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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP


W O R K S H OGPU I D E TIPS TABLE SAWSAFETY . U s ea s a f e t yg u a r dw h e n e v epro s s i b l e . B e f o r em a k i n ga b e v ecl u t ,c o n f i r mt h a t t h e g u a r dw i l l b e c l e a ro f t h e b l a d e . . Do not leavethe sawrunningwhenrt is unattended. o lf you are interrupted, completethe o p e r a t i ounn d e rw a yb e f o r et u r n i n go f f t h e s a wa n d l o o k i n gu p , o F o l l o wt h e m a n u f a c t u r e ri n' ss t r u c t i o n s t o c h a n g ea c c e s s o r i eusn; p u g t h e s a w f i r s t .M a k es u r et h a ts a wb l a d e sa n dc u t t e r sa r es h a r pc, l e a na n d u n d a m a g e d . o B e f o r ec u t t i n ga w o r k p i e c er e, m o v e a n yl o o s ek n o t sf r o mi t u s i n ga h a m m e r . I n s p e cst a l v a g ewdo o df o r n a r l sa n d screwsbeforecutting.

. D o n o i s t a r ta c u t u n t i lt h e b l a d ei s r u n n i n ga t f u l l s p e e d . . B e f o r eu s i n gt h e s a we a c ht i m e ,i n s p e c t rtssafetyfeatures.Makesurethereis no b i n d i n go r m i s a l i g n m eonft m o v i n gp a r t s . Do not usethe sawuntil suchproblems arecorrected. . A l w a y fse e dw o o di n t ot h e s a wb l a d e a g a i n stth e d i r e c t i o on f b l a d er o t a t i o n . . l v l a k se u r et h e r i p f e n c ei s l o c k e d in position b e f o r er i p p i n g . . D o n o t u s et h e m i t e rg a u g ei n c o m b i n a t i o nw t t ht h e r i p f e n c et o m a k ea c u l e x c e pw t h e nt h e b l a d ed o e sn o tc u t su t h ew o r k p i e c e , ch c o m p l e t e tl yh r o u g h as for a dadoor a groove.

r U s et h e r i p f e n c eo r t h e m i t e rg a u g ef o r a l l c u t t i n go p e r aoi n s ;n e v e ar t t e m p t o cutfreehand. . Beforerippnga board,ensure thatthe e d g ei n c o n t a cwt i t ht h er i pf e n c ei ss m o o t h andthatthesur andcompletely straight faceagainst thetableis flat. o S t a n dt o o n es i d eo f a n yw o r k p i e cdeu r i n ga n yc u t t i n go p e r a t i osno y o uw i l l n o t b e i n j u r e di n c a s eo f k i c k b a c k . r l f y o u h a v et o r e a c hp a s tt h e b l a d e , m a k es u r et o k e e py o u rh a n d sa t l e a s t 3 i n c h e sa w a yf r o mi t , r U s ea w o o d e n s t r c k r, a t h e trh a ny o u r f n g e r st,o c l e a rw o o ds c r a p sf r o mt h e sawtable.

W()RKS ASSEMBLY GUARD HOWA TABLE SAWBLADE

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kickback fingersandpreventing Protecting T h e s t a n d a r tda b l es a wb l a d eg u a r da s s e m b liyn c l u d e sa , h i c hd e fl e c t sf l y i n gw o o d p i v o t i n gc, l e a r - p l a s t b i cl a d eg u a r dw c h i p sa n d r e d u c etsh e c h a n c et h a tf i n g e r sw i l l s l i pa c c i d e n t a l l y i n t ot h e b l a d eT . h eg u a r di s c o n n e c t etdo a t h i n p i e c eo f m e t a l k n o w na st h e s p l i t t eor r r i v i n gk n i f e .A t t a c h e d i r e c t l yi n l i n e w i t h t h e b l a d e ,t h e s p l i t t e rk e e p st h e s a wc u t - o r k e r f o p e n .W i t h o ust u c ha d e v i c et,h e k e r fm a yc l o s ed u r i n ga c u t ,

backtoward theworkpiece binding the bladeandthrowing withgreatforce.Kickback canalsoresultif a worktheoperator propiecejamsbetween thebladeandthe rip fence.Further (or bya metalfinger is provided tectionfromkickback pawl,whichnormally rideson fingers) called ananti-kickback the In theeventof kickback, of theworkpiece. thesurface fromflyingback. theworkpiece f ingerdigsin,preventing

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OUTDOOR FURNITURE


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THE ART OF WOODVVORKING

OLITDOOR FURNITURE

TIME-LIFE BOOKS ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA ST.REMYPRESS MONTREAL


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t THE ART OF WOODWORKING wasproduced by ST.REMYPRESS PUBLISHER PRESIDENT

KennethWinchester PierreL6veilld

SeriesEditor SeriesArt Director SeniorEditor Editor Art Directors Designers

PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini Andrew Jones Jean-PierreBourgeois,SolangeLaberge HdldneDion, fean-GuyDoiron, FrancoisDaxhelet PictureEditor ChristopherJackson Writers JohnDowling,Adam Van Sertima Contr ibuting I llu strators GillesBeauchemin,Michel Blais, RonaldDurepos,MichaelStockdale, JamesTh6rien Administrator NatalieWatanabe ProductionManager MichelleTurbide Coordinator Dominique Gagn6 SystemCoordinator Eric Beaulieu Photographer RobertChartier Indexer ChristineM. Jacobs

Time-LifeBooksis a divisionof TimeLifeInc. TIMELIFEINC. President and CEO

George Artandi

TIME-LIFEBOOKS Publisher/ M anaging Editor Directorof Marketing ConsubingEditor Directorof EditorialAdministration Directorsof BookProduction ProductionManager Manager Quality Assurance

Neil Kagan WellsP.Spence lohn R. Sullivan BarbaraLevitt Marjann Caldwell,PatriciaPascale Ken Sabol JamesKing

THECONSULTANTS Craig Gilborn is the former director of the Adirondack Museumin Blue Mountain Lake,NewYork.He is alsoa builder of outdoorfurnitureand authorof AdirondackAndRustic Fumiture,p:ubl.ished by Abrams. GilesMiller-Mead taught advancedcabinetmakingat Montreal technicalschoolsfor more than ten years.A nativeof New Zealand,hehasworked asa restorerofantique furniture The Art of woodworking. Outdoor furniture. D. Cm. -

Inciudesindex. ISBN0-8094-9543-0 l. Outdoorfurniture.2.Furnituremaking. 3. Gardenornamentsand furniture. I. Time-Life Books.II. Series:Art of Woodworking. TTI97.5.09A78 1995 684.1'8-dc20 95-35782 CIP For information about any Time-Life book, pleasecall I -800-621-7 026,or write: ReaderInformation Time-Life CustomerService P.O.BoxC-32068 Richmond,Virginia 2326r-2068 @ 1996Time-LifeBooksInc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanicalmeans,including information storageand retrievaldevicesor systems,without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,exceptthat brief passages may be quoted for reviews. Secondprinting 1999.Printedin U.S.A. Publishedsimultaneouslyin Canada. TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time WarnerInc. U.S.A.

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CONTENTS 6

INTRODUCTION

L2 FACING THE ELEMENTS T4 A galleryof outdoor furniture designs L6 Selectingwood 1 8 |oinery and hardware 20 Finishing 22 24 26 34 36 44 46

CHAIRS Anatomy of an Adirondackchair Building an Adirondackchair Anatomy of a curvedchair Fashioninga curvedchair Anatomy of a loungechair Making a lounge chair

54 BENCHES 56 Anatomy of a gardenbench 5 8 Building a gardenbench 64 Parkbench 70 Anatomy of a treebench 72 Buitdinga treebench 78 80 90 92 98

TABLES Patiotable Foldingpicnic tableand bench Making a folding picnic table Keyedtenon bench

IO2 104 106 II2 II4

SWINGSAND GLIDERS Anatomy of a porch swing Buildinga porch swing Anatomy of a glider base Buildinga gliderbase

ll8 GARDENPROJECTS I20 Anatomy of an eight-sided planter I2I Building an eight-sidedplanter 126 Anatomy of a servingtrolley I27 Fashioninga servingtrolley 131 Anatomyof a gardenarbor I32 Building a gardenarbor I4O GLOSSARY I42 INDEX T44 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


INTRODUCTION

Iim Tolpinon

LONG-LASTING FI.]RNITI-IRE 'm goingto do whatto thatlovelychairandtableset?Well,I intendto expose it f I to the directheatandultravioletraysof the sun.ThenI'll let it getsoakingwet, freeze, andthenthawout with blastsof warm,dry air.And I'm goingto allowthisto happennot just once,but overand overagainfor the nexttwo to threedecades. Well,of courseI am:I'm buildinga pieceof outdoorfurniture. Thequestionis,how canI possiblybuild woodfurnitureto enduresuchhorrific abuse? To find someanswers, I lookedbackto theprinciplesandpractices of the carriageandboatbuildersof thelastcentury.It was,afterall,thesetradesmen who producedsomeof themosthighlystressed andseverely exposed-notto mention knownto man.Ifthesetradescoulddo that,I wasbettingthey beautiful-structures couldbuild oneheckof a lawnchair. \AhatI learnedboileddownto this:Thesecraftsmen askedmuchof everyDrece of woodthat wentinto a shipor carriage, but theyneveraskedmorethat it could give-and theydid all theycouldto preserve its integrity.Theychosewoodsthat wereinherentlyrot-resistant, beingcarefulnot to includesapwood, splits,pitchpockets,cross-grain, or otherdefects thatmightdiminishits strengthor longevity. Theycut the exposed shoulders of jointsat water-shedding anglesand applied beddingcompoundslike pinetar and Irish felt to the matingsurfaces-strategies thathelpedpreventmoisturefrom intruding,lingering, andnourishingwood-eating parasites. Theydesigned channels, drainholes,anddamsthroughoutthestrucwaterto flow awayfrom the wood.Theyavoidedflat surfaces, ture to encourage puddling.And bowingthetopsof horizontalareaslikerailsandboxlidsto discourage wherefasteners wereneeded(thoughtheyminimizedtheiruseasmuchaspossible andpins),theychosemetalsthat resisted rustandwerenot by usingwoodwedges corrosive to thewood. WhileI don'tintendto buildAmericawhilesittingin my lawnfurniture(l don't evenintendto beawake), I do wantthefruitsof my laborsto sele my familyfor many years.TothatendI employmuchof whatI havelearnedfrom theselong-gonetradesmen.And, sofar,that chairandtablehaveremainedlovely,continuingto do thejob for whichtheywereintended-whilelivinghappilyoutdoors.

A builderof outdoor Jim Tolpink alsoauthor furnitureandboats, the Taunton Press, including BuildingTradiof several books for He livesin PortTownsend, Washington. tionalKtchenCabinets. He isshownhereinsideq tinker'swagonthathebuilt 15yearsago pine. from douglas-firand tongue-and-groove


INTRODUCTION

ThomasPhillipsdescribes the

NATURAL BEAUTYOFWOOD whenan f *ur activelyinvolvedwith repairingall mannerof campfurnishings I antiquedealerfriendconvinced meto makemyfirstchair.Aftertakingtheplunge, I spentthreeyearsresearching beforeI attempted myfirstpiece.Thatwas11years ago,andI stillhaveit: a splitpost-and-rung model. NowI buildmostly"twig"furniture,thekindwith thebarkstillon.Thevarious indigenous woodsI workwith providemewith color,form,andtexture,allowingan artisticfreedomof expression virtuallyunlimitedby straightlines.Originallythis workevolved to complement mylifestyle, andit hassincebecome averyrewarding providinga business sideline, andpersonal recognition farbeyondanythingI ever dreamed of. Workingwith woodin itsnaturalstateisparticularly challenging. Muchpreparationandthoughtgoesinto everypieceI build.A thoroughknowledge of thewood I intendto workwith is a must.Asanexample, if I wantto havenaturalbarkon a project,thenI amrestricted to harvesting mymaterials duringa fewmonthsin the coldseason. Also,toolsto workwoodin its naturalstatearenot readilyavailable. Moreoftenthannot, figuringout howto do something takeslongerthanactually problems doingit. Oneof mybiggest isstorage: A stashof naturalstockfor chairstakes up farmorespace thanmilledlimber. Thereis alwayssomedetailthatchallenges my abilitiesandingenuityto execute it, whetherI amworkingwith oneof my owndesigns or something I'vereceived from somearchitectural firm. OftenwhenI amin theforestduringmy dailyactivitiesI find my eyecapturedby a specialcurvesomesaplinghasgrowninto anda pieceof furniturewill takeform,piecebypiece, in mymind.I canoftenseethefinishedproductbeforeI evenharvest theuniqueformthatcaughtmy eye.Then,it maybethreeweels,sometimes asmuchasfiveyears,beforethematerialsaredry enoughto workwith.I mayconsider subsequent designs, butI oftengobackto the originaloneI saw.Theactualhands-on workrequiredto makethepiecemaytake a fewhoursor weeks, but whenit'sfinished,it always leaves mewith a sense of fulfillmentandaccomplishment, temporarilydrainedof theartist'screative sparkand overwhelmed by thenaturalbeautyof wooditselfandthewarmthit provides.

ThomasPhillipsis awoodsmanagerin Tupper Lake,New Yoil<" wherehehasbeenrestoring outdoorand rusticfurniturefor neaily20years.


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INTRODUCTION

CraigGilborn talksabout

RUSTIC FURNITURE reeshavebeenmyneighbors for a quartercentury. Mybookonrusticfurniture, "tree I a dozenyearsin themakingandessentially about artj'wasresearched andwrittenwithintheAdirondack forest, in a clearing of themuseum grounds that washometo meandmyfamilyfor 20years. Ournexthome,whereI writethis,is in thewoods.Doeandfawn,vixenandpup,havemadetheircarefulwaythroughthe mixedforestanditstenderundergrowth of moss,ferns,andwildflowers, unaware of myspyingonthemfrommystudywindow. Oncleardays, thesunglintsonl,onglake, relievingthesultryshadows in whichthehouseis usuallycast. TheAdirondacks havemanyfeatures thatmaketheareaanincomparable natural treasure. Peopleplayin itswaters,climbits mountains, seekitsiolitude,and search out thewildlifethatroamtheforest.Forme,theAdirondack forestreigns supreme. Nearlyunbrokenandextending roughlya hundredmilesnorthto south, theforestnurturesallthatswims,crawls,andflies.Theforesthasshaped theregiont cultureanddoessoeventoday.Once,thousands of menandwomenworkedin the forest,cuttingitstreeswhilelivingin crudelogshanties milesfromhome,family,or anyrealtown.Today,althoughloggingoccupies far fewerpeople,it remainsan importantAdirondack industry-andtheforesta dominantpresence in residents' lives,shapinga culturethatis differentanddistinctfromruralcultureselsewhere. Thatoutdoorfurniture,especially of thetwiggykind,shouldbeaproductof this forestenvironment isnotsurprising. Whatmorenaturalfurnishings shouldspring fromtheforest?Perhaps moresurprisingis thestyletpopularityamongurbanites. It wasa'craftthatwaspractised nearlyeverywhere in theAmericanEastbetween 1825and 1900.Rusticbenches andgardenhouses wereassembled in Manhattan andshippedwherever therewasabuyerandconveyance. Theresurgence thatbegan in theearly1970s continues, to mypleasant surprise, to thisday. Thisrusticcraftjogsamemorymadeof ourarboreal heritage amongthebuilders andbuyers. Whoknowswhysomeone purchases achairof branches androotfor an apartment 30floorsoffthepavement? In anyevent,thatlonelychair,a talisman of naturein theciry canperformits therapyaslongasthereareforeststo visitand dreamabout. f

Historian CraigGilborn,theformer directorof the AdirondackMuseumin BlueMountainLake,New York,is a builderof outdoorfurniture and author ofAdirondackAnd RusticFurniture,published byAbrams.He livesin LongLake,NarvYork.


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FACINGTHEELE,MENTS y the natureof whereit spendsits Keeoin mind that someof thesame life,outdoorfurniturehasto be substances in decay-resistant woodsthat designed,first and foremost,to withwardoffrot canalsogiveriseto allergic standits toughestenemy-the elements. reationsin buildersandusers.Redwood, Whilemakersof indoorfurnitureneed for example,cancauserespiratoryailto considertheswellingandcontraction ments,whileteakcanproduceskinand of wood due to seasonal changesin eyeallergies. Westernredcedarhasbeen relativehumidity, outdoor furniture known in somecases to triggerall three buildersmustalsoallowfor thefactthat typesofreaction. will occasionallybe theirpieces drenched Yoursecondline ofdefenseagainst polyurein water,driedby thewind,andbakedby Twocoatsof waterproof theelements is thejoineryyouselict.A the sun.With appropriatematerials, thaneprovide0n extrameasure of basicrule is to avoidjointsthat will trap protection you can design,joinery,and hardware, chair waterthat will eventuallyrot the wood for an Adirondack fashionoiecesthatwill beasdurableand madefrom Northernwhitecedar, whenthe weatheris warm,or splitthe longlastlng asanykitchensidechairor a decay-resistant wood. in coldweathioint auartwhenit freezes bedroomarmoire. er.Manyoutdoorpiecesrelyon joints Choosea projectby reviewingsomeof thestylesandtypes likethehalf-lapthat,whenreinforced by screws andglue,are of outdoorpiecesthathavebeenpopularwith woodworkers, sufficientlydurablewhile allowingwaterto drain away.Any asshownon pages14and 15.Yournext concernshouldbe hardwareyou use,whetherscrews, bolts,or knockdownfitselecting a woodspecies thatis naturallydecay-resistant. Several tings,shouldbe stainless steelto avoidrust.Youshouldalso nativespecies fit the bill, suchasNorthernwhite cedarand usewaterproofadhesives, suchasepoxyor resorcinol. Formore redwood,asdo someimportedones,like teak.Thecharton detailonthetypesof joints,hardware, andgluesappropriate page16ratesvariouswoodsin termsof theircapacity to weath- for outdoorfurniture,turn to pages18and 19. er the outdoors.Sincemost of thesespecies aresoftwoods, Onceyour outdoorpieceis readyfor the yardor garden, which aregenerallysoldasdimensionidlumber,your prothelaststepis to coatit with a weather-resistant finish.Pages jectswillbe moreeconomical ifyou designthemon thebasis 20 and21presentinformationon thevarietyof finishessuitof their available dimensions. Referto page17for informa- ablefor theoutdoors,from glossypolyurethanes to a natural, tion on calculating how muchstockyouwill need. unvarnished finish.

A coatingof sparvarnishis brushed ontoa back slatof thebacleyard benchshownat left.Tohelp youapplyan eyencoatthatwill shieldthepiece usea good-quality brush. from theelements,

13


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I A GALLERYOF OUTDOORFURNITUREDESIGNS I ADIRONDACK CHAIR Tage 24

t I I I I EENCH AND OLIDINGBASE Tage 112

t

CURVED CHAIR ?age34

KEYED. rENON BENCH ?age 9O

LOUNGE CHAIR Tage44

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FACINGTHE ELEMENTS

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PORCH1WING Tage 1O4

OCTAGONAL PLANTER Tage12O

I I 9ERVING TROLLEY Tage126

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ARBOR ?age 131


SELECTINGWOOD E . * d e c i s i o nasr ea si m p o r t a ntto L buildinsoutdoorlurnitureasthe choiceof w6od.The chartbelowrates species in termsof resistance to several decay,strength,capacityto withstand (likeplaning shock,workingproperties andsandingor drilling,gluing,andfastening),andrelative cost.Thereisprobablyno one idealchoice.Althougha wood like teakcombinesstrengthwith it is very excellentdecayresistance, expensive, anddifficultto find andwork. Pine,on the otherhand,is readilyavailandis easyto work, ableandeconomical, arehighlysusceptible to but mostspecies decayand relativelyweak.Manywoodworkersconsidernativespecieswith superiorstrengthanddecayresistance, suchascedarand white oak,to be an acceptable compromise.

Keepin mind thatthesamequalities that makea wood like teaktough on bladesand cutterswill yield sturdyfurniture.Cedar,althoughit is moreforgivingto bladesandtools,hasa tendency to containa considerable numberof knots,which increase wasteand aswell asthe risk that the strengthof the furniturewill be compromised by a dead knot thatwasnot cut out. Knotsarealso moresusceptible to rot. Whicheverspecies you select, takethe time to chooseyour boardscarefully. Avoidlumberthat is cupped,bowed,or warpedin anyway.For maximumstabilitv. chooseair-driedlumberwith a maximumof 20uercentmoisturecontent.Thewoodshouldcontainaslittle sapwoodaspossiblesincethe sapwill attractwood-eating bugs.

N()MINAL AND ACTUAL SOFTW()OD LUMBER SIZES (inches) ACTUAT (inches) NOMlNAt Surfaced dry 3la-by-Itlz I-by-Z 1-by-3

3lq-by-2tlz

1-by-4

3l+by-3tlz

1-by-6

3l+by-5Uz

1-by-8

3lq-by-7rlq

1-by-10

3lq-by-9tlq

2-by-2

lUz-by-7112

2-by-4

ltlz-by-3112

2-by-6

ltlz-by-5112

2-by-8

lUz-by-7llt

2-by-10

ltlz-by'9llt

3-by-4

2Uz-by-3rlz

4-by-4

3tlz-by-3rlz

W()ODFOR()UTDOORS

Ash,white

DECAY RESISTANCE STRENGTH SHOCKRESISTANCE WORKING PR()PERTIES c0sT Fair Excel lent Average Poor Low

American Beech, yellow Birch,

Fai

Fair

Fair

Good

Low

Fair

Good

Excel lent

Good

Average

Butternut

Poor

Fai

Fair

Good

Average

alomatic Cedal,

Excel lent

Fair

Fair

Average

Average

Cedar, Northern white

Good

Poor

Poor

Fair

Average

red Cedar, Western

Excel lent

Poor

Poor

Good

Average

Cheny, American

Good

Fair

Fair

Good

Average

Elm,American

Good

Fair

Fak

Fai

LOW

Douglas-fir

Fair

Fair

Fai

Average

LOW

Maple, hard

Poor

lent Excel

Excel lent

Good

LOW

0ak,red

Fai

Good

Fau

Average

Average

0ak,white

Excel lent

lent Excel

Good

Average

Low

Pine,Eastern white yellow Pine,Southem

Fai

Fair

Fair

Good

Low

Fair

Fair

Good

Average

LOW

yellow Poplar,

Fai

Fav

Fair

Good

LOW

Redwood

Excel lent

Poor

Poor

Good

Average

Spruce, sitka

Poor

Fair

Fair

Average

Average

Teak

Excel lent

Excel lent

Excel lent

Fair

High

Walnut, black

Good

Fair

Excel lent

Good

High

W()OD SPECIES

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FACING THE ELEMENTS

CATCULATING BOARD FEET lumber Ordering bytheboardfoot The"boardfoot"is a unitof measurement usedto calculatethevolume of a givenamount of stock.Asshownin the illustration below, thestandard boardfootis equivalentto a piecethatis 1 inchthick,12 inches wide,and 12 incheslong.Tocalculate the number of boardfeetin a pieceof wood,multiplyitsthreedimensions together. Then,dividetheresultby I44 if allthedimensions are in inches, or by 12 if justonedimension is in feet.

Theformulafor a standardboard: I " x 1 2 "x 1 2 "+ I 4 4 = I ( o r1 "x 1 2 "x I ' - 1 2= I ) plankthatis 1 inchthickand So,if youhada 6-foot-long 4 inches wide,youwouldcalculaie theboardfeetasfollows:1"x 4" x 6' = 12 = 2 (or2 boardfeet).Otherexamplesareshownin the illustration. Remember thatboard feetarecalculated onthebasisof thenominal ratherthan actualdimensions of thestock;consequently, theboard feetcontained in a 2-by-4thatactually measures 1%-by3%inches wouldbecalculated usingthe largerdimensions.

Al

1-by-3= 2 boardfeet 1-by'6= 4 boardfeet

= 1-by-12 B boardfeet

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2-by-4= 5 %boardfeeL 1"x12"x12"= 1Etandard board foof,

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2'by-6 = B boardfeet


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IOINERYAND HARDWARE

t uniquechallenges to I oinerypresents the outdoor furniture maker. Many J of the standardioints usedfor indoor furnitureareincapableof withstanding the abuseswrought by weather.The joint, for examblind mortise-and-tenon ple, is normally an excellentchoicefor joiningchairrailsandlegs,but it does not fare well outdoors.Water can becometrappedin the mortise,causing the joint to swelland leadingto wood decay.A variationon the same joint, the throughmortise-and-tenon (page19),solvesthat problemby allowing waterto drain out. Cutting angled shouldershelps preventwater from becomingtrapped.Lapjointsandrabbetjoints alsowork well.For extraprotectionagainstwater,you can coatthe matingsurfacesof joints with a preservativesuchaspine tar or an adhesive caulkingcompound. Outdoor furniture makesfrequent useof fasteners to connectcomponents.

Make sureyou chooseonesthat are eithermadefrom-or coatedwith-a metalthat will not rust. Iron fasteners will eventuallyweakenor break;they alsostainthe wood. Gluesplay an importantpart in mostjoinery,and hereagain,weather affectsyour choices.Standardyel-

low carpenter's glueis not waterproof and will eventuallyfail when exposed to the elements. Instead,selecta specializedglue designedfor outdoor use,suchas resorcinoland epoxyThe former is somebaseadhesives. what easierto use,but epoxyhas usefulgap-filling properties.

GtUE

DURABITITY

WORKING PROPERTIES

cosT

Epoxy

Weatherproof; creates extremely strongbond Weatherproof ; extremely strong Weatherproof; strong

Requires mixingbefore use;sets quickly, quickassembly requiring Driesto a reddish colour; requires longclamping time Donotusestandard, non-waterproof version of thisglue

Expensive

Weatherproof; forms extremely strongbond

goodgap-filling 0ne-part adhesive; quickdryingtime ability;relatively Requires longclamping time; requires a topcoatfor protection

Inexpensive

Weatherproof yellowglue PVA Gross-linking glue(Titebond ll) Plasticresin

Water-resistant; strong

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Choosingthe righthardware isan importantpart of buildingoutdoor furniture that will last.Chainand eye-hooks suspend hangingfurniture, suchasporchswings.Lag bolts, threadedrodsand crossdowelsjoin projectstogether. Makesureyou select corrosion-resistant hardware,suchas galvanized stainless steelor bronze.

Resorcinol

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Expensive Inexpensive

Inexpensive

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FACING THE ELEMENTS


FINISHING hefinishonanyproject hastwopurWateris not theonlythreatto outI poses: tobeautifr thewoodandpro- doorfurniture.Sunlightcandamage tectit. However, if youhavebuilt your woodby destroying theligninin the furniturefromrot-resistant andstable wood,whichfortifiesthecellwalls.If wood,youmaychoose to leavethewood youwantto shieldthewoodcompleteunfinished. Thiscutsdownsubstantial- lyfromthesun,usepaint.Generally, the ly onmaintenance, because onceafinish higherthegloss,thebettertheprotecii applied, it mustberenewed periodi- tion,sincetheglosswill serveto reflect cally.Still,for thelessdecay-resistantthesun'srays.Somefinishes, suchas (UV) woods,finishingis yourbestchoiceto sparvarnish, containultraviolet protectthefurniturefromtheelements filters,whichhelpshieldthefurniture andto keepinsectsatbay.Also,some fromthesun'sharmfulradiation. For woodswithlittlefiguremaylookbetter maximumW protection, applyfouror paintor astain. coveredwith A pigment- fivecoats. edtopcoatwill alsoconceal anymisFinally,do not expect a finishto salgrain. matched vagea poorconstruction. Whilethere Themostcommonfinishingchoic- areveryexpensive finishes available, such esarepenetrating oils,varnishes, and ascatalyzed linearpolyurethane, that paint.Sparvarnishrequires thatthefirst will protectwoodfromvirtuallyanycoatbethinned.withundiluted varnish thing,includingsubmerging it in water, forthesubsequent coats. Otherfinishes, thebestwayto ensure thatyourpieceof paints, especially needa sealer first,fol- furniturelastsis to startwith theright lowedbyprimer,thenthefinishingcoats. joineryandglues.

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cosT

4 to 6 hours, cures overnight

Satinto gloss;clear

Moderately expensive

4 to 6 hours

Flatto semi-gloss, manyopaque corours

Moderately expensive

24 hours

Flatto gloss;clear,but yellows withage

Expensive

Durable

Varies: Latex,1-2hours; alkyd,3-4 hours.Recoat after24 hours

Sparvarnlsh

Durable

0paque stain

Resists fading,but doesnotprotect woodfromabrasion Polyurethane Verydurable; especially resistant to fungus

20

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SURFAGE SHEEN Flatto glosswithrange of opaque colours

DRYING TIME

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OUTDOOR FINISHES DURABITITY

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Oneof thesolutionstofinishingisnot to do it. The arborshownat left is madefrom cedar,whichcontains naturalpesticides, makingit extremelyresistantto rot. Theonly maintenance requiredis to scrubawaydirt and mildewoccasionally. Thewoodwill eventually turn a silvery-gray color.In general,darkwoodstend to lightenovertime,whilelight woodsdarken.

TYPE Paint

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(lR PAINT STEPSFORAPPLYING VARNISH

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PAINT

VARNISH o Sandwith12O-grit for for hardwoods and220-grit sandpaper witha tackcloth, softwoods, thencleanthesurface

o Fillcountersunk screw plugs. holeswithwooden

o Mixvarnish varnish bubbles that bystirring only,Shaking creates m a ym a rt h ef i n i s h .

o Sandwith120-grit sandpaperfor hardwoods and 220-gritforsoftwoods. Then raise t h eg r a i nw i t ha d a m p rag,andsandoncemoreto remove theerectf ibers.

o Avoidinexpensive varnish brushes. Instead, buyonesmadefrom foambrushes. chinabristle or badger hair.0r, usedisposable o Donotworkin directsunlight or in cool,damplocations. . Applyat leastfourcoats,preferably five.

r Fillsmallimperfections w i t hg l a z i ncgo m p o u n d .

o Sandbetween blockand280-grit sandpaper, coatswitha sanding afterwards witha tackcloth. cleaning thesurface

. Wipethesurfaces witha tackcloth. o Stir-do notshake-the paint.

jitlfitillllllltillritljllllfilrfill Illlfinfilltjllillttlllllllljltlll1 1HO? TI?

. Sandthef inalcoatwith 400-gritsandpaper, then s aint. f i n i s hw i t hg l o s p

St rainingvarnishand paint Varnishand oaint often conNain impuritieo lh at muel be removedbefore use.For besl resultrs, sNrainthem.Simplypour a larqe lhe finishNhrou4h coffeefilNerinto a clean conlainer,

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o Paintknotsfirstwith s h e l l atco s e atlh e mt,h e n applythreecoatsof primer, sanding between eachcoat.

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If youneedto cut a seriesof halfutdoor furnituremust be laps, it will probably beworthyour roughit, andthe designedto jig and to make a shop-built time lounge, Adirondack chair,chaise job (page with a router 83). do the andcurvedchairfeaturedin this (page The chaise lounge 44) chapterareall up to thetask.In heavily half-lap. The relies on the manypartsof the countrywith ioint is usedto fastenall theback harshwinters,theappearance of slatsto therails.Thebackof this outdoorchairsmarksthereturnof poolside relaxer canassume classic pleasant weather. Cartedoutof the positions, from the six different garage or basement onthefirstsunnearly vertical. horizontalto nydayofspring,givenaquickdust2a) TheAdirondack chair(page ing off, andthenleft exposed to pieces is amongthemostfamiliar theelements, theymustwithstand of outdoorfurniture.Originally roughuse,indeed,until theyare afterthevilnamedtheWestport, After eveningout anyslightirregularities returnedto shelterafterthefirst lagein New York'sAdirondack places in theendsofanAdirondackchairwith frost.Suchtreatment a paryoucanusea random-orbit Mountains whereit probablyorigabeltsander, on thejointicularsetof demands inated,thechairquicklybecame sanderfor final smoothing. ery.Theblindmortise-and-tenon, popularthroughout America. And whichis normallyan for example, excellent choiceto join chairparts,doesnot faresowellwith it remainssoto this day,a familiarsightin urbanbackasa convenient yardsandon countryporches. outdoorfurniture,sincethemortiseserves ideallysuit34)isanoriginaldesign, species, Thecurvedchair(page anddecay-resistant trapforwater.Evenwitha durable Assembled with a numrot. edfor ahiddencornerof thegarden. thereis thedangerthatthewoodwill eventually rod, unitstiedtogether byalengthofthreaded All threechairsin thischapter solvethisproblembyusing berofidentical that thehalf-lapmakes thechairderivesits gentlecurvefrom circularspacers halfJapjoints.Whatit lacksin stoutness, It will nottrapwaterand,whenreinforced holdtheunitsfartherapartatthebackthanatthefront.The up for in versatility. ismadeup of eightunits;youcan it is exceptionally versionshownin thischapter with a weatherproof eporyandscrews, more Youcan builda widerchair,or evena bench,by incorporating strong.Thejoint is alsofairlysimpleto produce. 37). unitsin thedesign. onthetablesaw(page makebothpartsof theconnection

Thechaiseloungeshownat left isperfealysuitedfor stretchingout and relaxing.Like theotherchairsfeaturedin thischapter,it is madefrom lightweightbut durableNorthernwhitecedar.With itssturdywheels andportabledesign,theloungeis easyto movetojust theright locaof comfort. tion.A thin mattresswill providean extrameasure

23


ANATOMYOF AN ADIRONDACKCHAIR herearefewpiecesof outdoorfi.rrI niruremoreinvitinethananAdirondackchair.Its reclinin"g seatand tilted backestbeckontheuserto sinkinto the

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\ .\ , ' Assembled with stainless steelscrews and waterproofepoxyglue,andfinishedwith a weatherproof varnish, theAdirondack chairshownat left is readytofacetheelements.

seatandleanback,elbowsproppedon thewidearmrestswhichprovideplenty ofroom for booksanda colddrink. Mostof thepartsof thechairareirregularlyshaped. To reproduce the classic designillustratedbelow,referto thecuttingpatternsshownopposite. Remember thatthedimensions citedin thecuttins list represent the stocksizebeforeshapl ing on thebandsaw.Sizethe partsfirst, thentransferthe patternsto the stock.

Arm Screwedto leg and arm brace aL front and to

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Eatten Keinforceaback elata and keepe them ali7ned

t Back alat )crewed to back cleat, bacKeupport, and batten

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Seat elat' Attached to top ed4e of apron and aide raile

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Eack aupport Front edge tapered to reat fluah a4ainot back alata; faatened to arma

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Back aleat Foaition determineeplacement. and tilt of backreot: attached to top edqe of eide rail

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Leg Attached to arm, arm brace, and eide rail

5ide rail Trofile of top edqe determineacurveof aeat; acrewedto inaideface of leq

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FORCURVED PARTS OFCHAIR CUfiINGPATTERN

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= 2 inches. gridto produce 1 square Enlarge a cuttingpattern of theappropriate sizeforyourproject.

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BUILDINGAN ADIRONDACKCHAIR ':ry

A tttble-mounted routerequipped with n rowtdoverbit soJiens theedges of oneof thearmsof an Adirondack chnir.Thesenrpshownat right includes a shop-made fenceandbitguardtoprovide a beorirrgxrrfncefor the stockwl'rileprotecting the operator's the spinningbit. For best fingersfront resuks,rrraketwopasses to reachyow"finnl clepth. Irtctdclitiort to thearms,theedges of thebackand sentslstsand thebackcleatare trlsoroundedover.

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t I I I I I I I I T Curving the backslats C u tt h e p i e c e so f t h e c h a i rt o s i z e ,r e f e r r i ntgo t h e a n a t o m y illustration(page24) and cutting patterns(page25). Forthe b a c ks l a t ss, t a r tb y t a p e r i ntgh e ms ot h e m i d d l eo n ei s 4 % i n c h e s w i d ea t t h e b o t t o ma n d5 Y ,i n c h e sa t t h e t o p ;t h e o u t s i d es l a t s s h o u l db e 2 Y ' i n c h e sa t t h e b o t t o ma n d3 / , i n c h e sa t t h e t o o . Y o uc a n m a k et h e c u t so n a t a b l es a wu s i n ga c o m m e r c i aj ilg or the shop-built versionshownopposite. Next,setthe slatsedge t o e d g eo n a w o r ks u r f a c et ;h e e n d sw i l l b e u n e v e nT. o e v e no u t l n da c a r p e n t e rs' sq u a r et o m a r k t h e b o t t o me d g e ,u s ea p e n c i a

a l i n ea c r o s tsh e o u t s i d es l a t st h a t a l i g n sw i t h t h e e n d o f t h e ( a h o v el e f t ) .f r i m t h e o u t s i d es l a t sa l o n st h e m i d d l en i e e . e m a r k st,h e nd r a wa l i n ed o w nt h e c e n t e ro f t h e m i d d l es l a t . R e p o s i t i ot n h e s l a t sa n dc l a m pt h e mt o g e t h ewr i t ht h e i rb o t t o m e n d sa l i g n e da n d % - i n c h - t h i cskp a c e r b s e t w e e tnh e p i e c e s . A d j u s ta c o m p a stso a i 6 - i n c h r a d i u ss, e tt h e p o i n to n t h e m i d d l e s l a tc e n t e r l i n 1e 8 %i n c h e s' r . o mt h e b o t t o me n d ,a n dd r a w the crrrveat the ton end of ln lats (above.rishf).CuIthe slats on yourbandsaw,then roundovt therredges(photo,above).

26

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TAPER JIG Totaperthe backslatsandlegsof your chaio r nt h et a b l es a w b , u i l dt h ej i g plywood. from shownabove %-inch Referto the illustration forsuggested dimensions. Toassemble thejig,set its thesawbladeto maximum height, buttonesideof thejig baseagainst thebladeandposition theripfence flushagainst theothersideof thebase. Lowerthe blade.Marka cuttingline for the taperon theworkpiece, then s e ti t o n t h eb a s ea, l i g n i ntgh el i n e withthe edgeof the basenearest the blade.Holding securetheworkpiece ly, position theguidebaragainst the edgeandthestopblocksnugly against theend.Screw theguidebarandstop blockto the baseandpressthetogggle clampsdownto secure theworkpiece to thejig; protect thestockwithwood pads.To makethecut,settheblade height andslidethejig andworkpiece across thetable,making surethatneitherhandis in linewiththeblade(righil. (Caution: guardremoved Blade forclarig.)

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ASSEMBLING THECHAIR

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thesiderailsto thelegs 1 Attaching I Toposition thesiderailsonthelegs, guidelines marka pairof intersecting on thelegs'inside faces. Markonelineparallelto thefrontedgeand1 inchfrom i t t o a l l o wf o rt h ea p r o n a n da % - i n c h reveal; thesecond lineshould beparallelto thetopendand63/o inchesbelow it. Toensure thelegandrailwillbelevel ontheground, alignthebottom ends of thepieces withanedgeof yourwork surface; usea trysquare to makesure thefrontedgeof thelegis perpendicularto theedgeof thetable.Drillthree clearance holesforscrews through each glueonthe railandspread waterproof contacting surfaces between thelegand rail.Withtheleginside-face upona work fasten surface, therailto theleg,aligning thefrontendandtopedgeof therail theapron O Installing withtheguidelines ontheleghbove). L B o r et h r e ec l e a r a n cheo l e st h r o u gthh ea p r o na b o u l % i n c hf r o me a c he n d . glueto theendsof therails,setthelegsupright Applywaterproof ona worksurface andposition theapronbetween thelegsandflushagainst therails.Thetopedges o f t h ea p r o n a n dr a i l ss h o u l b d el e v e lU. s i n g a b a rc l a m pt o h o l dt h ep i e c es q u a r e to the legs,screwtheapronto therails(abovd;protect thestockwithwoodpads.

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1 Attachins the back r-J cleatto thesiderails R e m e m b et or r o u n do v e rt h e t o p e d g e so f . hen t h e c l e a tb e f o r ei n s t a l l i ntgh e p i e c e T m a r ka g u i d e l i n feo r t h e c l e a ta c r o s st h e t o p e d g eo f e a c hr a i l I I % i n c h e sf r o mt h e b a c ke n d .D r i l lt w oc l e a r a n cheo l e st h r o u g h t h e c l e a tn e a re a c he n d ,s p r e a dg l u e ,a n d u s ea c l a m pt o h o l dt h e c l e a ti n p o s i t i o n a g a i n stth e r a i l s .M a k i n gs u r et h e e n d so f t h e c l e a ta r ef l u s hw r t ht h e o u t s i d e d g e s of the rails,fastenthe piecein place(left).

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5HO? TI? Uoinga dowelto anchora earewdriveninto end grain Manyof Nhejointe ueedto assemble the Adirondack chair,suchas those belween NheaVronand eiderailsor lhe armsand lego,require youLo f aslen into endqrain.Screwsdo noNholdwellin endqrain,oo a fasteneron its ownmaynoLbeoLrongenoughLo keepan end-Io-face joinLLoqeNher. buLf, GluecanhelVsomewhaL,butLo reinforcelhe con' necLion adequately, bore a'/e - inch-dia met er hole verti cally th rouqh LheendarainoieceabouL/zinchfrom its end.Oluea dowel i n l h e h o l ea n dl e l l h e dry,Then adhesive dflve your Screw7 throughlhe malinq niara

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Screwing thearmbraceto the legs C l a m pe a c ha r m b r a c et o i t s l e ga n d s i d er a i ls o i t i s a l i g n ew d i t ht h e m i d d l e o f t h e l e p T h ei n n e n d so f t h e b r a c ea n d legshouldbeflush.Next,borethreecleara n c eh o l e st h r o u g ht h e l e g ,s t o p p i n tgh e d r i l lw h e nt h e b i t c o n t a c ttsh e b r a c e . I n s t a lal s m a l l e r - d i a m ebt ei trt o c o n t i n u e p i l o th o l e si n t ot h e b r a c eu, s i n g drilling . nclamp t h e c l e a r a n cheo l e sa sg u i d e sU t h e b r a c et.h e ns n r e a ds l u eo n i t s f l a t e d g e r, e c l a m pi t i n p o s i t i o na,n df a s t e n it to the leg (above).

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t I I I P r e p a r i nt g h e b a c ks u p p o r t f, r - . / B e v e lt h e f r o n t e d g eo f t h e b a c ks u p p o r t o p r o v i d ea n adequatb eearing s u r f a c ef o r t h e b a c ks l a t sa n d a l l o wt h e m t o t i l t a t t h e c o r r e cat n s l e O n v o r r tr a h l es a w o o s i t i o n the r i n f e n c eo n t h e l e f t - h a n sd r d eo f t h e s a wb l a d ef o r a w i d t h o f c u t o f 2 % i n c h e sa n d a n g l et h e b l a d et o 3 0 ' . ( l t i s a l w a y s s a f e s t o m a k ea b e v e lc u t w i t h t h e b l a d ea n g l e da w a yf r o m ) e e dt h e s t o c ki n t ot h e c u t t i n ge d g ew i t h y o u r thefence.F l e f t h a n dw h i l ep r e s s i ntgh e b o a r da g a i n stth e f e n c e .F i n i s h

the passwith a pushstick (above,/eff).(Caution:Bladeguard r e m o v e fdo r c l a r i t y , N ) e x t ,o u t l i n et h e c u r v e so n t h e o u t s i d e e d s eo f t h e b a c ks r r n n o r to n ea t e a c he n d a n d m a r ka s t r a i g hlti n ea c r o s tsh e b o a r d3 7 i n c h e sf r o me a c he n d . U s ey o u rb a n ds a wt o m a k ea c u t f r o me a c he n d o f t h e s u p p o r tt o t h e s t r a i g hlti n e ;a l i g nt h e c u t sw i i h t h e s t a r to f t h e b e v e lF . i n a l l yc, u t t h e c u r v e de n d so f t h e b o a r do n t h e b a n d saw (above,right).

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Attaching thearmsto thebacksupport

L , f R e m e m b et o r r o u n do v e rt h e a r m s ( n h o f on. a p e2 6 ) . t h e nd r i l lt w oc l e a r a n c e holesthrougheachone.Spreadwaterproof glueonthe matingsurfaces of the armsand s u p p o r tp, o s i t i o n o n eo f t h e a r m so n t h e s u p p o r ta, n ds c r e wt h e p i e c e st o g e t h e r , u s i n ga t r y s q u a r et o m a k es u r et h e p i e c e s a r e p e r p e n d i c u l at or e a c ho t h e r( r i g h i l . R e p e at to f i x t h e o t h e ra r mt o t h e s u p p o r t .

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themiddle backslat I Installing / Before thearmsand voucanattach backsupport to thechair, themiddle back s l a tm u s tb ef a s t e n ei d n p l a c eS. e tt h e chairupright ona worksurface andclamp t h es l a t o t h ec e n t eor f t h eb a c kc l e a t , a l i g n i ntgh eb o t t o m e n do f t h es l a tw i t h thebottom faceof thecleat;protect the . o l d i ntgh es l a t s t o c kw i t hw o o dp a d sH flushagainst thecleat,usethreescrews to fastenit in place(left),Donotuseglue in caseyouneedto adjusttheslatlater whenyouinstall theremaining backslats.

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Fastening thearmsand backsupport to thechair Setthearmsandbacksupport upside down ona worksurface, thenposition theleg assembly onthearms.Center themiddle backslatonthebacksupport andclamp thepieces together. Atthefrontofthechair, usea tapemeasure to ensure thatthe inside edges of thearmsextend beyond thelegsbythesameamount onbothsides. Using thelegsandarmsupports asguides, makelocation marks ontheundersides of thearmsonceyouaresatisf iedwiththe (righil.Set position of the legassembly thechairupright anddrillthreeclearance holes through eacharmandonethrough glueonthe themiddlebackslat.Spread contacting surfaces ofthearms,legs, and armsupports, thenreposition thearmsin place-using thelocation marks asguides -and screwthepreces together.

Locattoh markE

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Fastenin9 thebackslats Q glueonthecontacting J Spread surfaces between thesidebackslatsandtheback andcleat.Screw support theslatsin place (/eff), slipping %-inch spacers between the pieces ason page26 to position them properly. Usetwoscrews to secure each slatto ihe cleatanda single fastener at Makesurethebottom thebacksupport. of eachendslatis f lushwiththebottom edgeof thecleat.Onceallthesideslats areinstalled, unscrew themiddleone, it. applyglue,andreattach

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

thebatten 1 n Installing I\,/ Tocut the battento f inallength, clampyourstockagainst thebackslats about12 inches above thebacksuooort andmarktheoutside edgeof theslatson At thesametime,markcleartheboard. anceholesonthe batten-twoforeach slat-alternating the holesbetween the topandbottomedgeof thestock.Cutthe battento lengthon yourbandsawand d r i l lt h ec l e a r a n cheo l e sT. h e ns, p r e a d s o m eg l u eo nt h eb a t t e nc,l a m pi t t o t h e backslats,andscrewit in place(right) U s ea b e l ts a n d etro c r e a t ea s m o o t h c u r v ea l o n gt h et o po f t h e b a c ks l a t s a n ds a n dt h ee n d so f t h e b a t t e na n d t h e j o i n tb e t w e etnh e a r m sa n dt h e backsupport.

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llitlltllillfiilfifiljllfillltlllufiiltljlilltlljlfiilffiillrllrilt 1HO?Tt? Sealinq knots with ehellac Oecauseit is intendedto be oLurdyand ruslic, ouldoorfurnilure is often builtwith lower-qrade wood.Althouqhthio is economical, manyeuchboardshaveknoLs,Looseknols shouldbe cul off,since lhey weakenthe wood.Allhouqhtiqht knote haveno effecl on L h e s t r e n q l h o f e b o c ka n d c a n b e l e f t , i n l a c t , , L h e yo f L e n

oozepiLch,evenafLera finishio appliedt o the Vieceof furnilure.lhiepilch willbleedthrouqhpaint,or varnish, otainingthe finishand.Vroducinq a otickymeoo. /' Toavoidthis oroblem.brushlwo thin coalo of shellacovertiaht knotsLo seallhem.

theseatslats 1 1 Attaching I I T oc o m p l e t eh ec h a i rr, o u n d n vv oL rr u

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p a g e2 O , t h e nd r i l lt w oc l e a r a n cheo l e s a t e a c he n do f t h e p i e c e sS. t a r t i n g with t h e s l a tn e a r e st th e b a c k ,s p r e a ds o m e g l u eo n t h e s l a t ' sb o t t o mf a c ea n ds c r e w i t t o t h e s i d er a i l s ;u s e l - i n c h s p a c e r s t o m a i n t a i nt h e p r o p egr a p b e t w e nt h e s l a ta n dt h e b a c k .l n s t a l tl h e r e m a i n i n gs l a t st h e s a m ew a y ,s e p a r a t i nt g he pieceswith the spacers(above). The last s l a ts h o u l de x t e n db e y o n dt h e a p r o n b y a b o u t1 i n c h .R i pt h e s l a tt o w i d t h a n d r o u n di t s e d g e sa g a i n ,i f n e c e s s a r y , b e f o r es c r e w i n igt i n p l a c e .


ANATOMY OF A CURVEDCHAIR tl- h. curvedchair featuredin this I. sectionis built by joining eight identicalH-shapedunits with steel rods.Eachunit is separated from the adjoiningoneby three2-inch-diameter spacers-twoat the rearlegandone at the front. The curveis achievedby using1%-inch-long in backand spacers in front. %-inch-longspacers The modulardesignof the chair is very versatile.You can usespacersof

uniform length to createa straight chairor build additionalunitsto make a bench. As shownopposite,eachseatingunit is joinedto its rearandfront legswith half-laps-a T half-lapat thebackand a cornerhalf-laoat the front-and all thejointsarereinforcedby screws. Once the joinery is done, the piecesare shaoedandtrimmedwith a routerand a temnlate.

Thecuryeof thechairshownat left is madepossible by usingspacers at thebackthat aretwiceaslongasthoseat thefront. Thischairwas paint. finishedwith twocoatsofprimerand onecoatof exterior-grade

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CHAIRS

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cuRvED cHArR JoTNERY

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ANDMATERIATS CUTTING LIST ITEM

OTY

TH

W ORDIAM L

Rearleg

8

IY^'

5Yr'

36'

Frontleg

8 8

I%'

sYr' 4%',

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IYo'

Longspacers

16

IY,'

Shortspacers Caps

8 6

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Rods Washers

3

Y4u

6 6

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Nuts

ail

Z

1u

Y^'

36'


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FASHIONINGA CURVEDCHAIR ASSEMBI.ING THEUNITS

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Oneof theunitsof a curvedchairis trimmedto within about'hinchof the cuttinglineon thebandsaw.Onceall thepiecesarecut,theyareparedtofinal shapewith a routerfitted with a llushtrimming bit, guidedby a template.

thetemplate 1 Making I Markouta template of thechairunitsona pieceof plywood or hardboard, referring to theanatomy illustration on page34 forthe profileanddimensions of thepieces. Startbydrawing the legsandseating unitwithstraight lines,thenuse a thinstripof springy woodto helpyououtlinethenatural curves alongtheedges of thepieces. Usinga handscrew anda barclamp,secure thestriponedgeonthe template sothatonefaceis flushwiththetopof oneof yourcuttinglines.Then gentlybendthestriptoward theotherendof theline.Keeping thestripfirmlyin p l a c e , r u n a p e n c i l a l o n g i t t o d e f i n e t h( ea cbuorvvee) . C u t t h e t e m p l a t e t o s h a p e onyourbandsaw,thensandtheedges smooth. Setthetemplate asidefor now;before usingit to outline(page38)andtrim (page 39Ihe units,youneedto cut the halflapsin yourstockandassemble thepieces.

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36

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CHAIRS

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r) Cutting inthe thehalf-laps L trontlegsandseating units onyour Marktheshoulders of thehalf-laps forthefrontlegsandseating units, blanks thetemplate asa guide. Theninstall using a dadoheadonyourtablesaw,adjustit to maximum widthandsetthecutting height Attach an at one-half thestockthickness. align extension board to themitergauge, lineonthefirstlegwiththe theshoulder bladeandclamoa stooblockto theextensionagainst theendof theworkpiece. feedit face Starting attheendoftheboard, downalongwiththemitergauge to saw of passes awaythewaste.Makea series waste wooduntil to remove theremaining youdefinetheshoulder withtheworkpiecebuttedagainst thestopblockand (/eil).Repeat with mitergauge extension t h er e m a i n i nf rgo n tl e g st,h e nc u t h a l f lapsat bothendsof theseating unitsthe way, repositioning the stop block same necessary. as

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thedadoes in therearlegs I< Sawing l l i d t ho f t h e j o i n t .F e e d i ntgh e w o r k r-J 0utlinethedadoes in therearlegblanks to accommodatee x t e n s i otno s e tt h e o v e r a w piecefacedownand buttedagainsta stopblock,startby cutin theseating units.Thesamesetupusedto cut thehalf-laps canbeemployed to sawthedadoes-except that t i n gt h e t w os i d e so f t h e d a d o .T h e nm a k ea s e r i e so f p a s s etso thehalf-laps youwillneedto clampa second stopblockto themitergauge clearthe wastein betweenhbovd.

37


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CHAIRS

Assembling theunits Test-fit the legsandseating units, a n du s ea c h i s et lo t r i ma n yi l l - f i t t i n g l o i n t sT. h e nd r i l lt w oc l e a r a n ch eo l e s i n t ot h es t o c ka t e a c hj o i n ta n ds p r e a d glueonthehalf-laps waterproof of the seating units;makesureto locate the screws sotheywillnotinterfere withthe placement of thethreaded rod(page 41). Clamptherearlegfaceupto a worksurface,position theseating uniton it, and (/eff).(Notethat screwthepieces together thebackendof theseating unitis offset fromthebackedgeof theleg;asshown b e l o wa, b o uot n e - h atlhf ew i d t ho f t h e legswillbecutawayat thepointwhere theymeettheseat.)Finally, attachthe frontlegto theseating unit.

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TRIMMING THEUNITS TOSIZE thechairprofile ontheunits 1 0utlining I Once alltheunitsareassembled. olace position onefaceupona worksurface, the template on it, andusea pencilto trace itsoutline onthestock(rtght).Theback / edgeof thetemplate should bealmost flush (/-/ withthebackedgeof therearlegat itstop ' e n d .M a r kt h er e m a i n i nu gn i t st,h e nc u t themall to roughsizeonthebandsaw about%inchof waste @age36), leaving yourcuttinglines. outside

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r) Shaping thechairunits L f tnisn shaping theunitsusing a router fittedwitha top-piloted flush{rimming bit Settheunitona worksurface andcenter thetemplate ontop,thenfasten thepieces together, driving a screwthrough each threaded rodholein thetemplate intothe unit.Clamp theassembly to thetableand a d j u stth er o u t e r 'dse p t ho f c u t s ot h e pilotbearing willrubonlyonthetemplate (lnsef). Guidetherouteragainst thedirectionof bit rotation alongtheedges of the unit,keeping thebearing in constant con(/eff).Reposition tactwiththetemplate

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Rounding overtheendunits Toroundovertheoutside edses of the t w o u n i t st h a tw i l l b e o n t h e o u t s i d e of the c h a i r ,i n s t a l a l b o t t o m - p i l o t er od u n d i n g o v e rb i t i n t h e r o u t e ra n ds e tt h e d e o t ho f c u t t o r e a c hy o u rf i n a ld e p t hi n t w o p a s s e s .S e c u r e t h e u n i to u t s i d e - f a cuep t o a worksurfaceand makeeachpassby feedingthe routeralongthe edgesof the piece, p r e s s i ntgh e b i t ' sp i l o tb e a r i n a g g a i n stth e stockthroughout(right).Again,reposition the clamosas necessarv.

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CHAIRS

ASSEMBLING THECHAIR

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Preparing theunits I forthethreaded rod Usethe holesyouusedto secure the template(page39) asguidesto bore c l e a r a n ch eo l e fso rt h et h r e a d erdo d . Startbyclamping a plywood backup panel to yourdrillpress tableandinstall a %-inch bitin themachine. Position the unitonthetablesothatoneof theholes isaligned under thebitandholdtheunit steady asyoudrilltheholehbovd.

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r) Making thespacers L fit vourdrilloresswitha I%-inchholesawto cutthespacers diametei that separate thechairunits.Makethespacers f r o mt w ob o a r d s - % i n c ht h i c kf o rt h e frontspacers andI% inches thickforthe rearones.Holdtheboard onthemachine t a b l ea n dc u tt h r o u gthh es t o c kl,o w e r rngthe feedleverslowly(right).At the s a m et i m e ,t h eh o l es a w ' sp i l o tb i t w i l l b o r ea h o l et h r o u gthh ec e n t eor f e a c h s p a c ef ro rt h et h r e a d erdo d .

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theunits Q Stacking r-,1Onceyouhavecut enough spacers, youcanbegin assembling thechair.Start rodsthrough thethreethreaded byfeeding t h eh o l e isn o n ee n du n i ta n da n c h o r i n g Settheunit eachwitha nutandwasher. r n ds l i p i n s i d e - f aucpeo nt h es h o pf l o o a a s p a c eorn t oe a c hr o d ,u s i n gl o n g e r spacers at thebackandshorter onesat . e x tf,i t a c h a i ru n i to n t ot h e t h ef r o n t N r o d sa n dp r e s ist f i r m l yo nt h es p a c e r s . r nits r sn dc h a i u C o n t i n uaed d i nsgp a c e a (left)untilthe lastunitis in place,then andnutontothetopend installa washer of eachrod.

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therods Tightening gaps between thespacers Close any Hand should andthechairunits. oressure use at thebackof thechair; a suffice wrench to tighten thenuts.At thefront o f t h ec h a i r i,n s t a lal b a rc l a m pa c r o s s to theseatandtightenit as necessary thestockwith closeanygaps;protect woodpads.Tighten thenutsat thefront giveallthenuts ofthechair(right),Ihen a f i n a lt i g h t e n i n R g .e m o vt eh eb a r andusea hacksaw to cutthe clamps the rodflushwiththenuts.Cover excess fromshort nutswithwoodcapsfashioned dowel. lensths of 1-inch

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INSTALLING ARMS

lneide ed7ee of arm blank

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Designing thearms I Youcanaddarmsto thecurved pleasing; chair,applyingthe partshould same andvisually thearmrest be8 to 9 inches design andjoinery methods usedto maketheindividual units. above theseat.Next,usea pencilandstraightedge to outline Starb t y p r e p a r i nagt e m p l a t eh,o l d i nag p i e c eo f h a r d b o a r d theL-shaped (abovd, armblankonthetemplale making it as against onesideof thechairandmarking itsoutline witha pen- wideasnecessary to contarn thearmprofile.Cutthetemplate ctl (inseil. Thendesign thearmso it willbe bothcomfortableona bandsaw(photo, page36) andsandtheedges smooth.

r) 0utlining thearmprofile ontheblanks L flat<e eacharmblankfromtwoboards joinedintoan L shapebyhalf-laps (page 3 7 ) ;r e f e tro y o u rt e m p l a tw e h e ns i z i n g t h eb o a r d sS.e to n eo f t h e b l a n kos n a position worksurface, thetemplate on it andusea pencil to traceitsoutline onthe slock(right).Marktheotherblank,then cutthearmsto sizeon a bandsaw(pags 36).Smooth thecutedges, sanding the stockto yourcuttinglines.

42

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overtheedges ofthearms J<' Rounding

r - , 1 R o u n do v e rt h e e d g e so f t h e a r m s ,e x c e pw t h e r et h e yc o n n a c ha r m t a c tt h e c h a i r T . o m a r ko u t t h e s ea r e a sp, o s i t i o e a g a i n stth e c h a i ra n d d r a wa p e n c i la c r o s si t a l o n gt h e t o p o f i h e s e a ta n dt h e f r o n te d g eo f t h e r e a rl e g .R e m e m b et o r mark o u t r i g h t -a n d l e f t - h a nvde r s i o nosf t h e a r m .I n s t a lal p i l o t e d r o u n d - o v eb ri t i n a r o u t e a r n d m o u n t h e t o o l i n a t a b l e .T o p r o v i d ea b e a r i n g s u r f a c ef o r t h e a r m s ,f a s h i o na g u a r df o r t h e

bit anda fenceforthestockto rideagainst theinfeedside o f t h et a b l eS. c r e w t h eg u a r da n df e n c et o g e t h e a rn dc l a m p themto thetable.Press theworkpiece against thepilotbearingasyoufeedeacharmacross thetable,thenturnoverthe stockandshape theotheredge(above). Whenrounding over the insidefacesof thearms.startandstoothecutsat the m a r k ecdo n t a cl itn e s .

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Attaching thearmsto the chair D r i l lt w o c l e a r a n cheo l e st h r o u g h e a c ha r m o n ea t e i t h e re n d - a n d a p p l y g l u et o t h e f l a t a r e a st h a tw i l l c o n t a ctth e c h a i rC . l a m pt h e a r m i n p o s i t i oonn t h e c h a i ra n d f a s t e ni t i n p l a c e( l e f t ) .

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ANATOMYOF A LOUNGECHAIR without ItT o deckor patioiscomplete "chaise I \ at leastonelounsechairor longue."Buildinga couplelike the one shownat right and in the colorphotographon page22involvesthebetterpart of a day'swork, but the finishedproductswill provideyearsof comfortable loafingandsunworshipping. The chairis madewith almosttwo dozenslats.Thosefor themainbodyare simplyscrewed to a cleatfastened to the siderails;thebackrest slatsarejoinedto railswith half-laps.Butt hingessecure the backrestto the body.The backrest canbeadjusted from thehorizontalposition to nearlyvertical,andthe notched rack supportingthe backrestallowsit to besetat severalpositionsin between. The loungechairis lightweightand easyto moveon wheelsattached to the rearlegs.The wheelsareheld in place with axlecaps.Althoughthis hardware is not asstrongascotterpins,it is easier to install and more than sturdy enoughfor the light-dutyneedsof the loungechair.Usea galvanized steelor aluminumrod for theaxle. Sincethe slatsarethin, try to select relatively knot-freewoodfor thesepieces.

ANDMATERIALS CUTTING tIST PIECE

OTY

TH

W ORDIAM.

L

S i d er a i l s

2

IY^'

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90"

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21y,',

X

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8

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IYo'

78', 24', 17%',

Slats

l3

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Backrest rail Backrest slats Cleats Spacer

2

IY4'

1 t / n I74

Rack

a a

IYo'

IYo'

Z

,/0,

IY,' IY,'

20'

Backrest support rails Backrest support stiles

19y,',

2

%u

Backrest support stop

a Z

IYo'

I%'

2%',

Frontlegs Rearlegs

2

3v,'

9"

2

I%' T%'

3v,'

7 Yo'

Axle

1

X

Y,'

36',

Wheels

a L

X

8u

X

Washers

4 (min)

X

W'

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2

X

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X

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E

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Baakrest eupport etop Freventa backreat eupport from alippinqoff rack

Spaaer 9upporta the main body elaLa

I Front leg

5r


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Eaakreat alat

Backreat rail

Eackrest' eupport atile

Piano hinge

Eackreet' aupport rail

Main body alat

I ?ide rail

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MAKING A LOUNGECHAIR A sabersaw cuts the curvedprofile at thefront end of one of the side rails of a loungechair. Once the rails are sized properly,the curvecan be markedon the stockwith referenceto the anatomy illustration on page44. Becausethe rails are almost 8 feet long, it is easierto make the cutswith a portablesaw than to attempt to maneuverthe bonrdson a band saw (left). After sawing the cLtrves,smooth the cut edgesusinga spindlesanderor sanding block.All the edgesof the raik are then roundedover.

FASHIONING THESIDE RAITS 'l

Rounding overthesiderails I C u te a c ho f t h es i d er a i l st o s i z e , clampthestockfaceupto a worksurface, andsawthecurves at thefrontend(photo,above). Theninstalla pilotedrounding-over bit in a routerandmakeeach passbyfeeding therouteralongtheedges of therail,pressing thebit'spilotbearing a g a i n st h t es t o c kt h r o u g h otuhtec u t (right).Reposition theclampsas necessary.Turntherailoverandrepeat onthe otherside.

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CHAIRS

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thehandle holes J Drilling f- fhe handle at thefrontendof thechairis madefroma lengto h f 1 - i n c h - d i a m edtoewr e lB. o r et h ed o w ehl o l e si n t h e s i d er a i l sw i t ha n e l e c t r idcr i l l f i t t e d w i t ha 1 - i n c hF o r s t n e r b i t .C l a m pt h es t o c ki n s i d e - f a uc p e o n a w o r ks u r f a caen d markouttheholes, centering thembetween theedges about

Attaching thecleats totherails T o p o s i t i o nt h e c l e a t so n t h e r a i l s , m a r ka l r n ea l o n ge a c hr a i l ' si n s i d ef a c e 1%inchesfromthe bottomedge.Starting 2 i n c h e sf r o mo n ee n do f t h e c l e a t ,d r i l la c l e a r a n cheo l ee v e r y8 i n c h e sa l o n gi t s l e n g t hT. h e na p p l yw a t e r p r o g o lfu eo n t h e i n s i d ef a c eo f t h e c l e a ta n d o o s i t i o tnh e s t o c ko n t h e s i d er a i l ,a l i g n i n g the back e n d so f t h e p i e c e sA. n c h o trh e c l e a ti n place,holdingthe stripso its bottomedge i s f l u s hw i t ht h e m a r k e dl i n eo n t h e r a i la s youdriveeachscrew(left).Workfromthe backof the cleatto the front.

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1 %i n c h efsr o mt h ef r o n e t n do f t h er a i l .M a k es u r et h em a r k s a r ei n t h es a m el o c a t i oonn b o t hr a i l sH . o l d i ntgh ed r i l lv e r t i cal,borethe hole(above), stopping whenthebodyof the bit i s c o m p l e t erleyc e s s ei ndt h ew o o dt;h i sw i l l y i e l da l z - i n c h d e e ph o l e .

47


CHAIRS

THEBODY ASSEMBLING theslats 1I Preoarins '

I C u tt h e s l a t sf o r t h e b o d yo f t h e c h a i r t o s i z e ,t h e nd r i l l t w oh o l e sa t e a c he n d . o k e e pt h e l o c a t i o o o f e v e r yp i e c eT nf the h o l e su n i f o r md, o t h e j o b o n y o u rd r i l l p r e s sa i d e db y t h e s i m p l ej i g s h o w na t l e f t .S t a r tb y s e c u r i n a g b a c k u pp a n e tl o t h e m a c h i n tea b l ea n dd r i l l i n tgh e f i r s to f t h e h o l e s - w h i c ha r ea l l % i n c hf r o mt h e e n do f t h e s l a t sa n d % i n c hf r o mt h e n e a r e s te d g e F . o rt h ej i g , l e a v et h es l a ti n p o s i t i o n a n dc l a m pt w o b o a r d st o t h e t a b l ea s a f e n c ea n ds t o pb l o c k T . h ef e n c es h o u l d b e f l u s ha g a i n stth e e n d o f t h e s l a ta n d t h e s t o pb l o c ks h o u l db e b u t t e da g a i n s t b o t ht h e f e n c ea n dt h e e d g eo f t h e s l a t . D r i l lt h e s e c o n dh o l eb y t u r n i n gt h e s l a t o v e ra n ds e a t i n gi t r n t h e j i g . R e p e atth e n r o c e s as t t h e s l a t ' so t h e re n d a n d a t b o t he n d so f t h e r e m a i n i nsgl a t s .

r) Installing theslats L Onceall theslatsareready, setthe s i d er a i l so n e d s eo n a w o r ks u r f a c e . s pn' rupu :u d u

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i n ga t t h e f r o n to f t h e c h a i r ,s e t i t o n t h e c l e a t sT. h es l a t ' sf r o n te d g es h o u l db e f l u s hw i t ht h e e n d o f t h e c l e a t si;t s e n d s h o u l db u t ta g a i n stth e r a i l s C . h e c kw i t h a t r y s q u a r et o m a k es u r et h e s l a t i s p e r n e n d i c r l at ro t h e r a i l s t. h e ns c r e wt h e remaining s l a ti n p l a c eT. o i n s t a l l t h e s l a t s ,u s ea b o a r dt h e s a m et h i c k n e s s as the slats as a spacer(right).Check t h e a s s e m b lfyo r s q u a r ee v e r yf o u ro r f r v es l a t s .

48

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CHAIRS

BUILDING THEBACKREST 1I Preoarins thebackrest railsandslats I Thebackrest slatsarejoinedto the r a i l sw i t hh a l f - l a p0s u . t l i n et h er a b b e t s a t t h ee n d so f t h er a i l sa n dt h ed a d o e s i n b e t w e em n ,a k i ntgh e ma sl o n ga st h e r a i lw i d t ha n da sd e e pa so n e - h atlhf e s t o c kt h i c k n e slse;a v eZ i n c ho f s p a c e between theoutlines. Install a dadohead onyourtablesaw,adjustit to maximum width,andsetthecuttingheight. Attach anextension to yourmitergauge. Sawthe rabbets first,thenworkfromoneendof theboardto theotherto cutthedadoes (righil.Foreachchannel, startbydefiningoneshoulder, thenmakea series of passes untilyoureach theothershoulder. Holdtherailf lushagainst themitergauge (Note: extension throughout Guard removed forclarity.) Follow thesameprocedure to sawmatching rabbets at bothendsof theslats.

r)

Attaching theslatsto the rails L O l l t t w oc l e a r a n cheo l e sa t e a c he n d o f e v e r ys l a t ,t h e n s p r e a dg l u e i n t h e r a b b e t sa n d d a d o e so f t h e b a c k r e srta i l s . S e tt h e r a i l sf a c eu p o n a w o r ks u r f a c e a n d i n s t a l lt h e s l a t sw i t h s c r e w s( / e f f ) , m a k i n gs u r et h e i re n d sa r ef l u s hw i t h t h e o u t s i d ee d e e so f t h e r a i l s .

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I CHAIRS

thebackrest to themainbody J<' Attaching

r.,l Setthe backrest on the siderailcleats, leaving a % o - i n cgha p b e t w e etnh e b a c k r e s ta n d t h e l a s ts l a t a t t h e t o p e n d o f t h e m a i n b o d y .T h e np o s i t i o nt w o b u t t h i n g e sa c r o s st h e s e a m - o n ea t e a c h end-centering t h e h i n g ep i n o n t h e g a p between the pieces.Markthe screwholes, d r i l la p i l o th o l ea t e a c hm a r k ,a n ds c r e w the hingesin place(left).

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Installing theracks Makethetworacksfromlensths of 1%-inch-square stock.Starting aboul2Y, inches fromoneend,cuta series of notchesalongthetopedgeof eachrackonyour bandsaw.Thenotches should be%inch deep,angled at 45",andspaced about2 inches apart.Mounttheracksbyfirstfastening spacers thesamewidthandthicknessasthecleats to thesiderailsdirectly page44). belowthecleats(seeanatomy, T h e ng l u ea n ds c r e w t h er a c k st o t h e s p a c e ras l,i g n i ntgh et o pe d g eo f e a c h stripwiththebottomedgeof thecleat (right). Finally, attachthe backrest supportstopsto thetopedgeof the racks, f l u s hw i t ht h eb a c ke n d s .

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thebackrest support f, Attaching r.,/ Assemble thebackrest suooort with half-laps 49) Fasten the top end of @age thesupport tothechairwitha piano hinge. Cutthehinge to thelength of thesupport railsandscrew it to theinside faceof the justoffthe toprailsothehingepinextends edge.Next,seatthebottom endof thesupportin oneoftheracknotches andtilt up boththesuooort andbackrest sothefree pianohingeleafiscentered onthefifthslat fromthe bottomof the backresl tight). Markthescrew holes anddrilla pilothole i n t h es l a ta t e a c hm a r kT. u r nt h ec h a i r overandscrewthehingeto theslat(insef).

INSTATTING THELEGS 'l

( \

Preparing thelegsforthesiderails I Thelessareattached to thesiderailswithrabbets cut ona tableiawfittedwitha mitergauge extension anda dadoheadadjusted to maximum width.Setthecutting height at one-half thelegthickness andangle themiter gauge to 45'. Position theripfencefora 3-inchcutting width.Startbysawing therabbet shoulder, holding the stockflushagainst thefenceandmitergauge extension. Thenmakea series of passes to remove theremaining wasle(lefil.Onceall fourlegsarerabbeted, cutthecurve attheirbottom endsonyourbandsaw.Keepin mindthat therearlegsare1%inches shorter thanthefrontonesto enable thewheels to contact thesround.

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CHAIRS

r) Preparing therearlegs I torthewheelaxles Markanaxleholeononeof therearlegs 1 %i n c h e b selow t h er a b b est h o u l d e r . T h e ni,n s t a lal / , - i n c hb i t i n y o u rd r i l l p r e s as n dc l a m pa b a c k u b po a r d tothe machine table.Holdthelegveryf irmlyas youdrillthehole(lefD.foensure thatthe holein thelegontheopposite sideof the chairwillbein exactly thesamelocation, alignthetwolegsfaceto faceandslipa pencil through theholeto markthepositionof theholein thesecond les.

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t Fastening the legsto thesiderails Q r . . l D r i l lt w oc l e a r a n cheo l e st h r o u g h the r a b b e itn e a c hl e ga n ds p r e a dg l u eo n t h e j o i n t .S c r e wt h e l e g si n p l a c e1 8 i n c h e s fromthe endsof the rails.Drivethe screws w i t ht h e l e gc l a m p e di n p o s i t i o n s ot h e r a b b eci h e e kr e m a i n fsl u s ha g a i n stth e f a c eo f t h e s i d er a r la n dt h e s h o u l d ebru t t s againstthe bottomedgeof Ihe rail (righil. Repeatfor the frontlegs.

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CHAIRS

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Installing thewheels Fittheaxlerodsthrough theholesin thelegs, thenslipa washer anda wheel ontotheaxlealongside oneleg.Morethan maybenecessary onewasher to enable thewheelto turnfreely(above). Addanotherwasher ontheoutside of thewheel, t h e nt a po na na x l ec a pu n t i li t i s s n u g (left).lnslallthewheelon the opposite sideof thechairthesameway,butbefore tapping ontheaxlecap,cuttherodsoit extends % inchbeyond thewheel.Then i n s t atl hl ec a o .

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BENCHES

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by itself,it canbetransformed he pleasures of a backinto a gliderwhencombined yard or flowergarden with thebaseshownon page While aremeantto beshared. 112.Theparkbenchis relaa lonechairmavbesuitedto tivelysimpleto make,assemsolitaryreflection,benches bledwith butt jointsthat are More callout for company. reinforcedby screws.The thananything,a benchis an joineryis morethan suffivisitors invitation,beckoning cientlystrong,andeliminates to sit and chat or simply the risk that the connecting views. enjoythesurrounding partsof thebenchwill trap Thischaptershowshowto waterthatcouldrot thewood. build threedifferentstylesof morethananyothPerhaps The gardenbench benches. er pieceshownin thisbook, shownat left andon thefolthetreebench(page70)m:ust lowingpageswill suit more harmonizewith its settingItssolid,upright formaltastes. putsit in character both in its color and size. backrest Ideally,it shouldappearto be garden. But Ratherthan trying thepainfullydfficult taskof cutin a well-ordered almostan organicoutgrowth ting all the legsof the treebenchto fit unevenground in therightlocation,thebench Madeby of its environment. arounda treetrunlg levelit usingJlat rocksaswedges. couldalsoserveasan interencirclingatreetrunk with six to a more estingcounterpoint modularseats thatareattached endto end,thebenchmust informallayout.In eithercase,try to situateit in front of with a particulartreein mind.The beplannedanddesigned tall flowersor shrubs,whichwill serveasa backdropto internaldiameter thatof thetrunk of thebenchshouldexceed framethepiece. piece.Thecurved byabout6 inches. Thetableon page71will helpyouchoose Theparkbench(page64)is aversatile for yourbench,giventhe cirdimensions linesof its armrests andlegsgiveit a morecasuallookthan the appropriate your when cumference of tree. garden A and attractive bench used the bench. simple

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where Beforeyoupaint your outdoorfurniture, consider it will beplacedin thegarden.Thewhiteof thegarden asan eye-catching counterbenchshownat leftserves point to the colorfulflower bedthat standsbehindit.

55


ANATOMYOF A GARDENBENCH nI- h. gardenbenchis a sophisticated I pieceof fumiture.BuiJding it demands asmuchprecisionandattentionto detail asanyindoorproject.It alsoincorporates features thatgiveit theneededstrength anddurabilityto facetheelements. The bottomendsofthe arm supportand

Upper baak rail

backslats,for example,arehousedin dadoesthat extendright throughthe rails,allowinganymoistureto drainout. To makethe bench,startby assembling the legsand rails,then add the armsand theirslats,formingthe two endunits.Next,installthelongerpieces

that bridgethe ends,suchasthe front seatrailandbackrails.Finally,finishthe seatandback. To ensurethat all the surfaces ofthe benchareuniformlysmoothwhenthe time comesto applya finish,sandthe piecesbeforefastening themin place.

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Filler atrip

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I

â&#x201A;Ź4 tr-/

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e Back elat

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Lower baok rail caP

9eat alat Lower back rail

Front, leg

CIeat

Front, aeat rail Eack geat rail

Seat eupport

Middle stretaher

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End rail End etretaher

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t Front seat. rail

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CUTTING LIST

QTY T

w

Frontlegs

2

l'/o'

!'/ou

Rearlegs Endrails

2

r%'

47t/o'*

2

Iyo'

I%' 4',

4

?u

2Avt', IIYo'

t 24', 233/"'

Arms

2

Armsupport slats Middfestretcher

6

3/qu

74

I

Iy4'

274

Endstretchers Frontseatrail

2 L

Iyo' lt/o'

2',

60" 24"

4u

OU

Backseatrail

I

ly4'

3u

Cleats Seatsupports

2 4

I' I%'

1u

60" 56'1',

Seatslats

7

Iyo"

Upper backrail Lower backrail

1 1

Lower backrailcap Backslats

I 13

7

ZA

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ZLtA

57Yo'

IYo' 1'

4t/n'

60"

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25%',

* Finalmeasurement. Stockshouldbewiderto accommodate curveof les.

CUTTING PATTERNS FOR PARTS CURVED OFBENCH

Upperback rail

End rail


BUILDINGA GARDENBENCH A dadoheadon a tablesawcutsa dado in thefront legof a gardenbench.Each front legneedsthreedadoes-two on the outsidefacethat matchrabbetssawninto theendand stretcher rails,and oneon thefront edgefor a rabbetin thefront seatrail. In thesetupshownat right,stop blocksclampedto a mitergougeextensionensurethat thedadoesin thetwo legswill bein exactlythesamelocations.

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ASSEMBLING THEENDUNITS

I I I I T I I I I therearlegs 1 Making I Referring to theanatomy illustration andcuttinglistonthe preceding pages, cutthearms,armsupport slats,andtheend andstretcher rails.Tooutline thecurved rearlegsonthestock, startbymaking a plywood or hardboard template; thelegsare vertical fromtheirbottom endsto theseatandthencurvebackwardat about10', ananglethatmostusers willfindcomfortable.Oncethetemplate is ready, traceitsoutlineontheleg youto usethe stockwitha pencrl. Usinga 2-by-6willenable sameblankfor bothlegs(above). Cutthe legsonyourbandsaw.

58

r) Gutting joints thehalf-lap L Xl of thedadoes andrabbets forthe half-laps usedto assemble theendunitscanbecut onthetablesaw(photo, abovel-except forthoseonthe backedgesof the rearlegsfor the backseatrail.Thesearecut on a bandsawbecause the cutsarelocated on the insideof thelegcurves, andthe stockcannotrestflaton a tablesawtableat theseooints. Startbymaking allthetablesawcuts,thenoutline theremainingdadoon eachrearleg.Feeding thestockintothe blade withbothhands, cutthesidesof thedadowithtwocross-grain cuts,thenmakea series of curved(above) andstraight cutsto remove theremaining waste.

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Attaching theendand stretcher railstothelegs Setfrontandrearlegsfromthesameside faceuo on a work of the benchoutside gluein the surface andapplywaterproof railsin dadoes. Taotheendandstretcher position, check theunitforsquare anddrill p i l o th o l e si n t h er a i l st,w oa t e a c he n d of theendrailandoneintothestretcher rail,Screwthe piecestogether(righil.

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Installing thearms Screw thearmsupport slatsto the endrails,making certain thatthesupports' bottomendsareflushwiththe bottom edges of therails.Then,holding oneleg a s s e m bul yp r i g hst ,e tt h ea r mi n p o s i t i o n ,c e n t e r i ni tgo nt h es u p p o r a t sn d butting thebackendagainst therearleg. Outline thesupports ontheunderside of mortise thearmandcut a %-inch-deep i n t ot h ea r mw i t h i ne a c ho u t l i n eA. l s o boretwoclearance holes through thearm in linewiththefrontlegandthrough the r e a rl e gi n t ot h ee n do f t h ea r m .N e x t , spread somegluein thearmmortises and at theooints where thearmcontacts the legs,fit thearmin position again(left), andscrewit to the legs.

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BENCHES

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t ATTACHING THESEATRAILSANDMIDDLE STRETCHER theseatrails 1 Installing I Startbyattaching thefrontseatrail to thefrontlegs,usinga malletandwood b l o c kt o t a pt h eh a l f - l a pt os g e t h ear n, d glueandscrews to f ixthepieces. Forthe backrail,settheassembly upright on a position worksurface, theboard against the r e a rl e g sa, n dm a r kt h ep o s i t i oonf t h e notchthatmustbecutin theendto enable t h eo u t s i dfea c eo f t h er a i lt o s i t f l u s h withthebackedges of thelegs.Cutthe notch, thenglueandscrew therailto the legstighil.

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r-) Attaching themiddle stretcher I Cuta rabbet ateachendofthestretcher to matewiththe dadoesin the endstretchers. Drilltwoclearance holes through thestretcher at eachendoftheboard, thenspread somegluein (above) therabbets, setthe piecein position andscrewit down.

60

t) Roundins overthefrontseatrail r../ Tomakethebenchmorecomfortable, roundoverthetop edgeof thefrontseatrail.Install rounding-over a piloted bit in yourfinaldepthin two a router andsetthedepthof cutto reach passes. Makethefirstpassalongtheinsrde faceof therail. Butting therouter baseplateagainst onefrontlegandholding thetoollevelontherail,feedthebitintothestockandalong therail(above); makesurethebit'spilotbearing is pressed against thestockthroughout. Stopthecutwhentherouter contactstheopposite frontleg,thenrepeat thepassalong therail's frontface.Increase thecutting depthandmaketwomorepasses.

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INSTATTING THESEAT thecleatsandseatsupports 1 Attaching I Secure thecleats to theseatrailswith glueandscrews spaced at 8-inchintervals;position thecleats sothatthetopedges o f t h es e a st u o o o r tasn ds e a tr a i l sl i e f lush.Withthecleatsin position, setthe b e n c ho n i t sb a c ka n da t t a c h t h ee n d s e a st u p p o r t os t h ec l e a t sd, r i v i ntgh e screws fromunderneath; thesupports should beflushagainst thelegsandend rails.Next,fasten themiddle seatsupporls qn:nino

i.h, r e me v e n l y an0 h o l d i n ge a c hp i e c ei n p o s i t i o n a s y o ud r i ve the screwslnshf). tn ihp nlo:iq

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r) Installing theseatslats I Rouna overthetopedges of theseat slatsandtestjitthemin thebenchsothat gapbetween thereis %-inch them;trimthe slats'edses if necessary. Markthelocationsof theseatsupports oneachslatand drilltwoclearance holes through theslats at eachmark.Starting at thefrontseatrail, screwtheslatsto thesupports, using%inchspacers to maintain thegapbetween the pieces(/eff).

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theupper backrail 1 Shaping I Cuttheupperbackrailtosize,thensaw thecurve therabbets at itsends.Outline along therail'stopedgeusinga template illustrated based onthepattern onpage57. withthetopcorner ofthe Alignthetemplate witha railat oneendandmarkitsoutline pencil(right).Repeat at theotherend,then cutawaythewasteonyourbandsaw.

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r) Preparing the railfor the backslats L Cutthegroovefor the slatsalongthe railon yourtablesaw . d j u stth ew i d t ho f t h e b l a d e tso t h e e q u i p p ew d i t ha d a d oh e a d A s l a tt h i c k n e s s - Xi n c h - a n d t h ec u t t i n gh e i g htto 1 i n c h .C e n t e r t h e r a i lo v e rt h e b l a d e sa n d b u t tt h e r i p f e n c ea g a i n stth e s t o c k . T o h e l pk e e pt h e r a i lp r e s s eadg a i n st th ef e n c ec, l a m pa f e a t h e r boardto thesawtable,bracedby a supportboardinstalled at a 90' a n g l e ;r o u n do v e rt h e t o p e d g eo f t h e f e a t h e r b o a trod f a c i l i t a t e l o w e r i ntgh e w o r k p i e coen t ot h e b l a d e sT. o h e l py o ud e t e r m i n e

I I t h e p o s i t i oonf t h ed a d oh e a dw h e ni t i s h i d d e nb yt h e r a i ld u r i n g the cut, marktwo lineson the fenceat the pointwherethe blades startandstopcutting.Holding the railagainst thefencejustabove p i t h eb l a d ea s n da l i g n i ntgh ef r o n te n do f t h e e c ew i t ht h ec u t t i n g markon the fence,slowlylowerit ontothe head(above,left).Once whilepressthe railis sittingsquarely on the table,feedit fonryard (above, right).Stopthe cut oncethe back ing it against the fence endof the railreaches the backcuttinsmark.

62

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t I I Fastening thelowerbackrail totherearlegs

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Prepare the lowerbackrailandtheninstall t h e b a c ks l a t si n t h e r a i l ,p r o c e e d i nags you wouldfor a porchswing(page106). Spread s o m eg l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i nsgu r facesof the lowerrailandrearlegs,fit the a s s e m b l i etso g e t h e (r a b o v da n d d r i v e t w o s c r e w si n t oe a c he n do f t h e r a i l .

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Attaching theupper backrail Positioning theupper railovertheslats, startat oneendto pushtheraildown, snappingtheslatsintothegroove asyougo. glueand Oncethepieces areall in place, screw t h eh a l f - l a pj os i n i n g t h er a i la n d rp:r

lpoc (lpff ) f a enmnloto

tho honnh

g l u ew o o df i l l e rs t r i p si n t h eu p p e r a i l groove between theslats.Thiswillkeep theslatsfromshiftins.

63


I I -f

h. parkbenchis a cozyseatfor hvo. I It canserveasa stationary bench,as shownhere,or asa glider,usingthebase shownon page112.Theheightof the benchwithouttheglidermaybea bit low for someusers, but adding3 inchesto the leglengthsprovidedin thecuttinglistwill

yield a standard-height bench.Using mainlysimplebuttjoints,theparkbench isrelativelystraightforward to construct. While not asstrongasthe half-lap,the butt joint is quickandeasyto assembleand it doesan evenbetterjob ofsheddingwaterandmoisture.Reinforcing the

joinerywith waterproofglueandscrews makesit sufficientlystrong. Anotherconcession to simplicityisthe useof same-size stockfor backand seat you rip all theslatswith slats.Thisenables thesamesettingon yourtablesaw,speedingconstruction andreducing errors.

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BENCHES

Two coatsof spar varnish applied on thepark bench shownat rigfut bringout therich natural tonesof thewood-inthis msaNorthern white cedar.

CUTTIl{G LIST Front legs Rearlegs Seatrails Ams Frontrail Rearrails Upper backrcil Seatslats Backslats

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65

OTY TH

w

t

2

I/4'

4',

203/4'

3

LY4'

6n

3

lY4'

43/4o

2

3/4'

An

I

3/qn

43/4' 23/4u

33%', 2t' 23', 46', 46',

3/on

2u

49Y4'

-/4

3u

47',

3/4n

3u

47',

2 % ' , I

6 7


BENCHES

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THEENDUNITS MAKING

I I I I I I I I thelegs 1 Shaping which I Startburldrng thebench byassembling theendunits, patconsist of theseatandseatrails.Referring to thecutting page 65, maketemplates forthefrontandrear ternsshownon legs.Thentracethedesigns ontoyourlegstock(page58)and

c u t o u tt h e l e g so n t h e b a n ds a w .S m o o t ht h e s u r f a c eosf e a c h legwith a sandingblock(above), securingthe stockto a work g r w i t ht h e a i n .R e a r r a n gt he e l e gi n t h e surface a n ds a n d i n g c l a m p sa s n e c e s s a r y .

/)

Aftaching theseatrailsto thelegs L C u t t h es e a tr a i l st o s i z e t, h e nf a s t e n o n et o e a c hl e g .M a r kl a y o ulti n e so n t h e l e g st o p o s i t i o tnh e r a i lp r o p e r l yT:h er a i l s h o u l db e i n s e tf r o mt h e o u t s i d e d g e so f t h e l e g sb y % i n c ht o a l l o wt h e f r o n ta n d r e a rr a i l st o b e s e tf l u s hw i t ht h e l e g ' s e d p e st,h e b o t t o me d p eo f t h e s e a tr a i l s h o u l db e 5 %i n c h e sf r o mt h e b o t t o mo f t h e r e a rl e ga n d6 i n c h e sf r o mt h e b o t t o m of the frontleg.Spreadsomeglueon the contacting surfaces of the pieces,alignthe r a i lw i t hy o u rl a y o u lti n e s a, n d u s ea t r y s q u a r ea sy o uf a s t e nt h e r a i l st o t h e l e g s to ensurethatthe bottomedgeof the rails a tr h eo u t s i d e d g e r e m a i nps e r p e n d i c utl o of eachleg (right).

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BENCHES

ASSEMBLING THESEAT Installing thefrontandrearrails 1 I Cutthefrontandrearrailsto sizeand drillclearance holes at theendsof each piece. glueandscrews, Using fasten the rearratlin place; driveonescrew at each endto start,checkforsquare, theninstall theremaining fasteners. Install thefront railthesameway(right),then attach the thirdseatrailto thefrontandrearrails, centerine it between theendunits.

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theseatslats O Installing L Cutalltheseatandbackslatsto size androundovertheiredges. Drilltwoclearanceholes through eachpieceat every seatraillocation. Next,notchthefirst seatslatat thefrontof thebenchto fit around thefrontlegs. Toensure theslat sitsflushagainst thecurved frontedgeof thelegs,holdit in position ontherails, outline thelegprofile at eachendwitha pencil(lefilandtrimto the linewitha chisel. Screw theslatsin place, separatingthemwith%-inch spacers 61). @age

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BENCHES

I I I I I I I t

THEARM INSTALLING thearm 1I Shanine

I 0 u t l i n et h e a p p r o p r i a ct eu t t i n gp a t t e r n (page65) on onearm blank,thencut the n o t c ha t t h e b a c ke n d o f t h e b l a n kt h a t w i l l e n a b l et h e a r mt o f i t a r o u n dt h e r e a r l e g .T o e n s u r et h e i n s i d es u r f a c eos f t h e a r ma n dr e a rl e gw i l la l i g n h, o l dt h e b l a n k n n d m a r ka l i n ea l o n gt h e t o p i n p o s i t i oa t^^^ ^t rL^ Lr^-r, +L^+^"r2llclq thp lpo'q ldLtr Ul LllC Uldlln LlldL

I

Vuruilu'J

insidefacetight).Cutthearmto shape to on yourbandsaw,thenusea router its for roundoverall edges, except those thatdefine thenotch. Usethefirstarmto outline theoooosite one.

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Installing thearms P o s i t i otnh e a r m o n t h e b e n c hs o t h a tt h e i n s i d ee d s ei s f l u s hw i t ht h e r e a rl e ga n d o v e r h a n gt hs e i n s i d ef a c eo f t h e f r o n tl e gb y 1 7 i n c h e sM . a r kl o c a t i o nl i n e so n t h e u n d e r s i doef

t h e a r ma n d d r i l lc l e a r a n cheo l e st h r o u g hi t . T h e na p p l yg l u e t o t h e c o n t a c t i nsgu r f a c eosf t h e a r ma n d l e g sa n df a s t e ne a c h arm in placehbove).

6B

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BENCHES

ASSEMBTING THEBACK (

(

(

'l-lMiter 4auge extenaion

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thebackslats 1 Rabbeting I C u tt h er a b b e tast t h ee n d so f t h e b a c ks l a t so n y o u r t a b l es a w .I n s t a lal d a d oh e a da n da d j u sitt sw i d t ht o s l i g h t ly moreIhanrl inch.Thenattachan auxiliary fence,posiwidth,andraise tionthefencefora %-inch cutting theblades intothewooden fenceto notchit, making surethatthedado

h e a di s c l e a o r f t h em e t aol n e .A d j u stth ec u t t i n gh e i g htto one-half theslatthickness andscrewan extension boardto the mitergauge.Feedtheslatsrounded-over sideup, holdingthestockflushagainst thefenceandmitergauge extensionwhileyoumakethe cut (above).

r) Attaching backslatsandrail L tlttngglueandtwoscrewsat each e n d ,f a s t e n t h e b a c ks l a t st o t h e r e a r legs;cut Xo-inch spacers to maintain the proper gapbetween thebottommost back slatandtheseat,and%-inch spacers for glue rows.Before theremaining applying to thefourthslatfromthe bottom, notch it at eachendto fit around thearms.0nce a l lt h eb a c ks l a t sa r ei n s t a l l e u d s, et w o screws to fastenthe bottomendof the backsupportpieceto the seatslatat t h eb a c ko f t h e b e n c hC. o m o l e t e he benchbyinstalling theupperbackrail. Applyglueto thecontacting surfaces of the railandlegs,thenscrewthesupport (/eft). in position

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69


ANATOMYOFATREEBENCH 1 \ n c ei n s t a l l e da, t r e eb e n c hc a n L - / b . . o * . a n i n t e g r apl a r t o f i t s environment, appearingasnatural, necessary, and stableas the tree it encircles. Indeed,thisbenchis by defproiect.You inition a custom-made cannotcomplete thecutiinglistuntil you measure thecircumference of the treearoundwhich the benchwill fit. Referto the chartoppositeto helpyou sizethevariablepartsofyour project. Althoughfinalassembly of thebench

is doneon site,youwill avoidfrustration if you first test-assemble the six identicalseatingunits in the shop. Onceyou aresatisfied with thefit, disassemble the benchonly partiallyto moveit. Remove thecaprail,seat,slats, backslatsand apronfrom two oppositesections, leavingtwo pairsof seat sections intact.Whenyou reachyour tree,positionthe two intactsections aroundthe trunk, then reattachthe removedsections.

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BENCHES

Wrappedaround the trunk of a statelyashtree,a sixsidedtreebenchoffersa shadyplaceto sitand reJlect.Its designallowsoneto view theentirepanoramawithout movingthebench;theuserneedonlyshift to anotherseat. Thebenchshownat right wasfinishedwith a greenstain, enablingit to blendunobtrusively with itssurroundings.

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CUTTING LIST Legs Braces Seatsupports Backcleats Caprails Aprons Backslats Seatslats Cariage bolts

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TREE tEl{GTH CIRCUMFERENCE CAPRAIL* 50' I23/4" 13" 52" 54u r3rl'

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INSIDE TREE tEiIGTH CIRCUMFERENCE CAPRAIL* 94u 203/o'

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60" 62

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TREE TEl{GTH CIRCUMFEREilCE CAPRAIL* r6,/o' 72" 7+'. ITYo' 76' 17w' 7g' L77A' I8Y4" 80' 82" 18 5/a'

I47,6'

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19'

64u

I5Y4'

I93,6' I9'/o'

233,6'

1554',

86' 88'

108'

66' 68'

110'

233/4'

16'

90'

20'

112"

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70'

76%',

92"

20r,6'

Galculating thedimensions ofa treebench Thesizeof sometreebenchparts-thecaprails,aprons, and slats-deoend on thecircumference of thetree.Sincethe mitered caprailshugthetreeclosest, theirlengthalongthe inside(orshorter)edges is critical. ldeally, thereshouldbea gapbetween I%-inch thecaprailsandthetreeat themidpoint (simply of eachrail.Startbymeasuring thetree'scircumference wrapa measuring tapearound thetrunkat thecaprailheight)

7l

96' gg'

2IY4'

100"

2l%" 22%"

102" 104' 106'

2rw"

22%', 22',

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androundyourresultupto oneof thedimensions in thechart above. Thesamelineonthechartwillgiveyoutherequired length of thecaprailsalongtheirinside edges. Cutthelength of theothervariable andslats-tofit. oieces-theaDrons lf thetreecircumference is lessthan50 inches, usel2slqyouwillneedto inch-long caprails.lf it exceeds 112inches, buildanoctagonal bench-orf inda smaller tree.


I

BUILDINGATRE,E BENCH A tree benchbackslqt is trimmed to Iengthwith a compoundmiter cut on a tablesaw.In the setupshown at right, the blade k angledto 30" so that the ends of the slat will sitflush againstthe adjoining legs;the miter gaugeangle is set to match the splay angle-or side-to-side slope-of the legs.To help prevent kickback, the workpieceis clamped to a miter gaugeextensionand the cut is set up with the wastepiece to the right of the blade.

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MAKING THESUPPORT ASSEMBTIES

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thelegs,braces andseatsupports 1 Assembling I Startbuilding thebenchbymaking thesixsupport assem- notchon yourbandsaw(above, /eff).Next,useglueand blies;eachonecomprises leg a andbrace andtwoseatsupa screwto fastenthe braceto the leg,drivingthe fastener ports.Miterthebottom endof thebrace at a 72" angle, then through thebrace's bottomedge.Nowcuttheseatsupports to trimthebottom corner witha cutat a 90" angleto themiter length, beveling thefrontendat 30'. Thebackendof each cut;thissecond cutshouldintersect theendof thebrace 3% support shouldbeflushwiththeleg'sbackedgeandthesupinches fromthetopedge.Makea 45" mitercutat theother port'stopedgeshould beflushwiththetopendof thebrace. endof thebrace sothattheboardmeasures 16%inches along Clamp thesupports in position onthelegandbrace, andmark its bottom edge.Holding thebrace at a 105"angle to theleg a holeat eachendof bothsupDorts for a %u-inch-diameter 4 inches fromtheleg'sbottom end,outline thebottom endof carriage bolt.Drillthe holesandinstallthe bolts,washers t h eb r a c eo n t h ef a c eo f t h e l e s .T h e nc u t o u tt h e m a r k e d andnuts,tightening witha wrench(above, right).

72

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BENCHES

2

Preparing thebackcleats Makethe 12 backcleatsfromlenghs of l'l-by-I%-inch stock.Ripbothedges of e a c hp i e c ea t a 3 0 ' a n g l e s o t h e n a r r o w f a c eo f t h e c l e a ti s % i n c hw i d e .C u tt h e b o t t o me n d o f t h e c l e a ts o i t w i l l s i t f l a t o n t h e s e a ts u o o o r w t i t h t h e w i d ef a c e f l u s ha g a i n stth e l e g .T o t r i m t h e t o p e n d n g a i n stth e o f t h e c l e a t ,h o l di t i n p o s i t i o a s e a ts u p p o r at n d l e g ,m a r ky o u rc u t t i n g line alongthe leg'stop end (right),and m a k et h e c u t o n t h e b a n ds a w .

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Attaching thecleats to thelegs Q r./ Tooffsetthecleatsfromthefront edgeof thelegsbytherequired 1%inches,makea %o-inch-thick spacer thatyou canuseto space thecleatfromtheleg's b a c ke d g eD . r i l tl h r e ec l e a r a n cheo l e s through thecleatand,usingglueto bond thecleatto the leg,fastenthecleatin place. Holdthespacer against thecleat andf lushwiththeleg'sbackedgeasyou drivethescrews //eff).

73


I BENCHES

I

THESUPPORT J()INING ASSEMBLIES thecaorails 1 Installins I C u t h ec a pr a i l st o l e n g t hm, i t e r i n g t h ee n d sa t 6 0 ' a n db e v e l i nt hg ef r o n t edgeat 70".(Refer to thecharton page 7 1 t o d e t e r m i nt heel e n g t o h f t h er a i l alongitsinside edge.) Drilltwoclearance holes through therailsat eachend.Then propuptwosupport assemblies andmark a linealong thetopendof eachlegthat d i v i d eist st h i c k n e si ns h a l f A . l i g nt h e e n d so ft h ec a pr a i w l i t ht h em a r k eldi n e s

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N o wa d do n a n o t h ecr a p r a i la n ds u p p o r t a s s e m b l cy o, n t i n u i nugn t i la l l s i xo f e a c h a r ei n s t a l l e d .

I I I I I I I I I I r) Spacing thesupport assemblies L O n c ea l l t h e c a p r a i l sa r ei n p l a c e , s e tt h e l e g su p r i g hot n t h e s h o pf l o o ra n d c h e c kw h e t h etrh e s u p p o rat s s e m b l i e s a r ee v e n l ys p a c e dM . a k i n gs u r et h e e n d s o f a l l t h e l e g sa r ef l a t o n t h e f l o o r ,m e a s u r ef r o mt h e i n s i d ef a c eo f o n er i g h t h a n ds i d es e a ts u o o o rtto t h e i n s i d ef a c e . e p e awt i t ht h e o f t h e a d j o i n i npgi e c e R r e m a i n i nsgu p p o r tas n dg e n t l yn u d g et h e l e g st o o n es i d eo r t h e o t h e r ,i f n e c e s s a r y , u n t i la l l y o u rm e a s u r e m e na trsee q u a l (lefil.Ihts maytakesometrial and error.

74

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theaprons Q Sizing r-,1Youwillneedto markoneapronin position to determine h f t h ep i e c e sS. t a r bt yc u t t i n tgh ea p r o n s t h ef i n a l e n g t o a b o u3t 6 i n c h e lso n g et rh a nt h ec a pr a i l sN . e x tm , a r kl i n e s along t h et o pe n d so f t w oa d j o i n i nbgr a c etsh a td i v i d e their t h i c k n e si ns h a l f a , n dc l a m pa w o o ds t r i pa sa s t r a i g h t e d g e alongeachmarked line.Tomarktheapron, workwitha helper t o h o l dt h eb o a r di n p o s i t i oant e a c he n d ;m a k i nsgu r et h e apronisflushagainst theseatsupports andbutted against the u n d e r s i doef t h es t r a i g h t e d greusna , p e n c ial l o n g t h ew o o d stripat eachendof theapron(above). Trimtheapron, then usethepieceto marktheremaining ones.

INSTALLING SEAT ANDBACK SLATS thefirstseatslat 1l Marking I Startsizins theseatslatsat theback of the bench.-To determrne theexact angleat whichyouwillneedto miterthe e n d so f t h es l a t sh, o l dt h ef i r s tb l a n ki n position ontheseatsupports andagainst t h el e g sa n du s ea s l i d i n b g e v et lo m e a s u r et h ea n g l e formeb d yt h es l a ta n d oneleg.Adjustthemitergauge onyour your tablesawto thisangle. Tolocate c u t t i n gl i n e so nt h eb o a r dm, a r kl i n e s a l o n gt h ef r o n te d g e o s f t h e l e g st h a t divide theirthickness in half.Then,with theslatblankin position, drawthecutt i n gm a r k st / ai n c hi n s i d teh o s eo nt h e legs(left).Thiswill leavetherequired t/a-gap between slats.Trimtheslatto length anduseit to sizetheremaining ones.Thenfastentheslatsto theseat supports withtwoscrews at eachend, leaving a rla-gap between thepieces.

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Attaching theaprons Drilla pairof clearance holesat eachendof theaprons. Using straightedges to center theendsof thepieces across the braces, screwtheaprons in place(above). Youmayneeda helper to holduptheopposite endof eachapron asyoudrive thef irstoairof screws.

75


BENCHES

thebackslatsto lengh Q Trimming r-,1Theendsof thebackslatsmustbecutat a compound mitered andbeveled-so theysitf lushagainst angle-both r) Attaching Tomarktheslats,seta 6%-inchthelegsof thetreebench. theremaining seatslats in widespacer onedgeonthefirstseatslatandplacetheback L me second andthirdrowsof theseatslatsareinstalled s l a tb l a n ko nt h es p a c e H r . o l d i ntgh es l a tf l a ta g a i n st w t o muchthesamewayasthefirst.Tomarkeachslat,setit on faceof theeach adjoining legs,runa pencilalong theinside thefirst theseatsupports andbuttit edgeto edgeagainst legto markcuttinglinesonthefaceof theslat(above). fo cul h es l a t s . s l a t ,p l a c i nag % - i n c h - t h si cpka c esrt i c kb e t w e et n onyourtable saw,angle theblade to 60' thefaceof thecompound angle Thenusea oencilanda ruleto marklinesacross to theanglemarked ontheslat andadjustthemitergauge theslatthatalignwiththeendsof thefirstslathbove).Lliter (photo, page72).Usetheslatasa guideto trimming theothmaintaining the%theslatandfastenit to theseatsupports, tier. theendsanda %-inch space between edges. ersin thebottom inchgapbetween Installing thebackslats holesat eachend Drilltwoclearance

backslat.Using thespacer to sepof every and aratetheslatfromtheseatslatbelow fasten each a clampto holdtheslatlevel, pieceto thebackclealstighil. Installthe s e c o nadn dt h i r dt i e r so f b a c ks l a t st h e spacer t0 sameway,butusea %-inchlhick edges. Applyyourfinish separate theboard before setting upthebenchin itschosen location andsoavoidsplattering outdoors Before thetreewithpaint,stain,orvarnish. transporting thebench,remove thecap r a i l ,a p r o na n ds l a t sf r o mt w oo p p o s i t e Thiswillleave two sidesof theassembly. pairsof framesections that,together with pieces, areeasyto move. the removed arepositioned Oncethetwoframesections a r o u n tdh et r e e ,y o uc a nr e i n s t atlhl e detached boards(photo,page77).

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BENCHES

With twodouble posiframesections tionedon opposite sidesof an ashtree, a treebenchapronisfastenedin place. Sincethebenchwasbuib in theshop anddisassembled for easytransport andpositioning, installingtheremainingpieces-theseatand backslats,the caprailsand thelastapron-is a simple matter.Theboerdscanbefitted intopositiorL and thescrews driven into theirpredrilledholes.

SETTING UPA TREE BENCH Leveling a treebench 0 n c ea l lt h ep i e c eosf y o u tr r e eb e n c h havebeenfastened in place, workwith a helper to lift it andposition theassemblyaround thetree.Thegapbetween the trunkandcaprailsshould beequal around thetree'scircumference. Because theterrainis unlikely to beaslevelasyourshop f loor,oneor moreof thelegsmaynotbe in contact withtheground. Rotating the benchin onedirection ortheothermay solvetheproblem. lf not,trima legUeft) ground, thatis resting onhigher or prop upa legthatis nottouching theground (nhnfn

77

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TABLES atingoutdoorsis oneof life's manageable with thehelpof the simplepleasures. Whether jig shownonpages it is indexing 88and a picnic,a barbeque, or something page134. moreelaborate, dining al fresco Thefoldingpicnictable(page90) alwaysaddssomethingspecialto offersa convenient solutionto the theexperience. Thepatiotableand needfor atablethatistransportable. the foldingpicnictableshown It is designed to fold downneatly in thischapterarebothexcellent andcanfit insidemostcartrunks. additions to anyoutdoorfurniture Whenlockedin theupposition,the ensemble. tableprovides a sturdysurface large Thepatiotable(page80)islarge enoughto seatfouradults.Itsconenoughto seatsixadultscomfortstructioncombines theuseof nreably.It is,in fact,asbigasmanydinfabricated partsandbuildingto fit. ingtables. Thetabledoesnotseem Whilethetop canbemademade imposing, howeve5 mainlybecause by referringonlyto thecuttinglist of thelattice-work gridthatcom(page 92),thelegsmustbeplanned prisesthetop.Thisgives thetablea carefully sotheynestinsideeach light appearance, and literally Theconvenience of a tablethatfoldscan otherandmustbetrimmedto the reduces theweight. Whileit isnotas bea liability whenit is ladenwith food. rightlengthandangleasthelast portableasthepicnictable,it can Oneway to ensurethat the tabledoesnot step(page96). bemovedeasilyby hvopeople,or collapse at an inopportunetime is to A usefulcompanionto both evenonein a pinch. usea butterflycatchpull to lock the leg tablesis the keyedtenonbench Likemanypieces of outdoorfur(page98).lt is attractive, rail and supportblocktogether. simple, niture,thepatiotablereliesonhalfandexceedingly strong.Sometimes lapsto join thelegsandrails.Theframesurrounding thelattice calleda joyntstool,thisis a veryold designthatcouldhave gridis assembled with bridlejoints.Thesestrongjointshelp beenfoundoutside anEnglish cottage fourhundred years ago. makeup for someof therigiditysacrificed byhavinga lattice However, it looksperfectly athomeon a contemporary deck topinstead of a solidone.Thegriditselfisformedbyjoining or patio.Its simpledesignmakes it easyto buildto whatever thestripsof woodwith half-lapjoints.Thiscallsfor cutting lengthyouneed.Simplechange thelengthof theslatsand several hundreddadoes-adaunting task,butonemadequite stretchers listedin thecuttinglistasrequired.

A lanicetop makesa tablemuchlighter,but remember not to maketheholestoolargeor glasses will spilleasily. Thespaces shouldbeno largerthan 11/tinchessquare.

79


I I Thegrid of latticestripslacksthe hepatiotableis a slightlyformal, additionanydeckor samestrengthandrigidityasasolidtop. but welcome grid Thelattice lendsalighr Toincrease thetop'sresistance to rackbackyard. nessto a fairly largetable.A clever designelementholdsthegrid in place rabwith no needto cuta surrounding bet.Theinsidelengthandwidthof the frameare1%incheslongerthanthose Thiscreates a%inch of thetablebase. ledgeto holdthegridontopof therails, withintheframe. Thegriditselfcanbeassembled on andtheninstalledin theworkbench thetable.Prepare thestripsoneinch longerthancitedin the cuttinglist, cut the dadoesfor thehalf-laps,then trim themto fit (page88). Thoughdelicate looking,thetableis far from flimsy.But,whileit will hold upto reasonable use,but donotexpect it to withstandthesamestress asyour oakdiningtable.

ing,thecornersarejoinedwith bridle joints,whichoffertwicethegluingsurfaceofhalf-laps.

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Thebaseand thelatticegrid of the patio tableareeasyto separate,lending itselfto thisstrikingfinishingtechnique. Thelatticegrid wasremovedas a wholeunit andfinishedwith tungoil and sparvarnish.Therestof thetable wasstainedwith a dark greenopaque finish, creatinga contrastthat highlightsthelatticewood'snaturalcolor.

CUTTI]IG TIST Iegs Siderails Endrails Frame sides Frame ends Shoillatticestdps Long latticestrips

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ANATOMY OFA PATIO TABTE

Frame end

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Long lattice etrip -

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PockethLtlcs are au cxccllurt cltoicc nttnclrirtg tlrc tnltla.fi'tttrcto thc .fbr roils. Tlrcy cntt slsolte trsedto .joirr a roil to o post.TlrccLtrrtncrcid.iig showrtttt lc.ftetnltlesyotr to Itoretlte lnlcswitlr s rttirrirrrturr o.fsetuptirrte. Tlrc daviceclnrrrpstlrc workpieceitr positiortarrd.f-cottrres o Ittrshitry tlnt holdstlrcdrill bit ot thecorrectnttglc. The corriltirttttitttt ltit slutwrrbttress lrclc.fbrtlrc screwsl.Lnrtk nrul cleqrarrce cotutersittkstlrcltole.fbrtlrclrcodirr orreopernliort. A stopcLtllar attsched to tlre bit rcgilotcs tlrc drilling dcpth.

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LEGS ANDSTRETCHERS ASSEMBLING thehalf-lans 1l Cuttins -

I T h er a i l sa r ej o i n e dt o t h e l e g sw i t h h a l f - l a p sS.t a r tw i t ht h e s i d er aj l s a n dt h e l e g s I. n s t a lal d a d oh e a do n y o u rt a b l es a w a n ds e tt h ec r r t t i n h s e i p htto h a l ft h et h r c k nessof the stock.Adjustthe fenceto make a 3 l - i n c h - l o n gr a b b e tt,h e na d da n e x t e n . u tt h e s r o nb o a r dt o y o u rm i t e rg a u g eC r a b b e t isn t h e s i d er a i l sa n dt h e o u t s i d e f a c e so f t h e l e g s .N e x t ,h o l dt h e l e go n pdsp :o:inc.f

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a n dc u t t h e d a d oi n t h e o u t s i d ee d g et o accommodate the end ratl (right).To prep a r et h e e n d r a i l s ,s h i f tt h e f e n c ef o r a 1 ' l -i n c hl o n gr a b b e tt,h e nm a k et h e c u t o n t h e i n s i d ef a c e so f t h e e n dr a i l s T . he finalstepisto trim % inchfromeachendof t h ee n dr a i l sT. h i sw i l la l l o wt h ee n dr a i l s t o s i t f l u s ha g a i n stth e l e g s .

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CORNER HALF.IAP JOINT JIG lf youhaveto makecornerhalf-laps in several boards of thesamesize, it is worthtakingthetimeto build thejig shownat right.Cutthetwo basepieces andthestopblockfrom plywood thesamethickness asyour siock.Thebasepiecesshouldbe wideenough to accommodate the edgeguidesandsupport the router baseplateasyoucut the half-laps. Usesolidwoodstripsfor thefour pdoo orridpc

T o a s s e m btl he ej i g , m a r kt h e shoulder of thehalf-lap ononeworkpieceandsettheboardface-up ona worksurface. Buttthebaseoieces against the edgesof the boardso theshoulder markis nearthe middleofthebasepieces. Install a straight bit in therouterandalignthecutter withtheshoulder mark.Positiononeendguideacross the base pieces andagainst theiool'sbase plate.Without moving theworkpiece, repeatthe procedure to position the guide. opposite Nowalignthebit with theedgesof theworkpiece andattach thesideguides, leaving a slightgap between the routerbaseolateand you eachguide.(Thef irsthalf-lap makewiththe jig will routreference grooves in thebasepieces.) Slipthe stopblockunderthe endguide,butt it against theendof theworkpiece, andscrewit in place.Countersink all fasteners. To usethejig,clampit to the worksurface andslidetheworkoiece between the basepiecesuntil it buttsagainst the stopblock.Protectingthestockwitha woodpad, clamptheworkpiece in place. Adjust therouter's cuttingdepthto one-half

thestockthickness. Then,withthe positioned router inside theguides, gripthetoolfirmly,turnit on,andlowerthe bit intotheworkoiece. Guide therouterin a clockwise direction to

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cuttheoutside edges of thehalf-lap, keeping thebaseplateflushagainst a guideat alltimes.Thenroutoutthe remaining waste,feeding thetool against thedirection of bit rotation.


TABLES

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pocket Making holes pocketholecutter Usea commercial l i k et h eo n es h o w no n p a g e8 2 o r a s h o p b u i l tj i g l i k et h eo n es h o w na b o v e to make the pocketholes.This1igconsists of two p i e c e so f : / a - i n c hp l y w o o dj o i n e dt o forman L-shaped cradleandtwosupport b r a c k e ttsh a t a n g l et h e c r a d l ea t 1 5 " f r o mt h e v e r t i c a lS. e a t h e w o r k p r e ci e n t h e c r a d l ea, n d a l i g nt h e s t o c ks o t h e c l e a r a n cheo l ew i l le x i ti n t h e m i d d l eo f the boardedge.Installa Forstner bit and d r i l la h o l ej u s t d e e pe n o u g ht o r e c e s s t h e s c r e wh e a d( a b o v e )T. h e ni n s t a l a l b r a d - p o i nbti t a n d b o r et h e c l e a r a n c e h o l et h r o u g ht h e w o r k p i e c e .

legs Q Attaching r-,1 Setonepairof legsona worksurface glueto therabbets. andapply Slidea side railin position it witha screw andsecure a t e a c he n d .C h e cfko rs o u a r e n easnsd adjustasnecessary, thenaddtwomore (right).Repeat screws theprocedure forthe nihpr lpo and fnr ihp qo.nnd

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Adding endrails T o a t t a c he a c he n dr a i l ,d r i l lc l e a r a n cheo l e si n e a c he n d

e a c hc o r n e rC . h e c kt h e t a b l eb a s ef o r s q u a r eb y t a k i n ga m e a -

thenapplyglueto therabbets. Withthehelpof anassistant to s u r e m e nat c r o s se a c hd i a g o n atl h; e ys h o u l db e e q u a l( a b o v e ) . h o l du pt h es i d e so na l e v esl u r f a c ep ,o s i t i oonn eo f t h er a i l s l f n o t ,p l a c ea c l a m po v e rt h e l o n g edr i a g o n aaln dt i g h t e ni t andscrewit in olacewithonescrew. Check to makesurethat s l o w l yu n t i lt h e t w o d i s t a n c easr ee q u a l .L e a v et h e c l a m pi n ,+t- ^^,,^-^ +L^^ ^rr It lJ )qudlc,

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FRAME PREPARING THELATTICE tenoncheeks 1I Cuttins -

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I T h ec o r n e r o s f t h e l a t t i c ef r a m ea r e j o i n e dw i t h b r i d l ej o i n t sf o r e x t r as t r e n g t h . T h ef i r s ts t e ni s t o c l t t h e t e n o nc h e e k s . l f y o u a r ew o r k i n gw i t h a t a b l es a wy o u w i l ln e e da c o m m e r c itael n o n i njgr go r a s h o p - b u idl te v i c el i k et h eo n el i k eo n p a g e 8 7 T o c u t t h e c h e e k ss e tt h e s a wb l a d e t o i t sm a x i m u m h e i g hat n dm o u n t h e e n d o f t h ef r a m ei n t h et e n o n i njgi g .A d j u s t h e i i p s o t h e h l a d em e e t st h e b o a r da t o n e t h i r do f t h e s t o c k ' st h i c k n e sfsr o mt h e e d s e .K e e nt h e k e r fo n t h e w a s t es i d e . T u r no n t h e s a wa n d m a k ea p a s st h r o u g h t h e b l a d eN . e x t f, l i p t h e b o a r da r o u n da n d makethe secondcut (left).Repeatfor the o p p o s i teen dt h e nc u t t h e c h e e k si n t h e o t h e rf r a m ee n d .

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r) Cutting shoulders L Onr"allthetenoncheeks havebeen cut,trimoffthewasteonthetablesaw Laytheframerail to maketheshoulders. o nt h et a b l ea n da d j u st th eb l a d e height so it justtouches thecheek.Attachan e x t e n s i ot ont h em i t e g r a u g eH. o l dt h e e n dp o s i t i ot nh e r a i la g a i n st ht eg a u g a stockwiththecuttingmarkfortheshould e ri n l i n ew i t ht h eb l a d eC. l a m ao s t o o blockto theextension; thiswillspeed up making repeat cuts.Thenfeedthestock intothe blade?ighil.

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mortise sides Q Cutting youmaynotbe r-,1lf yourshopdoesnothavea highceiling ableto cutthemortises in thestilesusingthetablesawand jig.Instead, thetenoning sawthembyhand.Witha railtenon asa guide,marktheshoulder lineandthesidesofthemortise ontheedges andendof eachstile.Thenmountthestockon yourworkbench at anangleasshown. Thissetupmakes it easierto cutstraight sides. Witha backsaw,cutdownfromthe corner, keeping thebladeon bothlines(above). Stopwhenthe sawbladetouches theshoulder lineandtheopposite corner. Cutitsneighboring side,thenturntheboard overandcutthe otherdiagonal kerfs. Finally, finishthesidesbycutting straight d o w nt o t h es h o u l d lei n r es.

86

mortise Chiseling bottoms Remove thewastebetween themortise sideswitha mallet a n dc h i s e lM . o u n t h e s t i l et o y o u rw o r kb e n c ha s s h o w nc, l a m p . e l e cat c h i s etl h e s a m ew i d t ha s t h e i n gi t f i r m l yi n p l a c e S e i t h o u tb e i n gw i d e r T m o r t i s eo, r a s c l o s ea s p o s s i b lw . oclean w a s t e , o u tt h e o l a c et h e c h i s e l% i n c h i n f r o mt h e b o t t o mo f e n dt a p i t w i t ha m a l l e st o i t s i n k sa b o u t% i n c h . themortisa S e tt h e c h i s e lb a c kt o w a r dt h e e n d o f t h e b o a r db y a b o u l ' / o andtap towardsthe first cut to removea smallnotchof waste. C o n t i n u ien t h i s m a n n e ur n t i ly o ur e a c ha b o u th a l f - w a yT.u r n the boardoverand removethe restof the waste.Finallvoare straightdownat the shoulderline (above).

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A TENONING JIGFOR THETABLE SAW Youcanusethelig shown at rightto onthetablesaw.Adapt cuttenons t h ed i m e n s i o snus g g e s t ei ndt h e illustration to customize thejig for yoursaw,if necessary. Cuttheiisfenceandbackfrom plywood %-inch andsawa 45' bevel at oneendof eachboard; thepieces shoulb d ew i d etrh a nt h eh e i g hot f y o u rs a w ' sr i p f e n c e F . a s t etnw o

Dlade4uard

nieces topetherface to face to fash-

iontheback,thenusecountersunk screws to attachthefenceandback in an L shape. Makesurethefastene r sw i l ln o tb e i n t h eb l a d e 'psa t h whenyouusethejig.Next,cutthe brace fromsolidstock,bevelitsends, andattachit flushwiththetopedges of thefenceandback,formrng a triMaketheclampbyfacegluangle. i n gt w op i e c eosf l - i n c hp l y w o o d a n dc u t t i n tgh ea s s e m bilnyt ot h e shape s h o w nU. s ea h a n g ebro l t , washer, the andwingnutto attach clamp t o t h e1 i gb a c kl,e a v i nagg a p between theedgeof theclampand

Fence

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t a b l ei n f r o n to f t h eb l a d e w i t ht h e r u n n ear n df e n c es t r a d d l i nt hger i p fence. Clamp theworkpiece in thejig andposition theripfenceto alignthe cuttingmarkontheworkpiece with

t h p f p n n p p n r r : l f n i h o i h l 6 l a n g g 5g f

t h e s t o c ky o uw i l l u s e .O f f s e t h e b o l ts o t h e c l a m pc a n p i v o te c c e n t r i c a l l y .( Y o uc a nd r i l la d d i t i o n ahlo l e s i n t h e j i g b a c ks o y o uc a ns h i f tt h e c l a m pt o a c c o m m o d a tdei f f e r e n t stockthicknesses.) Next,cut the runn e rf r o ms o l i dw o o d .W h e na t t a c h e d r i l ls t r a d t o t h e l i g f e n c e t, h e r u n n e w , l i m i n a t i nagn y d l et h e s a wf e n c e e w o b b l eF . o rs o m em o d e l sy, o uw i l l haveto mill a groovedownthe length o f t h e r u n n e r a, s s h o w n t, o f i t t h e r i p f e n c e .F i n a l l yc, u t a p r e c eo f c l e a rp l a s t i ca s a b l a d eg u a r da n d s c r e wi t t o t h e j i g b a c kf l u s hw i t h i t s f r o n tf a c e .

B7

t h e b l a d e .F e e dt h e j i g i n t ot h e c u t t i n g e d g e .( Y o u rf i r s t u s eo f t h e j i g e k e r fi n t h e b a c k . )F l i p w i l l p r o d u ca t h e w o r k p i e caer o u n da n dr e p e atto cut the othercheek(below).Remove t h e. 1 i tgo c u t t h e s h o u l d e r s .


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theframe f, Attaching r-,f Onceyouhavecutthebridlejoints, dryassemble theframeandsetit onthe tablebaseto ensure thatit fits properly. There should bea %inchledge allaround theinside edgeof theframe, whichwill grid.Disassemble support thelattice the frameandspread someglueonthetenons. Reassemble theframe, checkforsquareness, andclampeachjointwitha pairof clamps. Thenroundovertheoutside edges Tosecure of theframe. theframein position,setit ontherailsandarrange it to create an even3/o inchledge.Holdthe framein placewitha clampin eachcornerandsecure it witha screwin each pockethole(/eff).

ASSEMBLING THELATTICE GRID thecrossstrips 1 Dadoing I Thestripsthatmakeupthelattice joints-more gridarejoinedwithhalf-lap than300 in total.Position thedadoes jig (seepage134). witha simpleindexing Mounta %-inch-wide dadoheadonyour tablesawandadjustthebladeheight to halfthewidthof thestock.Fixthejig to a mitergaugeextension to leaveIYzinch spacebetween dadoes. Startwithstock oneinchlonger thenthenominal lengths givenin thecuttinglist.Tocutthefirst dadoin eachpieceholdit onedgeagainst themitergauge withoneendbutted against thekey.Makea passthrough thecutters, thenmovetheboardalongthegauge, fittingthenewdadooverthekey,andmake a n o t h epra s sC. o n t i n ui n e t h i sm a n n e r untilyouhavecutdadoes in alltheshort andlongstrips.

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r) Sizing thestrips L gotnthelongandshortstripsmust betrimmed to f it inside theframe.Laya shortstripacross theframeandadjustit untilthedistance between thelastdado andtheframeisthesameon bothends. Makea markonthestrip(righil,f o tim thestrrp to thismarkinstall a regular blade i n y o u tr a b l es a w N . e x tr,e p o s i t i tohne mitergauge extension sothatwhenthe lastdadois f ittedoverthekey,thetrimmingmarkis linedupwiththeblade. Trim theendsof thisstrio.thentrimbothends of alltheshortstripsthesameway.Repeat to trimthelongstrips. thisprocedure

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n Assembling thegrid A s s e m b lteh eg r i d ,t h e ni n s t a lilt a s o n eu n i ti n t h ef r a m e L . a yo u ta l l t h es h o r t strips-dadoee d d g e su p - o n a l a r g ew o r ks u r f a c eS. p a c et h e mo u t b y i n s t a l l i n g a l o n gs t r i pa t e a c he n d .N e x t ,i n s t a ltl h e r e s to f t h e l o n gs t r i p sa, p p l y i n g l u ef i r s t andworkingthe dadoestogethergenlly(aboveJ. Anchoreachjoint with a f-inch g a l v a n i z ecdo m m o nn a i l .O n c ea l l t h e l o n gs t r i p sa r ei n p l a c e r, e m o v teh e o u t s i d e l o n gs t r i p sa n dr e i n s t a l l t h ew mi t hg l u ea n dn a i l t h e mi n p l a c e .

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Installing thegrid Popthegridin place, thenturnthe tableupside down.Install anglebrackets in position. to secure thelattice Tomake surethegridrests flat,screw eachbracket to therailswitha )4inchspacebetween it andthelattice strip.Afterattaching a bracket to itsrailsecure it to thecorresponding latlicebbove).Thegapwill cause thebracket to becinched down ontheIattice, holding it tightly.


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FOLDINGPICNICTABLEAND BENCH hispicnictableis greatfor spontaI neousafternoons in thecountry.It foldsdown flat to fit into mostcartrunla Thekeyto its portability or hatchbacks. istheU-shapedlegassemblies, whichnest insideeachother.To acccomplishthis, maketheouterlegassembly first,thencut theinneroneto fit insideit. Thisarrangementmeans,however, thatonelegrail is short,andmustreston a blockto providethe propertableheight.Therail is heldto the blockwith a butterflycatch. Thelegendsaremarkedandtrimmed afterthe tableis assembled, an easyway to getexactlytheright angleandlengh. Theperfectcomplement to thepicnic table is the keyedtenon bench.Also known asa joynt stool,it is an adaptation of an old Englishdesignthat features aninteresting construction technique.Thelegsaremadein halves,then joinedwith doweljointsto ensuresymmetry,while the notchesautomatically form the throughmortisesto hold the in olace. stretchers f

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0uterlegs Innerlegs

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Catchrail rail Cross

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Toprails

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Topstiles Butterfly catch support block Topslats

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CUTTII{G LIST PICNIC TABTE

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Upper stretcher Lower stretcher Cleats

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MAKING A FOLDINGPICNICTABLE

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t Thepicnic table'slegassentblies nestinsideeach other allowing it to fold asflat aspossible.

ASSEMBLING THET()P Attaching frame Cutthetopslatsto sizeaccordrng to the cuttinglistandroundovertheirtopedges andtheends.Thetopslatsaresecured to a rectangular framewhichalsoholds the legassemblies. Cuttheframe's stiles and railsto size,thencutrabbets in theirends joints(page37).Gluethe forthehalf-lap frametogether andfastenit withscrews. Check forsquareness. Toassemble thetop, layoutthetopslatson a worksurface separated by lninchspacers. Holdthem togethe wri t ha b a rc l a m pa t e a c he n d . Center theframeonthetop,checkrng with a measuring tapethattheborders along thesidesandtheendsareeven. Secure theframewitha oairof screws intoeach slal(right).Donotuseanygluehere,soit willbea simple matter to replace broken orrotten slatsin thefuture.

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MAKING IEGASSEMBTIES

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legpieces 1 Preparing I Cutthelegsandajoining railsto size thencuttherabbets forthehalf-laps in thelegsandtherails.Next,markout a 3Yzinchdadoforthecrossrailonthe innerlegs, starting 21 rnches fronthetop. Tomakethedadoes, maketwopasses, cuttingouttheextremes of thedado, thenremove therestof thewastehbovd.

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Fastening legsandrails Starting withtheouterlegassembly, laythelegsona worksurface andapply glueto therabbets. Toattacheachrail, placeit in position onthelegsandsecure it withonescrew at eachend.Check that it is perfectly square, thenaddtheseco n ds c r e wB. e f o raes s e m b l itnhgei n n e r legsandrails,double checkthattherails willfit inside theouterassembly, otherwise thelegswillnotfoldproperly. lf necessary, trimtherailsandadjust theirrabbets to compensate. Assemble theinnerlegsas (/eff). above, thenaddthecrossrail

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overthelegsandrails I<. Rounding

r - . f R o u n do v e rt h e l e s sa n d r a i l sa f t e r t h e yh a v eb e e na s s e m i l e dS. e tt h e d e p t h of cut to removethe wastein two passes. C l a m pt h e a s s e m b lt yo a w o r ks u r f a c e . T u r no n t h e r o u t e a r n de a s et h e b i t i n t o t h e w o o du n t i lt h e b e a r i n tgo u c h e st,h e n w o r kt h e r o u t e ra r o u n dt h e w o r k p i e c e , m a k i n gs u r et h a ty o um o v ea g a i n stth e bit'sdirectionof rotation(/eft).Reposition Thenroundover the clampsas necessary. t h e o t h e rl e ga s s e m b l y .

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Fitting carriage bolts S e tt h e t w o l e sa s s e m b l i eosn a w o r k , i t h t h e s m a l l e or n e s u r f a c ea s s h o w nw n e s t e di n s i d et h e l a r g eor n e ,t h e nc l a m p t h e mt o t h e t a b l e .M a r kt h e h o l e sf o r t h e b o l t so n b o t ha s s e m b l i e s1 ,8 i n c h e sf r o m t h et o nn f t h e h i n p er a i l F i ta d r i l lw i t ha / " - i n c hb i t , t h e nb o r et h e h o l e ,k e e p i n g perpendicular to the edge. the bit perfectly I t h e l p st o h a v ea n a s s i s t a nsti g h tt h e b i t t o k e e pi t l e v e l D . r i l la s d e e pa s y o uc a n , t h e nf i n i s hf r o mt h e o t h e rs i d e T . a pt h e c a r t a g eb o l t st h r o u g ht h e l e g sw i t h a h a m m e rt h , e ns l i d eo n a w a s h e rH. a n d tightentwo nuts,thenfit a wrenchon both n u t sa n dh o l dt h e i n n e ro n ei n p l a c ew h i l e tightening the outeroneagainsttI (right).

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INSTALLING LEGS

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'l Attaching thehinges I Screw thehingesupport to theunderside of thetabletopwhere therailsandstilesmeet.Thenposition theouter legassembly onthetopstileandholdit upright witha (left).Arrange handscrew theassembly sothehingewill be 3%inches fromtheoutside edgeof thestile.Thenscrew thehinge to thelegbefore attaching it to thetabletop.

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Adding thebutterfly catchsupport block Cuttheblockto sizeaccording to thecutting list,ripping oneedgeat 30 degrees, leaving a 4inch-high outside face.Sawtheopposite faceof theblockat 60 degrees. Applyglueto thetable where theblockwilltouchit andclamptheblock securely. Drilla pilotholeevery 4 inches, then

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thedowels ? Installing r-J Tobolster theunionbetween thebutblockandtheedgeof terflycatchsupport a pairof %-inch dowthecatchrailinstall firstdrilltwo%-inch els.Tof it thedowels, to the holesin theblock,perpendicular face,to a depthof about%inch. angled Place dowel centers in theholes andbring (/eft).Pushdown thecatchrailintoposition Drill ontherailto markthedowelholes. glue 1-inch-deep holesin therail.Spread inside theblockholesandtapIwoI'/, intoplace. Thenscrew inchlongdowels thebutterfly catchto therailandsupport on page79 shows block.Thephotograph thecatchin operation.

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IEGS FITTING

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thelegs 1 Marking it difI Theposition of thelegsmakes sotheywillsit f icultto marktheirlength perfectly levelwiththehelpof onlya tape measure. 0netrickrsto trima oieceof to a widthof 28 inches and scrapplywood Tomarktheinnerlegs, usethatasa guide. square to theguide clampa carpenter's andsetit against the to holdit upright Holda trysquare against legasshown. and theboard andmarkthecutofflength angle(right).To marktheouterlegs,it is possible board to simplyholdthemarking against the legedgeandtracetheline. runthelinesaround Withthetrysquare allfoursidesof eachles.

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thelegs ! Trimming C- f o trimeachleg,mountit in a viseandcut it offwitha backsaw, keeping thesawbothonthetopedgelineandthelrneontheclosest face.Oncethekerf extends across thetopedgecontinue cuttingstraight down(above). Keepcheckingbothlinesto makesurethesawdoesnotwander.

ijllllltfillllltljllillltjlltjlljljttlllittlllillllljlllllttjllilllillt 5HO7Tt? Replaceable feet Oneof Lheprobleme ol the leqeof ouLdoorfurniNureie Ihat, the end grainnaturallyac|e as a wickto drawmoislureinNolhe leg,haeNenin7lhedecayinqproceee. A eimplesoluNion is to add,1/o-inchlhick blocks, whoeeqrainrune lenqthwioe. Theeewillbe elower Nopickup moisNure and can be eaeilyreVlacedwhenlhey eventuallydo roi. Rounding feet you Every timethetableis moved, riskcatching anedgeandsplintering thebottom. To prevent thrs,roundover thebottoms of thelegswitha random (above) orbitsander ora sandine block.


KEYEDTENON BENCH

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The keyedtenon bench,also known as a joynt stool, is a handy seatthat canbe made in almostany length. It is theperfect complementto the picnic table but is usefulall by i*elf.

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THELEGS MAKING

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t I I I I I legboards 1 Marking thatthenotched edges areperfectly thengluedtogether with thecuttinglist.Check I Thelegboards aremadein halves, joints. on makea template, refer- straight sotheywillforma tightgluejoint.Setthetemplate Tomarkthelegboardhalves dowel to thelegstockandmarkoutthecurveandthenotches. ringto thediagram in theinset.Prepare thelegsaccording

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r) Cutting thelegboards L Cutoutthe lesson the bandsaw. Startwiththecurve, simply cuttrng onor justoutsrde themarked line.Tocutout thenotches, firstmakea shortcross-grain cutto definethemortise end.Nextmake a sweeping cuttowards, thenalong, the m o r t i ssei d el i n eu n t i ly o ur e a c h the o t h e cr r o s s g r amr na r kC . u tt h r ss e c t i o n free(right). Finally reorient the board andremove therestof thewaste. Sand offanymachining marks fromthecurve.

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J o i n i n lge gh a l v e s Q r - , 1 J o i nt h e l e gh a l v e sw i t h d o w e jl o i n t s . T o p r e p a r teh e l e g sf o r t h e d o w e l sd, r i l l t w o y ' i n c hd i a m e t ehr o l e s 1 , i n c hd e e p i n t oo n eh a l .f M a r kt h e o p p o s i t e l e g sw i t h dowelcenters(seepage96). Positionthe topsof the legsagainst a straight edgesuch a s a r i p f e n c et o m a k es u r et h e n o t c h e s w i l l l i n eu p .S p r e a sdo m eg l u ei n s i d et h e h o l e sa n da l o n gt h e s t r a i g het d g e so f t h e legs.Pushthe two halvestogether(/eff) a n dc l a m pt h e l e gw i t ha b a rc l a m po p p o s i t ee a c ho f t h e t w o g l u e de d g e s( n o t

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99


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TABLES

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HG EB E N C H AS SE M B TTI N in thestretchers tenons 1 Cutting referring to thecuttinglist,then I Prepare thestretchers tenon Thetopstretcher rabbet theirendsto makethetenons. s h o u l bd e 1 %i n c h elso n g t oe n df l u s hw i t ht h el e g sw, h i l et h e longto allowit to holda tuskpin. lower onemustbe4 inches a s s e m bilnyy o u r T oc u tt h er a b b e t si n, s t a lal d a d oc u t t i n g Adjust thecutextension. a mitergauge tablesawandattach to about%inchandmakea cut in bothsidesof a tingheight pieceof scrapstockandtestthefit in theopenmortise. Fine Settheripfence tunetheheight untilthetesitenonfitssnugly. Tocutthetenon,holdihestock tenon. to makea 1%-inch-long gauge against extension withanendbutted the miter against remove therest wood over the cutters, then fence. Pass the the from the fence in workpiece away waste by moving the of the passes. opposite for other side and the Repeat the successive on its Io %inch,holdthestretcher end.Next,raisethecutters flush to fit notch to allow the stretcher loweredge,andcut a make a 4-inch-long legs. Reset the fence to withthetopof the (right). Thensaw tenonandmakethecut in the lowerstretcher piece the bottom edges to allow notchin thetopand a'/o-inch to f it intothemortise.

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Lower atretcher

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thestretchers o Installing thetenonfor first.To prepare L lnstallthe lowerstretcher 2%inches holeceniered thetuskoin.borea 1-inch-diameter in theleg(above). fromthetenonend.Theninsertthestretcher edges of the legsto force Donotpressdownon theoutside knock to splitthem.Instead, themoverthetenon;thisis liable withthetheheelof your thelegon bothsidesof thetenons

t reveal is in place, thetenonshould a hand.Whenthestretcher e n ds a n dt h et u s k % - i n cshe m i c i r ct ol eh o l dt h et u s k W . h i t t la Makeit slightly wedgestockso it f itstightlyin theopening. it is inserted. Tapthe thejointthefurther shaped soit tightens w i t ha m a l l e tF. i n a l l ya,p p l yg l u et o t h e u p p e r t u s ki n p l a c e in olace. mortise andslrdethetoostretcher

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TABLES

theseat-support cleats I<' Attaching r-,1To avoidhavinsscrewholesin the theslatsto the tooof theseat.seJure legswithcleats. Trimthecleats sothey Drill fit oneither sideofthetopstretcher. thepilotholes forattaching theslatsoff c e n t etro m a k ei t e a s i etro t i g h t e n the screws intotheseatwithoutknocking yourhands glueto against thelegs. Apply t h ec l e a t st h , e ns e c u rteh e mt o t h el e g s withscrews sothestripsaref lushwith thetop of Ihe legs(right).

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Securing theslats Round overthetopedges of theslats, thenlaythemoutona worksurface, separated by%-inch spacers. Makesurethe e n d sa r ea l l e v e nt,h e nt i g h t e n a bar clampacross eachendto holdtheslats in place. Center thebenchbaseonthe slatsandsecure it withscrews //eff).

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SWINGSAI.{DGLIDERS p o.kittg-otionsseemintrinthantheir regularsteelcounterparts,arestrongandwill not rust. I\ sicallycomforting to people Brassscrews arenotsostrong,but ofall ages.Pleasant andrelaxing, provides aswingor aglidingsettee offera decorative optionthat is If youuse air idealaccessory to a porchor alsocorrosion-resistant. garden.Thetwo projectsshown brass,drivein a steelscrewfirstto in this chapteralsoofferinteresttap the hole,thenremoYeit and installthebrassscrewtakingcare ingmecJranical challenges to afrrnotto overtighten niture maker.Thesepiecesmust or youwill risk head. strong and lightweight. They breaking offthe be mustalsostandup to astress that Theporchswingisshownbeginrarely has endurening on page104,whiletheglider furniture to frame constantmovement. sectionstartson pageII2. The There are severalwavs to benchthatfitsthisparticular achievea rockingmotion.The frameis shownin the Benches simplest solutionisto suspend ttre chapterstartingonpage64. Thecomfortof theswing,and seatwith rope or chain.This requiresa sturdybranch the benchusedwith the glideq or strucdependuponthepropercurvatural memberto support the swing.Theglidersupportusesa tureoftheseatandbacksupports. different systemto impart a TheseatshouldbeangledslightTheglider benchshownaboveswingson two ly sothepeopleusingit will stay swingingmotion.Fourlengthsof metalstrapsupportthe bench metalstrapsmountedon eachsideof a supPort firmly seatedwhenit rocksback within a low frame.Othermethframe. Therub rail at thebottomactsasa spacer, andforth.A seattiltedtowardthe preventingthebench odsusecommercially available backalsoprovesmorecomfortftom bumpingagainstthe rollerbearings. able for prolongedsitting.A frame astheglider roclcsbackandforth. It isimportantto buyhardware curvein the seatbackwill supthat is ascorrosion-resistant aspossible, especially for these port thelumbarregionof thespine,but do not makethese pieces curvestoo pronounced,or the sitterwill find it difficult to of furniturethataredifficultto cartindoorsfor thewinter.Stainless steelstrapsandscrews, althoughmoreexpensive getin andout of theswing.

Although manypeoplechooseto hanga swingon a porch,you canalsosuspendyours from a treebranch,asshownatleft,providing a shadyspotfor visitorsto lingerand relax.

103


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ANATOMYOFAPORCHSWING tlt h. backseatrail is beveledto a l5o I to 25" angle,so as to providea comfortableanglefor the seatback.The back is screwedand glued onto the rail,thesamemethodusedto join most of the frame.Thearms,whichprovide additionalsupportfor the back,are the exceptionto the glue-and-screw

method.They are fastenedtogether by crossdowels.Theseare strong joints,but mustbecarefully installed to work properly. Notethat the stilesof the seatback arelocatedin front of the railsso the thejoint lineisvertical,promotinggood waterdrainagefor a long-livedjoint.

Dack attle

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Arm

Crossdowelsare commonly usedin knockdownfurniture, but their strength and durability make them idealfor outdoorfurniture that is not designedto be taken apart. A cross-dowelconnectoris usedto join an arm to an arm post in the chair shown above,providing a much strongerconnection than screwscould, and saving the task of fashioning a more elaboratejoint.

CUTTING LIST ITEM

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Backslats Seatslats

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2r5Ao" 24Y4'

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Backrails

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SWINGSAND GLIDERS

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VIEW()FBACKRAILFR()MBELOW

Eack alat

Railcover

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SWINGSAND GLIDERS

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PREPARING THEBACK RAITS dadoes inthelowerbackrail 1 Sawing I Toprepare therailfortheslats,you willneedto cut2-inch-wide, %-inch-deep dadoes in thestock.First,fit yourtablesaw witha dadoheadandadjustit to maximum width,thenattachanextension boardto themitergauge. Check thecutting height bymaking a testcuton scrapstockand adjust theblades untilthecutisthesame depthasthethickness of yourslats.Mark thedadooutlines ontheleading edgeof theworkpiece, beginning 8% inches from eachendandspacing thedadoes 1%inch apart.Foreachdado,sawtheoutside edges, thencut awaythewastein thecenter(/eff). (Caution: Bladeguardremoved forclarity.)

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t I I Attaching therailcover Cuttherailcoverto size,thenspread g l u eo n t h ed a d o efda c eo f t h er a i la n d therailcover.Position thetwopieces together andtackthecoverin placewith brads, making surenotto nailanybrads within5 inches of either endof thenail. Next,clamptheassembly, making sureyou (right). pressure gluingsurface apply to every

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106

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Lower

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SWINGSAND GLIDERS

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half-laps Cutting corner Thebackassembly is composed of stilesjoinedto thetwo youmade railswithhalf-laps. Tocutthejoint,usethesamesetup forsawing dadoes in thelowerbackrail(step1) Thistimemark outthehalf-laps attheendof eachrailandstile.Thejointshould beaswideasthestilestock.Buttthestockagainst themiter gauge extension, andlineuptheblades to cuttheshoulder of thehalf-lap first.Thensawawaytheremaining waste withmul(above). tiplepasses Repeat theprocedure to cutthejointat the otherendofthestockandintheremainins railandstiles.

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Decorating thetoprail Referring to theanatomy illustration on page104,trace theshapeof thedecorative toponthestockandcut it to shapewith a bandsaw.Thenattachit to the upperback (above). railwithglueandclampthetwopieces together

Grooving thetoprail f, r./ Youneedto routa groove in theupperbackrailto holdthe backslats.Fita %-inch three-wing slotting cutterin a router, thenmountthetoolin a table.Marktheooints onthefaceofthe stockwhere thecutshouldstartandend.Alsomarkthepoints onthefencewherethe bit startsandstopscutting.Adjustthe height to center thegroove in theedgeof therail.Turnonthe router andpivottherailintothecutter, aligning thefrontcuttinglineontheworkpiece withthebitcuttingmarkonthefence farthest fromyou(abovd.Pushtherailalongthefenceuntil thebackcutting linealigns withthebitcutting markclosest to you,thenpivotthetrailingedgeof theworkpiece awayfromthe cutter,steadying theboardagainst thetableandfencebyhookingyourlefthandaround thefrontedgeof thetable.Usea chiselto square theendsof thegroove, if necessary.

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SWINGSAND GLIDERS

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THEBACK ASSEMBTING

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theslats 1 Installing I Clamp t h el o w erra i ls o i t s t a n d s right-side up on yourworksurface. Fit andtapthe a slatintoeachnotch(above) s l a t su n t i tl h ee n d sa r ef l u s hw i t ht h e nail bottom of therail.Drive a f inishing intoeachslatthrough the backof the railto secure thepiecein place, thenfit theuooerbackrailontotheslats.

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Gluing upthebackassembly Laythepartially assembled seatback onyourworksurface. Applyadhesive to Iapjointsof therailsandstiles thecorner andclamptheassembly together. Then gluespacers in thegroove between the slatsin the upperbackrail(right).

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SWINGSAND GLIDERS

ASSEMBTING THESEAT

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Assembling theframe 1 I C u ta 1 5 "t o 2 0 ' b e v eol nt h er e a fr a c eo f t h eb a c ks e a rt a i l ,u s i n g a t a b l es a ww i t ht h eb l a d et i l t e dt o t h ea p p r o p r i aatneg l eT. h e np r e parefourseatsupports, (page copying theirshapefromthe anatomy 105).CUIthe pieces on a bandsaw,usingthefirstsupport asa templatefortheothers. Smooth theedges on a spindle sander. Glueand screwtheframetogether, locating theoutside supports 2 inches from theendsof therails(abovd.

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thebackto theseatframe Q Attaching r-,f Clamptheseatframebeveled-edge glueonthe upona worksurface. Spread edgeandon thefrontfaceof the lower railof theseatback.Clamp thebackto theseatframe, thendrillpilotholesand (right). screwthetwoassemblies together

109

r) Attaching theeyebolts 1 Ortlla holethrough the protruding endof eachseatrarljustlargeenough to accommodate a stainless-steel eye b o l t .S l i pt h ee y eb o l ti n p l a c ea, d da w a s h earn dn u t ,a n dt i g h t e n t h eb o l t firmlyin place(above). Trimtheexcess bolt,if necessary.


SWINGSAND GLIDERS

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INSTALLING THEARMSANDSEATSTATS

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thearmposts 1 Attaching fromtheendof I Position thearmoost2 inches o f t h er a i l . t h ef r o n ts e a rt a i lf l u s hw i t ht h eb o t t o m Drill4 pilotholes, thengluethearmpostin placeand (abovd. for Repeat theprocedure secure it withscrews armoost. thesecond

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r) Aftaching thearmwithcrossdowels to theanatomy for L Cutoutthearmsona bandsaw,referring Thereis botha rightandleftarm,sobesurenotto theirshape. of thearmswitha routerfitmixthemup.Round overtheedges to transfer the tedwitha round-over bit. Thenusea bevelgauge anglo e f t h ec h a i rb a c kt o t h eb a c ke d g eo f t h e a r ma n dm a k e , h i c hi s . h i sw i l la l l o w t h ea r m w t h e c u t o n y o u rt a b l es a w T T h e n d r i l la h o l e f i t f l u s h a g a i n s t h t e c h a i b r a c k . h o r i z o n ttaol , arminto as the cross-dowel bolt through the thesamediameter p o s t . y o u d r i l l s t r a i g h N t . e x t b , o r ea h o l e M a k es u r e t h ea r m post inches for connector about 2 intothe arm thecross-dowel post, bolt hole at 90". fromthetopof the intercepting the I n s e rtth ec o n n e c t ionri t sh o l et,h e ns l i d et h eb o l ti n t op o s i tionandtightenit witha hexwrench(righil.lnslallcrossdowto connect the backof theseatto the elsin thesamefashion procedure to attach thesecond arm. arm.Repeat the

110

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SWINGSAND GLIDERS

ASSEMBLING THECHAIR

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theseatslats a<' Addine

r . , l R o u n do v e rt h e f r o n t a n d b a c ke d g e so f t h e s l a t s .T h e n i n s t a ltlh e f r o n ts e a ts l a t ,n o t c h i n g i t t o f i t a r o u n dt h e a r m p o s t s . T h ef r o n te d g eo f t h e s l a ts h o u l db e f l u s hw i t ht h e f r o n to f t h e a r m p o s t ;t h e e n d so f t h e s l a t ss h o u l dp r o j e cbt e y o n d t h ee d g e o f t h e e n d s e a ts u p p o r t sb y I i n c h .M a r kt h e p o s i t i o no f t h e

s u p p o r tasn d d r i l l p i l o th o l e st,h e ns c r e wt h e s l a t i n p l a c e (above, lefil.fo installthe remaining slats,usespacersr/eIo'/o i n c ht h i c kt o s e tt h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e tnh e p i e c e sT. a pt h e endsof the slatsuntiltheyareall aligned(above, right).Then d r i l lp i l o th o l e sa n ds c r e wt h es l a t si n p l a c e .

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Aftaching thechains

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Installa screweyein eachof the seat b a c ks t i l e s2 i n c h e sa b o v et h e a r m .T h e n m a r kt h e p o i n to n e a c ha r m d i r e c t l yo v e r the fronteyeboltanddrilla holeto accommodate t er ra s sb u s h i n g . a l%-inch-diameb Inserthe bushing a n df a s t e ni t i n p l a c e . A t t a c ha l e n g t ho f c h a i nw i t h a n o p e n i n g l i n kt o e a c ho f t h e e y eb o l t si n t h e s e a t rails(lefil.Threadthe chainfromthe front e y eb o l t st h r o u g ht h e b u s h i n g st h; e c h a i n fromthe reareyeboltspasses throughthe s c r e we y e si n t h e b a c ks t i l e s J. o i nt h e c h a i n so n e a c hs i d eo f t h e c h a i ri n p a i r s w i t ho p e n i n cg h a i nl i n k s g, i v i n gy o ut w o p o i n t sf r o mw h i c ht h e c h a i rc a n b e h u n g .


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ANATOMYOF A GLIDERBASE his versatileglider basecan be I adaptedto fit differentdesignsof In this case,it hasbeenconbenches. structedto supportthe benchshown this on page64.With simplechanges, designcould easilyadd swingingmotion to a chair,or a benchup to three personswide. The baseconsistsof two sidefiames connected by two centralbeamsthat are separated by a spacer.The framesare madeof railsandstilesjoinedwith corner half-laps.The beamscanbe shortened depending or lengthenedasnecessary, on the sizeof the benchor chair,but rememberthat thelongerthebench,the moreits weight,andthereforethegreater the stresson the gliderbase. The benchswingson 18-inchmetal straps.Theyshouldbe angledslightly inward so the top endsare farther apartthan the lower ends.This will tend to slow the glider down as it the endsof its swing.It also approaches reducesmechanicalstresses on the benchand gliderframe.

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CUTTING LIST

Footpads

4

I%'

3'/r'

5'/o'

beams Center Support straps

2

I%'

3'/,'

50%'

9upport etraP

Eolt and waaher

Center beam

Theadvantageof a glider baseovera porchswing is that it isself-supporting and canbeplacedwhereveryou want-on a porchor in a garden-without requiringsupportingbeams or treebranches. Thebasefeaturesa metalrub rail at thebottomto preventthebenchfrom bumpingagainstthebase asit glidesbackandforth.

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SWINGSAND GLIDERS

)ide frame rail

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SWINGSAND GLIDERS

THEBASE MAKING

I I I I I I I I I I thefeet 1 Making I Round overthebackedgeof each f o o tp a do n a d i s ks a n d e rG. l u ea n d withthefront screwthe padsin place, edgeflushwiththefrontof thefoot. of each Thenroundoverthefrontedses padandIoot(above).

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t I I r) Assembling thesides L C u th a l f - l a oi o i n t si n t h e s i d er a i l s andstiles(page107).Assemble eachjoint g l u e , w i t hf o u rs c r e w sa n d t h e nc e n t e trh e f e e to n t h e b o t t o mo f e a c hs i d ea n dd r i l la p i l o th o l e5 % i n c h e sf r o me a c he n d i n t o t h e l o w e sr i d er a i l sf o r a 3 % - i n c h - l o n g , % - i n c h - d i a m e tl a eg r b o l t .A d da w a s h e r , t h e ni n s e rtth e b o l ti n t h e h o l ea n dt i g h t e n it with a wrench(rishil.

Lowereide rail

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SWINGSAND GLIDERS

thecenterbeams to thesides Q Attaching s,l Glueandscrewa spacer blockto thecenterof the inside attachthe beams to theotherspacer block,checking witha f a c eo f e a c hs i d er a i l .T h e ng l u ea n ds c r e w t h ec e n t e r s q u a r oe n b o t hl o w esr i d er a i l st o m a k es u r et h e a s s e m b l y ic nprfpntlv enr2ra b e a m so n e i t h e sr i d eo f e a c hs p a c ebr l o c k( a b o v et)h. e n

INSTATLING THEGLIDERS theholesinthesupport straps 1 Drilling punch I Strike thestrapwitha center I i n c hf r o me a c he n d T . h i sw i l ld i m p l e providing pointfor thesurface, a starting yourdrill.Next,f it a %-inch bit intoyour drillpress. Clamp a pieceof scrap wood to themachine tableasa backup board, thenposition thestrapwiththemarkyou justmadecentered under thebit.Place pieceof woodon topof the a second strapto prevent thedrillbit fromlifting thestrapasthebit is retracted fromthe hole.Borethe hole(/eff).Repeat at the otherendandforthethreeotherstraos.

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SWINGSAND GLIDERS

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r) Drilling holesforthebushings 1 lttarV, outholesfor%-inch-diameter t h r e a d ebdu s h i n gosnt h es i d er a i l sa n d Thishardware onthe legsof the bench. will protect thewoodfromwearbythe straps to boltsthatwillsecure thesupport of furniture. 0n the theframeandthepiece from stand,locate eachhole1%inches fromtheoutthetopedgeand21/oinches sideedge.Onthebenchlegs,theholes in themiddle ofthe shouldbecentered lf youare legs,1 inchfromthebottom. piece of adapting thestandto fit another furniture, makesurethattheendsof the metalstraps aremounted a coupleof inches closer together onthefurniture than frame. Thiswillimprove the ontheglider gliding motion. Drillholes forthebushings of the witha spadebit.Borethree-quarters waythrough eachhole(right),Ihen completetheholefromtheother Make srde. withthefaceof suretheholes aresouare theframe.

a I I I I Installing thebushings ? Add threaded bushings bytwisting \,, themfingertighl(left),thenfinishtightening themwitha screwdriver ora coin.lf thebushing begins to entertheholeaskew, r e m o viet a n de n l a r gteh eh o l es l i g h t l y witha rat{ailfile.Whenit is installed, the proudof the bushing should restslightly surface of thewood.

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SWINGSAND GLIDERS

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Bolting onthesupport straps S l i d ea % - i n c h - d i a m e bt eorl tt h r o u g he a c ho f t h e s u p p o r t

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straps, slipona washer, andfit theboltsthrough eachof the in theupper framerail.Secure bushings theboltsin placewith a lockwasher andtwonuts,usinga second wrench to holdone o f t h en u t si n p l a c ew h i l ey o ut i g h t e n t h eo t h e o r n e .N e x t , position thebenchbetween thesidesof theframe, andrepeat . i l l b ee a s i etro d o t h i sj o bw i t ha t h eb o l t i n pg r o c e d u rlet w e h i l ey o us l i d et h eb o l t s h e l p et ro h o l dt h eb e n c h inplacw through the bushings in the legs.Tighten the nuts(/eff).

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Addingtherubrail f, r . , / T h er u b r a i l i s a 2 8 - i n c h - l o npgi e c e o f / , - i n c ha l u m i n i u m C - s t o c kD. r i l la h o l e a t e a c he n d ,t h e n p l a c et h e r a i lb e t w e e n t h e s u p p o rst t r a p sa n dt h e g l i d e rf r a m e , w i t ht h e l o w e re d g eo f t h e r a i lf l u s hw i t h t h e u p p e re d g eo f t h e b o t t o ms i d er a i l . S c r e wt h e r u b r a i l i n p l a c e( r i g h t )t,h e n attachthe secondrailon the oooosite side o f t h e s l i d e rf r a m e .

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t

GARDENPROIE,CTS hearbor,planter, andservslipovertheframeassembly, ingtrolleypresented in andarescrewed to thetop of this chaptercomplement the theframe.Thetrolleyrollson furnituredesigns featuredin twowheels of thetypedesigned previouschapters. Thearbor for gasbarbecues. Indeed,the creates a basefor climbing trolleycouldbeusedto replace plantsanda decorative focal the oftenflimsymetalbases pointfor outdoorrecreation provided withmanybarbecues. Planters or relaxation. canbe The arbor is built from usedto establish flowersor rough-sawn cedar(page131). otherplantings in anypartof a leftwithoutafinish,thewood gard.en. And with its capacity will turn an attractive silver to transportbothvictualsand hueasitweathers. Meanwhile, kitchenitemslikeplates, dishTungoil is applied to the surfaceof a servingtrolley. thenaturaldecay-resistance of es,andcutlerytheserving trolUsinga squirtbottleasshownaboveis a quick and cedarwill protectthe piece leyisawelcome convenience for easyway to spreadthisfinish. After beingallowed fromtheelements. Onepracbackyard entertaining. to Penetratethewoodfor about15 minutes,the ticaladvantage of leavingthe Theplanter(page120)is excess oil is wipedfrom thesurfacewith a rag. woodbareisthatthearborwill built fromwhitecedarformed neverrequirerefinishing-a intostaves. A %-inch pieceof marine-grade plywood formsthe plusonceclimbingplantsweave themselves intothetrellisand joints. aroundtheposts. bottom,andthestaves arejoinedwith spline-and-groove A lip aroundthetopedgeprotects theendsofthestaves and Thesides of thearborarebuiltwithtusktenonsandioined planter,theedges with half-laps, addsadecorative element. Foraneight-sided andthetrellises areheldin placeby ileats. jig shownon Althoughthetopof thepieceissimplynailedto thesides, of thestaves mustbebeveled at22/z'.TlTtable-saw the pageI2I will enable youto cutthebevels andtaperthestaves projectdoesnot skimpon traditionaljoinerytechniquesatthesametimesotheyarewideratthetopthanatthebottom. thearborshownin thephotoat left relieson no fewerthan Theservingtrolleyfeatured on page126is built arounda 148halfJapjoints. framejoinedwithhalfJaps andreinforced byglueandscrews. Althoughwhitecedarwaschosen for theseprojects, other Theslatsonthebottomreston cleatsrunningalongtheinside decay-resistant, attractivewoodssuchasredwoodandred faces of thelowersiderails.Thetopconsists of fourrailsthat cedarwill workequallywell.

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Festooned with flowers,therustic-style arborshownat left pathway a frames from a backyardgardento a pond. Thearboris madefrom latticesof rough-sawn %-inch northernwhitecedarassembled with half-lapjoinery.

119


ANATOMYOF AN E,IGHT-SIDED PLANTER

ende of etavee; nailed and qlued in place

Madefrom decay-resistantwhitecedarandfnishedwith tungoil, the plantershownbelowis readyto weathera numTheparts berof seasons. of theplanteraredesigned to bemass-produced on thetablesawsothatseveralplanterscqnbebuih in relativelyshortorder.

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t I t t I I

Plywood apline 'ized to fit in gtave 1rooves and 4lued in place

Stave

Eottom Made of marine4rade plywood; fita into dadoea cut into atave7

Tapered2 incheawider at top than at bottan. Edqeeare qroovedto accept eplinee;dado cut acrooa inetdeface accommodategbottom

CUTTING LIST TH

w

L

Staves

OTY 8

3,4',

24',

Lips

8

%'

6" 2',

Bottom

I

3/o'

ITEM

t20

1B'

6"1', 18"

I I

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BUILDINGAN EIGHT-SIDE,D PLANTER PREPARING THESTAVES 'l

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Beveling oneedgeofthestaves I W i t ht h es h o p - b utial tp e r i nj rgg shownat left,youcanbeveltheedges n f t h c s t a v e sa n d t a n e rt h e m i n a s i n s l e s e t r r oF. o rt h e i i p .m a k et h e b a s e f r o ma p i e c eo f l 2 - i n c h - w i d p elywood. a n dt h e g u i d eb a ra n ds t o pb l o c kf r o m s o l i ds t o c k S . t a r tb y a n g l i n g theblade la 22 r/" thpn rrcp h _e_r ,n_l ,e_ m prs0 s e c u r e t h es t a v eb l a n kt o t h e b a s es o t h e e d g ee x t e n dos f f t h e b a s eb y 1 Z i n c h attheleadine g n da n d % i n c ha t t h e t r a i l i n ge n d s B . u t tt h eg u i d eb a ra n d s t o pb l o c ka g a i n stth e s t o c k c, l a m p t h e m i n p l a c ea n df i x t h e p i e c e tso t h e base.Screwtoggleclampsto the guide b a ra n du s et h e mt o s e c u r et h e b l a n k t o t h e i i p ' n r o t e ctth e s t o c kw i t h w o o d p a d s .R e m o v teh e b a rc l a m p s N . ext, i

i

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,

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,

hd . -)^c - ^ - i n . + h i l i t t h p p d s p n f i.h. ,A- i i o u dBdilrJL I'o

'lltl{lilj lllllllt{1il lll llljullt]l]illtilljiljjfiltllltljllllillllj 1HO?TI?

\''t''"''

Checkingthesaw bladebevelangle To confirmtrhat,your

a n d e e No n e o f t h e V i e c e o o n e d q e w i L hi l e b a c k f a c e t o w a r d sL h e c o r n e r o f I h e equare, butl the olher Lest, p i e c e ef l u a h a g a i n e l t h e e n d s

of NhefireNone:Lheirbackfacesshouldbeflueh a4ainelLhearmeof the equare.lfnoI,adjuelLhe bladeanqle,reculf,heendeollhe pieceo, and recheck.

t21

t h e b l a d ea n dt h e r i p f e n c ea g a i n s t t h e o p p o s i t ee d g eo f t h e b a s e .S t a r t f e e d i n gt h e l i g a n dw o r k p i e cwe i t h , s s h o w n ,b u t m o v ey o u r b o t hh a n d s a r i g h th a n ds a f e l ya w a ya b o u th a l f w a y t h r o u g ht h e c u t . F i n i s ht h e p a s sw i t h y o u rl e f th a n d ,k e e p i n tgh e j i g f l u s h a g a i n stth e f e n c et h r o u g h o u (t .C a u t i o n : B l a d eg u a r dr e m o v efdo r c l a r i t y . B ) evel oneedgeof everystavethe sameway.


t GARDEN PROTECTS

r) Cuttingthe oppositeedges L t o a v o i dh a v i n gt o a d j u s t h e b l a d e a n g l ew h e ny o u b e v e lt h e o p p o s i t ee d g e o f e a c hs t a v e c, l a m pt h e b l a n kt o t h e b a s ea s i n s t e p1 , b u t w i t h i t s n a r r o we n d a t t h e l e a d i n ge n do f t h e b a s e M . a k es u r e t h e n a r r o we n d o f t h e b l a n ke x t e n d so f f t h e b a s eb y 1 %i n c ha n dt h e w i d ee n d b y % i n c h .P o s i t i o n t h e g u i d eb a ra n d s t o p b l o c ka g a i n stth e w o r k p i e c ea,n d s c r e w t h e p i e c e st o t h e b a s ef r o m u n d e r n e a t h ( / e f f ) .R e m o v e t h e b a rc l a m p sa n d b e v e l eachstave.

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t I I I I

ASSEMBLING THEPLANTER

t

forthesplines thestaves 1 Preparing I Fityourtablesawwitha dadohead, adlustitswidthto thespline thickness%inch-andsetthecuttrng height to % inch.Center the edgeof a staveover theblades, thenbutttheripfenceagainst o n ef a c eo f t h es t o c ka n dc l a m pa g u i d e boardto thesawtableagainst theoppositeface.Feedthe staveintothe head, k e e p i ntgh eo u t s i dfea c ef l u s ha g a i n s t the fence(right).Todetermine thewidth of theplywood splines, secure twostaves u p r i g hi tn h a n d s c r e w b su,t tt h ep i e c e s edgeto edge,andmeasure thecombined (inset). depthof theirgrooves Cutthe s p l i n etsh es a m el e n g t ha st h es t a v e s , r i p p i n tgh e ma sw i d ea sy o u rm e a s u r e ment,less% inch.

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t r22

I I I


I I

GARDENPROIECTS

I

t t I I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t I I I I I I

Trimming theendsofthestaves O n c ea l l t h e s p l i n eg r o o v ehsa v eb e e n

cut,dry-fitthestaves together withthe s p l i n e sU. s es u r g i c at ul b i n gt o h o l dt h e assembly together. To levelthestaves at thetopandbottom, bothendsof each piecewrllhaveto be beveled. Todeterminethebevel angle, holda board asa straightedge across thetopof theassemb l ya n du s ea s l i d i n g b e v et lo m e a s u r e theanglebetween theoutside faceof a (left).Tiltyour staveandthestraightedge tablesawbladeto themeasured angle andclampanextension board to themiter gauge. Alignthecuttingmarkat oneend of thestavewiththe blade,thenbutta stopblockagainst theendof thestock a n dc l a m pi t t o t h ee x t e n s i oAnn. g l e the m i t e gr a u g seot h ee n d sw i l lb ec u t straight across. Then,holding theworkpieceflushagainst theextension and stopblock,beveltheendof eachstave (below). Usethesamesetupto bevel theopposite endsof thestaves.

t23


I GARDENPROIECTS

t I I

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]// - 1

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H t-

a

t t l \

I I I I I I

fortheboftom thestaves Q Preparing r.J Cutdadoes faces across the inside of thestaves forthebottom witha similarsetupyouusedforcrosscutting the Adjust staves. thewidthof thedadohead to thesame to %inchandtilt theblades in step2. Setthe angleyoumeasured cuttingheightto 3/"inch.Clampthestop blockto themitergauge extension to locatethe dado3/qinchfromthe bottom Anglethemitergauge asyou ofthestaves. previous did in the stepto compensate Hold forthetapered sidesof thestaves. theworkpiece flushagainst theextension andthestopblockasyoufeedit across thesawIablehbovd.

t I I I I

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Cutting thebottom oftheplantel Dry-fit thestaves andsplines together (page123).Center theassembly ona piece plywood andoutof %-inchmarine-grade linetheoutside of theplanter ontheworkoiece. Thenmarka second outline within thefirst,offsetfromit by%inchto comoensate forthedadoes in thestaves. Use thesecond outlineasyourcuttingpattern asyousawoutthebottomonyourband saw(righil.0nce the bottomis cut out, holes it. drilla fewdrainage through

t t

t24

T I I I I t

t


I I I t I I I I I I I I

GARDENPROIECTS

t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

theplanter f, Assembling r-,f Test-fit allthepieces together, making surethesplines fit snugly in theirgrooves andthebottom fitsintoitsdadoes. Use o i n t sS. p r e agdl u ei n t h e a c h i s etlo f i n e - t u naen yi l l - f i t t i nj g splinegrooves, thenfit thestaves around thebottom, slipping thesplines in placeasyougo (above, /eff).Pushthesplines piece. downuntiltheir endsareflushwiththebottom Onceall

t h ep i e c eas r ei n p l a c es, e c u rteh ea s s e m bw l yi t ht w o lengths of surgical tubing, bicycle innertube,or bandclamps wrapped around thestaves-one nearthetopandonenearthe bottom. Alsoinstall twobarclamps at eachendof theplanter (above, onopposite sidesof thestaves righil.Trimthesplines flushwiththetopendof thestaves usinga flush-cutting saw.

I n s t a l l i n g t hl iep A \,1 Trimthe lip piecesto lengthby miteri n ge a c he n da I 2 2 1 / z A o .p p l yg l u et o t h e contacting surfacesof the stavesand lip p i e c e sa, n d p o s i t i o n e a c hp i e c es o i t s e n d sa l i g nw i t ht h e s e a m sb e t w e e tnh e s t a v e sU . s et w o n a i l st o f i x e a c hl i o o i e c e to its staver'leff).

t25


I

t t t t

ANATOMYOFA SERVINGTROLLEY

Top end rail

Upperalat

Upperend rail

Front leg Upper aide rail

I I I t I

t t I I I

t I Lower end rail

t

Lower eide rail

CUTTING IIST

Thesertingtrolleyshownaboverollson wheels With asreplacements designed for gasbarbecues. itsconvenient handle,thetrolleyis easyto move around,and itsstoutlegsand rails,joinedwith half-lapjoinery,malcethepiecesturdyand durable.

ITEM

OTY

TH

W ORDIAM t

Iop endraifs

2

LY4'

2%',

2IYe'

Handfe rails

2

I'A'

2%'

47'

Upper slats

18

Yi'

9t'

20r/a'

Upper siderails

2

IY4'

Upper endraifs

2

1Y4'

4',

20'

Front legs

2

I%"

2Yr"

27',

Rearlegs

2

I'/z'

2/z'

30"

Lower endraifs

2

IY4'

2Y4'

20'

Lower siderails

2

IYA'

2Y4'

3z',

lowerslals

15

Yt'

flt'

17lz'

Handfe

I

1'

2l'/z'

Cleats

2

IYI'

30%'

t26

IYi'

32',

I I I I I

t I

t I I I I I I


I I

FASHIONINGA SERVINGTROLLEY

I

t

MAKING THEFRAME

I I I t I I t I t I I I I I

thestock 1 Preparing I Consisting of thesideandendrails,andthelegs, theframe joinery. of theserving trolley is assembled withhalf-lap Onyour tablesaw,install a dadoheadandadjustit to maximum width. Refer to theanatomy illustration opposite forthelocation and sizeof therabbets anddadoes required. At thebottom endof therearlegs,forexample, startbycuttinga rabbet alongthe outside faceto accept thelower siderail.Thelength of therabbetshould equalthewidthof thesiderailanditsdepthshould beone-half thestockthickness. Next,cut a rabbet alongthe o u t s i deed g eo f t h el e gt o a c c o m m o d a t ht e l o w eer n dr a i l . Position theripfencesoyoucanfeedthestockalong thefence asyoudefine therabbet shoulder, thenmakea series of passes to remove theremaining waste(left).Guidetheworkpiece with themitergauge foreachof thesepasses.

t I I I I t t I I

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t

thesiderailsandlegstogether J Fastening C- Onceallthejoinery glueontheconcutsaremade, spread tacting surfaces of thelegsandsiderails,andfit therailsand onepairof frontandrearlegstogether. Usetwoscrews to reinforceeachjoint,driving thefasteners through therailsandinto thelegs.Tocheckwhether theassembly is square, measure

thediagonals between opposite corners immediately aftertight(aboye). eningthescrews Thetworesults shouldbethesame. lf not,install a barclampacross thelonger diagonal. Tighten t h ec l a m pa l i t t l ea t a t i m e ,m e a s u r i a n sgy o ug ou n t i tl h et w o ;;^^^^^t^ urdEUrdrJ

t27

^-^ dtu

^^.,^l cLludt.


GARDENPROIECTS

I I I t

t I I

t I

t

theendrails ? Installing r-,1Oncebothsidesof theframeare . se a s s e m b l eadd,dt h ef o u re n dr a i l sU glueandscrews to fasten theupperend railsto thelegs,thensettheassembly endrails upside downandf ixthelower (above). in position

Installing thelowerslats glueandscrews, attach a cleat Using a l o n gt h e i n s i d ef a c eo f e a c hl o w e rs i d e r a i ls o t h e t o p e d g e so f t h e c l e a t sa r e% i n c hb e l o wt h et o p e d g e so f t h e r a i l s a; p p l y o n l ya f e w d r o p so f a d h e s i vael o n gt h e l e n g t ho f t h e c l e a t ,r a t h e rt h a n c o v e r i n g i t s e n t i r es u r f a c et o a v o i dt r a p p i n gw a t e r between the railsandcleats.Startinstalling t h e s l a t sa t o n ee n d r a i l .N o t c ht h e e n d s of the f irst and lastslatsto accommodate the legsa , n df i x e a c hp i e c ei n p l a c ew i t h n a i l s a t e a c he n d .U s e , / , - i n c shp a c two ersto separate the slats(rrght).

r28

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I


I I

GARDE,NPROIECTS

I

t t

ATTACHING THETOP 'l

P r e p a r i nt hgeh a n d l er a i l s I S t a r tb y p r e p a r i ntgh e h a n d l er a i l sf o r t h et o p e n dr a i l sa n dt h e h a n d l eF. o rt h e e n dr a i l sc, u t a 7 - i n c h - d e eip%, - i n c h w i d ed a d oa c r o s tsh e i n s i d ef a c eo f e a c h h a n d l er a i l .F o rt h e h a n d l ed, r i l la 1 - i n c h d i a m e t ehr o l ea s d e e pa s o n e - h a ltfh e s t o c kt h i c k n e s sN. e x t ,o u t l i n et h e c u r v e a t t h e f r o n te n do f t h e r a r la n dc u t i t o n yourbandsaw(left).Usethe rail to outl i n et h e c u r v eo n t h e s e c o n dp i e c ea n d r e p e atth e c u t . S m o o t ht h e c u t s u r f a c e w i t hs a n d p a p eorr a s p i n d l es a n d e rt,h e n roundoverthe outsideedgeswith a router.

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t t

r) Assembling thetopframe L tJstngglue and screws,fastenthe t o p e n dr a i l st o o n eo f t h e h a n d l er a i l s . G l u et h e h a n d l ei n t oi t s h o l e t, h e nf i t t h e s e c o n dh a n d l er a i lo n t ot h e a s s e m b l y ( b e l o w )f ,i x i n gi t i n p l a c ew i t h a d h e s r v ea n ds c r e w s .

I I T I

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I

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t I I I I I T I I

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U) ) --t:

129


GARDENPROTECTS

I I I I I T I t T I I

t I I T rails Attaching thetopt0theupper thesupportblocks Q Attaching r - J C u tf o u r 1 - i n c h - s o u abr el o c k sa n dd r i l la % - i n c h - d i a m e t e r h o l et h r o u g he a c ho n e .G l u e da n ds c r e w etdo t h e h a n d l er a i l s , t h e b l o c k sw i l l s u o o o rtth e s l a t sa t t h e f r o n ta n d b a c ke n d so f t h e t o p . C l a m pt h e t o p a s s e m b loy n e d g et o a w o r ks u r f a c e a n da t t a c ha b l o c kt o e a c hc o r n e fro r m e db y t h e h a n d l er a i l s a n dt o p e n d r a i l s( a b o v e )p;o s i t i o tnh e b l o c k s% i n c hb e l o w thp tnn pdgp nf the rails

L o w etrh e t o p o v e rt h e u p p e r a i l s :i t s h o u l df i t s n u g l y . o l d r ntgh et o p s ot h a tt h et o p t h eo u t s i d o e f t h ef r a m e H around edgesof the supportblocksand upperrailsareflush,fastenthe railstogether(above). Glueandfastenthe top slatsin place,as shownon pageI28. Usethe supportblocksandthe top of the frameto support the slatsin placeof the longcleatsusedin the bottomof the frame.Installthe upperslatsas youdid the lower onesn , a i l i n gt h e mt o t h e u p p e r a i l sa n ds u p p o rbt l o c k s .

I I I I I T I I I I I

I n s t a l l i nt gh ew h e e l s R r . , l S e tt h e t r o l l e yu p s i d ed o w no n a w o r k s u r f a c ae n dd r i l la % - i n c h - d i a m eht oe lre t h r o u g he a c hl o w e r a i l3 i n c h e sf r o mi t s e n d .M a k es u r et h e h o l e sa r ea l i g n e dS. l i d e a % - i n c h - d i a m eat ex rl er o dt h r o u g ht h e h o l e sa n ds l i pa w a s h eor n e a c he n do f l n t oe a c he n do f t h e t h e r o d .F i t a w h e e o axle?ight),then lock it in placewith a nut.Tapthe secondwasherand a pressure n u t i n p l a c ew i t ha h a m m e rw, h i l eh o l d i n ga b l o c ko f w o o da g a i n stth e o p p o s i t e e n do f t h e a x l e .

I I T

t i30

I I


I I I

t T I I I I I I I I

t I I I

t t T I I I I I I I I I I I I

ANATOMY OF A GARDENARBOR


t

ARBOR BUILDINGA GARDE,N MAKING TUSKTENONS Roughing thesiderails 1 I S t a r tb u i l d i n g t h e a r b o rb y c u t t i n g t h e t u s kt e n o n st h a tj o r nt h e s i d er a i l s to the post.To cutthetenonsat theends o f t h e r a i l so n y o u rt a b l es a w ,i n s t a lal d a d oh e a da n da d j u s it t t o i t s m a x i m u m width,andattachan extension boardto t h e m i t e rg a u g eS. e tt h e c u t t i n gh e i g h t at y' inchandposition the rip fencefor a 1 2 - i n c h - w i dceu t . F e e dt h e r a i lf a c e downwithoneendridingalongthefence t o d e fi n et h e t e n o ns h o u l d e rM. a k ea seriesof passes to completethe tenon cheek,thenturnthe railoverandrepeat the process on the otherside.Cuttenons a t t h e o t h e re n do f t h e r a i la n da t b o t h e n d so f t h e r e m a i n i nrga i l s .H o l dt h e e d g eo f t h e r a i lf l u s ha g a i n st th e m i t e r gaugeextension for everypass.

I I I t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

r) Roughing intheposts outthemortises I youcancutthepostmortises byhand, ora drillpress, f ittedwith or usea mortiser ora f -incheither a mortising attachment diameter spade bit,asshown at right.The fromthe mortises should start18 inches fromthetopof the bottomand24 inches posts. Usethefinished tenons to layout makthelenghandwidthof themortises, onthe ingsuretheoutlines arecentered Thenclampa inside facesoftheposts. panel backup to yourdrillpress tableand centering the setthepostonthepanel, under thebit.Drilla holethrough outline the postat eachendof the outline(right), holes to thenborea series of overlapping

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nnmnlotp ihp mnrtiso

r32

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t I I t I

t I I I I

GARDENPROIECTS

Cleaning upthemortises Square thewallsofthemortises using a c h i s eal s w i d ea st h e m o r t i s e sH. o l d i n g the chiselvertically, bevelfacingthe waste, a l i g nt h e t i p w i t ho n eo f y o u rc u t t i n gl i n e s a n d t a p t h e t o o l w i t h a w o o d e nm a l l e t (right).Conlinuearoundthe perimeterof t h e m o r t i s eu n t i la l l t h e w a s t ei s c l e a r e d away.Tesffit eachtenonin its moftiseand w i d e no r l e n g h e nt h e c a v i t ya s n e e d e d .

t I I I I I

t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Assembling andrails theposts ,{ -T Fittheposts andrailstogether and marka linealong thetopof eachcheek wherethetenonemerges fromthemortiseD . i s a s s e mtbhleej o i n ta n dd r i l la 1 - i n c h - d i a m ehtoel ret h r o u gthh et e n o n centered ontheline.Cuta %-by-1-inch h a r d w o opdi e c ei n t ot h eb u l l est h a p e shownat left;makethe lengthof the tenonwedge aboutequalto thepostthickness. Slidethetenonintothemortise and strike t h ew e d g fei r m l yw i t ha h a m m e r u n t i l t h jeo i n ti st i g h t .

133


GARDENPROIECTS

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INSTALLING THE TRELTIS thecleats 1 Installing I Cutthecleats thatframetheinside edges of thepostsand piece siderails,mitering bothendsof each at 45'. Startwith t h ec l e a t sa l o n gt h er a i l s n , a i l i n tgh e p i e c e isn p l a c et,h e n install Foreachcleat,drivethefirst theonealong theposts. n a i la b o u2t i n c h efsr o mo n ee n d ,c o n t i n u i nagt a b o u8t - i n c h i n t e r v a lU s .s ea t a p em e a s u rpee r i o d i c atlol yc h e c kt h a tt h e cleatsareoffsetby about% inchfromthe outsideedgesof the postsandrails(right).

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r') Preparing thelatticestrips ( - m e d a d o efso rt h e h a l f - l a pj os i n i n g t h e l a t t i c es t r i p s together canbecutoneafteranother onthetablesawusing jig madefromanextension a dadoheadanda simple board c l a m p etdo t h em i t e rg a u g eF. e e dt h ee x t e n s i oi n t ot h e blades to cuta dado,thenslidetheextension along themiter gauge sothespacebetween thedadoandtheblades equals 4 inches. Screw theextension to thegauge andcut a second dado.Then,inserta tight-fitting wooden keyin thefirstdado so it projects at least2 inchesfromtheextension. Foreach latticestrip,butttheedgeof the boardagainst the keyand holdanedgeflushagainst theextension. Feedthestrrpinto theblades to cut a firstdado,thenfit thenotchyoujustcut overthekeyandmakea second cut.Continue cuttingdadoes in thismanner(below) untilyoureachthe opposite endof t h es t r i p H . o o ky o u rt h u m b sa r o u n tdh ee x t e n s i ot ons t e a d y thestripduring eachpass.

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t34

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I

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GARDENPROIECTS

I

t

thelattice strips to lengh J<. Cutting

r - , f 0 n c e a l l t h e i o i n e r vc u t s h a v eb e e n i n t h e l a t t i c es t r i j s , u s et h e s a m es e t u p t o c u t t h e p i e c e st o l e n g t hR . e p l a cteh e d a d oh e a dw i t ha c o m b i n a t i obnl a d e F . or e a c hs t r i p s, l i p t h e l a s td a d oy o u c u t o v e rt h e k e ya n df e e dt h e p i e c ei n t ot h e blade (left).

I I I t I I

Assembling andinstalling the lattice ,{ T L a yo u tt h e h o r i z o n t a l al t t i c es t r i p s on a worksurface, spreadsomeglueinto a l lt h ed a d o ea s n df i t t h e v e r t i c asl t r i p s in position(below).Usea woodenmall e tt o c l o s et h e j o i n t ss n u g l yt,h e nr e i n f o r c ee v e r ys e c o n d l o i n tw i t ha n a i l .T o i n s t a ltlh e l a t t i c eh, o l dt h e p a n eal g a i n s t t h e i n s i d ef a c eo f t h e c l e a t sa n df a s t e n t h e s t r i p st o t h e c l e a t sd, r i v i n ga s c r e w i n t oe a c hc o r n ear n d i n t ot h e c e n t e o rf eachside (lnsef).

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t GARDENPROTECTS

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Attaching thecaprails f, r - , f C u ta 1 - i n c h - d e erpa b b eat t e a c he n d o f t h e c a pr a i l st;h e r a b b e tssh o u l db e a s l o n ga s t h e p o s tw i d t h .S e ta s r d ea s s e m b l yo n a w o r ks u r f a c es, p r e a dg l u eo n t h e c o n t a c t i nsgu r f a c easn df i t t h e c a p r a i l i n p o s i t i o n( r i g h t ) .R e i n f o r c e a c hj o i n t with screws.

I

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BUILDING THET()P

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'l

I I I I 0utlining thehalf-laps onthetoprails

I -, I T h et o p r a i l sc o m p r i s i ntgh e t o p o f t h e a r b o ra r ej o i n e dw i t h . o m a r ko u t t h e d a d o e si n a l l t h e p i e c e si n a h a l f - l a jpo i n t s T s i n p l es e t u n - a n de n s r r rteh a tt h e va l i p n - r ' l a m nt h e f i v es h o r t t o p r a i l sa n dt h e nt h e f o u rl o n gt o p r a i l st o g e t h efra c et o f a c e . l V l a kseu r et h e e n d so f t h e n i e c e si n e a c hs e ta l r s n S t a r t i n sl 4

i n c h e fsr o mo n ee n do f t h e b o a r d sb, e g i nm a r k i n tgh e d a d o s h o u l d e rTs o. e x t e n dt h e l i n e sa c c u r a t e al yc r o s tsh e r a i l s ,u s e a c a r p e n t e rs' sq u a r eb, u t t i n go n ea r ma g a i n stth e o u t s i d ee d g e ) . a c hd a d os h o u l db e 2 i n c h e sw i d e .M a r k o f t h e s t o c k( a b o v e E t h e d a d od e n t h 2 i n c h e s - o ne a c hr a i l .

r36

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GARDENPROTECTS

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r) Sawing thedadoshoulders Z- Because thetoprailsareunwieldy t o c u to nt h et a b l es a wy, o us h o u l d make t h ed a d o ebsyh a n dC. l a m tph e workpiece bottom-face upto a work surface andusea crosscut sawto cut along theshoulder lines(above). Stop eachkerfat thedepthline.

t I I I I I I I I

Chiseling outthewaste Q r.,l Onceall the dadoshoulders havebeen cut,turntheworkpiece on onesideanduse a c h i s e al sw i d ea s t h e d a d o e tso r e m o v e the waste.Startingjust belowthe bottom e d g eo f t h e s t o c k h , o l dt h e c h i s evl e r t i c a l l y ,w i t ht h e b e v efla c i n gt h e b o t t o me d g e , a n dt a o t h e t o o lw i t ha m a l l e t o s e v e a r pieceof wastewood(/eff).Continue in this fashion u n t i ly o um a k ea f i n a lc u t w i t ht h e c h r s et lr pa l i g n ew d i t ht h ed e p t hl i n e .

T

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137


t t

GARDENPROIECTS

theendsofthetoprails /l Shaping

't t a R e f e r r i n g t o t h e a n a t o miyl l u s t r a t i o n ( n a s e1. 3/ ) d r a wt h e d e c o r a t i vceu r v e al lhp pndq nf ihp inn r:ilc nn :

nipep nf

d n dc u t o u tt h e p r o f i l eo n Z - i n c hp l y w o o a y o u rb a n ds a w .U s i n gt h e p l y w o o p diece a s a t e m p l a t et r, a n s f et rh e c u r v eo n t oe a c h r a i l .C l a m pt h e r a i lt o a w o r ks u r f a cw e ith t h e e n dt o b e c u t e x t e n d i nogf f t h e t a b l e . and cut the curvewith a sabersaw(lefil. O n c ea l l t h e r a i l sh a v eb e e ns h a p e ds,a n d t h e c u t e n d ss m o o t ha n da s s e m b lteh e ^ ril n ,r up!nu pJ c u r ou: inl ud J U I U v V )d ) y' U U UIU p v vr ,r Lt h r 'Bo rl ur u ihp l:tiinp

/neop \ F e b e

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INSTALLING THEARBOR theanchors 1l Burvins -

I Thepostsof thearborcanbe setin conc r e t eo r - m o r e e a s i l y - m e t aal n c h o rtsh a t . l a c et h e a r b o r a r ed r i v e ni n t ot h eg r o u n dP w h e r ei t w i l lg o a n dm a r kt h e l o c a t i oonf t h e n o s t sF . i t a l e n g t ho f n o s ts t o c ki n t oe a c h a n c h o ar n d u s ea s l e d g e h a m mt e o rd r i v e the stockandanchorintotheground(righil. C o n t r n uuen t i lt h et o pe n do f e a c ha n c h oirs nearthe ground.Makesurethetopsof the fouranchors areall level.Remove the post stockfromtheanchorsand insertthe nnsts

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138

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I I

GARDENPROTECTS

I t

r) Attaching thefrontandbackrails I C u ta 1 - i n c h - d e eapn d3 - i n c h l o n gr a b b eat t e a c he n do f t h e f r o n t a n db a c kr a i l s T . h e nf i t t h e r a i l si n n l a c ea n ds e c r r rteh e mw i t ht w o screwsat eachend (left)

t I I I I I

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-) Installins theton <'

r - . 1 T oc o m p l e t b e u i l d i n tgh e a r b o rw , ork w i t ha h e l p e tro l r f tt h e t o p i n t op o s i t i o n ( b e l o w )l .f y o ua r e u s i n gs t e p l a d d e r s . m a k es u r et h e ya r ep l a c e ds e c u r e loyn . a i lt h et o p r a i l so f t h e s o l i dg r o u n dN a r b o rt o t h e c a p r a i l s .

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139


GLOSSARY A-B-C-D Clearancehole:A holeboredin a AuxiliaryfenceA woodenattachment workpieceto accommodatethe shank to a tool'srip fencethat servesto hold accessories or preventdamageto the bladeby the metalfence. Axle cap:A stamped,unthreaded cap driven onto an axlerod to hold a wheelin place. Backingboard:A board attachedto a drill passto givethe work alarger bearingsurfaceand to preventtearout. Batten:A board stretchedacrossa number of slatsor acrossthe grain of a flat surfaceto increaserigidity and minimize warping. Bevelcut A cut at an anglefrom face to facealongthe lengthor width of a workpiece.Seemiter cut. Blank A pieceof solid or glued-up wood usedto createa furniture part. Board foot A unit of wood volume measurementequivalentto a pieceof wood I inch thick and 12inchessquare. Bridle joint A tfpe of openmortiseand-tenonjoint in which the tenonis aslong asthe width of the mortise pieceand the mortiseextendsacross the entirewidth of the board. Butterflycatch: A speciallatchwith a wingedknobdesignedto securetogether two partsof a pieceof furniture. Chamfer:A bevelcut alongthe edge of a workpiece. Cheek The faceof the projecting tenon in a mortise-and-tenonjoint.

of a screw. CleafiA strip of wood fastenedto one furniture part to supportanother. Counterbore:Drilling a holethat permitsthe headof a screwor bolt to sit belowa wood surfacesoit canbe concealed by a wood plug. Countersink:Drilling a hole sothe headof a screwliesflushwith or slightly belowthe surfaceof the workpiece. Cross-dowekA metalcylinderthreaded acrossits axisto accommodate a screwor knockdownfastener;usually usedto providelong-grainstrength when screwinginto end grain. CrosscutAny cut madeperpendicular to the wood grain. Dado:A rectangularchannelcut into a workpieceperpendicularto the grain. Seegroove. Dowel center:A metalcylinderthat is insertedinto a dowelhole to pinpoint a matchinghole in a matingworkpiece. gluejoint Doweljoint An edge-to-edge alignedand reinforcedwith dowels.

E-F-G-H-r-l Edgeguide A straightedgeor long pieceof squarestockusedto guidea tool during a cut. End grain: The arrangementand directionof the wood fibersrunning acrossthe endsof a board. Eyebolt: A metal fastenerwith a threadedshaftand a ring at oneend; usedwith a lengthof chainto hang porch swings.

140

Featherboard:A pieceof wood with "feathers" thin fingersor alongoneend to hold a workpiecesecurelyagainstthe fenceor tableof a powertool. Fence:An adjustableguideto keepthe edgeof a workpiecea setdistancefrom the cutting edgeof a tool. Flushtrimmingbit A pilotedstraight routerbit usedto cut wood flushwith a template. Four square:Lumberthat hasbeen jointed,rippedandplanedsothe edges aresquareto the faces. Groove:A rectangularchannelcut into a workpieceparallelto the grain. Seedado. Half-lap:A lap joint in which the dadoesarehalf the thicknessof the stock;seelapjoint. |ig: A devicefor guidinga tool or holding workpiecein position. Kerf, A cut madein wood by the width ofa sawblade. Knockdown fitting: A fastenerthat allowsthe quick assemblyand disassemblyof a pieceof furniture. Lattics An assembly of narrowor thin wood stockjoined togetherto form a gridJike pattern. Iap joint A joint in which oneor both of the matingboardsaredadoedto increasegluingareaand allowthe surfacesof the piecesto lie flushwith one anotherwhen the joint is assembled.

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I I I 7 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 3 I I I

t I I I I

K-L-M-N-O-P-Q Kickback The tendenryof a workpieceto be thrown backtowardthe operatorof a woodworkingmachine.

Post:A verticalmemberin a frame assembly, suchasan arbor.

Miter cut A cut that anglesacrossthe faceof a workpiece;seebevelcut.

Pushblock or stick A deviceusedto feeda workpieceinto the bladeor cutter of a tbol to protectthe operator's fingers.

Nominal size: The dimensionsto which lumber is sawnbeforeit is planed;wood is sold accordingto nominalsize.

R.S Rabbet A stepJikecut in the edgeor end of a of a board;usuallyforms part of a joint.

Miter gaugeA devicethat slidesin a slot parallelto the fenceon a sawor router table,providing supportfor the stockasit movespastthe bladeor bit; canbe adjustedto differentangles for miter cuts.

RaiftA board running alongthe bottom edgeof a tabletopto which the legscanbe attached;in a chair,the horizontalmembersof the seatframe which arejoined to the legs.Also the horizontalmemberof a frame-andpanelassembly. Seestile.

Mortiss A socketcut into a pieceof wood to receivea tenon. Mortise-and-tenonjoint A joinery techniquein whicha projectingtenon cut in oneboard fits into a matching hole,or mortise,in another. Open mortise: In a through mortiseand-tenonjoint, a mortisethat extends through the mortiseworkpiece. Pattern routing: Using a templateand flush-trimming bit to makeidentical copiesof a furniture piece. Pilot bearing:A free-spinningmetal collar aboveor belowthe cutting edge of a piloted routerbit that guidesthe bit alongthe edgeof a workpieceor templateduring a cut. Pilothole: A hole drilled into a workpieceto preventsplittingwhen a screwis driven;usuallymadeslightly smallerthan the threadedsectionof the screw

ReveahA decorativefeaturewherethe faceof a rail is positionedsothe stile to which it is attachedprotrudesslightly; frequentlyusedin tableframes. Rip cut A cut followingthe grain of a workpiece-usuallymadealongthe lengthofthe stock. Rough sawn:Lumber in needof jointing andplaningto renderstraight and square. Seasoning:The processor technique of removingmoisturefrom green wood to improve its stability. Shoulder:In a mortise-and-tenon joint, the part of the tenonthat is perpendicularto the cheek. SlafiThin, narrowstripsof wood used in seatsandback of outdoor furniture.

Stile:The verticalmemberof a frameand-panelassembly. Seerarl. Stopblock A block of wood clamped to the fenceor miter gaugeof a stationary tool to enablea workpieceto be positionedproperlyfor repeatcuts. Stoppedgroove:A groovethat does not run the firll lengthof a workpiece. T.U-V-W-X.Y-Z T halfJap: A halfJapjoint that intersectsthe middleof oneboard. Thpercut An angledcut alongthe edgeof a workpiecethat reducesits width or thicknessat one end. Tearout The tendenryof a bladeor cutterto tearwood fibers. Template:A pattern,typicallymade ofplywood or hardboard,usedto guidea tool in reproducingidentical copiesof a piece. Tenon:A protrusionfrom the end of a workpiecethat fits into a mortise. Through tenon:A tenonextending completelythrough an openmortise. Tusktenon joint A type of through mortise-and-tenonjoint in which the tenonis fixednot by glue,but by a tusklike wedge. Wood movement The shrinkingor swellingof wood in reactionto changes in relativehumidity. Zincplating: A procedurein which metalis electroplated with a thin coating of zinc;usedin somefasteners.

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StaveA tapered, pieceofwood. beveled

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INDEX Pagereferencesinitalicsindicatean illustrationof subjectmatter.Page references in bold indicatea Build It Yourselfproject. A-B.C 13,18 Adhesives, Adirondackchairs,14,23,24 Assembly,28-33 using dowelsto anchorscrews driven into end grain (Shop Tip),29 Backslats,26-27 Cuttinglists,25 Cutting patterns,25 Seats,33 Allergicreactions,13 Arbors,15,118,lI9, 131 Caprails,136 Cuttinglists,131 Installation,138-1i9 Tops,136-1j8 Trellises,134-1i5 Tirsktenonjoints, 131,132-133 Benches. SeeGardenbenches; Glider bases;Keyedtenon benches; Parkbenches; Porchswings;Tieebenches Bevelangles Checkingsawbladebevelangles (ShopTip), 121 Boardfeet,17 Build It Yourself Cornerhalf-lapjoint jigs,83 Taperjigs,27 Tenoningjigs for the tablesaw,87 Chairs.SeeAdirondackchairs; Benches;Curvedchairs; Loungechairs;Porchswings Chaiselongues.SeeLoungechairs

Curvedchairs,14,23,34 Arms,42-43 Assembly,40-41 Cuttinglists,35 foinery,35,37-38 Shaping,38-39 Templates,36,38 Cutting lists Adirondack chairs,25 Arbors,131 Curvedchairs,35 Gardenbenches, 57 112 Gliderbases, Keyedtenon benches,90 Loungechairs,44 Parkbenches,65 Patiotables,80 Picnictables,90 Planters,120 Porchswings,104 71 Treebenches, Trolleys,126 Cutting patterns Adirondack chafus,25 Gardenbenches,57 Parkbenches,65

D-E-F-G 13,16 Decayresistance, Finishes,20-21 Knotsin wood,21 sealingknots with shellac (ShopTip), 33 Lattice-toptables,80 Paint,20,21 Polyurethane,20 Sparvarnish,12,20,21 Stains,20

r42

Strainingvarnishand paint (ShopTip),21 Foldingpicnictables.SeePicnic tables Gardenbenches,14,54,55,56 Backs,62-63 Cuttinglists,57 Cutting patterns,52 End units, 58-59 Leg-and-railassemblies, 52 Seats.60-61 Gilborn,Craig,l0-11 14 103,112-113, Gliderbases, 114-115 Cuttinglists,112 Gliders.115-117 Glues.SeeAdhesives Half-lapjoints,23,35,37-38 Cornerhalf-lapjoint jigs,83

H-I-I Hardware,13,18 JigS Cornerhalf-lapjoint jigs,83 Pockethole jigs, 82 Taperjigs,27 Tenoningjigs for the tablesaw,87 foinery,13,18,19 Crossdowels,104,110 Gardenbenches,57 Half-lapjoints,23,35,37-38 cornerhalf-lapjoint jigs,83 Tusktenonjoints, 100,131, 132-133 Using dowelsto anchorscrews driveninto end grain (Shop Tip),29 Joyntstools.SeeKeyedtenon benches

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K-t-M-N-O Keyedtenonbenches,14,79,90,98 Cuttinglists,90 Legboards,9S-99 Seats,l0l Stretchers, 100 Loungechairs,14,22-23,44-45 Assembly,48 Backrests, 49-51 Cuttinglists,44 Legs,5I-53 Siderails,46-47 Wheels.53 Lumber Abbreviations,front endpaper Boardfeet,17 Grades,front endpaper Sizes, 16 SeealsoWood Octagonalplanters.SeePlanters P-Q-R Paint,20,21 Strainingvarnishand paint (ShopTip),2I Parkbenches, 14,55,64,65 Backs,69 Cutting lists,65 Cutting patterns,65 End units.66 Seats,67 Patiotables,15, 79, 80-81 Cutting lists,80 Latticetops,78,79,80 frames,85-88 grids,88-89 Legsand stretchers,82-85 Pocketholes,82,84 Phillips,Thomas,8-9 Picnictables,15,79,90,91-92 Butterfly catches,T9 Cutting lists,90 Folding leg assemblies,92, 95-97 Replaceable feet(ShopTip),97 Tops,92

Planters,15,II9, 120 Assembly, 122-125 Cuttinglists,120 Staves, l2l-122 Pocketholes,82,84 Polyurethane,20 Porchswings,15,702,103,104-105 Assembly,llI Backs.106-108 Cuttinglists,104 Seats,109-110 Routers Cornerhalf-lapjoint jigs,83

S-T-U-V Safetyprecautions Thblesaws,backendpaper Sanding,23 Servingtrolleys.SeeTiolleys ShopTips,21,29,97 Finishes,2l,33 Sparvarnish,12,20,21 Strainingvarnishand paint (ShopTip),21 Stains(finishes),20 Swings.SeePorchswings Thbles.SeePatiotables;Picnic tables;Tiolleys Thblesaws Bladeguardassemblies, back endpaper Checkingsawbladebevelangles (ShopTip), .l2l Safetyprecautions,backendpaper Tenoningjigs for the tablesaw,87 Taperjigs,27 Tolpin,Jim,6-7 Treebenches,15,55,70,71 Cuttinglists,7l Dimensions,Tl Installation,ZZ Seats,75-76 Supportassemblies, 72-25

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Trolleys,15,119,126 Cuttinglists,126 Frames,127-128 Lowerslats,I28 Tops,129-130 Wheels,l30 Tlrsktenonjoints, 100,]31, 132-133

W.X-Y-Z Varnish,12,20,21 Strainingvarnishand paint (ShopTip),2l Weatherproofing, 13,20 foints,18 Wheels Loungechairs,53 Trolleys,130 Wood Allergicreactions,13 Boardfeet,17 Decayresistance, 13,16 Lumbersizes,16 Paintingknots,2l sealingknots with shellac (ShopTip), 33 Selection,l6


ACKNOWTEDGMENTS Theeditorswish to thank thefollowing CHAIRS AdjustableClamp Co.,Chicago,IL; Black& DeckeriEluPowerTools,Towson,MD; Guelph,Ont.; CMT Tools,Oldsmar,FL; DeltaInternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, RyobiAmericaCorp.,Anderson,SC;Sears,Roebuckand Co.,Chicago,IL; StanleyTools,Division of the StaileyWorks,New Britain, CT; The Woodworker'sStore,Rogers,MN; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont.; WainbeeLtd., PointeClaire,Que./DE-STA-CO,Troy, MI BENCHES AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; CMT Tools,Oldsmar,FL; Guelph,Ont.; Dynbort & Martineault,Montreal, Que.; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, MilwaukeeElectricTool Corp., Brookfield,WI; SandvikSawsand Tools Co., Scranton,PA; Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT TABLES Guelph,Ont.; AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Ont.; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Mississauga, GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; MilwaukeeElectricTool Corp., Brookfield,WI; Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; M.E. Wyant Distributing Inc., Nottawa,Ont. SWINGS&GLIDERS AdjustableClampCo.,Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln,NE; CMT Tools,Oldsmar,FL; Guelph,Ont.; Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; Tool Trend Ltd., Concord,Ont. GARDENPROIECTS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln, NE; Guelph,Ont.; Sears,Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL.; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, StanleyTools,Division of the StanleyWorks, New Britain, CT; in thepreparationof this book: Thefollowingpersonsalsoassisted Normand Boudreault,Ingrid Chartrand,LorraineDor6, IsabelGales

PICTURE CREDITS Cover RobertChartier 6,7 RaymondGendreau 8,9 Ed Homonylo/Mammoth l0,ll Ed Homonylo/Mammoth

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WORKSHO GPU I D E BASICW()ODW()RKING CUTS

youmakeyourf irst A n yj o r n tc a n b e m a d ew i t ho n eo r m o r e Butbefore o f t h e b a s i cc u t ss h o w nb e l o wA . t e n o n , cut,remember to for examole.is formedwith two or more measure twice. r a b b ect u t s .A l a pl o i n ti s m a d ef r o m two dadoesor widerabbets.Thesecret in creatina g n yl o i n ti s m a k i n gt h e s e s i m p l ec u t sp r e c i s eal yn di n

ANATOMY OFA BOARD

thp nnrrpnt qpnrpnao

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Compoundaut

Miter cut Croescut

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notch

Stopped rabbet

Hole 9topped hole

Kabbet

USEFUT TUMBER ABBREVIATIONS AD

A i rd r i e d

TINFT

L i n e a ro, r l i n e a lf,o o t

BD

Board

MC

M o i s t u rceo n t e n t

BDFT

Boardfoot

0c

0n center

CLR

Clear

OG

Ogee

C()M

Common

P

Planed

C UF T

C u b i cf e e t

PAD

P a r t i a l layi rd r i e d

DIM

Dimension

PC

Piece

E

Edge

RDM

Random

FAS

Firstsand seconds

REG

Regu lar

FT

Foot

RGH

Rough

FTSM

Surfacemeasure(in feet)

RIP

Rip p e d

GR

Green

RL

R a n d o ml e n g t h s

HDWD

Hardwood

RND

R o un d

HRTWD

Heartwood

SAP

Sapwood

lN

Inches

SD

Seasoned

JTD

Jointed

SE

Squareedge

KD

K i l nd r i e d

SEt

Select

LBR

Lumber

SF

Surfacefoot (1 squarefoot)

LGTH

Length

SM

Surfacemeasure

LIN

L i n e a or r l i n e a l

s0

Square

STD Standard STK Stock SYMBOTS' Footor feet '

l n c ho r i n c h e s x b y ( a st n 2 x 4 ) alq,6lq,Blq(andso on): R o u g ht h i c k n e sisn f r a c t i o nosf a n i n c h

s&E slE s2E sls s2s s4s sls1E sls2E

S i d ea n de d g e

T&G VJ WDR WT WTH

Tnnorreand qrnnrrp

Sr rrfaeod nno odoo

Surfacedtwo edges S u r f a c eodn es i d e Surfacedtwo sides Surfacedfour sides S u r f a c eodn es i d e ,o n ee d g e Surfaced oneside,two edges

Vj o i n t Wider Weight width


The art of woodworking outdoor furniture  
The art of woodworking outdoor furniture  
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