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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

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LATHE SPEED CHART FACEPTATE TURNING SPEEDS Diameter Upto 2"thick 0ver2"thick 1 2 5 0R P M 1 0 0 0R P M U ot o 8 ' lOOORPM 7 5 0R P M 8-r2', I2_T8' 750 RPM 3 O OR P M 300 RPM slowest speed More than18"

Thickness UpIoZYz" 2%-4', Morethan4"

SPINDTE TURNING SPEEDS Upto 12"long 12-24"long 2 5 0 0R P M 1 7 5 0R P M 1750RPM 1250RPM 1250RPM 7 5 0R P M

0ver24"long 1 2 5 0R P M 1 O OR OP M slowest

TIGHTING ANDSPACE REQUIREMENTS F()RTURNING strictly to turn- pleof stepsfromyourlathe. Thefloor Turning doesnotrequire a greatdealof lf yourshopis devoted thelatheanywhere needs to bestrongandcomfortable. butthelayout ofyourshopwill ing,youcanlocate space, g depend on thetypeof workyoudo. youhaveroomforit, alongwitha bench M a n yt u r n e risn s t a cl la r p e t i nt o justoneof sever- grinder, thephysical stress of standing a bandsaw,anda reasonablereduce lf turningrepresents projects you amount forlongperiods andto prevent damage of storage spaceforworkin al stepsin thefurniture tool.Install someshelvs y o u r progress, handtools,andotheracces- to a dropped b u i l d t, h ec e n t r al lo c a t i o ni n likesandpaper. Theplacement ingin a dryareaof theshopforstoring betakenbya table sories, shopwillprobably butsince woodandworkin progress. A tableor the ofthebandsawis noicrucial, sawandjointer.Inthiscase,locate posi- benchis usefulforanypreparatory frequently, work withenough room youwillbesharpening latheneara window vouneedto oerform. nomorethana cousotheworkspaceis nottoorestricted. tionthegrinder Lighting Take advantaqe of aa much natural linhf

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BANDSAW

nnaaihle.

r"""'"'"' uoe an adjuetable deek lamp for addiLional a rttfi cta l Iiqht

Clearance Leave 3 feet of clearance in front; can be poeittoned a1atnet a wall. Leave aufftctent opace for workin4 on an outboard bed

Light'ing Frovide lt7ht from above and Lo the rtqhL of Lhe blade; porLable clamp-on Itqht.can be ueed

BENCH GRINDER

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t Lighting and clearance EeeL locatton ie near lathe etnce toola requtre frequent qnndinq. Neede clearance and liqht on fronL only; portable clamp-on Itqht can be atmed dtrectly aL wheel

Clearance No clearance needed on Lhroat-column eide; requtree aL leaeL 4 feet on other atdee for lon7 boarde, Keep Itne of work clear. Can be poeitioned aqainet a wall or in a corner

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WOODTURNING


THE ART OF WOODWORKING

WOODTIJRNING

TIME-LIFE BOOKS ALEXANDRIA. VIRGINIA ST.REMYPRESS MONTREAL. NEWYORK


I I THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by ST.REMYPRESS PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PRES/DENT PierreLdveilld SeriesEditor SeriesArt Director SeniorEditor Editor Art Directors Designers PictureEditor Writers ResearchAssistants Contr ibuting Illu strators

Administrator ProductionManager SystemCoordinator Photographer AdministrativeAssistant Proofreader Indexer

PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini Iim McRae Normand Boudreault,Luc Germain, SolangeLaberge H6lbneDion, Michel Gigubre ChristopherJackson Andrew Jones,Rob Lutes Bryan Quinn, David Simon GillesBeauchemin,RolandBergerat, Michel Blais,Jean-GuyDoiron, RonaldDurepos,RobertPaquet, JacquesPerrault,Maryo Proulx, JamesTh6rien NatalieWatanabe MichelleTurbide Jean-LucRoy RobertChartier Dominique Gagn6 GaretMarkvoort ChristineM. Iacobs

Time-Life Booksis a division of Time Life Inc., a wholly ownedsubsidiaryof THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY TIME.LIFEINC. Presidentand CEO fohn M. Fahey Editor-in-chief JohnL. Papanek

TIME-LIFEBOOKS President Vice-President, Directorof Marketing ExecutiveEditor ExecutiveArt Director

Iohn D. Hall NancyK. fones RobertaConlan Ellen Robling

ConsultingEditor ProductionManager

JohnR. Sullivan MarleneZack

THECONSUIIANTS fohn fordan turns wood in Antioch (Nashville),Tennessee. Primarily known for his texturedand carvedhollow vessels and small-neckedbottles,he is regularlyfeaturedat major turning exhibitions.His work haswon numerousawards, and is in the permanentcollectionof severalmuseumsand corporations,aswell asthe White House. GilesMiller-Mead taught advancedcabinetmakingat Montreal technicalschoolsfor more than ten years.A nativeofNew Zealand,he hasworked asa restorerof antiquefurniture. Betty Scarpino is a professionalwood turner from Indianapots, Indiana.A former editor of AmericanWoodturner magazine,shehastaught woodworking and wood turning coursesin the United Statesand Canada.Her work is featured in many galleries. Wood turning p.cm.- (TheArt of woodworking) Includesindex. ISBN0-8094-9s16-3 l. Turning I. Time-Life Books.II. Series. TT202.W631994 684'.083-dc20 94-9598 CIP For information about any Time-Life book, pleasecall l-800-621-7026,or write: ReaderInformation Time-Life CustomerService P.O.BoxC-32068 Richmond,Virginia 2326r-2068 @ 1994Time-LifeBooksInc. AII rights reserved. No part ofthis book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanicalmeans,including information storageand retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,exceptthat briefpassages may be quoted for reviews. Printed in U.S.A. Publishedsimultaneouslyin Canada. TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Tirne WarnerInc. U.S.A. R 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 r

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CONTENTS 6 INTRODUCTION 12 L4 16 20 23 26 28 3l

SETTINGUP Anatomy of a lathe Tool restsand lathestands Lathetools Latheaccessories Measuringand marking tools Safety Selectingwood

116 TURNING PROJECTS 118 Off-centerturning I20 Goblets 1,24 Liddedboxes L29 Dried flower vase L32 Nuts and seedpods I34 Thbletops 136 Laminatedbowls 138 Laminatedplates I4O GLOSSARY

32 SHARPENING 34 Sharpeningtechniques 46 48 49 53 64 73 79

SPINDLE TURNING A galleryof spindlecuts Settingup Basicspindlecuts Decorativespindlecuts Split and carvedturnings Finishing

82 84 96 103 111

FACEPLATETURNING Mounting methods Bowl turning Hollowing out the bowl Natural-topbowls

T42 INDEX T44 ACKNOWTEDGMENTS


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BettyScarpinodiscusses

THE BASICSOF TURNINGWOOD of Missouri14yearsago,I first s an industrialartsstudentat theUniversity pedestal lathe turn the for the tablein thephotograph. Since usedthe to spindle grown my knowledge have and matured-as has the field of then, techniques and itself. While I making traditional spindle-turned furniture woodturning stillenjoy Multi-centered andsculptural andobjects, I alsolikewhatI seeothersaccomplishing. pushed backthefrontiersof whatcanbecreated on thelathe. turningshave foundation in thebasics: Aswith anycraft,woodturningdemands a strong the properties Buildingon anddesignconsiderations. of wood,toolsandtechniques, yourcreativityin a hostof challenggivesyoutheabilityto express thisknowledge ingways,fromthetraditionalto theavant-garde. thata woodturnershouldmaster. Spindleturningrepresents oneof thebasics turningas Amongotherthings,it improves toolcontrol,whichhelpswith faceplate my teaching aroundthe well.Asa professional, full-timewoodturner,I structure it givespeoplea placeto start,andit helpsmeto continuelearningin the basics; process. FromtheIndianapolis Children's Museumto WoodenBoat Schoolin Maine from I havederivedtremendous satisfaction to theOntarioWoodShowin Canada, youngandoldgettinghookedon turning.Oneof mygoalsaspasteditor watching to providereaders with a knowledge of thebasics and of.AmericanWoodturnerwas to enticethemwith examples of whattheycouldaccomplish. primarilyon makingbowls;newideas Thegrowinginterestin turningisfocused with faceof whatbowlsandvessels shouldlooklikeabound.I, too,amfascinated plateturning,asit holdspotentialfor development in yearsto come.Muchof myfaceplateworkisnotfunctional; thepieces aresimplylovelyto behold. AsI continueto explorethevastarenaof woodturning,I havebecomemoreand moreawareof thecomplexity anddiversityof thecraft.Thefieldiswideopen,ready in whatpromises to beanexciting to beexplored, andI amhappyto beimmersed andrewardingcareer.

BettyScarpinooperates a woodturningstudioout of her homein Indiana.A former editorof lrrnericanWoodturner, Indianapolis, Scarpinotravekthroughoutthe UnitedStatesand Canadateaching and demonstrating herwoodturningexpertise.


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JohnIordantalksabout

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basement shopto professionals makingalivingwiththeirlathes. Woodturningasanartformbeganin the1940s withthelikesof BobStocksdale, MelvinLindquist, Prestini. Althoughworking RudeOsolnik,andthelateJames independently, theywerepursuingthesamegoals: refinedandelegant turnedwood objects, whether functional or purelydecorative. The1970s andearly'80s sawanew generation of turnerswillingto pushtheboundaries ofwhatwasesthetically acceptpossible: ableandtechnically MarkLindquist turningspalted woodandusingchain saws to producesculptural DavidEllworthpioneering objects; theuseof benttools to produce thin-walled hollowturningswithincredibly BillHunter smallopenings; carvingandsculpting theoutsideof vessels afterthepiecewasturned. TheAmerican Association ofWoodturners, now5,000members strong, wasformed in 1985. These days,anannualsymposium of theAAWprovides easy access to informationandinsfuctionforanyone interested in ttresubject. Worlshops aroundthecountry aswellasboolaandvideotapes, alsofrrlfillthesamerole. I havebeensupporting myselfandmyfamilyasa full-timewoodturnerfor the pasteightyears,sellingmy workthroughgalleries andcraftshows,andteaching woodturningthroughouttheUnitedStates andseveral othercountries. Although I teachbowlturning,theworkthatI doisprimarilyhollow-turned vessels featuring carvedandtexturedsurfaces. Theyareturnedfromgreenwood,withthegrainorientedparallelto theaxisof thelathe,alsoknownasspindleturning.Thisprovides morestabilityasthewooddries.I amalways aftertheperfectcurve,thefineline, thesubtledetails. Therearemanyvalid approaches andwaysto turnwood,andI wouldliketo offer justthreebasicrulesto helpaspiringturners: 1.SHARP TOOLS: Notonlyaresharptoolsmuchmoreeffective, theymaketurningalot morefun!A largepercentage youexperience of theproblems will bedirectly caused bytoolsthatarenot assharpastheyshouldbe. 2.TURN:Thereisno substitute for timeon thelathe.Experience counts. 3. HAVEFUN!-Don't besoserious thatyoucan'tenjoytheprocess. Turnjust for thejoyof turning,improvingyourskillsandmakingshavings, knowingthatyou don'thaveto producea finishedproducteverytimeyouturn.

woodturnerfrom Antioch(Nashville), IohnJordanis a professional Tennessee. He hasproducedtwo videoson woodturning,and his worksareon disolayin severalmuseums and corDorations.

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oodturninghascomeof age.Thelast10yearshaveseena tremendous increase in the numberof peopleinterestedin the craft-from hobbyiststuming in their

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BonnieKlein on

THE APPE,AL OF TI-]RNINGWOOD process. I am addictedto discovery, progress, f turn simplyfor theloveof thecreative I. and the fact that while perfectionis foreverelusive,yesterday's challenges often becomethebasicskillsof tomorrow.I lovethe distinctsmellof thevariouswoods, with which thesoundof shavings astheyarecut by a sharptool,andthequickness a form emerges from a blockof material. andbasIn thepastI haveenjoyedmanyothercrafts,suchasspinning,weaving, ketry.Eachoffersits ownappealtothesenses: thearomaof spinningfreshwool,the soundof a shuttle,thesmellof wetreedsfor a basket,andtheclickingof knittingneewith turningunusualmaterialssuchasbone,plastic,taguanuts, dles.Experimenting for eyes,ears, aluminum,and horn hasled to manymoreinterestingsensations hands,andnose. but whenI discovI havebeenmakingthingsfor asfar backasI canremember, eredwoodturningmorethan20yearsagoit becamemy favoritewayto createsomething. It startedwhen my daughterwanteda doll house.During the processof in thesmall-scale building,lighting,andfurnishingthehouse,I becameinterested camefrom thefactthatmy fatherwas toolsI neededto use.Maybethatfascination oncea builderhimself. About eightyearsago,I designed and beganproducinga smallwood turning My machinehasa 5-inchswingandis lathe,liketheoneshownin thephotograph. is available includingchucks, A wide range of accessories l2 inchesbetween centers. jig, plate. This was new for whatI like and an indexing a beginning tools,a threaded "small-scale its and what has developed into an area of own in the to call turning," projects, gallery world, with tools, classes, and even shows. woodturning Oneof thegreatvirtuesof a smalllatheis its portability.Manypeoplenow take a lathewith themto useat craftfairs,on vacation,or southfor thewinter.I am able There to travelwith 10lathes,tools,andwoodin thebackof my vanto teachclasses. purchased lathes necessary severalsmall andthe aremanyschooldistrictsthat have especiallylike thequietness of the tools-all for thepriceof a largelathe.Shopteachers projectsmaybeturnedfiom scraps. machineandthefactthatmanyof thesmall-scale many Because woodturningis somethingI feelstronglyabout,I havevolunteered hoursof teachingturningto kids.I am involvedwith turningfull time and I feel veryfortunatethatI am ableto earna goodincomefrom sellinglathes,tools,turnings,andmy expertise.

SheisfeaBonnieKleinisa woodturnerin Renton,Washington. turedhereturninga spinningtop-one of herfavoritesmall-scale productionitems-on theKein lqthe,whichshedeveloped in 1985.


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SETTNGI.IP hewoodlatheis perhaps the tially the sameasthoseusedby oldestof all woodworking (page14). modernwoodworkers machines. Primitiveformsof this Indeed,manywoodturnerspretool wereusedby the Etruscans fer olderlathesto newerones, in the 9th Centurv B.C. And refurbishingthem and setting throughoutitslonghiitory thetool themon stands of theirownmakhasbeenusedin virtuallythesame ing (pageI8). Woodworkers were way.Somewhat likeapotter'swheel beneficiaries of technological laid on its side,thelathespinsa advances in machining madedurwoodblankwhilea turnershapes ingtheIndustrialRevolution when thewoodwith chisel-like tools.The latheswereadaptedto turn metIathemakesit possibleto shape als,aswellaswood.Thisnewfield woodintoflowing,roundedforms broughtthewoodturnera wide in awaythatothertoolscannot. rangeofchucksandaccessories to TheearliestlatheswerehumanTurningblanlcs aretypicallyavailablein holdthemostdelicateandtricky powered, with a pieceof cord shortpieces.Someof themorepopulnrexamples ofturnedobjects, fromgoblets to wrappedaroundtheblank,conareshownin thephotoabove.Resting atopa lacebobbins. nectedto a springysaplinganda zebrawoodboardaresamplesof tulipwood,kingThechapterthat followsis an treadle. With a fewmodifications, wood,and ebony.For a selection of thebest introductionto thelatheandthe this evolvedinto the polelathe woodsfor turning refertopage31. (page took (page20) andaccessories popularwith Britishbodgers, who 23)neededfor turningwoodblanl$ traveledfrom town to town,workingfreshlyfallentrees intofurnitureparts,bowls,andotherfinishedproducts. Also into chairs.Flywheels anddriveshafts wereaddedto the includedin thechapter isa sectionon safety precautions and design, andthelatheemerged (page28). asoneof theengines behind equipment themassproductionof Windsorchairsin themid-18th Thelatheremains oneof themostpopularwoodworking Century.Turningbecamea specialized trade. tools,andwoodturningis a craftwith anintriguingcachet, With thecomingof theIndustrialRevolution, heavy-cast likecarvingor marquetry. It isnothardto understand why:A engine-powered lathesforevertooktheelbowgrease out latheenables thewoodworker to turn something beautiful of turning.With minor changes, theselatheswereessen- fromnothingmorethana stickof wood.

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Turnedlegsand otherfurniturepartsareshapedon thelathe in a process calledspindleturning.In thephotoat lefi,a wood blnnkis mountedbetyveen thelathe\fixed headstock in the upperleft-handcornerand theadjustabletailstocknearthe centerof thephoto.Thetailstockcanslidealongthelathebed to accommodate thewo*piece.Theblankwill beturnedinto a cylinderand thenshapedwith a varietyof turning tools.


ANATOMYOFALATHE a lathe,consider \ [ f henyouchoose Y Y carefi.rlly thetypeof turningyou will bedoing.Somemodelsaremade specifically forfaceplate turning,in which theblankis secured onlyon theheadstock.Othersaresmallenoughto reston

HeadEtoak Holda blankafor both faceplate and opindle work;central ahaft that turna epindleie attached to motor via drive belt. Removable coverallowoac@6s to drive belt and indexinqhead

a benchtop. Thelatheshownbelowisa typicalfreestanding modelusedforboth spindleandfaceplate turning. Lathesizeis measured in two ways: swingand capacity. Swingis twicethe distance between theheadstock spindle

Tool reat Provideagupport and fulcrum point for toioilswhenturning, Heiqht of reat can be adjuoted and lockedin place with lever; reet can be rotated to the deaired anqle for faceplate turnin7

Faceplate Standard lathe attachment; blank is fastened to faceplate whiohia then threaded onto headatoak apindle

Locking lever Lockatailatock in place

and the bed,which limits the diameter of blanks. Capacityis the distance betweenthe headstockand tailstock, which limits the length of blanks.The weight of the lathe is important, as greaterweight providesstabilityand

Tailatock epindle A hollowahaft with a reveree taper that holda centers in a friation fit to turn apindlework: turn in4 t aiIatock handwheel advanceaand retracte apindle

Spindle loak Lockatailetock epindle tn PEC9

Tailstoak handwheel Advanceeand retracte tailotock epindleto aecure workpiece Tailstoak 1ecureaone end of blank for apindleturnin6.9lideaalonq bed to accommodate blanka of different len6the

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t Onloff ewitch -...tL-L

and t betweenheadetock ta1atoak to poeition tool reet wiLhre1pec7 to workpiece:Iockin4lever gecures baee to bed

Eed Made of two caet-iron or tubular steel tracka, or wava.tvpicallv "

up\""ii't

Variable epeed aontrol lever lncreaeeeor decreaaeaapeedof apindlerotation without ohuttin7 off the lathe; pulledout, and turned to chan1e6?eed

incheaaparL; accurately maahinedeo that tool baae and tailstock olide emoothly

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damoens vibration.Anotherfeatureto consideris how easyit is to change largerworkpieces speeds; mustbeturned at lower speedsthan smallerones. Changingthe speedof somelathes involves switching a drivebeltbetween HEADSTOCK ASSEMBTY Fixed-width pulley Featurea four adiuatable otepe. On lathee'with variable-apeedadjuatment, apindleapeed ia chanqed by manually movinqbelt from one etep to another: on variable-apeedmodela, belt ie lefb as ia

pulleys; twosetsof stepped othermodpulleysystems elshavevariable-speed thatallowthespeed to bechanged withoutswitching offthetool. Ifyou decideto buy a usedlathe, checkthe motor,bearings,spindle

lndexinq head Enableaapindleto be rotated a preset.number of de1reeab5r hand whencarvinq flutea, reeda,and apiral turninqo on a blank. Featurea one rinq of 60 holea epaced 6" aparb around the head and another of B holea epaced45' aparL;indexinqpin ia inaerbed in a hole whencarvin7 ie bein1done and taken out to rotate apindle. Lathe muat be awitched off durin7 entire operation 5pindle nut Looeenato removeapindlefor replacinqbelta and bearinqo Headatoak epindle Threadedhollowahaft to which variouachucka are ecrewedin place; ranqea from %inch to 1% incheain diameter.Hollowis Morae-taperedto hold varioua centere with a fricbion fit

Indexing pin Fita into holea in indexina head; ineerLedto hold headatock apindle eteady and retracted to rotate

The1951s-vintage WadkinBursgreen latheisprizedfor its machiningcapacitiesand innovativefeatures,suchasa brakethat stopsspinningblanksquickly and a removable bedsegmentnearthe headstock to accommodate large-diameterfaceplatework.

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threads, andlathebedfor wear.Make surethe tool restand tailstockrun smoothlyandall lockingleverswork. Alsomakesurethatthespindlethreadis ifnot, chucks standard; undotheraccessoriesmustberethreaded to fit.

15


TOOL RESTSAND LATHESTANDS I tool restactsasa fulcrurnfor your A t u r n i n gt o o l s p , r o v i d i r ragf i x e c l , horizontalweight-bearing surfacefor balancing andbracinga toolasyoucut into a spinningblank.Thetool reston a latheis madeup of two parts:a tool baseand the detachable restitself,The basecanslidealongthe lengthof the lathebed,according to the needsof thework.Thetool restmountsin the base;the heightand angleof the rest areadjustable so it canbe positioned parallelto thelathebedfor spindleand faceplate work,perpendicular to the bedfor faceplate work,or at an anglein between. In addition,thebaseirndrest canbe mountedon an outboardbed for large-diameter faceplate turning. Therearea numberof differenttool restsfor specialized turning tasks; a selectionis shownbelow.

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5HO7Tt? Weighinqdown a lathe b e c a u s el u r n i n g w o o d c a n c a u e e a q r e a f ,d e a l o f v i b r a t i o n , a l a L h en e e d sf , o

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be aq qf.ahle ac. nn".qible.

E v e nL h e b e s t l a L h e i e a n i n e f f i c i e n La n d d a n g e r o u om a c h i n ei f i L i s n o L w e i g h e dd o w n p r o p e r l y . 7 i n c em o e L m o d e r nl a l h e s t a n d o are madeof lighlweiqht at.eel if. ic. ner.eaaarrr g6

w e i q ht r h e md o w n w i l h c e m e n Lb l o c k so r o a c K o filled wiLheand, as shown he re, lo reduc e vibraf,ion a n d n o i e e .S o l t i n qt . h e lalhe to your workohoV f l o o r i s a n o t r h e ro V L i o n .

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TOOLRESTS Standard tool baae )ltdee alongthe laLhe bed; featuree a fiLLinq for tool rest ehaft. A lever-operated cam mechaniem locke baae tn poeiLion on Lhe bed. Daae ahown te the Lype thaL comea with moeL lathee

Tall tool baae Ueed on lat.hea wtLh lower out;board beda for Lurnin7 larqe faceplate work. thie baee te 4 inchee taller than et;andard baaee; a lever-operaLed cam mechantem te used Lo lock the baee tn poottion

?tandard tool reat. Mounl;e in Lool baee for 7eneral faceplaLe and epindle work: comeo wtth lathe

thort rest Ueedfor emallerepindle and faceplatework:Lypically 6 tncheelonq

Long reet Mountedin two eLandard tool baeeo for lon7 epindle work; avatlabletn 18- and 24-tnch lenqLhe

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5-ahaped bowl reat Ueedfor turning the outeideand inerdeof bowla

Right-anglereet MounLedin eLandard LoolreeltLo Lurn bowl blanke; Ion4 eide te poetLioned perpendrcular to lat he bed to Lurn face of bowl, whtle ohorc eide ie poeitioned parallel Lo taLhe bed to work etdeo. Lonq etde Lyptcallymeaeuree 7 tnchee

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DRESSING A TO()LREST

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ffi,r i* ijii lll Jl,liil'iljlll lbiiillliliiiilli il* l[ 9HO7Tt? A dju oti n g Iath e h eight, T h e h e i g h Lo f a l a t . h ei e c r u c i a l t o effictenN t u r n i n 7 .C o m m e r cai l l a t h e e L a n d sa r e o l L e n I o o l o w , w h t c hc a n m a k e i l d i f f i c u l L | o c o n N r oyl o u r t u r n i n g l o o l e . Y o u aloo may Niremore as a resulL. A e a r u l e o l l h u m b , L h eh e i q h f , o f a l a l h e ' ss p i n d l e o s h o u l d b e l e v e lw i l h y o u r e l b o w e . l f n e r ' . e c c a . rJ t' Jvvnv l

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your latheto Nhe?ro?er heightby bolNing tt to eolid blocksof densehardwood n witrhfoam rubberqluedt o F -.i--.::-_,, Lheirundersides.

Smoothing a worntoolrest B e c a u sa e t o o l r e s ti s m a d eo f s o f t e r s t e e tl h a nt h e s t e e lu s e df o r t u r n i n g tools,it will eventually developlowspots, m a r k sa, n dn i c k s l. f n o tr e m e d i e dt h, e s e imperfection wsi l l b e t r a n s f e r r et o d the b l a n k sy o ut u r n ,o r m a k et h e t o o ly o u a r eh o l d i n sgk i pa n dp o s s i b lcya u s ea n a c c i d e n tY. o uc a nd r e s sa t o o lr e s te a s i l y w i t h a s i n g l e - c ubta s t a r m d i l lf i l e . H o l d i n tgh e f r l ei n b o t hh a n d sa t a n a n s l p i n i h p r p c . i n r r c h i t : n r n c c iLhr reu tL nv yn

surface(above). Makea seriesof overl a p p i n gs t r o k e u s n t i ly o ur e m o v e allthe n i c k sa n d h o l l o w fsr o mt h e r e s t ,t h e n s m o o t ht h e s u r f a c e w i t h 2 0 0 - g r i st a n d p a p e ro r e m e r yc l o t hf o l l o w e db y a l i g h t a p p l i c a t i oonf f l o o rw a x ,b u f f e ds m o o t h .


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A LATHE STAND Olderlathesareprizedbywoodturnersbecause theywereoftenbuilt betterthannewermodels. Theonly problem is thatthesevintage lathes oftenlacka standor a working motor. F o r t u n a t eiltyi,s e a s yt o e q u i pa lathewithboth.Lathesneedless powerful motors thanmoststationary machines. A%-homodel thatrunsat 1725RPM-halfthesoeed of a table sawmotor-willdo.

A lathestandneeds to beheavy and solid,liketherugged shop-built version primarily shownbelow, constructed from2-by-6s. Themotoris mounted withthepulleys behind thelathe, under guard. Thestandalsofeatures a safety pedalthatallows a wooden tension youto release belttension andstop thespindle instantly. Refer to theillustrationforsuggested dimensions. Forthestand,startbycuttingthe legsto lengthfromfour2-by-6s, then

Safety guard

sawa triangular notchfromthebottom of eachlegto makefeet.Joineach pairof legswithtwocrosspieces, locatjustabove ingonecrosspiece thefeet andthe other7Yz inchesfromthetoo of the legs.Cuttheshelff romtwo 2-by-6s, andscrewthepieces to the lowerlegcrosspieces. Next,installthetop,cut fromtwo plywood. 2-by-6s anda pieceof %-inch Screwthe boards andtwobraces to the upperlegcrosspieces, thenfasten

%-hPmotor Lathe bed

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l % x 5 ' 1x 4 5 "

Hinged tenoion pedal

Croeapiece 1'1"x5'/,,"x11"

Leg 1'/"x5'1"x34" thelf 1'/l'x5'/"x48"

Croaapiece 11"x51"x11"

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the plywood t o t h e 2 - b y - 6 sa, s s h o w n a b o v eB . o l tt h e l a t h et o t h e t o p o f t h es t a n d . S c r e wt h e m o t o rt o a m o u n t i n g b o a r dc u t f r o m% - i n c hp l y w o o dT. h e n f a s t e nt h e b o a r dt o t h e t o p w i t h b u t t h i n g e s ot h e s t e p si n t h e m o t o rp u l l e y a r ei n l i n ew i t h t h e h e a d s t o cpku l l e y . o u n tt h e d r i v eb e l t s t e p s( b e l o w )M p u l l e y s . o nt h e

Next,makeandinstall thetension pedal.Connected bya lengthof wire plate, to themotor-mountlng thiswoodpedal you en willallow to slacken the drivebeltwithsimplefootpressure, disengaging fromtheheadthemotor stockandstopping rotation. spindle Cutthepedalfrom2-by-4stockso thatit willextend outfromunder the shelb f ya b o u4t i n c h ew s h e ni t i s

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i n s t a l l e dA. t t a c ht h e t e n s i o np e d a l w i t h a n o t h e hr i n g et o t h e u n d e r s i d e o f t h e s h e l f ,d i r e c t l yu n d e rt h e m o t o r . B o r eh o l e st h r o u g ht h e t o p ,t h e s h e l f , a n d t h e p e d a tl o a c c o m m o d a t he e w i r et h a tw i l l c o n n e ct th e p e d a tl o t h e m o t o r - m o u n t i nb go a r d A . ttach a l e n g t ho f h e a v y - g a u gwei r et o t h e u n d e r s i doef t h e p e d a la n d p a s si t t h r o u g ht h e t h r e eh o l e sy o u d r i l l e d a n d o v e rt h e h e a d s t o c kN. o w p u s h t h e m o t o r - m o u n t i nbgo a r dt o w a r d t h e I a t h ea n d h o l dt h e w i r ea g a i n s t i t . K e e p i n gt h e t e n s i o np e d a lf l a t o n t h e f l o o r ,p u l lt h e w i r et a u t .C u t t h e w i r e a n d s c r e wi t t o t h e b a c ko f t h e m o t o rm o u n t i n gb o a r d( b e l o w ) . R e l e a steh e m o t o rt;h e t e n s i o np e d a l s h o u l dr i s ef r o mt h e f l o o r .T o c h e c k t h e n e d a l s t e nn n i t t h e w i r es h o u l d p u l lt h e m o t o r - m o u n t i b no g a r da n d m o t o rt o w a r d tsh e l a t h e ,r e l e a s i ntgh e t e n s i o no n t h e b e l t . Lastly,installan on/offswitchfor the m o t o ra t t h e f r o n to f t h e l a t h es t a n d , a n d p l a c ec o n c r e t e b l o c k so r o t h e r h e a v yo b l e c t so n t h e s h e l ft o w e i g h downthe standand reducevibration.


LATHETOOLS machines, the , i nlikeotherstationary '., ,l latheis not equipp.d*ith blud.t or bits.Instead, you needto buya setof turningtoolsto do your work.These woodchisels, toolsresemble exceptthey aretempered andshaped differently, with longerhandlesandbladesfor bettercontrol andleverage. T[rning toolscanbedividedinto two basicgroups:cuttingandscraping tools.

Cuttingtoolsaremost oftenusedin spindleturning,wherethegrainof the woodrunsoaralleltothelathe'saxisof rotation.Thesetoolsincludegouges, chisels, andpartingtools.Scraping tools areusuallyusedin faceplate turning, wherethe grainrunsperpendicular to theaxisof rotation. Traditionally, all turningtoolswere madeof carbonsteel,but thismaterial

has a tendencyto overheatduring grindingand with continuoususe. Turningtoolsmadeof high-speed steel (HSS)retaintheiredgeup to sixtimes longerthan carbonsteel,makingthe additionalexpense worth it in thelor-rg run.In fact,sometools,likedeep-fluted bowl gougesand largescrapers, are onlyavailable in HSS.Whethertheyare madefrom high-speed or carbonsteel,

CUTTING TO(ITS

Featureaa roundedbody for makin4beadeor pommelo; easterto control than a otraiqhL ekew.Availabletn %- and 1-inchwidthe

An7ledcuttin7 tool uaed for makrnqbeada,V-cuta,and ahouldercuta and for emoothin4aurfacea;beveledat 42' on both top and bottom. Availablein widLhabetweenI and 1'/,inchea

Radiusedekew A stratqht okewqiven

-\ parttnq tool f,hat Diamond-shaped 5/u tapere from inch wideat center of blade

a curved ed4e on the 7rtnder: enables complex emoothin4 cuto to be made withouL dt4qtnq inLo the work

to /s inch wide aL the edqeo, enabling it. to cut with leaa frictton Lhan atandard partina tool

9tandard partin7 tool Narrowcutting tool uaedfor makin7 otzing cuto; beveled on top and bottom at 5O'. Available in /-- and'/.-inch widLhe

Cuttinq tool uaedto rou7h ouf,cylinderofrom aquareeLock for epindlework:beveledaL 30". Avail' able in widthebetween% and 1%inchee

Fluted parting tool Tartinq tool with covealonqthe boLLom:Laperefrom t/u to'/a inchat the top of btade.Twoleadin7apuraat the bottom ecore outlineof cuL ftrat, reducinqfriction and bindinq

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turning tools shouldalwaysbe kept in described sharp,usingtechniques the following chapterbeginningon page32. A blunt tool is an accident waitingto happen. Thereis a bewilderingvarietyof turning toolson the market,yet only eight mostcomto undertake to 10areneeded mon turning.A beginner's tool kit is outlinedbelow at right.

In their questfor bettertools,somewood turnersdesigntheir own. California engineerand wood turner lerry Glaser developeda line of nrning toolsusing A-11high-speedsteel,someof which are shownin thephoto at right. The hollow aluminum handlesarefilled with lead shot to dampenvibration and give the proper weight to the tool. Someof the handlesand bladesare interchangeable.

9pindle gouge thallower than bowl qouqeewith a finqernailgrind beveledat 3O": uaedfor cuLttnqbeade and coveaand for 4eneralepindlework. Availablein widthe between%and %inch

tseadingtool )quare chiaeluaed to producebeadeand Vqroovea;beveledat 60". Avai' labletn %-and %-inchwtdtha

Eowlgouge Deeper-fluted veraionof the epindle qouge;uaedin ehapinq bowlo,cupa,and other faceAvailable 'plate b e t wwork. een% a n d % i ntnc widLha h

BASICTOOLKIT A WOOD TURNER'S . A l-inch roughinggougefor rapid removalof stock betweencenters .2 skewchisels: a %-or f-inch tool f o r p l a n i n ga n dt a p e r i n ga;n da % - i n c h toolfor finerworksuchas shaping cuts curvesand makingdecorative .2 spindlegouges:a %-or 1-inch tool for generalspindleturning,and a tl-inchtool for finerspindlework . A %-inchdiamondsectionparting tool for partingoff and makingsizingcuts

Deep-flute bowlgouge A bowlqougewtLha deeper fluLeuaedtn roughin4and finiehinqbowls,vesaela,and other faceplatework.Availablein widtha between'Aand 3/,inch

Square-endchieel )imilar to a skewchisel but groundotratqhf,acroee; availablein %-and 1-inchwidtho

. A %-inchbowlgougefor faceplate t u r n i n go f b o w l su p t o 1 0 i n c h e si n diameter . A %-inchdeep flute bowl gougetor faeonlaio trrrnino

. A%]nchroundnosescraperlor upconcave surfaces and cleaning faceplate work hollow . A 1-inchsquare-end flalscrapertor convex surfaces teningandsmoothing


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SETTINGUP

SCRAPING TO()TS

t Square--< end ecraper Uaedfor flattentnq and amoothinqconvex faceplaf,eworksuch ae the outeide of bowla;cuttin4 ed4e beveledon the underetdeat-BO'. Availablein widtha between%and 1 inch

Skew Sideautting sarapere 9 pecialized%-inch ecrazero ueedon the insideof bowp ana other hollowfaceplatework

6AraPerg Anqled 1%-inch

equare-endacraperfor roundingconvexaurfaces and markingconcenLilccute in faceplatework;comeain leftand riqht-handedmodela

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t Roundnoae qaraPer Oenerat-purpoee ecrapin4tool for emoothin7 and finiahin7concaveeurfacee in faceplate workeuchaa bowle or hollow veeeela;available in widtha from % Lo 1 inch

Halfround aara?er Larger1%-inchveraionof round-noaeacraperfor heavyduty bowlwork;comea in leftand right-handedmodele

Domed ocraper Versionof round-noee ecraper for makinqfine ohearinqcute and finiahing inaideof bowleand other hollowfaceplate work:availablein widLhe between%tolinch

SPECIATTY T()(lTS Hook tool Fatterned afLer apecialLygwediah woodLurningtoola; ueed in end-Trainhollowinq. thort hookie for hollowworkwith aradual inLeriorcurvea:lonq hookia for forms wrth tiqht int.ernalcurves,such ae a neckedvaee.Sold without handlee

Diek ahiael Featureaa 1-inch beveleddiek at Lip: tip ie removable for aharpeninq

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t hollowin7of vaaea,boxes, and other hollowturninqe:idealfor areae difficult to reach with a bowlaouae. lnterchangeable cuttinq ringeare aharpenedon Lheinaidebevel;removedand installed'witha eetecrew, Krnga are 5/a,7aand elainch in diameter

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LATHEACCESSORIES ountingstockin a latherequires Ifyouare basicaccessories. several centers, or spindleturnturningbetween ing, you will needa varietyof centers andtailstockof that fit in the headstock the machine(page24). Thesecenters grip the blank at both endsasit turns. Faceplate turnings,suchasbowlsor plates,canbe screwedto a simplefaceplateand threadedonto the headstock. Smalleror moredelicateturnings,suchas lacebobbins,shouldbeheldby a chuck. Thereis a widerangeof lathechucls, eachservinga differentpurpose,from the simple screwchuck to the scroll chuck.Thelattercomesfrom the field of metalworkand featuresthreeor four jaws that open or closearound the workpiece.Somechucksaredesigned ascombinationchucks,and comprise a numberofparts that canbe reconfigured to hold stockin severalways.

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L Arboracrewahuck 1 Uaedto mountface- J" plate workto the headetock; mounts in pilot holedrilled in workpiece,Includeaa 2%-inchbackin4waaherfor Iarge work:aome models feature adjustable acrews

/ Lpiootanua* Dovetail chuak t\\ ) il Ueedto mount Usedto mount Rk\:-./4 f a c-.-, er' nIaLe work Nl Illi---;,;fiiiil rllry'." i bowla and other w Yneneadgt'ock; Nllllllr'"r"' faceplate work to the headstock; ae acrew collar ia tiqhtened with wrencheaahown, beveledjawe expandaqainet a dove' tailed receas turned in base of workpiece.Fart of combinationchuakeyetem

arr

222":;,:,:,::;i;'1"

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\^ -r;fT"L raaops onuoK

'J'.:;-l#:,i":;,,,\.W

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Three-wayeplit ring ahuck Uaedto mount lon7 hollow turninga euchas qobleta and vaaeato the headatock; beveledrinqe fit into aizinqcut made in work' pieceand lock a7ainet beveledinternal face of chuckcollar.Fart of combination chuck evetem

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A COTTECTION OFCHUCKS

turnina workin r" A headsiock or borin7 attach' mento in the tailatock: fea' turee Morae taper ahaft

Bowlscanbemountedfor finishing theirbases with a setof widejaws,an accessory for a four-jaw scrollchuck. Thejaws holdthebowlrim with rubber into a seriesof stoppers that arescrewed adjustable slots holes.Somemodelshave in additionto theholessothejaws can holdirregularlyshaped faceplatework; themodelshowncanbeusedwith bowls up to 10inchesin diameter.

Pin ahuak Uaed whenrouqhin1 out lar4e faceplate blanka mounted to the headetock: ineerted into hole bored in workpiece. Fart of combinationchuckayetem

Four-jaw saroll ahuck Another combinationchuckoyatem that can be uaed as a dovetail, api4ot, pin, or ocrew chuck;jawo expandand conLractron 9lraeaa9 chuak acroll ia rotated with wrencheeahown. W Larqerjawo can be added

Threading aaaeeeory Latheji6 uaed to turn external and internal threada in faceplate workpieceo.Turnedworkpieae 'ie with chuck or faceplate ia mounted in iia which then inetalledon lathe'bed:cutter and Jacoie cnucx are mounted in headatoak. Workis then advanced into cutter by turninq handwheelto cut threada

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SETTINGUP

(lF CENTERS A SETEGTION Two-apur drive center Mounted in headatock epindleto center and drive epindlework; ,) point centere the workpiecewhile chiael-likeopura enqaqeana f,urnit. Featurea Morae taper shaft; uaeful with blankewhoeeendaare not gquare

Four-epur drive aenter Mounted in headatock apindleto cenherand drive epindle work;featuree Morae taper ahaft. )ffere better qrip and drive on 6quarecut worKthan two-opur center

Dead aenter Mountedin tailatock epindle to center and drive epindlework;featuree Moraetaper ahaft. Kemainafixed with reepect to epinning work;eomelubricationia needed. Modelehownie a cup center, featurin7 raiaed rinq to prevent eplittin7 of emall work Live aenter Mounted in tailatock apindleto center workpiece;featurea Morae taper ehaft. Larqehub containe bearinqa,allowin4center to 6pin with the work, elrminatinqfriction

Cone center Uaedwith a livecenter to oupport hollowworkpieceathat are heldat the headstockend only: conehaa aeveralotepe of decreaein4diametere

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Laae-bobbinoenter Mountedin headatock to turn emall workauchaa bobbine; featurea Morae taper ahaft, Tapered 6quare hole will hold stocks/a-to %-inchequare

illlrllttllltll]Ill1 llfllll tlllllltlljjtll]illlfil]l]ilflt]llllfilJ llli 9HO7Tt? tharpening a drivecenter Drivecentere ehouldbe kept ' ae eharpaeyourturninq toole.lf the ezurbor ooinlof a drivecenlerare dullor chipped, Lheywillnol 4rip lhe workpiece cenNere, reoulNinq VroperlybeLween in an off-centermounlina,To eharpena drivecenter,qrind a 35' bevelon the undereideof eachepuron a benchqrinder,ae ehown here.Donot keeVthe opuroon lhe wheel too lonq,ae the heat,qeneraledmay eofLen Nhem. Thenremove Nhecent.erpoini with a hexkeyand eharVeniNt o a uniformtaper. ReVlace lhe Vointin Ihe centereo lhat iNprotrudee '/oinchbeyond the oVure,and,tiqhNenit, with lhe key.

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x 36"

9ide % "x 2 1 " x 2 4 "

Top/Eott'om '1"x21"x36" t/it x 2'/it x 34'1"

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Magnetic bar 1"x1"x30"

x 30"

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TOOTS FOR TURNING TWORACKS and toolsorganized Keepyourturning withinreachwithoneof theseshopTheyaresimpleto make; builtracks. in theillustraadaptthedimensions yourtoolcoltionsto accommodate Therackshownat top is lection. it madefromYo-and%-inchPlywood; thetools to separate features spacers themfrom anda bracethat orevents To maketherack, fallingforward. andsides cuttheback,top,bottom, of theframeandscrewthe pieces to the Mountthespacers together. backwitha screwat thetopandbot2%inchthestripseuery tom,spacing position thebraceabout es.Finally, 1 inchfromthe bottomof the rack spacer. andscrewit to everysecond Therackshownat bottomrelieson barto holdtoolsupright. a magnetic of a frame,thisrackfeatures Instead panel.Cut backing a'/uinchplywood thelipfromsolidwoodandborea row holesto accomof 2-inch-diameter of yourturning modate thehandles through tools;drilleachholehalfway the lip andspacethem2/zinches apart.Attachthe lip f lushwiththe bottomof the panel,drivingscrews themagfromtheback.Toposition neticbar,seta fewof yourtools the upright in therack-including one-andmarka lineacross shortest theoanelat thelevelof theblades. stripof wood a 1-inch-square Screw overthelineandgluea to thepanel stripto thewoodwithconmagnetic tactcement. whichevAsa safety consideration, er rackyoubuild,mountit besiden o tb e h i n d - y o ul ra t h eT. h i sw i l l e l i m i n a thea v i n tgo r e a c ho v e tr h e toolwhileit is running.


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MEASURINGAND MARKINGTOOLS espiteitsvisualappealandempha"feel" sison asa methodof judging theprogress of a workpiece, wood turningis an exacting craft.Toobtain precision, therequired theheadstock of yourmachinemustrun smoothlyand true,andtheworkpiece mustbecarefully centered. Thetoolsillustratedbelowandon page27will helpyouto setupyourlathe andaccurately measure theprogress of yourwork.Usethemwell;it is difficult to judgeabowlbdepthby eyeor duplicatethecontoursof aturnedlegwithout a setofcalipers.

Thecommercial centerfinder shownin thephotoat left takestheguesswork out of mountingspindlestockto the lathe. Thejig isparticularly usefulfor round and octagonal stocltandfor remounting workoncethewasteendshavebeencut away.Theblankis heldin thebottomof thejig, rappedwith a mallet, rotateda quarterturn, and thenhit again.The two linesscoredon the endwiII indicate thecenterofthepiece.For addedconvenience,mountthe jig on a wall.

CHECKING THEBEARII{GS F(lRRUNOUT

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Usinga dialindicator lf yourlatheis an oldermodel,checkthe bearings periodically for runout-theamountof wobblein thespindle. Clampa dialindicator to a magnetic baseandposition it withits plunger touching the lathe'sspindle(above), thencalibrate

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thedialto zerofollowing themanufacturer's instructions. Turn theshaftof the latheby hand;thedialindicator will register bearing runout.lf the runoutexceeds 0.005inch,the bearingsshouldbereplaced.

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SETTINGUP

TURNING TOOLS F()RW()OD MEASURING ANDMARKING lnaide calipera Uaedto determineineidediameter of hollowturninqa;available in 4-,6- and B-inchepana /

Combination calipere Feature a seL of inaidecaliperaaL one end and a eet of outside caltpereat Lheother; ueeful for eizin4 lide to fit turned boxee. Availablein 6- to 12-inchapane

Outeide calipera Ueedto determinethtckneae of aptndleor faceplate work; availablein 4-,6- and Btnchepano

Dial aalipers Uouallyuaedto meaeurzwallthicknesa;makeaprecieeinaideand outstdemeasurementa.Graduated in'/ooo'inchincrementa

Compase Uoedto ecrrbea circle on a blank; typical apan io 6 to B inchea Double-endedcalipere Featurea eet of dutside calipereaL each end.A dimeneion Lakenat one end ia automaLicallytraneferred to the other; caltperedo noL haveto be removedfrom workpieceto take meaaurement.Availablein B- and Center finder Quicklylocatee center of equare, round, or octagonalapindleetock up to 6 inchee wide;featurea ateel ecorin4 blade to mark stock

Depth gauge A ehop-made4au4econaietin4of a woodhandleand two dowelsuoedto determineLhedepth of bowlaand hollow turnin4e;the lonqerdowelfeaturee depLhincremente. Modelshowncan meaoure bowleup to 17incheein dtameter

9izing tool Attached to a beadinqor partinq tool, ae ahown,for producinqaccurate diametera in apindlework;knob oppoeitecuttinq edqereeto blank aqaineteptnntng aa cutter reduces thickneee


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SAFETY turningisconsidered to be I Ithough A a relatively safepursuit,it isnotfree ofdanger. Gettingyourfingerspinched between aspinning blankandatoolrest is onlyonehazard. Mostturningaccidentscanbeattributed to mountinga blankonthelatheimproperly, or using inappropriate speed or tooltechnique. Carefully centera blankon thespindle andcheckthatyouareusingtheproper speedfor thejob beforeyoustart

turning.Thespeedmustbecompatible with the sizeand weightof the workpiece;seethe front endpaperof this book for a chartindicatingthe appropriatespeeds for variousturningoperations.Finally,neverusea cuttingtool for somethingit wasnot designed to do, andmakesureyour toolsaresharp. The safetyaccessories shownbelow areasimportantassharptools.Because of the largeamountof chipsand dust

producedby turning,eyeandfaceprotectionareessential. Wooddustpacks somehiddenhazardsas well. Exotic woods,suchasrosewood andtulipwood, producetoxicdustthatcancauseserious eye,throat,and skin irritation.Weara dustmaskor respiratorwhenturning any woodandequipyour shopwith an adequate dustcollectionsystem. A shopmadedusthood for thelatheis shown onpage29.

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HOOD FOR THELATHE A DUST of wastewoodand a greatvolume Turning cangenerate plywood, the dusthood from%-inch dust.Builtentirely positioned directlybehinda workshownat leftcanbe pieceto drawchips,shavings, fromyour andsawdust your Refer dustcollector. latheandconvey thisdebristo Makethe dimensions. for suggested to the illustration for the hoodto sit at the levelof the standhighenough whenthe baseis on the shopfloor. workpiece T o b u i l dt h ej i g ,c u tt h eb a s ea n ds t a n da, n dc o n n e c t joint.Next,cutthefoursides themwithan edgehalf-lap pieces andtaperwithi2-inch-square of thehood,starting glue andscrews ingeachto 6 inchesat the back.Use at Cuta panelto fit the opening to connect the pieces. its edgessothat it fits the backof the hood,beveling snugly.Usea sabersawto cut a holefor a dustcollecto thehood. backpanel thenglueandscrewihe tionhose, Attachthe hoodto the standwiththreeanglebrackets on eachsideof the stand.Thefrontof the hoodshould protrude theassembly. overtheedgeof thestandto balance hoseintothe To usethejig, inserta dustcollector behindtheworkbackpanel.Placethedusthooddirectly pieceandturnon the dustcollector youstart before of thebase at thebottom Youcaninstallcasters turning. a n ds t a n di,f d e s i r e d .

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TIPS TURNING SAFETY o Donotwearlooseclothes, necktres, or r i n g sw h i l et u r n i n gr ;e m e m b teorr o l l u p y o u rs r e e v e s .

. E n s u rteh e r ei s a d e q u a lt ieg h t i nfgo r y o u rw o r kT. h el a t h es h o u l dh a v ea s e l; a c ei t m u c hn a t u r al il g h ta sp o s s i b l p i f y o u rs h o ph a so n e . b ya w i n d o w

. W h i l et u r n i n gc,o n c e n t r aotnet h ew o r k a t h a n da, n di a k ef r e q u e nbtr e a ktso avoidfatigue.

. Always workwithtoolsthatareproperly r W h e nu s i n gt h e i n d e x i npgi n ,m a k e s h a r p e n eDdu. l lt o o l sa r em o r ed a n g e r s u r et h eI a t h ei s u n p l u g g et odp r e v e n t o u st h a ns h a r po n e s . M a k es u r et h el a t h ei s p r o p e rgl yr o u n d - t h es p i n d lfer o mr o t a t i nagc c i d e n t a lbl ye; sureto disengage the pin beforeplugging . Keepthetoolrestascloseto theworke d ,a n do n i t so w ne l e c t r i c cailr c u i t . l ei t h o uitn t e r f e r i nwgi t h p i e c ea sp o s s i b w i n t h el a t h e . . W h e nf i n i s h i n gd ,o n o tu s el a r g ec l o t h s , y o u ra b i l i t yt o u s ey o u rt o o l sp r o p e r l y ; rotatetheworkby handfirstto seethat a st h e ym a yc a t c ha n dp u l ly o u rf i n g e r s . Checkfor defectsin thewoodyouare p l a n n i ntgo t u r n ;a v o i db l a n ktsh a th a v e i t t u r n sf r e e l y . i n t ot h ew o r k . twists,splits,or knots. o D on o to p e r a tteh el a t h eu n d etrh e . Checkthe speedof yourlathebefore toolfor thejob. i n f l u e n coef a l c o h oolr m e d i c a t i o n . youturnit on;do notuseexcessive usethecorrect speeds. . Always

. Wearappropriate at safetyequipment a l lt i m e s .

29


SETTINGUI)

I T I T

CH AN G ITNHGELA T HSEP E E D

r

thedrivebelt 1 Loosenins I T oc h a n gteh es p e e od na t a t h teh a t f e a t u r esst e p p epdu l l e y su,n p l u g the m a c h i naen dl r f to p e nt h eh e a d s t o c k

I

c o v e rS . t e nn n t h p t p n s i n nl e v e tro d i s e n g a g et h e r a t c h e at n d r a r s et h e m o t o r , r e l e a s i nt g h e d r i v eb e l tt e n s i o n a n dl o o s eningthe belt (right).

I I T I I I I T I I T I I

r)

Changing the speed L f o s e t t h ed e s i r e d s p e e df,o l l o wt h e m a n u f a c t u r e irn' ss t r u c t i o n sf o ra d j u s t i ntgh e p o s i t i oonf t h e b e l t .( O nt h e m o d esl h o w n , t h e s ei n s t r u c t i o nasr ep r i n t e do n a n a m e p l a toen t h e u n d e r s i d eo f t h e h e a d s t o ccko v e r .R ) e f e tr o t h e f r o n te n d o a o ef ro r a c h a r t h a tw i l l h e l py o us e l e c t h e r i g h ts p e e df o r t h e b l a n k

y o up l a nt o t u r n ,P o s i t i otnh e d r i v eb e l to n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t e po n t h e m o t o rp u l l e ya n dt h e na l i g ni t w r t ht h e c o r r e cst t e p o n t h e h e a d s t o cpku l l e y( a b o v e )O. n c et h e d r i v eb e l t i s i n p o s i t i o ns,t e po n t h e t e n s i o nl e v e ra g a i nt o l o w e rt h e m o t o r a n dt i g h t e nt h e b e l t .C l o s et h e h e a d s t o ccko v e r .

30

I I I I I I I I I I T I I


I I I I I I I I I I I I I

SELECTINGWOOD woodfor turn{ n someways,selecting I ing is like choosinglumberfor any woodworkingproject.Stockshouldbe freefrom defects,suchasknots,splits, checks,and shakes. Blanksfor spindle turningshouldbe straight-grained; for bowlsandotherfaceplate work, grainis lessof a concern.In fact,a wildly figured pieceof woodcanyielda stunningbowl. In other ways,selectingwood for turning has someadvantages: Since woodturnersarenot limitedto boards

I I I I I T I I I I I I I I I

r

sources. Seethelist belowfor thecharacteristics and usesof somecommon turning woods. While it is preferableto turn wood thathasbeenair-driedor kiln-driedto a moisturecontentof 8 to l0 percent,green woodcansometimes beused.Blanlsfor Iarge,deepbowlsaresometimes bestcut from a freshlyfelledtree.Yetwhilegreen wood is easierto turn, it shrinksmore, and end sealershouldbe usedto helu preventexcessive checking.

A SETECTION OFWOODS FORTURNING WOOD TYPE

CHARACTERISTICS ANDUSES

PRICE ANDAVAILABITITY

Apple

grainandfine,even Hard,toughwoodwithattractive straight texture; lightsapwood, reddish-brownish heartwood. Goodworkability;accepts finishes well.Excellent forsmall,ornate turnings. A heavy, densetropical exoticwithmedium texture andstraight grain;purple, to irregular orange, rustandyellowin colorwith blackmarkings. Moderate workability; f inishes wellandtakes a highpolishyetproduces noxious dustwhensanded. Used for smallspindle turningprojects suchasvases, cutlery and toolhandles. grain,moderately Straight to interlocked coarse texture, light reddish-brown to mediumred.Goodto excellent workability, depending on species; takesfinishes verywell;a tough,strong woodforgeneral turning. grain,occasionally Straight curlyor bird's-eye, f inetexture; reddish-brown heartwood andwhitesapwood. Goodto moderate workability; accepts finishes verywell.Hardanddense, maple is suitable forgeneral andfineturning. grainwithfine,eventexture; yellowish-brown Interlocked with variegaied Moderate streaks. to difficultworkability; accepts finishes verywellandtakesan unusually highpolish. ldealfor ornate turning. grain;f ine,eventexture; pinkish-brown Straight to reddishbrown. Excellent workability; takesa highpolish. Typically used forfine,ornate turning, andmusical instruments. grain,depending goldenStraight to interlocked onthespecies; brownto dark,purplebrown. Goodworkability; accepts finishes well,provided thespecies is nottoooily.Usedforfineturning. grain, lrregular medium-f inetexture; richgolden-pinkish hue withsalmon to redstripes. Difficult workability; splitseasily. Accepts finishes verywell;canbebrought to an unusually high polish, yetproduces noxious dustwhensanded. Usedforsmall,

plentifu Moderate; relatively I

t I T

andplanls,smalloffcutsat thelumberyardor fallenfruit treesat a localorchard canprovidethe neededraw materials. Turningis typicallydonewith hardwoods,as softwoodsare often incapableof renderingsharpdetail.Exotic woodsarepopularwith manyturners because of their strikingfigure;however,many arebeingharvestedat an alarmingrateand somearescarceand veryexpensive. Checkwith your local dealerfor exoticsfrom well-managed

Cocobolo

Mahogany

Maple

0livewood

Pear

Rosewood

Tulipwood

orn:to ir rrninoc

31

Expensive; scarce

Moderate; becoming scarce

Inexpensive to moderate, depending onfigure; plentiful relatively Expensive; rare

Expensive; rare

Expensive; becoming scarce

Veryexpensive; scarce


flafifftd""ii''' .

*

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t I I I T I I I I I I I I I I I

SWENNG lI *,::"#H.,liffi#Sf:Xfffffifi: I r -

(rrarylwwr:aiâ&#x201A;Ź.''-.Y::'-,:1:,]:::1e;;.i;..l;..;;;;;;n*;;|;;i;rJ woodturnine.Dullc

Takethenecessa results. onyourlathe. Thereis somedisagre

turnerSastowhatthisangleshouldbire.|onceyouhavechosen.asharpening

atechyouwill needto dgvelop method, to raisinga burrona Thesecret for everytool.Butaslon! asa bevelis freesharpen Seasoned_turners stepin the (coicave)or flat, scraper-anessential eitherhollow-ground {qu:: acommercial hand,butforthebeginner, pTsgs5s-i5 toapply sharpening it will work rill. ,q,ryou gainexperijig for useona grinderis a sharpening asyouholdthe lightpressure ence,youmaysettleuporiangleithat Thereisawide investment. worthwhile grinding wheel. the against is blade Grinding your of turning. style suit andwheels stones range ofsharpening page 34. on discussed page35and.the chartof grinding Theinventory_on available. turnwaysto sharpen Not surpriiirigly,thereareseveral you youwiththeinformation onpage36shouldprovide. with bench- wheels ing tools.A fe* t*ners do all theirsharpening ptrchase. an informed need to make grinding a on sharpen exclusively Others slipstones. stones and requiremainteLiketurningtools,grindersthemselves you methodof formingtheedge Thisisa quickandeasy wheel. (page36) that willensure wheel occasionally Dressingthe project nance. when turning a particulaily midway ihrough need, particles. by fresh abrasive your are.being sharpe.ne{ tools may quickly. however, A wheel, edge up an youw;nt to touch it from cut:ing Checkyourwheelsfor cracksby tappingthem:A wheelin ieaveroughmarkson the6lade,preventing goodconditionwill producea ringingsound.Asanadditional quickly-As shownin thii relatively it to dull an"dcausing cleanly yougrind. whenever precaution, weareyeprotection safety rough-sharpby Start is igood compromisef there chaptbr,

A wet/drygrinder is valuablefor sharpening turning tools.Itswheelrotatesmoreslowlythan benchgrinder,reducingthe that of a conventional riskthat thetemperof thetoolwill bedestroyed.

33


TECHNIQUES SHARPE,NING

I I I

f) eforeyou cansharpena turning lJ tool,thebevelanglemustbeground properly.Thegrindingrequirements of cuttingandscrapingtoolsareverydifferentbecause of thewavthevareused on thelathe.Thebevelof a cuttinetool mustrub on thestockat all timestJ helo controlthecut.lf theangleis toosharp, thetoolwill beharderto controlandthe cuttingedgewilldull quickly.But if the bevelangleis too steep,you mayhave to hold the tool almostverticallyand applyexcessive pressure. Scrapers, on the otherhand,shaveawaywoodwith a burr. The anglestheyrequiredepend on the typeof scraper you areusing. Not only bevelangle,but the shape of the tip-whether straightacross, skewed at anangle,or curved-is important to considerwhen grindingyour tools.A square-ground spindlegouge, with a tip groundperpendicular to the bladeshaft,isbestfor turningcylinders,

tapers,or otherstraightcuts.A fingernail-groundspindlegouge,with edge cornerscut back,or relieved, will make a bettertool for turningbeadsandcoves. Skewchiselsmay be groundstraight across or curved,depending on theuse. Seepage37 for an illustrationof thetips of variousturningtools. As you grind a bevel,it is criticalto createa single-faceted bevel,thatis,one with a continuousface.Thiscanonlybe achieved by keepingthebevelperfectly flat on the wheelasyou grind.Thejig shownon page39 will helpyou with a troublesometool, the roughing-out gouge.If you usea grinder,thebevelwill havea shallowconcave shape,matching the curveof the grindingwheel.Avoid usinga wheelsmallerthan 5 inchesin diameter;the degreeof curvaturewill makefor a weaktool tip. Grindingon a beltsander(pagea|)wily-teld a flatbevel,whichis equally effective.

I I eharpenedbevel; containga mixture of chromiumdtoxide

concave, and conical atoneg are auited

I I I I I

to curvaLureaof varioueqouqeo

t

and other fine abraaivea

7mail otlatonesand water6ton66 used'ro honebevela of turninq toola; convex,

I I

Any oiletone,waterbtone, or diamondatone uged Lo hone bevel

I I I I I I I I

Dreaeer Uaedto Lrueor reohape4rinder wheelaand expoaea freah cuf,ttnq aurface.)tar-wheel dreeoer (below, top) hae up Lo four etar-ehaped wheele:diamond-poinL d reeser (below,boLtom) ieaturee a dtamond eet in a bronzef,ipand meLalahafL

Thegrinderisa mubipurpose toolfor thewood turner.Here,thenickedcuttingedgeof a skew chiselissquared grirtdingthebevel. before

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)+

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I T I

SHARPENING

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t I I I I

r I I I I I I I I I I I I

I

t

Benah grinder Grindin7 or abraaivewheel(lefr,-handoide) equareo and eharpenebladea;cloth wheel(right-handeide) poliaheethe bevelnear the cuttinq edge,Featuree%to%-hp motor; eye ahielde,adjuetable tool reste, and wheel4uarda are standard on most modele;benchtop qrindera are uauallybolted to a workaurface

Neoprene wheel Rubber 4rindinq/aharpeninq wheel;availablein four qrite. Ueedfor qrindinqand eharpeninq;provideea aharp enou4hed4efor turninq without additional buffinq or honin7. Wheelmuat turn away from tool edae to prevent it from catchiiq on Lhe wheelaurface Wet"ldry grinder Large 10- inch water-bath ed wheelhonee bevela;water prevente toole from overheaiing and carriea away metal and qrit. Five-inchdry wheel uaedfor qrindin7.Each wheelequippedwith an adjuatable tool reat

Adjuatabletool reat (riqhl) mounta to benchin front of 4rinder; featurea a 4-inchwidetable with a alot for olidin7jiqa and cente r- d ri IIed fo r rotati ngji ge. Skew-q ri ndingjiq (above,top) holdaakewsat20" anqle, pivota on center pin to qrind radiuaed akewa,and folda out of the way for freeji4 (above, hand 1rindinq.)lidinq aharpeninq bottom) clampa toola under croaabar and slides in 4roove in table

Felt wheel Availablein soft, medium,or hard; dreased with buffin4 compoundto pertorm final potr9nrnq oTcu'Etnqeaqe

Aluminumoxide wheela Standard qrindin7 wheela, availablein 6- and B-inch aizes and a ranqe of qrita Adjuatable tool reat and eharpeningjig Toolreat with tiltinq table (above,iop) mounts to benchin front of 4rinder; table haa alota for elidinq tool 7uidee and four eettinqe on side bracket to adjuat table to auitable anqle for ry bowlqouqea,opindle1ouqee,and ekewa.Availablewith acceoaory tool 7uidea for 7ouqeeand akewa(above,lef:") and for etraiqht chisela and acrapera (above,riqht). Diamond-pointwheeldreeser (tar riqht) ridee in alot in table to dress arinder wheel.

35


I I

SHARPENING

I

t t

WHEET IDENTIFICATI(|N GRINDING a grinding wheel Choosing foruse areusually toocoarse supplied ongrinders Thewheels stones are of replacement withturningtools.A widevariety You therightoneis nosimplematter. available, butselecting thecodesmarked onthesideof thewheels, needto decipher quality. Thechart andabrasive describrng theircomposition thesecodes.(Theyareusually belowwill helpyouinterpret manufacturer's symfoundsandwiched between twonumerical lf youplanto usea wheelto grind bolsonthesideof thestone.)

buya carbonsteeltools,andthenhonewitha benchstone, w h e em l a r k eAd 8 0 H 8 V .T h i sm e a ntsh ew h e eils a l u m i n u m (80),andrelatively soft(H),witha medioxide(A),finegrained (8).Theparticles are orconcentration of abrasives umstructure process bya of heatandfusion,knownasvitribonded together (V).Forhigh-speed hardness of I steeltools, a medium fication or J is better.lf youplanto useyourtoolsrightoff thegrinder, a wheelwith a grainsizeof 100or l2O. choose

CHART STAI{DARD MARKING SYSTEM

ABRASIVE (GRAIN) SIZE

zirconium Z:Aluminum 30,36,46, Fine:70,80,90,100, veryfine:220,240,280,320, 8, I0,12,14, Medium: coarse: 54,60 1 2 0 ,1 5 0 ,1 8 0 400,500,600 16,20,24

GRADE SCATE

Hard Medium Soft V W X Y Z N O P Q R S T U H I J K L M A B C D E F G

STRUCTURE

0pen Dense I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 eIc - R:Rubber - E:Shellac - 0: Oxvchloride - BF:Resinoid reinforced B: Resinoid RF:Rubber reinforced S: Silicate V: Vitrified

ABRASIVE TYPE

BOND TYPE

A:Aluminum oxide

C:Silicon carbide

Courl,aevof Lhe American NaLionalItandarda Inot ituf,e

DRESSING A GRINDING WHEEL Truingthewheel A grinding wheelshouldbetruedwhenridges or hollows appear on thestoneor it becomes discolored. Youcanuseeithera star-wheel or dresser. Forthestar-wheel a diamond-ooint d r e s s esrh o w na t l e f t ,m o v et h e g r i n d e r ' s toolrestawayfromthewheel.Withtheguard i n p o s i t i o ns,w i t c ho n t h eg r i n d ear n db u t t thetip of the dresser against thewheel. Then,withyourindexfingerrestingagainst fromsideto the tool rest,movethe dresser (lnset), dresser side.To usethediamond-point the index finger and holdthedevicebetween it tool rest, thumbof onehand,set on the andadvance it towardthe wheeluntilyour indexfingercontacts thetoolrest.Slidethe across thewheel,pressing tip of the dresser your lightlywhilekeeping fingeron thetool r e s t .F o re i t h e d r r e s s ecr ,o n t i n u u e n t i lt h e edgesof thewheelaresquareandyouhave exoosed f reshabrasive.

9tar-wheel dregger

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t I

t I I I I I I I

36

t I


I I I I I I I I I I I

SHARPENING

T()()LS TURNING GRINDING T h ea n g l ea t w h i c hy o u p r e s e nat t o o lt o t h eg r i n d ewr i l l d e t e r m i nt he ea n g l eo f t h e b e v e lT. h ed i a g r a ma t r t g h ts h o w st h e a n g l e sa t w h i c hg o u g e ss, c r a p e r sa,n d s k e wc h i s e l s h o u l db e h e l dt o t h e g r i n d s u i t a b l eb e v e l s . i n gw h e e tl o p r o d u c e

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t I I I I I I I

TURNING T()()L TIPS

Round-nosedecraper (paqe 45) Fnr

ahe

ar

arran'tnn

Ringtool (pase 44) Comeepre4rouna [.a

qnnd bevel to BO', leavinq a burr on the ed4e; for qeneral ecraptng, a 30"

correclt 0evel

Lo 45" anqleworkabeLLer. )ome turnero uoean anqle of 75'to BO'for both tt,nea

1kewchisel(paqea2) Grtnd beveloao they meet.at 40'to 5O'; Lyptcallycomeewtl,h cutt tn4edqean4led aL20'to 30'

Eowl gouge (paqe al) Grrnd bevel Lo 55' anqle. A ftngernail 4rtnd ta ahown aL IefL, wtt h cornera of cutttn4 edge qround back from cutttn4 edqe Lo keep Lhe Lool from diq4in4 inLo eLock; eome turnera uge a eLrat7hL-acroeegnnd

nf

arraninn

Radiueed akew Qage 4?) Hae a eli7htly rounded cuLttnq

ed4e:4rrndbevele eo LheymeeL aL 50" to 60"

9pindle gouge (paqe40) Grind bevelLo v6"

2nntp..4n

h2

qtvena ftngernailor etrai4ht-acroee 4rind

Roughinq-outgouge (pase 3B) Orind bevelto 45" anqle; cutt in4edqeie qround etratqhl,acroog

Parbing tool

(pase44) Gnnd bevele eo t.hey

meeLaL 50'

2'7


I I

SHARPENING

SHARPENING A ROUGHING-OUT G()UGE Restoring thebevel 1 I P o s i t i ot nh es u a r da n dt u r no n t h e machine. Holdinftne bladebetween the fingers andthumbof onehand, setthecuttingedgeonthetoolrestandadvance it untilthebevellightlycontacts thegrindingwheel. lf youwantto change thebevel angle of thecutting edge, adjust thetool restto thedesired angle. Withyourindex fingeragainst thetoolrest,rollthebladeon thewheeluntiltheentire edgeisground, keeping thebevelflatonthewheelat all times.Continue, checking thebladeregu l a r l yu,n t i l t h ec u t t i n eg d g ei ss h a r p and thebevelangleis correct. To prevent the bladefromoverheating, occasionally dip it in waterif it is carbon steel,or remove i t f r o mt h ew h e etlo l e t i t c o o li f i t i s h i g h - s p e setde e ll.f y o u rg r i n d ehr a sa f e l to r c l o t hw h e e lu, s ei t t o p o l i s h the cuttingedge(sfep2). Otherwise, usea s l i n s t n n p l\ n a o p l f' ie)t ' rsbe

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r I I I I I I I

r) Polishing the cuttingedge L Movethe tool restout of the way,turn o n t h e g r i n d e ra, n d h o l da s t i c ko f p o l i s h i n gc o m p o u n a d g a i n stth e f e l t w h e e fl o r a f e w s e c o n d st o i m p r e g n a t iet w i t h a b r a s i v e .T h e n ,w i t h t h e g o u g ea l m o s vt e r t i c a l ,g r i pt h e h a n d l ei n y o u rr i g h th a n d , h o l dt h e b l a d eb e t w e e nt h e f i n g e r sa n d t h u m bo f y o u rl e f t h a n d ,a n d s e tt h e b e v e l f l a t a g a i n stth e w h e e l .L i g h t l yr o l lt h e bladefromsideto sideacrossthe wheelto p o l i s ht h e b e v e lA. s l i g h tb u r rw i l l f o r mo n t h e i n s i d ee d g eo f t h e t o o l .T o r e m o v ei t , r o l lt h e i n s i d ef a c eo f t h e b l a d ea g a i n stth e wheeu l n t i lt h e b u r rr u b so f f .T e s tt h e t o o l f o r s h a r p n e sbsy c u t t i n ga w o o ds c r a p a c r o s st h e g r a i n .T h e b l a d es h o u l ds l i c e e a s i l yt h r o u g ht h e w o o d .

I I

t I I I I 3B

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SHARPE,NING

t T I I I I T I I I I I I I I I

I

OUILD.ITYOURSELF J INGI N G GOUGE.SHARPE that Thejig shownbelowguarantees r n d l a r g e gr o u g e s t h e t r p so f l o n g e a g h e e al t w i l lc o n t a cyt o u rg r i n d i n w the correctangleto restorethe bevel n nt h ec r r t t i n p e d s e .T h ed i m e n s i o n s g i v e ni n t h e i l l u s t r a t i obne l o ww i l l mostturninggouges. accommodate

C r r i h e h a s ea n d s r r i d ef r o m 7 - i n c hp l y w o o dS. c r e wt h e g u i d e t o g e t h ear n d f a s t e ni t t o t h e b a s e from underwith screwscountersunk n e a t h .M a k es u r et h e o p e n i n gc r e a t e db y t h e g u i d ei s I a r g ee n o u g h t o a l l o wt h e a r m t o s l i d es n u g l y butfreely.

hlnnlr tn thp crrnnnrf

T o r r s et h e i i p s e c r r r iet t o a w o r k s ot h e a r m l i n e su p d i r e c t l y surface w h e e lS . eat he u n d e rt h e g r i n d i n g g o u g eh a n d l ei n t h eV b l o c ka n ds l i d e the arm so the bevelededgeof the g heel. g o u g el i e sf l a t o n t h e g r t n d i n w p l a c e . T h e n ,w i t h C l a m pt h e a r m i n t h e g o u g ec l e a ro f t h ew h e e ls, w i t c h h et o o l o n t h e g r i n d ear n dr e p o s i t i ot n i n t h e j i g . H o l d i n tgh e g o u g ew i t h bothhands,rotatethe bevelededge acrossthe wheelbelow). Stopoccas i o n a l ltyo c o o lt h e b l a d ea n dc h e c k t h e c u t t i n ge d g ep e r i o d i c a lul yn t i l youaresatisfiedwith the results. i i b '

( t o p ' 1 /x 1 / " x 9 " laides\

'',/

"r9"

(.back)/"x2"x2/" ( b o t L o m ) / " x 1 / " x 2/ , "

I I I I I I I

r I I I I I I

stockand Cutthearmfrom1-by-2 f r o m % i n c ph l y t h et o o ls u p p o r t parts two of the wood.Screwthe then together, fasten toolsupport t o t h ea r m ,f l u s hw i t h t h eb o t t o m cuta small oneend.FortheV block, w o o db l o c kt o s i z ea n ds a wa 9 0 " . l u et h e wedge o u to f o n es i d e G

39

v v v q '

v

i


I I

SHARPENING

SHARPENING A SPINDLE G()UGE grinder ona bench 1 Sharpening I Position theguardproperly andturn onthegrinder. Pinching thebladebetween t h ef i n g e rasn dt h u m bo f o n eh a n ds, e t thebladeflatonthetoolrestandadvance rt untilthebevellightlycontacts thestone (/eft).Adjustthetoolrest,if desired, to change the bevelangle.lf thetoolhasa grind,rollthebevelon thestone square asyouwouldfor a roughing-out gouge (page38).lf thetoolhasa f ingernailgrind,rollthecuttingedgeon thewheel andpivotthe handlefromleftto right whilekeeping thebevelf latonthegrind) .o n t i n u e i n gw h e eal t a l l t i m e s( i n s e t C rolling thebladeandmoving thetoolhand l ef r o ms i d et o s i d eu n t i lt h ee d g ei s sharpened, stopping occasionally to check thegrindandcoolthetip.

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thecutting edge ! Honing Z- Oncethebevelhasbeensharpened onthegrinder, usea flat edge, asshown onpage43. Usea convex slipstone matching benchstone to polishthetoolto a razor-sharp edge.Saturate thecurvature of thegouge to remove the burrthatformsonthe thestonewithoil,thenrolltheoutside bevelacross theabrasive inside of thecuttingedge.Puta fewdropsof oilontheslipstone surface(above, /eff.) to createtwomicrobevels on thecutting andhonethe insideedgeuntiltheburrrubsoff (above, right).

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A B()WLG()UGE SHARPENING

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*u#ili.jtj$$

,

1HO?Tt? Sharpeningwith a belvsander lf youdo naf,own you a benchqrinder, canqrindyourLurninqtoolson a belN lnstall a eander. 1AO-qrir, belt,,mounL Ihe tool uVeide downin a ef,and,and,clamVlhe s t r a n d l oa w o r k s u f r a c e . Io qrinda Lurninq Lool,Lurn onf,heeanderand Vreaalhe bevelflal; on lhe belL.

lh ili

itl iit dJrl, *i

grinder Usinga weUdry A d j u s t h e t o o lr e s ts o t h e b e v ew l illrest f l u s hw i t ht h e w h e e sl u r f a c et ,h e nt u r n o n t h e g r i n d e rH. o l dt h e g o u g ef l a t o n t h e t o o l r e s ta n d a d v a n c teh e t o o l u n t i l t h e b e v eils f l a to n t h e s t o n eT. h e n ,h o l d i n g t h e b l a d ei n p l a c e ,r o l lt h e e d g e a c r o s st h e s l o n e( a b o v e )p. i v o t i n gt h e h a n d l ea s n e c e s s a rt yo k e e pt h e b e v e l l t a l l t i m e s .C o n t i n u e f l a to n t h ew h e e a u n t i lt h et o o li s s h a r p T . h eg o u g ei s n o w readyto use.


I SHARPENING

SHARPENING A SKEW CHISEL Using a jig P o s i t i oanc o m m e r c si ahla r p e n ijni g i n frontof thegrinding wheelasclose to the wheel aspossible without touching it. Set u p t h ej i g f o l l o w i nt g h em a n u f a c t u r e r ' s youcan instructions. 0n themodelshown, adjust thetooltableto thecorrect angle for anytool-in thiscase, a straight skewchiswiththe el.Place thetoolguidesupplied jig in thegroove in therestandholdthe chiselin theguide.Buttoneedgeof the chiselblade against onesideof thegroove in theguidesothecutting edgeissquare to thegrinding wheel. Turnonthegrinder andadvance thetooluntilthebevel contactsthewheel. Slidethetoolguidefrom sideto sideto sharpen thebevel. Flipthe tooloverandreoeat theorocess withthe toolagainst theotheredgeof thegroove in theguide(/eff).Whenbothbevels are sharpened, honea microbevel 43). @age Thesametechniques canbeusedwithout jig,using benefit of a sharpening the grinder's toolrest.

SHARPENING A RADIUSED SKEW CHISEL

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jig a radius sharpening 1 Using jigspecially I Secure thechiselin a commercial designed for sharpening radiused skewchisels. Forthe modelshown, hold thelongedgeof thechiselbladeagainst thetriangular support piecein thecenter of thejig andtighten thethumbscrew sothat willlieflatonthegrinding wheel whenyousharpen rt thebevel (above, ieftl.Now,position anadjustable toolrestin frontof the

I I grinding wheel andsetthejigon it, ensuring thatthepivotpin onthebottom of thejig slidesin the holein thecenterof the toolrest.Adjusttheangleof therestsothebevelsitsflatonthe wheel,thentightenit in position(above, right).f urnon Ihe grinder andpivotthe bevelacross thewheel,keeping thejig oressed downonthetoolrestat alltimes.

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SHARPENING

bevel Sharpening thesecond O h c et h e f i r s t b e v e li s s h a r p e n e d , t u r n o f f t h e g r i n d e ar n d w r a pa p i e c eo f m a s k r n tga p ea r o u n dt h e c h i s e lb l a d e whereit meetsthe bottomedgeof the jrg. T h i sw i l l e n a b l ey o ut o t u r nt h e c h i s e ol v e r a n dr e p o s i t i ornt i n t h e j i g s o t h a tt h e s e c o n db e v eyl o ug r i n di s i d e n t t c at ol t h ef i r s t . R e m o v teh e c h i s e fl r o mt h e 1 i g t, u r n i t it so the bottomedge over,and reposition o f t h e j i g i s a l i g n e dw i t ht h e t a p e .T u r no n t h e g r i n d ear n ds h a r p e tnh e s e c o n db e v e l (right)thesamewayyougroundthe first.

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microbevels n<' Creatins

s i l l c r e a t ea r - J T h eg r i n d i n gp r o c e sw r o u g hh o l l o w - g r o u nodr c, o n c a v eb,e v eol n t h e t o o lb l a d eT . h e h e e la n d t o e o f t h e b e v eol f e i t h e rs t r a i g hot r r a d i u s ebdl a d e s m u s tb e h o n e dt o a s m o o t hc u t t i n ge d g e b e f o r et h e c h i s e li s u s e d T . o s u p p o rtth e c h i s e lw , e d g ei t s h a n d l ei n t h e l a t h eb e d , t h e no u ta f e wd r o o so f o i l o n t h ef i n es i d e o f a c o m b i n a t i osnt o n e .R u bt h e s t o n e acrossthe bevel(left),creatingmicrobevels o n b o t ht h e h e e la n d t o e o f t h e b e v e l (insef).Repeatthe procedure on the other s i d eo f t h et o o l .A s t h e t o o lb e c o m edsu l l w i t h u s e ,y o u d o n o t n e e dt o r e g r i n di t . AftersevSimplyrestorethe microbevels. h o n i n g s h , o w e v e t r h , e m i c robevels eral w i l l d i s a p p e aarn dt h e b e v ew l i l lf l a t t e n o u t .A t t h i s p o i n t ,y o uw i l l h a v et o r e g r i n d bevel. the toolto restore the hollow-sround

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SHARPENING

SHARPENING A PARTING TOOL grinder Using a weUdry Adjustthetoolrestsothe bevelon the parting toolwilllieflatonthewheel. Hold the bladeon edgeon thetoolrestwith onesideagainst themitergauge supplied w r t ht h er e s t t, h e nt u r no n t h eg r i n d e r andadvance thetooluntilthebevel contactsthewheel.Pressing thetoollightly against thegrinder, slidethegauge back a n df o r t hu n t i lt h eb e v eils s h a r o e n e d . Repeat theprocess to sharpen thebevel ontheotherside(lefD.Oncebothbevels arethesameandthecutting edgeissharp, honemicrobevels asyouwouldona skew chisel(page43),

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SHARPENING A RING TOOI jig Using a commercial Someringtoolscomewitha jig forholdi n gt h et i p d u r i n sg h a r p e n ianngda c o n i calstoneforhoning theinside edge.Follow themanufacturer's instructions to sharpen y o u r i n gt o o l .F o rt h e m o d esl h o w n at right,install thesharpening stonein the colletof a router andclampthetoolupside downon a worksurface. Detach thetip fromthehandle of theringtoolandinstall it in thejig.Turnontherouter andpress thetip lightlyagainst thespinning stone to sharpen theedge. Whenthef irstsideis s h a r pf,l i pt h et o o la n dh o n et h eo t h e r s i d eo f t h er i n g .

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A SCRAPER SHARPENING

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'liltlilJiilil tjjiijljlll ilill$iliifiillll1l]llllllllrlll iliJiiil 5HO7Tt? Ourniohinq a ecra?er WeI qrinderedo noNleave enouqhof a burron 6cra?er bladee:you can producea moreevenburrby burnishinqthe edqe.Ueinqfirm, even?ree6ure, drawa burnieheracroozNhe endof the bladeto raisea burr on i|o Lopedqe.

Using a grinder Position theguardproperly andadjust thetoolrestsothebevelontheendof will restflushagainst thescraper the wheel. Turnonthegrinder andholdthe bladebetween thefingers andthumbof o n eh a n d W . i t ht h e b l a d ef l a to n t h e toolrest,advance thetooluntilthebevel lightlycontacts thewheel.Passthe entireedgeacrossthe wheel(above), m o v i ntgh eh a n d l fer o ms i d et o s i d e . S t o po c c a s i o n aal lnydr u ny o u rf i n g e r lightlyovertheendof thetoolto feelfor a burr(inset). Stopsharpening whenan evenburrhasformed.


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SPINDLETI.IRNNG morethanthreeor fourtoolsare required.This makesturning between centers anidealwayto spindleturningistheonemost associated with furniture developa feelfor thelatheand closely goodtooltechnique. making.The process involves Onitssimplestlevel,spindleturningis litmountinga wood blankbeheadstock tle morethanconnecting high tweenthe machine's andlow pointson a blankwith andtailstockandusinga varietyof turningtoolsto shape furshoulders, beads, andcoves. Thechapterthatfollowsis an nitureparts,suchaschairlegs introductionto spindleturning andotherdecoandbedposts, rativepieces. Because thestockis techniques, fromtherepertoire of mounted"between the Producinga toolhandleon thelatheis an idealprobasicspindleotts (page53)srch centersj' wood grainof the workpiece jectfor thenovicewoodturner.In thephotoabove,a asplaning, sizing, andtapercuts to spindle runsparallelto theaxisof the Jacobs chuckin thetailstockholdsa drill bit asit bores moredecorative cus (page 64)suchasbeads, andballs Iathe.In bowl,or faceplate turna holefor thetangat thehandle-endof theblade. coves, yourobjecs.By ing,whichis examinedin the thatwill enhance nextchapter, thegrainof a blankis normallyperpendicular sawingtheblankin halfandregluingit, youcancreates)'rn(page79). to themachine's axisof rotation.Despitetheirdifferences, metricalsplitturningsandotherspindledesigns do shareseveral thingsin common:Correct Aswith anyactivityon thelathe,thebestwayto learnis bothactivities propertooluse,andaccurate measure- by experimentation. Waituntil youhavemastered mountingmethods, thebasic satisfactory results. techniques beforetryingto reproduce complexspindlepatmentall arecrucialto achieve woodfor yourblanksandpractice Because spindleturningdoesnot requirecuttinginto end terns.Useinexpensive grain,theprocess involves relatively untilyouarecomfortable with thetools. simpletechniques, andno with simpleshapes f the two main activities practicedon the lathe,

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Turninga well-proportioned legrequiresa combinationof andsomecreativity.In thephotoat left,a spinsoundtechnique dlegougecutsa beadnearthetopof theleg.Betweenthebeads and thelatheheadstock is thepommel,whichis leftsquareso that thelegcanbejoinedto therail of a tableor chair.

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A GALLERYOF SPINDLECUTS

I

t S P I N D LCEU T Tenon Qase 62)

V-groove (pase 61)

Urn @ase7o)

Fillet, (paqe7o)

Ball Qaqe 69)

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?arting Lool

T00L USED

FarEinq tool

Skew

9pindle 0ou0e

Taper (pase 56)

9kew/opindle qou0e

Cove

Fead

rv'7

(pase66)

Pommel

(pase61)

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9kew/eptndle 4ouqe

FarErn4Lool/rouqhinq )kew/epindlegouge/ qouqe/9Kew beadingtoot

)pindle qou7e

I

S P I N D LCEU T Covedahoulder (page 59)

T00r USED

gpindle Touqe

Flute (pase 75)

Carvtn44ou4e/ router

Cylinder

Qase53)

Kouqhin4 1ouqe/ekew

Reed (paqe7b)

Square ahoulder (pase 60)

Carver'a V-parLin7tool/ chieel

Split turning (paqe.72)

Fartin4 f,ool/ ekew


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SETTINGUP ll spindleworkstartswith a square thesquare, blank.Themoreperfect the better.By startingwith blanksthat arestraight,freeofdefects,squaredon thejointer,andproperlycentered on the lathe,you canavoidcatchinga tool on theworkpieceor splittingthewood. Twokeysto smoothspindlework are usingpropertool control(page51)and cuttingin the directionof the wood grain(page52).Stanceandbodymovementarejust asimportantashow you holda tool.A goodworkingstanceisto standwith your feetapartandcomfortYourbodyshouldbeable ablybalanced. to movesmoothlywith the tool. Never standsofar awayfrom thelathethatyou areforcedto leanforward.With thicker workpieces, your hip or elbowcanprovidesupportfor thetool. While spindleturning is a relatively safeoperation,remembernot to become Improperly too casualin your approach. used,thelathecancauseinjurieslikeany otherwoodworkingmachine.

"sandwich" geometric patterns Laminatedor blankscanyieldinteresting whentheyareturnedbetweencenters. Theblankfor thevaseshownin the photoabovewasmadebygluinglayersof tulipwoodandpurpleheart around a squarezebrawood core.A rangeof dffirent patternscanbeproduced by abernatingthemannerin whichthelayersaregluedup.

MOUNTING A BLANK BETWEEN CENTERS thecenter oftheblank 1T Markins I T o m o u nat b l a n ko nt h e l a t h ef o r youneedto findthecenspindle turning, terof eachend.Firstmakesurethatthe b l a n ki s s 0 u a r et h. e nh o l di t o n e n da n d marktwolinesacross oneendfromcorner to corner(left),RepeaI at the otherend. Thelineswillintersect at thecenters. Next, usea four-sour drrvecenteranda mallet t o m a k ei n d e n t a t i oantsb o t hp o i n t s . Alignthecenterpoint of thedrivecenter overthecenteron theendof the blank withthemallet(lnsef); andstrikeit sharply makesurethespursbiteintothewood. Repeat at theotherend.Insertthedrive centerin theheadstock of the lathe.Do notstrikethedrivecenter whileit is mountedin the headstock; thiscoulddamage the lathe's bearings.

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r') Mounting theblankon the lathe L f o m o u n t h e b l a n kb e t w e e cne n t e r s , s t a r tb y b u t t i n go n ee n da g a i n stth e t a i l sinrk'c livp npntor

Srrnnnrlino tho nthpr

e n do f t h e b l a n kw i t ho n eh a n d s, l i d et h e t a i l s t o c tko w a r d tsh e h e a d s t o cukn t i lt h e w i t ht h e s p u r so f t h e d r i v ec e n t e re n g a g e yo indentation s um a d ei n s t e p1 . S e c u r e t h e t a i l s t o c ki n p l a c ew i t h t h e l o c k i n g l e v e rt,h e na d v a n cteh et a i l s t o cskp i n d l e a n d l r v ec e n t e rb y t u r n i n gt h e h a n d w h e e l u n t i lt h e b l a n ki s h e l df i r m l yb e t w e etnh e centers(/eff).Securethe tailstockspindle lock. i n p l a c ew i t ht h e s p i n d l e

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n A d i u s t i nt sh et o o lr e s l r - - l A l r g nt h e t o o lr e s tp a r a l l et lo t h e b l a n k .p o s i t r o n i ni tgc l o s e t o t h e w o r k p i e cw e i t h o u tm a k i n gc o n t a cw t h e nt h e b l a n ks p i n s . W r t ht h e l a t h es w i t c h e do f f , r o t a t et h e b l a n kb y h a n dt o e n s u r e it doesnot hit the tool rest(above). Thegapbetween the tool rest a n dt h e b l a n ks h o u l db e t h e s a m ea t b o t he n d s ;a d j u s t h e r e s t ,

tf i f n e c e s s a rAy l.t h o u g e h x p e r i e n c et udr n e r sa d j u s t h e h e i g h o e ,g o o dp l a c et o t h et o o lr e s ta c c o r d i ntgo p e r s o n aplr e f e r e n c a s t a r ti s w i t h t h e t o o l r e s ta t o r s l i g h t l yb e l o wt h e c e n t e ro f t h e b l a n kT. h i sw a y ,y o u rt o o l sw i l lc u t a b o v et h e c e n t e or f t h e b l a n k . n i t ht h e l o c k r n gl e v e r . T i g h t e nt h e t o o lr e s ti n p o s i t i o w

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TURNING SPINDLE,

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BASIC TOOL C()NTR()L 1 R u b b i ntgh eb e v e l I t n e f i r s tr u l eo f t o o lc o n t r oiln t u r n i n g i s t o m a k es u r et h e b l a d e ' sb e v e rl u b s a g a i n st th e s t o c ka st h ec u t t i n ge d g es l i c e s i n t ot h e w o o d T . h i sp r i n c i p l ei s t h e k e yt o p r o d u c i nsgm o o t hc, l e a nc u t sw i t ht o o l s s u c ha s t h e s p i n d l eg o u g ea n d t h e s k e w c h i s e lT. o m a s t etrh i sb a s i ct e c h n i q u e , u n p l u gt h e l a t h ea n d m o u n ta c y l i n d r i c a l . r a c ea t o o l - i n b l a n kb e t w e e nc e n t e r sB t h i s c a s ea r o u g h i n g o u g e - o nt h e t o o l r e s ts o t h a t r t s b e v e lr e s t so n t h e s t o c k . G r i p p i ntgh e t o o lw i t ho n eh a n d t, i l t t h e , s ey o u r h a n d l ed o w n .A s s h o w na t r t g h t u f r e eh a n dt o r o t a t et h e b l a n ki n a c l o c k wisedirection; the bevelshouldrubsmoothl y a g a i n stth e w o r k .

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r) Starting thecut I Orruthebevelis rubbing. slowly r a i s teh et o o lh a n d l et h: ec u t t i n g e d s es h o r r l d b e p i nt o s l i c et h e w o o d ( l e f t ) .Y o uc a n c o n t r otl h e d e p t ho f c u t b y t h e h e i g h ot f t h e h a n d l et:h e h i g h e yr o ur a i s ei t , t h e m o r ew o o d y o uw i l l r e m o v eB. u t d o n o tg o s o f a r t h a tt h e b e v esl t o p sr u b b i n ga g a i n s t t h e w o o d o, r t h e t o o lw i l l c a t c ho n t h e s p i n n i nbgl a n k .


SPINDLETURNING

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Makingthe cut Q r . J S l o w l ya n g l et h e t o o li n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f c u t a n d s l i d er t a l o n gt h e w o r k p i e c e (right)a , l i g n i n gy o u ru p p e rb o d yb e h i n d t h e t o o lt h r o u g h o ut ht e c u t . A s y o um o v e , r o t a t et h e t o o ls l i g h t l yi n t h e d i r e c t i o n of c u t t o a v o i dc a t c h i n g thebladeN . o w ,p l u g i n t h e l a t h et,u r n i t o n ,a n d r e p e aS t t e p s1 through 3 w r t ht h e b l a n ks p i n n i n gt h; et o o l y h e ny o up r o d u c fei n e i s c u t t i n gp r o p e r lw shavings and leavea smoothsurfacethat r e q u i r elsi t t l es a n d i n g .

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t I I WITHTHEWOOD CUTTING GRAIN "downhill" Cutting W o o di s c o m p o s eodf b u n d l e so f f i b e r sa l i g n e di n o n ed i r e c t i o n , c a l l e dt h e g r a i nd i r e c t i o nJ.u s ta s p u s h i n ga h a n dp l a n ea g a i n s t t h e g r a i nw i l l c a u s et e a r o u tw, o r k i n g a g a i n stth e g r a i nw i t ha t u r n i n gt o o lw i l l p r o d u c reo u g hc u t sa n dc a n l e a dt o k i c k b a c k . A s s h o w nb y t h e a r r o w si n t h e i l l u s t r a t i olne f t ,t h e s m o o t h e s t s p i n d l et u r n i n gc u t sa r em a d ei n a d o w n h i ldl i r e c t i o n - f r o m a h i g hp o i n t o a l o wp o i n to n t h e w o r k p i e c eS.u c hc u t sa r ee i t h e r w i t h ,a c r o s so, r a t a n a n g l et o t h e g r a i n .N e v e cr u t u p h i l l ,o r t h e t o o lw i l ld i g i n t ot h ew o o dT. h i sw i l lc a u s es p l i n t e r i nagn ds h e a r i n go f w o o df i b e r s a, n dw i l l l e a v ea r o u g hs u r f a c eo n t h e b l a n k .

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BASICSPINDLECUTS -l- h. basicspindlecutsshownin this I sectiono[ the chapterwill help sharpenyour turningabilitiesfor more projectsthatyoutacklelatchallenging er on. Thesecuts includeroughing, planing,peeling,V-cuts,shouldercuts, and partingoff. Four toolsareusedfor mostbasic spindlecuts:the roughinggouge,the spindlegouge,theskewchisel,andthe partingtool.Theyaretypicallyheldin one oftwo grips:overhandor underhand.Theoverhandgrip is commonly usedto guidea tool alongthetool rest, suchaswhen roughingdown a blank (below).The underhandgrip is used for finer control,suchaswhenmaking V-grooves(page58). Onebonusof spindleturningis that you canseethe resultsofyour cutsas you will you go.Asyou gainexperience, alsobecomefamiliarwith the various From soundsofthe turning process. your firstroughingcutsto a finalplanof ing cut, thereis a definitesequence

soundsproducedas wood is being turned.By listeningcloselyto the succession of soundsemittedby thelathe,

a blqnk mountedbetweencentersprovidesthe Becauseit is spinningat high speeds, turner with an immediate and continual visual checkof a project'sprogress.In the photo above,a roughinggougebrings a small baseballbat to itsfinal shape.

TURNING A GYTINDER outthecylinder 1 Roughing I Mountvourblankbetween centers and settheappropriate speedforthesizeof theworkpiece; referto thefrontendpaper of thisbookfor a chartof lathespeeds. gouge Holding withanoverhand a roughing grip,bracethebladeonthetoolrest.Cut verylightly intotheblank, making surethe bevelis rubbing against thestockand moving thegouge smoothly alongthetool rest.(lf yourblankis longer thanthetool in twoor more rest,roughoutthecylinder steps.) Thegouge willbeginrounding the (left). the workpiece Continue corners of passes deeper along making successively h a n d l o e f t h et o o l t h eb l a n kr,a i s i ntgh e pass, are slightly witheach untiltheedges you completely rounded and havea cylinder.Adjusttheposition of thetoolrestas youprogress to keepit closeto theblank.

Kouqhinq4ouqe

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you will be ableto useyour ears-as theprogress well asyour eyes-to assess ofyour work.

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r ) F i n i s h i nt h g ec y l i n d e r L O n c eo n es e c t i o n o f t h e b l a n ki s c y l i n d r i c a l ,r e p o s i t i otnh e t o o l r e s ta n d r o u n d overthe rest of the workpiece(left),To c h e c kt h e s m o o t h n e sosf t h e b l a n k ,s e t t h e b o t t o mo f t h e g o u g eb l a d eo n t h e s p i n n i n gb l a n k( i n s e t )T. h e b l a d es h o u l d ridesmoothly on the surface.lf it bounces, t h e s u r f a c ei s n o ty e t p e r f e c t l ryo u n d .

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Planing thecylinder U s ea s k e wc h r s etio p l a n et h e c y l i n d e rt o a s m o o t hf i n i s h .H o l d i n gt h e t o o l w i t ha n o v e r h a ngdr i p ,s e tt h e b l a d eo n t h e r e s ts o t h a t i t s l o n gp o i n ti s a b o v et h e b l a n ka n di t s b e v eils i n c l i n e di n t h ed i r e c t i o no f t h e c u t ;t h i s i s t y p i c a l lay b o u t6 5 ' t o t h e a x i so f t h e w o o d .S w i t c ho n t h e l a t h ea n dr a i s et h e h a n d l es l i g h t l yb, r i n g i n gt h e c u t t i n ge d g eo f t h e c h i s e il n t oc o n tactwith the wood.Movethe bladealong the tool rest (rrght),lettrngrts bevelrub; d o n o t l e t i t s h e e lo r l o n gp o i n td i g i n t o t h e w o o d .T h ec e n t e ro f t h e c u t t i n ge d g e s h o u l dp r o d u c ae s e r i e o s f t h i ns h a v i n g s .

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Cutting thecylinder to length 0 n c e y o u h a v ep l a n e dt h e c y l i n d e r s m o o t h u, s ea p a r t i n gt o o lt o c u t i t t o l e n g t hM . a r ka c u t t i n gl i n eo n t h e s p i n n i n gc y l i n d ewr i t ha p e n c i lT. h e n h , olding a partingtool edge-upon the tool restas s h o w na t r i g h t ,r a i s et h e h a n d l es l i g h t l ys o t h e b l a d ec u t si n t ot h e b l a n k C . l e a nu p t h e end grainwith a skewchisel(page60). l f y o uh a v ef u r t h e sr h a p i n tgo d o o n t h e b l a n k ,c u t a b o u t w o - t h i r dos f t h e w a y t h r o u g ht h e c y l i n d esr o t h a t i t r e m a i n os n t h e l a t h e l.f a l l y o uw i s ht o m a k ei s a c y l i n d e r .c o n t i n u et h e c l t t o n e a rt h e c e n t e r o f t h e b l a n k t, h e nt u r no f f t h e l a t h ea n d c u t a w a yt h e c y l i n d ew r i t ha h a n d s a w .

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PEELING CUTS M a k i n ga p e e l i n cg u t P e e l i n gi s a n a l t e r n a tw e a yo f q u i c k l y s m o o t h i nag c y l i n d e ru; s ea l a r g es k e w . c h i s e li n s t e a do f a r o u g h i n g o u g eA p e e l i n cgu t i s s i m i l a tro a p l a n i n g cut ( p a g e5 4 ) , e x c e p t h a t y o u i n t e n t i o n a l l y d i p t h e h e e ln f t h e c h i s e il n t ot h e b l a n k wrththe bevelrubbingon the stock(/eff) T h eh e e lw r l ll i f t a c i r c l eo f s h a v i n gass y o ug u i d et h e c h i s e al l o n gt h e t o o lr e s t . B e c a u s ei t r e m o v e sa l o t o f s t o c ka n d r e q u i r em s o r ec o n t r otlh a na p l a n i n gc u t , p e e l i n gi s m o r ed i f fi c u l tt o m a s t e ra, n d s h o u l db e d o n ec a r e f u l l y .


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DEPTH CUTTING GAUGING Anachedto a parting tool,a sizingtool makesit easyto gaugethedepthof cuts precisely. Setthegapbetweentheparting tool'scuttingedgeand theknobon the sizingtoolto thefinisheddiameter.When cuttingtheknobisalwaysin contactwith theblank;sizingcut is at desireddepth whentheknob slipsbehindtheblank.

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I I I I I I I I I sizingcuts 1 Making piece,makea hardboard a particular I lf youarenotcopying illustrated on page57, of thetaper.(Thetemplate, template of theblankat several thefinished diameter shouldindicate yourblankintoa cylinpoints alongits length.)Turn different of sizingcutswitha parting der(page53),thenmakea series theparting toolfromoneendof theblankto theother.Holding gripedge-up on thetoolrest,raise toolwithan underhand

Consothatthebladecutsintothecylinder. the handle slightly therequired tinueto raisethe handleuntilthecut reaches to thef inished diamEachcut shouldpenetrate depth(above). with at that point;checkyourprogress eterof theworkpiece (step2).Twistthetoolslightly fromsideto sideasyou calipers the frictionandto prevent makethecut in orderto minimize fromjamming. blade

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r) Checking thedepth ofthesizingcuts calipers to Z- nOlust a pairof outside o n eo f t h ed i m e n s i oonfst h et a p e ar s m a r k eodny o u rt e m p l a t T e .h e nc h e c k t h ed i a m e t eorf t h eb l a n ka t t h ec o r r e Deepen the sponding sizing cut (above). untilthemeasurements cut if necessary andthediameter of the onthetemplate fortheremaining cutareequal.Repeat sizingcuts.


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t I I I I I t I I Roughing outthetaper O n c ey o uh a v ef i n i s h e d a l l t h e s i z i n gc u t s ,u s ea r o u g h i n g gougeto clearout the wastebetweencuts.Followthe sameproc e d u r ey o uw o u l du s et o r o u g ho u t a c y l i n d e(rp a g e5 3 ) ,h o l d i n g t h e t o o lw i t ha n o v e r h a ngdr i pa n da l w a y w s o r k i n gi n a d o w n h i l l

d i r e c t i o tno a v o i dt e a r o u (t a b o v e J) .o i n i n gt h e s i z i n gc u t sw i l l c r e a t ea t a p e ra l o n gt h e l e n g t ho f t h e w o r k p i e c eT.h e nu s ea skewchiselto planethe tapersmooth(page54). Workin a downhi l l d i r e c t i o n .

GROOVING CUTS Makingdecorative V-grooves T u r na c y l i n d e (r p a g e5 3 ) ,t h e n m a r kt h e s r t ha p e n c i l . l o c a t i o no f t h e g r o o v ew M a k et h e c u t sw i t ha s k e wc h i s e lA . t each location m a r k ,s t a r tw i t ht h e l o n gp o i n to f t h ec h i s ep l o i n t i n gf o r w a r da n d r a i s et h e h a n d l ea, l l o w i n tgh e p o i n to f t h e b l a d e t o c u t t o t h e r e q u i r edde p t h .T h e nm a k e a c u to n e a c hs i d eo f t h e i n i t i a lc u t , a r c i n gt h e c h i s e tl o t h e s i d es o a p o r t i o no f t h e b e v e lr u b sa g a i n stth e e d g eo f t h e grooue(far left). f o widenthe groove. repeatthe sidecuts (nearleft).

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o f t h e w o r k p i e c eS.t a r tb y h o l d r n g t h et o o l e d g eu p s o t h a t i t s l o n gp o i n ta n d p a r to ' t h e b e v eal r ea l i g n e w d i t ht h e s h o u l d el ri n e . S i o w l yr a i s et h e h a n d l em , a k i n ga c l e a n s l i c i n gc u t d o w nt o t h e r o u n dp o r t i o n ofthe workptece(right).

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r ) C l e a n i nugpt h es h o u l d e r L S e t t h ec h i s esl b e v etl l a to n t h e r o u n ds e c t i o n a n dc a r e f u l l y t o u c ht l " eh e e lo f t h ec u t t i n ge d g e a g a i n stth e s h o u l d et ro c u t a w a y anyremaining wasle(below).

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TUR N I NP( G) M M E L S a V-sroove 1l Cuttins -

I M a r ka s h o u l d elri n ea r o u n dt h e f o u r s i d e so f a b l a n kt o s e p a r a tteh e p o m m e l f r o mt h e c y l i n d r i c asle c t i o no f t h e l e g . ( F o rt h r sn r o c e d r r rteh.e b l a n ki s t u r n e d r n t oa c y l i n d ear f t e rt h e p o m m eils c u t . ) T u r na V - g r o o vien t h e w o r k p i e c w e itha s k e wc h i s e l( p a g e5 B ) ,s t a r t i n ga b o u t 'l inch awayfrom the shoulderline (right). D e e p e tnh e g r o o v e u n t i li t r u n sc o m p l e t e l y a r o u n dt h e w o r k p i e c e .

r ) S h a p i ntgh ep o m m e l L Onceyou havefinishedthe V-groove, t u r nt h e p o m m eal sy o uw o u l dt o w i d e nt h e g r o o v ec,u t t i n gw r t ht h e l o n gp o i n to f t h e f o r w a r dA. r ct h e c h i s eflr o m c h i s epl o i n t e d s i d et o s i d es o t h e b e v e rl u b sa g a i n stth e e a l l sa s y o uc u t t h e m e d g e so f t h e g r o o v w (left).furn off the latheaftereachcut to r ^ h p r ^ ki h p c h : n p

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w h e ny o ur e a c ht h es h o u l d el irn e .F i n a l l y , t u r nt h e r o u n dp o r t i o no f t h e w o r k p i e c e intoa cylinder(page53).


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()FF PARTING Parting offtheworkpiece O n c ey o uh a v ef i n i s h etdu r n i n ga s p i n d l e project,it maybe necessary to separate it fromthe wastewoodusedto holdthe workp i e c eb e t w e e cne n t e r sF. o rt u r n i n g sw i t h s q u a r ee n d s ,a l l y o uh a v et o d o i s m a k ea sizingcut (page56) rightthroughthe workp i e c ew i t h a p a r t i n gt o o l .F o rt u r n i n g s w i t hr o u n d e e d n d s ,l i k et h e u r nf i n i a l shownat left,usea skewchiselor radiused s k e wc h i s e tl o p r e s e r vt eh e c u r v e ds h a p e . H o l d i n tgh et o o lw i t ha n u n d e r h a ngdr i p , m a k ea s l i c i n gc u t w i t ht h e l o n gp o i n to f t h e b l a d ea s y o uw o u l dr o u n da p o m m e l @ a g e6 1 ) . S u p p o rtth e t u r n i n gw i t h y o u r h a n d ,k e e p i n gy o u rf i n g e r sw e l lc l e a ro f t h e t o o lr e s ta n d b e i n gc a r e f unl o tt o g r i p t h e s p r n n i nw g o r k p i e c eM. a k ea s e r i e so f d e e p eVr - c u t su n t i lt h e f i n i s h e tdu r n i n g breaksloosefrom the waste.Removethe w o r k p i e c fer o mt h e l a t h ea n d s a wo f f t h e w a s t ea t t h e o t h e re n d .

Turning a tenon l f y o u i n t e n dt o j o i n y o u rw o r k p i e cteo a n o t h e pr a r to f t h e f i n i s h e dw o r kw i t h a joint,turn a tenon roundmortise-and-tenon a t t h e e n d o f t h e b l a n kb e f o r ep a r t i n gi t o f f, H o l d i n ga p a r t i n gt o o lw i t h a n u n d e r h a n dg r i p ,t u r n t h e t e n o ni n t h e w a s t e sectionof the blank(right).f,Aake a series o f s i z i n pc r r i s c. h' -e" ' c' " k' b i n tsh e d i a m e t eor f

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It is difficult to turn long, thin blqnks betweencenterswithout gotrgingthe surface becausethe turning will oftenJlex and vibrate on the lathe, resultingin chatter.Youcan eliminatethisproblem by usinga commercialsteadyrest,which supportsthin spindlework betweencenters.The ntodelshownin thephoto at left slidesalong the lathe bedand adjusts for tuntings up to 2',4inchesin diameter.

t hgi ns p i n d l e work Supportin w o r k ,s u c ha s t h e h o n e yd r i p p e r W h e ns h a p i n tgh i n s p i n d l e s h o w na b o v e i,t i s i m p o r t a ntto s u p p o rtth e w o r k p i e caen d r e d u c ev r b r a t i o nl .f y o u d o n o t h a v ea s t e a d yr e s l ( p h o t o . . s y o ut u r n t h e b l a n k , a b o v e )y,o uc a n u s eo n eo f y o u rh a n d s A

c r a d l ei t i n t h e f i n g e r so f y o u rl e f th a n dw h i l eb r a c i n tgh e t o o l . e e py o u rf i n g e r s a g a i n s t h e r e s tw i t h t h e t h u m b ( a b o v e )K c l e a ro f t h e t o o l b l a d ea n d a v o i da p p l y i n ge x c e s s i vper e s s u r e o n t h et u r n i n s .

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DE,CORATIVE SPINDLECUTS J J nlikebasicspindleturning,which with rough\-/ isprimarilyconcerned ing, sizing,and smoothingcylindrical or taperedfurniture parts,decorative spindlework involveselaboration-cutting grooves,notches,curves,andother But despiteits apparentcomshapes.

plexity,nearlyall decorative spindleturning is basedon two fundamentalcuts: covesandbeads.Coves(below)areconwhile cavehollowsturnedin workpieces, beads(page66)havetheoppositeprofile: a convexsurfaceraisedfrom the surroundingwork. Althoughcovesand

beadscan standalone,they are often part of a seriesof elements in an overallturningdesign. The spindlegougeand skewchisel arethetwo main toolsyou will use.With its fingernail-ground bevel,thespindle gougeis a goodtool for smoothingthe convexandconcave nrofilesofbeadsand coves.The skewchiselis normallyused to cutbeads. )ustaspracticingbasicspindlecutscansharpenyourturningtechnique, cutting covesand beadswill prepareyou for the challengeofsuch elaboratedecorativecutsasvasesand balls(page69).Tosizetheseelements, you can andrepeatpatternssuccessfully, of the usea template,a reverse-image desiredshape.

Decorative elements cansomelimes beformedin spindlestockwithout theaid of turningtools.In thephoto wire at left,a lengthof light-gauge into q child'srattleas burnsgrooves thestockisspunat highspeed.

CUTTING C()VES thefirstcut 1 Making I Outline thecoveontheblankwitha pencil. gouge in an Then,holda spindle gripwiththeflutepoiniing sideunderhand one waysandsliceintothewoodjustinside lineswiththecutting edge of themarked angle thetoolhanof thetoolonly.Slowly thelineuntilthebevel dlebacktowards andmakea scooprubsontheworkpiece, ingcutdownto themiddleof thecove.As youmakethecut,turnthehandle to rotate (right). the bevelagainsi theworkpiece Thegouge shouldbeflaton its backwhen it reaches thecenterof thecove.Rather t h a nc o n t i n u i nt hgec u ta n dt u r n i n tgh e halfofthecovein anuphilldirecremaining downhill cutopposite tion,makea second thefirst Gtep2).

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Makingthesecondcut ) C - W t t nt h e g o u g eo n i t s s i d ea n d p o s i t i o n ei dn s i d et h et h e o t h e rm a r k e d l i n ef o r t h e c o v e ,s t a r tt h e n e wc u t a s r r n r r d i d t h p f i r c t n- n, ,p - .T. h, , e na n g r e ano r o t a t et h e s p i n d l eg o u g ei n t h e o p p o s i t ed i r e ci lo nl o h r i n pl h e b e v eiln c o n tactwith the stock(/eff).

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r - . f R e p e ast t e p s1 a n d 2 . m a k i n ga s e r i e so f d e e p e cr u t sf r o mr i g h ta n d leftthat meetat the bottomof the cove ( b e l o w )C. o n t i n uceu t t i n gb a c kt o t h e marked l i n e su n t i lt h ec o v ei s c o m p l e t e .

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I D e c o r a t i vbee a d sc a n b e t u r n e dw i t h spindlegouges, skewchisels(page67). or beadingtools(page68). Withthe gouge, t h e t e c h n i q u feo r t u r n i n gb e a d si s t h e rpvprqo nf crriirns cnvoc. rpflo.iinq thp

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t h e o t h e rs i d eo f t h e b e a d a , ngling and r o l l i n gt h e t o o li n t h e o p p o s i t d eirection.

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t r) Turning round shoulders I Wnene,thebeadwillstandaloneor bepartof a series of beads, blendit into t h et u r n i nbgym a k i nrgo u n sd h o u l d eorns eachsideof it. Simply repeat step1 to turn a half-bead beside thelull bead(rieht).

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D e f i n i ntgh eb e a d 1 I A s k e wc h i s e el n a b l e ys o ut o t u r n beadswithsharpdetail.Outlinethe bead w i t h a p e n c i lt.h e nm a k ea V - c u I( p a g e 5& at eachline.Youcan useeitherthe l o n go r s h o r tp o i n to f t h e c h r s e lb, u t t h e longpoint,as shownhere,usuallymakes t h e j o b e a s i e rT. h e n ,w o r k i n go n o n eo f , i d e no n es i d eo f t h e c u t , t h e V - c u t sw slowlyliftingthe handleso the bevelrubs a n dt h e l o n gp o i n to f t h e c h i s e m l a k e sa r o u n d e dr,o l l i n gc u t . R e p e afto r t h e o t h er sideof the bead(above).

r) Completing thebead L Repeat step1 asnecessary to smooth t h eh e a d 'ssh a n eT h e nt u r na r o u n d v

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s h o u l d eor n e a c hs i d eo f t h e b e a dt o b l e n di t i n t ot h e o t h e re l e m e n tos f t h e turning (left).


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T00t TURNING BEADS: BEADING Making thecut Because itsbladeis smaller, a beading forturntoolorovides evenfinercontrol i n gs m a lbl e a dtsh a ne i t h ear s p i n d l e gougeor a skewchisel.Theprocess is Starting similar to usinga skewchisel. point-ofthe at thecenter-orhighest bead,holdthetoolflatandperpendicularto theblanksothatitsbevelisrubbing. andmakea downhill Raise thehandle thetoolin thedirection of cut,rotating c u ta n da n g l i nigt a w a yT. h eb e a d i n g toolshould cometo reston itsside. fortheothersideof the bead, Repeat androlling thetoolin theoppoangling sitedirection.

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-shaped Res emblinga teardrop bead,thevaseis a designelement oftenincorporated in balusters andchairlegs.Thebonomof the vaseis cut likea beadwith a skew chiselandshapedwith rollingcuts. In thephotoat right,theneckis with a spindlegouge beingshaped technique. usingthecove-cutting

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S h a p i ntgh eb a l l I A b a l li s a s p h e r i c ab le a dt h a tu s u a l l y t u r n i n gl i k et h e s t a n d sa l o n eo n a s p i n d l e c h a i rl e gs h o w na t r i g h t .T h e d e c o r a t i v e , d e t a i lc a n b e t u r n e dw i t h a s k e wc h i s e l a t o o l .S t a r tb y s p i n d l eg o u g eo, r a b e a d i n g t h e b a l l ,t h e n s h a p i n tgh e e l e m e n tasr o u n d d e fi n et h e b a l l i t s e l fw i t h a s p i n d l eg o u g e as you woulda bead(page66), buI maki n gi t w i d e ra n df u l l e r S . t a r t i nagt t h ec e n t e r - o r h i g h e spt o i n t o f t h e b a l l ,h o l dt h e gougeflatandperpendicular to the workso t h a t i t s b e v e il s r u b b i n gL. i f t t h e h a n d l e a n d m a k ea d o w n h i lcl u t ,r o t a t i ntgh et o o l i n t h ed i r e c t i oonf c u t a n d a n g l i n gi t a w a y . T h eg o u g es h o u l dc o m et o r e s to n i t s s i d e . Repeatfor the othersideof the ball tight), a n g l i n ga n d r o l l i n gt h e t o o li n t h e o p p o s i t ed i r e c t i o n .

r) Sizingwitha template L t o c h e c kt h e s h a p eo f t h e b a l l , c u t a s m a l lr e v e r s e - p r o f ti leem p l a t e f r o mh a r d b o a rwdi t ht h e d e s i r e d curve of the ball (left).ff necessary, makea f e w m o r er o l l i n gc u t sw i t ht h e s p i n d l e g o u g eu n t i lt h e b a l lm a t c h e tsh e p r o f i l eo f t h et e m p l a t e .

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I SPINDLETURNING

TURNING FILLETS

Cutting a fillet A filletis a flatsegment thatjoinstwodecorative elements of a turning. Inthe illustration above, a filletis beingturnedbetween a coveandan urn.Tocuta filgripandmakea sizingcut (page let,holda parting toolwithan underhand 56).

FINIATS Incorporatingmzny decorativespindlecutsinto a unified whole,finiak add thecrowning touchtofurniturepieces suchashighboys,beds,and balusters.Thetulipwood finial in thephotoat right featuresa ball-and-urnmotif with coves,beads,andfillets astransitionalelements.

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FOR TURNING TOOLS HANDTES T u r n i n gy o u ro w nt o o l h a n d l e si s m o r et h a nj u s tg o o ds p i n d l ep r a c t i c e . S o m et u r n i n gt o o l sa r es o l dw i t h o u t h a n d l e sa,n dm a n yt u r n e r sp r e f etro m a k et h e i ro w nt o f i t t h e i rh a n d s . T o t u r na t o o lh a n d l ec, u t a b l a n k from a dense,stronghardwood such , a k i n gs u r et h a t a s a s ho r h i c k o r ym t h eg r a i nr u n sa l o n gt h e l e n g ho f t h e b l a n kA . b l a n kt h a t i s 1 %t o 2 i n c h e s squara e n d 1 3 t o 1 6 i n c h e sl o n gw i l l y i e l da s t a n d a rhda n d l eM . ounthe p i e c eb e t w e ecne n t e r a s n dt u r n i t d o w nt o a s m o o t hc y l i n d e r . B u ya b r a s sf e r r u l ef o r t h e h a n d l e , o r m a k eo n ef r o m 1 - i n c h - d i a m e t e r c o p p etru b i n g c, u t a b o u t1 i n c hl o n g . F i l et h p e d p e ss m o o t hT. h e nu s ea p a r t i n gt o o lt o t u r n a t e n o no n o n e e n d o f t h e b l a n kt o a c c o m m o d a t e t h ef e r r u l e . M e a s u rteh e i n s i d ed i a m e t eor f t h e ferrulewith dial calipers?ight,tofl, a n dt u r n t h e o u t s i d ed i a m e t eor f t h e t e n o nt o m a t c h .G i v et h e t e n o n a s l i s h t a n e rs o t h e f e r r u l e w i l lf i t s n u g l yR . e m o vteh e h a n d l ef r o mt h e l a t h e s, e t i t e n dd o w no n a w o r ks u r f a c e ,a n dt a p t h e f e r r u l ei n p l a c e with a mallet (right,botton). N e x t ,r e m o u ntth e h a n d l eo n t h e l a t h ea n ds h a p ei t w i t h a s k e wc h i s e l a n d s n i n d l es o r j s e(. R e f e tr o t h e b a c ke n d p a p eor f t h i s b o o kf o r a selectioo n f t y p i c a tl o o l h a n d l e ^L^^^^

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A s y o u a r et u r n i n gt h e h a n d l e , lln yd s w i t c ho f f t h e l a t h eo c c a s i o n a a c h e c kh o wt h e h a n d l ef e e l si n y o u r h a n d .l f y o uw i s h ,m a k ed e c o r a t i v e g r o o v eisn t h e t a i l e n do f t h e h a n d l e ; s o m ew o o dt u r n e r si d e n t i f yt h e i r t o o l sa c c o r d i ntgo t h e n u m b e ro f ornn\/ae in thp h:ndlp

0 n c e y o ua r es a t i s f i e dw i t h t h e h a n d l e ' s h a p ey, o u n e e dt o b o r ea h o l ei n t h e t e n o ne n dt o a c c o m m o d a t et h e t a n go f t h e t o o l .T h es i z eo f the holedepends on the typeof tang. F o rr o u n d - s e c t i ounn, t a p e r etda n g s , b o r ea h o l ee q u a tl o t h e t a n gd i a m e lor 2 la ? innhoe d - o- o- rn . F, o f s q u a r e s e c t i o nt,a p e r e dt a n g s y, o u n e e dt o d r i l la t w o - s t e h p o l e :T h et o p h a l f s h o u l db e t h e s a m ed i a m e t ear s t h e t a n g7 %i n c h e sf r o mt h e t i p ; t h e b o t t o m h a l fs h o u l db e t h e s a m ew i d t h a s t h e t a n g% i n c hf r o mi t s t i p . B o r et h e h o l e so n t h e l a t h e . M o u n t h e b i t i n a J a c o b cs h u c k a n d a t t a c ht h e c h u c kt o t h e l a t h e t a i l s t o c kH. o l d i n tgh e h a n d l es t e a d y , a d v a n c teh e t a i l s t o c ak n d h a n d l e w i t h t h e h a n d w h e es lo t h e b i t b o r e s s t r a i g h ti n t o t h e t e n o ne n d / p a g e 47). l[ake surethe holeis centered in theblank. T o c o m p l e tteh e h a n d l es, a wo f f the wasteat the butt end and insert

7l

the t h e b l a d ei n t ot h e h a n d l eS. e c u r e b l a d ei n p l a c eb y r a p p i n g t h e b u t to f t h eh a n d l w e i t ha m a l l e t .


SPINDLETURNING

DUPLICATE TURNINGS Usinga storytemplate W h e nm a k i n gm u l t i p l ce o p i e o sfa single design,suchas a seriesof tablelegs,a stow r l lh e l py o uo u t l i n et h e p a t r yt e m p l a t e t e r no n e a c hb l a n kT . o m a k et h et e m p l a t e , d r a wy o u rd e s i g nf u l l - s c a loen a p i e c eo f %-inch ardboard M. a r ka c e n t e r l i ndeo w n t h e l e n g t ho f t h e t e m p l a t et h , e no u t l i n e e a c he l e m e nitn t h et u r n i n g b e a d sc,o v e s , f i l l e t sb, a l l su, r n sv, a s e s - b ym a r k i n lgi n e s p e r p e n d r c u tl a o rt h e c e n t e r l i n e A.l s om a r k thedesired t h i c k n e sosf e a c he l e m e not n t h e t e m p l a t eT. o u s et h e t e m p l a t eh, o l di t o n t h e t o o lr e s ta n d b u t t o n ee d g ea g a i n s t t h e b l a n kT . u r no n t h e l a t h ea n dt r a n s f e r t h e m a r k e dl i n e sf r o mt h et e m p l a t e to the s p i n n i n gb l a n kw i t h a p e n c i l( l e f t ) f. h e r e s u l t i nlgi n e sw i l l p r o v i dae g u i d et o t h e locationof eachelementon the workpiece. A s t h e t u r n i n gp r o g r e s s euss, ec a l i p e r tso c h e c kt h e b l a n ka g a i n st th e m e a s u r e m e n t s o n t h et e m p l a t e .

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1HO?TI? A layout tool for multipleturninqe Formulf,iple coVieoof oVindle work,Iheehop-made layouljig ehownhereenablesyou lo scribelayout, lineeon everyblank4uicklyand accuralely.Trace yourdeetqnonto a Vieceof ocraVand driie ,.1,, a finiehing nailinlo lhe edqeof the ...'^\, 1iqaI eachtraneitionin the deoiqn ' /' Snipoff trhenailheadsand file ,/'/ NheendeLo sharp VoinNe. . ..,..'' ,,2 ) n c e y o u h a v ee h a V e d .t/ yourblankinto a cylin- S. ./ der,eimVlyVree,e the., ',,(. ,.-Z

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SPLITAND CARVEDTURNINGS ecorative spindleturningdoesnot {l L) endwith beads,coves,and balls. With a little imagination,exotictouchescanbe addedto an ordinaryspindle turning. One innovativetechnique involvescleavinga turning down the halves. middle,producingsymmetrical Idealfor piecessuchasbookends,wallmountedlamps,or quartercolumns, splitspindleturningis an easytechnique to master.The blank is sawnin half or in quarters, gluedup with newspaper the joint, and mountedin the lathe. Aftertheworkpieceis turned,thepieces canbe easilyseparated. Reedsand flutes made along the lengthof a spindleturning aretwo other populardecorativeelements.In fact, reedsand flutesdateto ancientGreek andRomantimes,andlaterbecamecor-

Quartercolumnsadda visualframeworktofinefurnituresuchastheQueen Annechestof drawersshownabove. Thecolumnsaremadefrom a single blanksawnin four, thengluedup, turnedon thelathe,andpriedapart.

A SPLITTURNING MAKING uptheblank 1 Gluing a blankfora splitturning, I Toprepare lf youwillbesplif cutthepieceoversize. in two,asforthepairof tingtheturning bookends shownon page74, bell-shaped columns, sawtheblankin half.Forquarter rip likethoseshownin thephotoabove, (inset). theblankintofourequalpieces of eachblank, Jointthe insidesurfaces thenglueandclampthembacktogether (/eft).Thiswill in between withnewspaper aparteasily. allowyouto pullthepieces theclamps, Oncetheglueis dry,remove andturnit. mounttheblankonthelathe,

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nerstonesof the Sheratonstyleof furniturein the mid-18thCentury. chairlegs,and Carvedin balusters, bedposts,reedsandflutesguidethe eye its vertialongthe pieceandaccentuate calline. Reeds(page78)areconvexand aretypicallycarvedinto a taperor vase to accentuateits curve.Flfies (page75) areconcaveand areordinarilycut into cylinders.Theyarefrequentlya feature of ouartercolumns. Both reedsand flutescanbe carved on a blankwhile it is still mountedin the lathe,althoughnot while the lathe is actuallyrunning. The machine's indexingheadenablesyou to spacethe reedsor flutesequallywhileholdingthe workpiecestationaryasyou carve.You also can rout flutes with an electric routerandthejig shownonpage76.

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/) Separating theturning L lttertheturninghasbeenfinished, remove it fromthelathe.Thenusea wood chiselto prytheglued-up halves apart. Secure theturning to a worksurface as shownabove, thenworkthechiselinto theseamontheendof thestock. Tapthe chiselgentlywitha malletandtwistthe bladefromsideto sideuntiltheoieces separate. Clean theglueandnewspaper fromthe insidesurfaces witha scraDer.

lllJilllill lllll]11 llltltnlltljlltllltlitlllljlllJltltlll|illlllllll 5HO7Tt? Uoingcompreeoionringo )pliI turningecan breakapart,betore you are tinishedNurning Ihem.One wayNoeolvethe problemio tro reinforceLheblankewiLhohop-made compreeeionrinqo.CuNNwo'/' - inchlonqrinqefrom 1/z-inch-diameLer co??erNubin7 and oharpenone rim of eachwith a file.before mounNinq Nheblank,drivea ringinXoeachendwith a hammer,a6 shownhere.

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SPINDLETURNING

MAKING FLUTES theflutes 1l 0utlinins -

g e a da n da I U s et h e l a t h e ' si n d e x i n h s h o p - m a dlea y o ujti g t o m a r kt h e f l u t e so n y o u rb l a n k .F o rt h e j i g , a t t a c ht h e u p r i g h t in ihp hasp nipcp al : 9Oo :nolp

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h o l et h r o u g ht h e u p r i g htto h o l da p e n c i l l r t ht h e m i d d l eo f t h e b l a n kw h e n t i p l e v ew the baseis seton the lathebed.Insertthe h e a dt o indexinp g i n i n t ot h e i n d e x i n g t h e h e a d s t o cakn db l a n k S . l i d et h e secure l a y o ujti g a l o n gt h e l a t h eb e d ,m a r k i n tgh e f l u t eo n t h e l e g .T o s p a c et h e f l u t e se q u a l l y ,y o u m u s tr o t a t et h e i n d e x i n g h e a db y t a c ht i m e y o um a r ko u t t h e s a m ea m o u n e a f l u t e .D i v i d e t h e n u m b eor f h o l e si n t h e h e a d i n t h i sc a s e 6 , 0 - b y t h e n u m b eor f f l u t e sy o uw a n t .l f y o uw a n t e ds i x f l u t e s , for example,youwouldrotatethe headby 1 0 h o l e sR . e m o v teh e p i n f r o mt h e h e a d , r o t a t et h e h e a dt h e r e c u i r e dn u m b e or f holes,and markthe secondIluIe (right). R e n e artr n t i al l l t h e f l u t e sa r em a r k e d . , ark T o o u t l i n et h e f l u t e sf o r c a r v i n gm t w o e q u a l l ys p a c e dl i n e so n e a c hs i d e o f t h e f l u t ec e n t e r l i nm e a r k ,f o r m i n ga n a r r o wr e c t a n g l e .

T T I T

Carving theflutes W i t ht h e l e gs t i l lm o u n t e idn t h e l a t h e , u s ea c a r v i n g o u g et o f a s h i o nt h e f l u t e s . F o re a c hf l u t e ,s e c u r et h e l e gw i t ht h e i n d e x i np g i n a n dc u t a s h a l l o w channel g o u g eM . ake t h e c e n t e r l i n w e i t h t h e along

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e corioc nf deoner e rrtc uriih thp onrroo

m a i n t a i n i nagn e v e nd e p t ha l o n gt h ef i u t e ( l e f t ) .f o f i n i s h ,m a k ea p l u n g ec u t w i t h t h e c a r v i n g o u g ea t e a c he n do f t h e f l u t e w i t ht h e b e v efl a c i n gt h e m i d d l eo f t h e flute (insef).Thencleanup the cornersof t h e c u t sw i t ht h e g o u g e .

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I I I THETATHE JIGFOR A COLUMN-FLUTING you Thejig shownat rightwillenable to usea routerfor cuttingfluteson yourlatheturnings. of Cutthe pieces except thejig from%-inchplywood, forthetop,whichis madefrom%-inch Thejig shouldbe long clearacrylic. yourrouter's to support andwideenough to hold baseplate,andhighenough theblankwhenthe thetooljustabove jig is setonthe lathebed. andsides, thetop,bottom, Assemble Install for rigidity. thenaddthebraces piloted flutingbit in a double-bearing yourrouter,borea bit clearance hole thejtgtop,andscrewthetool's through baseplateto thejlg. you To spacetheflutesequally, headmethod canusethe indexing described on page75 or markthe lf youwant12 f luteson a faceplate. divide360 (the f lutes,for example, in a circle)by 12, number of degrees yielding a spaceof 30". Usea protract o ra n da o e n c itlo m a r kf l u t el i n e s 30' apart(below). on the faceplate

T I T I I I I I I I I I I to theheadstock Attachthefaceplate of thelathe. Tosetupthejig,placeit onthelathe cenbedandmounttheblankbetween the lathe and ters;makesurethat Alsoensure routerareunplugged. glue the linesseparating thatthe partsof the blankarealignedwith the f lutemarkson the faceplate. Setthe router'sdepthof cutsothat alongthe horizonthebit is centered thefacetal axisof theblank.Rotate platebyhanduntiloneof theflutelines position. Tighten a isat the12 o'clock thelathedriveshaft handscrew around it fromrotating. to prevent

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Tobecertain thatallthefluteswill bethesamelength, clampstopblocks to the lathebed.Buttthejig against

onestopblock,turnontherouter, and pushonthesideof thejig to feedthe Oncethepilotsare bit intotheblank.

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bearing against thestock(below), slide jig the along thelathebeduntilit contactsthe otherstopblock.Keepthe bit pilotspressed against thestockas it routsthef lute. Turnofftherouter, remove thehandscrew, androtatethefaceplate byhand to alignthenextflutelinewiththebit, thenreinstall thehandscrew. Repeat to cut the remaining flutes(above).


SPINDLETURNING

I T T I

M A K I NRGE E D S outthereeds 1I Markins _

J . 0 u t l i n er e e d so n a t u r n r n gb l a n ku s i n g y o u rl a t h e ' si n d e x i nhge a da s y o uw o u l d markf lutes.Youcan usea layoutlig (page 7 5 ) o r t h e t o o l r e s t .W i t h t h e l a t h eu n plugged a n dt h e i n d e x i n p gi n i n t h e h e a d , p o s i t i o tnh e r e s tp a r a l l et lo t h e b l a n ka n d r a i s ei t s o t h e t o p o f t h e r e s ti s l e v ew l ith t h e m i d d l eo f t h e b l a n k D . r a wa p e n c i l alongthe toolrestto layout the first reed. T o m a r ke a c hr e m a i n i n g r e e(dr t g h t )d, t s e n g a g teh e p i n f r o mt h e i n d e x i n g head, r o t a t et h e h e a d a, n dr e i n s e rt h t epininthe annrnnri:ic

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Carving thereeds partingtoolto outlinethe reeds. L tlseawell-sharpened carver's Secure t h e l e go n t h e l a t h ew i t ht h e i n d e x i n p g r ns o t h a to n eo f y o u rl a y o ulti n e si s f a c i n gu p w a r d st h, e nc u t a s h a l l o w groove a l o n gt h e l i n ew i t ht h e p a r t i n gt o o l .R e p e afto r t h e o t h e rm a r k e d l i n e st,h e nr o u n dt h e r e e d sb e t w e etnh e mb y m a k i n gc u t so n

, l l i n ga f l a t c a r v e r 'csh i s e sl l i g h t l y e a c hs i d eo f t h e g r o o v e sr o fromsideto side(above, left).Followthe leg'scontours, making the reedswiderat the top thanat the bottom.Endthe topsof the r e e d sa s y o ud i d t h e f l u t e s ,u s i n ga c a r v i n g o u g eo f t h e p r o p e r stze(above,rtght);thebottomsof reedsareoftenleft open.

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FINISHING hereis a widespread beliefamong I woodturnersthat if a turningneeds to be sanded.thenthetoolsusedto oroduceit wereeitherdull or usedimpioperly.Thereis more than a little truth behindthisopinion;a smoothandclean turning needsno sanding.A surfacecut cleanlyby tools is superiorto a sanded a surface;sandinginevitablyscratches it is performed spindleturning because againstthe grain.Tomakemattersworse, a finishwill onlymagnif' theblemishes. Until you developinto a proficient enoughturner to skip sandpaperaltoThesimplest andmostnaturallinish gether,useit sparingly,only to smooth for a spindleturningk oftentheone closest at hand.In thephotoabove,a thewood,neverto actuallyshapeit. Start with 100grit and work up to 280grit. cherryfinial isbeingrubbedwith a palm-fullof woodshavings. Whereverpossible,sandthe bottom of Natural oils the turning as it spinson the lathe. will imparta warm, from theshavings glowto thewood. Shouldthepapercatch,it will bethrown burnished

f

A SELECTION OFFINISHES FORTURNING TYPEOFFINISH

FINISHING PRODUCTS

CHARACTERISTICS ANDUSES

METHODS OFAPPTICATI()N

Penetrating oils

T u n go i l , D a n i sohi l

Applied wiihcottoncloth.

Non-toxic penetrating oils

Purewalnut o i l ,s a l a o di l , minera o li l

High-gloss finishes

Lacquer, shellac

Natural finishthatpenetrates thewood andhardens to a thin,moisture-resistantfilmasit dries.Usedforgeneral penetrating spindle turnings, oilsbuild matteto semigloss finupa transparent ishwithrepeated applications. These arenatural oils.Purewalnut oil andsaladoil areusedon kitchen implements andsaladbowls, mineral oil is usedonturned toyssuchaschildren'srattles. finishes Solvent-release thatdryquickly f inish to a clear,hardf inish;a glossy canbebuiltupwithrepeated applicaplatters tions.Usedonvases, bowls, where andspecialty turnings a high

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clearof thelatheinstead of pullingyour handovertheturning. A spindleturningis bestfinished righton thelathe.A goodfinishseals thewoodfromdustandmoisture while the natural bringingout beautyof the wood.Because theytendto obscure ratherthanenhance grain,stainsare rarelyused.Turnings areoftenfinished witha combination oil-and-wax finish, althoughhigher-gloss finishes, suchas lacquer, canbeapplied;seethechart belowfor a selection of appropriate products. Aswith sanding onthelathe, run themachine ata slowspeed to avoid keepthetoolrestclear splashing, always of theworkandfinishtheturningfrom underneath. Avoidusinglargecloths, astheycangetsnagged andpull your fingersintothespinningwork.

oloqq is dpqirpd

Waxes

Carnauba, beeswax, pastewax

Usedongeneral spindle turnings to sealandprotect oiledworkpieces while imparting a highpolish. Carnauba isa hard,brittlevegetable wax;commercial oastewaxis a blendof carnauba and softerbeeswax.

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Applied withcottoncloth.

Lacquer is brushed or sprayed onturning whilelatheis off, thenbuffedandburnished with cottonclothandfineabrasives whileworkis spinning; shellac is applied withcottonclothand f ineabrasives. Applied withcottoncloth;carnauba canbeapplied bystick.


SPINDLETURNING

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TURNING A SPINDLE SMOOTHING S a n d i nag f l a ts e c t i o n Remove t h e t o o l r e s t .T o s a n dt h e f l a t a r e a so f a s p i n d l e[ u r n i n gf,o l da p i e c eo f s a n d p a p ei nr t h i r d si o p r e v e ntth e p a p e r f r o ms l i p p i n gS. w i t c ho n t h e l a t h ea n d , h o l d r ntgh e p a p e ri n b o t hh a n d sl,i f t t h e p a p e tr o t h e t u r n i n gf r o mu n d e r n e a t h . W o r kw i t h t h e g r a i na l o n gt h e l e n g t ho f the workas muchas possiblekight).Stop s a n d i n gp e r i o d i c a ltl oy p r e v e nbt u r n i n g . 0 n c e t h e s c r a t c h efsr o mt h e p r e v i o u s g r i t h a v eb e e ns m o o t h e da w a y ,m o v et o a f i n e rp a p e r .

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S a n d i ncgo v e sb, e a d sa n dp o m m e l s C o v e as r es a n d e db y b e n d i n tgh e s a n d p a p ei nr t oa U s h a p es o s u r f a c eH , o l d t n gt h e p a p e rI n t h e p a p e rc o n t a c t st h e c o n c a v e f r o m d i r e c t l ya b o v e( a b o v el ,e f t ) . b o t hh a n d ss, m o o t ht h e c o v e w r a p p i n t g h e p a p e ra r o u n da Narrow c o v e sc a n b e s a n d e db y

d o w eo l f t h e a p p r o p r i a tdei a m e t e rS. a n db e a d so r p o m m e i s f r o ms i d et o s i d et o c o n h o l d r ntgh e p a p evr e r t i c a l al yn dr o l l i n g tact the wood(above,rrght).Be carefulthat yourfingersare not s t r u c kb y t h e s q u a r ep o m m ecl o r n e r s .

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SPINDLETURNING

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F I NISH I A NS GP I N D T LE U R N IN G theturnins 1t 0ilins -

I Setthe latheto a slowsoeedto orevent t h e o i l f r o ms p l a s h i n gA.p p l ys o m eo i l t o a s o f tc o t t o nc l o t ha n d r u b i t i n t ot h e s p i n ningwoodfrom undernealh(right);make s u r et h e c l o t hi s n o tw r a p p e d a r o u n dy o u r ^^r -^^^^+^^ f i n o p r s I p t t h p tLrur' rr 'nr 'i 1n6od u lry.. , o l l u I t r P t r o L o )

m a n yt i m e sa s n e e d e du n t i li h e o i l p e n e t r a t e st h e w o o d .l f d e s i r e dy,o uc a ns a n d t h e t u r n i n gw i t h3 2 0 - g r i st a n d p a p earn d r u bo u tt h e f i n i s hw i t hf i n ea b r a s i v essu c h a s p u m i c eo r r o t t e n s t o naen da r a g .F i n a l l y . rub the turningwith woodshavings(phofo, p a g e7 9 ) t o g i v ei t a f i n a lb u r n i s h i n g .

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r) Waxing theturning L l o g i v et h et u r n i nag h i g h epro l i s h , increase thelathespeed andapplya wax f inish.lf youareusing a softwax,applyit witha softclothasyouwould oil.lf youare usinga turner's waxstick,holdthestick (/eff), gently against thespinning workpiece applyrng a thinlayer to thesurface. Move t h ew a xs t i c kq u i c k layl o n tgh et u r n i ntgo prevent toomuchbuildup. Witheither wax, bufftheturning witha cleancotton cloth; keeprubbing untilthewaxis melted and glossisachieved. thedesired


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FACEPIAETIIRNNG hereissomething uniqueMostbowl-turning projects ly rewarding aboutfacefollowthesamebasicseouence. plateturning-transforminga Beginby mountingwhatwill pieceof roughlumberinto a bethetop of thebowlto the smooth,symmetrical bowi. lathe,thenshapetheoutside, Fromstartto finish.theentire sandandfinishthesurface. and process takesplaceon a lathe. prepare thebasefor mounting. joinery Thereis no assembly, Thenreverse thebowlandtrue or fabrication ofotherparts. andshape therim. Finally,turn Theproductiscomplete in this theinsideof thebowl,sandand singleprocess. finishit, andreverse thebowl Faceplate turningalsooffers onelasttimeto complete the thewoodturneragreatdealof baseandremoveevidence of design freedom. Tiue,thereare Oncea bowlis turnedand sandedsmooth,a finish yourmountingmethod. certainpracticalconsidera- can beapplied.Sincethe bowlshownhereis intended Beforeyoubeginturning, tions.Whatwill thebowlhold? to holdfood, it isgivena light coatingof mineral youwill needto find asuitable Howstrongdoesit needto be? oil with a lint-freecottonpad. wayto mountyourblankon Butthereis alsomuchroom thelathe.Traditionallv. thisis for experimentation andimprovisation in distinguishing fac- doneby screwingor tapingthestockto a faceplateor gluingit torsrangingfrom theshapeof thebowlandits baseto the to a block attachedto the faceplate.More recently,turnershave thickness of itswalls. useda varietyof chucksto clamptheirwork. Chuclscanhold Theoptionsincrease with a turner'sskill.Forbeginners, it smallandoddlyshapedpieces,andareexcellent for grippingthe isbestfirstto master sometraditional shapes andprofiles. This rim of a bowl to turn thebase.Chucls alsocansaveyou time if chapterwill showhowto producetwo relativelyeasybowl you areturning a seriesof similarpieces.No matterwhatyou designs. Completing theseprojects will helpyoudevelop the useto hold a blank,you aresureto find faceplateturning a skillsthatyouwill needto givefreereignto yourcreativity. rewardingand challengingexperience.

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A gougeshapesthe baseof a bowl. Therecess at thecenterof thebasewill beusedto rechuckthe bowlto thelathesotheinsidecanbehollowedout

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MOUNTINGMETHODS

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'fa he methodsof mountinga blank "outnumI tbr faceplate turningfar usedto producethe berthetechniques piecesthemselves. Thetraditionalworkholding device,the faceplate(below), is still popularfor securingthe top of a bowl to turn the bottom;screwsare driveninto woodthatwill be hollowed out laterto form the mouthof thevessel.Ratherthandrivingscrewsinto your blank, you can use a faceplatefor mountingwith a glueblock (page85), a paperjoint (page85),or double-sided tape(pageB6).Oncethe turningis finished,the workpieceis pried, sawn, or partedoff the auxiliaryblock-or, in the caseof double-sided tape,the faceplate.In general,yellow glue

shouldbe usedwith glueblocksexcept whenyou areturning greenwood,for whichgap-fillingcyanoacrylate adhesiveis the bestchoice. The alternativeto a faceplate is a chuck,andthe numberof commercial modelsavailableto wood turnershas in recentyears.Most stanincreased dard chuckingmethodsareshownin the followingpages. The scrollchuck (pageB9),which usesthreeor four contractingor expandingjawsto clamp stock,is a prime example.It is quick and easyto useand the jawsleaveno visiblemarkson theworkpiece. In addition, somemodelscan6e fittedwith rubberpostsfor holdingthe rim of a nearlyfinishedbowl sothebottomcan

be turned (page110).However,the spinningjawsrepresent a two-folddanger.First,ifyou gettoo close,theycan inflict a seriouswound.Second,and mostimportant,if you over-expand the jaws,theycancomelooseandfly away from thetool,causinginjury. If you usea chuck,readthe owner's manualcarefully andfollowallthesafety precautions,particularly those regarding thesizeof theworkpieceand the chuckcapacity.Commercialchucks The shop-made canalsobe expensive. exampleshownon page90 is handy and costsalmostnothins to build. Othertraditionalwoodenchuckdesigns canbe madejust aseasilyand tailored for your work.

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FACEPLATES Mounting theblank A faceolate orovides a reliable andsafe m e t h o od f m o u n t i nsgt o c kt o t h eh e a d stock,butyoumustbe carefulnotto intoanywoodthatwillremain drivescrews yourblank inthefinished bowl.Rough-cut (back to a circleonthebandsaw endpaper),thensetit on a worksurface. Center t h ef a c e o l a ot ent o oo f t h eb o w bl l a n k andfastenit in place(nghf). Then,mount k indle t h ef a c e p l a t e o t h e h e a d s t o sc p of thelathe.

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FACEPLAIETURNING

BL(ICKS GLUE Glamping a glueblocktotheblank T h eg l u eb l o c km o u n t i nm g e t h o rde l i e s t h a t a o n a d h e s i v e s o r o v i d es o l i dh o l d toodeeplyintothe withoutpenetrating yellow gluewilldothejob. wood.Usually, of thebowlblank Makesurethebottom form a cleanjointwith isevenenough to glue witha the block;smooth thesurface plane, hand if necessary. Tofashion the g l u eb l o c kc, u ta w o o db l o c ki n t oa c r r c l es l i g h t llya r g et rh a nt h ed i a m e t eorf yourfaceplate. Theblockshould bethick thatwillattach enough to holdthescrews Fasten theblockto the it to thefaceplate. of faceplate, thenspread an evencoating yellow glueontheblockandcenter it on to secure thebowlblank.Usetwoclamps together withevenpressure and thepieces to cure.Oncetheturnallowtheadhesive ingis done,theglueblockcanbeparted offfromtheblank.

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PAPER JOINTS

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Assembling thejoint T h ep a p ejro i n ti s i d e n t i c a t ol t h eg l u e blockmethod described above. exceot thata sheetof kraftpaperis sandwiched between theglueblockandthebowlblank. to be pried Thepaperallows thepieces the aoartoncethebowlis turned.Screw faceplate to theglueblock,ensuring the screws do notpassthrough the block. T h e ns p r e aad t h i nl a y eor f g l u eo n t h e of thebowlblankandontheglue bottom a pieceof kraftpaper slightblock.Place ly larger thantheglueblockontheworkp i e c es, e tt h eg l u eb l o c ko n t h ep a p e r ( l e f t ) , I h ecnl a m pt h ea s s e m bal ysy o u would a g l u ej o i n t .

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t ATTACHING A BLANKWITHDOUBIE.SIDED TAPE 'l

Applying thetape I D o u b l e - s i dteudr n i n gt a p ep r o v i d eas s i m p l ew a yt o s e c u r e a lightweigh b tl a n k f o r f a c e p l a t teu r n i n g C . u t s t r i p so f t w o s i d e dt u r n i n gt a p et o c o v e ra s m u c ho f t h e f a c e p l a taes p o s s i b l eR. e m o v teh e b a c k i n gp a p e frr o mo n es i d eo f t h es t r i p s a n df i xt h e mo n t h e f a c e p l a t eT.h e n , n e e lt h p n a n e nr f f i h e o t h e rs i d eo f t h e lzno

(lpff)

Prpqs thp f:npnlato

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b l a n k c, e n t e r i nigt a s w e l la s p o s s r b l e o nt h es t o c k .

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r) Mounting theassembly on the lathe L t - l s ep r e s s u r ef r o m t h e t a i l s t o c kt o r e i n f o r cteh e t a p eb o n db e t w e e tnh e f a c e p l a t ea n d t h e t u r n i n gb l a n k .l n s t a l tl h e faceplato e n t h e h e a d s t o cskp i n d l eT. h e n i n s e r at l i v ec e n t e ri n t h e t a i l s t o cak n d s l i d ei t a g a i n st th e b l a n kT. u r nt h e h a n d w h e e lt o i n c r e a s et h e p r e s s u r e( r r g h t ) . Y o uc a n n o we i t h e rm o v et h e t a i l s t o c k a w a yf r o mt h e b l a n ka n d s h a p et h e o u t s i d eo f t h e b o w lo r l e a v et h e t a i l s t o c ki n p l a c e .D o n o t l e a v et h e b l a n ko n t h e l a t h e for an extended time,as gravitywill loosen p o t h e h o l d r n g w e ro f t h e t a p e ;i n s t e a d , w h e ny o us t o pw o r kr e m o v et h e f a c e p l a t e f r o mt h e h e a d s t o cakn d s e tt h e a s s e m b l v d o w nf l a t .

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FACEPLMETURNING

TW()CENTERING JIGS M a k i n ga n du s i n ga f a c e p l a t e - c e n t ejri ign g T o c e n t e ry o u rl a t h e ' sf a c e p l a t o en a c i r c u l a rb l a n k u , s et h e j i g s h o w na t r i g h t . T u r na p i e c eo f w o o di n t oa c y l i n d et rh e s a m ed i a m e t ear s t h e f a c e p l a t e t' sh r e a d e d h o l e t, a p e r i n tgh e e n ds l r g h t l y( Y . ou m a yw i s ht o f o r ma h a n d l ea t t h e t o p o f t h e 1 i g . )D r i v ea n a i l i n t ot h e c e n t e ro f t h e t a p e r e de n d ,c u t o f f t h e n a i l h e a d . . o u s et h e 1 i g , a n dg r i n da s h a r pp o i n t T m a r kt h e c e n t e or f t h e b l a n kw i t ha n a w l en t h e w o r k p i e c e a n d s e tt h e f a c e p l a t o w i t ht h e m a r ki n t h e m i d d l eo f t h e t h r e a d e d h o l e .l n s e r t h e j r g i n t h e h o l e( r r g h t ) , "feel" f o r t h e m a r kw r t ht h e n a i lt r p . and Holding t h e 1 i gi n p l a c es, c r e wt h e f a c e p l a t et o t h e b l a n k .

F aranlafe-

centerin4jiq

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M a k i n ga n du s i n ga c e n t e r - f i n d ji ingg T h e1 i gs h o w na b o v ew i l l e n a b l ey o ut o c e n t e a r f a c e p l a toen a n r r r e g u l a rsl h y a p e db l a n k C . u tp i e c e so f l - i n c h c l e a ra c r y l i cp l a s t j c a n d Z - i n c hp l y w o o idn t o1 2 - i n c h - d i a m edt ei sr k s L . e a v i ntgh e paperbackingon bothsidesof the plastic,attachthe twotogethe r w i t h d o u b l e - s i d et ad p ea n da c e n t r asl c r e w M . o u n t h e mt o y o u rf a c e p l a tseot h e p l a s t i ci s f a c i n go u t .U s ea s k e wc h i s etl o

crt a serieo s f e n r r a l lsvn a r : e dc o n c e n t r irci n p si n t h e d i s k (above, /eff).Remove the plasticfromthe plywoodandsprayit w i t h b l a c kp a i n t .O n c et h e p a i n th a sd r i e d .p e e lt h e b a c k i n g n e n c r n f f h n i h s , i d p cn, f t h p n l : s t i r ^ T n r r s p tL h' ' p i i' bo! n n s i t i n n t h p v I

b l a n ks o a s m u c ho f i t a s p o s s i b l ies w i t h i no n eo f t h e r i n g sa n d markthe centerwith an awl (above, risht)

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(CONTRACTING SCROLL CHUCKS JAWS) Attaching thechuckto a blank 1 I Scrollchucksareattached to the base o f a b o w lb l a n ka f t e rt h e o u t s i d eo f t h e blankhasbeenshaped(page98). Fora a w s ,y o uw i l l a l s o c h u c kw i t h c o n t r a c t i nj g n e e dt o t u r n a d o v e t a i l etde n o no n t h e b o t t o mo f t h e b l a n k (. F o l l o w themanufact u r e r ' si n s t r u c t i o nf osr t h e a p p r o p r i ast ei z e o f t h et e n o n .A ) d j u stth ej a w so f t h ec h u c k so theywrllslrpoverthe tenon(/eff).Handt i g h t e nt h e j a w sa r o u n dt h e t e n o nb y t u r n i n gt h e s c r o lrl i n g ,t h e nr e m o v teh e b l a n k t h ef a c e n l a t e f r o mt h e I a t h ea n d u n s c r e w

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r) Tightening the chuckjaws L f h r e a dt h e c h u c ko n t ot h e h e a d s t o c k o f y o u rl a t h e t, h e nf i n i s ht r g h t e n i nt gh e c h u c kj a w sa r o u n dt h e t e n o nf o l l o w i ntgh e m a n u f a c t u r eirn' ss t r u c t i o nFso. rt h e m o d e l s h o w ny, o um u s tt i g h t e nt h e c h u c ks c r o l l r i n gw h i l eh o l d i n gt h e c h u c kb o d ys t a t i o n a r y .l f y o u rl a t h eh a sa s p i n d l el o c k ,h o l d thespindlesteadywith it andusethescroll l e v e tr o t r g h t e nt h e s c r o l rl i n g .l f y o u r machinh e a sn o s p i n d l el o c k ,u s et h e b o d y h a n d l et o h o l dt h e c h u c kb o d ya s y o u tightenthe scrollnng (right).

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(EXPANDING JAWS) SCR()LL CHUCKS

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Fittingthechuckin the recess I T o a t t a c ha s c r o l cl h u c kw i t h e x p a n d i n gj a w st o a b o w lb l a n k ,y o u m u s tf i r s t turn a dovetailed recessin the bottomof the bowlto surtthe laws(page101). (Follow t h e m a n u f a c t u r e irn' ss t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e s i z eo f t h e r e c e s s .T) h e nf i t t h e jaws into the recess(left) andturn the thechuck. s c r o l rl i n gb y h a n dt o s e c u r e R e m o vteh e b l a n kf r o mt h e l a t h ea n d unscrew t h ef a c e p l a t e .

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Tightening thechuck S e t t h e b l a n kf a c ed o w no n a w o r k s u r f a c ea n dt i g h t e nt h e j a w si n t h e r e c e s sf o l l o w i n tgh e m a n u f a c t u r e r ' si n s t r u c t i o nFs o. rt h e m o d esl h o w n , i n s e rtth es c r o llle v e irn t h e s c r o l lr i n g a n dt h e b o d yh a n d l ei n t h ec h u c kb o d y (below), andtightenthe ringand body a g a i n set a c ho t h e ru n t i lt h el a w sg r r p tightly. the wallsof the recess

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I T I Dovetailednm Contractionchuck L e n q t h3: ' / , " Dtameter:3 ''/"'

A CONTRACTION CHUCK Thecontraction chuckshownat left c a nb ef a s h i o n ef rdo ma s m a lbl l o c k o f w o o dT. h ed i m e n s i o innst h ei l l u s tration willenable thejig to secure the gobletblank bottomof a large-sized to the latheheadstock. Tomakethejig,mounta blankon theheadstock andturnit to a cylinder. Thenusea round-nose scraper to hollowouta recess about1%inchdeep (below, in thecenterof the cylinder /efl),Follow thesameprocedure as youwouldto hollow outa goblet(page 120),leaving thewallsof thechuck

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aboul/, inchthick.Thenusea sidecuttingscraper to remove additional woodjustbelowthetopedgeof the r i m ,c r e a t i nagd o v e t a i l el i dp a r o u n d edge. Thiswillmeshwitha theinside d o v e t a i l teedn o ny o uw i l lt u r ni n t h e helping to bottomof yourworkpiece, h o l di t i n t h ec h u c kM . a k es u r ey o u braceeachscraoer onthetoolrestas youmakethesecuts. Now,borefour%-inchholesaround spaced 90" apart thecircumference, andlocatedIlo inchbelowthe rimof of the thechuck,flushwiththebottom recess. Forthef irsthole,clampthe to predriveshaftwitha handscrew Todrill ventthespindle fromrotating. holes, remove thehandtheremaining t h ec h u c k9 0 " ,a n d s c r e wr,o t a t e clampthe driveshaftagain(facing

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page,bottomrght). Nowremove the faceplate fromtheheadstock andsecure it in a vise.Usea handsaw to cutfour kerfsfromtherim intotheholesthat youdrrlled(above). Thesecutswill Widen define thejawsof yourchuck. thekerfsto X inchusinga chisel, then install a hoseclamoaround thechuck. To usethechuck,turna dovetailed slightly smalltenononyourworkpiece e rt h a nt h ed i a m e t eorf t h er e c e s s in thejig,mountthechuckandfacep l a t eo n t h e l a t h eh e a d s t o cakn, d insert theworkpiece in thechuck(/eff). Tighten thehoseclampto secure the stockin place.

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SCREW CHUCKS

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Preparing theblank 1 I Thescrewchuckis easyto use,butit is notstrong enough to holdlargeblanks orsecure endgrain.Refer to themanufacterer's instructions forlimitations onthe youcanuse.Forthemodel sizeof blanks s h o w nb e l o wa, m a x i m u m diameter-tolengthratioof 3:1 is recommended. Additionalsupport canbeprovided for large blanks bysliding thetailstock against the your workasyouturnthebowl.Toprepare blankforthescrew chuck.plane thecontacting faceof theblanksothechuck's collarwillf it f lushagainst it. Borea pilot holeintothecenter of theblankto accommodate thechuckscrew(nghf)-inthis case,a %-inch holeto a depthof 1 inch.

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Mounting theblank Screw thechuckto theheadstock spindle of thelathe, thenattach the blankto thechuck(below). Screwon t h eb l a n ku n t i li t s i t sf i r m l ya g a i n s t thescrew collar.

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JACOBS CHUCK AlthoughtheJacobs chuck,like theone shownin thephotoat left,is normally usedin thetailstockto holddrill bits for hollowing,it is alsoidealfor securing small-diameter blanksto theheadstock.Here,the chuckholdsa chess piecemadeof tulipwood.

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THREE.WAY SPLIT.RING CHUCKS

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Attaching thechuckto a blank Thethree-way splitringchuckis idealforsecuring smallgoblet the blank,andinsertthesplitringsintothegroove, ensuring whosegrainrunsthe lengthof the thatthesloping facesof theringsfacetoward blanksandotherpieces thecollar(above, piece.Prepare yourblankfollowing themanufacturer's instruc- /eff).Assemble thechuckbyplacing thecenterbossagainst the youneedto turnthe pieceto a threaded collarwiththetapered tions.Forthe modelshown, endfacingout,thenscrew the Thenusea parting right).Tightenthe diameter of 2%inches. toolto cuta %-inch- chuckbodyto thethreaded collar(above, groove withthechuck. square around thestock,% inchfromtheheadstock-end. unitusingthewrenches supplied Thiswilllock e i l la c c o m m o d at ht e s p l i tr i n g so f t h ec h u c k . theblankin place. T h eg r o o vw Finally, screw theassembly ontothelathe's Remove theblankfromthelathe,slidethethreaded collarover headstock soindle.

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PINCHUCKS 'l

Setting upthechuck youto mounta I Thepinchuckallows quickly bowlblankonthelatheheadstock atthecostof drilling a relatively large hole in yourworkpiece. Thechuckconsists of twoparts:a shaftwitha flatwedge milled outof it anda rollerpinthatfitsintothe wedge. Asshown in theillustration at left, whenthepinis positioned in themiddle of thewedge it isf lushwiththecircumferyouto slip enceof theshaft. Thisenables y o u rb l a n ko v e trh ec h u c kT. h e nw , hen yourotate theblankbyhand, thepinrolls o v etro o n es i d ea n dp r o t r u d es sl i g h t l y above thetopof theshaft,wedging the blankto theheadstock. Tosetuothechuck. simply thread it ontheheadstock, rotate it sothewedge isfacingupandplacethe pinin themiddle roller of thewedge.

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r) Preparing andmounting theblank yourstockforthepinchuck L Prepare following themanufacturer's instructions, Forthemodel shown, borea 1-inch-diame t e rh o l ei n t ot h eb l a n kd e e pe n o u gsho t h ef u l l l e n g t ho f t h e p i nc a np e n e t r a t e t h ep i e c eA. sy o uw i l lb e u s i n gt h ep i n chuckto turntheoutside of thebowl,be sureto drilltheholeintothepartthatwill b eh o l l o w eodu tl a t e rS. l i d et h eb l a n ko n thechuck(right),then turntheblankby handagainst thedirection of headstock rotation untiltherollerpinlocks theworkoiecein olace.

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FACEPLATE TURNING

C()LLET CHUCKS M o u n t i nagb o w lb l a n k O n c ey o uh a v es h a p e dt h e o u t s i d e of your b l a n k a, c o l l e ct h u c kw i l le n a b l ey o ut o attachthe bottomto the headstock of the l a t h ef o r h o l l o w i nogu t t h e i n s i d eT. h i s c h u c ki s s i m i l a ri n o p e r a t i otno t h e c o n tracting-jaw scrollchuckdescribed on page 8 8 . T o p r e p a rae b l a n kf o rt h e c h u c k t, u r n a d o v e t a i l et d e n o no n t h e b o t t o m(.F o l l o w t h e m a n u f a c t u r e ri 'nss t r u c t i o nf so r t h e a p p r o p r i a tsei z eo f t h e t e n o n . )F o rt h e m o d e sl h o w nt,h e t e n o ns h o u l db e s l i g h t l y s m a l l eirn d i a m e t et rh a nt h ec h u c k ' cs o l l e t w h e ni t i s o p e n e d(.Y o um a yr e m o v e t h e t e n o no n c et h e i n s i d eo f t h e b o w li s t u r n e d .N ) e x t ,i n s t a ltl h e c h u c ko n t h e h e a d s t o cskp i n d l ei,n s e rtth e t e n o ni n t h e c o l l e t a n d l i p ' h t e tnh e t h r e a d e cdo l l a r f i r s t b y h a n d ,t h e n u s i n gt h e w r e n c h e s s u p p l i ew d r t ht h e c h u c k .

C()LTAR CHUCKS

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Mounting theworkpiece T h ec o l l a rc h u c ka l l o w sy o u t o s e c u r e g o b l e t sa n d o t h e rl o n gb l a n k so n t h e l a t h e ' hs e a d s t o cwki t h o u u t s i n gt h e t a i l ' s t o c k .P r e p a r yeo u rs t o c ka n d a s s e m b l e t h e c h u c kf o l l o w i ntgh e m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s i n s t r u c t i o n sF.o rt h e m o d e ls h o w ns, t a r t by mountingit between centers, thenturn it intoa cylinder witha diameter of 2rl inche s ,w i t ha / - i n c h - l o nsgl o p i n fgl a n g eo. r c o l l a r a, t t h e h e a d s t o cekn do f t h e w o r k p i e c eT . h ed i a m e t eor f t h e f l a n g es h o u l d b e a t l e a s t2 % i n c h e sO . n c et h e b l a n ki s r e a d yr,e m o v iet f r o mt h e l a t h ea n ds l i d e t h et h r e a d ecdo l l a o r n t oi t , m a k i n gc e r t a i n that the slopingfaceof the flangefacesthe . i n a l l yt,i g h t e nt h e c o l l a o c o l l a r( l e f t ) F rn t h e c h u c kb o d yu s i n gt h ew r e n c h epsr o v i d e d w i t ht h e c h u c k .

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BOWLTURNING hereis no singlewayto turn a face-|- bowl.Asyougainexperience a techplateturning,youwill develop niquethatworksbestfor youandthe of the sortofworkyoudo.Thissection chaptertracesthreebowl-turningprojectsfromstartto finish,includingtwo bowlsanda natural-top conventional bowl (page111)madefrom green shownin these wood.Thetechniaues pages will helpyouobtainexperience thatwill providea startingpoint for furtherexoerimentation. of Thebowlgougeis theworkhorse bowlturning.Asshownbelowandon A bowlgougehollowsout themouth page97,youmustalways try to keepthe of a bowl.Thehoodworn by the gouge's bevelrubbinglightlyon the turneris hookedup bya hoseto a blankasit cuts.Thiswill providesuppumpandfiIter small,belt-mounted portforthecuttingedgeandcontrolthe thatprovidea steadystreamof depthofcut. Depending on the shapeof your freshair. Theclearplasticshieldprovidesprotectionfrom flying debrk. blank,thismaybe difficultto do as

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you start to turn a bowl. In this case, setthe latheto its lowestspeeduntil you haveroundedtheblanlito a disk. A gougecutsmostsmoothlywhenthe cuttingedgeis slightlyoveron its side sothat the fluteis facingthe direction ofthe cut. Scrapingtoolsarealsousedextensivelyin bowl turning.Forroughingout waste,theblademustlie flat on thetool rest(page101). The directionof cut is alsocritical. Because the grain of faceplatework runs at a right angleto the latheaxis, your cuttingwill run againstthe grain aswell aswith it. As much aspossible when turning the outsideof a bowl, cutsshouldrun from smalldiameterto large,or from the bottom of the bowl to the top. Insidework shouldbe performedmovingthe tool in the other direction,from the rim to thebottom.

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BODY ANDT(l(lI P(ISITION G()RRECT

I I I I I I I I I I yourstance thetool Maintaining andgripping distance Standcloseto thelathe,withyourfeeta comfortable Holdthemiddleof thehanthetoolin bothhands: apart.Grasp gripthebladenear dlewithyourrighthand;withyourlefthand, thetool thetip andpressit downfirmlyonthetoolrest.Holding

makesit easyto movethecuttingedge. midway onthehandle yourbodyin a controlled byshifting Toolmovements aregenerated yourarmsandhands willtendto make moving manner. Simply yourcontrol overthecut. thetoolswingin anarcandreduce

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Cornerof cutttnq ed7e will di4 in if it contacta blank

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Incorrect cutting technique Touching a bowlgouge to a spinning blank (left)is dangerwithout thebevelrubbing foryourworkousforyouanddamaging p i e c eW . i t ht h ec u t t i n ge d g ei n t h i s position, impossible thecutisvirtually to control. Youruntheriskof digging the cuttingedgeintothepiece. Thiscanprod u c eu n s i g h t nl yo t c h eisn y o u rs t o c k youto losecontrol of thetool. andcause Another mistake is pushing thecutting edgeagainst thewoodbefore thetoolcont a c t st h et o o lr e s t T . h i sw i l l i n v a r i a b l y slamthebladeagainst thetoolrestwitha forcethatcoulddamage thework,thetool roqt nr thp sor rsp

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Kubbin4bevel provtdeecuttinq edqe with a pivot point and eupporb, and controle depth of cut

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Correct cutting technique it contacts thewood. Then,withthehanBrace the bladeonthetoolrestbefore l o w , t o w a r t d h e s p i n n i n b g l a n k u n t i tl h eh e eol f t h e d l eh e l d a d v a n ct e h et o o l (above, gradually wood left).fo begin cutting, lift bevelis rubbing against the i n w i t h t h e s t o c k a n d t h e b e vel t h eh a n d l eb, r i n g i ntgh ec u t t i n ge d g e c o n t a c t (above, will travel in f lushagainst thewood right).Keepin mindthatthetool thatthef luteis oointed. thedirection

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R() U N D IANBGL AN K Usinga bowlgouge M o u n t h e b l a n ko n t h e l a t h eh e a d s t o c k a n dp o s i t i o n t h e t o o lr e s tZ i n c hf r o mt h e s t o c k .R o t a t et h e b l a n kb y h a n dt o e n s u r e t h a t i t d o e sn o tc o n t a ctth e r e s t ,t h e nt u r n . r a c i n tgh eg o u g eo n t h et o o l o nt h el a t h eB . d v a n cteh e r e s ta t o n ee d g eo f t h e p i e c e a b l a d eu n t i lt h e h e e lo f t h e b e v ecl o n t a c t s t h es t o c kT. h e np i v o tu p t h e h a n d l eu n t i l t h e c u t t i n ge d g eb e g i n s l i c i n gi n t ot h e w o o d R o l ll h e p o r r s e s o t h a t t h e f l u t ei s { a c i n pt h e d i r e r : t i nnnt t h e c u t - i n t h i s c a s e ,t o w a r dt h e h e a d s t o c k - e nodf t h e l a t h e a n d m o v et h e t o o la l o n gt h e b l a n k to removea thin layerof wood(right). C o n t i n ui e n t h i sm a n n eur n t i l t h ed i a m e t e r o f t h e b l a n ki s s l r g h t lgyr e a t etrh a nt h e f i n i s h e db o w ld i a m e t e 0 r .n c et h e s h a p e i s s a t i s f a c t oar yn dt h e b o w li s t h e p r o p e r d i a m e t e rf,l a t t e nt h e f a c e ( p a g e1 0 3 ) b e f o r es h a p i n g theoutside.

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()FTHEBOWL SHAPING THE()UTSIDE thecorner oftheblank 1t Roundins -

I P o s i t i o tnh et o o lr e s t 1 i n c hf r o mt h e c o r n e or f t h e b l a n ka n da n g l e da t r o u g h l y 4 5 " t o t h eb o t t o mA. d l u stth e h e r g hot f t h e r e s ts o i t i s l e v e lw i t h t h e c e n t e ro f t h e b l a n kS . e tt h e g o u g eo n t h e r i g h t - h a n d s i d eo f t h e t o o lr e s tw i t ht h e f l u t ep o i n t i n g i n t h e d r r e c t i oonf t h e c u t . S t a r t r n g o n t h e b o t t o mo f t h e b o w la b o u t1 i n c h f r o mt h ec o r n eor f t h e b l a n ka, d v a n cteh e t o o lu n t i lt h e b e v e rl u b so n t h e s t o c k . P i v otth et o o lh a n d l eu p u n t i l t h ee d g ei s c u t t i n gt,h e nm o v et h e t o o lt o t h e l e f tt o chamferthe corner(left).ConItnue, cutting f r o mt h e c e n t e ro u t w a r dt o t h e e d g e st o r o u n dt h e c o r n eor f t h e b l a n k M . o v et h e t o o lr e s tp e r i o d i c a tl loyk e e pi t a s c l o s ea s nnsqihlo tn thp hlanlr

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r) Rounding theoutsideof the blank Z. Continue w o r k i n sf r o m t h e c e n t e r towardthe rim of the blank(fromsmallerto larged r i a m e t e rt)o s h a p et h e o u t s i d eo f andcurve. the bowlto the desireddiameter R e p o s i t i o tnh e t o o l r e s ta s n e c e s s a rtyo followthe curveof the bowl.Alwaysbrace the gougeon the tool rest,makingcertain of the t h a t t h e f l u t e f a c e st h e d i r e c t i o n t h e b o t t o m t o t h e t o p o f the cut-from y o u r i g h t , w i l l n e e dt o b o w l .A s s h o w na t p i v o t h e h a n d l ea n dr o l lt h e b l a d et o k e e p t h e b e v erl u b b i n so n t h e s t o c k .

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Final shaping R e ifn et h e s h a p eo f t h e b o w lw i t ht h e b o w lg o u g ea, d d r n gd e s i g ne l e m e n ts u c h grooves at as concavecurvesor decorative p o i n t i n g f l u t e i n K e e p t h e t h e t h i st i m e . directioo n f t h e c u t a n dt h e b e v e rl u b b i n g to account on the wood(/eff).Remember y o u w i l l f o rt h e m e t h o d u s et o c h u c kt h e b o t t o mo f t h e b o w lt o t h e h e a d s t o ctko h o l l o wo u tt h e i n s i d el.f y o uw i l l b e t u r n i n g a d o v e t a i l erde c e s sf o r a n e x p a n d i n g j a w c h u c k( p a g e1 0 1 ) ,a s o n t h e b l a n k s h o w n l, e a v et h e b o t t o mf l a t a n d l a r g e pnnrrohfnr ihe rpr-eqs

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FLATTENING THEBOTTOM

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t I I T I I I I 1t Flattenine thebase -

I O n c ey o uh a v es h a p e d t h e o u t s i d eo f t h e b o w l ,i t i s t i m e t o r e v e r s teh e b l a n kb y a t t a c h i n gt h e b a s et o t h e l a t h eh e a d s t o c ks o y o uc a n h o l l o wo u t t h e v e s s e l .f y o uw i l l b e u s i n ga g l u eb l o c k ,f i r s tf l a t t e nt h e b a s ew i t h a b o w lg o u g eo r s q u a r e e n ds c r a p e rl .f y o uw i l l b e u s i n ga c h u c k ,y o uc a n p r e p a r teh e b a s eo f t h e b o w lf o r t t ( p a g e1 0 1 ) . I of l a t t e nt h e b a s e p, o s i t i o n

s a n d l ed o w n t h e t o o lr e s tp a r a l l et lo t h e b a s e T . i l tt h eg o u g e ' h a littleand cut fromthe outsidetowardthe center(above,lefil, r e m o v i nwg o o di n t h i n l a y e r su n t i lt h e b a s ei s f l a t . l f y o ua r e u s i n ga s c r a p e ar ,n g l et h e h a n d l eu p s l i g h t lsyot h e b u r ro n t h e cuttingedgeis shavingwoodfromthe base(above,rrght).

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C h e c k i nfgo rf l a t n e s s ! f- Perndicallyusea strarghtedge, such a s a r u l e ,t o c h e c kw h e t h etrh e b o t t o mi s f l a t .H o l dt h e r u l eo n e d g ea g a i n st h t eb a s e (rrght)and lookfor anygaps.

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FACEPLMETURNING

THEBASEF()RA CHUCK PREPARING therecess 1T Cuttins -

I l f y o uw i l lb e u s i n ga c h u c kt h a tc a l l s recessin the base,as on for a dovetailed , s ea t h e b o w li l l u s t r a t eodn t h i s p a g e u s i d e - c u t t i nsgk e ws c r a p etro f o r mt h e Thecavityshouldbe sizedto ftt the recess. o f l a w s t h ec h u c ky; o uc a nu s ed i v i d e rtso m a r kt h e r e q u i r e d i a m e t eor n t h e b a s e . T h e np o s i t i o tnh e t o o lr e s ts l i g h t l yb e l o w the centerof the baseso thatthe scraper's e d g ew i l l l i e a t t h e c e n t e r l i n eH.o l dt h e s c r a p ebr l a d ef l a t o n t h e r e s ta n d ,w i t h t h e h a n d l el i f t e du p s l i g h t l ya, d v a n cteh e t o o lt o t h e l e f to f t h e c e n t e ru n t i lt h e b u r r c o n t a c ttsh e b l a n k C . u tt h e r e c e s s l o w l y t o t h e d e p t hs p e c i f i e bd y t h e c h u c km a n u f a c t u r e rT. h e ns l i d et h e s c r a p etro t h e e d g eo f t h e c a v i t ya n d c u t t h e d o v e t a i l i n t h e w a l l o f t h e r e c e s s( r i g h t ) .K e e p t h e b l a d ef l a t o n t h e t o o lr e s tt h r o u s h o u t theoperation.

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Checking therecess you havecompletedthe recess. L Wnen j a , s i n ga n a s s e m b tl e h e w so f t h e c h u c k u h o l d e l a s t i cb a n dt o t h e mt o g e t h e ra, n d jaws place fit the in to checkthefil (left). j a w s g o The s h o u l d a l l t h e w a yi n w i t h nr a s m a l l a m o u notf c l e a r a n c eD.e e p e o w i d e nt h e r e c e s si f n e c e s s a r v .

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()FTHEBOWL FINISHING THE()UTSIDE 'l

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Smoothing the surface I A l t h o u g ha g o u g el e a v e st h e o u t s i d e o f t h e b o w lr e l a t i v e luyn i f o r mi,t m a ya l s o leavea fewripples.Dragging a scraper very l i g h t l ya c r o stsh e s u r f a c w e i l lc l e a nu p t h e surface.Thisoperation is knownas "shear s c r a p i n g .P " osition t h e t o o l r e s tp a r a l l e l t o t h eo u t s i d e o f t h e b o w la n dt u r no n t h e lathe.Holda freshlysharpened round-nosed s c r a p ew r i t ho n ec o r n e o r f t h e b l a d ec o n t a c t i n gt h e t o o l r e s t ,a s s h o w na t r i g h t . S t a r t i n ga t t h e b o t t o mo f t h e b o w l ,d r a g t h ec u t t i n ge d g el i g h t l ya n ds m o o t h layl o n g t h e o u t s i d eo f t h e b o w l ,w o r k i n g f r o mt h e b a s et o w a r d tsh e r i m .T h ec u t s h o u l dp r o ducefine shavings. Repeat the cut as often a s n e c e s s a ruyn t i ly o up r o d u c e t h ef i n i s h y o uw a n t .

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r) Sanding thesurface C - m e f i n a ls t e pb e f o r eh o l l o w i nogu t t h e i n s i d eo f a b o w li s sanding t h e o u t s i d eY . o uc a n e i t h e rw o r kb y h a n do r u s ea r a n d o m - o r b ista n d e rl.n e i t h e rc a s e ,m o v et h e l a t h e ' st o o lr e s to u t o f t h ew a y .l f y o ua r ew o r k i n gb y h a n d f, o l dt h e s a n d p a p et w r ice, t u r no n t h e l a t h ea, n dh o l dt h e p a p e lri g h t l a y g a i n st h t eb l a n k .

Keepthe paperbelowthe middleof the bowl (above,left) and movethe padfromthe baseto the rim of the bowlto coverthe e n t i r es u r f a c eW . i t ht h e p o w e sr a n d e rw, o r kt h e s a m ew a y ,h o l d i n gt h e s a n d i n gd i s k l i g h t l ya g a i n stth e s u r f a c e( a b o v er,i g h t ) . paperand moveto progressively Startwith 1OO-grit f inergrits.

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HOLLOWINGOUT THE,BOWL ;r'--hnceyouhaveturnedtheoutsideof \-.3 u bowl,it is time to hollowit out. hereiscriticaltotheultiYourapproach mateappearance of the piece.Keepin mind that the shapeof a bowl'sinside A bowl theoutside. shouldcomplement canhaveatiractiveoutsideand inside do not harforms,but if the surfaces monize.thefinishedpiecewill not look right. As a novice6owl turner, you shouldaim for wallsof eventhickness. bowls,XFor small-to medium-sized to X-inch-thickwallswork well.Asyou to experdo not hesitate gainerperience, designs. imentwith lessconventional Themostimportantrulewhenhollowinsout is to cut towardthe axisof the lalhe-that is, from largeto small of thisapproach Theadvantage diameter. isthatyourcutswill run with thegrain, gir,ingyoubettercontrolofthetooland producinga cleanersurface. Forjudgingdepth,manyturnersdrill a deuthholeinto themouthof thebowi beforestarting (pnge,l05).Althoughit necessary, a depthhole is not absolutely will allowyouto workwithoutstopping your progress. oftento measure you ready are to hollowout the Once to theheadchuck the bowlbase interior, methods described one of the stockusing Then flatten the in chauter. earlier the in the phomouth;as shown faceof the to above.To preventtherim from splintering,touchit lightlywith a bowlgouge to round it overslightly.Now you are readyto roughout tl-reinside.Onceyou haveremovedthebulk of thewasteand theinsideof thebowlhastheroughforrn to refinethesuryouwant,usea scraper areshownin the face.Theseorocedures followingpiges. thaton largebowls,there Remember will be timesrvhenthe tool'spivot pointon thetoolrestwill be relaiively brace far from the cut. In suchcases, thecuttingtool firmly on the restand work carefully.

A crucinlstepbeforehollowirtgout tlrc insideof a bowl is toJlattert theface of the nrouth. This will ensw'ethat tlredistartceLtetweerr the rint and the baseis wifornt oll arotutd the circturqfererrce.

TURNING THEINSIDEOFTHEBOWL

thedepthof the bowl 1 Measuring , e a s u rteh ed e p t ho f t h e b l a n kt o d e t e r m i n e I B e f o r ye o ub e g l nh o l l o w i ntgh e b o w l m howfar youcancut intothe mouthbeforeyouwill reachthe chuckrecessor faceplate s c r e w sH . o l d i n ga r u l ed i r e c t l ya b o v et h e b l a n k ,m e a s u rfer o mt h e m o u t ht o t h e b a s e ( a b o v e )T. h e b o w ls h o w ni n t h e i l l u s t r a t i oins s e c u r e d k ith t o t h e l a t h eh e a d s t o cw a c h u c k .S u b t r a ct th e d e p t ho f t h e r e c e sfso rt h e c h u c k( i n t h i s c a s e I, i n c h )a n d t h e e v e n t u at h l i c k n e sosf t h e b a s e( a b o u t, l i n c h )t o a r r i v ea t t h e d e p t ht o w h i c hy o u ( f o r t h e b o w ls h o w n2, Z i n c h e s ) . c a nc u t

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r ) H o l l o w i nogu tt h eb o w l I Position the toolrestso the gougetip will cut slightlyabove t h e m r d d l eo f t h e b l a n kT . u r no n t h e l a t h ea n da l i g nt h e c u t t i n g e d g el u s tt o t h e l e f to f t h e c e n t e or f t h e b l a n kT. h e n w , i t ht h e g o u g eo n r t ss i d ea n dt h e f l u t ef a c i n gt h e c e n t e or f t h e p i e c e , pushthe toolslowlyintothe blank.Forthe first '/oinch,the bevel w i l l n o t b e r u b b i n ga g a i n stth e w o o d .O n c ei t b e g i n st o r u b , g u i d et h e c u t t i n ge d g et o t h e c e n t eor f t h e b l a n kC . o n t i n uteh e p r o c e s sf o, r m i n ga s h a l l o w c a v i t yr nt h e m i d d l eo f t h e m o u t hA .s the cavitybecomes larger,pivotthe handlefromsideto sidein a

F i n i s h i nt g h ei n s i d e A s t h e d e p t ho f b o w li n c r e a s e sy .o u needto anglethe toolrestsothat it remains r o u g h l yp a r a l l etlo t h e s u r f a c ey o ua r ec u t t i n g .O r ,y o uc a nt u r no f f t h e l a t h e r, e m o v e t h e s t a n d a r tdo o lr e s t ,a n d i n s t a lal n S shapedrest.Positionit so that partof the "S" i s i n s i d et h e b o w la n dr o u g h lfyo l l o w s i t s c u r v a t u r eT.u r no n t h e l a t h ea g a i n . S t a r t i n ag t t h e r i m ,m a k ea l i g h tc u t t o t r i m t h ew a l l st o t h e d e s i r e tdh i c k n e s sW. i t ht h e g o u g ep i v o t e d w e l lt o t h e r r g h t a, d v a n c e t h et o o li n t ot h ec u t a n ds w r n gt h e h a n d l e in thc lpft

kppnino ihp hpvpl rrrhhino :t

a l lt i m e sT. h i st e c h n i q uwei l ly i e l da s m o o t h c u r v eo n t h e i n s i d eo f t h e b o w l T . oobtain u n i f o r mw a l lt h i c k n e sfsr o mt h e r i m t o t h e bottom,keepthe bevelalignedwiththeouts i d ep r o f i l eo f t h e b o w lt h r o u g h o ut ht e c u t . A d l u s t h e t o o lr e s tt o k e e pi t a s c l o s ea s p o s s i b lteo t h e i n s i d es u r f a c e of the bowl. P e r i o d i c am l l ye a s u rwea l lt h i c k n e s(ss t e p4 .

I I I I shallow a r c ,a ss h o w na b o v ep, u s h i ntgh ec u t t i n ge d g ea g a r n st ht e s i d eo f t h e h o l eu n t i li t r e a c h etsh ec e n t e r(.T h eh a n d sh a v eb e e n removed fromthe illustration for clarity.)Supportthe bladeasyou wouldto shapethe outside(page96).Turnthe insideof the bowl t o m a t c ht h eo u t s i d eb, u t l e a v et h ew a l l sa l i t t l et h i c k etrh a n y o u n e e dY . o uw i l l r e a c hy o u rf i n a lt h i c k n e sisn s t e p s3 t h r o u g5h. A sy o ua p p r o a cyho u rf i n a ld e p t h i,t m a yb e d i f f i c u ltto m a k eo n e f l u i dc u t a l o n gt h e i n s i d ew a l lo f t h e b o w l .l f s o ,y o uc a n m a k ea s e r i e so f s h o r t ecr u t sf r o mt h e r i m t o t h e c e n t e r .

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wallthickness Checking out At thestartof thehollowing process, youcancangauge thewall withyourhands. Butasyou thickness yourfinalthickness, usecomapproach fora moreprecise calipers bination Close oneendof thecalipers reading. thebowlnearthetopandbotaround at the theopening tomandmeasure thethickness otherendto determine f inishing Continue of thewall(above). (step3) untilthethickness theinside is uniform.


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BUILDITYOUR1ELF DEPTH GAUGE U s et h e s h o p - m a dgea u g es h o w n b e l o wt o c h e c kt h e d e p t ho f y o u r b o w la s y o uh o l l o wi t o u t .T h ej i g i s e a s yt o b u r l df r o ms c r a pw o o da n d %-inch dowel.Makethe crossbar two

Meaeuringpin

I o r t h r e et i m e sl o n g etrh a nt h e d i a m eterof the largestbowlyoucan turn o n y o u rl a t h e C . u ti t t o t h es h a p e s h o w nf o r a c o n v e n i e ngtr i p . T o i n s e rtth e m e a s u r i npgi n a n d w e d g ed o w e l sb, o r eo n e h o l ef r o m

e d g et o e d g et h r o u g ht h e m i d d l eo f thecrossbar anda secondholethrough f r o mt h e t o p .T h ew e d g eh o l es h o u l d o v e r l atph e p i n h o l es l i g h t l sy o t h a t t h ew e d g ew i l l h o l dt h e p i n i n p l a c e . D r i l lb o t hh o l e sw i t h a % - i n c hb i t . C u ta l o n gd o w e fl o r t h e m e a s u r i n g p i n a n d r o u n do v e ri t s b o w l - e nw d ith s a n d p a p et ro p r e v e ntth e t i p f r o m s c r a t c h i ntgh e i n s i d eo f t h e b o w l . M a r kd e p t hi n t e r v a ol sn t h e p i n u s i n g . e x tc, u t a s h o r t a r u l e ra n da p e n c i lN e r d o w e fl o r t h e w e d g ea n dt a p e ri t s bottomend. T o u s et h e j i g , i n s e rt h e m e a s u r i n g p i n i n t oi t s h o l ei n t h e c r o s s b a r , then insertthe wedgeto lockthe pin a t t h e d e s i r e d e p t h .C h e c ky o u r p r o g r e sass y o uh o l l o wo u t t h e b o w l . T h e i n s r d ei s a t t h e c o r r e cdt e p t h w h e nt h e m e a s u r i npgi n c o n t a c t s t h e b o t t o mo f t h e b o w la n dt h e f l a t e d g eo f t h e c r o s s b abr u t t sa g a i n s t therimof thebowl.

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t Smoothing theinterior f, r,/ Usea round-nosed scraper to shear s c r a n et h e i n s i d en f t h e f s r , ybl e f o r es a n d t n g ( s t e p6 ) . T o a v o i dd r g g r n gt h e b l a d e i n t ot h e w o o d t, h e c u r v a t u roef t h e c u t t i n g edgemustbe tighterthanthe curveof the b o w l ' si n t e r i o rA. d j u s tt h e S - s h a p e tdo o l r e s ts o i t r o u g h l yf o l l o w st h e i n s i d eo f t h e b o w l .T h e n r, a i s i n tgh es c r a p ehra n d l e s o t h e b u r ri s e v e nw i t ht h e c e n t e ro f t h e b o w l ,p r e s st h e s c r a p el r g h t l ay g a i n s t t h e i n s i d eo f t h e b o w l W . i t ht h e b l a d ea t a 4 5 ' a n g l et o t h e a x i so f t h e b o w l d, r a gt h e bladegentlyoverthe entireinteriorsurface, w o r k i n gf r o m t h e b o t t o mo f t h e b o w l t o t h e r i m u n t i ly o uo b t a i nt h e d e s i r e d (rEht). smoothness

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S a n d i ntgh ei n s i d e0 f t h eb o w lb y h a n d f \ . 1 F o l da p i e c eo f 1 O O - g rsi ta n d p a p e r a n d m o v et h e l a t h e ' st o o lr e s to u t o f t h e w a y .T u r no n t h e l a t h ea, n dh o l dt h e p a p e r of the l i g h t l ya g a i n stth e i n s i d es u r f a c e h n w l K e e nt h e n a n e b r e l o wt h e m i d - l i n e of the bowl(right)andmovethe padfrom t h e b o t t o mt o t h e r i mt o s m o o t ht h e e n t i r e the process with a series surface. Continue o f f i n e r - g r rpt a p e r s . IA

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sandins theinside ofthebowl 7t Power f

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s m o o t ht h e i n s i d eo f t h e b o w l .W o r kt h e s a m ew a ya s y o uw o u l dw i t hs a n d p a p e r , y gainst h o l d i n tgh e s a n d i n dg i s kl i g h t l a the surfacel/eff).


FACEPLATE TURNING

Applying a finish W r t ht h e b o w ls t i l lo n t h e l a t h e s, a t u r a l ea r a go r s p o n g ew i t h t u n go i l ( v a r n i s ho r l a c q u em r a ya l s ob e u s e d )o, r a f o o d - s a ffei n i s hi f t h e b o w lw i l l h o l df o o d , a n d r u nt h e m a c h i n ea t i t s s l o w e sst p e e d . S t a r t i nw g i t ht h eo u t s i d e o f t h e b o w l ,h o l d t h e r a g l r g h t l ya g a i n stth e s u r f a c e( / e l t ) , m o v i n gf r o mt h e b a s et o t h e r i m . U s ea cleand , r y ,l i n t - f r e e r a gt o w i p eo f f a n y e x c e sfsi n i s h .T h e ns a t u r a t teh e r a ga g a i n a n da p p l ya n o t h ecr o a tt o t h e i n s i d eo f t h e b o w lO . n c et h ef i n i s hh a sd r i e d s, a n dt h e bowlwith 400-gritpaperandwipeit clean. A p p l ys e v e r aclo a t st h e s a m ew a y ,s a n d i n g between a p p l i c a t i o nW s . i t h m o r ec o a t s , t h e b o w lw i l l b e t t e r e s i s ct r a c k i n ga n d damage f r o mh e a ta n dw a t e r .

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P o l i s h i nt gh ef i n i s h O n c et h e f i n a lc o a ti s d r y .u s ep u m i c e p o w d etro p o l i s hi t . S p r e a d a d a bo f p a s t e waxon a rag,thenshakeon a smallamount . u nt h e l a t h ea t i t s s l o w o f t h e p o w d e rR est sneed and hold lhc ras:s:inc.i ihp

i n s i d ea n d o u t s i d e s u r f a c e sC.o n t i n u e u n t i lt h e f i n i s hi s s i l k ys m o o t hR . epeat s i t h r o t t e n s t o nw t h e p r o c e sw e ,h i c hi s a powder. fine abrasive

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FACEPLATE, TURNING

TURNING A BOWLWITHA GLUEBLOCK 1I I n i t i asl h a n i n g I l f y o ua r eu s i n ga g l u eb l o c ka n da faceplate to turn a bowl,ratherthana facep l a t ea n da c h u c k ,y o uc a ns h a p eb o t ht h e o u t s i d ea n d i n s i d ew r t ha s i n g l es e t u p . A t t a c ha f a c e p l a taen dg l u eb l o c kt o y o u r blank(pageB5),thenmountthe faceplate 1 ot h e l a t h eA n s l et h el o o lr e s ts o t h a ti t l t h e f i n a ls h a p eo f i s r o u g h l py a r a l l et o b o w l ' so u t s i d eS. t a r t u r n i n gt h e b o w lb y r o u n d i n gi t s b o t t o me d g ew i t h a g o u g e ( r i p h )f B r a c et h e p o r r p eo n t h e t o o l r e s t w i t h t h e f l u t ep o i n t i n gi n t h e d i r e c t i o n \ t

t b i t . / .

n f t h p r ^ r r i .k o p n t h p h p r i o lr r r h h i n s : i : l l

timesC . o n t i n uteh ec u t t o t u r nt h eo u t s i d e o f t h e b o w lr o u g h ltyo s h a p eC . u tw i t ht h e s r a i n - f r o mt h e t - r a st e o t h e r i m a sm u c h aspossible.

t r ) F i n i s h i nt h g eb o w l ' so u t s i dseh a p e L O n c et h e o u t s i d es h a p eo f t h e b o w l i s s a t i s f a c t o ruy s, et h e g o u g et o m a k ea , r o d u c i nag s e r i e so f f i n e .l i g h tc u t s( / e l f ) p s m o o t hs u r f a c eT.h e nh o l l o wo u tt h e i n s i d e a s y o u w o u l du s i n ga c h u c k( p a g e1 0 3 ) . S a n da n df i n i s ht h e b o w lf o l l o w i ntgh e p r o c e d u r essh o w no n p a g e1 0 7 .

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Parting offthebowl B r a c i n ga p a r t i n gt o o lo n t h e t o o l r e s t ,a d v a n c iet u n t i lt h e b e v e il s r u b hino nn ihc olrrp hlnnk

thon

nirint tho

cuttingedgedownto startthe cut. Rotate t h e t o o lb a c ka n d f o r t h s l r g h t l ys o t h e . o n t i n uuen t i l b l a d ew i l l n o t b i n d( / e f t )C o n l ya s m a l b l r i d g eo f w o o dc o n n e c ttsh e b o w lt o t h e g l u eb l o c kT. h e nt u r no f f t h e latheandusea handsaw to cut the bridge a n dr e m o v teh e b o w l .

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Cleaning upthebottom

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T h ef i n a ls t e oi n t h e D r o c e si sn v o l v e s t u r n i n gt h e b a s eo f t h e b o w lt o f o l l o wt h e , a k i n gi t s l i g h t l y c o n t o uor f t h e i n s i d em c o n c a v eY. o uw i l l a l s ou s ea b o w lg o u g e t o r e m o v ea n yt r a c e so f t h e g l u el o i n ta n d partingcut madein step3. Attachthe bowl t o t h e l a t h ew i t h a c h u c k ,a s s h o w na t rrght.The modelshownfeaturesfour large a d l u s t a b ljea w sc o n n e c t etdo a c o m m e r c i a ls c r o l cl h u c k .R u b b e pr o s t sa r ei n s e r t e d i n t h e h o l e si n t h e j a w st o s e c u r et h e b o w ls n u g l y T . h e p o s t sm u s t b e l o c a t e d i n t h e s a m eh o l ei n e a c ho f t h e j a w s e g m e n t st o e n s u r ee v e np r e s s u ries a p p l i e d t o t h e b o w lr i m .S e tu p t h ec h u c kf o l l o w i n g t h e m a n u f a c t u r e ri n ' ss t r u c t i o nm s ,o u n ti t o n t h e h e a d s t o cskp i n d l eo f t h e l a t h et,h e n h o l dt h e b o w li n t h e r u b b e p r o s t sa n dt i g h t e n t h e c h u c k ,D o n o to v e r t i g h t e an s, t h i s coulddamage the rim. Position the toolrest t o c u t t h e b a s eo f t h e b o w l ,t h e nm a k ea I r g h tc u t a c r o s st h e b a s ew i t h t h e b e v e l r u b b i n ga n dt h e f l u t ef a c i n gt h e d i r e c t i o n of the cut (right).

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NATURAL.TOPBOWLS in wood I s the estheticemphasis A turninghasshiftedoverthelast30 yearsfromtheutilitarianto thedecorative,turnershavebegunto explore new designs. Natural-top bowls,whichfollowtheoutsidecurveof alogattherim, areanexample of thisexperimentation andtherecenteffortsofturnersto highlightthenaturalcharacteristics ofwood. Thebarkcanbeleftontherim, asin the example shownat right,or removed. Thestepsneededto turn sucha piece areshownin thefollowingpages. Natural-top bowlsoftenaregivenrelativelysimpleshapes, emphasizing the grainpatternandshapeofa particular log.Ash,apple,cherry,oak,andmaple areall goodchoices for rawmaterials, butyoudonotneedto limit yourself to justthesefewtypesofwood.Experiment with whatis availableandyou maybe pleasantly surprised by theresults. Thedryingprocess cancausesome problems withyourworkpieces. If your woodis green,or wet,thebowlwill be easyto turn,but regardless ofhowcare-

fi.rllythepieceisdried,it will warp,perhapssubstantially. Youshouldtryto turn thelog into a bowlwithin an hour of cutting,beforethe piecedriesand becomes distorted. An advantage ofthis process is thatbarkadheres betterto greenwood.In addition,thepiecemay warpintoauniqueandattractive shape. If youwantto minimizewarping,dry yourstockbefore turningit.Withdense woods,it isbestto turnthewoodintoa roughbowlblankwhenit isstillgreento ensure thatthepiecedriesevenlyandto help preventit from cracking.This methodisshownstartingbelow. A microwave ovencanspeed thedryingprocess: Usingthe"defrost" setting, putthepiecethroughseveral briefcycles of heatingandcoolinguntil it is dry.If youair-drythestock,put it in a plastic bagor coatit with waxto preventtoorapiddrying,whichwill cause thewood to crack.Ifyou usea bag,turn it inside out periodically to preventmoldfrom forming.It cantakeseveral weelsfor a rough-hewn blankto airdry.

MAKING A NATURAL.TOP BOWL

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theprocess 1 Planning I Onceyouhaveselected a logfor your bowl,sawit intoblocksandexamine the endgrain.Choose the halfof oneof the pieces thatwillyieldthe mostattractive bowl.Usea pieceof chalkor a lumber crayon to outlinethe bowlontheendof the log,locating the baseat the pith andtherimat thebark.Thendrawa line across thecenterat the baseof the bowl outline. Sawthelogin halfalongthisline.

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Theraw quality of a natural-topbowl beliesthefact that it is oftencarefully crafted.In theexampleshownin thephotoaboye,woodturnerBetty Scarpinohasleft the bark on the rim asa yisualreminderof the bowl in its originalform-a freshlog.

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r) Preparing the blank L C u ty o u rh a l f - l o tgo l e n g t hm , a k i n gi t a b o u t2 i n c h e sl o n g e trh a nt h e d e s i r e d d i a m e t eor f t h e b o w l .T h e np r e p a r teh e b l a n kf o r t h e l a t h eb y c u t t i n gi t i n t oa c i r c l e o n t h e b a n ds a w .S e tt h e b l a n kb a r k s i d eu p o n t h e s a wt a b l ea n d a d j u s t h e u p p e rg u i d ea s s e m b l% y i n c ha b o v et h e . i n c et h e b l a n k b l a n k ' sh i g h e spt o i n t S d o e sn o t h a v et o b e a p e r f e c ct i r c l e ,y o u c a n m a k et h i sc u t f r e e h a n da,s s h o w na t l e f t . M a k es u r ey o uf e e dt h e b l o c kw i t h b o t hh a n d s k, e e p i n g t h e mc l e a ro f t h e b l a d ea t a l l t i m e s .A n o t h eor p t i o ni s t o c u t a c a r d b o a rtde m p l a t ei n t ot h e c i r c l ey o u w a n ta n d n a i lt h e t e m p l a t et o t h e t o p o f t h e b l a n k .T h e s a wb l a d ew i l l t h e n b e g u i d e db y t h e e d g eo f t h e c a r d b o a rads y o u m a k et h e c u t .

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t Truing theblank Mounttheblankonthelatheheadstock usinga faceplate gluewithgreen anda glueblock(page85). Usecyanoacrylate wood.Install a livecenterin thetailstock andslideit against thepieceto provide additional support asyouturnthebowl.

I P o s i t i o tnh e t o o l r e s tb e s i d et h e b l a n k ,t u r n o n t h e l a t h ea t i t s s l o w e sst p e e d a , n d u s ea b o w lg o u g et o t u r n t h e s t o c ki n t o a s m o o t hc, y l i n d r i c abl l a n k( a b o v e )L. a yt h e b l a d eo n t h e s p i n n i n gb l a n kt o t e s t i t s s m o o t h n e s( sp a g e5 4 ) .

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Rough-shaping theoutside ofthebowlblank U s et h e b o w lg o u g et o c u t t h e b o w l ' so u t s i d et o s h a p e W . o r k i n gf r o mt h e b a s et o t h e r i m , o r f r o ms m a l lt o l a r g ed i a m e t e r , w i l lh e l pe n s u r a e c l e a nc u t .R o l tl h ef l u t e i n t h e d i r e c t i o no f t h e c u t a n d m o v et h e gougealongthe tool resl(right).Continue u n t i l y o u a r es a t i sife dw i t h t h e s h a p eo f theblanka , d v a n c i ntgh e t o o lr e s tp e r i o d i c a l l yt o k e e pi t c l o s et o t h e b l a n k .B e f o r e refiningthe bowl'soutsideshape,youneed t o h o l l o wo u t t h e i n s i d e( s f e p5 ) a n d l e t t h e b l a n kd r y .

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Hollowing the blank fi r - , / H o l l o wo u t t h e b l a n kw i t h a b o w l g o u g ew, o r k i n gb e s i d et h et a i l s t o c tko c u t a s d e e p l ya s y o uc a n .W i t ht h e c u t t r n g e d g ej u s t t o t h e l e f t o f t h e l i v ec e n t e ri n t h e t a i l s t o c kc,u t i n c r e a s i n gdl e y e p ear r c s t o h o l l o wo u t t h e b o w l .K e e ot h e b l a d e b r a c e do n t h e t o o lr e s t ,t h e b e v erl u b b i n g o n t h e s t o c ka n dt h e f l u t ep o i n t i n gi n t h e directionof the cut (/eff,). Continueuntil t h e w a l l so f t h e b o w la r ea b o u t1 %i n c h e s t h i c k ;w a l l so f e v e nt h i c k n e s w s illdry m o r eu n i f o r m ltyh a nu n e v e n w a l l sA . cone of woodwill be left betweenthe bottomof the bowland the tailstock(lnsef);this will a l l o wt h et a i l s t o c tko c o n t i n u teo s u o o o r t t h e b l a n k .L e a v et h e b a r ko n t h e r i m o f t h e b o w l .l f a p i e c eb r e a k so f f, y o uc a n g l u ei t b a c ko n l a t e rO . n c et h e b l a n kh a s t h e s h a p ey o uw a n t ,p a r tt h e p i e c ef r o m the glue block (page110).

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Removing thecone and P l a c et h e b l a n ko n a w o r ks u r f a c e t a p t h e c o n el i g h t l yw i t ha m a l l e t o b r e a k r t f r o m t h e b o t t o mo f t h e b o w l .B e f o r e c o n t i n u i ntgo s h a p et h e b o w l ,y o u n e e d tn lpt ii d rv - ' J

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y o uc a n s h o r t e n t h e d r y i n gt i m e u s i n ga m i c r o w a voev e n o , r l e tt h e b l a n ka i r d r y .

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Flattening thebase I I T h ed r y i n gp r o c e swsi l l l i k e l yc a u s et h e b l a n kt o w a r p .T h e r e s u l ti s o f t e no v a li n s h a p eY. o uw i l l n e e dt o p l a n et h e b a s ef l a t rt to a glue andsmoothbeforere-mounting b l o c kt o f i n i s ht u r n i n gt h e b o w l .0 n c et h e b o w lh a sd r i e ds u f f i c i e n t lcyh, e c kt h e b a s e f o r s m o o t h n e sasn df l a t n e s sl .f i t i s r o u g h and o r w a r p e dc, l a m pi t t o a w o r ks u r f a c e u s ea h a n dp l a n et o c o r r e ctth e p r o b l e m .

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Smoothing thebowl M o u n tt h e b l a n kt o t h e h e a d s t o c k u s i n ga f a c e p l a taen dg l u eb l o c k .U s ea b o w lg o u g et o s h a p et h e b o w l ' se x t e r i o r . TA^t iltr|

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s c r a n et h e o r t s i d es r r r f a coef t h e b l a n k . P o s i t i otnh e t o o lr e s ta l o n gt h e s i d eo f t h e b o w l .W i t ht h e c o r n e or f t h e s c r a p ebr e a r i n g l i g h t l yo n t h e r e s t ,d r a gt h e b u r rg e n t l y f r o mt h e b a s et o a l o n gt h e b l a n k w , orking the rim (right).Conltnueuntil the outside . e x tw , orking from o f t h e b o w li s s m o o t hN t h e b l a n k ' si n t e n o r u, s ea b o w lg o u g et o r e d u c et h e t h i c k n e sosf t h e w a l l sI o / ' t o % i n c h .T h e ns m o o t ht h e i n s i d eo f t h e b o w l w i t h a r o u n d - n o ssec r a p e r( p a g e1 0 6 ) . R p r ^ : r p f r r ld r r r i n o t h i s c t : o p n n t t n s l i . p

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S a n d i n g t hbeo w l Q J O n c ey o ua r es a t i si fe dw i t ht h e s h a p e of the bowl,sandthe surfaceto the desired s m o o t h n e sasn d a p p l ya f t n t s h( p a g e 1 0 8 ) . F i n a l l y ,p a r t t h e b o w lf r o m t h e g l u eb l o c k( p a g e1I 0 ) a n dp l a n eo r s a n d t h e b o t t o ms m o o t h .

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you needto vessels, andbowls Q Rindles turn into end grain, rJ areonly two ot a whichoresents itsown limitless vaseemingly End-grain challenges. youcan rietyofobjects turningis muchlike tum.Goblets, smallpots spindleturningwithusedto displaydried outthetailstock. Fruitweedsor flowers(also woodslikeoersimmon Developed by SeaxlewoodturnerBonnieKein, theKein Design knownasweedpots), andappleareexcellent Miniature Latheshownaboveis usedfor producingsmall-scale andboxesarepopular for thistypeof work, turnersalike,thelathe They turnings.Usedby amateurandprofessional turningprojects. but any densehardmotor.A samplingof Kein's colorful is drivenby a %-horsepower canbe madefrom a woodwithfine,straight boxesand spinningtopsaredisplayedin theforeground. varietyof solidwoods, grainissuitable. Green laminations-andeven but it will warpwhenit dries.Tociraredescribed woodalsoturnseasily, nutsandseedpods.Theseandotherprojects roughoutthepieceandthenwaituntil cumvent thisproblem, in thischapter. Thereisno needto dozens ofways it driesbeforeturningit to itsfinalshape. woodturnershavedevised Overtheyears, for mostof theproinvolve spendmuchmoneyon thewoodneeded Someof thesetechniques to expandtheirrepertoire. Eachcanbemadefromsmallbits or mountedon thelathe,rather jectsshownin thischapter. howtheblankis prepared mightotherwise bediscarded. stockwhich itself.In off-center turning,forexam- of leftover thantheturningprocess for thesepieces varywidely.Goblets can Designs andsizes ple,standard thepieceis turningskillsareused;but because Butasyougainexperience, mountedoffcenter, thefinishedproductlooksdifferentfrom beturnedto a simplecupshape. Turninga ca6riole legwith thistechnique youmaywishto try turninga tulip or trumpetflowerform, spindle. a standard Because thesepieces oftenhavefragile for turninga tabletop are bothpopularprofiles. isshownstartingonpage118;steps wallsandstems, complete eachsection asyougo.Oncea gobdetailed onpage134. out,for example, sandandfinishtheinside anoth- let is hollowed or contrasting woodinsertsprovides Usingveneer woodto supportthebowl.If you aturnedpiece.Popularized bywoodturn- whilethereis surrounding erwayof enhancing canbeusedto makelaminated waituntilthewholepieceisturned,yourun theriskof breaker DaleNish,thistechnique ingthestemor cracking thebowl. bowls(page136)or plates(page138). Lastly, exoticnutswill offerabit of varietyto yourturning. boxThetechniques for turninggoblets(pagel2?),lidded (page129)arcnotverydifferent Techniques seedpodsare for turningtaguanutsandbanksia 124),andweedpors es(page onpage132. fromthoseusedto turnbowls.Butin orderto hollowoutsuch shownstarting

Thelid of thecherrywoodboxshownat Ieftis testis still mountedon the frttedwhiletheworkpiece with an ebonyfinial. lathe.Thelid is decorated

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By nxttrrttitrg n legblor* on tlte lnthe o.fJ-ccrrter, wood ttrrrtcrscon creote trrrrtittgsstrclras tlta cnltrittleIeg sltowrrnltovetrradc.frottt zcbrawood.

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I M o u n yt o u rl e gb l a n kb e t w e etnr u ec e n t e ros n t h e l a t h et,h e nu s ea s k e wc h i s etl o m a k ea s h o u l d ecru t o n t h e p i e c e( p a g e6 J ) . d e f i n i n g t h se q u a r es e c t i o na t t h et o p o f t h e l e g .N e x t t, u r nt h e s e c t i o nb e l o wt h e s h o u l d et ro a c y l i n d ewr r t ha r o u g h i nggo u g e (page53), Then,removethe workpiece fromthe latheand marka pointon the bottom m i d w a yb e t w e e n t h e t r u e c e n t e ro f t h e b l a n ka n d t h e e d g e( a b o v e )T. h i so f f - c e n t e r p o i n tw i l l e n a b l ey o ut o r e m o u ntth e l e go n t h e l a t h es o y o uc a n p r o d u c ei t s c h a r a c t e r i s t iccu r v e U . s ea n a w lt o m a k ea s m a l li n d e n t a t i oonn t h e p e n c i m l ark.

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r) Turning the leg Z . M o u n t h e t o p o f t h e l e go n c e n t e ra n dt h e b o t t o mo n t h e o f f - c e n t em r a r k .P o s i t i o tnh e t o o l r e s tc l o s et o t h e b l a n k ,b u t n o tt o u c h i n gi t , t h e nt u r no n t h e l a t h e T . h et o po f t h e b l a n kw i l l s p i nt r u e ,w h i l et h e b o t t o mw i l l r o t a t ee c c e n t r i c a l lEyx. a m i n e t h e b l a n ka s i t s p i n s .N o t et h e s o l i dc o r eo f s t o c ka l o n gt h e c e n t e frr o mt h e s h o u l d et ra p e r i n d g o w nt o t h e f o o t ,s u r r o u n d e d b y a l i g h t e sr h a d o w - t h eo f f - c e n t esrt o c k .S h a p et h e c a b r i o l e l e g b y u s i n ga s p i n d l eg o u g et o r e m o v et h e o f f - c e n t esr t o c k d o w nt o t h e t o p o f t h e f o o t . F i r s tc, u t a g r a d u asl l o p ef r o mt h e s h o u l d et o r t h e a n k l eo f t h e l e g ,t h e ns h a p ea c u r v e ds l o p e f r o m t h e t o p o f t h e f o o t t o t h e a n k l e( a b o v e )M. a k ea l l y o u r c u t sd o w n h i l w l , i t ht h e f l u t eo f t h e g o u g ef a c i n gt h ed i r e c t i oonf t h ec u t .B r a c et h et o o lf i r m l yo n t h e t o o lr e s t ,p a r t i c u l a rwl yh e n t h eb e v eils n o tr u b b i n og n t h es t o c kT. u r no f f t h e l a t h ep e r i o d i s . h e ny o ua r es a t i s f i ew d i t ht h e c a l l ya n dc h e c ky o u rp r o g r e s W s h a p eo f t h e l e g ,m a k ea n yd e c o r a t i vceu t s ,s u c ha s t u r n i n ga beadusinga skewchisel(page64).

Turningthefoot L o o s e tnh e t a i l s t o cak n d r e o o s i t i ot n h e l i v ec e n t e o r nthe t r u ec e n t e ro f t h e b o t t o mo f t h e l e g .T u r nt h e f o o tt o t h e s h a p e y o uw a n tu s i n ga s p i n d l eg o u g ea n da s k e wc h i s e l C . a b r i o l lee g s t y p r c a l l fye a t u r ea r o u n dp a do n t h e b o t t o mo f t h e f o o t .A d j u s t t h e t o o l r e s tf o r t h e c u t a n d m a k ea V - c u tw i t h a s k e wt o s e p a r a t et h e p a df r o mt h e f o o t .T h e ns h a p et h e p a da n df o o t ,c u t t i n g d o w n h i lal n d k e e p i n tgh e b e v e rl u b b t n g( l e f t ) .

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GOBLETS

t Gobletsare usuallydecorativepieces turned to various shapesand sizes. They can be made surprisingly small, as shown in thephoto at left.

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TURNING A GOBTET thebowlsection 1 Hollowing I Cuta blankforthegoblet, mountit between centers, andprepare it fora glueblockor a chuck.In thiscase,a three-way splitringchuckis used.Secure theblankin the c h u c ka n dm o u ntth ec h u c ko nt h el a t h eU . s ea s p i n d l e gougeto turntheoutside of thegobletto its maximum diameter, keeping thebevelrubbing andtheflutefacingthe direction of thecut.Then,position thetoolrestalong thefront of theblanksoyoucanusethetip of a smallbowlgouge to cutin thecenter of theworkpiece following the insideof the goblet'sbowlsection. Tobeginthisprocess, usea drill bit to borea depthholein thecenterof thebowl(page105). Then,usea bowlgougeor a round-nosed scraper to remove waste pointthebevelin andthinthewalls.Withthegouge, thecuttingdirection andcut in alongthesidesof thehole to thecenterof thebowl,keeping thebevelrubbing andthe flutepointingin thedirection of the cut(right). Because the gouge willbecuttingacross thegrain,thecutmayleave a slightly roughsurface, depending onthetypeof woodyou areusingandtheshape of thebowl.When thebowlis hollowed out,makea finishing cutfromthecenter outusing a (page125).Continue round-nose side-cutting scraper until youaresatisfied withtheshapeof theinterior.

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r) Sanding the insideof the bowl L O n c ev o u h a v eh o l l o w e dt h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e g o b l e t s, m o o t ht h e s u r f a c ew i t h progressive f ilnye rg r i t so f s a n d p a p eS r .e t the latheto its lowestspeed,fold the sheet i n t h r e ep l i e s ,a n d h o l dt h e p a p e ra g a i n s t t h e i n s i d eo f t h e b l a n k A . p p l yl r g h tp r e s sureuntil the surfaceis smooth(rrghf).

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r - , 1 O n c ey o uh a v ef i n i s h e d sanding the gouge i n s i d eo f t h eg o b l e tu, s ea s p i n d l e to Starting at thetopof the shapetheoutside. b o w lc, u td o w n h i l l ttoh es t e mt o s h a p et h e outsideof the bowlto the desireddiameter a n dc u r v e/ / e f f ) R . e m e m b et hr a tt h e o u t s i d es u r f a c eo f t h e b o w ls h o u l dc o m p l e m e n tt h e i n s i d eA. i m f o r w a l l st h a ta r e u n i f o r m llye s st h a n%i n c ht h i c k .C u tg e n t l y , r e m o v i nags m a l la m o u not f s t o c kw i t h e a c hp a s st o a v o i dc u t t i n gt h r o u g ht h e wallsC . h e c kt h e t h i c k n e sps e r i o d i c a l l y with yourfingers(insef),Thiswill helpyou "feel" t o d e v e l oa p t h a t i s e s p e c i a l vl ya l u a b l ef o r m e a s u r i nsgm a l lp i e c e sw, h e n working w i t hc a l i p e r iss d i f f i c u l tC . ontinue w o r k i ntgh eo u t s i d e u n t i lt h e b o w a l ssumes t h e d e s i r e sd h a o et.h e ns a n di t s s u r f a c e .

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Rough-turning thestem S t a r t i n ga b o u t1 i n c hf r o mt h e h e a d s t o c ke n do f t h e b o w l ,b e g i nt u r n i n gt h e s t e mo f t h e g o b l et o t h e d e s i r e d i a m e t e r p o r r p eP o i n t h e f l u t e u "-sin o s-a s n i n d l e t o w a r dt h e b o w la n d k e e pt h e b e v e lr u b b i n gw h i l ey o um a k ea s l o p i n g cutdownw a r dt o t h e b o t t o mo f t h e b o w l ( / e f f ) . C o n t i n uien t h i sm a n n e ur n t i ly o uh a v e c u t a p o r t i o no f t h e s t e mt o f i n i s h e d r a m e t e r .T h e n ,s l i c eo f f a b i t m o r ew o o da t the startof the cut and repeatthe process o n t h e n e x tp o r t i o no f t h e s t e m .C o n t i n u e u n t i lt h e f u l l l e n g t ho f t h es t e mi s r o u g h t u r n e dt o t h e d e s i r e d i a m e t e r .

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t thestem f, Completing r - , 1W h e ny o uh a v et u r n e dt h e f u l l l e n g t h o f t h e s t e m ,t u r n t h e b a s e ,a d d i n ga n y d e c o r a t i vceu t s ,s u c ha s b e a d sF. o rs t a b i l i t y ,t h e b a s es h o u l db e a t l e a s te q u a li n d i a m e t et ro t h e b o w l .N e x t ,m a k ef i n i s h i n gc u t so n t h e s t e m .S i n c et h r sp o r t i o ni s v e r yt h i n , s u p p o rtth e g o b l e td u r i n gt h e c u t st o p r e v e ni t f r o mb r e a k i n gB. r a c i n g the heelof yourhandagainstthe tool rest, h o l dt h e b o w lo f t h e g o b l e tl i g h t l yi n y o u r f i n g e r sG . r r p p i ntgh e g o u g eh a n d l ei n y o u r o t h e rh a n d ,l a yt h e b l a d eo n t h e t o o lr e s t a n da d v a n c iet c a r e f u l luy n t i lt h e b e v e il s rubbing a n dt h e c u t t i n ge d g ei s s l i c i n g i n t ot h e s t o c k .S t a r t i n g at the basep , oint t h e f l u t e r n t h e d i r e c t i o no f t h e c u t , a n d makea lrghtpassalongthe stem(right), a l w a y cs u t t i n gw i t ht h e g r a i n .R e p e alti g h t c u t sa s n e c e s s atroy f i n i s ht h e s t e m .

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Sanding thestemandbase M o v et h et o o lr e s to u t o f w a ya n df o l da p i e c eo f s a n d p a p ei nr t oa p a d .T h e n s, u p portingthe b o w lw i t ho n eh a n d s, m o o t h t h e s t e mu s i n gp r o g r e s s i v e l y f i n e r go rf ipt sa p e r (above). Oncethe stemis sanded,smooththe base,andapplya finish(page108).

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Paftingoff the gobletand / undercutting the base O n c et h eg o b l e its f i n i s h e dp, a r ti t o f f j u s t beneaththe base.Supportthe gobletwith o n e h a n da s y o uc u t t h r o u g ht h e s t o c k holdingthe partingtool in the other(left).

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C u t u n t i lt h e r ei s o n l ya s m a l lb r i d g eo f woodholdingthe gobletto the wastewood. T h e n t, u r no f f t h e l a t h ea n du s ea h a n d s a w t o c u t t h e g o b l e ft r e e .T o e n s u r et h e b a s e s i t sf l a tw h e nt h e g o b l e it s s e td o w n ,s a n d the bottomby rubbingit acrossa pieceof s a n d p a p et ar p e dt o a w o r ks u r f a c e .

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LIDDEDBOXES Like goblets,lidded boxescan be ntade in ntany shapesand sizes, and with a variety of decorations. The cherrywood box shownon the far right is adornedwith an ebony finial that isjoined to the lid with o sntall rotmd tenon.The box on the near right was turnedfroru walnut.

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MAKING A LIDDED BOX

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t I I theblank 1 Preparing I Mounta blanklonger thanthedesired height of thelidded boxbetween centers andturnit to a cylinder. Thepiecewillbe splitintoblanks fortheboxandlid,asshown above, sothey c a nb et u r n e d i n d i v i d u a l lf y .o uw i l lb eu s i n a g c o l l acr h u c k ( s t e p2 ) t o r e m o u nt ht eb o xa n dl i d b l a n ktso t h el a t h et,u r n t h eb l a n kt o a d i a m e t e o rf 2 %i n c h e sw,i t ha f l a n g oe f a t l e a s t

2 %i n c h e sa t e a c he n d .T h e s ef l a n g e sw i l l f i t t h e c o l l a rc h u c k . N e x t ,u s ea p e n c itl o m a r ka l i n ed i v i d i n g t h e b l a n ki n t oi t s b o x a n dl i d s e g m e n t T s .h e nc u t t h e b l a n ko n t h e l i n ew i t ha p a r t i n g Iool (above). Cut until onlya smallbridgeof woodconnectsthe t w o h a l v e st ,h e nt u r n o f f t h e l a t h e s, a wt h r o u g ht h e b r i d g ea, n d r e m o v teh e t w o b l a n k sf r o mt h e m a c h r n e .

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r) Hollowing outthelid L tJsea chuckorslueblockto mount t h e l i d t o t h eh e a d i t o cokf t h e l a t h e (nape 95).Inthiscasea collar chuckis \Fvbv

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b e i n gu s e d H . o l l o wo u tt h e l i d o f t h eg o b l e t u s i n ga b o w lg o u g ea, r i n gt o o l ,o r a round-nosed side-cutting scraper.Forthe position scraper, the toolrestcloseto the t o p o f t h e b l a n ka n d h i g he n o u g hs o t h e t o o lw i l l c u t i n t ot h e c e n t e o r f t h es t o c k . A l i g nt h e s c r a p ewr i t ht h e c e n t e o r f the b l a n k r, a i s et h e h a n d l es l i g h t l ya, n d h o l d the bladeflaton thetoolrest.Slowlypush thetoolintothe blank;cut fromthe center o f t h e b l a n kt o w a r dt h e r i m ( a b o v e ) . L o w etrh e h a n d l es l i g h t l ya s y o up u l lt h e t o o lo u to f t h e l i d .C o n t i n uceu t t i n gu n t i l t h e i n s i d eo f t h e l j d h a st h ed e s i r esdh a p e a n ds m o o t h n e sFso. ra s n u gf i t w i t ht h e b o x ,m a k es u r et h e w a l l sa t t h e r i m a r e s t r a i g h tT. h e ns a n dt h e i n t e r i o r( p a g e 121) andf inishit (page108I

1HO?Tt? A heat-freeeandingpad Hand-eandinq on Ihe lalhecan qeneralea lol of heat,whichcan belransmitied Io your finqero, whenoandinry Lhe eoVecially inetdeof boxeeor qoblele. Toineulateyourhande from the heaL,fold '-': youreandVaper arounda wad of sLeelwool. c.' il ,. l.A'

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TURNING PROTECTS

theoutside ofthelid n<' Turnins

r - J T u r nt h e o u t s i d eo f t h e l i d u s i n ga g o u g eP. o s i t i otnh et o o lr e s ta l o n g spindle s i d et h e w n r k n i e c e t h e nt u r no n t h e l a t h e a n da d v a n cteh e t o o ls o t h a t i t c u t si n t o t h e s t o c k .W i t ht h e b e v e rl u b b i n ga n d , tfrom t h e f l u t ef a c i n gt h e h e a d s t o c ck u l:roo in qm:lldi:mptor

ln qh:np ihp

I r d .T h eo u t s i d e s h o u l dc o m p l e m e nt ht e i n s i d es; t r i v ef o r w a l l so f e v e nt h i c k n e s s . O n c et h eo u t s i d ei s t u r n e dm , a k ea n yd e c o r a t i vre^ r t so n l h e l o n o f t h e l i d . T h e e x a m p l es h o w na t l e f t i s d e c o r a t ew d ith a bead(page67) cut with a skewchisel.

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Turning a tenon onthelid 0 n c e i t so u t s i d e s h a p ei s t u r n e du, s e a n a r t i n pt o o lt o c u t a s m a l lr o u n dt e n o n o n t h e t o p o f t h e l i d l r 6 l h t ) .T h et e n o n w i l l b e u s e dt o a t t a c ha f i n i a lt o t h e l i d ; s i z et h e t e n o nt o m a t c ht h e d r i l l b r ty o u w i l lu s et o b o r et h e m o r t i s ien t h ef i n i a l . O n c et h et e n o ni s f i n i s h e ds,a n dt h e l i d , f ilnye rg r i t so f p a p e r , u s i n gp r o g r e s s i v e a n da p p l ya f i n i s h( p a g el 0 B ) . J s ea handsaw t o c u t t h e p i e c eo f f t h e l a t h e .

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Fittingthe lid onthe box F r - / C u ta b l a n kf o rt h ef i n i a l ,u s i n ga w o o d t h a t c o n t r a s tws i t h t h e s p e c i e u s s e df o r t h e l i d .B o r ea h o l ei n t h e f i n i a lb l a n kt o f i t t h e t e n o no n t h e l i d ,t h e nj o i nt h e t w o p i e c e sw i t h c y a n o a c r y l agt leu e .N e x t . m o u n t h e b o xi n a c o l l a cr h u c k .U s i n g a p a r t i n gt o o l ,c a r e f u l l tyu r n a r a b b e t a r o u n dt h e r i m t o a c c o m m o d atthee l i d . T h e r a b b e ct h e e km u s tb e s t r a i g hat n d p e r p e n d i c u lt ao rt h e r a b b est h o u l d et ro f i t t h e I i d p r o p e r l yT. e s t - f itth e l i d f r e quently(right)as youturn the rabbetuntil t h ef i t r ss n u g .

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Turning thefinial T a p et h e l i d s e c u r e ltyo t h e b o xt o t u r n t h e f i n i a l .P o s i t i o tnh e t o o lr e s t a l o n g s i dt he e l i d a n df i n i a l S . upporting t h ef i n i a l i g h t l w y i t ho n eh a n d s, e tt h e b l a d eo n t h e t o o l r e s ta n d a d v a n c ei t u n t i l i t c u t s i n t ot h e s t o c k .S h a p et h e f i n i a la s d e s i r e dc,u t t i n gd o w n h i w ll ith t h e b e v e rl u b b i n gt h r o u g h o ut h t ecut ( / e f f )S. a n da n df i n i s ht h et i p o f t h e l i d , t h e nr e m o v ei t f r o mt h e b o x .


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TURNING PROIECTS

outthebox I Hollowing / Hollow outtheboxwitha bowlgouge, following thesametechnique usedwhen shaping a goblet(page120).Borea depth h o l ei n t ot h ec e n t eor f t h es t o c kt,h e n enlarge thehole,cutting fromtheriminto thecenterof thebox(/eft).Whentheinside is hollowed out,makea finishing cutfrom thecenterto therimwitha scraper to possible create thesmoothest surface. Sandandfinishthe inside(page108).

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Turning theoutside ofthebox S h a o et h e o u t s i d eo f t h e b o xw i t h a

gouge leaving spindle anda skewchisel, therabbet shoulder thesamethickness as thelid.Makeallyourcutswiththebevel rubbing. Finally, shape thebaseof thebox -in thiscase,cuttingtwobeads witha skewchiseltight). Sandandfinish(page 108)andpartoff the box(page123I

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DRIEDFLOWERVASE

I MAKING A DRIED FLOWER VASE

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Dried flower vttses,sontetinrcscslled weedpots, certbe turnedfronr off-uns and scrapsthat would nornnlly heconsigrcd to Jrrewood.And, so lortgns they are usedto hold dried or artiJicialJlowersor grasses, rrofinislt or sealeris rrceded irrside.Tlrc exilttplessltowrrirr thephoto altoveillustrntesompledesigns.The vesselon tlrc left wasfashionetlfron a lickory ltranch.Tlrc bork wasleJiort ttt tlrc baseto inrpart a rrtsticJTavor.Steps at lbr ttntrirtg tltis vasearepreserrted poges. right arrd on the.fbllowirtg

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Roughing theoutside . h eb l a n ks h o w na b o v ei s f r o ma I M o u n t h e b l a n kb e t w e ecne n t e r os n y o u rl a t h eT p a r t l yd r y h i c k o r yb r a n c ht h a t h a sa s m a l lk n o tn e a rt h e b o t t o mT . h i s i n v o l v etsw o d e s i g nc o n s i d e r a t r o nFsi r. s t ,t h e b a r kw i l l b e l e f to n t h e b a s eo f t h e f i n i s h e dp i e c e . S e c o n dt ,h ew o o dm a yw a r po r c r a c ka s i t d r i e s M . o u n t h e b l a n kb e t w e ecne n t e r a snd t u r n t h e s t r a i g hpt o r t i o no f t h e p i e c et o f i t a c h u c k i n t h i s c a s e ,a t h r e e - w asyp l i t r i n gc h u c k( p a g e9 3 ) , l e a v i ntgh e b a r ko n a t t h e b a s e .H o l da r o u g h i ng o u g eo n t h e t o o lr e s ta n dm o v ei t a l o n gt h e b l a n kt o m a k et h e c u t ( a b o v e k) ,e e p i n g t h e b e v e rl u b W h e n t o p o f i s b i n gt h r o u g h o ut ht e o p e r a t i o n . the t h e b l a n k t u r n e dt o s h a p em , o u n ti t piece. hollow A vase for flowers not need on the chuckand out the dried does to have a c l e a ni n s i d es u r f a c es, o s i m p l yi n s t a l al J a c o b sc h u c ki n t h et a i l s t o cakn df i t i t w i t h a w o o db i t .S e tt h e l a t h et o i t s s l o w e sstp e e dt,u r no n t h e m a c h i n ea, n da d v a n c teh e t a i l s t o c kt o b o r et h e h o l e ,T h i so p e r a t i o ins s h o w no n p a g e1 3 2 . O n c et h e i n s r d ei s h o l l o w e od u t ,s h a p et h e m o u t hw i t h a b o w lg o u g e( p a g e1 3 1 ) , t h e nf i n i s ht u r n i n g and decorate the outside(step2).

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r) Finishturning L t l s e a s p i n d l eg o u g et o s m o o t ht h e t r a n s i t i o nb e t w e e nt h e b a s ea n d n e c ko f t h e v e s s e lc,u t t i n gd o w n h i lul n t i la s m o o t h c u r v ej o i n st h et w os e c t i o nosf t h e p i e c e . Next,decorate the outsideof the vaseas d e s i r e dF. o rt h i s m o d e lu, s ea s k e wc h i s e l to makea V-cutbelowthe moulh (left). P i v o t h e b l a d ei n t ot h e s t o c k r, a i s i n g the h a n d l eu n t i l t h ec u t i s t h er e q u i r edde p t h . T h e nr o t a t et h e b l a d et o e i t h e rs i d et o c u t awaybothsidesof the grooveto forma V. N o wu s ea s p i n d l eg o u g et o t u r n a c o v e j o i n i n gt h e V - c u t o t h e m o u t h C . hamfer therimof the mouth(page131),thenmake a s m o o t h i ncgu t w i t ht h e s p i n d l eg o u g e d o w nt h e l e n g t ho f t h e p o t , k e e p i n gt h e b e v e rl u b b i n ga n dt h ef l u t ep o i n t e di n t h e d i r e c t i o on f t h e c u t .

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Sanding Onceyou haveshapedthe vase,move t h e t o o l r e s to u t o f t h e w a ya n d s t a r tt o s m o o t ht h e p i e c ew i t h 2 2 0 - g r i st a n d p a p e r .U s ep r o g r e s s i v e f ilnye rg r i t su n t i ly o u a t t a i nt h e f i n i s hy o uw a n t .R e d u c e the l a t h et o i t s s l o w e sst p e e d f, o l d t h e p a p e r twicea , n d h o l di t a g a i n stth e s p i n n i n g b l a n k .F o rt h e b e s tp o s s i b lceo n t r o lh, o l d t h e p a p e rb e l o wt h e c e n t e ra x i so f t h e l a t h e .W h e ny o u a r ef i n i s h e ds a n d i n g , applya finish (page 108), ft desrred.Part t h e p i e c eo f f t h e c h u c ka n dc l e a nu p t h e

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h n t t n m lt Pnvab vo p ' 1! v 2r ' ? )

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ANALTERNATIVE DRIED FLOWER VASE Inserting woodpegs 1 I Pegscut froma contrasting woodprovide an easywayto a d da d e s i g nd e t a i tl o a t u r n i n g0. n c ec u t ,t h e ya r ei n s e r t e d i n h o l e sd r i l l e di n t h e v e s s eal n dt h e nt u r n e df l u s hw h e nt h e v a s ei s r e m o u n t eodn t h e l a t h ef o r f i n i s ht u r n i n g B . e g r nb y m o u n t i nag b l a n kb e t w e ecne n t e rasn dt u r n i n gi t t o a c y l i n d e r . Thenusea partingtoolto prepare the piecefor mountingon t h e l a t h e i n t h i s c a s e ,a t h r e e - w asyp l i t r i n g c h u c k( p a g e 93)-turning a groovefor the ringsat the headstock endof . n c et h e g r o o v ei s c u t , s w i t c ht o a s p i n d l eg o u g e t h e p i e c eO t o r o u g h - t u rtnh e p o tt o t h e d e s i r e ds h a p e N , o wt u r no f f t h e latheand markthe locationof the woodpegs.Thesemaybe r a n d o m lpyl a c e do r p u t i n a p a t t e r nU. s ea p l u gc u t t e ro n a d r i l lp r e s st o c u t t h e p e g sT. h e nb o r eh o l e si n y o u rw o r k p i e c e . s ea V - b l o ctko h o l dt h e p o tf o rt h e c u t s .F i n a l f o rt h e p e g s U ly, spreadsomegluein the holesand insertthe pegsfrght). Allowthe glueto curebeforef inishlurningthe pieceGtep2).

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r) Finish{urning thevase

a ^ , 4- Chuckthe potto the headstock of the l a t h eu s i n gt h et h r e e - w asyp l i tr i n gc h u c k . R e d r r cteh e l , a t h e s n e p dt o i t s l o w e sst e t t i n ga n du s ea J a c o bcsh u c ka n ds p a d eb i t to hollowout the work (page132). Now, f i n i s h - t u rtnh e p i e c ew i t ha s p i n d l g eo u g e , b r i n g i ntgh ep e g sf l u s hw i t ht h eo u t s i d ea n d m a k i n gl i g h ts m o o t h i ncgu t sa l o n gt h e o u t s i d eu n t i ly o u a r es a t i s f i e w d i t ht h e f r n r s hF. r n a l l ya,d l u s t h e t o o l r e s tt o t h e

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frnnt nf thp nipnp :nd

thp odop

o f t h e m o u t hu s i n ga b o w lg o u g e( / e f f ) . S a n da n df i n i s ht h e p i e c ea s d e s i r e dt h, e n partit off the fromthe chuckandcleanup

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131


NUTSAND SEEDPODS As their craft has evolvedin the last 30 years,wood tLtrnershavesoughtout ntaterialsother thart woodfor projects. Banksisseedpodsartd tngua rtuts,shown in thephoto at left,arepopularfor their uniqueappearance. Theseedpodsofthe Australian banksiatree (certter)cart grow 8 incheslongand 3 inchesin dianteter.Their perforatedxn'fnce makesthent popular with turnersseekinga novel ffict. Taguanuts are krtowtt as vegetnble ivory becauseof their pure white color (near left). They nre the seedsof a South Americanpnln4 and are idealfor niniatu"e twttings artd sintpledecorntions.

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MAKING A DRIED FLOWER VASEFR()MA BANKSIA SEEDP()D

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Hollowing outthepod 1 I Mounttheoodbetween centers and gouge usea spindle to prepare oneendfor thelatheheadstock. In thiscase, thepod is attached to theheadstock witha threewaysplitringchuck(page93).Beginby roughing shape of thevesouttheoutside it out,mount a Jacobs chuck sel.Tohollow i n t h et a i l s t o cakn di n s t a a llsoadb e i ti n thechuck.Reduce thelatheto itsslowest soeed andadvance thetailstock untilthe bit contacts theood.Thenturnthetailstockhandwheel to hollow outthepodto thedesireddeplh(right).Borethe hole s l o w ltyo a v o i d a m a g i nt hgep i e c e .

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LJZ

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TURNING PROIECTS

thepod Shaping O n c et h e i n s i d eo f t h e p o di s h o l l o w e d o u t , u s ea s p i n d l eg o u g et o f i n i s ht h e s h a p eo f t h e o u t s i d eC. u t d o w n h i lwl i t h t h e b e v erl u b b i n ga n dt h e f l u t ef a c i n gt h e directionof the cut; you mayhaveto stop p e r i o d i c a ltloy r e m o v see e d sf r o mt h e p e r f o r a t i o n isn t h e p o d .Y o um a ya l s or u n i n t os o m ew o o l l yf i b e r so n d i f f e r e nat r e a s o f t h e p o d ;t u r nt h e mo f f u n l e s st h e yr u n t o od e e p ,i n w h i c hc a s ei t i s b e s t o l e a v e . h e ny o ua r e t h e mo n t h e f i n i s h e dp i e c eW s a t i s f i ew d i t ht h e s h a p eo f t h e p o d ,s a n d and f inishthe piece(page108).

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A TAGUA NUT TURNING

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Mountthe nutto the lathe I C u ta g l u eb l o c kt o t h e s h a p es h o w na b o v ea n ds c r e wi t t o a f a c e p l a t eM. a r ka thenut. s e r i e so f c o n c e n t r i rci n g sa r o u n dt h e c e n t e ro f t h e b l o c kt o h e l pp o s i t i o n l r a s a n d i n gb l o c k .S p r e a dg l u e F l a t t e on n ee n d o f t h e t a g u an u t w i t h a c h i s e o t hge n u ts o o n t h e e n d o f t h e n u t a n d p r e s si t a g a i n stth e g l u eb l o c k ,p o s i t i o n i n i s w i t h i no n eo f t h e r i n g s( a b o v e )F. o ra s o l i db o n d , t h a t a s m u c ho f i t a s p o s s i b l e l u eo r f i v e - m i n u teep o x y0. n c et h e g l u eh a sd r i e d , u s eg a p - f i l l i n cgy a n o a c r y l agt e t o t h e l a t h eh e a d s t o c k . s c r e wt h e f a c e p l a t e

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r) Turning the nut the L Postltonthe tool restalongside w o r k p i e caen d u s ea s p i n d l eg o u g et o Sincethey have shapethe nuI (above). n o g r a i n ,t a g u an u t sa r er e l a t i v e leya s y t o t u r n ,b u t y o um u s ts t i l l k e e pt h e b e v e l r u b b i n gt o c o n t r oyl o u rc u t s .


TABLETOPS Theoutboardspindleon the Wadkin Bursgreen latheshownin thephotoat Ieftprovidessufficientswingto accommodatelargeturnings,like this round mahoganytabletop,designed for a small pedestaltableor a candlestand.

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TURNING A TABLETOP theunderside 1 Shaping I Usea bandsawto cutyourblankintoa circleslightly larger thanthefinished diameter of thetabletop. Turnthe underside first,asshownat right,thenshapethetopsurtace(step2). Fashen a glueblock(page85)to eachside o f t h e b l a n ka n da f a c e p l a t e o o n eo f t h eb l o c k sa, n d screwthefaceplate ontheoutboard spindle of thelathe. Position thetoolrestat a 45" angleto thecorner of the blankandtruethecircumference wrtha bowlor spindle gouge. To chamfer the circumference, rollthegouge sothe right-hand sideof the bladeis onthetoolrestwith t h ef l u t ep o i n t i nugp a t a 4 5 " a n g l ei n t h ed i r e c t i oonf the cut. Starting on the bottomof thetabletop about % inchfromthe cornerof the blank,advance thetool untilthe bevelrubson thestock.Raise thetoolhandle untiltheedgeis cutting, thenmovethetoolto therightto chamfer thecorner(right).Repeat thecut,rounding the corneruntilyouaresatisfied with its shape.Smooth the underside witha f latscraper, asshownin step3, then makea cut onthecircumference glueblock of theoutside to besureit is perfectly centered onthepiece.Sandthe surface, turnoffthe lathe,andmarka series of concentric ringsontheglueblockto helpcenterit on thefaceplate whenyoureverse thepieceforstep2.

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r)

the rim Shaping it t h, e nr e a t t a c h Z . R . r o u . t h e f a c e p l a tfer o mt h e w o r k p i e c e y ou w i t h t h e r i n g s t o t h e b o t t o mg l u eb l o c k c, e n t e r i ntgh e b l o c k s p i n d le m a r k e di n s t e p1 . S c r e wt h e f a c e p l a tteo t h e o u t b o a r d g l u e g o u g e b l o c k t o c u t a w a yt h e a n dt u r n o n t h e l a t h e .U s ea t h e s u ro n t h e t o p ,t h e nm a k ea l i g h tc u t a c r o s tsh e t o p t o t r u e f a c e .N o wd e f i n et h e r i m . I n t h i s e x a m p l em, o s to f t h e s u r f a c e a b o u t/ ' i n c h w i l l b e r e c e s s e dl e, a v i n ga r a i s e dr i m . S t a r t i n g , e g i nc u t t i n ga r e c e sfsr o m f r o mt h e c i r c u m f e r e n oc fet h e b l a n k b r f t h et o p .T h i sc u t r u n s t o w a r d tsh e c e n t e o r i g h t o l e f t ,w o r k i n g . o m a k et h e c u t t i n ga b i t e a s i e r , p a r t i a l lay c r o s tsh e g r a i n T r o t a t et h e g o u g eo n c ey o u h a v ee x t e n d e tdh e r e c e s sp a r t w a y a c r o s tsh et o p s ot h ef l u t ef a c e st h e r i g h t - h a nedd g eo f t h e b l a n k . C u t i n t ot h e w a s t ef r o mt h e o t h e rs i d e ,b i t i n go f f a b o u t% i n c h . o n t i n u ei n t h i s m a n n e ru n t t l o f s t o c kw i t h e a c hc u t ( r i g h t )C y o u h a v er e m o v e dm o s to f t h e w a s t ea n d t h e r e c e s si s a b o u t ' / i n c hd e e p .

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Flattening therecess U s ea f l a t s c r a p etro s m o o t ht h e s u r f a c eo f t h e t a b l e t o p S t a r t i n ga t t h e c e n t e ro f t h e t o p , s e tt h e s c r a p ebr l a d ef l a t o n t h et o o lr e s t .P i v o t h e h a n d l eu p a n da d v a n cteh e t o o lu n t i l t h e b u r ri s c u t t i n gt h e w o o d .K e e p i n tgh e e d g eo f t h e s c r a p e r s q u a r et o t h e t o p ,m o v et h e t o o lt o t h e r i g h t ,r e m o v i nags m a l l a m o u n to f s t o c ka n d t r y i n gt o k e e pt h e s u r f a c ee u e n( a b o v e , /eft)C . o n t i n u ue n t i lt h e c u t m e e t st h e r a i s e dr i m y o ud e f i n e d i n s t e p2 . T o c h e c kt h e d e p t ho f c u t a s y o ug o ,h o l da s t r a i g h t e d g ea c r o s tsh e m i d d l eo f t h e w o r k p i e c em. a k i n gs u r et o c o n -

e c h e c kt h e t a c tt h er i ma t t w op o i n t sU. s ea t a p em e a s u rt o o an h o l r n r o o ni h p p d o p a n d t h p t a h l p f n n a l s p v e r a l n o i n t s uuLvvv!l 6uP

(above,righil. Conlinuecuttinguntil the depthof the recess i s u n i f o r ma l l a c r o s st h e t o p .T h e nu s ea g o u g et o c l e a nu p t h e t r a n s i t i ob n e t w e e tnh e r i m a n d t h e r e c e s si,f n e c e s s a r y . S a n da n d f i n i s ht h e I o p ( p a g e1 0 8 ) ,t h e n r e m o v et h e p i e c e f r o mt h e l a t h ea n d u s ea s a wo r c h i s e lt o r e m o v et h e g l u e b l o c k .S a n da w a ya n yt r a c e so f t h e b l o c ka n d f i n i s ht h e u n d e r s i doef t h e t o p .


LAMINATEDBOWLS

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Populnrizedlty wood turrrcrDale Nislr,tlrc techniqueof adding cotttrastirtgwood verreers to bowlscan be usedto createa wique desigt.The lorrtirtatetlbowl shownin tlreplrcto at right wctsturnedf'orrt cherryand two stripsof slrcp-nrndepnu ferro vetrcer.

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TURNING A TAMINATED BOWL

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theblank 1I Preparine

I Outline t h e b o w lo n v o u rb l a n ka n dm a r kt h e l o c a t i oonf t h e v e n e esr t r i p st;h e l i n e ss h o u l dr u nr o u g h l py a r a l l et ol t h eg r a i no f theblankB . a n ds a wa l o n gt h e l i n e s s, e p a r a t i nt hge b l a n ki n t o

a t h i n c o a to f g l u eo n b o t hs i d e so f t h e v e n e ear n d o n t h e c u t e d g e so f t h e b l a n kT. h e n ,r e a s s e m bal e n dc l a m pt h e b l a n kw i t h the veneerstripsin the kerfs.Useas manyclampsas necessary to ah t h r e e n i p r ^ p s ,( u v vn vv p u , l c f f ) \ e n d , i h p e r r t p_ d_ ooo_c_ tJ Or e m o v e a n y a p p l ye v e np r e s s u r eB. e c a u s teh e k e r f sa r ec u r v e d ,i t m a y b e r i d g e sl e f tb y t h e s a wb l a d e .N o w ,p r e p a r tew o l e n g t h o s f comnecessary to applyan additional clampperpendicular to the others mercialor shop-made veneerslightlylongerthanthe cuts.Spread to keepthe piecesfromslidingoutof alignmenl(above, right).

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TURNING PROTECTS

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Turningthe bottom L O n r " t h eg l u eh a sc u r e dc, u t t h eb l a n k i n t oa c i r c l ea l o n gt h e m a r k e do u t l i n eo n the bandsaw.Next,usea faceplate(page 8 4 ) t o m o u n tt h e b l a n ko n t h e l a t h e ' s h e a d s t o cskp i n d l e S . t a r tb y p r e p a r i ntgh e b a s ef o r m o u n t i n gs o y o uc a n h o l l o wo u t t h e i n s i d eo f t h e b o w li n s t e p3 . I n t h i s recessfor a scrollchuck case,a dovetailed w a sc u t i n t h e b a s ew i t h a s i d e - c u t t i n g skewscraper(page101).Thenshapethe bowlb o t t o mo f t h e b o w lu s i n gs t a n d a r d t u r n i n gt e c h n i q u e fsi,r s tr o u n d i ntgh e c o r the n e ro f t h e b l a n k a , n dt h e ns h a p i n g outsidewalls (page98). CUIfrom the botthe tom towardthe top of the bowl,keeping b e v e rl u b b i n ga n dt h e f l u t ep o i n t e di n t h e directionof the cut (right).Whenyouare s a t i s f i e dw i t h t h e s h a p eo f t h e o u t s i d e , s a n da n df i n i s ht h e s u r f a c e .

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t) Hollowine outthe bowl r . J R e v e r steh e b o w la n d m o u n ti t o n t h e l a t h ew i t ha s c r o lcl h u c k .P o s i t i otnh e t o o l r e s tp a r a l l etlo t h e r i m a n d b e g i nh o l l o w i n go u t t h e b o w lw i t h a b o w lg o u g es, t a r t i n g l u s tt o t h e l e f to f c e n t e ra n d c u t t i n g in to thecenterM . o v et h e g o u g es l r g h t l y . r a d u a lw l yo r k t o t h e l e f ta n dc u t i n a g a i nG y o u rw a yo u t t o t h e r i m , r e m o v i nm g ost o f t h e w a s t ea n d m a k i n gs u r et h a t e a c h cut is madefromleftto right.Finishshapi n gt h e b o w lc u t t i n gf r o mt h e r i m t o t h e center(left).0ncethe bowlis hollowed

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LAMINATEDPLATES Thelaminatedplateshownin the photoat right wasmadewith purpleheartand a pau amarelloinsertborderedby twostripsof zebrawood. The technique piece turning such a is for presented belowand on thenextpage.

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TURNING A LAMINATED PTATE

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theblank 1 Preparing I Cuttwo l-inch-thick blanks: oneforthemainpartof the plateanda narrower pieceof contrasting stockforthe insert. A p p l ya f e ws t r i p so f d o u b l e - s i dteadp et o t h e p l a t eb l a n k overtheareawherethe insertwill be located andfastenthe insertin place(above, left);makesurethe edgesandends

o f t h eb l a n ka s r ea l i g n e dO. u t l i n e t h ef i n a ls h a p eo f t h e i n s e rot n t h eb o a r d 'tso pf a c ew i t ha p e n c i lC. u ta l o n gt h e lineson the bandsaw,cuttingthroughbothboards(above, right).Sandthecut edgesto eliminate anyridgesleftbythe sawblade.

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TURNING PROIECTS

r) Assembling the blank Z p r ut h e i n s e r ot f f t h e b l a n ka n d d i s . r e p a r tew o s t r i p s c a r dt h e w a s t ep i e c e sP o r s h o p - m a dvee n e e ar s of commercial o f t w i d ea s t h e t h i c k n e s s h e b l a n k sa n da t the blankon a work leastas long.Assemble placing the veneer stripsalongside surface, a d d i n g t h e t w oo u t s i d e t h e i n s e rat n dt h e n p l a t e b l a n k G . l u ea n dc l a m p c u t sf r o mt h e (page pieces 136). Oncethe the together a d h e s i vhea sc u r e d ,t r i m t h e e n d so f t h e v e n e efrl u s hw i t ht h e e d g e so f t h e b l a n k s , t h e n c u t a c i r c l eo u t o f t h e a s s e m b l y t h e d i a m e t eor f t h e f i n i s h e dp l a t eo n t h e D a n os a w .

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Turnins thenlate <. r.J Secure theplateonthelatheusing thefaceplate witha glueblockor double(page 85).Turnthe bottomof sidedtape theplatefirst,cutting fromthecenter to w i t ha t h er i m ,t h e nf l a t t e nt h e b o t t o m s q u a r e - esncdr a p eN r .e x t p, r e p a rteh e h a s ps n i h p n i e c ec a n b e r e v e r s eadn d . s i n ga c h u c k e tdo h o l l o wo u tt h e i n s i d eU , o v i n gf r o m b o w lg o u g et,u r nt h e i n s i d em . a n da n df i n t h e r i m t o t h e c e n t e r( / e f f )S it to finish i s h t h e o i e c e .t h e n r e v e r s e s h a p i n tgh e b o t t o mu, s i n ga c o m m e r c i a l scrollchuckwith rubberposls(page110).


GLOSSARY A-B-C Baluster: A vertical post that runs betweenthe handrail and the treads of a staircase;may be turned, carved, or chamfered.

Convex A rounded, raisedshape, such asthe outsideof a bowl.

Bead:A convexshapeturned in spindlework; Seecove.

Cuttingtoot Anyturning tool used to shapeworkpiecesin turning; includesskewchisels,roughing gouges,bowl gouges,and spindle gouges.Seescrapingtool.

Bevet The sloping surfaceat the tip of a turning toolt blade. Billet A short length of wood. Blank A length or block of wood usedfor turning. Burnishing: The last stepin sharpening a scraperblade,usuallyperformed with a metal rod calleda burnisher;forms a burr on the blade. Burr: A small ridge createdon the flat faceof turning tool bladesasa result of sharpeningor burnishing. Cabriole leg: A type of furniture leg characterizedby rounded contours designedto imitate the gracefulleg of a leapinganimal. Chuck An accessorymounted in the headstockor tailstockofa lathe to hold a blank for turning. Collet chuclc A chuck or turning accessorywith contractingor expanding jaws to hold work for faceplate turning. Combination chuck: A multipurposechuck with interlocking parts that enableit to be usedasany of severaldifferent types ofchuik. Concave A rounded, depressed shape,such asthe inside of a bowl.

Cove:A concavedetail turned in spindlework. Seebead.

D-E-F-G-H.I Dead center:A fixed centermounted in the tailstock of a lathe to support spindlework. Seelive center. Dovetaift A shapethat is formed to join a blank for faceplateturning to a chuckby meansof a tapered recessin the blank that mateswith the expandingor contractingjaws ofthe chuck. Downhill cutting: In spindle work, cutting with the grain rather than againstit; working from a high point to a low point. Drive center:A two- or fourpronged centermounted in the headstockofa lathe to securea workpiece for spindle turning. End grain: The endsof the wood fibersin a workpiece. Faceplateturning: A turning technique in which the grain of the workpieceis perpendicularto the lathe's axis;the workpieceis usuallyonly mounted to the headstockof the machine.Seespindleturning. Fillet A flat sectionon a spindle turning betweenrounded elements.

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Fingernail grind: The curved shape ground on the edgeofa turning gouge;so-calledbecausethe profile is similar to the curve on the end of a fingernail. Finiat A turned or carvedornament that adornsthe top ofa bedpost, stair baluster,turned box, or a piece of furniture. Flute Concavechannels,usually evenlyspaced,carvedalongthe length of spindle turnings such aschair legs and balusters.Seereed.Also,the curvein the bladeof a tool. Grain: The arrangementand direction of the fibersthat makeup wood. Greenwood: Wood that hasnot beendried. Grit The densityand sizeof abrasiveparticleson a pieceof sandpaper or a grindingwheel. Headstock The fixed end of a lathe incorporating the drive spindle; connectedto the motor by one or more drive belts.Seetailstock. Hollowgrind: A slightly concave bevelground on the cutting edgeof a turning tool by a grinding wheel. Indexinghead: An accessoryon somelathesthat enablesthe headstockto be rotated manually bv equalincrements.

t-K-r-M-N-O-P,Q

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fig: A devicefor guiding a tool or holding a workpiecein position.

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Kickback The tendencyof a cutting tool to be thrown back in the direction of the operator.

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Lathe capacity: The distance betweencenterson a lathe aswell astwice the distancebetweenheadstock spindle and lathe bed; limits the length of spindlework that can be mounted on the machine. Seeswing. Live center: A ball-bearingcenter mounted in the tailstock of a lathe to support spindlework; bearings allow centerto spin with the work. Seedeadcenter. Morse taper: A taperedshaft on lathe centersand chucksthat matchesa reversetaper in the headstock or tailstock,holding the centeror chuck in placewith a friction fit. Parting off: Cutting a turning to length on the lathe with a parting tool or skewchiseland removing it while the machine is still running. PartingtooL A cutting tool used to make sizingcuts and part off workpieces. Peelingcut A roughing-out technique in spindlework that uses the heel of a skewchiselto remove stock quickly. Planingcut A final smoothing cut with a skewchiselin spindlework designedto createa surfacethat needslittle sanding. Pole lathe: An earlyversionof the lathe poweredby atreadle attached to a pole or tree saplingby means ofa cord. PommeL A rounded shoulderproduced in spindle work; servesto separatesquareand cylindrical sections of a workpiece.

Pumice:A volcanicrock that is ground to a powdery consistenry for useasan abrasive. R-S Radiused skew: A skewchisel featuring a curved cutting edgerather than a straight one; helpsavoid contactwith points. Reed:An evenlyspaced,conYex embellishmentcarvedalong the length of spindleturnings suchas chair legsand balusters.Seeflute. Reverse-profiletemplate A shopmade templatemade ofwood or plasticshapedto the desiredprofile of a turning; usedto turn multiple copiesof the sameshape. Scrapingtooh A turning tool that removesstockwith a burr; usedto shapebowls,plates,and other faceplatework. Seecutting tool. Shearscraping:A turning technique in which a scraperis usedwith its edgeat approximately45" to the blank; the burr of the scraperis drawn lightly acrossthe work to producea smooth surface. Sizingcut A cut with a parting tool to a specificdepth. SkewchisehA cutting tool with an angledcutting edgebeveledon both sides;usedto makebasicand decorative spindle cuts. Spindle turning: A turning technique in which the grain of the workpieceis parallelto the lathe's axis;the workpieceis held between centersin the tailstockand headstock.Also known asturning betweencenters.Seefaceplateturning.

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Split turning: A turning technique in which a blank is cut into halvesor quarters,then glued back together and turned; the finished turning is then easytopryapart. Steadyrest: A lathe accessorythat slidesalong the lathe bed to hold a long workpiecesteady. Swing: Twicethe distancebetween the headstockspindleand lathe bed. T-U-V-W.X-Y-Z Tailstock The adjustableend of a lathe that slidesalong the lathe bed and incorporatesthe tailstock spindle. Seeheadstock. Thper:A sloping cut on a spindle turning that decreases its thickness at one end. Tearout The tendencyofa bladeto tear the fibers of the wood, rather than cutting them cleanly,leaving raggededgeson the workpiece. Tool rest An adiustablestandthat slidesalong the iathe bed, providing a frrlcrum point for a turning tool. Urn: A decorativeelementturned in spindlework; often part of a finial. Veneer:A thin layerof decorative wood usedto dressup a more common speciesof wood. Wheel dresser:A deviceusedto true the working surfaceof a grinding wheel and exposefreshabrasive.


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INDEX Pagereferences in italicsindicatean illustration of subjectmatter. Pagereferencesin bold indicatea Build It Yourselfproject.

A-B-C-D Arbor screwchucks,23 Art objects,8 Natural-top bowls, -l.l1-.l15 SeealsoDecorative techniques Balls(designelements),69 Bandsaws: Lighting requirements,front endpaper Banksiaseedpods, 132-133 Beads(designelements),68-69 Belt sanders: Sharpeningturning tools (Shop Tifl,al Benchgrinders.SeeGrinders Blanks,13 Laminated,49,136,138-139 Mounting,23,83,84 double-sidedtape,86 faceplates, 84 glueblocks, 85, 109-110 paperjoints,85 spindleturning,49-50 SeealsoChucks Roundingblanks, 98,112 Thin blanks,63 Bowls: Finishes,83,108 Laminated,136-137 Natural-topbowls,llI SeealsoBowlturning Bowlturning, 96-97 Bases,23,82 l0l dovetailedrecesses, flatteningthe bottom, 100,114 gluejoints,ll0 Inside finishing,105-108,115 hollowing, 103-105,1 13-I 14 making a depth hole (ShopTip), 105 Natural-topbowls,I-l l-l 15 Outside finishing,102,109,115 shaping,98-99,109,113 Roundingblanks, 98,112 SeealsoBowls Boxes,J16,124-128 Build It Yourself: Bowl turning depth gauges,106 Contractionchucla, 90-91 Lathes dusthoods,29 stands.18-19

Spindleturning column-fluting routerjigs for the Iathe.76-77 handlesfor turning tools,7l Turning tools jigs, 39 gouge-sharpening handlesfor turning tooIs,back endpaper, Tl storageracks,25 Cabriolelegs,1 18-119 Calipers,27,57 Carvingtechniques,73, 75, 78 Column-fluting jigs,76-77 Centerfinders,26,27, 87 Chisels.SeeTurningtools Chucks,83,84 Arbor screwchucks.23 Collet chucks,95 Contractionchucks,90-91 Dovetailchucks,23 Jacobschucks,23, 93 Pin chucks,23,94 Screwchucks,23, 92 Scrollchucks,23,88,89,110 Spigotchucks,23 Three-waysplit-ring chucks,23, 93 Collet chucla, 95 Compasses,2T Contractionchucks,90-91 Coves(designelements),64-65 Covedshouldercuts,59 LV[nOers,5J-J)

Decorativetechniques,64, ll7, 124 Balls(designelements),69 Banksiaseedpods,132-133 Beads(designelements),66-68 Coves(designelements),64-65 Fillets(designelements),70 Finials,70,127 Flutes(designelements),73, 75,76-77 Lamination,49, ll7, 136-139 Preservingsquareshoulders (ShopTip), 59 Reeds(designelements),73, 78 Spindlecuts,58 Split.turnings,73-74 usingcompressionrings (Shop Tip),74 Taguanuts,132,133 Vases(designelements),68 Wood peginserts,-l3I SeealsoArt obiects Depthgauges,2T Dovetailchucks.23 Drive centers,24 Sharpeningdrive centers(Shop Tip),24

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E-F-G-H-I End-grainturning,ll7 Goblets,l20-123 Heat-freesandingpads(Shop Tip), 125 Liddedboxes,116, 124-128 Weedpots,129-131 Faceplate turning, 7, 83 Centeringjigs center-findingjigs,87 faceplate-cent eringjigs,87 Lathespeed,/ront endpaper Mounting blanks,23,83, 84 double-sidedtape,86 faceplates, 84 glueblocks,85, 109-110 paperjoints,85 Seea/soChucks SeealsoBowl turning Fillets(designelements),70 Finials,70,127 Finishes, 79,81,83 Finishingtechniques,79 Bowl turning inside,105-108, 115 o u t s i d e1, 0 2 , 1 0 9 , 1 1 5 Sanding,79, 80 heat-freesandingpads(Shop Tip), 125 Spindleturnings,8l Flutes(designelements),73, 75 Column-fluting router jigs for the lathe,76-77 Glaser,|erry: Turning tools,2I Goblets,120-123 Gouges.SeeTurning tools Grinders, 32-33,34,35 Lightingand spacerequirements, front endpaper Wet/drygrinders,32,41 Wheels.36

I-K-L Jacobschucks,23, 93 Jigs: Bowl turning depth gauges,106 Faceplateturning center-findingjigs,87 jigs, 87 faceplate-centering Lathes dust hoodsfor the lathe.29 threadingaccessories, 23 Spindleturning column-flutingrouter jigs for thelathe,T6-77 commercialcenterfinders,26, 27 layouttools for multiple turnings (ShopTip), 72

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shop-madecenterfinders(Shop Tip),52 Turning tools commercialsharpeningjigs, 42,44 jigs, 39 gouge-sharpening tool rests,35 fordan,fohn, 8-9 Klein,Bonnie,10-17,ll7 Laminationtechniques, ll7 , 136-139 Sandwichblanks,49 Lathes,13,14-15 Adjustinglatheheight(ShopTip), 17 Checkingthe bearingfor runout, 26 Drive assemblies, .15 Dusthoods,29 Headstockassemblies. 15 Klein DesignMiniature Lathe, 10-1t,117 Lightingand spacerequirements, front endpaper Speed,front endpaper, 30 Stands,18-19 Tool rests.l6-17 Troubleshooting, backendpaper Wadkin Bursgreenlathes, 15,134 Weighingdown a lathe (ShopTip), 16 SeealsoChucks;Drive centers; Turningtools Legs,46 Cabriolelegs,118-119 Covedshouldercuts,59 Liddedboxes,l16, 124-128 M-N-O-P-Q-R Mounting techniques.SeeBlanks: Mounting; Chucks Natural-topbowls,111-115 Nish,Dale,136 Off-centerturning, I l7 Cabriolelegs,118-119 Pin chucks,23, 94 Plates: Laminated,138-139 Pommels.6l Protectiveclothing,28 Reeds(designelements), 73, 78 Routers: Column-fluting jigs for the lathe, 76-77

S-T-U Safetyprecautions,28-29 Sanding,79,80 Heat-freesandingpads(Shop Tip), 125 Scarpino,Betty,6-7 Natural-topbowl, 1l I Scrapers,22 Sharpening,33, 34,37,45 burnishinga scraper(ShopTip), 45

Screwchucks,23, 92 Scrollchucks,23, 88,89,110 Sharpeningtechniques,33 Bevels,34 Gouges bowl gouges,37,4.1 jigs,39 gouge-sharpening roughing-out gouges,j7, j8 spindlegouges,37,40 Grinding,34,37 Microbevels.43 Partingtools,37,44 Radiusedskews,37,42 Ringtoolq 37,44 Scrapers, 33,34,37,45 burnishinga scraper(ShopTip), 45 round-nosedsctapers,37,45 Sharpeningwith a belt sander (ShopTip), 4l Skewchisels,3Z 42 SeealsoGrinders ShopTips: Accessories, 24 Bowl turning, I05 Finishingtechniques,125 Lathe settp, 16,17 Sharpeningtechniques,41,45 Spindleturning,52,57, 59,72,74 Spigotchucks,23 Spindleturning,7, 12,47-48,51-52,53 Balls(designelements),69 Beads(designelements),66-68 Carvingtechniqtes,T3, 75,78 column-fluting jigs,76-77 Coves(designelements),64-65 covedshouldercuts,59 Lvllnders.

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Duplicate turnings, T2 layouttools for multiple turnings (ShopTip), 72 Fillets(designelements),70 Finishing,81 Groovingcuts,58 Handlesfor turning tooIs,back endpaper,47,7l Lathespeed,/ront endpaper Mountingblanks,49-50 Partingoff,62 Peelingcuts,55 Pommels.6.l Shop-madecenterfinders(Shop Tip),52 Split.turnings,73-74 usingcompressionrings (Shop Tip),74 Squareshouldercuts,60 preservingsquareshoulders (ShopTip), 59

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Tapers,56-58 Tenons,62 Thin blanks.63 Splittwnings, 73-74 Usingcompression rings(Shop Tip),74 Squareshouldercuts,60 Preservingsquareshoulders(Shop Tip),59 Tabletops,134-135 Taguanuts,132,133 Tapers,56-58 Tenons.62 Three-waysplit-ring chucks,2i, 93 Tool rests,l6 Dressing,l7 figs,35 Tools: Dial indicators,26 Measuringand marking tools,26-27 sizingtools,56 usingpresetcalipers(ShopTip), 57 Sharpening tools,34-35 SeealsoBandsaws;Belt sanders; Grinders;Routers;Tool rests; Turningtools Turningtools,2l Basictool kits.21 Beadingtools, 68 Bevels.34 Cutting tools, 120-21 Gouges bowl gouges,37,41,9G98 roughing-out gouges,37,38 spindlegouges,37,40, 66 Handles,backendpaper, 47,7 | Partingtools,37,44 sizingtools,56 Radiusedskews,i7,42 Ringtools, 37,44 Scrapers,22 round-nosedscrapers,37,45 Skewchisels,37,42,67 Specialtytools,22 Storageracks,25 Troubleshooting,backendpaper SeealsoSharpeningtechniques

v-w-x-y-z Vases(containers). pots SeeWeed Vases(designelements),68 Wadkin Bursgreenlathes,15,134 Weedpots,129-131 Banksiaseedpods,132-133 Wood, 13,3I,117 Drying,lll Grain,52 Green,31, .lI I


I I I ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Theeditorswishto thank thefollowing SETTINGUP BusyBeeMachineTools,Mississauga, Ont.; CabotSafetyCorp., Southbridge,MA; Delta International Machinery/Porter-Cable, Guelph,Ont.; GlaserEngineeringCo., Inc., El Segundo,CA; LeeValleyTools, Ottawa,Ont.; NewmanTools Inc., Montreal, Que.;PackardWoodworks,Tryon, NC; RacalHealth and SafetyInc.,Frederick,MD; RecordToolsInc.,Pickering,Ont.; 3M CanadaInc.,London,Ont.; Woodcraft SupplyCorp., Parkersburg,WV; Woodturner'sWorld, Gabriola,B.C. SHARPENING AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Guelph,Ont.; LeeValleyTools,Ottawa,Ont.; NewmanToolsInc.,Montreal,Que.;RecordToolsInc.,Pickering,Ont.; Unicorn Abrasivesof Canada,Brockville,Ont.; Woodturner'sWorld, Gabriola,B.C. SPINDLETURNING AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln, NE; Delta International Machinery/Porter-Cable, Guelph,Ont.; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; LeeValleyTools,Ottawa,Ont.; RecordTools Inc., Pickering,Ont.; StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY; Woodcraft SupplyCorp., Parkersburg,'vW; Woodturner'sWorld, Gabriola,B.C.

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TURNINGPROJECTS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln, NE; BusyBeeMachineTools, Guelph,Ont.; RecordTools Inc., Mississauga, Ont.; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Pickering,Ont.; StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT

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in thepreparationofthis book: Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted

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FACEPLATETURNING AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; BettyScarpino,Indianapolis,IN; BusyBeeMachineTools, Guelph,Ont.; LeeValleyTools,Ottawa, Mississauga, Ont.; Delta InternationalMachineryiPorter-Cable, Ont.; PackardWoodworks,Tryon, NC; RacalHealth and SafetyInc., Frederick,MD; RecordTools Inc., Pickering,Ont.; SandvikSawsand Tools Co., Scranton,PA; Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; . Woodcraft SupplyCorp., Parkersburg,WV; Woodturner'sWorld, Gabriola,B.C.

ElizabethCameron,LorraineDor6, Graphor Consultation,Carollm|ackson,HeatherMills

PICTURECREDITS CoverRobertChartier 6,7 Tom Casalini 8,9 Mark Tucker 10,1l RaymondGendreau 2l CourtesyGlaserEngineering Co. l1l CourtesyBettyScarpino 117CourtesyKlein Design,Inc.

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WORKSHO GPU I D E TURI{ING TROUBLESHOOTING CHART PROBLEM Toolcutspoorly Chafter marksonstock

Toolcatches onstock

Toolmarks onstock Wobble Glicking sound

0thersounds, suchas rattling orwhining

REMEDY Testsharpness andbevelangleof edgeandregrind or sharpen. Reduce speedandmovetoolrestcloser to workpiece, support fragilepieces withone hand,orchange cutting angle. Makesurebevel of cutting toolrubsgenilyandtake a lightercut;makecertain scraper bladeis flatontoolrest. Position toolrestcloser to workpiece ortrya different cuttingangleortool.Whenusing a cutting tool,makesurethebevelrubsandchange thelocation of cutonthecutting edge;usrng a scraper, makecertain thebladeisflatontherest;adiust toolansleso burrcutsslightly above center. Sandwitha coarser abrasive orswitchto a power sander, thensandwithprogressively finergrits Check thatblankischucked properly or,forspindle work,tighten tailstock. Inspect theworkpiece forvisible screws, knots, orchecks along thegrain. Turnthe piecebyhandto ensure thatit is nothitting thelathebedorthetoolrest,then adjust ortruetheblankasnecessary. Makelighter cuts;inspect lathemountings andbearings; reduce lathespeeo; support thinworkwithonehand.

TOOL HANDTES yourownhandles Todesign forturningtools,youcanreferto theillustrationbelowasa guide.Twosizesof standard-strength toolhandles are showndrawnto scale.

Thesmaller handle istypically used with%-inch turning tools, whilethe larger handle isusedwith%-inch tools. Forcomplete instructions on howto turna toolhandle, seepage71.

Holefor roundeection tanq

5TANDARD-OTRENGTH TOOLHANDLE?(scale 1:2)

Remember to choose a dense, strong hardwood suchasashor hickory, othe r w i syeo ur i s kt h ec h a n cteh a tt h e handle mayspliteventually.


The art of woodworking wood turning  
The art of woodworking wood turning  
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