

or oyashiro and differs

somewhat from

type

known

is

form than the

as taisha

the shrines of Ise, for

has undergone certain changes and departed

more from

it

its

called torii, a

two

beyond them

log slightly below it.

one

torii,

which

thick logs placed upright and slightly

at either side,

with another horizontal

The extreme simplicity and graceful pro-

portion of this symbol of Shinto, which has herself, presents a refined

become a symbol

and noble appearance.

Originally designed as a perch for fowls that sing to the deities

daybreak, the

torii

subsequently came to be regarded

characteristic

of Shinto.

An

ancient custom of

offering live cocks to a shrine undoubtedly

had some con-

nection with the legendary rooster that perched entrance of the

And

sun goddess

it

the supreme divinity of Shinto,

for believers to sun.

upon

the

Cave of Heaven, where the sun goddess hid

herself and caused darkness to cover the earth. is

make

and even

Shinto gateway,

offerings

as the yuiitsu

types of the ancient Imperial palace and the dwelling houses

of the ruling

class,

in addition to being beautiful symbols of

The extreme

refmcd architectural form of these shrines

simplicity

instill

a

and

profound

after the it still

to dwell there

and pervades the whole of the atmosphere with a message from the

past. It is this

charm of old Japan

silent

that

still

lingers in the sacred precincts of Shinto shrines.

The

invasion of Korea

by

a strong expeditionary force

under the Empress Jingo in the third century marked the

first

time Japan was brought into intimate communication with the Asiatic mainland. This prepared the

way

for the flow

of

continental culture and the gradual introduction of Chinese

and Buddhism in the

civilization

other

arts,

Buddhism exerted

architecture, as did the

sixth century.

a strong influence

harmonizing of the two

As

in the

on Shinto

faiths in the

of style with the introduction of a particular curvature of the

perch evolved into the symbolical

retained the original

a forest, a beautiful feeling of closeness to nature emanates

from them. The Japan of ancient times seems

was natural

of cocks to herald the rising

ideogram meaning bird perch.

132

and Izumo, kiiown

middle of the eighth century, resulting in a certain elaboration

of two wooden posts and a crossbar erected in front of the

its

shrine buildings of Ise

since the

These cocks were originally placed on a bird perch made

shrine,

The

shimmei and taisha forms respectively, represent the primitive

they are situated in groves of ancient trees or in the depths of

at least

splayed, their upper ends mortised into a horizontal log that

gateway

in

type of Shinto

impression of their role as the houses of the gods. Because

usually consists of

at

Uiui prcjcdiiiL, joiindcd

each with one or more gateways

proach to a Shinto shrine passes under

as a

L'sa shriiic in

kind of beamed propylon. The avenue of ap-

trees harbors a Shinto shrine,

of Japan

oj the

Nara period, an example of the Hachiman

the sacred ideals of the people.

Ise shrines.

Throughout the country nearly every ancient grove of dense

projects

J 2 5 in the

architecture.

remarkably large

original

Alain sanctuary

name of torii and

roof.

While

the great shrines of Ise

and Izumo continued to

preserve their original ancient form, possibly because of their role as the

most important and

oldest shrines

of Shinto,

it

was

inevitable that Shinto architecture in general should gradually

be influenced by Buddhist built

styles.

Shinto shrines were always

of wood, principally hinoki or cypress, which acquires


a beautiful sheen with age. tain

The tendency

to introduce cer-

River, and the fine two-storied gate and corridor of the

Buddhist architectural features in Shinto buUdings began

Shimogamo

Heian period (794-1185), when shrines were often

Nara period

in the

shrine nearby.

(710-794),

The Kamogamo, founded

painted in colors, usually a rich verniihon, and were designed

and the house of the tutelary deity of Kyoto,

with curving roofs supported by a system of brackets called

deity to

to-kyo. It

was

also

during the Heian period that great two-

storied gates appeared at the entrances

of

shrines,

and the

Nagaoka

gamo

covered corridors resembling colonnades.

From the introduction of these features of continental origin

whom the Emperor sent his message

decision to

trance

is

remove the

to Kyoto.

from

capital

The main

two

Japanese architecture the term hay

addition to the earlier forms of shimmei and taisha as seen at

distance in a building

and Izumo. They include the Nagare, Kasuga, Hachiman,

and Hie types. The best examples of the Nagare type are represented

by the main sanctuary of the famous Kamogamo

shrine in the city of

Main and

Kyoto near

sanctuary of the

Hie

the banks of the

shrine on

rebuilt according to the original

Kamogawa

in the

Momoyama

the ill-fated site at

in length,

is

with

Kamoits

en-

used to denote a span or

between two adjacent

building contains five piUars on one of

pillars;

thus if a

its sides, it is

said to

have four bays. Ever since the introduction of the Nagare type of shrine, ularly because

its

forni has been extremely popular, partic-

of its beautifully proportioned roof

Lake Biwa near Otsu, an example of the Hie style of Shinto

plan

being the

the long side parallel with the ridge of the roof. In

there developed four principal types of Shinto shrine in

Ise

this

concerning the

shrine building at the

three bays in width and

on

in the

became the most important shrine

period (1^73-1615).

architecture,

founded

in t]ie

Its

gabled

ninth century


roof side

greatly extended in a graceful curve over the front

is

of the building to provide

name o( gohai

shippers and bears the

to a space for worshippers in front

where the

staircase is located

Every year on the

of shelter for the wor-

a sort

or kohai, a term applied

of

and sheltered by extended

day of May

fifteenth

a religious building

a great festival

eaves. is

held

ruary and on the night of August

gabled

side,

ajt

by the Shimogamo and Kamogamo shrines. It is known

transferred

The roof of the main

of a

main

the left corner of the

when

shrine

cypress and incurved in the

halberd bearers, and an Imperial ox carriage. Representing

ridge

which formerly used

the Imperial procession at the shrines,

it starts

early in the

morning

pay homage

to

at the

Imperial

palace nearby and proceeds with an Imperial messenger and his suite in full court

costume, to both shrines.

which

this festival, at

The

origin of

leaves of hollyhock are offered to the

gods and goddesses enshrined in both the shrines,

is

traced

back to the sixth century,

when

the deities of the shrines,

whose anger was indicated by great

it

receives

situated in the midst

of verdant woods

atmosphere of peace and sanctity

which are the type

Nagare type of

the Kasuga shrine,

at

Nara, where an

is

the

temporarily

made to the main shrine. made of thin narrow strips of

is

manner of the Nagare type; sets

districts. It

shrine,

of crossed poles

its

called oki-

was one of the two most

forms of Shinto architecture, and

and surrounding

spirits are

ofchigi used for ornamental purposes.

shrine

it

was

common

chiefly used in

Nara

has not been as popular as the

which can be found

in

all

parts

of

the country.

The Hachiman type is

best illustrated

by the main sanctuary

of the Usa shrine near the coast of the Inland Sea in the northern part of Kyushu.

name from

its

surmounted by two

The Kasuga-type

was performed to propitiate

storms throughout the country.

The Kasuga type

chigi,

four of

repairs are being

procession reminiscent of ancient times with retainers, pages,

is

all

is

on the

is

behind which

shrine,

Utsushidono, a hall where the divine

Aoi Matsuri, or Hollyhock

consists

sanctuary

entrance

An extremely large Japanese cedar stands

as the

and

its

and an impressive gallery surrounds

the shrine buildings.

jointly

Festival,

The main

15.

one bay square and has a gabled roof;

Hachiman

It is

one of the three most noted

shrines in Japan, the other

two being Iwashimizu

near Kyoto and the Hakozaki shrine near Hakata, where the

the Fujiwara family and a sanctuary for their ancestral deities,

Mongol invasion occurred in the latter part of the thirThe Usa shrine, which was founded in 725 and is dedicated to the Emperor Ojin, Hime-Okami, and the

and

Empress Jingo,

cincts.

Its

it

The

is

imparted within

its

pre-

shrine was founded in 768 as the tutelary shrine of

used to be regularly reconstructed every twenty years.

present

form

is

considered to have developed

ning of the Heian period.

It

actually consists

shrines painted in rich vermilion, reached

a beautiful avenue lined with

on both

sides,

some

at the

begin-

of four small

by passing along

numerous rows of stone lanterns

three thousand in

all,

which

are lighted

twice each year, on the night of the Setsubun Festival in Feb-

Main

sanctuary of the Osaki

the outstanding examples built in

134

1606.

Hachiman

of the Congen

Momoyama

period.

shrine at Sendai, one of

style

of Shinto

architecture,

great

teenth century.

is

a beautiful

of Shinto architecture with carving. Its

The

shrine

main building

roof,

is

this particular style

bright-red color and elaborate

embowered

consists

and comiected

example of

its

in a

grove of ancient

of two rooms, each with

trees.

a gabled

to each other along their eave sides.

somewhat resembles two

entrance on the side parallel to the ridge of the roof, which

Main

It

buildings joined together with the

sanctuary of the Kihitsu shrine in

during the Oei era (1394-1428).

Okayama

Muromachi

is

prefecture, built

period.


r

I

i

I

I

sanctuary of the Toshogu shrine at Nikko, showing the Kara-mon, or Chinese Gate; to the

A/rt///

Fence.

Edo

curved

at the eaves

The Hie

and extended in front to form

style is typified

shrine at the foot of

near Otsu.

a gohai or

It is

4uring the

Mount

said to

Hiei on the shore of Lake

its

original plan

period (1573-1615). This building

its

and gabled roof with a eaves of the

fme example of

hisashi,

main roof or

which

is

irimoya or hipped

it

architectural style

shrines very often closely resembled the

building of the Yasaka shrine,

its

In the called

hisashi

shinden

commonly

said to

of Shinto

form of palaces and

right

of the gate

is

the Sacred

in

of supplementary

halls, is

roofs of

two

on

a

Osaki shrine. The Kitano shrine Tenjin, for

it

was

wara Michizane,

and outside,

wood

much better

is

established in 947

who

is

deified

a

carvings

number

larger scale than the

known

as the

Kitano

and dedicated to Suga-

under the name of Tenjin.

His death in 903, after he had been exiled to Kyushu, was followed by such severe earthquakes and thunderstorms in the city that

it

was thought advisable

to appease his spirit

by

which he could be enshrined. The pres-

were erected in 1607 by Toyotami Hideyoshi

and include two

gates, a

main

hall,

and an oratory, with a

complicated plan of roof ridges and carefuUy laid cypress shingles

ai-no-nia or span

building, noted for

;

ent buildings

which the

whose main

built in 1606. Inside

of great richness and beauty the Kitano shrine, with

Gion

and half hipped and half gabled roof.

was

these structures are embellished with colored

called the

have originally been the

were connected with an

architectural beauty,

erecting a building in

of the house of Fujiwara Mototsune

Gongen was developed

shrine in Sendai,

main

is

Momoyama period a new style of shrine architecture

separate buildings

its

Kitano shrine in Kyoto and the Osaki

style are the

Hachiman

the

mansions of the nobles, and an excellent example

is

to provide

open veranda. During the Late

Heian period (897-1185) the

Kyoto, which

is

an extension of the

additional eaves under

a shelter for a corridor or

haU or

Biwa

have been founded in the closing years

Momoyama

particularly noted for

principal

and

roof covering a corridor. The principal examples of the

Gongen

by the main sanctuary of the Hie

of the ninth century and rebuilt according to

shrine, in

left

period, seventeenth century.

shelter for the worshippers.

with

riJ

which give

a

most iiiteresting and beautiful variety to

the buildmgs.

Among

the important changes that took place in Shinto

arcliitecture

during the Kamakura period and the following

135


Muromachi, Momoyama, and Edo, were

periods of

increas-

ing influences of Buddhist architecture, the larger-scale con-

of the buildings, and the adoption of the Gongen

struction

style after the

Momoyama period.

During the

first

half of the

Heian period about the only feature of Buddhist architecture that

was introduced into the design of Shinto buildings was

the funa-hijiki or pecuhar boat-shaped zontally to support the eaves or

arm extending

some other part of a

After the middle of the Heian period a bracket system was adopted

hori-

building.

more comphcated

from Buddhist design with the

use of the de-mitsuto, which consists of an arm having three wooden cubes to form the lowest support bracket on a pillar. More complex arrangements of brackets and other forms of

the tide

is

coming

fifty-three feet in height

especially

when

From around the end of the Kamakura or the beginning of Muromachi period there appeared many charming small

the

shrines in local districts, called ko-miya or

little

shrines,

which

shrine, dedicated to

is

leyasu, 1542-1616, founder

Yomeimon

or Gate of Sun-

art

of the Edo period. Only of small

four

sides. Its

qualities

of design were inspired by Buddhist forms, such

examples noted for their relatively free as

which is the largest shrine in Okayama prefecture,

whose reputation ranks next Miyajima on the Inland

Sea.

to the Itsukushima shrine at

The Itsukushima

shrine, situated

one of the three most beautiful scenic spots in Japan, con-

of the main shrine and several subsidiary shrines and connected by broad corridors or

stretch over the sea

on both

sides

galleries

which

of the shrine, so that when

a

twelve-columned, two-storied

foil,

of dragons' heads or dragons and clouds,

while other beam-ends are carved with

heads and dragons' heads painted white. ets

The

lions'

elaborate brack-

supporting the balcony are designed in the form of peonies

and

lions,

with carvings of a Chinese prince,

inmiortals between them. a

on

extremely rich carved decoration on the ends

in gold

fine

it is

structure having hipped-gable ends with cusped gables

rafters consists

all

of the

thirty-seven feet high,

all

buildings,

Its

the most elaborate and magnificent gate in Japan, a

of

Many

sists

Tokugawa

of the Tokugawa Shogunate.

than six feet wide. In contrast, the increasing

temples.

at

be

The Japanese have a saying, "Never say kekko (magnificent) you have seen Nikko." Situated near the banks of the Daiya river on a hillside in the midst of a forest of ancient Japanese cedafs, Nikko is one of the most beautiful places in Japan, and the site of the elaborate and colorful Toshogu

of the important shrines followed the trend in Buddhist

the Kibitsu,

reflection to

dimensions, twenty-two feet wide, fifteen feet deep, and

gables.

less

its

is

picture,

until

perfect expression

scale

torii rising

and presents an unforgettable

the rays of the sun cause

through the following periods, in particular the great curved

measure

seems to be floating on

se^n in the placid waters of the Inland Sea.

light

and

edifice

The huge camphor-wood

out of the water about five hundred feet from the shore

Buddhist architecture strongly influenced Shinto buildings

roofs

whole

in the

the surface of the sea.

group of Chinese

porticoes are

two

is

the

railing

cliildren at play.

sages,

and some

of the balcony depicts

On

the ceiling of the

beautiful paintings of dragons; the

nearer the entrance,

dragon,

The

known

as the twbori-ryu

one

or ascending

work of Kano Tan-yu, 1602- 1674;

the inner

one, the kudari-ryu or descending dragon, was executed

by

*Âťa3>

The

great

Miyajima; and bears a

136

camphor-wood it

differs

tablet

torii

of the

from the usual

Iisukushiina

torii in the

with the autograph

shrine

form of its

at

pillars,

of Prince Arisugawa.

Itsukushima shrine at Miyajima; view from the Inland Sea of the

low stage and the high stage where the sacred Shinto dances are performed.


Yomeimon

Kano

Eisliin,

ceiling,

or

Gate of Sunlight of the Toshogu shrine

1613-1685.

With every

pillar,

at

beam, bracket,

and wall embellished, the endless carvings and paint-

many Nikko

ings of the

of Japanese

art,

shrines, wliile lacking the

pure

spirit

represent the highest possible achievement in

the elaboration of Shinto shrines.

Nikko, Tochigi

prefecture.

hundred years and

wooden and

it

period, early seventeenth century.

has the distinction of being the oldest

structure in the world.

temples of Nara, art

Edo

cidture.

it is

regarded

As one of the seven

These famous structures are

quality of hinohi, the Japanese cypress, still

from about the

a gradual

third century,

it

flow of Chinese culture

was not

until the introduction

of Buddhism into Japan in the year 552 that native architecture

began to be materially changed under

its

the reign of the Empress Suiko, temples

were

scale

one

form

Kondo

are the

or main building, the

influence. built

on

after another, including such great edifices

features

convexity of the

pronounced

peculiar and interesting system of brackets called to-kyo,

their

the

beam

entasis in the slight

supports called kaeru-mata. To-kyo

of an arm or arms

have long since

more than

distinctive

a grand

been destroyed by fire, and in many cases rebuilt. The Horyuji alone has miraculously survived for

The

During

and

thirteen

607,

of religious architecture of the Asuka period are the

With one

these great temples

from the year

the period of the Six Dynasties in Cliina.

supports the eaves or

all

Chumon

their architecture follows Chinese prototypes prevalent during

monasteries as the Hokoji, the Shitennoji, and the Horyuji. exception,

of a fme

or middle gate, the Goju-no-to or five-storied pagoda, and part of the corridor or colonnade. Dating

Although there had been

built

and those which are

preserved within the precincts of the Horyuji in their

original

BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE

great

fountainhead of Japanese

as the

square

some other

part

is

pillars,

a device

or blocks called

top. In the large buildings

which

of a building, consisting

called hijiki extending horizontally

wooden block

the

and

to

with

a

or niasu placed on

with their huge and greatly extended

137


roofs the arrangement of to-kyo series

of

mamier

upon

hijiki

becomes very

intricate,

with

and repeated in an expanding

until their projection creates sufficient support for

the eaves.

%

placed

to

The

kaeru-mata, or frog's legs, are the

ornamented

triangular-shaped supports placed in the centers of tie-beams.

By begun

the beginning of the eighth century the Japanese

adopt the

arts

had

knowledge of government and to

to acquire a vast

and culture of China through constant

inter-

course between the two countries. Official envoys and students

were able

to Iqarn

of Chinese

much from

civilization,

their observances

which during the

and studies

centuries of the Sui

and T'ang dynasties reached the highest degree of attainment in the world.

Emperors

to

move

The

cultural

ancient custom for the Japanese

their palaces

and

capital to a

new

site at

the time of accession because of the belief that a house in

which a death took

place

was unclean, was abandoned, with

the establishment of the permanent capital in the province of

Yamato,

at

Heijo-kyo, which

later

became Nara. This was

710 during the reign of the Empress-Regnant time

when T'ang

Japanese

life,

culture

was dominant

Gemmyo,

in

and the new capital was laid out on

scale after the

T'ang

capital

all

in

at a

phases of

a magnificent

of Ch'ang-an. This gave an im-

portant stimulus to architectural development.

The Imperial

inner city of resplendent palace buddings with red-colored pillars

and great roofs of green glazed

of the nobles nearby,

tiles,

reflected the splendor

and the mansions

of the Nara period.

Great monasteries were erected one after the other at an almost frantic pace during the time that Nara remained the

'

To -To,

or East Pagoda,

storied structure

mokoshi. Built

Right:

~':^C^'

of the Yakiishiji temple

at

Nara, a three-

showing the use of intermediate projections in 680.

To-kyo

called

Yakushiji temple, Nara.

(brackets)

of the south portal of the Todaiji

temple at Nara, showing the elaborate use of such brackets in the

Tenjiku-yo style of Buddhist architecture. Bulk kura period.

138

in

iigg.

Kama-


from 710

capital

until 794, culminating

of the Hall of the Great Buddha

with the construction

at the

were painted with

exterior portions of temples

The

Todaiji temple.

a red oxide

of lead, and the interiors were decorated in a peculiar method

known

ungen in which different shades of colors were

as

carefully graduated.

have survived,

To-To

Among

now

the

main temple buildings

preserved as National Treasures,

that

is

the

or East Pagoda of the Yakushiji temple erected in 680

near the city of Nara. portions.

It is

It is

remarkable for

a three-storied

But

pillars.

base,

its

wooden

roof.

is

feet in

supported by

between the

floors as

an

These projections, which are called

meaning

mokoshi, literally

and

appears to be six-storied since each

it

story has an intermediate projection additional

beautiful pro-

pagoda measuring 115

height and thirty feet square at seventeen

its

lean-tos, are frequently

found on

either three or four sides

of buildings in the form of projecting

eaves or roofs under the

main roof as an

against the weather.

mokoshi, and

Hanging from the comers of

from the roof

also

additional protection these

corners, are hionze futakii,

or wind-bells, which resemble the great temple bells in miniature form. flat

They

are often

more elongated and have a thin,

piece of bronze cut in the shape of the Chinese cloud motif

which

is

hung from

when

to ring

the

Japanese pagoda usually

of the

the tongue of the bell and cause the bell

wind blows. An

is

interesting feature

the exceptionally

tall sarin,

of the

an ornament,

of bronze, surmounting the roof. The principal parts

sarin,

from the base upward,

are the roban or

dew basin,

the fukubachi or inverted bowl, the tikehatm or everted flower,

the kurin or nine rings, the snien or water flame, the ryusha or

dragon vehicle, and the

or sacred gem.

hosliu

Hokke-do of the

the Toshodaiji, the

Todaiji,

The Kondo of and the

Yume-

dono of the Horyuji are among other surviving temple buildings of the Nara period. The Kondo or main hall of the Toshodaiji

celebrated for

is

its

elegant

form and

proportions of its coloimade on the front side.

or Hall of Dreams of the Horyuji temple the east temple and

building in Japan.

is

fme

for the

The Yumedono the main hall of

considered the most beautiful octagonal

is

It is

HaU of Dreams

called

Shotoku was known to

because Prince

there in deep meditation while

sit

pondering a passage in the three

sutras.

The Hokke-do

or

Third Month temple, founded in 733 and the oldest extant structure of the Todaiji, is named from the custom of holding a yearly service for the

Hokke scripture in the month of March.

The succeeding Heian first

period,

from 794

to 11 85,

marks the

period of nationalization ofthe architectural styles brought

from the mainland. Around the

many

period

Nara

closing years of the

had arisen

difficulties

that tended to retard the

and economic advancement of the country, brought

cultural

about by a variety of circumstances including the too-excessive influence wielded

by Buddhism.

relations of Buddhism

the seat of

A marked deterioration in the

and the state prompted the court to move

government

to Heian-kyo, or Kyoto, in the year

794 in order to break up certain destructive social and economic practices

and begin

was

quillity, as it

place in the

a

new life in

called.

The

the capital of peace and tran-

architectural changes that

of the temple buildings brought about by

Sliingon

and

new

practices

with the establishment of the Tendai

ideals

sect.

sect

and

and the

Buddhism again became extremely powerful

popularity

its

took

Heian period were principally in the arrangement

were two great

was widespread among

rival centers

:

the people.

the monastery

There

on Mount Koya,

south of Nara, where the esoteric philosophy of the Shingon sect,

with

its

complex symbolism, was taught; and

that

on

Moimt

Hiei, northeast of Kyoto, the seat of the Tendai sect,

whose

doctrines

two

were based upon

pantheistic realism.

fountauilieads of Buddhist learning

isolation

were

These

built in the

of rugged mountainsides in the hope of avoiding

excessive involvement in political matters; as a result the architectural

arrangement had to conform with the natural

surroundings, and instead of the regular pattern

on

level

when laid

out

ground, there was greater freedom in the location of

the individual buildings. At the same time the advancement in

temple design

is

seen in the extreme beauty of proportion

of the five-storied pagoda of the Daigoji temple in Kyoto built in 951. In the early part

of the Heian period there ap-

peared a peculiar variety of pagoda called

Chmnon, in

607.

or

Middle Gate, af the Horytiji temple

Asuka

periad.

at

Nara,

built

tope,

which became an

asteries.

essential

talw-ta,

or treasure

element in Shingon

mon-

This form derived from the Indian stupa or tope.

139


HHuaniDHfl

which was

usually in the shape of a cylindrical or prismatic

low tower topped by a cupola, erected to house relics of Buddha or contain a Buddhist shrine. Under Japanese influence the taho-to

with a

a square

came

to resemble a two-storied

pagoda

lower story covered with a roof or mokoshi, and

more narrow

circular

upper story covered with a great roof

having deep projecting eaves. Early Heian architecture

main

hall

is

by the invaluable examples of the

beautifully represented

of the Muroji temple south of Nara

as

well

as its

very small five-storied pagoda, both ofwhich were built in 824.

One of the finest examples of late Heian temple architecture is

the

Hoodo, or Phoenix

Hall, of the

Byodoin

at

Uji in the

that typifies purely Japanese art.

in the monasteries

of the Jodo

with an image of the Buddha in the Nai-jin or inner sanctuary,

which

is

in the center of the interior in an area

aroimd while

reciting the Nembutsu or Invocation to

The

form of the Amida-do

simplest

elaborate Phoeni'x Hall of the

The temple was designed

to represent the mythical

phoenix of Chinese legend in the ground. The main hall lateral corridors its

ward

act

of descending

supposed to represent

is

its

wings, and the rear corridor

to the

body, the

its tail.

To-

the end of the Heian period the great popularity of the

new Jodo only way

or Pure Land

sect,

based upon the belief that the

to salvation lay in absolute trust in the aU-saving

power of Amitabha Buddha, or

The

the

Buddha Amida,

in-

Byodoin temple is nothing more

center building.

The second period of Chinese

duction of the

time.

Buddha.

three bays square, but

than an Amida-do with a sanctuary of one bay square in the

preserved since its construction in 1053.

typify the best religious architectural accomplishments of the

is

the larger buddings often are five bays square, while the

Kamakura and Muromachi

elegant proportions

one bay square

surK)unded by an open space or corridor for people to walk

was converted into a monastery in 1052, and the original main haU, known as the Phoenix Hall, has been carefully Its

was the Amida-do, or HaU

of Amida. In plan, the Amida-do was almost always square,

suburb of Kyoto. Originally a villa of Fujiwara-no-Michinaga, it

The most important building

sect

ment

new styles from

a further develop-

the mainland.

Two important

many of the

buildings of

period were the Tenjiku-yo or "Indian style" and the

Kara-yo or "Chinese

style," as

"Japanese style" which fmally to

when

in religious architecture took place through the intro-

architectural influences that inspired this

was during the

influence

periods,

form

a

mixed

called Indian style

often with as pillars,

A

style. is

opposed to the

merged with

The most

Wa-yo

or

the Chinese style

striking feature

of the so-

the use of an elaborate system of brackets,

many as seven arms projecting to the front of the

reflection

of the Tenjiku-yo

style

appeared in Japan

around the beginning of the Kamakura period

in the re-

large monasteries built during this

construction of the great monastery of the Todaiji, which

time were erected principally by various members of the

had seen unsurpassed prosperity and power during the Nara

Fujiwara clan, and although lacking the appearance of strength

period but had been reduced to ashes by a general of the Taira

and grandeur of the older temples, they

clan in 1180 during a civil war.

fluenced architecture.

reflected a quality

of

dignity and elegance and the native freedom of expression

The Hokke-do,

or Third

Month

ceived on a grand scale and

its

The

Todaiji had been con-

restoration,

temple, of the Todaiji temple at Nara, founded in yjj.

Nara

which was directed

period.

imi^^wi' '»''«r^'>^''wi3a»t»f»

140


The HooJo,

by

or

Phoenix Hall, of the Byodoin monastery

the priest Shunjobo

Chogen, was an enormous under-

taking requiring vast knowledge and experience in religious architecture.

The Tenjiku-yo

style

of the restored buildings

is

actually a modification of a style of temple architecture of the

Sung dynasty style"

arose

Chogen,

in China.

from

The

fact that

it

a misunderstanding

a great architect,

was

was

called "Indian

of the term used.

able to accomplish the

work

of restoration of the Todaiji because he had studied architecture in

China and supervised the construction of many monasteries

in that country during three long visits there.

the same principles of

Sung

He employed

architecture in the construction

of other temples in Japan, although the only one to survive the Jodo-do Hall of the Jodoji monastery at

Harima on

is

the

at Uji,

Kyoto

prefecture, built in 10^3.

ogi-daruki or fan rafters.

Kara-yo

style

which the

Early Heian period.

Another

architectural feature

to-kyo or brackets

were used not only on the tops

of pillars but on the intercolumnar spaces that

is

of the

was the Tsume-Gumi, or compact system, in

as well.

The

plan

almost universal in the Kara-yo style has a main hall of

three bays square, and in the larger structures the hall

is

pro-

vided with the mokoshi, or additional roof. In the center of the interior there

is

a Nai-jin or iimer sanctuary

of which

in the rear portion

principal

is

of one bay square,

placed the dais to hold the

image of the temple. Carved decoration came to be

used on the rafters

at the

heading beams, which

gable ends and also on the ends of

later led to the

development of sculp-

tured ornamentation. Fine examples of the Kara-yo style

Inland Sea.

include the Shariden or Relic Hall of the Engakuji temple at

The Kara-yo or "Chinese style" was introduced into Japan along with Zen Buddhism to become the typical style of the Zen monasteries. Among the characteristic features of the

temple

Chinese style are the

tiled floor, a

and vigorous upturned curves

roof having a steep slope,

at the corners

the rafters arranged in a radiating

of the eaves with

manner at the comers,

called

Kamakura, the Kaisando or Founder's Hall of the Eihoji at

Tajimi in Gifu prefecture, and the

Shuonan monastery

The Wa-yo

at

Tanabemachi

or Japanese style

the Nara-period architecture

which did not adhere

in

Kyoto

Hondo of the prefecture.

may be regarded as a revival of

from

five

hundred years

to the rigid Chinese

earlier,

method of planning 141


but allowed a greater freedom in the arrangement of the different buildings

of

a temple.

for this traditional style in the

newly

the

the Renge-o-in monastery in Kyoto,

district itself,

cinct

Kamakura period under

risen sects.

The

where

great

the pressure of

restored buildings within the pre-

of the Kofukuji monastery at Nara, which was one of the

seven great temples of Nara and

had

as

many

as

examples of the

at the

height of its prosperity

175 buildings, are considered to be the best

Wa-yo

style.

The To-Kondo

or East

Main

Hall and the five-storied pagoda of the Kofukuji are fme extant examples of the

Nara period, while the Hokuendo or

North Octagonal Hall and the the late Heian period.

Many

three-storied

pagoda represent

outstanding examples of the

Japanese style were built during the

\'

Kamomachi, Soraku-gun

temple

Nara

numbers of Buddhist monasteries were restored and reconstructed during the

various provinces, for example the main hall of the Saimyoji

There was a strong preference

Kamakura period

in

at

Sanju-Sangen-do because of the spaces

between the

of this temple dess

is its

The is

Kyoto

which

satiju-san

pillars in the structure.

and

prefecture,

is

also called the

or thirty-three

The unique

feature

principal image, the Thousand-handed

God-

Kannon, carved by the famous sculptor Tankei in his

eighty-second year. style

in

One of the oldest examples of the Wa-yo

the charming taho-to or stupa of the Ishiyamadera.

is

subject

of one of Hiroshige's Eight Views of Lake Biwa

the Ishiyama temple,

the lake

temple

is

is

so beautiful

also

noted for

from whose grounds on its

a

the

view over

moonlit night in autumn. The

Genji-no-ma or Hall of Genji, the

building in which

Lady Murasaki Shikibu, 975-1031, wrote

her famous

romance, the Genji Monogatari.

classic

^

South portal of the Todaiji temple

at

Nara,

built in

11 99, in the Tenjiku-yo style of Buddhist architecture.

Kamakura

period.

Belfry of the Todaiji temple at Nara, with

bronze

142

bell originally cast in

732.

Nara

its

great

period.


The second epoch of nationahzation of Buddhist tural styles

architec-

adopted from the Chinese spans the three centuries

buildings of the Zuiganji temple at Matsushima, founded in

828 and reconstructed in 1609 by order of Date Masamune,

Momoyama and Edo periods. Buddhist temples of the Momoyama period began to acquire

one of the most powerful feudal lords of Japan.

the native style of architecture that was prevalent before the

rock-cut caves,

Kamakura

the

from 1573

to 1867, covering the

As has already been noted, the

period.

arts

of

some two

stories

in earlier times

and the

covered the

Other examples of Momoyama

were being

main

great panels

on the

walls of castles and mansions

created. Buddhist architecture

distinguished for

its

tured ornament.

during the

of the

Momoyama

The

Momoyama period

son Hideyori. Typical of the

The

Sharuk'ii, or Relic Hall, Eitiiti

era

is

also

restoration of Buddhist monasteries

was carried on

at a great

under the leadership of Toyotomi Hideyoshi and

during the

era

resplendent coloring and elaborate sculp-

Momoyama

later

pace

by

his

style are several

of the Eiigakiiji temple

at

Kamakura, a

high and

smoke of incense. These caves

Japan then became almost entirely free of foreign influences large-scale decorative compositions that

An

avenue

of ancient Japanese cedars leads to the temple, past many

hall

by

all

begrimed with

are said to have been used

traveling priests for religious meditation. religious architecture are the

of the Toji in Kyoto; the Kara-mon or Cliinese

gateway of the Daitokuji, which was formerly a gateway in the Juraku-dai mansion of Hideyoshi; the

Gate for Imperial Messengers

Samboin temple orated by

in

at the

Chokushimon or

Diatokuji in Kyoto; the

Kyoto, containing several chambers dec-

Kano Sanraku and the Ohiroma or Stork Chambers ;

of the Nishi Honganji temple in Kyoto, wliich

fine

example of the Kara-yo

style

of Buddhist

is

gorgeously

architecture.

Built

(1293-1299). Kamakura period.

143


The taho-to

(stupa) of the Ishiyamadera, huilt in 1194 in the

Wa-yo

style

ofBuddhist

architecture.

Kamakura

period. Ishiyama temple, Otsu, Shiga prefecture.

Left:

Main Hall of the Saimyoji

temple at Kamomachi, Soraku-

gun, in Kyoto prefecture, an example of architecture.

Right:

Kamakura

Main Hall of the

between 1599-1606.

144

Wa-yo

style

of Buddhist

period.

Toji temple at Kyoto, rebuilt sometime

Momoyama period.


decorated with paintings by

Maruyama Okyo. In the Edo period detail,

Kano Tan-yu, Kano Ryokei, and

the primary emphasis

was on decorative

with the general form and proportions being over-

looked and the different acteristics.

Of

styles losing their distinctive char-

particular interest are the buildings

Mampukuji temple

at Uji,

of the

Obaku sect

the headquarters of the

of Buddhism established in 1659 by Ingen,

famous Chinese

a

of the

priest.

These temple structures follow the

Ming

period and are in sharp contrast to other Buddhist

temples in Japan. the

in Nara,

great

the Hall of the Great

and the main

monly known

style

later

Two of the most representative examples of

Edo period are

as the

hall

of the

Buddha

Seisuiji

at

temple,

Kiyomizu temple, which

wooden platform on

a cliff offering a

gate of the Nanzenji in Kyoto, called the is

widely

known

notorious robber Ishikawa

a

columned loggia within

The main

front of the building.

on

a

erect-

for a legend relating to the

the earlier part

of disrepair were restored by the successive

outward, sometimes in double folds; these are generally open,

as this

provides the principal light in the interior.

harmonious arrangement of the

is

a principal feature

of both the

filled

stands near the

lingers over this

center of Buddhism.

floor

in

is

partly bare

the distinctive features in the architecture of Japa-

steps in the center

continuing

of the approach

as the gallery railing.

front,

by

a flight

of

with a balustrade

A system of deep bracketing

corbeled out from the main pillars sometimes supports this gallery,

which

is

sheltered

by the

usually

great projecting eaves. In

ribs are lacquered

clasps at their intersections.

and partly covered with

of the main

hall

peristyle, or

column carrying

of huge dimensions an

all

Due

is

is

interior

used, each

to the peculiar construction

is

no

its

thrust

the weight acts vertically

on the outer

on the

of

immense weight walls

interior points

Although the forms of roof are varied, feature

is

a profuse system of bracketing to harmonize

framework of the Japanese roof with

because

and of the

to the altar are

system of roof-supporting columns,

with that of the cornice. the

gallery

from the entrance

richly lacquered. In temples

The

tatami or mats, but

many of the fine temples the floors of the

central part

of

their principal

a steep slope at the top, gradually flattening

the eaves to produce a

a raised gallery, reached

The ceiling is

with paintings, and the

and ornamented with metal

southwest entrance to the city as a noble and beautiful symbol

is

and exterior archi-

interior

walls forms the major ornamental detail.

support.

Among

and

and an elaborate cornice of wooden bracketing on the

tecture,

highest pagoda in Japan, measuring 182 feet.

nese Buddhist temples

pillars, posts, brackets,

left

The

beams, which follow a particular standard of measurement,

and heavy projections, there

still

and the

facade contains one, two,

or three sections provided with folding doors which open

Tokugawa Shoguns in a series of magnificent reconstruction projects. The great five-storied pagoda of the Toji temple in Kyoto, rebuilt by lemitsu, the third Tokugawa Shogun, is the

of the Old World atmosphere which

this raised

sides

sometimes

Sammon, was

It

around the two

more comstands

panoramic view

Goemon. During

is

passes usually

paneled and subdivided by ribs into small rectangular coffers

of the Edo period many of the temples in Kyoto that had fallen into a state

which

the Todaiji

of Kyoto and its neighboring districts. The famous two-storied

ed in 1628 and

the larger temples there gallery

toward

somewhat concave appearance which

often accentuated by the

tilt

given to the eaves

at the

four

comers. They are extremely picturesque with their large pantiles, their

heavy

ribs

carried along the ridge,

of tile cresting with large terminals

and

their sloping gables.

four fundamental forms of roof design

:

There are

the gabled roof, the

pyramidal roof, the hipped-ridge roof, and the hipped-and-

145


gabled roof.

two

The gabled

slopes with a

heavy

roof, or kirizuma type, consists of

rib

of tiles along the ridge and along

dhist building is generally constructed in the hongawara

which

consists

of vertical rows of semi-cylindrical

the gable ends. In the pyramidal roof, or hogyo type, the ridges

nating with rows of slightly concave

that divide the several

lower ends of the rows of semi-cylindrical

and

at the

segments are heavily ribbed with

tiles,

top where they meet, the intersection is surmounted

with a bronze roban or dew basin to support certain rooftop ornaments.

The hipped-ridge

shichu type, consists

roof, called the yosenmne or

of four sloping

sides, those parallel to the

ridge having four angles, while those are triangular in form.

on the opposite

The hipped-and-gabkd

sides

roof,

or

irimoya type, could be described as a gabled roof with the

addition of eaves projecting along

all

four sides.

beauty and charm of Japanese architecture interesting variety

of its

roofs,

is

tiled roofs

of the

expressed in the

from the grand and imposing

The four fundamental forms of temple ped-ridge roof, or

Much

yosemune

roofs:

or shichu.

4.

i.

Gable

of Buddhist temples, to the unusually lovely roof

jects representing the

propriate subject.

symbol of

The

called kakakusa-'gawara

with a flower,

leaf,

and

their ends are generally decorated

The

pleasing proportions

and perfectly designed curves of Japanese roofs add much to their beauty, as

do the graceful projecting eaves supported on

an interesting system of bracketing. Throughout the cen-

roof, or

kirizuma.

turies

roof,

or

2.

Pyramidal

rooj, or

hogyo.

3.

Hip-

irimoya. Tokyo National Museum.

of Japan's cultural history, religious

ideals

have been

the principal factor influencing the style of architecture, with

inherent simplicity and

Shinto exerting

146

some other ap-

the end of the eaves are

or scroll design.

toward the ornate, while the

with the frequent haze of the atmosphere. The roof of a Bud-

the

comma-shaped ob-

creation, or

flat tiles at

the picturesque thatched roofs of farmhouses, and the dwelling that blend so perfectly

tiles at

along the end

and usually are decorated with designs of lotus flowers,

the tomoye or circle of three intertwining

houses with roofs of gray-colored

tiles

The

tiles

of the eaves, which are rounded in section, are called tonwyegau^ara

Hipped-and-gabled

of a Shinto shrine covered with thin narrow pieces o( hinoki

flat tiles.

mamier,

tiles alter-

its

Buddhism

leaning

traditional Japanese dwelling

retained an air of elegant simplicity and subtle refmement.


XI Domestic

JAPANESE

domestic architecture, which

first

developed as a purely native style during the

Heian period, has always aimed

harmony with

at a perfect

nature between the house and the garden. This intrinsic relationship

is

so strong that

the two seem

merge with

to

a

of complete unity. Nature endowed Japan with beauti-

feeling

ful features,

and the architectural composition of the domestic

dwelling house has been designed to conform with the landscape.

The deeply ingrained

Japanese appreciation of natural

Architecture

turies in the latter part

form of domestic senting the

first

of the Heian period,

is

the essence of a

architecture called shinden-zukuri.

truly Japanese domestic style, these

dwellings were budt for court nobles in beautiful locations

within the city of Kyoto, with picturesque mountains

or

arranged symmetrically around a main

halls,

hall, called

and connected to each other by galleries. The establish-

shindeti,

ment was

located in the middle of the estate and faced south,

toward the principal garden and a large pond or

which developed during the Kamakura period. The Zen behef

sliindeii,

that the universe

is

pervaded by one

spirit,

portant role in Japanese culture. Actually, to an ingrained love ter

and

that the indi-

one with aU nature, has for centuries played an im-

is

from

of nature inherent

earliest times.

The

Zen gave

direction

in the Japanese charac-

original Japanese religion

unorganized worship of nature and the

spirits

was an

of the dead,

which, through the centuries, developed into the native Shinto

cult.

The pantheon of

this beautiful native religion

many nature gods and goddesses, including those of rivers, mountains, fire, and winds, and many deified

embraces the sea,

persons. In addition, there are those things to ancients ascribed divinity, such as the sun flowers, rocks,

and

trees.

and the moon, the

The worship of such

pression of the belief that natural objects are

indwelling souls, and

this is the

which the

things

is

an ex-

endowed with

reason that certain trees and

rocks are frequently seen along the wayside adorned with the

shimcnawa or Sacred

Rope of

they are inhabited by a divine

with

this

southern outlook, was reserved

room of the

ception and living

inaster

used not only for reading, studying, and dressing, but

also for sleeping.

ments were

The

subsidiary buildings with their apart-

contained living rooms for various that

of the long

tainoya

on

either side

galleries that

the family,

of the master's

the lake and over the water.

seventy feet long by

by

were two very

beyond the bank of

pavilions at the ends extending slightly

sides

hall

extended in a southerly direction, with

The

fifty feet

shinden

was usually about

wide, surrounded on

which was

a closed veranda

in turn

all

four

surrounded by a

more narrow open veranda. The floor of the entire mansion was of wood, raised above the ground on heavy supporting

and the walls consisted of a

day with iron hooks

hung on

come in

the

vertically,

and could be held open during the while a fabric or

as fasteners,

the inner side.

It

was not

bamboo

possible for rain to

open windows or even onto the veranda because

STYLE

thatchlike manner, projected well

which was

Each subsidiary

hall

built

was

up with thin

laid

strips

by

a variety of

of cypress in a

beyond the building

line.

out exactly like the main

hall,

the interior consisting of a single, large, into sections

posts,

of wooden shutters which

series

the roof,

which developed between the tenth and twelfth cen-

members of

of the mistress being the northern hall. Connected to each

THE "SHINDEN-ZUKURI" MANSION

setting,

matching houses), and

called tainoya (literally,

swung outward

landscape

of the house. The term

room

spirit.

its

The

as the re-

room in Japanese domestic architecture refers to the

Shinto, in the conviction that

intimate relationship of the house with

lake.

living

curtain

The

as a

background. The mansion consisted of a number of buildings,

beauty was also greatly stimulated by the teachings of Zen,

vidual

Repre-

imposing

movable

open space divided

partitions, such as sec-

147


tional folding screens called byobu, single or double-section

screens called called kicho,

tsuitate,

and large portable framework stands

which were hung with

silks.

At

this

time the

T'ang dynasty in China was on the decline and the Chinese influence

was beginning

to

wane in Japan, with

the native Japanese character was

becoming more accentuated.

A new class of secular artists was some of the mansions with

the result that

commissioned

elaborate paintings

on

to

colorful screen compositions. In this period, mats

The Shomeimon Gate of the Imperial

embeUish

ceilings

and

were not

used to cover the floors but served merely for reclining and sitting,

and were moved about

at will. In

time the sym-

metrical plan of the various buildings of the shinden-sukuri style

gave

way

to the typical Japanese arrangement of joining

the buildings one to the other in a meandering

manner which

no longer required connecting galleries.

Toward

the end of the twelfth century, with the rise of

feudalism, the seat of administrative tary caste

was

established at

government of the mili-

Kamakura

in eastern Japan, for

palace at Kyoto. Reconstructed after repeated fires in the style of the Late Heian period, eleventh to

twelfth century.

The Shishinden

or Ceremonial

Hall of the Imperial palace

at

Kyoto.

Rebuilt after the fire of 1854 as a reproduction of the original palace building of the early part of the

Heian period (794-118^).

Guest hall of the Kojo-in monastery fecture,

built

universally

1601

in

at

Momoyama

Otsu, Shiga pre-

the style of the dwelling houses

used since the end of the

(1338-1573).

148

in

Muromachi period

period (1573-1615).


which

this

period

is

named. The residences of the newly

upper-class warriors, though influenced

of the* aristocracy basically simple

at

and

Kyoto, lacked practical.

teenth century,' with the

fall

By

by

their distinction

the

first

more and more

risen

and were

shiriden-zukuri.

half of the four-

of the Kamakura regime and

of the Ashikaga, the administrative headquarters were

On

known

Muromachi

as the

account of

Ninomaru palace

this the

period.

in the

Ashikaga period

The mihtary

Nijo

castle at

caste

subsidiary buildings

manner about

the

the time and to

also

adopted

Nijo Horikawa

But out of it developed

the aristocracy and

interiors

in

were

first

new style of building

to a free plan,

to the

partitioned

with the various

a functional

structure.

conform

now

Kyoto. Edo period,

way

grouped in

main

a

which the symmetrical arrangement

of the shinden-zukuri gave

rise

moved is

mode of living of

called the shoin-zukuri, in

back to Kyoto and established in a section of the city called

Muromachi.

the

planned their dwellings in conformity with the style of the

the shinden-sukuri

To meet mode of

and informal

the necessities

of

living, the large

by means of

sliding doors

half of the seventeenth century.

ml 1

General view of part of the main group of shoin-zukuri-rfy/e buildings of the Katsura Detached Palace at Kyoto. early seventeenth century.

Edo

period,

^^B

^

M 'P^ Interior

view of the corridor along the

Ceremonial Hall of the Imperial palace of the

style

Jroiit oj the

at

Kyoto.

of the Late Heian period, eleventh

Shishinden or

A representation

to twelfth century.

149


were moved from the mansion Nijo

at

castle.

of Hideyoshi's famous Jurakudai

site

Momoyama, and Within the

Tokugawa Shogun,

first

occasion of his

comers

like a series

power of

the

zukuri in a

of the

Edo

period,

which

Edo

the

form became,

simplified

until the present time, the style class

typical

of steps. With the increase in the

cdmmoners during

more

is

it

main buUdings joined together

consisted of several

Edo

castle

on the

to serve as his residence

Kyoto. In plan

visits to

houses of the feudal lords of the

palatial

buildings of the Katsura Detached Palace at Kyoto.

palace in the

compound of Nijo

magnificent mansion was originally built by leyasu, the

this

Arrangement of part of the main group of slioin-zukuri-5/y/e

Ninomaru

the

vast walled

at their

financial

period, the shoin-

has remained

as it

of residence for the merchant

and wealthy farmers in the provincial

districts.

period,

early seventeenth century.

THE JAPANESE HOUSE called fusuma,

windows and also

and translucent paper began to be used for

The

which

urban

for the outside sliding doors called shoji,

had appeared. The

characteristic shoin-zuhuri interior

traditional Japanese dwelling as

manner

which the Japanese

the

noma, the

to custom, the Japanese always

window

the bay

called the shoin.

with mats called

were

sliding

of shelves near the

The

tokonoma

for reading

entire floor surface

tatami.

wooden

called the tana or chigai-dana,

The last important

was

and

and writing

now

covered

addition to appear

shutters called amado. In substance, the

domestic architecture of the Muromachi period contained the principal elements

all

of and closely resembled the fine

Momoyama

period the palatial mansions in the

shoin-zukuri style reflected the vigorous

ing activity of

all

the

arts.

growth and

The magnificence of

flourish-

the interior

decoration of the feudal lords' dwellings is beyond conception.

There were fmely chased and gilded metalwork appointments, elaborate

wood carvings, especially in the ramma or horizontal

opening above the

lintel

which

partitions ofl^the

rooms, and

magnificent paintings on screens, wall panels, coffered ceiling panels,

and on the fusiwia or

interior sliding doors.

era of the great screen painters such as

It

was the

Kano Eitoko and Kano

Sanraku with their large-scale decorative compositions covering huge panels of paper or

silk.

The mastery with which

these painters embellished suite after suite in the apartments

with a profusion of resplendent color and fme counterpart.

On surfaces

detail has

no

of gold leaf were depicted gorgeous

landscapes with ancient pine trees,

plum trees with their white

blossoms, gardens and groves rich with brilliant leaves, birds

with bright plumage, wild geese in the moonlight, rocks,

and an endless variety of other

of these

interiors can best

forming

a part

150

in

entering the house and

sit

on

and

sit

remove

their knees

recline.

subjects.

fantastic

The splendor

be exemplified by the buildings

of the Nishi Honganji temple in Kyoto, which

According

their shoes

when

and heels on the mats

or tatami that cover the floor surface or

on

upon

necessary because of

this

the floor. Since

mode of sitting,

and with the rooms

no

the

free

seat furniture

rooms

is

are small

a cushion placed

and the

for any one specific purpose.

with the climate

as a

ceilings low,

of furniture they need not be reserved

The

design and construction

not only architecturally beautiful but practical

dwellings of today.

During the

today, even in the

ning and layout were largely influenced by the climate and

architecture included the recess in the wall called the tokorecess

it is

developed during the Edo period. The plan-

districts,

as well,

is

and

major factor in the layout and general

planning, an unusually charming effect climate of the main islands of Japan

is

is

The

the result.

about the same

all

over,

with the four seasons of about equal duration and clearly divided one from the other.

The summer months

oppressive, less because of the heat,

which

is

than on account of the extreme humidity. This

of the winter, with

The high

tures.

its

are very

not excessive, is

the opposite

low humidity and moderate tempera-

rainfall is

another factor that has influenced

the planning of the house, because, although the rain

throughout the year, there

is

a particular rainy season

falls

from

about the middle of June, lasting for a month or more. This season

is

called nyubai, or baiu or tsuyu,

and

is

characterized

cloudy and sultry days mostly accompanied by

some periods of about

rain,

three days each having torrential

downpours. The Japanese rainy season has always been cially

by

with

offi-

designated in the old lunar calendar by the ideograms

for nyubai,

meaning "entry

ideograms used for

baiu,

to the

plum

season,"

and the

meaning "plum-rain," which sug-

gests that the rainy season begins

when

the plums are ripe.

Because of these climatic features, a primary consideration


aimed

at

meeting the conditions of the summer months. Not only

is

in the planning

and building of the Japanese house

the climate unpleasant during the rainy season but

is

it is

a time

The also

make summer living, and they

extensive apertures consisting of sliding doors

more

the Japanese house

make

pleasant for

the house and the garden flow one into the other.

of air. Therefore the house has only a few permanent walls,

The house is always constructed of unpainted wood, while the fixed walls are made of a bamboo latticework covered with

and the external and internal divisions are formed with sliding

a

when mildew is

a serious factor unless there

and removable doors which permit the throughout the entire house. walls

To

from the summer sun and

far as possible

is

free circulation

air to

move

protect these sliding exterior rain, the

roof must project

and a veranda should extend

at least

south side of the house to provide sufficient shade. as a

as

along the

And lastly,

protection against dampness, the ground floor of the house

has traditionally been built one and a half to feet

freely

above the ground on

posts.

two and

a half

kind of

roof

is

mud

plaster

mixed with chopped

of pantiles. There

is

silvery-gray of the heavy roof alent atmosphere.

gabled roofs

is

A

was made

called oni-gawara,

up of many

against evil.

devil

Most of these end

Thc Ohiroina,

or Stork

Fushimi

of Hideyoshi

at

of the abbot.

It is

tile,

tiles at

of a devil and was

to protect the house

the present time repre-

in the

Nishi

at

Kyoto, formerly the residence

castle,

and now the audience chamber

gorgeously decorated with paintings by the

foremost members of the

Kano family and

exquisite carvings of storks in the lintel).

of tiles, with

ridge. Originally

Chamber, of the shoin

Honganji temple compound

the

of the hipped-andlayers

end of each

to represent the face

meaning

and the

and the haze of the prev-

characteristic feature

the ridges built

a tile representing water at the this tile

tiles

straw,

harmony between

a pleasing

Momoyama

The main chamber

ramma

noted for the

(opening above

period.

in the living quarters

of the Ninomaru

palace in the Nijo castle at Kyoto, with paintings attributed to

Kano Tan-yu, 1602-1674, and

and

sliding screens,

his school

and the highly decorated

on the walls

coffered ceilhig

with paintings on a gold-leaf ground. Edo period,

first

half

of the seventeenth century.

151


of the living quarters ofNagoya

Interior

castle,

shoiving one of the

ramma

wall panels and some of the fusuma, the large

above the

fusuma, and corner of the coffered ceiling. The castle ivas completed in 1612 by order of ley asu, founder of the Tokugawa Shogunate, as a fortified residence for his soti resided there until in

1945.

sent

1

868.

Momoyama

waves or

It

Interior

of the

rooms.

Built

Momoyama

in

1612 and destroyed

in

an

charm

some have

against fire;

called tomoye-gawara, others the

a half to

two and

a half feet above the

the floors are of tatami, that the

tomoye or circle composed of three intertwining commas,

movable walls and result

stiU others

simply the ideogram

layout of the typical Japanese house comprises

three distinct parts: the area raised above the

covered with mats or tatami which includes quarters; the raised part with

wooden

ground and the living

all

which includes

floor

the corridors, veranda, and usually the kitchen; and a small

lower portion of almost ground level which includes the

bathroom, a section of the kitchen, and the entrance

hall.

The

measurement of a room or any other part of a house spread as

level floors,

is

ment.

A

mat

based on the size of a mat three feet

by

six feet.

tatami are

made of

a

and pleasant

The

to

style

The

side,

over-all area is

six

of

a

by six feet. a

mounted on

narrow a rice-

152

it is

built

with primitive

actually represents a purity

developed by a refinement of

The

The

surfaces

and the

Unfinished and unpainted

skill

intimate relationship of

itself also in the

beauty of

with which they are

wood is

usually

employed

treated.

for

both

the inside and outside of the house, and the meticulous selection

and the combinations of different kinds of wood

particularly pleasing effect.

in the fmer houses

One of the

is

principal

create a

woods used

the hinoki cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa,

is

smooth and

dense, with very

taste

through several

fact that the floor level is raised

from one and

fme

the passage of time. Also frequently used Thujopsis dolabrata, called hiba,

Hardwoods

are likewise

which

grain, a pleasing

is

another cypress,

closely resembles hinoki.

employed, such

as a

maple, Acer

pahnatum, called momiji or haede, with bright-yellow color; a kind

of sandalwood, Zelkova serrata, with a grain of vigorous

curves; and Morus alba, a mulberry

nese dwelling does not imply that

of

wood

climate.

with nature manifests

odor, and a light color that attains a silvery-gray sheen with

rather primitive simplicity that characterizes the Japa-

centuries.

the

life

actually the

of measure-

walk on.

methods and archaic design, but

conform with the

Japanese

is

especially adapted

is

as the unit

straw body about two inches thick, which makes the tatami soft

partitions appear primitive,

of a particular mode of living and

posts, that

construction and the

which

fme woven rush with

border of black fabric on the long

to

ground on

wooden

or ground-

house is always given in terms o(tsubo, which

The

1945.

wooden

well as those parts having

is

raid in

air

air raid

which is the symbol of Shinto,

with mats,

an

in

period (1573-1615).

period (1573-1615).

a waterfall as a

The

showing the chigai-

castle

Yoshinao, whose descendants

was completely destroyed

an ornament of lotus flowers

for water.

ofNagoya

living quarters

dana. and the use of beautifully painted fusuma between the

color, called kuwa.

A

wood light-yellow wood is the kiri

beautiful decorative

paulownia, Paulownia tomentosa, with a color and sugi,

fme

which

is

grain.

There

a species

the center that

is

in

or

light, silvery-violet

also Cryptomeria japonica, called

of cedar with a reddish-brown color in

becomes

lighter

toward the

outside. Sugi has


both a

wavy and a very fine

straight grain,

and

is

extensively

used for uprights and ceiling panels; slender young trunks of sugi are often used in their natural form,

with the bark peeled

off and polished, for the posts of tokonoma.

Bamboo

tensively used as a building material in addition to

produces a

soft

native varieties sixty-five feet

ex-

is

wood, and

and charming

effect, especially the beautiful

whose trunks

attain a height

of

as

much

as

with a proportionately large diameter.

work of architectural beauty but one that is flexible

for the practical, utilitarian usage of the various rooms.

none of the rooms with matted

ranged, each

custom of furniture

room

sitting

As

floors are actually reserved for

any exclusive purpose, and the partitions are so

easily rear-

can be used for any purpose desired.

on the matted

floor

The

and the absence of

and bedsteads gives the rooms a more spacious

Himeji

castle at Himeji-shi,

leyasu.

Momoyama

Hyogo

prefecture,

green of the tatami, and the beautiful tones of the natural wood create a feeling taste.

There

of great elegance and utmost refmement of

minimum

also a

is

arrangement of the rooms

is

of interior decoration, and the determined by the

size

of the

The sliding partitions between the rooms, called/i«Mma, also removable when the full space of two or more rooms

house. are is

The planning and layout of the Japanese house has produced not only a

appearance, while the white of the shoji doors, the fresh pale-

desired for

some

o££om fusuma also serve as

a

a

A fusuma is

wooden frame with

laid

on

wood,

is

usually a set

five feet ten inches in height,

normal width of about three

on both

There

doors on wall cupboards and as entrance doors

into living rooms.

with

particular purpose.

separating the average-size rooms, zndfusuma

sides,

and

several layers

a piece

to cover the

feet,

and

is

composed of

of heavy paper glued to

of decorative paper or

whole

surface,

it

a painting

with a narrow frame of

usually lacquered in black, bordering the entire parti-

showing the main buildings originally

built

by Hidcyoslii, and enlarged by

Tokugawa

period (1573-1615).

153


Thefusuma slides between an upper and lower beam in which there are usually two grooves. Between the upper beam tion.

or

lintel

and the ceiling beam there

Ramma

rainma.

is

an open space called

are never fully closed, since their purpose

is

to

permit a free circulation of air between the rooms; they are

ornamented with

wooden

a delicate

openwork

panel carved with

latticework or a

wooden

designs, in the large mansions

often with very elaborate compositions.

Since there are only a

few fixed

many wide window sliding doors, there

house. There

is

is

provided with

openings, principally in the form of a freer circulation of air throughout the

also a

is

wide outlook on the beauties of the

garden, especially because of the manner in which the Japanese sit

upon the

floor.

Above

same

the lintel of the shoji doors are

On the sides of the house where there is no

ramma openings the

above the fusuma, but instead of having openwork

as

carvings or latticework the openings are fitted with shoji

windows

that can

little

be opened and closed to control

ventilation.

For protection against the rain

as

where there

is

no

well as to keep out possible

windows

intruders at night, shoji doors and to the outside

walls in a Japanese house

and the greater part of the outside wall space

ing.

open

that

directly

closed veranda have a partic-

ular

kind of sliding wooden shutter called amado, or rain door.

The

sides o{i\ic' amado are

provided with either overlapping

pieces or grooves so that each section can

fit

securely into the

next with the aid of a bolt, the end ones being bolted to the

beams

at

both the top and the bottom. During the day,

when

the amado are not in use they are slid into compartments

placed at the ends of the door and

window

openings.

An

veranda, the openings are in the form of paper windows called

important type of armex building that forms part of the larger

elbow-rest windows, because they slide on a

houses

low

about

sill

twelve inches high to offer an unobstructed view from a

is

the dozo or hura,

storehouse. Since the

which

wooden

squatting position. Almost every small house has a veranda

house presents an ever-present

facing the south that also serves as a corridor, instead of an

houses often have one or

inside corridor,

and the design of large houses often includes

two or more verandas corridors, because

in addition to one or

more

inside

of the more complex arrangement of the

most of

is

a fireproof

fire

either attached to the house or separated

a half feet in width, often extend the full length

concrete, as well as the

side

of the house and are usually enclosed on the outer

with sliding glass doors, while the floors are generally of highly hitioki.

The

of the rooms that open on the

sides

veranda are provided with shding paper doors called

which

are the

same height

as the

fusutm and

slide in

shoji,

grooves

between the floor beam and the lintel. Both the paper windows and the

shoji consist

of wood. To the house

is

of frames with a latticework of thin

of the

strips

in

which

Godowns

from

it,

are

and are

usually two-storied with exceptionally thick walls of concrete

and

polished

godowns

these

their valuable possessions are stored.

that are painted either black or white.

side

or

hazard, the better dwelling

more of

rooms. In the larger houses these verandas, which are three

of the

godown

construction of the Japanese

windows and

The very

door,

exceptionally thick concrete and swing

on

thick roof is

which

hinges.

are also

The

of

earlier

clay, and when fire threatened the godown windows were immediately closed and

godowns were made of house, the

their joints or seams filled

with clay that was always kept

nearby for that purpose. In the Japanese house, customary usage of particular rather than

any

special furnishings distinguishes

rooms

one from

of the

another. Living rooms, guest rooms, reception rooms, and so

applied the plain white translucent paper that pro-

forth are thus easily interchangeable because of the flexible

side

duces a soft light, giving the

shoji that faces the outside

room

a

warm and peaceful

feel-

plan of the house.

The

principal

room is

the reception

room.

House of a feudal vassal, an old samurai mansion, at Tsuyama, Okayama, showing servants' quarters along the wall.

154

Edo

period, seventeenth century.


;

Interior

Left:

of a living room

Kangahu-in monastery of

in the

the Miidera temple (also called Onjoji temple), near

Biwa, Shiga

Guest room

Center:

Momoyama

prefecture. Built in 1600.

in the

room, the place of honor where

hanging scroU-painting and

a

Otsu on Lake

flowers are placed so that their aesthetic qualities

period.

preciated.

main house of the Koho-an, a nnnor

tokonoma had

said that the

It is

medieval times in the Zen monasteries

its

when

may

be ap-

origin during

the priests

hung

monastery of the Daitokuji temple at Kyoto, showing the arrange-

Buddhist pictures on the wall behind a low stand on which

ment o/shoji, a hell-shaped window, the tokonoma, and the fusuma.

was placed

Edo

burner.

period, early seventeenth century.

Right:

Interior

view of a room

the Kujo-kan,

in

a building

formerly on the premises of Prince Kujo's residence in Kyoto,

a vase

From

of flowers,

and an incense

which became the prototype of

the wall with a built-in altar the secular

a candlestick,

arrangement there developed an alcove in

this

tokonoma. The

earliest

tokonoma

in domestic

shoiving the chigai-dana and the tokonoma with a painting by an

dwellings was actually a family altar on which was placed an

of the Kano school. Edo period, seventeenth century. Tokyo

image of the Buddha together with an offering of incense and

artist

National Museum.

flowers, before

which

it

sliding doors or fusuma.

size

The average

connected to

size

it

by

of the reception

room is from eight to ten mats, and together with its anteroom "When

often serves as a guest chamber. quired, as for a large gathering,

increased

by removing

reception

room and

up

to face the

its

size

greater space

is

re-

can be considerably

the four fusuma doors separating the

the anteroom. These

rooms always open

garden and generally have a veranda extending

later

members of the family would gather

tokonoma gradually

icance of the

with an anteroom of almost equal

all

morning and evening. The

to worship each

came only

to

have

aesthetic

meaning, the Japanese have

always retained a feeling of sacredness for religious pictures

religious signif-

disappeared, but although

it.

The

earlier

have been replaced by secular ones in the

form of kakemono, the

vertical

hanging

scrolls,

of which

some are rare and beautiful poetical works of calligraphy, while others are ink paintings of landscapes, figure subjects,

other characteristic themes of Japanese

art.

Like the

arrangements and ornaments that are placed one the tokonoma, the

kakemono

is

changed

at

at a

and

floral

time in

frequent intervals

enjoyment of another, for the observance of certain

the full length of one, two, or three sides, thus bringing house

for the

and garden

holidays and festival days, or to conform with the season of

in closer

proximity and heightening the feeling of

harmony with nature. Among the reception stitutes a

room

are

:

the most important features of

the tokonoma, an alcove

which con-

kind of shrine dedicated to the exercise of aesthetic

pleasures; a tana or chigai-dana, a recess

with a

specially

com-

posed arrangement of shelves and wall cupboards; and a shoin,

which

is

a particular variety

of bay window. The only ap-

the year.

The

larger mansions often possess a

more kakemono

that

generations of art collecting.

precincts

consists

Japanese room.

It is

always found in the reception

frequently in the living there

is

of the

also

room of

the larger houses as well

always one in the principal

less affluent.

A

tokonoma

room and

is

room of the

a recessed portion

made for each godown within the

of the property. Tokonoma vary in form or in the

cupboards.

most important feature of a

many

are not in

use are roUed up, placed in boxes especially

arrangement of their

constitutes the

The kakemono which

individual one, and kept in the fireproof

pointments in the anteroom are one or more built-in wall

The tokonoma

few hundred or

have been acquired through

details.

The form most commonly used

of a platform, three by

above the floor

level, faced

six feet, raised a

on the

front with a

almost always black-lacquered, and having surface,

of

eitlier a tatami

its

few inches sill

that

own

or polished boards, which

is

is

floor level

Across the upper portion, and somewhat higher

houses

with the

sill.

of the

than the

lintels

over doors,

is

a crossbeam

between the posts 155


with the space from the beam to the ceUing

at either side,

filled in

The tokonoma

is

wall, because the

seldom

rooms

three shelves between the cupboards.

of the

if ever placed in the center

and the principal guest

sits

toward

there with his back

it.

was applied

the term shoin

are designed asymmetrically. In the

tokonoma

centuries the

For

to a

priests,

and

developed

applied indifferently to any a bay

its

in importance in the reception

room

are the tana

and

feature

which give the room a variety of interesting arrange-

The

ments.

tana, or chigai-dana, is a recess

designed shelves and wall cupboards. tokowaki, is

meaning side of the tokonoma.

with

is

Its

principal purpose

to provide variation in the architectural design

form

is

at

arrangement

times very complex,

consists

its

most

as a

above a deep floor

of the room,

siU

and had

original type

A

of small cupboards with sliding doors

do not extend the full width

most unusual and

arrangement of shelves

is

now

its

acts as a decorative

it

its

original

consisted of a

raised several inches

oÂŁ shoin

is

a hirajoin or

flat shoin.

except that

it is

of a

flat

The

flush

is

frequently used

next

to,

and

called

with the wall and the lower portion

wall space below the sliding siU.

The

windows

instead

shoin constitutes a beautiful

at right angles to, the

dows opening

seen in the design of some tana, but

is

hirajoin is identical to the tsukejoin

decorative feature of interior architecture and

a short

interesting asymmetrical

above the

called a tsukejoin or projecting shoin,

while a more simplified type that

characteristic

and are joined one above the other by

shoin

reading bay, and

which was

of the raised and deep

rod.

in the house having such

cupboard with sliding doors beneath. This

a

usually consist of two boards that recess

When the shoin

of the reception room in the larger houses,

consists

wooden

room

room. Although the

placed above and below wall shelves. These wall shelves

of the

sUl

Zen

wide bay window with delicately latticed sliding shoji windows

artistically

often called a

It

wide

a

or to a suite of rooms having such a bay in

purpose was to serve

but it also serves to display one or a few objects of art. Although its

window

principal

recess.

Next

in as

of domestic architecture, the term was

moral and

shoin,

came

bay window with

also designated the study itself.

it

as a part

being considered a sacred place in the home, and in view of its

one never enters within

shoin

used for reading and writing in the dwelling houses of

has had the unique distinction of

spiritual significance,

The

part of the architectural development of residences. Originally

room the place of honor is in front of the tokonoma,

Japanese

two or

the most refined compositions are those having only

with wall plaster to produce a frame for the tokonoma.

is

always placed

tokonoma, with the win-

directly onto the veranda.

ymf^-''ÂŤButlilt.\aik

House of a feudal

vassal, at

Tsuyama, Okayama,

showing part of the main house within the com-

pound

wall.

Edo

period, seventeenth century.

The Kara-mon of dai mansion

Daitokuji

of Hideyoshi.

(1573-1615).

156

the

Kyoto, originally the gateway

to

temple

at

the Juraku-

Momoyama

period

The Ginkakuji,

or Silver Pavilion, of the Jishoji

Kyoto. Originally

huilt

Ashikaga Shogun,

in

Muromachi

period.

c

by Yoshimasa, the eight

1479 as a country

villc


The dining room in a Japanese house is called chanoma, when literally translated, means the room of the tea. Essentially the dining room for the family, it is a small room

which

measuring from four and a half to eight mats, depending

stored in a wall cupboard, thereby leaving the living

which,

the size of the house.

upon poses

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;for example,

room

or

tionally

workroom

it is

as a

It

family sitting

for the mistress

never used

as a

size

as a

sewing

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;but tradi-

which average from

for

six to ten

and are always provided with wall cupboards

many

having sliding doors. There are larger houses, as

to have his

room and

of the house

bedroom. The rooms reserved

sleeping are the living rooms,

mats in

serves a variety of other pur-

it is

the

rooms

living

in the

custom for each member of the family

own room. Some

of these living rooms have

mattress of wadded cotton about an inch or so in thickness is

on

placed a pillow and the quilted bed coverlet. In the

morning when

the bed

is

no longer

in use,

it is

folded and

room

free to be used for other purposes.

The

refuied elegance in the appearance of a Japanese

emanates from natural

wood

its

surfaces, the soft light transmitted

through the

paper doors, and the lovely tone of the pale-green

only

room

and native charm of the

design, the beauty

tatami.

embeUish the room

article that frequently serves to

The is

characteristic Japanese folding floor screen called a hyohu or

ordinary single-panel screen called a

most Japanese homes

is

tsuitate. Still

a

an

preserved in

the ancient tradition of having both

anterooms, while they frequently have a tokonoma and

Shinto and Buddhist deities venerated in miniature family

which

usually placed in two of the principal rooins. The Shinto altar, called kamidana, is often a small shrine placed upon a board shelf high up in the corner of the room near the ceiling. In many of the large homes of the old families, espe-

generally have a veranda

faces a garden.

There are

sometimes a few movable chests-of-drawers and cupboards in the living rooms, but their use

is

somewhat

restricted

due

many built-in cupboards and drawers. A low table is the most common piece of movable furniture found in the Japanese room. It serves many purposes, especially as a dining table when the traditional individual trays or ozen are not used. When the living room is used for sleeping, a toko or to the

futon,

which

is

the Japanese bed,

cupboard and spread upon the

is

brought out from the wall

tatami floor.

The

futon

is

a

altars, v^rhich are

cially in the provincial districts, the

handsome styles

kamidana are frequently

architectural reproductions

of Shinto shrines and measure

height.

The kami or deity its name and

tablet bearing

directly

upon

the

wooden

is

as

of the

characteristic

much

as six feet in

represented

by

a small sacred

placed in the miniature shrine or shelf Besides the tutelary kami

The Hiunkaku

in the

compound

of the Nishi Honganji temple

at

Kyoto, originally a pavilion

in

the

grounds

of

Hideyoshi's

Jurakudai mansion. Alomoyama period (1573-1615).

157


from

most important kami venerated

that locality, the

who

Amaterasu, the sun goddess, Imperial family.

member of the

homage according

and offering

shxiiie,

a prayer.

day of each month miniature sake of the camellia-Uke sakaki

of Shinto, are

is

the ancestress of the

A candle is lighted every morning and every family pays

custom of bowing before the usually twice,

is

to the Shinto

clapping their hands,

On the first and fifteenth

bottles

and

fresh branches

Eurya ochnacca, the sacred tree

tree,

offered.

Since the worship of Amaterasu and the local deities does

not conflict with

faith in

called But Sudan,

also

Shinto is

carvings.

altar,

found in most homes. In contrast to the

which is plain and bare of ornament, the Butsudan

altar,

usually

is

Buddha, the Buddhist family

much decorated with fme lacquer work and elaborate contains an image representing

It

Buddha

or

some

other Buddhist deity, together with small tablets that are

since they are able to

burner.

The

warm only their hands over the charcoal may be made of wood,

hibachi or portable brazier

porcelain, or metal, and to round.

It

its

shape varies from square or oblong

which

contains a metil container in

burned. In the big farmhouses in the rural fireplace

is

used for burning wood, while in the very cold

stiU

kind of fire pan of stone sunk in the floor

of Japan

used.

A low table-like framework is placed above the fire-pan

a

opening with a cloth spread over

it,

and the family can

rice

is

offered every

members, together with gift

received

by

morning

A small

to the deceased

sweets, or vegetables;

fruits,

the family, except fish or fowl,

to the Buddhist altar before

it is

is first

though they were

member of the

every

a reverent

offered

used or eaten. These offerings

to the Buddhist family altar signify that the deceased are treated as

and any

alive,

members

and every morning

family addresses the shrine by saying

"good morning"

to

show

respect to the departed

ones.

wooden

frame, open

at the top,

supported on four short

legs, or

and resting on

Japanese house

is still

heated in the traditional manner

with a charcoal burner or brazier called a the average climate during the winter

comfortable cold,

and

is

as the

humid

hibachi.

months

climate of summer,

is

it is

Although not

as

un-

moderately

especially unpleasant because the construction

the Japanese house offers very

Japanese have to be

158

burned rapeseed

warmly

little

protection against

it.

of

The

dressed during the cold months.

These

oil,

lanterns,

are

still

a flat base or

held within a stand with four

which

rested o'r

upon

the floor

with lamps that

used for decorative

utilitarian lighting in the principal

door purposes. This type of lantern

first

is

Tokugawa

They immediately became popular and were

period.

sively used for

all

could be carried around

easily.

The

typical Japanese paper is

made of numerous

of bamboo that are bent into

circles

and placed

one above the other with paper pasted over them.

collar

is

exten-

forms of lighting, especially because they

lantern, called chochin or carrying lantern,

bottom

also a

and out-

appeared around the

beginning of the seventeenth century during the

having

well as

as

rooms. There

variety of folding paper lantern used for both indoor

pliant splittings

The

homes by means

In earlier times the Japanese lighted their

of atido or andon, square-shaped paper lanterns having a rigid

delicate supports.

bowl of boiled

sit

with the cloth for additional warmth.

and were formerly lighted with candles

with a long history sometimes span several centuries.

is

around the hearth with the lower part of their bodies covered

of the deceased members of the family,

in old families

is

districts a large

parts

venerated and inscribed with the posthumous Buddhist names

who

fine ashes are

allowed to accumulate and on which glowing charcoal

affixed a collar

of thin

a pricket for the candle,

wood

To

while the top piece

is

just a

of wood. Since most chochin are made for outside

the paper

is

treated with a

heavy coating of fish

The

oil as a

use,

pro-

streets

were not lighted

earlier days except at festival times,

and paper lanterns

tection against the weather.

during

the

with a solid piece


Left:

The Shokin-tei

pavilion of the Katsura Detached Palace at Kyoto, in

which are included a tea-ceremony room and a moon-viewing veranda overlooking the pond.

Center:

A

of

Detached Palace

it

A

period, early seventeenth century.

bench under the roof of the Shokin-tei pavilion showing the rural

cottage style

Right:

Edo

room

into closer

architecture. at

Edo

period, early seventeenth century. Katsura

Kyoto.

in a

dwelling house with the sliding shoji removed to bring

harmony with

its

gardeti

and pond.

Jiro

Harada, Tokyo National

Museum.

View from

the

room of a dwelling house arranged around an

interior garden. Jiro

Harada, Tokyo National Museum.

159


a purely white lantern

is

used

at the

time of a Buddhist funeral.

Therefore, every chochin has something painted or written on it,

such as the family crest of its owner, a picture, or ideograms

meaning "good night" or "beware of

fure."

Among

the

popular types o{ chochin are the odawara-chochin, a cylindrical

named after the town of Odawara, and the gifu-chochin, named for the city of Gifu and noted for its delicate oval shape lantern

and beautiful designs of flowers, its

birds,

and

insects painted

thin paper covering. Originally Gifu lanterns

cipally used

Obon

thcoughout the house

Festival,

which

at the

on

were prin-

time of the Buddhist

for three days beginning July 13,

lasts

during which time the departed members of the family return

from the

spirit

world

yumihari-chochin with

base so Interior

of a main room

in a

dwelling house showing the tohonoma

with a kakemono hanging in

it,

and

a hell-shaped

window. Jiro

Harada, Tokyo National Museum.

it

for a brief visit. its

Other lanterns

are; the

bow-shaped handle connected to

its

can stand; the takahari-chochin, a cylindrical lantern,

which

usually with the family crest,

is

placed imder a

little

protecting roof on a high post at the door or gate of the house;

and the hozuki-chochin or red-berry

lantern,

which

rather

is

small and round and of bright-red color, used in lantern

were carried by those going out tice is

at night.

no longer necessary in the cities,

used in rural

districts,

where they

Although

lanterns are

are

still

160

use a lantern that

is

prac-

widely

marked with

family crest to identify the person carrying one

The Japanese will not

this

still

the

on dark nights.

plain white, because

processions and at festivals.

It

has been a Japanese custom to

hang beautifully decorated paper the garden

on summer evenings,

feeling of freshness that are

hung on

much

lanterns in the house

like the furin, or little

the verandas.

and in

their soft light giving off a

wind

bells,


XII Landscape Gardenini

I

HE Japanese love of nature

_JL.

finds

articulate expression in the art

its

most

of landscape

gardening. In order to fully appreciate the profound beauty

of this

art,

with

its

tary

it

would pos-

merely the empty charm of novelty or fanciful conceit.

It is

generally accepted that the rules and

theories .underlying

the art of landscape gardening in Japan have been in a continuous tradition still

from

early to

handed

modem

times

a Japanese

garden

picture" of the countryside, with favorite rural spots.

The most

is

its

make a "landscapemany famous views and to

striking features

of the varied

landscape of Japan are depicted in a composition of hiUs, stones, cascades, streams, teristics

and

lakes. Nature's peculiar charac-

indigenous to Japanese scenery, with

fantastic exaggerations

its

The only the

strange and

of form, are carefully studied and

deviation

artificial

for his composition, as

from the

strict

adherence to nature

is

contours imparted to certain trees and shrubs

in

by

pruning and shaping to produce conventional representations

of favorite forms seen in nature. tree that

used

is

as a

as

not the ordinary pine

It is

model, but one that has been molded into

strange and unusual shapes

of nature

evident in the present-day examples.

The aim of

The

select-

godas, and shrines, which are seen as a part of every rural view.

sess

and are

life

model,

symbolism which animates its design.

methods of Japanese landscape gardening,

down

ing the natural features and plant

as his

well as certain characteristic structures, such as bridges, pa-

it is

deeper meaning imparted to the most rudimen-

this

garden designer uses the scenery of Japan

neces-

unique and varied composition,

sary to penetrate into the

Without

natural scenery of their country as reflected in their art.

by age and tempests. The expression

represented in the landscape garden

with careful consideration for unity, scale, proportion,

aesthetic principles

is

executed

of balance,

and harmony. Japanese landscape

gardens are not only representations of natural scenes, but often are expressions of an abstract sentiment or symbolical

meaning. Since the Japanese garden

is

essentially a retreat for

the enjoyment of peaceful seclusion and meditation, reflect the

it

should

temperament and sentiments of the master of the

The garden attached to

the dwelling house of a priest

interpreted in the landscape garden. In these artistic produc-

house.

tions, as in Japanese painting, the landscape

designed to express the qualities of virtue and dignrtied soli-

designer fol-

lows the traditional canons which prescribe an essence of reality rather

of Japanese

than naturalistic appearance.

art require a careful selection

The

principles

tude

other gardens

;

may

is

suggest the attributes of Buddhist

divinities or depict philosophic traditions.

and modification of

the constituent parts of a scene rather than a completely realistic

reproduction of nature, and most often tend to accentuate

certain characteristics.

herited arts,

The

Japanese love of nature

culture.

taste acquired from traditional customs, The transmutation of nature into conven-

tionalized motifs

and decorative

branches of art,

familiar to

It is

is

all

designs, as seen in

Japanese,

many

and these have be-

The

introduction of

city

of Nara

a representation of the

its

attendant culture

in connection with the ancient monasteries

these conventional conceptions that the Japanese

is

Buddhism and

for the earhest

landscape gardens in Japan and these were principally laid out

when

Thus, landscape gardening

LANDSCAPE GARDENS

from Korea in the sixth century was the chamiel

710,

have formulated an interpretation of nature peculiar to themselves.

FIRST

from natural life.

the accepted traditional forms derived

from

THE

an in-

and educated

and

come

is

ment

the Empress-Regnant as the first

in the province

permanent

Gemmyo seat

of Yamato, the

art

and temples. In established the

of court and governof landscape garden-

ing entered a phase of rapid development along with the

161


Garden of

progress of architecture.

the Saihoji temple at Kyoto, designed by

The

influence

which Chinese

culture

exerted was manifest in the construction of the palaces,

villas,

Muso Kokushi, uyyij^i.

down upon

a long

Murofiiachi period.

and extremely narrow sand bar

that trav-

Pine trees bent into fantastic shapes by the wintry

erses the bay.

and mansions of the wealthy nobles, and beautiful landscape

storms are seen in great numbers along the entire length of

gardens contributed to the magnificence of these buUdings,

the sand bar and enhance

providing their owners with picturesque settings in which to

second half of the Heian period, or Fujiwara

enjoy leisure moments and to entertain their guests.

By

the

time of the luxurious Fujiwara period (897-1185) the aristocratic society

had developed a standard of living that was

distinctly metropolitan in

its

manners and

In 794 the capital had been transferred

which was surrounded on three and traversed by

rivers

of

sides

new

capital

The

to Kyoto,

beautiful mountains

providing an

temples, palaces, and

were erected on a grand

and since there were many natural ponds within the

from Nara

by

crystal-clear water,

ideal setting for landscape gardens.

mansions of the

cultural activities.

hiUs,

woods,

city limits, their gardens

springs,

were the

and many were intended to resemble particular places

noted for scenic beauty. For example, the garden

at the

sion of Fujiwara Sukechika symbolized the bay at

hashidate

on the Sea of

its

beautiful

man-

Ama-no-

Japan. Ama-no-hashidate literally

means Bridge of Heaven and famous for

162

and

were enriched with

these natural creations. Gardens of huge proportions fashion,

scale,

since ancient times has been

view from the mountains looking

its

unique beauty. During

new shinden-zukuri style of architecture was made

to

focus of the garden

conform with

was

islets.

The

at its farther

islet

by

the its

galleries, the

arrangement.

was the main house, or

looked out on a court having containing three

this

this

when

perfected with

spacious and luxurious apartments connected

gardens were

era,

shinden,

The

which

end a large pond

nearest to the shinden,

which

was approached by way of an arched

called naka-jima,

bridge that spanned the water obliquely. Bridges spanned the water between the remaining to the other side of the

boats to pass.

a

islets,

and the

final

bridge

removable section to allow

On the banks of the pond, and along the stream

that flowed into

of vegetation

pond had

it,

were great boidders,

skillfully

trees,

and

all

manner

arranged in a naturalistic setting, some-

times with rocky beaches and sand bars. Although these fabulous gardens of the Fujiwara period long

many

great temples

tain aspects

ago disappeared,

and monasteries have preserved cer-

of them which conform to the detailed d^criptions

contained in old record books of gardens.


ZEN GARDENS

are said to have been

made by Soami who designed ,

of the Silver PaviHon. The Ryoanji,

With

the introduction of the

Zen

of Buddhism in the

sect

Hosokawa Katsumoto, Zen monastery in the latter part of

and was converted into

of nature in the arrangement of gardens and the kara-yo

the fifteenth century.

The

dwelling of the head

priest,

became popular forms

The

dwelling houses.

tended to

make

style

and

philosophical spirit of Zen, with

its

beyond the limits of human knowledge,

speculations reaching

were designed

for monasteries

and although many

these gardens symbolic, after those

of the

earlier

Heian

style, there

developed a garden of smaller proportions in which the reproduction of nature was the principal aim. features

The most prominent

acteristics

of the

site

skillful use

of the natural char-

to produce picturesque effects.

famous designer of Zen gardens, and the one the a

The most

who contributed

most to their development, was Muso Kokushi, 1275-135 1,

Zen priest of noble

later years

of his

life

birth also in

known as

Soseki.

He spent the

Kyoto, where he created a number of

superb gardens of rare beauty within the precincts of temples.

of about 130

Among

these

is

many

the landscape garden in front of the

tsubo or

a

small south garden of the hojo, or

occupies a space within the walls

approximately 4680 square

This

feet.

garden, which is regarded as one of the masterpieces of Soami,

who was

greatly influenced

exclusively of stones

extreme that

by Zen philosophy,

and white sand, and

its

is

can be appreciated only by those

it

composed

simplicity

who

so

is

under-

stand.

The technique of gardening

of the Zen-inspired gardens were rocks, water, ever-

green trees and plants, and the

the garden

Kyoto, was originally

the Kitayama vUla of the military lord

Kaniakura period (1185-1333) the symbohcal representation

of architecture

at

and

to represent mountains

water by various combinations of stones and sand or earth, called hare sansui, or cellent

dry landscape, and

when Zen

examples of the Muromachi period

ophy was popular. The Ryoanji garden examples of the dry-landscape

many

seen in

is

style; the masterful use

has never been expressed so purely and symbolically. stones are

grouped into

five sets

philos-

one of the

is

is

ex-

finest

of space

Its

fifteen

of two, three, or five and

arranged with perfect proportion on the level white-sand

abbot's apartment at the Tenryuji temple, and the famous

ground, which has a meticulously worked pattern of straight

garden of the Saihoji temple. In the

parallel ridges

figuration

of the

was most

site

pond of irregular

latter

the natural con-

skillfully used:

around a large

shape, fine rock settings are profusely over-

grown with many species of beautiful moss of unusual thickness. A supreme work of genius, it has become better known as the Kokedera, or Moss temple. The shinden-style houses with their vast gardens prevailed during the early part of the Muromachi period (1338-1573), and the

first

families of the Ashikaga

Shoguns found great of the Fujiwara

delight in emulating the aristocratic culture

Muromachi period when

nobihty. Later in the

of architecture reached its

fully

the shoin style

developed form, the landscape

gardens that symbolically represented

Zen

ideals

were

also

adopted. Perhaps the garden that most perfectly exemplifies this

Zen

inspiration

is

at the Jishoji

temple, popularly called

relies

upon

essentials

made with

a

bamboo

rake.

Zen Buddhism

the individual to grasp the meaning of hidden

concealed behind outward appearances and to

men-

some

these

tally interpret their significance.

Therefore, to

rocks suggest the legend of tora-no-ko watashi, in which tigers lead their cubs across a

mountain stream;

to others they re-

semble high mountain peaks soaring above an expanse of clouds, or islands in an ocean.

The

best time to see

them

moonhght night when they appear as Hving nature. The other famous garden created by Soami a clear

is

that

the Daisen-in, one of the smaller monasteries within the

pound of the Daitokuji temple the Ryoanji,

it is

at

on

is

things of

of

com-

Kyoto. Like the garden of

in the dry-landscape style

with a miniature

reproduction of nature confuied to a small space of about eleven hundred square

feet,

alongside the dwelling house of a

Ginkakuji or Silver Pavilion, originally built in 1479 by the

priest. In the

group of carefully trained

trees

Ashikaga Shogun Yoshimasa as a country viUa, atHigashiyama

to represent distant mountains. Vertical rocks symbolize

cliffs

in Kyoto.

While

the gardens of the rich mansions followed

the style of the famous style

moss garden of the

Saihoji,

and also the

of gardens attached to the smaller monasteries situated

and a as

background

waterfall,

is

a

and horizontal stones represent objects such

embankments, bridges, and a boat. The

bolizes a river

level

within the compounds of large monasteries, a more abridged

designed under the spiritual philosophy of Zen,

form with symbolic

exist in the

interpretations

school of landscape gardening

is

began to fmd favor. This

often suggestive of the ink

landscape painting of Chinese origin, usually being

of stones, sand, and small evergreens stream, the ocean, or mountains and

two most famous gardens of temple and the other

at the

composed

to symbolize a

hills

this style,

pond, a

with

waterfalls.

one

at the

The

Ryoanji

Daitokuji temple, both at Kyoto,

all

this

garden,

these stones

world of symbolic expression transcending the

actual world.

suggested

ground sym-

and is covered with pine needles. In

by

The Zen

priests

gave names to the stones

their shapes: "tiger's

as

head" stone, "genius' hat"

stone, "lying-ox" stone, "clear-mirror" stone, "tortoise-sheU"

Fudo stone, Kannon stone, Daruma named after the first patriarch of Buddhism), "saddle-

stone, "long ship" stone,

stone (so

shaped" stone, Buddhist paten stone, "faint-smell" stone.

163


Garden of the Ntvizeiiji temple of the abbot. Attributed

to

at

Kyoto, next

to the living quarters

Kobori Enshu, I5yg-i64j,

dry-landscape style, with rocks,

it is

in the

and white sand.

trees,

Gardeti of the Ryoaiiji temple at Kyoto, in the kaic sansui or drylandscape style. Attributed to Soami.

Muromachi

period,

early

sixtenth century.

THE STROLL GARDEN

colors being a natural resiJt rather than one

of

particular

arrangement. In contrast to the Occidental method of making

from

Japanese landscape gardening thus developed lier shinden-style

the ear-

garden, which frequently served as a place

of outdoor entertainment, to the garden based on Zen principles to

roji style

its

symbohc

on the

tea

type that appeared in the

same subordination of color to form, and the same simple

ceremony. Along

naturalness as opposed to ostentatious artificiality, are evident

Momoyama

was created which

period

Edo period is

called the

garden. This type of garden appeared because of the

in even the

most minute

details

styles

of composition. These divisions are the

or elaborate

style,

of the daimyo and feudal

classification pertains to the

tea

lords, hi these great stroll

form

gardens

a part of the

ceremony, with interesting paths leading to them. Land-

scape designers endeavored to create these stroll gardens so as

harmony with

to have scenic views in pleasures

of meditation.

stroll style

of garden

is

One of the

that

the desire to enjoy the

foremost exaftiples of the

of the Katsura Detached Palace in

the western outskirts of Kyoto.

The grounds

contain

numer-

ous buildings and have quiet beautiful surroundings and views

of the mountains in the background. garden

is

the

manner in which it

is

A

pecuUarity of this

plamied, for wherever one

stands the scene always appears to be the front

never

feels as

view and one

though standing in the wrong position to enjoy

is

carefully avoided in Japanese land-

the abbreviated or free style of

the composition, and to

manner,

flat

so,

garden. This

free or refined, as seen in

some extent

to the nature

of the

The garden is regarded as a poem or picture intended to inspire some worthy sentiment or to suggest some natural scene that is particularly favored by the owner. At times a purely abstract sentiment is conveyed by the commaterials used.

position of the garden, such as contemplation or peaceful

retirement from the cares of the world, solitude or dignified seclusion.

Garden record books of early times show

Japanese have always frowned

that the

upon making a garden an orna-

mental appendage to the house or making any ostentatious display.

Gardens shoidd be pleasant retreats for hours of leisure

and should be created from

a

genuine love of nature, and they

to their artistic beauty. Since

it is

the intention of Japanese

gardens to provide a place for unrestrained ease and medita-

Of primary importance are

tion, there are various sentiments that landscape gardeners are

is

contour, form, and proportion, with the combination of

164

or fmished

the result of re-

scape gardening, and the variety obtained sourceful manipulation of design.

into three

shin,

should be so arranged that each of the four seasons contributes

the beauties of the landscape.

Unnatural regularity

is

falls

the gio or intermediate style, and the

which

also the various structures that

of Japanese gardening.

In theory Japanese landscape gardening

increase in the area of gardens that adorned the great mansions

were

the

lost,

Japanese prefer to display the natural lines of branches and

and blossom in an open and well-balanced composition. This

(1615-1867), another style

there

crushed to-

but

is

(1573-1615) and was further developed in the

stroll

is

stems so as to exhibit the subtle shapes and colors of each bud

was

of small garden attached to the teahouse, which

roji

all

this latter

aesthetic quality. It

its

fully described in the chapter

with the

gether and individual form and beauty are

representations that developed into the

be enjoyed for

type with

bouquets of flowers, in which a variety of color

said to

have expressed in their works, such

as

long

life

and


Garden of

mon-

the Daisen-in

compound of

astery in the

the

Daitokuji temple at Kyoto, built

by Soami at the beginning of the sixteenth century.

happiness, gentleness, the pleasure of retirement, and others.

many

These fanciful conceptions are inspired by the emotion

aroused by natural scenery, whether

it

be awe-inspiring,

An

Furuta Oribe, called "distance-raising" method, in which he

many of the compositions of gardens, in particular

favored placing the larger hiUs and trees in the background

is

largely dependent

which are

Designers of Japanese landscape gardens

draw

sketches,

visit

appropriate

and make notes of their observations.

from these sketches and notes that suggestions are supplied

which contribute

to originality

and complicated scene stead, the contours

is

An

of composition.

never attempted in

extensive

entirety

its

;

in-

and peculiarities of p jrtions of it are studied

The immediate view in

separately.

front that can be fully ob-

served from one point of sight, with

its

most

opposite

striking contours

method become more from

scene

first.

Then

by turning

sketches are

a little to the right

though these sketches depict can ordy be useful

as a

all

site.

A

other parts of the

and then

to the

of the principal

left.

details,

Al-

they

general guide for the subsequent execu-

tion of the garden, as variations

the actual

made of the

from them

are governed

reproduction of the real scene

is

never

by

foll-

when

it is

understood that

mountain looking toward the

distant plain.

view

The

of a garden is summer enjoyment, foliage should

pearance.

The

presence of water, preferably that which

clear, shallow,

However,

it is

rocks,

if the character

of the garden requires water

not obtainable, the designer then arranges the

and

trees to

not confmed to any particular

principles

set

which serve the designer

ments within the composition. that the garden

is

hills,

produce a composition suggesting water.

Although the distribution of the many is

It

more than an

features

of a garden

of rules, there are certain guide in his arrange-

as a

must always be remembered artistic

arrangement of trees

too closely, for the garden must conform to the nature

and rocks;

of

surroundings, and to the

intended to represent some imaginary or true landscape.

size,

form, and character of

it is

is

and running, produces the most refreshing

owed its

is

scale

be arranged sparingly to produce a cool and refreshing ap-

effect.

is

acceptable

of a garden must be carefully considered, and since the prin-

and

both in the foreground and in the distance,

a

cipal purpose

of mountam, valley, rock formations, stream, and most promi-

sketched

the famous tea master

the mountains are of similar magnitude, or that the

nent

trees,

method was taught by

and the lower ones in the foreground. The theories of Rikyu's

those gardens attached to religious houses.

It is

and smaller ones

in the back, and distant water placed higher in the background.

asso-

Their value

occult meanings, historical or philosophical,

scenery,

mountains should be lower than the near

distant

ones, with larger trees planted in the front

upon

tary, gay, or placid.

ciated with

soli-

which

in

a real picture composition to the Japanese,

the trees, rocks, and lanterns to be used.

Through

the centuries there have been

the procedure of laying out the garden

ground should be fmished background, while finished

last.

all

first,

;

many

theories as to

some

say the fore-

others that

it

agree the middle distance should be

The renowned

tea master

THE HILL-GARDEN STYLE

should be the

Sen-no-Rikyu taught

the "distance-lowering" method,inhis system of composition,

The

fsukiyama-niwa, or hill garden,

is

the most complete

landscape garden, and since an ideal Japanese landscape scene

must contain mountains and water scenery, the term

saiisui.

165


which

used to denote such a view,

is

of these

artificial landscapes.

the most prominent feature, and

and distribution ery,

with the

are

meant

given to the best

from

mountain scen-

hills

in the foreground

Of great importance is blaiik spaces,

of Japanese painting. In the

is

a

hill

two, which

is

is

and a cascade.

placed

hill

hill

tain

by

which

is

smaller and with

Garden of

the

it

none of the

at

which

rocks,

grouped so

which

moun-

of mystery.

the hira-niwa, or

flat

garden,

and shrubs of rounded form, are sometimes

as to suggest

mountain scenery. Hira-niwa gardens

to the foregroimd

is lull

mountain valley or a

sea-

The level portions of Japanese made use of turf in more recent

suggest islands 'ih the sea.

gardens have frequently

hard-packed earth or covered with wliite sand or finely broken

number

characteristics

four,

of the

Kyoto, showing a part

(1573-1615).

in

is

five,

represents a

times; however, these portions were formerly finished with

should be low and rounded and

Samboin monastery

Momoyama period

a feeling

In contrast to the hiU garden

number

it

sides.

from the principal moun-

a valley. In the near foreground

larger mountains, since

designs.

more

of great distance with

tain

is hill

because

number

smaller and different in character,

three, slightly

little detail

coast scene, sometimes with groups of rocks arranged to

Upon the opposite side of hiU number one

number

and has very

feature

have broad sweeping

so as to suggest a lower hill divided

steep

common

with the space between the two usually having rock formations

is

are supposed to represent either a

number one should be placed

somewhat

amount of detail in the form of rocks and plants.

the use

fuiished garden there are five

distance. It should

Adjacent to

fair

In the remotest part of the garden

by

with hill number one forming the main feature

hills,

of the nearer

which

all

the principle of sug-

gesting to the imagination the impression of space

principal

contain a

sweeping contours of the nearer

mountains, and the low rounded

of obliterations and

hills are

their form, character,

to represent actual

distant peak, the

ideally arranged.

also

is

In the hill-garden style,

oj the

shells, ties

while the

hills

were partly covered with

different varie-

of moss. Each of the component parts of the garden

is

carefully placed to suggest the desired natural scene or the

sentiment to be expressed in the composition in keeping with the desired religious or secular thought. sensibihry expressed

by

certain features

Most of the

delicate

of a garden derives

from the thoughts and works of sages, poets, and philosophers,

who

pond

not only practiced the accomplished

arts,

but were the

containing several islands connected by bridges in a variety of


chief patrons. Just as the traditional behefs possess ideal moral

decoration have

quahties, the aesthetic principles governing the art of Japanese

virtues.

gardens are hardly separable from the ethics which inspire

the

them.

tortoise

A

finished lull garden

perfect unless

not complete nor

is

is it

considered

become

intrinsically expressive

of moral

The lotus-covered lake, the blessed isle, the pine tree, plum tree, the bamboo, and the suggested shape of the aU have a symbolical meaning and convey some

familiar sentiment in the art

of landscape gardening.

contains a real or suggested waterfall or cas-

it

cade which occupies the most important position in the back-

number one and two. An

ground between

lulls

favored cascade

the one called

refer red to in

is

near the high mountain

In aU forms of Japanese gardens the proper selection and

arrangement of stones is one of the most important principles.

it is

China. According to the principles of garden design, a tree should be placed so that

its

may

branches

hide the outlet of

famous scene

is

four rivers

A

issue.

must be of proper

they will appear to have been placed there by nature. There

of the Himalayas, renowned in

are certain superstitions attached to the particular arrangements

cascade and

its

favorite classical

its

model

lake

it

from which

for garden lakes,

mon-

taken from a famous Chinese lake which the Japa-

and forms of stones;

omen. Certain

stones having propitious qualities consecrate

complete arrangement.

Moon

custom of

From very

priests to attach

some

early times religious

Bridge. According to the theory of landscape design, the

principal stones in the gardens of temples

Japanese skillfully arrange the composition of a garden to

giving

compensate for the limited area of the lake by hiding and

names of Buddhist

planning the conception of a large lake

entirety

its

space

by

from any one

partial deletion

is

point. This suggestion of limitless

type of stone, or to

of contour

lines,

which

is

an im-

and monasteries, by

applied to the vast

numbers of garden

of great length and of considerable complexity.

Some names merely

it is

has been the

divinities.

The nomenclature stones

it

meaning to the

to certain holy functions or

them names according

never completely visible

suggested to the imagination, as in

is

as

the garden and are considered of the utmost importance to a

by an

intercepting parts of the contour with plants and shrubbery.

some forms

tradition has sanctioned

being of good omen, and others are condemned as of evil

arched stone bridge of Chinese design called the Full

this careful

and

sharp observation are necessary to arrange garden stones so

to give

nese call Seiko. Such lakes are frequently spanned

By

trees

and proportion to

size

often said to impart a suggestion of

it

a scenic

often represented in the lotus ponds of temples and asteries, is

harmonious composition with the

conform with the scale of the garden. Great care and unusually

at the foot

Buddhist teachings for

constitute a

shrubs, the stones

an

appearance of depth and remoteness. Such tion in temple gardens

To

composi-

the cascade, and heavy foUage should surround

a

GARDEN STONES AND TREES

often

;

in the province of Chiang-so in southern

Chinese poetry,

Riumon,

called

especially

Rozan by the Japanese

apply to the place of origin of a specific its

geological nature, while other

names

refer to the position or function of stones in a garden, such as

equally important in

"wayside" stone or "torrent-breaking" stone, and even in

the art of landscape gardens. Varieties of islands are often

domestic gardens some stones bear the names of Buddhist

introduced into the water scenery, bearing descriptive names

deities.

according to their form and character however,

their

portant principle in Japanese painting,

is

;

strictly

con-

sidered there are only four important ones in the rules for gardens.

The fu:st is known as horaijima, or island of the blessed,

and since

it is

supposed to be an island in the

sea, it is

placed in

The names reserved for certain stones depending upon

purpose or position have not only been most interesting

but also most helpful to a better understanding and appreciation of this beautiful

the stones seen

on

and ancient

hills

are the

art

of the Japanese.

Among

"mountain-summit"

stone,

it

"mist-enveloping" stone and "propitious-cloud" stone, while

symbolizes a tortoise, with the stones representing the head,

those of a cascade include Fudo, the Buddhist divinity to

the center of the lake.

legs,

and

tail.

horaijima,

gevity. isle,

The

placing of the six rocks around

Usually a pine tree

is

placed in the center of the

both the pine and tortoise being symbolic of lon-

The second

island is called fukiagejima, or

and, being a sea island like the

vdth a bridge. The two other

first, it is

wind-swept

not comiected

islands are called shujinto, or

The master's isle' is placed in the foreground, often with a small summer house or shelter on it, and approached by a bridge. The guest's isle master's

is

isle,

and

kiakujinto, or guest's isle.

placed in the background of the landscape and approached

by bridges and stepping

stones.

Many

motifs of Japanese

whom

cascades are especially dedicated,

represented

by

a vertical stone.

Then

and

who

is

always

there are often eight

smaller stones called "children's" stones that surround

and represent the children

who

Fudo

are his attendants. Also in the

category of cascade stones are the "water-dividing" stone, "cascade-basin" stone, and "water-receiving" stone. Others

used to adorn the water scenery are the "falling-water" stone,

which

is

a spray,

at the base

of the cascade and breaks the torrent into

and the "water-tray"

and placed in

a lake so that

stone,

its

which

surface

is

is

large

slightly

and

flat

above the

167


water level but slightly covered the bank of the lake there

form

sleeping

is

when

a pair

Upon

to produce a

form of unusual beauty,

of stones that suggests in

finest natural

examples in Japan.

the water

rises.

male and female mandarin ducks, which ac-

cording to the Chinese

classics

represent conjugal fidehty.

On

as seen in many of the Many of the favorite surgical

methods practiced on the native pine produce the peculiar shapes often portrayed in Japanese scroU-paintings, such as the

the master's island there are the stone of easy rest and the

irregularly shaped branches with their clumps

stone of amusement, while

thecoma of discs or

whose names

stones

on the

guest's island are three

of hospitahty,

refer to the functions

zontal

bamboo

balls.

The

poles so that they

"guest-honoring" stone, "shoe-removing" stone, and "obei-

of lines and ridges

sance" stone. Certain ideas derived from ancient axioms were

practiced

apphed to the composition of landscape gardens, for accord-

many of the gar'dens

ing to the early philosophy of Japan, inanimate things of the

of mountain scenery

Zen

in

on hori-

into an arrangement

is

carried to perfection in so

monasteries.

often achieved

especially those

the natural physical features of the world are created

spherical forms to be placed in

a

grow

another favorite method that has been

is

from ancient times and

universe possess male or female attributes, and the beauties of

by

of needles in

training of branches

The

representation

by pruning low shrubs,

of the juniper variety, into rounded or hemi-

clumps on the

sides

of hiUs. In

blending of the sexual essences. Trees and stones were en-

dry or waterless gardens the branches are trained to resemble

dowed with imaginary

weeping

aesthetic

forms

stately

sex,

determined by their relative

value in a garden composition, with the strong and classified as

male and others

stones have been properly placed.

of the

trees, shrubs,

and

varieties

The

all

number of

when

trees are

this

arrangement

the imagination of the observer to interpret

suitable

is

grouped together,

When

completed.

a

different species are

usually selected to contrast one with another, with

form and

contour receiving special attention. The garden designer

is

always careful to place trees and shrubs in characteristic places to

conform with their natural habits of growth

tain plant or tree

is

not planted in a valley,

plum

again, with the exception of the

mounor vice versa. Then ;

thus, a

which blooms

tree,

early in the year, trees that shed their leaves are not placed in

the foreground.

The

art

developed in Japan, and

of pruning it is

done

trees

in a

and shrubs

mamier

of the fundamental

of nature's forms and have apphed art

The

group

higlily

Japanese

characteristics

this natural instinct to their

of horticulture. The matsu, or native pine,

rugged

is

consistent with

the character of the particular trees thus treated. possess a remarkable sense

is

a tree of

irregularity, but the Japanese gardener will skillfully

its

needle foliage into clumps having a

flat

and some-

what rounded form. Since the clumps of needles on the Japanese pine are inclined to become large and full, the gardener will often pluck the needles

by hand, leaving only about

dozen or so in each clump. Such pine trees,

trees or

fmished composition, which

art

of grasses must be carefully

arrangement

with sand on the

the principal

considered because the garden stones can serve their proper

purpose only

a waterfall,

given by the Japanese to form and line in their horticultural

as female.

Trees and shrubs are planted only after

which suggests

trees,

ground to represent a lake or stream. The immense importance

a

branches of pine

having so few needles, arc often depicted in Japanese

paintings and also used as motifs in the decorative

is

essential to the

understand the

upon

beauty. Japanese gardens are so arranged that

its

changmg

seasons

artistic quality.

may

Nature

contribute in rotation to their

in her

changing moods, gay, colorful,

placid, solitary, friendly, or tempestuous, arouses in the soul

certain sentiments

By

character.

and

feelings according to one's culture

a strict obedience to the laws

garden designer

is

spot, such as

Kyoto, which

is

within

its

of some

Arashiyama on the Oi River near

believed to contain

all

the beauties of nature

whose depiction

limited area, and

conveyed by the cherry

and

of nature the

able to produce an impression

famous scenic

trees

in the garden

is

and maples planted on mountain

hiUs.

According to the

rules

of Japanese gardening, there are

certain positions that are considered best for the planting

of

The mouth of a cascade is one of these choice positions, for here the tree would produce an effect of gloom and remoteness. Other trees should be planted by wells and watertrees.

basins to provide shade,

and

a lake so as to cast their

shadows on the water.

others should be placed near

still

Many names

applied to the trees in a garden indicate their importance and function.

The

"principal" tree

position.

Second to

this is the

the tree of "setting sun,"

a large pine or oak tree of

is

beautiful proportions that should

which

occupy the most prominent

"view-perfecting" is

tree,

then

often a maple that reddens

in the autumn, placed so that the rays of the setting sun pass

arts.

The formal pruning, trinmiing, and other treatments practiced on trees exaggerate some of the natural characteristic

through

forms, but at the same time keep the form in the closest

outlines partially behind the intermediate

harmony with nature.

of bended form

In the nursery, the garden pine receives

an extensive and thorough surgical treatment by having

relies

meaning and

its

it.

There

is

the tree of "solitude" to suggest a feeling

of meditation, and the "distancing pine" placed with indistinct

is

hills.

A

often placed at the edge of a lake

pine tree ;

its

long

its

branches are trained to stretch out over the water and fre-

branches bent or broken, then bound with cords and splints

quently supported upon props protruding from the lake.

168


View of the Samboin monastery garden from the adjohiiiig huildings.

Momoyama

period (1573-

1615).

Ever-changmg

rich color effects are acquired

flowering trees and shrubs as well that are so

from

the

many

of brilliant foliage

as those

abundant in Japan: the cherry, plum, peach,

wisteria, camellia, azalea,

and

a variety

of others, in successive

order from the early spring to autuinn.

of lotus plants placed

in lakes

and

iris

With

planted

the exception

at

the edge of a

stream, flowering plants are seldom if ever used.

However,

flowering shrubs and grasses are important to the composition

of a garden, for

their colors enliance the

view during the

autumn. Flower beds are considered to be effeminate in

removed before entering

Although

the house.

stones are used in their natural shapes

a variety

of

and arranged in an

irregular formation in a curving line, cut stones of rectangular

form and others which are also used.

The name

are

hewn

but retain natural contours or flying stones

tohi-ishi,

plied to these pathways, since their formation to resemble a flight

is

often ap-

supposed

of birds, and some arrangements are

sea-guU style and wild-goose

of hewn stone

is is

style.

A

called

long rectangular

occasionally placed in front

strip

of the veranda,

taste

or irregular pieces of hevwi stone in various sizes are formed

and are placed in another part of the grounds independent of

into a long oblong strip. Sometimes the spaces separating

the garden, usually in a

flat

area near the ladies' apartments.

Since the level portions of Japanese gardens are generally

many

covered with sand or gravel, or in

hard surface of earth, a pathway ishi,

is

made oÂŁ tsutai-

or stepping stones. These stones serve to protect the

wet weather, and they

also

LANTERNS AND OTHER ORNAMENTS

when strolling

form an important

feature

of

Another important feature in Japanese gardens

the garden. There are certain rules applying to the arrange-

lantern, which, aside

ment of stepping

of elegance. The stone lantern

stones to give variety to the composition as

well as convenience in walking.

A stone of much broader and

higher proportions than the others

is

with mortar, or frequently

laid in mortar.

cases a well-swept

frequently

sanded or bare-earth areas and provide comfort in

these irregular stones are fdled

with large pebbles

placed in front of the

once used

from

its

is

courtyards and along

the approaches of Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines. is

space between this stone and the veranda must be allowed so

Momoyama period for ornamenting their roji,

may

be hidden frona view

when

the stone

of Japanese origin and was

as a dedication object in the

house to serve as a convenient step from the veranda. Sufficient

that the clogs or sandals

is

utihtarian purpose, adds a touch

said

The

its

furst

use

was

secular,

by

It

tea masters during the

usual material used for lanterns

is

or tea gardens.

granite or syenite.

169


The

stroll

the paths

garden of the Katsura Detached Palace at Kyoto, attributed

and stepping stones connecting

There are a number of different types or terns,

and they take

their places

The

size

Edo

the teahouses.

styles

of origin, or the individuals

and proportion of

who

lanterns, or toro,

shrines,

designed them. is

A great number of stone

Kohori Enshu.

Of the

of stone lan-

names from temples or

their

to

lanterns arc used to light

period, early seventeenth century.

of great im-

portance and must conform to the general character of the

is

great variety of lanterns, one of the

the kasuga,

which has

most frequent

a long cylindrical standard with a

hexagonal lamp chamber and base, and a rounded hexagonal roof tilted

at the eaves

and surmounted by a flame-shaped fmial.

Two faces of the hexagonal lamp chamber are open to receive

garden. According to the general rules of gardening, a lantern

the oil lamp, while the stone surfaces of the remaining four

should be placed near a lake or

sides are

way

that

its

light

may

be reflected in the water. The usual

height of a stone lantern

were

since lanterns

some

are

from one

boat landing, in such a

at a

is

from

five to six feet

;

however,

originally used for practical purposes,

to three feet in height

such places as a footpath.

A

when

used to light

lantern should always be har-

carved with a buck, a doe, the sun, and the

respectively.

the kasuga, but each bears a different name.

probably originated

from

Kasuga shrine

at

Nara, which

of stone lanterns within

placing of stones, shrubs, or trees near

approach to the main

The calm and

appearance wliich the light produces comes from an

serene

oil

lamp

its

is

slirine are

lanterns of various shapes

which

again

special

emphasis

is

placed

on

this,

various

methods are used to produce an aged appearance, such

making white 170

lichen or green

moss grow on them.

as

buck

a night in the

sides

of the

three thousand stone

are lighted twice each year,

not only admired for their beauty of form but also for their

on

Along both

some

once on the night of the Setsubun

and since

kasuga

famous for the great number

precincts.

placed in the light chamber of the lantern. Stone lanterns are

age,

The name

the carved representation of a

and a doe, deer being the divine messenger of the Shinto

moniously blended into the garden composition by a proper it.

moon

There are four other lanterns of similar shape to

festival in

middle of August.

lanterns are lighted along with the great

February, and

When

these stone

numbers of hanging

metal lanterns around the shrine buildings, they present a cinating spectacle like

some

fairyland scene.

fas-


Among

the most charming lanterns are the type called

yukinii-doro, or

snow-scene lanterns, because of their pictur-

when snow

esque aspect

to three feet in height

falling.

is

and

Yukimi average from two

of a round, square, or hex-

consist

agonal lamp chamber supported directly on six

curved

surmounted by a

legs,

four, or

tliree,

roof of extremely

circular

broad proportions, somewhat resembling a coolie

hat. Since

the broad surface of the roof is particularly designed to receive

the snow, these lanterns produce a most picturesque effect when the garden

many

clad with a placid mantle

is

other types of lanterns

whose lamp chamber

tern,

of snow.

Among

the

the rankei-gata, or valley lan-

is

on

rests

either

one or two long

curving supports placed on the edge of a lake, and the miyagata,

on

or shrine-shaped lantern, having a square lamp chamber

a square-shaped standard,

and surmounted with

a

roof

This

is

then covered with about six inches of earth and gravel,

while the edges or sides of the bridge are planted with a

strip

of turf secured with bamboo and bound with cord, to hold

An

the earth in place. yatsuhashi,

They

is

consist

old form of

wooden bridge, called swampy beds of iris.

frequently seen across the

of long, wide planks placed one

in a zigzag arrangement

after the other

and supported on wooden poles fixed

mud. When the crossing of a lake or stream is planned by using a combination of bridge and stepping stones, an in the

interesting type

bridge,

is

of bridge

called the nozoki-bashi, or

peeping

frequently used. This consists of a gentle half-curve

constructed so that the outer end, which

higher than the

is

shore end, terminates at a point just beyond the rise of the curve, with stepping stones, high above the surface of the

from

water, continuing

this

point onward.

resembling that of a temple. Wooden lanterns are principally used near resting shelters and summerhouses on a garden path.

They are of rustic form and have paper doors which

made

either

is

wooden

and

post,

a

Bronze hanging lanterns are

A variety of styles of walls, fences, and hedges comprise the enclosures of Japanese gardens. Although walls are generally

rushes.

or teahouse, and frequently over the garden water basin.

Another favorite garden ornament

which in

is

the stone pagoda,

usually consists of three or five stories

form

to the

and

is

similar

wooden pagodas attached to Buddhist temples.

Stone pagodas are often supported upon splayed legs, and with

of intricate

their lack

A

detail are elegant

and

form.

classic in

much to the picturesque appearespecially when placed in a secluded posi-

stone pagoda contributes

ance of the garden, tion

on the

side

many

WALLS AND HEDGES

roof

from the eaves of the veranda of a house

of wood or

frequently suspended

lamp chamber with

a square

supported on a

of a mountain.

Of particular importance also

the means

by which the entire property is

serve as the boundaries of gardens.

surrounding the older properties structed of clay in a

orate

wooden

is

enclosed, they often

typical Japanese wall

of great thickness, con-

framework of heavy timber, with an

elab-

bracketed cornice surmounted with a slanting

roof of ornamental walls,

The

tiles.

To

enhance the grandeur of these

huge roofed gateways of striking design are provided

for the entrances.

Many of these walls and gateways are extant

in the city of Kyoto,

among

the

most

beautiful

of which are

kinds of garden bridges used for reaching the

those around the Imperial palace and around the Nishi Honganj i

islands in the lake or for spaiming streams. Constructed either

and Higashi Honganji temples. The enclosures of gardens

of stone, or wood, or earth and

proper usually consist offences, not only for the whole of the

are the

logs, they

comprise a variety

of styles ranging from the most elaborate to simple and

rustic

garden, but also in short lengths to be used as screens to divide

ones. In important gardens, arched bridges

of cut stone are

a part of the garden, or to hide something considered unsightly.

often used, while other bridges are simply

made of

When

slab

a long

of rough stone. Some of the more elaborate stone bridges

consist

of several spans and are adorned with beautifully carved

Of complex

rail-posts.

built in a horizontal tural railing

and

construction are the

mamier with

posts,

wooden

bridges

a typical Japanese architec-

with each end supported by an ar-

a fence

is

Garden fences have been considered mental pieces ever since they were ing the Kainakura period. are unique

the other, resembling a great bracket. Called rankan-bashi, or

materials, such as

bracket bridges, they are most picturesque and typical through-

rushes, reeds,

bridge

is

A

more simple but charming form of wooden

constructed with planks laid crosswise

on arched

beams, which are in turn given intermediate support by a trestle-like part fixed in the

bed of the stream. Then there are

it

often consists of

space between, and overlapping at the point

rangement of superimposed beams protruding one row above

out Japan.

erected as a screen

two

portions built parallel to each other with a four- or six-foot

and most

first

The many

where they meet.

to be important orna-

used extensively dur-

kinds of Japanese fences

interesting, beiiig

made

bamboo, wooden boards,

in a variety

plaited

of

bamboo,

and twigs. All these materials are used not only

alone but in a great variety of combinations and designs, for fences

and

also for

gateways and

gates,

with

a never-ending

diversity of design, contributing a great deal of interest to the

picturesque architectural arrangement of the house and

made of bamboo

the interesting do-bashi, or earth bridges, consisting of bundles

garden.

of fagots or small logs laid crosswise on a framework of timber.

combination of bamboo and rushes and reeds.

Most of

the fence gates are

its

or a

Some very in171


as to be conveniently reached with a ladle. Water made in a variety of materials including stone, wood,

veranda so basins are

and pottery, and

their

forms depend principally upon the

taste

of the individual. All these important accessories of a Japanese garden, with tkeir historical aesthetic

and romantic comiections, contribute to the

value ofthe perfected composition in which the rocks,

the trees, and even the waterfalls appear to be

imaginary

as

The Japanese landscape garden tation

of natural scenes;

tural refuicment,

Japanese.

Earthen wail and entrance Palace at Kyoto.

Edo

to

a garden in the Katsura Detached

period, early seventeenth century.

it

used as screens.

They are called sode-gaki, a single unit

a

mere represen-

by no means disregarded

in the

arrangement

of a garden, namely the absence of synmietry and the lack

these materials,

and

more than

and the character and temperament of the

of compactness, which render

made from

is

expresses the pliilosophy, the cul-

Domestic architecture in Japan has two important

features that are

design. tercstiiig fences are also

endowed with

well as real symbols expressive of moral virtues.

and arc

literally sleeve fences,

It is

it

consistent with

important that a harmonious

freedom of

relationsliip

be pre-

served between the garden and the adjacent buildings, and that the principal

rooms be provided with

a desirable view.

of gate-like form supposedly in-

There is no discernible division or variance ofcharacter between

tended to conceal some object in the garden, but actually

the grounds of the property and the surrounding landscape.

chiefly ornamental in purpose. Usually about three or four

Artistic taste

feet

consist

of

wide, and from five to seven

cipally at the side

feet high,

they are used prin-

of the water basin, or arranged near the

veranda. Their designs and forms are endless, and often appear in irregular

and unusual shapes, with each having

characteristics

and being known by

basins found in

all

a certain

its

particular

name. The water

Japanese gardens arc provided for the pur-

pose of rinsing the hands, and are therefore placed near the

172

is

distinctly manifest in the

manner of scattering

throughout the composition such architectural objects lanterns, pagodas, bridges,

as

stone

and rustic resting houses, for though

placed with great care and design, they are disposed so as to

appear

as natural as the

landscape

of the landscape garden, with an

essential part

its

itself.

The

symboUcal

natural beauty qualities,

forms

of true Japanese architecture and portrays the

sentimental appreciation of nature inherent in the Japanese.


XIII Floral Art

HE ART of arranging flowers known as Ike_JL- bana or Living Flowers is an aesthetic achievement pecuUar to the Japanese. The appreciation of beauty in nature

fmd

universal but the symbolic beauty the Japanese

is

in nature

to their

own

is

unique. This concept of symbolism, applied

plant material and spiritual requirements,

essence of Japanese floral art.

natural

By retaining

growth of flowers and of the landscape

belong, the Japanese have found a

man

that enables

to elevate his aesthetic rules

from

a

a suggestion

to

is

flowers

and

to grasp nature in her lovehest aspect

mind

to spiritual beauty

on which the

floral art

of Japan

profound knowledge of plant

and constant observation of nature

and perfection. The based derive

acquired by close

life

The

itself.

is

masters of the

flowers as

it

developed in Japan

The

earliest

and developed through the centuries bypriests, poets, and philosophers, of

all

still

the Japanese,

exercises a strong influence

and

at the present

aesthetes,

on the

lives

time there are more

than three hundred different schools of flower arrangement.

The main as

principles are essentially the

they derive to a greater or

school.

The

less

differences are slight

same in

extent

all

schools,

from the Ikenobo

and of little importance.

understanding of these fundamental principles

is

an appreciation of the symbolism and beauty of the art evolved in the hands of

An

necessary for

this cultivated people. It is

as

it

indeed a

well-known fact that a Japanese flower arrangement following these classical rules surpasses in beauty

and in depth of meaning

any other knowTi arrangement or method of grouping.

a

member of the

of

this school.

Imperial court,

is

conflicting records concerning the

to Buddhist teachings.

It

it is

always attributed

seems that it was received from China

who was

regent to the great E:npress-Regnant Suiko, was a fervent

made

Buddhist, under whose leadership Japanese civilization notable progress.

Ono-no-Imoko was

to the Chinese court representing

China

in

of

all

the

first official

of Japan.

He

envoy visited

607 and again in 608, accompanied by a number of

by Prince Shotoku died

in 621,

devote the remainder of his his patron's soul.

He

to study abroad.

When

Ono-no-Imoko decided

life

to

to prayer for the repose

spent his days in meditation at a

hermitage with a lovely garden and lake which Shotoku Taishi had planned

the

main

hall

from Chinese models,

situated

behind

of the Rokkakudo or six-sided temple

at

Kyoto, founded by Shotoku in 587. Here, according to tradition,

to

Ono-no-Imoko conceived

Buddha should

the idea that floral offerings

express or symbolize the part that the love

of flowers plays in harmonizing lifetime his

man and

method of arranging

Within

his

flowers was followed

by

nature.

other priests, and such arrangements were called "in the style

of the floral offerings in the hermitage by the lake," or Ikenobo. This school,

still

bearing the same name, continues to be the

the founder. Followers

spot

Although there are many

founder

as the

His patron, Prince Shotoku Taishi,

the nominal head of the school

origin of the art of arranging flowers,

Ono-no-Imoko,

regarded

most popular school of flower arrangement

BUDDHIST ORIGINS AND IKENOBO

is

school of flower arrangement in Japan has an

Prince Shotoku

cherished

without prototype and

is

authentic age of thirteen hundred years.

scholars chosen

art,

into Japan around the middle

a purely Japanese cultural achievement.

men of deep

This beautiful

Buddhism

of the sixth century. However, the practice of arranging

Ikenobo school who originally formulated these precepts were aesthetic sensibility.

many of the other forms of art associated with

the introduction of

the

of the

which they

way of arranging

together with so

where the

seeds

still

were

live

first

in Japan.

By

1935

was the forty-third in line from and practice the

art

on

the

planted thirteen hundred years

ago. Although the art has been modified and refmed cessive masters, the underlying principles

by

suc-

have remained the

same. Each arrangement must express the nature of the plant

173


and branches of flowerless

trees

and

In fact, the

plants.

branches of certain evergreens and other flowerless trees and

and bamboo,

plants, such as the pine, maple,

among

highest rank as

are given the

itself is

only one detail of the composition, possessing

Talue if it its

Thus the blossom

hana.

is

from those lines of growth which give

separated

tree

it

of the trunk of the

character. For example, the roughness

plum

regarded

little artistic

to the Japanese inseparably comiected with any

is

beauty which the blossoms themselves possess.

arrangement in Japan

is

A

floral

a sincere attempt to bring a small part

of nature into the house, an expression of nature's grandeur

and power. One of the

earliest

These

called shin-no-hana.

forms of arranging flowers was

floral

compositions, which were

of an extravagant character, were arranged formally around a stiff and vertical central or slwi branch

form of a Western bouquet.

It

and were more in the

seems that even these

earliest

arrangements were triangular in general outline and comprised three

main branches,

as in

arrangements of today.

THE RIKKA STYLE Floral compositions,

of Buddhism, were

employed

Later they were also

Imperial court.

which developed under the influence

at first restricted to religious purposes. as secular

decorations at the

A very ornate and complicated style of formal

composition consisting of pine and other evergreens together

with colored blossoms deriving from shin-no-hana was soon developed and

name of Rikka

survives luider the

still

or

Rikkwa, meaning Standing or Erect Flowers. The first knovra treatise

giving dcfmitc rules and nomenclature to the different

members of a Rikka composition was written by Ikenobo

twelfth master of the Ikenobo teachers,

Rikka flower arrangement and

middle of the eleventh century. Through

diagrammatic drawing showing the main lines.

The

who

Scn-ke, the

died around the

his teachings

many

around them, building up a complex com-

and

position. Ikenobo Floral Art Institute, Kyoto.

the luxurious

in

instances

became an exposition of skill. During

and elegant Heian period (794- 1 185) the making

of these arrangements became a

polite

accomplishment of the

court nobles. Rikka arrangements, which are six or material and the individuality of the arranger, and must bolize

some

rather extended sense.

or blossoms with only so

make an

attractive

used in a

is

more

to complete, are intended to

such

as

employed

to represent different objects in nature,

white chrysanthemums for a small stream and pine

branches for rocks and stones. These handsome, artfuUy-

bouquet, with perhaps additional

Kamakura

arranged Rikka compositions remained in favor until the era at the

The Rikka

retical distribution

flower, refers

not only to the blossom but also to

line or first

branch

end of the twelfth century.

style has a defmite

hana, the closest English equivalent

the stem, as well as to branches of flowering plants and trees

174

terials are

word

the other hand, the

which

and require days

word flower suggests blossoms only much of their stems as is necessary

greenery to display the flowers most effectively. In Japan, on

for

feet in height

symbolize a segment of natural scenery. Various plant mais

To those acquainted only with Western

flower arrangement, the

to

sym-

philosophical thought.

In Japan the expression "flower arrangement"

Rikka

arrangements were brought to a high degree of excellence

accessory branches are arranged

the shin,

is

member of

a

form controlled by

of seven governing

lines.

meaning core or

Rikka composition

The

heart,

a theo-

principal

and

to be fixed.

it is

the

Theo-


retically

should be central and perfectly vertical.

it

The

shin

should possess straightness, height, and lightness. In ancient times the pine was always selected because of acter.

Considerable care

branch to make

its

erect char-

given to the posing of the central

is

appear powerful and vigorous and never

it

The

weak or

unstable.

auxihary

lines contributing principally to the shin

other governing lines are essentially

but neces-

sary to the balance and completeness of the composition. In

order to give body and beauty to the entire composition, additional foliage

and flowers are added

have been placed. In addition to the

after the

lines

seven lines

and masses, the

forms of the spaces and hollows in a composition are of

primary importance. Perhaps the most striking

of a Rikka composition

compared

which the designs

the

characteristic

the bunch-like nature of the design

some of the

as

in

to

is

later schools,

more

possess a

such

austere

open lineal character is pronounced. In the Rikka

lineal character

is

Enshu,

as the

refmement and style the

absent to a great extent, although a sug-

gestion of the governing lines

Rikka arrangement and the

The method employed

is

evident in the outline of a

triangular contour predominates.

in the later formal styles of flower

arrangement can be traced directly to a simplification or modification of the origiiial Rikka

style,

with

all

the super-

fluous branches being omitted.

The abundance of feature

of

a

different materials

Rikka composition

later schools

is

marked

a

of formal arrangements. Rikka arrangements

are divided into shin, gyo,

and

so,

referring to the different

degrees of elaboration or sketchiness. represents the fmished its

which

noticeably reduced in the

is

beauty from

its

and formal

The

floral

which

shin style,

composition, derives

approach to symmetry or regularity in

respect to perfection in balance

and proportion. The

so style

Iketioho is

the opposite to this kind of beauty, and the gyo

is

interis

mediary between the two. These three general position apply not only to the floral

floral art in Japan.

which

ment was trees

of comto

all

arrangements, since they constitute the fundamental

forms of style

styles

Rikka arrangement, but

is

A

special

sometimes referred to

branch of the Rikka

as a

a

arrangement.

was held together by

The

triangular

made up of three main mental composition

composition

lines is the

funda-

of Ikehana. Ikenobo

Floral Art Institute, Kyoto.

a

wooden framework

placed in the

society of

etiquette

made

by the theory of

the seven governing lines.

The

tendency in the sand-bowl arrangement was to emphasize the horizontal, while in the standing vase arrangement the ver-

was emphasized.

Pre-eminent in the

in the

Heian period. The ceremonial code

fortunately, the constant preoccupation with details of court

and water. The composition of these arrangements was

also

Kyoto

of the T'aiig court was adopted and carefully followed. Un-

bottom of the basin and afterward concealed by sand, pebbles,

culture

of the formal Rikka

the decorative use of thick stubs and branches of

bowl. This arrangement, which suggests a garden in miniature,

tical

which

floiver arrangement,

sand-bowl arrange-

and water plants arranged in a broad shallow basin or

controlled

Shoka

simphfication

affairs

it

and

dress,

difficult if

with elaborate

rites

and

aesthetic pastimes,

not impossible to cope with the urgent

of government. Incursions by barbarians,

rivalries

great families, and plots centered around the throne

of

were

only a few of the troubles resulting from the continuously diminishing powers of the sovereigns. Gradually the admin-

liistory

of

aesthetics is the

spread of

and refinement emanating from the elegant court

istrative

power came

into the hands of the military clans,

culminating with the estabhshment of the supreme power in

175


Ikenobo Nageire flower arrangement and three principal lines. Ikenobo Floral

Kamakura

the hands of the Miiiamoto clan at

meditative

Zen

of Buddhism in Japan, had

its

because the self-discipline of suitable to the ethical

strong adherents

beginnings in

Zen Buddhism

code of the military

certain aesthetic sensibility,

with a sense of beauty

among

and

makes

this

vi^as

especially

class, this sect

found

it

life is

associated with a

paradox that the

ethical

its

and

a floral

arrangement was regarded

of the unity of

all life.

So

is

it

no

code of the warrior, described in more

translated as the

word

who

ZEN INFLUENCE AND THE DIFFERENT SCHOOLS

room,

and almost

a floral

The

ideas

176

Under

tea masters.

of naturalism and simpUcity, frugality and

found in Zen teachings were mirrored in the

later

was

art

chiefly

that. the

the influence of the

rustic simplicity that

governed the tea-

composition often took the form of a simple its

of

leaves or a spray

flowering shrub. But this affected simplicity did not permit the practice of elaboration in flower

sufficient scope for

arrangement, and other forms of arrangement were developed appropriate to the large

upon It is

in

1

rooms of the

aristocracy but based

which had thus been inaugurated.

principles

popularly accepted that the Ginkakuji or Silver Pavilion

Kyoto

built

by the famous Shogun Yoshimasa

(Facing)

more modern

Two-panel

depicting birds in

a

detail

0,

to

in 1479

floral art in Japan.

is

Ad-

a pair of six-panel screens

landscape with

Painting on paper. Attributed

restraint

It

inaugurated these modifications were to

famous

the birthplace of the

of the mind.

ceremony.

modification in floral art took place, and the principal

floral designers

Way of the Warrior, includes in

creed the practice of flower arrangement as a means for

composure

first

arrangement of a single flower and

recent times as bushido, a term analogous to the English chivalry

tea

with the object of adaptation to the tea ceremony

frugality

class.

as a natural expression

is

the

refuiement

Kyoto.

The more modern development of floral

inseparably connected with the

how

Because of the great emphasis placed by Zen on the afifmity

of man's soul with nature,

simplified form.

a great extent

aesthetic

drawing showing the

terms and theories similar to those of the Rikka style but in a

life

easy to understand

line

Institute,

of flower arrangement, which adopted to some extent

styles

combination of moral

of flower arrangement became an the mihtary

and

this age,

the powerful leaders at Kamakura.

among

According to Zen teachings moral

practice

The

in 1185.

probably the most notable development

sect,

Art

willow

trees,

Eitoku Kano. Late

peonies,

etc.

Momoyama

period. Courtesy, Smithsonian Institution, Freer Gallery of Art,

Washington,

D.C.


2

Hohiisiii. Brciikiii\i

school.

Edo

IWwcs. Painting;

Smithsonian Institution, Freer Gallery lVashin<^ton,

iihiyo-c

period, nineteenth century. Courtesy,

D.C.

0}

Art,


3

Set of four

fiisiiina;

^old-leaf ground on paper.

calendar, ivith camellias which bloom while snoii>

finger pulls,

4

with cherry blossom motif.

Sotatsu, Nonuira.

Institution,

Kano

Siiow-covcrcd willow still

school,

covers the ground.

Edo

tree depicting, the

period, second half of the seventeenth

Si.x-panel screen depicting waves at Alatsushima. Painting on paper.

Freer Gallery of Art,

Washington,

D.C.

heginiiing of spring, according to

Black lacquer frames and circular bronze hikitc, century.

Momoyama

Author's

the

old

or inset

collection.

period. Courtesy, Smithsonian


5

(Left) Hokusai. Portrait

school.

Edo

of a courtesan

Freer Gallery of Art. Washington.

6

(Below) Korinsai.

Painting;

walkiiifi.

Painting; nkiyo-c

period, nineteenth century. Conrtesy, Smithsonian Institution,

nhiyo-e

Smithsonian

D.C.

Winter: a young

school.

Iiistitntion,

Edo

Freer

woman walking

period,

Gallery

c.

of

1760-1780. Art,

in the

snow.

Courtesy,

Washington,

D.C.


L

7

(Rif^hr)

Two-panel

screen;

<iold-lca} <iround

on paper with design of peonies blooming among golden

clouds.

Kano

school,

Edo

period,

early

eighteenth century. Author's collection.

8

(Below) Utamaro. Moonlight Revelry

Dozo Edo

at the

Sagami. Detail of painting; ukiyo-e school.

period, eigliteetith century. Courtesy, Smith-

sonian

Institution,

Washington,

Freer

Gallery

of

Art,

D.C.

I

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

_^/-_â&#x201E;˘y%i:_,..v;,<i>:-


n

^

fX h


9

The

Utaiimro.

(Left)

Niwaka

courtesan carrying a wheat pestle

fan peddlers taking part

Wood-block

print,

in

a

Perjoriiiers.

Niwaka

mica ground.

10

Nijo Castle

at

Utamaro

Signed

(Below) Ceremonial Reception Hall the

New

of the

the

Ninomaru Palace

Kyoto. Paintings on the wall panels and

1602-1674. and

seveuteeuth

Association.

Early

ga.

York.

on the coffered ceiling on a gold-leaf ground attributed

Tan-yu,

a

celebration in the YosJiiwara.

1790' s. Collection Charles A. Greenfield,

in

Depicting

and two geisha masquerading as

century.

his

school.

Courtesy,

Edo Japan

to

Kauo

period, first half

National

of

Tourist


Facing

11

and 12: (Above) Ko-Kiitani plate

with quail on a rock and peonies. Edo period,

probably fourth quarter of the seventeenth century. Courtesy, Seattle Art Museum. (Below) Nabeshinia dish

with cocksconib design; made at the Ohochi

kiln

of Lord Nabeshinia of Saga province. Edo

period, eighteenth century. Courtesy,

Seattle

Art

Museum.

14

(Above) Imari plate decorated with peony

basket

and

Edo period,

floral

motif

Freer Gallery oj Art.

13

(Left)

in

Kakiemon

Washington.

D.C.

jar decorated

medallions and arabesques

Edo

over-glaze enamels.

700. Courtesy, Smithsonian Institution,

1

in

with floral

over-glaze enamels.

period, seventeenth century. Courtesy,

sonian

Institution,

Washington,

D.C.

Freer

Gallery

Smith-

of

Art,


Lid grass

oj in

Suzuri-hako depicting a rabbit gold lacquer on a brown

in

lacquer

ground. century.

New

Unsigned. Collection

Momoyama Charles

period,

A.

uxteenth

Greenfield

York.

1

/

(Below) Lid of lacquer Suzuri-bako. Natural

wood edged depictuig

pewter, seal

in

quail

and twisted

black lacquer in

pottery,

leaves

and gold

in

(Facmg) Lid o/roiro lacquer Suzuri-bako

woman

with girl attendant

writing

iiaracters

which mean "perseverance in hue" roofed wall by efixting liquid black

tooth-

irom her mouth. Signed Kinyosai, Shotoku 71 S,

Edo period.

New

York.

Collection Charles

A. Green-

ivith

with

pottery,

lacquer.

Hanzan. Edo

period,

Collectwn Charles A.

â&#x20AC;˘ctmg a

'

16 tall

gold designsmillet,

stalks

mother-of-pearl

Signed with pottery eighteenth

Greenfield,

century.

New

York


19

Inro.

(Left)

Edo

period.

Left:

roiro lacquer inro

of two cases with porcelain owl perched on gold lacquer branch with hanging rattle-hoard, and mother-of-pearl tree

stump; signed Ritsuo and green seal Kwan, early eighteenth

Wood and

century.

young on a

ivory

netsuke

oud with

of

stump; signed Ikkyu, eighteenth century.

tree

Umimatsu wood ojimc

of

cicada

on

a

tree

stump;

signed Rensai, nineteenth century. Right: four-case inro

of hirame-iiashi-ji their

fi.xing

seventeenth

playing century. field,

?0 II

(Rii'lit)

caparison

litsuo

and

letsuke

in

Sumo in

seal

player's

lacquer

iiiro.

'8

(ground decorated with elephant

ivory,

and other

inlays.

Kiran. Edo period, early eighteenth century.

red lacquer

A. Greenfield,

New

in

\nd green pottery seal, Ritsuo

inro

sumo players who wore them. Collection York.

(Facing) Lid of lacquer Tebako. Natural unpolished kiri

even ''hanging objects"

'2ollection

Signed

Oni mask

and carved wood dragon ojimc. These huge

onipleniented the size oj the Zharles

Roiro

with pottery,

bas-relief.

wood with

Signed, with gold lacquer signature

Ukanshi. Edo period, early eighteenth century.

Charles A. Greenfield,

New

York.

hair.

century.

with

a

lacquer

depicting

three

Signed Koami Nagataka,

Carved ivory netsuke

mask;

signed

children

kakihan,

of children

Tomonohu, eighteenth

Carved coral ojimc. Collection Charles A.Green-

New

York.


(Below) Netsuke. Edo period.

23

Carved wood and ivory netsuke of Oinia Darunia; signed Minho and eighteenth century. Collection

seal,

Charles A. Greenfield,

21

(Above) Carved ivory

Edo

period.

Upper

left:

yakko

or

signed.

Lower

York.

iictsuhv.

iiiaii

Upper

a shovel; imsi^ued.

New

with

ri^ht:

samurai's servant;

a

un-

Oishi, seventh

left:

act ofClnishiiigtira; signed Rantci,

early

nineteenth

right:

a

o-kyu

or

Lower

century.

rakan using

the

burning

nioxa treatment; signed

Shuzan, eighteenth century. lection

New

Charles

A.

Col-

Greenfield,

York.

24 left:

Carved wood netsuke. Edo period. Upper kuzunoha and abe no seimai or Fox-Mother;

(Facing)

signed Kakuho.

Upper

right:

laughing hoy holding a fan

with tortoise-shell, mother-of-pearl, and jade inlay; signed Hojitsu, nineteenth century. Center:

22

(Right) Netsuke. Edo period.

Carved and

colored

wood

netsuke

with his

Lower

paw; signed Masakatsu,

left:

frog

on

a

pumpkin stem;

nineteenth

of a sennin carrying a smiling child

Sukenaga,

on his hack; by Yoshiimira Slnizan,

sennin and the toad; signed

eighteenth century.

century.

early

Collection

rat

Charles

cleanhig

his face

early nineteenth century.

century.

signed

Lower

Matsuda

right:

gama

Toyomasa, early nineteenth

A.

Greenfield,

New

York.


^r

r


Ikenobo Moribaiia flower arrangement and

Yoshimasa

jacent to the Silver Pavilion, hall

containing a small

classic is

room

tearoom of four and

was the

the Ginkakuji

tearoom in Japan.

man of

ceremony and the

arrangement were greatly stimulated.

Among

of flower

the attendants

was Soami, 1472-1523, who, together with

397- 1476, was an important figure in the history of Japanese

aesthetics.

Noami,

a

monk who was

of Yoshimasa,

a favorite

main

Institute,

Kyoto.

carried

line

drawing

on by Geiami and Soami.

Soami. There

is

It is

generally believed that

also a

As

a result

of the impetus given to culture by Yoshimasa,

different schools

But the

of flower arrangement came into existence.

between these schools

differences

nomenclature applied to the branches or

may be

a five-lined arrangement

lie

great

and

liis

standards

were

of the nomenclature

is

art.

A

to impart an appearance

considerable

ophy, together with

art

good and

many to

waterwheels and waterfalls

and painting 1661-1673. Collection

Kosode of

Kambun from

the

Kambun

on

satin

in

block printing, tying

damask. Life

Edo

All

of

and dyeing,

Kambun

period,

Magazine.

design

era,

rights

reserved.

Mr. and Mrs. Shizuo Nomura, Kyoto.

(Below)

Courtesy,

satin

Ise era,

Monogatari,

a

tenth-century

over flowing water tale.

Edo

period,

1661-1673. Courtesy, Life Magazine. All

reserved. Collection

much

rights

Mr. and Mrs. Shizuo Nomura, Kyoto.

one

philos-

mixed with

the theory of the

the mystery. Modifications in the

in actual form.

slight

The main

and none

principles

of

the art are the same throughout, and floral designs regarded as

works of art today depend

as

they did three or

more hun-

dred years ago on the same old canons.

For example, a

damask with tied-and-dyed and embroidered

design depicting the eight bridges

departed very

of originality

essentially

traditional superstitions, such as

evil luck, are

and contribute

is

amount of Chinese

arrangements made by these schools were

Kambun

(Above) Kosode with

and

wood, and the teaching symbolized by them. The chief object

ideas of

Facing 25 and 26:

example,

earth, fire, water, metal,

and the same

was

principally in the

lines; for

ment, incense judging, verse-linking, and landscape gardening. influence

attributed

to him.

and mystery to the various versions of what

aesthetic

was designed by

book on flower arrangement

was skilled in the arts of the tea ceremony, flower arrange-

His

illustrating

and accessory branches. Ikenobo Floral Art

lines

the beautiful garden at the Silver Pavilion

remarkable

art

Geiami, 1431-1485, and his grandfather Noami,

his father, 1

furst

the patronage of Yoshimasa, a

aesthetic sensibility, the tea

at

built a devotional

the prototype of the

is

a hal( tatami (nine square feet). It

generally believed that this

Under

that

the three

style

of

floral

arrangement

Nageire or Thrown-in style came into use about

was brought art

is

into fashion

by the

usually divided into

formal, deriving

known

this

tea masters. Japanese floral

two main branches, namely

from Rikka, and

as

time and

the natural, deriving

the

from 193


Nageire. However,

it is

although Nageire

a free

is

of first importance

to

apparently carelessly placed in a container, to the old art canons. in arrangement

To

that

it

conforms

also

the unpracticed eye the difference

between these two schools will appear very

almost negligible. In

slight,

remember

and natural arrangement of flowers

the

fact,

more

nearly a Nageire

composition approximates a formal arrangement, the more highly

One of the

regarded.

it is

Nageire arrangement

principal characteristics of a

in the small quantity of plant

lies

material used. /Generally the arrangement consists of no

more

than one well-shaped branch and a few sprays of flowers

at

base.

its

Some of

the literature

on Japanese

floral art gives three

divisions or forms

of flower arrangement, the third being

Moribana,

meaning

much on

literally

naturalness.

mitted.

As

Moribana, a

to heap or pile up.

an informal arrangement and lays

later style, is

Very

little

bending of the branches

and natural

in both the formal

styles,

stress

is

per-

Moribana

conforms to the age-old standards. Although there are various kinds of Moribana arrangements, determined by the shape of the container and the plant material used, they are usually

made

in

flat

dish-like or bowl-like receptacles,

which may

be round, oval, or irregular in shape, with the arrange-

ment suggesting of water

natural landscape scenery.

visible in such

arrangements

is

The amount

dependent on the

season.

During the peaceful

era of the

arrangement continued to existence but there

The

was considerable

polite pastime

priests

Tokugawa Shogunate flower

flourish.

schools

came

into

of Ikebana was no longer confuied to

and court nobles, but became an accomplishment of

all classes

of people.

By

the time of the Meiji Restoration in

1868, almost every household had in

New

similarity in their results.

making

a flower arrangement.

at least

The

one member adept

best compositions dis-

play a bold and vigorous quality essentially identifiable with a masculine touch.

Both

in flower

arrangement and in the

ceremony men have always played the leading ever, with the Meiji Restoration

and the

partial

role.

tea

How-

emancipation

of women, many new schools were founded by women, Enshu

school.

An

arrangement of orchid leaves. The center leaf

curves gracefully and shows chiefly

its

front surface.

leaves are kept firmly together at their base

show

and female elements

other

and are arranged

portions of their front and hack surfaces in such a

the male

The

manner

to

that

are properly balanced. Essentially the

general form of the composition assumes a trilineal arrangement. Asiatic Society of Japan.

although art.

As

men

continue to be the leading practitioners of this

a result of the influence of the West,

which has swept

over Japan since the end of the nineteenth century, new schools are always coming into existence to meet the new requirements for Western-style rooms where a tokonoma

not available.

is

Some of these ultramodern schools have entirely

disregarded the traditional principles, and they use the square

or the circle for the general outline instead of the triangle, and delight in using even numbers.

schools almost unconsciously

But even

foUow

growth and emphasize beauty of line.

194

these very

advanced

the laws of natural


PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION The

balance and beauty of lines in the open lineal character

given to a Japanese

floral

design

is

the distinguishing feature

of Japanese flower arrangement. Far greater

placed on

stress is

beauty of line than on harmony of color. Various plant

which

materials are used to produce a linear composition

in

the language of line conveys an unmistakable impression of the natural process of plants.

growth and the life-rhythm of the

This appreciation for lines of motion imbues Japanese

floral designs

with a living

quality, so they are not simply

groups of flowers detached from their parent stems, soon to fade.

An

analysis

of Japanese flower arrangement reveals that

by

the directions taken

the governing lines of each group of

stems or branches, which are founded on principles of pro-

portion and

form

harmony

the basis of

by nature

displayed

in

many

creations,

flower compositions. Technically the

all

of the water in which the flowers are placed is regarded

surface

as the soil

from which

the plant material

is

to spring,

and

it is

therefore necessary for the arranger to convey the impression

of a strong and vigorous origin in accordance with the law of natural growth.

Any feeling of weakness must

avoided in the springing

of the container tree. In the

as a

lines,

growing

be carefully

which must leave the mouth of a

single unit, like the trunk

arrangement of the principal lines of a composition

from the point of

their separation, the designer carefully

avoids a symmetrical distribution and aims rather to obtain a

more

subtle balance

achieve

through a pleasing variety of forms.

harmony and

To

balance without resorting to syrrmietry

requires a special genius,

and the Japanese happily possessed

the imagination to develop this peculiar but very characteristic

type of asymmetrical design. In a flower composition care

should be taken to use an odd number of branches or flowers,

of which no two should ever be the same height. In addition to the lines of the branches and stems, the surfaces

form and

different

of the leaves and the distribution of the buds and

blossoms receive an equal share of attention and play their allotted parts in each floral design.

The Etishu school.

japonicum one,

An

in a

arrangement of bamboo combined with

bronze sand-bowl. The arrangement

which sometimes occurs

is

materials are placed side by side

and

a double

There are usually from three to seven governing

The

are detached at the base.

Because of the character of the thick-stemmed bamboo, the vertical tubes are cut off with a splice cut.

The

leaf branches which are

attached are distributed to suggest a trilineal composition.

The

arrangement 0/ Nuphar japonicum reveals seven leaves and two

line

and showing mainly

its front

surface.

The remaining and back

judiciously balanced. Asiatic Society of Japan.

of each group of stems, are given primary attention.

though compositions of one or two than seven are sometimes made.

arrangement

model

for

all

is

lines as well as

The

triple

lines, al-

of more

or three-lined

much favored and may be taken as the original

arrangements. Although various nanies, such

as

other

flowers, with the longest leaf taking the position of the principal

carefully distributed as supports, their front

of each stem, or more correctly the governing

lines

such a broad flat vessel.

in

lines

Nuphar

leaves are

surfaces being

heaven-earth-man

or

spiritual

truth-harmonizer-material

substance, are applied to these three cardinal lines, they

be simply three lines cipal,

called principal, secondary,

may

which

is

and

tertiary.

contain only one branch or many.

The

may

These prin-

the longest and most central line, determines

195


Enshu flat

school.

An

arrangement of a white plum branch in a broad

bronze basin. The composition

soe branch vessel.

is

treated as a streamer

Such an arrangement

and dips

called the

is

The secondary

is trilineal.

into the water

or

of the

''water-diving plum.''

An arrangement in a bamboo vase with three openings.

Enshu school.

At

the top

is

a trilineal composition of flowering narcissus. The

middle arrangement

Beneath

cissus.

is

a trilineal composition of flowering nar-

a three-stemmed arrangement

is

of chrysanthemum

having five flowers. The plants represented are

Asiatic Society of Japan.

tree,

water, and

land plants respectively. Asiatic Society of Japan.

other lines

tertiary. In a seven-line

arrangement the two extra members

Regardless of the general

are the sidepiece placed

between the support and the second-

the shape and size of the arrangement, with

being in fixed proportion to

it.

all

shape of the principal branch, to achieve proper balance the tip

of the main branch should be

where is

that branch springs

from the

above the point

directly

container.

The secondary

the intermediate or harmonizing line and the tertiary

shortest line. Theoretically, the secondary tertiary

is

is

is

the

one-half and the

one-fourth the length of the principal. Although

the curves of these lines vary in the different designs, as a

general rule the secondary has a the tertiary a

more

lateral one.

more

By

vertical

tendency and

changing the direction and

giving a different character to the curves of these three main branches, an almost endless variety of designs In a five-line arrangement

two

may

be created.

additional lines are used,

ary,

and the trunk piece placed between the sub-principal and

the tertiary.

The

general

form of these

positions depends chiefly

to the principal. In schools displaying

curvature

is

slight,

characterized

by

central stem

is

a

but in a school such

little

as the

affectation this

Enshu, which

is

high degree of artificiality, the principal or

given a bold

lateral

curvature from a point

about three inches above the "springing" and then a reverse curve so that the upper extremity thus maintaining

its

is

vertically

above the

general form of the curvature

may

be compared to a

ary and the sub-principal placed between the principal and

a composition, the lateral curvature of the principal

strung.

bow

When it is necessary to lower the height of

when

it is

base,

center of gravity. In a broad sense the

namely the support placed between the principal and second-

196

com-

three-, five-, or seven-line

on the amount of curvature given

is

made


on

toward which the principal bends

the side

is

tuate the droop. This

droop

is

known

When

and only

as a streamer

as similarity is

one occurs in a composition, avoided.

given a

is

lengthened proportionately to accen-

noticeable droop and

aU times

at

five- or seven-line compositions are desired,

com-

the extra auxihary lines are added. Although flower

from one point

positions are designed to be seen principally

of view, namely, in front of the tokonoma, lines

all

the governing

of a composition have directions of varying degrees

forward and backward in addition to the vertical and

flatness

lateral

any tendency to

directions already mentioned. This avoids

and gives some consideration to the over-all

from points

and

to the right

effect

left.

In arranging the lines of a composition there are certain errors

which

One of these

are to be avoided.

cross-cutting,

which occurs when two

referred to as

lattice-cutting are other

one another. Window-cutting and errors; in the

is

different lines intersect

former the branches cross in curves to form suggest

latter the crossings

looped openings, while in the

latticework. Correctly arranged, a floral composition

is

not

only a thing of beauty but an expression of living flowers.

Although some highly material has been

artificial

much

Oj

shochikubai or the favorite

may

exaggerate the it,

they do

suggest most vividly the feeling of natural growth.

It is this

and almost caricature

features pecuhar to a plant Etishu school. All arrangement

compositions in which the

bent and twisted

rhythm of the

combination ofpine, bamboo, and plum treated in a fanciful manner.

portrayal of natural

The pine and plum branches

plant that the Japanese endeavor to present in their floral

are arranged in a cylinder-shaped vase

of natural bamboo with a small sprout attached position the pine forms the principal

forms the secondary

line

and

and augments

to

it.

tertiary lines

In this corn-

and

the

of Japan.

life

com-

positions, rather than a faithful copy of nature.

plum

the principal. Asiatic Society

growth suggesting the

No

flower or plant

is

too humble to be used, a thing of

beauty being possible with the most commonplace materials. In choosing the plant material the seasonal factor

is

an im-

portant consideration. Flowers forced to blossom out of season are in most instances not used. Each flower has

its

common

to

proper season and month.

more pronounced and lines are

the directions of the other governing

correspondingly changed to obtain proper lineal

several istics

months or

seasons,

Many

and certain

as

vature, the general direction of the principal line

composition of such flowers,

and

if the three

tion

were enclosed in a

governing

vertical,

such a style of composi-

lines in

triangle, the

hypotenuse would be

There

is,

however, another

style

of composition used in a

large class of flower arrangements in

ing lines

which the three govern-

are enclosed in a triangle whose hypotenuse

is

horizontal, giving a horizontal or ahnost horizontal direction to the principal line. This style

is

mainly employed for com-

positions arranged in either hanging vessels

on high

shelves, the idea

projecting laterally this style

distinctions in

vessels

being to suggest

on the edge of a

cliff! It

or standing floral

growth

often happens in

of composition that one of the two auxiliary

lines

vitality to the leaves.

mind and

it is

express

When

making

a

necessary to keep these

them

in the arrangement.

Then, too, the character of the season must be represented as

vertical.

distinctive character-

occur during the various seasons of their growth, such

an unusual bend or

balance and harmony. Regardless of the amomit of the curis

flowers are

much

as possible in a floral

composition. For example, a

spring arrangement should be simple and vigorous, suggesting

the grovsrth of young plant

life,

while a

should be profuse and luxuriant.

A

summer arrangement

fall

arrangement some-

times includes a broken branch or a dried seed the

for a winter arrangement, In

pod

to suggest

coming cold season. Evergreen branches are much favored

all

which should be

Japanese flower arrangements the

are relatively few, but each flower

is

relatively sparse.

number of

shown

to

its

flowers

best ad-

vantage.

197


The idea of applying sex to plants and trees and to inanimate and rocks in a Japanese garden

stones

fancy and

also applied in several

is

it

is

flowers in a floral composition. Tliis distinction

one of individual form tion, regarded as

as

of forms

common

a rather

ways

to leaves

not so

is

in contrast or in

and

much

combina-

male and female with respect to each other.

For example, rocks of a different character placed side by side in a garden

become male and

female, but if used individually

they have no sex. The observance of such capricious fancies is

not

of design because they help to

wit^i'out value in the arts

harmony of well-balanced

create a

contrasts. In a floral ar-

rangement the front and back of leaves, which are male and female respectively, are given carefid consideration, especially

when

the leaves arc large and important, the purpose being

to achieve well-balanced masses

by twisting and turning the

leaves so that both surfaces are alternately displayed. In flowers

the buds are regarded as female and the flower in full as male.

Colors of flowers also have sex; red

is

bloom

a favorite

masculine color and white a favorite female color.

THE MATERIALS AND VESSELS USED Flower arrangements arc made with one plant alone or in the early

by combining two or more

species

of tree or

species.

Although

Rikka style many kinds of flowers were combined

in one composition, in the succeeding styles the

considerably reduced. Combinations of are

still

two or

rather

common,

two

number was

or three species

particularly in those vessels having

three openings, such as certain

top and two side openings. In

all

bamboo

vessels

with a

compositions, either single

or combined, the special nature and character of the materials

used are carefully observed and followed.

The

rules

govern-

ing any Japanese flower arrangement presume that the arranger possesses an intimate knowledge of plant growth. distinction

between

trees

The

and plants and between land and

water plants is scrupulously observed. The locahty of growth.

Above:

Enshu

school.

An

arrangement

o/Nuphar japonicum

comprising seven leaves and two flowers in a fancy bronze vase

with a fish-shaped base. The principal leaf reveals

and

the remaining leaves reveal both their front

its

front surface

and back

surfaces in

a carefully balanced composition. Asiatic Society of Japan.

Below:

Enshu Nageire.

clematis with

hooked

ment

is

Japan.

198

An

informal hanging arrangement of

two flowers placed

to the pillar

in

an iron gourd-shaped vase

of the tokonoma. The simplicity of the arrange-

especially suitable for a small tea room. Asiatic Society

of


Morihana.

A water-viewing arrangement of

iris

blossoms and their

leaves standing upright in pebbles in a broad, flat pottery contaitier filled

with water. Each group of flowers and leaves

arranged

to be

is realistically

a growing plant.

whether mountain,

plain, or water, has considerable influence

almost endless number of shapes, varies from a shallow saucer-

on the arrangement and the character of the design employed.

like vessel to

For example, water plants are never combined with land

legs or

plants,

and they are arranged in

a different

manner and with

different surroundings than land plants.

To

grow on mountains with those would be considered inappropriate.

grow on

that

that

foot of a tree

must be given

A

plant

arrange flowers the plains

growing

a position in a floral

at the

composition

lower than a tree branch. Blossom-bearing trees and flowering plants are treated as quite distinct in character.

Thus one can

on the part of the arranger

one of trumpet shape, usually supported on short

sometimes on a decorative base in the form of rocks,

waves, or an animal grouping. Occasionally these bronze vessels are

of considerable height and have a long and wide

neck with

a

round of oval-shaped body. Broad and shallow

flower tubs and bowls furnish another related category of standing vessels, and were used

from relatively

early times for

arranging plants and trees associated with water. Properly they

were used

for the

arrangement of water plants and

grasses,

for a

although very often plants and trees growing on the banks of

proper knowledge and famiharit>' with the natural charac-

streams and lakes were permitted, suggesting a scene along

readfly understand the need

teristics

of plant material, and

known

little is

why exotic plants

are carefully avoided

by the

about which

Closely associated with the nature of a floral arrangement is

the

form of vessel

used.

A flower composition must always

is

two

principal types: the sand

latter is correctly

made of lac-

circular in plan, while the sand

usuaUy of bronze or porcelain and

is

bowl

commonly oblong

is

or

polygonal and sometimes oval in plan. Each type contains a layer of pebbles or sand covered with water. In these arrange-

contained.

and design. In

a general sense Japanese flower vessels

may

be

divided into three types: the standing type placed on a dais, or shelf; the hanging variety, familiarly vessels, fastened either to a

known

as

wall or piUar; and those

suspended by chains or cords from a cefling or beam. These vessels

wood and

The

The

it is

less

hooked

quered

the horse tub.

conspicuous than its contents, both in color

be in harmony with the vase in which vase should be

table,

the edge of the water. There are

bowl and

Japanese.

vary greatly in

wide-mouth standing

size,

shape,

and material. The ordinary

vase, generally

made of bronze and

in

ments water

is

plainly visible.

favored in the

regarded

as a part

of the composition and

Sand-bowl .and tub arrangements

warm months when

cooling or refreshing Baskets of woven

are

is

much

the sight of water has a

effect.

bamboo

or reed are another popular type

of standing receptacle for flowers.

Of

Chinese provenance,

they are generally beheved to have been

furst

used by Yoshi-

199


masa. Essentially there are

with

a bail handle

two

principal shapes: the basket

and the basket with a

handle. In addition to these

two

classic

neck and no

straight

models, there are other

decorative standing forms, as well as certain shapes designed

gourd shape. With the

particularly for hanging, such as a

exception of the

woven flower

properly placed on a thin

flat

baskets, all standing vessels are

tray

made of poUshed

or lac-

quered wood. Sometimes a decorative stand or very low table

is

substituted for the tray.

custom of dispensing with Yoshimasa, the

According to

tradition, the

trays for flower baskets

who was so pleased with

is

due to

the elegant simplicity of

woven basket presented to him by a Chinese craftsman that

he ordered

it

to be placed

on the

dais

without any tray because

he did not wish to detract from the character of the basket. Also attributed to Yoshimasa's patronage

bamboo liest

vessels for flower receptacles.

form was simply

closed

a

bamboo

It

is

the use of

different shapes

is

A

standing vessel

objects.

It

inspired

by

side cut out

from the top

The invention of the majority of these

usually attributed to different tea masters.

bamboo

tea

vase for flower

and highly decorative form of

which often

the flower chariot,

figures

upon

appears

that

the idea for these chariots

decorated wheeled chariots used in certain

richly

are the black-lacquered flower

festivals. Especially typical

with

chariots enriched

silver fittings.

Floral compositions in the vessels are

ers

over a

was

drawn

the large tubs profusely filled with flowers

hangmg

or so-called hooked

arranged in a horizontal direction, suggesting flowcliffy

most instances the shape of the bottom con-

In

veys the method of use.

The hanging bamboo

variety

is

most

frequently characterized by narrow side openings. Other hang-

bamboo, and

at

to use a

prominently in paintings on screens and other decorative

bamboo

forty principal

Sen-no-Rikyu, a celebrated

man

striking

is

the

be cut into different shapes. Side openings, sometimes

and portions of the

arrangement.

first

ing

bamboo standing and hanging vases, which are made possible by the facility with which bamboo can

different levels,

tradition,

was the

bottom

by a bamboo node. There are more than

are especially typical.

master,

appears that the ear-

cylinder with the

shapes of largely

According to

made from the irregular root of name is derived from their supposed

vessels are often

their

resemblance to certain natural forms, such

as a

conch

shell

or

gourd. These curious and irregular forms are greatly favored for the tearoom,

where

position and vessel

is

rustic simplicity

highly esteemed.

background for the hooked

both in

floral

com-

To provide a decorative

varier>% pillar tablets about three

or four feet in length and four inches in width are very often

hung between

the vase and the pillar.

Morihana. in a

As

a rule these tablets

A water-viewing arrangement of lotus blossoms

broad shallow white pottery

vessel.

Water-viewing

arrangements are much favored as summer compositions.

In

this particular composition the seed

pod, flower, and bud

are employed, representing the past, present, the three phases

200

of human

life.

and

future,


are oblong, taper sides

toward the

have shghtly curving

top, or

extending from the top to the bottom. The early

which were lacquered

were inscribed with

black,

a

tablets,

poem

in

of vessel

third class

to this category

is

is

the suspended vessel. Belonging

vessels,

made of chain. Most

the popular crescent-shaped vessel,

by

pottery or bronze, and suspended

suspended

and then replaced by

for a short time

rule the seasonal factor influences the selection

On

played.

a single

however, are of a horizontal character and

is

kakemono.

When

suspended by

a hanging arrangement

chains

from the

ceiling or

of these elongated vessels are some resembling

a boat,

of which

kakemono, and

the early ones are generally believed to have been

made of

these

ambitious ones were copied from

the elaborate pleasure boats. Boat-shaped vessels are always

hung above eye

would suggest

a leaking boat

most familiar boat-shaped

bamboo with

water

level so that the

not

is

visible,

which

and therefore be unlucky. The

vessels are those

made of a tube of

the ends splayed to resemble a simple boat or

mam

punt. In these vessels the tips of the

obscure any part of the picture. In

porting chains, and the tip of the central stem

is

under

directly

any calligraphy, and the

When

the

kakemono

hooked

to the

relation to the

is

all cases

is

as

is

not to

the signature of the

of figures must be

work of

the

kakemono

a long

kept low, so

is

faces

arrangement

painter, a flower

visible.

a celebrated poet or

generally omitted, to allow

undivided attention to the work of art.

part of the floral

arrangement are well within the triangle formed by the sup-

When

decoration.

exhibited, the floral composition

artist,

either

it is

methods of harmoniously combining

for the

two kinds of

of the

side

used,

is

and position of the flower arrangement in

Some of the more

the

the dais or

rules are established for the size

of the alcove. General

pillar

is

require additional supporting chains. Especially characteristic

bronze.

hung

is

of the tokonoma toward the front and

floor

a

dis-

on

placed

As

others.

of objects

tokonoma

the back wall of the

kakemono. The flower arrangement

gold characters.

The

shown

are

It

important that the

is

floral

with the character of the picture.

same flowers

the

design should harmonize

When it

is

necessary to use

in a composition that appear in the kake-

outside the triangle,

mono,

the floral design should be subordinated, so as not to

sweeping over the side to represent the single long oar which

detract

from

the Japanese use to propel boats. Floral arrangements of a

the

the apex.

Only

the streamer, if used,

nautical character, such as a

is

becahned or swiftly moving

sailing ship, are particularly interesting. Certain rules are

ployed to

convey by the

lines

mast, oar, and general motion of a ship.

stem represents the mast; the other

iri-ftmc

toward the right or decides

prow of

left,

which one

reverse of the iri-fune.

the vessel

may

point either

and each school of flower arrangeit

The "outward-bound"

prefers.

and the streamer sweeps to the

left

prow

the

is

toward the

to the right

stern,

reversed for the "outward-bound" arrangement.

and

The

material in the "in-port" or tomari-fune arrangement rather straight nature, conveying the idea of

other form of hanging vessel. There are also

this

plant

is

of a

no wind or

motion. Well buckets, either circular or square, are

and

or

For a "homeward-boimd" arrangement,

the masters of the Ikenobo school point the

vessels

and

"homeward-bound"

boat arrangement, which expresses farewell,

de-fuiie

is

central flower

boat arrangement, which expresses the wish for the

return of a friend, the

ment

The

lines suggest the sails,

the streamer suggests the single oar. In a

or

em-

of the flowers and stems the

still

an-

some hanging

of a more novel nature, such as inverted bronze parasols

bells

and

The proper

place for displaying a floral composition as

we have

seen,

rooms of the Japanese house and owes its

is

is

found in

tea masters

the

tokonoma

of placing in

it

all

is

the

important

the center of interest.

aesthetic significance chiefly to the habit

and

work of the

to the subject

floral

artist.

poem

If a

is

inscribed

on

design should, if possible, correspond

A marked feature is the supposed

of the poem.

association always existing

between the picture and the

floral

composition. For example, if a painting depicts a landscape

with mountains and a is

most

suitable, for

ground of such

it

lake,

an arrangement of a water plant

may

be supposed to

a landscape.

ciations are also observed.

work

appears on the

For example,

kakemono

is

blossoms, an arrangement of them

many

exist in the fore-

Popular traditions based on assoif the artist

known is

whose

admire cherry

to

most appropriate. The

double associations appearing in Japanese art motifs

deriving from the animal and vegetable kingdom, such as the

and the peony, are

lion

also faithfully kept in

mind.

Occasionally small floral arrangements are placed on the tier

of shelves called tana, in the recess adjoining the tokonoma.

Properly, if three arrangements are used they should follow the natural distribution of growth found in real scenery.

so-caUed hiU, plain, and water representing natural scenery,

used for the ings.

Thick

bamboo

is

style,

The

arrangement

characteristic

and

is

mouth and two

side

open-

most

vase with a

a triple

tree branches representing a

mountain

also

are used for

the top, land plants for the middle, and water plants for the

sea shells.

tokonoma, which,

the

kakemono, the

It

of Zen priests

a picture or vase of flowers. In

the host exhibits his choicest treasures,

which

bottom. In addition to the flower arrangements placed in the

tokonoma and on

the tana shelves, other novel arrangements

having no association with the permanent alcoves are also occasionally

made and

placed

on

a flower stand or

flower horse, the latter comprising crosspiece.

The

two

side posts

typical flower stand has

two

hung on

a

and a top

small shelves

201


connected by vertical and horizontal framing that

is

lacquered

black and enriched with metal mounts.

PREPARATION OF PLANT MATERIAL The

lineal character required for the various flowers

branches of trees

is first

formal schools, such

suitable material. In the

where

skill

and

based upon a careful selection of

of arrangement and beauty of

as the

Ikenobo,

of

line are

furst

importance, the next step comprises the bending, twisting,

and binding together of the material shape. In is

allowed, since naturalness

is

a feature

of the curve of the branch,

gardless

selected into the desired

Moribana and Nageire very little binding of branches

ward. The fmal step

is

to eliminate,

of both

all tips

Re-

styles.

should point up-

by trimming or

cutting,

any material which does not directly contribute to the beauty of the fmished composition. Before wedging the manipulated plant material into the container, certain steps are taken to

prolong

its life.

Naturally, fresh clean water and careful han-

dling both in cutting and arranging are the best preservatives.

Cuttings are always

made

early in the

morning or

early in the

evening, except in very cold weather. If the cuttings are not

used immediately, some teachers

recommend

that

all

plant

material except the blossoms should be submerged in water

Other teachers fmd

for several hours.

very

sion, except in

and produces

that

immediate immer-

warm weather, is harmful to long vitality which

brittleness in the stems,

considerable bending.

are subjected to

These teachers recommend only a

short immersion just before use, except in the winter

when it is

the stems and branches are very brittle.

customary to thaw the branches over

in order to

make them

softer

and more

At

months

this

season

a charcoal brazier

flexible.

Large delicate

blossoms are wrapped separately in soft paper and if very fragile they are

kept wrapped until the arrangement is fmished.

There are two

essential factors to

how

cuttings; namely,

be considered with the

to preserve the succulence

of the stem

extremities so that water continues to rise in the tissues,

how to them

and

obtain softness and flexibility in the stems, permitting

to yield to the necessary twisting

and bending

Ihetiobo school.

An

arrangement of flowering magnolia branches in

a trilineal composition placed in a

woven

reed basket of traditional

shape.

until the

desired curves are obtained.

There are three principal methods of treating the stem extremities, that

is,

by crushing, charring, or plunging in boiling

water. After crushing,

some require an

often a simple household

artificial preservative,

commodity rubbed into

the crushed

ends. For example, sugar is recommended for asters, aspirin tablets for

chrysanthemums,

salt

for

powdered

columbine and

morning glories, an equal mixture of salt and alum for poppies, boric acid for carnations, and secreting a

202

milky

fluid.

powdered alum

for flowers

Sugar water forced in with a syringe

is

suggested

water

lilies

for

or calla

all

hollow-stemmed flowers such Branches of evergreen and

lilies.

bearing trees require no

artificial

as

fruit-

preservative their stem ends ;

are split for a couple of inches, or if the stems are small

enough, they are crushed. shiny, they are frequently

gamboge and terized

size.

To keep

pine needles green and

washed with

The stem ends of

a

mixture of sulfur or

certain plants charac-

by woody and sturdy stems may be

treated either

charring or plunging in boiling water. Included

among

by the


plants especially suitable for these azalea,

two methods

chrysanthemum, hydrangea, and peony.

of these methods

is

used, the entire branch

or paper, exposing only the stem end.

of the stem end

are the aster,

When either

wrapped in cloth

is

About one-half inch

plunged into boiling water for about two

is

minutes. Afterward, the branch is unwrapped and held upside-

down, and cold

clean water

is

poured over the

entire

branch

for several minutes.

Considerable care and skill are required to

make the artificial

curves especially associated with the formal floral composition.

Some stems are more flexible and will bend without snapping, while the more

brittle

and harder stems require

ment. In most instances a cloth at the

stem

is

special treat-

wrapped around

the stem

point of bending to prevent splintering. Sometimes the at the

point of bending

a

low

fire.

with boiling

Occasionally

it is

with a knife. In order to avoid unsightly

carefully shaved angles, the

either softened

is

warmed over

water or gradually

stem

is

generally bent at several points,

which

produces a smooth and shapely curve. After any forcible bending,

it is

recommended

to dip that part

of the stem in cold

water, which destroys the elasticity and makes the curve per-

manent.

One of the most of plant material for

is

difficult steps relating to the

manipulation

the fixing of the stems in the container,

which many kinds of fasteners or plant holders are

The stems must leave unit,

the

mouth of the

which requires firm and

fastener used for a vase

form of a

to

skillful fixing.

An

early type

of

with a cylindrical mouth was in the

cylindrical piece

wide enough

used.

container as a growing

of wood with a wedge-shaped

hold the stems. Perhaps the most

types are simply the fork of a branch or

X-shape, with other twigs pressed in

slit

common

two twigs forming an

at right angles to

hold

the stems and branches upright. All of these fasteners are fixed just

A

beneath the surface of the water and should not be

characteristic

receptacles

is

nails or holes

form

for sand

made of a

sheet

of metal with rows of upright

of different diameter. These are concealed beneath

the sand or pebbles. There are also the plant holders, in the

which

visible.

bowls and other flat-shaped

form of

many

decorative metal

crabs, tortoises, or dragons,

are intended to be visible

and are used in shallow

Ikenoho school. ings.

At

the top

An is

chrysanthenmms.

arrangement in a bamboo vase with two open-

a trilineal composition of cypress and small pink

The lower composition comprises

three small

yellow chrysanthemums assuming the general form of a trilineal group.

receptacles.

external beauty of nature, and great importance

is

attached

to the expression of this meaning. Philosophical interpretations

SYMBOLIC MEANINGS AND ATTRIBUTES

suggesting permanent eternal ideas, historical associations, a legion of traditional fancies, and the double combinations of

An instinctive love of symbolism is a fundamental Japanese characteristic. It

medium

among

the

seems to be practically impossible for them

flower subjects or themes which have become a permanent

them

part of the Japanese cultural heritage and hold an important

to admire flowers simply as flowers. Instead, they regard as a

flowers with certain bird and animal attributes are

for expressing

some mental concept. The Japa-

nese are always searching for the hidden

meaning behind the

position in art

and

literature.

The months of the

year and the

various deities and pleasures which custom has associated

203


De-fume

Ikeiwho school.

Right:

arrangement made of iris. The

tips

or outgoing-boat

of the main part of

the composition are kept well within the triangle formed

by the chains, and the

of the principal

tip

directly beneath the apex.

The long

to the right suggest the single bptits.

Far

Ikenobo school.

right:

secondary line

An

oar employed to propel

is

An

arrangement of bush

moon-shaped bronze

The

vase.

treated as a streamer.

arrangement of pussy willow and

small white chrysanthemums to

is

In this composition they become the streamer.

clover in a suspended

Ikenobo school.

line

leaves sweeping

in

a

bamboo vase attached

a tapering hanging board or pillar. In this trilineal

composition the secondary branch length as the hanging

is

about the same

bamboo container and the

tertiary

group comprises seven small chrysanthemums.

with them through the centuries form an endless source of material for the

artist in

every kind of

Japan

art.

is

rich in

known by

seasonal flowers,

and almost every month

special blossoms.

Ordinary and familiar flowers growing in

is

its

the garden and in the field have been given a conspicuous place in the

numerous

festivals celebrated in

The

the calendar year.

Japan throughout

flowers most esteemed are those

endeared by custom and tradition and cherished

of the season rather than those known for spectacular bloom. Flower viewing pursuits of outdoor

landscape is

is

life.

The Chinese

The

is

harbingers

one of the

a fanciful conceit a

favorite

snow-covered

considered to be winter's floral display and thus

one of the flower

was

By

as

their rarity or

festivals

of the year.

by the Japanese

especially adaptable to the seasonal succession

of flowers.

Japanese spring, which started with the Chinese

New

Year and began about February, was heralded by the ap-

plum blossom, which opened even while the on the ground. The plum blossom, because of

pearance of the

snow was its

still

duration and sweet scent and the classical simplicity and

beauty of

its

positions than

form, its

is

much more

favored for

floral

com-

flashy rival the cherry blossom. Silhouetted

against gray skies in a bare winter landscape, the delicate

blossom, fresh,

204

undaunted, and

leafless,

straight

its

stiffs

presents

an

un-

shoots,

and blossoms are

for a floral tree,

and the sparse distribution of its buds

carefully kept in mind.

An

unusual plum-

blossom arrangement made in an oblong flat-shaped receptacle filled

with water shows the principal branch bending

into and disappearing under the water and the blossom-

covered extremity reappearing. According to one story,

this

design was inspired by real scenery and for that reason

floral

the composition

plum of

the

arrangement

is

sometimes called water-diving plum or

mountain stream. For the as

called the Early

lunar calendar formerly used

plum blossoms

forgettable picture, hi selecting

arrangement the rugged and angular nature of the plum

well as for the

Herb

first

Festival, the

New

Year's floral

of the Five Seasons festivals,

plum

is

combined with the

known as Shochikubai used on many felicitous

pine and bamboo. This traditional triad suggests enduring happiness occasions, especially at

blossom

is

in season.

also associated

and

is

wedding ceremonies,

The

plum

if the

so-called Japanese nightingale

with the plum

Although the peach blossom which follows shortly the

plum

means its

is

notable for

its size,

attains the traditional

predecessor.

is

tree.

color,

and beauty,

it

after

by no

esteem and admiration given to

The peach blossom

is

chiefly used in floral

compositions during the Peach Blossom Festival, popularly

known

as the Girls' Festival

or Dolls' Festival, which occurs


on the

third

Five Seasons

day of the third month and

Many weddings

festivals.

month, when the peach blossoms are an the spring landscape.

symbol of

life

The

makes

its

is

the second of the

take place during this attractive feature

associated idea

of the peach

most

As

use

suitable.

of

as the

a rule the

ment of cherry blossoms water of the vase, and

on the

floor

several petals are often placed in the

recommended that

it is

Singly, the cherry blossom possesses

has

no

particular distinction

peach branches are inclined to be too exuberant to please the

although indigenous to Japan,

of the flower

with

gay and showy blossoms,

its

is

never

used in combination with any other plant material and

its

blossom has the place of honor on the tokonoma because the national flower of Japan. Patronized

it is

and extolled by

chrysanthemum

poets, the cherry

by Emperors

blossom vies with the

in the affection of the Japanese.

However,

probably because of the transitory nature of its beauty, lasting as

it

does for a short space of only three to four days,

attained a to the

prominent place in

floral

compositions

chrysanthemum or the plum. The

as

it

has not

compared

latter retains its

beauty for an entire month. Because of the ephemeral character

is

records before the fifth century.

artist.

tree,

of the cherry blossom,

other felicitous occasions.

its

use

The

cherry blossoms have their

own

is

avoided for weddings or

falling petals

distinctive

of full-blown

charm and they

have been compared in poetry, where they have become a favorite theme, to tears shed

by

a saddened sky. In an arrange-

great attraction

and

mass on a

tree

has a floral richness of unsurpassed beauty.

it

The cherry

no

of form, but in

cuttings are considerably thinned out, because the blossoming

taste

the petals falling

of the tokonoma should not be swept away.

a

The wild

nowhere mentioned

It

cherry, in early

did not achieve the position

of a national flower until the eighth century, when the Emperor

Shomu,

attracted

by

the beauty of the blossoms, ordered

cherry trees to be planted in the gardens near the Imperial

Up

palace at Nara. interest

to that time the

plum

tree

had held the

of the Emperor and his court. From the ninth century

onward Imperial garden

parties to

became customary and cherry

view the cherry blossoms

trees

were planted near the

palace at each succeeding capital.

The on

celebration of the Boys' Festival or

the fifth day of the fifth

blooming of

a

form of

iris

Iris

Festival occurs

month and comcides with the called shohu-no-hana. The leaf

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;which in almost water plants receives the major share sword and therefore harmonizes of attentionâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;resembles all

a

most appropriately with the doUs or ancient warriors in full that day.

Boys

armor displayed

figures representing

in Japanese houses

also carry the sword-like leaf,

which

for

on

them 205


symbolizes success.

On

the festival day,

iris

leaves are soaked

in the hot bath, because of the traditional belief that the so-called iris bath provides miraculous protection against

For the

disease.

mixed with

fmely chopped

festival also,

sake, a drink

which was

samurai. Several species of

common

kind, lasting through three seasons into the

guished in stiff

which

peculiar to each season

teristics

and

one

to Japan;

fall,

has charac-

are carefully distin-

For example, the early leaves are

floral design.

straight,

by the

especially enjoyed

are

iris

leaves are

iris

while in the

the leaves are curled and

fall

bent. Associated in art with the

iris

man-

are the kingfisher,

the three Buddhist divisions of time future

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

regarded

it is

contemplation and

deep green and emerald and full-blown blossoms represent

the future, while withered and partly decayed leaves and seed

pods suggest the

posed to suggest a mountain and

used as the main part of a

is

design arranged in a shallow

floral

The

wistaria,

which blooms

in

flat

May,

usually regarded as

is

the most important of blossoming vines.

purple

word

is

means

for droop, sagaru,

wistaria

The

mourning and

associated with

is

is

grows

in gardens

on

felicitous occasions.

especially adaptable to suspended

arrangements, with the streamer

is

trellises

bemg stressed.

Since

it

usually

overhanging a lake or stream,

also used in shallow flat receptacles filled

gesting such real scenery.

since

to decline or retrograde,

avoided on weddings and other

nature of the plant

However,

since the Japanese

To convey

it

with water sug-

the impression of land-

scape in miniature, stones are sometimes introduced in the

design to simulate the edge of a large lake.

floral is

The

pheasant

associated with the wistaria.

flowers,

was introduced

into

Japan in the eighth century. Although essentially a favorite of the upper classes, It

it is

a persuasive

motif in Japanese decoration.

used in combination with the peacock, the golden

is

pheasant, and the lion, and with such companions

it

constantly

appears in the decoration of temples and palace walls. Traditionally

it is

one of the three flowers to which royal rank has

been attributed, the other two being the cherry blossom and the lotus.

With

its

exuberant curly

petals, the

peony

times knowTi as the flower of prosperity, because

it

is

some-

retains

its

beauty so long, sometimes lasting for twenty days. The leaves

narrow

poems

as the national

flower of India.

associated with the Buddhist religion,

avoid

its

It is

and orthodox Buddhists

is

and

always seen seated on a lotus

flower. Because of its association with life hereafter,

considered appropriate for funeral ceremonies.

206

closely

use except for sacred purposes. In sculpture

painting the image of Buddha

of peaches, melons, pears, and

in the

hung on

are

many

the

garden for the occasion. Long

of variously colored paper on which are written

hung on

associated with romantic legends are also

the

motif

this

cultural skill, the

of fall,

is

by

far the

popular

flowers and

is

it

is

some

it

was not

form being

privilege arts,

thousand years

floral

It

mark of

petals,

The

the Emperor.

in high esteem

it

appears

by the court,

ninth century garden parties were given

Festival,

festivals, takes place

day a

ninth

later that

of the Emperor.

Imperial palace to celebrate

Chrysanthemum

cultivated

furst

symbol of the sun,

though never with sixteen

the special

as early as the

as the

as a crest as early as the

until a

chrysanthemum was always held

at the

occasions, including

indigenous to Japan, historical records

chrysanthemum was used

often in the decorative

and

all

was imported from China and

became the exclusive

this

of Japanese horti-

scholars claim that the small

during the Nara period. Recognized

century, but

prob-

available throughout the

is

considered appropriate for

wild chrysanthemum

is

A triumph

chrysanthemum

the most formal. Although

the

used in the

the principal flower

all

choice for a floral composition.

year and

frequently

is

arts.

which

is

its

the

blossoming time. The last

of the Five Seasons

on the ninth day of the ninth month.

composition of chrysanthemums

is

On

displayed

tokonoma of practically every Japanese household

to-

gether with an appropriate kakemono. Since the chrysan-

water plant blossoming in the middle of sum-

regarded

up

set

The chrysanthemum,

in the

supposed to suggest the lion

customary for young people to

made of paper,

ably the best loved of

which

hiding in thick fohage. lotus, a

strips

decorative

lines in a floral design,

is

branches

it is

the fourth

is

honor of the legendary union

In

offerings

composition,

floral

this

is

this date,

by making

Star Festival,

held and

is

branches of bamboo. Although scarcely to be considered as a

grouped around one of the governing

The

on

as Tanahata,

festivals.

cake. These, generally

are occasionally closely

mer,

stars

celebrate

indicate that

The peony, queen of Chinese

the lotus in decorative

On the seventh day of the seventh month the more popularly known

bamboo

receptacle.

Combined with

past.

design are the mandarin duck and other waterfowl.

of two

sup-

open and buds suggest

the present. Curled leaves not entirely

hot weather, various kinds of small water plants are arranged is

therefore a favorite flower of monastic

is

of the Five Seasons

of a large irregularly shaped stone, which

and

present,

past,

Large perfect leaves with their broad surfaces of

retreats.

darin ducks, and other water birds. Sometimes, particularly in

at the base

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

an appropriate theme for religious

as

A

its

use

is

symbol of

themum

lasts

longer than the majority of flowers,

to be associated with longevity. In design

with the crane,

also

Undoubtedly the

with which

it is

is

it

has

come

represented

emblematic of longevity. pine, foremost

most important of all flowerless flower arrangement

it

is

of

all

evergreens,

trees in Japan,

surpassed orJy

by

frequently combined.

and

its

is

the

use in

the chrysanthemum,

The

pine, a constant


Ikeiiflbo school. Iri-funie or

single

of the composition tip

is

feature

of the Japanese landscape,

symbolical of strength

is

and endurance and therefore suggests the idea of a long and hardy

life. Its

use in floral art

and thus plays an important role in congratulatory occasions.

bamboo,

it

arts

of decoration

crane and tortoise, both being

celebration.

faithfulness.

compositions on the

The

it is

is

all

plum and

New

Year's

associated with the

emblems of longevity.

ature representation of these three

wedding

floral

Combined with

forms the traditional triad for a

arrangement. In the

omen

considered a very good

is

A mini-

especially favored for a

pine also symbolizes loyalty and

A characteristic arrangement combining the pine

and white chrysanthemum stands for landscape in design. This derives

from

a

floral

well-known poem in which the

white chrysanthemum seen beneath the pine branches likened to the

moon between

in a strict sense as neither plant it is

nor

character,

tree,

but

may

is

regarded

be used in

never arranged in a vessel

made

The main part

under the apex of the triangle.

directly left

forms the streamer.

employed by the Japanese

to

It suggests

propel their boats.

of bamboo. Although thin sprays or branches of bamboo are often

combined with other

trees or plants, for

positions a portion of the stalk

twigs attached.

is

obliquely.

selected

The number of nodes

should be uneven and the top

is

simple

com-

with a few leaf-clad

or joints in the stem

cut either horizontally or

The bamboo remains green

typifies the virtue

the entire year, and

of straightforwardness or uprightness of

character. In the arts

of decoration the bamboo

is

represented

together with the tiger and the sparrow, but never with both at the

same time. The dual

bamboo

is

association

of the sparrow and

said to represent loyalty to the throne.

associations,

which are of Chinese provenance,

observed by the Japanese that

it

These dual

are so carefully

would be deemed most

inappropriate to display a painting of sparrows and an arrange-

ment of ordinary garden

black clouds.

The bamboo, because of its pecuhar place of either. Properly

is

is

vine tendril sweeping to the

the long single oar

leaves.

kept well within the supporting chains and the

of the principal branch

The

incoming-boat arrangement made of a

morning glory with a hud and a few

flowers at the same time.

be essential to use some form of bamboo in the

It

would

floral

com-

position. In addition to the double combinations already

mentioned, some popular associations appearing in the

arts

207


of design are the maple with the deer, autumn

grasses

with

Among many other famihar flowers and plants well known to the flower artist

the omoto plant, esteemed for

is

and shiny-green sword-Uke throughout the year and for

which

leaves its

its

hardy

retain their color

berries that turn red in winter.

Because the characters used for writing the name omoto can also

be read "ten thousand years green," subject for celebrating a

new

this plant

makes

a popular

undertaking, such as a house-

warming. The Chinese orchid, or wood orchid, with small almost colorless flowers leaves

and

is

found in

the European crocus,

many it

appears even before the

through the snow,

it

Chinese

lily,

floral

compositions. Similar to

has a small yellow flower its

which

way up

suggests the idea of the fertility of

are prized

this

by

when

its

prized for the soft lines of its

plum blossom. Pushing

hidden in the earth. Both

available at a season

is

blossom and the

floral artists

life

narcissus, or

because they are

flowering plants are scarce. Their

blade-shaped leaves receive most of the attention in a floral design.

There are

also the creeping plants characterized

limp and delicate stems, such

208

as the

difficult to

A

the wild boar, and the willow with the frog.

by

morning-glory, which are

arrange according to the lineal rules of

floral art.

simple and modest arrangement of one flower and one leaf

or perhaps a few leaves

much ness

is

especially characteristic

and was

favored for the tearoom where simphcity and natural-

were

stressed.

Certain flowers are avoided for festive

occasions because of associations that

may

be interpreted

as

unlucky. Included in this group are flowers of a poisonous nature or evil smell or ones that change color. exists against the camellia because the petals

one by One, but drop off^suddenly, struck

off"

by

all at

it is

symbolizing unchangeableness. In

it is

floral

will not permit

head

is still

held

also

an evergreen

most

attention.

any further elaboration of the

character and habits of the different flowers art, it

fall off"

like a

design the arrange-

glossy oval leaves receives the

Although space

prejudice

indigenous to Japan and

has been used since early times, and

its

one time,

a sword. Nevertheless, the camellia

in considerable esteem because

ment of

A

do not

can be readily appreciated that the

employed in

floral

floral artist

must

always possess a sympathetic feeling for the virtues and weaknesses

of each member of the

selects his material.

floral

kingdom from

wliich he


XIV Tea Ceremony

where

HE TEA CULT or

tio-yu, is a secular ritual

ceremony, called chaindigenous to Japan,

known from

ap-

aesthetic

and philosophical enlightenment. The

however, was e anists

tea

regarded as a cultural institution of

it is

preciation

I

*

tea plant,

very early times to Chinese bot-

and was highly prized for medicinal purposes.

It

dhist priest presented a

palace at Karasaki

cup of tea

tournament that was being held so delighted with plants to be

to the

Emperor Saga

on the shore of Lake Biwa during

its

grown

there,

at his

a poetry

and the Emperor was

fragrance and taste that he ordered tea

in the vicinity.

was

considered to possess the virtues of reheving fatigue and strengthening the wiU, and to have the quality of pleasing the I

soul with

its

Taoists believed

"Buddhists used

it it

to be an elixir

<^

among

of immortality, while the

to prevent drowsiness during their long

hours of meditation. The

latter

custom was practiced in Japan

the Buddhists of the southern

lished an elab arate ritual

ceremonies.

of

Zen

tea as a part

The Zen monks would

who

sect,

of

estab-

their religious

gather before the image

of Bodhidharma and drink tea from a single bowl with the

profound formality of a holy sacrament. ritual that the tea '

It is

from

this

Zen

ceremony of Japan was fmally developed

into a secular accomplishment in the fifteenth century.

The

earliest

records in

4 relate that in the year

which

tea drinking

729 the Emperor

is

Shomu

tea.

The

invited one to

were

tea leaves used at this early date in Japan

probably brought from China by missions to the T'ang court, -

for

it

was not until the year 805

founder of the Tendai

that the Buddhist priest Saicho,

sect, is said to

China and planted them

at

have brought seeds from

Mount

Hiei, near Kyoto.

introduction of the tea plant into Japan

famous

priest

Kobo Daishi,

is

said to

founder of the Shingon

s

have planted the seeds

However, it was not

until

at

Mount Koya,

around 816

onward many

succeeding centuries.

It is

who He is

sect,

near Osaka.

that the regular planting

of tea gardens was begun on any considerable that time

The

also ascribed to the

had gone to China on the same mission with Saicho.

tea gardens are

Because of the close association of tea with Buddhism and its

use at certain rituals,

ceremony had

the tea

practices.

Although

ceremony was that the

its

it is

seems reasonable to suppose that

it

origin in religious or semireligious

not clear whether any formalized tea

established during these early times,

it

appears

enjoyment of tea drinking was often made an ostensible

motive for indulging in conversations of a religious and poetical nature.

Even

in these early times

it is

Japanese attached great importance and significance to the drinking

mentioned

hundred Buddhist monks to the Imperial palace in Nara take

BEGINNINGS OF THE TEA CULT

and flower-like aroma. Chinese

delicate bitterness

tributed

much

evident that the

some ceremonial

of tea, which undoubtedly con-

to the literary spirit that centuries later pro-

duced beautiful court compositions during the brUhant days

of the Heian period. Very

little is

mentioned about

tea after

the early ninth-century record of the planting of a tea garden

by

the

that

it

Emperor Saga, and

it is

not until the twelfth century

again becomes an important subject. In the year 1191

it

appears that the planting of tea was reintroduced into Japan

by

Eisai, a

study

Zen

famous Buddhist doctrines.

It

was

who had gone to China to who founded the Zen sect in

priest

Eisai

Japan and also founded the Kenninji temple in Kyoto, where his

tomb is located. Some of the seeds of the tea shrub brought

from China by

Eisai

were planted

the others were given to a priest

at

Hakata in Kyushu, and

named Myo-e-Shonin, who

and from

grew tea at Uji near Kyoto, which is stiU renowned for produc-

mentioned in the

ing the fmest tea in the world. Thus, the tea plant was intro-

scale,

recorded that in the year 816 a Bud-

duced into Japan for the second time by Buddhist

priests

and 209


â&#x20AC;˘

" i^^5 ^n^ip.

mi

1 -4

Tlie

Togudo

kuji

or

in the Giiika-

Silver

Pavilion

at

Kyoto,

which contains the

historic

tearoom called Dojin-

hy Shuko,

built

sai,

the

in

late fifteenth century.

became popular among the Zen

tea drinking

aid in keeping

them awake during

their

sectarians as

an

long meditations and

made tea drinking a kind of Zen ritual, and as Zen among the warrior class and spread throughout the

examples of the applied

vigils. Eisai

Although

prospered

furst rules

country, the ritual constituted the foundation on which the later tea

ceremony developed. The Japanese

also considered

tea to

have great healing powers, for according to tradition

when

a fatal

epidemic spread through Kyoto during the reign

of Emperor Murakami,

son of the former Emperor Daigo

a

wooden image of Kannon,

carved a

and drew

about the city on a

it

cart.

made them drink of

the sick and

offered to the divine

the

image and thus caused many

to

become

Muromachi period (1338-1573) Zen

arts.

Under

Shogun, the

cult

culture exerted

ideals

its

became

uifluence

on

the patronage of Yoshimasa, the Ashikaga

of the

tea

ceremony developed

into a social

determine the exact date

is

regarded

as the

at his villa

fascinated with

and

curios.

it

that

closely connected. Yoshimasa, 1435-1490, literature

and the

and on

arts,

Shogunate he caused a beautiful

yama in Kyoto in the year Pavilion, as the

and epicurean

his

was well versed

retirement

villa to

be built

pursuits.

It

210

many

in

from the

at

Higashi-

1479, with the Ginkakuji, or Silver

main structure, where he indulged was during

this era that

evolution occurred based upon truly Japanese

because so

polite ceremonies.

he made a huge collection of

Most of these

treasures collected

many noted

are included in

private collections,

retainers at tea, gifts

Yoshimasa used to reward

of valuable

tea utensils, instead

been the custom among feudal

The

tea

ceremony

that

masterpieces of

fme

art

given

of fme weapons,

is

said to

his re-

have been

who

understood the

of the early ceremony. At Yoshimasa's villa, Shuko

supervised the building of the Togudo, a devotional hall near

which contains the

historic

the Silver Pavilion,

and

had

code of regulation by Shuko, based upon the

Dojinsai. This small tearoom, measuring four

tastes,

among

his ties

an

and exquisite

as

Yoshimasa enjoyed so much and

information given to him by persons formalities

and with

lords.

through friendly intercourse, its first

some being

his friends

his warriors

in aesthetic aesthetic

by

Yoshimasa survive under the name of Higashiyama pieces and

tainers

arranging was

its

life

Yosliimasa learned the art of drinking tea from Shuko and he

which the

floral

the

Ginkakuji, he appointed Shuko

of Sosho, or master of

to the position

foimd so favorable for strengthening

of incense burning and

when

founder of the cult in

gathering conducted according to a prescribed etiquette, with art

it is

ceremony were drawn up, the Zen monk

of incalculable worth. Besides entertaining

more widespread and Chinese the

of ease and luxury

tea utensils

which had been

difficult to

Shuko, 1422-1502,

became so

the tea

at this time,

regulated form. After Yoshimasa had retired to enjoy a

He

well again.

By

it is

for the tea

the goddess of mercy, offered prayers for

were produced

arts

frequently referred to in art history as the Higashiyama period.

or about nine feet square,

room upon which

all later

is

tearoom

and

called

a half mats,

the prototype of the classic tea-

ceremonial tearooms are based.

A


Stone lantern and koshikake (waiting bench)

the tea

in

garden of the Rokusoan tea-

house in the garden of the

Tokyo National Museum.

corridor roseitei,

from

this

tearoom to two small rooms

for his incense parties.

Shuko, with

The tea-ceremony code as drawn up by

refmed and elegant simplicity, was more

its

specifically set forth in regulated

tea master ciples

called the

which were reproductions of those used by Yoshimasa

who

form by

Jo-o, 1503-15 55, a

possessed a strong feehng for the

of frugality and

Zen

prin-

and etiquette prescribed by Rikyu

after

fashion of giving tea parties, conducted according to

prescribed principles of etiquette in simple and quiet surroundings,

became an aesthetic pastime for the feudal lords and others

of the warrior class as well

as for the literati.

offered a calm withdrawal

from worldly

The tea ceremony and a serene

cares

atmosphere to discuss and enjoy the cultural refmements of life.

Toward

the

end of the Muromachi period, Oda Nobu-

naga, one of the greatest military figures of Japan, became the de facto ruler

of the country, and being

ceremony, made Sen-no-Soeki,

known by monies. masters,

his court

Rikyu had been and

1

name Rikyu,

521 -i 591, his

a pupil of

after the death

a devotee

two noted

Rikyu

the most important figures of the

is

of

all

cha-jin,

better

or tea tea

considered one of

Momoyama

was chosen by Hideyoshi to remodel the it

is

tea

master of polite cere-

of Nobunaga, he became

master to Hideyoshi, 15 36- 1598.

and purge

who

of the

rules

period.

He

of cha-na-yu

extravagances and excesses which had

came

the various schools that

tainments both for an ostentatious display of his wealth and

power and

means of encouraging

as a

powerful

his

on a grand scale of luxury so

financially

and

less

vassals to

formidable

as rivals.

One of Hideyoshi's most

celebrated entertainments

which was given

tea party,

this great tea

party and that

the wealthiest

announcement a tea bowl,

cities

a

all citizens

daimyo

said they

and

and towns

to the

were invited

generous request, for the

decline

to

sit,

feast lasted ten

Muromachi

ciples

of the

ceremony

the time of the

first

days and was proIt

was due to the

of the

Rikyu was then famous

down

from the high prin-

tea

ceremony was only

temporary. Under the influence of Rikyu, elegant and severe beauty

their

suffered a gradual

Ashikaga Shoguns in

period. This deviation

aesthetic qualities

floral arrangement,

kettle,

a rather

lofty aesthetic standards originally laid

by Shuko during the

which was

of Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, and

vassals that the tea

from the

to attend,

most humble peasant. The

vided with music, dancing, and plays.

wealthy

publicly in

he was giving

were only required to bring a

mat upon which

ostentatious activities

that

was the

November of

month he had proclaimed

Kyoto, Osaka, and other

from

in

render

as to

famous Kitano

1587. In the preceding

The

strict

stiU constitute the

him. Hideyoshi had a penchant for giving huge enter-

them more weak

THE TEA MASTER RIKYU

by

basic principles as taught

vie with one another

restraint.

The

entered the ceremony after the time of Shuko. rules

styles

were encouraged in the

as a tea master,

having arts,

noted for his

for

art

of

and as an arbiter ofsocial etiquette and taste. 211


At the time Rikyu assumed

the task of formulating severe

THE TEAHOUSE

canons for the conduct of the tea ceremony, the country was

from

suffering

(i

a

long period of protracted warfare. Despite

Momoyama

the temper of the Japanese in the

this,

period

573-161 5) was such that they loved grandeur and splendor,

and both the fme and applied

form and

laid

down by Rikyu

city in all matters connected

called for utter simpli-

with cha-iio-yu and for the tea-

to be decorated according to the severest style. After

Rikyu,

his favorite pupil, Furuta Oribe, 1543-1615,

one of the most distinguished under three famous

gawa leyasu, and

leaders,

further

by returning more

became

of all time, serving

tea masters

Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, andToku-

improving the estabhshed principles

to the older custom. In contrast to Oribe,

Kabori Masakazu, 1579- 1647, Lord of Enshu province, a noted

master and connoisseur whose school

tea

Enshu Ryu, introduced objects

from

is

knowTi

of rich and beautiful

a profusion

the severe style of Rikyu. Besides these

men,

who

were the most outstanding, there were many other noted masters, including as

and

tea,

several feudal lords

and the

tea

ceremony

life

and the

aesthetic ideals

derived from

its

,only did the ritual of drinking tea out of a

is

true principles and ideals are in

embodied

ceremony, especially

ideals

its

principles

which have influenced prescribed

life

tea

etiquette.

tea cere-

the simplicity and purism of the tearoom

Zen monastery. Even

derived from the

was

the architecture of the

teahouse and the arrangement of the tea garden reflect the

Zen that are forever present in all phases of The traditional arrangement of a formal

philosophies of

Japanese culture. tea

garden with

its

teahouse and other appointments follows

certain prescribed rides for the proper conduct

of

a

tea

ceremony. The garden, or

by

a

low

roji, is

hedge which divides

it

the inner garden, or

nchi-roji.

short

into the outer garden, or soto-roji,

Within the garden

walk paved with stones

tea

size,

where the

guests

ceremony. Close to the

gate, a

and

very

leads to a small cottage con-

taining the yoritsuki, or waiting

or mats in

usually partitioned

room, usually of three

tatami

convene and prepare for the

yoritsuki

is

the koshikake, or

waiting bench, in the form of a roofed arbor, where the

From

the

arbor, a winding path of irregidarly laid stepping stones.

ritual, it

of the

of frugahty and

mony, but

Not

teachings.

harmony

of Zen regarding

in the underlying sentiment

a result

bowl before the

guests wait until their host appears to greet them.

ceremony evolved from the Zen

its

with the philosophy of Zen. The art are

tea

distinguished

between Zen Buddhism

a close relationship

is

only natural that

and

who

expert in the art of the tea ceremony.

Because there

is

as

of various kinds into the ceremony, thereby departing

themselves

the tea

image of Bodhidharma lay the foimdations of the

color.

The principles

room

were extremely rich in

arts

The underlying sentiment of

of the Zen conception of greamess in the smallest incidents of

restraint,

Together with

its

rehgious teachings, the chief contribution of Zen to Japanese life

has been in the realm of aesthetics. Zen, following the

concepts of Taoism, accepts the

mundane

it is

and, unlike

the Confucians and other Buddhists sects, tries to

fmd beauty

as

in our

world of woe and worry. This

in the

famous Sung allegory of the three vinegar

is

admirably expressed tasters, in

which Sakyamuni, Confucius, and Lao-tzu, the founder of Taoism, once stood before a life,

and each dipped in

found

it

sour, the

nounced

it

suggestion

sweet. is

of vinegar, the emblem of

jar

his finger to taste the liquid.

Buddha

called

it

Zen philosophy

bitter,

Confucius

and Lao-tzu pro-

teaches that the value

of utmost importance in

something untouched the beholder

is

art,

of

for in leaving

thereby allowed to

complete the scene with his thoughts, and thus a great masterpiece irresistibly holds his attention until he feels a part

of it. The

aesthetic ideals furnished

as its recognition

of the worldly

the spiritual, have permeated

have contributed centuries.

212

much

all

as

by Zen philosophy, such of equal importance with

phases of Japanese

to her art

life

and

and culture over the

The mizuya (water room) next Mr. YagCs house

at

Kyoto.

to

the tea-ceremony

room

in


which

also bears the

name of roji,

leads

through the chumon,

or middle gate, to the teahouse, or sukiya, in the inner garden.

The small rustic middle gate is usually in the form of a framework having a thatched roof, or occasionally is just a low swinging gate made of bamboo. Along the

middle gate and the teahouse, basin,

where the

guests observe the

before entering the tearoom.

A

evening, a lighted candle

is

formahty of washing

stone lantern stands close

the water basin, and if the tea

is

between the

roji,

the tsukuhai, or stone water

is

ceremony

placed in

its

by

given in the

is

light-chamber. There

another small roofed arbor with a bench near the teahouse,

but not on the principal path, provided

as a place for the

guests to rest during the short intermission

and second

sessions

between the

first

of the formal tea ceremony.

Many of these small teahouses or sukiya were built after the favorite styles

of famous

and Sen-no-Rikyu. a

tea masters such as

Of simple

and

Kobori Enshu

rustic architecture,

framework of roughly prepared wood and bamboo,

walls,

and

with

plaster

a thatched roof, the teahouse represents a poetic

impulse in harmony with the calm atmosphere of the garden

and the reverence and purity of the tecture

tea

ceremony. The archi-

of the teahouse follows the plain and simple forms of

the Japanese farmhouse with carefully

its

thatched roof, and the

plamied asymmetrical composition

is

skillfully

A tsukubai the

(stone water hasiii)

Kankyu-an teahouse

at

and stone

lantern in the garden

of

Kyoto. Japan Travel Bureau.

The

Jo-an

house

with

built

by

tea-ceremony

open

the Tenshoera

Momoyania villa

skylight,

Oda Urakusai during (1573-1592);

period.

In the

of Mr. Mitsui at Oiso,

Katiagawa

prefecture.

213


handled by a particular branch of builders and carpenters especially trained in the minutest

interior

of the teahouse

details

of construction. The

of the tearoom proper,

consists

designed to accommodate not

more than

miznya, or water-room, which

is

room where

the tea utensils are

area of the conventional tearoom

five guests,

and a

pantry adjoining the tea-

a

washed and arranged. The four and a half tatami or

is

mats, the half mat filling the space in the center of the room.

At one corner of this floor, to

form

mat used

half mat a square hearth

a brazier

in tearooms

on which

is

is

is

sunk into the

placed an iron kettle.

The

slightly larger than the standard size

used in the ordinary dwelling house, being six feet four inches

by

three feet

two

inches according to

Kyoto

standards.

only entrance to the tearoom from the outside

opening usually measuring about two

feet

is

The

through an

by two and

a half

feet

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;so small that the guests have to creep through. Although

the tearoom

unimpressive in appearance,

is

materials are intended to suggest

or

which

sabi,

lished by

is

the true spirit of the tea

made from

bamboo, and

The

call

wabi

as estab-

as gracefulness,

and rusticity. The principal features of the interior

tearoom are

architecture of the pillars

design and

ceremony

Sen-no-Rikyu and may be translated

tranquillity,

its

what the Japanese

a small

tokonoma, slender

windows with

natural logs, small

grilles

of

the shoji or sliding doors covered with paper.

lo;^ oeilinig

is

of irregidar height, with

tions varying in design

different por-

its

and made of such materials

straw, rushes, bark of Japanese cedar,

narrow

as rice

of wood,

strips

and bamboo. Despite the appearance of refined poverty,

these

tearooms are made of the choicest of materials and are frequently

costly per square foot then a

View of the nijiriguchi

Left:

room

more

at

fme dwelling.

(small entrance) to the Yuin tea-

Kyoto. Japan Travel Bureau.

Tearoom

Below:

in

the tea-ceremony house at the Ryuko-in,

showing the view toward the veranda or

corridor

which overlooks

the garden. Daitokuji temple, Kyoto.

Below

center:

Jo-an, huiU by

Momoyama

The tearoom

in the

tea-ceremony house

Oda Urakusai during the Tensho

period.

In

Mr. MitsuCs

villa

era

known

as

(1573-^592);

at Oiso,

Kanagawa

prefecture.

Below

right:

The tea-ceremony room

Ryuko-in, a minor monastery

in the

in

showing the chigai-dana and the tokonoma.

214

the

teahouse at the

Daitokuji temple at Kyoto,


The tearoom that

is

absolutely empty, except for the

maybe placed there temporarily

few things

for sesthetic appreciation.

has fallen during the night can be enjoyed with

The

shojo, or

6 P.M.

THE TEA CEREMONY

midday,

and

;

When mony, depending on the seasons of the year and the

all

attached to the

as a separate structure,

main dwelling. The

screens for the purpose

kakoi

occasions,

was applied to

of the

room

partilioned off

The name

and the term is

tea served informally

still

without invita-

formal tea ceremony, called cha-iw-yu,

a light repast called kaiseki, followed

called koicha,

A

and

lastly a

regular formal tea

only about one hour

foaming

ceremony is

where only powdered

is

tea

lasts

by

an enterIt

consis

s

a thick pasty tea

brew known

as usucha.

about four hours, but

required for an informal cim-tio-yu

tea

is

There are various hours

served.

during the day that are considered proper for holding a tea

ceremony.

which

is

One

held

at 5

is

the yogomi, literally

asa-cha, or

is

when the morning

convolvulaceous vines,

fade, are used to decorate the

morning

because this

meaning overnight,

a.m. in the summertime,

glory and other similar flowers of

which quickly

tea, is

the time

tokonoma. The

served at 7 a.m. in the wintertime

when

is

conducted

at

any other time than

the beauty of the

a

week

a formal cha-no-yu

is

given, invitations are sent out

in advance or earlier if desired, either in writing or in

person, usually to the prescribed number of five guests.

the

It is

other proper means, and, according to pohte etiquette, those

tainment that the host has prepared with great care.

of

which

;

at

Not

tea gathering.

this partitioned area

from

distinguished

tion, the

a.m.

some being

used for those tearooms which are built into the main house.

As

at 8

noon; ya-wa, or night conversation,

at

duty of the guests to reply promptly in writing or by some

early tearoom, in fact,

consisted merely of a portion of a large

by

tea cere-

according to the precepts of different schools.

tearooms are built

fuji,

freshness.

the preceding hours.

There are a number of ways of conducting the

as well as

all its

other proper hours are hango, or after breakfast,

snow which

accepting

wUl

call

on the host the day before the party

The many

express their thanks.

rate preparation are attended to

to

details incident to this elabo-

by

the host,

who

gives special

thought to the selection of the kakemono or hanging be placed in the tokonoma, to the

floral

scroll to

arrangement, and to

the food to be prepared. Just before the time set for the party the host sweeps the garden and

oughly

clean,

and arranges the

path, sprinkles

its

surroundings are thor-

tea utensils in

it

proper order.

There are certain prescribed duties expected of the such

as those pertaining to their

tahi

or socks; for

Among

on

it,

a

men on

kimono with

three or

a

silk

divided skirt or hakama, and white

women, a kimono with crests and white tahi.

other things, the guests are supposed to take along a

small folding fan, one or

and

guests,

costume, which for

formal occasions should be a black five family crests

with

its

tearoom and

water, sees that the

pad of

kaishi,

two fukusa, or square

pieces

or small pieces of white paper

of silk,

on which

the guests place their cakes during the cha-iio-yu.

The

guests arrive about a quarter of an

hour before the

time appointed and assemble in a small waiting

room

called

215


Toko;ioina

o Fireplace.

K,rchen Hosr

ChSf Guest

o KosTs Door

O

En Trance

t]

;

Floor plan of a four-and-a-half-mat tearoom showing the

Above: proper

Feer

sitting

arrangement of the host and guests, the position of the

tokonoma, the fireplace, and the kitchen or water room. Japan Society of London.

Interior

Left:

with iron

of a tea-ceremony room showing the sunken hearth

kettle,

and a tana or stand for holding the

utensils.

Tokyo National Museum.

where they may prepare

the yoritsuki,

for the party.

While

the

guests are waiting in the yoritsuki, an assistant to the host usually appears at the entrance

and bows, then prepares a cup

of hot water for each guest to drink and invites them to the koshikake, a waiting bench outside the waiting room,

on

where

is

distance

tearoom is frequently decided upon by the host and the

of the

guests in advance; that matter

are provided.

however, the guests sometimes arrange

between themselves while waiting

in the yoritsuki.

In any event, the principal guest or shokyaku

chosen on account of his experience and as guest

of honor he

acts as

skill

is

generally

in cha-no-yu,

spokesman for the

and

others, heads

the procession to the tearoom, and keeps his responsible position until the entertaimnent

is

over. Sometimes, according to

sixteenth-century custom, as soon as the guests are assembled

on the waiting bench they amiounce themselves by knocking on the

wooden gong, provided by the host. After made a fmal examination of the tearoom and

bangi, or

the host has

pantry and

is

satisfied that all is in

proper order, he comes

this

garden path, or

expended

roji,

that the landscape

his talent to create a scene

The garden

rare beauty.

instill

and cushions

along

miniature form which in the finest tea garden

The order of seating

a tobacco tray

in the

sit

It

architect has

from

the waiting

path,

which

is

a

work of

often only a short

room to the tearoom, is intended to

a feeling of calm and peace in accordance with the spirit tea

ceremony. The carefully

der along the

laid stepping stones

way amid the shade of evergreen trees,

trained shrubs, stately clumps of

bamboo,

mean-

carefully

grasses, ferns

moss, and dry pine needles. Weathered rocks as

of nature in

is

skillfully

and

placed

though nature herself had arranged them in the depths of a

forest or as part

of

a

mountain

cataract contribute to the

atmosphere of the tea garden. Near the tearoom the guests

come upon

the tsukubai, a stone water basin near a lichen-

covered stone lantern. Here tains clear cool

water

at the

and may

water basin, which con-

be kept constantly

filled to

overflowing with water running through a stem of bamboo, the guests perform a ceremonial washing of hands and rinsing

of mouths before entering the tearoom. This formality proborigin in the purification ritual performed

by

into the garden as far as the middle gate or sometimes to the

ably had

waiting bench, where he bows and promptly retraces his steps

worshippers before the larger Shinto shrines, where ladles

to the tearoom.

The

guests in turn

stand this polite salutation to receive them. guests follow

leading.

216

bow to the host and under-

mean

that the host

is

prepared to

As the host proceeds toward the tearoom

his

him slowly in single file with the principal guest

its

were provided fdled

at a large cistern

which was constantly kept

by running water. The slow walk along

the

roji

and

this

purification formality are intended to put the guests in a

frame of mind conducive to a qualities

full

appreciation of the aesthetic

found in the tearoom and in the ceremony. In feudal


would

times if a guest were a samurai he

sword or

leave his

swords on a rack provided for that purpose beneath the eaves, a

serving of rice accompanies the yakimono, and then a small

bowl of clear soup At

reminder that the tearoom was a house of peace.

On arrival, the guests leave their sandals near the stone step, and then enter the tearoom by creeping through the or small entrance, and in their proper order

show

uijiriguchi,

their respect

by kneeling before the tokonoma. Proper etiquette requires the guest to hold his folding fan before

the

kakemono hanging

in the

him while admiring

tokonoma, and then with the

same poise and bearing admire the portable sunken hearth holding the

kettle. After

and admiration, the guests take to the rules

of the

tea

ceremony, with the principal guest

called a mizuya, or

is

washing and arranging the is

from

this

their respect

their proper places according

being seated before the tokonoma.

tearoom

brazier or the

showing

The pantry

adjoining the

water-room, and

used for

is

ceremony.

utensils for the tea

It

this

is

also served.

point in the kaiseki the host takes

away

rice vessel as

hassun,

he

which

one from the

The next

retires to the pantry.

consists soil,

of two

delicacies,jane

two

the

wooden

lacquer boxes or the large porcelain plate and the

course

called

is

from the

and

sea

the portion for each guest being placed

upon the inverted cover of a lacquer bowl. Along with hassun the host brings in a sake pot

from the cup of his

the honor of drinking furst

with it

and asks that he

serves the hassun to the principal guest sake. After

and

The

fills

host

his

cup

emptying the cup, the principal guest gives

to the host to hold, so

the eating

guests.

the

may have

it

may

be

filled

by

When

the guest.

and drinking are over, the host brings in

a large

lacquer vessel with a spout containing hot salted water and

boiled rice, along with

some pickled

delicacies in a porcelain

pantry that the host makes his appearance into the

him and

expresses

having been invited. The other guests

also greet

tearoom, where the principal guest greets his thanks for

the host in the same

manner and

in the proper order.

As

their

spokesman, the principal guest inquires about the garden and about the kakemono that hangs in the tokonoma.

At

the

furst

session

of a formal

tea

prepared light repast called kaiscki

is

ceremony an

especially

served after the guests

and the host have exchanged greetings and the guests are properly seated.

The

kaiseki consists

of a few dishes prepared

with the greatest care and served according to a fixed order. It

has always been the custom for the host to bring in and

serve these dishes himself, although he does not eat with his guests.

The

first

dish to be brought in

is

a soup

made of

soybean paste served in a covered lacquer bowl. Then served in a covered lacquer bowl.

Raw

fish

rice

is

or shellfish or

hors d'oeuvres called mukozuke are offered next and served in

Tea-ceremony

utensils: described as follows

with the century date

given: Lacquered utensil stand (eighteenth); on the top a porcelain dish.

room on

These three dishes are brought into the tea-

typical square-shaped Japanese lacquer dinner trays

called ozen.

Following the lead of the principal guest, the

others simultaneously uncover each

bowl by using both

hands and place the covers beside the trays then ;

eaten the soup and rice, they replace the covers.

pot called a sake

is

kaiiiiabe

dish.

each guest

having

and shallow sake cups are brought in and

poured for each

mukozuke

after

A metal sake

guest, to

be drunk while they

eat the

A large wooden vessel of rice is brought in so

may

bean-paste soup.

help himself, along with another

The next

bowl of

course consists odmono, vegetables

and boiled fish, served in a covered lacquer bowl, and another serving of sake.

Next

lacquered boxes

is

a large porcelain plate or a set of

two

brought in containing yakimono, which

is

a lac-

is

quered tea caddy for powdered green tea (eighteenth); a Hagi-ware pottery tea bowl (eighteenth) on which

bamboo teaspoon by Rikyu, while whisk.

On

the lower part

is

a seventeenth-century

inside the

of the stand

is

bowl

an iron

is

fire

a modern tea

pot by Shobei

(eighteenth) with ashes inside ready to receive the charcoal. In the

middle

is

the fire iron on

which the

kettle rests,

An

and

in front a

iron

kettle

(eighteenth) with a nineteenth-century cover.

Next

pottery shallow

bowl (nineteenth).

iron stand (eighteenth) to rest the cover

modern Raku-pottery vase

to

Raku-

by Kojomi there

kettle on,

of the

hold the bamboo ladle (modern), and

century two-panel low screen used in the tea ceremony around the brazier in a large room in a house.

To

the right

lacquer incense box, a silk napkin or fukusa, a

is

a Chinese

Sung

Ming

lacquer cake

dish, a seventeenth-century coal basket,

proper portions and place them on the inverted cover of one

mat, a modern feather brush for ashes, and a pair of iron rings

of the lacquer bowls or in the empty mukozuke

the kettle. Metropolitan

Another

the

a pair of iron chopsticks for charcoal (eighteenth), and a Bizen stoneware water pot (seventeenth). Behind the stand is a seventeenth-

broiled fish with vegetables, and the guests each take their

dish.

is

and a

an eighteenth-century cane to lift

Museum of Art. 217


plate.

The watered

guest,

and

is

hot water

is

to

wash

still left

rice

poured into the

is

two

porcelain dish,

On

which

are

each guest's dinner tray are

now wiped clean

which

chopsticks,

rim of the diimer

kaishi

are rested

tray, are

Then

if the

The

is

very their

summer full

is

a deep, square fire-holder

of the

half-size tatami in the center

hearth

inset in the corner

early

stands the brazier.

until late

hearth

ceremonial rules are followed

arbor with waiting bench called the koshikake, which

it

Here they

the teahouse.

sit

and relax between the

near

first

and

nakadachi. In the second session the true place.

The

summons

host

the guests

by

is

koicha, or thick

green

tea.

The

is

manner

mountain

prepared to serve the

The

by

tokonoma, and the

brazier or hearth, depending

principal utensils for the tea ceremony, comprising:

coal basket; 4. furnace; 5. kettle; 6. water vessel;

box; 10. handles for

13. slop bou'l;

14.

kettle; 11.

bamboo teaspoon;

boo water ladle; 18. stand for water

218

7.

upon

i.

tea

bamboo mat;

a careful arrangement of pieces of

sits liis

by

on

a

rock-bound

coast, the

pines, or the echoes

the hearth with

side.

These

tea

all

articles,

of a

the utensils for

which

are usually

caddy; the mizusashi or water

;

jar; the chasen

whisk used to beat the powdered green

water the chashaku or very thin

the

bamboo spoon

or

tea in hot

used to con-

tea mill; 2. tongs; 3. char-

Utensils for the tea ceremony, including

bamboo whisk;

portable fire braziers, a feather to brush

bowl; 12.

8.

three feather dusters;

15. tea jar; 16. silk bag for tea jar; ij.

ladle.

after

prized collectors' pieces, include: the chawan or tea bowl; the

the principal guest.

in the

now

the tea at

bamboo

g. incense

and

cataract.

host

making

by

distant surf breaking

chaire or tea

The

fire,

dropped onto the red-hot charcoal. In the

sound of wind in far-away

which has replaced the kakemono on the portable

the

burning well, a piece of

singing tones produced

After entering, they inspect and admire the floral arrangement

kettle

is

iron in the bottom of the kettle are poetically likened to the

guests repeat the purification

as before, led

early kettle makers. Fixed

takes

formality at the stone water basin and then enter the tearoom in the same

article

gong

sound of

the host

an

also

softly striking a

rustling

now

is

of great age, perhaps

ceremony of tea

seven strokes are given as the signal for the guests to return

and

carefully

kettle

calm and peaceful atmosphere of the tearoom the hollow

or thick tonal board hung near the teahouse. Either five or

to the tearoom,

The

when making

has been properly arranged and

incense

second sessions in a kind of intermediate retirement called the

often particularly inter-

art object

by one of the famous

nected with the main dwelling house, or to a small roofed is

is

is

The

designed with simple details worked

of special attention, often an a signed piece

not in use,

piece of the small-size tatami mat.

esting, being, carefully

con-

is

When

autunm, the hearth opening

out in a charming rustic manner.

tearoom

kettle are particularly

ceremony and the host

examine them and appreciate

tea

wooden framework of the

the tray, signify-

sweets are served, and the

room

is

covered by a

formal tea ceremony has ended,

the guests retire, to the waiting

to have his guests

oÂŁ the tearoom, where

from

guests.

host carries the trays to the pantry one at a time.

When this first part of the

articles

aesthetic qualities.

on and protrude over the

now pushed into

ing that the repast has ended.

Both the hearth and of the

which

with the pieces of

brought by the

season of the year.

important

proud

lacquer bowls with covers and the mukozuke

white paper from the pad called

The

bowl of each

poured into the empty soup bowl in order

also

off the chopsticks.

the

rice

now eaten along with the pickled delicacies. This

Japan Society of London.

bam

ashes, charcoal baskets,

Japan Travel Bureau.

and ash

containers.


vey the portions of powdered bowl;

tea from the caddy to the tea chakin or tea cloth, a small oblong piece of white

tlie

linen used to

wipe the

tea

ing one side with his right hand, takes one sip and compliments the host

bowl; the koboshi or kcmui or

receptacle for waste water; the hishaku or for the water in the kettle; zfuta-oki

bamboo

ladle used

bamboo on which

kettle or the ladle;

which

are used

to place the cover

of the

utensils for the tea

bosom of the kimono. When

ceremony have been arranged

all

passes

these

is

replaces

regarded as the most

important part of the ceremony. The host

first

He

brings in a

and places it before the principal then lightly wipes the teaspoon and tea caddy with

the fukusa he carries in his obi.

He

next puts hot water from

the kettle into the tea bowl, using the the tea whisk, then empties the tea

bamboo ladle to wash bowl by pouring the water

into the waste-water his tea cloth.

bowl and wipes

the tea

bowl dry with

Two or three spoonfuls of this powdered tea for

the koicha service,

which is made from the leaves of the older and enough hot water to make three and a half mouthfuls for one person, are whipped to a creamy froth with tea plants,

the split-bamboo whisk.

When

the host considers the tea to

be ready to serve, he places the bowl before the head guest,

who tea

bow

then makes a

bowl on a fukusa in

to the other guests and, holding the

the

pahn of his

left

hand and support-

its

Ta-ccremony

arUclcs.

A

are

wrapped

m

row o/chane two of r.hich

silk containers,

and four

^''^P'^^"^)-

Traucfs ureau.

J'^P'^n

Tea-ceremony

articles.

ladle to dip tuater

is

aU guests have sipped

guests have partaken

of the

tea,

a

who its

the host

part of the formal cha-rw-yu party the serving of usucha, the complete service of which, with

aU of

its

formalities,

forms the only course in the shorter

informal cha-tw-yu party.

The difference between koicha, a thick pasty green tea, and usucha, a thin foamy green tea,' is that the powdered tea for koicha is made from the young leaves of tea shrubs that are from twenty to seventy years old, while tea powder for usucha is made from the young leaves of tea shrubs that are from three to fifteen years old. The serving of usucha is conducted in the same manner as the koicha service, with

all

of Its

progressive formaHties. When the usucha part of the second session has ended, the principal guest requests the host to allow him the privilege of

examining and admiring

the tea bowl, for these tea bowls are a proud possession of the host because of their rarity, some having

of the great potters or

Firstrounh,,h^Vn,ha,nhoo

from a

wiped with

to the second guest,

until

tea

wipe

cover.

^ {lacquered tea caddies),

and so on

sips,

touched with a piece of

are in turn

bowl

of the

The succeeding and fmal

receptacle containing cakes, guest.

all

his lips

which

etiquette

two or more

washes both the teaspoon and the tea whisk. Then, in proper observance of the ceremonial, he tucks an end of his fukusa into his obi, pours a ladleful of water into the kettle, and

in their

is then ready to prepare a cup of tea. This second session of a formal cha-no-yu party begins with

green tea which

to the third,

it

contents. After

proper places, the host

koicha, a thick pasty

bowl where

piece of paper, and pass the

and the fukusa or smaU piece of silk, two of host, one suspended from his obi and

The

preparation.

paper, or with his fingers,

by the

the other thrust in the

fme

its

prescribes that he then take

the edge of the

or smaU article of por-

celain, metal, or

on

ceremony

kettle.

Second row futa-

oki, rests for the kettle lid or ladle.

artists

been made by one of earher times or having been

Tea howls and bamboo the tea ceremony.

tea

whisks for

Japan Travel Bureau.

Third row kensui, knvls for waste water. Fourth and fifth ^^^,^,^. mizasashi, water jars. Japan Travel Bureau,

219


in the possession of one of the famous tea masters such as

Of equal importance is the tea caddy,

Rikyu, Oribe, or Enshu.

not only prized for age and workmanship, but also because

more than

a

few extant ones were once in the

collections

These

articles

of

Nobunaga.

great historical figures such as Hideyoshi and

and others are carefully studied and passed on

by the principal guest and the other guests in the proper order. After the usucha coixrse and the formalities of the tea

ceremony

are over, the guests take their leave of the host

by

departing through the nijiriguchi or small door and return to the yoritsuki or waiting room,

where they originally assembled.

On the day following the party, cha-no-yu etiquette prescribes that each guest thank the host for his hospitaUty

him

a letter or

by

calling at his

home

by sending

This secular ceremony of simplicity

and

its

Zen philosophy,

is

tea,

with

arts. It

severe canons of

reflected in the art, architecture,

accomplishments and to

is

many

from

and every-

also closely related to

branches of the

lesser

exerted a powerful influence on the arts of pottery-

making, landscape gardening, and influence in the field of ceramics

of early

its

beautiful associations derived

day life of the Japanese. The cha-no-yu literary

kilns

was

floral

The

arrangement.

Its

so great that the majority

and famous potters produced

for the tea ceremony.

articles exclusively

devotees of the tea cult are not only

well versed in the art and culture of Japan but also in those of

Korea and China, and take pleasure in exchanging

critical

opinions on philosophy and aesthetics with carefully selected friends in the pure

in person.

many

and peaceful atmosphere of the tearoom.

^\^

The

six positions of drinking tea

level

of forehead;

6.

returns

220

it

to

3. lowers

same position

it;

4.

i.

Takes howl;

drinks; 5. loivers

as at first.

During

2. raises it to it

again,

and

the last four positions

the

howl

is

given half a turn totvard the right, gradually bringing

the side which

was facing

Japan Society of London.

the drinker round to the opposite position.


XV

T -M^

Incense

HE EXQUISITE pastime of the burning of

incense

known

as kodo is

but

ntmued

from China

Ko^Io was of the aristocracy in eadier times and has

to be enjoyed

by devotees among

Japan. Incense burning in Japan

vmg

is

the upper classes

generaUy accepted

conmion aromatic

as

jamm, camphor

antiquity, in the

of the gods and the burning of the dead.

viously continued

emonies, and

by Buddhists

as part

of

Its

use

was

their rehgious

still used in Tibet, Burma, Ceylon and Japan. It is recorded in the early chronicles that a ce of mcense wood was washed ashore on the island of ^aji, where the Inland Sea begins, and presented to the

it

Emperor Shomu in the eighth century, from central Asia isted among the treasures of the Shosoin Repository at a. The original inventory of the Shosoin lists two pieces ticense wood, one under the name of Zensenko,

a log of

e size,

measuring over three

m

feet in length

by more than

ot diameter, the other under the name of 0-]ukko a hollow log, to which are attached old labels indicating that es

were cut off from

it

lumasa in the fifteenth

and given to the Shogun Ashikaga century, and to Oda Nobunaga in

ixteenth century, and that the 3ff

on the occasion of

his

Emperor Meiji had a piece visit to Nara on the ninth of

uary, 1877.

also

came into favor

of a room perfuming clothing by spread-

ing the various incense brazier

burned

articles across a

rack in the center of which an

was

placed. In feudal times warriors often incense in their helmets before entering the field of

battle, as it

was considered proper

etiquette to maintain the

manners and customs of pohte society even on the combat.

field

of

With the increased popularity of the use of incense, there was much competition among the growing number of furnishers of the fragrant compounds. Each maker claimed such high merit for

his particular products that the individual

buyer learned to sample and place his different

kmds

custom of

selecting one's particular

meetmgs between

m

own

to get the type he preferred.

brand

valuation on the It is is

said that this

the origin of

friends to test their olfactory

powers

time developed into organized competitions for discernmg different combmations of incense materials The mcense ceremony, like the tea ceremony,

AND SPREAD OF INCENSE

is

a

social

gathermg conducted accordmg to a prescribed etiquette quiet surroimdmgs, and a highly moral and esthetic form of entertaumient requiring a maximum of con-

m

ter these early years se

gum

for secular purposes, such as for scenting the air when a guest was expected and

which

5

laurel,

it

is

ina,

press-Regnant Suiko. Incense said to have been sent to

substances used in the East are

gum bendragon or dragon's blood, rose maUow, star anise, sweet flag, and several others. The burning of mcense has been associated with Buddhism for centuries and mcense is used by priests for ceremonies of purification before coming into contact with a sacred image or officiating at an altar. But in the fifteenth century

been introduced by Buddhist priests in the sixth cenry at the time Buddhism was brought to Japan from Korea, le Indian Ramayatia and Mahahharata mention the employ-nt of mcense by the Hindus from remotest )rsliip

mixed

incense known as awase-ko, introduced in the tenth century, that constitutes the foundation of the incense used until the present time. The numerous substances used for incense in the Eastern countries are obtamed from certain resins and gum resins, barks, woods, dried flowers, fruits, and seeds. Included among some of the more

regarded by the

panese as an esthetic accompHshment which creates mental inquillity by developing a refined sense of smeU. favorite pursuit

the

It is

Ceremony

of the Nara period various kinds of were brought from Korea, China, and Central Asia;

centration.

221


of the

to fix a date for the final evolution

It is difficult

incense

ceremony

but by

as a fully constituted secular ritual,

the fifteenth century

appears to have acquired

it

some

for-

room, the host

greet the guests as they enter the in the corner opposite the

of the

their places along the side

room

mulas and etiquette under the patronage of the Shogun

noma. In addition to the playing

Ashikaga Yoshimasa (143 5- 1490). In the Togudo, the small

places along the side opposite the

and beautiful building adjacent to Yosliimasa's Ginkakuji or

wetsuke or umpire, thefuciamoto,

which contains the famous tearoom designed

Silver Pavilion,

by

the

roseitei,

Zen monk Shuko, which

for his incense parties. These parties

master Shino Soshin

ceremony century.

in

It

Edo

as

form

seem

have enjoyed the

to

ceremony. The famous tea having founded the incense fifteenth

end of the seventeenth century during

when many

period,

continued to enjoy

class

members of

cultivated

With

became devotees of the ceremony.

the tea

ceremony and the

arrangement, the incense ceremony was an

vogue among

the

ers

and performs other

duties,

adjacent to the toko-

guests, three others take their

tokonoma,

as follows: the

who is in charge of the count-

and the scorekeeper. According

to the prescribed etiquette, the host retires to the small

mizuya or water-room to get the various

called

the side of the

room

He first brings in the

kobon,

the game, and then takes his place

opposite to

and facing

a special tray

the guests.

on which the

utensils

on

of the ceremony are placed,

with the kogutate or stand to hold the center.

At

the left

is

room

utensils for

utensils placed in the

the kogu or kobako, a cabinet with three

compartments, one each for the incense, the ginyo or squares,

and the charred residue of the

incense.

To

talc

the right

It

much favor through the remainder of the

period, but after the Meiji Restoration in 1868

larity lessened.

in

of the

at the close

remained almost exclusively a pastime of the

wealthy merchant

Edo

regarded

is

aristocracy until the

the

as the tea

regulated

its

called the

of those used by Yoshimasa

are reproductions

same widespread vogue

two rooms

there are

takes his place

tokonoma, and then the guests take

where

polite circles,

its

popu-

of

art

aesthetic

floral

pastime

this ancient triad

was

TOKONOMA

regarded as an institution of cultural enlightenment and mental

composure. All three were characteristically Japanese and be-

came an

of the education of noble

intrinsic part

men and

women. Each

contributed to a

and

developed sense of courtesy and behavior in

strict

observance of ceremony c

a highly

c

keeping with Japan's ancient philosophies and traditions. c

THE INCENSE CEREMONY

b

The fundamental principle of the incense ceremony in guessing the nature

perfume of

its

A

system of

strict

c

consists

and name of some incense from the

smoke.

c

,0

9

c

conventions and

down for the proper conduct of the incense ceremony is closely observed by those who participate in the entertainment. The room used for the ceremony is usually of

c

intricate rules laid

c

c

eight mats, occasionally of ten, and always has a tokonoma. In the eight-mat

room, two mats form the center portion,

with one placed across each end and two on each side to the center ones,

twelve feet by twelve

by

parallel

which makes the dimensions of the room feet, since

six feet in length. It

each mat

was the custom

is

three feet

for the

game

two

requires strict mental concentration

sides.

on

Since the

game

one's sense of smell,

the host must take every precaution to keep the air free

from

a possible conflicting odor, and even the floral arrangement in

the

Ill

tokonoma must not contain any flowers with

Fede

6

to be

played with more than five contestants, and sometimes those taking part were divided into

a

wide

scent.

To

Vhor plan and arrangement of an eight-mat room for the incense ceremony, a. position of host when receiving guests; b. position of host when conducting the ceremony; c. guests; d. metsuke (umpire); e. scorekeeper; f. fudamoto (in charge of the counters); g. kogu (cabinet for utensils), charcoal.

and

h.

hitori-koro, with supply of red-hot

Japan Society of London.


of the

kogutatc,

on the

burner with three

toward the

feet,

tray,

is

the celadon koro or incense

placed so that

two of its

feet are facing

guests.

The next item

while the

to be brought in

by

the host

the vessel to hold the red-hot charcoal

cakes. After placing this

host will then dust

all

is

the hitori-koro,

made of a

of pine cones and kimmii nuts blended into

formed into small

fine

powder

a thin paste

upon

and

the floor the

the utensils with the fukusa or small

piece of silk, which he carries in his obi. The next step is the preparation of the fire in the incense burner, a performance requiring particular skill and done according to fixed cere-

monial

rules.

hitori-koro

The

with

host will then

a pair oUiihashi or

remove

the cover of the

metal chopsticks and take

out one cake of red-hot charcoal to be placed in the koro or incense burner. ashes that

hot charcoal and form a cone. These ashes are delicately shaped with an osaye or silver spatula especially made for that purpose,

The koro is partially filled with fme oyster-shell

he carefully arranges

to completely cover the red-

delicate is

tip

and

carefully

of the cone

skillful

is

just slightly flattened. After this

molding of the cone

made with

is

completed, a hole

a utensil called the kiri or pointer, to

provide a tiny chinmey from the top of the cone to the charcoal in the center, for the heat to

rise.

With

a pair

he places the

talc over the chimney hole in the cone and, with of wooden chopsticks called kobashi, removes a piece of incense from the kobako and sets it on the talc. The koro, with

a pair

Its

thin vapor of perfume rising gently in the

to be passed

air, is

now ready

among the guests. Even the passing of the

performed according

to the rules

of the ceremony:

koro

it is

is

held

in the left hand, with three fmgers grasping the base, the index

fmger

at the side,

and the two

feet

or tiny legs of the koro

Lacquered cabinet with utemih for the luceme ccrewony decorated throughout with views of the cherry blossoms on Mount Yoshino, with rafts and fallen petals on the river, a bridge, etc., in gold and silver takamakie, gold and silver kirikane, hirame nashi-ji, and gold and silver foil on black ro-iro. Interior and base of nashi-ji. Silver mounts. The cabinet is in three stages with cupboard, four drawers, tray, and writing box with tray fitting in lower stage. Late eighteenth century. Victoria and Albert

of

ginyo-hasami or silver tweezers to hold the ginyo or talc squares,

Museum.

223


Kodogu

(uteusiJs) for the incense ceremony.

upper grouping:

i.

koban

ginyo, koshiki or hishiki (counters); 4. lower,

basami

(talc square); 3.

kozutsumi

kizami-ban (paperweight

(silver tweezers to hold

224

10.

left to right,

2.

upper,

middle; three fuda

(folded paper for incense); 5. top:

or chopping block for incense); 6.

ginyo^;

tipped chopsticks for hot charcoal); (pointer);

From

(scoreboard); next group,

7.

ginyo-

11.

hane

(feather brush); 12. knife to cut incense; 13.

incense; 14. asaye (silver spatula); 15. top right: mallet to cut incense.

burner); 2. (incense

kobako

disk);

pair o/hibashi (metal-

utensils);

4.

extinguisher; g. kisi

guesses);

and

8. silver

osaye (metal-tipped spatula

to

arrange ashes);

Bottom row

3.

left to right:

1.

celadon

(case for mica squares, incense,

kogu-tate

(silver

saw and

koro

to cut

chisel

(incense

and takigara

stand to hold the silver

fudazutsu (box for receiving counters or written 5.

hitori-koro (box for hot charcoal). Victoria

and Albert Museum.


turned toward the one

who

is

passing

When

it.

been received by each guest and the round charred residue of incense a

wooden

utensil

is

taken from the

the koro has

completed, the

is

talc

with the

tiata,

having a sharp point, and with the Imie or

tiny brush of feathers,

for

many of the favorite varieties

of incense were not only named bore names taken from the

after flowers

classics.

Among

and plants but

those

named

after

stories

and legends of old Japan were the hana-chim-sato or

removed

village

of

used for each round of the

dance;

a fresh piece

is

talc is also

falling flowers; hatinia, after a character in a

tatika,

meaning banks of mist

shagetsu or slanting

competition.

of incense vary considerably both in quality and in

Sticks

works of Japanese literature,

and then placed in the metal-lined

lower compartment of the kobako. The

from the cone, and

with its poetical symbohsm and the infmite number of famous

moon; and

No

in the springtime;

hoke-kyo, the Scripture of the

Lotus of Truth, the sutra on which the teachings of the

of Buddhism are based. In submitting

differences

between the best blends

Nichiren

are very subtle, so that the players

must be endowed with

verse along with their guesses as to the kind of incense, the

and the perceptible

cost,

very acute and cultivated senses to guess the correct names the end of a long game. There are a

at

number of varieties of the

own

formula or conventional method.

Of these various types the

one culled jisshu-ko or ten incenses,

game, each with

its

played with four different kinds of incense, follows. that is

described as

is

Three of the four samples are given a name such

of a flower or something

called the "guest."

Three

fanciful,

as

while the fourth sample

made up with each set one of the named samples.

sets are

containing a specimen of each

players

sect

competed

either

a poetical

with stanzas of famous poems or

with appropriate verses of

own

their

composition. In

tliis

highly developed form of intellectual entertainment, the

competition of verses beautifully complemented the elegant ritual

of the incense ceremony.

The exquisite

ko-awase, or incense-ceremony sets of lacquer

utensils called kodogu,

used in

this

accomplished pastime have

long been treasured by collectors.

A

complete

set

of kodogu

These, together with the sample called "guest," are placed in small individual boxes that are closed except for a

on the

top,

tional set

making

a total of ten boxes in

all.

of the three named samples only

each specimen placed in

its

own

slit,

as a

preliminary

trial

"guest" incense.

The next

step in the

up, with

to be passed

rising

through the

only, while

announced. According to the rules no

made

name is being is made of the

its

trial

game

consists

of passing

the ten boxes with their burning incense, to test the

each contestant. At the beginning of the

game

The

skill

of

each of the

players has been given the appropriate /ÂŤ(/ÂŤ or counters

by the

named incenses and one

for

players record their guesses

by

fudamoto, one for each of the three

the "guest" incense.

slit

addi-

box

incense

around with the smoke from the incense

narrow

is

narrow

Then an

placing the counters on the kohan or scoreboards, which in

turn are handed in

returns

them

at the

end of the game according to certain

and counted up by the fudamoto,

intricate rules

who

then

to the fudazutsu or counters box.

In addition to the jisshu-ko variety of incense game, there are nine other principal varieties, such as the meisho-ho or

famous

and the yeto-ko or twelve animals of the zodiac,

places,

each one with

its

own

characteristics

and

rules. Prizes

were

often given to the winners of these contests, and in ancient times, swords

and armor were bestowed

incense parties were held

incense

ceremony was one of the

of the upper

classes,

as prizes

by nobles and feudal

when

such

lords. Since the

principal cultural pastimes

the players not only contented themselves

with the identification of the various kinds of incense, but often

competed with

score.

There was a close affmity between the incense ceremony

verses

of poetry to supplement

their

Lacquer

covL-r

of cabinet for mccnse-cerernony

utensils.

Ro-iro

lacquer decoration with a true lovers knot with brocade pattern

clouds enriched

ii'ith

kirikane, and geese flying home

takamakie; half-moon Victoria

in

silver inlay.

in

and gold

Mid-eighteenth wntury.

and Albert Museum.

225


Small lacquer boxes and tray for

inform of a drum with

form of the Shinto tomoye. The

o/fundame, while in

incense.

interior

box

left: circular

is

o/nashi-ji and the base

the tiny inner boxes are decorated ivith

hiramakie on fundame with

eighteenth century.

Upper

silver bands enclosing three tiny boxes in

Upper

waves

men

fundame

fundame

box of carved red lacquer with chrysanthemums and

on

waves, with the cover for same (lower right) decorated with lotus

and other plants with a praying mantis. Late eighteenth century.

with

Lower

Upper

fundame

gold and black

Museum.

etc., in

contains the following articles: the koban or scoreboard;

fuda or counters; kobashi or

center: cover for a six-lobed box, decorated with herons in a

stream in gold and silver takamakie enriched with kirikane on

center: tiny tray depicting

ginyo, koshiki, or hishiki, the talc square to

wooden

burn incense on;

chopsticks to pick

up

kiri

ground. Early eighteenth century. Victoria and Albert

or pointer; osaye or metal spatula to arrange the ashes;

hane or feather brush koro or incense burner kobako or cabinet ;

kogutate or stand to

chopping block for incense ginyo-hasami or

box

;

silver tweezers to

metal chopsticks to hold hot charcoal;

;

for the talc squares, incense,

incense; kozutsumi or folded paper for incense; kizami-ban, or

226

base ofround butterflies

Late

ground.

hibashi, the

Lower left:

their interior in nashi-ji.

ivorking, with saltpans, fish nets drying,

hold ginyo;

and kirikane and

silver foil

ground. Mid-eighteenth century.

right: cover for the box, decorated

herons in a stream in gold and silver takamakie enriched with

kirikane on

takamakie enriched with gold and

for counters;

charcoal.

and charred incense

hold the seven

and the

hitori-koro,

ashes; the

utensils, the fudazutsu

which

is

the

box

or

for hot


XVI

M

ERAMic ART in Japan had

^^^^.^ Neohthic

its

Pottery and Porcelain

origin in the

when the Jomon type of earthenware was produced. The name jomon, meaning ropepattern,

was given to

it

type of earthenware because the

marks of

surfaces reveal the

form before

this

age,

was placed

improved during the

a coiled rope used to secure

in the kiln.

later

its

As the skUl of the potter

period of Jomon pottery, a wide

variety of shapes and designs appeared, many of comphcated

ornament with a In these later

feeling

Jomon

of primitive freedom of expression.

types, the elaborate sculptured motifs

the relief designs produced clearly reflect the highly

stone age.

around the

new

developed pottery of the Japanese

first

people migrated from the Asiatic mainland

or second century

on

a culture based

Yayoi

thin cords of clay

The era of Jomon culture lasted for several thousand

years, until a

them

by applying

and

b. c.

agriculture. This

after the distinctive

and brought with

new culture is called

powerful

among which was

states,

about the seventh century,

Burial

Mounds, from

these clans.

It

was during

this

tomb

mound

tomb. The type of earthenware this era is called

baked ware. Sue ware appears to be to

yaki and imhe yaki.

body being shaped on

civilization

vessels

for

it

men

the throwing-wheel. Japanese

advanced rapidly during the era of Yayoi culture,

was during

this

period that simple communities of kins-

kiln

were

patriarchal families

munities called created.

From

uji,

this

began to form stronger

from which

was of great

name

and

rituals,

applied

such as iwaihe

which was

set

much

up on the slope of a

on

level

to

its

hill,

in

ground, Sue-ware

higher temperature and were

The advent of

this so-called cellar

of Japanese pottery

rapid advancement. Vessels of Sue ware

the country until after the thirteenth century,

political

com-

to

all

the

in the sixth century

from China which followed gave arts.

when

they

local characteristics.

The introduction of Buddhism influences

system of family domains arose several

a generic

significance in the history

began to acquire

these

domains was

yaki

continued to be produced in a number of districts throughout

went on

a group of small

word

With the introduction of a new type of kiln

fired at a

and contributed

developed into strong patriarchal families with sub-

ordinate famihes subject to them. As time

about the

into existence in

unglazed pottery and includes those early types used

all

consequently very hard.

tour, the

came

that

objects, but

Sue-type pottery, or sue yaki, the

especially for religious offerings

and of simple form with an elegant con-

Haniwa

being frequently used in Japanese ceramics to signify ware or

called "cellar kihi,"

usually undecorated

time.

the

circle

name.

is

first

the

grouped in a

found in

Yayoi earthenware

the

on

are found instead

that

type,

by

form of human or animal figures. For some curious

first

Jomon

erected

Haniwa were not included with

contrast to the earlier type erected

In contrast to the earlier

of Ancient

lower portions with the upper

are usually cylindrical in the

reason

mounds

age of dolmens that the small

Haniwa appeared for

clay figures called

part in the

called the period

is

the great sepulchral

Tokyo known by

EARLY POTTERY TYPES

as

clan.

This era, which extends from the third or fourth century until

type of earthenware

a Neolithic site at a place in

known

the region

Yamato, controlled by the Imperial Yamato

But

it

that glazed pottery

was not

made

its

which have been preserved

until the

and the

a great stimulus

Nara period (710-794)

appearance,

many examples of

since the eighth century in the

227


Shosoin Repository

Nara. Until recent years these pieces

at

now

been

of their shape, material,

style,

were believed to be of Chinese ascertained

and glaze

from

careful study

were

that they

6rigin, but

ahiiost certainly

Nara period. These specimens

in the

has

it

produced in Japan

closely resemble

T'ang

three-color ware, but in each of their properties and specific

from

characteristics they differ

known

true Chinese pieces

to

have been produced during the T'ang dynasty. Glazing was an important stage in the development of the potter's because

it

art

enabled vessels to hold water, making them suitable

When

for domestic uses.

articles

everyday household and dining

of glazed pottery become

accessories, the natural tend-

ency is for them to acquire aesthetical and ornamental qualities.

Although glazed pottery was produced by the

from

as early as the

ninth century,

it

was not

half of the thirteenth century, during the

Kamakura

major development of ceramic

that the first

move was

This forward

influenced

kihis at Seto until the furst

art

period,

took place.

by Chinese wares, when

Kato Shirozaemon, generally known

as

Toshiro of Owari,

returned from China in the year 1227 and began to produce

He

famous wares in imitation of Sung and Yuan ceramics.

was followed by Yayoi earthenware jar of yellow clay

slightly tinged with pink,

a smooth surface. Late Neolithic Age.

and

Tokyo National Museum.

of descendants,

a long line

produced excellent native Japanese examples

Many

of Chinese prototypes.

of

all

whom

after the glazes

of the early pottery

vessels

of

Seto with their thick glazes have always been highly prized

by

the tea masters, especially the exceedingly rare specimens

made by Toshiro and

his

immediate descendants.

POTTERY FOR THE TEA CEREMONY The

cult

of

tea

was

still

another important influence that

stimulated the art of pottery-making in Japan. Although

it is

recorded in ancient chronicles that tea drinking was already

known to the Imperial household in the early part of the eighth century,

it

was not

that as a ritual this

Zen

until the

of the Zen

ritual,

sect

which had

Kamakura period (1185-1333) became better known. From

it

its

origin

China, the tea ceremony reached Japan in the fifteenth century,

as

its

among

the Taoists in

fmal development in

we have

seen,

under the

patronage of Yoshimasa, the Ashikaga Shogun. The principles

of

down by

utter simpMcity laid

the celebrated tea master

Shuko and further developed by the tea master Sen-no-Rikyu, under the patronage of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, had a direct bearing on the

aesthetics

There was very

little

of Japanese pottery.

progress in the art of pottery-making

in the sixteenth century until the last decade,

dispatched an

army

to Korea, first in 1592

when Hideyoshi

and again

in 1597.

These military operations came to an end in 1598 with the

Jomon earthenware 228

jar. Neolithic

Age. Tokyo National Museum.

death of Hideyoshi, but

when

the

army

returned,

its

com-


manders brought many Korean

back to Japan with

artisans

them. Since the main forces of this army belonged to various

daimyo of the and

settled

of Kyushu,

island

set

up

it

was here that these Koreans

was an

kilns in the feudal doniains. This

important event in the cultural history of Japan, responsible

advancement in the

for great

feudal lords artists

who

art

was Shimazu Yoshihiro,

in Satsuma the Koreans set

Among

potter.

the

at

whose

town of Chosa

castle

up a number of kilns.

recorded

It is

of Nabeshima returned from the expedi-

that the feudal lord

tion with a

of the

brought back these potters and ceramic

few hundred

and that the Daimyo

potters,

Terumoto brought with him

the

Korean potter

later

known

Koraizayemon, whose decoration on hagi yaki has always

as

been favored by the Japanese and whose family continued the kiln for eleven generations.

founded or

by

assisted

Many

these

other potteries were either

Korean

artisans in such places as

Karatsu, Yatsushiro, Takatori, and Kyoto.

The wares produced their

at these kilns

were

in the

manner of

Korean prototypes, with grayish-white and cream glazes,

plain or painted in blue or

brown; and

also greenish-gray

celadon with or without the inlaid decoration called rnishima.

The

great tea masters such as Shino Soshin, Furuta Oribe,

Sen-no-Rikyu had much to do with furthering

and

develop-

this

ment. Not only were regular potters encouraged by the devotees of the tea ceremony, but painters and "gentlemen potters" also turned to

making

by hand

vessels

in a simple,

unassuming maimer.

The

tea masters favored

in a soft

an extremely austere, sober utensil

monochrome, and they were

chiefly responsible for

the popularity and appreciation of the type of as

Raku. This

is

ware known

hand-modeled

a soft, low-temperature,

pottery with a thick rich glaze, in a variety of subdued colors, first

made by

Chojiro, under the guidance of Sen-no-Rikyu,

grand arbiter of the

tea cult in

of the sixteenth century. are purely Japanese

and

Japan.

No

of the

tea masters than

it

Its

has

the second half characteristics

no exact counterpart outside of

other pottery better exemplifies the fastidious taste

an original

primitive simplicity of form, its

Kyoto during

development and

thick glaze

which

superfluous and

is

when

its

Raku

tea

bowl with

pleasant to the lips. Painted design it

its

crude uneven modeling, and

was

occurred was only faintly sketched

strokes. Among the many amateur potters who produced Raku tea bowls the most famous was Hon-ami

with swift brush

Koetsu, artist,

1

568- 1637, a celebrated painter, calligrapher, lacquer

and

tea master. Extant pieces

made by Koetsu skill

by

and

sensitivity

tea masters.

of Raku-type pottery

are very rare and, as masterpieces

of taste, are valued

The

perfectly fulfilling

aesthetic qualities

its

function.

of the tea bowl

Its soft,

conductor of heat, so that although

of great

as priceless possessions

coarse clay

filled

with hot

is

Haiiiwa clay image of an Age,

lie

a

tea, it

c.

ar))ion'(i

third to seventh century

wan. Ancient Burial

Mound

A.D. Tokyo National Museum.

in

non-

may 229


be grasped with comfort by the fingers.

Its

shape allows

be passed from one person to another without

and

slightly roUed-in

its

rim with thick

fear

it

to

of spilling,

glaze enhances the

pleasure of tea drinking.

The glaze.

Many

body and tea

a

appreciation of tea-ceremony pottery requires

knowledge of

its

bowl

is

further displayed in the

the quality and execution of the thick

bowls are appreciated for the

skill

and care

with which the potter reserved some portion of the clay

free

of glaze for examination, and for unusual tinges of color

at

of

characteristics, the varieties

clay, the

shapes and the glazes peculiar to certain wares or kilns.

the

many

The

of these old wares are deeply appreciated for

aesthetic qualities

art that lies in the tea

soft-textured

The real

water.

distinctive features

the very hard and

found in various types, such

as

fme stonewares of Bizen, the yellowish

glazes

of some Old Seto ware, the thick uneven glazes of Shino

Wire.

The

emerges in the varied

potter's individuality also

methods by which the

sometimes on the

vessels are shaped,

marked absence of

throwing wheel, other times with a spatula or by hand. The

painted decoration on a great majority of tea bowls, this

pottery of the tea ceremony affords supreme evidence that

the edge of the thick glaze. There

is

a

being considered unessential and distracting. After

among

Raku

tea masters are

and Shiragaki. Tea

by

of Bizen ware are greatly enjoyed

tea devotees for the exquisite

displayed

humble of man's

Hagi, Karatsu, Old Seto, Tamba, Iga,

utensils

charm of the

may

the pure spirit of art

ware, the kinds of pottery most highly prized

faint

wet color

by a water jar or flower holder when sprinkled with

enter into and eimoble the

most

creations.

As the demand

of pottery for domestic

for various kinds

use increased, there developed a taste for a less austere type

among this,

the

new merchant

class

and with the increasing

of townspeople. Because of

ability

of the

potters, a rapid

development took place in the seventeenth century in many of Japan, principally in the Seto

parts

Around this time

the typical pottery

district

and in Kyoto.

ware of Kyoto was made

of a hard white clay with a deep cream color, or sometimes a covered with a network of fme crackles.

light buff glaze,

Much

of this ware was made in the Awata and

of the

tricts

city

present time. these wares celain

The

first

Kyoto

It is

in

Hizen

after the

secret

to the history

Kenzan, 1662- 1743, with

on

a por-

and partly the choice

aesthetically distinctive,

a truly

of enameling. Another famous Kyoto

much

from

middle of the seventeenth

partly the style of painting

and which provided Japanese potters with

tributed

dis-

imtil the

potter to use enamel colors

of colors which makes Ninsei's work

style

Omuro

produced

to be

was Ninsei, who learned the

maker

century.

and has continued

indigenous

artist

who

of Japanese pottery

his distinctive

con-

Ogata

is

Chinese ink-style

painted decoration executed with graceful freedom of expression. His calligraphic designs

and

stylized sketches

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;of

flowers and trees, a flight of geese, or a glimpse of landscape

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;are remarkable for

omy

of line. The

applied

slight

their firmness

of stroke and econ-

but suggestive decoration which was

by Ninsei and Kenzan, although contrary

principles

of the more severe masters of the

to the

tea cult,

was

accepted and even favored by others for the tea ceremony. It

may be that to such severe tea masters as Rikyu, some of the

productions of these potters would be unacceptable, and yet

both potters were capable of enjoying the pure tea

called

upon

to

do

so.

spirit

of the

when The importance of Ninsei and Kenzan

ceremony and creating wares pleasing

to

its

votaries

to the pottery art of Japan lies not only in their artistic achieve-

ments, but in the fact that they nurtured a national style of Seto pottery jar with four ears, engraved with a design of lotus.

pottery decoration. This native style was further developed

Kamakura period (1185-1333}. Tokyo National Museum.

in

230

Kyoto by many

distinguished potters in the eighteenth


century whose descendants

still

operate

some of the hereditary

especially such

famous wares

as

Kakiemon, Imari, Nabeshima,

and Kutani. These four wares exemphfy the apex of Japanese

kUns.

They seldom bear the With the exception of Nabeshima, whose wares were made for presentation purcolored porcelains with white grounds. seal

BEGINNINGS OF JAPANESE PORCELAIN

or

mark of

a potter or kiln.

were producing

poses and use in feudal houses, the kilns

The

beautiful Chinese porcelains

of the Ming dynasty were

always highly prized by the Japanese, and the Korean potters

daimyo on

who were

their return

from

it

was hoped

that

brought along by the various the invasion of

Korea would

produce such work. These artisans, who were skilled in making porcelain in their native land, at

first

made only pottery wares,

since proper materials for porcelain

covered in Japan.

had not yet been

dis-

Among the artisans brought from Korea in

1598 was a potter called

Ri Sampei, whose

Japanese

name

is

articles chiefly

and

a

commercial

their productions

workers and practice seal

on

a

potters, hi contrast to this,

of the kiln or

their personal seal

at similar small

was the

as

kUns

some

making

daimyo of Hizen, and

set

up

porcelain.

to Japan

kilns;

but

forty years later that any real progress

Sampei was one

with Nabeshima, the it

was not untU about

was made in developing

true porcelain.

This early period of the

Tokugawa Shogunate now

wit-

all

traditional

pieces they con-

potters,

artisans placed their personal seal

continued to use his original

and those

other locations, usually used

of Japanese

practice in other forms

their kiln, while the successors

many potters who came

on

There were many inconsistencies in

china clay of fme quality at Izumiyama in Arita in Hizen

of the

was the

The Kyoto

at

Kanae Sampei. Around the year 1616 Sampei discovered province, and succeeded in

it

of the potters of Kyoto almost always to place the

pseudonym,

art.

and export,

were the work of many contributing

sidered as having artistic merit.

working

basis for daily use

of

seal,

a

this practice, since

on

all

pieces

made

famous potter or

and

used

stiU others

at

artist

many

pseudonyms, hi addition, the practice of legal adoption further complicates matters and makes

it

difficult

many

and in

cases

impossible to accurately record the various generations of a

family of potters.

The

were placed upon

specific types

seals

of famous

tea masters, or cha jin,

of wares they preferred, with

known

nessed rapid advances in the production of fme porcelain,

the result that these wares produced

Tea bowl of yellow Seto ware having

Karatsu-ware pottery jar having a brown-colored clay body covered

a brownish-colored body

by small kibis

covered with a yellow glaze in which are spots of copper-green.

with a greenish-brown glaze and decorated with

Momoyama period

jlowering grasses.

Tokyo.

(1573-1613). Collection oflssei Hatakeyama,

Edo

are

a

design

of

period, seventeenth century. Collection of

Sukezo Idemitsu, Tokyo.

231


Square pottery dish ofOribe ware with a design of stripes.

Momoyama period

(1573-1615).

Tokyo National Museum.

by the name of the nor

tea master, although

among

Included

artist.

designs or

names

these

he was neither potter

famous

tea masters

are closely associated with

Rikyu, Oribe, and Enshu,

who

many

whose

kilns are

and porcelain ware of Japan, including

ground and

their historical back-

distinctive characteristics, are given in the follow-

ing sections.

appear most often.

From the Middle Ages, when the Seto wares were produced, the ceramic art has manifested a feeling nese.

The

taste

which

is

purely Japa-

and temperament of the Japanese

is

and expressed in the pottery and porcelain which they prefer for their

own use and enjoyment. An appreciation of Japanese

ceramics, with their

immense

SETO

reflected

variety and complexity,

is

best

The town of Seto

referred to in ninth-century Imperial records,

acquired through a knowledge and understanding of the most

the

important types, both of pottery and of such colored por-

period, that the

celains as

Nabeshima, Kakiemon, Imari, and Kutani. Imari

and Kakeimon are both familiar names in Europe,

was exported in first

fairly large quantities

half of the eighteenth century.

ware

as this

from Arita during the

The earliest examples were

taken to Europe by Dutch traders in the

latter part

of the

in the former province of

Owari

haps the oldest pottery center in Japan. Although it

step

first

was taken

is

per-

kilns are

was not

half of the thirteenth century, during the

first

its

until

Kamakura

in the development of

Seto ware. This period marks the actual beginning of the

growth and advancement of Japanese ceramic

art,

which

in

many word setomono ceramic wares, and the word

Seto ware was to achieve the foremost position for centuries. In fact,

has been

from

commonly

early times in Japan the

applied to

One of the most famous

seventeenth century, before the discovery of porcelain in

setomonoya means a pottery shop.

Europe, and consequently were highly prized in the West.

names among Japanese

The English

who is generally regarded as the founder of ceramic art in Japan. He first esta'b-

East India

Company and

the French

Compagnie

des Indes began shipping these wares around the

seventeenth century.

The

earher

Kakiemon

end of the

designs

profusely copied in the eighteenth century at Meissen, tilly,

Worcester, Chelsea,

Bow, Derby, and

were

Chan-

other places.

The

brocaded Imari designs in blue, red, and gold were also the inspiration for

many

patterns produced at these

European

manufactories. Descriptions of the most important pottery

232

potters

is

Kato Shirozaemon,

1

169 to

1249, usually called' Toshiro of Owari,

lished a kiln at Seto in the early part

where he produced

of the thirteenth century,

a primitive unglazed pottery ware. In

the year 1223, in the

company of

a Buddhist priest

named

Dogen, he visited China, where he studied the art of porcelain-

making

of four years. Upon his return to Japan he many parts of the country in search of a clay of the

for a period

traveled to


finest quality to

produce porcelain, but

as this

venture was

without reward, he returned to Seto and resumed his there.

Some of his

earliest pieces, called

work

Toshiro-Karamono,

and incised

rating these Seto wares with impressed patterns

designs other.

which were used

singly or

combined one with the

A variety of motifs were used,

such as

plum

blossoms,

They were made from clay that he had brought from China. The first Seto wares believed to have been produced by Toshiro have a brownish glaze

chrysanthemums, peonies, willows, pine needles,

streaked with black, and a rich reddish-brown glaze with

strongly resembles the technique and design found

are highly prized in Japan.

splotches of golden

on by

brown. The work of Toshiro was carried

a long line of descendants,

all

endeavoring to produce

wares similar to the beautiful Sung celadons, called Japan,

seiji

in

which were highly valued by the court nobles and

bands of circles in an over-all pattern or

The

of decoration

style

foliage,

and

as a single decoration.

as well as the selection

and Yuan celadons from China and the

of motifs

on Sung

inlaid celadons

of the

Korai period of Korea, since these were the prototypes that influenced the Seto wares.

The

shapes and forms of the Seto

wares were also taken from these Chinese and Korean types, the bottle-shaped vases, jars with

narrow necks, incense

feudal lords.

such

The term Yellow Seto or hi seto is generally applied to all varieties of Old Seto or ko seto pottery having a yellowish or

burners, and temwokti-type tea bowls copied after the Chien

amber-colored

glaze.

This glaze, which

the devotees of the tea ceremony, firing in

is

is

greatly admired

by

the result of incorrect

an attempt to imitate celadon, and

its

production was

as

yao tea bowls of China.

As the

tea

ceremony grew

in popularity the Seto potters

began to produce imitations of the small dynasty imported from China. These

tea jars

jars,

of the Ming

having four small

continued until modern times. The amber-colored glaze,

loops close to the neck to secure a cord, are covered with an

which followed the yellowish one, contained

a large quantity

uneven dark-brown or dark-amber glaze, and those of superior

of iron which caused

muddy

Toward

its

color to be slightly

the end of the Middle

in tone.

Ages the Old Seto glaze be-

came brownish and dark brown in color and was

chiefly

applied to such articles as tea jars and similar vessels. potters

made remarkable

Tea bowl of ash-gray

The

progress in their technique of deco-

Shirio

ware hnown as "unohana-gahi,"

meaning a fence along which bloom the tiny white blossoms of the utsugi (Japanese snowflon'er). End of fifteenth century. Tokyo

known as Shunkei tea jars after a Seto potter of that From the end of the sixteenth century through the early

quality are

time.

part of the seventeenth century Seto wares

were produced

with crudely painted designs in a purely Japanese developed from the orders for tea

jars

taste

which

given to some Seto

Shino-warc pottery jar with a crude brush design of landscape.

Momoyama

period (1573-1615). Collection of Nisaburo Taka-

mitsu, Tokyo.

National Museum.

233


by Oribc, the famous

potters

with

its

sketchily

or picture

seto.

draw

This type of ware,

tea master.

designs,

is

known

or painted

as e-seto,

"With the beginning of the nineteenth century

the Seto kibis began to produce porcelain wares, the introduction

and development of which was due

Tamikichi,

who

Most of

Arita.

and-white.

work of Kato

studied the technique at various kilns in

was made

this porcelain

The town of

celaiii centers in

to the

Seto

is still

in underglaze blue-

one of the

busiest por-

and only rarely

usually impressed

white

frequently

slip,

on

incised, are filled

The name

a gray glaze.

is

with a derived

from the supposed resemblance of these rows of repeat-designs to the

rows of characters

nese term mishima

is

in Japan

Korean

and

filled

calendar, for

was famous. The Japawares having

also used to describe all

incised or impressed designs

are of Japanese or

Mishima

in the yearly

which the town of Mishima

with

slip,

whether they

origin.

Japan with over five hundred producing kihis,

and in the town park stands a great porcelain plaque in memory of the famous potter

Tosliiro. Also in the

town

Shinto shrine, dedicated to Kato Tarrdkichi,

method of making

the Arita

is

who

the

Kama

SHINO

introduced

Toward

porcelain in 1807.

the end of the fifteenth century, potters of the Seto

district in the

certain tea

KARATS U

notable productions were the powdered-tea bowls

communication with Korea during

which have

was the

of Karatsu in the northern part of

iron-oxide black glaze. These wares, which were crudely

city

Kyushu, which was one of the leading pottery centers where the ancient Sue earthenware had been produced.

was not

until the

turning

However,

it

end of the sixteenth century, when great

numbers of Korean

potters

were brought over with the

army of Hideyoshi,

that the

re-

advanced ceramic tech-

nique was introduced from northern Korea and glazed pottery first

fured,

produced. The Karatsu kilns began to

make

a high-

hard pottery with a thick opaque glaze and a transparent

formed with

a

which

and a transparent ash-

and uneven form have milk-white and dark-brown

glazes in

monochrome.

Many

Karatsu vessels are most highly prized by devotees

tea

ceremony

as

Inside the vessel can

wavy

having been made by a special process.

be seen

pattern, caused

many

small,

round marks, or a

by beating during the process of

for-

mation in order to harden the clay. The ware known as brush-

marked Karatsu

is

a type of

Korean decoration of the Yi

dynasty which was produced by dipping the brush in a colored

and drawing the design with a continuous stroke

oxide or

slip

until the

brush was dry or free of its content. The seventeenth-

century wares of the Karatsu kilns included a type of decoration

known as mishima, which is purely Korean in its origin,

and was

first

made only

Korean potters had

at those

radiating designs in the

form of stars,

ventionalized flowers, and lines.

234

Kyushu

settled. It consists

locations

where

of small repetitive and

circles, semicircles,

The

designs,

con-

which

are

have continued to be

The uneven white

is

called fire color

by

painted Shino ware,

is

the white glaze and thickness of line.

body and

its

its

An

brown

brown is

glazed

thinnest,

distinguished

by

The

e-shino,

design exposed.

or

iron oxide under

its

simplicity

and

unusual feature of some Shino ware

was wiped off part of the

heavy and coarse, thick glaze

decorated in

is

is

the tea masters, and considered

to be one of its most charming characteristics.

is

colored glaze, while wares such as tea bowls and jars of crude

glaze,

wares often have a reddish tinge where the glaze

brown or blackishbrown with iron oxide under the glaze and had scant designs that were crudely executed. The glazes on e-karatsu comprise a translucent white feldspathic glaze

rough and uneven

favored for use in the tea ceremony.

that the glaze

Karatsu with designs, were painted in

opaque white glaze and those having an

a thick

loquat-colored glaze. Later productions, called e-karatsu, or

of the

make

ceremony

principal port of

early times

was

tea

conducted by a distinguished tea master called Shino Soshin.

The most The

province of Owari were conuiiissioned to

bowls and other articles for use in the

is

piece, leaving the

The body of Shino ware

reflecting a crude peasant technique,

and

heavily crackled or covered with tiny holes

where bubbles have formed. The gray Shino ware, popularly


white body covered with an engobe

called nezumi-shino, has a

of dark-brown

slip

having designs executed in graffito under

Oribe wares are divided into three categories, each according to

its

characteristics:

and Black, or huro

a white glaze.

oribe.

Green, or ao

AU three

oribe;

Red, or aka

oribe;

of these Oribe types have

a

portion of the surface covered with a beautiful sea-green glaze

which blends

ORIBE Famous

of Japanese ceramics

in the history

Oribe ware.

It is

named

Azuchi

priest far

and

Oda Nobunaga, whose

leyasu. Oribe,

later a retainer

from the pottery

builder of the great

father

had been

a

Buddhist

of Hideyoshi, was born in Mino not

district

daimyo and placed

of Seto. Under Nobunaga, Oribe

in charge of a castle in Kyoto.

became the pupil of Sen-no-Rikyu, the

of the tea ceremony, and

ceremony

later

to leyasu's son, the

after the siege

ruler

of Osaka

castle

served

a

While

great master

teacher of this

of Japan, one of Oribe's retainers was discovered to be

who

tried to set fire to the

of Kyoto. According to Japanese custom, Oribe was held

responsible for the act and ordered to life

as a

made

Tokugawa Shogun. In 161 5, which made leyasu supreme

chief of a group of conspirators city

one of

He served under

served as a samurai, and under Hideyoshi he was

there he

or

on the shore of Lake Biwa, Hideyoshi, and

castle

Tokugawa

oribc yahi,

for Furuta Oribe, 1543-1615,

the most distinguished tea masters of all time. three celebrated leaders,

is

commit suicide.

Oribe's

span covered some of the most exciting and eventful years

in Japanese history, and although his career

war lords, he was and peaceful

basically

aspects

of

into a bluish

and purple-red tone

is

covered with a thick gray glaze and on the

a

reddish-brown

gray glazes

is

Red

type with

glaze.

Beneath the reddish-brown and the

a design

drawn with brown iron oxide and

executed with swift, sure strokes of the brush.

ware

at the thin

On the Green and Black types the balance of the surface

edges.

When

Oribe

completely covered with the sea-green glaze,

is

it is

The Oribe wares were produced by Mino and Seto districts. The designs and

referred to as ao oribe.

both the

kilns in

shapes of Oribe ware are distinctive and charming with purely

Japanese characteristics and asynunetrical

manner with

taste,

the

ously related one to the other.

and were created in an

component

The sketchy

parts

harmoni-

designs of rustic

simplicity include such motifs as leaves of grass, a stalks,

a spider's

web, pine

needles,

few

rice

and conventionalized

The forms found in these wares connected with name include such popular ones as rectangular trays

patterns.

Oribe's

with

vertical sides, either singly or

ularly, fan-shaped dishes

and square and round

connected together irreg-

with vertical

jars,

all

square dishes,

sides,

ingeniously executed with

dented or bent shapes in a free and unreserved tech-

slightly

nique.

was with the great

concerned with the more beautiful

life.

The

designs and shapes of his

RAKU

pottery articles have been greatly admired by the Japanese for

The

over three hundred years and have strongly influenced the

ceramic art of Japan until the present day.

pottery called

Raku was

created in

Kyoto sometime

during the second half of the sixteenth century

Left:

when

there

Tea bond of white Rahu ware of a type called "Fuji-san" hazy grayish-white glaze on the upper half suggests the

because the

snow-capped Mount Fuji, and the lower the foot

of Mount Fuji

at daybreak.

half, the

misty scenery at

Made by Hon-ami

Koetsu,

1558-163J. Collection of Tadamasa Sakai, Tokyo.

Right: to

Black

Raku

tea

bowl known

as

"Shunkan."

Attributed

Chojiro, i^i^-i^gz. Mitsui Collection, Tokyo.

235


was

a great

demand

famous ware was

for articles for the tea ceremony. This

first

produced by a potter

Chojiro, 1515-1592, and his son, Jokei.

The

called Sasaki

father

of Chojiro

was a potter named Ameya, who had emigrated from Korea, settled in tiles.

Kyoto, and

set

up a kiln

of roof

for the production

After his death Chojiro and his son continued to operate

the kiln.

They were commissioned

make

to

the roof

tiles

making wares

exclusively for use in the tea_ceremony, and in

work and

recognition of this

Rikyu gave gold

memory of

Jokei in

seal to

Raku

rations

at this

o(raku, which they impressed

in the previous

of

Muromachi

a national art

period,

by Hideyoshi's

was

to be used

to impress every piece of pottery he produced. Later gene-

which

time that the tea ceremony, which had become an institution

Chojiro, which bore the

meaning enjoyment of freedom,

character raku,

Hideyoshi was having buUt in the year 1587.

was

name of Tanaka. Then

shortly after the death of Chojiro, Hideyoshi presented a

for the beautiful pleasure pavilion called Jurakudai It

because of a close friendship,

to Chojiro his family

of the

own

seals

their respective pieces.

The

family preferred to use their

on

family of Raku-ware makers has continued for fourteen

raised to the dignity

generations until the present day, each successive generation

Sen-no-Rikyu.

being appointed by the master of the house. The most

tea master,

Under Rikyu's guidance Chojiro and

Jokei soon began

members were

distinguished

Chojiro, and

Nonko, 1599-

who was the son of Jokei and became a Buddhist monk, which time he assumed the name of Donyu. Raku ware

1658, at

was

produced in the

also

Raku glaze.

yaki

and Mino.

kilns at Seto

having a thick heavy

a low-fired soft pottery

The ware

centuries tea

is

has been a favorite with the tea masters for

and comprises

ceremony, such

all

as tea

the pottery articles for use in the

bowls, small

incense burners, and incense boxes.

jars,

Raku

tea

flower holders,

bowls are more

highly valued by devotees of the tea cult than any other ware. This preference suitable for

that they

is

due to the

powdered

were the

tea,

fact that the

bowls are most

also because

of the tradition

and

favorite tea

bowls of the great

tea master

Rikyu. There are three types: Black Raku or kuro

Raku

or aka raku, and

White Raku or

shiro raku.

raku.

Red

The

thick

glaze has a soft appearance and a pleasant soft feel to the touch.

The

glazes are always

monochrome and comprise

black,

various tones of brown, shades of gray, yellowish white, a soft yellow,

and

Fujiyama

is

on the

red. Designs are rarely painted

although occasionally a faint sketch of a pine

done by

lightly scraping

away

tree, a

the glaze.

Japanese greatly admire the natural design resulting

uneven flow of the glaze while

glaze,

heron, or

The

from the

and to these they have

firing,

applied specific terms, such as maku for the

wavy

welt lines

caused by the flow of the glaze, and nagare for the lines ending in a teardrop.

A

unique feature of

Raku ware

that

is

it is

occasionally

shaped by hand without the use of the potter's wheel.

method

is

to shape the

fmgers and a

bamboo

bowl from

a

lump of

spatula, leaving the base

very thick.

Then, by turning the bowl upside-down, the foot rim to

its

proper shape. The other method

is

Small Satsuma vase for holding a single flower; drum-shaped body with design of dragon, phoenix, and floral sprays

in colored

on a cream-colored ground and crackled glaze. Edo period, Collection

236

ofK.

Irnai,

Kyoto.

enamels c.

1780.

form the bowl, and then pat

with the fmgers. The foot rim fluted

is

when the bowl is fmished.

the coils

is

it

is

cut

to roll the clay into

rope-like pieces about one-half inch in diameter, coil itself to

One

clay with the

it

upon

to the desired shape

then shaped separately and

In this process the outline of

not entirely erased. The crudely formed tea bowls

with their lip rims bent

slightly

inward are always made in an


with design of seasonal flowers in colored

Teapot of Satsuma ware with loops for overarching handle luhich

enamels and gold, on cream-colored ground, with crackled glaze.

was usually made of rattan or bamboo. The glaze is rather drab, while the clouds and flying storks are painted in greenish-gray,

Satsuma sake

Made

bottle

originally to fit in a gold-lacquered luncheon box.

Edo period,

end of eighteenth century. Collection of K. Imai, Kyoto.

unrestrained

them

manner with

a gentle unevenness that

c.

makes

and to drink from.

pleasant to hold

1840. Victoria and Albert

included an over-all impressed design or pattern inlaid with

white

mishima satsuma, copied from Korean proto-

slip called

types, while others

brown

SATSUMA

Museum.

glaze

some with

on

splashes

glaze, others

had

delicate sketches

done with

a greenish-

a brownish crackled glaze. There are also

of greenish-brown on a heavy tea-colored

with a dark-green or brown glaze spattered with

Ryumonji,

golden brown tea-dust, and some with black

glazes. All

Nayeshirogawa, and Tateno, located in the former domain of

wares described above are recognized and

classified

The pottery produced the

in the kilns at Chosa,

House of Shimazu, which ruled over the provinces of

Satsuma and Osumi,

were

set

is

generally called Satsuma. These kilns

up and operated by Korean

potters brought back to

Japan by Shimazu Yoshihiro in 1598 after the military expedition to Korea.

The

early Satsuma wares copied the potteries

of the Yi dynasty of Korea, with monochrome glazes tliickly

upon

a crudely

laid

formed body of high-fired, hard and

Japanese as Satsuma.

The name Satsuma

by the average foreigner and those not

do not

reflect Japanese taste.

One of these,

prise jakatsu or serpent

and scorpion

glaze,

com-

being a milk-white

glaze laid over a thick black glaze that produced a beautiful

and unusual color tone

reflecting tiny spots

for the

an attempt to copy is

a

cream-colored, high-fired type of pottery with a crackled

enamel

or ko satsuma and

made

the late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century wares,

glaze having an over-all elaborate

Old Satsuma

familiar with Japanese

export and tourist trade which are not typically Japanese and

coarse pottery. All these early Satsuma wares are highly

of the original productions were made. The wares of these

the

has been associated,

ceramics, with entirely different wares generally

valued for use in the tea ceremony, for which purpose most

kilns are designated as

of the

by

colors.

The

and gaudy decoration in

other ware covers a wide variety of

ornamental pieces and small figures executed in a gaudy

manner

for this trade.

Most of the export and

Satsuma have been produced

called

Kobe, and Kyoto

at

tourist

wares

various kilns in Tokyo,

for the past seventy-five years.

of white. The

Black Satsuma or kuro satsuma and White Satsuma or

sliiro

satsuma are terms applied to a coarse and heavy pottery having

HAG

I

a thick black glaze covered with either a milk-white or a

brownish glaze

glaze,

depending upon the degree of dark or white

most prominent or conspicuous. Later Satsuma wares

The

port

town of Hagi on

the castle headquarters of the

the Sea of Japan

Mori family

was formerly

in the province

237


of Nagato. The seventeenth-century Hagi pottery wares were copied exactly from the Yi-dynasty wares of Korea, especially those called ido yaki. a

The

principal potter of

Korean named Rikei, who came

to Japan

Mori Terumoto when he returned

lord

Hagi ware was with the feudal

after the

;^>.K

Hideyoshi

expedition to Korea in 1598. Rikei became a naturalized citizen

and took the Japanese name of Koraizayemon, under

which name the family has continued wares for eleven generations. Hagi

mostly tea

of the

utensils

produce pottery

Hagi ware, were

and have been greatly admired by devotees

who

ceremony,

tea

to

yaki, or

place

Raku

pottery

..â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘j^

Hagi

first,

second, and Karatsu third. Hagi tea bowls are considered to

have a most

grain pottery usually with

is

Raku

second only to

delicate feel in the hands,

The body of Hagi ware

ware.

a thick crudely

monochrome

formed fme-

The

glazes.

early

productions were generally covered with a milk-white glaze

and a transparent yellow-green glaze a later shiro hagi,

glaze.

From

this

and rather beautiful glaze

called

White Hagi, or

milk-white

Other glazes were

1640. Victoria and Albert

Museum.

done in a swift manner,

were executed

bowls.

ido

developed in imitation of Korean

later

wares, such as the brush-marked ware with

that

chocolate-colored pottery body covered

c.

developed, and also another glaze of loquat color

resembling that found on the original Korean

strokes

Tea bowl of Hagi ware with with a pale greenish glaze,

its

wide brush

drawn

also scantily

in iron oxide under the glaze,

designs

AWATA

and mishima

decoration, as well as various glazes having light-green and

gray colors.

In the Awataguchi district of Kyoto,

was noted

for

swordsmiths, are

its

ceramic wares in

much

the

same manner

did in the seventeenth century.

AWAJI

produced pottery

which

The

in ancient times

many kilns still producing as their predecessors

early Idlns at

articles for the tea

Awataguchi

ceremony. Awata

yaki,

or Awata ware, has a white clay body and the glaze is generally

The pottery wares of Awaji are synonymous with and also Mimpei ware. The picturesque island of Awaji

referred to as is

only a few miles distant from the city of Kobe

at the eastern

end of the Inland Sea and, according to Japanese mythology, was one of the first islands created by the ancestral deities of Japan.

The ware was

Mimpei, who was

furst

produced around 1831 by Kashu

greatly interested in ceramic art. This

has a smooth brownish-white

body covered with

ware

a creamy-

a deep a

cream color or occasionally

network of very fme

crackle.

An interesting

having worked influence

ceramic

at

Awataguchi

artists

such

as

by

beautiful

monochrome

Of

beautifully mottled to resemble tor-

glaze,

toise shell.

which

is

special interest

The articles made particularly for

soft

were executed in various

some Awaji relief.

is

the Awaji or

the tea

ceremony

body, while the wares for domestic use have a

dense hard body of fme texture.

238

is

the

for a short time, exerted great

latter

produced wares for the

glazes,

Mimpei

low

ware

Chinese Imperial yellow, turquoise blue, apple green,

and a blackish brown.

have a

distinction in this

of Awata are members of the Kinkozan family

Imperial family.

ductions are characterized

with

in rich

on the pottery of Awata. The most prominent

ware

Many Awaji pro-

is

use of underglaze iron-brown and imderglaze blue. Ninsei,

and the Taizan family; the

sometimes finely crackled.

decoration

enamel colors comprising red, green, and light blue, sometimes with gold.

colored glaze that varies occasionally to a light buff. Awajiglazes are

a light buff covered

The

The

designs

colors, occasionally

pieces contain a

on some

pieces

with gold, and

molded decoration done in

BANKO In the second half of the eighteenth century a wealthy

merchant and amateur ceramist named

mon began to make pottery wares after

Numanami Gozayethe

manner of Ninsei

and Kenzan. He lived at Kuwana, where travelers embarked on a boat to cross Ise risk the several

Bay

to visit the

famous shrines rather than

dangerous rivers on the way.

Kuwana was


one of the

also

of

prints

that

Most of the

title.

highway

the Tokaido

on

fifty-three stages

by Hiroshige in his famous

depicted

of wood-block

series

productions of

earliest

Gozayemon's kiln were Raku-type wares for the tea ceremony. His

work was

who

greatly adinired

him

requested

was appointed

move

to

by

potter in

official

is

said to

have found

his

to carry

on

later a potter

and

such

as

famille rose.

named Mori

of the Banko kiln from a

The Gozayemon wares

the pottery.

he

died

had not been any successor

as there

included fme

and Chinese

imitations of Delft faience of Holland verte

Gozayemon

formula for making enamel

colors. Yusetsu purchased the seal

grandson of Gozayemon,

now Tokyo, where

1785.

around 1800, and about thirty years Yusetsu

Tokugawa Shogun,

the

to Edo,

famillc

There were other Banko productions

brownish-glazed wares, underglaze blue ware, and a

soft pottery

ware having

designs executed in red.

a cream-colored crackled glaze

The Banko

Tokyo

kiln in

with

is still

in

existence.

BIZEN Okayama

Bizen ware, made in first

prefecture,

was one of the

of the early Sue wares to acquire individual characteristics.

Bizen

is

distinctive for

its

very high-fired clay body which

closely resembles bronze, both to the eye

and to the touch. The

wares which date from the thirteenth century were originally

produced for household and articles as jugs

masters,

who

and seed

them

use

ritual

jars that are

use and include such

highly prized by the tea

Some

for holding water or flowers.

Bizen wares produced for the tea ceremony are frequently called

Imbe, which

a

is

more

thin

and

delicate

ware

first

made

about the end of the sixteenth century by members of the clan or family of that

name. In addition to the unglazed

bronze-colored bizen yahi, there bizen

made from

Above:

is

an unusual type called ao

a grayish-green clay

Banko-ware

which was

candlestick with a design

in overglaze colored enamels.

Edo

greatly

of chrysanthemums

period, early nineteenth century.

Private collection, Tokyo.

Below:

Flower holder ofAwaji ware having aflat extended mouth

in a separate piece

and two small handles

in the

form of elephants'

heads. Cream-colored body with crackled glaze, painted in colors with gilding.

Made

teenth century. Victoria

by Kashin Sanpei in Awaji,

enamel

late

nine-

and Albert Museum.

239


prized during the

Edo period.

All the wares

seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are

made during

known

the

Old Bizen

as

Bizen wares have always been highly valued by the Japanese,

by the

especially

tea devotees

or ko bizen. In the seventeenth century the hidasuhi type of

effect

Bizen appeared with the beautiful

splashed with drops of water.

highly valued for use as tea

ware each piece salt

is

partly

scarlet

marks which are

in straw

furing, the

of the body touched by the wet straw develop

streaks

vessel

when

lightly

dampened with

water from the sea and placed in the kOn. In the

parts

enjoy the moist color

of hidasuki

utensils. In the firing

wrapped

so

who

produced on an unglazed Bizen

scarlet

EIRAKU AND KAIRAKU-EN ,#

and markings. In the seventeenth century the pro-

Around

the middle of the sixteenth century Nishimura

ductions of the bronze-colored Bizen ware included numerous

Soin, the son of a samurai called Zengoro,

figure subjects executed in a nTost pleasing manner, including

potter at the Kasuga shrine at Nara.

mythological personages, gods, animals, birds, and

fishes.

Old

unglazed as a

articles

used

at

was the

official

He produced the various

the shrine for ritual offerings as well

type of earthenware charcoal brazier called a/wro.

the direction of a famous tea master

Rikyu he made

who was

Under

a pupil of

a particular type oifuro having a deep black

sheen or luster which was used especially for the tea ceremony.

To

each generation of Zengoro descendants was transmitted

the secret of making this type oÂŁfuro.

of

this line

famous

One of the most noted

was Zengoro Hozen, 179 5-1855, who became

for his imitations

of Ming porcelains. In the beginning

of the second quarter of the nineteenth century, while working

Kyoto, he was invited to go to the Tokugawa

at his kiln in

castle at

Mito, the seat of the Lord of Kishu, where he

a kihi in the

famous garden known

as

Kairaku-en.

set

up

Hozen

is

celebrated for his remarkably beautiful wares in imitation of

Ming

three-color wares, underglaze blue-and-white

and kinran-de porcelain having

after Shonzui,

with gold brocade designs

after the

ware

ground

a red

Chinese manner. Hozen's

productions coinmonly referred to by the Japanese

as

Kairaku-

en ware comprise colored glazes which completely cover the

ware

in green, yellow,

and purple, and occasionally white.

Sometimes turquoise blue

ware a

colors. In this

is

used in place of one of the three

slight ridge outlines the designs

separates

one glaze from the other, and

skillfully

blended on each piece.

pieces after the style

He

all

also

and

these colors are

produced many

of Ninsei's enameled pottery. The name

is the Japanese name for the Ming Emperor Yung Lo, was given to Hozen, written on a silver seal by the Tokugawa Lord of Kishu in appreciation of his work in the style of Ming porcelain. After that aU the successive potters of this Zengoro line have used the name of Eiraku along with

Eiraku, which

their artist

son,

Bizen stoneware figure ofHotei, one of the shichifukujin or seven gods of good fortune. life.

He

sacred

is

gem

He is a lover ofchildren and a symbol ofa happy

seen here in his happy role with a child at his side, the in his right

hand and

children or the sacred treasures.

his bag in

About 1800.

which he puts playful British

Museum.

Zengoro

line,

their individual pieces.

succeeded to his father's

work and

a rich coral-red

fmely executed decoration in gold.

He

is

also

this rich

excelled in

ground with

famous

finely executed porcelain tea bowls, rice bowls,

having

Hozen's

in 1824 in the twelfth generation of the

making gilded porcelain having

silver,

for his

and dishes

red ground with exquisite designs in gold or

frequently combined with underglaze blue-and-white

decoration.

240

pseudonyms on

Wazen, born

The ceramic wares bearing the Eiraku seal through


howl with a design of flowering

Kairakii-cii-ware pottery tea grasses.

Edo

period, first half nineteenth century.

Tokyo National

Tea bowl wade by Niusei

Tokusawa

gold.

many

these

generations are

at the present

numerous and of

time the

artist

potter

great variety,

known

as Eiraku,

Hozen, or Nishunura Zengoro, the sixteenth generation of the line,

producing wares of the

is

traditional style style

middle of the seventeenth century.

and a design of round

fans in red and light-green overglaze enamel colors with silver and

Museum.

and

in the

Pottery body covered with a black overglaze

of his

of the faniDy

own

finest

quahty both in the

as well as in a

modern

Japanese

Collection,

utensils for use in the tea

and

delicately

beautifully

worked

ceremony, including finely shaped

tea jars, tea bowls,

and water

jars,

and

modeled incense burners in the form of birds and

sea shells. Ninsei's first

Omuro

Tokyo.

wares were

made

kHns in the

at the

of Kyoto, where he produced

district

articles similar

to those of other kiln centers, such as the primitive types so

creation.

much

in

demand.

He

learned the secret of enamel colors and

him is usually credited the creation of a school of beautifully executed overglaze pottery. The influence of Ninsei's work to

NINSEI

was firmly infused

One of the most

celebrated

ramic history of Japan active

dates

is

names

associated

with the ce-

Ninsei, a painter and potter of Kyoto

around the middle of the seventeenth century. The of his birth and death are usually given

as

but these have not been confirmed. Ninsei's significant influence

1596-1666,

work had

upon the wares of Kyoto, with

characteristic style reflecting his

achievements

as

an

a

their artist-

potter. His real name was Nonomura Seiyemon and his artist name of Ninsei was derived from the seal with which his work is impressed, bearing the characters nin and sei, the latter taken from his own name. The character nin was bestowed upon him by Prince Ninnaji, who was the traditional superior

of the Ninnaji temple in Kyoto, formerly palace, near

which Ninsei had

accomplished the Tosa

artist

who had

and Kano

schools.

set

up

known

as

a kiln. Ninsei

Omuro was an

studied under masters of both

His pieces were principally

the term

Kyo is

Ninsei's

ware

from

in the qualities

of Kyoto ware, for which

often used as a broad description.

fme and hard, and

is

said to

The body of

have been made

a paste called shigaraki clay. His glazes usually

very fme network of crackle and have a glazes preferred

by Ninsei were

soft

show

a

warm effect. The

a lustrous black, a translucent

milk-white, a pearl gray, and especially one of raven-black

produced by laying green glaze over sometimes sprinkled with tiny inspired

by

enamel

richness of effect, with

minute

detail

colors, especially in the depiction

and flowers. In Ninsei ware the teristic

flecks

which was

of gold, a technique

by Japanese gold-lacquer ware. His designs

characterized exquisite

a black glaze

are

and

of plants

traditional Japanese charac-

of balancing motifs against bare, undecorated

areas

is

beautifully exemplified. In later life Ninsei traveled through-

out Japan visiting innumerable kihis and devoting to teaching other potters.

much time

Often while visiting a kiln he would 241


practice his

own

art,

which accounts

for Ninsei

many

considered characteristic of so

ware being

locations about the

country. Because of his widespread fame during his Ufetime, his

work was

imitated

by

potters almost everywhere,

sometimes badly.

Kenzan's work. The designs most frequently found include

autumn flowers,

a

few cherry blossoms, bamboo

blossoms, a stalk or

two of rice, and water

years he retired to a small village near

where he produced some of disciple

KENZAN

his best

that

predominating

of Kyoto,

ration. Typical

is its

known

of Japanese pottery, in particular

as

is

of Ninsei continued the name of Kenzan.

the

is

work of Ogata

Ogata Kenzan,

still

being copied by

a

especially appealing

Shinsho, 1662- 1743,

KYOTO WARE

poet and potter of Kyoto.

of Japanese

civilization

worked

year 794,

picturesquely nestled

various kilns in Kyoto, where he produced articles

mostly for the tea ceremony in an entirely

new

style

of ce-

ramic decoration. His designs are applied in quick strokes of the brush directly

is

local potters.

He was a younger brother of the famous painter Ogata Korin, who was also celebrated for exquisite lacquer work. Kenzan at

called Iriya,

work. Kenzan was a

remarkable freedom of shape and deco-

of this freedom, which

to Japanese taste,

usually

trait

plants. In his later

Tokyo

of Ninsei, and because he did not have an imme-

diate successor, a son

Kenzan's free and distinctive style

A

leaves gently

touched with snow, three blades of grass, a branch with plum

on the

soft clay

body of Raku-type ware

The ancient capital city of Kyoto-, which has been the center

tains.

is

Teeming with

and culture from

historical

great center of Buddhism

of old Japan

lingers.

is

a

Though

its

founding in the

among surrounding moun-

and

religious traditions, this

unique city in which the

spirit

often the scene of fighting and

and other similar pottery. Both bold and sketchy in a most

conspiracies of powerful feudal houses, the city has always

unconventional manner, Kenzan's designs are more easily

preserved

appreciated as painting than as ceramic decoration. Sometimes

from

as

an additional touch he would include a piece of poetry

with the design. Kenzan's designs have continued to exert a strong influence

on Kyoto wares

as

well as on wares in other

parts

of the country until the present day. The color technique,

with

its

superb combinations,

is

one of the unusual features of

Kyoto-ware porcelain bowl by Dohachi, 1783-1855. Design of cherry trees and maple trees. Edo period. Tokyo National Museum.

its

It

has also played an important role

in art and literature and for a long time has been a center

famous for ceramic artists and kyoto yaki,

potters.

The terms Kyoto ware,

and kyo yaki are synonymous, and are applied

to

a great variety of wares produced in private kilns in and

aroimd the

capital. In particular

they refer to those pottery

Pottery ivriting screen depicting a mountain, pine

tree,

and house

roughly sketched with quick brush strokes by Kenzan. Metropolitan

242

ancient prestige and cultural elegance emanating

the Imperial court.

Museum of Art.

Gift of

Howard

c.

1740.

Mansfield, 1936.


wares decorated with overglaze

by Ninsei

enariiel colors as

in the seventeenth century,

and Seto-type wares. Kyoto wares are made of different kinds

and blends of clay because the

were exhausted

at

many

it

a variety

of

local deposits

had to be brought from

products bear the

name

kiyomizu yaki.

The wares

called

Old

Kiyomizu or ko kiyomizu are chiefly imitations and adaptations of Chinese enameled porcelains: the underglaze blue-andwhite, celadon, and three-color ware of Ae

Ming and Ch'ing

Kiyomizu was a pottery having a creamy-

dynasties. This early

wares of Kyoto are

white clay body and a cream-colored glaze which might or

according to the style or design of certain individual

might not be crackled. There were probably more than ten

The

distant places.

classified artists

an early date and

developed

and the glazed Raku-

Among

or potters.

characteristic

the outstanding ceramic artists of

kilns located in this area in the latter half

of the seventeenth

Kyoto, besides Ninsei and Kenzan, previously discussed, are

century,

making articles for the tea ceremony. In the eighteenth

many who flourished from the late eighteenth century through

century,

when

the

nineteenth

century,

including

Aoki-

Okuda-Eisen,

began

to

there

was

a rage for Chinese ware, these kilns

produce enameled pottery, and in the beginning of

was added. At the present

Mokubei, Takahashi-Dohachi, Nin'ami-Dohachi, Eiraku-

the nineteenth century porcelain

Hozen, Eiraku-Wazen, and Makuzu-Chozo. Several small

time Kiyomizu ware includes both pottery and porcelain.

same

private kilns have been continuously producing the

wares since the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and are still

among

being operated by family descendants. Included

the old family potters

working

at their private kilns are

Rokubei, Chikusen, Eiraku, Kawai, and

Among the

Settsu.

Ming and Ch'ing

On

a cliff near the

of the

city

summit of Mount Otowayama,

district

many

number of Buddhist

mountain, which

is

in the

of Kyoto, stands the famous Kiyomizu

temple, and preserved in the cincts are a

still

buildings within

masterpieces.

its

Around

prethis

popularly called Kiyomizu, and in the

below known

as

Kiyomizu-zaka, are kiln

sites

whose

operating

Rokubei and

who came

to

Miura Chikusen, the fourth generation

to

is

noted for

his exquisite imitations

of

underglaze blue-and-white, which are con-

sidered the fmest of this type of work produced

the present time.

eastern part

district are

Chikusen. Rokubei, who is the fifth generation, is the descend-

operate the family kiln,

KIYOMIZU

Kiyomizu

ant of Shimizu Rokubei, 1740-1799, a potter

Kyoto from

Seifu.

outstanding artist-potters of Kyoto

private family kilns in the

The

style

anywhere

of wares produced in

at

this district

underwent changes with the passing of time, from the very earliest

tea-ceremony

utensils to

enameled pottery

as intro-

duced by Ninsei and the imitations of Chinese wares as ko kiyomizu.

The

later

Kiyomizu wares

known

reflect the artistic

ceramic traditions of Kyoto and are essentially Japanese in their color decoration.

Shonzui-style octagonal bowl with cover, in under-

glaze blue-and-white, by

Kawamoto Hansuke: Edo

period,

century.

early

nineteenth

Tokyo National

Museum. 243


SHONZUI

IMARI

is named after Gorodayu Go Shonzui, a who traveled to China in the year 15 13 to study the art of making and decorating porcelain. Upon his return to Japan

island

Shonzui ware

potter

he

settled at Arita in

Hizen province, where he produced

porcelain wares of underglaze blue-and-white.

have brought back quantities of china

known

clay.

He

is

said to

Shonzui design,

by oblique wavy bands

as kara-kusa, is characterized

of underglaze blue alternating with white bands. The designs Oil

the blue bands are in reserve and consist chiefly of brocade

and imbricated

patterns.

These bands are generally used in

combination with landscapes, and designs in the Chinese manner.

also

A

with flower and plant

favorite style

of Shonzui

decoration consists of geometrical patterns, especially in the

form of linked circles or to Shonzui

disks.

and bearing

Many extant examples ascribed

his seal are

of excellent form and

beautifully decorated with such patterns,

borrowed from

Chinese designs of the late Ming period. These Shonzui designs

with various pattern combinations are purely Japanese in feeling as rice

and have

a

unique charm

bowls and water

when appUed to such articles

Edo period,

eighteenth century.

Saga prefecture, bear the generic

The many

yaki.

Takasu Collection, Tokyo.

name of Imari ware

kilns in this area include Hirado,

now

or imari

Okochi,

Nabeshima, Kakiemon, and those located in Arita. Collectively theSe ceramics are called Arita ware, but during the

Tokugawa

Shogunate the wares produced commercially in the Arita were exported to other parts of Japan

city

of

from the port

tov\m of Imari and have been popularly called hnari ware.

The English term Old Imari, which refers to the

ware dating from the

on and does not

signify the early

quality

known in Europe,

well

early eighteenth century

when

china clay of fme

was discovered in Izumiyama, the Korean potters who

settled in first

is

ware of Arita. At the begin-

ning of the seventeenth century,

Hizen province were able

time

after the

to

make

porcelain for the

aforementioned Shonzui. These porcelain

wares have a fme hard white body decorated in underglaze blue-and-white.

The

naturally influenced

Imari

from

dish.

style

and technique of decoration was

by the blue-and-white for these potters

Design of coiiuentionalized

silk brocade patterns.

National Museum.

244

in the northern part of the

of Kyushu, principally in Hizen province, which is

Yi dynasty of Korea,

jars.

hnari dish having a design of horse-chestnuts in ovcrglaze colored enamels.

The ceramic wares produced

Edo

porcelains of the

were

skilled in

birds

and flowers copied

making

period, eighteenth century.

Tokyo


If}iari dish.

men

Design of Dutch ships and Dutch-

in eighteenth-century costume.

Kato

eighteenth century.

such porcelain in their native country. After a short time the Cliinese blue-and-white porcelain of the

to exert tions is

its

influence

Ming

and fmaUy replaced the original produc-

of the Yi-dynasty

style. In

Japanese the term sometsuke

applied to blue-and-white wares, while gosu

Ming

dynasty began

is

applied to the

blue-and-white wares of China or imitations. Most of

the blue-and-white wares

were for

daily use

and included

rice bowls, plates, sake bottles, candlesticks, shoyu oil pots,

chopstick holders, and flower holders.

numerous and included

all

The

designs

were

kinds of Chinese and Japanese

subjects such as flowers, plants, grasses, trees, birds, animals, fishes, celestial subjects, landscapes,

and seascapes

(Plate 14).

Blue-and-white wares have always appealed to the Japanese aesthetic sense

of purity and elegance, and they have always

been favored for daily

at

Arita

by Kakiemon and Tokuemon. The

wares, but

style inspired

it

by the designs and

fashion in brocade textiles. this characteristic style

The

colors

late

of the prevaUing

developed expression of

fully

became known

as imari tiishiki-de,

Tokugawa period

Imari Brocade, and aU through the

or

these

Arita wares remained in great favor and typified the Japanese taste for

merchant

enameled porcelains, particularly among the rich class,

which leaned toward elaborate designs and

richness of color.

The

designs

surface, leaving almost

on Imari ware cover the

no ground. They

pleasing and ingenious

manner upon

bowls

and well-balanced

it

in a symmetrical

was greatly admired and imitated

Worcester, Chelsea, and Delft.

ARITA PORCELAIN

early Arita

soon developed into a purely Japanese

was exported by Dutch and English

use.

Tokyo.

was influenced by

porcelain decorated in overglaze colors

Ming

Edo period,

Collection,

Its

are

entire

composed

in a

the surface of plates and pattern. Imari

traders to Europe, at

ware

where

such places as Meissen,

colored enamels include

semi-opaque purple, transparent sapphire blue, dull yellow, bluish-green, underglaze blue and, in the older pieces, a rather

In the middle of the seventeenth century the art of makmg

porcelain with overglaze enamel decoration

was developed

dull rich vermilion.

Many

pieces of early Imari

have designs

depicting the manners and customs of the times, showing

245


Imari wine

bottle

with a design in overglaze enamels of

the seven sages in a century.

Amamiya

figures of Japanese

wood-block

One of bowls

is

six large

bamboo grove. Edo

century.

similar to those in genre

prints.

the

most

bottle vase in

overglaze colored enamels with

a design of flowers and birds.

Tokyo.

Collection,

men and women

Kakiemoti

period, seventeenth

Nakajima

Collection,

attractive designs

found on early Imari

round medaUions of a beautiful warm, duU red or

period, seventeenth

with an abundance of colors lavishly emphasized by too gold, resulting in a complete loss of

the yoraku or necklace motif. This usually consists of

Edo

Tokyo.

gance.

its

much

original refined ele-

As the domestic and export demand

increased, even

during the early part of the eighteenth century, imari nishiki-de

became

a standardized style

and potters of the Arita

district

vermilion connected with delicate conventionalized pendant

not only produced their wares in their homes and fired them

flowers or arabesque designs in enamel colors. Appearing

at a large

the inner side wall of the bowl, the design

same elaborate manner on the as

outside.

produced on the early wares with

The its

is

on

repeated in the

imari yoraku design

elegant composition

community

were

also

ceramic

by the

Many

many

pieces of this

ware were made with elaborate designs

of eighteenth-century Dutch costume.

246

The

nishiki-de

ships

and figures in Dutch

became overelaborate and gaudy.

town of color

painters,

where

draw and

who specialized only in painting common workers were employed to

artists

figure subjects, while

and

but there also sprang up in Arita

workers specialized in overglaze enamel decoration. There

and rich colors has always been greatly favored in Japan. The Dutch traders, on the other hand, were particularly attracted beautifully decorated imari nishiki-de porcelains,

kiln,

a place called Akae-machi, or

paint designs allotted to

of the

later

export market and, as such,

of the early Imari and

had appealed

them on a production basis.

Imari wares were especially

made

for the

lost the original beautiful quality

also lost the

warm rich elegance which

to the Japanese taste.


KAKIEMON

Kakiemon ware of the 1680,

The

beautifully decorated porcelain

Nangawara

kiln

known

the famous Japanese potter early history

the

at

as

called

Takahara Goroshichi,

his birth

596-1666.

to

and purity which

have been from Izumiyama, thus belonging to

prominent in the

glaze has a warmth and richness and is pleasing to the touch. The colored enamels are lustrous and exquisitely combined (Plate 13). The hues occurring most frequently arc an iron

and death are unknown but usually are

of

said to

from about 1640

Nabeshima, the feudal lord of Hizen province. The white

who was most

dates

is

earlier period,

clay of high quality

name from

its

of Arita ware, Sakaida Kizoemon. The exact

given

1

ware made

Kakienion received

as

was made from a

He was the pupil of a famous Arita potter who had retired to a Buddhist

red, a pure

and transparent blue-green,

aubergine, light blue,

monastery because of the turbulent times. They worked to-

The iron red is rather light in tone, with an unusual richness which is complemented by the

gether during the early years of the Kan-ei era (1624- 1644)

beautiful glaze

producing blue-and-white porcelain of superb quality, but

Chinese origin, such

little is

knovwi of their later

association.

Sometime during

this

grayish yellow, and black.

lion.

on the body. Many of the motifs were of phoenix, the dragon, and the fu

as the

But Kakiemon's

designs represent true Japanese elegance

same period Sakaida Kizoemon began experimenting in the

in their simplicity, with motifs delicately balanced against

technique of making colored enamel glazes, a secret that was

large areas of bare space. His designs of flowers, plants, rocks,

him by a rich Arita merchant named Tokuemon. While Tokuemon was visiting Nagasaki, the only port open

grasses,

given to

met

to foreign ships, he

purchased

Japan. Success did not failed to

whom

he

and most of the

in

was

come easily,

produce the desired

from

since the early experiments

result,

and Kizoemon was to try

many different methods before he finally perfected the proper formulas. He fmally succeeded in producing a porcelain ornament

in the

form of persimmon with such

perfect color that

He presented it to the feudal lord of the Nabeshima family, who was so amazed with its beauty it

resembled the real

that he

from

Above:

kaki,

in the

meaning persimmon.

Nakao

Collection,

Collection,

in

glaze of the

background

Kakiemon ware

traders to Europe,

that

It

was the

was taken by Dutch and English

where it was

greatly

admired and

and much copied in the eighteenth century

at

collected,

Meissen, Chel-

Bow, Worcester, and ChantiUy. The second period of Kakiemon, from 1680

sea,

represented glaze

ware

Imari style

by is

;

to 1720,

is

a complete change in style. This transparent-

characterized

but although

second period,

by

nishiki-de decoration in the

this is the principal feature

much was

still

of the

produced in the original

birds.

Edo period,

Tokyo.

Kakiemon wine ewer. Design of plum Edo period, eighteenth

overglaze enamels.

warm opaque body

enhance the exquisite composition.

left free to

early

were ingeniously drawn

shape of an open flower. Decorated

enamels with a design offlowers and

eighteenth century.

in

word

Kakiemon bowl

in overglaze

Right:

fruit.

bestowed upon Kizoemon the name of Kakiemon,

the Japanese

branches, and trees

manner with a distinctive combination of colors,

which was then unknown

a Chinese potter

this secret process,

plum

a naturahstic

trees

and bamboo

century.

Takasu

Tokyo.

247


Kakiemon

with phim

dish,

eighteenth century.

tree

and deer design. Edo period,

Nahcshinia

Tokyo National Museum.

dish.

Design of wisteria brandies

glaze hlue-and-white. Edo period,

in

eighteenth

under-

century.

Tokyo National Museum.

Kakiemon

style.

The demands of the

rich

merchant

class

and

of the feudal lord of Saga, head of the House of Nabe-

kilns

the popular taste of the time were responsible for this departure

shima, whose castle was at the

from

in the northern part

the earher charming and elegant

intricate designs

work

in favor

of the

and striking colors of Imari. The designs

included aU of the typical Imari work, with a limited use of figure subjects forming part of the decoration. feature

of this kakiemon

nishiki-de decoration

compared

textile patterns

Kyushu

to Imari, in

quality

which the

and colorful design combinations. The

the end of the

first

quarter of the eighteenth century the

Daimyo of Saga, who was interested in ceramic art, appointed his

most able potters to produce porcelain wares of the highest

quality

and elegance for

wares, which are

and for

his personal use

commonly known

as

gifts.

Kakiemon kilns have operated continuously for three himdred

made

called (Plate 12).

generation.

blue-and-white and celadons of great refmement, but iro

Okochi

kiln, or

Okawachi kiln

is

as it is

especially noted for

its

elegance. These wares

interruption until the Meiji Restoration, after

248

known

as

it is

the

of the Okochi Idln

were

produced under the patronage of the Nabeshima lords without

A distinctive porcelain included in the classification of Arita is

sometimes

The kilns of Nabeshima produced underglaze

nabeshima, or enameled Nabeshima,

that

NABESHIMA

at the

These

Nabeshima, were

years and are at present under the direction of the twelfth

ware

for

the closing years of the sixteenth century Lord Nabeshima,

whole surface of the ware was covered both inside and outside with

part of

hundred years and produced many great daimyo. In

Daimyo of Saga, returned from the expedition to Korea with a great number of potters who set up kilns in his domains. At

Kakiemon style. This is a distinguishing

nishiki-de as

Nabeshima family ruled the northern several

that the center

esque figure subjects, while the outside surface had a design

of kakiemon

town of Saga in Hizen province of Kyushu. The powerful

island

A characteristic

is

portion was usually plain, or contained beautiful and pictur-

in the original

of the

Nabeshima.

It

was produced in the private

they were

which time

made commercially. The Nabeshima wares were

made of high-quahty, pure-white

clay

and most of the


Naheshima

plate with design of a camellia in full bloom

by a bamboo fence, eighteenth century.

enamels.

in colored

Edo period mid-

Yamanaka and Company,

New

Nabeshima

York

and Osaka.

enamels.

were

articles

plates for daily use

presentation purposes.

Only

of the feudal lords and for

the fmest pieces

these uses, while those that

were not

were

carefully

drawn with an

outline of

were

high-temperature kiln. Colored enamels were applied over the glaze and fired in a low-temperature kihi. In the earlier

which can be described

plates,

very shallow bowls or

as

have a high and prominent foot rim. Nabeshima

designs possess great elegance, usually in a distinctive

asym-

metrical composition in subtle balance. These beautiful and graceful designs of flowers, plants, trees and, occasionally, birds

were most

designs

and waves of overglaze

Tokyo National Museum.

selected for

entirely perfect

The potting is remarkable for its elegance and exactness, and deep

The

eighteenth century.

underglaze blue; then the glaze was applied and fured in a

destroyed.

the plates,

dish with design oj peonies

Edo period,

were inspired by nature and depicted

Nabeshima manner. Their elegance

is

in a distinctive

due to the precision

with which the design has been adapted to the curved

of the dishes and essential to the

to the avoidance

composition.

sides

of anything not absolutely

Much of the

surface space

was

Nabeshima

pieces this technique

executed with great care and

were

on

laid

unnoticed.

A

skill

of color application was so that the

enamel colors

so exactly that the underglaze blue outline characteristic feature

of Nabeshima

plates

is

is

the

very high foot rim with a "comb" pattern, which was not kilns. The comb pattern was row of teeth being dravm in perfect

allowed to be imitated by other in underglaze blue, the

regularity with very fine brush outlines and filled in with cobalt blue.

On

the underside or outside of the deep plates appears

the characteristic

money

Nabeshima arrangement of the Chinese

or coin motif, or other traditional Chinese motifs,

left

undecorated. Occasionally landscapes were designed in

although occasionally the peach and peony designs are seen.

the

manner of the Kano school of painting, and sometimes

These carefully drawn designs in underglaze blue divide the

designs of fences

Many by

were used and executed

in a zigzag

manner.

asymmetrical but well-balanced designs were inspired

Nabeshima

is

noted for

its brilliant

enamel

to a rich iron red, a soft fresh green,

The Nabeshima wares with

their essentially Japanese designs

executed with such elegance exemplify the exquisite aristo-

the beautiful silk fabrics called yuzen.

hmited

space on the outside methodically into three equal sections.

colors, usually

and a light yellow.

cratic taste

of the Nabesliima lords and are prized for

their

richly enameled beauty.

249


HIRADO

feudal lords until the Meiji Restpration in 1868, kilns

The

small island of Hirado, located a

few

niiles off the coast

when

the

began to operate for the public market. The principal

forms of Hirado porcelains were

plates, tea

modeled small

bowls, sake cups,

of the old Hizen province, has been an active ceramic center

sake bottles, and beautifully

since the beginning of the seventeenth century. In the year

human subjects, birds, and flowers, all skillfully executed, with many examples of special elegance and elaborate work-

1598

when

the feudal lord of Hirado returned

from the

Korean expedition, he brought back many Korean

who

set

up

kilns in his island possession

of porcelain wares did not eighteenth century,

found kilns

at

when

start until

;

potters

at the

outlines

and edges are inclined

blue

is

rather

weak and

to be fuzzy. Like

made only

KUTANI

Mikawachi

and are characterized by a hard pure-white body with

ware, the Hirado pieces were

manship.

around the middle of the

Amakusa. These wares were made

The

of animals,

but the production

china clay of the finest quaUty was

underglaze-blue decoration.

figures

its

Nabeshima

for the use

of the

Near the'Yamashiro Spa not

far

from the

coast

of the Sea

of Japan in the remote mountain village of Kutani, or Nine Valleys, are the old Kutani kiln sites

which date from around

the middle of the seventeenth century.

Kutani

bottle

in

the

It

was here

that the

shape of a double gourd

decorated with design of lions and peonies in over-

glaze enamels. Edo period, seventeenth century.

Tokyo National Museum.

250


Hirado plate made

at the

Mikawachi

decoration of the Buddhist motifs,

and

period about

emblem

Underglaze-hlue

kiln.

orchids in a soft blue on white ground. i

ko kutani, or

Kutani wine ewer. Design of plum

o/ju-i

ivithin a circle

century.

tree.

Edo

period, seventeenth

Tokyo National Museum.

Edo

j^o. Author s collection.

Old Kutani, enameled

porcelain wares

were

produced. Although practically

unknown

these wares have always been

most highly prized by the

Japanese for their

outside of Japan,

magnificence of decoration, which

thoroughly Japanese (Plate

ii). In

is

comparison with the refine-

ment and elegance of the enameled porcelains of Nabeshima and Kakiemon, ko kutani ware possesses an unusual quality of of color, and vigor of design which gives

freshness, intensity

warmth of feeling. With the discovery of china

a great

this vicinity in the

Daimyo of Kaga

poor-quality ware which satisfied the local needs for daily use.

The

kilns

were

re-established in the early years

teenth century, and their later wares copied are

knovm

as shin kutani

(New

articles.

is

kutani,

making porcelain

in

This extensive production was

highly organized system and

middle of the seventeenth century, the

from the various

potters

and Chinese

artisans.

from

remarkable for an endless variety of

made

possible

a

kutani

is

and

artists

kiln sites in Japan as well as

The body of ko

by

comparable to the

efificifncy

Imperial kilns of China, and an assemblage of good clay for

kutani

Kutani) or simply as Kutani.

The relatively short period of production o{ko about 1660 to 1700,

of the nine-

from ko

Korean

coarse and the

Maeda Toshiharu, head of the feudal house of Maeda, estabhshed kibs at Kutani. The earhest

glaze impure, covering the vessel in a thick and uneven

wares being unsatisfactory, he sent Goto

dark and the green resembling the deep blue-green of sea

province,

best potters, to visit the kilns in

Kyushu

one of

Saijiro,

his

to study the technique

of making and decorating porcelain. Ten years passed before Saijiro returned to Kutani,

whether he

around 1660.

visited the Arita

It

not certain

is

kibs or traveled

China to

manner. The enamel colors are rich and

water.

The term

thick, the red

akae kutani refers to those pieces in

the red and green are supplemented

by

being

which

purple, yellow, over-

glaze blue, and occasionally gold and silver.

Ao

kutani,

or

study the Imperial kilns in Ching-te-Chen, but the knowl-

Green Kutani, which has no red enamel, has yellow, green, and purple enamels. Some of the designs were inspired by the

edge that

Chinese

Saijiro acquired, together

to

with the enthusiasm and

fmancial aid of this powerful feudal lord, resulted in the perfection Its

of the enameled porcelain ware knovwi

production continued until

1700,

Saijiro's

and the making of this original

as ko kutani.

death a few years after kutani yaki

came

to an

end. For the next hundred years or so the kihis produced a

late

Ming and

early Ch'ing enameled porcelains;

others are of purely Japanese origin.

The

Japanese examples

range in style from Imari and Kakiemon to the style of Kyoto pottery painting and the

Kano

school of painting.

designs are bold and free, executed with a quick

Ko

kutani

and sure

brush stroke. The colors are harmoniously combined and the

251


Kutani plate scape

Oj

etttieagottal

shape with land-

and flower-and-bird panels

enamels. Signed. century.

Edo

in

colored

period, late seventeenth

Yamanaka and Company,

New

York

and Osaka.

designs create an over-all effect of colorful rustic charm. typical ko kutani composition consisted

A

of dividing the plate

this

phase of ko kutani the use of cobalt blue came to an end

and the red enamel color disappeared, which seems to indicate

rim into symmetrically arranged compartments of geometric

that these materials

shapes or diaper patterns, with the principal design in the

and were

center of the plate.

Kano

The

school of painting

Japanese subjects taken life

executed in the manner of the

especially beautiful,

with its purely

from nature and from

of the country, including human

plants, trees, landscapes,

252

style is

and

seascapes.

the everyday

figures, birds, flowers,

Around

the middle of

now

had

originally been

exhausted.

Green Kutani, or ao

Due

kutani,

brought from China

to this shortage of pigments.

was developed with

over-all

designs in three colors, purple, green, and yellow, outlined

with black. Ko kutani and ao kutani wares, with

charm of color and rusticity.

design, have the richness

their native

of unaffected


XVII Lacquer

rHE

DEVELOPMENT of the

art

of lacquer in

Japan begins with the introduction of Bud-

a far-reaching effect

on the lacquer

art

of Japan. The Code of

Taiho, or Great Treasure, was promulgated in 701, with the

other arts was the great force that

Great Council of State as the supreme organ of govermnent,

stimulated the progress of culture. Preserved in the Treasure

and the Department of Religion holding equal rank. Various

dhism, wliich

as in all the

Kondo

Hall or

Horyuji

at

Golden Beetle Miniature of Japanese lacquer work.

is

the Tamamushi-no-zushi, or

Slirine, the earliest extant It

example

was originally a precious sanctuary

belonging to the Empress Suiko, whose son, Prince Shotoku Taishi,

from of a

was the

actual founder of

Asuka period (552-645),

the

shrine,

Buddhism in Japan. Dating it is

square and in the

form

complete with roof and doors, and mounted on a

name originated from the fact that the crossbeams,

pedestal.

Its

corners,

and edges were originally profusely

inlaid

with the

multicolored wings of the insect tainaniushi or jewel beetle,

ministries

were

and within the Ministry of the

established

among

Treasury was organized

others an Office of the Guild

of Lacquer Workers. Included in the terms of this code were the introduction of a

new

new

system of land tenure, and a

system of taxation by which

com-

or other

textiles, silk, rice,

modities locally produced were payable in fixed amounts in lieu

of labor.

The Taika Reform

declared that under the

land allotment the arable

were

fields, principally

among

to be distributed

the

new

system of

wet

rice fields,

the cultivators, with the size

an exquisite metal edging of honeysuckle design. The

determined by the number of members in a household. In

jewel-beetle wings have long since disappeared, leaving only

addition to the grants of land, each household was given a plo