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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP


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WORKSHO GPU I D E POWER T()()L SAFETY TIPS . Wearappropriate safety equipment: safetyglasses, a faceor dustmaskif y o ua r es a n d i n ga,n dh e a r i npgr o t e c t i o n if youareoperating toolsfor an extenddftime. edperioo . Clampallworkpieces securely whenevfreeto er possible to keepbothhands nnpraip ihp innl

. Be awareof the positionof the power cordat all times. . Makeall adjustments to a toolwith the innl

rnnlrroocd

o Maintaia n n dc l e a nt o o l sr e g u l a r l y . K e e pa l l b l a d e sa n d b i t ss h a r pc, l e a n , and undamaged. Checkregularly for loosepartsand frayedcords.

. M a k es u r et h a t l i g h t i n g a n dv e n t i l a t i o n in the workareaareadequate.

r Nevercarrya connected toolwith your fingeron the trigger.

. K e e py o u rw o r ka r e ac l e a na n d t i d y ; c l u t t e rc a n l e a dt o a c c i d e n t sK. e e pp e t s , c h i l d r e na, n d o n l o o k e rasw a yf r o mt h e workarea.

. T i e b a c kl o n gh a i ra n d a v o i dw e a r i n g l o o s ec l o t h i n g R . e m o v er i n g sa n d o t h e r j e w e l r yt h a t c a n c a t c ha c c i d e n t a l li yn movingparts. . Do not overreach. Keepproperfooting a n db a l a n c a et a l lt i m e s .

TYPICAL POWER TO()I WATTAGE RATING

T00r

WATTS AI START-UP

(3-hp) Aircompressor Tablesaw(%-hp)

4000

Saber saw

I 500 2000

Circular saw(7%") Circular saw(6%")

;

ffi ),j

n Bffi l'p'{ !

4000

r C o n c e n t r a toen t h e j o b . D o n o t r u s h or take shortcuts.Neverwork if you are t i r e d ,s t r e s s e o d r h a v eb e e nd r i n k i n g a l c o h ool r u s i n ga n y m e d i c a t i o tnh a t i n d u c e sd r o w s i n e s s .

PLUGGING INSAFELY

BRAN/ @ 2.4A

BELT SAISDIR ,rr ro 42653

426 HI/o

pARrs. ["t*it:i?i5l6, u". "*LyTDENT.AL RE'LA.EMENT

1800

CAUTION:

Beltsander (%-hp) grinder Bench

I 500

illAl{UfACURtR

Orbital sander Router Electric drill(%")

900

Electric drill(%") plane Power Electric drill(%")

o Do not usetoolsif the flooris dampor wet.

@

uo1",".,"o

1500 I 500 800

600 600

Random-orbit sander

500 500

HVLPspraysystem

400

Thestart-upwattageof a powertool is generally30-40%higher thantherunning wattage. you Usingtheformula(voltsx dmps= watts), canavoidoverloading anelectrical circuitby determining whether themaximum loada toolwill drawexceeds theamperage of the circuit.0n a 11O-volt forexample, circuit, a 7%-inch circular sawwoulddraw18 amos (110x znlps= 2000).Thesawcouldoverloada 1S-amp circuit,butnota 20-amp one.

Checkinggroundingand load requiremenlo Ensuretrhal a VowerIool is rated elecLrically oafe,checkinq ito nameVlate. A oamVlenameVlaleis shownabove.A tool shouldbeapproved by lhe UL (Underwnters Laboratorieo) or COA(Canadian SLandards Associalion). Aloomakesurethal the Vowertool ie grounded or double-ineulaLed. pluqand maybe marked A grounded tool hasa lhree-pronq "qroundinq r e q u i r e d "a' ,d o u b l e - i n s u l a l et od o l i s m a r k e d "double ineulaNed a "n d m a y b e a rN h es y m b o e l h o w nF. o ra Lool or exten;ion cord with a Nhree-Vronq pluq,use ?ower o n l ya e i m i l a ro u N l e tn: e v e rb e n do r r e m o v eL h et h i r d , o r qroundinq, ueually Vronqof a pluq.EneurethaNLheoutrleL, on a 15-or 20- ampcircuitr, can Vrovtde eufficientcurrent, for NheVowerNool.CheckNhe amperaqe ratringof Lhepowertool on its nameplale;if iNie rated af, 1Oor moream?ereo, Iurn off any hiqhcurrentr-drawing applianceo operalinqonlhe sameelecLric al circuitr.

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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

SHARPENING ANDTOOI CARE


THEART OFWOODVVORKING

SWENING AI\IDTOOLCARE

TIME-LIFE BOOKS ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA ST.REMYPRESS MONTREAL. NEWYORK


THE ART OF WOODWORKING wasproduced by

THECONSUITANTS

ST.REMYPRESS PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PR.ESIDENT Pierre L6veill6 SeriesEditor SeriesArt Director SeniorEditor Editor Art Directors Designers PictureEditor Writers ResearchAssistant Contr ibuting Illustrators

PierreHome-Douglas Francine Lemieux Marc Cassini Iim McRae Normand Boudr..ault,Luc Germain Hâ‚ŹldneDion, Michel Gigubre Christopherfackson Andrew Jones,David Simon BryanQuinn Gilles Beauchemin,Roland Bergerat, Michel Blais,Jean-GuyDoiron, Ronald Durepos, Robert Paquet, Maryo Proulx, JamesTh6rien Administrator Natalie Watanabe ProductionManager MichelleTurbide SystemCoordinator fean-Luc Roy Phongrapher Robert Chartier AdministrativeA ssistant Dominique Gagn6 Proofreader GaretMarkvoort Indexer ChristineM. facobs Time-Life Booksis a division of Time Life Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY TIME-LIFEINC. Presidentand CEO JohnM. Fahey Eilitor-in-chief fohnL. Papanek

TIME-LIFEBOOKS President Vice-President,Director of Marketing ExecutiveEditor ExccutiveArt Director ConsultingEditor Proiluction Manager

John D. Hall Nancy K. Jones RobertaConlan Ellen Robling fohn R. Sullivan Marlene Zack

Mil<eDunbar buildsfine fumiture at hisworlshop in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The author of sevenbooks and a contributing edrtorof AmericanWoodworkerand EarlyAmericanLife magazines,Dunbar alsooffersWindsor chairmakingseminarsacross NorthAmerica. GilesMiller-Mead taught advancedcabinetrnakingat Montreal technical schoolsfor more than ten years.A native of New ZeaLand, he hasworked asa restorerof antiquefurniture. Td Fuller is product managerat Delta lnternational MachinerylPorterCable(Canada).He is currently working in new product developmentand marketingfor woodworking tools and equipment.He is alsoan amateurwoodworker.

Sharpening& tool care. p. cm.- (The Art of woodworking) Includesindex. ISBN0-8094-9933-9 1 Woodworkingtools- Maintenanceand repair. 2. Sharpeningof tools. I. Time-Life Books. IL Title: Sharpeningand tool care. III. Series. TT186.5451994 684'.08'028-dc20 94-26232 CIP For information about any Time-Life book, pleasecall 1-800-621-7026,or write: ReaderInformation Time-Life CustomerService P.O.Box C-32068 Richmond,Virginia 2326r-2068 @ 1994Time-Life BooksInc. All rights reserved. No part ofthis book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanicalmeans,including information storageand retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,exceptthat briefpassages may be quoted for reviews. Printed in U.S.A. Publishedsimultaneouslyin Canada. TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time WarnerInc. U.S.A. R 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2


CONTENTS 6 INTRODUCTION 12 14 16 18 20

SHARPENINGBASICS The cutting edge Sharpeningtools and accessories Benchstones Benchgrinders

24 SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS 26 Handsaws 30 Chiselsand gouges 39 Benchplanes 46 Scrapeis 51 Roughingand shapingtools 55 Bracesand bits 58 SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS 60 A galleryof bladesand bits 6I Toolsand accessories for sharpening 62 Routerbits and shapercutters 64 Molding knives 65 Drill bits 70 Circular sawblades 73 Band sawblades 79 Jointerand planerknives

86 MAINTAINING PORTABTE POWERTOOLS 88 Maintenancetips and schedules 90 Anatomy of a router 92 Anatomyof a sabersaw 94 Anatomyof a platejoiner 95 Anatomy of an electricdrill 96 Anatomy of a sander 97 Anatomy of a circularsaw 98 Repairingportablepower tools 104 MAINTAINING STAIIONARY POWERTOOLS 106 Basicstationarytool maintenance 108 Thblesaws 113 Radialarm saws I20 Band saws 126 |ointers and planers 131 Drill Presses I33 Lathesand shapers 136 Other tools 140 GLOSSARY r42 INDEX 144 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


TNTRODUCTION

RichardStarron the

\ALUE OF SHARPTOOLS henI wasa kid I thoughtworkingwoodwasreallydifficult.Ir was,too, \/\/ Y Y because my dad'stool benchwasdominated by roughscrewdrivers and assorted wrenches, dull saws,anda fewaugerbits.I remember it with fondness because it helpedsetmeon mylifet path,but it suredidrt'tencourage meto master thepiecesof rough,splittypinethatI occasionally workedon. Sharphandtoolswerea revelationto a guywho grewup thinkingthat woodworkingrequiredsomesortof special geniusandalot of powerfrrlequipment.When I encountered a craftsman whobuilt finecountryfurniture,milesfromthenearest powerline,I wasinspiredto learnasmuchasI couldabouthowto maketoolswork well.Asa result,woodbecame a muchmorewelcomingmaterialto me.Today, asa seasoned teacher ofwoodworkingto children, myjobisto helpmystudents appreciate thepossibilities ofwood.Thelastthing Iwanttodoisletthemworkwithbumtools. It iseasyto fallin lovewith handtools.I havea smallcollectionof time-mellowed implements thatI wouldnotthinkof puttingtowork Theyrepresent ahistoryof effort andproblern-sohing thatisacomforttomymodernmind"I alsoharaotherfineoldtools thatarefrequentlyput intoservice. ButthetoolsI usewerydayinteachinghave much las ofanauraaboutthernKidsbangthemaroundanddropthanalltoofrequently. What isimportantaboutthemisthattheyworkright. Thedifference between a dull tool anda sharponeis something everywoodworkerneedsto know.It is thedifference between thefrustratedkid I wasandthe kidsI teachtoday.WhenI showa childhowto whittle,heor sheis expected to try everyknifeon therack,usuallyfour or fivetools.Onlyby makingthiscomparison will it becomeclearwhicharereallysharpandwhicharejust okay. Everywoodworker hashisor herownpreferred wayto sharpenanedgetool. Someuseoil stones, slowsandstone wheels, Arkansas stones or leatherstrops.Others preferfapanese waterstones, theuseof whichis almosta ritual.ln myschoolshop, I needto work quicklyandI havelongsincesettledon a grindingbeltandbuffing wheel.At home,I havefallenin lovewith thenewtechnology of diamondstones. I firmly believethat,whilesharptoolsareessential, thereis no oneright wayto sharpentools,onlythebestwayfor you.It takestimeto figureit out,but it is time you mustbewilling to spend.It is like buildingthefoundationof your home. Everything elserestson it. RichardStan hastaughtwoodworkingto middleschoolstudentsin Hanover,NewHampshire,since1972.His bookWoodworkingwith Kids ispublishedbyThuntonPress. Starrhaswritten numerousarticlesforEtne Woodworking, Today'sWoodworker and otherpublications.His television seriesWoodworkingfor Everyonewasbroadcastonpublic television.


INTRODUCTION

Philip Lowediscusses

MAINTAINING PO\MERTOOLS teppingup to apoorlymaintained machine cancreate a spectrum of emotions fromapprehension to frustration. Whenthehandwheel onyourtablesawforces youto oneknee,requiringtwohandsandallof yourstrengthto raisetheblade,and whenthemachinescreams andsmokebillowsasstockis fedthrough,faceit: Itt timeto do a littlemaintenance! Perhaps themoststraightforward partof shopmaintenance istheobviousreason behindit safetyandefficiency. It isveryimportantto keepcuttingimplements sharp. Moreaccidents occurwithdulltoolsbecause moreforceisrequired to operate thetool. Youll needafewtoolsto getyoustarted,includinga grease gun,anoil can,WD40*, graphite,siliconspray,andpastewax.It is alsoconvenient to havea setof wrenches, sockets, hexwrenches, andbrushes for cleaning gears. Finally,pickup someabrasives suchassteelwool, finesiliconcarbidepaper,andamill filefor deburring shaftsandnicksin tabletops. Cutterssuchassawblades, knivesfor jointersandplaners, shapercutters,bitsfor routersanddrill presses andturningtoolsmustbekeptsharpandfreeof pitchand resinin orderto cut cleanly.Pitchandresinon cuttersandsawblades,whichcan kickback, cause canberemoved with sprayovencleaner. Somein-housesharpening canbedoneto carbide toolswith a diamondstone. High-speed steelcutterssuchas turningtoolsandshaper knivescanbesharpened onabenchgrinderor honedwith abenchandslipstones. Alignmentof tablesandfences is alsoimportant.Thepositionof a tabletopis importantespecially if it hasslotscutin it for mitergauges. Theslotsneedto beparallelto thecutters. Thesameistruefor fences. Lubricategearsandwaysthat raiseandlowerarborsandtables.Lubricationof gears exposed andwaysshouldbedonewithgraphite, spraysilicon,or paste waxThese drylubricantspreventbuildup of sawdust thatwouldoccurif thepartsweregreased or oiled.Bearings with grease fittingsor oil capsshouldbeattended to periodically with theappropriate lubricant. Thetablesandbedsof allmachines shouldbeinspeaed and,if necessary, filedflat. These surfaces shouldbekeptfreeofrustandpaintsplatterings andshouldbecleaned with steelwoolor finesilicon-carbide paper.Onceclean,anapplication of pastewax will helppreventrustandallowstockto slideacross thesurface with lesseffort. PhilipC.Lowemakes Massachusetts. Lowe finefurniturein hisstudioin Beverly, hasbeenbuilding clients throughout past North America the 25 furniturefor for years, andhasspent10yearsasheadinstructor of thefurnitureprogram at North Bennet Street School in Boston, Massachusetts. Heisffiliated with theErneWoodworkingseries of videosandhiswrittenworles frequentlyappearin theirmagazine.

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INTRODUCTION

Ian Waymarktalks about

DIFFERENTWAYS TO SHARPEN '

'

"Tools h. old adage do not makethecraftsmad'contains a degree of truth. I Still,sharptools-althoughtheywillnot makeyoua craftsperson-willgreatly improveandenhance yourskills.In fact,in my opinion,a greatdealof skill displayedbytoday'scrafupeople isbasedlargelyontheirabilityto createandmaintain a keenedgeon theircuttingtools. MywoodturningtravelsthroughoutNorthAmerica, Australia, andNewZealand havebroughtmein contactwithmanyfirst-class woodworkers, carvers, woodturners, andjustplain"hewers"of wood.Theyhave workedin schools, homeworkshops, and craftfairs,with avarietyoftools fromtheverybathigh+peedsteelto thecrudesthomemadeimplemens.Still,theyallhadonethingin common:Theyusedsharptools. Asvariedasthecraftsandcraftspeople are,soaretheirmethodsandtoolsused for sharpening. Eachone,usedcorrectly,will createa keencuttingedge.Thebest arethosethatdo not overheat cuttingedges. Thisis probablythemostcommon problemexperienced bynovices whensharpening tools.It is especially seriousif the tool is madeof carbontool steelratherthanhigh-speed steel.Whencarbontool steelisheateduntil it turnsbluethe'temper"or 'hardness" is removed, andthetool becomes softandwill not hold an edgefor morethana fewseconds. High-speed steel,on theotherhand,will sustaina greatdealof heatwithoutdamage. Thesimplesolutionto"tip burning"isto useshaqpening equipment thatdoesnot generate highheator to useequipment thatis constantly coolingthecuttingedgeas it isbeingground.Wetgrindingwill assure thewoodworker a coolcuttingedgefor tworeasons: Firstthegrindingwheelisfloodedwith a coolant(usuallywater)to preventheatbuildupandsecond, thewetgrindingwheelsusuallyturn at a veryslow ratewhichreduces theheatgenerated by thegrindingprocess. Personally, I find the wetgrindingsystem bothtoo slowandtoo messy. My experience with wetgrinding hasbeenoneof constantly cleaning theslurryof sawdust andwaterfromthestone. Mypreference for sharpeningis awhitealuminumoxidegrindingwheel followed byaquicktouch-uponanextra-fine neoprene honingwheel.I choose thealuminum oxidewheelsimplybecause itsporositymakes it averycoolgrindingwheelcompared to oldgraystoneor thesandardsanding beltsor disa.It isalsoveryfastcutting,thereby reducingthetime at thegrinderandreducingthetime allowedfor theheatto buildup on thecuttingedge.TohonemytoolsI usea neoprene wheelbecause it is fastandit maintainsthehollowgrindformedby thegrindingwheel. |

IanWaymarkhas taughtindustrialeducation in Canadafor 16years. Heistheownerof Woodturner'sWorld, a storeonGabriola Island, BritishColumbia, thatspecializes in woodrurningtools.Waymark designed theOrca1 latheandtheSabreSharpening Center.


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SWENNGBASICS t on. time or another,virtualI l. \ lv everv woodworker has lookedupon tool sharpeningasa rainy-day task, an onerous duty undertakenonly asa lastresortthat seemscalculated to delayprogress on the moment's favorite project. Although it may be impossibleto persuade allwoodworkers to embrace thejoysof tool sharpening-assome do-sooner or later,mostadoptan attitude of enlightenedselfinterest, an understanding that regularattention to tool conditionwill speed, rather than retard, progressand improvebottrthequalityofwork and enjoymentof it. In Japan,apprentice woodwork-

But all sharpening work comes downto this:Toolsaresharpened bywearingawaysteelto forma fine edge,andpolishingthatedgesoit slicesasaccurately andeffortlessly aspossible. Amongmanytools, two areessential: a sharpening stone anda grinder. Once,all sharpening stones camefromtheground;sandstone, novaculite. and othermaterials havebeenquarriedandcut into Thenickedcuttingedgeof a planebladeis benchstones(page18)from the squaredon a benchgrinder.Clampingtheblade earliestdaysof woodworking. in a commercial grindingjigkeepstheendof Morerecently, technology hasprothebladeperpendicular to thegrinder's ducedsynthetic stones thatsubstiabrasivewheel. tutefor thedwindlingsupplyof naturalabrasives. ersspendyearsatthesharpening benchbeforeattempting to cut A somewhat oldertechnology alsoprovidedthefoot-powwood.Thepractice isrootedin reality:Tocutandfinishwood, eredsandstone grindingwheelanditsdescendant, thebench onemustusesharptools. grinder(page2?),which saves muchlaborin removing nicks Themostrealistic routeto sharptoolsfor mostwoodworkers andformingbevelsbeforefinalhoning. Iiesin regularattention. Whensharpening andmaintenance are Thischapterisintendedto removethemysteryandsomeof adopJed atspartof regular worlshoproutine,thetimerequired thelaborfromthesharpening process. With a grinder,a few isreduced-andthebenefits of keenedges arequicklyrealized. benchstones, anunderstanding of theprocess(page14),and Therearemanyjigsandaccessories thatpromisequickand practice, youcanhaveshaqper tools-and derivemorepleasure easyresults, andnoshortage of techniques withthesamegoal. fromyourwoodworking.

A Japanese finish stoneis beingusedtopolishthebackof a bux chisel. Waterstones like theoneshownat leftarea goodchoice for puxing the polish on a blade. The abrasive slurry on the surface of the final fine stoneisformedbyparticlesof abrasiveand metalmixingwith water.

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THE CUTTINGEDGE A cuttingedgecanbe definedas A two flat,polishedsurfaces meeting at an angle.Sincemostbladesare designed to bepushedthroughwood, partica keencuttingedgeis essential, ularlyfor densehardwoods that can quicklyblunttools.Anyflaw,likea nick in a planerknifeor a chiselblade,will betransferred to thewoodbeingcut. Do not assume thatjustbecause a chiselis newthatits edgeis assharpor asstraightasit shouldbe.Eventhebest

toolsneedto besharpened whennew, In its simplestform, sharpening andregularlythereafter. In orderto is like sanding:It consistsof the achieve akeencuttingedge, steelistem- wearingawayof one materialby a peredto a certainhardness whenthe hardermaterial,usingsuccessively toolisforged. Since tempering isdone finer abrasives. Whenthebevelof a athightemperatures,thetoolmaywarp chiselis drawnacrossa sharpening slightlyasit cools.Youcanskirt this stone,the abrasive particlesscratch problemby choosing toolsmadewith the surfaceof the chiseluniformly, high-quality steel.Eventhebeststeelis creating a flat surface.As shown likelyto showmanufacturing imper- below,finerandfinerstonesmakethe fections.Low-qualitytools,however, scratches finer andfiner,until a mirmayneverachieve andholdanedge. ror-likefinishis achieved. Thedifference betyveen a dull and sharpcuttingedge becomes obviouswhena bladecutsinto wood.On thelefthandsideof thewoodsurfaceshownatleft, awell-sharpproducingthin enedchiselsevered thewoodfiberscleanly, shavings; a dull chiseltorethewoodfiberson theright-hand sideof theboard.Anotherwayto determinewhethera blade is sharpor dull is to examinethecuttingedgeitself;a dull edgereflectsmorelight than a sharpone.

H(lWSHARP ISSHARP?

Smoothing a cuftingedge Thequalityof thecuttingedgeandfinishona toolbladedepends particles onthesizeof abrasive usedto sharpen it. Justasyou wouldsanda tabletopwith progressively finergrades of paper, sharpening begins withcoarse abrasives andmoves upthrough particles finergrits.Theonlydifference is thesizeof abrasive involved. Forexample, a coarseIndiarM stonehasparticles measuringabout173microns across, whilea hardArkansas oilstone particles-about hassmaller 10 microns. Commerical honing compound usedfor buffinghasextremely fineparticles, assmall

(Bycomparison, as0.5 micron. thediameter of a humanhairis approximately 40 microns,) Thephotos above, of a chiselblade magnified approximately 200times,reveal howsharpening improves a tool'sedge.A dullchisel(above, left)hasgrooves andpitson its backanda nickededge.Theseflawswill leavea rougher finishonwoodthanthesmoothbackandedgethat is achieved afterthechiselissharpened andpolished ona finishwaterstone (above, particles righ).fhe waterstone hasabrasive measuring 1 micronin diameter.

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SHARPENINGBASICS

THESHARPENING PR(ICESS STEP-BY-STEP 1:GRINDING STEP 3: H0NING STEP 0RLAPPING starttheprocess Honing usesprogressively finerstones suchashardArkansas Forbadlyscratched or nickedcuttingedges, thebevel, thenlap- orJapanese finishing stones to smooth outthescratches on bysquaring thecuttingedge,grinding pingorflattening Grinding isdonewith the bevelcaused bysharpening. Thenthetoolis turned thebackof theblade. lapwith overandlappedto remove the burron the cuttingedge. a benchgrinder andcoarse stones suchasWashita; (below)is alsohonedat thisstage. plate. Themicrobevel roughabrasives or lapping compounds ona lapping STEP 2: SHARPENING STEP 4: P0LISHING canstart Fora razor-sharp edgeanda mirror-like f inish,thetool Fortoolsthatdo notneedgrinding, sharpening withhardblackArkansas, ceramic or here.lnitialsharpening removes anyroughness onthe canbe polished Japanese finishstones, aswellasstropsimpregnated with bevelandestablishes a finewireburronthe backof the blade. Sharpening is doneby handor withbevel-setting finebuffingcompounds. jigson medium stones suchassoftArkansas.

BEVELS ANDMICROBEVELS Honing a microbevel Whena toolbladeis razor-sharp, more forceis necessary to drivethebladeinto thewood,anditsedgeis morelikelyto bebrittle.Byhoning a secondary bevel, or microbevel, ontopof thefirst(inset), youcanincrease the cuttingeffectivenessof thetoolandprolong the lifeof thecuttingedge.Microbevels areslightly steeper thantheoriginal bevelof the tool.(Fora listof common bevelangles forvarious blades, seethebackendpaperof thisbook.)lt canvaryfromaslittle as2" to asmuchas 10";thesteeper themicrobevel, thetougher theedge.Yet themicrobevel shouldnotbeovenvorked. A fewlightstrokes on a benchstone is usually a smallhairsufficient to produce linestripat theedgeof themainbevel (left).lt themicrobevel iswiderthanhalf of thewidthof thebevel, thebevel should bereestablished bysharpening.

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TOOLSAND ACCESSORIES SHARPENING Honing aompound ^^lia) +a 'A'rr""-

Benchatone (page 18) Any oilatoneor wateretoneuaed to honeor aharpen

rln+h

wheelof 4rrnderto polieheharpened bevel:contains a mixLureof chromiumdiox' rdeand other fine abraaivea

Benah grinder (page 21) Medium-gritwheel(left-hand eide) equaree and 4rinde blade:cloth wheel(riqht-hand etde)polieheecutLinqedqe

Dregger Uaedto Lrueor reohapeqrinder wheeleand expooea freah cuLLinqeurface.7tar-wheeldreeaer (above)hae up to four starehaped wheela;diamond-point dreaaer (below)featurea a diamond eet in a bronze tip

Neoprenepoliahing wheel Kubberwheelfor qrindinqand eharpenin4;availablein 4rite between90 and 24O. Wheelmuat turn away from t.ooledge Lo prevent it from catchinq the ed7e

Felt wheel Availablein aofL,medium, and hard: dreaeedwith buffin4compoundfor final poliehingof cuttinq edqe

Aluminum oxide wheel )tandard wheelfor 7rtndingand oharpening;availablein 6- and B-inch aizeoand a ranqeof qrito

Multi-t'ool jig 9 kew'4rrndingji7 /iqhL, Lop) holde akewaat 20' an4leand pivote on cenLer pin to grind radiuaed akewchiaela.)liding eharpentna iia (riaht.

mid)te)crZklpiioote undercrosabar.Doth are attached to an adiuatable tool reeL (riqht, bottom), whichmounta to benchin front of qrinder.

Wet/dry grinder (paqe 21) Lar4e,water-bathed wheelhoneebevele: waLerprevenLetools from overheatinqand carrieeaway meLal and 4rit.)maller, dry wheeluaedfor 4rindtng

t6


SHARPENINGBASICS

Lapping aompounds )et of ailiconecarbide powdere ueed in conjunction with a lappin4 plate to flatten and potiah tool backa;4rita ran4e from 90 to 600

Auger bit file Uaedto eharpenauqer bite and other drill bita: one end hae no teeth on edqeaand other end hae teeth only on ed4eato preventfilin4 adjacent eurfacea Cant-aaw file Uaedin placeof a three-equare file in openingeof lesa than 60'

5ingle-aut baatard mill file Uaedto aharpen spade bita and true the rima of Foretner bitE

Three-aquarefile Trian7ularfile uaed for eharpeninqForetner and multiapur biLe

Sharpenin7 atone holder Securea oilatones and wateratonea up to B inchea lonq for aharpening; rubberfeet hold atone in place

Angle checker Braae quidefor checkingbevel and microbevel anqleeof oharpened toola; anqlesran1e from 15'to 12O'

Honing guide and anqlejig For honinqplanebladee, Deviceholda blade at appropriate an1lefor honin7a bevel:rotatina the wheel on top of the jiq eete anqleebetween15' and 35'

Diamo nd- coated ho ning filea Uaedto aharpen carbide router bita; atored inaidetheir pivotin7 handlee.thown abovefrom top: cearae, medium,and fine filee

9t'rop A leatheratrip 1luedto a handle;dreaaed honin7compound withcommercial or other fine abraaiveato polieha tsitfiles Boron-carbide etonee uaed to aharpen router bita: qiveaa finer finiah than diamondhonin7fileo of equalqrit. Handlefeaturea maqnifying lena for checkinqaharpneae Wateratone atorage unit Tlaatic reaervoir uaed to immerae up to four watergtonegfor atoraae betweenaha rpeninqa; featu rea clampe that can be flipped up to hold the wateratone for aharpeningor honing and a glaea lappingplate

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Diamond needle file Small half-roundfile uaed for aharpeninqbandaaw bladea 4


BENCHSTONES is the most com1-h. benchstone I monlyfoundsharpening accessory in the shop.Oncereferredto asnatural stones, 6enchstones now encompass many man-madematerials,ranging from aluminum oxide to ceramics. "stones" Many includefine diamond bondedto steel. Sharpeningstonesaregenerallydivided into two groupsaccordingto the lubricantusedwith them:oil andwater. Lubricationservesto disperseground particlesand preventthem from cloggingthe stone.Choosingbetweenthe two is mostly a matter of feel;some woodworkerspreferthe edgea glassy hardblackArkansas oilstonegivesa tool; others like the fine control a softer finishwaterstoneoffers. fapanese Naturallyoccurringoilstoneshave long beenregardedasthe finestsharp-

eningstones.Quarriedfrom novaculite andsoldasWashitaandfukansasstones, thesesharpeningsurfaces arebecoming scarce. If your budgetpermits,natural stonesarea goodinvestment;theywill lasta lifetime. Syntheticsubstitutesmadeof aluminum oxide(IndiatMstones)or silicon carbide(Crystolonr')arelessexpensive and just aseffectiveasnaturalstones, thoughtheytendto wearmorequickly. An economical comoromise is theuseof an India" stonefoi roughsharpening andwhetting,anda hardArkansas stone for honingand polishing.Whenusing oilstones, wipe themoftenwith a ragto preventglazing.Do not usea heavyoil, asit inhibitstheabradingprocess; a light machineoil cutwith kerosene worls best. Waterstones areJapanese in origin, and cut much fasterthan oilstones.

Because theyusewater,ratherthanoil as the lubricant,thereis no oily messleft Waterstones on clothesandworkpieces. comein finer gradesthan oilstones, makingthempopularwith woodworkerswho liketo honeandoolish.Because theyaresofterthanoilstones, newabrasiveis constantlyexposedduring use, andthe slurryformedby the waterwill form a fine polishingpaste. Waterstones havetheir drawbacks, however.Because they aresofterthan oilstones,they must be trued more often (page19). Toolsshouldbe dried and wiped with oil thoroughlyafter sharpening to prevent rust. Waterstonesalso shouldbe storedin water.If your shop is prone to cold temperatures, keep your waterstones from freezing,asthey will shatter.

()FBENCHST()NES A COTTECTI()N OILSTONES

Hard Elack Arkaneae An extra-fine, lOOO-4rit natural atone uaed for razordental and other

5ofb Arkanaaa A medium,SOO-qrit natural stone ueed for initial aharpenin4 of dull ed7ea

Hard Arkansaa A fine, BOO-4rit natural atone uaed for honinqtoola to a aharp edqe

Waehita A coarse, faat-cuttin4 15O-qrif,natural etone uaed for flattenin7 and lapping badly nickedtoolo

Combination stone AIao knownaa an lndiat' atone. A aynthetic atone made from aluminumoxide with 90 arit on one face and 600 on the other: uaed for 4eneralaharpeninq and honinq.

l8


SHARPENINGBASICS

TRUING A BENCHSTONE Flattening thestone All benchstones willdeveloo a hollow in thecenterafterprolonged use.Totruea benchstone, flattenit ona machined surface,suchasglasspaneor a lapping table.Foroilstones, rubthesurface with motion(left)ina slurrymade a circular froma coarse lapping compound mixed grit withhoning oil.Startwitha coarse andworkthrough finergritsuntilthe stoneis flat.Totruea waterstone, use waterinstead of honing oil fortheslurry, papertaped or weVdry siliconcarbide to thelapping surface.

WATERSTONES

OTHER STONES 5lipatone A ahaped atone ueed forturninq and carvinq toola,featurinq both roundedand anqled ed4ea;a ran7e of qrita ia availablein both oil and water type6

Japaneae frniahing stone An extra-fine, 12OO-6riteynthetic atone made from cerium oxide;uaed for final honin4 and poliohinq;amall Nagura stone ueed to create alurry Diamond etone A hard aynthetic stone made from microaaopicdiamond cryatala bondadto aolid ateel plate; feabures a true, flat aurface that will not wear like other 6tonee. Availablein a ranqe of qrita between

22Oand 12OOfor any oharpenin7or honingtaak

Japaneee coarae sione A coarse, 1BO-4rit eynthetic atone made from ailiconecarbide; uaod for flattenin7 and lappinqbadly nickedtoole

Gouge slipstone A conical etone uaed ror qouqe5;concavequrface aharpens outaide ed1eof tool, whileconvexaurface deburra the inside ed6e.A ranqe of 6rito ia availablein both oil and water typeo Ceramia et'one A fine, hard lOOO-4rit aynthetic atone made from bondedaluminumoxide; uaed for honin6. Needano lubricant


BENCHGRINDERS plane andsharpening f, romsquaring I' ironsto polishing chisels andturning tools,thebenchgrinderisaworthwhile additionto awoodworking shop's sharpeningstation. Benchgrinders areclassified accordingto theirwheeldiameter. Standard 5to 8-inchbenchtop models,with %-to motors,arethemostpop%-horsepower ular sizes.Largerwheelsarebetter,as smallerwheelscanproduceexaggeratedhollow-ground bevels. can Grinders bemountedon a worksurface or fastenedto a separate stand. Rotatingaround3500rpm,a bench grinderremoves steelfasterthanasharpeningstone.Unfortunately, it alsoheats up thetool,andyoumaylosethetool's If thesteelbegins temper. to change color duringgrinding, deepening to atrue blue,thetemperhasbeenlost,andthe toolmustbereground. Motorized whetstonesand wet/drygrindersfeature

water-bathed wheelsthat turn at slower speeds,suchas500rpm, allowingyou to grind tools without constantlydipping them in waterfor cooling. Most grinderscanbe equippedwith optionalrubbersharpening wheels,cloth buffing wheels,and leatherstropwheels in additionto standardabrasive wheels. which come in a variety of grits (see below). Grindingwheelswill eventually

becomedull andcloggedwith metalparticles,and their edgesmay go out of square.A wheeldresser(page22) canbe usedto true the faceof a glazedwheel and squareits edges.

Thecuningedgeof a skewchiselgets a sharpeningon a wet/drygrinder. Because thelargewheelof this typeof grinderrotatesrelativelyslowlyand is continuallybathedin water,theblade beingsharpened remainscool,which reduces the riskof destroyingitstemper.Standardbenchgrinderwheels oftenrotateat speeds that qretoofast honing many tools; asa result,the for tool'ssteelcaneasilyoverheat.

IDENTIFYING GRINDER WHEETS STAI{DARD MARKING SYSTEM CHART ABRASIVE TYPE

A:Aluminum oxide

ABRASIVE (GRA[{)SrZE

Coarse: 8, 10,12,14, Medium: 30,36,46, tine:70,80,90,100, Very fine:220,240,280,320, 16,20,24 1 2 01, 5 01, 8 0 54,60 400,500,600

GRADE SCATE

Soft Medium Had A B C D EF G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V WY XZ

STRUCTURE

Dense 0pen I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 t 4 1 5 1 6 etc

BOiID TYPE

B: Resinoid BF:Resinoid reinforced E:Shellac 0: Oxychloride R:Rubber RF:Rubber reinforced S:Silicate V:Vitrified

C:Siliconcarbide

Choosing a grinder wheel Thewheels supplied ongrinders areusually toocoarse for use withfinertools.A widevariety of replacement stones areavailable,butselecting therightoneis nosimplematter. Youneed to decipher thecodesmarked onthesidesof thewheels, quality. describing theircomposition andabrasive Thechart (Theyareusually above will helpyouinterpret thesecodes. foundsandwiched between twonumerical manufacturer's symbolsprintedonthesideof thestone.) lf youplanto usea

Z:Aluminum zirconium

Courteey ofthe American National Standarda lnatitute

wheelto grindcarbon-steel tools,andthenhonewitha benchstone,buya wheelmarked A 80 H 8V.Thismeans thewheelis (80),andrelatively aluminum oxide(A),fine-grained soft(H), (8).The witha medium structure or concentration of abrasives particles arebonded together bya process of heatandfusion (V).Forhigh-speed knownasvitrification steeltools,a medium hardness of I orJ is better.lf youplanto useyourtoolsright offthegrinder, choose a wheelwitha grainsizeof 100or I20.

20


SHARPENINGBASICS

GRINDER STANDARD BENCH

Spark defleator Directa aparko downward and away from the operator

Grinding wheel Medium BO-7rit aluminum oxide wheelaquaree and eharpenecuttin4 edqee

Eye ahield

Buffinq wheel Felt or cloth wheelpoliehee bevelof cuttinq edqeo

Wheelcover Kemovablefor chan4ingqrind' in7 or buffin4 wheela

Tool reet adjuatment nut

Adjuetable to deaired anqle for qrindin4 or buffin4;typically poei' tioned within'/oinch of wheel

On/off awitch

GRINDER WET/IIRY

Upper tool rest Adjuatableto desired anqlefor qrindin4or honinq;typically poeitioned within'/einch of wheel.Featureaalot for olidinqanqlejiq

Wet wheel lO-inch,22O-qrit wheella bathed in water to keeptoole cool durinq qrindinq and honin4;rune at 70 RPM Eye shield Lower tool rest Adjuetable to deairedanglefor 4rinding; typically poeitioned within '/uinch of wheel-

Tool rest adjuetment handles

Five-inch,lOO-qrit wheeluaed for preciaion ed4e qrindin7; runa at 3450 RfM

21


SHARPENINGBASICS

DRESSING A GRINDING WHEEL Truing thewheel A grinding wheelshould betruedwhen ridgesor hollows appear onthestoneor if it becomes discolored. Youcanuse eithera star-wheel ordiamond-point dress(right), er. To usea star-wheel dresser movethegrinder's toolrestawayfrom thewheel.Withtheguardin position, switchonthegrinder andbuttthetip of thedresser against thewheel.Then, withyourindexfingerresting against the toolrest,movethedresser fromsideto side.To usea diamond-point dresser (below), holdthedevice between theindex fingerandthethumbof onehand,setit on thetoolrest,andadvance it toward thewheeluntilyourindexfingercontacts thetoolrest.Moveeitherdresser back a n df o r t ha c r o stsh ew h e eul n t i lt h e edgesaresquare andyouhaveexposed freshabrasive.

ltlIItllltlllllllIllJ lllllllltlllluilflIllJ lll1 llltillliltlllttll] 9HO7Tt? Diamondpoint dreaeer eLandardqrindinqwheelmounled on the lefY-hand sideof a benchqrinder,neo?rene or felt, buffin7wheelemounledon the riqh|-handrequirea chanqeof Iool pooitionfor buffingoo f,heIool does noNcalch in Nhewhee|Anolher eoluLionis f,o revereethe riahLquardto ex?oeeNhe handwheel rear of lhe wheel(right).lnthis poeition,Ihe buffinqwheelopineawayfrom you inolead of lowardeyou,oo you can butrLheNoolaL Lhesamean7leao you do whenqrindinqit.

22


SHARPENINGBASICS

A MOBII.E SHARPEI{ING DOTLY A sharpening stationis morethan justa dedicated spaceforsharpenall of your ing.lt is a wayof keeping jigs,andsharpgrinding benchstones, cleanandwelleningaccessories The organized. sharpening station shownbelowis essentially a sturdy lowbenchwitha storage shelf.The plywood unitis builtfrom%-inch and1-by-3stock.Byaddinglocking it becomes a mobilesharpencasters, ingdollythatyoucanwheelabout youneedto the shopto wherever

sharpen: at the lathe,the carving bench, or nearthesink. To buildthedolly,cutthe base from%-inchplywood. Makeit large all yoursharpenough to incorporate eninggearsothatit is nottoocluttered;up to 3-by-6feetis a good size.Screwfourcornerblocksto the underside of the base,andfastena locking caster on eachblock. To strengthen the dolly,cut the piecesfor theskirtsandlegsfrom 1-by-3stock.Thelegsshouldbe longenough for thetopto sit at a

23

comfortable height;between 32 and 36 inchesis rightfor mostpeople. Screwthe legpiecestogether, then attachtheskirtsto the legs'inside faces.Fasten theshelfandthetoo gluea waterto theskirts.lf desired, plastic andoil-proof laminate work surface to thetop. Onceyouhavebuiltthedolly,mount a standard benchgrinderor weVdry grinder to theendof the benchso thatbothwheels areaccessible. Secure a lappingtable(insef)at the opposite endfor lapping andflattenThisis simplya pieceof ingstones. plateglasssecured %-inch tempered plywithcleatsto a pieceof %-inch wood,fastened to thetop. Havethe glasscutthreetimeslarger thanyour largestbenchstone. Nowmountyourmostcommonly usedbenchstones eitherbyusingcleats or screwing theirwooden storage boxesto thetabletop; countersink the fasteners. Otheraccessories could include lightposia viseora portable tionedto shineonthegrinder.


SWENNGA]\TD GHANDTOOTS easilyaccessible, allowingyouto of powtheproliferation espite I years, thetool in and maintain sharpen hand Ll er toolsin recent with a little elbow In fact, theshop. toolsarestillanimporiantpartof you materials, grease and the right shop. the modernwoodworking hand restore a rusty old caneven play andplanes Handsaws, chisels, planeto betterconditionthanwhen avital rolein manycabinetmaking it wasfirstbought(page40). tasls,fromcuttingjointsandchopSettingyourselfup for handtool stock. pingmortises to smoothing reandmaintenance sharpening Forsomecrafts,likecarvingand quires Allyou nogreatinvestment. toolssuchas turning,hand-cutting jig shownabove, for cleaning, a few needaresolvents Thesimpleshop-made arevirtugouges andskewchisels devices for adjusting consistingof a dowelwrappedin a pieceof emery commercial allyindispensable. blades, stones andfilesfor honing cloth,is idealfor cleaningand removingburrs thathand Onedistinctadvantage theproper andsharpening-and toolsofferovertheir electrically from theroundededgeof gouges. will Thefollowingpages technique. is thatthey poweredcounterparts themostcommonly showyouhowto carefor andsharpen to sharpenandmaintain.With arerelativelystraightforward (page26)andchiselsand com- usedhandtools,from handsaws handtools,thereareno hiddencircuitboardsor sealed j9),scrapers(page46), (page (page 30)to benchplanes ponents,no carbide-tipped bladesthatmustbe sharpened gouges (page 55). andhanddrlls professionally. With mosthandtools,suchassawsandchisels, andbitsfor braces but therewards areconsiderTheworkis relatively easy, oftenmadeof wood,and whatyouseeiswhatyougetahandle, andproperlymainasteelcuttingedge.True,not allhandtoolsarequitethissim- able.Handtoolsthatarewellsharpened andprolongthe the tainedwill improvethequalityofyourprojects andleversfor adjusting ple.Benchplanesfeaturescrews angleandpositionof thecuttingedge.Still,all thepartsare lifeof yourtools.

Thecutting edgeof a drawknifeis honedby an axestone.Holdingonehandleof thetoolasshownat left and buttingtheotherhandleagainstthecrook theentireedgefor sharpening. of thearm exposes

25


HANDSAWS

t,

t;!n;

/ji; i# .'tJ

;

A commercialsaw setbendsthe teethof a combinationsaw to theproper angle with the bladeclampedin a benchvise.Settingthe teethof a saw bladeis a keystep in the sharpeningprocees, producinga kerf that preventsthe bladefrom binding.

a handsaw is a three-step Q harpening r.J operation. Asshownon page28,the processbeginswith jointing, or filing thetipsofthe teethsothattheyareall the sameheight.This is followedby setting theteethto thecorrectanele.Thisensures that thebladecutsstraigf,tanddoesnot stickin thekerf.Settinginvolvesbending the teethalternatelyto eachsideof the blade'scenterline.The final stepin the processis sharpening itselt,typically with a file. Not all handsawsare identical.The shape,spacing,and setofthe teethvary accordingto the typeof cuttingthe saw will perform.The spacingbetweenteeth is usuallyexpressed in TPI, or teethper inch.Thefollowingpagesdescribe howto sharpenrip saws,combinationsaws,and both Japanese andWestern-style crosscut saws. Because oftheirveryfineteeth,dovetail andtenonsawsshouldbe sentout to a professional for sharpening.

ANATOMY OFSAWBIADESANDFILING ANGLES

Leading edqe

\t/I I

:J

| T la

-!z

\'60'

Filingripsaw teeth Ripsaws havewidelyspaced teethwithfromf iveto seven teethperinch(TPl).Theyalsohavea morepronounced set thanothersaws.Bothfeatures enable themto cutquickly alongthegrain.Asshown above, theleading edges of rip teetharealmostvertical. Tosharpen theteeth,usea triangularmillfile,drawing it straight across eachtoothat a 90" angle to thebladeaxis.

Filingcombination teeth Combination sawsaredual-purpose saws thatcanbeused for bothripcutsandcrosscuts, although theyrip moreslowly thana ripsawandcutmoreroughly thana crosscut saw.Combination teethslopeforward andbackward at thesameangle (about 60') andbothedges arebeveled. Sharpen bothedges usinga triangular millf ile (above), tiltingthehandte of the f iledownslightly.

26


SHARPENING AND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

crosscut teeth Sharpening sawarecloselyspaced-eightto12 Theteethof a crosscut teeth TPIis typical-andtheyhaveverylittleset.Crosscut whichenable them edges withbevels, feature slopedleading thegrain.Aswithrip saws,theteethare to cut cleanlyacross millfile,Holdthefileat thesame witha triangular sharpened angleasthe bevel,whichis typically65" (above).

Japanese closscut teeth Sharpening saws,whichcut onthe pullstroke,havetall,narrow Japanese on leadteethwithverylittleset.Also,theteetharebeveled shouldbe edges, andonthetips.All edges ingandtrailing file heldat abouta 60'angleto the sharpened witha feather blade(above),

gHO?TI? A eaw holder Storinq handaawsproperlywillboth eliminateclutt'erand keaothe tools and oafefrom damaqe.The acceeeible eimpledeviceshownherecan be ueed Lo hanqa oawon NheehoVwallin plain view.Cut a woodecrap a liffile thicker than lhe eaw handleto the oame?rofile ae the openingin the handleiuoe atemplaie, Fasten NheoVeninq'ae the piecetothewall at a convenient heiqht,thenscrewa emallblockwith roundedendstothepieceao at'urnbuckle.Makethe turnbuckleohoraer Nhanthewidthof the handleopeninq, but lon7erthan lhe heiqht.Leavethe ecreweliqhtly loooeeo thatyou can pivoI th e tu r nbuckle verti c allyto eecurelhe eawto the wal|

27


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

A BENCH VISESAWHOTDER Secured in a vise,thesimplejig shownat left will holda sawat a convenient heightforsharpening. Makethejawsfromtwopiecesof %inchplywood about10 incheslongand 7 inches wide.Thensawtwo%-inchthickstripsandgluethemalongthe insidefacesof the jaws,flushwith thetopend;thestripswillgripthesaw blade.Fasten the twojawstogether nearthe bottomend,screwing a strip plywood of %-inch between them. F i n a l l yb, o r ea h o l ef o ra c a r r i a g e boltthrough the middleof thejaws andinstalltheboltwitha washer and wingnut. Tousethejig,secure thebottomend in yourvise.Loosen thewingnut,slipa sawbladebetween thejaws,andtightenthenutto holdthesawsecurelv.

SHARPENING A HANDSAW theteeth 1 Jointing I Mountthesawteeth-uo in a visewith a woodpadon eachsideof the bladefor protection. Installa flat millbastard file jig.Holdthe in a commercial sawjointing jig f latagainst thesideof thebladeand passthefile backandforthacross the full lengthof theteeth(righ\.fhiswill f lattenall of theteethto thesame height. A fewpasses shouldbesufficient.

28


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

r) Setting theteeth L Witnthesawstill in thevise,adjust a sawsetto thesameTPIastheblade. Starting at eitherendof the blade,positionthefirsttooththatis bentawayfrom y o ub e t w e etnh ea n v i al n dt h e p u n c h b l o c kS . q u e e zt e h e h a n d l teo s e tt h e tooth (right).Workyourwaydownthe lengthof the blade,settingall teeththat arebentawayfromyou.Thenturnthesaw around in theviseandrepeat theprocess ontheremaining teeth.

Filing theteeth. Referto theappropriate illustration on page26 or27 fortheproper fileand filingangleforthesawyouaresharpening.Forthecrosscut sawshownat left, holda triangular fileat abouta 65" angle to thebladewithits handle tilteddown slightly. Asyoufiletheteeth,workfrom oneendof theblade to theother, filing all theteeththataresetin onedirection. Thenturnthesawaround to sharoen the remaining teeth.

29


CHISELSANDGOUGES andgouges musthaverazorf hisels U sharpedgesto work properly. Sharpening a standard woodworking chiselissimple; allyouneedisacombinationsharpening stone.Formostchiselsandgouges, youwill haveto honeand polishthecuttingedgeaswellasproducethecorrect bevelangle fortheblade.

Even the most rusted and pitted blade can be renewedwith steelwool, mineral spirits, clean rags,and a bit of elbowgrease.

()FCHISELS INVENTORY ANDGOUGES

Well-sharpened bladesareessential for turning chiselsand gouges.Dull cuttingedgesnot only producepoor results;they arealsomore difficult to controland dangerous to use.This section of the chapterexplainshow to sharpenand refurbisha wide rangeof chiselsand gouges.


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

()RGOUGE REPLACING A CHISEL HANDLE thenewhandle 1 Turning I T u r na n e wh a n d l feo r a c h i s eol r gouge o n t h e l a t h eC . u ta b l a n kf r o ma dense, strong hardwood likeashor hickory.Thegrainshould runthelength of the A oiece blank. thatis 1%to 2 inches square anda fewinches longer thanthe youneedwillyielda suitf inished length ablehandle. Mountthepiecebetween centers onthelatheandturnit to a gouge. smooth cylinder usinga roughing Buya brass ferrule forthehandle, Then usea parting toolto turna tenonon one e n do f t h eb l a n ki o a c c o m m o d a t ht e f e r r u l eM. e a s u rt h e e i n s i d ed i a m e t eorf (right)and theferrulewithdialcalipers s i z et h et e n o nt o f i t t i g h t l y .

r) Mounting thefenuleandtheblade I Remove thehandle fromthe lathe, setit end-down on a worksurface, and taptheferrulein placewitha mallel(far /eff).Next,remount the handle on the latheandshapeit witha skewchiseland gouge. spindle Onceyouaresatisfied with thehandle's shape andfeel,borea hole in thetenonendto accommodate thetang of theblade. Boretheholeonthelathe witha Jacobs chuckattached to thetailstock;makesuretheholeiscentered in theblank. Thehole's diameter anddeoth depend onthetypeof tang.Fora roundsection, untapered tang,theholeshould be2 to 3 inches deepandequalto the t a n gd i a m e t e F r .o ra s q u a r e - s e c t i o n , tapered tang,drilltwoholesasyouwould counterbore fora screwandplug:Make thetophalfthesamediameter asthetang 1%inches fromthetio andthebottom halfthesamewidthasthetang% inch fromitstip.Insert thebladeintothehand l ea n dr a ot h e b u t te n do f t h eh a n d l e witha mallethearlefil.

3l


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

A STANDARD SHARPENING CHISEL

)/-

\ \

\t

')

;

----/--r-

l

r) Polishing andflattening Z ne backsideoftheblade Saturate h ef i n es i d eo f t h es t o n ea n d , holding thechiselbladef latonthestone, pattern bevel-side up,moveit in a circular (right)untilthe flat sideof the cutting pdqp is qmnnth

JZ

thecutting edge 1 Honing procedure I Thetwo-step shown onthis pagecanbeusedto sharpen anystandard paring, chisel, suchasa f irmer, or mortise chisel. Startbyhoning a secondary bevel ontheforward edgeof theexisting one(insef)-then polishand calleda microbevel flattenthebacksideof theblade. Toform themicrobevel, laya combination stone coarse-side u0 on a worksurface between twocleatssecured withscrews. Saturate thestonewiththeappropriate lubricant, if necessary, untilit pools onthesurface. Holding thebladewiththeexisting bevel flatonthestone, raiseit about5'andslide thecuttingedgealongthestonein long, (left).Applymoderate ellipticalpasses untila microbevel forms. Dressure Turn thestoneoverandmakea fewoasses on thef ineside.


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

A ROUGHING.OUT GOUGE SHARPENING thecutting edge 1 Grinding gouge I Sharpen a roughing-out ona benchgrinder equipped grinding witha medium wheelanda feltwheel.Position the guardandturnonthemachine. Holding thebladebetween the fingers andthumbof onehand,setthecutting edgeonthetool restandadvance it untilthebevellightly contacts thegrinding wheel.lf youwantto change thebevelangleof thecuttingedge, adjustthetoolrestto thedesired angle.Withyourindexfinger against thetoolrest,rollthe bladeonthewheel(/eff)untilthe entireedgeis ground. Keepthebevelflatagainst thewheelat alltimes.Continue, checking thebladeregularly, untilthecuttingedgeis sharpandthebevelangleis correct. To prevent the bladefromoverheating, occasionally dip it in waterif it is carbonsteel,or remove it fromthewheelif it is high-speed steel to let it cooldown.

^

GOUGE-SHARPEl{I1{G JIG Thejig shownat rightwill holda gouge sothat the bladecontacts the grinding wheelat the correct angle.Thedimensions in the illustration will accommodate mostturninggouges. Cut guide plywood. from Screw thebaseand %-inch theguidetogether andfastenit to thebasewith countersunk screws fromunderneath. Makethe guideopening largeenough forthearmto slide through freely. Cutthe armfrom1-by-2stockandthetool plywood. supportfrom%-inch Screwthetwoparts of thetoolsupporttogether, thenfastenthe bottomto thearmflushwithoneend.FortheV-block, out cuta smallblockto sizeandsawa 90'wedge of oneside.Gluethe pieceto thetoolsupport. To usethejig,secureit to a worksurface so wheel. thearmlinesupdirectly underthegrinding Seatthegougehandlein theV-block andslide the armsothe beveled edgeof thegougesits g h e e lC. l a m pt h ea r mi n f l a to nt h eg r i n d i nw place.Then,withthegouge clearof thewheel, switchon thegrinderandreposition thetoolon thejig. Rollthe beveled edgeacross thewheel (right,bottom).

Guide (top) %"x 1'1"x 9" (eidea)%"x 1%"x 9" Arm t/o"x1%"x13%"

Eabe %"x3"x13%"

JJ

Tool auppott (back)%"x2"x2%" (bottom)%"x1%"x2'1"


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

lliillltlll fiI1 lllilll lilllli lltjifittj]llllllJilltlllrliltlllltlll 1HO?TI? Shop-made honing guides and rugl removerg Theinsideedgeo of qou4eecan be ditriculN Nohone and etrop if you do noNhavea eliVoLone or eLropwiNhNhecorrect,ehaVe.You can make \: a g o u q e - h o n i4nuqi d e b yw r a p \t piiq i dowel*iti ooolsrit sand\ (near riqht). For etroppinq, VaVer eimplyfold a eLripof leaLherto fit the ineideedqeof the 4ou4e(far riqht). jiqs lo cleanrusl Youcan aleoueeNheee or oilNinafrom an old blade.

34

r) Polishing thecutting edge L Snttttotheerinder's feltwheeland movethetoolrestoutof theway.Hold a stickof polishing compound against thefeltwheelto impregnate it withabrasive.Gripthehandle of thegouge in your righthandandholdthebladebetween thefingers andthumbs of yourlefthand. T h e nw , i t ht h eg o u g e a l m o svt e r t i c a l , s e tt h e b e v efll a t a g a i n st th ew h e e l . Lightly rollthebladefromsideto side against thewheel to polish thebevel. A slightburrwillformontheinside edge of thetool.Tofeelfortheburr,runyour fingergentlyacross theinside edgeof theblade. Toremove it, rolltheinside faceof theblade against thewheeluntil theburrrubsoff.Avoidoverbuffing the b l a d et ;h i sw i l ld u l l t h ec u t t i n eg d g e . Testthetoolforsharpness bycuttinga scrap across Theblade thegrain. should produce a cleanshaving.


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

A SPINDLE GOUGE grinder ona bench 1 Sharpening I Position theguardproperly andturn grinder. Holding onthe thebladebetween thefingers andthumbof onehand,set flatonthetoolrestandadvance theblade it untiltheblade lightly touches thestone (/eff).Adjustthetoolrestto createthe desired bevel angle. Rollthecutting edge from onthewheelandpivotthehandle leftto rightwhilekeeping thebevelf lat onthegrinding wheelat all times(inset). C o n t i n ur e o l l i ntgh eb l a d e a n dm o v i n g thetoolhandle fromsideto sideuntilthe edgeis sharpened, stopping frequently to checkthegrindandcoolthetip, Hone thecuttingedgeandremove theburrby hand, asshown below, orusethegrinder's felt wheel(page34).

r) Honing thecutting edge L Oncethe bevelhasbeensharpened onthegrinder, usea flat benchstone io polish thetoolto a razor-sharp edge.Saturate thestonewithoil,thenrolltheoutside bevelacross theabrasive surface hbove)to honethe bevelonthecuttingedge.

theburr Q Removing r.J Usea convex slipstone matching thecurvature of thegouge to remove theburrthatformsontheinsideof thecuttingedge. Lubricate theslipstone if needed andhonetheinside edgeuntil t h eb u r ri se l i m i n a t e d .

35


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

A CARVING SHARPENING GOUGE

theoutside bevel 1 Whetting I Setanoilstone on a plywood base,screwcleatsto thebase around thestoneto keepit frommoving, andclampthebaseto (Theleather a worksurface. stropis usedto polishtheoutside bevelin step4). Saturate the stone,thensetthe outside bevel of thegougeflat on it. Starting at oneend,movethe blade backandforthalongthestonewitha rhythmic motion, simultaneously rollingthetoolsotheentirebevelcontacts thesharp-

(above). eningsurface Avoidrocking thebladetoofar,asthis willtendto roundoveritscorners andbluntthecuttingedge. Continue untilthebevelis smooth anda burrformson the insideedgeof theblade.Youcanalsocarryoutthisstepon a grinder, asshown on page33, butif youusethemachine be sureto adjusttheangleof thetoolrestto matchthe bevel angleof thegouge.

r) Honing aninside bevel Z On "you havesharpened thegouge's outside bevel, usea conical slipstone to honea slightinside bevel ontheblade and to remove theburrformedin step1. Puta fewdropsof oil onthecuttingedgeof the gouge. Then,holding thestoneona work surface, movethe bladebackandforth alongthestonemaking surethatyoukeep thecuttingedgewellawayfromyourfingers.Continue untiltheburrisremoved and an insidebevelof approximately 5'forms.

36


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

theinside bevel Q Polishing to strop r.J Usea foldedpieceof leather Spread some theinsidebevelof thegouge. polishing and compound on the leather foldit soitsedgematches theinsidecurve Drawthe bladealongthe of thegouge. leather repeatedly to polish theinsidebevel (left).Thiscanalsobedoneusingthe grinder. feltwheelof a bench

bevel Polishing theoutside onthestropandusethe compound Spread somepolishing theoutside shown in step1 to polish technique samerolling Checkthe insidebevel;if a burrhasformed, bevel(above).

anda felt repeat step3. Youcanalsousea benchgrinder (page34) withpolishing compound wheelimpregnated forthistask.

37


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

SHARPENING A V.T()OL theoutside edges 1 Whetting I Sharpen eachsideof a V-tool separately. Setupandsaturate anoilstone as youwouldto sharpen gouge a carving 36).Honeoneoutsidebevelof the @age V-toolasyouwoulda chisel(page32), moving thebladebackandforthalong thelength of thestoneandkeeping the bevelflat onthestone.Repeat on the othersideof theV (right).SIopworking whenyouhaveremoved theroughmarks fromtheground edgeanda smallburr formsontheinside oftheedee.

r) Removing thehook I Wnenyousharpen theoutside bevels of a V-tool, a hookof excess metalwillformat theapexof theV (inset). Thishook youhonetheinsidebevelin step mustbeground awaybefore 3. Holding thetoolonthestone, rollthecorner across thesurface(above). Movethetoolfromendto endalongthestone untilyouwearawaythe hookandan outsidebevelformsat theapexof theV, forming onecontinuous beveled edge.This process will createa burrin thecenterof the insideedge, whichis removed in steo3.

theinside bevel Q Honing r-,1Toremove theburrformedin stepsI and2, anononean inside bevel, usea triangular slipstone thatmatches theangle of theV-toolbladeasclosely as possible. Clampthe stone securely in a benchviseandsaturate it withoil.Toavoidcrushingthestone,do notovertighten thevise.Drawtheendof the blade'sinsideedgebackandforthalongthe stone(above), pressure applying lightdownward untilthe burris removed anda slightinside bevel forms. Tofinish,polish theedgewith a leatherstrop(page37) or thefelt wheelof a grinder(page34).

38


BENCHPLANES benchplanecanbe I good-quality A costly,but thereis no reasonwhy it shouldnot lasta lifetime-or two.This sectionshowshow to carefor a plane, and includesinformation on sharpening andadjustingthe tool. Youcansave vourselfsomemoney-without sacrihcing a whit of quahly-by refurbishing an old plane(page40).Evena tool that hasbeenabusedand discardedby someoneelsecanbebroushtbackto life.

Tighteningthefrog setscrews is a fundamentalstepin thereassembly of thebenchplane (page45).

(lFA BENCH PLANE ANATOMY Lateral adjuotment lever Levelablade in mouth of plane, allowin7the uaer to aet it parallel to the oole

Cap iron screw )ecurea blade

Levercap aarew Securea lever cap, cap iron, and blade to fro4

Cap lock Holda levercap in place and applieetenaion to t.he blade aeoembly Lever cap Muet be loosened and lifbed off to remove ca? iron and blade

Depth-of-cut adjuatment knob )eta the cuttin7 depth of the blade; a %z-inchdepth ia ideal for mdst operationa

Cap iron Exerts preggure on blade,preventinq chatter by makinqthe aaaemblymore riqid

Frog 9upporta blade:pooition of fro7 determinea width of mouth opening Frog 6etoarew Lockefrog in place Frog adjuatment 6crew Turnedto alide fro4 back and forth, widenin7or narrowtnq mouth openinq;ahouldbe poai' tioned ao that openin4ie between%zand'/,ainch

att 9ole

39

Blade A[aoknownaa plane 'beveliron;inatalled down on fro4, For beet reauha, it ehouldbarelypro' trude from mouth


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

REFURBISHING A BENCH PLANE

andcleaning theplane 1 Dissassembling I Referto theanatomy illustration on page39 to helpyou taketheplaneapart.Startbyloosening thelevercapscrewand releasing thecaplock,thentakeoffthelevercap,capiron,and bladeandsetthemaside.Next,loosen andremove thefrog setscrews andseparate thefrogfromthesoleof theplane.You canalsounscrew thefrontandbackhandles fromthe body. Clean eachpartindividually usinga brass-bristled brush dippedin mineral spiils (abovd.

r) kppingthesoleoftheplane L tapea lengthof emerypaperto a smooth andflat surface, suchasa glassplateor sawtable.Reattach thehandles andthe frogto thebodyof theplane, thenslidethesolealongtheemery paper,applying evenpressure to keepthesoleflat (right).Continuelappingthe soleuntilthemetalon itsbottom surface isuniformlybrightandclean,indicating thatthesoleis level. Check thesolefor square(step3) periodically.

40


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

Checking thesoleforsquare shouldbe fortheotherside.Thesurfaces soleshouldbeexactly solehbove).Repeat Thebottomandsidesof the plane's you lapping will need to continue bothways.lf not, square the planein onehand,butta at 90'to eachother.Holding the bottomandonesideof the thesoleandthesides. against square combination

BLADE A PLANE SHARPENING thecuttingedgeforsquare 1 Checking to detersouare I Usea combination thecuttingedgeof theplane minewhether lf it is to thesides(/eff,). bladeis square thecuttingedgeon a bench not,square grinder, thegrinder's sureto adjust making toolrestat 90" to thewheel.

41


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

r) Creating a hollow-ground bevel p l a n eb l a d ei n v o l v e s Z S h a r p e n ian g threesteps:creating a bevelon the blade's cutting edge,honing a microbevel onthef irstbevel, andremoving the process. burrthatresults fromthehoning Tocreate thefirstbevel, clamptheblade jig grinding bevel-down in a commercial andadjustthetoolrestto createa 30' bevel.Holding thejig onthetoolrest, a d v a n ciet t o w a r tdh ew h e eul n t i lt h e cuttingedgemakescontact(above). Slidethebladeside-to-side across the wheel,pressing lightly. Check thecuttingedgeperiodically andstopgrinding whenthebevelforms.

tlllfillll11 tlllllltIIljilllllttll]tlllililllilllilillJtllllltljljllll 5HO7Tt? Grindingwith a eander lf you do not owna benchqrinder, you can grinda Vlaneblade .,, on abelisander.'lnstall a ,r/ lOO-7ritbelt,,mountLhe ,.,' Noolupoidedownin a s|,and,and secure the oland Lo a work surtace. Turnon Nhesander and holdthe beveledeide of Ihe bladeon Nhe bell atlhe aVVroprialeangle.

A')

AL


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

Honing themicrobevel the planeblade's Onceyousharpen asin step2, the cuttingedgeona grinder, bevel(insef, resultwill bea hollow-ground job lefl.lf youdidthe byhandon a youwillobtaina flat stone, sharpening bevel(insef,right).lneithercase,you onthefirst needto honea microbevel sharpening Place a combination bevel. stonefinesideup on a worksurface. the Screwcleatsto thetableagainst Fora holstoneto keepit frommoving. bevel, clampthebladein a low-ground guide honing angle-setting commercial thestone. withthe beveltouching Saturate thestonewiththeappropriate l u b r i c a natn dt h e n ,h o l d i ntgh eh o n i n g guide,slidethe bladebackandforth thesharpening fromendto endalong pressure surface(right).Applymoderate forms.lf youarestartuntila microbevel clampthebladein a ingwitha flatbevel, guide honing angle-setting commercial thestone.Then withthe beveltouching raisetheangleof thebladea fewdegrees asfora holtheoperation andcomplete low-ground bevel.

Lapping thebun process willcreate a thin Thehoning ridgeof metal,or burr,ontheflat faceof the burr,saturate the blade.Toremove thefinesideof thestoneagain.Holding flat on the stone, thebladeperfectly bevelsideup (left),moveit in a circular pattern untiltheflatsideof thecutting edgeis smooth.

43


SHARPENING AND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

thebladeforsharyness f, Testing r,f Clampa softwood boardto a work surface and,holding the bladebevel-side up in yourhands, cutacross thegrainof (right). the surface A sharpbladewill cleanly slicea sliverof woodfromthe boardwithouttearingthe woodf ibers,

Honing theendofthecapiron Securea benchstone to vourwork surface; in the illustration at left.a diamondstone,whichshouldbe lubricated withwater,is shownin its ownbox.Set thefrontportion of thecapironthatcontactsthebladeflatonthestoneandslide it in a circularpatternonthesurface(/eft). Continue untilthetip of thecapironis perfectly flat.Thiswillguarantee thatwood chipswill notbecome trappedbetween the ironandthe bladeoncethetwopieces arereassembled.

44


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

ASSEMBLING ANDADJUSTING A BENCH PLANE

thebladeassembly 1 Positioning I Position thecapironon thetopfaceof the blade extending about%oinchbeyond theendof thecapiron. Tightenthe cap ironscrew(above, left).Thenplacethe the blade,capiron,andlever bladeassembly-including thefrontedge cap-in position on thefrog.Thegapbetween of the bladeandthefrontof the mouthshouldbe between

f)an+h-nF-rt

remove %zand%ainch.lf thegapis toowideor narrow, the bladeassembly andloosen bothfrogsetscrews about%turn. gap Thenadjustthefrogadjustment screwto setthe proper (above, right).Tighlenthe setscrews and reposition the bladeassembly on thefrog,securing it in placewiththecap lock.

ft

adjuatment knob

Centering thebladeandadjusting thedepthof cut Holding theplaneupside down,movethe lateral leveruntilthecutting adjustment edgeis parallel to thesoleandcentered in themouth.Tosetthecuttingdepth, turnthedepth-of-cut adjustment knobso the bladeprotrudes fromthe mouth(left). About%zinchis desirable; lessforhighly figured woods. Confirmthesettingwitha testcut ona scrapboard. Theshaiings should bepaper-thin.

Lateral adjuatment

45


SCRAPERS p roperlyhoned,a handor cabinet I scraperis unsurpassed for smoothing andflatteninga woodsurfacebefore finishing.For eithertype of scraper, sharpening is a four-stepprocess, shown beginningon page47. First,the edges of the scraperare filed square,then honed,and finallv turned overinto a burr anda hook (page40. Youcanproducetheburr andthehook in two steps with a standardburnisher,like the one shownbelow,or createthehookin one operationwith a variableburnisher (photo,left).The resultis a cuttingedge that shouldbe capable of slicingpaperthin curlsof woodfrom a workoiece.

Honinga handscraperissimplework with thehelpof thevariableburnisher shownat left.Thedevice featuresa carbiderod mountedwithin thewoodbody. Aknob on thetopadjuststheangleof therod,providingprecise controlof the burnishingangle,whilethejig is run backandforth overthecuttingedge.

(lF SCRAPERS INVENTORY ANDACCESSORIES

trol than a hand scraper

Burniaher Formathe fine burr and hookon the cutting edgeof a ecraperafter honin4.Koundmodeleare ueuallyuaedfor curvedecraperoand trianqular modda for rectan4ular gcrapers;tri-burntaherehowncombinearound,

46


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

A HANDSCRAPER SHARPENING

square 1 Filingtheedges I Secure thescraper in a vise,edgeup,witha woodblock ononesideto keepit rigid.Clampa millbastard filein a commercial sawjointerandpress thejointer f irmlyagainst pressure onesideof thescraper. Exertmoderate asyoumake passes several backandforthalongtheedgeof thetool (above) untiltheexisting hookdisappears andtheedgeis flat.Turnthescraper overin theviseandrepeat theprocess fortheotheredge.

r) Honing theedges Z- Secure a combination sharpening stone f ine-sroe upona worksurface withcleatsandlubricate it. Pressing thescraper flatonthestone,rubeachfacewitha circular motion(above) produced untilanyroughness byfilingdisappears. Next,hold thescraper uprightandslidetheedgesbackandforthdiagonallyacross thestoneuntilthey aresmooth withsharpcorners.Tofinish,again slidethefacelightly overthestone to remove anyDurrs.

theedges Q Burnishing r-,1Wioea tinvamount of oil ontothe eageoi thesciaper to reduce friction between theburnisher andthescraper. Startto forma hookon eachcuttingedge of thescraper by layingthescraper flat on a worksurface withanedgeextending offthetable,thenruntheburnisher back andforthalongthe edge(left),exerting pressure. strongdownward Turnthe scraper overandburnish theedgeonthe otherface.Nowburnish theothercuttins edgethesameway.

47


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

Turning thehook S e c u rteh es c r a p eerd g eu p i n t h e v i s ea n dw i p ea l i t t l em o r eo i l o n t oi t s , ake e d g eH . o l d i ntgh eb u r n i s h leerv e lm a fewpasses alongtheedgein onedirect i o nu n t i lt h ee d g es w e l l s l i g h t l y . pressure Applymoderate to turnthe edgeoutwardon oneside(nght).Then holdthe burnisher sothatthehandle is 10"to 15"above thehorizontal andcontinueto burnish untiltheedgeturnsover inioa hook.Toforma hookon theother repeat the sideof theedge(below), process withthescraper turnedaround you in thevise.Thegreater the pressure apply,thebigger the hook.Turnthe scraper overin theviseandturnthe hooksontheopposite edge.

A CABINET SCRAPER SHARPENING theedge 1 Filing I A l t h o u giht s e d g ei s b e v e l e da , c a b i n est c r a p ei sr s h a r p e n ei ndm u c h the samewayasa handscraper. Start byfilingthebevel, thenpolishthe bevel (step2) andturnovera hook(steps3 and4. Remove thebladefromthecabinetscraper by loosening thethumbholding it in place. screws Clamp the bladebeveled-edge up in a visebetween twowoodpads. Thenruna bastard mill f i l ea l o n gt h e b e v e lu, s i n ga c o m b i n a periodically tionsquare to checkthatthe angleremains a|45" (right).

48


SHARPENING AND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

r') Polishing thebevel Z. Securea sharpening stoneto a work in illustration surface; the at left,a diamondstoneis shownin a sharpening box. Lubricate thestone,thenholdthescraper bladeflat-side downandslidethe blade in a circularpatternto remove anyburr formedbyfiling.Next,turnthebladeover sothe bevelis flushonthestoneand repeatto polishthe bevel.A fewpasses shouldbesufficient, Usethecombinationsquare to helpyoumaintain the bevel angleat45' (step1).

Burnishing thecutting edge Holdthescraoer bladebeveldownon a worksurfacewiththecuttingedgeoverhanging thetable.Wipesomeoilonthe edgeand,holding a burnisher at a slight angleto the blade,passthe rodback andforthacrossits flat edge(below). pressure Applystrongdownward forming a hookonthecuttingedge.

49


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

Forming thehook S e c u r teh e b l a d eb e v eul p i n a machinist's viseandapplya littlemore oilon it. Holding theburnisher in both pull hands flushagainst the45" bevel, yourbody;maintain thetooltoward con(above). pressure stantdownward Gradually tilt thehandle of theburnisher untiltherodis at angleof about15' t o t h eb e v e T l . h i sw i l lc o m p l e t h ee hookonthecutting edge.

lmlllrilfilllllllilllullllllltlfiltlltllllllll]xllll]lllrl]lrI]lJ 5HO?Tt? Mainlaining lhe ao r rect burniohing angle lloldinga burnieher aNNhe?roper anqleie NhekeyNoburniohinq Nhe bevelof a cabinelecraper.Ao a vieualquide,ueea proNractor and a equareNomarka lineat, a 45' anqleon the wall facinqyouwhenyou A do Nheburniehinq. markat LocaNebhe eyeleveldirecblyin linewibhyourviee. Ao,youVaeeN,he ,bur-, n i s h e ar l o n q N h e b e v e l ,â&#x201A;Ź lry to keepLherod Varallelwiththe lineon Nhewall,

50


ROUGHINGAND SHAPINGTOOLS 1-h. handtoolsfeaturedin thissecI tion ofthe chaoterareasdiverse as the individualtasksneededto work a standingtreeinto a pieceof furniture. They rangefrom rough to fine-axe to spokeshave, an implementmost often usedto whittle a workoieceto its final form. For the sharpener, however,all these toolsshareonefeature:Theyaresinglebladedtools that rely on a correctly angledbevelto cut wood properly.The followingpageswill showyou how to honeandpolisheachofthe toolsshown below. The first step in the process involvessmoothingawaydefectsand restoringthe bevelon the blade,if the cuttingedgerequiresit. Thiscanbedone on a benchgrinderasyou woulda plane blade(page42)or ona wet/drygrinder (photo,right).Toprolongbladelife,grind onlywhatis requiredto restoretheedge. Also,be carefi.rlnot to overheattheblade; thiscandestroythetemperof themet-

al.Oneadvantage of thewet/drygrinder is thatyou do not haveto interruptthe grindingperiodically to cooltheblade. The water-bathedwheelautomatically takescareofthis concern.

A wet-dry grinder touchesup an ax blade. To createa uniform bevelacross the blade,it is important to hold the bladesquareto thegrindingwheel and at a constantangle.

lnahave

A curved drawknife typically ueedto ohapea workpieceafLer adztn1;bladeia beveledon outer eide only Adzea Curvedehapingtoole for rou7hinqout hollowedworkpiecea:hollowin4adze (left) ie beveledon outeide ed4e

Spokeahavea Metal flat-face model (top) emoothe and ahapeaflat or convexaurfacee; woodenapokeehave(bottom) ie a traditional tool featuring a low cuttinq an4le for ehapinqend qrain. Eoth are puehedor pulled with the qrain

Drawknife Ueedto debark qreen wood loq aectioneand ehapeoLock; bladeie ueuallybeveledon one eide only for otraight cuttin4

Hewing hatchet For rou4h ahapinq4reen wood:beveledon one eide only for etraiqht cuttinq

51


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

SHARPENING SPOKESHAVES

Sharpening a wooden spokeshave blade Remove the bladefromthe handle bypinching thetangsthat protrude through thehandle andpushing themdownward. For downfromits usualcutsharpening, thebladeis heldupside is,withthetangsfacingdownrather tingposition-that than up.To prevent thetangsfromcatching onyourworksurface duringsharpening, setyoursharpening stoneatopa wood blockto provide thenecessary clearance. Holding theblade

bythetangs,setits bevelflat onthestone.Because the blade is longer thanthewidthof thestone, holdthecuttingedge diagonally asyouslidethebevelbackandforthonthestone. Repeat withthebladeangled theotherway.Repeat againwith thebladeheldstraight thesharpening is combbove).0nce plete,turnthebladeoverandhonethef latsideto remove the process. burrformed bythesharpening

Honing a metalspokeshave blade Toremove thebladefromthe handle, loosen thescrewin the middle of thehandle. Setup a benchstone ona worksurface; a water-lubricated diamond stonein a sharpening boxis shown above. lnstallthe bladein a commercial honingguide(above,

left)andhonethecuttingedgeasyouwoulda planeblade (page pass 43I Toflattenthesoleof a flat-soled spokeshave, the (above, solebackandforthalong a medium-grit benchstone right). Continue untilthemetalhasuniform sheen.

52


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

A DRAWKNIFE SHARPENING Honing a drawknife in a onehandle of thedrawknife Secure visewiththebladeIeveland machinist's facingup.Thenlubricate a fine thebevel benchstone-in thiscase,a combination stone-andrubthestonealongthelength motion(left), usinga circular of thebevel, ontheprimary bevTohonea microbevel el,adjust theangleof thestoneslightly. ontheflatside Finally, makea fewpasses of thebladeto remove anvburrformed bysharpening.

ANINSHAVE SHARPENING ANADZE SHARPENING

Honing aninshave sothecutting edgeisfacto a worksurface Clamp theinshave to honetheedge.Start Usea slipstone ingup,asshownabove. Honingan adze stoneandprogress to a finerone.Workwitha witha rough-grit . r a pa Secure t h e a d z ei n a b e n c hv i s e ,a s s h o w na b o v eW ontheblade. shinedevelops circular motion untila uniform to remove anyburr. sheetof emerypaperarounda dowelwhosediameterclosely Givetheflatsideof thebladea fewstrokes polish m a t c h etsh e c u r v eo f t h e a d z eb l a d e .H o n et h e c u t t i n ge d g e witha leather strop thebevel 0ncethebladeissharp, (page passes t ho t i o na l o n gt h e l e n g t ho f t h e b e v e l . polishing with a few u s i n ga b a c k - a n d - f o rm 37), f inishing compound and f l a t s i d e o f t h e b l a d ew i t h a s l i p s t o nteo r e m o v ea n y lf inshave H o n e t h e remove the burr. the flat side of the blade to onthe h a s a k n i f e - e d gheo n et h e o t h e rs i d e . side. b u r r . l f t h e a d z e sides-hone the other knife-edse-beveled on both hasa

53


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

POLISHING THEBLADE

grinder Using a bench you Once havesharpened the bladeof a roughing orshaping tool,polish thebevel andremove anyburrformedbytheprocessonthefeltwheelof a benchgrinder. Fora metalspokeshave blade,impregnatethewheelwithpolishing compound andolacethebevelof thebladeonthe trailingedgeof thewheel(above). Move thebladesideto sideto exoose theentire bevelto thewheel.Buffthebladeonly enough to remove the burr,usinga light touchto avoidrounding theedge.Run thewholelengthof thebevelbackand forthacross thewheelto oolishit uniformly.Repeat onthef latsideof the blade.Testthecuttingedgeforsharp(page44). nesson a pieceof softwood

'lll"'trIl "'flI' 'llflll*fil"llll "fill' 1x1"' fil-lllf'.flI-1lf llll' lllffi'lII'lll ?HO? TI? Choooinqa durable axhandle Deepitethe availabilityof a vdriety of oynlheXiccompounde,wooden-handled axeeremainVoVular, They are liqhLand etrronq,and feature a well-balanced feel, Theolren7th of the handle dependson lhe orienNalion of the qrainto lhe axhead. Choosean axwilh a handle that has lhe qrainrunninq parallelto Ihe cuLNin4 edqe (bottom); handleswiNhthe grainrunningperpendicular (top) to Lhefacd tend Lo breakmoreeaeily.

54


BRACESANDBITS f, lectricdrillshavelargelysuperseded Lhand toolsfor boringholesin the most modernwoodshoo. Nevertheless. stillkeepbraces andhand woodworkers thesetoolshave drills handy,because not readilydupliuniquecapabilities catedby powertools,suchasworking in tight quartersor boringa holeto a precise depth. Maintaining thesehandtoolsismainly a questionof keepingtheirmoving partscleanandsharpening theirbits.To thechuckshell cleana brace,unscrew andremove thejaws,asshownatright. procedure asyou Usethesamecleaning wouldfor thepartsof a benchplane pages a0).Theremaining of this @age howto sharpen auger chapterdescribe andspoonbits.

Cleaningthe chuckisan essential element of maintainingabrace. Theexplodedviewof a bracechuck in thephotoat right showsthe parts that requirecleaningthe jaw. shelland thetwo-piece

BITS ANATOMY OFAUGER ANDSPOOI{ Cuttinq edqe,

or lip

Auger bit Thecuttinq edqe-or lip-bitee, pulle,and quideo the bit into the workpiece;the apure acore the outline of the hole so t'hat' the lip doee not t'ear the woodfibere

55


SHARPENING AND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

SHARPENING ANAUGER BIT

1 Filingthecuttingedge I Secure the bit in a benchvise. thenusea needle fileto sharpen the cuttingedge.(Youcanalsousea specialized augerbitfileforthejob.)Hold the file on the leading edgeandmake a fewstrokesalongthe surface. Repeat withtheothercuttingedge.

Filing thespur Position the bit uprightin thevise. Holding thefileflushagainst theinside edgeof onespur,makeseveralstrokes acrossthe surface(right)unlil youproducean evenshineon the spur.Repeat withthe otherspur.

56


SHARPENINGAND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS

fromthespurs Removing burrs H o l d i n ga v e r yf i n e d i a m o n dh o n eo n

edgeof slidetheoutside a worksurface, oneof thebitspursonthestoneto remove (right). anyburrformedby sharpening (Youcanalsousea pieceof veryf ine emerycloth.)Workwitha lighttouchand theburr, strokes to remove useonlyenough o r y o ur i s kr e d u c i ntgh e b i t d i a m e t e r . withtheotherspur. Reoeat

BIT ANSPOON SHARPENING

a spoon bit Sharpening i sgc o m p l e t e d , . c et h es h a r p e n i n In the n o s ei s h o n e du n i f o r m l0y n ona benchstone. easily Spoonbitscanbesharpened stonein itsownsharpen- o o l i s hb o t hs i d e so f t h e n o s eo n t h ef e l tw h e eol f a b e n c h above, at left,a diamond illustration . p r e g n at theew h e ewl i t hp o l i s h i ncgo m p o u nadn d , of thebit'snoseonthe g r i n d e lrm theoutside Holding ingboxis shown. lightly touchthefrontof thenoseto thebitvertically, motion. holding witha semicircular thesurface rockthebitacross stone, right).Repea|withthe backside. the wheel(above, thatthe to ensure Holdthebit at thesameanglethroughout

57


)


r t -

J

I

r l

SWENNGPO\AIER BITS TOOLBIADESATD

il

'l

I

L . l

i_l

,

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Still,therearetimeswhenyou tool, ikeanycuttingor shaping parshouldturn to a professional, a powertool with a dull blade have if blades and bits ticularly or bit cannotperformwell.A dull chippededgesor havelost their drill bit will tendto skateoffaworktemperasa resultof overgrinding. piece,ratherthanbitingdeanlyinto Somerouterbitsalsomustbepreor routerbit thewood.A sawblade thatis something ciselybalanced, with bluntedcutting edgesmay in difficultto achieve theshop.fu a burn stock.And woodthat is surruleof thumb,it is a goodideato facedby a jointeror planerwith sendoutyourbitsandbladesto a knivesmaybediffiunsharpened or serviceperiodically, sharpening cultto glueup or finish. amajor timetheyneed everysecond In additionto cuttingandshapOnceyouhavesharpsharpening. blades well-sharpened ingproperly, enedan edgeproperly,it should includandbis offerotherbenefits, lastfor a longtime-the occasioningreduced wearandtearonmotors, Designedto replacethe metalguidebloclcssupgtide alhoningisallthatit takesto mainplied with mostbandsaw6heat-resistant lessoperatorfatigue,andlongerlife tainit. mnhelp prolongbladelife.Madefroma for thebladesandbitsthemselves. blocl<s Thepagesthat followcoverthe resinthat is itsown lubriManufacturers of powertoolblades graphite-impregnated for sharpening basictechniques lastlongerthan cant,thesenonmetallicbloclcs recommend sendandbis generally powertool bladesandbits in the andcanbesetcloserto theblade, ingtheirproductsto aprofessional metalblocl<s shop.With a little practiceandthe allowingmoreaccurateand controlledcuts. thejob However, sharpening service. youcankeepthe rightaccessories, canoftenbedonein theworlahop. Butrememofyourbladesandbis razor-sharp. cuttingedges a widevarietyof Thischapterwill showyouhowto sharpen powertoolbladesandbits,fromrouterbitsandshapercutters berthata keenedgealwaysstartswith thequalityof thesteel alwayschoosebits (page62)to jointer andplanerknives(page79).In a pinch, itself;for longlife andeaseof sharpening, (page madefromthebeststeel. 76). andblades together canbesoldered evenabrokenbandsawblade

t l i l

i l i - l L , J

grindon a benchgrinderwith thehelpof a commercial A wist bit is sharpened the metalingjig that holdsthebit at theproperangle.Originallydestgned for astheuseofpower wo*ing industry,twistbitstooktheirplacein woodworking to boreholescleanlyand accurately. toolsgrew.Theyneedperiodicsharpening

59


A GALLERYOF BLADESAND BITS Drill bits (pa7e 65)

Planer knivea

ffifi$

Molding head and knivea (paqe 64)

Knife honing guide and planer whilethey are atill in cutterhead;diamond-ahapedcuttinq etone aharpenawhileaauare gtone removeo the burr from thi face of the knife

a

aaw blades (paae 70)'

Jointer knivea (paqe B5)

Commercial reain aolvent (page 71) Cleanapitch, qum,qawduat, and reain from circular aaw bladee and router bits


FORSHARPENING TOOLSAND ACCESSORIES Drill bit grinding attachment (page 58) Holdo%- to %-tnch-diametertwiat bita for oharpeninq;mountedto workaurfaceand ueedwrtha bencharinder

Router bit eharpener A boron-carbideaLoneuaedto aharpencarbon ateel, htqh-epeedeteeLand carbide-tipped router bita; 4iveea finer finiah than dtamondftleaof eaualarit. Handle featurea maqnifyinqleno for checkin4eharpneee

Drill bit-aharpening jig (page 66) Toweredby an electric drill, Lhie jiq eharpenahi7h-apeedateel twiet bita and carbide maaonrybite up to 'l inch rn drameLer; holder eecureabit. aL properdepth and angleaqainet eharpeningotone inoidejiq

Jffi

Circular saw blade-settinq jig (page 72) Clampedin benchvieeto joint and eet the f,eethof circu' Iar sawe up Lo 12 incheein diameter. Dladera lockedtn ji7 and rotated aqainet file to jointteeth; Leethare eet by tapprngthem wttha hammeraqainaLmandrel

Jointerlplaner-knife aharpenlingjig (page 79) Uaedto aharpenjointer and planer knivea:knifeie clampedtnjtq and rear ecrewadjueLeLo hold knife at properanile aaainaL ^l

t*

Knife-aetting jigs (page 79) Magneticjiq ueedto holdjointer or planerkniveaat Lhecorrect heiqht for tnetallaLionin the machine,Jiqe for planer (below) are ueedtn paire for kniveeup to 20 tnchealong;ji7 for jotnter (ri7hL)aete kniveeup to B inchea in lenqLh,and can be extended with a third bar for kniveeup to 14 incheelonq

Circular saw bladeeharpeningjig (page 72) MounLedon workbenchto eharpenctrcularsaw bladea after qrindinqand oettinq: blade ie held injiq whiletaper file ta drawnacroos the Leeth at LheproperptLchand anqle


ROUTERBITSAND SHAPER CUTTERS Secured in abenchvise,oneofthe cutting edgesof a shapercutterreceivesits with a fine diamond final sharpening hone.Theprocess is a two-stepoperation, beginningwith a mediumhone(far left). Because theyoperateat highspeeds, dull routerbitsand shapercuttersoyerheat quickly.Cuttersthat areproperlysharpenedmakesmoother, moreaccuratecuts.

SHARPENING A NON-PILOTED ROUTER BIT Sharpening theinside faces Cleananypitch,gum,or sawdust offthe (page bit witha commercial resinsolvent 71),thenusea ceramic or diamond sharpeningfileto honethe insidefacesof the bit'scuttingedges. A coarse-grit file is best if a lotof material needsto beremoved; usea f iner-grit f ilefora lighttouch-up. Holding theinside faceof onecuttingedge flatagainst theabrasive surface, rubit back andforth(right).Repeat withtheothercuttingedge.Honebothinsidefacesequally to maintain thebalance of thebit.Takecare notto filethebevelbehind thecuttingedge.

62


POWERTOOLBLADESAND BITS

SHARPENING A PITOTED ROUTER BIT

thepilotbearing 1 Removing I Beforeyoucansharpen a pilotedrouterbit, youneedto remove the pilotbearing. Usea hexwrenchto loosen the bearing(above).

Ilf"llf"flr1lf"lflf'fir 1lr"1lf'1lf1ll-1ll-llflflftlt-1flftll'1flr1lr 5HO7Tt? A storage raakfor ehaper auttero thaoer cullers are ofEensold in cumbersome \\X p a c k a g i n q t h a l c acno n \ tribule Io clulter. Orqanize \\ ' your ehaVerbite with a ehopmade otroraqerack likethe one ehownhere.The rack will keeolhe aullero visibleand accessible.Drill a oeriesof holee in a boardand qluedoweloin lhe holesLo holdlhe culf,ere.ToVrevenf,lhe cutling edqeofrom nickinq eacholher,uoeyour larqeet-diameter cutler ao a quideto opacinqlhedowelholeo.lfyou planio hanqlhe rack on a wall,borethe holesatra oliqht anqleeo that,the cutters willnol olip off the dowels.

63

r') Sharpening thebit L Sharoen the bit witha ceramic or diamond sharpening fileasyouwoulda non-piloted bit (page62);Ihenre-install the bearing withthehexwrench. lf the bearing doesnotrotatesmoothly, spray a l i t t l eb e a r i nlgu b r i c a n o tn i t . l f i t i s wornoutor damaged, replace it.


MOLDINGKNIVES SHARPENING M(ITDING KNIVES

Sharpening molding knives Thecuttingedgesof tablesawor radial armsawmoldingknivesareeasyto touch up or sharpen whiletheyaremounted in the molding head.Clamptheheadin a benchvisewithoneof theknives clearof (above)to the bench,thenusea slipstone honeits insidefaceasyouwoulda router bit (page62l. Reposition the headin the viseto honetheremaining knives. Use thesamenumber of strokes to honeeach knifesothatyouremove anequalamount of metalfromthemall.andmaintain their identical shapes andweights. Analternativemethodinvolves removing the knives witha hexwrench(right)andsharpening themon a flatoilstone,

64


DRILLBITS TWISTBITS SHARPENING

grinder Using a bench Holding thebit between theindexfingerandthumbof onehand,setit onthe grinder's toolrestandadvance it toward thewheeluntilyourindexfingercontactsthetoolrest.Tilttheshaftof thebit downandto the leftsothatoneof thecuttingedges, or lips,is square to thewheel(above). Rotate thebit clockwiseto grindthelipevenly. Periodically checktheangle of thecutting edge, as shown in thephotoat right,andtryto maintain theangleat about60".Repeat forthesecond Tokeepbitssharp, cutting edge. usethemat thespeed recommended bythemanufacturer. Wipethemoccasionally withoilto prevent rust.

65

To boreclean holes,the cutting edgesof twist bits shouldbe angledat about 60". As you sharpena bit, periodicallycheck the anglewith a protractor.Butt one of the cuttirtg edgesagainst the baseof theprotractorand swivelthe arnt flush againstthe sideof the bit.


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

jig Using a commercial jig Setupthe following themanufacturer's instructions. Forthemodelshown, secure anelectric drillto thejig;thedrillwillrotate thesharpening stoneinsidethedevice. Adjusttheangleblockto theappropriate angle forthebitto besharpened andinsert thebit in thedepthgauge. Thegauge will youto secure enable thebit at thecorrect heightin theholder. Fitthebit holder over IhebiI hbovd andthenuseit to remove thebit fromthegauge. Nowsecure thebit andholder to theangleblock.Turnonthe drilland,holding it steady, slowlyrotate thebit holder a full360' against thestone insidethe jie tieht).Applylightpressure; toomuchforcewilloverheat the bit.

66


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

FORSTNER BITS SHARPENING theinsidebevel 1 Grinding I Totouchupa Forstner bit,truethetop edgeof thebit'srimwitha f ile,removing anynicks.lf thebeveled edges of thecutgrind tingspursinside therimareuneven, themusingan electric drillf ittedwitha grinding rotary attachment. Secure thebit in a bench viseasshown andgrindtheedges untiltheyareall uniform(right).

r) Sharpening thechiplifters I tlsea sinsle-cut millbastard fileto lightly f iletheinside facesof thecutters. Holdthef ilef latagainst oneof thecutters-alsoknownaschiplifters-andmake a fewstrokes alongthesurface(left).RepeaI w i t ht h eo t h e cr u t t e rF. i n i s thh ej o bb y honing thebeveled inside edges therim witha slipstone.

67


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

HONING MUTTI.SPUR BITS

thecutting spurs 1 Filing I Secure thebit upright in a bench viseandusea triangular fileto honethe leading edge,orface,of eachspur(above). Filewitheachpushstroke, towards thebit'sbradpoint, tiltingthehandle ofthefiledownslightly. Thenfilethetrailingedge,or back,of eachspurthesameway.Fileall thespursbythesame amount sothattheyremain at thesameheight. Makesureyoudo notover-file thecuttingspurs;theyaredesigned to be %zinchlonger thanthechiplifters.

SHARPENING BRAD.POINT BITS thechiplifters 1 Filing I Clamp thebit upright in a bench vise andfiletheinside facesof thetwochip liftersasyouwouldthoseof a Forstner bit (page67). Fora brad-point bit, however, usea triangular needle file (right), honing untileachcutting edgeissharpandeach chiplifteris flat.

68

Filing thebradpoint Filethechipliftersasyouwouldthoseof a Forstner biI (page67).Then, filethe bradpointuntilit is sharp(above).


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

r) Filing spurs thecutting L Usetheneedle fileto honetheinside facesof thebit'stwocuttingspurs.Hold thetoolwithbothhandsandf iletowards untrleachspurissharp(rghf), thebrad-point

BITS H(INING SPADE Filinga spade bit viseandusea Secure thebit in a bench single-cut millbastard filetotouch smooth edges. Fileonthepush upthetwocutting downslightly slroke(\efl,tiltingthehandle to matchtheangleof thecuttrngedges; Thentouch between 5" and10"istypical. upthecuttingedges oneithersideof the pointthesameway(inset),Iaking carenot toomuch to alteritstaoer.Donotremove metalat thebaseof thepoint,asthiswill weaken thebit.

69


CIRCULARSAWBLADES CHANGING TABLE SAWBLADES a blade 1 Removing I Working at thefrontof thetable, remove theinsert andwedge a piece of scrapwoodundera bladetoothto prevent thebladefromturning. Use thewrench supplied withthesawto loosen thearbornut(/eff).(Mosttable sawarbors havereverse threads; the nutis loosened in a clockwise direction.)Finish loosening thenutbyhand, making surethatit doesnotfallinto themachine. Carefully lifttheblade andwasher offthearbor. Carbide{ipped professionblades arebestsharpened ally;buthigh-speed steelmodels can besharpened in theshop(page72). A wornor damaged bladeshouldbe discarded andreplaced.

The commercialbladecarriershown aboveis a handy storagedevicethat will protectyour circularsaw blades from damageand make it easierto transportthem. This modelaccommodatesuD to ten L]-inch blades.

r) Installing a blade Z- StiOe thebladeontothearbor withitsteethpointing in thedirection of blade (toward rotation thefrontof thetable).Insert theflangeandnutandstarttightening gripthesawblade byhand. Tofinishtightening, witha ragandusethewrench suppliedwiththesaw(above). Donotusea pieceof woodasa wedge, asthiscould resultin overtightening thenut.

70


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

SAWBLADES PORTABLE CIRCUTAR CHANGING sawblade Removing a portable circular Setthesawon itssideona worksurface facingup.Retract withthebladehousing the thelowerbladeguardand,gripping thearbornutwith bladewitha rag,loosen supplied withthe saw(right). thewrench then Remove thenutandtheouterwasher, s l i d et h eb l a d ef r o mt h ea r b o rA. sw i t h t a b l es a wb l a d e sc ,a r b i d e - t i p pbel add e s shoulb d es e n o t u tf o rs h a r p e n i nbgu,t high-speed steeltypescanbesharpened placeit on Toinstall a blade, in theshop. t h ea r b o w r i t hi t st e e t hp o i n t i n ign t h e I n. s t a l l t h e d i r e c t i oonf b l a d er o t a t i o n washer andthenut,andtightenthemby withtherag,use theblade hand.Holding t h ew r e n ctho g i v et h en u ta n a d d i t i o n a l quarter turn.Donotovertighten.

CIRCUTAR SAWBTADES CLEANING S o a k i ntgh eb l a d e r el s i n C l e a nt h e b l a d eu s i n ga c o m m e r c i a s o l v e n t( .C o m m e r c ioavl e nc l e a n e rt ,u r p e n t i n eo, r a s o l u t i o no f h o t w a t e rw i t h a m m o n i ac a na l s ob e u s e d . )F o rs t u b b o r n p i t c ha n dg u md e p o s i t ss,o a kt h e b l a d e pan i n t h ec l e a n i na g g e n ti n a s h a l l o w a n d u s ea b r a s s - b r i s t l ebdr u s ht o c l e a n the teeth (/eff).

7I


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

SHARPENING CIRCULAR SAWBLADES

theteeth 1 Jointing I T os h a r p etnh et e e t ho f a c i r c u l asra wb l a d ei ,n s t a tl lh e jig following bladein a commercial saw-setting themanufacturer'sinstructions. Forthemodel shown, theblade teethshould bepointing counterclockwise. Install thejointing headonthe jig, buttingitsfile up against thesawteeth.Thentighten the thumbscrew untiltheteethdragagainst thefile.Tojointthe teethsotheyareallthesamelength, clampthejig in a bench (above). viseandrotateihe bladeagainst thefileclockwise After eachrotation, tighten thethumbscrew slightly andrepeat until thetip of eachtoothhasbeenfiledflat.

Sharpening theteeth Oncethesawteethhavebeeniointed andset,filethemusinga commercial sawjig.Mountthejigto a workbench sharpening andinstall thebladeloosely onthejig so theblade turns.Following themanufacturer'sinstructions, rotate thetriangular file in thefileholder andadjust theguidearm pitchandangle to matchtherequired of the sawteeth.Starting witha tooththatis pointingtotheright,filethecutting edgebyslidingthefileholder along thetopof thejig (right). RoIaIe thebladecounterclockwise, skipping onetooth, andrepeat. Sharpen all theright-pointing teeththesameway.Adjust thetriangular fileandtheguidearmto work ontheleft-pointing teethandrepeat, sharpeningalltheteethyouskipped.

72

r) Setting theteeth Z. Remove thejointing headfromthejig andinstall thesettinghead. Alsoremove thejig fromtheviseandsetit onthe benchtop. Adjust theheadfortheappropriate amount of set, orbend. Using a pinpunch andball-peen hammer, lightly strike everysecond toothagainst thesettinghead(above). Remove thebladeandreverse theposition of thesetting head.Reinstall t h eb l a d ew i t ht h et e e t hp o i n t i nign t h eo p p o s i tdei r e c t i o n , andrepeat fortheteethyouskipped, againstriking every second tooth.


BAND SAWBLADES Securedbetweentwo wood blocksin a benchvise,the teethof a band saw bladeare sharpenedwith a triangular file. Band saw bladescan alsobe honed while they are installedon the machine. The teethshouldbe sharpenedperiodically and set after every three to five sharpenings.In fact, a propefly honed and setband saw bladewill perform benerthan a brand new one.

A BAND SAWBLADE SHARPENING

theblade 1 Gleaning pullit awayin thedirectwocleanrags(above), sawdust and bladebetween remove a bandsawblade, sharpening I Before thecutting to avoidsnagging its normalrotation the bladetension tionopposite woodchrpsfromit. Makesureyourelease in thematerial. the edges Then,holding slipping thebladeoffthewheels. f irstbefore

73


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

theblade forsharpening O Installing L Y o uc a ns h a r p eanb a n ds a wb l a d e eitheron a benchvise(photo,page73)or onthemachine. Toinstall thebladeonthe bandsawfor sharpening, mountit with theteethpointing in thedirection oppositetheircuttingposition-that is,facing up instead of down. Turnthebladeinside o u ta n dg u i d ei t t h r o u gthh et a b l es l o t (right),holdingit withtheteethfacingyou andpointing up.Slipthebladebetween theguideblocks andin thethroatcolumn slot,thencenterit onthewheels. Make surethebladeguideassembly is raised as highabove thetableasit willgo.

frladequide aeeembly-

theblade Q Sefting r-J lf theteethneedto beset,adjusta commercial sawsetto t h es a m en u m b eor f t e e t hp e ri n c ha st h eb a n ds a wb l a d e . Secure thebladein a handscrew andclampthehandscrew to thesawtable.Starting at thehandscrew-end of theblade,positionthefirsttooththatis bentto therightbetween theanvil andpunchblockof thesawsetandsqueeze thehandle to set thetooth(above). Workyourwayupto theguideassembly, settingall theteeththatarebentto theright.Thenturnthesaw setoverandrepeat fortheleftward-bent teeth.Continue setting allthebladeteethsection youdonotomit bysection. Toensure anyteeth,markeachsection youworkonwithchalk.

74

Sharpening theblade Sharpen theteeththesamewayyousetthem,working on oneblade section at a time.Holda triangular fileat a 90"angle to thebladeandsharpen eachtooththatis setto theright, g u i d i n tgh ef i l ei n t h es a m ed i r e c t i ot nh a tt h et o o t hi s s e t (above). Thensharpen the leftward-bent teeththesameway. Usethesamenumber of strokes on eachtooth.Onceall the teethhavebeensharpened, remove theblade, turnit inside outandreinstall it forcutting, withtheteethpointing down. Tension andtracktheblade(page123.)


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

lllitjljllllllltlll lllllllJlllJilil ilIjlll1 iltillJ]lttlllJllliilullrJ 9HO7Tt? Roundinga band oaw blade To helozrevenN a newbandsaw bladefrom bindinqin Lhe kerf of curved culs, usea silicon- ] carbidesbonewithout I llill itE back back i iilll oilto Lo round rounditE illl,' f

\ e d q ea, e e h o w n h e r e .I l ANNach the stoneto r1llll handle. ll\lli:ir a ehoV-made r;, , T e n e i oann dI r a c k t h e l l l t l; l blade(pa1e123),f,hen turn on Nhesaw,Wearinq eafety qoqqleo,holdNheetone

a q a i n o t l h e b a c k o f t h e b l a d ea n d

olowlypivotthe eLone.Turnoff the eawafNera f ew minutee. ln additrion Norounding the backof Lheblade,the otonewill smoolh any bumpewheretrhebladeendeare weldedt'oqeNher.

75

guideblocks Installing heat-resistant guide your Replacrng bandsaw's standard will withheat-resistant blocks blocks more lengthen bladelifeandpromote cuts.Remove the accurate andcontrolled to original blocks byusinga hexwrench themto the loosen thesetscrews securing (above). guideassembly Slipout upper andinsertthereplacetheold blocks with Pinchtheblocks together ments. y o u trh u m ba n di n d e fxi n g eur n t i tl h e y (Youcanalso almost touchtheblade. usea slipof paperto setthespacebetween theguideblocks andtheblade). Tighten Thefrontedges thesetscrews. should bejustbehind of theguideblocks gullets. Toreposition theblocks, theblade andturntheir loosen theirthumbscrew or retract adjustment knobto advance and theblocks. Tighten thethumbscrew repeat the process fortheguideassembelow thetable. blylocated


SHARPENING POWERTOOLBLADESAND BITS

REPAIRING A BROKEN BAND SAWBTADE thebroken endsoftheblade 1 Grinding I A brokenbandsawbladecanbe repaired in theshop.Startbycreating a 20' beveloneachendof thebladeusing a benchgrinder(left).Asshownin the inset,thebevels will increase thecontact areabetween thetwobladeendswhen youjointhem,strengthening thejoint. Thenusea pieceof emery clothto roughen bothbladeends;sandthesurfaces untiltheirbluishcolordisappears. This willhelpthesoldering alloyadhere to the properly. bladesurface

jig upthebladein thesoldering ! Setting jig 4- Secure a commercial soldering in a machinist's vise.Next,usea brushto spread fluxon the beveled endsof the blade and%inchin fromeachend.Position the bladein thejig sothetwobeveled endsarein contact(right).Makesurethe bladeis tightandstraight in thejig.

76


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

Soldedng thebladeends Heatthejointwitha propane torch, thenunrolla lengthof the solderand touchthetip to thejoint-notto the flame.Continue heating thejoint(above) untilthesoldercovers thejointcompletely.Turnoff the torchand let the jointcool.

Filingthejoint Oncethejointhascooled, remove the bladefromthejig andwashoff the fluxwithwarmwater.lf thereis anexcess of solder ontheblade, file it off carefully witha single-cut bastardmill file (left) untilthejointis nothickerthantherest of the blade,lf thejointseparates, reheat pullit apart,and it to meltthesolder, repeatsteps2 through4.

77


SHARPENING POWERTOOLBLADESAND BITS

FOLDING ANDSTORING A BAND SAWBLADE

Twisting theblade yourrightthumbf irmlyagainst Pressing theblade, twist yourrighthandupward. it by pivoting Thebladewillbeginto formtwo loops(above).

theblade 1 Holding I Before storinga bandsawblade,remove anyrustfromit withsteelwoolandwipeit withanoilyrag.Then,wearing safegraspthe bladewiththe teethfacing ty goggles andgloves, awayfromyou;pointyourleftthumbupandyourrightthumb down(above).

78

Coiling theblade Withoutpausing or releasing the blade,keeprotating it in yourlefthandin theoppothesamedirection whilepivoting sitedirection. Thebladewillcoilagain,forming a thirdloop (above). Secure thebladewithstring,pipecleaners, or plastic twistties.


IOINTERAND PLANERKNIVES A pair of magneticjigsholdsa planer knifeat thecorrectheightin thecutterhead,allowingtheknife to befixed in placeaccurately. Suchjigstakethe guesswork out of thetrickiestphaseof sharpeningplanerknives-installing themproperly.Periodicsharpening ofplanerknivesis essential. Stock that is surfacedby dull knivesis dfficult to glueand doesnot accept finisheswell.A similar jig is available for settingjointer knives.

HONING KNIVES J(lINTER

theknives 1 Cleaning I Jointer knives canbe honedwhiletheyarein thecutterhead.Startbycleaning them.Shiftthefenceawayfromthe tablesandmovetheguardoutof theway.Making surethejointrotatethecutterhead er is unplugged, witha stickuntiloneof

pointin itsrotation. theknives is at thehighest Then,holding thecutterhead steadywithonehandprotected bya rag,usea smallbrass-bristled brushsoaked in solvent to cleanthe knife (above). Repeat fortheotherknives.

79


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

r) Aligning the infeedtabte L withtheknives Cuta preceof Yrinchplywood to the width o f t h e j o i n t e r ' isn f e e dt a b l ea n ds e c u r ei t t o t h e t a b l ew i t h d o u b l e - f a c et d a p e .T h e plywood will protectthe tablefromscratche sw h e ny o uh o n et h e k n i v e sN . exta , djust the infeedtableso that the bevelededge o f t h e k n i v e si s a t t h e s a m el e v e la s t h e t o p o f t h e p l y w o o dS. e t a s t r a i g h tb o a r d on the plywoodand acrossthe cutterhead a n d ,h o l d i n g t h e c u t t e r h e asdt e a d yw i t h t h e b e v e l e de d g eo f o n e k n i f ep a r a l l etlo t h et a b l e ,l o w e trh e i n f e e dt a b l eu n t i lt h e b o t t o mo f t h e b o a r dc o n t a c t st h e b e v e l (left).Usea woodshimto wedsethe cutt e r h e a di n o l a c e .

Honing theknives S l i d ea c o m b i n a t i osnt o n ee v e n l V

across thebeveled edgeof theknife(right). Move thestone witha side-to-side motion untilthebevelisflatandsharp, avoiding contactwiththecutterhead. Reoeat the process to honetheremaining knives.

80


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

SHARPENING J()INTER KNIVES

theknives 1t Removing -

.|i tii driillllj ,Ij,jjiJLtJl|t ii]l,ll il[ lllllli lilllil 'ii 1HO?TI? thifting knives for longer life To Vrolonq the life of a set ol jointer knivesLhaNhavebeen nicked,loosenLhe tocK5crew6Oecuringoneknifeand slidethe knife a b o u l ' / a i n c h i n e i N h e rd i r e c t r i o n . I i q h t e nl h e lock screwe and carefully rotaLe trhe cuLler-

BI

I T o g i v ej o i n t e rk n i v e sa f u l l - fl e d g e d sharpening r e, m o v teh e mf r o mt h e c u t t e r h e a dU. n p l u g t h e m a c h i n es,h i f tt h e f e n c ea w a yf r o mt h e t a b l e sa, n d m o v e t h e g u a r do u t o f t h e w a y .U s ea s m a l l w o o ds c r a pt o r o t a t et h e c u t t e r h e a d u n t i lt h e l o c ks c r e w s e c u r i n g o n eo f t h e k n i v e sa r ea c c e s s i b lbee t w e e tnh e t a b l e sC . o v etrh e e d g eo f t h e k n i f ew i t h a r a g l o p r o t e cyt o u rh a n d st.h e nu s ea wrenchto looseneachscrew(above). L i f tt h e k n i f ea n dt h e r e t a i n i nw gedge outof the cutterhead.


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

r-) Cleaning theretaining wedge L Clean anypitchorgumfromtheretaining wedge usinga brass-bristled brushdippedin solvent(above, left).ff theface of theretaining wedge thatbuttsagainst theknifeis pittedor youmayhavetrouble rough, setting theknifeheight whenrein-

s t a l l i ntgh ek n i f eF. l a t t etnh ef a c eo f t h ew e d g ae sy o uw o u l d thesoleof a plane(page40) untilit is smooth. Alsousethe brush to cleantheslotin thecutterhead thathouses theretainingwedge andknife(above, right).

jig theknifeina sharpening ? Installing r - J U s ea c o m m e r c ikanl i f e - s h a r p e n i n g j i g t o s h a r p etnh ej o i n t ekr n i f eC . enter t h ek n i f ei n t h ej i g b e v eul pa n dc l a m pi t in placebytightening thewingnuts;use a ragto protectyourhand(right).Make surethatthebladeis parallel withthelip of thejig.lf theknifedoesnotextend out farenough fromthejig,insert a woodshim between theknifeandtheiipclamns

B2


SHARPENING POWERTOOLBLADESAND BITS

Sharpening theknife Seta sharpening stoneon a flat,smoothworksurface; in the illustrations on this page,a diamond-grit waterstone is shown.To adjustthe jig sothe beveled edgeof thejointer knifeis flat on thestone,turnthejig over,restthe bevelon the stone,andturnthewingnutsat theotherendof thejig the stone-in this casewithwater-and hbovd. Lubricate

slidetheknifebackandforth.Holding theknob-end of thejig flatontheworksurface andpressing the knifeon thestone, pattern(below). movethejig in a f igure-eight Continue until thebevelis flat andsharp.Carefully remove the knifefromthe jig andhonetheflatsideof theknifeto remove anyburrformed process. in thesharpening

83


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

the knifein thejointer R Reinstalling g e d g ei n t h e c u t : , f I n s e rtth e r e t a i n i nw t e r h e a dc e n t e r i n ict i n t h e s l o tw i t h i t s grooved edgefacingup. Withthe beveled e d g eo f t h e k n i f ef a c i n gt h e o u t f e e dt a b l e , s l i p i t b e t w e e tnh e r e t a i n i n w g e d g ea n d the frontedgeof the slot,leavingthe beve l p r o t r u d i nfgr o mt h e c u t t e r h e a d .

theknifeheight fi Setting theheight of theknifeusing a L,f Adjust jig (page commercial 85),or dothejobby hand,asshown at right.Cover theedgeof t h ek n i f ew i t ha r a ga n dp a r t i a l tl yi g h t e n e a c hl o c ks c r e wo nt h er e t a i n i nwge d g e . Usea smallwooden wedgeto rotatethe c u t t e r h e audn t i tl h ee d g eo f t h ek n i f ei s a t i t s h i g h e spto i n t - a l s ok n o w n a sT o p DeadCenter orTDC. Then, holding thecutplacea terhead stationary witha wedge, straighthardwood boardon theoutfeed tablesothatit extends overthecutterhead. justbrush Theknifeshould against theboard along t h ek n i f e 'es n t i r el e n g t hl f. n o t ,u s e a hexwrench to adlust theknifejackscrews. O n c et h e k n i f ei s a t t h ec o r r e cht e i g h t , t i g h t etnh el o c ks c r e wosn t h e r e t a i n i n g w e d g feu l l y b , e g i n n i nwgi t ht h eo n ei nt h e center andworking outtoward theedges. Sharpen andinstall theremaining knives thesameway.

B4


SHARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS

WITHA JIG KNIVES INSTALLING J()INTER jig Using a knife-setting magnetic Thejig shownat rightfeatures a r m st h a tw i l lh o l da j o i n t ekr n i f ea t t h e correct heightwhileyoutightentheretainInsert theknifein ingwedge lockscrews. position it at its highcutterhead and the you point install theknife as would to est (page lineon hand 84). Then mark a by the cutting edge. thefencedirectly above jig on the outPosition the knife-setting reference line on feedtable,aligning the j i g l i n e o n t h e t h e a r mw i t ht h em a r k e d line on the fence, asshown. Markanother reference fencedirectly above thesecond j i g l i n eo n t h e a r m .R e m o vt eh ej i g a n d theoutfeed table. extend thislineacross ( T h el i n ew i l lh e l py o uq u i c k lpy o s i t i o n ll knife.) t h ej i gt h en e x t i m ey o ui n s t a a its Reposition thejigonthetable,aligning r e f e r e n cl ien e sw r t ht h em a r k eldi n e so n the Thenusea wrench to tishten thefence. lockscrews(rEhf).

Jointer knifeeettinq jig

<rl

PLANER KNIVES SHARPENING

a planer knife Removing andinstalling Remove a olaner knifefromthemachine knife it asyouwoulda jointer andsharpen (page theknifeusethe Bi). Toreinstall d i t ht h e k n i f e - s e t t ignugi d es u p p l i ew available modmachine ora commercially on page79. Place el liketheoneshown t h ek n i f ei n t h e p l a n ecr u t t e r h e aadn d partially Holdthe tightenthesetscrews. guidebeside knife-setting oneof theseton screws sothatitstwofeetareresting on eachsideof theopenthecutterhead witha hex ing,Thenadjustthesetscrew wrench untiltheedgeof theknifecontacts for thebottom of theguide(/eff).Repeat theremaini ngsetscrews.

85


-e*t\


ING PORIABLEPO\ATERTOOLS hatever theirpricerangeor list offeatures, all portable

typically located and recognize wherea tool mayhavea problem. Fortunately,the partsof a powpowertoolswill work betterandlast er tool that endurethe most abuse Iongerifthey arecaredfor properand most often sufferdamageare ly. At its most basic,preventive thosethat are alsothe easiestto maintenance is easyto do andtakes access:the plugs, power cords, no morethan a fewminutes.At the motorbrushes, andon/offswitchendof your work day,for example, getin thehabitof cleaningdustand es.As shownbeginningon page98, thesecomponents canbe replaced dirt from your tools.Referto the Before easilyand inexpensively. schedules on page88 for additionundertaking a repair, however, al maintenanceideas.When you checkwhetherthe tool is still covbuy a newtool, registerthewarranty warranfile the manual in a eredby themanufacturer's and owner's place is still follow all the ty. Opening up a tool that convenient and warranty will void maintenance instrucunder usually operatingand paired guarantee. manufacA belt sander in a commercial stand is the tions suggested by the The decisionto repair other with a p\nuoodtruingjig to correcta router's turer. Owner'smanualstypically produce parts guides out-of-round sub-base, which can of a portablepoweitool, such includetroubleshooting to problem, To correct the install as the motor and motor bearing, help usersrecognizeand handle imprecise cuts. pin your the router, a hole in the for example, dependson a number malfunctions. Keep tool'soriga centering in drill jig pin, packaging the sander. of factors, including your own abilinal shouldyou needto to holdthe and turn on ities. you feel return an item for servicing. Thenslowlyrotatethesub-base againstthebelt Unless comfortable portabletoolsareelecmakingan electricalor mechaniBecause until it isperfectlyround. calrepair,you arebetterofftaking tricallypowered,caringfor them is performance. power Today's thetool to an authorizedservicecenter.If you do electto open asmuch a matterof safetyasof toolsaredesigned to insulatethi userfrom electricalihock, up a tool to repairor replacean internalcomponent,label but any tool that developsan electricalproblem canbehaz- thewiring andthepartsyou disconnectto helpyou reassemof theportablepowble thetool properly.Theageandvalueof a tool is alsoa conardous.Thischapterprovidesillustrations with cutawayviews sideration.The most worthwhileremedyfor a 2O-year-old er toolscommonlyusedin woodworking The drill with a burned-outmotor maybe a newdrill ratherthan of their principalelectricaland mechanicalcomponents. a new motor. drawingsaredesignedto helpshowyouwherethesepartsare

A combinationsquareconfirmsthat thebladeof a circularsawisperpendicularto thetool'sbaseplate.All powersawsrelyon thisalignment for accuratecuts.Tocorrecttheadjustment,Ioosenthebeveladjustment knobshownin thephotoat left and tilt thebaseplateuntil thesquareis flush againstboththeplateand blade,thentightentheknob.

87


MAINTENANCETIPSAND SCHEDULES hereareno industry-widestandards I for servicingportablepowertools designedfor the homeshop.Manufacturersof industrial-use oowertoolsissue maintenance schedules for theirproducts, but thesetoolstypicallyundergoheavier usethan the averagehomeworkshop tool.Forindustrialtools,servicing isusually scheduledevery100hoursofuse andincludesa comoleteoverhaul.Brushesarereplaced, bearingsarecleanedand lubricated(or replaced), andthewiring, motor,andotherelectricalcomponents arecheckedand,ifnecessary, repaired. For the typical power tool in the home shop, however,maintenance schedulesand requirementsare less clearcut.Much dependson how a tool is used.A circularsawusedby theweekend woodworkerto cut the occasional plank will obviouslyrequirelessattention thanoneusedby a busycarpenter or cabinetmaker who regularlyrelieson f

portable power Checking tools Thechartat rightliststhechecks that powertools shouldbe madeon portable ona regular basis. Develop a timetable thatsuitsyourworkhabits. Toolsthat areusedfrequently orthatgetheavy use shouldbechecked often.

his tool to crosscut8/4 stockand saw sheetsof plywoodto manageable lengths. The chartbelowliststhe checksthat shouldbemadeon manyportablepower tools.Thetaskslistedarestraightforward and canbe done in a matter of minutes.How oftenyou performthese checkswill dependon your own needs and circumstances. As a rule of thumb, anytool that doesnot performthe way it is designedto shouldbe investigated. You can do the work yoursell but be awarethat troubleshootingelectrical problemsin a powertool requiresspecialized, equipmentaswell asa sound knowledgeof how to useit. If you are uncomfortableworking with electricity, takethetool to an authorizedservice centerfor reoair. While toolsmadea few decades ago canbe completelydisassembled, many recentmodelsfeatureinternalcomponentsthat arefactory-sealed andvirtu-

ally inaccessible. In sometools,for example, thebearings aremechanically pressed onto the motor spindle. Attempting to separate thebearing from themotorin suchtoolswithouttheright instrumentwill destroythebearing. Manufacturers claimthatsuchdevelopments in tooltechnology haveproducedmoredurable,longer-lasting products. Whilethisis no doubttrue, oneconsequence forthepowertoolbuff "user-serviceable parts" of toolswithno isthatrepairs canonlybecarriedoutby properlyequipped service centers. Togetthemostfromyourtoolsand keeprepairs to a minimum,referto the tipslistedon theopposite page.Read yourowner's manual before usingatool to makecertain youcanoperate it properly.Andnevertryto useatoolforatask for whichit isnot designed. A toolwill failwhensubjected to stress it isnotbuilt to handle.

T00t

MAINTENANCE

Router

Check thecolletfor playandrunout (page91) Clean thecolletandsoindle Ensure thatthesub-base is smooth andfreeof damage Check theguiderollers andbladesupports forwear Check thebladeclamo Check thatbaseis square to blade Check theplungemechanism for play Check thebladeandspindle forwear Inspect thepinsandglides Insoect thedrivebelt Check thechuckbearing for play Inspect thechuckforwear Check thesteelplatenandcorkpadforwear Check thedrivebelt Check theendrollerfordamage play or excessive Inspect thecondition of therubberonthedriveroller Lubricate thegears Check thearborbearings Check theguardreturnsprings Check bladealignment Check thepadforwearor splitting (onrandom-orbit Check theeccentric bearing sander) Check thepadsupport

SaberSaw

PlateJoiner

Electric Drill BeltSander

Gircular Saw

Orbital Sander

88


MAINTAINING PORTABLEPOWERTOOLS

C()RDS FOR EXTENSION WIREGAUGE MINIMUM OFTOOI AMPERAGE RATING

LENGTH CORDS FORDIFFERENT MINIMUM GAUGE 50'

75'

100'

0-2.0

18

18

2.r-3.4 3.5-5.0

18 18

18 16

18 16

5.1-7.0

16

I4

I2

7.t-r2.0

T4

tz

10

12.T-T6

I2

10

L4

wiregauge theproper Ghoosing gaugemaycause resulta dropin linevoltage, cordwiththewrong Usinganextension minimum power, To the burnout. determine heat, and tool excessive ingin a lossof lf, for instance, forthetoolandtaskat hand,seethechartabove. wiregaugeneeded you theminiextension cord, yourtool are using a 5O-foot hasa 4-ampmotorand listed bythe extension cords gauge round-jacketed only shouldbe 18.Choose mum (CSAI. (UL), Association Canadian Standards Laboratory orthe Underwriters

llltlllllllll]ltllllllilllllllllllll llltillllllrllllll]filrlllrillll]l1 5HO7Tt?

TIPS FOR MAINTENANCE POWER TOOTS PORTABTE . Readyourowner's manual carefully beforeoperating anytool. . Donotusea toolif anyof its parts inspectblades, is looseor damaged; beforestarting bits,andaccessories anooeration. . Keeoblades andbitscleanand discard anythatarechipped sharp; or damaged. o Turna tooloff if it produces an unfahavethetool miliarvibration or noise; operations. serviced beforeresuming . Donotleave whenit a toolrunning is unattended. . Follow instructhemanufacturer's blades, bits,or accestionsto change thetoolfirst. sories; unplug . Before shaping, or sanding cutting, looseknotsusing remove a workpiece, woodfor a hammer; inspectsalvaged beforecutting. nailsandscrews r Donotattemptto cutthroughnails; andalsoruin thiscancausekickback a bladeor bit. . Usetheappropriate wiregaugewhen powercordor replacing a damaged cord. usinganextension

5toringbite Thecutlinq ed4eeof router and drill NhoeemaAeof car' bite,parLicularily bide,can be nickedif Ihey are Ihrown in eloraqe.Trot'eclyour NoqeLher holder. bibewilh a oimpleehop-made ln a blockof wood.borea eerieeof holeeLhesizeof lhe bit shanke and store Nhemwibhtrhe cuLtinqedqeuV.

. Keepthepower cordoutof thetool's path;do notusethetoolif thecord is frayed. . Makesurethebladeor bit is not withtheworkoiece when in contact youturnon a tool;allowthecutterto cometo full speedbeforefeedingit intothestock. . Donotforcea toolthrougha cut; thiscansnapa bladeor causeit to Allowthe bladeor bit veeroff course. to cut at its ownspeed. . Makesurethatanykeysandadjustfromthe areremoved ingwrenches toolbefore turningit on. . Keepa tool'sairventsclearof sawthe motor. dustto avoidoverheating r Donotusea toolforextended oeriit to cool. allowing odsof timewithout

89


ANATOMYOF A ROUTER

Eleatronic variable apeed control

Upper moior bearing LocaLedaL end of moLor ahaf| to reducefricLion a9 motor armaTure apine;may be aealed

Eruoh aeaembly A eprinq-loadedcarbon rod encaaedin a houoin4;conducta currenl, to the mot;orarmature. Exceeeiveeparke flyin4 from Lhe m,otor indicaLewornbruahea

?train reliever Deeiqnedto prevent, cord wear and fraying

Plungeloak knob Dit can be plunqed whenknobra looaened;Li7htenedto IockdeotredcutLin4depth in place

On/off switch

Depth etop bar SeLecuI;tin7 depth; qap bel,weenend of bar and aLop ocrewequala depth of cuL Power aord Depth stop bar clamp Looaenedto releaae depth otop bar; tt7hhened f,o eet cuttinq depth PIug Eaee plate or sub-base Muat be emooLh and free of qouqea

90

Turret etop KoLateeto poertionapproprtate etop ecrewunderdepLh etop bar; hei7ht of each acrew te adjuotableto vary cuLtin4 depth of aucceesivepaeeee


MAINTAINING PORTABLEPOWERTOOLS

RUNOUT THECOLLET FOR CHECKING base anda magnetic Using a dialindicator pinin therouter asyou Install a centering down woulda bit andsetthetoolupside suchasa tablesaw. on a metalsurface, C o n n e catd i a li n d i c a t ot or a m a g n e t i c baseandolacethebasenextto therouter. therouter andposition Turnonthemagnet pincontacts theplunger sothecentering r .a l i b r a t h e ed i a l o f t h ed i a li n d i c a t oC the manufacindicator to zerofollowing Thenturntheshaftof turer'sinstructions. the routerby handto rotatethecentering pin(righil.Thedialindicator willregister that of wobble colletrunout-theamount thebit.lf therunout thecolletiscausing thecollet. exceeds 0.005inch,replace

Using a feelergauge youcan you lf do nothavea dialindicator, gauge with feeler testforcolletrunout a With the anda straight hardwood block. pin router centering in thecolletandthe downona worksurface, clampthe upside sothe blocklightlyto thetool'ssub-base pieceof woodtouches the pin.Turnthe router willcause shaftbyhand;anyrunout pinto movetheblock. Then thecentering anygap usea feelergaugeto measure between thepinandtheblock(/eft).lf the gapexceeds 0.005inch,replace thecollet.

91


ANATOMY OF A SABERSAW Trigger-loak button Locke tri4qer awitch in depreeeed poeiLionfor conLinuoueeawinq

5train reliever Deaignedto prevent cord wear and fraytn4

Gear aeaembly

Ecaentric arank bloak Drivea reciprocating ahaft Variablespeed dial

Power cord

Erush aaeembly A epring-loadedcarbon rod encaaedin a houeinq:conducLa current to the mo'or armal;ure. Exceeaiveaparko flyinq from the motor ei4nifywornbrueheo

Elade clamp Secureeblade to ahafD;blade is rnaerted in collarand aetecrewie tiqhtened Reaiprocatin7 ahaft

Motor bearing Locatedat end of motor ahaft to reducefriction aa motor armature opina;may be eealed

Guide roller Supporto back of blade

Eaee plate or shoe

ffi g

-.---

Eaee plate oetsarew Looeenedto ttlt baee ptate

Wa

a

92

Plug


MAINTAINING PORTABLEPOWERTOOLS

THEBLADE SOUARING

lllttlllljllljlllilllilllll1llltlllltl|llllllillllrlllllllJilljllllllll 1HO?TI? Extending blade life lf mosf,of the olockyou inchor thinner, cut is 3/+ lhe top third of your blade willbeLheonlyportionshowinq wear.TomakebelNeruoeof lhe full lenqlhof the cutLinqedqe, inslallan auxiliaryehoeon the baee p l a l eo f L h ee a wo n c e t h e N o p t h i rodf a bladebeginoNodull.To makeIhe ehoe, plywoodNheeame cul a pieceof Yz-inch len4Ihas the baeeVlateand eliqhtlywider. plateand mark HoldLhewooda4ainoLtrhe Lheoutlineol Nhenolch cul ouNfor Nheblade. 1aw ouNIhe notch and cut,a eloLforNheblade.)crew Lheauxiliaryehoein Vlace,makinqoureNhaIthe back of Lhe bladefite in NheeloL (lf Nhebladeie noI 6u?porLed,it may wanderand breakwhenyou are cutIin7.)

93

Ghecking thebladeangle Square a saber sawbladeeachtimeyou i n s t a lal n e wb l a d eU t h es a w , . nplug it upside downin a bench thensecure viseasshown above. Usea combination s o u a rteo c h e c kw h e t h et h r eb l a d ei s square withthebaseplate.lf not,loosen witha hexwrench thebaseolatesetscrew a n dt i l t t h ep l a t eu n t i tl h eb l a d eb u t t s f l u s ha g a i n st ht es q u a r eT.h e nt i g h t e n thesetscrew.


ANATOMYOF A PLATEIOINER Fixed-angledface )eta qap betweencutter wheel and Lop face of workpiece;elidee up and down on adjuatable fence

Depth adjuatment knob For aettin7 cuttin4 depth of cutter wheel

On/off switch

Locking lever )ete adjuatable fenceat any anqle from O" to 90'

Adjustable fenae Keepafaceplate aquare to beveledaurface; fence reeta on top of workpieceduring cut

Cutter wheel

?lu6 ----, Loakingnut )ecurea baae plate to motor houetng

94

Power cord


ANATOMYOF AN ELECTRICDRILL

Motor bearing Located at end of motor ahaft t.o reduce friction ag motor armaf,ure apina; may be sealed

Erush aesembly A oprin7-loadedcarbon rod encaaedin a houainq;conducts current to the motor armature, )parka flyinq from the motor ia a aian of worn brushes

Revereing switah Changeadirection of motor rotation

Variable speed trigger switch Dial aeta motor apeed

95


ANATOMY OF A SANDER

Motor bearing Located aL end of moLor ehafL to reduce frtction ag maLor armature epine: may be eealed

Druah aaeembly A sorina-loadedcarbon rod encaeedtn a hoiaini: conducLecurrent Lo LhemoLor eparkeflyinqfrom armaLure.Exceeatve the motor te a etqnof wornbruehee

On/off trigger

Power cord

Plug

Eleatria aam

Pad

Paper clamp

Pad oupport

96


ANATOMY OF A CIRCULARSAW


POWERTOOLS REPAIRINGPORTABLE The cap housirtgof a router is lifted off the body of the tool, revenlingthe wiring connections for the toggleswitch to inside.As shown irr thephoto at right, gaining access the intentnl conlponentsof mostportablepower toolsis simply a matter of looseningthe retainingscrewsthat secw'ethe tool housingto the body.The capproviding access to the brush assembly for this router is locatedon the sideof the tool body to the right of the switch.

ELECTRICAL SAFETY TIPS . Unplug anyrepair to its internal a toolbefore undertaking youmayinadvertently components; contact current in a defective tool-evenwiththeon/offswitchturnedoff. . Allowa power toolto coolbefore servicing it. . Useonlyreplacement partsthatmeetthesamespecif icat i o n sa st h eo r i g i n a l s . . Whena power toolstopsworking, determine whether or youtakeit nottheproblem originates outside of it before thetool'spower cord;a frayed apart.Caref ullyexamine plugis a common cordor a broken cause of failure. . Before disassembling a power tool,makea diagram of wireconnections to makereassembly easier. . Before undertaking a repair, contact themanufacturer to findoutif a service manual forthetoolis available.

REPLACING A BRUSH ASSEMBLY Removing andinstalling a brush assembly Brushes arespring-loaded carbon rodsor blocks thatconduct electricity to therotating armature of a power tool'smotor. Over do . uc a na c c e st sh e t i m e ,b r u s h ewse a or r b e c o mdea m a g eY assembly byunscrewing thebrushcaponthetoolbody-normally a plastic caproughly thesizeof a dime.lf thereis nobrush cap, youwillhaveto remove themotorhousing to access thebrushes. Onceyouhavelocated thebrush assembly, carefully lift it outof pushon it to check thetool.Totestthebrush, thespring. lf the spring is damaged orthebrushis pitted, uneven, orwornshorter theassembly. thanitswidth,youwillneedto replace Somebrushmarked with wear line. Buy esare a a replacement at anauthorizedservice foryourbrandof tool.Toreinstall center a brush assembly, f it it intoposition in thetool(right), Theninsert andtighten thebrushcapor reattach themotorhousing.

98


MAINTAINING PORTABLEPOWERTOOLS

REPLACING A SWITCH theoldswitch 1 Removing I Setthetoolona worksurface, making surethatit is unplugged. Fortherouter shown at left,remove thecaphousing to expose theswitchmechanism. Loosen theswitch retaining nutandscrews, then disconnect thewiressecuring themechanismto thetool.lf thewiresareconnected bywirecaps,simplyloosen the caps(left)anduntwist thewires.lf the c o n n e c t i oanrses o l d e r esdn. i ot h ec o n nections withpliers. Useshortstripsof masking tapeto labelthewires to help youreconnect themproperly.

r) Installing thereplacement switch L Buva reolacement switchat anauthorizedservice center, noting themodel and serialnumbers of yourtool.Connect the newswitchto thewiresin thetoolhousing, reversing thestepsyoutookto takeout t h eo l do n e .R e m o vt eh em a s k i ntga p e stripsfromthewires,twistthewireends fromthetoolandswitchtogether, and screw a wirecapontoeachconnection to secure andinsulate it. Fittheswitchinto p o s i t i oinn t h et o o lh o u s i n gs ,c r e wt h e s w i t c hb r a c k ei nt p l a c ea, n dt i g h t e tnh e switchretaining nutwithawrench(ilghil. Replace thetool'scaphousing.

99


MAINTAINING PORTABLEPOWERTOOLS

REPLACING A POWER C()RD wireterminals thecord's 1 Accessing a gt o o l ' sp o w ecro r dt o t h e I T h ew i r et e r m i n acl so n n e c t i n r ousing. s w i t c hm e c h a n i samr ec o n t a i n ewdi t h i nt h e m o t o h Forthesander shown at right,reachtheterminals byremoving a n dl o o s e n i nt hges c r e wsse c u r i nt gh e t h ea u x i l i a rhya n d l e m a i nh a n d l e t o t h et o o lb o d y R . e m o vt eh e h a n d l teo e x p o s e t h ew i r et e r m i n a l s .

/) Disconnecting theoldpower cord power plug,thereareusuary L Ona cordwitha two-prong to wireterminal screws in twowiresfromthecordconnected securthetoolhousing. Unscrew theplugretaining bracket loosen ingthecordto thetoolhousing, theterminal screws (below), andcarefullyremove the powercord'swireends fromtheterminals. Usestripsof masking tapeto Iabeleach to helpyouattach thewireendsof thenewcordto terminal theappropriate terminals.

100


MAINTAINING PORTABLEPOWERTOOLS

power Preparing thereplacement cord power storeor an Buya replacement cordat a hardware icenter, making sureit hasthesamespecif authorized service cords cations astheoriginal cord.Thewireendsof newpower To andinsulation. areusually covered to theendwithjacketing prepare usea knifeto cutawaya few thecordforinstallation, Thenstripoffabout inches of thejacketcovering thetwowires. thewires, exposing the insulation around %inchol theplastic forthistask(page102). ends.Youcanalsousewirestrippers anyof thestrands, Avoidcuttingintothemetalwire;if yousever e o r ei n s u l a t i ot on s n i po f ft h ed a m a g esde c t i oann dr e m o vm pliers to carefully twist a freshsection. Useneedle-nose uncover (left), thenbendthewireends snugly together thewirestrands in thetoolhousing. intosemicircles thatwillhugtheterminals fromtheleftside,so thescrew clockwise Place thewirearound asthescrewistightened. it willwraparound

Installing thereplacement cord H o o kt h ew i r ee n d sa r o u ntdh et e r m i n ailns t h et o o l eachwireto theappropriate housing, making sureto attach tape.Holding thepower cordin screw. Remove themasking position, bracket in place(below), screw thecordretaining thehandles onthetoolbodv. thenreinstall

r01


MAINTAININGPORTABLE POWERTOOLS

REPLACING A PLUG

theoldplugandpreparing thepower cord 1 Removing I Usea knifeto slicethrough thepower cordjustabove the plug.Prepare thecut endof the power cordforthereplacementplugasyouwouldwhenreplacing a newpowercord (page100).Startbycuttingawayabout2 inchesof thecord jacketwitha knife(above, /eff),thenremoving about%inch of insulation to exDose the barewire.Thiscanbedonewith

theknifeorwirestrippers. Withthestrippers, simplyinsert thewireendintotheappropriate-size opening, squeeze the jawsof the strippers together(above, right),andpullthe wire out.Thedevice willsever the insulation. Thenuseneedlenosepliersto twistthewireendstogether andformthem intoa hook.

/) Gonnecting thepowercord plug L rcmereplacement Buya plugat a hardware store,making sureit hasthesamenumber andshaoe of prongs astheoriginal. Theplugshown consists of twoparts:the prongsection, whichincludes theterminal, a plugcase, andretaining screws thatholdthetwo partstogether. Sliptheendof the power cordthrough theplugcase,thenattach e a c hw i r ee n dt o t h et e r m i n a losn t h e plug(right),tightening thescrews to hold thewireendssecurely.

t02


MAINTAINING PORTABLEPOWERTOOLS

theplug Q Assembling r.J 0ncethe oowercordwiresareconnected to the plug,assemble thetwo partsof the plug.Pullthecasingover theplugandtightentheretaining screws untiltheyaresnug(above). Tocomplete t h er e p a i rt ,i g h t e n t h e p l u gr e t a i n i n g clampscrew. Thiswillsecurely holdthe plugandthepower cordtogether.

-fll'lll"$1lll"'llf-ff'fl11lrffilnfll$r1flf 'flf" ffi*llf'1[l"ffi 1HO?TI? Dieablinga powertool To prevenNunaulhorizeduse of a powertool, olipIhe boll of a minipadlocktrhroughoneof the tines in lhe powercord pluq.Thelock willmakeit impoooible to pluq in lhe Nool.lfyou are uoing a keyedloak,slore the keyeout of lhe way in a cupboardor drawerlhaf,can be locked.

103


ffi %r#

ffi#

; -..C.#


GSTA|IONARY PO\AIERTOOLS belts, thesetasks,suchaschecking keeping and cleaningswitches, tabletopsclean(page106),applyto woodworkingmachinesareonly mostof thetools.Othermaintepossibleif the equipmentis kept to thedesign nancetasksarespecific cleanandfindtuned. Whetheryou particular machine, suchas of a old band saw havea cantankerous the andadjusting blade cleaning that needsto be cajoledinto making on heightand tilt mechanisms a straightcut,or a brand-newradi(page 112),fixingan a tablesaw al arm sawthat hasslippedout of bandsawwheel(page unbalanced alignmenton thewayfrom thefacwaterfromanair 122),orbleeding tory,learninghowto adjustyour (page compressor 139). properlywill machines stationary Knowinghowto tuneup your improvetheresultsandincrease stationarytoolswill not onlygive fromthem. yourpleasure of you a deeperunderstanding areappreManywoodworkers howtheywork;it will alsoprovide aboutexploringthenuts hensive youwith a list of thingsto check andboltsof theirtools,andmany for usedmodels. whenshopping dial indicatorcheclsthe A magnetic-base manuals donotencourage owner's How Is a jointer'sfencesquare? spindleof a drill pressfor runout-the moststationtinkering.However, muchrunoutdoesa drill press amountof wobblethat thespindlewould ary powertoolsarequitesimple Doesthemitergauge chuckhave? For accurate transmitto a bit or accessory. in theirdesignandconstruction. of a tablesawslidesmoothly? drilling therunoutshouldnot exceed Takingthetopoffa tablesaw,which tune up Many woodworkers 0.005inch.If it does,thespindleshouldbe is soundslikea majoroperation, toolsjustbeforethe theirstationary replaced or repaired(seepage131). fairlysimpleto doandit canquickThiscanbe startof a majorproject. ly revealhowthemachineworks, who if youareoneof thosewoodworkers andexactlywhatyoushouldclean,adjust,or tweakto keep difficultto schedule it isa goodideato onthego.In suchcases, hasmanyprojects it runningsmoothly. yourstationary to maintaining pow- devote alittletimeperiodically themajorstationary Thechapterthatfollowspresents thebasicmainte- tools.Thatway,everyprojectwill benefitfromthebestyour andexplains ertoolsusedbywoodworkers toolscangive. for eachone.Someof procedures nanceandtroubleshooting heprecisionandconsistencyweexpectfromstationary

confirmsthat thewheels Wth thewheelcoversopen,a longstraightedge of a bandsawareParallelto eachotherand in thesamewrtical plane. shouldrestflush against Asshownin thephotoat left,thestraightedge thetopand bottomof eachwheel.Thetilt knobon thetopwheelcanbe adjustedto bring thetopwheelintoproperalignment.

105


BASICSTIITIONARY TOOLMAINTENANCE Drive beltstransmit powerfrom themotorto themovingpartsin manystationarypower tools,includingthejointer,discsander,planer, qnd tablesawInhightorquetoolssuchasthe tablesawshownin the photoat right,threebelts areusedto driyethe arbor.Any drivebeltthat is crackedor wom extensivelyshouldbereplaced.

CHECKING DRIVE BELTS

Checking belttension Toomuchbelttension canstraina stationary tool'smotorbearings,whiletoolittletension oftenleadsto slippage andexcessivewear,To checkdrivebelttensionon thejointershown above, unplugthetoolandremove thepanelcovering thebelt. Thenpinchthebeltbetween thepulleys withonehand(above, bD.fhe amount of deflection willvarvwiththetool:asa rule

of thumb,the beltshouldflexlrzinchfor everyinchof span pulleys. between lf thereistoolittleortoomuchtension, adjust it following themanufacturer's instructions. Forsmooth operation,thepulleys shouldbealigned; if theyarenot,loosen the adjustment setscrew on the motorpulleywitha hexwrench (above, right),andslidethepulleyin linewiththeotherpulley.

106


MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS

TABTET()PS MAINTAINING tabletop a stationary machine Cleaning cleanthe smoothly, Tokeepstockrunning wiping offanypitch tabletop frequently, witha ragandmineral orgumdeposits Remove anyrustor pittingwith spirits. oil (left), finesteelwoolandpenetrating andsandthe thenwipeoffanyresidue A coatof paste areawithfinesandpaper. willmake waxrubbed onandthenbuffed pushing edgemuch woodintothecutting lesstirins.

SWITCHES MAINTAINING

a power switch Cleaning clogged, causing toolscanbecome Theswitches onstationary lf the it fromoperating. theswitchto strckor evenpreventing and theswitch cover unplug thetool,remove switch sticks,

periToprevent suchproblems, cleantheswitchimmediately. compressed airinto odically cleanouttheswitchbyblowing iI hbove).

r07


TABLESAWS tlt h. tablesawis the cornerstone of I manyworkhops, putto usein nearly everyphaseofeveryproject.Because of its crucialrole,your tablesawmust be consistentlyaccurateand its parts squareand true. The normal forcesof routineusewill eventuallythrow a table sawoutofalignment.Evena newmachine straightoffthe assembly line usually needsa certainamountof adjustment beforeit canperformsafelyandproperly. ThetablesawcomDonents that need to becheckedandalignedarethosethat comein contactwith theworkoieceduring thecut:theblade,table,miter gauge, andrip fence.Ifany ofthesepartsis not in proper alignment,you risk burn marks,taperedcuts,or kickback. The simple tune-up procedures shownbelowand on thepagesthat follow will improvetheperformance of any

tablesaw.It is a goodideato takethe time to undertakethem beforestarting a newproiect.For the sakeof efficiency, follow the stepsin the order they appear. Youwill onlybeableto alignthe miter gaugewith the sawblade,for example,if the tablehasbeensquared with theblade.For safety,rememberto unplug your saw beforeperforming thesechecksand adjustments.

Most tablesawsfeaturewormgear and rackmechanisms connected to crankwheelsto raiseand tilt thearbor assembly and blqde.Thesemechanismscanbecome cakedwith pitch preventingthesawfrom andsawdust, operating smoothly. In thephotoat right, compressed air is beingusedto cleqnthebladeheightmechanism.

CHECKING TABLE ALIGNMENT

thetablealignment 1 Checking I Thefaceof themitergauge andtheblademustbeperfectly perpendicular. To checkthis,position themitergaugeat the frontof thesawblade.Clampa square woodblockagainst the mitergauge withtheendof theblockbutted against a sawblade tooth.MarkanX onthebladenextto thetooth;this willenable y o ut o c h e c kt h es a m es e c t i o on f b l a d es h o u l d y o un e e dt o

repeat thetestafterperforming step2. Slidethemitergauge and theblocktogether toward thebackof thetablewhilerotating the bladebyhand(above). Theblockshouldremainbuttedagainst thetoothasthebladerotates fromfrontto back.lf a gapopens between theblockandthetooth,ortheblockbindsagainst the youwillneedto aligntheIable(step2). bladeasit is rotated,

108


MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS

r) Aligning thesawtable the Z nalustthesawtablefollowing Forthemodmanual instructions. owner's to loosen the el shown, usea hexwrench thetopto thesaw tableboltsthatsecure sland?ight);the boltsarelocatedunder thetable.Loosen all butoneof thebolts thetableposition slightly; the andadjust tightened willactasa pivot, boliyouleave process. Repeat simplifying thealignment thebladetest(sfepl). Oncethetableis tighten aligned withtheblade, correctly bolts. thetable

C h e c k i ntgh eb l a d ea n g l e

Remove thetableinsert, thenbutta square against thesawblade combinatron between twoteeth(lefD.fhe bladeof the s q u a rseh o u l fdi t f l u s ha g a i n st ht es a w thetwo, blade.lf thereis a gapbetween rotate thebladeangleadjustment crank untilthesawbladerestsflushagainst the blade. Reposition theangle adjustsquare's to mentstopsothatthe bladewillreturn position itsproper eachtimeit isadjusted.

109


MAINTAINING STA|IONARY POWERTOOLS

SOUARING THEMITER GAUGE

\/

Aligning themitergauge withthesawtable Withthemitergauge outofthetableslot, usea combination souare to confirm thatthefaceof thegaugeis square withthe edgeof thegaugebar(above, Ieft).lf it is not,usetheadjustment handle onthegauge to square thetwo. Thenplacethemitergaugein itstable slotandbuttthesquare against thegauge (above, right).Thebladeof thesquare s h o u l fdi t f l u s ha g a i n st ht eg a u g el f. thereis a gapbetween the two,have thegauge machined square at a metalworking shop.

,/:

Illlljlll]llllj lllltllll]llfitlllltljllllltfiltljlttlljllllllltlllltlll 1HO?TI? Fixin1alooee miter gauge Toeliminate exceo6ive side-t o- eide Vlayof the miter qauqe in iIs sloL,removethe qauqefrom the t able and placetrhebar edqeup on a board,\ Ueea ball-oeen hammerand a prickpunch Lo etrikethe edqeof the bar in a otaqqeredpa|tern everyinchalonq alonaiL it. This willraiee rai bumpoon lhe edqe of the bar and resulLin a Niahuerfit, in the eloL,lf Nhe fiL is NooIiqht,,file Ihe bumpedownas neceooary.

110


MAINTAINING STAfIONARY POWERTOOLS

TESTING THETABLE SAWFOR SOUARE youradjustments Checking Testtheaccuracy of yourtablesawadjustmentsbycrosscutting a couple of scrap boards. Tochecktheblade-to-table alignmentm , a r ka n X o n a b o a r da n dc u t i t f a c ed o w na t y o u rm a r kT . h e nt u r nt h e cutoffoverandholdthecutendstogether (boardA in theillustration at left).Anygap between thetwoendsreoresents twicethe if necessary, errorin thetablealignment; repeat thetestshownin step3 on page 109.Tocheckthemitergauge adjustment, crosscut thesecond board,facedownas well,f lip onepieceover,andbuttthe twopiecestogether on edge(boardB). Again,anygaprepresents twicetheerror in theadjustment. lf necessary, square themitergauge again(page110).

ALIGNING THERIPFENCE

Adjusting theripfence Locktheripfencein placealongside themiterslot.lf thefence andtheslotarenotparallel, adjusttheangleof thefencefollowing instructions. Somemodels feature themanufacturer's or adjustment boltsat thefrontof thetablethatyoucanloosen

(above, tighten witha hexwrench to change thealignment left); othershavefenceadjustmeni boltsthatyoucanloosen witha wrench(above, right).Forthismodel, adjustthefenceparallel to themiterslot,thenretighten theadjustment bolts.

111


MAINTAINING STA|IONARY POWERTOOLS

LEVELING THETABTE INSERT Adjusting theleveling screws Tosetthetableinsertlevelwiththesaw table,placea square boardacross the insert andthetable.Adjusttheleveling screws at thecorners of the insertwitha hexwrench(lefDuntilthe insertis f lush w i t ht h et a b l e t o pY.o uc a na l s oa d j u s t the insertslightly belowthetableat the frontandslightly above thetableat the back;thiswillprevent theworkpiece from catching or binding ontheinsert during thecut. lf yoursaw'sinsertdoesnothave leveling screws, fileor shimthe insertto makeit lieflushwiththetable.

ADJUSTING THEHEIGHT ANDTILTMECHANISMS

Cleaning thetrunnions pitchandhardened lf yourtablesaw'sbladesticksor moves whenyou sluggishly a brass-bristle brushto remove stubborn sawraiseortilt it, cleantheheight mechanismsdustdeposits. andtilt adjustment Thenscrubthemachined waysonthefrontand (above, inside thesaw.Startbyremoving thetabletop following theman- reartrunnions right).Onceall thepartsareclean,lubripartswitha graphite ufacturer's instructions. Blowoutthesawdust withcomoressedcateallthemoving orsilicon-based lubripartswithinthesaw.Startwiththe air,thencleanthe moving cant;oil andgrease shouldbeavoided astheytendto collect (above, bladeheight andtilt mechanisms /eff),usingsolvent and dust.Replace thetabletop andfine-tune thesaw(page108).

t12


RADIALARMSAWS manypivotingand I radialarmsaw's A slidingpartsenable youto pull a bladetluoughaworkpiece in avarietyof anglesanddirections.Thisflexibility, however, canleadto problems. Unless thesadsmovingpartsarekeptin alignment,itsperfonnance canbecome sloppy andpotentially dangerous. Theprocedures thatfollowwill help youfine-tunea radialarmsawsothatit

will cutaccurately andsafely. Adjusting aradialarmsawcanbetime-consuming because of its manymovingparts.To you maketheadjustments manageable, perform can themin twosteps: testing andadjusting thetable,clamps androller bearings(page114),andaligningand squaring theblade(page117). perForsafety, unplugyoursawwhile formingthesechecks andadjustments.

Oneof themostcommonproblemswith theradialarm sawis bladerotationthat is notparallelor perpendicular to thetable, jig shownin the knownasbladeheel.A simpleL-shapedsounding photoat right canhelpyou diagnose and correctheeling. A blade that is turningtruewill producea uniformsoundas its teeth brushagainstthesharpened dowelprojectingfromthe jig. The soundof a heelingbladewill changeas its teethtouchthedowel.

THESLIDING MECHANISMS CLEANING Cleaning thetrackandbearings Usea solution of ammonia andwaterto cleanyourradialarmsaw'strackandroller bearings. Pulltheyokeasfar backas it willgo,thenwipethetrackusinga clean (left).Push ragdampened withthesolvent yoke the toward thecolumn andcleanthe frontportionof thetrack.Next,cleanthe rollerbearings, located to thefrontand rearof thecarriage thatconnects theyoke your to thearm.Wraptheragaround finger, dip it in thesolvent, andholdit against therollerbearing whilepushing theyoke you. awayfrom Coatthetrackandbearingswithlightmachine oil,thenwipeoff theexcess.

113


MAINTAINING STA|IONARY POWERTOOLS

ADJUSTING THETABLE Leveling thetablewiththearm Tiltthesaw'smotoruntilthearborpoints down,itsendslightly above tableIevel. Thenswivel thearmto position thearbor o v e tr h er a i ln u t so n b o t hs i d e so f t h e n e a s u rt h t a b l ei;n e a c hp o s i t i om e eg a p between thearborandthetable.lf the m e a s u r e m eanrtesn o te q u a lr,a i s et h e l o we n do f t h et a b l eb yt u r n i n g t h er a i l n u ti n a c l o c k w i sdei r e c t r o un s, i n gt h e headof anadjustable wrench to leverup the tablesurface(left).f henmakethe sameadjustment ontheothersideof the table.Reoeat themeasurements to make surethetableis level.

ADJUSTING THECTAMPS themiterclamp 1 Adjusting I Swivel thearmto therightto a positionbetween 0" and45". Lockthemiter clamp, whichonthesawshown is located at thefrontendof thearm.Tryto push theendof thearmtoward the0' position (right),lf thereis anyplayin thearm, a d j u stth ec l a m pt h a th o l d si t i n p l a c e . Forthe modelshown, usea hexwrench t o t i g h t e tnh em i t e cr l a m pa d j u s t m e n t screw,located insidean access holeat thebackendof thearm.

tt4


MAINTAINING STAIIONARY POWE,RTOOLS

r) Adjusting theyokeclamp L Rotate theyoketo a position between theonesusedfor crosscutta i nngdr i p p i n gL.o c kt h ey o k ec l a m ph a n d l et h, e n usebothhands to tryandpushthemotorto thecrosscutting (above). position Themotorshouldnotbudge; if it does,adjust Forthemodelshown, theclampthatlocksit in position. tightge e nt h ea d j u s t m ennut tl o c a t eudn d etrh ea r mf o l l o w i nt h manufacturer's instructions, Locktheclampandcheckagain forplay.

Adiusting thebevelclamp Q \,, Tiltthemotorto a oosition between 0'and 45", Lockthe bevelclamp,thenusebothhandsto try to movethe motor (above). lf thereis anylooseness, adjusttheclamp.Forthe modelshown, usea socket wrench to tightenthemotorsupport nutat thebackof themotor, thenrelease theclampandtry tiltingthemotorto eachof thepreset angles; if youcannot move themotor,loosen thesupport nutslightly. Otherwise, lock iheclampagainandcheckoncemoreforplayin themotor.

Adjusting theripclamp L o c kt h e r i p c l a m p ,t h e nu s eb o t h h a n d st o t r y t o s l i d et h e y o k ea l o n gt h e arm (left).Theyokeshouldnot move;if i t d o e s a, d j u s t h e c l a m p .F o rt h e m o d e l s h o w n r, e l e a s teh e c l a m p .t h e n u s ea w r e n c ht o t i g h t e nt h e n u t a t t h e e n d o f t h e r i p c l a m pb o l t .T r ys l i d i n gt h e y o k e a l o n gt h e a r m ;i f i t b i n d s ,l o o s e n thelock nut slightly.Otherwise, recheck the clamp a n dt i g h t e nt h e n u t f u r t h e ri f n e e d e d .

115


MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS

FORTHESTIDING MECHANISMS CARING 'l Adjusting thecarriage rollerbearings I Tocheckthecarriage rollerbearings, press yourthumbagainst eachonein turn whilesliding thecarriage awayfromyour hand. Thebearings should turnasthecarriage slides along thearm.lf yourthumb youwill keeps oneof themfromturning, needto tighten thebearing; if thecarriage bindsonthearm,a bearing willneedto be loosened. In either case, adjust thebearingwhileholding theboltstationary witha (lefil.fighten wrench second or loosen the boltasrequired, thenretighten thenut.

r) Adjusting column-to-base tension L W t p et h ec o l u m n c l e a nt,h e nl o o s etnh ef o u rs e t s c r e w s vibrates as it is raised or lowered, adjustthefourboltslocatonthefrontof thecolumnbaseusinga hexwrench. Tocheck ed in theaccess holeson the backcoverof the base.Reoeat c o l u m n - t o - btaesnes i o nu,s eb o t hh a n d tso t r yt o l i f tt h ee n d thetestsand,if necessary, makeadditional adlustments. Then (above, of thearm(above, left);thereshouldbe littleor nogiveto try pushing thearmsideways right);if thereis anyrotajustenough t h ec o l u m nT. u r nt h ee l e v a t i ncgr a n ki n b o t hd i r e c t i o ntsh;e tionof thecolumn, tighten thesetscrews to prea r ms h o u l sd l i d es m o o t h ul yp a n dd o w nl.f t h e r ei s e x c e s s i v eventmovement. Runthrough thetestsa f inaltime,f ine-tuning m o v e m eanttt h ec o l u m n - t o - bjaosi net o, r i f t h ea r mj u m p so r theadiustments.

ll6


MAINTAINING STA|IONARY POWERTOOLS

THEBLADE SqUARING thebladewiththetable 1 Squaring I Setthesaw'syokein thecrosscutting position the andinstalla blade.Release bevelclampandtilt the motorcounterclockwise asfarasit willgoin the0" posiTochecktheblade theclamp. tion.Relock position, between two butta framing square fit flush square should sawteeth(right).Ihe against thesideof the blade.lf anygap them,adjustthe bevel showsbetween andtilt themotorto bring clampsetscrews thesquare. thebladeflushagainst

r) Squaring thebladewiththefence Z. Release themiterclamoandswivel thearmto therightasfaras it willgoin thenrelocktheclamp. the0" position, Release theripclampandbuttonearmof a framing square against thefencewhile the bladetooth theotherjusttouches nearest to thetable.Holding the blade slidetheyokealongthe arm(left); steady, pullslowly thetooth.The to avoiddulling rubbing sound bladeshouldmakea constant asit moves alongthe edgeof the square. the bladeand lf a gapopensup between the square, or if thebladebinds,adjust thesetscrews in thecolumnbasefollowingthemanufacturer's instructions.

I17


MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS

C()RRECTING BLADE HEEL Fine{uning horizontal rotation 1 I Install a blade andsetthemotorin its position; horizontal tilt themotorcounterclockwise asfarasit willgo,thenlockthe bevel clamp. Totestforbladeheel,build jig andboretwo an L-shaped sounding holesin it. Sharpen theendsof twodowelsandfit themintothejigasshown. Then position thejigto aligna bladetoothnear thebackof thetabledirectly overtheverticaldowel. Lower thebladeuntilthetooth restslightlyonthedowel; clampthejig . e a r i nagw o r kg l o v es,p i nt h e i n p l a c eW bladebackward, listen, andcaref ullynote thesound(/eff). Slidetheyokealongthe armto aligna toothnearthefrontof the tableoverthedowelandrepeat thetest. Thesound should bethesamein bothpositions.lf it is not,adjust themotorsupport nutaccording to themanufacturer's instructionsandrepeat thetest.

Eliminating vertical bladeheel Tiltthemotorcounterclockwise asfar position, as it willgo in thevertical then lockthebevelclamo.Totestforvertical p ,o s i t i ot n heeling h es o u n d i nj iggs ot h a t thetip of thehorizontal dowel aligns with a bladetoothnearthebackof thetable. Lower thebladeandsendit spinning backwardsoyoucansample thesound asin slepI (right).Slidethe yokealongthe s ,d j u s t i n g a r ma n dr e p e atth e p r o c e s a theheightif necessary; onceagainlisten forchanges in tone.lf thereis a discrepancy,release theyokeclampandadjust position themotor's following themanufacturer's instructions. Retest untileach testproduces similar tones.

118


MAINTAINING STA|IONARY POWERTOOLS

TESTING Y()UR ADJUSTMENTS Testing thesawforsquare of youradjustYoucanchecktheaccuracy ments to a radialarmsawmuchasyou wouldfora tablesaw(page112).Todeterto the minewhether thebladeissquare and sawtable,markanX ona wideboard it at yourmark.Thenturnone crosscut pieceoverandholdthecutendstogether ( A i n t h ei l l u s t r a t i a o tnr i g h t )A. n yg a p twicethe between thetwoendsrepresents if alignment; errorin theblade-to-table repeat theadjustment shown necessary, on page117. Nowbuttthetwoboards do against thefence(B).lf thetwopieces perfectly notfit together thebladeis not to thefence.Again, anygaprepresquare square sentstwicetheerror;if necessary, theblade to thefence.

ANDAUXILIARY TABLE INSTALLING A FENCE

gO" ker-t

Auxiliary table

ll9

Cutting a kerfinthefenceandauxiliary table Install knot-free a fenceof %-inch-thick, woodbetween thetablespacer andthe fronttable;makethefenceslightly higher For thanthethickness of yourworkpiece. a na u x i l i atrayb l ec, u ta p i e c eo f % - i n c h hardboard or plywood thesamesizeasthe fronttableandusecontact cement to glue it down,leaving a slightgapbetween it and sawdust fromjamming thefenceto prevent crosscutting or between thetwo.Before thefence making mitercuts,slicethrough andYrc to % inchdeepintotheauxiliary tableinthe90' and45' oaths oftheblade. Then,raise thebladeabove thetableand rotatethe motorto therippingposition. T u r no n t h es a wa n dl o w e irt t o m a k ea % o - i n c h - d eceupt .P u l lt h ey o k ea l o n g rip t h ea r mt o f u r r o wo u ta s h a l l o w t r o u g hi n t h ea u x i l i atrayb l e .


BAND SAWS the band Tl or manywoodworkers -I saw's thin,flexibteblademakes it the toolof choicefor cuttingcurves, resawing,andmakingfine,straightcuts.And because thebladeteethcutdownward, thereis no dangerofkickback. Sincethe bandsawbladeis only supported on thecrownof two large

After manyhoursof use,thetireson bandsawwheelscanbecome worn, cakedwith sawdust,or stretchedout of shape.Ifthethickness of abandsawtire is unevenaroundthewheel.insertinga screwdriverbladeunderthe tire, as shownin thephoto at left, and working it aroundthetire'scircumference canrestoreitspropershape.

CHECKING THEWHEELS thewheelbearings 1 Checking I Openonewheelcover,graspthe wheelat thesides,androckit backand torlh(right).Repeat whileholdingthe wheelat thetopandbottom.lf thereis playin thewheeloryouheara clunking noise,remove thewheelandreplace the bearing. Thenrepeat thetestforthe otherwheel.

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wheels, it mustbeproperlytensioned andtracked(page123)everytimeyou changeblades,otherwiseyou risk crookedcutsandbrokenblades. Setup adjustments for themachinearenot time-consuming, but theyareimportant.Particular attention shouldbepaid to the alignmentof the wheels(page 123).Misaligned wheels canGruse excessivebladevibration.Alsoperiodically adjusttheguideassemblies andcheck thetablefor square(page123). Iftheseprocedures do not restorea poorlycuuingsawto peakperformance, thewheels or tiresmaybeto blame.The stepsshownbelowandon thefollowingpages detailhowto correctout-ofroundandunbalanced wheels, andwill makeyourbandsawcutstraighter and helpitsblades lastlonger.


MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS

r) Testing forout-of-round wheels I Startwiththeupperwheel.Bracing a s t i c ka g a i n st ht eu p p egr u i d ea s s e m b l y , holdtheendof thestickabout\e tnch fromthewheel's away tire.Thenspinthe wheelby hand(right),lf thewheelortire is outof round, thegapbetween thestick a n dt h ew h e ewl i l lf I u c t u a t teh; ew h e e l mayevenhitthestick.lf thediscrepancy (sfep %:inch,remedy theproblem exceeds 3). Reoeat thetestforthelowerwheel.

anout-of-round wheel Q Fixing r.,f Startbydetermining whether the tireor thewheelitselfis theproblem. Trystretching thetireintoshape with (photo, page120),lhen a screwdriver repeat thetestin step2. lf thewheel isstilloutof round, usea sanding block to sandthetire;thismaycompensate foruneveness in thetire.Forthelower w h e e lt ,u r no nt h es a wa n dh o l dt h e sanding blockagainst thespinning tire (left).Fortheupperwheel,leave thesaw unplugged androtate thewheelbyhand. perRepeat step2 again. lf theproblem s i s t st,h ew h e eilt s e l ifs o u to f r o u n d . Haveit truedat a machinist's shop.

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MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS

ATIGNING THEWHEELS

wheelalignment 1 Checking I Toensure thatvourbandsawwheels areparallel to eachotfrer anOin thesame plane,holda straightedge vertical against them(page104).Thestraightedge should restflushagainst thetopandbottomof eachwheel.lf thewheels areoutof alignment,tryto bringthetopwheelto a verticalposition withthetilt knob.lf the straightedge stillwillnotrestflush,measurethegapbetween therecessed wheel (above)to andthestraightedge determine howfaryouneedto movetheoutermost wheelin (step2).

lllllllllll tlljllttlll l1ll ll|J IlJll|lllfilllllll lltllltllllIjIJ tltl 1HO?Tt? Zalanainga band saw wheel Tochecklhewheels of aband it:, eachone ) garyforbalance,eVin by hand.Whenit comeotoregt, makea markatbhe bottom and opinit aqain.lfthe markcomesto reetral lhe bollom morethan lwo limes oul of lhree,the wheelie imbalanced.Tocorreal.lhe problem, drill ehallowholeebetweenIhe rim and opokeeatlhe heavyVoinX (ri1ht). Remount, lhe wheeland pefformf,heheet,aqain.Borea6 ., manyholeoas neceoaary.When j the wheelolope returninqNolhe oame pooilion,it is balanced.

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r) Shifting theoutermost wheel l inrcatignment Remove theoutermost wheelfollowing theinstructions in yourowner's manual. (lt is betterto shifttheoutermost wheel in to correct thealignment rather than to move theinnerwheel out;thiskeeps thewheels ascloseaspossible to thesaw frame.) Thenshiftthewheelbyremoving oneor moreof thefactory-installed wash(lf therearenowashers, ers(above). you canshimtherecessed wheelwithwashersto bringthewheels intoalignment.) Reinstall thewheelandtiehten theaxle nut.Repeatstep 1.


MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS

THEBLADE ANDTRACKING TENSIONING Tracking theblade hanthesawandturnthetension Unplug to raise dleat thetopof thesawclockwise onthe tension thetoowheelandincrease the bladefromsideto side blade.Deflect Increase thetension to gauge thetension. untilthe bladedeflectsaboulYoinchto Totrackthe eithersideof thevertical. b l a d el,o w etrh e u p p egr u i d ea s s e m b l y , r h e ebl y h a n dt o t h e ns p i nt h eu p p ew in the thebladeistracking checkwhether the center of thewheel.lf it is not,loosen Thenspinthewheel tilt knoblockscrew. whileturningthetilt knob(right)to angle thewheeluntilthebladeis centered.

THEGUIDE ASSEMBLIES ADJUSTING thethrustbearings 1 Setting byeyeto seeif theupperguide I Check assembly is square to the blade.lf not, adjust loosen theguideassembly setscrew, is square theassembly sothatthebearing to the blade,andtightenthesetscrew. and Then,loosen thebearing thumbscrew knobuntilthethrust turntheadjustment justtouches theblade.Backthe bearing bearing off slightly(left)andtightenthe Thelowerguideassembly thumbscrew. thrustbearing, whichis located directly thetableinsert,is adjusted the beneath spinthe sameway.Tocheckthesetting, wheelbyhand.lf the blademakes upper spin,backthebearing off eitherbearing slightly andrecheck.

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MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS

r) Setting guideblocks Z- Tosettheupperguideblocks, loosen t h e i rs e t s c r e w a sn dp i n c ht h e b l o c k s together usingyourthumbandindexfinger untiltheyalmost touchtheblade. Alternatively,usea slipof paperor a feelergauge (left)Io setthespacebetween the blocks a n dt h eb l a d eT. i g h t etnh es e t s c r e w s . Next,loosen thethumbscrew andturnthe adjustment knobuntilthefrontedges of t h eg u i d eb l o c kasr ej u s tb e h i n tdh eg u l lets.Tighten thethumbscrew. Setthelowerguideblocks thesameway.

SOUARING THETABLE ANDBLADE Aligning thetable 1 I To ensure thatthe mitergauge slot is properly aligned on bothsidesof the tableslot,setthemitergaugein itsslot andslidethegaugebackandforthacross thetable.Thegauge should slidefreely pressure. withonlymoderate lf thegauge pliersto remove binds,uselocking the a l i g n m ep n itn .T h e ni,n s e rt th ep i ni n t o its holeandusea ball-peen hammer to tap it deeper(right)untilthe mitergauge slides freelv.

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MAINTAINING STAf IONARY POWERTO OLS

Checking thetableangle posiWiththetablein thehorizontal tion,remove thetableinsert, thenbutta square against thesideofthe combination Thesouare shouldfit sawbladeasshown. flushagainstthe tableandblade(right). lf thereis a gapbetween thetwo,loosen the thetwotablelockknobsunderneath tableandmakesurethetableis seated properly the on thetablestop.Tighten lockknobs.lf thegapremains, adjustthe tablestopGtep3).

Aligning thetablestop Tiltthetableoutof thewav,thenuse twowrenches asshown to adjustthetable stoo.Usethe lowerwrench to holdthe locknutstationary andtheupperwrench to turnthetablestop(left).Turnthestop clockwise to lowerit andcounterclockwise to raiseit. Recheck thetableangle.

125


IOINTERSANDPLANERS tf h. teamofjointerandthickness I planerareresponsible forsquaring theedges andfaces ofa workpiece. The projectrests success of anywoodworking onthesefirstcrucialsteps, soit isessentialthatbothmachines aresetupprop-

erly.Eventhe most accuratetablesaw will only compounderrorsmadeat the jointingandplaningstage. Accuratejointingdependson precise alignmentof the two tablesand the fence.Beginby ensuringthat the out-

feedtableis at the sameheightasthe cuttingedgesof theknivesat their highest point, also known as Top Dead Centeror TDC ftelow).Thencheckthat thetablesareperfectlysquareto thefence andalignedwith eachother(page127). Because it hasmore movingparts, thethicknessplanerrequiresa little more attention. Most importantly, always checkto seethat the feed rollersare properly adjusted(page129)and that the planer'sbedis parallelto the cutterheadalongits length (page130).

Mostjointershave90"positivestops that canbefine-tunedif thefence cannotbeaccurately squaredto the tablethroughnormaladjustment. For the modelshown(left), the 90"positivestopis a springJoaded plungerthat sitsin an indexcollar. Tofine-tunethefenceposition,the indexcollaris adjustedby meansof a setscrew

SETTING OUTFEED TABLE HEIGHT tableheight 1 Checking I Withthejointerunplugged, usea smallwooden wedgeto rotatethecutterheaduntiltheedgeof oneknifeis at its point.Thenholda straight highest hardwoodboardontheoutfeed tablesothat it extends overthe cutterhead without contacting the infeedIable(right).The justbrushagainst knifeshould theboard. Perform thetestalongthe lengthof the knife,moving the boardfromthefence to the rabbeting ledge.Repeat thetest fortheotherknives. lf a knifefailsthe test,adjustits height(page84I lf none of theknives is levelwiththeboard, raise or lowertheoutfeed tableby loosening the tablelockandmoving theoutfeed table adjustment handle.

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MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTO OLS

r) Adjusting thepositive stop L f tneoutfeed tableisstillnotlevel posiwiththeknives, adjust thejointer's tivestops, whichprevent thetablefrom m o v i nogu to f a l i g n m ew n th i l ei n u s e . Forthemodelshown, firsttighten the outfeed tablelockandloosen thetwo locknutsontheothersideof thetool. Backoff thetwopositive stopsandthen adjustthe heightof theoutfeed table (sfepl) until withtheadjustment handle thetableis levelwiththeknives at their pointof rotation. highest Tighten the tablelock.Tighten thepositive stopsas farastheywillgo,thentighten thelock nuts(lefD.

ALIGNING THETABLES ANDFENCE

thetables 1 Aligning J - R e m o vteh el o i n t e r 'fse n c et,h e nr a i s et h e i n f e e d t a b l e Whenthetablesareperfectly level, tighten thelocking screws. to the sameheightasthe outfeed table.Usea straightedge lf youhavea jointer withgibscrews, adjustoneor moreof the level. lf thealign- gibscrews at thebackof thetooluntilthestraightedge rests to confirmthatthetwotablesareabsolutely position mentis notperfect, right);remove adjustthehorizontal of thetables. f lushon bothtables(above, the pulleycover, Themodelshown features if necessary, lf youmoved eccentric tablesupports thatcanbe to access thescrews. theoutfeed adjusted byfirstloosening a locking screw andthentapping an tableduringthisprocess, recheck its height(page126). (above, adjustment camwitha hammer andscrewdriver left),

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MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS

r) Squaring thefencewiththetables posiL Wttnthefencesetin itsvertical t i o n ,h o l da t r ys q u a r oe n t h eo u t f e e d t a b l en e a tr h ec u t t e r h e aadn db u t tt h e squareb ' sl a d ea g a i n st h t ef e n c eT. h e fit flushagainst square should thefence. lf thereisanygapbetween thetwo,slackhandle, enthelocking tilt thefenceuntil it isflushwiththesquare, andretighten thehandle(lef|.fhe 90'positive stop shouldbeengaged in theindexcollar.lf thefenceis stillout-of-square, adjust the positivestop(page126).

One of the most commonjointing and planing defectsis snipe,or a concavecut at the trailing end of a workpiece.On a planer, snipeoccurs when there is too much play between the table and thefeed rollers,and can be correctedby proper feed roller adjustment(page 129). On a jointer (right), snipeoccurswhen the outfeed table is set lower than the knives at their highestpoint ofrotation, and can be correctedby aligning the outfeed table (page 126).

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MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS

PLANERS C l e a n i npgl a n er o l l e r s P l a n efre e dr o l l e r sc a ng e t d i r t yq u i c k l y whenplaningpitchJilled softwoods suchas p i n e .P e r i o d i c a lul ys em i n e r asl p i r i t so r a solution of ammonia andwaterwitha brassb r i s t l e db r u s ht o c l e a nm e t a lf e e dr o l l e r s . l e a nr u b b e fr e e d o f p i t c ha n d r e s i n C rollerswith a sharpcabinetscraper(right).

Adjusting feedrollers presSometimes it is necessary to increase planer's sureona feedrollers, aswhen planing narrow stockorwhenstockslips a si t i s f e di n t ot h em a c h i n eI n. e i t h e r case, theinfeed rollershould f irmlygrip (Some planers theboard. feature a serrated metalinfeedroller;in thiscasethe pressure shouldbeenough to movethe boardbut notsomuchthatthe rollers patternin theboardafter leavea serrated it is planed.) Onmostplaners, thefeed rollers areadjusted byturning spring-loaded screws on topof themachine. Forthe m o d esl h o w nr ,e m o vteh ep l a s t icca p s andadjust thehexnutswithanopen-end wrench(left).Makesureafteradjusting t h ef e e dr o l l e rtsh a t h et a b l ei s p a r a l l e l to therollers(page130).lf therollers do notcarrythewoodsmoothly through the planer afteradlustments, cleantherollers orwaxthetable.

129


MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS

thetableforlevel Checking T oc h e c ki f y o u rp l a n e r t' sa b l ei s l e v e l runtwo andparallel to thecutterhead, jointedsiripsof woodof thesamethicknessthrough opposite sidesof themachine (left),Ihen compare theresulting thicknesses. lf thereisa measurable difference, a d j u stth et a b l ea c c o r d i nt ogt h em a n u facturer's insiructions. lf yourmodelof planer hasnosuchadjustment, resetthe knives in thecutterhead sothattheyare slightly lower at thelower endof thetable fortheerror. to comoensate

Lubricating theheight adjustment periodically Toensure smooth operation, cleantheplaner's height adlustment mecha n i s mf ,i r s tu s i n ga c l e a nd, r yc l o t ht o remove sawdust andgrease. Thenlubricate thethreads witha TeflonrM-based lubrigrease; cantorautomotive bearing oilshould beavoided asit maystainthewood.

130


DRILL PRESSES havea reputationas J) rill presses l-rf workhorsemachinesthat rarelyAnd yet if ever-require maintenance. theycanslip out of alignmentjust aseasily asanyotherstationarypowertool. Most drill pressproblemsarefound in the chuckand table.A tablethat is not squareto the spindleis the most commonproblem,and is easilyremedied.Runout.or wobble.is a moreserious problem,and canbe tracedto the

spindleor chuck.If theproblemlieswith thespindle, it canoftenbefixedsimply by strikingthespindlewith a hammer until it istrue;if thechuckisat fault,it mustberemoved andreplaced. Do not neglect thedrill press'belts andpulleysin yourmaintenance. Check keepthem thebeltsfor wear,andalways properly. tensioned Periodically checkthe in thepulleys, andreplace them bearings if theybecome worn.

Thespeedof manydrill presses is changedby a systemof beltsandpulleyshousedin thetopof thetool. Tokeepthebeltsat theproperdegree of tension,these thebeltsfor drill presses featurea leverthat loosens changingand tightensthemto setthecorrecttension (right).A bebshouldflex about1 inchout of line.

SQUARING THETABLE

thetable 1 Aligning I Install an8-inch-long steelrodin thedrillpress chuckas youwoulda drillbit,thenraise thetableuntilit almost touches therod.Butta trysquare against therodasshown; theblade it (above). lf thereisa gap,adjustthe shouldrestflushagainst instructions. Forthemodel tablefollowing themanufacturer's pinunderthetable,loosen shown, remove thealignment the t a b l el o c k i nbgo l t a , n ds w i v e l t htea b l eu n t i l t h er o di s f l u s h withthesquare. Tighten thelocking bolt.

r') Conecting chuckrunout L Usea dialindicator to seeif thereis anyrunout,or wobble,in the chuck(page105).lt thereis, raptherodwitha (above)and hammer for runoutagain; ball-peen thenmeasure 0.005inchisconsidered themaximum acceotable amount. Pullthearmof thedialindicator ouiof thewayeachtimeyou taotherod.

131


MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS

REPLACING THECHUCK

Removing andremounting a chuck arecommonly attached to the Chucks quillof a drillpress witha tapered spinmodels dle.(Older oftenhavechucks thataresimplyscrewed in place.) To remove a faultychuckthatfeatures a t a p e r esdp i n d l ef i,r s tl o w etrh eq u i l l Fitanopen-end andlockit in place. wrencharound on topof thespindle thechuckandgivethewrench a sharp upwardblow(above). Thechuckshould slideout.lf not,rotate thespindle and tryagain.Toremount thechuck,pressfit it intothespindle byhand.Then,with jawsfullyretracted, givethe thechuck's mallet. chucka sharoblowwitha wooden

llllllttllll]tllllttlltllllIIttltiilllilltlllfitllllllll1 fitlllllllll 5HO?TI? Che aking tabl e alignment Tocheckwhebhera drill preoo t ableie equareNoNheeVindle, makea 90'bend aL each end of a 12-inchlen7Ih of wirecoal hanqer. lneerl oneend of the wirein Ihe chuck and adjuotthe table heiqhl until Ihe obher end of rhe wire luoI LoucheoIhe Lable.KoIaLeIhewire;iIshould barelyecra?eNheIable aI all poinledurinqiNeroIaNion.lf not, adiuet,Ihetable.

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LATHESAND SHAPERS of a latheshouldbe Thedrivecenters keptassharpasyour turning tools. If thespursorpointofa drivecenter aredull or chipped,theywill notgrip properly.Drive centers theworkpiece on q benchgrinderor aresharpened with afiIe (right).A 35"bevelon the of eachspurworksbest. underside

LATHES

Sanding thelathebed thebedof yourlathemay lf yourshopis in a humidclimate, thetailstock develop a thin layerof rustwhichcanprevent To keepthe lathebed andtoolrestfromslidingsmoothly.

IJJ

the bysanding anyrustassoonasit appears clean,remove (above),200-grit orf iner,thenapply bedwithfinesandpaper a oastewax.


MAINTAINING STATIONARY POWERTOOLS

Draw-filing thetoolrest Because it is madeof softersteelthanthe turningtoolsusedagainst it, thebearing surface of thetoolrestwill develop low spots,marks,andnickswithconstant use.lf notremedied, theseimperfections will betransferred you to theworkpieces turn,or cause thetoolto skip.Youcanredressa toolresteasilywitha single-cut bastard millfile.Draw-file therestbyholdi n gt h ef i l ea t a n a n g l ea n dp u s h i nigt acrossthe workfromrightto left in over(/eff).Continue lapping strokes untilyou haveremoved thenicksandhollows, then smooththesurface with200-gritsandpaperor emerycloth.

Checking forcenteralignment precise Turning between centers requires alignment of drivecenters between headstockandtailstock, youwill otherwise produce off-center turnings. Toseeif the drivecenters lineup,inserta four-spur drivecenterin theheadstock anda live centerin thetailstock. Slidethetailstock alongthe bedup to the headstock kight). Thepointsof thedrivecenters shouldmeet exactly. lf theydo not,youmayhaveto shimthetailstock orfile downits base.

134


MAINTAINING STAIIONARY POWERTOOLS

SHAPERS runout lorspindle Checking faceup dialindicator Seta magnetic-base of the tablesotheplunger ontheshaper the Calibrate contacts thespindle. device gauge themanufacturer's to zerofollowing slowly instructions. Thenturnthespindle will Thedialindicator by hand(right). of runout-theamount register spindle e i l lt r a n s f et or w o b b lteh a tt h es o i n d lw thetestat intervals thecutter.Perform spindle, adjusting the length of the along runout lf the %inch aI a time. itsheight for anv of the tests, 0.005 inch exceeds soindle. reolace the

thefences Squaring fence-ora of a shaper Thetwohalves parroutertablefence-mustbeperfectly y o u r a l l e lo, t h e r w i s e c u t sw i l lb eu n e v e n . first on a shaper, Tosquare thefences Holda handles. loosen thefencelocking Thetwo against thefences. straightedge thestraighthalves shouldbuttagainst edge(left).lfnot,addwoodshimsbehind lel. thefences untiI theyareparal

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OTHERTOOLS Because a scrollsawbladeis heldin clampsthatpivot on theendof the sAw'sarmsduringa cut, replacinga bladeis a tricky taskthat risksstretching and snappingthedelicatecutting edge.Themodelof scrollsawshownat Ie[tfeaturesa uniqueblade-changing wrenchthat holdsthebladeclamps steadyasthebladeis tightened.

SCR(ILL SAWS Checking blade tension Thebladesof a scrollsaw-likethoseof a proper bandsaw-require tension to cut effectively. Toolittletensionwill cause excessive vibration andallowthebladeto wander duringthecut.Toomuchtension canleadto bladebreakage. To adjust bladetension on the modelshown, first tilt the bladetensionleverforward. Then adjustthe bladetensionknob(right)to increase or decrease bladetension. Tilt the bladetensionleverbackandtestthe b l a d el.t s h o u l d e f l e cat b o u % t inch whenpushed fromsideto side.Pluckthe b l a d ea n dr e m e m b tehr es o u n dl.t w i l l allowyouto tension thebladequicklyin f uture.Always adjustthetension when youchange blades.

136


MAINTAINING STA| IONARY POWER TOOLS

Squaring theblade To souare the scrollsaw'sbladeto the against square table,butta combination should f it Thesquare thebladeasshown. flushagainst theblade.lf thereis a gap, loosen thetablelockknobandadjust thenutonthe90'stopuntilthetable is levelandthereis nogapbetween Tighten the andtheblade. thesquare lockknobGbove).

1HO?TI? lnotallingan air pump Olderscrolleawsand oomeforeiqnmodele oflen comewith- I ouNa eawdusl {â&#x201A;Ź; bloweca device S lhatkeeosthe cult inq line clearwhile the eawie in use. Asimpleelectric aopariumpump and tume co??er tubinq Qiqht) can dothetrick at a

fu'actionof the cost atlachment.SimplyinserLa10'to 1Z'inch of a eawdusiblowin7 len7thof coppertubing into the ?um?'oplaoticair hose,makinqan airLiqhtoeal,Tapethe hoseto lhe oawe upperarm, and bendt'he copfe, endto p'ointat, the blade.?inchthb'endof rhe t'ubeeliqhrly to direct,theair and increaseit's preeeure.

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MAINTAINING STAfIONARY POWERTOOLS

BELT.AND.DISC SANDERS Testing fortrueness Tomeasure whether thewheelistrue,first remove anyabrasive discs.Connect a dial indicator to a magnetic baseandsetthe baseonthetool'sdisctable.Placethe device sothatitsarmcontacts thediscand turnonthemagnet. Calibrate thedialindicatorto zerofollowing themanufacturer's instructions. Turnthesanding discby hand,andreadthe result(left).Thedial indicator willregister thetrueness of the wheel.Perform thetestat various ooints around thedisc.lf theamount of wobble exceeds 0.005inchforanyof thetests, adjust themotorposition or havethebearinsq ronlrned

Tracking thesanding belt Tostraighten a sanding beltthatis not tracking true,turnthebelt-and-disc sander's tracking knobclockwise or counterclockwisewhilethetoolis running(righl.f o problems, correct severe tracking unplug thetoolandrelease tension onthesandingbeltbypushing downonthetracking knob.Center thebeltonthepulleys and release theknob.Thenturnonthetool andadjust thetracking knobasrequired. Always trackthebeltwhenchanging belts or installing a newone.

138


MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS

AIRC(lMPRESSORS Draining thecompressor hasbeenusedfor Whenanaircomoressor anextended oeriodof timeor in exceedmoisture willcolinglyhumidconditions, maycause lectin thetank.Thismoisture outwiththe rust;it canalsobesprayed finish. air,whichcanruina spraylacquer shutoff themotor, Todrainthemoisture, fromthetank,andopen relieve all pressure valveat the bottom(right). the drainage on depending Drainthetankperiodically, howoftenyouusethe compressor.

Changing theoil andairfilters change Afterevery100 hoursof operation, oil.Todraintheoil, anaircompressor's from shutoffthemotor,relieve all pressure thedrainplugwitha thetank,andloosen wrench. Collect theoldoil in a container of it safely. Closethedrain anddispose plugandfill thepumpwiththeoil recom(left).Do mended bythe manufacturer pump. Alsochecktheair notoverfill the filterweekly. Tocleantheairf ilter,remove andlift off thefilter(inset). the housing of detergent Cleanthefilterin a solution it if it cannotbecleaned. andwater;replace

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GLOSSARY A-B-C Abrasive:A coarsepowder or a pieceof paper or fabric coatedwith grit particlesusedto smooth wood.

Buffing: Polishinga sharpened edgeto a mirror-like finish using a cloth or rubber wheelimpregnated with fine abrasivecompounds.

Arbor: A shaft driven by a stationary power tool motor to turn a revolving blade or other cutting implement.

Burnisher: A rod-like steeltool usedto turn a lip on a tool edge, especiallyscraperedges.

Bearing: A machined part located on a motor shaft,permitting the shaft to turn without friction. Belt tension: The measureof how tight a stationarypower tool drive belt or abrasivebelt is stretched acrossits pulleys. Benchstone:Any natural or synthetic sharpeningstoneusedat the bench. Bevelcut Sawingat an anglefrom faceto facethrough a workpiece. Blade heeh Bladerotation that is not perfectlyparallelto the fenceof a table saw or the arm of a radial arm saw. Blade set:The amount that saw teeth are alternatelyoffsetto left and right, allowing a bladeto cut a kerf slightly wider than its own thickness to help preventbinding.

Burr: A small ridge formed on the flat faceof a tool blade asa result of the honing process. Cap iron: A metal plate screwedto a planeblade,preventingchatter and the buildup of wood chips. Carbide-tipped blade:A sawblade on which the teeth aremade of a compound of carbon and steel; suchbladeedgesare strongerand staysharperlonger than conventional high-speedsteelblades. Chip lifter: The machined surfaces on a Fortsneror multi-spur bit directly behind the cutters. Chuck Adjustablejaws on a drill or drill pressfor holding bits or other accessories. Collet The sleevethat grips the shankof a router bit.

Blade tension: The measureof how tight a band sawblade is stretched acrossits wheels.

Combination bladq A circular saw blade designedfor making both crosscutsand rip cuts.

Brushes:A carbon or copper conductor that deliverscurrent from the stationaryelementof an electric motor to the rotating coil.

CrosscutA cut madeacrossthe grain of a workpiece. D-E-F-G.H-I Dado head:A blade,or combination of bladesand chippers,usedto cut dadoesin wood. Dado: A rectangularchannelcut into a workpiece.

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Dial indicator: A measuringdevice with a magneticbaseusedto determine runout on stationaryand portable power tools, typically calibrated in thousandthsof an inch. Drill point angle The angleto which a drill bit must be ground and sharpenedfor efficientcutting. Drive belt Any rubber belt that connectsa stationarypower tool motor with its arbor or spindle,sometimes through a systemof pulleys. Drive center:A lathe accessory mounted in either the tailstock or headstockto support turning work; can either be fixed or turn with the work by meansof ball-bearings. Feelergauge:A preciselyground metal blade,furnished in sets,used to accuratelymeasurethe gap betweentool parts. Fence:An adjustableguide designed to keepthe edgeor faceof a workpiecea set distancefrom the cutting edgeof a tool. Ferrule: A metal ring that tightens aroundthe end ofa handleto prevent splitting. Frog:The part ofa hand planethat supportsthe blade;usuallythe frog can be moved back and forth to adjust the mouth openingof the plane. Grinding: The initial stepin sharpening where nicks are removed,the cutting edgeis squared,and the bevel is established;typically done on a bench grinder.


Gullet The gap betweenteeth on a sawblade.

abrasivedisc on an orbital or random-orbit sander.

Honing: The processof converting a rough-ground edgeto a smooth, uniform cutting edge.

Out-of-round wheel A band saw wheelthat is not perfectlyround.

Snipe:A concavecut createdby a jointer or planer at the end of a workpiece,the result of improper pressureon the workpieceor inaccuratelyset tableheight.

Outfeed: The part of a machine's table that is behind the bladeduring a cutting operation.

Spindle: The threadedarbor on a power tool that turns cuttersand accessorres.

Platen:A support plate for sandpaper belts on sanders.

Square Two surfacesof a workpiece that are at 90" to eachother.

Positive stop: An adjustablescrew on a stationarypower tool usedto keepthe tool's table at a set angle, typically90'and 45o.

Stropping: Polishinga sharpened edgeto a mirror-like finish using strips of leatherimpregnatedwith fine abrasivecompounds.

Quill: A sleevesurrounding the spindleof a drill press;the amount that the quill can be raisedand lowereddeterminesthe depth of hole a drill presscan bore.

T-U-V-W-X.Y-Z Tearout The tendencyof a blade or cutter to tear the fibers of wood, leavingraggededgeson the surface of the workpiece.

R-S Raker:A tooth in a sawbladethat clearssawdustand wood chips out of the kerf.

Teethper inch (TPI): A unit of measurementusedto identifr types and usesof sawbladesby the number of teeth per inch of bladelength.

Reversethread: A machinedthread that tightensand loosensin the oppositedirection to the rotation of the tool bit so that the cutter remainstight during operation.

Ternper:The degreeofhardness in tool steel;also,the color of steel after the tempering process.

Hoolc A uniform burr turned on the cutting edgesof a scraper. Infeed: The part of a machine's table that is in front of the blade during a cutting operation. l-K-r-M-N-O-P-Q fointing: Cutting thin shavings from the edgeand faceof a workpieceuntil they are flat and square. Kerf: The spaceleft when wood is removedby the sawblade. Kickback The tendencyof a workpieceto be thrown back in the direction of the operatorof a tool. Lapping: Rubbing the faceof a plane or chiselblade acrossa sharpening stoneto removethe burr that resultsfrom honing the blade. Microbevel A secondarybevelhoned on the cutting edgeof a blade. Miter cut A cut that anglesacross the faceof a workpiece. Oilstone: Any natural or synthetic sharpeningstonethat usesoil as a lubricant. Orbital action: The up-and-forward movement of somesabersawblades on their upstroke;replacesthe traditional straight up-and-down action of a reciprocating-typesabersaw. Also. the eccentricmotion of the

Rip cut A cut that follows the grain of a workpiece-usually made along its length. Runout The amount of wobble in tool'sarbor or spindle. Sharp: A cutting edgeis said to be sharpwheretwo flat, polishedsurfacesmeetat an angle. Slipstone:A sharpeningstonewith curvededgesusedto sharpengouges and other similarly shapedtools.

r4l

Tracking: Adjusting a band saw blade or abrasivebelt so that it is centeredon the tool's wheels. Waterstone:Any natural or synthetic sharpeningstonethat useswater asa lubricant. Wheel dresser:A deviceusedto true the working surfaceof a grinding wheel and exposefresh abrasive.


INDEX Pagereferences in italics indicatean illustration ofsubjectmatter.Pagereferences in bold indicate a Build It Yourselfproject.

A-B-C-D Abrasives,backendpaper Adzes,51,53,54 Air compressors, 139 Air pumps: Scrollsaws.137 Axes,51,54 Choosinga durableax handle(Shop

Tip),sa Bandsaws: Blades,.123 repairing broken blades,76-77 rounding a band sawblade(Shop Tip),75 sharpening,T3-74 storage,78 Guideassemblies, 123-124 Heat-resistantguideblocks,59, 75 Tablealignment,124-125 Wheels,120-121 alignment,104,122 balancinga band sawwheel(Shop Tip), 122 Belt sanders,88 Benchgrinders,16,20,21 Grindingjigs,13 Multi-tool jigs, 16 Reversingwheelguardsfor buffing (ShopTip),22 Wheels dressing,22 identification.20 Benchplanes,39 Assemblyand adjustment,3fl 45 Blades grindingwith a sander(ShopTip), 42 honing guideand anglejigs,17 sharpening,41-44 squaring,13 Refurbishing,4G41 Benchstones. 13 Oilstones.18 Truing, 19 'Waterstones, 12,17,18,19 Bevels,backendpaper Microbevels,15 Bits,60 Dri]ls augerbits, 55-57 brad-point bits,68-69 drill bit grinding attachments,58,61 drill bit sharpeningjigs, 61, 66 Forstnerbits. 67

multispur bits, 68 spadebits, 69 spoonbits, 55,57 storage,89 twist bits, 58,65-66 Routers non-pilotedbits, 62 pilotedbits, 63 router bit sharpeners, 61 storage,89 Storingbits (ShopTip), 89 Blades,60 Bandsaws.123 Benchplanes,13,17,41-44 Circularsaws,61 72,86 Radialarm saws,64,113,117,118,119 Sabersaws,93 Scrollsaws.136-137 Shapers,62,6j Tablesaws,64,70, 109 SeealsoKnives Braces,55-57 Brushassemblies, 98 Build It Yourself: Hand tools benchvisesawholders.28 jigs,33 gouge-sharpening Mobile sharpeningdollies,23 Chisels: Handles,3I Sharpening,32 Circularsaws,88,97 Blades alignment,86 jigs, 61,72 blade-setting blade-sharpen ing jigs,61, 72 changing,7.1 cleaning,Tl sharpeting, T2 139 Compressors, Disc-and-beltsanders,1 38-139 Drawknives,24, 51,53,54 Dressers,16,22 Drill presses, 131 Chucks,131-132 Runout.105 Tablealignment,131 checkingtablealignment(Shop Tip), 132 Drills,88,95 Bits augerbrts,55-5./ bit grindingattachments,58 6l brad-pointbits,68-69 Forstnerbits, 67 multi-spur bits, 68 sharpeningjigs, 61,66

r42

spadebits, 69 spoonbits, 5t 57 storage,89 twist bits, 58,65-66 SeealsoDrill presses E.F.G.H Electrical outlets,front endpaper Electricdrills. SeeDrills Extensioncords.89 Files,17 Gouges,25, 30 Handles,3l Sharpening carvinggouges,3G37 jigs,33 gouge-sharpening roughing-outgouges,33- 34 spindlegouges,35 v-tools,38 Shop-madehoning guidesand rust removers(ShopTip), 34 Grinders.SeeBenchgrinders Grinding,15 Handsaws: Benchvisesawholders,28 Fiing,26-27,29 loirlting,29 Setting,26,29 Storage sawholders(ShopTip), 27 Hand tools,25 Drills.55-57 Roughingand shapingtools,5.1-54 SeealsoBenchplanes;Chisels;Gouges; Handsaws;Scrapers Hatchets.SeeAxes Honing,15

r-J-K-L Inshaves, 51,53,54 Iigs: Grinders grindingjigs,l3 multitool jigs, 16 Hand tools jigs,28 gouge-sharpening handsaws,28 Planehoning guideand an$e jigs,17 Routers plywoodtruingjigs, ST Sharpeningpowertools jigs,61,72 circularsawblade-settirrg circularsawblade-sharpening jigs,61,72 drill bit grinding attachments,5& 6l jigs,61,66 drill bit sharpening jointer/planerknife-settingjigs, 61,79


f ointer/planerknife-sharpening ji9s,61,82-83 planer/jointer magneticknifesettingjigs, 29, 85 twist bit sharpeningjigs, 66 Jointers,126 Knife-settingjigs, 61,79 jigs, 61,82-83 Knife-sharpening Knives betrels,backendpaper installation, 85 sharyenrng,79-84 shifting knives for longer life (ShopTip), 8l Positivestops,126,127 Snipe,128 Table alignment, 127-128 Tableheight,.126 Knives: Jointers bevels,backendpaper installation, 85 knife-settingjigs, 61,79 jigs, 61,82-83 knife-sharpening sharpening,79-84 shifting knives for longer life (ShopTip), 8l Molding knives, 64 Planers banels,backendpaper knife-settingjigs, 61,79 jigs, 61,82-83 knife-sharpening Lapping,15 Lathes,133-134 Lowe,Philip, S-9 M-N-O-P-Q Microbevels,15 Oilstones,l8 Orbital sanders.88 Planers,126 Cleaning,129,130 Knives endpaper betrels,back knife-settingji gs,61, 79 jigs, 61,82-83 knife-sharpening sharpening,79,85 Rollers,.l29 Tablealignment,130 Planes.SeeBenchplanes Platejoiners,88, 94 Plugs,102-103 Polishing,15 Powertools: Brushassemblies, 98 Drive belts,106

Electricalsupply,front endpaper,89 cords,100-101 phtgs,102-10j switches,99, 107 wattageratings,front endpaper Lathes,133-134 Maintenance,8, 87-89,105 Platejoiners,88 Safetyprecautions,front endpaper,98 disablinga powertool (ShopTip), i03 Scrollsaws,136-137 installingan airpump (ShopTip), l3Z Shapers, 62,135 storageracksfor shapercutters (ShopTip), 63 TabIes,107 SeealsoBandsaws;Benchgrinders; Circular saws;Drill presses;Drills; Jointers;Planers;Radialarm saws; Routers;Sabersaws;Sanders; Table saws R-S-T-U-V 113 Radialarmsaws, Auxiliarytables,l19 Blades bladeheel,113,118 squaring, 117,119 Clamps,11+115 Cleaning,ll3 Fences,119 Molding knives, 64 Slidingmechanisms,l13, lI6 Tableadjustment,174 Routers,88,90,98 Bits,62-63 router bit sharpeners, 6l storage,89 Colletrunout, 9l Sub-bases truing,87 Sabersaws,88,92 Blades extendingbladelife (ShopTip), 93 squaring,93 Safetyprecautions: Powertools,fo nt endpaper, 98 disablinga powertool (ShopTip), 103 Sanders,88,96 Disc-and-beltsanders,138-139 46 Scrapers, Banels,backendpaper Sharpening cabinetscrapers,46,48-50 46,47-48 handscrapers, maintaining the correct burnishing angle(ShopTip), 50

r43

Scrollsaws: Blades,136-137 Installingan air pump (ShopTip), l3Z 62,135 Shapers, Storageracksfor shapercutters (ShopTip), 63 Sharpeningstones.seeBenchstones Sharpeningtechniques,6, I 1, 13-15 Sharpeningto ols, 16-17 Belt sanders grinding with a sander(ShopTip), 42 Burnishers,46 maintaining the correct burnishing angle(ShopTip), 50 variableburnishers,46 Dtessers,16,22 Mobile sharpeningdollies,23 For powertools,6l SeealsoBenchgrinders;Benchstones ShopTips: Hand tools,27, 34,42, 50,54 Portablepowertools,22, 89,93,103 Stationarypowertools,63,75, 81, 110, 122,132,137 Spokeshaves, 51,52,54 Starr,Richard,6-2 Stones.seeBenchstones 17 Strops,backendpaper, Switches,99,107 Tablesaws: Blades angleadjustment,109 changrng,T0 storage,T0 Cleaning,108,112 Height and tilt mechanisms,-l12 Miter gauges fixing a loosemiter gauge(Shop Tip), 110 squaring,lI0 Molding knives, 64 Rip fences,I l1 Tablealignment,108-109,111 Tableinserts,112 Tip burning, l1 Tools.SeeHand tools;Powertools; Sharpeningtools Twist bits: Bevels,back endpaper

w-x-Y-z Waterstones,18,-19 finishstones,12,18,19 fapanese Storageunits, 17 Waymark,Ian, l&11 Wet/dry grinders,16,20,21


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Theeditorswish to thank thefollowing SHARPENINGBASICS CooperTools,Apex,NC; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; Diamond MachineryTechnologyInc., Marlborough,MA; GarrettWade Company,New York, NY; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont; RecordTools Inc., Pickeiing,Ont.; The WoodworkersStore,Rogers,MN; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont.; Unicorn Abrasivesof Canada,Brockville,Ont.; VeritasTools Inc., Ottawa Ont./Ogdensburg,NY; Woodcraft SupplyCorp., Parkersburg,WV SHARPENING AND MAINTAINING HAND TOOLS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Anglo-AmericanEnterprisesCorp., Somerdale,Nf; Blackand Decker/EluPowerTools, _Hunt Valley,MD; C-ooperTools,Apex,NC; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; Diamond Machinery TechnologyInc., Marhorough, MA; GarrettWadeCompany,New York, NY; GeneralTools ManufacturingCo., New York, IriY; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury MA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Norton Abrasives CanadaInc., Montreal, Que.;RecordTools Inc., Pickering,Ont.; RobertSorbyLtd., Sheffield,U.K./BusyBeeMachineTools, Concord,Ont.; SandvikSawsand Tools Co., Scranton,PA; The WoodworkersStore,Rogers,MN; VeritasTools Inc., OttawaOnt./Ogdensburg,NY; Woodcraft SupplyCorp., Parkersburg,\4IV S}IARPENINGPOWERTOOL BLADESAND BITS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Adwood Corp., High Point, NC; Anglo-AmericanEnterprisesCorp., Somerdale,NJ; Blackand Decker/EluPowerTools,Hunt Valley,MD; CooperTools,Apex,NC; Delta InternationalMachinery/PorterCable, Guelp!, Ont.; Diamond MachineryTechnologyInc., Marlborough,MA; GarrettWade Company,New York, NY; GeneralTools ManufacturingCo., New York, NY; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; LagunaTools,LagunaBeach,CA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Norton AbrasivesCanadaInc., Montreal, Que.;RecordTools Inc., Pickering,Ont.; SandvikSawsand Tools Co., Scranton,PA; The WoodworkersStore,Rogers,MN; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont.; VeritasTools Inc., Ottawa Ont./Ogdensburg,NY; Woodcraft SupplyCorp., Parkersburg,\MV; WoodstockInternational,Bellingham,WA; Wood SystemsInc., New Beilin, WI MAINTAINING PORTABLEPOWERTOOLS AdjustableCI?Tp Co., Chicago,Irt Bhck and Decker/EluPowerTools,Hunt Valley,MD; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter Cable,Guelph,Ont.; Dewalt Industrial Tool Co., Hampstead,MD; GeneralTools ManufacturingCo., Inc., New York, NY; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; NewmanTools Inc., Montreal, Que; Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Steiner-LamelloA.G Switzerland/ColonialSawCo., Kingston,MA; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont. MAINTAINING STATIONARYPOWERTOOLS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; CampbellHausfeld,Harrison,OH; CooperTools,Apex,NC; Delta International Machinery/PorterCable,Guelph,Ont.; GeneralTools ManufacturingCo., Inc., New York, NY; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; |elEquipment and Tools,Auburn, WA; NewmanTools Inc., Montreal, Que; Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and LouisvilleiKY Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted in thepreparationof this book: LorraineDor6, Graphor Consultation,SolangeLaberge,Rob Lutes,GenevidveMonette

PICTURECREDITS Cover RobertChartier 6,7 Marie LouiseDuruaz 8,9 SteveLewis l0,llPerry Zavitz 14 (Iowerleft, lowerright)Hans Blohm

t44


I I I t I I I I I I t I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I

WORKSHO GPU I D E ABRASIVE CHART TYPE OFABRASIVE

AVAILABLE GRITS

ABRASIVE OUALITY

USES

paper Emery

Coarse/med ium/fine

Cnarco. fairlv cnfi

F l a t t e n i npgl a n es o l e s

Garnet sandpapel

50-280

Medium

Finergrits usedfor general sharpen ing

Aluminum oxide sandpaper

40-400

M e d i u mt o f i n e ;h a r d

F i n e rg r i t su s e df o r h o n i n gt o o l b l a d e sa n d b e v e l s

Silicon carbide sandpaper

80-600

Fineh ; ard

H o n i n gt o o lb l a d e sa n d b e v e l s

WeUdry sandpapel 60-1200 siliconcarbide

F i n e ;v e r yh a r d

L a p p i n gb a c k so f t o o lb l a d e s

Silicon carbide lapping compounds 90-600

E x t r e m e fl yi n ea n d h a r d

P o l i s h i ntgo o l s ;l a p p i n gb a c k s of tool blades

Steelwool

Coarse to fine; soft

C l e a n i ntga b l e so f s t a t i o n a r y powertools

0/00/000/0000

MAKING A C()MBINATION STROP Nolhinqpula a mirrorfinishand razor-eharV edqe A combinaLion on Loolelikean old-faehioned etrroo. stroVlikeNheoneehownbelowalloweyouto workuV to a hiqhpoliehwith severalqradeeof buffingcom' To makethe stroV,eimVlycut a Vieceof Vounds. inches 2 - i n c h - s q u a rhea r d w o o ed N o c a k bouN12

BEVEL ANGLES FORCUTTERS ,''-------------)

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l o n qa n d l u r n a h a n d l eo n o n ee n d .G l u ee l r i p eo f ecrapleaNher Lo eachof the four sidee;harness leatrher workebesL,althouqhan old beltrwilldo the firstlhree eidescan bechargedwiLh Lrick.The coaroeto finebuffinqcompoundo: for finalVoliohinq, Lhelaet,eideie ueedwiLhoulanycompound.

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Turning acraper: 8O'

Chisels:3O' (parin4chteel20", morttetnqchieel4O')

ffi Jointer and planer knives:35'

Planeiron: 3O' (eofLwoode25") 9kew:3O"

Oouge: 35'-55"

Twiet.bit:59"


The art of woodworking sharpening and tool care  
The art of woodworking sharpening and tool care  
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