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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP


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WORKSHO GPU I D E ANATOMY OFA BOARD

SAFETY TIPS . Wear appropriatesafetygear when operatinga woodworking machine:safetyglasses,a face shieldfor extraprotection, and hearingprotectorsor earplugs.lf thereis no dust collectionsystem, wear a dust mask.For exoticwoods, such as ebony,use a respirator; the sawdustmay causean allergicreaction. . Makesurethat workshoplighting and ventilationare adequateand that work surfacesare large and sturdy. . Readyour owner'smanuatcarefullybeforeoperatingany machine. . Tie back long hair,roll up long sleevesand avoidlooseJitting c l o t h i n gR . e m o v er i n g sa n d otherjewelrythat can catch in movtngpans. . Keepchildren,onlookersand petsaway from the work area. . Unpluga machinebefore performingsetupor installation operattons. . Concentrateon the job; do not rushor take shortcuts.Neverwork when you are tired,stressedor have b e e nd r i n k i n ga l c o h o ol r u s i n g m e d i c a t i o n st h a t i n d u c e drowsiness. . Wheneverpossible,clampdown the workpiece,leavingboth hands free to performan operation. . Finda comfortable stance;avoid over-reaching. . Turnthe machineoff if it produces a n u n f a m i l i avr i b r a t i o no r n o i s e ; havethe machineservicedbefore resumingoperations. . Keepyourwork areacleanand tidy;cluttercan leadto accidents.

5HO?.MADE?U?H 'TICK' Tushelicke for feedingeilockinlo eaw bladesor jointer knivee a r e c o m m e r c i a lal yv a i l a b l e , b u t y ocua n e a s i l ym a k e y o u o r wn ueing3/+-inch and a bandeawor sabereaw.No ore Vlywood ohapeie ideal;deeiqna VuehsLickthat ie comforlableNouee a n d s u i L a b l feo r t h e m a c h i n ea n dj o b a t h a n d .A 4 b " a n g l e beLween the handleand,the baeeie beetfor mo6t cuLeon a t a b l ee a w ,w h i l ea e m a l l e ar n g l ew , i | ht h e h a n d l ec l o s e rt o N h e Nable,ie beNlerfor feedinqslock acroeea radialarm saw Lable. Thelonqbaeeof a ohoe-ohaped puohetick (bottom,left) allowo you Noapplyheavydownward For ?reooureon a workpiece. a familiargrip,ueea favoriNehandeawhand,le as a lemplatre(bottom, riqht). WhaileverNhedeoiqn, makelhe noNchin the baeelargeenoughto holdlhe sLock,and yet ehallowenouqh NoouVporLit without,touchinqthe table of lhe machine. Keeppuehelicke close at hand,readyto feed Holefor slock at lhe st arL hanging or finiehof a cul.

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THE ART OF WOODWORKING

WOODWORKING WHINES

TIME-LIFE BOOKS ALEXANDRIA. VIRGINIA ST.REMYPRESS MONTREAL. NEWYORK


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THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by INC. ST. REMY MUITIMEDIA PR-ESIDENT

PierreLâ‚Źveil16

PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini(Text) HeatherMills (Research) Art Directors Normand Boudreault,SolangeLaberge Designer Luc Germain Editor Jim McRae Research PictureEditor ChristopherJackson Contr ibuting I llustrators RonaldDurepos,Christianefltalien, RobertPaquet,Studio La Perlubteinc. Administrator NatalieWatanabe ProductionManager MichelleTurbide SystemCoordinator Jean-LucRoy Photographer RobertChartier SeriesEditor SeriesArt Director SeniorEditors

TIME@

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Time-Life Books is a division of Time Life Inc.

TIME LIFE INC. Artandi andCEO: George PKESIDENT TIMB-LIFE BOOKS PRES/DENTj JohnD. Hall EDITOR: Neil Kaean PUBLISHER/MANAGING

THECONSUNANTS Mark Duginske,a cabinetmakerwho lives Wisconsin,is a contributing in Wausau, editor to Fine Woodworking magazine and the author ofseveralbooks on woodworking power tools. Leonard Leeis the presidentofVeritas Tools and LeeValleyTools,manufacturersand retailersof fine woodworkinghand tools. He is also the publisherand executiveeditorof Woodcuts, amagazinethat focuseson the history and techniquesof woodworking. Giles Miller-Mead hastaught advancedcabinetmakingat Montreal technicalschoolsfor more than ten years.A nativeof New Zealand, he previouslyworked asa restorerof antique furniture. )osephTruini is SeniorEditor of Home A former Shopand Tools Mechanixmagazine. Editor of PopularMechanics,he hasworked as a cabinetmaker,home improvementcontractor and carpenter.

Woodworkingmachines. p. cm.-(The Art of Woodworking) Includesindex. ISBN0-8094-9900-2. (lib. bdg). ISBN0-8094-9e01-0 1. Woodworkingtools. 2. Woodworking machinery. 3. Saws. I. Time- Life Books. II Series TT186.W6581992 684' .083-dc20 For information about any Time-Life book, pleasecall l-800-621-7026,or write: ReaderInformation Time-Life CustomerService P.O.Box C-32068 Richmond,Virginia 23261-2068

DEDICATION Theeditorsof Time-LifeBooks andSt.RemyMultimediaInc.dedicate to the Woodworking Machines memoryof GilesMiller-Mead(page6-7). theoverallconsultant Mr. GilesMiller-Mead, for THEARTOFWOODWORKING, andpopularteacher wasa superbpractitioner of thiscraft,aswellasa mentorto manytalentedcabinetmakers.

@ 1992Time-LifeBooksInc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanical means,including information storageand retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,except may be quoted for reviews. that briefpassages First printing. Printed in U.S.A. Publishedsimultaneouslyin Canada. TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time Warner Inc. U.S.A.


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CONTENTS

6 INTRODUCTION 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 35 36 40 44

TABLESAW Anatomvof a tablesaw Settingrip Safetv Tablesawblades Ripping Crosscutting Anglecuts Dado cuts Moldings Thblesawjoinery

48 50 52 58

RADIALARM SAW Anatomy of a radial arm saw Settingup Radialarm sawblades and accessories Safew Crosicutting Anglecuts Ripping Dado cuts Moldings Radialarm sawjoinery

60 62 63 66 69 75 76 78 80 82 85 86 89 94 98 100 101

BAND SAW Anatomvof a band saw Settingdp Safetv Bandsawblades Cutting curves Straightcuts Angleand tapercuts Cutting duplicatepieces Bandsawjoinery

rO4 106 108 110 II2 I 18 I 19 122

DRItt PRESS Anatomyof a drill press Settingup and safety Bitsand accessories Straightand angledholes Dowels,plugsand tenons Mortising techniques The drill pressassander

r24 126 I28 130 I32 135 136 139

IOTNTER Anatomyof a jointer Settingup and safety Jointerknives |ointing warpedstock Salvaging Rabbets,chamfersand tapers Planer

I4O GLOSSARY I42 INDEX I44 ACKNO\,VLEDGMENTS


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INTRODUCTION

GilesMiller-Meadtalksabout

TABLESAMS to myfriend'sdad,a Danishboat belonged hefirsttablesawI everencountered age of partsof indeterminate builder.He'dbuilt it himselfout of anassortment me amazed a cornerof hisworlshop.It always andoriginandit proudlyoccupied andthen,after cutpieces howSvencouldturn outanynumberof identical,precisely All theseoperations hisset-up,makelengthsofbeautifulcustommoldings. changing efficiency. effortless weredonewith seemingly pestering him to let metry usingit and,whenhefinallydid,thefirst I wasalways for myvintagecat a 1938Rover projectwemadetogether wasa setof floorboards lookbackat Svenandthefloor25 years later, I still Even now, nearly Sedan. Sports my to make alivingfromwoodworking. project first of desire as the stirrings board morethan10yearsago,is a l2-inch My present tablesaw,boughtsecond-hand motor.I couldrltimaginemywoodworking modelwith a 3-horsepower commercial myprojects, whether my saw at many stages throughout without it. I rely on table shop joints, or drawers and doors, making different building to size, cuttingworkpieces myworlahop and patterns. lot chairs in I also make a of variety of molding creating a I find mytablesawparticularlyusefirlfor cuttingtheangledtenonsontheseatrails. I started bybuildingtheworlshop;oncethatwasup,thetable WhenI builtmyhouse, cuttingsheets of plywoodto sizeandmaking for me once again, sawcamethrough pieces. cutting other assorted house, as well as allthetrim for theentire First all,it'ssuchavermain reasons. of much for two I thinkI likethetablesawso thetable,you motor blade are beneath most of the and second, since satilemachine; your view of thework nothing to obscure glance going on. There's what's canseeata injury-a leson cause bodily great respect for its ability to dealof surface. Still,I havea I it a safe But consider into me on a couple of occasions. that'sbeendrummed isnt precautions and the operator overtired proper are observed machine, aslongasthe or in too muchof a hurry.All in all, thetablesawis a magnificentmachineandI couldntdowithoutit.

A nativeof NewZealnnd,GilesMiller-Mead is seen hereinhis workshop/withoneof hisprizedtools-a vintagetablesawacquiredin theearly 1980s.


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INTRODUCTION

FrankKlauszdiscusses

RADIALARM SAMS ntil hewasabout14yearsold,my sonwascontentto spendhis sum-

jobs. mersin my shopdoingsanding Thenhe decidedto makesomething himself.I suggested hedesignajewelry box,whichI helpedhim construct. The nextsummer, hewantedto buildsomethingwithoutmy help-which meant workingon mybigmachines. Beingsafety-conscious, I gotabit nervous.Still,I tookhim to theradialarm sawandexplained ThenI thebasics. paintedtwo redlineson thesawtable, eacha fewinchesawayfromtheblade, "Safety andfilledin thespace in between. with thismachineissimple,"I toldhim. "Keepyour handsawayfrom thered zone."In no timeatall,hewasworking at thesawwithoutsupervision. Hecut intotheedges /rinch rabbets of hisjewelryboxtop andaddeda blackebony inlay.I wouldhaveuseda router,buthe did finewith thesaw. youpullthebladeintoa staBecause tionaryworkpiece, theradialarmsawis averysafemachin*providedyousetup properly, useonlysharpblades, follow themanufacturer's safetyinstructions and,ifyouwish,addyourownredzone. I usetheradialarmsawfor a variety of tasks:crosscutting roughlumber, cuttingmitersanddadoes, andripping. If you rip, remember to feedevenly andfromthecorrectsideof thetableto avoidkickback. FrankKauszownsa worleshop in Pluckemin, NewJersey, thatspecializes in makingandrestoring finefurniture.


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INTRODUCTION

DaveSawyertalksabout

BA)\TDSAMS for J havebeenaWindsorchairmaker in my shop I l0 years. Themachines area latheanda bandsaw.Thelatheis is a wonderful thebandsaw essential; trims It cutsout seats, convenience. roughwood,cutsturningsandspindles to lengh,sawswedgeslots,andisjust jobscouldbedone plainhandy.All these but thebandsawdoes with handsaws, themquickerandmoreaccurately. atanearly I wasexposed to bandsaws agein my father'sdisplayandexhibit where shop.later I workedin aboatyard thebandsawmademanywonderful ThatmusthavebeenwhereI shapes. realized it is my favoritewoodworking machine. Forasmallshoplimitedto one powertool,mostfolkswould stationary wanta tablesawbut abandsawwould bemychoice. bandsawsaregreatfor Obviously, downto tiny radiiwith cuttingcurves, Anglecuts,straightor %e-inchblades. curved,are easy.With a little fore"release cuts" thought,youcanmake Bandsaws andgetintoreallytightplaces. job of rippingwith alsodoa reasonable alz-inchor %-inchbladeanda fence. My l4-inch Deltamodelwill resaw boards6 incheswide-any thickness fromveneer on uD.Wth a 6-inchriser blockin itsframeii couldresaw12inches.Thatwouldtakeamonsterindustrial 30-inchtablesawto makethe same with a 16-inchsaw. cut-or twopasses DaveSawyerbuildsWindsor in chairsat hisworkshop South Woodbury, Vermont.


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INTRODUCTION

Iudith Ameson

DRILLPRESSES f allthetoolsin myshop,thedrill press maynot seeasmanyhours of useassomeothers,but for certain tasksit is indispensable. Themachine I useisa Sears Craftsman, manufactured in themid-1950s.It cameintoourshop aboutfouryearsago.WhatI likeabout thisdrill pressisitsold-toolcharm.the weightofit. It'ssolid.It wasbuiltto last. Priorto gettinginto furniture-making,I experimented withcarpentry and cabinetmaking. I studied woodworking in Colorado, takingclasses with such highlyrespected furnituremakersasArt Fumiture-making Carpenter. iswhatI've beendoingfor thelastseven years.I find it verysatisfiing.I'm constantly learning newtechniques andtryingnewdesigns. I producealineof furnitureaswellas customdesignpieces. I makea rocking chairfor childrenwith a designthat includesbearpawson the armsand dowelssetinto a curvedframethatprovidesbacksupport.I dependonthedrill press to boreprecise holesfor thedowels. OnarockingchairI makefor adults, thelegsaresquare atthemiddlewhere theymeetthe seat,andhavetenons at eitherendthatfit into therockers at thebottomandthearmsat thetop. Tomakethetransition between theleg's middleandroundtenons,lsculpt square thelegswith a routeranda spokeshave. Thedrill pressreamstheholesin the rockers andthearmsfor thetenons.

Iudith Amesis afurnituremakerin Seattle,Washington.

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INTRODUCTION

Mark Duginsketalksabout

IOINTE,RS he first jointer I usedwasalready old whenmy fatherboughtit. The

care,which requiredconstant machine it taughtmeto conwasgood,because andpayattentionto everyboard centrate old, I workedwith.WhenI was15years webuilt a newhouseandusedlocally It grownoakfor thetrim andcabinets. wasmyjob to do allof thejointing. A ruleI learnedthen-and onethat of I stillfollowtoday-is thatthesuccess projecthingeson anycabinetmaking and workingwithwoodthathasstraight Thepowertoolsthatdo squareedges. mostof thecuttingin my shopnowadays-thetablesawandtheradialarm onlyif thestock saw-will cutaccurately andtrue.If one I feedintothemissquare I won'tbe edgeof aboardisnotstraight, it squarely. ableto crosscut Gettingoffto agoodstartiswherethe jointercomesin. I useit to makethat criticallyimportantfirststep,forminga squarecornerwheretheedgeandthe endof aboardmeet.Thejointeralsohas whenI useit application amorecreative to makelegsfor furnitureor evendecorativemoldings. Thejointeris not difficultto useor skillto adjust maintain,but it requires But theknives. andchange themachine thejointertakes likealltools,mastering practice andconcentration.

Mark Duginskeis theauthorof on woodworkingtools severalboolcs He woilesasa cabiand techniques. netmakerin Wausau,Wisconsin.

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TABLE,SAM tunedandmainl0-inchblade.Properly hetheryou areworkingwith tained,it canmill 3-inchstockrepeatedmilledboardsfroma lumberly withoutoverheating. of4-by-8 yard,oldbarnsidingor sheets or lIf mostofyourworkiswith3/Eallplywood,thetablesawisanexcellent inch-thickstocktypicallyusedfor cabaroundtool for cuttingwoodto width theopen-base contractor's inetmaking, (ripping)andlength(crosscutting). If the Its1.5alternative. sawisalessexpensive tablesawwereusedfor nothingbuttirese motorturnsan 8- or 10horsepower tool. twocuts,it wouldstillbeavaluable inchblade,andtheunitcanbemounted awidevarietyof Butthesawalsoaccepts on a mobilebase,providingextraflexfromrollerstands blades andaccessories, ibility. In anycase,thebasicrequire26) withunwieldypanels(page thatassist ment for a table saw-whether for producing heads capable of molding to or generalworkshop (page cabinetmaking 40). lnd trim decorative elaborate of cutting use-is thatit mustbecapable with helpfromthesimple,inexpensive and45". jigs a2-by-4at both 90 gauge, this wood to the miter Screwed featured in this chapter, shop-made useon lightstockor Foroccasional for extension the tablesawis alsounsurpassed facilitatesthecuttingofbox wherespaceis at a premium,the8/+Such for making jointsfor drawersand casework. repeat cutsandalsovaluable hauled joints inchbenchtopsawcaneasilybe shop-madejigsextendtheversatility woodworking suchfundamental or the siteby the workshop around iob the basic table saw. of mortise-andlap, box and open asthe person. When^ a saw, choosing joints one (page 44). tenon the motor horsepower ratings. Check beware of exaggerated permit a woodworker power table saw precision and of a The motorshoulddrawroughly to makemanydifferentcutswith smallriskof error.Sawing plate:Anhonestl.5-horsepower motorshoulddraw14or 115 volts; a 3-horsepower 14 amps at skill requires considerable with hand tools andstraight square 230 volts. procedures 15 amos at for the follows the woodworker who andtime;buta clean,accurate canproduce tablesawoutlinedin thischapter little effort. with relatively and cuts-consistently, the Notq [n someillustrationsinthis c.hapter, according to thebladediameter Tablesawsaredesignated in withoutthe shown operation l2-indl table sawis in 10and 8-,9-, used.Modelsarecommonlyavailable it shoul( in fact, most bladeguardin caseswhere however, areclearlythe The8-andl0-inchmodels, sizes. for thesakeof firis is done only first be used. saw, When choosing a table popularhomeworlshopsaws. yourblade illustration. Use it. The clarity of the you will with be doing thetypeofwoodworking consider possible. guard whenever pages pictured on like the one saw, stationary fully enclosed motorto drivea l4-15,tipicallyusesa 1.5-to 3-horsepower

clampedfirmly to a tenoning With a workpiece jig a woodworkercutsthetenonpart of an open joint. Thejig isguidedby a mortise-and-tenon rail that slidesin thesawtable'smitergaugeslot.

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ANATOMYOFA TABLESAW Blade guard Clear ahield that protectg operator from blade: bolted to splitter and anti-kiakback device

Roller atand )upporto lon7 workpieceoduring cuttin1 operationa

Auxiliary table ineerte Keep wood piecee from falti'n4into'table; wider alota for dado or moldinq heado

5tandard table ineert Keepa wood Ptece6Trom fallinq into table

T argeor small,thetablesawisbasicalI-r lv a motor and arbor assemblv attached to abasecabinetor stand.Thi arbormaybemounteddirectlyto the motorshaft,or connected to themotor by a beltandpulley.In general, better sawshavemorethanonebelt. Precise bladeadiustments aremade bymeansof twocrank-type handwheels underneath the sawtable.Onewheel Miter gauge Guides workpieceacroea table for crooscutting; woodenerteneion can be acrewed to 0au0e to oupport widepiecea

Rlpfence Guidea workpiece across table for rippinq

Bladeangle adtuatment annk

Vacuum attachment For duat collection eystem Mobile baee Faailitatea movin4the aaw aaide in amall ahopa; wheelacan be lockedin poaition


-l TABLESAW

connolstheblade's heightabovethe saw table-from 0 to 3ysinchesona l0-inch saw.Theotherwheeladjusts theangleof theblade-from90oto451 Therip fence,whichon mostmodels slidesalongthefrontandrearguidebars to controlrip cuts,canbelockedanywherealongits trackat thedesireddistancefrom the blade.Somefences featuremeasuring tapesattached to the

Optional rip fenc'e LonqerTencere?Eceq atandard fence whon ertenoion table uaed

front guidebar or even,in somecases, electronicreadouts, althoughexperiencedwoodworkers usuallyrelyon a handheldmeasuring tapeanda sample cutto checkthewidth of a cut. milledintothesawable Shallowslots, on eachsideof the blade,acceptan adjustable mitergauge for guidingcroscuts.Qualitysawshavetablesthat are castandthenmachinedfor flatness.

Hold-down deviae Holda workpiecefirmly aqainat both table and rip fence for aafa rip cuta

Auxlliary fence Board clamped or acrewed to rip fence ertenda hei1ht of fence

Theportable8%-inchbenchtop sawcan performmostof thefunctionsof alarger saw.Aually plncedon aworlcbench or on sswhorses, it ako canbebuilt into a bmch itstoplevelwiththebenchtop, providinga lnrgework surface. Fs<teneiontable Inareaaeawork eurtace to facilitate cuttin7 large boarda and panela

Rlp fence gulde bar Holda optional rip fenca to extenaion table; features rula for meaaudna width of cut Fence loak Holda rip fence in fixed'poaition

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SETTINGUP hetheryourtablesawsitspoised to makeits firstcut,or is a seasonedmachinewith a homefull of ftrrnitureto its credit,it cannotcut with partsare precisionunlessits adjustable A tablesawwith in properalignment. partscanresultin anyoneof misaligned severalfrustratingproblems,including risk of excessive vibration,increased kickback, burn markson bladedamage, workoieces cuts. aswell asinaccurate Evenirrorsaslittleasr,/o+ inchcanconpromisethe qualityand strengthof a pieceof furniture. The components of your tablesaw requiringthe mostattentionarethose

that contactand guidethe workpiece duringcuttingoperations: thesarvtable, theblade,the mitergaugeandthe rip fence.Beforeputtinga tablesawthrough its paceson the cutting techniques in thischapter, firstsetup the described machineproperlyby checkingand,if necessary, adjustingthealignmentof its parts.For bestresults,unplugthe saw adjustthetableinsertsetscrews to make the insertoerfectlvflushwith the saw table,andirank thebladeto its highest setting.Then followthe stepsshown thattheyappear. belowin thesequence Thereislittlepointin aligningthemiter gauge with thesawblade,for example, if

thebladeitselfhasnot beenscuaredwith thetable. To confirm that your tablesawis properlytuned,makea fewtestcuts.A goodwayto ensurethatyoursawiscutting in precise, straightlinesis to cut a squared boardin two andflip oneof the piecesover.Buttthetwo cut endstogether.Theyshouldfit together withoutany gapsasperfectlyastheydid beforethe boardwasflipped. Because the normalvibrationfrom cuttingcanupsetproperalignment, tune yourtablesawperiodically; manywoodworkerstakethetimeto adjusttheirsaws beforestartingeachproject.

ALIGNING THETABLE ANDSAWBLADE

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C h e c k i nt g a b l ea l i g n m e n t J - P o s i t i o tnh e m i t e rg a u g ea t t h e f r o n to f t h e s a wb l a d e H . o l do r c l a m pa p e r f e c t lsyq u a r e d w o o db l o c ka g a i n stth e m i t e rg a u g ea n d b u t tt h e e n do f t h e ) .h e ns l i d et h e m i t e rg a u g ea n dt h e b l o c ka g a i n sat s a wb l a d et o o l h( a b o v e T b l o c kt o g e t h etro w a r dt h e b a c ko f t h e t a b l ew h i l er o t a t i n g t h e b l a d eb y h a n d . T h eb l o c ks h o u l dr e m a i nb u t t e da g a i n stth e t o o t ha s t h e b l a d er o t a t e fsr o m f r o n tt o b a c k .l f a g a po p e n sb e t w e etnh e b l o c ka n dt h e t o o t h ,o r t h e b l o c k b i n d sa g a i n st th e b l a d ea s i t i s r o t a t e da,l i g nt h et a b l ef o l l o w i n g t hoew n e r ' s m a n u ailn s t r u c t i o n s .

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Checking blade angle Remove thetableinsert, thenbutt a combination square against thesaw bladebetween twoteethasshown. The bladeof thesquare should fit flush against thesawblade. lf thereis a gap between thetwo,rotate thebladeangle adjustment crankuntilthesawblade rests flushagainst thesquare's blade.


TABLESAW

SOUARING THEMITERGAUGE

themitergauge withthesawtable 1 Aligning I Withthemitergauge outof thetableslot,usea combinationsquare is square to confirm thattheheadof thegauge withtheedgeof thegauge bar.lf it is not,usetheadjustment handle onthegauge to square thetwo.Thenbuttthesquare (above), against thegauge Thebladeof thesquare should fit flushagainst thegauge. lf thereis a gapbetween thetwo, havethegauge machined square at a metalworking shop.

r) Aligning themitergauge withthesawblade L gutta carpenter's square against themitergauge andthe sawbladebetween twoteeth.Thesquare should fit flushagainst thegauge. lf thereisa gapbetween thetwo,loosen theadjust(above)and menthandle onthegauge swivel themiterheadto bringit flushagainst thesquare. Tighten theadjustment handlo nn f hp oarroo

ADJUSTING THERIPFENCE

lllllllrillllllll]tll]llillrllflllllllllllllllllfitlllllllltlllllll lll ?HO?Tt?

Miter qau4eolot

Aligning theripfence Settheripfencealongside themiter gauge slot.lf thereisanygapbetween thetwo,alignthefence following the manual instructions. owner's Onthe model shown, turntheadjustment boltat thefrontof thetablewitha hexwrench.

Fixinga looee miter 6au4e ToeliminaLe excessive side-to' eideVlayof the miNerqauqein its sloL, removeNheqauqefrom LheNableand Vlacethe bar edqe-uV on a board, Uoea ball-peen h a m m ear n d a VrickpunchNo eLrikeNheedgeof patLhebar in a oNagqered Lerneveryinchalongit.Thie willraisebumpoon lhe edqeof the bar and resulf,in a tiqhterfi| in NhesloL,lf Lhefit io too Liqht,file lhe bumpedown a9 nece56ary.

I7


SAFETY Q afetyisasmucha matterof attitude r.J andcommonsenseascorrecttechnique. The table saw is a powerful machine;all the safetydevicesin the world will not makeup for a cavalierattiOn the tude or rloppywork practices. otherhand,a woodworkershouldnot approacha tablesawwith trepidation;a timid operator,someonereluctantto hold a workpiecefirmly whiiecuttingit,

worker. facesasmanyrisksasa careless stemCautionmixedwith confidence ming from an understanding of the machineandthetaskat handshouldbe the woodworker'sguide. Readthe owner'smanualsupplied with your saw.Beforestartinga job, makesureyouknowhowto usethesafeto protect ty accessories thataredesigned injurieswhileoperatyou from specific

like push ing the machine.Usedevices sticksand featherboards, as shown throughoutthischapter,to protectyour fingersfrom the blade.A hold-down device,suchasthe one illustratedon page25,isalsoa worthwhileinvestment. And rememberthat not only your fingersandhandsareat risk A safeworkshopalsoincludeshearingprotectors, safetyglasses anddustmasks.

Respectingthe dangerzone Toavoidinjuryfrom thesawblade, "danger zone" constantly bealertto a thatexistswithin obout3 inchesof the blade-bothaboveand to eitherside of it (left). Keepyour handsout of thiszonewhenever thesawis being used-evenif thebladeguardis in pastthe place.Tofeeda workpiece bladewithin thezone,usea push stick,a pushblockor a jig.

TIPS TABTE SAW SAFETY . Usea safetyguardwhenever possible. Before making a bevelcut,confirm that theguardwillbeclearof theblade. o Donotleave whenrt thesawrunning is unattended. . lf youareinterrupted, complete the underwaybefore turningoff operation up. thesawandlooking

o Donotstarta cut untilthebladeis r u n n i nagt f u l ls p e e d . . Before usingthesaweachtime, Makesure inspectits safetyfeatures. or misalignment of thereis nobinding parts.Donotusethesawuntil moving suchproblems arecorrected. . Always feedwoodintothesawblade of bladerotation. against thedirection

. Follow instructions themanufacturer's . Makesuretheripfenceis locked unplug thesaw to change accessories; in position before ripping. first.Makesurethatsawblades andcuttersaresharp, cleanandundamaged. . Donotusethemitergaugein combi. Before remove nation withtheriofenceto makea cuttinga workpiece, cut-exceptwhenthe bladedoesnotcut anylooseknotsfromit usinga hammer. completely through theworkpiece, such Inspect salvaged woodfor nailsand asfor a dadoor a groove. screwsbeforecutting.

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. Usetheripfenceorthemitergauge forall cuttingoperations; never attempt to cutfreehand. . Before ripping a board, ensure thatthe edgein contact withtheripfenceissmooth andcompletely straight andthatthesurfaceagainst thetableisflat. r Standto onesideof anyworkpiece in caseof duringanycuttingoperation kickback. . lf youhaveto reachpasttheblade, keepyourhands at least3 inches away fromit. . Usea wooden stick,rather thanyour fingers, to clearwoodscraps fromthe sawtable.


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TABLESAW

WORKS HOWTHEBLADE GUARD ASSEMBLY Protecting fingers andpreventing kickback Thestandard tablesawbladeguardassembly guard, includes a pivoting, clear-plastic blade whichdeflects f lyingwoodchipsandreduces willslipaccidentally into thechance thatfingers theblade. Theguardisconnected to a thinpiece o f m e t akl n o w a n st h es p l i t t eor r r i v i n gk n i f e . Attached directly in linewiththeblade, thesplitter keeps thesawcut-or kerf-open.Without thekerfmaycloseduring a cut, sucha device, theworkpiece binding theblade andthrowing withgreatforce. backtoward theoperator jams Kickback if a workpiece canalsoresult between theblade andtheripfence.Further protection is provided fromkickback bya metal pawl, f inger(orfingers) called ananti-kickback whichnormally ridesonthesurface of theworkpiece. In theevent of kickback, thefinger digs in,preventing theworkpiece fromflyingback.

Optional guardslike the oneshownat leftprovideextra flexibility. HeId in place by a cantileueredann bolted to the sideof the saw table,it featuresa plasficshieldraised and loweredby a crank.Restinglightly on the workpiece. the shieldservesas a hold-downand provideswide coverageof the cutting area, allowing the woodworker to perform operationssuchas covecutting and rabbeting,which cannotbe donewith conventionalguardsin position. The bladeguard shownabovehas two arnts.For nlostcuts, both arms ride on top of the workpiece,but when the blade is closeto the rip fenceoneof the arms can be raisedout of the way. Theguard can alsobe trsedwithout the retrnctablesplitterwhen cutting dadoesand grooves-irnpossible with the standardguard becausethe splitteris an integral part of theframework that holdsit in place.

l9


TABLESAWBLADES I tablesawisortlyasgoodasthesaw ,f"L bladeit tunrs.A dull or chipped bladecantransformeventhe bestof tablesawsinto a pooror evendangerous tool. To protectbladesfrom damage, ar,oidstackingthem directlyatopeach other.Hangthemindividuallyon hooks or nlace cardboardbetweenthem. or Renlace a bladethatis dull or cracked are hal chippedteeth;moreaccidents by dull bladesthansharpones. caused Keeovoursawbladesclean.Woodresins cungu- r'rpa bladeandhamperitsability to makeasmoothcut.Tocleanstickywood resinandpitchoffablade, soakitinturpenSpray-on tine,thenscrubitwith steelwool. stubovencleaner canbeusedto dissolve borndeoosits. isasmuch Proolrbladeperformance a matterof usingtherightbladefor the job askeepingit cleanandin goodcondition. \\4rereasin the pasttherewere relativelyfelvsawbladesto choosefrom, today'swoodworkerfacesa widearrayof options.As illustratedbelow,thereare for crosscutbladesdesigned specifically tingor ripping,othersto minimizekickbackor producethin kerfs,and blades

Rip Blade (Standard) Far cuta alonq the 7ratn Haa deepqulieta uia ,"iutively few, larqe teeth. The chieel-likec utt tn4 ed1eo of the Leeth makea fatrly rou4hcut and produce lar4epartlclee of sawdueL and woodchipo.

()FA BLADE ANATOMY T()()TH AnL|kbkback

Brazedto n shoulderon thesnw blode, the corlridetip doesthe utttittg, while thegullet retnovesthe sawdust.The expansiottsllt preventsthe bladefrotrt warping when it heatstrp. The antikickbackfeature reducesthe risk that the bladewill jam, and senda workpieceflying bncktoward the user.

Croaaaut Blade (Standard) For cuta acrosa the qrain.Hae more teeth than rtp blade.Theteeth makea amooLhcut and producefine aawduaL.

for cutting specifictypes of wood. Regardless of qpe,allblades areinstalled on the sawand adjustedfor cutting height and angle in the samervay (pages 22-23). The most imoortantadvancein recentyearshasbein theintroductionof carbide-tippedblades.These have eclipsed traditionalhigh-speed steelas the bladeof choice.The advantase of blade,liesin theira6ility carbide-tipped to keepa sharpedgefar longerthantheir Composed of grains steelcounterparts. particles oneof hardtungsten-carbon hundredththe thicknessof a human hair,the carbidechunksare bonded with cobaltandbrazedonto theblade with copperor silver.Carbideis extremely hardlthehighestrating-C4-has a hardness valueof94 on a scalethatrates diamondas100. \Ahilecarbide-tipped bladescanstay sharpfor a hundredhoursor moreof ,se,iheyaremoredifficult-and thereforemoreexpensive-tosharpenthan mostwoodhigh-speed steelblades. Sti1l, workersbelieve thepriceisworthpaying for theadvantages theyoffer.

Croaaaut Alade (Anti-Kiakback) A variationofthe atan' dard croaacut btade.The projecLionbeLweenthe Leeth limite the eizeof Lhechipemade with each bite: leeeaq4reeeivebitea prevent ktckback,

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CombinationElade A 4eneral-purpoee blade f' n" r' r' i'nr nr i"n' rrt n r . r n 6 4 a l L tinq; doeo not makeaa

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BLADE DESIGNS TOCARBIDE-TIPPED GUIDE fourbasictoothdesigns. feature sawblades Carbide-tipped particular andapplications. advantages its Eachhas own thewoodandgulshear through have teeth that All blades chips fromthekerf. and wood away sawdust letsthatclear left any material cut out have rakers that also Someblades are blades, the teeth 0n some in thekerfbytheteeth. is,theyshear stockalternately beveled-that alternately side of thecut. the other fromoneside,andthen

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Melaminetslade Haa many emall teeth deoignedto cutthrouqh the abraatveqluefound in parttcleboardand other manufacLured panelo,reeulLingin a chip-freecut.

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Ha) Ahernate TopEevel with a Raker (NB/R) Fouralternately beveledcuttin7 teeLh alternate wtth a flat' top raker tooth: for

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Hollow Ground PlanerBlade (High?peed ?teel) ror veryamooTncro66cu|o, rip cuLa or angle cut a, Thebodyof the bladeta t:hinnerthan the huband teeLh,whtch are not aet, enaudnq thaL the bodydoeenot bind in the saw kerf.

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alternate with flat-top raker teelh; for rip' pinq or croaecuttin4 abrasive materiala

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Flat Top Grind GTG) FIat-top cutttng teeLh: for rippin7

Croeaaut Blade (Thin Rim) A variationofthe atandard croeEcutbladefor fine finieh cuLa.lte thinner nm produceoa narrowerkerf,putttnq leeo stratn on the gawmoror,

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AlternateTop ' Bevel(ATB) Hi4hlyaharpened alternately beveled cuttinq teeth: for croeecuttin0

Plywood Elade (High-?peed ?teel) Hao many emall teel;h Lhat makea emooth, apltnter-freecut in plywoodand waodveneera, TheLeeth are leeaeffi' ctenLin hi7hlyabraotve manufacLuredpanele euch ae particleboard.


TABLESAW

CHANGING A SAWBLADE

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theoldblade 1l Removins thenewblade t Installing I Working at thefrontof thetable,wedge a pieceof scrap Z- StiOe thebladeonthearborwithitsteethpointing in the (toward woodundera bladetoothto prevent thebladefromturning. Use direction of bladerotation thefrontof thetable).Insert thewrench supplied withthesawto loosen thearbornuI(abovd. thewasher andnutandstarttightening byhand. Tofinishtight(Table gripthesawblade sawarbors usually havereverse threads; thenutis loosening, witha ragandusethewrench suppliedwiththesaw(above), enedin a clockwise direction-not counterclockwise.) Finish Donotusea pieceof woodasa loosening thenutbyhand,making surethatit doesnotfallinto wedge asthiscouldresultin overtightening thenut. themachine. Carefully lifttheblade andwasher offthearbor.

rlllillrrllillrllltfillfiltllltllllfiltlllllll1 lll1 lllllltfiIlt]lllltl 5HO? TI? Custom-made table inserts To prevenLocrap wood fromjammin4a7ainoLNhe eawblade,makeyourownNable ineerVe thaL minimize the aao bebween the bladeand Nhetable inserl opening. UeeNheinoertouVVlied wiLhthe eawae a Lemplatelo cuNa blankfrom a piece of ocrapwoodof the samelhickneee.Drivea brass eetecrewinto its front edgeuntil 1/sinchof NheecrewproLrudesfrom iI. (Theocrewwillserveae an anchorpinfor NheinserL.) Crankthe saw bladeNoils lowestoetbin4and set the newineerl in place.TooilionNheripfenceLo etraddlethe insert,makingeurelhal iNisnot direcllyabovelheblade.Turn onthe sawandcrankNhe bladeup olowlyto iNehigheoloettinq,cuLlinqa slot,in NheineefL,

22


TABLESAW

ANGTE THEBLADE SETTING cuttingangle theproper Setting thetable Tomakean anglecut,remove insertandcrankthe bladeto its highest to setthe desired setting.Usea protractor bevelandbutt angleona sliding cutting two the bladebetween thebevelagainst crank theangleadjustment teeth.Rotate onthesawuntilthebladerestsflush the bevel(/eff). against

HEIGHT THEBLADE SETTING height thebladeto theproper Cranking a safety A bladethatis toohighposes risk;onethatis toolowwill notcut properly. Formostcuttingoperations, rotatethebladeheightadjustment crankuntilaboulrhinchof the blade is visibleabovethe workpiece tight). ic height, Tosetthe bladeat a specif ora commercially usea tapemeasure gauge, of a series which features made "steps"of 7+-inch a similar increments; gauge fromscraps canbeshop-built plywood. is at the The blade of 7+-inch gauge it rubs the height when correct you rotate the as height at thedesired hand bladebv Inseil.

23


RIPPING p ipping has traditionallybeen "cutting I\ definedas with thegrain." But consideringthat some woods today-plywood andparticleboard, for example-haveno overallgrainpattern, thedefinitionneedssomeamendine. A moreappropriate descriptionfocuseJon the tablesawaccessory usedto makea rip cut. Whereascrosscuttingis done usingthe miter gauge,rippinginvolves

therip fence.(Exceptfor certaincutsthat do not passcompletelythroughthe workpiece,suchasa dadocut, the rip fenceandmiter gaugeshouldneverbe usedat thesametime,or jammingand kickbackcanoccur.) Beforeripping a workpiece,setthe heightof the sawblade(page23),then lock the rip fencein position for the width of cut.The mostcrucialsafety

concernwhenrippingis keepingyour handsout ofthe bladetpath.Forprotection,useaccessories suchaspushsticks, featherboards andhold-downdevices, To usea hold-downdevice,it may firstbe necessary to screwa woodauxiliary fenceto the rip fence.Auxiliary fencesareidealsurfaces for clamping; manywoodworkers makethem a permanentfixture on their saws.

RIPPING A BOARD

thecut 1 Starting I Measure thedistance to theedgeof a toothnearest the fence(inseil.Position thefenceandsetoneendof theworkpieceonthesawtablecloseto theblade. Useyourlefthand to press thewooddownonthetableandflushwiththefence;

useyourrrghthandto feedthewoodintotheblade(above) Continue feeding theboardintothebladeat a steady rate u n t i tl h et r a i l i n eg n do f t h eb o a r d a p p r o a c htehset a b l e . (Caution: guardremoved Blade forclarity.)

24


TABLESAW

r) Approaching theblade L tlooi,the thumbof vourlefthandover theedgeof thetableani restyourpalmon thewoodpressed down thetable,keeping frrmlyonthetableandupagainst thefence (/eff).Continue feeding theboardwithyour righthanduntilthetrailing endof theboard theblade. approaches

Finishing thecut Keeppushing theboard untilthe it completely. When bladecutsthrough theworkpiece isclearof theblade, use yourlefthandto shiftthewastepiece to theleftsideof thetable(/efr).With yourrighthand,carefully liftthegood pieceandplaceit to therightof the rip fencebefore turningoff thesaw. Donotallowpieces of woodto pile uoonthesawtable,

25

Passing theblade Straddle thefencewithyourrighthand (left),makingsurethat neitherhandis in linewiththeblade.lf anyf ingercomes within3 inches of theblade, complete the cutusinga pushstick,a jig,ora hold-down (abovel deuice mounted on the ripfence. Therubber wheels of thehold-down device keeptheworkpiece firmlyagainst thetable; kickback, theyalsolockwhen to prevent pushed against thedirection of thecut, keeping theboard fromshooting backward. lf youareusinga hold-down device, begin feeding theworkpiece fromthefrontofthe table,thenmoveto thebackto pullthe woodthrough. Otherwise, f inishthecut fromthefrontof thetable(step4).


TABLESAW

RIPPING A LARGE PANEL

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Cutting intothepanel I Position theriofenceforthewidthof cut.Asksomethecut oneto standat thebackof thetableto receive Posrtion otherwise, setuptworollerstands. sections; og nt h et h i c k n e sosf t h ep a n e l , t h e ms ot h a t ,d e p e n d i n Laythe to support thecut pieces. theyarecloseenough p a n eol nt h es a wt a b l ea f e wi n c h efsr o mt h e b l a d e , buttingitsedgeagainst thefence.Tobeginthecut,slowly slightly raisrng thepanel's feedthepanelintotheblade, side backendto keepitsfrontendflat;applyenough pressure withyourlefthandto keepthe panelbutted Continue feeding the squarely against thefence(abovd. panelintothe bladeat a steady rateuntilits backend guard Blade reaches theedgeof thetable.(Caution: removed forclarity.)

r) Finishing thecut position Z- Standing to theleftof thesawblade, y o u rp a l m o s nt h eb a c ke n do f t h ep a n esl ot h a t neither handis in linewiththeblade. Press down on the panelwithyourpalms(above,) andpush t h et r a i l i n e s n do f t h eo a n etlo w a r tdh eb l a d e u n t i tl h ec u ti sc o m o l e t e d .

LO


TABLE SAW

RIPPING A NARROW STRIP Using a featherboard andpushstick Position theripfenceforthewidthof cut.Thenbutttheworkpiece against the fence.Tokeepyourhandsawayfrom t h eb i a d ea s i i c u t st h ew o r k o i e cues. e featherboard twoaccessories-a anda to the oushstick.Clamoa featherboard sawtable-themodelshownis installed in themiterslot-sothatitsf ingers hold t h ew o r k p i e cs e n u g lay g a i n st ht ef e n c e . ru 5r c^ ^ d^ ^p u. >, i^l L)^L+t Lin^ rd^. J^ J^i rl Lr w n t o f e e d

t h ew o r k p i e icnet ot h eb l a d eC. o n t i n u e c u t t i n gs t e a d i luyn t i lt h e b l a d en e a r s t h ee n do f t h ec u t .S u p p o rt h t ew a s t e p i e c ew i t hy o u rl e f th a n dt;o p r e v e n t y o u rh a n df r o mb e i n gp u l l e db a c ki n t o t h eb l a d ei n c a s eo f k i c k b a ccku, r ly o u r fingers around theedgeof thetable(/eff) (Caution: guard Blade removed forclarity.)

A JIGF()R MAKING REPEAT NARROW CUTS Torip several narrow stripsto thesamewidth,usethe jig shownat left.Forthejig,cut a boardwith shopmade a lipat oneend.Screw a hold-down blockto thejig,then jig buttthe flushagainst theripfence.Marka cuttingline ontheworkpiece, thenseatit against thejig,flushwiththe lip.Position theripfencesothatthecuttinglineonthe workpiece is aligned withthesawblade. Tomakeeachcut,slrdethejig andtheworkpiece asa unitacross thetable,feeding theworkpiece intotheblade (|efl.$he firstcutwilltrimthelip to thewidthof thecut.) Useyourlefthandto keeptheworkpiece flushagainst the jig. Remove thecut strip,reposition in the theworkpiece jig,andrepeat guard for identical Blade strips.(Caution: removed forclarity.)

27


TABLESAW

RESAWING THICKST()CK

Featherboard

thecut Settingup andstarting 1 I T o r e s a wa b o a r d ,p o s i t i o nt h e r i p f e n c ef o r t h e w i d t ho f c u t a n d a t t a c h a h i g ha u x i l i a rw y o o df e n c e .C r a n kt h e b l a d eb e l o wt h e t a b l ea n d p l a c et h e w o r k p i e c eo v e rt h e t a b l ei n s e r tT. os e c u r et h e w o r k p i e c ec ,l a m po n ef e a t h e r b o atrod , n da s e c o n d t h e f e n c ea b o v et h e b l a d e a f e a t h e r b o a hr da l f w a yb e t w e e tnh e b l a d e a n dt h e f r o n to f t h e t a b l e .R e s t h e s e c ond featherboard on a woodscrapso that i t s u p p o r ttsh e m i d d l eo f t h e w o r k p i e c e : c l a m pa n o t h e br o a r da t a 9 0 " a n g l et o t h e f e a t h e r b o a rf do r e x t r ap r e s s u r ea, s s h o w nR . e m o v teh e w o r k p i e caen d s e t t h e h l a d eh e i p htto a m a x i m u m of 17 f o r o r 1 i n c h f o rhardinches softwood feed workpiece wood.Tostartthe cut, the intothe blade(left).Continue cuttingat y o u r r a t e f i n g e r sa r ea b o u t a steady until 3 i n c h e fsr o mt h e b l a d e .

Auxiliary woodfence

tsladecuttinq ewath

r) Completing thefirstpass move to thebackof thetable. L Wttnthesawstillrunning, U s eo n eh a n dt o p r e stsh ew o r k p i e cf leu s ha g a i n st ht er i p fence(above) andtheotherhandto pullit pastthe blade. thecuttingprocedures Fliptheworkpiece overandrepeat in stepsI and2.

Finishing thecut passalong Raise andmakeanother each thebladeheight (above). Makeasmanypasses asnecesedgeof theworkpiece untiltheblade sary, raising thebladeheight aftereachpass, cutsthrough theworkpiece completely.

28


TABLESAW

TAPER CUTS Using a commercial taperjig Tocut a workpiece sothatoneendis narrower thantheother,makea tapercut. Holdthejig flushagainst theripfence andpivotthehinged armwiththework stopuntilthetaperscaleindicates the cuttingangle-indegrees or inchesper foot.Marka cuttinglineontheworkpiece, thenseatit against theworkstopand hinged arm.Position thefencesothatthe cuttinglineontheworkpiece is aligned withthesawblade. Withthejig andworkpiececlearof theblade, turnonthesaw. Useyourlefthandto holdtheworkpiece against thejig andyourrighthandto slide thejig andworkpiece asa unitacross thetable,feeding theworkpiece intothe blade(left);ensure thatneitherhandis in linewiththeblade. Continue cutting at a steady rateuntilthe bladecutsthrough (Caution: theworkpiece. Sawbladeguard removed forclarity.) jig Using a shop-made Builda jig exactly liketheoneshown on page68 butwithoutthehandle. Topositiontheworkpiece forthetapercut,raise thesawbladeto its highest setting. Butt onesideof thejig baseagainst theblade andposition theripfenceflushagainst theothersideof thebase.Marka cutting l i n eo nt h ew o r k p i e ct eh ,e np l a c ei t o n thebase, aligning thelinewiththeedge of thetaperjig'sbasenearest the blade. position Holding theworkpiece securely, t h eg u i d eb a ra g a i n si t , w i t ht h e l i p snugly against theendof theworkpiece. Screw t h eg u i d eb a rt o t h eb a s ea n d pressthetoggleclampsdownto secure theworkpiece to thejig base.Setthe bladeheight. Withthejigandworkpiece clearof theblade, turnonthesaw.With yourIefthandpressing theworkpiece t o w a r tdh er i pf e n c es, l i d et h ej i g a n d workpiece steadily across thetable,makingsurethatneither handis in linewrth the bladetight). (Caulion: Bladeguard removed forclarity.)

29


CROSSCUTTING s cutting with the grain is synonymouswith theuseof therip fence, so crosscuttingis definedby the device usedto makethe cut: the miter gauge. The generaltechniquefor making a crosscut,asshownbelow,beginswith correct hand placementto keep the workoieceboth flush on the tableand firmly againstthe miter gauge.The workpieceis fedinto thebladeat a steady rate.As with ripping, makesurethat scrappiecesdo not pileup on thetable, andkeepboth handsout of linewith the blade.Also,keepthe rip fencewellback from the bladeto preventany cut-off

part of the workpiecefrom becoming trappedbetweenthebladeandfenceand kickingback. To reducetheamountof sandingyou will needto do later,rememberthat the slowerthe feed,the smootherthe cut, thebladebreaksthrough especiallywhen the workpieceat the end of the cut. Althougha combinationbladecanbe a crosscutblade usedfor crosscutting, will producea finer cut. isbeingcut, Whena longerworkpiece to it is a goodideato attachan extension themitergaugeto providea moresecure base.Miter gaugescommonlyhave

two screwholesfor just suchan addition-normally, a pieceof hardwood 3 to 4 incheswideandabout2 feetlong. Usethe miter gaugeextensionin conjunction with a stop block to make repeatcuts (page32). For wide panelsor long boards,a jig (page33)is shop-made crosscutting particularlyhelpful,andwill ensurevery accurate cuts.Thejig canalsobeusedfor smallerpiecesandprovidesa safe,convenientwayto performmostcrosscuts. woodworkers considManyexperienced acceser it thesinglemostindispensable soryfor crosscutting.

W(lRKPIECE THE SOUARING

a crosscut 1 Making fora crosscut, cutoneendof it square. a workpiece I Before measuring or marking withthebladesothatit willtrim aligntheworkpiece Toavoidjamming theblade, r/zinchor so.Withthethumbsof bothhandshooked holdthe overthe mitergauge, to feedtheworkfrrmlyagainst thegaugehbove)andpushthemtogether workpiece pieceintothe blade.(Caution: guardremoved forclarity.) Blade

30

forsquare Checking square to conUsea combination workoiece firmthatthecut endof the formsa 90" anglewiththeedge.With heldupto the andsquare theworkpiece l i g h tt,h e r es h o u l d b e n og a pv i s i b l e . Markan X onthecut endto helpyou remember whichendhasbeensquared.


TABLESAW

REPEAT THERIPFENCE CUTS: USING ASA GUIDE upthecut 1 Setting I Clamp a board to theripfenceas jamming a stopblock.Toprevent theworkpiecebetween thestopandthe bladewhichcouldleadto kickback-position thestopfar enough towardthefrontof the tablesothattheworkpiece willclearthe stopbefore reaching theblade.Tolineup thecut,holdtheworkpiece against the mitergauge andpushthegauge andworkpieceforward untiltheworkpiece touches thesawblade. Slidetheworkpiece along themitergauge untilthecuttingmarkis aligned withthe blade(left).

theripfence O Positioning pull L noningtheworkpiece firmlyagainst themitergauge, bothbackfromthe bladeandbuttthestopblockagainst the (abovd.Locktheripfencein position. workpiece Check to see thattheworkpiece doesnotcontact thestopblockwhenthe workpiece reaches the blade.

thecut Q Making r-t Settheendof theworkpiece flushagainst thestopblock. Withthethumbsof bothhandshooked overthemitergauge, holdtheworkpiece f irmlyagainst thegauge andpushthem (Gaution: together to feedtheworkpiece intothe blade(above). guardremoved Blade forclariU.)

31


TABLESAW

REPEAT CUTS:USINGTHEMITERGAUGE 'l

Positioning thestopblock as to themitergauge I Screw a board a ne x t e n s i oenn, s u r i nt h g a to n ee n do f Push thesawblade. it extends beyond to cutofftheendof the themitergauge extension. Turnoffthesaw,thenslide themitergauge to thefrontof thetable. of cuton Measure andmarkthelength (left).Aligna woodblock theextension asa withthemarkandclampit in place stopblock.

lllrlllrl]lllllJillrilllllllllillll]llltilllilllllllillll]llill lll llll )HO? TI? "Off" switch Hands-free Tolurn off the eawwhenyour hando are bueyon Ihe lable,ueea ehoV-made kneeor looNlever.CuI a boardequal in widlh t.othe swttchbox.Theboard ehouldbe lon4enouqhNoreachwith a fooLor a kneewhenaLlachedlo t'he box(rrqht).7crewa hinqeNooneendof trheboardand VooitionLhehingeon top of the box,Vark Lheepol whereihe ON the board.Cul a hole butr.onr,ouchee Lheboardalthis mark,AtNach Nhrouqh t h e h i n 4 et r oI h e b o xu s i n qq l u e ,o r removelhe coverand drivein screws.

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r; Making thecut L fo, eachcut,butttheendof the With against thestopblock. workpiece hooked over thethumbs of bothhands t h em i t e g r a u g eh,o l dt h ew o r k p i e c e a n dp u s h f i r m l ya g a i n st ht eg a u g e feeding theworkpiece themtogether, (Caution: Blade intothe blade(above). guardremoved forclarity,)


TABLESAW

Clearplaetic quard

CROSSCUT JIG Extengton

1"x3"x36"

Ouide )Lop block 2"x4"x4"

2"x3"x36" Jig Eaee

Keinforcinqblock 2"x3"xB"

1/2"x25"x36"

Foreasyandaccurate crosscutswithlong,wideor heavy especially workpieces-use a shop-built crossforyourtable cut jig,custom-made sawbbovd. Referto the illustration forsuggested dimensions. Cuttwo25-inch-long hardwood runners the samewidthasyour mitergaugeslots.Boreclearance holesfor screwsintothe undersides 3 inches fromeach of therunners, in theslots, end.Place therunners the ihenslidethemoutto overhang backendof thetablebyabout8

inches. Position thejig basesquarely ontherunners, itsedgeflushwith theiroverhanging ends,thenscrew therunners to thebase, countersinkingthescrews. Slidethe runners andthe baseoff thefrontendof the tableanddrivein theothertwo Attacha support framealong screws. thebackedgeof thejig.Gluea reinforcingblockto theframe,centered Then,withthe between therunners. in the mitergaugeslots, runners makea cut through thesupport frameandthree-quarters of theway

33

across the base,Turnoff thesaw andlowertheblade,Screwa guide to thefrontedgeof thejig,ensuring that it is squarewiththe sawkerf. Gluea safetyblockto theoutside of theguide,centered on the kerf; alsogluea reinforcing blockonthe guide,identical to theoneon the support frame.Raise thesawblade andfinishthecut,sawing completelythrough theguidebutonlyslightly intothesafetyblock. Formaking repeat cutsto the to samelength,screwan extension t h eg u i d ea n dc l a m pa s t o pb l o c k to it. Usea clearplasticsheetthat spansthesawkerfasa bladeguard, fastening it to thereinforcing blocks withwingnuts, jig,fit therunTousethecrosscut nersintothemitergauge slots.Slide thejig towardthe backof thetable untilthebladeenters thekerf.Hold theworkpiece against theguide,slide position thestopbloclcto thedesired andclampit in place,buitingthe endof theworkpiece against thestop block.Withtheworkpiece heldfirmly against theguide,slidethejig steadily across thetable(/eft),feeding the workpiece intotheblade.


TABLESAW

A WIDEPANEL CROSSCUTTING themitergauge 1 Reversing I to startthecut is widerthanthedistance lf a workoiece between thefrontedgeof thetableand thesawblade,the mitergaugecannot in its usual be usedto begina crosscut position-in frontof theblade.Instead, remove thegaugeandinsertit in the miterslotfromthe backof thetable;for screwa wooden extension extrastability, Tobeginthecut, holdthe to thegauge. withonehandwhilepressing extension it withtheother theworkpiece against steadily into hand.Feedtheworkpiece t h eb l a d eu n t i tl h et r a i l i n eg n do f t h e workoiece reaches thefrontof thetable. (Caution: guardremoved Blade forclari$.)

r) Finishing thecut L Turnoff the sawwhenthe bladeis farenough theworkpiece to allow through to returnto its usualposithe mitergauge swilch(page32), tion,usinga hands-free if possible, sothatbothhandsremain Insertthemitergauge ontheworkpiece. intoits slotfromthe frontof thetable theworkandcomplete thecut,holding (rghf). pieceagainst theextension

34


ANGLECUTS n. of thereasons thetablesawisso A \-/ versatileis that both the miter gaugeandthebladecanbeangled,producingnot onlystraightcutsbut miter, bevelandcompoundcutsaswell.Miters of between30%nd90oarecutby angling themiter gauge.Sawbladescanbetilted from 45oto 90' (page2j),producing bevelcuts.Andbyanglingboththemiter gaugeandthe sawblade,a woodworker canmakea compoundcut. Whethercrosscutting or ripping,the techniquesusedfor anglecutsaresimilar to thoseusedwhenthebladeandgauge areat 90o.The differenceis the result: With the bladeat 90o,the woodworker endsup with a straightcut; with the

\

bladeangled,a bevelcut. The same appliesto crosscutting, althoughwith both activities extracaremustbe taken to keephandsawayfrom the blade, whichnow cutsa widerswathabovethe table.Whenthebladeis tilted,position themitergaugeor rip flence soihat the

Compoundcut

bladeanglesawayfrom it. This waythe workpieceis pushedawayfrom theblade ratherthan pulledtowardit, reducing thechancethat handswill strayinto the blade.Gluingsandpaper to a mitergauge extensionwill alsoreducethe chanceof a workpieceslippingduringa cut.

TW()JIGSFORMAKING MULTIPLE ANGLED CUTS

A simple setup forfastrepeat cuts Screwa wooden extension to themitergauge, thenusea slidingbevelto setthedesired cuttingangleof thegauge(above). lf youaremaking a compound cut,usethesliding bevel to set the bladeangle(page23). Pushthe mitergaugeto cut off the endof theextension. Placetheworkpiece against theextensionandlineupthecuttingmarkwiththeblade. Clamp a stop to theextension at theopposite endof theworkpiece. Tomake eachcut,holdtheworkpiece firmlyagainst theextension and, pushthe keeping bothhands outof linewiththesawblade, workpiece steadily intotheblade.

35

Cutting miterjoints jig (page Builda crosscut 33) withoutan extension or a safety block. Then,cuttwo12-inch-long 1-by-4s andplacethemat 90"to eachotherin themiddle of thejig,centered on itskerf. Turnthejig overandscrew the 1-by-4s to thejig.Tomakea series of cuts,butttheworkpiece against the leftarmof the jig,alignthecuttinglineontheworkpiece withthesawblade andclampa stopblockto thearmat theendof theworkpiece. Cutthrough theworkpiece, holding it firmlyagainst the armandstopblock(above). Cutthematingpieceof thejoint thesamewayontherightarmof thejig,Usethestopblocks asguides foradditional cutsto thesamelength.


DADOCUTS jointscallfor Eachof thesecutscanbe madeon a Q everalwoodworking rJ channels to becutintoworkpieces, tablesawwitha standardbladeby makpasses ing repeated alongtheworkpiece allowingboardsand panelsto fit together tightlyandsolidly,but incon- until the entirewidth of the channelis Fourof themostcommon cut out. However,a tablesawequipped spicuously. areshownbelow with a dadoheadcancut a dado,groove typesof channels (top).Theyaredistinguished fromeach or rabbetmuch moreefficiently.There to thewood areseveraltypesofdadoheads.Thetwo otherbytheirrelationship wobble grainandtheirlocationonaworkpiece. mostcommonaretheadjustable

Rabbet end-to-endaut at edqe;either alon4 or aqainat

Groove:end-to'end cut alonqthe qrain

Dado:end-to-endcut acroag the 6rain

5topped groove: cut along the arain that atopa short of one or both enda

Fromcuninggrooves in a for shelves bookcase to makinga rabbettojoin dadoheadsare tuvopanelstogether, an indispensable and versatile tablesaw. accessory the for

36

dado and the stackingdado shown below (bottom). The wobbledado is a singleblade mountedon a hub thatcanbeadjusted to provide varying widths of cut. Installedon the sawarbor much like a standardblade,thewobbledadoliterally wobblesas it spins.The greaterthe tilt-set by a dial on the blade-the wider the channelcut by the blade. Thestackingdadocomprises a pairof outsidebladesthat sandwichup to five inside chippers.The width of cut dependson how many chippersare mounted on the saw arbor along with the blades.Installing only the blades oroducesa W-inch cut. Inside chippersincreasecutting width i n V t a - , r / so-r r A - i n c hi n c r e m e n t s up to'%oinch-and up to I inch for modelsthat includemetalshims.Paoer washerscanbe addedto orovideeven finerwidth adjustment. Foi widerchannels,adjustthe dadoheadfor thewidest possiblecut andmakeseveralpasses. wobbleblades Althoughadjustable generallyarelessexpensive andsimpler to installthan stackingmodels,most stackingdadoesprovidebetterresults: with moreprecisewidths,flatchannels ter bottomsand cleaneredgeswith a minimum of tearout.


TABLESAW

HEAD A DADO INSTALLING Installing blades andchippers the bladefromthe saw(page22) Remove themanandinstalla dadoheadfollowing Forthecarbideinstructions. ufacturer's fit a blade dadoshown, tippedstacking in onthearborwiththeteethpointing Toinstall of bladerotation. thedirection the fit it onthearboragainst a chipper, in the withitsteethalsopointing blade, andcentered of bladerotation, direction twobladeteeth.Fit in gulletsbetween chipoers onthearborthesame additional theirteethfromthoseof way,offsetting Then,fit the already in place. thechippers second bladeonthearbor(iefil,ensuring itsteethdo nottouchtheteethof theothit resting against er bladeor anychipper (inseil.Installthewasher andtightenthe keeping theblades and nutonthearbor, surethat in position, againmaking chippers arenottouching theteethof thechippers tightenthe anybladeteeth.lf youcannot thewasher. arbornutall theway,remove F i n a l l yi n, s t a lal d a d ot a b l ei n s e rot n thesawtable.

W DADOES ANDGROOVES MAKING Cutting a dado Markcuttinglinesforthewidthof thedado Buttthe edgeof theworkpiece. onthe leading thefrontofthedadohmd, cuttrnglinesagainst the theripfenceflushagainst thenposition to thefrontof Slidetheworkpiece workpiece. the mitergaugethetableandsetit against preferably to it to screwed withan extension provide Tomakethecut,slide extrastability. asa unit andtheworkpiece themitergauge theworkintothe dadohead(right),keeping piecefirmlyagainst thedado thefence.(Since theworkthrough headdoesnotcutcompletely piecethisisoneexception rule to thegeneral nevandripfenceshould thatthemitergauge feeder beusedat thesametime.)Continue rateuntilthe at a steady ingtheworkpiece (Caution: guard Blade cut is completed. forclarity.) removed

37


TABLESAW

Cutting a groove M a r kc u t t i n gl i n e sf o r t h e w i d t ho f t h eg r o o v e ontheleading e d g eo f t h e w o r k p i e c eB.u t tt h e c u t t i n gl i n e su p a g a i n stth e d a d oh e a d t, h e np o s i t i o n t h e r i p f e n c ef l u s ha g a i n stth e w o r k piece.Fornarrowstock,usea featherboard anda pushstickto keepyour h a n d sa w a yf r o mt h e d a d oh e a d . P o s i t i oyno u rl e f t h a n da t t h e f r o n t e d g eo f t h et a b l et o k e e pt h et r a i l i n g e n do f t h e w o r k p i e cfel u s ha g a i n s t t h e f e n c e .F e e dt h e w o r k p i e cien t o the head(right)aI a steadyrate u n t i lt h e c u t i s c o m p l e t e d( C . aution: Bladeguardremoved for clarity.)

Keliefcut

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Cutting a rabbet Install a dadoheadslightly widerthan therabbet desired, thencrankit below thetable.Screw a board to theripfence asanauxiliary fenceandmarkthedepth of therabbet on it. Position theauxiliary fencedirectly overthedadohead,ensuringthatthemetalfenceis clearof the blade. Turnonthesawandslowly crank u pt h ed a d oh e a du n t i li t c u t st o t h e marked line,producing a relief cutinthe a u x i l i a frey n c eT. u r no f ft h es a wt,h e n marka cuttinglinefortheinside edge of therabbet ontheworkpiece. Buttthe cuttinglineagainst thedadohead, then p o s i t i ot nh er i pf e n c ef l u s ha g a i n st ht e workpiece. Clamotwofeatherboards as s h o w tno h o l dt h ew o r k p i e cs e c u r e l y against thefenceandsawblade; a wooden support armprovides extrastability. Turnonthesaw,thenfeedtheworkpiece intothedadohead(left)aI a steady rate u n t i tl h ec u t i s c o m p l e t euds; ea p u s h (Caution: guard stick,if necessary. Blade removed forclarity.)

gupporDarm

3B


TABLESAW

GRO()VE A STOPPED MAKING 'l

upthecut Setting of theposition I Tohelpyoudetermine b yt h e t h ed a d oh e a dw h e ni t i s h i d d e n thiscut,crankthedado workpiece during andusea headto thedepthof thegroove to mark anda straigntedge chinamarker theheadstartsandstops thepointswhere cutting(lefil.f hen,marktwosetsof cutoneonitsleadtinglinesontheworkpiece: oneon ingendforthewidthof thegroove; Butt of thegroove. itsfaceforthelength endof the linesontheleading thecutting thefrontof thedado workpiece against h er i pf e n c ef l u s h h e a dt,h e np o s i t i ot n theworkpiece. against

r) Cutting intotheworkpiece L furnonthesawandholdtheworkpiecejustabove alignthedadohead, ingthefrontcuttinglineontheworkmark piecewiththedadoheadcutting fromyou. on thetableinsertfarthest H o l d i ntgh ew o r k p i e ct ieg h t l ya g a t n s t thefence,slowlylowerit ontothehead (righil,keepingbothhandsclearof the sitssquarely head.Whentheworkpiece whilepressonthetable,feedit forward thefence. ingit against

thecut Finishing of the to within3 inches Whenyourlefthandcomes h e a d s, l i d ey o u rh a n da l o n gt h e t o p e d g eo f t h e w o r k p i e c e y o u rf i n g e r sa r o u n dt h e t o t h e b a c ko f t h e t a b l e ,h o o k i n g t a b l e ' se d g e C . o n t i n u ceu t t i n ga t a s t e a d yr a t eu n t i lt h e b a c kc u t t i n gl i n eo n t h e w o r k p i e cael i g n sw i t h t h e d a d o h e a dc u t t i n gm a r kc l o s e st o y o u .T o c o m p l e t et h e c u t , l i f t t h e w o r k p i e coef f t h e d a d oh e a dw i t hy o u rr i g h th a n d ( l e f i l ,s l i l ls t e a d y i n g i t a g a i n st h e f e n c ew i t h y o u rl e f t h a n dh o o k e d a r o u n dt h e e d g eo f t h e t a b l e .

39


MOLDINGS i\ tablesawismorethanjusta machine A to cutwood.With thepropersetup, a sawbladecanserveasa milling device to cut covemoldings(pagea3).And by replacingthe sawbladewith a molding headanddifferentsetsofcutters,a plain boardcanbecomeanelaborate molding. Pieces ofwood canbe shapedseparately and then glued togetherto form an impressivearrayof designs.The results rangefrom crownmoldingsfor a cabinet to decorativedoor and frame moldings-made at a fractionof the costof their store-boughtcounterparts.

Moldingcuttersaresoldin setsof three,which areinstalledin a molding headand then fastenedonto the arbor. By passingthe wood overthe cutters repeatedly andraisingthemoldinghead slightlyeachtime,a patternis cut into thewood.Themorepasses, the deeper theinscriotion. Like a dado head,a molding head requiresits own tableinsertwith a wide openingto accommodate the width of the cutters.A woodworkercanmakean insertfor eachsetofcuttersby placinga blankoieceof wood in the tableinsert

slotandslowlycrankingup themolding head-much like makingspecialinserts for sawblades(page22). Moldingheadshavea reputationfor beingdangerous and while thereare alwayshazardsinvolvedwhen usinga tablesawthereis little risk whenmolding headsareusedwith propercare.A fewpointsto keepin mind: Do not cut moldingson shortlengthsof wood;a pieceshouldbe at least12incheslong. Also,do not cut moldingson narrow strips;cut themoldingson piecesat least 4 incheswideandthenrio to width.

Millingbaseboardwith molding cutters Threesetsof cutterswereusedin combination to transforma piece of walnutinto an elaborate baseboardmoldingat littlecost(left). More than30 bladeprofilesare available; by usingdffirentcutters-also knownasknives-on thesameboard,an innovative woodworker canmiII an almost limitlessrangeof designs.

COMMOI{ CUTTER PR()FITES

^J

-

ryl G

Eead --

Cove

ffi

Oqee

CUTVE

t" n kww Crown mold

Olaas stop

?anel otrip

40

-

T

tsead andcove

Flute

450 Eevel

fr ffi Groove

Tonaue


TABLESAW

HEAD A MOLDING INSTALLING

headandcutters a molding Mounting yourhandandtighten thearbornutcounterclockwise intoitsslotin themold- protect Fiteachof thethreecutterspartway the moldA washeris notnecessary; usinga wrench(above). edgefacesaway beveled thatthecutter's inghead,ensuring Afterthe withoutreinforcement. intotheirholes, ingheadis rigidenough hole.Installthesetscrews fromthesetscrew d l ei n s e r t i n, s t a lal m o l d i n g - h et a b to tighteneachscrewuntilthecutters m o l d i nhge a di s s e c u r e d thenusea hexwrench hand to make head by molding (insef). Rotate the table. on the saw head molding Installthe in their slots firmly seated are notrub unit does and that the are true cutters sure that the the direccutter facing of each flat side with the the saw on eozinci ihp insprt raglo with a head molding Grip the rotation. of blade tion

A M()LDING CUTTING thefirstpasses upandmaking 1 Setting a board to theripfenceas screw a molding, cutting I Before overthe fencedirectly theauxiliary fence.Position anauxiliary thatthemetalfenceisclearof thecuthead, ensuring molding headgradually ters.Turnonthesawandcrankupthemolding of fenceto allowforclearance to cut a notchin theauxiliary lineonthe Turnoffthesaw,thenlineupthecutting thecutters. andbutttheripfence withthecutters endof theworkpiece headto its lowest themolding Crank theworkpiece. against to clamponefeatherboard Tosecure theworkpiece, setting. featherboard thesawblade,anda second thefenceabove to the at a 90" angle board a support to thesawtable.Clamp and theworkpiece asshown.Remove featherboard, second thetable;do notmakea fullto X inchabove crankthecutters Turnonthesawanduseyourrighthand depthcut in onepass. head;useyour themolding toward feedtheworkpiece to slowly the theripfence.Finish against lefthandto keeptheworkpiece cut,makeasmanypasses cutwitha pushstick.Fora deeper (left),raising head/einchat a time. themolding asnecessary

4l


TABLESAW

r) Making thefinalpass passes L lttersuccessive naveproducedthedepthof cutdesired, crank themolding headupveryslightly and pass theworkpiece through a f inaltime passes at halfthespeedof previous (lefil.Byfeeding theworkpiece slowly, thef inalcut produces a smooth finish t h a tr e q u i r emsi n i m as la n d i n g .

themolding fromtheboard Q Separating r.,l Aftertheproperprofilehasbeencut, separate themolding fromtheworkpiece Remove themolding headfromthearbor andinstall a riporcombination blade. Feedtheboard through theblade, using a pushstickto keeptheworkpiece firmly onthetabletight);useyourlefthandor a featherboard to pressit flushagainst theriofence.

42


TABLESAW

A COVEMOLDING CUTTING

Cove cutLin4 4uide

thewidth 1 Setting efa p a r a l l e l o I g u i t oa c o v ec u t t i n g u i d ei n t h es h a p o 1-by-2s to two9-inchgrambyfastening two18-inch-long twosetsof parallel withwingnuts,forming long1-by-2s the between arms.Adjusttheguidesothatthedistance of thetwolongarmsis thesameasthedesired insideedges to the Thencrankuptheblade widthof thecovemolding. across depthof thecove.Laytheguidediagonally maximum by i t u n t i tl h eb l a d et ,u r n e d t h eb l a d ei n s e rat n dr o t a t e bothlongarmsof theguideGbove). hand,justtouches

\ 1

_-.,'

-

i'l r) Markingtheguidelines L , l t t n g a p e n c i ol r c h i n am a r k e rt,r a c eg u i d e l i n eosn t h e t n ds a wt a b l ea l o n gt h e i n s i d ee d g e so f t h e l o n g t a b l ei n s e r a ) .h e no u t l i n et h e d e s i r e dp r o f i l e a r m so f t h e g u i d e( a b o v e T o f t h e c o v eo n t h e l e a d i n ge n d o f t h e w o r k p i e c eR. e m o v e t h e g u i d e c, r a n kt h e b l a d et o i t s l o w e sst e t t i n ga n d p l a c et h e t h e m a r k e do u t l i n eo n w o r k p i e coen t h e s a wt a b l e ,a l i g n i n g e i t ht h e g u i d e l i n eosn t h e s a wt a b l e . t h e w o r k p i e cw

thecove Q Cutting r J B u t ta g u i d eb o a r da g a i n set a c he d g eo f t h e w o r k p i e c e : u s eb o a r d sl o n ge n o u g ht o c l a m po n o p p o s i t es i d e so f t h e . o m a k et h e t a b l e .C r a n kt h e b l a d e% i n c ha b o v et h e t a b l e T f i r s tp a s sf,e e dt h e w o r k p i e cset e a d i l tyo w a r dt h e b l a d ew i t h y o u rl e f th a n d ,w h i l eh o l d i n gt h e w o r k p i e caeg a i n stth e t a b l e . ake . i n i s ht h ec u t u s i n ga p u s hb l o c k M w i t hy o u rr i g h th a n d F (left),raisingthe blade% inchat as necessary as manypasses a time. Fora deepcove,tack a backupboardto the top of the w o r k p i e cteo p r e v e nitt f r o ms p l i t t i n gF. o ra s m o o t hf i n i s ht h a t r e q u i r e lsi t t l es a n d i n gr,a i s et h e b l a d ev e r ys l i g h t l yf o r a l a s t passand feedthe workpiece slowlyinto it.

43


TABLESAW OINERY

OpenmorLiee-and-Leno njoint

-|1 h. speed andprecision ofatablesaw I makeit anobviouschoicefor cuttingjoints,particularly repeat cuts.Once a sawisadjusted to cutoneboxjoint or joint,forexamopenmortise-and-tenon ple,fiveor tenmorecanbecutin short order.Themosttime-consuming partis thesetup;andmuchdepends uponthe caretakenatthispoint.A fewextraminutesspentatthebeginning will resultin joint.Asalways, a strong,Iong-lasting measure twicdandcutonce. Everyjoint hasitsownspecific qualitiesandapplications. Lapjointsarefrequentlyusedto makepictureframes.

Madefromtwopieces ofwoodthathave halftheirthickness cutaway, a lapjoint is simpleto make.Whengluedand clamped, it creates a strongjoint that doesnot requirereinforcement. A boxjoint,alsoknownasa finger joint,isidealfor carcase work-for makingdrawers orboxes. It consists of interlockingpinsandnotches, whichare

generallyone-halfor one-quarterthe stock'sthickness. Onceusedfor massproducedproductssuchaspackingboxes,theboxjoint creates a strongjoint by virtue ofthe sizeofthe largegluearea createdby the pins and notches. joint is often Themortise-and-tenon found in chairsand desks.Sometimes calleda bridlejoint, it consistsof a projection---ortenon-from oneboardthat slidesinto a slot-or openmortise-in anotherboard. Like the box joint, it requiresa jig, which canbe shop-built. The followingsectiondescribes how to makeeachof theseusefuljoints.

MAKING A tAPJ(IINT Cutting lapswitha dadohead Markcuttinglinesforthewidthof eachlap ontheleading edgeof theworkpiece. Butt onecuttinglineagainst theoutside bladeat thefrontof thedadohead, thenposition the ripfenceflushagainst theworkpiece. Slide theworkpiece to thefrontof thetableand pressit firmlyagainst thefenceandthe mitergauge. Tomakethecut,slidethe gauge andtheworkpiece asa unitinto thedadohead,keeping theworkpiece flush against thefence.(Thisisanother exception to thegeneral rulethatthemitergauge and ripfenceshouldnotbe usedat thesame time.)Continue feeding theworkpiece at a steady rateuntilthecutis made.Makesuc(/eff),cuttingawaythewaste passes cessive (Caution: untilthelapiscompleted. Blade guardremoved forclarity.)

44


TABLESAW

MAKING A B()XJOINT

upthejig 1 Setting fora boxjointoneat a ttmeusinga dado I Cutthenotches asan extenheadandjig.Clampa boardto themitergauge height of thenotches thedadoheadto thedesired sion.Crank intothedadoheadto createa notch. andfeedtheextension sothatthegap Position theextension onthemitergauge between thenotchandthedadoheadis equalto thenotch to thegauge, Feed theextentheextension width,thenscrew nolch(above), checksionintothedadobladeto cut a second thenotchwidth. thenotches equals ingthatthegapbetween keyintothe notchsothatthe key Fitandgluea hardwood projects aboutan inchfromtheextension.

in themating board thenotches Q Gutting J Fitthelastnotchvoucut in thefirst boardoverthe key,thenbuttoneedge thefirst of the matingboardagainst b o a r dh, o l d i nbgo t hf l u s ha g a i n st ht e Tocut thef irst mitergauge extension. notchin themating board, slidethetwo thetable(right),thenconboardsacross board notches in themating tinuecutting youused following thesameprocedure forthefirstboard.

45

r) Cutting in thefirstboard thenotches thekey,holding against L guttoneedgeof theworkpiece Tocutthenotch, extension. it flushagainst themitergauge thegauge andslidetheworkpiece hookyourthumbs around theworkpiece to thefront intothedadoheadbbove).Return the proceof thetable,fit thenotchoverthekeyandrepeat untilyou cuttingnotches oneafteranother dure.Continue edgeof theworkptece. reachtheopposite


TABLESAW

MAKING AN()PENMORTISE-AND-TENON JOINT thetenoncheeks 1 Cutting I Create a tenonbycuttingthecheeks first,andthentheshoulders. Install a jigonthetablefolcommercial tenoning lowing themanufacturer's instructions; the model shown slidesin themiterslot.Mark cuttinglinesontheworkpiece to outline thetenon, thenclamptheworkpiece to the jig,Crank theblade to theheight of the tenonandposition thejigsothatoneof thetenoncheekcuttinglinesis butted against theblade. Usethejig handle io slidethejig along themitergauge slot; loosen theclamphandle to moveit sideways. Slidethejigto thefrontof thetable andturnonthesaw,thenuseyourright handto pushthejig forward, feeding the workpiece intotheblade(left).Continue cuttingat a steady rateuntilthecut is completed. Pullthejig backto thefront of thetableandturnoffthesaw.Turnthe workpiece around sothattheremaining cuttinglineforthethickness of thetenon is butted against theblade. Cutalongit thesamewayasyoumadethefirstcut.

I \

r') Sawing thetenonshoulders L Screw a boardto themitergauge asanextension. Thencrankthebladeto a heightequalto thedepthof thetenon against theextension, alignoneof the tenonshoulder cuttinglinesagainst the blade,thenbutta stopblockagainst theworkpiece andclampit in position. Slidetheworkoiece to thefrontof the tableandturnon thesaw.Hookyour t h u m b sa r o u n tdh em i t e rg a u g teo feedtheworkoiece intothebladeand makethecut.Usea oushstickto clear thewastepieceoff thetable.Flipover theworkpiece andbuttit against the stopblock,thencut thesecond shoulder(righil.(Caution: Bladeguard removed for clarity.)

46


TABLESAW

Cutting themortise jigonthetable.MarkcutReinstall thetenoning then to outlinethemortise, tinglinesontheworkpiece theblade to the to thejig.Crank clamptheworkpiece thejig sothatoneof andposition depthof themortise SIide the linesis butted against theblade. thecutting jig to thefrontof thetable,thenturnonthesawand intotheblade. Pullthejig back feedtheworkpiece oversothat andturnoffthesaw.Turntheworkpiece lineis butted against theblade cutting theremaining as necesandcut alongit (left).llakeasmanypasses it wastebetween thetwocuts,Test-f saryto remove if necessary. orwidenthemortise, thejointanddeepen

JIG A TENONING jig using3/q-inch tenoning Builda fence-straddling plywood shownat dimensions cut to the suggested jig hole large left. In onecornerof the body,cut a your to fit through, Screwa guide for fingers enough hole. Theboard behindthe boardto thebodydirectly position in forthecut. Make will holdtheworkpiece perfectly vertical. Toholdthe surethatthe boardis jig bodyflushagainst thefence,screwa braceto the (inset). bodywitha spacerin between Tousethejig,place it astride thefenceas shown. Butttheworkpieceagainst theguide a n dc l a m pi t i n p l a c e . Reoosition thefenceto alignthecuttingmarkon withthe theworkpiece blade, thenslidethejig alongthefenceuntilthe cut is comoleted.

47


RADIALARMSAM

andott roughcrosscuts \Jners reasons rbr rhrsperceprron. that more woodworkerr Irlrg-tulrc

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i m p r e s s i o n s a s a r e s u l t o f w o r k i n g o n t h e c o l u m n a n d t h e m o t o r androtatingon itsyoke. swiveling araisedauxiliarytable, Augmentedby machines. onlll-adjusted This allows thebladeto bepulled horizontheradialarmsaw-its bladeturned thatthetable Thereisnodenying joinr. at almostany a workpiece through tally-cuts thenotches fortheoften choice sawisanexcellent for afinger makes workof angle. It also simple repetitive chores of furnituremaking. fi.rll advanwork. But to take machine for custom cuttingtoolfor every- settingupthe it isnottheidealstationary Nevertheless, jig you must take accurately, capacity for cutting usuallyrequirea to feedstock tageof thesaw's one.Forrepeatcuts,tablesaws jigs keep it finely tuned. machine and Andsome aretime-con- thetimeto adjustthe intothebladewithuniformresults. machine, theradialarmsaw'sflexiOn a poorlyadjusted sumingto buildor costlyto buy.Thblesawsalsoneeda fair its slidingandpivoting Achilles' heel. All of is bility canbeits operation. Suchspace amountof roomto allowunhindered parts anditsmovable mustbehighlycontrolled, movements atapremiumin manyhomeworlchops. position. the locked in Otherwise, radial mustremainfixedwhen verywideboards, of crosscutting Withtheexception job This holds true just imprecise cuts. to a life of armsawscanduplicate aboutany atablesawcanper- sawis condemned Radialarmsawstypicallyrangefrom restric- for anysizemachine. limitations arenotseverely form.Eventhecrosscutting modelisrated homeworkshop theaverage tive.Mostradialarmsawscanrip up to a widthof 25inches, 1to 7 horsepower; ranges from8 to 24 Bladesizetypically panelin halflengthwise. at 1.5horsepower. allowingyouto cuta 4-foot-wide has lO-inch blade. homemodel a thestandard littleworlahop inches; relatively Moreover, theradialarmsawrequires

Thisjigwill allowyou to makemiter cutson the radialarm sawwith thebladein thestandardcrosscuttingposition-9}o to thetable.Thejig ensures that matingboardswill form a perfectlysquarejoint.

49


---

ANATOMYOFA RADIALARM SAW he radial arm sawis essentiallv a circularsawsuspended abovea work table.For mostoperations, the bladecutsthroughtheworkpieceand runsalongakerfin apieceofhardboard or plywoodttratisgluedto thesawtable. Themachine's manypivotingand slidingpars enableit to carrytheblade

Yokealamp handle Locko yoke in fixed position on arm: releaeed to rotate

Arm 9upporta yoke,motor and blade

yokefor-rippinq

into a workpiecefrom a varietyof differentangles anddirections. Slidingthe yokealongthearmpullsthebladeacross thetablefor a crosscut. Swiveling the armonthecolumnallon'sformitercuts; themaximumrangeofthe modelillusfratedbelowisnearly90oto therightand 50oto theleft. Tilting the motor and Mlter alamp handle Locka arm in fixed position on column:releasedto awivel arm and aet miter anqle. Lockaautomatioally at preaet anqlea,includingO" and 45"to the ri4ht and laft

blademakesa bevelcut possible, while rotatingtheyoketo bringthebladeparallelto thefencesetsupthemachinefor a rip cut. Depending onthewidthof thestock youneedto cut twotypesofrip cutsare feasible: anin-rip,with thebladeturned closest to thecolumn,andan out-rip,

Onloff awlt'ch Removabletoq1le preventz acciden-

tal atart-up

Column

Yoke Holda motor and blade; attached to the arm b5ta carria1e unit with roller bearinqothat 6lide alonq a track underneath the arm

Yoke handle Uaed to alide yoke alon6 arm for croaecuttina

Supporta arm; four aetacrewa on front of column baae and four bolta on rear of baae tiqhtened to prevent rotation

Eevelalamp handle Locke motor in fixed pooitlon on yoke; releaaed to aet, bevelanqle or to moveblade to horizontal pooition. Lockaautomatically at preoet an6lea,includin7O" and 45", and 9Oo to the ri6ht and Ieft

tsladeguard Froteata operator from uppeipart of blade; noset'ilts to coverleadinq edqe of blade for rippin7. Lowerblade 1uaid uaed for croaacuttina

Elade guard clamp earcw Holda auard in fixed plooition; looaenedto movequara

?tand 1upporba aaw; garewg on feet are adjuotable to level aaw table

9plltter Keepa wood kerf from bindin7 durinq a cut; anti-kickback finqere on each aide of aplitter prevent workpiecefrom liftinq Elevatlng cmnk Kaiaeaand loweraarm on column to oet depth of cut

50


Light and compactenoughto move aroundtheshopor travelto construction sites,thisportable8%-inchradial arm sawcanusurpthemarryrolesof a tablesaw.Fittedwith a specialbit and motorshaft equippedwithan accessory that turnsat 18,500rpm, thismodel router. will doubleasan overhead

with thebladeswiveledfarthestaway fromthecolumn. Althoughthebladeiskeptverticalto it canalso thetablefor mostoperations, Such betiltedto operatehorizontally. a positionis particularlyusefulfor finger taskssuchascuttinggrooves, jointsandmoldings.

Rip alamp handle Lockayoke in pooitionon arm for rippin4and for eomecuta with bladein hortzontalpoaition; releaaedfor croaacuttin4 Motor One end holda blade;oppo' gite end gerveaao acce?' aory ehaft for attachin4 a variety of acceaaories

Fence Treventaworkpiecefrom movinqdurinq croeacuttinq; quideework' pieceacroee table for ripping, Owner' inat a lled. Uauallyset between front and rear tablea aa shown;poeitioned behindrear table when cutting wide stock

Duat spout For duat collecLton ayatem; adjuatable nozzledirecta dust away from work area

Arm aover Keepeduot from enterinqrear part of arm

Miter alamp adjuetment acrew Turnedto adjuat tenaion on miter clamp; noletn arm coverpro' vides acceaa

Columnadjuetment bolte Fourbolta control amount of play betweencolumn and columnbaae

51--i),r"r,"

Auxiliary table Keplaceablehardboard or plywoodpanel qlued to front aaw table; blade rune in kerfa cut in aux' iliary table

Tableclamp ?regaearear gaw table and apacer flueh aqainet fence and front aaw table

Column baee aover Tableepacer Kemovableto allow installation of a wider fence


SETTINGUP tl- h. setupprocedures describedon I thesepagesmay seemlong and involved,but do not neglectthem. Without careful maintenance,your machinewill not cut with orecision. A problemwith manyradialarmsaws is that adjustmentsareleft too loose, playin movingparts allowingexcessive and resultingin sloppycuts. Ideally, clampsshouldlock tight and sliding mechanisms shouldbeneithertoo loose nor too snug. Adjustthe table (right),the clamps (below)and the sliding mechanisms (page54)beforeeverynewproject.Each time you usethe saq clearthe sawdust flom the gapbetweenthe tableand the fence,and clearthe trackunderneaththe arm. Periodically, touchup the moving partswith a silicone-based lubricant.It is alsoimportant to squaretheblade(page 55)andcheckfor heeling(page56). Beforeusingyour sawfor the first time, you will needto install a fence and an auxiliarytable(page5Z).To test your adjustments, crosscuta l2-inchwide board and a 1-by-3standingon edge,then checkthe cut endswith a carpenter's square.

ADJUSTING THETABTE

Leveling thetablewiththearm Tiltthemotoruntilthearborpoints down,itsendslightly above tablelevel. Thenswivel thearmto position thearborovertherailnutson bothsides of thetable;in eachposition measure thegapbetween thearborandthetable. lf themeasurements arenotequal,raisethelowendof thetablebyturning the railnutin a clockwise direction, usingtheheadof anadjustable wrench to lever upthetablesurface Thenmakethesameadjustment ontheotherside hbove). of thetable.Repeat themeasurements to ensure thatthetableis level.

ADJUSTING THECLAMPS 'l Adjusting themiterclamp I Swivel thearmto therightto a oosition between 0'and45o.Lock theclamp andtryto pushthe end of the armtoward the0' position (left).lf thereis anyplayin thearm, adjust theclamp thatholdsit in place. youwill need Forthemodelshown, to usea hexwrench to tightenthe m i t e rc l a m pa d j u s t m esnct r e w , located inside anaccess holein the armcover.

52


RADIAL ARM SAW

r) Fine{uning theyokeclamp theonesused between Rotut"theyoketo a position I f o rc r o s s c u t t ianngdr i p p i n gL.o c kt h ec l a m pt,h e nu s e poslto thecrosscutting to tryto pushthemotor bothhands tion(righil.Themotorshouldnotbudge;if it does,adjust shown, unForthemodel theclampthatlocksit in position. theknobfromtheyokeclamphandleandremove screw Usethewrench lowerpartof thisdevice. thewrench-like thearmbyholdunder nutlocated theadjustment to tighten thewrench andpulling ingtheupperpartof thehandle Locktheclamp it (insef) untilthetwoarealigned. toward thenutfurtighten andcheckagainfor play.lf necessary, Thisadlusttheknobbacktn place. screw ther;otherwise, yourowner's manual. check mentmayvaryonsomemodels;

thebevelclamp Q Adjusting between J Tlltthemotorto a position then clamp, 0" and45".Lockthebevel u s eb o t hh a n d st o t r y t o m o v et h e motor(left),lf thereis anylooseness, shown, Forthemodel adlusttheclamp, wrench to tightenthemotor usea socket theclampand nut,thenrelease support trytiltingthe motorto eachofthepreset movethemotor, if youcannot angles; Othernut slightly. loosen thesupport wise,locktheclampagainandcheck oncemoreforplayin themotor.

53


RADIAL ARM SAW

Checking theripclamp Locktheripclamp, thenuse bothhandsto tryto slidetheyoke alongthearm(left).Theyokeshould notmove; if it does, adjustthe rip clamp.Forthemodelshown, release theclamp,thenusea wrench to tightenthenutattheendoftheripclamp bolt.Trysliding theyokealongthe arm;if it binds,loosen thelocknut slightly. Otherwise, recheck theclamp andtightenthenutfurtherif needed.

t,'l;

)ii-

i

,)i

,,

cii

CARING F(|RTHESLIDING MECHANISMS thecaniage rollerbearings 1 Adjusting I Usea silicone-based lubricant to clean t h et r a c ku n d etrh ea r ma n dt h er o l l e r bearings to thefrontandrearof thecarriageunitthatattaches theyoketo the arm.Tocheckthe bearings, press your t h u m ba g a i n seta c ho n ei n t u r nw h i l e sliding thecarriage awayfromyourhand. Thebearings should turnasthecarriage slidesalongthearm.lf yourthumbkeeps youwillneedto oneof themfromturning, tighten thebearing; if thecarriage binds onthearm,a bearing willneedto beloosened.ln eithercase,loosen the bearing nutwhileholding theboltstationary with a secondwrench(right).Ttghten or loosen thebolt,asnecessary, thenretighten thenut. Adjusttheotherboltbythesameamount, thencheckthebearings onceagain.

54


RADIAL ARM SAW

tension c0lumn-t0-base Adiusting on thefoursetscrews clean,thenloosen Wioethecolumn To check hex wrench' a thefrontof thecolumnbaseusing usebothhandsto tryto lift theend tension, column-to-base (above, /eff);thereshouldbe littleor nogiveto of thearm the crankin bothdirections; Turntheelevating thecolumn. is excessive lf there down. upand armshouldslidesmoothly jointor if thearmjumpsor at thecolumn-to-base movement

adjustthefourboltslocated as it risesandlowers, vibrates the holesonthecoverof thebase.Repeat intheaccess Then adjustments. makeadditional testsand,if necessary, (above, righ); if thereis any the armsideways try pushing justenough of the column,tightenthesetscrews rotation thetestsa finaltime, Runthrough movement. to prevent ngtheadjustments. f ine-tuni

THEBLADE SOUARING thebladewiththetable 1 Squaring posiI Settheyokein thecrosscutting 59).Release tion andinstalla blade@age clampandtilt themotorcounterthebevel asfarasit willgointhe0" posiclockwise Tocheckthe theclamp. tion.Thenrelock square butta carpenter's bladeposition, should twoteeth(lefl.Thesquare between f i t f l u s ha g a i n st ht es i d eo f t h eb l a d el.f the them,release anygapshowsbetween clamp thebevel Then,loosen bevel clamp. andtilt themotorto bringthe setscrews Holding the thesquare. flushagainst blade lock havea helper motorin thisposition, the bevelclampandtightenthesetscrews. then to the45' bevelposition, lllt themotor andcheckthe returnit to the0' position bladeonceagain.

55


RADIAL ARM SAW

r) Setting thearmperpendicular tothefence Z. Release themiterclampandswivel the armto therightasfarasit willgo in the0" position, thenrelock theclamp.Release the ripclampandbuttthetwosidesof a carpenter'ssquare against thefenceandtheblade toothnearest to thetable.Holding theblade steady, slidethe yokealongIhe arm(left); pullslowly toavoid dulling thetooth. Theblade should makea constant rubbing soundasit moves alongtheedgeof thesquare. lf a gap opens up between thebladeandthesquare, or if thebladebindsagainst thesquare asit moves, loosen thesetscrews onthecolumnbase. Toclosea gapbetween the bladeandthe square, tightenthetoprightscrew; to eliminatebinding, tightenthetopleftscrew. Once thearmis square to thefence,tighten thelowerscrews, alternating fromleftto right.

CORRECTING BLADE HEEL Fine-tuning horizontal rotati0n 1 I lnstalla blade(page59) andsetthe motorin itshorizontal position; tilt themotor counterclockwise asfarasit willgo,then lockthebevelclamp.Totestfor heeling-bladerotation thatis notparallel to thetable-buildan L-shaped sounding jig andboretwoholesin it. Sharpen the endsof twodowels andf it theminto thejig asshown. Thenposition thejig to aligna bladetoothnearthebackof the tabledirectly overthe verticaldowel. Lowerthe bladeuntilthe toothrests l i g h t l yo n t h ed o w e lc; l a m pt h ej i g i n place.Wearing a workglove,spinthe bladebackward andlisten(right). Next, slidetheyokealongthearmto aligna toothnearthefrontof thetableoverthe dowelandrepeat thetest.Thesound shoulb d e t h es a m ei n b o t ho o s i t i o n s . lf it is not,release thebevelclampand loosen thetwoscrews on eithersideof the motorsupport nut.Repeat thetests untilthesoundstays thesame, thenlock thebevelclampandtightenthescrews.

56


RADIAL ARM SAW

vertical heeling Eliminating release theyokeclampandloosen tone.lf thereisa discrepancy, yoke usinga hexwrench(above, underthe thefourscrews andretestuntileachtest themotorasnecessary right).RoIate produces andtighten the locktheyokeclamp tone.Then, a similar your a l2-inch-wide crosscut adlustments, Tocheck screws.

l l l t t h e m o t o rc o u n t e r c l o c k wai s fea r a s i t w i l lg o i n t h e . ot e s tf o r v e r t i c a l v e r t i c apl o s i t i o nt h, e nl o c kt h e b e v ecl l a m p T h e e l i n gp, o s i t i otnh e s o u n d i njgi g s ot h a tt h et i p o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l d o w eal l i g n sw i t ha b l a d et o o t hn e a rt h e b a c ko f t h et a b l e . g a c k w a rsdoy o uc a ns a m L o w etrh e b l a d ea n ds e n di t s p i n n i n b plethe soundas in stepI (above, /efil.Slidethe yokealongthe a r ma n dr e p e atth e p r o c e s so ,n c ea g a i nl i s t e n i nfgo r c h a n g eisn

L ^ ^ - r d^l -l u! +L l L ^ ^ ^ lt- u h . , J Ltqar r nu i dl r Si n po w rn r e u ud 6 Ls. e .c v ' rhL e u ckthe cut y-J 3 s uudlu ltrll o

square. endsusing a carpenter's

TABLE ANDAUXILIARY A FENCE INSTALLING

Auxilrarytable 9Oo kerf Fence

57

table Cutting a kerfin thefenceandauxiliary knot-free wood Installa fenceof 7a-inch{hick, thetablespacerandthefronttable; between m a k et h ef e n c es l i g h t l yh i g h etrh a nt h et h t c k n e s so f t h ew o r k p i e c F e .o ra n a u x i l i a rt ya b l e , c u t a p i e c eo f % - i n c hh a r d b o a rodr p l y w o o d t h es a m es i z ea st h ef r o n t a b l ea n d u s ec o n a sltght t a c t c e m e n t o g l u ei t d o w n ,l e a v i n g gap betweenit and the fenceto prevent sawdustfromjammingbetweenthe two. Before mitercuts,slicethrough crosscutting or making thefenceand%oto 7s inchdeepintothe auxi l i a r yt a b l ei n t h e 9 0 ' a n d4 5 " p a t h so f t h e bladeT . h e n ,r o t a t et h e m o t o rt o t h e i n - r i p p o s i t i o n( p a g e6 6 ) a n d p u l lt h e y o k ea l o n g r i p t r o u g hi n t h e a r mt o f u r r o wo u ta s h a l l o w the auxiliarytable (left).


RADIALARM SAWBLADESAND ACCE,SSORIES :' ikeits shopcousilrthetablesaq the l,-... radialarmsawisonlyasgoodasthe bladeon itsarbor.Togetthebestperformaucefrom your machine,keepits bladescleanandin goodrepair.Inspect thearborwashers andbladecollars, and replaceanydamaged parts.Usea ragto rvipesirwdust or loosedirt from a blade; removeresinor pitchlvithsteelr'vooland turpentine. Spray-on orencleaner isalso usefulfor dissolving stubborndeposits. To protectbladesfrom damage, hang thernindividuallyon hooksor, if you stackthen, placecardboard between them. Replacebladesrvhenever they beconecrtrcked or chipped;sharpen non-carbide tippedbladesregularly. A dull or damaged bladeis rnorelikelyto contribr"rte to accidents than a sharp blirdein goodcorrdition. In general, theradialarmsawusesthe Fornterllty tlrc intersectionof one sanretypesofbladesasa tablesaw(pnge line drnwrtf'ottt the tip of a tootlt 20).Combination bladesaresuitable for to the certer of the arltor holeand orrc 90percentof thejobs,vouwill bedoing. dratvrrparallel to the tooth'slhce, jobs,suchascrossBladesfor specific b l t r t l el n o k n rr q l ct l c t c r t t t i r t c s cuttingor ripping,arealsoavailable. In lnw rrruchbiteq bladewill ha,e.

9anding drum Attached to the aaw'aacceoeory ahaft; can be uaedtn vertical,horizontal,or bevelpooitiona.ln verLicat applicaLrona, drum ie lowered into a cutout tn an auxtltarytable.

Drillingchuck Attached ta acceeeory ehaft; can be uaedin horizonta[or verttcal poaittonewtth an auxil' tary f,ablethat elevateE the workpieceor with a ji4 that. holds the stock in poaition.

Sanding diec Commonlyueedin verLicalpoettionwith an auxiliarytable Lo elevate the workpiece.

58

anycase, it is importantto consider the hook angleof a blade(left).The larger the angle,the biggerthe bite-and the greater theriskoia blade nrnnirrg across a workpiece whencrosscutting or lifting stockwhenripping.In bothcases, feed thebladethroughthervorkpiece slowly and firmly.Whilea hook angleof 30o wouldbe suitablefor a tablesaw,the samebladeon theradialarmsawcould proveunsafe. Theidealhookanglefor a radialarm sawis I 5oor less. Carbide-tipped blades arethechoice of mostwoodworkers today.Although theycostmorethanthetraditionalhighspeedsteelbladesandaremoreexpensiveto havesharpened, theyhold their edgeconsiderably longerandarecapable of moreprecise cuts. In additionto sarvblades, the radial armsawalsoaccepts vanorlsaccessories, whichareattached to eitherthearboror anaccessory shaftat theopposite endof the motor.On somemodels,the shaft canspinat morethan20,000rprn,makirrgit idealfor porvering roLrter bits.

Molding head Ueedin horizonLal poeition with a moldinq headquardand an auxiliarytable that. elevaLesthe workpiece. Widevariety of cutLera avatlable for different moldinqatylea.

Rotary aurface planer Uaedin horizontal pooition;can be angled to form raioedpanela. Featureathree knivea remouable for aharpeninq.


RADIAL ARM SAW

A SAWBLADE CHANGING blades andinstalling Removing U n p l utgh es a w l,o c kt h ec l a m pas n d Then,fit oneof remove thebladeguard. withthesaw supplied thewrenches the bladeandthe onthearborbetween withthis thearborsteady motor. Holding the tool,usetheotherwrenchto loosen usually armsawarbors arbornut.(Radial thenutis loosened threads; havereverse Remove thenut direction.) in a clockwise thenslidethe collar, andtheouterblade Toinstall a blade, bladefromthearbor. placeit onthearborwithitsteethpointof bladerotation. ingin thedirection Install thecollarandstartthenutbyhand. onthearborpropped Withonewrench the thetable,finishtightening against nut(left),but avoidovertightening. I n s t a tl lh eb l a d eg u a r d .

HEIGHT THEBLADE SETTING to makea cut Preparing theblade cut, lower vertical Fora standard precut table in the auxiliary kerfs intooneofthe (page57). Fora cut partway througha workpiece, suchasa dadocut,marka lineonthe forthedepthof cut,thensetthe workpiece tableandlowerthe stockontheauxiliary oneturnof most saws, bladeto the line.For lowers the blade or crankraises theelevating tbor rAoinch.Togauge thecrankonyoursaw, lower thebladeto within% inchof theauxildireciarytable,thencrankin theopposite Hold up. to move tionuntilthebladebegins I inch is at least a pieceof scrapwoodthat thefenceandcut intoit at one thickagainst end.Turnoff thesawandraisethebladeby Slide crank. oneturnof theelevating exactly and one side about% inchto theworkpiece (right). in difference The cuI makeanother the will show the twocuts depthbetween withone or lowers the bladeraises amount turnof thecrank.

59


SAFETY I lthoughthemanymovingpartsof A a radialarmsawmakeit oneof the mostflexible machines in theworlshop, theyalsomakeit oneof themostdangerous. Crosscutting-the mostbasicuse of the saw-requiresyou to pull the bladetowardyourbody.Anddepending on thesettingof the arm,yokeand motor,thebladecanmakeitsapproach fromseveral directions andangles. Wth everycut,youhaveto anticipate exactly wherethebladewill endup. Whenyourip boards ona radialarm saw,you feedtheworkpiece into the

blade,and this demandsevengreater careand concentration. The chances of kickbackarehigh enoughthatthesafety devicesillustratedbelowandat rieht are absolutelyessential. Armedwith a thoroughknowledgeof the machine'soperation,you canapproachit with a healthymixtureof caution andconfidence-asyou wouldwith anyotherpowertool in your workshop. Make certainthat all the clampsfor holding the arm, yoke, carriageand motor in positionarelockedwhenever you turn on the saw Also be sureto

familiarizeyourselfwith the owner's manualfor your machine,and takethe time to setup themanysafetyaccessories and blade guardsthat are available. Remember, however,that no accessoryor guardcancompensate for a lackof careful attentionand commonsense. For anycut,keepyour fingersat least 6 inchesawayfrom the blade;usepush sticlaor featherboards wherepossibleto feedor hold theworkpiece.Wearsafety glasses at all times,anda maskor respiratorandhearingprotectionfor extended useof the saw.

RIPPING SAFELY RADIAT ARMSAWSAFETY TIPS . N e v eirn s t a lbl l a d e os r o t h e r devices on boththe arborandthe accessory shaftat the sametime. Keepa safetyscrewcapor guard overthe accessory shaftwhenit rs not in useto preventit fromsnagg i n gh a i ro r c l o t h i n g . o Neverooerate thesawwithouta guards bladeguard.Usespecialty forcrosscuts andfor molding ordado cutswiththemotorandbladein the position. horizontal Whenmaking a ripcut,adjust theheight of theantikickback devicefortheworkpiece, o Before starting a cut makesurethat themotoris at fulloperating speed. o D on o tr i p a w o r k p i e ct hea ti s shorter than12 inches. Whenmaking a crosscut on stockshorterthan 7 inches,usea hold-down device, ratherthana hand,to securethe workpiece to thetableor thefence.

Sefting upforthecut Unplug thesaw,thensettheworkpiece onthetablesothatyouwillbe (Mostbladeguards feeding against thedrrection of theblade's rotation. haveanarrowindicating whichwaythebladespins.) Follow theowner's m a n u ai ln s t r u c t i ofnosrs e t t i n tgh eh e i g hot f t h ea n t i - k i c k b adcekv i c e andfor positroning the noseof thebladeguardsothatit justclears the workpiece. Foraddedprotection against kickback, installa wheeled holddowndevice(pages 61 and60 or spring-type hold-down fingers(page (above), 61).Feedtheworkpiece steadily making surethatneitherhand i s i n l i n ew i t ht h eb l a d e .

60

r Whenripping, ensure thattheedge of theworkoiece in contact withthe fenceis smooth andstraight; feed fromthesideof thetableopposite thesplitter andanti-kickback device. . Toavoidkickback, always holdthe workpiece securely against thetable andfencewhencrosscutting. o Aftermaking a crosscut, locktherip clamoassoonasthebladeis back behind thefence.


RADIAL ARM SAW

DEVICES ANDSPEGIALTY GUARD ANTI-KICKBACK Thehold-downdevice shownat leftfenturesrubberwheelsthatridealongthe pressingit down topof theworkpiece, againstthetable.Themechanism is installedat a slightanglesothat the wheelsalsopushtheworkpiece against thefence.Thewheels and collarcan workbeadjustedto accommodate piecaofvirntalf anythickness. Tohelp preventkickback, thewheelsare designed to rotatein onedireniononly. Whmtheyokeisrotatedto theout-rip position(page67)andtheworkpiece isfedfrom theothersideof thetable,the wheekareswungaroundto turn in the opposite direction.

Anothersafetyaccessory for usein rippingand moldingoperations is thesetof metalholddownfingersshownat right. Clampedto L-shapedrodsthat extendoverthefenceon eithersideof theblade,thefingerspush the workpiece downon the table.Therodscan varioussizes beadjustedto accommodate of stock.With themotortiltedto itshorizontal position,a special guardcovers theportion of thebladefacingthefront of thetable.To usetheguard,you mustfrrstmakea cutout in thefenceto allowthedevice's shieldto be Beforeturning loweredontotheworkpiece. on thesaw,spinthebladeby handto ensure that theguarddoesnot obstructit.

6l


CROSSCUTTING -[t h. radialarmsawisbestknownfor I itsconvenience in crosscutting. The techniqueis straightforward:Hold the workpiecefirmly againstthe fenceand pull theyokeandthe bladethroughthe stock.Sincethe thrust of the bladeis downwardand towardthe backof the table,the cuttingactionhelpsto keepthe workpiecepressedagainstthetableand the fence.However,severalfactorscan causethe bladeto climb uo on theworkpieceand jump toward you. These includea dull bladeor onewith teethtoo largefor the job at hand,poor quality wood,or looserollerbearings.But even with equipmentin properrepair,it is still to remainin controlof theblade essential at all times. As a rule of thumb,hold the workpieceagainstthe fencewith your left hand,keepingit at least6 inchesfrom the blade;usea clampto secureshort stock(page64).Wth your right hand, pull theyoke,grippingit firmly to control the rateof cut. The slowerthe feed, the smootherwill be theresults.To cut workpieces several to thesamelengthor to sawa thick workpiecein more than onepass,clampa stopblockto thefence, asshownbelow.

MAKING A CROSSCUT

Grosscutting a board Butttheworkpiece against thefencewiththe90" kerfin thefencelinedup withthewaste sideof thecuttingmark.Support longstockwithroller stands theworkpiece snugly against thefence,turnonthesaw, ora table.Holding release theripclampandpulltheyokesteadily through thecut (above)wiIhpushthe outforcing theblade. Oncethebladecutsthrough theworkpiece, yokeback,returning it to itsplacebehind thefence.Locktheripclamp.

MAKING REPEAT CUTS Using a stopblock Cuta smallnotchfromonecorner of thestopblock,as shown, to prevent sawdust fromaccumulating between it andtheworkpiece. Measure alongthefenceto the leftof the kerfthe lengthof the pieceyouneedto cut; clamptheblockat thatpoint.Butttheworkpiece against theblockandthefence,thenmakethecut (/eff).Tocut a thickworkpiece in twopasses, clampthestopblockto thefenceandcut halfway through thestock,thenflip theworkoiece overandfinishthecut.

62


ANGLECUTS iter,beveland compoundangle cutscanbe madewith the radial arm sawby tilting or anglingits blade. Themachine's armswivels to therisht or the left for miter cuts;the motoi tilts for bevel clockwise andcounterclockwise cuts. Comoound cuts involveboth thearm andtiltingthemotor. swiveling As discussed on page65,you canalso makea miter cut with a jig that hoids the workpieceat an angle. Boththearm andthemotorhavepreToeliminate setstopsat 45oangles. any playin theseindexsettings, pushthearm or motor asfar asit will go in the stop positionsandhold it therewhileyoulock the clamo.To setthearm andmotor at otherangles,usea slidingbevelor the for precise saw'smiter andbevelscales

\

results.Alwaysmakea testcut first in a pieceof scrapwoodandmeasure thecut end with a protractor;then makeany finaladjustments. Whenever possible, makemitercuts with thearm swiveled to theright,rather thanto theleft.Workingon theleft side of the table,you run the riskof pulling the bladebeyondthe table'sedge.You

oftencanmakethesamecut on therisht sideby turningtheworkprece over. Regardless of the typeof anglecut, you first needto cut a kerfin the fence andtheauxiliarytableto providea path for theblade.Makethekerfuo to % inch deepior mitercuts,or deepinoughior thebladeteethto bebelowthetablesurfacefor bevelor comooundcuts.

MA KI NAGN G LCEU T S

Makinga left-hand mitercut S w i v etlh e a r mt o t h ed e s i r e a d n g l ea n db u t tt h e w o r k p i e c e a g a i n stth e f e n c ea s f o r a r i g h t - h a nm d i t e rc u t . W i t h o ut u r n i n go n t h e s a w ,p u l lt h e y o k ea c r o s tsh e w o r k p i e c el f. t h e bladeslidesbeyondthe table'sleft-hand edge,movethe fence b e h r n tdh e r e a rt a b l ea s s h o w nT. h e ng l u ea n a u x i l i a rt ya b l e (page57) to the rearsurfaceandtablespacer,and installa handscrew on the armto stopthe yokefromtravelingbeyond the endof the cut. Holdthe workpiece snuglyagainst the fence a n dp u l lt h e y o k et h r o u g ht h e c u t ( a b o v e ) .

Makinga right-hand mitercut S w i v etl h e a r m t o t h e a n g l ey o u n e e d ,t h e n b u t t t h e w o r k p i e c ea g a i n stth e f e n c ew i t h t h e w a s t es i d eo f t h e c u t t i n g m a r ka l i g n e dw i t ht h e m i t e ra n g l ek e r f .F o rr e p e act u t sa n dt o k e e pt h e w o r k p i e cfer o ms l i d i n gt o t h e l e f t ,b u t ta s t o pb l o c k . h e n ,h o l d i n g a g a i n stth e s t o c ka n dc l a m pi t t o t h e f e n c e T t h ew o r k p i e csen u g l ya g a i n stth e f e n c e ,t u r n o n t h e s a w , r e l e a steh e r i p c l a m pa n d p u l lt h e y o k es t e a d i ltyh r o u g h the cut (above).

63


RADIAL ARM SAW

Making a bevelcut Tiltthe motorto theangleyouneed, raising thearmhighenough to keepthe blade f romstriking thetableas it turns. against thefence Butttheworkpiece withthewastesideof thecuttingmark a l i g n ew d i t ht h eb e v eal n g l ek e r fi n t h ef e n c ei;f t h e r ei s n os u c hk e r fo n y o u rm a c h i n ey ,o uw i l ln e e dt o m a k e snugly one.Then,holding theworkpiece pulltheyokesteadily against thefence, through thecut (efl.fo makea bevel of a workpiece, tilt cutalong thelength angle,then the motorto thedesired r o t a tteh ey o k et o t h e i n - r i pp o s i t i o n andmakethecut (page66).

lllJllltllllllllfi[i]lllrlll|lrlllnll]l]]llll]l]r]llllljllllillll]l] )HO? TI? Cult,ing a eho rt, wo rkpiece Tocut aworkpieceNhat,ieNoo ehorlbo holdoafelyby hand,eecure iNNo|,hetablewiLha IoqqleclamV.1crewlhe clamplo an auxiliary Lhefront Lableand Nhetable fence,IhenineLallNhefencebef,ween o?acer,makin4cerLainIhaNthe clampwillnol be in the wayof Ihe youNiqhNen wilh a Nheclamp,?rotecLthe workpiece blade.When woodblock.To avoid lifNinqlhefence oul of its olot, do noL overLiqhten,

64


RADIAL ARM SAW

MITER JIG Tomake45" mitercutswithout having to swivel thearmonthesaw, jig shown at right. usetheshop-built jig at an The holdstheworkpiece sothatthebladecanremain angle, position. in the 90" crosscutting Refer for sugto the illustration gestedimensions. Before building thejig,make45" mitercutsin theendsof twooieces of 7a-plywood thatwill serveas guides. Thencut the baseandthe fenceandscrewthe twoboards together, leaving enough of the fenceprotruding belowthe baseto fit intotheslotbetween thefront a u x i l i a rt ya b l ea n dt h es p a c e r , R e m o vteh e s t a n d a rfde n c ea n d s e tt h e b a s eo n t h e t a b l e s, a n d wichingthejig'sfencebetween

Fence 3 / +x" x3" 3/+" 3 "xx40" 40"

thefrontsurfaceandtablesDacer. Withthe bladein the90" crosscutthejig tingposition, slicethrough fenceand% inchdeepintothebase, pullingthe yokeforwardasfar as it will go,Turnoff the saw. Screwoneof the guidesto the baseso that its miteredend is

65

Jiq baee 3/+"x 18"x 40"

f lushagainst thefencewithits pointtouching the kerfin the base.Position the mitered endof guidef lushwiththe the second frontof thetableasshown.Usea carpenter's squareto setthe seco n dg u i d ea t a 9 0 " a n g l et o t h e firstone.Then,screwthesecond pieceto the base,leaving enough spacebetween the two guides for the stockyouwill be cutting to fit between them,Turnon the sawand pull the yokeacross thekerfto trimoff thecornerof the guide. second Tousethejig,holdtheworkpiece guide, flushagainst theright-hand buttingtheendof thestockagainst thefence,andpullthe yoke through thecut (/eftl.Next,holdthe e d g eo f t h e m a t i n gp i e c ef l u s h guide,withits against theleft-hand e n db u t t e da g a i n stth e o t h e r guide.Pulltheyokethrough the cut.Theresulting 45oendsshould joint. forma perfectly square


RIPPING hetheryou arecuttingwith the grainofa pieceofhardwood or softwood,or sawingalongthelengthof a plywoodpanelwith no definedgrain pattern,rippingon a radialarm saw to crosscutting. bearslittleresemblance a Ratherthanpullingthebladeacross pieceof stock,youwill be stationary lockingtheyokein a positionthatholds the cuttingedgeparallelto thefence intothecut. theworkpiece andfeeding Depending onthewidthof thestock to becut,theyokecanberotatedin two Fora narrowcut,typically directions. up to 14inches,theyokeis rotatedto

positionthebladecloseto thefence. Thisis calledthein-rip position.For widerstock,theyokeis rotatedin the direction,leavingthebladefaropposite therfromthefencein theout-ripposition. Forthe maximumwidth of cut, relocate thefencebehindthereartable andusetheout-ripconfiguration. and Because oftheriskofkickback the fact that you will be feedingthe with your hands,ripping workpiece greatcare.Tiy to standto one demands sideof the stockasyou feedit to the bladeandkeepyourhandsat least6 inchesfrom the cuttingedge.Usea

pushstickto feednarrowstockor to completea cut on a wideworkpiece. to Wherepossible, usefeatherboards holdstockfirmly against thefence. As illustrated below,a goodholddowndevicewill provideanadditional measure Planyourcutssafely of safety. (page60),always feedingtheworkpiece thedirectionofbladerotation: against fromtheright-handsideof thetablefor an in-rip andfrom theleft-handside for an out-rip.Usethe bladeguard whenripping,andit is a goodideato installa newfenceto keeptheworkpiecefromcatchingin old kerfs.

(IN.RIP) A BOARD RIPPING

device a hold-down 1 Installing theyokeclampandrotatethe I Unplugthe saw,release yoketo the in-ripposition; locktheyokeclamp.Toposition the rip the bladefor thewidthof cut youneed,release yoke fromthe distance to theappropriate clamp,slidethe fence,andrelock theclamp. replace thestandard Toinstalla wheeled hold-down device, fenceabout1 inchthickandslightly fencewithanauxiliary

of theworkpiece. Usethetemplate higher thanthethickness withthedeviceto borethreesetsof holesalongthetop supplied edgeof thefence;onesetshouldbe directlyin linewiththe bladeandtheothersto eithersideof thefirst.Fitthe pinson deviceintoonesetof holesand the bottomofthe hold-down the tightenthethumbscrew usinga woodblockto distribute pressure evenlyalongthefence.

66


RADIAL ARM SAW

r) Making thecut L Settheworkpiece up against the right-hand sideof thetable.Standing to edge onesideof thestock,slipitsleading of thehold-down device underthewheels presapplying andfeedit intotheblade, thefenceandthecutting surebetween of yourhands edge.Makesurethatneither is in lrnewiththeblade. Whenyourfingerscomewithin6 inches of theblade, continue feedingwitha pushstick(right). lf youareusinga hold-down device, move sideof thetableandpullthe totheoutfeed workpiece otherwise, f inish through; thecutfromtheinfeed sideof thetable. Retract thepushstickcarefully to prevent it fromgetting in theblade. caught

USINGTHEOUT.RIP CONFIGURATION a panelto width Gutting theclampand Unplug thesaw,release rotate with theyoketo theout-ripposition, the bladeawayfromthefence,asshown. Locktheyokeclamp.Position thebladefor thewidthof cutasin step1, opposite. Movethefencebehind thereartable,if necessary. Install a hold-down device, following instructions to themanufacturer's r e v e r steh ew h e e l - l o c k im n ge c h a n i s m . Setuprollerstands ora tableto support theworkpiece asit comesoff thetable. Tomakethecut,laythepanelonthe left-hand sideof thetableto allowyouto feedagainst thedirection of blade rotation. Butting theedgeof thestockagainstthe fence,slowly feedit intotheblade. Apply pressure lateral to keepthe panel enough flushagainst thefence(/eff).

67


RADIAL ARM SAW

TAPER JIG Foraccurate tapercuts,buildthe jig shownat right(top)from3/rinch plywood. for Refer to theillustration suggested dimensions. Toprepare fora tapercut,install a hold-down deviceon the saw then rotatetheyoketo 66), @age andsetthewidth thein+ipposition of cutforthewidthof thejig base. Drawa cuttinglineforthetaperon thensetit onthejig, theworkpiece, aligning themarkwiththeedgeof theworkpiece in the base.Holding place,butttheguidebaragainst it, theend withthe lip seated against of thestock,Screwtheguidebarto the base,thenattachthetoggle to theguidebar.Pushthe clamps jig pastthebladeto makesurethat withthe theclamps do notinterfere to bladeor guard.Thenusescrews to the baseat least afixa handle 6 inches awayfromthesidethatwill passbythe blade.

Ouidebar 2" x 18"

Tousethejig, lowerthe bladeso thatthefull lengthof onetoothis belowthe top of the basehbove). Pressthe toggleclampsdownto secure theworkpiece to thejig and turnonthesaw.Usethejig handle to slidethejig andworkpiece asa unitacrossthetabletight, bottom). rateuntil cuttingat a steady Continue the workoiece. thebladeclears

68


DADOCUTS t|a h. samerangeof dadocutsthatcan I be made on the table saw (page dado,the groove, 36)-the cross-grain the stoppedgrooveandthe rabbet-are alsopossibleon a radialarm sawAsyou will discoverin thepagesthat follow,the abilityof the radialarm sawto function in eitherverticalor horizontalplanes meansthat thereis oftenmorethanone way to makethe samecut. Generally, find it easiest to keep mostwoodworkers position thebladein the90ocrosscutting rabbets dadoes, whenmakingcross-grain alongthe endsofstockand groovesin

wideboards.Moving the bladeto the horizontalpositionwork bestfor a rabbetalongthe edgeofa workpieceor for a groovein a narrowboard. There is a way of cutting grooves without a dado head.With a standard sawbladeyou canmakecutson both edgesofthe grooveandthensawout the as wastebetweenthemin asmanypasses But the iob canbe done is necessarv. morequicklyandpreiiselywith a dado headmountedon the arbor.The radial arm sawacceptseitherthe adjustable wobbledadoheador the stackingdado

(pagej6). Although the stackingdado and headis generallymore expensive takeslongerto install,it producescuts with flatterbottomsandsmootheredges. Thewiderswathcut bv thedadochippersandblades, compared to therelatively narrowwidth of a standardsawblade, meansthatyouwill haveto feedthestock sake,keeptrack moreslowly.Forsafety's of thedadoheadduringa cut,notingits locationon thetablewhentheworkpiece hidesit from view.Installa standard guardor a dadoheadbladeguardwhen thebladesareturnedhorizontally.

HEAD INSTALLING A DADO

Adding blades andchippers Remove the bladefromthe arbor(page 59 andinstalla dadoheadfollowing instructions. Forthe themanufacturer's s t a c k i ndga d os h o w nf ,i t a b l a d eo n in the thearbor withtheteethpointing Theninstall direction of bladerotation. in the a chipper withitsteethcentered gulletsbetween twobladeteeth.Fiton chippers, off-setting theirteeth additional in place.Putthe secfromthose already ondbladeon the arbor(left),making surethatitsteethdo nottouchthose resting it (inset). of thechipper against Install thebladecollarandnut,keeping arranged theblades andchippers carefully tightenthe asyoudoso.lf youcannot thecollar. nutallthewaydown,remove guardor a dado Install a standard headguard.

69


RADIAL ARM SAW

DADOES WITHTHEBLADES POSITIONED VERTICALTY CUTTING

Making thecut Withthedadoheadin the 90ocrosscuttingposition, cut a kerfthrough the fenceasdeepasthedadoyouareplanningto make.Marktwosetsof cutting lineson theworkpiece: oneonitsfaceto showthewidthof thedado,andoneon itsleading edgeto showthedepth.Butt the markson the edgeof the stock againstthe dadoheadandlowerthe blades andchippers to theappropriate depth.Slidetheyokebehind thefence. A l i g nt h ec u t t i n gl i n e so n t h ef a c e withthe kerfin the oftheworkpiece f e n c eT . h e n ,h o l d i ntgh ew o r k p i e c e snugly against thefence,pulltheyoke steadily through the cut hbove).

gHO? TI? Cuttinq repeat dadoee To cut a serieoof equallyopaceddadoes,ueethe eimpleoetup ohownbelow.Makea kefr in the fenceand cut ihe tirst, dado, then elidethe workpiece alon6the fence,meaeurin7to pooition lhe eeconddado Nhedeeireddistance from the fireL.'Defore makinqthe cutr,drive a ecrcw into lhe fence,witrhthe head of Nhescrew butted aqaineLiheleft ed6eofthefirst, dado.Thencut,the eeconddadoand slide lhe workpiecealonq until the lefl edqeof ihe eeconddado buNts aqaino| lhe screwhead.Conlinuein this manneruni";il alllhe dadoesarecul.

70


RADIAL ARM SAW

a groove Cutting W i t ht h e d a d oh e a di n t h e i n - r i pp o s i t i o n , installa hold-downdevtce@age60 and rotatethe noseof the bladeguardsothat it j u s tc l e a r st h e w o r k p i e c e T .h e n ,m a r kt w o one setsof cuttinglinesontheworkpiece: t o s h o wt h e w i d t ho f t h e g r o o v ea n d o n et o s h o wi t s d e p t h .B u t t t h e d e p t h l i n e a g a i n st th e d a d oh e a da n d l o w e trh e b l a d e sa n d c h i p p e r tso t h e a p p r o p r i a t e or backward height.Slidetheyokefonvard t o a l i g nt h e d a d oh e a dw i t ht h e c u t t i n g Then, lineson the faceof the workpiece. to the rightsideof thetable,use standing thefence a o u s hs t i c kl i n e du o b e t w e e n andthe dadoheadto feedthe workpiece steadilyintothe bladesandchippers(/efil.

anedgerabbet Cutting I n s t a al l d a d oh e a dt h a ti ss l i g h t lwy i d e r thanthe rabbetyouwishto cut.With t h ed a d oh e a di n t h e i n - r i pp o s i t i o n , rotate thebladeguarduntilitsnosejust Markthedepthof clears theworkpiece. the therabbet onthefence,thenposition of its dadoheadsothataboutone-third Turnonthesaw widthis overthefence. andlower thedadoheaduntilit cutsto line,producing a reliefcut themarked of the in thefenceto allowforclearance saw, chippers. Turn off the blades and t h e nm a r ka c u t t i n gl i n ef o rt h ei n s i d e edgeof the rabbeton theworkpiece. Move theyoketo alignthe dadohead and a featherboard withthe mark.Clamo table as shown to board to the a suooort f l u s h a g a i n s t h t e k e e pt h ew o r k p i e c e the right side fence.Then,standing on of thetable,usea pushstickto feed intotheblades steadily theworkpiece znd chinnor< (riohf)

7l


RADIAL ARM SAW

*^

AUXILIARY FENCE ANDTABTE FOR ()RM(ILDING HORIZONTAL DADO CUTS Tocut dadoes or moldings(page75) posiwiththemotorin its horizontal t i o n ,u s et h es h o p - b uai lut x i l i a r y f e n c es h o w na t r i g h t .S i n c et h e arborprevents the bladesfrombeing lowered totablelevel,youmayalso haveto buildanauxiliary table,such astheoneshownbelowForbothjigs, referto theillustrations forsuggested dimensions. forthefence, Cut%-inchplywood usinga piecethatis slightly wider thanthe heightof theworkpiece; usef-inch-thick stockforthefence if youyouareplanning to installa hold-down device(page66). Forlhe fencecutout,sawanopening thatis largeenough to accommodate the headandguard, dadoor molding leaving a lip of at leastVt inchal the bottomof thecutoutprotruding above thetablewhenthefenceis in

Cu|ouL

Fence 4" x 40" LiP r/+"abovetable

position. Without thislip,theworkpiecewill notbesupported properly asit ridesalongthefenceduringa cut-and it maybedrawnintothe blade.Installthe fencebetween thefronttableandthespacer asyou woulda standard fence. Fortheauxiliary tableandfence, plywood cut two piecesof 3/q-inch to thesamedimensions asthefront sawtable,thenscrewthe pieces together, making surethatthescrews w i l lb ew e l cl l e aor f t h e b l a d e .

72

Offsetthetop pieceslightlyto createa gapalongthe fencethatwill prevent sawdust fromaccumulating between thebaseof theauxiliary tableandthefencewhenthetable is in position. Screw theauxiliary table to a fenceI inchwiderthantheauxiliaryfenceshownabove. Toinstall theauxiliary table,slipits fencebetween thefronttableof the sawandthetablespacer, thentightenthetableclamps(page51)lo secure thejigtablein position.


RADIAL ARM SAW

ANDCHIPPERS BLADES WITHHORIZONTAL A GROOVE CUTTING 'l

upthecut Setting I Withthedadoheadin thehorizontal p o s i t i o sn l,i d et h ey o k et o t h eb a c ko f t h et a b l ea sf a ra si t w i l lg o ;l o c ka l l t h e c l a m posnt h es a wI.n s t a al l na u x i l i a r y fenceor Iable(page72),Ihenmarkcutto showthe tinglinesontheworkpiece w i d t ha n dd e p t ho f t h ec u t .H o l d i n g slidethe thefence, against theworkpiece yoke to alignthedadoheadwiththedepth markon the faceof the stock(left),To locahelokeeptrackof thedadohead's bytheworkpiece, tionwhenit is hidden m a r tkw ol i n e so n t h et a b l et o d e l t n e a t et h ec u t t i n gs w a t hI.n s t aal l d a d o lowering itsshieldontothe headguard, Spinthedadoheadbyhand workpiece. freely.Slide to makesurethatit rotates t h ey o k eb e h i n tdh ef e n c e .

r) Cutting thegroove guttthe thefence, against workpiece L to the thenclampa featherboard table clampa to holdthestockin alignment; feathto the boardat a 90' angle support pressure. the Then, slide forextra erboard y o u l o w er c a n w o r k p i e cbea c ku n t i l and chipthedadoheadto alignitsblades perswiththewidthmarksontheendof thestock.Turnonthesawandusethe to feedtheworkthumbsof bothhands piecesteadilyintothe blades(right); of your thefencewiththefingers straddle l .o r i g hht a n dt o h e l pm a i n t a icno n t r o T getttng tooclose keepyourhandsfrom to thedadohead,usea pushstickto nnmnloto

tho e ri

73


RADIAL ARM SAW

MAKING A STOPPED GRO()VE upandstarting thecut 1l Setting -

I S e tu p t h e c u t a s o n t h e p r e c e d i n g page,but addonemoresetof cuttinglines o n t h e f a c eo f t h e w o r k p i e cteo s h o wt h e b e g i n n i nagn de n do f t h e g r o o v eS. t a n d i n g o n t h e r i g h t - h a nsdi d eo f t h et a b l e ,p i v o t t h e l e a d i n ge n d o f t h e w o r k p i e c a ew a y fromthe fence.Turnon the sawandalign t h p c r r t t i n o l i n e f n r i h p h p o ' i n n i n on f f h c

groovewith the blademarkon the table surface(right).Keepingbothhandswell c l e a or f t h ed a d oh e a d ,h o l dt h e t r a i l i n g e n d o f t h e w o r k p i e caeg a i n stth e f e n c e w h i l ep i v o t i n tgh e o t h e re n d i n t ot h e b l a d e sa n dc h i p p e r u s n t i lt h e w h o l e e d g ei s f l u s hw i t h t h e f e n c e .

DladecuLLingmarka CuLttnq ltneo

r)

Cuttingthe groove L W t t ny o u rr i g h th a n dg r i p p i ntgh e t r a i l i n g e n do f t h e w o r k p i e c ep,u s ht h e s t o c ks t e a d r l y f o r w a r dU . s ey o u rl e f th a n dt o k e e pt h e w o r k p i e c ef l u s ha g a i n stth e f e n c e .M a k i n gs u r e t h a t b o t hh a n d ss t a yw e l lc l e a ro f t h e d a d o h e a dc, o n t i n ufee e d i n g u n t i lt h e c u t t i n gl i n e f o r t h e e n do f t h e g r o o v ei s a l i g n e dw i t ht h e b l a d em a r kn e a r e syto u .

thecut 1<' Finishins

r . , l S l i d ey o u rl e f t h a n dc a r e f u l l ya l o n gt h e w o r k p i e cteo w a r d its leadine g d g e ,p r e s s i n tgh e workpiece a g a i n stth e f e n c e . Keepingbothhandsclearof the d a d oh e a du, s ey o u rr i g h th a n d t o p i v o t h et r a i l i n ge n d o f t h e stock awayfrom the fence(right)

/+


MOLDINGS uttingmoldingsis anotherof the f \-r wood-shapingchoresthat falls within the repertoireof the radialarm saw.The samewide rangeof cutters availablefor the tablesaw(page40)can alsobe usedon the radialarm sawto transformboardsinto piecesof trim. Multiple boardscanbe shapedindividuallyandthen gluedtogetherto form an impressivearrayof designs.The resultscanrangefrom cornicemolding for a cabinetto decorativedoor and frametreatments.

Startby fitting a setofthreeidentical cuttersinto a moldinghead,which is then attachedto the saw'sarbor in the samewayasa blade.Althoughtheillustration belowshowsthemoldingheadin the horizontalposition,the radialarm sawcan turn this deviceat any angle extendbetween0oand90o,significantly ing the rangeof designsyou canproof the moldinghead duce.Regardless angleyou decideto use,the workpiece shouldalwaysbe fed repeatedlyacross the spinningknives,with eachshallow

A MOLDING CUTTING thecut upandmaking Setting into their slotsin themoldthe cutters Fit a h e xw r e n c tho u s e h e a d t , h e n ing (inset). lnstallthe setscrews the tighten with theflat saw on the head molding of direction facing the of the cutters side width for the a line Mark roiation. blade endof theworkof cut on the leading piece,thenposition thestockflush theworkthefence.Tosecure against to the piece,clamponefeatherboard head moldtng the left of fenceto the table. to the featherboard anda second with a featherboard Bracethe second workpiece the Holding board. support thefence,slidetheyoketo align against headwiththecuttingline, themolding cut.Remove upfora 7e-inch-deep setting saw.Use on the turn and theworkpiece yourrighthandto feedthestockslowly head(right);useyour intothemolding press flush theworkpiece left handto your hands To keep thefence. against toocloseto thecutters, fromgetting pass witha pushstick.For f inishthe as cuts,makeas manyPasses deeper head 7e molding the moving necessary, at a time. inchfartherintotheworkpiece the havereduced Aftersuccessive Dasses a f inal, make depth, stockto thedesired pass,feeding moreslowly veryshallow produce finish. a smooth to help

75

passcutting a little deeperuntil the desiredprofileis milled. Wittrthe moldingheadin the horizontalposition,installan auxiliarytable (page72)to raisethestockto thelevelof theknives.Installa moldingheadguard to protectyour fingersfrom the cutters, positioningits shieldjust abovethe workpiece.Do not cut moldingsfrom stockshorterthan 12incheslong.And ratherthanworkingwith narrowstock, usewider boardsand then makea riP cut to trim them to their final width.


RADIAL ARM SAW

RADIALARM SAWIOINERY I shop-builtjig canrransformthe A radialarm sawinto an efficient joint-makingtool.Usingthejig shown belowanda standardsawblade,you can producefingerjointsthatarewell-suited for draweror carcase construction. Thesetupshownin thissectionlends itselfto productionwork.Onceyoursaw hasbeensetup to cut onefingerjoint, producingseveral suchjointsis no more

complicated---or time<onsuming-than makinga seriesof crosscuts. Al"though thebladeis setin its horizontalposition, theworkpiece is not fedinto it, asis the casewith mostotherhorizontal-blade operations.Instead,the two mating

A variationof theboxjoint, thefingerjoint derivesitsstrengthfrom thelargegluingarea providedby its interwoven fingersand notches. It is an attractiveand solidioint.

CUTTING A FINGER J()INT

jointjig a finger 1 Making r Buildthetableandfenceforthefinger-joint jig fromvz-inch plywood; usesolid woodforthe legs.Referto the illustration forsuggested dimensions. Screwthe legsto theunderside of thetable.Cuta 3-inch-by-25-inch corner section fromoneendof the fence; thecutoutwillprovide clearance forthemotorandblade guard. Toinstall thejig, slipthefenceintotheslotbetween theauxiliary tableandthetablespacer, thenposition the leftedgeof thejig tableagainst therightedgeof thefence'scutout.Screwthetwo piecesof plywood together.

76

boardsaresecuredtogetheron the jig and the bladeis pulledthroughthem. Sincethe boardsareoffsetby the thicknessof the sawkerf, the fingersand notchesarecut at thesametirie, guaranteeing a perfectjoint.


RADIAL ARM SAW

r) Making thefirstcut to the left L Rotut"thevokehandle to the sideof thearm,thentilt themotor h o r i z o n tpaol s i t i o nA.l i g nt h ee n d so f the andplace themagainst theworkpieces f e n c eT . os e tt h e d e p t ho f c u t ,e x t e n d overtheedgeof theblade theworkpieces Slip of stock. of onepiece bythethickness astheblade a shimthesamethickness thenclamp underoneof theworkpieces, bothpieces of stockto thefence.Next, asmuch adjust thebladeguardto cover o f t h ef r o n o t f t h eb l a d ea sp o s s i bal en d to thecolumn slidetheyokebacktoward on Install a handscrew forobstructions. check thearmto stopyoketravelassoonasthe Withtheyoke eachpass. blade completes tothesame raise theblade behind thefence, l e v eal st h es h i mt,h e nt u r no nt h es a w thecut through andpulltheyokesteadily (right).Returnthe yoketo its placebehind thefenceandturnoffthemotor.

Handacrew

notches theremaining Q Cutting r-,1 andfingers cuts,raise Foreachof theremaining the blade(page59)by an amount of the equalto twicethethickness withyour shrm,Pulltheyokehandle t and l e f th a n dl,e a v i nygo u r i g h h the o nt h ee l e v a t i nc gr a n kt o r a i s e armaftereachcut;besureto slide t h ey o k eb e h i n tdh ef e n c eb e f o r e r a i s i ntgh ea r m .C o n t i n ui net h i s andfinmanner untilallthenotches sershavebeencut (/eft).

77


,,,..;i;1'ffi '1{,i: qii

,'.j., I

ff1" ,"1".* -; I

: , "


BATDSAM towardthe operator,kickbackcanor easeof operationandwidenot occur.Forthisreason,theband rangingutility thebandsawis sawis thetool of choicefor ripping hard to beat.It is the only woodshort or narrowstock. workingmachinecapableof making accordBandsawsareclassified both straightand contourcuts.In ingto theirthroatwidth-that is,the andripping, additionto crosscutting distancebetweenthebladeandthe it iswellsuitedfor cuttingcurvesand verticalcolumn,which supports circles,enablingthewoodworkerto the machine'supperwheel.Band produceanythingfrom a dovetail joint to a cabrioleleg. sawsfor homeworkshoosfall in the 10-to l4-inch range.Siwsarealso Both roughand detcatework fall categorized accordingto theirdepthwithin its domain.Fittedwith a jig isan ideal of-cutcapacirywhichcorresponds Thisquarter-circle-cuning 7z-inchblade-the widestsizeavailto the maximum gapbetweenthe time-saver able for most consumer-grade for tabletops. for roundingcorners tableandtheupperguideassembly Thejigpivotsaroundafixedpoint,takingthe machines-a band sawcan resaw (overleaf). Althougha 4- to 6-inch guesswork out of cuttingperfectarcs. 6-inch-thicklumberinto two thindepth of cut is typical for conner piecesin a singlepass.And with saws,thebandsawshownon pagesB0-Bloffers througha board sumer-grade a %o-inchblade,a bandsawcanzigzagitsway a heightattachmentthat extendsthe verticalcolumn to at virtuallyanyangle,evenmaking90oturnsduringa cut. particularly providea l2-inchdepthof cut-handy for resawing But do not let thistool'sversatilityintimidateyou;theband sawis surprisinglyeasyto use.Manycutscanbe madefree- thick stock.But evenwith a standardmachine,you cantake depth-of-cutcapacity ofthe bandsaw'sunsurpassed handby simplypivotingthe workpiecearoundthe blade. advantage jigspresented in by cuttingidenticalpatternsinto severalpiecesof wood With thecuttingtechniques andshop-made this chapter,you will be ableto turn out intricatecurves) stackedone on top of another.Imaginethat you wantedto rip makethe samecurvedcut on 12piecesof Vz-inchplywood. cut perfectcirclesand produceuniformlysquare-edged raisethe With a bandsawyou wouldsimplystackthepieces, cutsandcrosscuts. guideassembly so that 6 inchesof the bladeis exposedand One other advantaseofthe band sawoverotherwoodto theradial cut themin a singlepass. is itsielativesafeness. Compared workingmachines In choosinga bandsaw,look for onewith a sturdytablethat arm sawor tablesaw,thebandsawis a quietmachine,sonoisecantilt 45oin onedirectionandat least10"in theother.In addirelatedfatigueis rarelya problem.Moreover,verylittle of the motor. a littlemorefor a 3/+-horsepower whileit is runtion, consider spending blade-usuallvonlv 7einch-is everexposed Forcertainjobs,suchasresawing a thickpieceof stock,youwill nirrg.And sincethe cuttingactionof the bladebearsdown pushingit againstthetableinsteadof back be sladto havethe extrapower. on theworkpiece,

A %-inch band saw bladeweavesits way along a curvedcuttingline,paring away a blockof mahogany to form a graceful cabrioleleg.

79


Tenaionhandle Kaisea and loweraupper wheel to adjuat blade tenaion

Wheelcover Frotects operator from wheeland blade; may be removableor hin4edto provide accega to whael

Elade guard Frotecta operator from blade:moved up and down with quide aooembly

Upper guide aaaembly Kaised and lowereddependin4on thickneaa of workpiece;includeablade 6uard, thruot bearinqand 7uide bloaks. )atacrewa releaae7uide blockofor Iateral a djuotm ent; th umbacrewa releasebearin7and blockaforfront-toback adjuatment b5rmeano of adjuatinq knoba.(A fixed quide aaeemblywith thruat bearingand 6uide blocks located under table inaert.)

Wheel Rimmedby a rubber tire that cuahionsthe blade and keepa it from alippinq

Throat aolumn 9upporta blade beiween wheels and protecta oper' ator from blade

Table lock knob Allowa table to be tilted for bevelor compoundcuta: a oecond knob ia located on aite aide of

Rip fence Ouides workpiece acro66 table for rip cuto, croaacuto

Miter gauge Guides workpiece acro66 table for cro69cut9 0r miter cut6

Table leveling pin Adjuatable to keepmifnr qauqeolot prvperlyaliqned

Tablelneert Freventswoodoiecesfrom fattin7into tableand oupporte workpiece whencloaeto blade; uauAlly madeof aluminum Duet epout Forduat collectionayatem

OnlOff ewltoh Can be padlockedin Off poaition for oafety


ANATOMYOFABANDSAW a bandsaw I s thenamesuggests, A bladeis a continuous steelband. Varyingin lengthfromroughly72inches on thesizeof to 104inchesdepending thebladerunsaroundrubthemachine, through wheels andpasses ber-rimmed anopeningin thesawtable.Oneof the wheels-typicallythelowerone-is the drivewheel,whichisturnedbya motor. to thewheels Thebladeis not fastened andturns butisheldin placebytension throughits ellipticalpathat roughly cut3,000feetperminute-theaverage for a l4-inchsaw. tingspeed Thebladeis kepttautby meansof andlowers whichraises atensionhandle. theupperwheel.A tilt knobthatcants theupperwheelisusedto keeptheblade Thebladeiskept onthewheels. centered steadyon its pathby thrustbearings locatedbehindthe bladeaboveand belowthetable,andby guideblocks, which prevent lateral movement. Althoughsomecutscanbemadefreehand,a rip fenceandmitergaugeare with manymodelsto guide available thetable. workpieces across

Thethree-wheel bandsaw'swide throat capacity- typically20 inches,ratherthan the10to 14inchesavailableon mosttwowheelmodels-makesit moreconvenient for workingwith particularly largeworkpieces.

81


SETTINGUP he band saw has a reputation amongsomewoodworkersasa relativelyimprecisecutting tool. And yet bandsawsareroutinelyusedin industry to cut veryhardmaterialssuchasmetal to very close tolerances.The fact remains,however, that thetool canonly be madeto cut straightedgesand precisecurvesif it is kept finely tuned. The ideal is for the blade to cut squarelyinto the workpiece,producing a smooth,accurateresult.But thepeculiaritiesof bandsawgeometrycanmake this idealdifficult to achieve.After bending aroundthe machine's wheelsat 35

milesperhour,a sectionof theblade muststraighten outbythetimeit reachesthesawtablea splitsecond later. Forthisto happen, theadjustable partsof thesawmustbekeptin proper alignmentso that the blade runs smoothlyand squareto the table. Particular attentionshouldbepaidto the wheels, theguideassembly andthesaw tableitself. Totuneyourbandsaw,unplugit, installandtensionthebladeyouplanto use(page87)thenfollowtheset-upsteps detailed onthefollowingpages. lakethe timeto do it right.Adjustingtheband

sawmaybemoretlme-consummg than learninghowto operate thetool.Butthe advantages of awell-tuned machine will benoticeable not onlyin thequalityof theresultsbut in thelongevityof your bladesand of the band saw itself. Misaligned wheels or poorlyadjusted guidebloclscanleadto premature blade wearor breakage. Installing nonmetallic guidebloclson a bandsawcanreducewearandtear (page appreciably B3),but thereis no substitute forgettingaroundtheneedto checkthrustbearings, guideblocksand wheels for properalignment.

ALIGNING THE WHEELS wheelalignment 1 Checking I Tomakecertainthatthewheels areoarallel plane,loosen to eachotherandin thesamevertical thetablelockknobs andtilt thetableoutof theway. Openbothwheelcovers andholda longstraightedge against thewheelrimsasshown. Thestraightedge shouldrestflushagainst the top andbottomof eachwheel.lf thewheels areoutof alignment, try position to bringthetopwheelto a vertical by means of thetilt knob.lf thestraightedge stillwill notrestflush,youwill haveto adjustthe position of the upperwheel(step2).

r) Shifting theupperwheel 1 Movethe upperwheelin orouton its a x l ef o l l o w i nt g h e i n s t r u c t i o innsy o u r you owner's manual. Onthemodelshown, mustfirst remove the blade(page87) andthewheel.Thenshiftthewheelby eitheraddingor removing oneor more (/efD.Reinstall washers thewheeland tighten theaxlenut.Installtheblade andrecheck wheelalignment.

82


BAND SAW

ASSEMBTIES THEGUIDE ADJUSTING

thethrustbearings 1 Sefting 85),thencheckby I Setthe upperguideassembly @age to theblade.lf is square thrust bearing eyethatthe upper guide adjust theassembly setscrew, assembly ihe not,loosen and tighten the the blade, is square to sothatthe bearing the and turn thumbscrew loosen the bearing Then, setscrew. just the blade. touches the bearing knobuntil adjustment andtightenthethumboff slightly(above) Backthe bearing (The directly which is located bearing, lowerthrust screw. way.)To check the same is adjusted underthetableinsert, blade makes hand. lf the wheel by spinthe upper thesetting, recheck. slightly and bearing off spin,backthe eitherbearing

r) Setting theguideblocks loosen theguideblock L fo setthe upperguideblocks, together usingyourthumband andpinchtheblocks setscrews indexfingeruntiltheyalmosttouchtheblade.Alternatively, theblocksand usea slipof papertosetthespacebetween Next,loosen thethumbscrew theblade.Iightenthesetscrews. of theguide knobuntilthefrontedges andturntheadjustment Tighten the blocks arejustbehindthebladegullets(abovd. thesameway. Setthe lowerguideblocks thumbscrew.

Heat-resistantguide blocles to replacethemetalguideblockssupplied Designed aremadefrom with mostsaws,nonmetallicblocks resinthat containsa dry a graphite-impregnated theybuild up lessheatthan con' lubricant.Because ventionalguideblocks,thenonmetallicvarietylast longer;theycanalsobesetdoserto theblade,promotingmoreaccurateand controlledcuts.In addition,contactbetweenthebladeand nonmetallic blocksdoesnot dull theblade,asis commonwith metalblocks.Toinstall,unscrewtheguideblock and replacewith removetheold bloclcs setscrews, thenewblocks;tightenthesetscrews.

83


BAND SAW

SOUARING THETABLE ANDBLADE 'l Aligning thetable I Toensure thatthemitergauge slot is properly aligned on bothsidesof the tableslot,setthe mitergaugein itsslot andslidethegaugebackandforthacross thetable.Thegauge shouldslidefreely pressure. withonlymoderate lf thegauge pliersto remove binds,uselocking the pin.Then,insert leveling thepinintoits holeandusea ball-peen hammer to tap the pin deeper(left)unlilthe miter oarrop clidcc froolv

r) Ghecking thetableangle position, L Wttnthetablein the horizontal remove the t a b l ei n s e r t ,h e nb u t ta c o m b i n a t i so qn u a raeg a i n st ht e s a wb l a d ea ss h o w nT. h es q u a rseh o u l d f i t f l u s ha g a i n s t thesawblade.lf thereis a gapbetween thetwo,loosen thetwotablelockknobsandmakesurethetableis seated properly onthetablestopunder thetable. Tighten thelock knobs. lf thegapremains, adjustthetablestop(step3).

Adjusting thetablestop Tiltthetableoutof thewav,thenusetwowrenches as shownto adjustthetablestop.Usethe lowerwrench to hold thenutstationary andthe upperwrench to turnthetable stop:clockwise to lowerit; counterclockwise to raiseit. Recheck thetableangle.

84


SAFETY omparedto thetablesawor radial f Iikea U arm sawthebandsawseems relativelysafemachine.There is no whine of a IVz-or 3-horseaggressive power motor turning a lO-inchsaw blade;instead,thebandsawproducesa liken cuiethum that somewoodworkers tb the soundof a sewingmachine.And with its bladeguardproperly set,no morethan% inchof thebladeis exposed abovethe table. Still,it is impossibleto betoo careful with anywoodworkingmachineandthe band sawis no exception.Bandsaw break,and when bladesoccasionally

they do they tend to fly to the right of wherethe operatornormally stands' Therefore,it is wiseto standslightlyto the throat column side of the blade If a bladesnaps,turn wheneverpossible. offthe sawand do not openthewheel coversto installa new bladeuntil the wheelshavestoppedcompletely. Althoughthebladeguardadequately coversthe bladeabovethe table,there is no guard at the level of the table or underneathit. As a result,you need to keepyour handsout ofthe holecovered by the table insert and refrain from reachingunder the tableto clear

debrisfrom the bladebeforethe blade hascometo a stop. that occurwith Mostof theaccidents feed thebandsawarea resultofexcessive pressure andpoor handposition.Feeda workpiecesteadilyinto the blade,but with a minimal amountof pressure'otherwisetheblademayjam andbreak.For mostcuts,feedthe workpiecewith one hand,usingthe otherhand to guideit. Keepyour fingersout of line with the blade.Hook thefingersof thefeedhand aroundan edgeofthe workpieceto prevent them from slippinginto the blade asyour hand nearsthe cuttingarea.

SAW WITHTHEBAND SAFELY CUTTING TIPS BAI{D SAWSAFETY o Except a blade, whenchanging closed. keepthewheelcovers always r Makesurethatsawblades aresharp, Disconnect cleanandundamaged. a blade, thesawbeforechanging o Standslightlyto the leftof the bladewhencuttingat thefrontof the bandsawtable.Donotstand,or allow anyone elseto stand,to the rightof in Thisis thedirection theblade. whichthebladewillfly if it breaks. o Donotcut untilthebladeisturning at fullspeed. . Keepyourhandsawayfromthe bladewhenthesawis on.Usea Push stickor a jig to cut smallor nanow oieces. r Avoidmaking turnsthataretootight Thiscan forthebladeyouareusing. theblade. break . Cutwiththe bladeguardno more than% inchabovetheworkPiece.

guideassembly andbladeguard theupper Setting guideassembly 7ainch onthesawto begina cut,settheupper turning Before and in position Useonehandto holdtheguideassembly theworkpiece. above Alternatively, lockknobbbove). theotherhandto tightentheguideassembly thentightenthe lock up slightly, to levertheguideassembly usetheworkpiece notonly aspossible ascloseto theworkpiece theguideassembly knob.Setting blade it alsosupportsthe protectsyou fromthebladewhenthesawis running; bladedeflection. excessive asit cuts,minimizing

85

r Beforebacking outof a cut,turn off the saw.


BAND SAWBLADES use T umbermill bandsawsregularly I-r bladesaswideasl2 inchesto cut logsinto boards.Blades for consumergradesawsaremuchsmaller-generally rangingfromrAetoVzinchwide. But evenwithinthisrelatively narrowspectrum,choosing thebestbladeforthejob isnotalways straightforward. Thereisno singleall-purpose combination bladein bandsawing, nor anybladespecifically designed for rippingor crosscutting. However, a woodworker shouldkeep threebasicvariables in mind: tooth design, bladewidthandbladeset. Asillustrated atright,bandsawblades for cuttingwoodareavailable in three basictoothdesigns; eachdesigndoes something betterthantheothers.The chartbelowshowstheimportance of selecting abladeof appropriate widthfor cuttingcurves. In general, narrowblades areusedfor cutswith intricatecurves, whilewideblades areidealfor resawinq thickstock. Bladesetrefersto how muchthe bladeteethareangledto theside,making a sawcut-or kerf-that is widerthan theblade.Thisreduces thechance of the bladebinding in acut.Abladewithminimalset,calledalightsetblade,produces a smoothcutanda narrowkerf,but is alsomoreproneto binding,whichlimits itsabilityto cutatightcurve.A heavyset

blade-onewith greater set-cutsfaster thanalightsetblade,andislesslikelyto bind dueto its widerkerf.However, a heavysetbladeleaves morevisiblecorrugated marlain thecutedgeof aworkpiece,aneffectcalled"washboarding." Thereareenoughstresses on a band sawbladeunderthebestof circumstances without addingto them by improperoperationof the machine. Someof themanyavoidable causes of bladebreakage includeforcinga blade arounda curvethatis too tight for its width,improperadjustment of theblade guides, excessive feedspeed or pressure, dullbladeteeth,excessive bladetension, insufficienttoothsetandrunningthe bladefor extended periods withoutcutting.Tension andtrackablade(page 88) immediately afteryouinstallit. Incorrect tensioncanshortenthelifeofa blade. Thetypicalbandsawbladehasaloop lengthof several feet.To reducethe amountof storage space, foldtheblade intothreeloopsasshownon page87. Cleanabandsawblade regularlyto keep it from gummingup with resinsand pitch.Usea wireor stiff-bristled brush dippedin solventsuchasturpentine, ovencleaneror an ammonia-based cleaner. Beforestoringa bladeor for removingrust,wipethebladewith an oilyrag.Forrust,usesteelwool.

1/a"blade (1/a"radiuo)

86

BTADE WPES

?tandard Elade For atrai6ht cuts acroas the qrain or dia1onalto the qrain. ldeal for intricate curveo or cute whenthe oriantation of the bladeto the qrain chan4eo durina the cut,

5kip-tooth tslade 9o called becauseeveryother tooth ia miaeing.For lon7, qentle curvea with the qrain. Cuts fasten but more roulhly, than a standard blade.A1/+inch ekip-toobh blade with 4 to 6 teeth per inch ie a gooa all-purpoae blade.

Hook-tooth Elade For atraight cuta and curvea with the grain; the best blade for rippinq or reaawing.

Whenchoosing a bandsawbladefor a contourcut,considerthetightestcurve that thebladewill turn. (Jsethechart at left asa roughguide.In general,the narrowertheblade,the tighterthecurve, giventhesamebladeset.But because wider bladesresistunwanteddeflection, a narrow bladeis not alwaysthe best choice for a curvedcut.A goodruleof thumbis to usethewidestblade for the tightestcurverequired.Thelimitations on a blade'sturningcapacitycannotbe ignored.Forcinga bladearounda corner that is tootight will causeit to bind in thekerf,twistand,ultimately,snap.


BAND SAW

A SAWBLADE CHANGING theoldblade 1 Removing to its theupperguideassembly I Raise highestsettingandlockitin place(page andguide 85).Backthethrustbearings blocksawayfromthe blade(page83). thetableinsertanduselocktng Remove pin. pliersto remove thetableleveling counterclockwise handle Turnthetension thenopen thebladetension, to release goggles, safety Wearing thewheelcovers. slidethebladeoutof theguide carefully (lefil,lhen slipit offthewheels assemblies thetableslot. andguideit through

thenewblade Installing uncoilit carelf thebladeis coiled, storea considerfully.Bandsawblades safety ableamountof spring.Wearing holdthe bladeat goggles andgloves, arm'slengthin onehandandturnyour the Guide faceawayasthebladeuncoils. thetableslotasshown, bladethrough youand it withtheteethfactng holding pointing down.Slipthebladebetween andin thethroatcolumn theguideblocks Install it onthewheels. slot,thencenter Tension pinandtableinsert. theIeveling andtrackthe blade(page88).

FOR STORAGE A BTAOE FOTDING graspthe andgloves, safetygoggles Wearing you; from away facing teeth with the blade pointyourleftthumbup andyourright t h u m bd o w n( l ) . T h e n ,p r e s s i nYgo u r t eb l a d e , r i g h tt h u m bf r r m l ya g a i n st h your pivoting righthand blade by twistthe to formtwo begin will The blade upward. pausing the releasing or Without loopsQ). direction in the same it rotating keep blade, yourlefthandin theopposite whilepivoting forming a willcoilagain, The direction. blade (3). string, using blade the Secure thirdloop pipecleaners or plastictwistties.

87


BAND SAW

TENSIONING ANDTRACKING A BLADE a blade 1 Tensioning I Turnthetension handle clockwise withonehandto raisethetopwheeland increase tension ontheblade; deflect the blade fromsideto sidewiththeotherhand to gauge thetension. Spintheupper wheel byhandandgauge thetension at several points along theblade. Increase thetension(lefiluntilthebladedeflects about % inchto eithersideof thevertical position.Avoidovertensioning a blade;this canleadto premature bladewearand breakage. Undertensioning a bladewill allowit to wander backandforthand sideto sideas it cuts.

"fit-lfllltf tlf llt-fli' r) Tracking a btade I Lower the upperguideassembly,thenspintheupperwheelby handto checkwhether thebladeis tracking in thecenter of thewheel. lf it is not,loosen thetilt knoblock screw. Then,spinthewheelwith o n eh a n dw h i l et u r n i n tgh et i l t knobwiththeotherhand(above)to anglethewheeluntiltheblade tracksin thecenter. Tocheckthe tracking, closethewheelcovers andturnon thesaw,thenturnit off;adjustthetracking, if necessary.Setthethrustbearrngs and guideblocks(page83).

5HO?TI? Roundingablade To helpprevent,a newband saw bladefrom bindinain Lhe kefi of a curvedcul, ueea siliconcarbideelone without oil No roundile backedqe.Gluethe slone ontn a ohop-madehandle.Ieneionand t rackthe blade,Ihen turn on the saw. Wearingeafety 6oqqlee,hold the etnneagainoLNhe aaainsLNhe backof 'lhe bladeand elowlypivol pivotthe the otone. otont Turnoff the eawafAera few minutee,lnadditionlo rounain6the blade,the etone willgmoothany bumVe whereLhe bladeends are weldedtoaether,

88


CUTTINGCURVES l\ f uch of the curved wood that lVl sru..r well-madefrrrnitureis cut on theiand saw,whichcanproducevirtuallv anv contour.As shown in the pageithat follow,you cut curvesin a varietyof ways:by sawingfreehandalong a cuttingline, by makinguseof a pattern (page90)or by relyingon shop-builtjigs. Whateverthe shapeof the curve,the in contour-cuttingis biggestchallenge avoidingdeadends,wheretheworkpiece hits thethroatcolumnbeforetheendof a cut.Whenthisoccurs,youhaveto veer offthe cuttingline andsawto the edge or turn offthe sawand of theworkpiece, backthe bladeout of the cut. In either case,you mustchoosea new starting point for the cut. The keyto avoiding suchpitfallsis to visualizethe cut before

vou makeit so you canselectthe best itarting point. If a deadend seems markcuttinglineson both unavoidable, sidesof the workpiece.Occasionally, startinga cut on onesideof a workpiece and finishingit on the otheris the only wayto makea cut. On many contour cuts,making a "release" cutsthrough seriesof straight wasteareasasillustratedbelowwill great ly facilitatetheprocedure.Ifbacktracking try to start out ofa cut is unavoidable, with shortercutsandbackout of these, ratherthan beginningwith the longer cuts.Forparticularlytight curves,drill a holeat the tightestcurvesand then cut to theholealongthe markedcuttingline. of the band One of the peculiarities sawis that its bladewill readilyfollow a

Usingabandsawanda shop- made circle-cutting jiglike theoneshownon page93,a woodworker cut thetop of this Shaker-style table.Thetable's legswerealsoproduced on thebandsaw. markedline when cutting acrossthe grain,but will tendto veeroffwhen followingthegrain. For greatercontrol and accuracy, starta curvewith a cut that runs across the grain rather than with it. When enteringa curvefrom a straightcut, rememberto reducefeedspeedslightly to helpensureprecision.

FREEHAND A CURVE CUTTING

r) Finishing thecut L fo cutthetightestpartsof thecurve,pivottheworkpiece yourhandposition Forthe asnecessary. onthetable,shifting of thecutting sawto theendof thecurvedportion cutshown, withyour withyourlefthand.Pivottheworkpiece line,feeding veeroffthecuttingline twisting theblade; righthandto avoid of your Keeptwofingers cut,if necessary. andsawto a release of the control thetableto maintain against righthandbraced andcut alongthe around Turntheworkpiece cut(abovd. portion of thecuttingline. straight

cut thecurved release cutsandstarting 1 Making in thekerfof a curved I Tokeepthe bladefrombinding release cutsfromtheedgeof of straight cut,makea series of the to thecuttingline.Theexactlocation theworkpiece buttryto makethemto thetightestpartsof cutsis arbitrary, cut,aligntheblade Tostartthecurved thecurve,asshown. justto thewastesideof thecuttingline.Feedtheworkpiece it intothebladeusingyourrighthand,whileguiding steadily handis Makesurethatneither withyourlefthand(above). in linewiththeblade.

89


BAND SAW

MAKING MULTIPLE CURVED CUTS

upthefenceandstarting thecut 1 Setting pieces I Toproduce multiple curved withthesamewidthfroma singlework(page89).Ihen,makea T-shaped piece,cutthefirstcurvefreehand single-point fencewitha rounded noseat the baseof theT.Cuta notchin thebasesothatthe (Note:Inthisillustration, guideassembly canbelowered to theworkpiece. theguide assembly is raised forclarity.) Install theripfenceandscrew thesingle-point fence to it withthetip of thebaseparallelto theblade. Position theripfenceforthewidth of cut.Tostarteachcut,butttheworkpiece against thetip of thesingle-point fence andfeedit intothebladeusingbothhands(above). Keeptheworkpiece square to thetip of thesingle-point fenceandensure thatneither handis in linewiththeblade.

r) Finishing thecut L estnetrailing endof theworkpiece nears thetip of thesingle-point fence, s h i f ty o u rl e f th a n dt o t h e b a c ko f t h et a b l et o s u p p o rt h t ec u t p i e c e . yourleftarmonthefenceand Brace hooktwofingers overtheedgeof the tableto keepyourarmclearof theblade feeding withyour hbove).Continue righh t a n du n t i tl h ec u t i s c o m p l e t e d .

PATTERN SAWING upa double-point fence 1 Setting I Tocutthesamecurvedpattern from different workpieces, cutthefirstpiece (page89);then,useit asa temfreehand plateto cut theotherpieces. Prepare a double-point fencewitha shallow notch a t t h ee n df o rt h e b l a d ea n da d e e o e r notchbelowfortheworkpiece to slide underit. Screw thefenceto an L-shaoed support boardthathugsthesideof the t a b l et,h e nc l a m pt h es u p p o rbto a r d to thetable,making surethebladef its intotheendnotchof thefence.Usestrips of double-sided tapeasshownto fasten eachworkpiece to thetemplate, ensuring thatthestraight edges of the boards are aligned. Trimtheworkpiece if necessary to prevent it fromhittingthefencewhen youmakeihe cut.

90


BAND SAW

r) Liningupandstarting thecut so andworkpiece L Nignthetemplate to is parallel thattheedgeof thetemplate the blade(righil.To beginthe cut, use yourlefthandto feedtheworkpiece into cutting, Oncethebladebegins theblade. withyourrighthand applyslightpressure the squarely against thetemplate to press fence.Keepthe endof thedouble-point withbothpointsof in contact template thecut. thefencethroughout

thecut Q Completing withyourIefthand r-J Continue feeding your whileusing righthandto keepthe bothpointsof f lushagainst template (left); Ihetemplateshould the fence thefenceasthebladecuts ridealong Onceyouhave through theworkpiece. p r y f i n i s h etdh ec u t , t h ew o r k p i e c e apart. andtemplate

9l


BAND SAW

ROU N D IC NO GRN E R S jig upa quarter-circle-cutting 1 Setting I Cuta sheetof %-inchplywood slightly larger thanthesawtable,thenfeedit intotheblade to cuta kerffromthemidd l eo f o n es i d et o t h ec e n t e rC. l a m o the s h e e itn p o s i t i oansa n a u x i l i a tr ay b l e . Aligna carpenter's withtheback square gullets oftheblade andmarka lineonthe lar a u x i l i atrayb l et h a ti s p e r p e n d i c ut o thekerf. Then,marka pivotpointonthe tablethesamedistance fromtheblade you astheradius of therounded corners planto cut (right).Cutanotherplywood sheet asa jig baseandmarka square at onecorner, withsidesthesamelengthas the radius of therounded corners. Borea (the holefora screwatthemarked corner "pivotpoint"on the inset spotmarked illustration). Screwguidesto adjacent edgesof thejig base, thenscrew thejig base to theauxiliary table,centering the screwholeoverthe pivotpoint.Leave the screwloose enough to pivotthejig onthetable.Round themarked corner of thejig bypivoting it intotheblade(insef).

r-) Rounding a corner L fo round thecorner of a workpiece, turnoffthesawandseattheworkpiece against theguidesof thejig.Turnon thesaw,thenuseyourrighthandto pivotthejig,feeding theworkpiece yourlefthandshould intotheblade; holdtheworkpiece snugly against the guides. Round eachcorner of a workpiecethe sameway(lefil.

92


BAND SAW

IIG CIRCLE.CUTTIT{G circles, usea shopForcuttingperfect jig custom-made for builtcircle-cutting yourbandsaw.Refer to theillustration at rightfor suggested dimensions. R o u ta 7 a - i n c h - d e e dovetail c h a n n ei n l t h e m i d d l eo f t h ej i g base,thenusea tablesawto rip a thin boardwitha bevelalongtwo edgesto produce a barthat slides (Setthe in the channel. smoothly sawbladebevelanglebymeasuring Cut edges.) theangleof thechannel outthe notchonthe bandsaw,then screwthe supportarmsto the underthem sideof thejig base,spacing farenough apartto hugthesidesof the bandsawtablewhenthejig is placedon it. Boretwoscrewholes throughthe bottomof the dovetail in thejig base1 inchand'3 channel fromthe unnotched end;also inches boretwoholesintothe barasshown. for circleToprepare a workpiece and cutting,markthecircumference centerof the circleyouplanto cut (farright).Then, on its underside usethe bandsawto cut off the four

NoLch 3/+"x 7"

Jiq baee 3/+"x20"x24"

Dovetailchannel 3/a"x3/+"x24"

of theworkpiece to keepit corners fromhittingtheclamps thatsecure thejig to thetableastheworkpiece pivots.Makea release cut fromthe to the marked edgeof theworkpiece circumference, thenveeroff to the overand edge,Turntheworkpiece markthe contactpointwherethe bladetouchedthe circumference. sideof the Screwthe narrow barto the centerof theworkpiece

Contact

Cornercuta

throughoneof the bar'sholes.Do nottightenthescrew;leaveit loose Then, enough to pivottheworkpiece. and slidethe barintothechannel pivottheworkpiece untilthe marked contactpointis buttedagainst the blade.Screwthrough oneof the holesin the jig baseto secure thepivotbarto thebase. Tousethe jig, pivottheworkpiece withyour intothe blade(left),feeding guiding withyourleft righthandand handuntilthecut is comoleted.

/

\

93


STRAIGHTCUTS

lll llll'llll ll|lllllllll1llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll w:'kf.T*?iil:#,ffi:*:llfillll-ffi machines, thebandsawis theidealshop Whereasa 10-inch tool for resawing. tablesawwouldtaketwo Dasses to resaw a 6-inch-wide board,a standardl4-inch band sawcan makethe samecut in a singlepass. Because thebandsawbladeis relatively thin, it producesanarrowerkerf-and les waste-than is possiblewith a tableor radialarmsawResawing canbedonefreehand,but for moreprecision,usea pivot (page96).The blockanda featherboard bandsawisalsoanexcellent choicefor riopingnarrowor round stock(page95). Because the thin, flexibleband saw bladehasa naturaltendencyto pulse backand forth and swayfrom sideto sideimperceptiblyasit cuts,you will needto keepyour machinecarefully tunedto getsmoothandaccurate cuts. Withoutsuchfastidious maintenance, crosscutting andrippingwill beimprecise. Bandsawbladesalsohavea tendency "lead," to or veerawayfrom a straight lineduringa cut.Thiseffectcanbeminimizedby reducingfeedspeedandusing sharpbladesthat areproperlytensioned and tracked(pageBB). Although more pronouncedwith narrowerblades,somebladeleadis genHowever,theleadof erallyunavoidable. a particularbladeis usuallyconstantand predictable,so you can usuallyangle your rip fenceto compensate for it. Crosscutting is a safeprocedureon thebandsaw.But remember,oneof the shortcomings of this machineis that crosscuttingislimited by thewidth of the throat:typically10to 14incheson a twowheelconsumer-grade tool.

9HO7Tt? Compenoaling for blade lead Tosetlhe anqleof Ihe riofenceand enaure I acc uraf,e,obraiqhl culo whenuoinqLherip fenceae a 7uide,adjueLNhepooition of lhe fenceon |he eawtable for eachbladein lhe shoo.Mark a cuttinq lineon a boardthat is parallelIo ite edqe.Then,cut haltway alonqthe linefreehand.Youmay haveIo anglethe boardeliqhLly to keepIhe bladeon Ihe line;Lhisis lhe resull of bladelead.Marka lineon Ihe Lablealonq the edqeof the board.AlignIhe riVfenceparallel wiLhthielinewhenever ueinqNhe eameblade.

RIPPING

Ripping a board Position theripfenceforthewidthof cut,adjusting itsangleto compensate for bladelead.Butttheworkpiece against thefenceandfeedit steadily intotheblade proper withthethumbsof bothhands(above). Tomaintain control of thecut,straddlethefencewiththefingers of yourlefthandandkeepthreefingers of yourright handbraced onthetable.Makesurethatneither handis in linewiththeblade.

94


BAND SAW

A SHOP-MADE RIPFENCE Likea commercial fence,theripfence to comshownat leftcanbeadjusted pensate for bladelead.First,fastena fenceto a support wooden boardwith a boltandwingnut.Theboardshould restflushagainstthefrontedgeof the sawtable.Ensure thatthefencewill pivotwhenthewingnutis loosened. Tousethefence,firstmarka line onthetableforthe bladelead(page 94).Holdthesuppodboardin position,thenloosen thewingnutto pivot thefenceandalignitsedgewiththe marked line.Tighten thewingnut, thenclampthefencein place.Feed shortor narrow stock,asshown,using a pushstick.

2"x2"x14"

Ripping a cylinder Ripa cylinder using a shop-made V-block jig.First,maketheV section of thejig bybevelcutting(page98)a 2-by-2diagonally. Then,screw sidethetwocutpieces by-side to a baseof solidwoodor 3/q-inch plywood to forma V.Toprovide clearance forthebladewhenusingthejig,make a cut halfway across thecenterof theV andthebase. Tomake through theripcut,sliptheblade t h ec l e a r a n c eu t ,t h e nc l a m pt h ej i g intothe to thetable.Feedthecylinder bladeusingthethumbsof bothhands (left).Keepyourfingersawayfromthe blade.Fora cylinder thatistoonarrow to becutthrough fromthefrontof thetable yourthumbs, without endangering stop feeding midway through thecut.Then, moveto thebackof thetableto oullthe pasttheblade. cylinder

95


BAND SAW

RESAWING 'l

Using a pivotblockandfeatherboard I Toresaw a board,makea pivotblock fromtwopieces of woodloinedperpenpiecetrimmed dicularly, withtheshorter t o f o r ma r o u n d endo s el.n s t a tl lh er i o fenceandscrewtheoivotblockto it so d i t ht h e t h a tt h er o u n d et d i p i s a l i g n ew Position blade(inset). theripfencefor thewidthof cutandadjustitsangleto compensate for bladelead(page94). Tostartthecut,feedtheworkpiece into thebladeusingthethumbs of bothhands; useyourfingers to keeptheworkpiece flushagainst thetip of thepivotblock. A fewinches intothecut,stopfeeding andturnoff thesaw.Clampa featherboard to thetable,propping it ona wood scrapto support themiddle of theworkpiece.Turnonthesawandcontinue the reachthe cuI1efiluntilyourfingers featherboard.

r) Gompleting thecut Z - W t t nt h es a ws t i l lr u n n i n gm, o v e t o t h e b a c ko f t h et a b l et o f i n i s ht h e c u t .U s eo n eh a n dt o k e e pt h ew o r k p i e c es q u a r a t lock e g a i n st h t ep i v o b w h i l ep u l l i n g i t p a stth eb l a d w e i t ht h e otherhand(right),

96


BAND SAW

CROSSCUTTING Using theripfenceasa guide Position theripfenceforthelength of itsangle cut,adjusting to compensate for bladelead(page94). ButItheedge of theworkpiece against thefenceand withthethumbs feedit intotheblade of bothhands(left).Tomaintaincontrolof thecut,straddle thefencewith of yourlefthandwhilekeepthef ingers ingthefingers of yourrighthandbraced Besure on thefaceof theworkoiece. handis in linewiththeblade. thatneither

Using themitergauge asa guide thatthe Usea caroenter's souare to ensure mitergauge is perpendicular totheblade. Marka cuttinglineontheleading edgeof Holding theworkpiece flush theworkpiece. alignthecutting linewith against thegauge, Withthethumbof yourrighthand theblade. holdtheworkhooked overthemitergauge, piece andthesaw f irmlyagainst thegauge table;useyourlefthandto pushthemtogetherto feedtheworkpiece intothebladetighil. (Note:Donottryto compensate forbladelead forcrosscutting.) whenusing themitergauge

Miter bar 5 l a "x 3 / + "x 1 2 "

a cylinder Crosscutting Tocrosscut makea V-block asdescribed on page a cylinder, against 95 butomitting theclearance cut.ButttheV-block thebladeandmarkthecenter of themiterslotonthebase of theV-block. Screwa narrow strioof woodto the bottomof withthe theV-block to serve asa miterbar,aligning thescrews centermark;countersink thescrews to keepthemfromscratchi n gt h es a wt a b l ew h e nu s i n tgh eV - b l o cG k .l u ea s a n d p a p e r edges of theV-block to keeptheworkpiece stripto theinside fromslipping during thecut.Insert themiterbarintothemiter in theV-block sothatit overhangs slotandseattheworkpiece byanamount equalto thewidthof cut. theedgeof theV-block U s i n gy o u r i g h th a n dt o h o l dt h ew o r k p i e cf ier m l yi n t h e pushit intotheblade(lefil. V-block,

97


ANGLEANDTAPERCUTS 'f)

y settingthebandsaw'smitergauge l)at an angleor tilting the sawtable you canmakepreciseanglecuts,suchas miters,bevelsandtapers.Fora mitercut, usea slidingbevelto setthemiter gauge to the desiredangle-the gaugecan beturneduo to 90"-and thenmakethe cut asyou would a standardcrosscut (page97).For bestresults,makea test cut, checkthe angleof the cut edge

with a squareandadjustthemitergauge setting,ifnecessary. For a bevelcut, tilt the tableto the desiredangle-band sawtablestilt up to 45oto theright and 10oto theleft-and, for a cut alongthe grain,installthe rip fenceon therighrhandsideof theblade. Thiswill positiontheworkpieceon the "downhill" sideof the blade,keeping theworkpiece-andyour hands-from

slippingtowardthebladefor a safercut. For moreaccuratecuts,adjustthe angle for blade of the rip fenceto compensate Iead(page94} Then,cut thebevelasyou would a standardrip cut. The simple setuDsshownbelowcanbe usefulfor makingmultiple miter and bevelcuts. Thpercutscanbemadefreehand, but for severalidenticalpieces,usinga jig (page99)guarantees uniform results.

ANGLE MAKING REPEAT CUTS

Cutting bevels Loosen thetablelockknobs andsetthesawtableto the desired angle.Screwa boardto themitergaugeasanextensionandcutofftheendof it. Usetheextension asa guide marka cutting to cutthefirstbevel. Tocutthesecond bevel, lineontheleading edgeof theworkpiece. Then,holding the workpiece f lushagainst the mitergauge, alignthecutting linewiththebladeandbutta stopblockagainst theendof thestopblockto theextension, then theworkpiece. Clamp to hookthethumbof yourrighthandoverthemitergauge f irmlyagainst holdtheworkpiece thegauge andthetable. Useyourlefthandto pushthemitergauge andworkpiece together through thecut (above).

Mitering bothendsof a board to the Loosen of themitergauge andsetthegauge thehandle angle.Then,screwa boardto thegaugeasanextendesired Gluea sionandcutofftheendto theleftof thesawblade. to minimize thechance of sandpaper stripto theextension asa slipping during a cut.Usetheextension theworkpiece's guideto cutthefirstmiter,thenmakethemitercutonone miter,marka cutting endof a stopblock.Tocutthesecond Holding theworklineontheleading edgeof theworkpiece. pieceflushagainst alignthecuttinglinewith themitergauge, theendof theworkthebladeandbuttthestopblockagainst piece.Clampthestopblockandworkpiece to theextension, thenhookthethumbof yourrighthandoverthemiiergauge to holdtheworkpiece firmlyagainst thegauge andthetable. your into left hand to feed the workpiece the blade(abovd. Use

98


BAND SAW

TAPER CUTS MAKING taperjig a commercial Using rip fence to therightof the Install the h o l d t h et a p e jri g f l u s h b l a d et,h e n arm Pivot thehinged fence. the against jig indicates scale the taper of the until or inches angle-indegrees thecutting perfoot.Marka cuttrng lineontheleadthenseatit ingedgeof theworkprece, hinged arm. and against theworkstop line cutting so that the thefence Position with the saw is aligned ontheworkpiece thenadjusttheangleof thefence blade, for bladelead(page94). to compensate Tomakethecut,usethethumbsof both andthe handsto slidetheworkpiece j i g a sa u n i ta c r o stsh et a b l ef,e e d i n g intotheblade(left).Usethe theworkpiece your lefthandto holdtheworkfingers of pieceagainst thatneithejig,ensuring t h e rh a n di s i n l i n ew i t ht h eb l a d e .

TAPER JIG then taperontheworkpiece, Marka linewiththedesired placethe workpiece square on a boardwitha perfectly edge. the markedlinewiththe board's edge,aligning to markan Tracealongthe longedgeof ihe workpiece angled cuttinglineontheboard.Sawalongthecutting fromtheendof thecut 2 inches stopping linefreehand, at the bottomof the board.Turnthe board90" to cut out the lip.Tousethe boardasa jig,setupthe rip fence the thenholdthejig flushagainst to therightof theblade, fence.Aligntheedgeof thejig'slip withthesawblade its angleto adjusting and lockthefencein position, for bladelead@age94. Seattheworkpiece compensate against thejig.Usethethumbsof bothhandsto slidethe thetable,feeding andthejig asa unitacross workpiece intothe blade.Usethefingersof yourleft theworkpiece that thejig,ensuring against handto holdtheworkpiece handis in linewiththeblade. neither

99


CUTTINGDUPLICATEPIECES methodfor producing I n effective A multiplecopiesof thesameshapeis to fastenlayersofstocktogetherandcut thepiecesin oneoperationwith a techniqueknownasstacksawing.Not only is it fasterthancuttingall thepiecesseparately;it alsoensures that eachpieceis a precise copyofthe originalpattern.The methodis possible because of theband

saw'suniquecapacityto cut throughvery thickwood.With a 6-inchdeothof cut a bandsawcancut*rou$ asmanyasei$t pieces of %-inchplywoodin a singlepass. Tobond thelayersof woodtogether in preparation for thecut,somewoodworkersdrivenailsthroughthe waste area;othersuseclamps.Bothmethods, however, canbe hazardous ifthe blade

accidentally strikesa nail or a clamp.A saferwayis to usedouble-sided tapeto hold thepiecestogethertemporarily. A stopblockon thesawtablewill also savetime when you are crosscutting repeatedly to turn out duplicatepieces. With the setupshownbelow,you can speedthejob of cuttinga cylinderinto identicalslices.

TWOSETUPS FORDUPLICATE PIECES

Stacksawing Fasten in a stack, thepieces together thenmarka cutting lineonthetoppiece. Before turning onthesaw,makesure thatthe bladeis perfectly square withthesawtable(page 84);anyerrorwill becompounded fromthetopto the bottomof thestack.Tocutthestack,firstmakeanynecessary release culs(page89. Forthecurveshown, aligntheblade justto thewaste sideof thecutting line,thenusethethumbs o f b o t hh a n d tso f e e dt h es t a c ks t e a d i layl o n gt h em a r k e d palh (above). Keepyourfingersontheedgesof thestackand braced onthetableto keepthemsafely awayfromtheblade.

Using a stopblock Makea V-block witha miterbarasyouwouldto crosscut (page97).Toproduce pieces, a cylinder several identical insert theV-block miterbarintothemiterslotandclamoa stopblockto thetablesothatthedistance between thestop b l o c ka n dt h eb l a d e q u a ltsh ed e s i r ecdu t - o flfe n g t hF. o r eachcut,seattheworkpiece in theV-block andbuttit against thestopblock.Usingyourrightto holdtheworkpiece firmly pushthemtogether in theV-block, to feedtheworkpiece intothe bladehbove).

r00


BAND SAW

BAND SAWTOINERY the I hallmarkof finecraftsmanship, A dovetailjoint iscommonlyusedby to join togethercornersof cabinetmakers The better-qualitydrawersandcasework. interlockingpinsandtailsprodovetail's vide a joint that is not only strongand durablebut visuallypleasingaswell. Cuttingdovetailjoints on the band overusingeither sawoffersadvantages handtoolsor otherpowertools.Forall ofhandthe artistryand uniqueness thehand-toolapproach crafteddovetails, And whilea router is a laboriousprocess. will makequickwork of thejob, it often

Dovetailjoint producespinsandtailsthat areuniform Theresultis a strong in sizeandspacing. joint but onelackingin character.

Cutting dovetailson the band saw offerspower-tool-qpespeedandprecision.And asthefollowingpagesshow it is possible to tailora dovetailjoint on the band sawwith the sameflexibility you joint. mightbringto a handmade ofoperationsis straightThesequence forward:First,outlinethepatternof pins on oneendofa pin board.Then,usea simplesetupto cut all the pins on both endsofeachoin boardoneafteranother. Oncethe *aite is chiseledout, you can usethe finishedpieceasa templatefor outlinins the tailson the tail boards.

JOINT A D()VETAIL MAKING Shoulderline

thepins 1 Marking ge I O u t l i nteh ep i n sf o rt h e1 o i n ft o , l l o w i nt h at left.First,mark shownin thediagram sequence t h eo u t s i dfea c eo f e a c hw o r k p i e cwei t ha b i gX . of thestock to thethickness Then,seta cuttinggauge a n ds c r i b e a l i n ea l l a r o u ntdh ee n d so f t h ew o r k pieces linesof thepins.Next, to marktheshoulder thepinsonanendof to outline square usea dovetail at eachedge; withhalf-pins starting oneworkpiece, youwantthenarrow sidesof the pinsto beon the Outline theremaining faceof theworkpiece. outside pins(above), withan X as thewastesections marking forspacing yougoalong. Therearenorigidguidelines joint,butspacing themfairlyeventhepinsof a dovetail joint. for a strongandattractive ly,asshown,makes

101


BAND SAW

r2) Setting upthetableand L nakingthefirstcut Cutoneedgeof eachpinwiththesaw tabletilteddownward to theright.Toset upthetable,loosen the lockknobsand setthetableangleto matchtheedgeof (lnsefl, thedovetail square thentightenthe l o c kk n o b sS. e tu p t h e r i pf e n c ea n d L-shaped auxiliary fence screw a wooden onthesaw to it. Then,withtheworkpiece tableoutside-face up,alignthemarked linefortheright-hand edgeof thefirst h a l f - o iwni t ht h es a wb l a d eB . u t tt h e To auxiliary fenceagainst theworkpiece. make thecut,feedtheworkpiece into t h e b l a d eu s i n gt h et h u m b so f b o t h hands(left);pressthe workpiece flush fencewithyourleft against theauxiliary handandstraddle thefencewithyour righthand.Stopthecutandturnoffthe sawwhenthebladereaches theshoulder lineonthefaceof theworkoiece.

cuts a stopblockforrepeat Q Using the \,, Withthe bladebuttedagainst shoulder line,holda stopblockagainst theworkoiece andscrewit to theauxiliaryfence(ilgh).fo cuttheright-hand at theotherend edgeof thefirsthalf-pin rotatetheworkpiece of theworkpiece, 1 8 0 ' a n dh o l di t f l u s ha g a i n st ht ea u x i l iaryfence.Then,makethecutthesame stopping wayyoucut thefirsthalf-pin, whentheworkpiece touches thestop block.Rotate theworkpiece 180' again, linefor aligntheblade withthemarked t h er i g h t - h a nedd g eo f t h e n e x tp i n , fenceagainst theworkbutttheauxiliary pieceandcutto thestopblock.Continue, of theripfenceasnecshifting theposition edgeof essary andcuttingtheright-hand eachpinonbothendsof theworkpiece.

r02


BAND SAW

edges thepins'left-hand Cutting 't,{ Cuttheleft-hand edgeof eachpin to theleft. withthetabletilteddownward square to setthetable Usethedovetail thetablestop,if necesangle;remove sary.Install theripfenceto theleftof the fenceto it. theauxiliary bladeandscrew edges of theptns Then,cuttheleft-hand thesamewayyoucut the right-hand the Next,usea chiselto remove edges. the pins.Withtheworkwastebetween pieceoutside-face upona worksurface, malletto strikethechiselwitha wooden thewoodjustto the waste cut through line.Then,holdthe sideof theshoulder to theendof theworkpiece chiselsquare in thin to splitoff eachwastesection of each Remove aboutone-half layers. overto section, thenturntheworkpiece parethe remove theotherhalf. Finally, edges of thepinswiththechisel.

thetails f, outlining downona worksurface. r.,l Setthetail boardoutside-face with onthetailboard end-down thepinboard Then,holding alignthe pins faceawayfromthetail board, itsoutside Usea penciltomarktheoutwiththeendof thetail board. lineof thetailsontheendsof eachtail board(above),lhen markthewastepieces.

1i cuttingthetails position to cutoutthe thetableto thehorizontal L.l Return thehalttails wastebetween thetails.Cutthewastebeside intersecting cuts.For with two workpiece edges of the at the pivwith blade, waste the nibble at the between tails, waste into the to avoid cutting as necessary the workpiece oting joint (above). necessary make any and Test{it the tails witha chisel. adiustments

103


DruLLPRESS woodworkingshops,r,r

ii'taiirl|'.ssa]sod.-,esdut''as.a..@,Somemachinest911u'..i{ol *na.i*d.ortiserandyetJespite I ItSvervll*rrr'-tlt1i.\c5xPLrl[\'als\t

I

L

L-

7-

E-I f rerativervinexpeneive*#il"'#"'$: E E ''il a thismachine consider

ffi'|f*I?tl.#fflJl;f,l.;:

sitionforthewoodworkerwithlirnof a rangeol primarilytobore andtwo.belts,.providing isused Althoughthedrill press it J rpu.. undbudget. in all. 12 speeds perform woohuorking other ako can holes, it the that"distinguishes Onefeature areratedaccording Drill.presses suchai sandingcurvedsurfaces. tasl<s, drill fres fromotherwo|dworking fromthecenterof o the distance .*[in.t is its speedvariabiliti thewidest that determines factor a the column, to the chuck preset factory at the are Wh.r.6 po*., toolrsuchastablesaws drill l5-inch A handling. of is capable a machine workpiece for press be adjusted ian thedrill to op.tuti ata singlespeed, worka of the center hole through cut a can press, for example, motor Yz-horsepower ifr"pU athand.t[. rang.for a typiial fromthechuck Thedistance perminute(rpm). piecethatis 15inchesin diameter. revolutions from400to 4500ipindle extends or TVzinches. half that diametet is one io the column with to bore Aauingtheabilityto varythespeedallows,you presses for thehomeworksloparein the11-to rangingin andhardwood, throughJoftwo6a eqoalJfficiency Yqrt drill motors. V+-to 3/+-horsepower poweredby are range and 16-inch end thick. 4 inches fromafractiin of aninchto 3 or thickness more for example-are models, Laygr.machines-20-inch g limit of drillin asyouseelateron pagel 15,eventhisouter woodworkers. professional jig. and production shops for suitable shop-made of asingle bymeans J.fth .unU.clcumueited

thedrill Equippedwith theappropriatejigsand accessories, precision unmatched press canborea varietyof holeswith a jig allowsa woodworker by hand tools.Here,a shop-made to drill a seriesof angledholesin a rail. Theholeswill house and concealthescrausthat connecttherail to a tabletop.

105


ANATOMYOF A DRILL PRESS comein various models T-\ till presses LJ andsizes, butthebasic design isthe same:A steelcolumn3 or soinchesin diameter serves asabackbone to support atableandamotorthatdrivesa spindle. Thespindleisattached to ageared chuck jawsgriptheshankof adrill bit or whose oneof a varietyof otheraccessories. On somemodels, spindles areinterchangeable. Thestandard spindleismatedto a chuckwith aVz-inchcapacity, whichmeansthatitsjawscanaccept shanks ofdrill bitsandaccessories upto Vzinchindiameter. Otherspindles allow ttredrill press to accept routerbits,moldingcuttersandmortisingattachments. The columnis helduprightby a heavybase,usuallymadeof castiron. Forextrasupportandstability, thebase canbeboltedto theshopfloor,but the

weightof thedrillpress isnormallyadequateto keepit stationary. Thetwomostcommontfpesof drill presses arethe floor modeland the benchvariety.Thedistinguishing feature isthelengthof thecolumn:Floormodels havecolumnsfrom66to 72incheshigh, whereas benchmodelsranqefrom36 to 44inches. Sincethetableof a drill presscanbe positioned anywhere alongthelengthof thecolumn,floormodelscanhandle longerworkpieces. However, youcan-to someextent-overcome thelimitations of a bench-model drill presssimplyby swingingaround the head of the machine. With the spindleextended beyondtheedgeoftheworkbench, the effective columnlengthis thedistance fromthechuckto theshopfloor.

Whilemostdrill presses havetablesthat tilt, theradialarm drill pressfeaturesa headthat rotatesmorethan9tr right and left. Suchtoolscanperformjobsimpossible on conventional drill presses, includingdrilling throughthecenterof a j2-inch-diametercircle.

DRIttPRESS BELTS ANDPULTEYS Jaakahaft pulley lntermediatepulleyconnected to epindlepulley eo ae to increaaethe ranqe of apeede; drivenby motor pulley

Eelt Tranaferapower from motor pulley to jackahaft pulley;(other belt tranafere powerfrom jackahaft to epind.lepulley)

106

Motor pulley Drivenby motor: connected by belt.to drivejackahaft pulley. Features different otepe to providea ranqe of epeede


DRILL PRESS

Belt guard Protects operato r's fi n6ero from turninq belto

BelttenElon lever )lideo motor alon7 track to alackenor tenaion belta

Belt tenaion loak knob Locks motor in poaition once belt tenaion i6 6et

Onloff awitah Kemovabletoqqle prevento accidental 6tarD-up

Quill Movablealeeve attached to apindle and chuck; quill travel determines maximum d rillinq d epth--'ty pi' cally,4 incheo Depth-etop loak handle For aettinj drillinT depth; when locked,preventz quill from deacendin7past a oet Point

9pindle Hold s chuck; i nt erchan6ea ble to accept variouaaccesaoriea auch as router bita

Feed lever Lowerequill; adjuotable coil apri nq a uto mati ca IIy retu r ne leverto original poaition

Chuak Holdadrill bita and aacee' soriea for drillin4: ti1ht' ened with a qeared key

Tablelook Holda table in fixed position on column

Table Raiaadand loweredto accommodate workpieceand drillinq depth; mosttablea can be tilted up to 45" laft and ri1ht for borinq an1led holea

Tableheight adJuatment handle Table rotation Ioak handle Allowstableto be tumed on its axia to position workpiece undar opindle

to7

Column Supporte table and head of drill preaa


SETTINGUPAND SAFETY powertool,the T ikeanystationary I-l drill press hasto bekeptin adjustmentto performwell.Beforeswitching a machineon,checkit carefully. Make sureall nutsandlockknobsaretightened.Evenif youboughtyourmachine new,thereisno guarantee thatit isperfectlyreadyto run.Checkregularly that thetableissquare to thespindle.

Therearealsoadjustments thathaveto bemadedepending job ontheparticular athand,beginning withsetting the&illing speed. Thespeed is changed eitherby turningaknoborbyshiftingtheposition of thebelt-or belts-thatconnect the motorpulleyto thespindlepulley. Thedrill presshasa reputation asa "safe" machine, andthereisnodenying

thatmachines suchasthetablesawand jointeraccount for a greater numberof serious accidents. Nevertheless, it ispossiblefor evenseasoned woodworkers to haveaccidents onthedrill press. Unlike thetablesaw,a drill presswill not kick back,but it cangrip a smallworkpiece andsendit spinningoutof controlif the stockisnot clamped properly.

SETTING THEDRILLING SPEED Delt tenaion

Changing beltposition andseftingbelttension Loosen thebelttensionlockknobandturnthe belttension levercounterclockwise to shiftthemotortoward thespindlepulleyandslacken thebelts.Tosetthedesired rpm,position each beltonthecorrect stepsof thepulleys, takingcarenotto pinch (lf yourdrillpresshasa drillingspeedchartonthe yourfingers. insideof thebeltguard,referto it in selecting thecorrect speed forthedrillbit diameter youwillbeusingandforthetypeand thickness of stock.)Tosetthe belttension, turnthetension leverclockwise whilepressing the beltconnected to the motor pulleyuntilit flexesabout1 inchoutof line(left).Tighten the belttension lockknob.Donotovertension thebelt;thiscan reduce beltandpulleylife.Undertensioned beltsmayslip.

SOUARING THETABTE Aligning thetable Install an8-inch-long steelrodin the chuckasyouwoulda drillbit (page111), thenraise thetableuntilit almost touchestherod.Butta trysquare against the rodasshown; thebladeshouldrestflush againstthe rod(right).lt thereis a gap, pinunderthetable remove thealignment (inset). usinga wrench Loosen thetable locking bolt.Swivel thetableto bringthe rodflushagainst thesquare, thentighten thelocking bolt.(Since theholes forthe pinwill nowbeoffset,do not alignment reinstall thepin.Thelocking boltis sufficientto holdthetablesecurely in place.)

r08


DRILL PRESS

Makesureyou arefamiliarwith your machinebeforeattemptinganywork. Run through the drilling procedure beforeyou turn on the machine,and neverignoretheinnervoicethatwarns you somethingmay be amiss.Stop, checkthesetupagainandcontinuethe operationonlywhenyou arecertainthat whatyou aredoingis safe.

lli lllllll l]llllllllltllllllltlllllllllllllllll]llllllllllllllllllllll 1HO?Tt? Cheaking table alignment the table ie TocheckwheNher aauareto Nheepindle,makea 9Oo bdndat eacheid of a \2-inchlenqNh of wirecoaNhanqer. lnserLoneend of lhe wirein lhe chuckand adjuet LheNable h e i q h t ' u n ttihl e ot'herend of the wirejuol Nouchee Nhetable,Rotat'elhe wire; iNehouldbarelyecra?ethe table at all ooinbedurinatrherotaLion.lfnor, pinunderlhe ,"^or" the aliqi,ment' t able,loosen NheLablelockingbolt and ewivelLhetable Nooquareit'. TiqhtenLhe lockinqbolL.

OFCTAMPING THEIMPORTANCE rightclamp making-the Ghoosing-or thedrillbrtfromgrabbing Toprevent it unconandspinning theworkpiece always clampsmallor irregutrollably, to thetable stocksecurely larlyshaped intoit. Whena convenboring before setupdoesnotworktionalclamping shown-improvise. asforthecylinder outof a wedges V-shaped Cutopposing n dc l a m pt h ec y l i n d ei nr h a n d s c r ea w to thenuseC clamPs thehandscrew, to thetable(/eff). secure thehandscrew

109


BITSAND ACCESSORIES -f h. rangeof accessories forthedrill I press isa testament to itsversatility. In additionto a varietyof sanding attachments, thereare alsobits for &illittg t/az-inch holes,fly cuttersfor cutting8-inchcircles andplugcutters for makingplugsanddowels. Mostdrillingis donewith twistor brad-point bits.Bothconsist of acylindricalshanhwhichisheldin thejawsof the chuc(andspiral-shaped grooves, known asflutes.Thegrooves allowwastechips andsawdust to escape fromthehole,preventingoverheating. Theactualcuttingis donebyeithersharpspursor acuttinglip. As with anycuttingtool,drill bits mustbesharpto workwell.Andlikea sawblade,adrill bit isactually moredangerous whenit is dull.A bluntbit has troubledigginginto a workpiece and tendsto heatup quickly,scorching the woodandthebit. Overheating canalso resultif drill bitsaredirtyor gummed up. Cleanthemwith finesteelwool. Foranyaccessory youinstallin the drill press, besureto remove thechuck keyaftertightening thejaws;otherwise, yourisklaunching projeca dangerous tileonceyou turnonthemachine. Some keyshavea springat the endof the gearedsegment. Pressure is required wheninserting thekey;onceyouletgo, thekeyejectsautomatically.

COLUMN-M()UNTED ACCESS()RY RACK Holefor 1%"No.B ecrew Diameterof drill preoocolumn

Jiq aupport

Tosavetimesearching forchuckkeys anddrillbits,usea shop-made storagerack.Cuttwoidentical keyholeplywood shapedpiecesof 3/q-inch to thedimensions shownabove. Usea sabersawor copingsawto cuta circleoutof eachpiecethesamediam-

eterasyourdrillpresscolumn. Then sawonepiecein halflengthwise to serveasthejig support. Theother piecewillbethejig top;sawit across thecircular cutout.Boresixscrew holesforjoiningthetopto itssupports.Then,boreholesintothework-

A RANGE OFBITSAI{DACCESSORIES MuMapurbit Alao knownae sawDootLt bit; borea clean, amooth, nearly flat-bottomed holes.Rim does not heat up ae quickly aa Foretner bit.

Twiat blt The leaat expeneive of oommonlyuaed drill bita; frequently sold in aata with a ran6e of aizea,

Foretner bit Boreo perfeotly flat-bottomed holes.Razor rim guidaabit.while chippero cut.

FIycutter AIao knownaa a circle cutter, Cuts holeafrom 11Ato B incheoin diameter. Cutter blade ie adiuoted for diffe rent diametera by ioooeninq a oetacrew and elidinq the cutter blade in or out.

tsmd-point bit Froducescleaner holee than twiat bit; doee not " akate" offJine. Featuree a aharpenedcenterpoint and two cuttinq epur6.


DRILL PRESS

A DRILLBIT CHANGING

of thejigto holdyourbits ingsurface down shank-end andaccessories (above,nghf).Somewoodworkers findit usefulto havea smallreceptacleforoddsandendsonthejig;a bit willmakequickworkof Forstner sucha hole. cutting

Pluq cutter For makin7omall dowelaand bapered pluqeto.conc.eaI counterbored gcrewa.

Dowelcutter For cuttinq dowels up to 3 inchealong into end 4rain.Ae cutter bores into waod,dowelridea up cutter barrel.

a bit Removing andinstalling a bit,usethechuckkeYto Toremove the thechuckjawswhileholding loosen Slipthebitout bitwithyourotherhand. Toinstall a bit,openthe of thechuck. jawsaswideasnecessary, theninsert t h es h a n ikn t h ec h u c kS. t e a d y itnhge the tighten it in the1aws, bitto center c h u c kb yh a n dF. i n i sthi g h t e n i nu gs i n g f ittingit in turn thechuckkey@bove), intoeachholein thechuck.Remove thechuckkey.

to holdthe Youwillneeda helper of thejig in placewhile fourpieces youscrewthemtogether. Before makesurethat doingthat,however, thejig is turnedsothatit doesnot of thedrill the rotation obstruct press's quilllever.

Hole saw For borin4 larqe holea-ty pica IIy, Ia rqer than 1%inchea.Available in modelawith fixeddtameter or with adjuetabte bladea,Fitot bit centera cuttinq edqea,

4 Spade bit For boringholeoup to 1%inchea.tharp centerpoint7uideo penetration, whileflat blade 'elices into workpieceand removeowaote,

I

Planer head For ourfacin7 woodand formin4 rabbeta. The 3%-inch-dia meter head holdathree hiqh-epeed eteel cuttera that can trim up to'/aoinch with eaahpaee,


STRAIGHTAND ANGLEDHOLES f, quippedwith itstiltabletable,thedrill L presscanboreholesat virtuallvanv angle.Thesteeperthe angle,however,the moredifficultit isfor abrad-pointor twist bit to dig into the stockwithoutskating. Choosea Forstneror multispurbitwhen drillingholesat averysteepangle;both of thesecuttingaccessories featureguiding rims that providecleanerpenetration.

Beforedrilling,makesurethatthe drillbit islinedup overtheholein the table:Otherwise, youriskdamaging not onlythebit but alsothetableitself.For furtherprotection, somewoodworkers alsoclampa pieceof woodto thedrill presstable. Forgoodresults youwill needto find therightcombination of drillingspeed

(page108)and feedpressure-the rateat whichyoulowerthebit into thestock. Toomuchspeedor feedpressure can cause burnmarksontheworkpiece and biq too littlewill dull thebit'scutting edge. Withthepropercombination, you shouldbeableto cutsteadily without havingto put unduepressure on the ouillfeedlever.

TECHNIOUES F(|RBASICDRILLING Setting upanddrilling Toavoidsplinteri ng-particu larlywith plywood or particleboard-clamp a supportboardto thetableandsettheworkpieceontopof it. Marka starting point ontheworkpiece andalignthebitover it. Rotate thefeedleversteadily to feed thebitintotheworkpiece; useonlyenough pressure to keepthebit cutting(/effl. Retract thebitoccasionally to clearthe holeof woodchips,andif themachine labors orthewoodstaftsto smoke, reduce thefeedoressure or cut backonthe drillingspeed(page108).

Ji4 baoe

7" x 20"

tt2

Toborea rowof uniformly spacedholes, jig to systematize makea shop-made the provided task,following thedimensions at left.Screwthefenceto thejig base, flushwithoneedge,thenattacha wood blockat the centerof thefenceto serve asa dowelholder. Tousethe jig, set it on thetableof yourdrillpress, points thenmarkstarting on theworkpiece forthe firsttwoholes in theseries. Seattheworkpiece against thefenceof thejig andposition thejigto alignthe bit-preferably a Forstner-over thefirstdrillingmark,Butta guideblock against thebackof thejig andclampit to


DRILL PRESS

HOTES BORING STOPPED depth Setting thedrilling Fora stopped or blindhole-onethat a through doesnotpasscompletely workpiece-mark a lineat thedesired depthof the holeontheedgeof the Then,lower thequilluntilthetip stock. line. themarked of thedrillbit reaches H o l dt h eq u i l ls t e a dwy i t ho n eh a n d unscrew the and,forthemodelshown, withtheother denth-stoo lockhandle asfar handandturnit counterclockwise thehandle. as it willgo (left).Tighten fromdrilling Thiswillkeep thedrillpress thanthedepthmark. anydeeper

stopped holes, thetable.lf youareboring Borethe setthe drillingdepth(above). f irsthole,thenslidethejig alongthe guideblockandborea holethrough the Fita dowelthrough the dowelholder. holein theholder andintotheholein the theguide workpiece. Slidethejig along markontheworkblockuntilthesecond pieceis aligned underthebit.Clampthe jigto thetableandborethehole. holes, Toboreeachof theremaining retract thedowelandslidethe workp i e c ea l o n gt h ej i g ' sf e n c eu n t i lt h e doweldropsintothelastholeyoumade (right),thenboreanotherhole.

113


DRILL PRESS

ANGLED HOLES BORING

)teel rod

)lidin7 bevel

Setting thetableangle Install a straight 8-inch-long steelrodin the chuckasyouwoulda drillbit,thenusea proyouneedona to setthedrilling angle tractor sliding bevel. Loosen thetableasyouwould (page 108. fhen buttthe bevel to squareiI thetableuntil against thesteelrodandswivel thehandle of the thetablerestsflushagainst beuel(lefl. Remove the rodfromthechuck andtighten thelocking bolt.Afterinstalling thedrillbit,setthedrillingdepth(page113) to prevent thebitfromreaching thetable. Foraddedprotection, clampa pieceof wood to thetable.

TILTING TABLE JIG

Toboreangled holes without tilting thetable,usea tiltingjig,shopplywood. Referto builtfrom7+-inch the illustration aboveforsuggested dimensions. Connect thejigtopto the baseusingtwosturdybutt hinges. Cuta %-inch-wide slotin

the supportbrackets, thenscrew eachoneto thetop;secure the brackets to the basewithwingnuts andhanger bolts. Tousethejig,centerit underthe spindle. Clamp thebaseto thetable. Loosen thewingnutsandsetthe

tt4

angleof thejig asyouwouldthe table(sfepabove), butwithout pinor removing thealignment loosening thetablelocking bolt. Tighten thewingnuts,clampthe workpiece to the jig andborethe hole(above,right).


DRILL PRESS

DEEPHOLES BORING

Exceeding thequillstroke length thatthequill Themaximum asthequill canbeextended-known mostdrillpresses to stroke-limits borinn g o m o r et h a n4 i n c h eds e e p hole,use at a time.Todrilla deeper bitor,if the holeis less anextension perform ihantwicethequillstroke, in twostages, asshown the operation to First,clampa scrapboard above. thedrillpress tableandborea guide holeintoit. Then,clamptheworkpiece to the boardandboreintoit asdeeply willallow. Remove asihequillstroke andf it a dowelintothe theworkoiece guideholein thescrapboard. Fitthe holein theworkpiece overthedowel fromthe andboreintotheworkpiece that otherside.Thedowelwillensure are thetwoholesin theworkpiece

filllllllllllllllll]ilIllllllll]llllfilllllllllllllill llj]llllllllllll 1HO?TI? A eimplecenterfinder Cul a 90"wedqeout of a7-by-12-inch pieceof 3/o-inch olvwood. 3 crew l-by-Z a 12-inchllonq to Ihe pieceoo lhat onelonqed4eof the 1-W-2bieeclsthe wedgeaI 45".To uee lhe centerfinder,eea|lhe in the wedqeand ueelhe 1-by-2ae a guideIo workpiece Kolat'e drawa lineacroeelhe diameberof t'heworkViece. 90" and drawa eecondlineacross it. The Nheworkpiece NwolineewillintersectaNt'hecenler of the workpiece.

norfonf lv alionpd

I15


DRILL PRESS

BORING INTOCYTINDRICAT STOCK

V eection 11/2" x 1'/2"x B"

%"x6"x8"

Using a V block Thesafestwayto boreintoa cylinder isto secure it in a shoo-made V-block jig.MaketheV section of thejig by bevel cuttinga 2-by-2lengthwise using a tablesaw(page23) or bandsaw (page98).Then,screwthetwocut to thebaseto forma V.Position oieces thejigonthetablesothatthedrillbit touches thecenter of theV whenthe ouillis extended. Clamo thebaseto thetable,seattheworkpiece in thejig andborethe holehbovd.

llllllllllltlllllttllll]illtllltlllllllllllill llllillllll illtlllllllt 1HO?Tt? Drillingaompoundangleo Tohelplineup enNrance and youare drillinq exit holeewh,en jig. at an an6le,useNhieeimple Oluea 4-inchlongcylinderto a5-by-1O-inch pieceof Vlywood. Clamplhe basetn NhedrillVreee Lableso that lhe cylinderie cenleredunderNhe epindle and borea holeinlo il.1haroenone endof a2-inchlonqdowel,Nhen fiL the dowelinio Nhecylinder. Mark both lhe enNrance and exiLholeson the workpiece and elrikeeachmarkwitha punch. Tositionthe exit ounchmark on lhe dowel,holdthe workViecefirmlyand boreinto lhe entranceounchmark. (Cautionz DonoI uoethiojiq wiNheNockNoo shorlto hold eecurely.)

116


DRILL PRESS

Cradle 6" x 15" 2" x 15" Ji7 baae 7" x 18"

9upport brackeL x 1 % "x 4 % "

T17

H(IIEJIG POCKET usedwith Pocket holesarecommonly to attachrailsto a tabletop, screws Theyaredrilledat anangleandsolve to screwstraight of having theproblem rail.A a 3- or 4-inch-wide through pocketholejig (left,fop),shop-built simple makes from%-inchplywood, Forthejig, workof suchopenings. screwthetwosidesof thecradle to forman L.Thencut a 90' together wedgefromeachsupportbracketso will thatthewidesideof thecradle about15'fromthevertisitatanangle to thejig base cal.Screwthe brackets andgluethecradleto thebrackets. Tousethejig, seattheworkPiece in thecradlewiththesidethatwill bedrilledfacingout.Boretheholes in twostepswithtwodifferentbits: bit twicethewidth Usea Forstner of thescrewheadsfor theentrance bit slightly holesanda brad-point widerthanthewidthof thescrew (Thewider fortheexitholes. shanks bit allowsforwoodexpanbrad-point sionandcontraction.) installthe Tobeginthe process, bit and,withthemachine brad-point off, lowerthe bit withthefeedlever, thenbuttthe endof the workpiece thejig to thebit. Position against alignthebit withthecenterof the (inset). bottomedgeof theworkpiece thejigto thetableandreplace Clamp bit, bitwiththeForstner thebrad-ooint firmlyin Holding theworkpiece to borethe thejig,feedthebit slowly the to recess holesjustdeepenough Then,installthebradscrewheads. pointbit andborethrough theworkpieceto complete thepocketholes (left, bottom).


DOWELS,PLUGSAND TENONS wood f-\ owelsare2- to 4-inch-long I-r' cylindersusedto reinforcesimple constructionssuchas butt joints in which two piecesof wood arebutted togetherandheldin placewith glue.By drilling perfectlyalignedholesin both piecesof suchajoint andinsertingdowels,you greatlystrengthen the joinery. Anothervariationis theintegraltenon, which looksand functionslike a dowel but remainspart of one of the wood piecesbeingjoined. The plug-a shortercousinof the dowel-servesto concealcounterbored screws.Dowelsand plugscanbe cut from eithersoftwoodor hardwood.The differencebetweenthem-other than theirlength-is that dowelsarecut from end grainto givethem cross-sectional strength.Plugs,on the otherhand,are

not subiectto anyradialstress andcanbe cut eitherwith or againstthegrain.They caneitherbeconcealed or usedasa decorationdepending on whethertheyare cut from thesamestockastheworkpiece. Dowelsof variousdiameters and in 3- or 4-foot lengthsarewidelyavailable whereverwood is sold,but you canmake

your own if you outfit your drill press with a dowel cutter.The bestway to makeplugsis to cut down a dowelor to usea plug cutter.Wth the latter accessoryyou caneithercut throughstock thesamethickness astheplugor borea stoppedholethroughthickerstockand pry the plugsout with a chisel.

'l

An integral tenon makes0 strong joint and is relativelyeasyto cut. The tenon is produced with a dowel cutter at the end of a squarepieceof stock.

MAKING DOWELS ANDINTEGRAT TENONS Usinga dowelcutter Tocutdowels, clampa blockof wood to thetableandboreintoitsendgrain totherequired depthwitha dowel cutter (farleft).Freethe dowelsby cutting through theblockwitha tablesawor a bandsaw.lf youwillbeusingthedowels forjoinery, crimptheirendswiththeserratedjawsof plrers; thiswillprovide the gluewithanescape routeandensure proper gluecoverage. Tocut an integral tenonon a long workpiece, tiltthetable90' andclamp theworkpiece to thetable,usingpadsto protect thewood. Alsoclampa support board to theworkpiece andto thetable. Usea dowelcutterto boreto therequired depth(near/eft),thensawawaythe wasteto expose thetenon.

118


DRILL PRESS

MORTISINGTECHNIQUES Q ince the time of ancientEgYPt, chisel.Thebit cutsa roundhole;the square. thecorners r.) woodworkershaverelied on the chiselthenpunches on easiiy be cut can tenon matching joint The connect to mortise-and-tenon pieces thejoint iscom- atablesaw(page46). ofwood.Today, Chiselscomein differentsizesto cut monlyusedtojoin railsto legsondesls, joints, in a varietyof widths.The mortises the most Like chairs. and tables with thedrill pressdepthis set depth hand. by cut can be mortise-and-tenon is typical.As shownon 7a-inch stop; out in carving efficiency and for ease But importantto makesure it is page I20, a press equippedwith drill the mortises, to keep is adjusted the attachment thit the has become attachment mortising If chisel. to the square workpiece the consists attachment The choice. toolof round in mortise the cutting you are a square-edged inside rotates that ofa bit

stock,usea V blockto holdtheworkin place. piecesecurely speed(Page108)for drilling The on both the tYPe depends mortising of thechisel.The the size and of stock slowerthespeed, the chisel, largerthe you aredrillinginto when especially mortise For a /r-inch-wide hardwood. for a set uP for example, in hardwood, up to set for softwood, 1200 rpm; speedof cutifyou are higher even rpm-or 1500 thegrain. tingagainst

of a chisel A typicatmortisingattachmentconsists to thedrillpres quill holder(l), whichis secured by machineboltsat thetopof theholder'Thefence (2) and thehold-downbracket(3) on thetableare and wing nuts. washers heldin placewith scrans, Theverticalbar (4) supportsthehold-downarm (6), (5), which,alongwiththehold-downrods the against hetpsholdtheworlepiece fence. frrmly

ANDBIT THECHISET ANDSOUARING INSTALTING

thechiselandbit thegapbetween 1 Setting andtighten thechiselintoits holder I Insert thechisel Pushthebit upthrough thelockscrew. intothechuck.Holdthetip of thebit levelwith thebottomof thechiselwitha scrapof wood,then proper thebit by%zinch.Thiswillensure lower thetip ofthebitandthepoints between clearance thechuckjaws(/effl. of thechisel.Tighten

119


DRILL PRESS

SOUARING THECHISET r) Adjusting thechisel 1 me chisel mustbesquare to themortisingattachment fenceor themortises youcutwillangleoff-center, producing ill-fittingjoints.Tomakesurethatthe chisel is properly aligned, butta trysquare against thefenceandchisel. Thesquare shouldrestflushagainst both.lf it does not,loosen thechiselholderlockscrew justenough to allowyouto rotate thechisel andbringit flushagainst thesquare. Donot raiseor lower thechisel whilemaking the (/eff). adjustment. Tighten the lockscrew

CUTTING A MORTISE 'l Setting up I 0 u t l i nteh em o r t i soent h ew o r k piece, centering themarks between the edgesof thestock.Tocheckwhether themortise chisel willbecentered onthe workpiece, butta scrapboardthe same w i d t ha n dt h i c k n e sasst h ew o r k p i e c e against the mortising attachment fence andsecure it withthehold-down rods. Borea shallow cut intothe board. Then, f l i pt h e b o a r da r o u n a d n dm a k ea s e c ondcutnextto thefirst.Thecutsshould bealigned. lf not,shiftthefencebyonehalftheamount thatthecutsweremisalignedandmaketwomorecuts(right) to repeat thetest.(Note: Hold-down arm raised forclaritv.)

Hold-downarm

Mioaliqnedcute

r20


DRILL PRESS

r) Boring theendsofthemortise armandrodsto secure thehold-down Z. ROjust along the it to slidefreely whileallowing theworkpiece that mortise-one a stopped fence.lf youareboring theworkpiece-set through doesnotpasscompletely thedrillingdeplh(page113).l4akea cut at eachend (above), feeding thechiseland mortise of theplanned pressure to allowthemto digintothe bitwithenough Retract thechiseloftento clear woodwithoutlaboring. overheating. awaywastechipsandprevent

themortise Completing cutsto Makea seriesof staggered Follow thesequence complete themortise. a singlerow shownin the inset,making of cutsif youareusinga chiselequalin rows ortwoparallel widthto the mortise, i f t h em o r t i sies t o ow i d et o b ec u t i n a singlepass.In thelattercase,usea chisthewidth widerthanone-half el slightly of themortise.

r2r


THE DRILL PRESS AS SANDER makeexcellentsanders. f-\ rill presses L) Themachine's tableprovidesgood supportfor theworkpiece,holdingit at 90oto the sandingdrum to produce sandededgesthat aresquareto adjacent surfaces. Andwith helpfrom somesimplejigs,thedrill presscansandnot only straightsurfaces but curvedonesaswell. Sandingdrums comein diameters rangingftomYzto3 inches.Theshaftof a drum is insertedinto the jawsof the chuckandsecuredin the samewaythat drill bitsareinstalled.Sandingsleeves to coverthe drum areavailablein a variety of grits-from a coarse40 grit to a fine

AUXITIARY TABTE AND SAI{DING PATTERN SAITDII{G II{SERT Sanding drumslargerthan 7/e-inch in diameter aretoowideto f it through the holein mostdrill presstables.Tomakefull useof thesanding surface of widerdrums youwillneedto makea sanding Iable(nearright, top). Usea copingsawor sabersaw to cut a holein the plywood top, centering theopening 3 inches fromthebackof thetable. jig base Assemble the L-shaped from1-by-4and2-by-2stock, thenglueit to thetable. Tousethejig, clampthe base to thedrillpress tablewiththecircularholedirectlyunderneath the drum.Adjustthetableheight to bringthe bottomof the drum levelwiththejig. Holding theworkpiece f irmly, feedit at a uniformspeedin a directionopposite the rotationof the sandingdrum(nearright,bottom).To avoidburning or gouging

220 grit. In most cases,sleevesare changedby looseninga nut at eitherthe top or the bottom of the drum, which reducesthe pressureand releases the sandpaper.Removethe old sleeveand slip on the new Tighteningthe nut will causethe drum to expandand grip the sleevesecurely. Aswith standarddrilling operations, sandingrequiresa variety of speeds dependingon the job. The higherthe rpm, the smootherthe finish,but high speeds will alsowearout your sleeves more quickly.Most sandingis done between1200and 1500rpm. Sanding

AUXITIARY SANDING TABTE

produces finedustsoremember to wear a dustmask. In additionto sanding, thedrill press candoubleasa router,althoughitsrelativelyslowspindlespeed keeps it from performing aswellasitsportable counterpart.Whilea drill pressgenerates roughly3500to 4500rpm,aroutertums at morethan20,000 rpm,producing muchsmoother results. To useyourdrill pressasa router, youwill needto buya special spindle to attachrouterbitsto the machine. Feeding thestockslowlywill helpcompensate for themachine's slowerspeed.

Hole for oandingdrum 31/o"

Table %"x11"x15" Jig baee 11,/2"x11/2"x11" 7/+"x31,/2"x11"

t22


DRILL PRESS

'llll.'fl1.'fi1"ffi""1[l"'lll lll fll lIlll|lllll'"ffi lll'"1l|l llll'Illl'llll"llll 1HO?TI? Shop-madeeandingdrume lf yoi needa opecialoff'oizeeandinq drum,youcan makeyourownfroma dowel. Findthe riqht,oizeof dowel,then cul a elrip of eandpaperas wideae Lhedowel'e Applya thin coat of white circumference. qlueNothe doweland fasten Nhepaper to iI (top). For a flexiblesander NhaI can or oanAirieqularlyehapedworkVieceo enlaryeholao,cut' a slot in a dowel,LhenfiN a etrip of abraeivepaperiniloit (bottom).

feedthe stockwithone the workpiece, motion.Assegsmooth,continuous sleevewearout, mentsof thesanding tableto bringfresh raisethedrillpress to bear. surfaces withtheauxilUsedin conjunction pattable,a shop-made iarysanding ternsandinglig (right,foplwill allow youto sandparallel Tomakethe curves. jig, cut a U-shaped wedgeout of the plywood tablethesamesizeasthe hole tablejig.Then,usea %in thesanding bit to borea holethesame inchForstner fromthe bottomof the U asthe distance widthof thestockthatwill besanded. lnserta dowelintothe holeto serveas a guidepost. Tousethejig,clampit to theauxiledges iarysanding tablesothatopposite the dowrestagainst of the workpiece the drum.Remove el andthesanding workpiece, thenswitchon thedrill press.Feedthe workpiece slowlybut of thedirection against continuously sandingdrumrotationwithyourleft handwhileguidingit withyourright hand (right, bottom).

INSERT SANDING PATTERN

Guide poaf, ' 1 "x 1 % -" aowet

r23

3'/o"


/

& .1j ,l ** l

*

"t:


IONTER prinAlthoughthejointer's opercipalroleisin surfacing ations,usingit for nothing comparedto the table saw morethanthatwouldbe eouivor bandsaw,but anywoodthetible alentto restricting to precision workerdedicated sawto simolecut-offwork. will attest andcraftsmanship Thejointerisalsousefulin saltool thatusingthissurfacing vagingwarpedstock(page properlyis the first stepin rabI35)aswellasin shaping turning rough boardsinto legs andtapered bets,bevels well-builtpieces of furniture. (pages 1j6-38). With aV-blockjigclampedtothe Themachine's mainpurpose jointer infeedtable,you cancut beveled edges is to shavesmallamountsof Jointersare categorized according to thelengthof their accurately and safely. into a workpiece andfaces woodfromtheedges In practical cutterhead knives. of boards,yieldingsmooth, thewidthof thejointerttableand, measure- terms,thislengthdetermines fromwhichallsubsequent straightandevensurfaces of cutthatthemachine themaximumwidth mentsandcutsaremade.Thejointergetsitsnamefromthe moreimportantly, models rangefrom4 to 8 inches; forconsumer shouldfit canmake.Sizes run across its planingblades factthattwo edges joint. 6-and8-inchjointersarethemostpopular.Depthof cut,which perfectly, forminga seamless together feature. But fromVatoyzinch, isanother distinguishing Enorsatthejointingstage of aprojectwill havearippleeffect ranges youplanto makefrequent useof thejointer'srabbeting square edgeto set unless Withouta perfectly in alllaterprocedures. Thetypicalbite capabilirya shallowdepthof cutis adequate: for example, trimmingaboardto against atablesawrip fence, t/ainch. passseldomexceeds when for a surfacing sizewill producea flawthatwill befurthercompounded joint. onwhichthe Whenchoosing ajointer,lookfor a machine youtry to cuta precise-fitting areadjustable. Andmake was tablesonbothsidesof thecutterhead edges Traditionally, thetaskof creatingsmooth,square fencethatcanbetilted hasa rigid,lockable procesthatdepend- surethemachine performed withhandplanes, apainstaking relyonthe for anglecuts. woodworkers Nowadays, edon skillandexperience. jointerto dothejob morequickly,effortlessly withtheplaner(page139),but andaccurately. Thejointerisoftenconfused Oneimportantfuncarenotinterchangeable. it is usefulto consider theworkingsof a hand thetwomachines Nevertheless, performed byajointo work.The tionof theplanerthatcannotbeeffectively planewhenvisualizing howajointerisintended to theopposite surface. to makeit parallel terisplaningasurface machinefunctionsmuchlike an invertedhandplanewith canalsohandlewiderstock,importantwhenconstructthework- Planers largerblades drivenbyamotor,addressing somewhat ingpanels suchastabletops. piecefrombelowratherthanabove. he jointer may seema ratherpedestrianmachine

In additionto smoothingstockor producing squareedges, a jointer canbeusedto cut tapersin a workpiece, suchasa tableleg.

t25


ATATOMYOFA JOINTER hejointerconsissof infeedandoutI feedtablesseparated byacylindrical cutterhead. typicallyhold Cutterheads thouthreeknivesandrotateat several perminute.Forajointer sandrevolutions theoutfeedtablemust to workproperly, belevelwith theknivesat thehighest

f

Outfeedtable )upporte workpiece at endof cut

pointof ttreirrotation.Themodelillustratedbelowhasanoutfeedtablethatis adjustable to keepit atthesameheightas theknives. Formodelsonwhichtheoutfeedtableis fixed,theknivesmustbe raisedor loweredto bringthemto the properheight.

Fence Guidea the workpiecealon4 tablaa

Depthof cut is determined by the amountthattheinfeedtableissetbelow theoudeed table.Thefenceusedto guide isnormallyset stockoverthecutterhead at a 90oangle.Buton mostmodelsthe fencewill tilt forwardor backwardfor cuttingbevelsandchamfers.

Guard )prinq-activated plate that covara cutterhead; protecta operator from knivea.Fivoted away from cutterhead by workpiece, than aprin7a back into poaition

Rabbetlng notch )upporta the uncut ,urTace of a workpiece durinq rabbetin4 operationo

Outfeed table adjuetment handle Raiaeaand lowara outfeed table to heiqht of knive7

Infeed table )upporta workpiece at the atart of the cut; heiqht adjuatable to aet depth of cut Depth acale lndicates depth of cut

FRONT VIEW


JOINTER

Althoughthe guardshouldalways operations, beleftin placefor standard on mostmodelsit hasto beremoved work,suchasrabbeting. for specialized theguardcanbe On somemachines, installed behindthefenceto provideprowork. tectionduringrabbeting

with a jointer on theright and a planeron theleft,thismachine combines twofunctionsin a single appliance.Themodelshowncan joint stockupto 6 incheswide and planeboardsaswideas12 inches. Fencecontrol handle Allowa fence to be anqled 45" in either direction or movedacroas the tablee and cutterhead; locka fence in fixed pooitiono

Fenceatop Setacrew and metal etop hold the fence verEicalor in ita moat frequently ueed an1led eettinqo

Oib ecrew Adluotable to keeptablee parallelto each other and in 'aame horizontalplane;model ahownhaa three such gcrews on each eide of pulleycover

Friction knob Ti4htenedto

\eept1lte.

Tilt eaale lndicatee an1leof the fence

REAR VIEW

ffom etrPPtn4 from aelected hei4ht eetting lnfeed table adjuatment handle Kaieeeand lowera infeed table to set depth of cut


SETTINGUP AND SAFETY jointingdepends onprecise I ccurate A alignmentof thetwotablesandthe fence-the partsof the machinethat guidea workpieceinto and overthe knives.Begurby ensuringthat theoutfeedtableisatthesameheightasthecutting edgesof theknivesat theirhighest poinr Thencheckthatthetablesarcperfectlysquareto the fenceandaligned properlywith eachother. Beforestarting,makesurethat the jointerisunplugged andinstalla clamp

ontherabbetingledge to holdtheguard temporarilyout ofyour way. Onceyouhavethemachineproperly The tuned,pauseandconsidersafety. knivesof a spinningcutterhead look seductively benign.It is easyto forget cancause thatthisharrnles-lookingblur fingers andhands as asmuchdamageto canatablesawblade.Resist thetemptation to operatethejointerwithoutthe guardin place.When theguardmustbe removedfrom its normalpositionin

front of thefencefor rabbetingoperations,installit behindthefenceif your jointeris setup for sucha switch. Evenwith theguardin place,always keepyourhandsawayfromtheknives. Whenjointingtheedgeof aboard,your handsshouldridealongtheworkpiece, ratherthanon thetables.Whenfacejointing,always usepushbloclsto feed aworkpiece across theknives.Whatever thecut,remember to prestheworlgiece firmly againstthetablesandfence.

TABTE HEIGHT SETTING OUTFEED height 1 Checkingtable I Usea smallwooden wedgeto rotate the cutterhead untilthe edgeof oneof point,Then the knivesis at its highest holda straighthardwood boardon the outfeedtablesothat it extends overthe withoutcontacting cutterhead the infeed table(left).Theknifeshouldjust brush against theboard.Perform thetestalong the lengthof the knife,moving the board fromthe fenceto the rabbeting ledge. Repeat thetestfor the otherknives.lf oneknifefailsthetest,adjustits height asyouwouldwheninstalling a blade (page131).lf noneof theknives touches the board,adjustthe heightof the outfeedtable (step2).

r) Adjusting theoutleedtirbleheight I Keepingthehardwood boardoverthe cutterhead, turnthe outfeedtableadjustmenthandle(right),raisingor lowering thetableuntiltheedgeof a knifejust brushes against theboard.Thencheckthe to theotherknives. tableheightin relation

t28


IOINTER

ANDFENCE ALIGNING THETABLES thetables 1 Aligning I Remove thefence, thenusetheadjusttableto bring menthandle fortheinfeed table. it to thesameheight astheoutfeed thatthetwo to confirm Usea straightedge level. lf thealignment tables areabsolutely is notperfect, adjustoneor moreof the gibscrews at thebackof thejointeruntil restsflushonbothtables; thestraightedge if necessary, to remove the pulleycover, first Toadjusta screw, thescrews. access theadjustloosen its locknut, thenmake mentusingwitha hexwrench(left).Trghten thedepthscale Atthispoint, thelocknut. (page126)shouldread"0." lf not,move i h p n n i n t ptrn t h p " O " m a r k .R e C h e C t hke tableheight@age128)if youmovedthe outfeed table.

TIPS SAFETY JOINTER . Checkregularly to makesure aresharpandsecurethattheknives ly fastened to thecutterhead. . U n p l utgh ej o i n t ewr h i l e i n s t a l l i nkgn i v eosr p e r f o r m i n g anysetupoperation. . Wearappropriate glasses safety protection whenoperandhearing atingthejointer. . Donotjointstockwithloose maycatch knotsortheworkpiece i n t h ec u t t e r h e a d . . Never jointstockthatis less lhan

12

innhoc

lnno

. Donotface-joint stockthatis l e s st h a n% i n c ht h i c k . . Donotjointtheendgrainof thatis lessthan6 a workpiece i n c h ew side. . When t h em a c h i ni es r u n n i n g , keepyourhandsoutof thearea 4 inches above andto eitherside cutterhead. of thejointer's . Never reachup intothedust isunplugged thejointer chuteunless

r) Squaring thefencewiththetables position, ontheoutfeed holda trysquare L Wttnthefencesetin itsvertical The blade against thefence. andbuttthesquare's tablenearthecutterhead thetwo, fit flushagainst thefence.lf thereisanygapbetween square should handle andbringthefenceflushwiththesquare thefencecontrol slacken pivotthemetalstopoutof thewaywhenmaking this bbove).lfnecessary, of thefencestopshould Thesetscrew Thentighten thehandle. adlustment. locknut stationthemetalstop.lf it is not,holdthesetscrew bebuttedagainst (inset) unlil witha hexwrench whileturningthesetscrew arywitha wrench to "0." thetilt scaleindicator it touches themetalstoo.Move

t29


JOINTE,RKNIVES T T nlikethe bladesof otherwoodwhoseheight L-/ workingmachines, jointerknives andangleareadjustable, aredesigned to functionatjustonesetting:parallelto andat the sameheight asthemachine's outfeedtable.As such, the height of all the knivesmust be identical;a differenceof aslittle asa fractionof an inchcancomoromise the j o i n t e r ' s - a b i l ittoy p r o d u c es m o o t h , squareeoges. jointerkniveswork Likeall blades, wellonlywhentheyaresharp.However, removinga jointer knife for because it propsharpening andthenreinstalling erlycanbea time-consuming operation, go to greatlengths manywoodworkers It isposto avoidchanging theseblades.

sibleto usean oilstoneto honethecutting edgesof slightlydull kniveswhile But you risk theyarein thecutterhead. removingmoremetalfrom the cutting necessary edgesthan is absolutely and this canthrow the knivesout of alignmentwith theoutfeedtable. Therearetricksyou canuseto prolongtheusefi.rl lifeof a setof knives(page l3l), but onceyourrnachine beginsproducingunevenlimp shavings or burnishinglhewood,it is timeto remove theknivesandhavethemreground.Be sureto givethepersondoingthesharpregarding eningexplicitinstructions the sameamountof steelto be removed from eachknife.Otherwise, thecutterheadmaybecomeimbalanced, causing

machinevibrationand alsopossible motor failure. Whenchangingyourjointerknives, removeandreinstall themoneat a time. Takingthebladesall offat onceandthen installingthemoneafteranothercanput stress on the cutterhead, Ifyou areconsidering replacingthe knives,you canchoosebetweenhigh speedsteelor tungstencarbide.Thecarbidevarietyofferssuperiorperformance in cuttingabrasive materialssuchasplywood;theycostmore,however.Always replacethe entiresetofblades,rather thanindividualknives.In themeantime, keepyour knivescleanby rubbingthem occasionally with a clothdampenedin turpentineor lacquerthinner.

JOINTER KNIVES CHANGING

anoldknife 1l Removins I Remove a clampontherabbeting thefence, theninstall ledgeto holdtheguardtemporarily outof theway.Usea untilthe lock smallwoodscraoto rotatethecutterhead theknifeareaccessible between thetables. screws securrng yourhands, Cover theedgeof theknifewitha ragto protect thenusea wrenchto loosen eachscrewin Iurn(abovd. lift the knifeoutof thecutterhead. Remove Carefully the retaining wedge andwipeit clean.

Installing a newknife Insert theretaining wedge in thecutterhead, centering i t i n t h e s l o tw i t h i t s g r o o v e ed d g ef a c i n gu p ; m a k es u r e that the headsof the lockscrewsare buttedagainstthe b a c ke d g eo f t h e s l o ta s s h o w n W . i t ht h e b e v e l e de d g e of the knifefacingthe outfeedtable (above),placeit between the retaining wedgeandthe frontedgeof the slot, p a r tp r o t r u d i nfgr o mt h e c u t t e r h e a d . l e a v i n tgh e b e v e l e d

r30


IOINTER

JIG A KNIFE-SETTING USING

theknifeheight Q Setting tighten eachlockscrew r-J Cover theedgeof theknifewitha ragandpartially andworkwiththeonesin thecenter themfully,beginning in turn;thentighten to theoutfeed tableheight(page128)in relation Check ingoutto theedges. slightly, thelockscrews lf theknifeis settoolow,loosen theknifejustinstalled. (above) thecutterhead whileholding thenpryuptheknifeusinga screwdriver if it is toohigh,tap it downusinga woodblock.Tighten witha wedge; stationary ledge. andremove theclampfromtherabbeting thelockscrews

illltltlrur]llr]lllllllltllllllllllllllllllllilllll|lllJilllllllllll 1HO?TI? Shiftingknivee for lonqer life To prolongxhe life ,/ of a eeI of jointer knives that havebeennicked, looeenlhe lockecrewo eecurinqoneknife and slidethe knife inch abouL'/,o in eiNherdirecf'ion. li4hten the lockocrewoand carefully rolale the culterhead by handto enoure Lhat the knifeturne freely.thifXinqa knifelo oneeidemove6iLodamaqedoeqmenlouNof wilhthe damaqeonlhe oNherknivee, ali4nment g omoothly. enabling the seLt'o continue cuLLin

settingthe knifeheight R e m o va e n o l d k n i f ea n d i n s t a lal n e w one(page130). Usea smallwedgeto r o t a t et h e c u t t e r h e audn t i lt h e e d g eo f t h e n e wk n i f ei s a t i t s h i g h e spt o i n t . T h e nm a r ka l i n eo n t h e f e n c ed i r e c t l y a b o v et h e c u t t i n ge d g eu s i n ga s q u a r e . o s i t i oan c o m m e r c i a l a n da p e n c i l P i g o n t h e o u t f e e tda b l e , k n i f e - s e t t i nj g lineon the jig arm the reference aligning ,s w i t ht h e m a r k e dl i n eo n t h e f e n c e a l i n e o n t h e f e n ce M a r k a n o t h e r shown. line reference above the second directly the jig andextend onthejig arm.Remove t a b l e (. T h e l i n e a c r o s t s h e o u tfeed this q u i c k l y p o s i t i o tnh e y o u w i l l h e l p line j i g t h e n e x t i m ey o u i n s t a lal k n i f e . ) , ligning R e p o s i t i otnh e j i g o n t h et a b l e a lines lines with the marked its reference j i g ' s m a g n e t i a c rms o n t h e f e n c et;h e c o r r e c h t e ight w i l l h o l dt h e k n i f ea t t h e y o u t h r r s ea w r e n c ht o t r g h t e n e while Remove the clampfromthe lockscrews. r:hhcfino

131

lpdsp


IOINTING n. of thefirstrulesof jointingis A that a workpiece shouldalwaysbe \,/ fed acrossthe cutterheadso that the knivesarecuttingwith thegrain,In this wayyouwill getthesmoothestcut while reducingtheriskof splinteringor kickback.Ifthe grainchanges directionin a workpiece, feedthestocksothatmostof the cut is followingthegrain. Thesequence for jointingoperations shoulddependon the wood you are

using.Forroughlumber,joint thefaces first (page 134),then do the edges (below). Forwoodon whichboth faces jointingthe havealreadybeensurfaced, is edges usuallysufficient. In general, seta cuttingdepthof 7s inchfor softwoods or '/reinchfor hardwoods.Youcanusuallyjoint theedges by hand,but alwaysusea pushblockto face-joint.Whatever thedepthyouselect, checkthe settingbeforemakingthe first

pass.Unplugthejointeranduseascrapof woodto rotatethecutterhead sothatallthe knivesarebeiowthe levelofthe tables. Then,placea boardflushon theoutfeed gapbetween table;the theboard's edgeand theinfeedtablewill equalthedepthof cut. If mostof yourjointinginvolves working with boardedges, avoiddullingthe samenarrowsegment of yourknivesby routinelymovingthefenceoverslightly to evenlydistributethewear.

J()INTING ANEDGE a workpiece intothecut 1t Feedins I Lavtheworkoiece ontheinfeed tablea fewinches fromtheknives, butting itsfaceagainst thefence. Slowly feedtheworkpiece intothecutterhead knives(/eff),pressi n gi t a g a i n st ht ef e n c ew i t hy o u rl e f th a n dw h i l em o v i n g it steadily forwardwithyourrighthand.Astheworkpiece crosses to theoutfeed table,gradually shiftyourweight fromyourbackfootto yourfrontfoot.Continue feeding the stockuntilyourrighthandapproaches theoutfeed table.

r) Finishing thepass I Wnenyour righthandreaches theoutfeed table,reverse the position ofyourhands whilecontinuing tofeedtheworkpiece. Gradually slideyourlefthandtoward thebackoftheworkpiece (right), pressure mainlaining against thefence. Thenshiftyour righthandfurther backonthestockto maintain downward justtotheoutfeed pressure sideoftheknives. Continue these hand-over-hand movements untilthepassiscompleted.

132


JOINTER

ENDGRAIN JOINTING

pass a partial 1 Making onthe infeedtablea few end-down I Placetheworkpiece thefence' withits faceflat against fromthe knives inches your thumb thefencewrthyourrighthandandwrap Straddle intothecutterhead' to feedit slowly theworkpiece around tilt aboutI inchintothepassandimmediately Stopfeeding asshown. backawayfromtheknives theworkpiece

r) Reversing thepass andcompleting thewolkpiece feedthestockacross 180"andslowly L furntheworkpiece thefencewithyourrighthand straddling theknives(above), pressure withyourlefthand.Thepartial whilemaintaining at theend splintering passmadein step1 shouldprevent of thisoass.

TABTE ATIGNMENT OUTFEED

Workpiece

/ Outfeed table

table

r------1 laPer I I t

l

0utfeed table

table

[lI

-_l

enrPe I

,//lN --)

0utfeed table

L EvenautI I

lnfeed table

I

____l

to miswrtha jointercanoftenbeattributed Poorresults cutterrelation to the in table of theoutfeed alignment jointing beingat onthetable's depends head.Perfect 128).The the knives precisely thesameheightas @age whatcangowrongif theoutaboveillustrate diagrams feedtableis toohighortoolow-andwhatshouldhap-

penwhenit is at thecorrectheight.lf theoutfeed table jointing willproduce a taper thantheknives, issethigher (lefil;if thetableis toolow,the blades will leavea concavecut,calleda snipe,at theendof theworkpiece (center). theresult adjusted Whenthetableis properly will bea smooth,evencut tight).

r33


JOINTER

JOINTING A FACE pushblocks Using Movethefencetoward therabbeting ledge,if necessary, sothatno portionof theknives willbeexposed astheworkpiecepasses overthecutterhead. Laythe workpiece face-down onthe infeedtable a fewinches fromtheknives, buttingits edgeagainst thefence.Thenputtwo pushblocks squarely ontopof thestock, (Usepush centered between its edges. blocks withangled handles to keepyour handsfromhittingthefence.)Slowly feedtheworkpiece across theknives (left) applying pressure downward onthe outfeed sideof theknives to keeothestock flatonthetablesandlateralpressure to keepit flushagainst thefence.Fora long workpiece, bringyourlefthandtotheback of theworkpiece whenyourrighthand reaches theoutfeed table.

A PUSH BTOCK Instead of buyingpushblocks such astheonesshovrrn above, somewoodpreferto maketheirown. workers Referto the illustration at rightfor you suggested dimensions, although cantailoryourdesignto theworkpieceat hand. Gluethelipto theunderside of the base,flushwithoneend,Then position thehandle onthetopofthe basesothat its backendis flush withtheendof the base.Screwthe handle to thebase,drivingthescrews fromthe underside of thebase. Countersink thescrews to avoid scratching theworkpiece whenyou usethepushblock.Borea hole nearthefrontendof the baseso

youcanhangthepushblockonthe wallwhenit is notin use. Usethe pushblockasdescribed above,butpositionit ontheworkpiece

134

sothatthelip hugsthetrailingendof yourleft handon thestock.Position theworkpiece nearitsfrontend,bracingyourthumbonthe pushblock.


STOCK SALVAGINGWARPED I lthoughthejointer'sprincipalvalue A restsin its abilityto smoothand it canalso squareroughwood surfaces, defects. with other straightenout stock jointer out for evening is useful also The (inward-bowhave concave boardsthat ing) or convex(outward-bowing)faces. Thediagramsbelowshowhow to correct both typesof irregularities.

In eachoperation,thehighspotson repeatedly thewoodsurfacearepassed acrossthe cutterheaduntil they are removed.Fora convexedge(below,left), passthe high spotat the middle of the acrossthe cutterheadas boardrepeatedly (cuts1 and2). manytimesasnecessary 'hose-dive" or to allowtheleadTrynot to ingedgeto rideup whileyouarecutting.

Whenthe surfaceis roughlyeven,make a final passalongtheentireedge(cut3). edge,passthehigh spot Fora concave at oneendofthe boardacrosstheknives (below, right)asmanytimesasnecessary (cutsI and 2), then turn the board at theother aroundto repeattheprocess end(cuts3 and4).Whenthe surfaceis roughlyeven,makea final pass(cut5).

EDGES ANDCONCAVE CONVEX

5

3 1 :

EDGE A CURVED JOINTING edges andconvex concave Trimming anedgewitha concave Tostraighten endof theworkholdtheleading curve, piecean inchor soabove tablelevelin guard.Feedthe frontof thecutterhead withyourrighthand;useyour workpiece pressure against lefthandto maintain partof the thefence.Whenthedeepest (/eft), edgeis overthecutterhead concave endof theworkpiece lowerthe leading the tableandcomplete ontotheoutfeed pass.Continue feeding theworkpiece end pastthecutterhead untilthetrailing 180" Thenturntheworkptece is straight. fortheother the procedure andrepeat Makea finalpassalong endof theboard. curve,make theentireedge.Fora convex asyouwouldfor a passoverthe blades (page132), jointingoperation a standard asposasparallel theworkpiece keeping Keepmaking tables. sibleto thejointer passes thejointeruntil through shallow theedgeistrue.

135


JOINTER

RABBETS, CHAMFERSAND TAPERS youcan ith a littleresourcefi;lness, do more than producesquare boardson ajointer.Bytakingfull advantageof the machine'scapabilities, you canshapewoodwith tapersandchamfers,or evencut rabbetsfor ioinery.In [act,manywoodworkers consideithe jointer the besttool for cuttingrabbets-at leastwhen you areworking with thegrainof a workpiece. Aslongasyourjointerhasa rabbeting ledge,it cancut rabbets alongeitherthe edgeor the faceof a board,Sincethe

guardmustberemovedfor edgerabbets on stockthickerthan3/sinchandfor any rabbetalongthe faceof a board,extra cautionis essential. Angledcutsalongthe cornersof a workpiece, knownaschamfers, aremade on thejointerby tiltingthefenceto the requiredangleor with theaidof a shopmadejig. Tapers arealsostraightforward. With a stopblockclampedto eachtable, you cancut stoppedtapersthat leave squareendsfor joiningto a tabletopor seat,or for carvinginto a decorative foot.

A leg taperedon thejointer provides gracefulsupportfor this table.

RABBETING ONTHEJOINTER

Cutting rabbets M a r kc u t t i n g l i n e sf o rt h ew i d t ha n dd e p t ho f t h er a b b eotn theleading endof theworkpiece. Alignthewidthmarkwiththe endsof theknives, thenposition thefenceflushagainst the workpiece. Setthe cuttingdepthnodeeperIhanr/,tinch. Fora rabbetalonga boardedge(above, lefil,feedtheworkpiecefromabove withyourrighthandwhileyourlefthand pressure maintains against thefence.Increase thecutting

depthbyincrements nodeeper thanI/qinchandmakeaddipasses tional if necessary. Fora rabbetalonga boardface(above, right),guidethe workpiece nearitsfrontendwithyourlefthand,whileusrng a pushblockto applydownward pressure andkeeptheworkpiecef latonthetables. Slowly feedtheworkpiece across the knives, thendeepen therabbet, if necessarV.

136


IOTNTER

JIG A V-BI()CK usethissimple onthejointer, Tocuta series of chamfers jig. Referto the illustration shownat leftfor shop-made suggested dimensions. of thejig bybevelcutttng2-by-2s. BegintheV section sothattheyextendbeyond Position thetwocut pieces oneendof the basebyabout6 inches,andhavea t/z' through them.Attachthetwopieces inchgapbetween the to avoidscratching screws thebasewithcountersunk jointer in place. tablewhenthejig isclamped Tousethejig,clampit in placewithoneendof the table. of theinfeed withthecutterhead-end basealigned depthof cut, tableto themaximum Lower theinfeed in thegapof the typically Yzinch.Seattheworkpiece jig,thenfeedit across withyourrighthand, theknives it f irmlyin theV withyourlefthand. whileholding

i

t t I

*--*J

I

TAPER A SIMPLE MAKING thecut upandstarting 1 Setting gauge the to outline I Usea marking (lnset); thenmark taperontheworkpiece linesonthefourfacesof thestockto willbegin. Install where thetaper indicate ledge to hold a clampontherabbeting theguardoutof theway.Seta 7s-inch theworkpiece depthof cutand,holding alignthetaperstart thefence, against table. linewiththefrontof theoutfeed theotherend Butta stopblockagainst ce n dc l a m pi t t o t h e o f t h ew o r k p i e a carefully infeed table.Tostarteachpass, while ontotheknives lower theworkoiece h o l d i nt gh ew o r k p i efci rem l ya g a i n tsht e surethatyourhands fenceandmaking (/efil. sideof theknives areontheinfeed thefencewithyourrighthand, Straddle usingyourthumbto keeptheworkpiece flushagainst thestopblock.

1.37


JOINTER

Cutting thetaper Usea pushstickto feedtheworkpiece Withyourrighthand, across thecutterhead. pressure onthetrailing applydownward useyourlefthandto endof theworkpiece; keeptheworkpiece flushagainst thefence (right).Makeasmanypasses acrossthe thetaper knives asnecessary to complete Tocutthe onthefirstfaceoftheworkoiece. remaining faces, rotate theworkpiece clockpasses wise90oandmakerepeated overthe untilyouhavetrimmed thestock cutterhead downto thetapermarks.

A STOPPED TAPER IOINTING

withtwinstopblocks Gutting to indicate wherethe Marklineson all facesof theworkoiece a clampontherabbeting iapering willbeginandend.Install ledgeto holdtheguardoutof theway.Seta %-inchdepthof cut,thenbutttheworkpiece against thefencewiththetaper startline3/qinch behindthefrontof theoutfeed table.(The forthefactthat,whenthe infeed extra3/q inchwillcompensate Butta tableis lowered later,it willalsoslidebackslightly.) stopblockagainst theendof theworkpiece andclampit to the infeedtable.Nextalignthetaperendlinewiththe backend table.Butta second stopblockagainst theother of the infeed

endof theworkpiece andclampin place. Tomakethefirst pass,lowertheworkpiece ontothe knives, keeping it f lush against thefenceandthestopblockonthe infeedtable.Feed theworkpiece usingthethumbof yourrighthandbbove),fingersstraddling thefence;useyourlefthandto presstheworkpieceagainst thefenceanddownontheknives. Keepboth handswellabove Makeonepasson eachface, thecutterhead. thenlowerthe infeedtabler/ainchandreoeat theDrocess on increasing allfoursides. Continue, thecutting depthuntilthe taperis completed.

138


PLANER planing a roughstock, N or smoothing r e d u c i n t g h e p a n e o l r I'glued-up planthe uniforrnly, of aboard thickness Its machine. eristheidealwoodworking from a plane wood mainfunctionisto that surface a smooth board,producing face. isparallelwith theopposite

H(lWA PLANER W()RKS

Planersareeasyto use,but keepthe followingpointsin mind to getthebest results.Alwaysfeedstockinto the knives following the direction of grain. Althoughthe maximum depthof cut for mostplanersis 7einch,limit eachpassto %oinch and makemultiple passes.

Chipbreaker Freaaeaworkptece againot table before it reacheaknivee

Someof the tasksyou perform on the jointer cannotbe duplicatedon the planer.You cannot,for example, out a warpedboard.Sincethe straighten waqped planerproducesparallelsurfaces, stock will emergethinner from the machine,but just aswarped.

Preasurebar Tresaeoworkpiecedown after it ie ehaved,keepinq it flat

lnfeed roller

?Fii#i#,",tr -) Tableroller Helpe reduce fric' Lionbetweenworkpieceand table

Tableroller

A BOARD PLANING Using theplaner Tosetthecuttingdepth,laytheworkpiece onthetableandalignitsendwiththe depth Xo-inch depthguide.Fora typical handle of cut,turnthetableadjustment the untilthetopof theboardjustclears bottomof theguideInset).Tomakea passthrough standto oneside theplaner, andusebothhandsto of theworkpiece keepfeedit slowlyintotheinfeedroller, parallel to thetableedges. ingitsedges gripstheworkpiece roller Oncetheinfeed pullingit pastthecutterhead, andbegins endof thestockto thetrailing support keepit flatonthetable(left).Asthetrailreaches theplaningendof theworkpiece sideof the er'stable,moveto theoutfeed withboth theworkpiece machine. Support roller. To theoutfeed handsuntilit clears prevent planefrom stockfromwarping, ratherthan bothsidesof a workpiece fromonesideonly. removing thickness

r39


GLOSSARY A-B Arbor: A round shaftprojectingfrom the sawmotor to turn revolvingsaw bladesor othercuttingimplements.

Compound cut Sawingthrough a boardwith the bladepresented at anglesother than 90orelativeto the faceand edgeofthe stock.

Bead:A rounded,convexshapecut in wood.

Concave:A roundedinward shape, like the insideof a bowl.

Bevelcut: Sawingat an anglefrom faceto facethrough the thicknessor alongthe lengthof a workpiece.

Contour cut Sawingalonga curved line; usuallywith a band saw.

Bladelead:The tendencyofa band sawbladeto drift offthe'intended line of a cut. Bladeset:The amount that sawteeth areoffsetalternatelyto the left and to the right, allowing a bladeto cut a kerf slightly wider than its own thicknessto helppreventbinding. Box joine Identicalinterlockingfingersthat meshtogetherto form a cornerjoint. C Carbide-tipped blade:A saw'scutting edgeon which the teetharemade of a compoundof carbonand steel; suchbladeedgesarestrongerand staysharperlongerthan conventional high-speedsteel. Carcase:The box-like frame of a pieceof furniture,suchasa chest or bookcase. Chamfer:A decorativebevelcut alongthe edgeof a workpiece. Cheek The faceof the projecting joint. tenonin a mortise-and-tenon Chippers:Auxiliary cuttersthat cleanout the wastewood between the cuts madeby the two sawblades ofa stackingdadohead. Chuck Adjustablejaws on a drill for holdingbits.orothercuttingor sandlng accessorles.

Convex A roundedoutward shape, like the outsideof a bowl. Countersink: To drill a hole that permits the headof a screwor bolt to lie flush or slightlybelowa wood surface. Cove A hollow concaveform cut into wood. CrosscufiSawingacrossthe grain of a workpiece.

F Faces: Thewidersurfaces of a piece ofwood. Facejointing: Usinga jointer to cut thin shavingsfrom the faceof a workpieceuntil it is flat and square to the edge. Featherboard: A pieceofwood cut with fingersor "feathers"at one end; usedin conjunctionwith clampsto holll workpiecesagainsta sawtable or tence. Feedpressure:Rateat which a workpieceis pushedinto the bladeor cuttersof a woodworkingmachine. Fence:An adjustableguideto keep the edgeof a workpiecea setdistance from the cuttingedgeof a tool. Fingerjoint: Similarto a box joint but with narrowerintermeshingfingers,typically lessthan /a inch wide.

D-E Dado: A.rectangularchannelcut into a worKplece. Dado head:A blade-or combination of bladesand cutters-used to shapedadoesin wood. The two main typesarewobblers,one or tlvo bladesthat wobblebackand forth on adjustablehubs,and stacking dadoheads,which arepairsof blades sandwichedaround one to five interior chippers. Dovetail joint A method of joining wood at cornersby meansof interlocking pins and tails;the name derivesfrom the distinctiveshapecut into the endsof thejoining boards. Dowe} Wood pins usedto reinforce certaintypesof joints. Edges:The narrowersurfaces ofa pieceof wood. Edgejointing: Usinga jointer to cut thin shavingsfrom the edgeof a workpieceuntil it is flat and square to the face.

140

Flute: A roundedconcavegroovecut with a moldinghead. Fly cutter: A drill pressaccessory with a shaftand a sliding cutter blade that canbe adiustedto makeholesof variousdiameters. Freehand:To cut a workpieceon a band sawwithout usingeitherthe miter gaugeor the fence;freehand cutting shouldneverbe attempted on the tablesawand radial arm saw G-H-I Grain: The arrangementand direction of the fibersthat makeup wood; grain will look different in different treesand asa resultof the sawing technioueusedto harvestlumber from tlie log. Gullet: The gapbetweenteeth on a sawblade. Hardwood: Wood cut from deciduous (leaf-shedding) trees;sometypes may actuallybe soft and easyto cut.


Hook angle:Angleof the faceof a sawblade'stooth in relationto a line from the tip of the tooth to the center of the b-lade. Infeed:The part of a machine'stable that is in front of the bladeor cutter during a cuttingoperation. In-rip: The positiona radialarm sawblademust be in to rip a narrow board;the motor is rotatedto situate the bladenearthe fence.

I-K-L

fig: Devicefor guidinga tool or holdinga workpiecein position. Kerf: A cut madein wood by the width of a sawblade. Kickback The tendencyof a workpieceto be thrown backin the directionof the operatorof a woodworking machine. M-N Miter cut A cut that anglesacross the faceof a workpiece. Miter gauge:A devicethat slidesin a slot on the sawtable,providingsupport for the stockasit movespastthe canbe adjusted bladefor crosscuts; to differentanglesfor miter cuts. Moldinghead:A solidmetalwheel that attachesto the arbor and holds setsof identicalknivesfor carving moldings;usedon tablesawsand radial arm saws. Mortise: A rectangularhole cut into a pieceof wood. Mortise-and-tenonjoint A joinery techniquein which a projecting tenonon oneboardis madeto fit into a mortiseon another;in an joint, the openmortise-and-tenon mortiseis not stopped,but passes completelythroughthe workpiece.

o-P Ogee:A decorativemolding with an profile. S-shaped Outfeed:The part of a machine's tablethat is behindthe bladeduring a cuttingoperation. Out-rip: The positiona radialarm sawblademustbe in to rip a wide board;the motor is rotatedto position it betweenthe bladeand fence. Pawls:Pivotingleverswith sharp endsdesignedto grip a workpiece and preventit from beingkicked backtoward the operator. Pushstick A deviceusedto push a workpieceinto a bladeor cutterso asto protectthe operator'sfingers. Q-R Quill A sleevesurroundingthe spindle of a drill press;the amount that the quill canbe raisedand lowered determinesthe depthof holea drill presscan Dore. Rabbet A step-likecut in the edgeor end of a board;usuallyformspart of a joint. Raker:A tooth in a sawbladethat clearsawaysawdustand wood chips from the kerf. Releasecut A preliminary incision from the edgeof a workpieceto a line aboutto be cut; suchpreparations enablea band sawto cut along tighter turns by facilitatingthe removalof wastewood. Reliefcut Sawinginto an auxiliary fenceto provide clearancefor a table sawor radial arm sawbladeor cutter. Resaw:To reducethe thicknessof a boardby cuttingit into two or more thinnerpieces.

r4l

Reversethread: Machinethreadscut so that a nut turns counterclockwise to tighten;commonlyfound on saw arborsto preventbladefasteners from workingloose. Rip cut A cut that followsthe grain of a workpiece-usually madealong its length.

S.T-U Shoulder:In a mortise-and-tenon joint, the part of the tenonperpendicularto the cheek. Softwood:Wood cut from logs of (coniferous)trees. cone-bearing Spindle:The verticalrotating shaft of a drill press;holdsthe chuckthat gripsthe bit. StoppedgrooYe:A groovethat does not run the full length or width of a workpiece. Stoppedhole: A hole that doesnot passall the way through a workpiece; alsoknown asa blind hole. Thpercut: An angledcut alongthe lengthof a workpiecethat reduces its width at one end. Tearout:The tendencyof a bladeor cutter to tear the fibersof the wood it is cutting,leavingraggededgeson the workpiece;a problemespecially when crosscutting. Tenon:A protrusionfrom the end of a boardthat fits into a mortise.

V-W-X.Y-Z Veneer:A thin layerof decorative wood laid into or overa more common wood.


INDEX taperjigs,99 Drill presses rack,110-111 aciessory jigs for equallyspacedholes,ll2-ll3 pocketholejigs,l17 sandingtableand pattern sanding insert, L22-123 tilting tablejigs, 114 Iointers pushblocks,134 V-blockjigs,137 Radialarm saws fenceand tablefor dado and molding cuts,72 miter jigs, 65 taperjigs,68 Tablesaws crosscutjigs,33 jigs for repeatnarrow cuts,27 tenoningjigs,47

Pagereferencesin iralicsindicate an illustration of subjectmatter. Pagereferencesin bold indicate a Build It Yourselfproject.

A Ames,Judith,l0 Angle cuts,back endpaper Band saws,98 fointers,136-138,137 Radialarm saws,63-64 miter cuts,48-49,63,65 Tablesaws,35 Angled holes: Drill presses,104,lI2, 114, Ll4, ll7 compoundangles(ShopTip), 116 jigs,114,117

B Band saws,9, 78-79,80-81 Alignment,82-84 Angle cuts,98 Bladeguards,8Q 85 Blades,79, 81,85, 86-88 bladelead (ShopTip), 94, 97 installation,87 roundingofback edge(ShopTip), 88 Crosscutting,94, 97 Curved cuts,78-79, 89-92 blades,86 circle-cuttingjigs, 93 quarter-circle -cutting jigs, 79, 92 rounding corners,92 Dovetailjoints, 101- 103 Guideassemblies, 84 81,83,85 Guideblocks,82, 83 Multiple duplicatepieces,90,100 Pattern sawing,90-91 Pivot blocks,96 Rip fences,80,94, 95, 97 Ripping,94,95,96 Safetyprecautions,79, 85 ShopTips, 88, 94 Stopblocks,100,102 Tapercuts,98,99,99 Three-wheelband saws,8I Benchtop table saws,13, .15 Bevelclamps,5Q 53 Bevelcuts, 64, 98 seealsoAngle cuts Bits: 110-111 Drill presses, Bladeguards,50,60,61 Band saws,80 Radialarm saws,50,60,61 Blades.SeeBand saws;Radialarm saws; Tablesaws Boxjoints,44,45 Fingerjoints,49,7G77 ligs, 13,76 Build It Yourself: Band saws circle-cuttingjigs, 93 rip fences,95

C Carbide-tipped blades: Radialarm saws,58 Tablesaws.20-21 Chamfers,136,137 Circles: Centerfinders(ShopTip), lI5 Circle-cuttingjigs, 93 Quarter-circle-cutting jigs,79,92 Clamping: Drill presses,109 Contractor'ssaws,13 Covecutting, 43 Crosscutting: Bandsaws,94,97 Radialarm saws,60, 62 Tablesaws,30-33 blades,20,21 jigs,30,33 wide panels,34 Curved cuts.SeeBandsaws:Curvedcuts 126,130-131,133 Cutterheads,

D Dado cuts.SeeDadoes; Grooves;Rabbets Dadoes: Radialarm saws,69-70 repeatcuts(ShopTip), 70 Tablesaws,36-37 Dado heads,36-37, 69-70 Dovetailjoints, 101-103 Dowels,111,118 Drilling, 112-118 Angledholes,104-105,ll2, 114, tL4. tt7 compoundangles(ShopTip), 116 j i g s ,1 1 4 , 1 1 7 Centerfinders(ShopTip), 115 Equallyspacedholes,ll2-ll3 Drill presses,10,104-105,106-107 Accessories. 1 10-111 dowelcutters,111,118 mortising attachments,1 19-121

t42

plugcutters,.111, 118 r a c k sl,l 0 - l l l sandingdrums, 105,122-123 sandingdrums,off-size(Shop Tip), 123 Alignment,108-109 checking(ShopTip), i09 B i t s .l I 0 - l l I Clamping,109 Integraltenons,I .18 Radialarm drill press,106 Safetyprecautions,108,109 Sandingtableand pattern sanding rnsert,122-123 S h o pT i p s ,1 0 9 , 1 1 5 , 1 1162, 3 Speeds,108,122 SeealsoDrilling Duginske,Mark, ll

F-G-H Featherboards, backendpaper Fingerjoints, 49, 76-77 Grooves: Radialarm saws,71,72,73-74 Tablesaws,36,38,39 Hold-down devices: Radialarm saws,60, 6I, 66 Tablesaws,15,18,24,25 Holes.SeeDrilling

I-J Integraltenons,118 figs: Band saws circle-cuttingjigs,93 quarter-circle-attting jigs, 79,92 V-block jigs, 95, 97 Drill oresses jigs for equallyspacedholes, lt2-tt3 pocketholejigs, 104,ll7 t i l t i n g t a b l e j i g lsl 4 , V-blockjigs,116 Jointers jigs, l3l knife-setting V-blockjigs,137 Radialarm saws auxiliary fenceand table,72 fingerjointjigs,26 miter jigs, 48-49,65 taperjigs,68 Tablesaws box joints, 13,45 crosscuts, 30,33 multiple angledcuts,35 repeatnarrow cuts,27 taper cuts,29 tenoningjigs, 12-13,46,47 foinery, backendpaper Bandsaws,101-103 Drill presses, 118-121 Radialarm saws,49, 76-77 Tablesaws,12-13,13,44-47 Jointers,11, 124-125,126-127


Alignment,128-129,133 Guards,126,127,128,136 Knives,126,130-131 prolonginguse(ShopTip), 131 Pushblocks.134 |ointing, 132-134 Chamfers,136,137 Rabbets,136 136,137-138 tapercuts, 124-125, Warpedboards,135 Seealsofointers

K-L.M Klausz,Frank, 8 Lap joints,44 Melamineblades,2.1 Miller-Mead, Giles,6-7 Miter clamps,50,51,52 Miter cuts,48-49,63,65,98 seealsoAngle cuts Miter gauges: Band saws,80,81, 84, 97, 98 Tablesaws,73,14,15,17,30,32 fixing a loose(ShopTip), 17 rip fenceswith, 18,24,30,31 wide panels,34 Miter jigs, 48-49,65 Moldings: Radialarm saws,72,75 Tablesaws,40-43 joints: Mortise-and-tenon Drill presses,119-121 Table saws,12-13,44,46-47

P-Q-R Panels: Radialarm saws,67 Table saws,26, 34 125,127,139 Planers, Drill presses, lll Radialarm saws,58 P l u g sl ,l l , 1 1 8 Plywoodblades,2l Pdckethole jigs, 104,Ll7 Pushblocks,134 Pushsticl,rs, /ront endpaper Quarter-circle-attting jigs, 79,92 Rabbets: Jointers,136 Radialarm saws,7l Tablesaws,36, 38 Radialarm drill presses,106 Radialarm saws,8, 48-49,50-51 Accessories, 5& 75 hold-down devices,60,61, 66 router bits, 5-l specialized bladeguards,60,61,75 Adjustment,49,52-57 Angle cuts, 48-49,63-64,65 Auxiliarytables,51,57,72 finger joints,49,76 Bladeguards,50,60,61,75 Blades, 49,58,59,62 alignment,55-57

dadoheads,69-70 installation,59, 69 molding cutters,75 Crosscutting,62 Dado cuts,69-74 auxiliary fenceand table,72 repeatdadoes(ShopTip), 70 Fences, 51,57,72 |oinery,49,7G77 Moldings,72,75 Panels,67 Portable,5l Repeatcuts,62,70 ShopTips,64,70 Shortworkpieces(ShopTip),64 SeealsosubheadingRadialarm sawsunder figs; Ripping;Safety precautions Resawing,28,96 Rip clamps,51,54 Rip fences: Bandsaws,80,94,95,97 Tablesaws,14,15,17,18,24 crosscuttingguide,3l miter gauges with, 18,24,30,31 Ripping: Bandsaws,94,95,96 cylinders,95 Radialarm saws,60-61, 66-67 taper cuts,68 Tablesaws,20,24-25 anglecuts,35 narrow strips,27,27 resawing,23 taper cuts,29 wide panels,26 Roller stands,14 26 Routers: 122 Drill presses, Radialarm saws,5l

S Safetyprecautions,front endpaper Bandsaws,79, 85 Drill presses,108, 109 fointers, 126,127,128,129,136 guards,126,127,128,136 Radialarm saws,58,60,62,67 bladeguards,50,60,61,75 hold-down devices,60,61, 66 kickback,58,60,61,66 Tablesaws,13,l& 30 bladeguards,13,14,18,19 "Off' hands-free switch (Shop Tip),32 hold-down devices,15, 18,24, 25 kickback,18,L9,20,24,25 moldingcutters,40 tableinserts(ShopTip), 22 Sanding: 122-123 Drill presses, sandingtableand pattern sanding inserL,122-123 Sandingdrums:

143

Drill presses,105,122-123 off-sizedrums (ShopTips), 123 Radialarm saws,58 Sawyer,Dave,9 ShopTips: Bandsaws,88,94 Drill presses,109,115,116,123 Jointers,l3l Radialarm saws,64,70 Tablesaws,17,22,32 14 Stationarysaws,13, Stoppedgrooves,36, 39, 74 Stoppedholes,113 Stoppedtapers,138

T Tablesaws,6-7, 12,13,14-15,49 l3 Accessories, hold-down devices,15, 18,24, 25 molding cutters,13,40-41 roller stands,.1426 specializedbladeguards,19 Nignment, 16-17 Angle cuts,35 Bladeguards,13,14,18,19 Blades,20-21,23 dado heads.36-32 installation,22, 37 Dadocuts,36-39 "Off' Hands-free switch (Shop Tip),32 Moldings, 40-43 Portable,13,15 Repeatcuts,27,32 ShopTips, 17,22,32 Tableinserts(ShopTip), 22 SeealsosubheadingTablesawsunder Crosscutting;|igs; Miter gauges; Rip fences;Ripping; Safetyprecautions Tapercuts: Bandsaws,98,99,99 fointers,124-125,136,137-138 Radialarm saws,68 Tablesaws,29 Taperjigs: Bandsaws,99 Radialarm saws,68 Tablesaws.29 Tenoningjigs, 12-13,46,47 Tenons: Integraltenons,l18 joints SeealsoMortise-and-tenon Three-wheelband saws,8l Tiltingtablejigs,l14

U-V.W-X-Y-Z

V-block jigs, 95,97, 1 16,137 Warpedboards,135,139 Yoke clamps,5Q 53


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Theeditorswish to thank thefollowing TABLESAW Delta InternationalMachinery,Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmore Tools,Ltd., Mississauga, Ont.; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa, Ont.; LeichtungWorkshops,Cleveland,OH; Makita Canada Ltd., Whitby, Ont.; HTC Products,Inc., RoyalOak, MI; RichardsEngineeringCo., Ltd., Vancouver,BC; Sears,Roebuck and Co., Chicago,IL; Shopsmith,Inc., Montr6al, Que.; Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY RADIALARMSAW AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; FisherHill Products,Inc., Fitzwilliam,NH; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Mississauga, Ont.; G & W Tool, Inc., Tulsa,OK; Jon Eakes,Montrdal, Que.; RichardsEngineeringCo. Ltd., Vancouver,BC; Ryobi America Corp., Anderson,SC;Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Shopsmith,Inc., Montr6al, Que.;Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY BANDSAW Delta InternationalMachinery Guelph,Ont.; GarrettWade Co., Inc., New York, NY; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Mohawk FinishingProductsof Canada,Montr6al, Que.; Shopsmith,Inc., Montr6al, Que.;Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY DRILLPRESS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Delta International Machinery,Guelph,Ont.; G & W Tool, Inc., Tulsa,OK; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont. JOINTER/PLANER AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A. Ltd., Norcross,GA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; CommunicationMasters,Norcross,GA; Shopsmith,Inc., Montrdal,Que.;UniquestCorp.,Murriy, UT Thefotlowingpersonsalsoassisted in thepreparation of this book: Nyla Ahmad, RenaudBoisjoly,MaryseDoray, Lorraine Dor6, Naomi Fukuyama,Graphor Consultation,fos6eLaperrilre, G6rardMariscalchi,JenniferMeltzer,NicolasMoumouris, Maryo Proulx, ShirleySylvain,JamesTherrien

PICTURECREDITS Cover PaulMcCarthy/Au Puits de LumiEre 6,7 RobertChartier 8 PatrickHarbron/Outline 9 Carl Valiquet Photographe l0 RaymondGendreau 11 GlenHartjes/ImageStudios

144


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MAKINGYOUROWNFEATHERBOARDg Fealherboarde,also knownae fin7erboarde,are ueed'I'o keepolock Sincethey 7ermit' Vreooedenuqlyaqatnellhe fenceor Lableof a eaw' a w o r k p i e c eL o m o v eo n l y i n o n e d i r e c t i o n - f o w a r d t h e b l a d e is one baeic featherboardsalEoeerveae anti-kickbackdev'tcee.There euit' Lhe laek aL varied to be lenqlh can righl: the deoiqnehownat, eecurea lo the saw lable hand. Lonqfeat'herboardeare clampedLo workpieceagainoL|,hefence:shorler oneeare aLLachedto lhe lence lo hold ef,ockaqainet'Ihe Iable. 3/q To make a fealherboard,cul a 3OoLo 45o mit'er at' one end of a i n c h - l h i c k b o a r d :c h o o s eL h i c k e re t o c k i f y o u w i l l b e r e e a w i n qo r c u f , f , i n gt h t c k w o o d , M a r k a p a r a l l e l i n e a b o u l 5 i n c h e sf r o m L h e 1/e mif,eredend.Then uee a table aaw or a band aaw Lo cul' inch-wide s l o L et o | , h em a r k e dl i n e ,c r e a t i n ga r o w o f o N u r d yb u Lp l i a b l ef i n q e r e . Seforeeecurin7a feal,herboardIo a saw I'able,cul a nor'chfor a eu??orLboard.Clampedto a I'ableaf' a 90" anqleI'o the feat'herboard, Ihe oupporl pieceprovideeadded el'abiliIy.

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The art of woodworking woodworking machines  
The art of woodworking woodworking machines  
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