Page 1

Shaker, Mi ion & Country Projects


American Style Shaker, Mission & Country Projects

Neptune


CONVERSION CHART WEIGHT EQUIVALENTS

TEMPERATURE EQUIVALENTS

(ounces and pounds / grams and kilograms)

(fahrenheit I celsius)

us

us

METRIC

METRIC

% OZ

7g

% OZ

14 9

0" F 32' F

%oz 1 oz

21 9

98.6" F (normal body temp.)

8

Ib)

oz (% Ib) 16 oz (1 Ibl 35 oz (2 2 Ib) 12

(water freezes)

180 F (water simmers)*

340 9 454 9

*at sea level

1 kg CONVERSION FORMULA

CONVERSION FORMULA ounces x 28.35 = grams 1000 grams'" 1 kilogram

degrees fahrenheit minus 32, divided by 1.8 = degrees celsius

LINEAR EQUIVALENTS

VOLUME EQUIVALENTS

(inches and feet / centimetres and metres)

(fluid ounces / millilitres and litres)

METRIC

us

% in

0.64 em

1 tbsp

(%

112 in

1/2 cup

(4 fl OZ)

6 in

1.27 em 254 em 15.24 em

12 in (1 foot)

30.48 em

1 quart + 3 tbsps

1 in

2

1.00 m

in

1 yd

0.84 m

15 ml

fl OZ)

120 ml

1 cup (8 fl oz)

240 ml

1 quart (32 fl oz)

960 ml

16.39 em)

1 in 1 ft' 1 yd J

2

CONVERSION FORMULA inches x 2.54 = centimetres 100 centimetres = 1 metre

1L 3.8 L

3

91.44 em

1 yd'

METRIC

1 gal (128 II ozl

929.03 em'

1 39 /2

100" C

0

227 9

212 F (water boils)*

us

1 tt

37° C

src

0

28 9

OZ (1/2

-lS- C 0- C

(freezer temperature)

0.0283 m 3

0.765 m 3 CONVERSION FORMULA fluid ounces x 30 = millilitres 1000 millilitres = 1 litre

DISCLAIMER Readers should note that this book was initially intended for publication in the United States of America, and the ex;stence of different laws, conditions and tools means that . ,,-~e reader's' responsibility to ensure that they comply :. :.. ._ all safety requirements and recommended best practices in the European Economic Area. The improper use of hand tools and power tools can result in serious injury or death. Do not operate any tool until you -::, ~ carefully read its instruction manual and understand ~ - . ~,:) ooerate the tool safely. Always use all appropriate . - - ... :::ment as well as the guards that were supplied .. :.' ~:::s a~d equipment. In some of the illustrations in

this book, guards and safety equipment have been removed only to provide a better view of the operation. Do not attempt any procedure without using all appropriate safety equipment or without ensuring that all guards are in place. Neither August Home Publishing Company nor Time-Life Books assume any responsibility for any injury, loss or damage arising from use of the materials, plans, instructions or illustrations contained in this book, However, nothing here is intended to exclude or limit liability for death or personal injury if, and to the extent that, such exclusion or limitation would be contrary to public policy or otherwise be unenforceable.


,

CUSTOM WOODWORKING

American Style Shaker, Mission & Country Projects


American Style Shaker, Mission & Country Projects

6

SHAKER PROJECTS Shaker Step Stool .. UJÂŁS of Shaker wuches urI.' found in this small project. There are two

versions, one mcu1e with hand-cut dotietails, the other with butt jojnt~.

Shaker Hall Table.

.

14

Simji/e lines hide the clwllen{{es that make tr.is whle Tewardillg to build. Alul the whole project can he wme with a whle saw and a router.

Rocking Chair

_._,._._

26

Its Shakr herirage has been updated with some modem techniques. And there's an old skiU that ma)' Ix! new 10 )'01t: weaving- a scat. Shakcr~Style

Footstool

- -

- -..-..-

It doesn't rake long- to buiW Ihis foo!-ltool w nuuch the. rocking chair. The two In-ojem share many of the same technujl-les.

Shaker Step Stool

MISSION PROJECTS Hall Clothes Tree A special intcrlocking design brin~ this hall tree tog-ether with a distinctive [wk. It also makes it srrong and srable, without a massjtJe "trunk."

46


Oak Sofa Table

.54

Ewrythingyou'd upecr in a Mission-slyle sofa table isf~ in this projecl, including ~tm oak, square spindles, and mortist: and feIlOI1 joiner)',

62

Glass-Top Coffee Table Made of quarrersaum ook, this rradirionaI coffee roble is enhanced with a beveled glass top. There's also an option far a solid wood wi>.

7Z

Mission Bookcase

Buill u:irh madunery and handwork, rhis cherry bookcase fearures Mrmlgh mortise and lCJ\OIl joinery. II am be buill ll'ith or U;UWII[ the glass dooTs. Oak Sofa Table

COUNTRY PROJECTS

88

Coat and Glove Rack

90

Hang coats and mittens or culls and li1ll:.:m rm this Tack featuring slOrage behind it~ door. An optional finish turns it into an "iruUlnl antique."

High-Back Bench

96

This bench can be built with or without storage unacr IN! seal, with your choice of de.lignl ill the back and finished with stain or milk jJuint.

Jelly Cupboard

.

.

106

Back when jelly was wide at home, a simj)!e cujJboard like mis .. tored the finished product. This \Il..'l'sion offr:rs sewral options w "chess it ÂŤp."

Dovetail Chest

..

.

114 High-Back Bench

l'and-cut doveUliIs jJrovilJe stmwh and beaW)" For a different look, try the frwTJe, and panel tlCT:'iicm. Bom offer loIS of Stln'age and a pulI~OUI nay.

Sources

l26

Index

127


T

he Shakers developed" uniquely American style of furniture.

By removing unnecessary ornamentation,

the Shakers kept their designs simple and h.Ulctional, yet always in \X'rfect proportion. The {me Srulker look is

detlll

<lnd elegant, with every fcarure serving a purpose and

with nothing wastl-'t.I.

The first [WO projects arc perfect examples of the Shaker ide,l] offunction without decoration. The step stool's hand; cut dovetails lend strength where it's needed, yet display workmanlike detail. The hall tahle achieves its lightness and grace by its legs cut with simple ta{X:rs.

On dIe matching rocking chair and footstool, you'll find an interesting way to make your own dowels. Then, when

the woo:lworking is done, you can try your hand at another Shaker craft, wcaving SC'JCS with nadirional webbing.

8

Shaker Step Stool Shop Tip: Filling Gaps.....................••.... 9 Designer's Notebook: Country Step Stool 12

14

Shaker Hall Table Shop Tip: Tight·Fit Shoulders Joinery: Locked Rahhet Joint Designer's Notebook: Lamp Table .....•........... Shop Jig: Leg Tapering Jig " Technique: Tapering on the Jointer

17 20 21 22 24

Rocking Chair

26

Shop Tip: Shaping Leg Bottoms.............••.... 30 Technique: Routing Tenons on Dowels .....•••..... 31 Technique: Notching Round Stock ........•••..... 35 Technique: Making Your Own Dowels ............• 37 Technique: Wea ;ng a Shaker Seat 38 Designer's Notebook: Alternate Weaving Patterns 42

Shaker-Style Footstool

43


Shaker Step Stool Made from cherry with hand-cut dovetails, this step stool has lots of Shaker touches in a smaff project. Or you can try your hand at our optional country version made ofpine and using buttjoints.

haker furniture is famous for its

S

basic, uncluttered style, as well as

its unquestion<:d utility. The step stool shown here is a classic example of Shaker design at its bt$t. It '5 simple furniture that works. DOVETAILS. The only decoration (ifil can be called that) if; the beauty of the wood and the dovetail joiots. And when you look closely, you'll sec there arc two types of dovetails. First, the treads of the steps arc joined to the Ic!.'S with traditional through-dovetails. Then, you'll sec the braces al the front of each step (and also across the back) arc secured to the leg-s with a variation 8

SHAKER PROJECTS

of this joint. Here, a half-dovetail joint adds a nice louch of craftsmanship. (II you've never cut dovetails by hand or need to brush up your technique, stepby-step instructions begin on page 120.) ALTERNATE STYLE AND JOINT. With a few minor changes, the step stool can be buill as a country-style stool. This version is put together primarily with butt joints and screws. Instructions for building this option are given in the Designer's Notebook on page 12. MATERIALS. The slep sLool in the photo was made from cherry. I chose cherry lor this project mostly because it's tight-grainer! so it's an excellent

wood to work with hand tools. Also, the Shakers would likely have used cherry for this project. But just about any 3N_ thick hardwood would be suitable. FINISH. 'Ioe stool shown above was finished with Danish oil, which is a mixtun: of tung oil or linseed oil and varnish. This provides a finish that's durable. but easy to touch up as the step stool gets scuffed from usc. There is also an unexpected benefit to choosing this finish. It provided a way to fill some of the slight imperfections you may have in the fit of the dovetails. To learn more about this, see the Shop Tip on the next page.


EXPLODED VIEW

MATERIALS LIST

OVERAll DIMENSIONS: 15Wx 14Dx21H

WOOD A Short Leg (2) B long Leg (2) C Step (2) o Braces (3)

%x7-10'h %x7-21 3f4 x7-1S %x2-1S

STEP©--)

~-@BRACF

LONG

LEG

~

CUTTING DIAGRAM SHORT

LeG

®

-~

. . . .. . . . . . . . .............. Filling Gaps Very few woodworkers can cut perfect dovetails every time. There are bound to be small voids no matter how hard you try. The trick is to

fill these voids so they blend into the rest of the joint. One solution is to apply a liberal amount of a Danish oil. Then while it's still wet, sand with 220 grit silicon carbide sandpaper.

While you sand, you'll

create a slurry of sawdust and oil. As it accumulates, work this slurry into the gaps in the joint. Keep sanding until there's enough to fill the voids between the pins and tails. The mixture will dry very hard, and it matches the end grain of the pins and tails almost perfectly.

SHAKER STEP STOOL

9


AYOU

_

It's casie~t to start this project by thinking of the legs as four separate pieces. '111ere are two short lcg~ (A) for the front and tviO long legs (13) for the hack (Fi!). 1). Later, a short and long leg arc joined together to form each ';stairstep" leg (Fig..J). SO I started by laying out the cuts to make the [OUf legs and two steps (C). GLUE UP. first, I cut two pieces for each leg. oneS" wide and onc 2 112" wiele. These are edge-glued together (F'i,g.l). (These pieces can be different widths as long as the glued up blank is a bit wider than 7".) Nler the glue was dry, I planed the blanks flat. Make sure thcoy"re an even thickness, especially at the ends (where the dovetails will be cul). After each blank was planed, I cul off one end square with the edges (leaving the other end rough, and a little long- for now). Then 1 ripped them all down to the final width of7".

DO The next step is to layout Ihe curs fOf the dovetails in the legs and :<leps. Since the tails can be made fairly wide, they're strong enough to support a person's weight. So the joints should be laid out with the tails on the steps and the pin~ 011 the legs. Once fd decided on the placement of the pins and tails, I figured their size (Fig. 2). The tails afe five times wider than the pins to provide the strength needed on the steps. However, there is one more thing Lo allow for whenlayin,lo{ out the joint. Even though the width of each board is 7'1, the dovetails are laid out across a width of only 6W'. The extra %" on the front edge of each board allows for the thickness of the brace (added later). PINS. The pins arc laid out so the narrowest part is on the outside (face side) of each leR (lop View in Fig. B). 'nlcn a bevel gauge is set to a 1:5 angle to mark the angles on the end of cach board (lop View in Fig. B). After marking the cut lines, cut the pins as with any other dovetail joint except the hal( pin on the front edge of each piece is left extra wide to allow for the notch for the brace (li'i.q. 3). GLUE UP LEGS. Before marking the cut lines for the tails, I glued a short leg 10

SHAKER PROJECTS

to each long leg to ronn the stair-step legs (Fiy..f). Although this makes laying out the tails a bit awkward (Fig. 4), there is a reason. rr you glue the legs t.ogether first, yOll can plane this assembly, evening out any variation at the gluejoint line. Since you'll have to plane the whole surface, the thickness oflhe pins will change. 'Vhen the pins are al their finallhickncss, then they can be used to layout the tails. When marking- the tails, make sure the steps are lined up with the mwk edge of the leg. FINAL fiTTING. Onee the pins and tails are cut, go ahead and tap the joints together. Thejoints should be tight, and the assembled stool should be square. Once everything fits, the boltom of the legs can be cut of( square. Finally, to keep the stool from rocking on an uneven floor, a 4"- radius half-circle is cuton the bottom of each leg.

lEI

I",

TRIM SIZE; LONG LEG 7" x 21" ~5 SHORT lEG 7" x lOW

STEF

r\

1"

x 15"

I

-- FRONT EDGE .. /

,,"

f--s : _l2~ ,I

I ii

LEG

i 1,

®

I

lew. 1, SHORT LEG

®

-

Ii" ~

LONG

FRONT EDGE--/ ~----_._-

-15%

5,

STEP©

,

TOP VIEW

1=, 'i

FACE5IDF~~ .--'

"

~

1% ------" v. r-1Y.o

I

II

X

'& Wir--v.r ,

II

lY. -------l v.

lY.

~

----l v.. r-

II

I

SIDE VIEW

'---- AlJ..OoN SPAG: FOR NOTCH

'1

i

I

TO BE ctTT LATER

lEG®®

DOVETAil LAYOUT

n

n

,n CLAMP STEP TO BENCH

\

MARK DOWN 10~"-_ FROM TOP OF LONG LEG ~

SHO~r~T~~K

. , >-, ~-;;-., 1

/

BENCH

GLUE lEGS TOGETHER

__ I '==

TRIM BOTTOM LATER

I

I

\

LAY OUT TAILS ON STEP USING PINS AS TEMPLATE


II Before gluing the legs and steps together, the braces (D) must be cut. There arc three braces: one on the back to prevent racking and two at the front

HAlf TAlLS 2 ON BOTH ENDS SHCXJLDER·TO-SHOULDER MEASUREMENT EQUALS DISTANCE _._--~ .. BElWEEN LEGS

BRACE@

to reinforce the steps. HALF·TAIL. All three braces are joined to the legs with half-dovetail joints. This amounts to a large half-pin notch in the front. edge of each leg, and a matching

half-tail on each end of the braces. [ found it easiest to cut the half-tail first, then usc it to layout the notches. To cut the half-tail, mark a 1:5 angle

on only one end of each brace. This line starts

114" up from the bottom edge

Wig. lOa). Theil mark a shoulder line equal to the thickness of the leg. Cul down the shoulder line with a dovetail

~

BRACE

"--Jr--MARKOF THICKNESS BRACE

@

,

.' ~""J6,,",-"""--SQUARE ACROSS

MARK ANGLE~_ ON FRONT EDGE).. OF LEG

LEG FRONT EDGE OF LEG

®

," ,,

POSJTlON BACK BRACE LEVEL WITH FRONT BRACE

'

MARKOUT : NOTCH- __....L ...

l

BAO< BRACE

"

MARK ANGLE Of ) HAl.F-TAIL AND-SQUARf ACROSS

saw and remove the waste with a chisel.

Before marking the shoulder line on the ot/ler end of each brace, first dryassemble the legs with the steps. Then make sure the shoulder-tn-shoulder measurement on the brace is equal to the dist:mce between the legs (Fig. :j). Now you can mark the angle and cut out the V-notch. HALF-PINS. Once the half-tails are cut, hold the ends of the brace against the front le&rs to mark the cut lines for the half-pin notches (Pig. 6). 1 used a dovetail saw to saw down bOlh cut lines. The half-pin notch on the back is cut a bit differently. After marking the cut lines (so they're even with the front brace), I made the two shoulder Cllts to tlle depth ofthe notch (Fig. 8). Then I removed most of the waste with a coping saw, and cleaned up the cut with a chisel. After the notches are cut, trim the front edges of the steps to final width (Fig. 9).

G

[

After dry-assembling the stool to check the fit and for square, I glued everything together. I positioned the clamps on top of the tails to pull the joints tight. A piece of scrap under the le.'{s provided a clamping surface across the halfcircle cul-oul. Althou.'{h it was nice to use hand tools for most of this project, I cheated a bit and used a belt sander LO bring the pillS J1ush with the surface of the steps. FINISH. Finally, I finished the step stool with a Danish oil. •

ClIT SHOULDER -FIRST

,If""'~bl;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;-1

PARE 00\rVN \-\11TH CHISEL- -ToI

MARK POsmON OF NOTCH ON STEP

~.

-\ CLEAN OUT WASTE VI'ITH COPING SAW

LONG LEG

®

a. 1:5 ANGLE

I

f-----1~~ THICKNESS.

j

OF LEG -.----..-/

~

~~7~~r--7+----I 6'4 ,~+21 1'7'11

'"

-i

l~==!,_RADlU5~ Jl t=:= 3=:1 --1~==

SHAKER STEP STOOL

11


This country version ofthe step stool uses screws and buttjoints instead ofdovetails. For a real country look, try making it from pine and finishing it with milk paint. 'c..:..::~,---

CO ST

_

Start by gluing up four panels a little long for the two short legs (A) and two long legs (R) (see drawing below). When the glue is dry, cut the panels to finished length. (Ille legs arc not glued

\\\

·-->U

?-:f:::=--=-~1--r~

II \

together to form the stairsteps until after some cuts are made in each piece.)

I'yl bl

0) I

• Next, cut 2W'-wide notches in each panel for the braces. One way to cut these is with a dado blade on the table saw. A tall auxiliary fence fastened to your miter gauge will help keep the pieces steady during the cuI. • To lay oul a :W'-wide notch for the bottom step in the long leg (ll), set a short leg (A) next to a long leg with their bottom ends flush. The top of the short leg indicates the bottom of the step notch. Cut the notch lN' deep. • Now layout the location of the heart cutout in each of the long legs.

Y

1

~ ,

k:::::=='::-~

."

c~~_ I

I '

\

l-

.

Irk 11

,~-',

,;;;:::;--

~_J4...._

~

~"1

..r

_ __-'-- -~I, r"-------:::::--' I '~f"'-L" 'r:. t/

\

,_J

'-

Y

\

j

COUNTRY STEP STOOL

1

~.'J£

1 %

~-I

f

DRIU TWO .-' 1Y." HOLES

CHANGED PARTS A Short Lpgs (2) % x 7·9% B Long Legs (2) "3f4 x 7· 201{4 C Steps(2) %x8-16 o B'aces(3) %x2lf4 -15

f

CO"G CEG

®

r l' HOLE

t

!

AUGNMENT KEY

3Y<

.1Y--'Y_,--"--_..J..-1-1:--..J--.J. 3 -+' ..! 1\~ ~- 3 ---.-

1:I..

12

SHAKER PROJECTS

14

so

HARDWARE SUPPLIES (12) NO.8 x t· Fh screws (8) No.8 x 1111" Fh scre'NS (1) %" dowel. 12" long

,....--- r-,..u ,

r---"

7l\

I

MATERIALS LIST

)00'

CUT NOTCHES BEFORE ASSEMBLING HALVES


..

(A diamond shape can be cut instead 15 of the heart by usin~ the pattcrn on page 99. Just rcducc thc scale of the pat@ tern to one square cquals one-half inch 2% and use a radius of2 1/16 " .) L"@"-~-To cut the heart, simply drill a 1WIdia. hole on either side of the panel's @ centerline. Then use a jig saw to cut BRACE (MAKE THREE PIECES) %" COUNTERBORE. DEEP along a line connecting the outside of IJv1TH ¥i&" SHANK HOLE each circle to the centerline. Use sandpaper to ease the edges of the cui-out With the framework assembled, the and smooth any rou~h spots. Finally, .'rlue the short and long legs panels for the steps (C) can be glued up together (Fig. 1). An alignment key and cut 1.0 size (Fig. 4). A hand-hold in the top step makes the made from scrap will help kecp the short leg flush with the step notch. step stool easier to carry. Luy oul the "When the leg assemblies are dry, lay hand-hold as shown in Pig. 4. To cut it out the slool's feet. To do this, first out, first drill a 1'l.dia. hole at each end locatc and drill the I"-dia. holes at thc and then cut out the waste between top. 111en cut out the remaining wastc them with ajig saw (Fig. /5), uSlllg ajig- saw. To ease the edges of the stells and the • Next, cut three braces (D) 21f4!' wide hand-hold. use a :ljs" roundover bit to rout a bullnose profile. To do this, set and 15!11 0ng from 3f41!'stock (Fig. 2). Fill the counterbores Oil the steps • To layout the arc on each of the the bit ~/16" below the router base and with dowel plugs, thcn cut and sano braces (Fig. f), refer to the Shop Tip on make a pass on each face (Fig, 4a). page 65. Next. cut notches in the bottom step them flush. Finally, ease any sharp edges with Note: Thc shoulder of the arc is that match up with the notches in the slightly wider than the leg (13/16"). Later, back legs (Fig. 6). To do this, center the sandpaper, then apply a finish. For a this shoulder is sanded down, helping bottom step on the frame and mark the finish lhat stands up to lots of use, try positions of the notches. Then cut the polyurethane. For a more traditional the brace blend into the leg. 'Ihrough the end of each brace, drill notches WI deep using a dado blade. country look, see the Finishing box 3/16'I-dia. shank holes with Ys'l-dia. counNow you can fasten the steps to the about milk paint beginning on page 104, legs. Simply cenler a step on the frame, terbores Ys" deep (Fig. 2). .'1'0 assemble the framework, first posi- (There should be a 112'1 overhang on all tion the braces against the legs and drill sides.) Then drill counterbores, shank pilol holes into the legs. '!lIen glue and holes and pilot holes as you did for the screw the braces to the legs (/o'ig. 3). braces. Finally, glue the steps to the Next, fill each counterbore by gluing braces and screw them La rhe legs using in a length of %"-dia. dowel. No.8 x llfz" Fh woodscrews (Fig. 7).

t -J%k-

TOP STEP© BACK EDGE ._-..........,

A :

~ •

BOTTOM STEP ©

'~ J -AI 1%"

;~-'-l t

6

NOTCH W1DTl1 TO FIT LEG

. n~ .

(

,

DRIU 1"..[)IA STARTER HOLES

*"

~

NOTCH \Io0DEEP

1 r+- Y, rc: ao

-~I

_"..;1(0

. cr

%" COUNTERBORE. %" DEEP WlTHVi6" SKANK HOlE

0

2

"

~

A.

,,

8

~-

•k

I y

"•I

~o

ROUNOOVER BIT. PAST ROUTt:R BASE

EXTENDED~"

"

I

EDGE D£1'All

TRIM

1" HOLE......,

(STEP

,

CEG

c

:: CENTER BOTIOM STEP MARK NOTCH LOCATION

GLUE STEPS TO BRACES

v." DOWEt

FLUSH

\

ATIACH STEPS WITH Iffi x 1\?" Fh WOODSCRE"vVS

SHAKER STIP STOOL

13


Shaker Hall Table The simple lines of this table hide the woodworking techniques that make it so rewarding to build. Even though there's a variety ofjoinery, it can al/ be cut on the table saw and router table.

T

his hall table is probably the most

router table (for the mortises) and a

book. The tapered legs, a hall-

table saw (for the tenons). DRAWERS. For the drawers, I used two variations of a locked rabbel joint As its name implies, it locks the sides of the drawer to the drawer fronl and back. This makes it quite strong so the drawers can lake years of use. Thisjoint is abo cutentircly on the table saw. FINISH. I builtlhis wble out of cherry. One of the keys 10 success when finishing cherry is patience. It takes time for the wood to reach lhe rich red color that cherry is known for. When it comes from the lumber¡

mark of Shaker design, lead up to the

straight., uncluttered lines of the table.

TIle legs have a square taper thai'f. cut on a table saw. It's a simple technique that's made even easier with ajig we show you how to build beginning on page 22. 111ere's also a way to l1l.per the

legs on the jointer. Instructions for doing this begin on page 24. JOINERY. The legs arc joined to the front and side aprons with traditional

mortise and tenon joints. If you haven't tried this type of joinery, it's not as diffi14

ell 11 as it sounds. It can all be done on a yard, cherry is usually a light pink or

traditional Shaker project in this

SHAKER PROJECTS

salmon color. There's no need to stain it lo gel the dark color. As soon as the finish is applied, the wood will darken somewhat. With time (about six months) and continued exposure io sunlight, it will turn a rich, dark red. It's well worth the wait. LAMP TABLE. In the Desig-ner's Notebook on page 21. we show how you can make a lamp table companion piece (or two) by simply shortening the length of the table. And since the construction is so similar, it's easy to cut the parts for the lamp table while you're set up to cut pieces for the hall table.


EXPLODED VIEW OVERALL DIMENSIONS:

42W X 14'120

lY,"SQUARE

x 29H

lOP QI= LEGS

'lr

--i

11?

I--

-,

I sv.

SLOT

MOR11SE

6

11

BACK APRON

@

-TAPER STMnNG UNE

@

rIY

@

FRONT CENTERS

FRONT OWL

Ffr?bVCD- -

CD/ ORA\rVER

DriR

~

RUNNER

A/

DRAWER

BonOM

®

0',

TAPER \10"

® DRAWER

FROM

EACH SIDE

FRONT

CD

DRAWER SIDE

, MATlRlALS UST TABLE

A Legs (4)

Phx Jlh-28V,,-

8 Back Apron (1l C Side Aprons (2)

"%)(5 111-37 ~1 x <;'IL - 10"/;,

[) Front Rails (2) E Front~nds(2) F FrontCenter(l}

-'I" x 1 - 37 Jhx3 1h_2 3k 3hx3112-3\h

G Drawer Guides{21 %x 111:;-10% H Top Mounts (3) % x l 1h - 10% I Drawer Runners (4) 3/. x 1112 - 1Qlf. J Top (1) -'I. x 14112-42 DRAWERS K

rronts (2)

-Y/,X43{'6-14 11h6

L

Sides (4)

M 8acks (2)

V) X 37/16 - lQ31. %x 2"'h6 - 13 7/16

N Bottoms (2)

%pIy-1O'iI8x137/,o

CUTTING DIAGRAM WI

I

x 3% - 60 (3.2 Bd. Ft.) A

1'---_ _ , _~ ~'_ '----,_~ ~

x 61?· 84 (3,9 Bd. Ft.)

~LJ_ I~LdL-v.,x6-96 (4Bd.Ft.)

(6) No 8 x 1%. Rh woodscrews (4) 5fs" brads (4) , '-dia.cherryknobsw/saews

:21

l,i x 94 60 (2.5 Bd. Ft.)

HARDWARE SUPPLIES (2) No, 6 x ~f4· Rh wood,crews (6) 3116" (lal washers (18) 31." brads

A

,H :::r:=:E_H_= __~I

~

v=

'_=1

'!.! x 3-'A - 84 (2.~'~Sq~.~'~<.1'-,_-,-_ _-,-_-,-_-,-_ _--,-__

ILIL

LIL1MIM~

NOTE: ALSO NEED ONE SHEET OF"'· x 24" x48" PLYWOOD FOR DRAWER BOTTOMS.

SHAKER HALL TABLE

lS


LEGS

a.

This project starts by making the tapered legs and cutting the mortises in each oftbem. Begin by cutting four leg blanks (A) to IIf2" square by 281/~"long (refer to the

,) , hcmrrmJ) .

..

Exploded View on page 15).

l.'

MORTISES. Arter cutting the legs to size, mark two adjacent sides where the mortises will be cut (It's best to cul the mortises before tapering the legs.) TIle

NOTE:

MEASURE TO

RIGHT SIDE Of BIT

mortises arc easy to cut on a router table with a W' straight bit.

To set up the router table for the mortises, start by raising the bit (1/16'1 high (Fi,q. la). Then move the fence

a.

8OTTOMVIEW

until the bit is centered on the thickness of the leg.

The length of the morLisc is set by clamping a stop block to the fence 5JN' from the right side of the bit (Fig. O. ~ow you can cut the mortises on two adjacent sides. TAPERS. After the mortises are routed, the next step is to t'\per all four sides of each leg. To cut the tapers, I used a sliding platform jig 011 the table saw (Fig. 2). (Instructions for building and using this jig begin on page 22. An alternate method of tapering the legs, using the jointer, is shown 011 page 24.) Whatever method you usc, the point is to cut a tapcr on each side of the leg that starts 6" from the top end and tapers down so the bottom end is III squarc. This means cutting WI off each side (Fig. 2a).

"

APRONS

a. â&#x20AC;˘

EQUALS ~'9THICl<NESS OF CROSS

SAW FENCE

MEMBER

JOINT UN'

DADO BlAD'

16

SHAKER PROJECTS

Alter the tapers are cut, the next step is to cut the fronl apron assembly. This consists of five pieces glued together to form two drawer openings Wig . .'f). fRONT APRON. To make the front apron, start by ripping the top and bottom rails (D) 11' wide by 37" long. To make the three dividers for this front assembly, rip a blank 3W I wide. Then cut off two end dividers (E) 2%" long, and a front center (F) 31(211 long. (lois ensures that the grain runs the same direction as the rails.) ASSEMBLE fRONT APRON. After cutting all five pieces for the front apron, glue and clamp the dividcrs betwcen the top and bottom rails (Fig. ,'J). Makc sure the center divider (F) is centered on the length, and the end dividers (E) are nush with the ends.


BACK AND SIDE APRONS. Next, cut the back apron (B) and side aprons (C). Start by ripping- the stock for these pieces to a width of 5IN1• -men cut the three pieces 10 finished lengths of 10lJ/ for the sides, and :17 11 for the back. (!be back apron should be exactly as wide and as long as the fronl assembly.) GROOVES. To support and bruide the drawers, cross members (G, H, I) fit into Ill-wide grooves cut along the inside faces of the fronL and back aprons (refer to Fig. 11 on page 18). The positions of these grooves are critical. They have to be cut so that when the drawer runners (I) are mounted, they're flush with the top edge of the front apron's bottom rail (refer to Fig. lIe on page 18). To set up the saw for this position, adjust the fence so the distance from the inside edge of the rail (the join! line shown in Pig. 4a) to the inside edge of

the dado blade equals the thickness of the stock for the drawer runner. (Inis means you need to mea~urc from the joint line, not the rip fence.) -lne11 cut the grooves in the frOllt and back aprons (Fig. 4). TENONS. Now lenons can be cut on the ends of the aprons to lit the mortises in the legs. J cut them on the table SilW

(Fig.:i).

The Ill-long tenon is formed by cutting lf2!'-wide rabbets on bOLh faces of the apron (Fig. ;'ja). Note: 111e tenon is 1/16" less than the depth of the mortise to allow a little glue relief at the bottom of the mortise. To cut the tenons, I used a %"-wide dado blade and moved a wooden auxiliary fence over the blade so only IN' was exposed (Fig. 5). Sneak up on the final height of the blade by raising itand making a pass on both faces of a scrap piece until the

tenon fits the mortise, Once set, cut rabbets on both ends of all four aprons to produce tenons centered on the thickness of the stock. Note: To get a tight fit against the leg, I used a chisel to slightly undercut the shoulders of each tenon, (See the Shop Tip at the bottom of this page for more on this.) NOTCH TENONS. SO that the top of each apron will sit flush with the top of each leg, the bottom end of each tenon has to be notched (pig. 7). Since the mortises are rounded on the bottom, I cut the tenon a t.rine shorter so I didn't have to square up the bottom of the mortise, This means cuuing a %'1 notch on the bottom of each tenon (Fig. 6). END PIECES. To make assembly easier later, I glued a pair of legs to each side apron to produce two complete end units. But don't glue on the front or back aprons yet.

SIDE APRON NOTCH rBOITOM OF EACH TENON

a.

TENON NOTCH

L %

T T sv.

~

r-

"-- PLYVIIOOD AUX. FENCE

Sl\

©

GLUE SIDES TO

"GS ~-

TEST FIT TENONS AFTER CUTTING NOTCH ~ ~

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tiqht-At Shoulders There's an easy way to make mortise and tenon joints fit together without gaps at the shoulders. "Undercutting" simply means paring away the end grain 1/64 ' deep along the tenon's shoulders.

The trick is to undercut the area next to the tenon cheek, leaving at least If,6' untouched along the outside edge of the shoulder. If you cut all the way to the edge, you'll have a gap and a loose joint.

UGHTlY CHISEL DOWN ALONG TENON INTO SHOULDER

L£AVE"" BORDER

(

rY~J--r

Start by lightly pushing a chisel straight into the corner (Fig. I). Do this all the way around the tenon. Then to remove the waste, angle the chisel in toward the cheek of the tenon (Fig. 2).

Also, to prevent the square ends of the tenon from pushing all the glue to the boltom of the mortise, lightly chamfer the ends (Fig. 3). This chamfer can be cut with i;I chisel or block plane.

LIGHTlY CHAMFER TENON EDGES

,YI",>-·...... _.

.J

SHAKER HALL TABLE

17


CROSS MEMBERS TOP,&A MB Next, nine cross members arc cut to fit between the front and back aprons. Two of these pieces mount above the

a.

;

1~ RABBET ..J.!l.OTH ENDS

drawers for drawer guides (G), three

'W ~ lOW CROSS

MEMBER

are top mounts (H) used to fasten down

©®CD

the table top, and four sit below the

drawers as runners (l) (Fif!. 10). CUT TO SIZE. First rip enough stock

] IN' wide to make the nine pieces. To determine their length, dry assemble the table. (It may be easiest to do this with the table upside down.) Measure the distance between the front and back aprons to get the shoulder-ta-shoulder length of the cross members. Now add

1m

CROSS MEMBER LOCAnON DRAWER GUIDE-,

.

ljz,r to this measurement LO account for a

tenon on each end. After cutting the pieces to length, form the tenons bycuttinga WI-wide by 1/4'I-deep rabbet at each end (}'iy. 8). DRAWER GUIDES, The two drawer guides «;) each have a W'-widc groove cut down the center (Fig. Va). This groove guirles a pin that's mounted on the back of the drawer. The pin helps keep the drawer slraight as it's pulled out of the carcase. TOP MOUNT PIECES, To allow the table top to expand and contract I drilled oversir.ed shank holes (%"-dia.) on thetbree top mounts (II) (Pi{J.llb). These holes are centered on the width and drilled 1W' from each end on all three pieces. TABL£ TOP. r\ow glue up a blank (or the table lOP (J). 'Then cut Ihis blank to final 5ize so it will overhang each of thc side aprons by 171R" and the front and back aprons by {l/ll'l. ASSEMBLY. After the parts are cut, dry-assemble the table and check it for square. rr everything is okay, glue and clamp the front and back aprons to the leg units. Make sure the cross members arc in position but not glued in. There's one important thing to watch as you position the cross members. The rabbets face down on the drawer guides (rig, 11a), but upon the top mount (Fig. 11b), and drawer runners (Fig. l1c). Usc 3/1'1 brads to tack only the top mounts (H) in place. The other cross members will be secured after the drawers are added. Now center the table top on the aproJlsand screw (don'tglue) it down to the top mounts (Pig. llb). USC ;'I'G'I washers under the screw heads.

1/4 "-long

18

SHAKER PROJECTS

©J

<E!I

~--

,

TOP MOUNT --"

TOP(J)-",

!

<Bf

"-0 J ----.

-

®

©-) .~

./

DRAWER RUNNER

DRAWER! GUIDE .-/

FRONT ~ON

RRS'r. GLUE UP ENO UNrTS SECONO: ASSEMBLE FRONT AND BACK APRONS

TO END UNITS WITH

DRill OVERSIZED W. SHANK HOLES

CROSS MEMBERS IN PLACE

c. NOTE:

® flil-) BACK

APRON

'-.

TOP

\

MOUNTJ

#8~

lY4'Rh

WOOOSCRW AND WASHER HOlDS TOP

DOWN

FRONT

f-_"7"_-\r"AffiON CD ~ DRAWER) RUNNER-

/.

".

S Once the lable is assembled, all that's left to build are the drawers. The first step in making the drawers is to cut the pieces for each drawer to size. FRONTS. TIle drawer fronts (K) arc cur from :Wtthick stock. 'nlC length of each front is "/lfi'l more than the width of the drawer opcning. This allows for a :!jill' lip OlJ both clJds r;:I'1 total), minus '/16" for clearancc. As for the height of the drawer front, measure the height of

the opening, add VI" for the lips, and subtracl.l/w'l for clearance. SIDES. Thc drawer sides (L) are cut from 'l2"-thick stock. Cut them to width (height) to match the height of the drawer opening, minus '/IG" for clearanee. As for the length of the sides, measure the depth of the table (from the front of the drawer opening to the baek apron). Then subtract about III from thismeastlrement. BACK. The backs (M) are cut to rough width lo maleh the drawer sides


and to rough length to match the drawer Iront. (The backs are trimmed to final size later.) LOCKED RABBET JOINT. After cutting the pieces to size, locked rabbet joints are cut to join the drawer sides to the fronts (Fig. 1,9). See the Joinery box on the next page for details on doing this. A variation orlhe locked rabbet joint is used to join the drawer back to the sides. First, trim the back to final len.l,Tlh. To get this length, measure the distance from end to end of the longues all the drawer front. Cut the back to equal this measuremenl. To cut the locked rabbet joint, first cut rabbets on both ends of the back to leave I/ll'Qhick ton,(,'"lJes (F(g. 1.l). Then cut a dado ill each drawer side to accept this tongue. DRAWER BOTTOM. Before the drawer can be assembled, a IN'-deep groove must be cut in the drawer front and sides for the plywood bottom (N). (No groove is needed in the back, since it rests all top of the drawer bottom.) To locate the grooves, you need to measure from different points for the drawer frOTlt and the sides. On the drawer front, the l'op edge of this groove is located II..:." up from the bottom edge of the Jill (Fiy. 14). On the drawer sides, it's lh" from the bottom edge (Fig. 15). After the grooves are cut, dryassemble the drawer and cut the drawer boltom to fit. Then trim the back to width so it rests on the plywood bottom. COMPLETE DRAWERS. All the parts for the drawer are cut, but there are still a

GUIDE PIN

--13Jt,._

)

~---

ROUf EDGES ON FRONT VVlTH Y,· ROUNDOVER BIT

T 3"

SACK

@

I

CHAM'' (j/

LOWER BACK CORNER

10% SIDE

---- CD

a.

.

\

SNIP (OFF HEAD

W

,><AD

KNOB SCREW '" I /' J

~--l

'"

I16x¥." ' \ WOOOSCREW --<'

//

few dctailR to take care of before the drawers are done. First, round over the front edges of each drdwer front with a W' roundover bit (Fig. 12). Now glue each drawer together, making sure it's square. ·When the glue was dry, I added a guide pin on the tOJl edge of the back (Fig. I!!c). This pin is simply a No.6 x :lf4!1 brass screw that's screwed part way inLO the back. Then [ Cllt off the head to leave a guide pin.

One other detail is to cut a slight chamfer on the bottom back edge of the drawer so it can be tilted into the opening (Fig.~. 1;!b wull(j). Finally, for mO\ll1ting the knobs, I drilled a l/~'I-dia. hole 2%1" from each end of tJle drawer fronts (Fig. 12a). SECURE CROSS MEMBERS. To finish the table, the drawer guides and runners need to be secured. To do this, remove the lOp and drawers and drive ;'N brads into the tongues (Fig. 16a) .•

TOP VIEW

SACK

1....._----

-'T

CHAMFER EDGE USING PlANE UNTIL ORAWER SUDES INTO OPENING

a.

ORNE BRADS THROUGH

b.

(ROSS MEMBER

___TONGUES

"

DEEP' L~~;t<~,Y' \.

CIJT GROOVE

.>

TO FIT DRAWER BOTTOM

"I t

SIDE

GUIDE PIN-"

FROM Ii6 xW

VlJOOOSCREW

SHAKER HALL TABLE

19


• • • • • •

TONGUE. Then a longue is cut on both ends of the drawer [rooL. To do

here arc probably a dozen joints that can be used to join the four corners of a drawer. Ollcofthcf'asie~t (and strongest) is a locked rabbet. It docsn'l require any fancy equipment. All that's needed is a table :;aw and a combination blade to cut a flat-bottomed groove. The version of the joint shown here is for a drawer that has a lipped edge all the way aroum] the drawer front. RABBETS. The first step is to cut rab-

tbis. sL.1.11d the drawer front on end and cut a groove on the end of the stock (St,,}) t). Then widen it to leave a lA"· wide tongue. (The W' thickness of the tongue is based on the width of the kerf left by the saw bhlde.) The tongue is completed by trimming itto a length of W' (5((>p 3). DADO. To complete the olher half of the joint, a WI-wide dado is cut on the inside face of the drawer side (Step 4).

bets Oips) on the top and botLom edges of the drawer front (Step 1).

Cut the rabbets on the top and bottom edges. Set the blade -%' high and adjust the fence-%" from the outside of the blade. To complete the rabbet, set the fence 3/8 " from the inside of the blade.

To cut the tongue, set the blade height to 7/8 ". Then move the fence so the inside of the blade is on the shoulder of the rabbet. Make the first cut, and then move the fence away fmm the blade to leave a tongue the same width as the blade.

.Locked Rabbet Joint

X

DRAIJIIER; FRONT \, .--'-

CUT SIDES TO 'tIIlDTH TO EQUAL SHOULDER-TOSHOULDER

A

~TANCE

,:a ~/'< "'~~~ .;;T.i

FACE SIDE UP

,

J

:J.l,

Now cut a dado in the drawer side to accept the tongue. Use the drawer front as a gauge. Raise the blade to a height equal to the length of the tongue. Then push the end of the side piece against the fence and cut the dado.

20

SHAKER PROJECTS

I-

CUT TWO RABBETS (TOP AND BOnOM) FOR W x W DRAIJIIER UP

~~ ~

CUT GROOVE WITH MULTIPLE PASSES TO PRODUCE TONGUE

ALIGN BLADE WITH SHOULDER OF RABBET

A

'---

Ij

FACE SIDE AGAINST FENCE THICKNESS OF BLADE

,~

,

CREEP UP ON THE TONGUE VI'IDTH

,

3 length, To cut the tongue to raise the blade so it just clears the tongue. Next, screw or clamp a spacer to the fence for the lip to ride against. (This will help prevent the waste piece from kicking back.) Then adjust the fence to reave a l/a'-long tongue.

,

FACE SIDE --\,",~''il AGAINST FENCE '"............

A

DRAlJIIEfl FRONT

r-. •

, ,

• MOVE

FENCE AWAY FROM

'l¢AO'

ADD SPACER BLOCK---,

RAISE BLADE TIP TO CENTER ----..... OF DADO \

/

\.- CUT TONGUE TO LENGTH

USE FRONT AS A GAUGE TO rosmoN FENCE

A

SET BLADE AGAJNST INSIDE SHOULDER __

h

ClIT GROOVE IN

SIDE TO FIT TONGUE

I \.

OUTSIDE FACE UP ---,.

"•


By simply shortening the length, the half table becomes a lamp table with a single drawer. And because construction is so similar, it's easy to build this companion piece at the same time as the half table. l

II

)

The lamp table is buill the same as the

hall table. However. some pieces are

cut shorter ami there are fewer of other pieces (sec the Materials Usl below) .

• '111C back apron (B) and front rails (D) arc each cut to a finished length of 19W '

, '

Wig. 1). 'lllC front center (F) is not Cut only one drawer guide (G), two lop mounts (II), and two drawer runners (1). Cut rabbets at each end of ,Ill these pieces as was dOlle for the hall

~

Lablc. Also cut the g-roove for the guide

pin in the drawer runner.

en

a single knob ccntere(J on the face of the drawer front (Fi.q.l). When assembling the table. the top Olounts (H) sel against the inside edges oflhe legs (fop Vicw in fo'ig. 1).

~

..

+ I I

,

". L'®8~~~~:ON l.c--

19\1,

24'1,·

--~

.. __.

II

/~

I

..' 2'1."C , I

c;y-

,I

''"..

FRONT

CENJKNOB ON DRAWER fRONT ;0

"

I

H~

- ... 2'1......-

.

~FRONT RAILS I

+

I

I

0

U'h'

L-

FRONT ElEVATION

I I.

.

0

II

TOP VIEW

I

II I

II - -Ij-_

I --

MATERIALS LIST

~

0-

J

I

I L; I

-~

24\1,"--

,I I I II

k,

LAMP TABLE

W-.......-

It I

u J

nrawer bottom (N). The drawer uses the loded rabbet joint and is assembled the same as the drawers for the hall table. After the drawer is assembled, mount

I I

II

I

111(' table lop is cui to a finished 1cnRihof24ljz" (Fig. f). With only one drawer, you'll need just one drawer front (K), two drawer sides (I.), one drawer ba<:k (M) and Olle

), i

1'~!---

.....

needed iJl the front apron assembly.

~

CHANGED PARTS

B 8ackApron(l)

¥4xS-h-19V,

D Front Rails (2)

-0/4 xl - 19'1l

J Top(1l %x141fl-24% Note: Only neE'd 1 each of parts G, K, M, N. Only need 2 each of parts H, I. l. Do not ne<!d part F. HARDWARE SUPPLIES

(Note change in qU<lnlitics) (1) No.6 x )/." Rh woodo;crews (It) No.8 xlV.' Rh woodscrews (4) "lIb' flilt washers (10) %' brads (2) '¥s" brads (1) 1"-dia.cherry knob w/screw

II

0

SHAKER HALL TA.BLE

21


~ DO@

Leg Tapering Jig

0

gauge slot (Step 2). To determine the location of the groove, measure from your saw blade to the miter gauge slot and add 1". Cut the groove, then glue and screw the runner in place. Finally, place the runner in the slot of the saw and trim off one edge of the platform (Step .7). This edge shows you exadly where the tapcrwill be cut.

The jig r came up with is a sliding platform for the table saw. 'Inc greatIcature of this jig is that all you have 1.0 do is rotate the leg to taper the next side. The way the jig does this has to do with the centerpoint on the end of the leg. (More on how this works in a bil.) For now. just mark the centerpoint all the bottom of the leg. To do this. draw lines on the bottom oCthe leg, connecting opposite corners (Step 1). At the point where the lines cross, drill a IN-dia. hole with a brad point bit and push in a l/t-dia. dowel. PLATFORM. To build ihe jig, start with a piece of 314" plywood about 9" wide for the platform (A). Cut it to a length of31 '1 (Step 2). RUNNER. Next, cut a groove in the bottom of the platform and add a hardwood runner (ll) that will.fit your miter

The jig- has two fences that help align the leg for each cut. When a leg is mounted to the jig, the dowcl slides into a hole in the rear fence (Step 5). After one side is tapered, the leg is rotated 90" to cut the next side. The dowel realigns the piece on the edge of the jig. But one of the problems I had was getting the hole in the fence in exactly the right position. Then 1discovered a trick - actually two tricks. REAR fENCE. First, cut the rear fence (C) to a width (height) to match the thickness of the leg. Then draw an "X" on the fence to match the pattern on the end of the leg (Detail ill Step.4). Drill a 114" hole aL the crosspoint. The second trick has to do with mounting the fence to the platform. In

hen it was time to cut the tapers on the hall table legs, I was stumped at first It was easy to make a jig to set the angle for the cut..'> on the first two sides of the legs. But then I'd have to take those angles into consideration when tapering the other two sides.

_-=G:.-P:::LA

22

SHAKER PROJECTS

order to ~et a 1/4" taper on each side of the leg, the crosspoint on the rear fcncc has to be III closer to the path of the blade. So all you do is shirt the whole rear fence so it extends IN' over the edge of the platform (Step .4). SIDE fENCE. A side fence (D) mounted on the platform helps hold the lop end of the leg. To position this fence, place the leg on the platfonn with the dowel mounted in the rear fence (Step 5). Then position the taper start line (near the top end of the leg) on the edge oflhe platform (Step 6). Now draw a line along the back edge of the leg to indicate the position of the side fence. TIltn screw the fcnce in place (Step 7). HOLD-DOWN. To complete the jig, add a hold-down clamp. You can make this Wilh a few scraps of wood (E, F) (Step 8). However, 1 like the ease of using a quick-release clamp as shown in the photo. (See Sources, page 126.)

To cut the taj>el"S on the leg, mount the leg on the platform and push it Lhrough Lhe blade (Step 9). TIlen simply loosen the clamp, rotate the leg, and cut the next side.


CONNECT

DRIU Y.o" KOlE FOR

--_.•

OOVVEl PEG

'-

CORNERS WITH X \ "--

MEASURE F R O M »

'1:~~;;"J

SAW BlADE TO SLOT ANOAOO'"

_

I I.

..

.--::

CUT OFF WASTE

32

a. --!

I

__-.-

SET GUIDE RUNNER IN SLOT AND

31

t~;"ro ';:~G CV~

®-

HARDWOOD RUNNER

WTTO FIT MrrER GAUGE SLOT

~

j-

~

WPLYWOOD PLATFORM

To find the center of the bottom of the leg, conned the opposite comers with

an "X". Drill a 112 "-deep hole at this point and insert a %" length ofdowef.

Use 3/4 " plywood for the platform. Cut 1/4 "-deep groove in the bottom to hold iJ hardwood runner that fits your miter gauge slot

a

Put the runner in the miter gauge slot 3 and trim the side of the platform. This gives you a reference edge that shows exactly where the blade cuts. A~ MARK START LINE OF TAPER ON lfG

INSERT DOWEL

INTO FENCE HOLE

\ THIRD:

...

a.

"'~'O~

r-l~--j

f '" 1--=.::..="'.:1"'_..,,,,,,1 10-,

USE SAME ·X· PAlTERN ON END OF LEG AND FACE OF FENCE

END OF FENCE --' OVERHANGS

PlATFORM 14"

A rear fence the same width as the leg overhangs the edge 1/4 ". Make an "X"

on the end to match the 'X' on the leg. Dri" a 1/4 "-dia. hole at the crosspoint.

r

118 x lW fh SCREW

To position the side fence, first insert the dowel in the leg into the hole in the rear fence. (The dowel is trimmed off later to fill the hole in the leg.)

MARK LINE ON BACK EDGE FOR

Q;,ENCE

SECOND: ALIGN START LINE WITH EDGE OF PLATFORM

Next, mark the taper start line on the leg. Then place this line on the jig's edge. Mark the location of the leg'S back edge onto the platform.

1i8x2¥.." Fh SCREW

'-...

IF USING A QUICK·RELEASE

CLAMP; SCREW TO SIDE FENCE

~~~® .~-

(!) ~.

7 The side fence is shorter than the leg thickness. Align it vlith the line and

screw it in place. Add a carriage bolt for a

shop-made hold-down (next step).

.~

Use scrap to make a simple holddown clamp. Tightening the wing nut applies pressure. (If a quick-release clamp is used, the fence should be 1112· wide.)

To cut tapers, position leg on the jig and push the platform past the blade. Rotate the leg one-quarter turn to make next cut Then repeat for other tvvo cuts.

SHAKER HAll TABLE

23


• • •

Tapering on the Jointer

sually, you think of using a jointer to goet a straight edge from one end of a workpiece to the other. But how about using the jointer to cut tapers? After alL a taper is a straight f'c1gt>.It'sjust that it doesn't run the ful11f'llgth of the piece. Another reason the jointer is an ideal tool for cutting tapers is that the jointer produces a clean, crisp cut that needs little (if any) sanding. And unlike a table :;aw, tapering on the jointer doesn't require any special jigs or complicated layouts. All you need is some masking tape and a pencil.

When Lutling a long taper, like on the hall table, you don't taper the entire leg. Instead, there's a nat at the top where the leg is joined to the apron. Note: Complete any joinery on the leg before it's tapered. LOWER WORKPIECE. The basic idea behind tapering on thejoillter is simple. Instead of starting the cut at the end of the workpiece, it's liftc(1 up and the flat portion of the leg is pushed forward, past the cUllerhead. TIlcn the le,g is lowered onto the clltterhead to start the tRper. The lrick is knowing where to lower the workpiece to start the cut. REFERENCE LINES. To do [his, I make two reference lines. One marks the start of the taper on the leg (Step t). The other line indicates the front edge

of the jointer's outfccd table (St(;!J! 2). When the two marks align, the workpiece is lowered onto the jointer. SNIPE. Si.nce the workpk'Cc is coming down at an angle. the knives will create a dishc{1 cuI (snipe) at the beginning of the cut. To prevent Ihis, I wrap two laycrs of masking tape around the leg (Stpp ,1). This raises Ihe workpiece above the cutterhead just enough to produce a smooth cut.

Another thing to keep in mind is the depth of Cllt. This determines how many passes over the jointer you'll have to make to get the finished taper. To plan the cut, start with the

~

,,

,.

amounl of taper you want at the em] of the leg amI divide it by the depth of cut. For example, if your jointer is set ror a 1/16 1' cut, four passes will Cilt a IN' laper. But in practice, to allow for a cleanup pass, I adjust the illrced table so the cut is a hair (1/64 '1) less. To do this, measure the j,!ap between the infced table and a straig-ht stick laid across the outfeed table (see photn below). CUTTERGUARD. Before making your first (,;ut, it's a good idea to get a feel for opening the cutterguard with a workpiece. This takes some practice - with the jointer turned o(f. What I've found works best is to slightly raise the end of the workpiece off the table and usc it to nudge the cutlerguard open (Skp4).

With the sclup complete, it's time to make some test culs before moving on to the real leg pieces. Measuring the Depth of Cut. Place a s!raighl piece ofscrap on the jointer's au!feed table. Then measure the gap between it and tho infoed table.

,

"

\ DRAW LINE TO

'"

FRONT EDGE OF MARK START1NG POINT OF TAPERS ON ALL FOUR SIDES

Lay Out Tapers. Usin.Q a try square, lay out the starting point of the tapers around all four Sides of the leg. 24

SHAKER PROJECTS

OVTFEED

AUGN EDGE OF TAPE WITH UNE

".~

Mark Outfeed Tab/e. Now make a pencil mark on the jointer fence to indicate the tront ot the outfeed table.

Add Tape. To prevent the jointer knives from making a "dished" cut, wrap two layers of masking tape around the leg.


TEST CUT. Once you get the feel of SECOND: FIRST: SLIDE LEG FORWARD so OPEN CUTTERGUARD opening the cutterguard, check the REFERENCE MARKS AUGN IN1TH END OF LEG setup by making- a t.est cut. You should not have any snipe at the start or end of the cut. Safety Note: Be sure to hook a push block over the end of the leg when you make the cut. CUT TAPER. Now you're rcady to taper t.he actual workpiece. Depending on the deplh of cut, you'll need to make several passes on each side (Step 5). And since it call be easy to lose track of the cutting sequence, Position Leg. With the leg against the fence, raise the end slightly above the table. r jusl label th{~ Now nudge the cutter guard open with the end of the leg and slide the workpiece cutting order right on the masking tal-Ie forvvard until the reference mark on the leg aligns with the mark on the fence. (see photo above). When it's Lime to taper the fourth SECOND: HOOK PUSH BLOCK side of the leg-, you'll have a tapered face OVER END Of LEG AND a. COMPlETE CUT _o'Q',.tv facing the fence of t.he jointer. If you press this face against the fence, the ALIGN BACK EDGE start of the taper will be angled. To preOF TAPE WITH MARK ON FENCE vent this, press the untapered top of the ! leg against the fence during the cut. 'Illis will leave a ,gap between the tapered face and the fence. FIRST: CLEANUP PASS. After the taper is cut LOWER LEG ONTO CUTTERHEAD on each side, all that's left to complete the job is to make one cleanup pass on each side. The goal is Lo take as light a pass as posBegin Cut. When the back edge of the tape aligns with the mark on the fence, lower the leg down onto the cutrerhead. Then hook a push block over the end of sible, yet still cut the taper right up to the the leg and complete the cut. layout. line. To do this, remove SECOND: MAKE FULl¡LENGTH the tape and raise the a. PASS WITH LEG RIDING infeed table until the ON TAPERED SIDE knives just graze the RAISE INFEED TABLE so KNIVES SKIM line at the start of the LAYOUT LINE taper (Step (H[). Finally, instead of lowering the workpiece ont.o the CllUerhead, make a fullINFEED TABLE length pass with the leg riding on the ta!>crcd side (Step 6).

""'"

Cleanup Pass. After the taper is cut, remove the tape. Then center the layout fine on the workpiece across the opening in the jointer table. After raising the infeed table until the knives just graze the line, make a full-length pass.

SHAKER HALL TABLE

25


Rocking Chair While the heritage ofthis chair is distinctly Shaker, it's been updated with some modern techniques. And there's also one very old technique that may be new to you - weaving the seat andback. his rocker looks just like an old-

fashioned Shaker rocker. But while some of the clean lines and graceful curves are borrowed from the Shaker '"classic," some changes were made to the design. DOWELS. For onc thing, Shaker

rockers included legs that were tapered and often

~ven

a slight bend. But you

don't need a lathe or a steam box to build this chair. The legs and the rails

that connect lhem arc made from straight dowels that arc 1112", 1'" and %~ in diameter. SQUARE STOCK. But where do you

find 1W''"!I.ia. dowels - especially ones over 42" long? 111e solution is simple. You can make the dowels yourself. If you don't have a lathe. you can make the dowels wilh a rouler table and a few roundover bils. TIle technique is

straightforward. Onere's a separale article on making dowels on page 37.) There was even <In unexpected benefit to Lhis. TIle chair requires two sets of holes along each leg. And because the seat is tapered fronL to back, these holes aren't 90" LO each other. Working with store-bought dowels would have required a special holding jig. But wilh our method, the holes could be drilled in the square maple blanks before they were "turned" into dowels. WEAVING. The woven seal is anolher common feature on Shaker rockers. And here I pretty much stuck to tradiLion - except [or the stuffing between the two layers of webbing. I used a 1"foam pad instead of what the Shakers used - horse hair. Other than that. the technique is the same. It's all explained beginning on page 40. Plus there are some alternate patterns you can weave into the chair back. These are shown in the Designer's Notebook on page 42. FOOTSTOOL. We've also designed a footstool to go with the rocker. It uses many of the same techniques. Thal pro-jed. begins on page 43. 26

SHAKER PROJECTS


EXPLODED VIEW OVERALL DIMENSIONS:

253!sW X32lflD x 43'hH BACKREST RAIL

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BACK LEG

BACKREST

POST

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W·DlA PWG #8 x 2" Fh \rVOOOSCREW

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I UPPER SIDE /WC

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FRONT RAIL

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COWER FRONT RAIL

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1

ROCKER

ROCKING (HAIR

27


E E

E

CVTTlNG DIAGRAM

E

l-w, 111Y.l- 60 liARD MAf\.E (6.25 BO. FTJ

,WAm

r<:ill-~lfG~ fl, ARE AN EXTRA S' LONG FOR ROUNDING

1--....,..'1 , _ ~­

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!f''.. :

E E E

HARE> ~ (2.6 BO. FT.)

OVER EDGES

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x 4 - 60 HARD MAPlE (1.7 80. FTJ

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y, x 5 - 36 HARD MAPlE (TWO BOARDS 0 1.25 SQ. FT. EACH)

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1222Z22222Z2222222;:22222222Z'2ZZ2'Z22~

NO'" AU. ><OLE, """-"0 '" DEEP

WOOD A 3ad.legs (2) B ~ronl Legs (2) C aad:re!>l Posts (2)

I

I,

~BlANKS

FRONT

(~

"

,

""AN EXTRA S' LONG FOIl ROUNDING OVER EDGES NOno

\

ALL HOLES DRILLED 1"

DEEP

4o\"·OIA.

l1fz x 48 rgh. l h x 26112 fgll. '

1 x 19V1 fgh.

o 8adr.restR;lik(2) 1 K23'hrgh. E Upper Back Rail (1) lll23'hrgh.

F Lower Back Rails (2) G H I J K l M

1f~

x :2.3112 fgh.

IJppprFronlRa"l(l) 1 x77Yzrgh. Lower rronl RiI.1s (2) 3(. ll27'h fgh. Upper Side Ralls (2) 1 x 23V? rgh. lower Side Rails (4) .% xl3'!, fgh CapRail(1) 1'1<)(21'/2 Arms(2) 3f4 x5-20 Rockers (2) '/1 x 5 - 33

HARDWARE SUPPLIES (2) \10. 8 x 2' Fh

4 4

4 4

. ~

4

4

Jf~. -dia.

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.{!

~ACE

(1) lf1& "-dia. dowel 6" long (1) lfrdia. dowel 6" long (80 yds.) (otton Shaker tape (a) 112· -long upholstery lacks (l) I·-thick foam pad lax 20 (l) 1··thiCk foam pad 12x23

TOP """"" YEW AHGU'O

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SHAKER PROJECTS

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woodscrews

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END SECTION VIEW

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NOTE; SOUAAE __'::-1-.1/' SHOULDER Of NOTCH VIIITH CHISEL

To build the rocker, I began with the four square JeR' blanks. It may seem a bit odd to start 0[[ with square blanks when the legs are going 10 end up as dowels - but that's exaclly how this project begins. CUTTO SIZE. Firstcul four leg blanks I1f2'l thick and Ilh"wide. Then the back legS (A) and front legs (B) can be cut to rough length - r sized mine an extra 5" longer than the linished length of the legs. (llIi::; may seem plenty long, but the exIra length is needed when you round over the blanks to make dowels.) LAY OUT BLANKS. 'l11e next step is to carefully lay oul the finished length and the holes on the blanks (Fig.~. .1 and,z). First, I measured up 2lf2" from the end of c:lch blank to mark whal will be the bottom edge. Then measuring frolll this mark, I laid out the top end of cach leg. Next, mark the position of the holes for the rails. 'nIcre arc a couple things to keep in mind when doing this. For one thing. you don't layout the front (or back) legs exactly the samethey're mirror images of each other (Fig. 3). r found it helped prevent confusion if I labeled the enrl of each leg with its position on the chair (front left, front right, back left. back right).

&h"

ROUND-OVER BIT

"---~

FORSTNER

FENCE

~··RADIUS

""'"

"'" MORE ON MAKING

DOWELS, SEE PAGE 37

STOP CUT ABOUT 2'

SHORT OF BOTH ENDS

Also, note that the positions for the CUT NOTCHES. Now before cutting side rail holes on the front and back legs the dowels to final length, I cut the W'are not the same. The holes in the back wide notches for the rockers on the legs arc 1W' closer to the bottom end. bottom of eaeh leg (Pig. 6). I used a Later, when the chair is assembled with band saw ror this, cleaning up the top the rockers, this offset helps Ihe chair shoulder with a sharp chisel. tip back at a comfortable aJlgle. CUT TO LENGTH. Finally. thc legs are The last things to layout arc the ready t.o be cut to final length Wigs. 1 notches for the rockers (FillS. 1 (/Ild 2). and J). Cut carefully to the layout lines I drew them on both faces of the legs to (though you may need to Jay them out help me keep things oriented. again since you've routed the edges). DRILL HOLES. With the legs laid out, the next slep is to drill the holes. First I drilled all the' goo holes for the side rails. Just keep in mind that there are two hole sizes. The holes for the upper side rails , are YI" in diameter (FifJH. 1 TENON WITH ROUNDED awl J). 'Il](~ lower rails SHOULDER rCQuire %"-<.Iia. holcs. TIlC holes for the front and batk rails are a little different. SQUARE· SHOULDERED 'Iney're drilled ata 6l h o angle NOTE: ..-- TENON FOR MORE (Fill. .1). To do this. I just cut a ON ROUTING TENONS wedge from some scrap to set DECORATlVE ONOOWELS, PROFILE SEE PAGE 31 the blank on (Fill. -&). To avoid clrilling these -j angled holes in the wrong --~ direction, I marked the front face of each leg. Then make I sure this face Scls against the fcnce as you drill. Note: Each back kg needs two ad(litional %"-dia. angled holes for the backrest rails (Fig. 7). ROUND OVER EDGES. Wilh /' / the holes drilled, the next BOTTOM OF ALL step is to usc a:lJl roundover EACH LEG FOUR LEG bit in the rouler table to turn <6W ~~~IJ~ ARE ,~~JlnOfl~ the square blan ks into dowels (Fi!!. ,.I). for more informaNOTCHES FOR ROCKERS-tion on how to do this. see lht' Technique box on page 37.

----

-------------

------------

~~.

l~ """'~

~

~OTE:

ROCKING CHAIR

29


iii

TOP VIEW

AUX. FENCF

-'""---1

1--

y'!"-DIA.

STRAIGHT BIT

'SAFETY NOTE: ADD SECONO SUI'PQffr BLOCK FOR LONG PROFILE ROLmNG

a. AUX.

FENCE

AUX FENCE

,'¥E,O

SIDE VIEW

NOTE:

j 1.1"

"" - - - -•• 1 "

SUPPORT BLOCKS REMOVEO fOR ClARITY

I

Technique box on the opposite pa,qe.) The back leg-s (A) also have a tenon on the top that's created with the same routing technique. But this time, Lhe 11'_ diameter, \l!4"-lonj.{ tenon has a round shoulder thal's created with a lf2"-dia. core box bit (Pig. 9). ROUT PROFILE. I also decided to "lighten" the lOp of the from leg (B) with a decorative profile. Thi~ 1 1N-long prolile is crealed just like the tenon Oil

CREATE TENONS. 'Ibe only thing left

on the le~"S is to shape the ends (refer to Fig. 7 on the previous page). The top or each leg gets a round tenon. But they're not the same size or shape. On the top of the kontlegs (R), a square-shouldered tenon provides solid support for the arms later. To do this, I used a straight bit to rout a %"-dia. tenon 9/16" long (Fig. 8). (For more on routing tenons on dowels, see the

To keep the legs of the rocking chair from looking too square and bulky, I shaped the bottom of each leg, see photo. The shape of the legs is really a cross between a taper and a roundover. It's more like a "contoured taper." In addition to improving

30

SHAKER PROJECTS

.

I \ ----- '

"

0

FRONT I.£G

®

each back leg (Fig. 10). But this time, the cut is shallower (only l/S"). Safety Note: Since this profile is so long, I added a second support board to the table. This kept my fingers a safe disL1nce from the bit (Fig. 10). TAPER LEGS. To complete the legs, all that's left is to soften lhe bottom end oJ each. '[his is easy to do with a file and a lillie sandpaper. (For more on lhis, see the Shop Tip below.)

....... Shaping Leg Bottoms

the way the legs look, the leg (see detail" a" in tapers serve another purdrawing). To mark this pose - they help to prepoint, I used a pencil and a vent the bottoms of the combination square to legs from splintering. draw a line arouna each leg 1· from the end. Although the tapers are shaped by hand, I found it To shape the ends of the helpful to draw some legs, first clamp the leg in layout lines on each leg. To a vise to hold it securely. start with, I laid out the Then use a file to rough narrow end of the taper on the bottom of each leg. To do this. I simply traced around a twenty-five cenl piece. SHAPE END OF Each taper LEG WITH starts about an RASP OR FILE inch from the bottom of the

,

out lhe material between the two layout lines. Note: The layout lines are a guide only - YOU'll still have to use your" eye" to refine the leg's shape. After you've got the leg roughly shaped with the file, sand the profile smooth and round.

a.

SIDE

v,a. ,. ... 1

somN EDGES OF LEG

'-

1


.. Tenons on Dowels tltting tenons on dowels is easy on a router table. And by using different bit..;;, you can cut two kinds of tenons. Using a straight bit, you can cut squareshouldered tenons Oett photo), and by using a core box bit, you can cut roundshouldered tenons (right photo). On the rocking chair, almost all of the tenons have round shoulders. The only place you need square-shouldered tenons is on the tops of the front legs to help suppon the arms (Fif!. 1). The difference between these two types is more than skin deep. A squareshouldered tenon is like a traditional tenon in that its shoulr/Rr-to-end dimension is important. On the other hand, the round-shouldered tenon is more decorative. The tenon actually bottoms out in the mortise, so what's important You'\l need to sneak up on the final is its overalllcngth. This also means bit height, testing the fit of the tenon in the tenon must be longer than the depth the mortise. I like to leave {he tenon just of the mortise. (On the rocker, for slightly oversize. Then it can be sanded example, 1cui I 1N '-long tenons for the (or an exact fit (Fig. 3a). ]II-(leep mortises.) TECHNIQUE. To raul a tenon, first hold the dowel against the support block, then push it into the bit until it butts into the auxiliary fence (rig. '2). The tenons are cut by pushing the enn Now form the shoulder of the tenon by ofthe dowel into the bit. rotating- the dowel clockwise. Then SETUP. The dowel is ~'l1ided by a sup- back Ihe dowel oul. Next, remove the waste around the port block clamped to the table (li'ig. 2). When posil.ioning the support block, tenon in small bites (Fig. 3). Simply make sure the dowel is ccntered over push the dowel into the bit and pull it the bit (Fig. 211). straight out. Then rotate the dowel Note: You'll have to reposition the slightly and repeat this procedure until support block when routing dowels of the tenon is formed. different diameters. Tbis same procedure (with a second An auxiliary fence covering the support block added) is used to cut the router renee opening serves as a stop profile on the tops of the front legs block to sctthe tenon's length Wig.2a). (refer to Fig. 9 on previous pag-e).

W

I . Ii9 'i'

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USE SAME

I;:" ,

TECHN&UE TO RO PROFILE ON FRONT

,",

CEG

L_~'

ARM RESTS ON SQUARE· SHOULDERED TENON

,

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AU OTHER TENONS ARE ROUND-SHOULDERED

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103 1

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PUSH DOWEL IN AND oUl THEN ROTA,~ AND REPEAT

a. NOTE:TOMEASURE TENON OUTSIDE OF BIT //

-

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AUX.

/

AUXIUARY fl:NCE COVERS ~ ROUTER FENCE ~ OPENING TO CUT SHOULDER. PLUNGE DOWEL IN AND ROTATE CLOCKWISE

N"'"

FE""

ClAM' SUPPORT

//

BCOCK TOTABLE

b.

SUPPORT ROCK

a. CENTER OOWR ON BIT

SIZE TENON SUGffTLY OVERSIZE. THEN SAND TO FIT

/-:

"

\'%2:J/ ·L

ROCKING CHAIR

31


IR

(Fiy. 1.'1). (Layout the ends of the pieces first and then locate tl1C holes.) ROUND OVER EDGES. With these holes drilled in Ihe backr('si rails, you can round over the edl!es of all the pieces. 'Ibis is the same process used on the leg blanks earlier. '111e only difference is the si7..e of the roundover bils. For the 3/~"_dia. dowels, you'll need a %"-radius bit, while the 1" dowels require a l/Z"-radius biL CUT TO LENGTH. After all the piet.."Cs have been routed, they can be cut to finished length. You'll want to pay special attention to the backrest rails. lbey should be cut so the holes you just drilled in them are equally spaced from the ends (Fig. 12). The others can simply be cut 10 finished length. However. because the tenons on these pieces will bottom out in the mortises, it's important that the rails on each side of the chair are exactly the same lenl"rth. To do this, I used a stop block damped to an auxil, iary miter gauge fcnce.

Kow that the legs arc complete, it's time to connect lhem with the chair rails and the backrest. TIle backrest will be sand-

wiched belWeen the back legs. And below that, on each of the four sides of the chair, there's a 1"-<!ia. upper rail that the cotton webbing wraps around and two 3/4"-dia. lower rails.

Though there are a lot of pieces here, the most efficient method is to make tbem all at the same time. That's because they all share many of the same techniques and setups. CUT TO SIZE. Uke the legs. r made all !.he backrest poslS (C) and rails (0) and the back rails (E. F), front rails (G, H),

and side rails (1,1) out of SQuare blanks. The diameters and final lengths of all these pieces are given in Fig. 11. DRIll BACKREST HOLES. Of the six-

teen square blanks you juse cuI, only the two backrest rails (0) require holes. These have a 3!."-dia. hole drilled 'h't. deep and 3V16" (rom each finished end

CUT TENONS. After the pieces have been cut ,md sanded smooth, the next thing to do is roullJ1C round-shouldered lenons on the ends (Fig;;. 11 and 14). 'Inc only trick is cutting the corre<:t-si7..e tenons on each piece. I startt.-'d with the %M-long tenons on the backrest posts (C). Set the core box bit to rout a 3/~~ -dia. tenon. (Mine was lJs~ high,) But again for a good fit, sneak up on the height of the rouler biL Next, I cuI the 3/4"-dia lcnons on the other 1~ dowels (backrest rails D and upper rails E, G, and l).lhc height of the bit should be the samc {but lest it to make sure}. However, you will need to adjust the fence so the tenons end up JI/.r-lollR (Fig. Ha). Finally, the tenons on the 3/4"-<Iia. pieces (the lower ..ills 1'~ II, and can be routed. You'll need to lower the bit so it leaves a 5At-dia. tenon. (My bit was I!/{ high,) Knte: With the bit lower. you may nl.'Cd to reposition the fence sliRhtly 10 end up with 1'/,"-lonl! tenons.

n

NOTE: ALL PlEaS START AS

SQUARE 8lANKS AA EXTRA S"LONG

© BACXfI.EST POST (MAKE TWO)

@

P_[=====~j'~·-D\A.~~00WE~~'~~·~=~=~P3

BACKREST

~"-PlA..

TENON. ~"lONG

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24Y.

@BA()(RESTRAIL(MAKETWO)

¥.r."·DIA TENON, 114" LONG

CL...i:;l.r=~;::~~,·j.O~'A.EQOOWEQiijgl==~GJ;L:=::J

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o c=='~'~-O~<A~·~TE~N~O~N.~,~,~.l~O~NG~== 1'-o~~DOWEL ~I

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(!)UPPER SIDE RAIL (MAKE TWO) *'-P!A. TENON. 1\6." lONG 1"-PIA. [X)NEl

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SHAKER PROJECTS

FRONT RAIL

l2lI

32

UPPER

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With all tht' tenons routed, the chair frame is ready to be assemb1cl.!. SUB·ASSEMBLIES. lllC first thing I did was to assemble the front and back subassemblies (Fig. 12). As with any assembly, your goal is to get them flat and square. But because you're working with dowels here, you can't approach them in thc usual way. I used clamps to pull each subassembly together (Fig. 16). Then I measured the width at the top and bottom of the legs. This will tell you if the legs are parallel or not. Then I removed the clamps and set the assemblies on a fiat surface. If they were twisted, I flattened them ouL SIDE RAllS. When the glue is dry on both sub-assemblies, they can be joined with the side rails (Fig. Ul). The key here is to make sure the notches for the rockers line up. So I created two temporary alignment pieces that were llz". thick ami had a ]11211 offset. Then I placed them in the notches at the bottom of the legs while the chair was being assembled. CAP RAIL. The last dowel to add is the cap rail (K) that fils over the lop of the back legs (Fig. 1;)).1 saved this rail unLil now because ifs a different diameter than the other rails (J l/l). Also, ] wanted to drill the holes to fit the tenons on the lops of the legs (Fig. loa). After the cap rail was rounded and cut to ftnallenglh (21 W'). I routed a W' chamfer on both ends of the piece. This is the same technique used Lo create the tenons on Lhe other rails, except you use a chamfer bit and the piece stops against the bearing on the bit. After the chamfers are routed, the cap rail can be glued onto the back legs.

a. W·OlA ... / FORSTNER BIT

@ BACKREST

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WAm

SIDE secnON VIEW ¥.o"-OIA. FORSTNER

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a. .

SIDE VIEW

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- - - - - 211',

a. I

UPPER

1',"-OlA CORE BOX BIT

'-<---"-.

I" -01A. HOLE, 1" DEEP

fWC

...,

~4;)-:::::q, CAP RAIL

1

ROUT\'s" CHAMFER

\

®

,.

CHAMFER

JOIN FRONTIlIACK ASSEMBUES WITH SIDE RAILS ~

UPPER SIDE

~-

fWC

j

o

LOIrVl'R SIDE fW~

)

o

) NOTf:

AFTER PUUlNG JOINTS TOGETHER REMOVE CLAMPS AND CHECK ASSEMBUES ON A FLAT SURFACE

ALIGNMENT PIECES KEEP NOTCHES IN LINE

ROCKING CHAIR

33


At this point, all that's left to bp adder! are the arms and rockers. I saved the rockcrs for l<lst so the chair woulr!n'\ rock while I was Lrying to acid the arms. CUT TO SHAPE. The arms (L) start out as a pair of 3/.t-thick blanks (5 T' x 20"). 'l11C first thing I did was to draw the shape of the arm on the blanks, see pattern below. (Note: Full-size patterns are available. See Sources on page 126.) Bt'iore cutting the arms 10 shape, J drilled a %"-dia. hole 9/16I'-deep 011 the bottom face for lhe LenOIl on each front leg (Fi,g.17a). Make sure you don't drill through the top face of the arm. Next I used <I band &1W to rough out the arm. Then for most of the arm, I sanded up to the line with a drum sander and finished by hand sanding. CREATE BEVEl. ReCore aLtaching the arm Lo the chair, I removed the sharp inside edge by creating a tapered chamfer that's W, x IN' at iL.., deepest point (Fig. 18). To do this, I drew the chamfer 011 the top face of the arm (refer to pattern). And I scribed <l line IN' down from Lhe top face. Then to do the chamfering', I llsed a spokeshave (though you could Ilse a rasp for this). ATTACH ARM. Now the ann is ready to be mounted to the chair. This is a little trickier than it looks. To give the arm plenty of support, I cut a notch in each back leg for the arm to rest on. (For more Oil this, see the Technique box on (he opposite page.) Then I set the arm on the Lenon on the front It;g and sanded it in back until it fit snugly in thenoteh (Fig. 1.9). After the arm fits in the notch, its outside edge can be sanded flush with the leg (Fig. 11)(/). 111en it's pinncd at the front insidc edge with a 3/lft-dia. dowel (Fig. 17b). And in the back, the arlll is secured with a No. 8x 21' Fh woodscrew Wig. 19a). (The screw is counlerborc{1 and plugged so it won't be visibld

34

SHAKER PROJECTS

JIKlTE: GRID PATIEflN SHOWN BELOW

, ©

ARM SIDE

SECTION

Vl'"

• !: I ~

,r- INSIDE EDGE

,

~"-DIA. DOWEL ~I'lNSTENON

©

L.J\-""'J~ TOP secnON VIEW

SPOKESHAVE

\.-

-- ---

a.

\~~~ON

) W

DEEP NOTCH

'--.'m~_-<..'--.TO CUT NOTCH. SEE PAGE 3S

, ,

\

-#8x 2" Fh WOQDSCREW AND-!1I" PLUG

SAND SIDE

Qf ARM TO

MATCH LEG


• • •

Notching Round Stock

didn't want the arms of the rocker to work loose, (';0 I cut a notch in each back leg and let in the ends of the arms. But trying to layout a square notch on a round

Then I jusL set the template against the back leg un top of this spacer block and traced along the top and bottom edges to establish the top and bottom of the notch

uowel can be tricky.

(Pigil.2 rmd2a).

TEMPLATE. To help layout the

notch accurately, I made a lemplate with a shallow arc on one side. The arc malches the curve of lhe back leg so that you call

trace the outline of the notch. To make the template, I marked ccnl'erlines on a square block of wood and then drilled a Iljzl'-dia. hole through the center Wig. 1). (This block should be the same thickness as the arms of the chair.) '1l1cn I cut the block in two pieces so I had a IN'-deep arc in one piece (Pig.la). SPACER BLOCK. To keep the arms of the chair flat, lhc nOlCh needs to be positioned at the same height as the tenon Oll Ult~ fronL leg. To do this, first I cut a spacer block the

same length as the distance (rom the upper sidc fail to the shoulder of the tenon on the front leg Wig. 2).

LAYOUT. The next step is to lay out the ends of the notch. To do this, place a framing square across both back legs and measure in half the diameter of the leg 0%" in my case) (Fi{j,~. 3 and ;la). 'Ill is will be the center of the notch. Make a mark at this point. Now place the template against the leg again, lining up the centerpoint on the leg with the centerpoint on the template. Mark the ends of the template arc onto the leg to designate the ends of the notch (Fif]. 4). To cut the notches, carefully saw along the top and bottom layout lincs with a hand saw (Fig. 5). Tb(~n chisel out the waste down to the end lines of the notch (Fif]. 6).

TRACE ALONG TOP AND BOTTOM EDGES Of TEMPlATE

DMW

CENTERLINE FOR ALIGNING

TEMPLATE

TEMPLA.TE . /

--------

SPACER 'COCK

~

CUT BLOCK

HER'

a.

'",

a.

VIEW

MARK CENTERLINE ON TEMPLA.TE

USE TEMPLATE TO MARK ENDS OF NOTCH

W

SAW ALONG

TOP AND BOTTOM LAYOUT LINES

M \

I,

~~~-

J

/ --""

~.-ec'-'"

NOTE: KEEP SAW KERF TO

THE WASTE SIDE OF THE LAYOUT LINES

-,:! "'"

~V'~"'~\ ~\

WORK FROM BOTH SIDES OF NOTCH TO CHISEL OUT WASTE

ROCKING CHAIR

3S


Rex. The rockers arc curved like the arms, but they're much less work. They're simply cul to shape from W'-thick stock and pcgg-cd La the legs. CUT TO SHAPE. First, I cut two blanks to rough size (5" x 33'1) and taped them together with carpet tape. This way, you only need to draw the pattern on one

blank (see pattern below). Then the rockers (M) can be cut out at the same time on the band saw and sanded smooth with a drum sander. PEG TO LEGS. Now the rockers can be attached to the chair. To do this, 1 flipped the chair UPSiilc-down and set the rockers in the notches, making sure the legs were centered on the nat spots on the rocker pieces. Next, I drilled a 3Js1'-dia. hole 1%"

decp through the outside face of each leg and through the rockers (Fig. ;eGa). TItis hole stops short of the inside face of the leg. (Use a brad point bit to !J:et a clean hole.) And finally, I pinned the rocker with a 3N I-dia. dowel.

FINISH & With the rocker built, there are still two things left to do: apply the finish and weave the seat. The round surfaces make it: difficult to brush on even coats of finish, so I used a wipe-on oil finish.

After the finish had dried, I noticed a few runs and rough spots left by dust. These were easily removed with a light buffing wilh 0000 stecl wool.

When you are satisfied with the finish, you can begin to weave the seat. Refer to the Technique article that begins on page 38. •

• a.

OvrslDE FACE OF

Ir'n" -.. ,

"G

---)

·llI"-DIA

I ! - - " J..-

\.._-'( ,

DOWEL

I

~,

RIDN>"

@

SEcnON

"""

%

.

ROCKER ~

"'

@

-,

ROCKER (J\'PATTERN "'''~ S£E

W-DIA

ABOVE

OOWElPiN

]6

SHAKER PROJECTS


• •

Making Your Own Oowels

M

ake your own dowels - why go through all the work? Well, there are quite a few reasons. For the rocker and footstool in this book, I had a hard time finding ]lh'l-dia. dowels, so making- them was about my only option. Plus, J could build these projecl<; out of any wood I wanted. I wasn't limited to what was "in stock." Then while building the rocker. [ ran into a couple other benefits. The real trick would have been steadying dowels while drilling the two sets of holes in each leg. But by starting with square stock. laying out and drilling the holes was a simple procedure. Safety Note: The technique shown here will work for lil-dia. and larger dowels. H you try to make smaller dowels this way, the stock will vibrate loa much as it passes over the bit.

p TIle first step is getting your stock 1.0 the proper width and thickness. MAKE SQUARE BLANKS. llcfore you can make a dowel, make sure the stock is square. Both the width and the thickness of the blank should match the finished diameter of the dowel. So for a 1W'-dia. dowel, for example, you'll need a lllzil x I W' blank (Fig. 1). The olher thing aboul these blanks is that I don't rout to the ends (Fig. 2). Otherwise, Ule blank would tend to roll as the last edge was being routed. So to get the correct dowel len~h and still keep the ends square, I cut the blanks 5'1 longer than the final dowellengt1J.

Once your stock is prepared, the next step is to set up the router table, SETUP ROUTER TABLE, First, choose a round over bitlhat's half the diameter of the completed dowd (For a ]llt"-dia. dowel, youl1 need a %II-radius bit.) 'Vhen setting up the bit, the key is to get its cutting edge flush with both the top of the router table and the facc of the fence, (Fig. la). If the fence isn't aligned or the bit is too high or low, you'll end up with small shoulders or large fiat spots on the dowel- and this translates into quite a bit of sanding (something I like to avoid),

LI

----'

Note: One way 10 set the height of the bit is to place a rule across the opening in the fence and the table. With the router unplugged, turn the bit by hand - the cutting edge at the ends should just "tick" Ihe ruler. ROUND OVER EDGES. To round the edges, set the right end of the blank against the renee and pivot the other

end into the bit about 21' from the left end (Fig, 2), Then push the stock to the left. slopping 21' from the opposite end. Now rotale the stock and rout the other three sides (Fi,g. 2a), Then cut the dowel to finished length. Finally, no matter how carefully you set up the bit, you'll still need to sand some small, flat edges.

a. NOTE: CUTIING EDGE MUST BE FLUSH Ifv'ITH FENCE AND TABLE

ROUTER FENCE

'ROUJo"oVER'

I

-·BlANK FOR l\'/·DIA. DOWEL

t::::::::==:::~~

I

BIT-....

n

"

// / /

// ENOVIEW

----

LEAVE ROUGHLY 2" _______ Of BOTH ENDS SQUARE SECONO: '- .- -,../;oy« SUDEALONG ~ FENCE ~___

FIRST:

\o\IITH ONE END

AGAINST FENCE, SlJJWlYI'USH PIECE Im-O BIT

ROCKING CHAIR

37


. Weaving a Shaker Seat

• • caving a seat isn't a typical woodworking technique. And frankly, I was a little biL nervous about getting ii ri~ht. But after weaving the rocking chair and the footstool, I realized that there's not much to it. In fact. I'd have to say that Shakcr~$tyle weaving is downright easy. It doesn't require a lot of tools, materials, Of a lot of time. So once your rocking chair or footstool has a few coaLS of finish and is dry, you can jump right in. Of course, the best part is how great the project looks when you're done. Interesting color combinations can make a simple project striking. Or for a look that's more subdued, you can weave a project all in one color.

When weavioJ{ for the liest time, there are a few new t.erms you'll have to get used lo. For starters, the cotton webbing- is called "tape," but it's not sticky. Plus, the tape has a different name dependinj;{ on which direction you're working. I belter explain. WARP AND WEFT. The first. piece of tape you work with is called the ~warp" (Fig. 1). This isn't anything to avoid, as in woodworking. Instead. the "warp" is the long piece of tape that's wrapped around the front and back rails of a projet.."t (like on the seat of the rocker), or t.hc top and bottom rails (as on the rocker's backrest). 'niB other piece of tape is called the

MATERIAlS UST

"weft" (or sometimes, the "woof'). This long piece is woven through the warp from left lo right (Pig. 1).

~ow

that you're familiar with the terms

I'll be using, it's time to get started. TIle first thing to do is to get all the materials together. There are really only lhree things you need: cotton tape, a piece of IIP-t.hick foam pad, and a handful of upholstery tacks. Note: There are several sources for the colton tape and foam pad. Refer to page 126 ror a list. ESTIMATING THE TAPE LENGTH. To

figure out how much tape is needed, you have to keep two things in mind. First, each seat or backrest will have two layers - the tape is woven around both the top and bottom (or front and

W

WEAVING SUPPLIES

Cotton Shaker tape (1 ' wide) lf~' -long upholstery tacks l' thid. fOilm pad Tack ha:nmer Spring damp Needle nose pliers Scissors Needle and thread or 5-minutc epoxy

Lwm

'---

.

'1

-

,

"-TI-lICK FOAM ,

\.-. ..,. .

FRONt ___

'-'YE" OF TAPE

38

SHAKER PROJECTS

BACK LAYER OF TAPE

WARP....,

I

.I

;

-

.

a

'Vhen you have the weaving supplies in hand and the project has had several coats of finish applied to it, you can begin weaving the chair back. As 1mentioned, the first piece of tape is caned the ~warp." It's one long piece that's wrapped around the top and bottom backrest rails of the chair. (For the chair sea\. ami the footstool, FIRST:

I

.f';)

;I

back) of the chair. (TIle III foam pad ends up between these two layers.) TIle second thing to keep in mind is that it's better to end up with too much tape rather than too little. Although tape can be spliced to make it longer, you don't want to risk having that splice show up in the middle of your pattern. (When ordering the lape, you can ask for help. All you'll need are lhe dimensions of your chair.) To estimate the amount or lalre you'll need, first measure one complete row by wrapping a string completely around the rails (Fig. 2). 111en multiply this measuremt:nt by the number or rows you'll end upwilh also add a few extra rows for waste - jUSl to be safe). The number of rows will dc;pend on the width of the tape. Most tape is 1" wide, which makes the math easy. But %1'wide tape is available too. The measnrement you just arrived at is just for the warp piece of tape. Now you can follow the same procedure to estimate the weft piece.

USE STRING TO MEASURE ONE COMFUTEROW

.J

f)' SECOND:

:xj

~~ ..

'.~I.•

MULTIPLY LENGTH Of STRING BY NUMBER OF ROVVS

i ,

I , I ,

I


the warp also covers the front and back rail". See page 41.) Note: If you're using two colors for your chair it's best to use the darker color for the warp. On the seat, the front edge gets much more wear than the sides, so the darker color will help "hide" the dirt beeter. SECURING THE TAPE. To begin wrap.. ping the warp, the (irst thing to do is anchor it to the frame. r did this with a couple of '/2'1. 10ng upholstery tacks. 'Ine end of the tape should end up hidden as much as possible. So r tacked it to the inside edge of the backrest post on the side (not the rail on top or bottom) (StepJ). Though it isn't cntical where you tack the tape, I like to tack it near the end of ihe rail. This way when hammering the tack in place, the rail has a little more support than if you were to tack it in the middle. Now you can begin wrapping the tape around the rails, starting from the back (Step Z). Starting this way allows ihe tape to run straight up and down in frollt, which is what you want. This means the rows in back will angle just

the tape wrapped, clamp it 3 toWitha railhalf(refer to Step 4). Cut a foam pad to fit between the rails with a 112" gap around each edge.

slightly, but ihat's okay - you want to put your beÂťt face forward. After weavillg' about halfway across the rails, I stopped and cut the foam pad Then I inserted the to size (Step foam between the front and back layers of the warp (Step 4). When someone sits in the chair, this pad helps distribute some of the weighL to the back layer of tape. Once the last row of the warp is done

in fronL, wrap the Lape around to the back and then up to the top of the side rail (Step 5). To keep the Lape laut, clamp the tape to the cap rail (or wrap it around the rail a few times). Then rack the tape in place and trim off the excess. Wllile wrapping the warp, the one thing to avoid is pulling- the tape too tight. It shouldn't sag, but if the tape is tight now, you'll have a harder time weaving the next layer - the weft.

Working from the back side of the chair, use an upholstery tack to secure the end of the tape along the bottom inside edge of the side rail.

Now wrap the tilpe around the top and bottom rails, positioning the tape edge-to-edge. Make sure the tape in front is perfectly vertical.

With the tape stiff clamped, feed the foam between the two layers of tape. Continue to wrap the warp until you reach the opposite side rail.

After the last row is completed in front, wrap the tape around to the back and up to the top of the side rail. Tack it in place and trim the excess.

:n.

Depending on the roll of tape, you may need to splice two of the ends together. This is easy enough to do. Just make sure the splice weaves into the back (or bottom) layer so it';; hidden. The traditional way to splice tape is with a needle and thread (see left photo). But for the rocker, I used a fiveminute epoxy (see right photo).

ROCKING CHAIR

39


At this point, il's time to bet-tin weaving the weft piece uf tape through the warp. This is what creates the "checkerboard" look. Onere are also a couple of additional weaving patterns you mi~ht want to try. See the Designer's Notebook on page 42 .) By the way, you don't have to use contrasting colors for the warp and the weft, as 1did. With just one tolorof lapc on the chair, the pattern will draw less aLtentioll to it.self, but still add an extra bit of interest.

Whatever pattern you choose to weave into your chair, weaving the weft begins the same way. TACKING THE WEFT. Like the warp, the first thing- to do is anchor the weft to the chair frame. But there's an important difference here. Instead of being tacked on the backrest post near the bottom. I secured lile wert piece on ['he underside of the top rail (Step (j). (For the chair seat or lhe footstool, the weft

6 Weave the tape across the back of the

is tacked on the inside edge of the back rail ncar one of the legs.) To do this, first move to the back of the chair (or Dip it over jf you're working all the scat) and weave the weft tape under and over the warp pieces from one end to the other (Step OJ. Then push some of the warp pieces aside so you can tack the enrl of the weft piece to the backrest rail. (As you can see in Stl3P G, the small head on a tack hammer is especially useful for reaching into this tig-ht space.) WEAVING. Now it's time to weave the

chair. Then push aside the warp pieces and tack the end in place.

Moving to the front, weave the tape over and under the warp pieces. Then repeat this on the back side.

At the start of each weft row. make sure you are weaving opposite the pattern of the row that's above it.

Stop occasionally to push the rows together; making sure those in front of the chair are straight.

40

SHAKER PROJECTS

resl of the weft. This piece is woven through the warp at both the front and back sides of the chair. Unlike the warp, the weftcan'l be left in a roll. You have to pull all the tape through the warp (see the photo above). And because lhere ends up being a big pile of tape, I found it hclperl to feed the weft into a cardboard box. And after weaving a couple of rows, I also discovered another trick. Let the end of the tape hang over the edge of the box so you can find it easily. You'll also find the tape gets pretty twisted in the process. The simpl{~ way to straighten it out is to force all the twists through the warp before the tape gets pulled to the very end. While weaving the backrest, you'l! be moving from the fronl side or the chair to the back as you weave the two layers. rull each row tight as you complete it, though don't pull so hard that you bend the backrest posl". As you start each row, check that you're weaving a pattern that is opposite the row above it. You don't want to discover a mistake several rows later and have to undo your work. Also, while weaving the weft, you want to push each row up against the one before it (Step 9). When you do this, make sure the rows on the front (or on top) are straight and square to the walll rows.


For most of the chair, weaving the weft over and under doesn't change. But when you gel close to the end, there are some things to be aware of. COMPLETING THE WEFT. As you weave the last few rows, you'll notice the weavinK Kefs harder because the tape gets lighter. (Needle nose \)liers come in handy here.) The weft should end on the back side of the backrest. Simply weave it as far as you can. 1llen pull a couple warp pieces aside and tack the tape to the backrest rail (Step 11). Kow just cut off the excess and push the warp pieces back in vlace.

Ifyou find yourself running short of tape and need to make a spfice, try to position the cut so the splice will be hidden beneath a warp piece on the back or underside of the weave.

Complete the weft on the back side, weaving it as far as possible. Then fa anchor the weft, move a couple of the warp pieces and tack the weft to the backrest rail. Move the warp pieces back.

'nlcre's one big difference when it comes to weaving the rocker seatunlike the parallel sides of the chair back, lhe seat tapers from front to rear, WARP PIECES. like the backrest, the firsL thing to do on the seat is wrap l'he warp around the front and back rails (J<'ig. J). But since the front is wider than the back, you ca.n'Lcover the entire front rail. There's a little bit on each end that's exposed. To cover these sections, add a couple short slrips of tape to each side (Fig. 1 (l,lId Step O. ,",Vith the chair upside down, tack one end of the tape to the back inside edge of lhe side rail. Then wrap it around the front rail and tack it again to the inside edge of the side rail. '!bat's all there is to it. But there are a couple other tips r can pass along.

When positioning the filler strips, it's important that they arc as parallel as possible to the other warp pieces. I positioned the firsl strip near the back leg, but the second looked better when t(ld.ed near the middle (Fig. l). 1\1so, when trimSHORT ming the tape, J tapered the FILLER top edge so it wouldn't cause the weft pieces to bulge. WEFT PIECES. With the !iller strips in place, you can weave the wen pieces. I put a strip of double-sided tape on the sides of the rails (Swp 2). I This does two things: It helps hold the tape as you're weaving. And later, it prevents the tape from slipping NOTE: to the back.

While weaving, you can ~ignore" the filler strips at first. Then after a few rows, they can be worked into the weaving pancrn (Step 3).

To cover the frontrailateach end, tack short fifler strips to the inside of the side rails. Position the strips so they're parallel with the warp pieces.

Before weaving the weft, place a strip of double-sided tape on the outside of each side rail. Remove the tape backing as you weave each row.

~~

TOP SECTION VIEW .'~

START BY WEAVING WAAP ROWS

r'fAt~

I

J

STRAIGHT ROWS LEAVE FRONT RAIL EXPOSED

Weave over the filler strips on the sides for several rovvs. Then when it looks "natural," begin incorporating them into the weaving pattern. ROCKING CHAIR

41


â&#x20AC;˘

Changing the pattern in the weave can give your chair adistinctive look. We offer acouple of different designs here, butyou can easily design many more with just asheet ofgraph paper. 'Ilw herring-hone pattern (bottom), is similar to the checkerboard. But To weave the diamond pattern (top), there has to be an odd number of rows ill the warp. Note: If you plan to weave the diamond on the chair seat or onlhe footstool. first resize the pattern by drawing it oul on graph paper rather than experimenting on the project

instead ofgoing-overoncrow and under

the next, weave over two rows, then under t\Vo rows. Pay special attention to the start of each row. Some begin with

one over, then two uoner or vice versa. l1lh, pattern works well with an even or odd number of rows.

DIAMONO PATTERN

.u

DIAMOND FATIERN HERRINGBONE PATTERN

42

SHAKER PROJECTS


Shaker--Style Footstool It doesn't take long to build this footstool to match the rocker. From making your own dowels to weaving the seat, these two projects share many ofthe same techniques.

rom the start, 1 planned to build a footstool to go with the Shakerstyle rocker on page 26. Besides being a nice place to rest your fect, the stool features many of the same techniques used to build the rocker. So if you'd like to practice some of these before yOll "work up" La the rocker, this is the perfect project. MATERIALS. Since the idea was La match the footstool to the rocker, I ui;Cd hard maple. Tn fact, since [knew I was going to build both projects, I bought the wood for them <lIthe same time.

This allowed me to get the best match between the pieces. CHERRY. Building the maple version only took a weekend, so I decided to make a second stool to give as a gifL 'Illis time I decided to lise cherry (sec insdphoto). 1 chose cherry for a couple of reasons. First, the Shakers frequently used this wood to build furniture. -n,at's because it was readily available in the northeastern United States (where the Shakers settled). Second, [ really like the deep-red

color cherry takes on as ii ages. Although the Shakers frowned on unnecessary "frills~ decorating their furniture, they did appreciate the nat~ ural beauty of the wood. FINISH. And with that Shaker notion in mind, 1 used four coats of a wipe-on oil finish on both the maple and the cherry versions. SHAKER-STYLE FOOTSTOOL

43


EXPLODED VIEW OVERALL DIMENSIONS: 20lf,zW l( 14%0 x 16"';zH

(

WASTE - - FOR ROUTING DOWELS

r'---,

U""R

NOTE: LEGS MIRROR EACH OTHER

UPPER FRONTI8ACK RAlL

END RAIL

@~

/@ 1'1 '_. "~

.-f----j

------:

W

.."

A. (

o 5

W

I

DIA.

\ ''''''R ©" END RAlL

C

''''''R

FRQNT/BACK RAil

~: H '

\

o

'// /

~13

5 NOTE:

5

ALL HOlES

I

I

ORJLLl:D WOEEP

I CUTTING DIAGRAM

MATERIALS LIST WOOD A Legs (4)

1'4 • 4 • 24 (lWo 60ards 0 1.3 6d. Ft. Ei1<h)

B C

Upper FrJBk. Ri.l.ls (2) Lower Fr./Bk. Rails(4)

1 1f;.x21 1/zrgh, 1 x 24 rgh.

G;

%x24rgh.

1.5·24 (1 Bd.Ft.)

o

Upper End Rails(2)

lx18rgh.

E lower End Raiis (4)

(J/U?2«;2/?

U22?Z/~

L!ZZ7J7~~AT~

-%x18rgh.

HARDWARE SUPPLIES

'4.4-2~

(30 ydsJ l' -wide COllon Shaker tape

(.J6d.Ft.)

E~~L7J7j;;;JTJV??lT~j

(8) "J.' -long upholstery tacks

(1) l' -;hickfoam pad, 12" x 17"

'1•' • ~ - 24

(.7 6d. Pt.)

Ldm2VZJB G' LEc:

_

The legs start oul as overlong- square blanks. After holes are drilled, they are rowldeJ over and then cut 1.0 lengt.h. SQUARE BLANKS. To begin, r cul four

le,gs (A) lIlt" square (Fi,q. 1). TIle final length of these pieces will be 16W', but I cut mine 5'1 longer. (lllis extra length comes in handy when it comes lime to

rout the square blanks into round dowels.) LAYOUT. The next step is to layout 44

SHAKER PROJECTS

Lhe locations of the finished Lop and bottom ends (the finished length of the legs), and the holes LhaL will be drilled to hold the rails later. Just keep ill mind that Lh(;~c legs aren't idcnLical. They ereate two pairs that mirror each other. So after laying them out, sLand the four legs up on end to makc sure each set of holes aligns. The first thing- to 110 is to mcasure up from the boltom of each blank 2112" (Fiy. O. This wiU be the bottom end or the finished leg. To make sure you rout

5

, I

i1

L....I... 1---+1:

T

WASTE FOR ROVTlNG DOWELS

\..-_..

2'1.>

_..

,I

NOTE: elJT LEGS FROM 1Y.."·THICK STOCK-' .--'

farellough when rounding over the leg, make a mark, around the blank at this point Then layout the top end of the leg, 16W' above this 1i1lC, amI make a second mark around the leg. And finally, mark on adjacent faces the locations oC the six holes. DRILL HOLES. Once the hole locations are marked, you can drill them. 111ey are all nat-bottomed holes 3141' deep. Hut they're not all the same diameter. 111e top hole on each (ace is 3/t" in diameter to match the tenon on the upper rail


(Fig. O. The /mU()/n two holes are llzu

in diameter to fit the tenons all the lower rails. (I drilled these using Forstner bits in the drill press.) ROUND OVER EDGES. At this point, the square leg blanks are ready to be "turned~ into dowels. And to do this, [ routed them on a router table using' a %"-radius roundover bit (Fig. '2). Each leg requires four "stopped" passes over the bit. See the Technique box on page 37 for more about this. Once the square blanks have been turned into round le.gs, they can be cut. to finished length (16W'). ll1is has to be done accurately, so the holes arc aligned exactly from one leg to another. Note: Routing the roundovers on the legs removed your ori.ginal layout. lines, so you'll have to measure again. Make sure you measure from the bottom end of each piece. Then to complete the legs, I sanded them smooth and routed a IN' chamfer on each end (Fig. S). This helps keep the ends of the 1cJ.{s from splintering.

SECOND: SUDE ALONGFENC~

CROSS SECTION

RRST: SLOWLY PIVOT

1'i:::;;:u:;'-l,-l;-:':::>:l;;;:9

WORKPIECE INTO BIT

..-

W...... j

L

With the tenons cut, the frame of the footstool can be assembled. I glued up lhe end assemblies first (Fir;. (i). With round mortises and tenons, it's easy for an assembly to get racked olltof square.

...J

B~K

'"

LEAVE ENDS SQUARE / '

111[ ,1"'-1-1 "''';""" ,,-J.-

CHAMFER

(-TOP AND BOTTOM ,

OF LEGS

t

@

II

lJ4@@ll I

'1'

'v--~-,-)

("

y.

,

t

LOWER RAILS

\.! ©®

y, ,.~

V.

1,

a The front/back rails (B, C) and end rail:,; (D, E) that connect the legs start out as square blanks that arc 5" longer than linishcd length. just like tlle legs. There are no holes to drill in these pieces, so the first thing to do is round over their edges. I used a IN'-radius roundover bit for the I"-diu. upper rails (B, D) and a ~18"-radills bit for the %"_ dia.lowerrails (C, E). Once the rails arc rounded over, they can be cut to final length (19" for the front and back rails and n " for the ends). Then I cuI tenons on both ends of each piece using a W'-dia. core box bit (Fi.qs. 4, 5, and the Technique box on page 31). Even though there are two different diameters for the tenons, the height of the bit should be the same for both of them (W'). But the important thing is that the tenons at the holes in the legs. So it's a good idea to stan with the bit slightly lower than W' and sneak up OIl the final size.

LEG

ROUNDOVER

!• .';

NOTE: SIZE OF TENONS VMY (SEE FIG. 4)

,

Y,'·DIA. CORE BOX / __ BIT

NOTE: MEASURE WIDTH AT TOP

AND BOTTOM

So to make sure they weren't twisted, I surface. (If the stool does rock, put a set them on a flat surface. And I also measured the widths at the top and bottom of the assembly to make sure they were the same. When the ,l{luc is dry on the end assemblies, they can be connected with the front and back rails (Fig. 6). To make sure the stool didn't rock, I made sure all four legs were resting on a fiaT.

liUle bit of weight on it.) AT. this point, t.he "woodworking" is done, so you can apply a finish to the footstool. (I wiped on four coats of an oil finish to match the rocker.) To complete the footstooL you can weave the seat with cotton tape. Refer to the Technique box starting on page ::IS for mort' on how to do this. • SHAKER-STYLE FOOTSTOOL

45


Hall Clothes Tree Aspecial interlocking design brings this red oak hall tree together with a distinctive, Mission-style look. It also makes it strong and stable, without the need for a massive single "trunk." So I played with the shape and lengths ofLhe pieces, trying to get a balpieces. But as simple as it is, anced look that worked well when working out the final design took quite a coats, hats, and umbrellas were hung on it (see photo at left). few revisions. This required building several protoPOST. For one thing, a hall tree requires a center post. A solid post Lypes. But that wasn't a bi,\{ deal; you would have been hard to find - and don't have to cul any tcnons on the pretty heavy. Plus, it would've had a ten- inside edges of the hooks or feel. dency to warp, parLkularly with sea- Instead, the pieces are simply sandwiched between the posts. sonal changes in humidity. I considered laminating the post MATERIALS. The hall tree shown here from two Of three pieces of thinner was made from red oak. Oak was a popstock. But then there would have been ular material to use for Craftsman-style visible joint lines running the length of or Mission furniture, particularly in the post. northern regions where it was abunINTERLOCKED JOINTS. So instead of a dantlyavailable. single, solid post, Tdecided on [our narOak is very hard and durable, and it rower posts (each 1'1 thick). These planes well. And when finished with oil posts afe connected by the hooks, feel (as this project was) red oak can and some special cross pieces in an develop a lich, natural l.:olor - almost interlocking style (rc(er to the all orange hue. Exploded View on the opposite page). Of course, you could also use nearly This "Lincoln Log" approach light- any other hardwood to build this proened the weight of the tree, and also ject. And no hardware is need~d, as the made it quite a bit more interesting to interlocking design makes it sturdy just look at (and build). The exposed joints with glue. and contrasting grain give it a distinct PATTERNS. Scaled-down ,\{rid patCraftsman/Mission look. terns are shown for the top hooks, HOOKS & FEET. \-Vith the post bottom hooks, and feet of the hall tree designed, next I worked on the hooks (see opposite page). and feet. Of course, these pieces have to But if you prefer not to try to transfer look right BUl chang-ing their size (and these patterns to your workpieces, you shape) also affected the stability and can purchase full-size patterns. For utility of the tree. more information, see page 126.

T

here's not much to this hall tree:

posts, hooks, feet and cross

CUTTING DIAGRAM 1 x 5¡60 RED OAK {2.6 Bd. Ft.}

I '"

I

E

[

E

I

E

NOTE, All PlECES CUT FROM Ii. STOCK (PLANED 1" THICK)

~

E

84 RED OAK (2.9 Bd. Ftl C

I

c

I

c

c

I

0

0

I

0

0

~

1 x 5 - 84 RED OAK (3.6 ad. Ft.)

tJLj.~222;(22(22(2(222;22222~22)222222)2222222222;22222(; (2~ 48

MISSION PROJECTS


EXPLODED VIEW OVERALL DIMENSIONS: 22)/,W x 22 3110 x 69)/~H

MATERIALS LIST WOOD

A I'osts(4) B

(fOSS Piect'S (4)

C TopHooks(4) D

Bottom Hooks (4)

E F«!I (4)

lx1-65-" 1X1 - 3

Tx4-10 1 )14-8

lx5-13"h

@ BOTTOM HOOK

""

CROSSPlE<ES

"""""'*" """AM> KEEP THEM AUG"" t~-J

®

POST

"" ''''

CROSSPIECE

®

I

~

~~

NOTE: ALL PATTERN

GRIDS ARE 111" SQUARE.

. l

HAU CLOTHES TREE

49


POST (l·x I") .~

~-.~

,~~~!!-~~;~i==I~~i~;AlUl'!,"!A!"1~~;~ ::-=::

FENCE

("'NDTCHESON~'~ ~

SET STOP FOR EACH

ADJACENT FACES

SHOULDER

OF EACH NOTCH

STOP 8LOCK

a.

CUT SHOULDERS FIRS!...T';!EN

REMOVE WAm IN

B~IVV~EN,

POST@ - DADO BLADE

ZERQ.CLEARANCE

AUXILIARY MITER FENCE

\

"""',

ATfAOi ZERO G.EMANCE FENCE WITH ROUTER BIT r~.~ BELOW TABLETOP. THEN TURN 0fIl ROUTER AND RAISE BfT TO CUT OPENING,

CHAMfER BIT

a.

AUXILIMY

G1AMFER

MrTER fENCE

'"

~,.,

"""',

CHAMFER BOTH ENDS OF POST

@

To build this hall tree, I started with the "trunk." This trunk is made up of four long- posts (refer to the exploded View on page 4-9). Each post has a series of notches cut on two adjacent faces. Thesc notches hold the hooks, cross pieces, and feel. To make the posts, r :;tarted with a 51'-wide blank of 5/4 stock planed 1'1 thick. Keep in mind whcn you're choosing" and milling this blank (hal the straighter these pieces are now, the easier it will be to cut the notches and assemble lhe tree later. CUT TO LENGTH. With lhe blank ready, I cut it tofinal1cngth (65 1/4") and ripped it into rour l'l-widc posts (A) (see Cutting Diagram on page 48). This way, all the pieces will cnd up exactly the same length, which is importanl when it comes time lO cut the notches. CUT NOTCHES. With the post:; cut to size, r began work on the notches. These are cut on the inside races or each post (Piy. 7J. And since they trap the hooks and [eel, it's important that they line up across the four posts. To do this, first I laid out the notches on a single post (sec Exploded View). (Note that the top and bottom notchc!'l are the !'Iamc distance rrom the cnds of the post, but they're noi thc !'lame length. The bottom notch is longer.) With the notches laid out on one post, I set the dado blade to make a 114"_ deep Cilt. And I added a 101l~ auxiliary fcnce to the miter gauge to support the piece (Fig. 1), The trick lo making sure that the notches are identical is to lise a slOp block (Fig. 1). After setting it to cut the

.................. Special Sandinq Block If the notcres on the posts for the hall tree aren't smooth, you'll notice it when the hooks and feet are glued between them later. So I created a simple sanding block out of plY""0od and 1/~' hardboard (see drawing).

a.

%" PL'rWOOD ,

""."-",,.";,,_._._.• ,__

O'/!'.~·4'"

The "handle" of the block

spans the notches so their depth stays consistent and their edges aren'1 rounded over.

SO

MISSION PROJECTS

";;;;;;o"",';;;;rnot--()-", I ADHESIVE-BACKED) t Ii" SANDPAPER. -

HARDBOARD

"..- -


CROSS PIECE

®

Nore CROSS PIECES

CUT TO LENGTH AfTER HALF lAPS ARE CUT WASTE'

first shoulder, r made two passes on each piece, rolling the post between passes so the notches ended UJl on adjacent faces. When the first shoulder had been cut on all the posts, I moved the stop block to cut the second shoulder of the notch. Nter making this cut, any waste between the two shoulders can be removed with overlapping passes. 111en I worked 011 the next notch, following the same procedure W(q.la). Note: Because or the length of the posts, you'll need to flip them around halfway through this process. When the notches were cut, I noticed they had some shallow kerr marks leIL by my dado blade. I was concerned that these marks would be visible after assembly. So to remove them, I made a simple sanding jig (sec the Shop Tip box on the opposite page). CHAMfER ENDS. With the saw marks removed, all that's left is to chamfer the ends on the router table (Fig. Z). "Iltese pieces are so long that I was concerned about routing this chamfer, but I found that holding- them flat on the u.ble wasn't difficult, especially when using the miter gauge and an auxiliary fence to support the piece. But to keep the pieces frum calching in the rence opening, I added a zero-clearance fence made of 1/8" hardboard with an opcllin,g sized to cut the chamfer (Pi.IJ. Q).

With the posts completed, I started on the cross pieces. Each cross piece assembly consists of two individual pieces stacked together. They connect the posts in the middle so the spacing stays even (see photo above). OVERSIZE BLANKS. The cross pieces (B) lit in the notches in the center of the post. (Mine were 1'I X 1'1.) Their final length will be 3'1. However, since thi~ is

NOTE: HANDS REMOVED FQRCLARITY

AUX. FENCE

AUX. FENCE

RIP FENCE _ _'-_

DADO

'lAOE

~~® AUX. FENCE

..l- r-l

-' -

Yl

BlANK FOR CROSS PjECES

a. 3

N01E: HANDS REMOVED

FOR CLARITY

ZERQ-Cl..EARANCE

FENCE:--_~~

a.

® CHAMFER BfT

a bit short to work with on the table saw safely, I started Ollt with two T'-long blanks (Fig. ,1). With the two blanks in hand, I cut a haH lap near both ends of each so the cross pieces woultl overlap (Fig. ..1). To support these blanks, I attached an auxiliary fence to the miter gauge and used the rip fence as a sIOI). CUT TO SIZE. l\ow the blanks can be cut into four cross pieces (Fiy. ;"i). (This

CROSS PlEa: ASSEMBLY

time, you can't use the rip fence as a stop, because the piece will kick back.) Then all that's left is to chamfer Ihe ends of the cross pieces (Fig. 6). Here again. r used the zer()--c1carance insert. But this lime, J supported the pieces wHh a push block. :\low the cross pieces can be glued together and sct aside until after the hooks and feet are made and the tree is ready to be assembled (Fig. 7). HAll CLOTHES TREE

51


TIle last pieces to make arc the hooks and feet. 'lliere are twelve different pieces to make, but the procedure is identical (the only difference is the shape). The initial (straight) culs are

HOO'

PATTERN

!

AUX

BLOCK \

made on a table saw for accuracy, while the curved cuts arc made on a band saw. HOD'

BLANK

NOTE: ROTATE MITER GAUGE 40" FOR TOP

AND BOTTOM HOOKS. 25' FOR FOOT BlA.NK5

FIRSt. CUT BOTTONI EDGE OF HOOK

a. REMOVE WASTE IN

MULTIPlE PASSES

--', BOTTOM EDGE

SECOND: SNEAK UP ON TOP EDGE, CHEO<ING FIT IN NOTCH. ~EN ADD STOP BLOCK.

rTOP EDGE

_ ZERO CLEARANCE

"NCE

__-~~:--;:-•• PUSH -.BLOCK"

HOO'

©@

, l

a.

52

~

- ZERO CLEARANCE FENCE

MISSION PROJECTS

AlSO ROUT 14' CHAMFERS

ON INSIDE EDGES OF fOOT BLANKS

I started by cutting the blanks for the top (C) and bottom hooks (0) from 1'1. thick stock (Top hook blanks are 4" x 10 1'; bottom blanks are 4 1' X8'1.) PATTERN. With the blanks cut to size, I created paLterns for the top and botlom hooks (sec page 49), Then 1 mounted them to two of the blanks. INSIDE EDGE. The next step is to shape the inside edge of each blank (the nne that fits into the notches on the posts). 'nlis is a two-skp process. First I angled the miler gaURe and cut the inside edge of each piece (Fig. 8). Note: BOlh hook blanks are cut with the miter gauge angled to 40 0 • With the inside edge CUI, next I cut the top and bottom edges so Ihe hooks fit in the notches in the post. I cut the bottom edge first with the blank standing on the inside edge. (I cuI tile blank with the pattern first and then traced this cut on the other blanks.) ;.lexl, [ cut the top edge of the hook (Figlj. 9 and 9n). Here, instead of following the pattern, you'll wanl to sneak up on the final height (width) of the piece so it fits snug in the notches in the posts. When it does, you can clamp a slop block to the auxiliary fence so all the olher blanks will be identical. Note: You'll need to reset the stop block for the other set of hook blanks. CUT TO SHAPE. Now the resl of tile pattern can be cul out. 1culoversize on the band saw and sanded up to the line. When this piece was complete, I tnKed it on the other blanks so they could be cuI and sanded to match. fEET. Next you can work on the feet (E). The procedure here is the same. The only differences are that the blank is larger (51' x 13 1/l) (sec page 49) and to cut the inside edR"e, the miter gauge is rotated 25 0 • CHAMfER INSIDE EDGE. When the feet are cut out and sanded. there's still one more step for both the hooks and feet. J routed chamfers on the inside edges of each piece (Jt'igs. 10 and lOa). These IN' chamfers allow all four pieces to come together in the center.


GLUE UP 1'VVO HALVES OF TREE WI'TH A TOP J\ND BOTTOM HOOK AND FOOT NOTE;

USE CROSS PIECES AS SPACERS BUT DO NOT GLUE YET

NOre

HOOKS AND

FOOT MUST BE FLUSH VIr'ITH INSIDE FACES

Of POSTS (SEE DETAIL a)

Now that the hooks and feet arc complet.e, the hall tree l:un be assembled. Here it begins to look like a large "Linl:oln LoR"~ project. But fortunately. there's not much to the assembly, if you takc it in stcps. GLUE UP HALVES. 'Ibe first t.hing I did was glue ujl olle set of hooks (top and bottom) and a foot between two posts (Fif}o 11). I used the cross piece assemblies LO help keep the posts aligned. But.

the important t.hing is thai the inside edges of all the posls, hooks, and feet are flush (Fig. Ila). When one half is glued together, I did the ",.me with lhe other. Then I connected the two halves by gluing the cross pict.;eassemblies belwC'Cll them (Fig. 12J. Now the remaining pairs of hooks and feet can be glued inlo the notches (Hg. 12).1 added one ata time, insertingit inLo the notch and clamping it tighL Note: To prevcnt squeeze-out, apply glue only Lo the notches on the post.

After all t.he hooks and feet were in place, I checked to see if there was a shoulder at the bOtlom of the hooks. If there was, I sanded the hooks so they made a smooth transition into the posts. 'll1en 1 softened alllhc "hard" edges on the hooks and feel FINISH. TIle last thing lo do is apply the finish. Because of the tight spaces between the posts, a spray gUll would work best But if you don't have a spray gun, you can do what 1 did. Wipe on about three coats of an oil finish. â&#x20AC;¢

FIRST:

CONNEa TWO HALVES VIr'ITH CROSS PIECE ASSEMBLIES

THIRD: UGHTLY SAND HOOKS AND FEET TO SOFTEN EDGES

CROSS PIECE ASSEMBLY

BOTIOM

HOOK

@ SECOND:

ADD REMAINING HOOKS AND FEET

HALL CLOTI-tES TREE

S3


Oak Sofa Table Everything you'd expect ofa Mission-style sofa table is featured in this project, including quartersawn oak, square spindles, andauthentic mortise and tenon joinery.

lywood or solid wood? That's the choit:"e you have to make when a

P

project includes wide panels, such as the top and shelf on this sofa table. Often, I choose plywood since it won't expand and contract with changes in

humidity as much af'. solid wood. But I chose solid wood on this table. for two reasons. I wanted to use quartersawn oak, typical of Mis:>ion (or Craftsman style) furniture, and quartersawn oak is hard to find in plywood. Also. beveling a plywood edge wouldn't work without hardwood edging. S4

MISSION PROJECTS

WOOD MOVEMENT. Since solid wood was the best option, I needed a way to allow the panels to expand and contract.. This wasn't a problem with the lop, or the front and back of the shelf. I used some simple l-shaped fasteners. But the ends of the shelf were a concern. The problem is that the shelf fits between the legs, so when the ).lanel expands, it will tcnd to push thc legs apart, and when it con1racts, there will be a j{ap. So I made a pocket for the sheU by extending the groove on the rails into the legs (see inset photo).

fiNISH. I used a light cherry stain and topped it with two coals of an oil and urethane combination. Then 1 rubbed on paste wax and buffed it to a satin sheen.


-------------

EXPLODED VIEW OVERA.Ll DIMENSIONS: 50Lx17Dx28H Z-$HAPED ,- TABLE TOP -"I FASTENERS

TOP @ - --~ ~"'-~""'C-~-~. . __

\~~~--=...--~~-:--:-' r1nr -c------__ ---- - -

----

- - - - - ----

~~-=~~---

~B UPPER

~-~

.

----~----=<

®--

~

RAIL

I I

""""

STRETCHER

I

SHELF

® SPINDLE

/

@ ./

TABLE TOP DETAIL CROSS SECTION

\

<

Z-$HAPEO FASTENER) TO AUOW TOP AND SHELF TO EXPAND AND CONlllACT, BOTH ARE SECURED INITH Z-$HAPEO FASTENERS

I

-_~t

UPPER

STRETCHER

---I

LJ

MATERIALS UST WOOD A Leg~ (Il) B UpPf!r Rails (2)

Pl4)( lJ;~-27% 3/~)(2-1n4

CLower Rilils (2)

%x4lf~-11lf4

D Spindles (14) E Sh~lf (1) F Upr, Stretchers (2) G Lwr. Str€'tchers (2)

'h)(%-15'/8 314 )( 12 3/4-40

%)(3-39%

H Top(l)

%)(17-50

%x2-39%

CUTTING DIAGRAM 1% x 4 - 60 QUARTERSAWN WHITE OAK (3.3 Bd. FL)

I

I

A"

~

A

84 QUARTERSAWN WHITE OAK (2

Board~

0 2,3 Bel. Ft. Each)

b_==.~.,=~'=,===:=~~, =,.~=~' ===~ .J;" x 5 - 96 QUARTERSAWN WHITE OAl< (2 Boards ft 3.3 B~d".~;''_'e''''~)

[ " " " " " " """H

,,=,:::r, "'"" ,,~"''',,;;;''''''~

+4 x 5·96 QUARTI:RSAWN WHITE OAK (3.3 Bd. ft)

HARDWARE SUPPLIES (16) No.8x%" Rhwoodscrews

I

(16) Z-shapcd table top fasteners

v., x 5 96 QUARTERSAWN WHITE OAK {3,3 Bd. Ft.}

n

~--=

H

D

~""~-;;;;;;;;~

L=,~~. ==,:J:~~ OAK SOFA TA8lE

55


I 10

----""1 J

~~~

l'rn \,...--- .

11M - - "

I

,

UJ

~

w,

, -L

!

I

®

14~!

I

To build the sofa table, 1 started by working on the legs. With some projects, keeping all of the legs oriented correctly in relation to each other requires some mental gymnastics. But it's easy on this table since the four legs (A) are identical. The leR"s arc cut from 8/-1 stock to a JcnKth of27W' and 1311" square (Fir!. J). MORTISES. Next. [ made centered mortises for the rails and stretchers (F'!.g:J. lu and lb). To do this, drill overlapping INI-dia. holes II/ut fleep on adjacent faces of the legs. Then square up the sides and ends with achiscl. TAPERS. Finally, I tapered the inside f<lces of each leg- (the same faces that the morlises arc on). Start the Lapers 6'1 up from the bottom end (Pi.g. ,'/n,,). To do this, I made a jig for the table saw (Fig. f,!).It.'sjust a saap piece with a tapered edge and a small cleat at one end. 'The jig acts as an angled spacer between the rip fence and the leg. You pllsh the leg- through the blade, and the cleat causes the jig to ride along (Pig . .'I). When one lnper is cuI, rotate the leg so the other mortised face is toward the blade and make a second pass.

UPPER

"'''

LEG

@

NOn::: ALL TENONS ARE

%" LONG

I 1" ~ I

.J

, I

I

~.

r;

I

I '

I

2'"

----"

,

I

~.~

J

IJ

® U"",

I "''' I

,,

a.

~ I~

© I~

11%

!

I

~

~~

)

?/-----~

l~J

LEG

---'---@

NOTE: ALL MORTISES ARE n;..,' Deep AND CENTERED ON LEGS

r-

"''' ©

I

"-1%

-t

'''''''

,

6%

.....--'"

1,.

'b.

--..!

, J'---

--u.

-}4

R Kow the legs can be set aside and work call begin on the rails that will join the legs at the ends of the table. The upper and lower rails (B, C) arc cut from 3/~"-thick stock amI arc the same IcngUl (11 %"). But the upper rail isn't as wide (2 11 ) as the lower one (4 IIR")

2

%'PLYWOOD

~L=-c==l4

,

----------:''''''=~J1:G-~

f

___ .~__ .- SCREW SCUD CLEAT TO FRONT END

...

"

a. LEG

@ .J

LEG

@

"----- ' SAFaY NOTE: JUST PUSH lEG

ENOUGH TO ClEAR BLADE, THEN TURN OfF SAW

56

MISSION PROJECTS

/


(Fig. 1). TIle extra width on the lower rail allows room for a groove to accept the shdfthat's added later. TENONS. After cutting the rails to final size, tenons can be cut on the ends of the rails. Since the tenons are centered, I cut them on the table saw with a dado blade, flipping the rails between passes to sneak up on the thickness. Then I cut the shoulders on the tenons, which arc all %" except the upper shoulder on the lower rail (C). Here, it's I 1j gtl because of t'he shelf groove that's added later (Vig. Ih). SPINDLE MORTISES. With the tenons Lllt, it's lime to layout the spindle mortises. There are seven mortises in each rail. For a good fit, these mortises should align between the top and bottom rails. To ensure Ihis, r clamped the four rails togethcr and marked the centcrs of all the mortises WigH. 4 and 4ft). Next, unc1amp the rails and set up the drill press to bore a ;I!l;"-dia. hole 5116" deep that's centered Oil the thickncss of the rail (Fig. 5). Then drill a single hole for each llIortise. Finally, [squared up the mortises with a chisel. To keep them idcntjcal, [madea chisel guide (sec the Shop Jig below).

FOR CONSISTENT LAYOlJ1S:LAM~

MILS TVl..IETHER

""'-1

CENTER

)::;;;;t-:!;;::

a.

W RAIL BIT ./ ON

US< CHISEL GUIDE TO SQUARE UP MORTISES

Wx'ls"

'-MORTISE

I ~ DRILL

HOLES

~¡DEEP

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , elting all the spindle holes on the sofa table rails squared up can bc difficult. To speed up the process. I made a simplcjig to guide my chisel. 'Ibis jig is just a piece of aluminum angle with a square hole filed in the middle. The key to this jig is cutting the square hole so it's centered perfectly over the drilled holes in the rails. This is easy to do. Once the holes for the mortises are drilled (Fi,q. 1), clamp

~-1.1

Chisel Guide

the aluminum angle to the [rout of your workpiece (Fiy. 2). Don't move the fence on your drill press, but change to a twist bit to drill thc aluminum. Now drill the hole and square it up with a small file until it's the sizc needed for the mortise (%It x W') (F'iy.8). To use the jig, position it over the holes and clamp il in place (see photo). The jig guides your chisel to cut mortises that match the spindle tenons.

,

I '''''''

POINT

/"

B"~

FILE A SQUARE HOLE IN ALUMINUM ANGLE

"

y~,,~ - SMALL METAL FILE

OAK SOFA TABLE

57


IU

AUXllIMY FENCE

a.

I

SPINDLE TENON

I DADO

BLADE

SPINDLE EQUALS OPl:NING PLUS 1':1"

I

@-"

,,@

SPINDLE

SPINDLE

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58

MISSION PROJECTS

'--@ SPINDLE

NOTE: TEST FIT A SPINDLE IN THE END ASSEMBLY BEFORE CUTTING TENONS ON ALL THE SPINDLES

trying Ihe tenon in Lhe mortise. It also means making sure the spindles fil bC'lwcenlhe upper and lower rails. KERF IN RAIL. Now, to complete the upper rails (H), I cut a W' kerf in each rail's lop inside edge (Fir/IS. 7 QJid 8). 'Illis is for the hardware used 10 attach the top panel later.

.

'Illcrc'sjust a couple more steps before Ihe cnd units of the table can be assembled. First, there has 10 be some way to hold the shelf in place between Ihe ends. It's done a litlle differently Ihan with the table top.

, LOWER

NOTE: ROUT \/". ROUNDOVER ON LEGS AFTER GROOVES AND NOTCHES ME CUT, THEN ASSEMBLE ENDS.

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Once all Ihe mortises in lhe rails arC' drilled and squared up, they arc ready for the square spindles. CUT TO SIZE. To find the length orlhe spindles. first dry-assemble Ihe rails and legs into an end unit. nlen measure the distance between the rails (refer to Fig. 8). 'Ibis will give you the s/lOuldCl'{o-:;}lOuldel' Jislance of the spindles. Now add l/{ to this measurement to allow for the 1/1 "_long tenons on each end. (My spindles were 15lf8" long.) Next, to cutlhe spindles (D) to size, [ began \\'illl W'-Ihick stock cui 1.0 finished length, Then I ripped Ill-square spindles from the blank. Note: It's probably a good idea to make a few extra spindles. This will help you set up the cut for the tenons. TENONS. Once the spindles are cut to width, square lenoTlScan be cUlon their ends to fit the mortises in the rails. I like to do this on the table saw with a dado blade buried in an auxiliary fence. To do this, leave IN! of the blade exposeci and raise it 1/\61' above the table (Fi.g. 6), Rut before cuUing tenons on all the pieces, start with a test piece and check the fit. '111is means more than jusl

(

NOTE: PLANE OR SAND SHElf TO THE FINAL THICKNESS BUT LEAVE OVERSIZE IN \MOTH AND LENGTH


To support the shelf and prevent it from cupping, I cut a /{roove in the

lower rails. Easy enough. But since the TO ClfT NOTCHES, DRILL OVERlAPPING shelf will be notched to fit between the HOLES, AND CLEAN UP lcg-s, r had to come up with a way to WITH a·USEl allow the panel to easily expand and contract. J( it were jmlt glued in the groove, the shelf would likely split or leave gaps with changes in humidity. LAY OlfT NOTCH 'lllc solution is to extend the groove IN LEG FROM GROOVE IN RAIL into the legs so there't' a notch for the shelf to expand into (Figs. [) ((ud lU and the inset pholo on pal(e 51). SHELF. Creating the groove for the shelf isn't difficult. But since the final thickness of the shelf (E) determines TENONS. Next, cut 5/s"-long tenons the width of the g'rooves, I glued the After all the notches are cut, you can shelf up now and planed and sanded it test the fit of the shelf in the grooves centered on the stretchers to fir the mortises in rhe legs. Note that the down to final thickness (Fiy. 0(1). (You and notches. can leave it at rough width and leng'th ROUND OVER LEGS. Once the shelf tenons on the lower strelchers don't Cor now.) fits in the f,'Tooves and notches, there's have shoulders along their top edges. GROOVE. After determining the one more step berore the ends can be That's because the shelf sits directly Oil thickness of the panel, the first step is to assembled. Use the router table and a top and will hide any gaps. KERFS AND ARCS. There arc lwo more layout the location of the groove in the fence to rout a J/.,," roundovcr on all four steps to complete the stretchers. First, rail. Mark the bottom edge of lhis edges of the le.'!s. ASSEMBLE ENDS. At this point, the the hardware that holds the i'\helf and groove so it will be flush with the top edge of the tepon on the rail (Fig. !Ja). ends of the table can be assembled. I top in place (refer to Fit!. 14a) requires Then cut the groove I/.l " deep. positioneu the spindles in their mor- a kerf cut along the inside faces of the NOTCH. ~ow dry-assemble the lcJ:,TS tises between the rails. Then I glued the stretchers (Fig. l2a). and rails into an end unit again, and legs to the rails. The second step is to layout and cut transfer the depth and height of the an arc 011 the bottom of each of the groove lo the leg (Fig. lO).l1lCn Jay out lower st.retchers (Fi,q. 12). This arc the notch on the leg, Once the layout is should be 2'1 down from the top edge of complete, you can notch the kg. To Next. the slretchers (I.: G) can be made the streIcher at its highest point. To layout lhis arc, you can use a flexremove Illost of the waste, I used my (Piy. 12). They're cut to identical drill press to drill :1/1l1'·l\ecp overlapping len~lhs (39 3/l), but the upper ible straightedR'e, a couple of pointed holes. Then I pared up to the layout stretchers ure 2'1 wide, while the lower scraps, and a pencil (refer to the Shop lines with a sharp chisel (}'ig. 11). ones arc ;{II (Fig. l2a). Tip box Oil paR'c 65).

a"

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OAK SOFA TABLE

59


Before connccting thc cnd assemblies with the stretchers. you nced to cut the shelipand to final. size. To do this, you'll have to tlry·assemble the table again SHElf

(/"1:g.1,1). '1l1e overall length of the sheU equals

the distance between the bottoms oithe grooves in the rails. (Mine was 10" long-.) The overall width equals Ille dis· tance across the stretchers plus IN' overhang on each side (Fig. ida). 01ine ended up 1::W4" wide.) NOTCHES. After the shelf is cut to size, the corners need to be notched to fiturolUld the legs (and into the notches in the lcj.,rs) (Pig. l.'1b). To find the depth of the shelf notch, measure from the bottom of the groove in thc rail to the insille edge of the leg. (M ine was :W'.) The width of the notch is a little trickier. First measure from lhe outside edge of the stretcher to the ed,ge of the notch in the leg ('7fslt) (Fiy. Hb). Add IN' for thc overhang on the olltside of the stretcher. 111cn add anot.her W' for II gap inside the notch that allows the shelf lo expand and contract. (My notch was \ lJs" wide.) Note: It's a good idea to doubk'check your measuremcnts before cutting the notches on the shelL The length between the legs should equal the length between these notches. Thcn once the notches are cut, dry· assemble the table one last time to

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makc sure everythinR" fits. ASSEMBLY. \Vhen everything fits. rout a I/ll;" chamfer on the lop edge of the shelf (Pig. /3(1). Then gluc up the table. (Don'! glue in the shelf panel.) TOP. Now all that's left is to add the top (H). Glue up a %'I·thick panel ami

WUAP ALLO'NS SHELF TO EXPAND

cut it to finished size (Pi,q. H). '1l1en rout a bevel around the bottom edgc (see the Shop Jig on the opposite page). Finally, to attach the top (and lhe front and back of the shc10. I used table lOp fasteners Wig. Maj. These fit into the kerfs in the stretcher.:; and rails. • -

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u 60

MISSION PROJECTS

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NOTE: EVENLY SPACE T11REE FASTENERS ON EACH STRETCHER AND TWO FASTENERS ON EACH UPPER RA.lL

NOTE: CENTER TABLE TOP FRONT TO BACK AND SIDE TO SIDE


... 8eve/ Jig

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • ypically, I like to use a table saw to cut a bevel on a workpk.,<:e. But trying to bevel the bottom side of the sofa table top created a problem. It just wasn't safe to stand this large panel on end and use the table saw. The solution was a shopmade jig that. holds a router at an angle (Fig. 2). With a straight bit in the router, it's casy to rout the bevel. Note: The nute length on the bit has to be long enough to cut the full width of the bevel. Mine was llN'long. JIG CONSTRUCTION. The jig consists of four pieces: a Ience, a bit guard, a router base plate, and a handle (Fig. 1). To build the jig. slart with the Ienl-eand

hit guard. First. cut a notch at the center of the fence to provide clearance for the bit. 111('11 you can Rlue the bit guard and fence togelher. To make this jig work. simply cut an angle on one end of the fence and bit

guard that matches the bevel you need on your workpiece (15 c for the sofa table). Then when you add the base plate, it tips your router to match the bevel. 'Ihe %'1 hardboard base plate is simply screwed into the fence. Finally, screw a handle to the fence. SETTING DEPTH. Since this jig is designed to cut the bevel in several passes, you adjust the depth of cut by pivoting the auxiliary base (Fig. 3). An arched slol allows the router to swing up or down to the required depth before locking it in position with a SlTew. USING THE

JIG. Start with the depth set shallow. Then increase the depth gradually until ~'our bevel is complete.

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NOTE; JIG lAYS FLAT ON WOflKpjECE FOR MAXIMUM CONTllOL VllHEN ROUTING BEVEL

WORKBENCH

AROiED SLOT AlLOVv'S ROUTER TO MOVE UP O'DOWN

LOIAIER ROUTER SIT A LITTlE ON EACH PASS TO REACH FINAL DEPTH

OAK SOFA TA.BLE

61


Glass--Top CoffeeTable Made ofquartersawn oak, this traditional Mission-style coffee table is enhanced with a beveledglass top and a series ofnarrow spindles. There's also an option for a solid wood top.

rilling a round hole to create a mortise for a square tenon has always struck me as a bit odd. But aside from investing in an c.xpensive machine for making mortises, the only solutions r could come up with in the past were to round the tenon or to square up the mortise with a chisel. Now, if you're only talking about a few mortises, that's not a big deal. In fact, it's kind of relaxing. lhar's whatl did for the spindles on the Sofa Table shown on page 54. But 011 this coffee table there are 26 spindles, which means a total of 52 mor-

D

62

MISSION PROJECTS

liscs to drill and square up. You could spend the better part of a day on this

part of the project alone. So [ decided to try something different this time around. The new procedure [ carne up with is both quick and accurate. (I'll give you a hint - it doesn't involve using a drill press or a chisel. Sec the Teehnique on page 70.) GLASS TOP. But the mortises aren't the only feature of this t<lble worth mentioning. The beveled glass top is also a little out of the ordinary. Now at first, I was worried that the beveled R"lass top would look too

~modern" for this style of table. But actually, it complements the style by giving you a clear view of the spindles [rom just about any angle. However, if you prefer the look ol a solid wood top (that matches the one on the Sofa Table), we've included that as an option. Sec the Designer's Notebook on page 71. MATERIALS. 1\11 the wooden parts lor the table shown here are quartersawn while oak, a typical material for Mission-style projects. No hardware is required lor this table other than ordinary woodscrcws.


EXPLODED VIEW OVERALL DIMENSIONS:

38Wx300x17H

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MATERIALS LIST WOOD A Legs (4)

B C D E

Upper frld Rails (2) Lower End Rails (2) Murli:>e Slrips (4) Spindles (26)

F Cleats (2) G Stretchers (2) H Shelf(1)

I Frame FrlBk. (2) J Frame Sides (2) K Splines (4)

11'"x1%-16% '1~x2-24'h

%;:;3-24 112

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HARDWARE SUPPLIES

(1) %' beveled glass, 24· x 32" (6) #8 x 11ft,· Fh woodscrcws (18) #8;:;2" Fhwoodscrcws

CUTTING DIAGRAM r!4 x 4·48 QUARTERSAWN WIrE OAK (2.7 Bd. Ft.)

i-f·,,!.E C=W~ :y"

x 5Y.! 84 QUARTERSAVVN WHITE OAK (3.2 Ed. Ft.)

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:y"

x 5·60 QUARTERSAWN WHITE OAK {2.1 ad. FtJ

'~;'-=L ,~LZ?2vzca8

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GLASS-TOP COFFEE TABLE

63


a,

_~ 11'< The coffee table is just two end frames joined by a top and shelf. And each end frame has a pair of legs. a pair of rails, ~~ ~ and a row of spindles. I started building CHAMFER tllCse frames by making the legs. INSIDE n u '. CORNER LEGS. The legs (A) begin as four '-squared-up blanks cut from P/l-Lhick liG ® stock (Pig. 1). Mer culling the blanks to length, I laid out the mortises for the ) rails on each leg (Figs.l andla). j, You <:an'tgo wrong laying out the two mortises at the top of each leg -they're 16% on adjacent faces. But when laying out the lower morlise on each leg, pay attention to the orientation of the legs. The right and left legs are mirror images of onc another (FigR. laud 7n). I lli To make the mortises, I removed Yo' 'I most of the waste by drilling a row of ROUNDOVER I BACK LEFT BACK RIGHT overlapping holes on a drill press. Then TOP VIEW I used a chisel to dean up the sides. NOTE; ALL FRONT LEFT FRONT RIGHT MORTISES ARE Once the mortises arc complete, the " %"-DEEP legs can be tapered and shaped. A table AND ARE CENrERED saw and a simple Laper jig make quick ON WIDTH OF LEGS work of the tapers on the inside faces of each leg (Fig. S). The jig J used is just a piece of plywood with a hardwood cleat attached to one end (Fig. Z). After cUtling the lapers, I routed a chamfer on the inside corner of each leg on a router table Wig. -0. But don't try to chamfer the tapered edge. Just push the leg straight through the router table - the chamfer will narrow to a point at the bottom of the leg (Pig. la). For the three outside corners of the 1% leg, I wanted a softer look. So I rouLed 1/4'1 roundovers on the edges, again I using lhe router table (/!'ig.l). Finally, to prevent the legs from At lhis poin1, r put the legs aside and END RAilS. I (Ul the upper and lower splinLering lithe table is dragged across a floor, r rounded over the bottom edges began work on the other parts of the end rails (B, C) to size from :l/4"-thick of each leg slightly with sandpaper. end frames. stock first. AJI the rails are 24 t h" long,

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ON INSIDE CORNER OF EACH LEG

NOTE: DON'T ADJUST

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MISSiON PROJECTS ----~-

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but the lower rails are an inch wider than the upper rails (Fig. 5). Thc next stcp is to make the mortises for the spindles. But instead of drilling holes and squaring them up with a chisel. Tused a different approach. MORTISE STRIPS. First, 1 cut a groove on one edge of each rail (Fig. 6). '111en 1 glued in a strip of wood with a row of notches (FigH. G and au). Once these lllorlisc strips (D) arc glued into the grooves, the notches become mortises. For more on this technique, see page 70. TENONS. Arter gluing the strips into the rails and sanding them !lush, tenons are cut on the ends of the mils to fit the mortises in the legs (Figfl. rand raj. Note: 'I1K ends of the mortise strips become part of these tenons (Vi,g. ia). This is why the lenons arc cul after the mortise strips arc glued in place. ARCS. On the lower rails.l cutagentle arc along-the boUom edge ("'(g. N). To layout this arc, I used a pencil, a flexible straightedge. and a couple of blocks of wood (sec the Shop Tip box below). I cuI these arcs wilh a band saw and sanded them smooth with a drum sander. Bul you could usc a jig saw and a rounded sanding block. To complete the upper rails, J drilled counterbored shank holes in each rail (Fig. 8). These are for screws that [astenthe top later. The shank holes arc slightly oversize (3/J6"-dia.) to allow room for wood movement (especially if you build the solicl wood top).

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NOTE: MORTISE STRIPS ARE GLUED INTO RAILS BEFORE TENONS ARE CVT NOTE: CUT 13 NOTCHES IN MORTISE $1'RIP (SEE PAGE 70)

12 JMORTISE STRIP

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&J[}{K§;{P 'UtI[2 Drawing an An:: To flex the straightedge and layout the arcs, clamp a couple of pointed scraps to the ends of the rails.

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GLASS-TOP COFFEE TABLE

65


SPINDLES, 'Inc rails and legs arc the main components of the end frames. But the spindles are what catch your eye. NOTE: SPINDLES ME NOT GLUED Making the twenty-six spindles (E) INTO END RAlLS isn't difficult, just a little repetitive. 'Inc spindles arc firs! cuI to size from 112'1_ thick stock (Fig. Da). Then the tenons 011 the ends of each spindle are cut with a table saw and dado blade, rotating each piece a quarter turn belween pas~s (Fiy. Vb). To keep the shoulders even and the shoulder-to-shoulder distance the same on each spindle, I used a stop block damped to my miter gauge fence. CLEATS ARE Normally you would glue up the end ATIACHED NOTE: AFTER END frames next. But because the spindles STAIN SPINDLES FRAMES ARE ANO END RAlLS are so narrow and spaced so closely, I ASSEMBLED BEFORE ASSEMBLY decided to stain them before assembly. I I also stained the end rails. 'Inis '\Tay, I didn't have to worry about trying to work the stain in around thc spindles !I, after the table was assembled. ASSEMBLY. Don't worry about trying to assemble all the spindles between the end rails before the glue scts up. The spindles aren'l R"lued in placethey're captured between the rails. T used a two-step procedure to assemble the end frames. First, I fit the 1 spindles between the rails and held them in place with band clamps. 'Inen J glued and clamped the legs to the rails 8 ~/----,.JI'JW (Fig. 10), Not having to worry about the spindles makes the gluing- up CLAMP STOP BLOCK TO MITER GAUGE TO KEEP -'process a lot easier. SHOULDERS OF TENON EVEN CLEATS. /\fter assembling the end frames, there's still one more piece to add to each frame - a cleat. The cleat (F) is attached to the lower Before attaching the cleats to the the shelf (1"ig8.11 and lla). end rail of each frame to support a shelf end frames, I drilled three :l/lfi"-dia. Thcn I simply glued amI screwed the Wigs. f) aud 11). These cleats are just countersunk shank holes in caclI cleat cleats 10 the inside of the lower rails narrow strips of3/~"-thick stock. for the screws that will be used to attach (ft'-;gs.llandllb).

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66

MISSiON PROJECTS

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With the end frames completed, you're more than halfway home. All that remains is to join the two end frames with stretchers and a shelf, and add a top. I made the stretchers first so I could assemble the base and take measurements for the shelf (Fig. lit). STRETCHERS. Each stretcher (G) is cut from a piece of 3N'-thick stock. A tenon is cut on each end to match dlC mortises in the legs W(q. 1i!(t). Like the upper end rails, each NOTE: SHELF IS SIZEO TO FIT BETWEEN stretcher is drilled and counterbored LOWER END RAlLS for three screws that will be used to attach the top (Fig. 12a). a. - i ~.v. SHELF. Aside from holding books or .~ magazines, the shelf (H) serves I L%5~ ® another purpose. It ads as a lower STRETCHER W-DIA. stretcher, tying the base of the table together. I made the shelf from all oversized, glued-up panel of :\!4"-thick stock. 1!'2-.,! Y, Note: If you plan to build a solid wood top (see the Designer's Notebook on page 71) you may also want to glue up a panel for the top at this time. Nter gluing up the shell, I ripped it to finished width (22") (Fig. 1.0. In order to determine the exact length, I measured the distance between the upper end rails (32" in my case). TIlell I trimmed the ends of the shelf to match GLUE AND j this measurement. CLAMP STRETCHERS BEl'NEEN END FRAMES Before attaching the shelf, J took the time to break the sharp edges by routing a small (J!l6 1P ) chamfer along the front and back edges (both lOp and To attach the shelf, I placed it on the frames light against the shelf, I drove botlom) (F'ig.l-4a). (The ends of the cleats and centered it front-to-back. screws up through the cleats into the shelf are not chamfered.) Then. using clamps to pull the end bottom of the shelf (Vigs. 15 and 15a).

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GLASS-TOP COFFEE TABLE

67


BEVELED GLASS _.

(j)

'"'0"' RAM' a.

EDGE OF GLASS IS FLUSH Vl'lTH FRAME

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68

MISSION PROJECTS

FENCE

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"

NOTE: SIZE FRAME PIECES so GLASS FITS WITH Y3:.>" GAP ON EACH SIDE

'I'he top of the coffee table is somethinJ{ like a pidurc in a frame - il really big frame. But the ;'picwre" in this case is a piece of beveled g-lass. BEVELED GLASS. If you've never worked with beveled glass before, there are a couple of things you should know. First off, the piece of glass I used is fairly large (I/.l" thick and 2~'1 x 32'1). So don'tcxpcctlo simply run down to your local hardware store and finn itin stock. I had to order the beveled glass specially from a local g-Iass shop, and it took a week to fill the order. Try looking in the yellow pages to find a g'1ass shop in your area. Another important thing to know about onlering- glass is that the final measurements aren't always exactly what you request. Recause of the Ctltting and polishing process, the glass can vary as much as lls'l from what you specify when you order iL. But this isn'c a problem as long as you obtain the glass bef01'e you cut the top frame Dieces to length. The frame front/back (I) and frame sides m are cut from ~N'-thick stock. They can be ripped to finished width (31f2"'), but don't cut them to length just yet. They will be mitered to length a lilLle later. Before mitering the frame pieces, 1 cut a rabbet on one edge of each piece (Figs. 17 and .17a), l11is rabbet creates a ledge for the glass top to rest on. Note: The rabbet should be deep enough so the beveled edge o( the glass will sit flush with lhe 1'0p surface of the frame (IN' in my case) (Pig. I ria). Then to keep the outside edges of the top from looking too thick and heavy, r beveled the underside of each frame piece (FiYf>. 18 and 18a). I did this by runninR the pieces through the table saw on edge ami then sanding off the saw marks. Afcer rabbeting and beveling the frame pieces, they can be mitered to length to fit the beveled glass (Fig. 19). Note: To avoid making the oDening for the glass too tight, allow a little extra (1/161') when figuring the length of the frame pieces. SPLINES, To strengthen the miter joinL<.;, r alllkl] splines. Rut the splines serve another purpose as well. 'Illey help keep all the pieces even when gluing and clamping them together.


b.

a.

To cut the slots [or the splines, I used a hand-held router and a sloh'uning bit (Figs. 20 and flOb). Just be sure to stop the slot shOrt of the edj.{es of the workpiece (Fig. i!Oa). Arter routing these slots, I cut the If;,''-thick spline::> (K) to fit. The thing to remember here is that in order to get a strong joint, the grain of the splinc needs to run aC1·().~il the joint line of the miters Wi!!. 20a). ASSEMBLING THE TOP. Before gluing up the top, [ dry-assembled the pieces and damped them together with band damps to check the fit of the beveled glass (Fig. 21). Hut because I didn't want to take a chance on breaking the glass. I made a templateoutofh<lrdboard the same size as the glass and used lhal to check the fit instead. Ollce I was satisfied with the fit ofthe miters ami the sizc o[ the glass opening. I glued up the top frame pieces and clamped them back logether. Then I used the hardboard template to check the glass Ol)cning one more time with the damps in place. CHAMfER. As a final detail, J relieved the sharp edges by routing wry small (lf16") chamfers all around the edges of the top (fi'ig.~. 22 and 22a). To attach the top, I simply centered it front-to-baek and sillc-to-side. '111en r drove screws up through the counlcrbored holes in the streichers and upper end rails and into the top (Fi{/. 23). fiNISH. I stained lhe table with a light cherry slain and topped it with a tung oil and urethane combination finish. After drying, it was rubbed and buffed to a satin sheen with paste wax. After the entire table was finished, I • added the glass top.

CROSS SECllON

SLOT

\

CENTER: ON THICKNESS OF WORKPIECE

NOTE

GOWN

DIRECTION

HARDBOARD

FRAME

TEMPlATE

(

USE BAND ClAMP TO HOLD ~ECES

CHAMFER

TOGETHER

'"

CENTERNOTE, FRAME ON

'~"";~~D~~~~~~~~:~~~r:~~~~'~"'~';O~F TABLE BEFORE GLASS

ATTACHING rTWI"TJ.i SCR'WS

~cc_'-'

GLASS~TOP

COFFEE TABLE

69


Simple Mortises

nstead of making individual mortises cut, the blank will be ripped into strips. for the spindles in the coffee table, I ([ made tile thickness of the blank equal used a different approach. First I cut a the depth of the grooves in the rails.) If ,groove on one edge of each end rail. you want the slrips to be nearly unde111en I glued in a "mortise strip." tectable, you can make them from the GROOVES. There's not much to same piece of wood as the rails. NOTCHES. To cut the notches, I used making the grooves. I cut them in two passes, flipping cach rail end for end a dado blade and a table saw. TIl(' trick between passes to ensure that the is to keep the notches evenly spaced. To grooves will be centered on the thick- do this, I used a simple indexing jig. To make the jig, clamp an auxiliary ness of the workpiece (Figs. 1 andla). MORTiSE STRIPS. The mortise strips fence to the front of the miter gauge. are just narrow strips with notches cut Then cuta dado through the center of the in them. When glued into the grooves, blank and the auxiliary (ence (Pig. 2). they create mol' Uses for lhe spindles. To keep the notches evenly spaced. I But instead of trying to cut the glued an index key into the notch in the notches in narrow strips, I started with auxiliary fence (Pig. :2a). Then I reada wide blank cut to the same length as justed the fence so the key was 5/g'l from the rails (24 'N I). After the notches are the edge of the blade (Fi.qs. 3 and Sa).

"D

7

ATIACH FENCE TO MITER GAUGE

a.

OW,

.,

FENCE

V,'" 'ND

/

,-

Next, I cut six more notches Oil one side of the center notch Wig. 4). To do this, r simply placed each newly cuL notch over the key to cut the nt>-xt one. After cutting the notches on one side, 1 turned the piece around and cut six Ilotches on the other side of the center Ilotch, following the same procedure. Note: You should end up with a tot'll of.l3 notches. RIPPING. Before ripping the strips, 1 drew a reference line on one end of the blank (Fig. 5). Later when the rails arc glued between the legs, this line will help orient the end rails so the mortises align (Fig. 6). Note: \Vhen gluing the strips into the rails, use a sparing amount of glue to avoid getting any in the mortises.

v'l

FENCE

"Il

.

"

"

FLIP WORKPIECE BETWEEN PASSES TO CENTER GROOVE ON THICKNESS Of STOCK

a.

INDEX

II

KE~/ ~Jl

cur NOTCH Tl'ROUGH CENTER Of BLANK AN FENCE

GL:C::Y INTO NOTCH IN MITER GAUGE FENCE

SHIFT FENCE AFTER CUTTING CENTER NOTCH

SECOND: PLACE CENTER NOTCH OVER KEY TO CUT SECOND NOTCH

cur SIX NOTCHES

KEY-

ON EACH SIDE OF CENTER NOTCH

a.

REFERENCE MARKS WILL HELP KEEP END RAlLS ORIENTED W'HEN GLUING BEtWEEN LEGS

'"

MORTISE STRIPS FROM BLANK /

GLUE MORTISE

""""

INTO GROOVES AND SAND FLUSH

70

MISSION PR,OJECTS

NOTE: USE GLUE SPARINGLY


Replacing the frame and beveledglass top with a panel built from solid woodgives the coffee table a more traditional look. And it's a simple addition to build.

co If you prefer a more traditional look for your coffee table, you can build a solid wood lOP instead of the frame and glass one shown on page 62. Note: 'Illig version also matches the Sofa Table on page 51, if you'd

like to build both as a set. To make the solid wood lop, starl

by gluing up an oversized panel from WI-thick stock Gust like you did for the shelf earlier) .

• "When the glue is dry, you can trim

the panel to its finished dimensions of30" x38", • After the panel is Ctlt to size, the boltom edges need to be beveled like the frame pieces for the glass

top. Hut trying to st1.l1d a panel111is large on edge and running it through the table saw could create numerous problems, even with a ta.ll auxiliary fence.

So I used a bevel jig with a hand-held router to produce the same look. This jig is the same one used for the top of the Sofa Table. '111e basic construction and procedure for this jig are shown on page 61. • Since you're using a solid wood lop instead of a frame, you'll need to allow room for the wood to expand and contract. To do this, you could use 7.. . shaped fasteners like on the Sofa Table

(see page (0). But this would require cutting kerfs in the upper end rails and stretchers, which could be visible if you ever wanted to switch to the glass top. Instead, I made the counterbored holes in tlle rails and stretchers a little larger (almost like a slot) to allow the wood to move (sec detail 'a' in drawing

below). Then yOll can center the top on the frame and screw it down. Note: While the glass lop provides a convenient surface for glasses and other items (since it won't mark or stain), the solid top may require some extra protection. So you may want to finish it with polyurethane.

Nore

CENTER TOP ON BASE OF TABLE BEFORE ATTACHING ITVvlTH

,-

S<J"""

NEW PARTS L Solid Top (1)

-%x30-38

Note: Do not ne'l:d parts I, J, K. or beveled

glo155.

a.

CROSS SCCTION

1---.#8xr

FHWOOD-

"'"W

~

I

#8 x 2" FhWOOO-

SCREW

l

----

TOP FRAME CENTERED ON BASE

GLASS-TOP COFFEE TABLE

71


Mission Bookcase Built with machinery and handwork, this cherry bookcase features through mortise and tenon joints for an impressive look. There's also an option for ashorter bookcase without the glass doors.

T

his bookcase is agand example of

su-aightforward Mission-style fur-

niture. with sturdy mortise and through tenon construction, square pegs, and shop-made door pulls.

When

Gustav

Stickley

started

designing furniture like this in the early 19005, he had the ~common man~ in mind. Out with the ornate - furniture should be simrle and functional. The result was the Mission style (sometimes called "Craftsman" style furniture). MACHINE AND HAND TOOLS.

nut

Stickley was not just concerned with design. Furniture also had to be built in

the tradition of the master craftsman. His furniture was built with a combination of machinery and handwork.

That's what 1 like most about this bookcase. It's built in the same tradition. Heavy and repetitive tasks (cutlinR, planing, and drillin~") can be done by machine, while the finer details (the through tenons, square pegs, and door dividers) require carerul handwork. The whole process reflects Stickley's concern [or quality and craftsmanship. WOOD. You might be surprised to see that I uscd cherry to build the bookcase. Much of the Mission-style furniture was originally built out of quartersawn oak. Unt after doing a Hille research, I discovered that cherry was used by Stickley as well. J thought the brass ball-tipped hinges I wanted to use would look good with the cherry, once the wood darkened to a deep brownish-red. FINISH. To protect the bookcase, I brushed on four coats of a tung oil and urethane combination finish. While this isn't an authcntic :\1issiol1 finish, I did follow Stickley's techni<]ue in a way. I waxed the bookcase after the finish hat! set a few days (to give it lime to cure). 1 applied several coats of a high quality paste wax. The one I found was a mi..xture of carnauba and bccswax. To apply the wax, wipe on a thin layer 72

MiSSION PROJECTS

with a colton doth and let it dry for a few minutes. (Several thin coats arr easier to apply than one thick one.) 'll1ell buffitto a ~hine with adeandoth.

SHORT OPEN BOOKCASE. For a differrnt look (and a simpler project), see the shorter bookcase without doors in the Designer's I\otebook on page 8,7.


EXPLODED VIEW SHOR'

OVERALL DIMENSIONS:

VERT. DIVIDER

48W x 140 x 59H

r

Toe

CD

SIDE

RAR

r",r

a.

CROSS SECTION

~

r.

...

,

@

I

ClEAO

c-

i II '--©

FRONT RAie

:I I"

.

.

I I

I

'I

BACK

PANEL

®

,!

I

, " I

.. .

VERT. DMDER

r

.. !

I

,

SHELF

(j)

(j)

.J • CASE BOTTOM

STANDARD

..

I'Ii I.

GLASS

50""

DOOR

I

@

SmE

.~

--@ ~DE

PANEL

,

.

@ .••. DOOR

PEG

~'~OM :

©.. LOWER OOOR RAie

"'

,

®

@j

,I

II

~I:

I I .....

SHELF

.

@.._FRONT

!

AF'RON

1

.

CD· SIDE

(-11 "

IU

I;j)

L

I

LONG

~JI,

, I'

.

.J

1

PEG

L

ClEAT

I •

i

SIDE

RAIL

, \ PW" '-CD

MATERIALS UST CASE A Side Panels (4) B Pilnel Cores (2)

'hply

-9YI~x44Jh6

'k hOW. - 90/,6 X44o/1t

C Posts (4)

H 4 xH4 -58

o

lx3'h-l1% lx9'h-l1% 3/4x 3v;'-41'h =/4 x 3112 - 421j~

Top Side Rails (2)

e Iltm. Side Rails (2) F Back Rails (2) G H t J

Front Rail (1) FrontApron(l) Plugs (4) Side Pegs (12)

K Back Panel (1) l CaseTop(l) M Cleats (2) N Case Bottom (1)

.i!4x3%-41'h %xlh-2 5h6

DOORS DoorSliles(4) P Upr. Door Rails (2) Q Lwr. Door Rails (2) R Horiz. Divid. (2) S Long Ver. Divid. (2) T Shorl Ver, Divid, (4) U Door Pegs (16) V Door Pulls (2) W Glass SlOPS (1)

o

lx2'%z-5l71s lx3'f7-19!fs 1 x 5" 19%

HARDWARE SUPPLIES (8) No.6 x sts" Fh woodscreW'S (12) No.6 xl" Fh woodscrcws (23) No.8 x 1'1;" Rh woodscreW'S

'hx1-1:,'Ie

(3 pr.) 2'h" x 2" ball-tipped hinges wi

'!lxl-M'/e

screW'S (4) Double-ball door catches wi screws (12) Shelf pins (100) Sfa" wire brous (2) 15%" x 44" glass panes· • Usc Va' -thick tempeIT'd glass, Have the glass cut to fit the opening on the back of f'ach door, minus Vs" in both length and width, so it will fit easily_

'hxl-l1~/'b

3{gx3{g- '3/·6 "1~x

1'10-4

3fa x -'Is - 20 ft. rgh.

3fsx%-1~'h6

'hply-41lfzx49lfl lx14-48

STANDARDS & SHELVES

lxl-40% 1 x l1V~-41V4

y

X ShclfSlandards(4) 'fax 1-45'12 5helves(3) 1 x 10%-40 7116

MISSION BOOKCASE

73


CUTTING DIAGRAM

1 x 7 - 72 {4.4 Bd. Ft.}

[2Z272dZV72 lxS-72 (3.1 Bd.Ft.l

L,

,P""

2722//272~0272'{:Vi/7 727272222

7 Z7

2l

7 2 7,'7 Z

2.

,;;JffflT~~~;;t;;;)ff~JI~&u

r'~"~:5,~":,:,,,

F,'" " " " " "

,3 ~

:I -

NaTE: AlSO NEED ONE 4' XS' SHEET Ii" PLYWOOD, ONE 2' x 4' SHEET \Is" HARDBOARD

_A_U

_

To build this Mission bookcase,

J

!4tartcd by making" the framed side units. Each unit consists of two posts, two rails and a panel a!->sembly (refer to Fig. 2 on opposite page). J built up the panel assemblies first. When making a framed panel, [ generally use plywood for the panel. I;nlike solid wood, plywood isn't drastically affected by changes in humidity. 1designed each side unit (0 have 111"_ thick plywood panels with two good sides. (Both the inside and the outside of each panel will be seen when the pro-

ject is completed.)

C:®

~~

---->-<C'-~E ';>® - -C:"

PANELS

t (1.:<" PL'tWOOO)

NOTE: MAKE lWO SIDE PANEL ASSEMIlUES

Unfortunately,

finding 112'1 cherry plywood with two good faces isn't easy. And it would also be quite expensive. A simple solution to Lhis problem was 10 cut two separate pieces of 1/.1" cherry plywood to make each panel (Fig. O. Then these side panels (A) can be set back-la-back so there are two good sides visible. 74

SIDE PANEl COflE ('"," HARDBOARD)

MISSION PROJECTS

Note: All the plywood pieces ror this project can be cut from one 1x8 sheet of ljlplywood. Rut there's still a problem. Most 1/4 11 hardwood plywood is quite a bit less th<Jn 1/4" thick. TIle plywood luscd was actually only a hair over :l/16" thick. So, Lo get the panelsc10ser to a thickness of llzl' (they don't need to be exact

since you'll cut grooves to fil them later), I sandwiched a I/ll"-thick piece of hardboard between the pands to serve as a panel core (B) Wiy. 1). Note: The three layers (or each side panel could be glued together. But this is not necessary. The frames built around the panels will hold them logether just fine.


D

gj~

'When the side panels are complete, a

grooved frame can be built to fit around

'[ffi[P

Frame Assembly

When making framed panels, grooves are usually cut in the frame to fit the panel. But that doesn't mean it will go together easily. If either piece is twisted or bowed, getting them together can be difficult. To make it easier to assemble and avoid tearout on the edges of the grooves, I first round over the edges of the panel with a sanding block.

each side panel.

First. 1cut all the pieces for both side frames (Fig. 2). The posts (C) arc cut from P/4'I·thick stock, and the top (D) and bottom side rails (E) from 1" stock. GROOVES. The grooves in the posts

and rails must match the thickness of the panel. And the grooves should be centered on each piece.

ROUND OVER ,- EDGES so PANEL SLIDES INTO GROOVE EASIER

)

...L __

/.//L. ,.~

,.--

I

Since the posts and rails are different

thicknesses, each requires its own setup [oeul the grooves. Ilcrc, you have two options. You can resct the fence, or keep the fence in tile same position but clamp a shim to it (refer to Pig. 5). To find the thickness of this shim. figure the difference between the thick-

a.

,.

q;:p

I

CROSS SEcnON

©

I,

TO<' RAJ,

@

In

© :...-/

C<\

I I

I

TOP VlE'vV

RAJ, 1"dY.!' l1WLONG

I

r-

OO

~ 00'

ness of the posts ami rails Cf4" in my case). 'lllCll. divide this number by two. \1y shim ended up %'1 thick (Fig. 5). SETUP. To cut the grooves, I first mounted a :IN' dado blade in the table saw and raised it %" (Fi,g. 8). Then I set the fence so the blade was slig-htly offcenter on the piece. I cut each groOVE' in two passes, nipping the board between each pass (Fig.~..1 and 4). (rlipping the piece centers the groove.) Note: Test the setup first with a scrap piece. Once the groove is cut, check if the panel fits. If you need la, adjust the fence and make another test cuL CUT GROOVES. When the test piece fits, cut the grooves on the four posL..,. Next, to cut the grooves in the top and bottom rails, either reset the fence or add the shim (Pig. 5).

-

END V1E'vV

,I

©

\..'

"'SO lv.,- xl%"

"-l.

SS" LONG

..'

,

I

PANEL ASSEMBLY

~

®

BOTTOM RAie

""""I

Q~

IU

NOTE: CUT ALL GROOVES TO MATCH THICKNESS OF PANELS

®

~-~

~-®

BOTTOM RAie

1" x9\?" 11WlONG EN'ovlEW

"-:»>-s::l'"n

TO CUT SHIM RAILSTO FENCE CLAMP (OR RESET FENCE)

WDAOO

,

BlADE

FllP f'1ECE END FOR END BElWEEN PASSES

a.

SETDAOO SllGHTLY OFF-CENTER

a.

FINAL WlDTH OF GROOVE MUST MATCH THICKNESS OF • PANELS

Ii"~'il

a.

,

'"

'.

FENCE ,

W

\

,

SHIM

"

FUP PIECE END FOR. END BETWEEN PASSES

MISSION BOOKCASE

7S


h

aUND TENONS

(FIT INTO BACK POST)

.BOTIOM RAil

~=='=~~hh"'~~ TOP RAIL

(~~I?Nb

TENON=.S

_

bookc<lsc demand careful handwork. but you actually get to Mle the joint. (For more on this joint, St..'C page &1-.) I usually start with the morlises, but this time I worked backw;mls. The tenons arc cut first to fit the grooves cut

'7=

STEP 2

'" "--.

FENCE

act as a gauge for sizing the tenons. TWO TENONS. There are two different lenRth tenons on each rail (Fiy. (j). On the front is a long Lenon that fits throu/{h a front post. 'Ille tenon in back stops short ill a typical (blind) mortise. TWO STEPS. '111e setup for both rails is the same (Fi.q.~. i and 8). First, cut the check of thc lcnon (St.ep I). (Te~t the lit with a scrap piece before cutting on the rails.) Next, Ret the piece on edge and cut the tenon to width (Step i).

_

When all the tenons are 1..'111, it's time to cut mortises in the posts. Again, there are two types ofmortises: through and blind. All the mortises arc !h(~ same width as the grooves for the panels, This makes the setup easy. JuS! position the post so a IN'-dia. drill bit is centered in the /:,Tfoove. 'Ihen clamp a fence to the drill press 1:<,ble so it's againsl the posL BLIND MORTISES. After laying out each mortise, I drilJed the blind ones in the back posts first (Fir;. 9). (Drill them 151161' deep to allow '/llt for excess glue.) THROUGH MORTISES. When the mortises in the back posts arc complete, drill mortises through the front posts. Note: Drill the$e mortises halfway through from bOLh sides 10 avoid chipouL. MORTISES FOR APRON. There's one more seL of mortises to cut in the fronl posts. An apron that joins the front posts at the bottom requires 'h"-widc by 9/li/-deep mortises (Fly..9). MISSION PROJECTS

1---(, ,

FENCE

"'-.,

-

~ -~

~

--

% I

r

-

-

FT

D""" __

BlAO'

--

W.

,Ie

- ._- --

- -

-

p=

FINAL THICKNESS OF TENON SHOULD FIT GROOVE IN POSTS

(1110

inlhe posts. Like a mortise, the grooves

76

I- t

~ 1l!l

FRONT POSTS)

The mortises and through tenons on the

.::S::-

I

...l.

fl------~~~-l

I

(FIT Tl-lROUGH -----..; 1'41--

STEP 1 BliND TENON

o

9)1,

4.

'ONTPOSTS'__

~R~t?SH

'-

BACK P051)

,

~._

rlT THROUGH

.->-_

-L"~~~~~~~7-\-

I-~ -. ,-

®-~

THROUGH TENONS

I

t;",

1

-

~

STEP 1 TIiROUGH TENON

J?=

I--- " ~

-

--

STEP 2

--

;=

FINAL THICKNESS Of TENON SHOULD FIT GROOVE IN POSTS

I- " -,

--

@@

~

-,

,

- --

,

~

r"'

'"" I'"

I~ J

I\ 'UND MORTiSES (l;<';"·DEEP)

--!.---

~

©

..... ---- FRONT •

"'-..

,;

II)

POST

~\

~ m

Y. t';,

3"¥,

1~(

CENTER MOAnSE ONI'OST

/ - ---

""',- VV

~I

~ ~l~

MORTISE

m,

APRON

!

~----' ~J

Co-~

THROUGH MORTISE

NOTE: DON'T DRILL MORTISE FOR APRON INTO THROUGH MORTISES

,

f'-!

a.

'1'8

~ --~

THROUGH MORTISES

'ACK POST

/"

:-

."

'N,

"~

-

-

I-

-

~-

-


U

& APRO'----_

a.

-~ ,"@

Before the side units can be put together, there must be some way Lo connect them. So next I cut out the

('_ ® BACK RAIL

t.-:,4

FRONT RAIL

pieces that conned the units.

V

Jj.," x 3J1l

42\t,;" LONG (WITH TENONS)

CUT TO SIZE. Begin by clltting two

back rails (1') and a fron! rail (G) to size (1"0. 10). Then cut out a frontupron (TI). Note: The width of this apron should

match the morLises in the posts - the apron doesn't have a top or boUom shoulder (refer Lo Pig. l5a). RABBETS. To hold these pieces, [rabbeted some of the side unitpicccs. First, each top side rail CD} is rabbeted on the top inside edge to hold the front rail (Figs. lob and 11). Then the two back posts (C) arc ntbbeted on the back inside edges to hold the back rail and the back panel (added later) Wi,qs.l0aand H!),

c:::

""J< IWC

;;;

RABBffi HOLD BACK PN>lEL

Wx3Yl:" 411'.:" LONG (WITH TENONS)

(4)

I

b•

The back rails (F) also hold the back panel in place. So, I rabbeted the back edges of these rails too Wig. IJ). Note: All thcSl.~ pieces don't end up identical - they're actually miJTored. So to keep them straight, lTlark the pieces before you cut the rabbet~. TONGUES. The next step is to cut tongues on the pieces that will connect the side units (Fir;. 10). Rabbet the ends of the back rdils (F) and the front rail (G) (Fig/;. 13 and L~). The tongues should fit the rabbets in the side pieces, After these rabbets <Ire CUI, the fronl rail needs to be notched at the front cor·

l

®) FRONT ""'ON

NOTE: WlDn-i OF APRON MATCHES LENGTH OF MORTISES

~"x3W

ATTACH FRONT RAIL W1TH#6xl"Fh 'NOODSCREI/II'S

FRONT RAIL IS SET BACK I" FROM FRONT

41Y:!"LONG (lMTH TENONS)

ners so it will fil around the front posts (pigs. lOb and 14)' When in place. the rail should set back 1" from the front. 'lllis aJlows the rail to ad as a door stop. RABBET APRON. The last pieee to rabbet is the front apron (H) (Fig, 15).

=-

' " "OS'

A1{ain. you're creating tongues on the ends. Hut this time. [hey (it the mortises in l,he posts. The apron also has a ,gentle arc on the bottom that can be laid out and cut at this time (Fiy.l,5a). SECOND: NOTCH FRONT COIlNERS TO FIT AROUND POSTS SEE FIG. lOb

FIRST. CUTAABBm ON ENDS

®

,.

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TOP SIDE RAIL

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FRONT RAIL

BACK POST (BACK VIEW1

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INSIOE fACE

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LAY OUT ARC WITH FLEXIBLE STRAIGHTEDGE

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1?-'

MISSION BOOKCASE

77


C

AS

The bookcase is almost ready to be

assembled. But first, I added some small details. TIle first step is to fill the grooves at the bottom of the posts (Fig. 16). To do this, I cut a plug (I) to fit each groove.

'[be top of the posts will be covered by the case top later. Note: Make sure you don't cover the mortises already cut in the posts. CHAMFERS. The next step is to rout

118" chamfers on the bottoms of all the posts (Fig. 17}.111is has two benefits. It gives the posts a finished look, and it also helps minimize splintering if the case should ever be dragged

PLUG SHOUlD FIT GROOVE BELOWTHE

across the nODI'.

I

BOTTOM MORTISE

Another thing

r did was to sand

,

I[

fiRST: ASSEMBLE SIDE UNIT

I,

seCOND:

,

DRILL W HOlES II'" DEEP AND CHISEL SIDES SQUARE

I

(j)

chamfers Oil the ends of all the tenons. This ~dresses up" the through tenons, giving them a finished look. And on the tenons that fit' the blind mortises, the chamfers allow room for excess glue. SANDING BLOCK. There arc a number of ways to chamfer the tenons. I decided to make a simple sanding block that chamfers both edges at the same time (Fig. 18). To make the block, I cut a groove in a piece of scrap with the dado blade set :lfR" deep. ThE' width shoulci E'llualthe thickness of the tenon minus 1/1/. This will create a 1/16" chamfer on both sides

THIRD:

CUT PEGS TO

FIT HOLES

© POST

PlUG

SAND TOP & BOTIOM ENDS

TO MATCH

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,

W,'x 7" PIECE OF SCRAP

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SANDPAPER

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GROOVE

SHOULD MATCH

THICKNESS OF TENON MINUS %"

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. . . . . . . . . . . . Scraping and Sanding Corners Normally Ilike using a hand scraper and sanding block for scraping and sanding. But on a frame and panel, it can be hard to get right down into a corner with a scraper or typical sanding block, Instead, I use two tools shaped for the job. To scrape out a corner, I use a razor blade from a utility knife (Fig. 1). It works great for scraping away glue smudges and dried beads of glue, To use the razor blade, hold it at an angle and push

78

MISSION PROJECTS

or pull it with the grain of the wood - just like a hand scraper. Never scrape across the grain. And always push or pull the

blade in the direction it's angled. (This way it won't cut into the workpiece.) To sand a corner, I make a sanding block with

beveled ends and beveled sides (Fig. 2). The pointed ends allow me to get the sandpaper right up against the corner.

BEVELED EDGES AllOW SANDING BLOCK TO GET INTO

CORNER

j

i ~ WHEN HOLD AT ANGLE SCRAPlNG


. . . . . . .... . ....... Adding Decorative f!::gs Once, a long tenon needed to be pinned in a mortise. But with improved wood glues, a peg just has to look good. Careful work is the key to this decoration. The procedure is similar to cutting a mortise and tenon. Layout the mortise on the outside face of the stile (Fig. 1). Then drill inside the marks to a consistent depth, and square up the corners of the mortise with a chisel (Fig. 2). For the pegs, cut a long strip about 1132" thicker than the width of the mortise. (You want a tight tit.) Then cut the pegs from it (Fig. 3). Sand the buried end of each peg to a taper, and sand a decorative chamfer

around the top end. The pegs look best if they stick out %' beyond the face of the frame. To

of lhe tenon (J'~i{]. 180). :-Jext, I tilted lhe blade to 45° and beveled both sides of the groove. To usc the sanding block, stick adhesive-backed sandpaper on the b('veled e<lges (or use standard sandpaper and l·ubbcrcemenl). Then sand the tenons. Check lhem often lo make sure the chamfers arc consistent. After the tenon "bottoms out~ on the block, santi the top and bottom ends to match, using a regular S<lnding block. ASSEMBLE THE SIDE UNITS. To assemble the case, I beR"an by gluing up the side units (Fig. 1.')). PIN TENONS. After both side units are assembled, their tenons can be pinned (Fi{/. 19ft and the Shop Tip box above). First, drill and square up the holes. Next, cut pegs to fit them. 'lncn glue lhe pegs in place so they stand 1/1'," proud of the faces of the posts. ASSEMBLE THE CASE. To connect the two side units, glue the front apron (H) between them and dry-assemble all the other rails (Fig. £0). After the front apron dries, remove each of the rails and drill shank holes and pilot holes. '111C1l glue and screw them back in place (refer to Fi,rJl'!. IOh nwi zOo).

set the pegs at a consistent height automatically, I made a depth stop with a hole from %"-thick

hardwood (Fig. 4). Then I spread glue in the holes, and used the stop to finish tapping in the pegs.

LAY OUT MORTISES ON GOOD FACE OF LEG

"

, DRILL HOLE INSIDE LAYOUT MARKS

SQUARE UP SIDES OF MO<\TISE

DRILL ~"·DEEP (HOLE

a.

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rur

PEG TO FIT SNUGLY <J>.IN MORTISE

DEPTH STOP SmPEGSTO SAME HEIGHT

- DEPTH STOP

BACK PANEL Nter the case is assemblecl, J cut a back panel (K) from III cherry plywood to lit in the rabbets in

®-----.

the back of the case (Fig. 20). But don't nail Ule panel in yeL It's easier to work on the inside ifit's not in place.

BACK PANEL............ 14"PlY-4Wl"x49\'l ~ _ ..

'

I

"

NOT£; DON'T SECURE BACK PANEL AT THIS TIME

a.

#6x1"Fh WOODSCRE1J"6

I ' CUT BACK PANEL

TO FIT CASE OPENING

m

ATTACH BACK lAlfR

I

'\., 2\1,

INTTH';\," MRE BRADS

MISSION BOOKCASE

79


-

48

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CLEAT

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'"xl·x40'q" (MAKE lWO)

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fIT". :.----~

a.Y,,"SHANK HOLES

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\----- I·TI CASE BOTTOM 1" x l1y,," x 411,,.

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OVERSIZE SHANK HOLES

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FRONTRAJL

CROSS SECTlON

The next step is to add th~ ease top and bonam. First, glue up enough til-thick stock to make both panels ("\fJ8. 11 and ,2.~). Now, cut the case top (l,) 4" long-er and 2" wider (han the case (Fig. :!I). Rout chamfers on the top and boUom ('(lges (exceptthe back) (Pig. 21a). In the (ront, thc case lop is screwed to the front rail (refer to rig. :Ma). In the back it's secured with a deal. CLEAT. first, cut the deat (M) to lit between the back posts (Fi,q. 22). (Make two - you 'n use one for the bollom shelf later.) Then drill two sets of counterbored shank holes in the top cleat (Fig. 2.la). One set is used to allacb the deat flush with the top edge of the bac.k raiL The other will secure the top. A 14"-wide top will expand and contract quile a bit wilh seasonal changes in humidity. So rather than fight it, I decided to allow the panel some freedom to move by drilling oversize shank holes in the front rail. This way, the case top stays flush with the back of the case, but it can still expand toward the front without splitting-.

I

41%

®>---------, ROUT-)

see DETAIL a

~-----

CHAMFER AROUND FRONT EDGE

a-i I

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GLUE BOTTOM

• 80

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TOWARDS FRONT

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AlLOW TOP TO EXPAND

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OiAMFER TOP AND

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CASE TOP I" x 14" x48"

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MiSSiON PROJECTS

TO FRONT

APRON ONLY

DRILL OVERSIZE HOLES IN CLEAT SO BOTTOM EXPANDS TOWARDS BACK

,

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CROSS SECTION

The bottom of the case involves a bit more work than the top. Begin by cutting the case bottom (N) to fit between the side panels (A) (FifJ'~' z4 (wrl:!.?). NOTCHES. To fit in the case. eat.;h corner must be notched (Fig. i5). The notches at the fronl corners are J/s" wider (l"i/.<;") than the posts (Fig. 24). The notches at the back are only 1'1 wide (rig. .l.&-). This creates a tiny g-ap so the bottom can expand toward the back (refer to Fig. 26n). l\ote: To get a clean cuI, r first scored the notches with a razor knife. Then r used the miter gauge with an auxiliary fence and cut them with the panel st.anding on edge. GROOVE. The next step is to cut a groove on the case boUom to fit ovcr Ole front apron (Fir!. 24a). Then, rout a chamfer around the front. edR"c. ClEAT.I,ike the case top, the bottom requires a clcat (M) (Fig8. 23! and (!!i). But there are two differences. First., the cleat isn'lflush with the back rail. It's 1" down from the top. Also, the shank holes should be slightly oven;ized to allow for movement (Pig. ];;a).


D

DOOR DIVIDERS. All the dividers in

the doors arc more for appearance than anything else. 'lnal's because the glass for each door is installed in one large piece - not individual panes. To make the door dividers, first cut the l/:/'-thick horizontal dividers (R) and long vertical dividers (S) to fit between the rabbets in the frames (Fig.'!. 28 and ]9). Then cUllhc short vertical dividers (1). HALF LAPS. '1l1C dividers are joined to the door frame and to each other WiUI half laps (F(I}'3. 3&t and 28b). So first, I

You might want to add Lhe shelves next.. But t.o position the top shelf so it hides behind the divi(h~rs in the doors, it makes sense to build the doors first. FRAMES. To begin, cut l"·thick door stiles (0) and upper W) and lower door rails (Q) to fit the case opening (Fig. iW). Note: The final size of both doors should allow a 1116'1 gap between the case and the doors on all four sides. '111e door frames arc joined together with mortises and tenons (Fiy. 26). After each frame is assembled, rabbet the back for the gla;:;s (Fi.g. 97), l11en chisel the corners square.

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CUT MORTISES 2'/,,;" DEEP; 4" LONG

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AND MARK L00\TION OF MORTlSES

MITER FENCE

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FIRST: SET DIVIOERS IN RABBETS

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PEGS

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Note: Just rabbet. one short vertical dividers.

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UPPER

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rabbeted the ends of a11111c pieces.

t\cxt, I cuI halflaps in the horizontal dividers (Vig. 281J). Then I cUl llw mating half laps in the vertical pieces (on the face opposite the rabbet). DIVIDER ASSEMBLY, !\OW, glue the dividers together, Then set the assembly in the rabbets in the door frame and mark the location of each divider (Fig. 29). To ~et the assembly I1l1sh with Lhe front of the door, you'll need to cui mol'" tises in the rabbets (Fig. £9a), Once they fiL, glue them in place, PEGS. To complete the doors, pin each tenon with (wo door pegs (II) (Vig. 26). These are shaner than the side peR's, bUI still extend out 1/;;".

,

I

\.. DADO BLADE

1

'"I b. (j)/ SHORT VERTICAL DIVIDER

@--_. LONG VERTICAL DIVIDER

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ALL PIECES

J?" THICK

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®J HORIZONTAl DIVIDER

SECOND: CHISEL OUT MORTISE SO DIVIDERS ARE FLUSH WITH FRONT OF DOOR

THIRD: GLUE DIVIDER IN DOOR

MISSION BOOKCASE

81


At this point, the doors should lit with a lItG" gap between the case and each door. The doors still need to be trimmed though - 1 didn't allow for any gap between them yet. I found it easier to mount the doors firsl. Then come back later and remove and trim them to create the center gap. MOUNT HINGES. The baJl-tipped hinges 1 used created a l/lr,1l gap when mortised and mounted flush with the posts and the doors. To mount the hinges, first layout their locations on the posts and the doors (Fig. HO). Then cut out most of the waste with a router. And clean up the shoulders with a chisel. After drilling pilot holes, you can install the hinges and mount the doors in place (Fig. Bah). TRIM DOORS. Now the center stiles of each door can be trimmed. To do this, determine how much needs to be lrimmed to create a J/16" gap. Then, to keep the doors identical, I removed them and planer! the same amount off each door. (l used a hand plane, but a joinler will also work.) ADD CATCHES. >Jext, reattach the doors and mount the catches to hold them closed. Since any door can have a tendency to twist, I installed double-ball catches at both the top and bottom of each door (Fig!!. .'100, and gOe). REMOVE DOORS. To add the door pulls and the glass, I found it easicst to remove the doors once again. But first, I marked thc position of the horizontal dividers on the inside faces of the corner Jlosts (Fig. 80). (Later, these marks will show you where to position the top shelf.) ADD DOOR PULLS. At this point I added the door pulls. To do this, first I cut a mortise in the front of each door to accept a pull (Fig. 310,). 'l1wn I made my own door pulls (V) (see the Shop Tip box on the opposite pagc) and glued them into the mortises. GLASS STOPS. !Ill that's left to add to the doors is the glass. Of course you don't want to add the glass until after the case has been filli"hed, but now is a good time to cut the glass Sh)11>; (W). 'l1lC glass stops are cut to finished dimensions of :IN' x 'J/8". Then a 45° chamfer is cut along one comer to provide a flat face to nail 5!R"~long wire brads into (Pi(j. 320,). 82

MISSION PROJECTS

The safest way to make these glass stops is to start with an extra·wide (lIN') blank and rout the chamfer first. Then come back and rip the pieces to final width (%") off the waste side of the blade. The glass stops are mitered at the

corners (Pig. ,12). It's tougher to remove mitered stops later, but they look belter than butt joints. To determine the correct lell~>1.hs, I find it's cw,iest to measure for each one individually and then creep up on the linal cut until they just fit.

fIf

a. ~2"HINGE

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DOOR

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AND STILES

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CATCHES BENEATH FRONT RAIL

CROSS SECTION

III


ROUT%." ,

At this point, you're almost done with the bookcase. The shelves are all that are kft. They rcst on spoon-style shelf pins that lit into shelf standards. SHELF STANDARDS. To make the stan· dards, start by cutting four 5/a"-thick shelf standnrds (X) to fit between the top and bottom side rails (Fig. ,J;J). Note: Add 2'1 for the rabbets that will be cut on the cnds. !\OW, cut a 1'I-long rabbet on both ends of cach standard (Fig. JSa). Set the standards in place and mark the position of the Lop shelI (Fi,q. ''/4). (It should line up behind the horizontal door dividers.) SHELF PIN HOLES. Before attaching the standards to the sides, drill the holes for the shelf pins (Fig. 33). (You can drill additional holes if you want. This will allow you to adjust the positions of the shelves later.) SHELVES. For the shelves 00, glue up three 1"-Ulick shelf blanks and cut them to length so they fit loosely between the corner posts (1/16'1 less) (Fig. .14). To determine the width of the

, Stickley's furniture compan)1 made all of its own hardware. While Ididn't make my own hinges or door catches for the bookcase, I did make the wooden door pulls. The pulls are cut from an extra-long blank of 3/4 "thick cherry (Fig. 1). The extra length makes the blank safer to work with.

""""

ClfT HANDLES FROM BorH ENDS OF BLANK

~:; ~~~ ®~) DOOR PUU BLANK xl0" ROUGH

W~4·

CHAMFERS~---;:"--lll

SHELF STANDARD 'ill" x I" ~4Sy,-

® '---

shelves, measure from the rabbet for the baek panel to the back of the door. Then subtract IN'. In my case, this came out to be 105N'. Note: The important thing is that the shelves aren't tight against the back of the door.

.. . . . . . . . . . .

The first step in shaping the pulls is to rout a chamfer around each end of the blank (Fig. 2). Next, rout a cove around each end using a '12" -dia. core box bit (Fig. 3). Now, before cutting the pulls from the blank, form tenons to fit the mortises in the doors (Fig. 31a on the opposite pagel.

,.

CHAMFER I

"--

ROUTER TABLE FENCE

Finally, chamfer the top and bol1.om cd,lol'cS of the shelves and set each of them in place. BACK PANEL. The last step Oil the bookcase before finishing is to install the back panel that you cut earlier. To • do this, 1used SIBil wire brads.

Shop-8U1lt Door Pulls Since the tenon is in the middle of the blank and not at the end, this cut looks a little odd. Just cut or rout dadoes around the blank (Fig. 4). All that's left now is to sand the pulls smooth and cut them from the blank.

Then glue them into the mortises in the doors.

w

CUT TENON TO

ROUT FINGER RECESS

MORTISE IN

MATCH

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"-CHAMFER BIT

, y," CORE BOX BIT

III

, , 'Yo".WIDE DADO BLADE

MISSION BOOKCASE

83


, nc of the strongest joints you'U find on a project is a mortise and tenon. Aml a through mortise and tenon joint not only gives you a strong joint. but a decorative onc as well. vVhen the tenon is glued into the mortise, the tWQ fitlogelher like the handle in the head of a hammer (see photo). The end grain on the tenon is a decorative contrast to the long grain on the sides of the mortise. PERFECT FIT. The main reason for gluing a long tenon into an open mortise is usually appearance. And for the best appearance, the parts of the joint have to be cut perfectly. If there arc allY gaps where the tenon comes out of the mortise, it. will be apparent - but it probably won't be the look you were expecting. That's why I follow a specific sequence when cutling a through mortise and tenon. SEQUENCE. Does that mean a through monise and tenon joint is made differently than a traditional blind mortise and tenon? Not exactly. The mortise is usually cut first, thcn the tenon is cut to fit the mortise. So far, no difference. But because the fit of the joint is so importanl, T take a couple extra steps as is explained on the following pages. Note: Sometimes there's a good reason to reverse the sequence and cut the tenon first. (The Mission bookcase is an example. Refer to page 76.) But the cutting operation is the samc. OPTIONS. like an ordinary mortise and tenon joint, a through mortise and tenon joint has some options. For one, the leg is oflen thicker than the rail (sec photo above and the drawing at right). But this is primarily a design decision - the parts could just as well be the same thickness. And how far beyond the leg should the tenon stick out? It could be flush to the outside of the leg (right in photo) or stand a little proud with chamfered edges (left in photo). Again, it's mostly a design decision. finally, a through mortise and tenon joint is often pinned with small wood pegs through the checks of the tenon Oeft in photo). In the past this was done to lock the tenon in the mor¡tise to creatc a stronger joint. But with thc improved glues available today, the 84

MISSION PROJECTS

Through Mortise and Timon

pegs are mostly for appearance. (See page 79 for more on installing pegs.)

There's more to a lhrough mortise and tenon joinl than one I)iece of wood sticking through another. U the parts fit together properly, the joint is strong in several directions. And of course, it looks good too. The load-bearing strength of the joint comes from the bottom edge of the

tenon resting in the bottom of the mortise (see drawing). It's what supports a panel in a frame or a top on a table. The shoulders around the tenon give the joint resistance to racking and twisting - and hide imperfections. Probably the strongest: part of a through mortise and tenon joint is the lit between the checks of the tenon and the cheeks of the mortise. When prop" erly glued, the bond between the cheeks of the two pieces will produce a joint that's practically unbreakable.

,

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I/ I

MORTISEO PIECE

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LENGTH

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LENGTI1

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WIDTH

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SHOULDER

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CUTTIN

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The key to culling a perfect through mortise is uniformity. The tenon opening should have very straight edges to fit tight around the tenon. Here are a couple lips - and

aguide - to make cutting a perfecr mortise easier. LAY OUT ENDS. I start by laying out (marking) the mortise on the outside face of the workpiece (Step 1). To do this, first usc a try square and a sharp pencil to draw a line indicating the Lop and bottom edges of the mortise. Then

use a square to extend these lines around to the opposite (inside) face. MARK SIDES. Next, I mark the sides of the mortise. And for the most accuracy on the sides, I don't use a pencil. Instead, I make the marks using a chisel, a mallet and a shop-made guide

~~--

block (Step I). (Again, make the marks slivers from the edges of the mortise. on the face of the workpiece where the Now you should be able to sec the end of the tenon will show.) outline of a perfectUlrough mortise. All The ~uide block I use is simply a that's left is to clean out the waste. squared-up wood block with a shallow BORE HOLES. At this point the morrabbet cut along one edge. As simple as tise could be chopped out. by ham\. But it is. the block is surprisingly helpful. it saves a lot of time (especially for deep The block helps to mark a perfectly morlises) to rough out most of the straight line Cor the sides of the mortise. waste using the urill press (Step ii). To rough out the mortise, I usc a And after the mortise has been roughed out with a drill bit, it helps hold a chisel Forstner bit IlmoUa than the width of straight up for cleaning up the mortise. the mortise and drill a series of overlapSETTING OUT. There's a lrick Tuse to ping holes between the score marks. help ensure crisp, clean edges on a Note: For the cleanest mortise, bore through mortise. The trick is called halfway from each side (Step .I). "setting out." CHISEL CLEAN. 'Inc overlapping holes To set out a mortise, first chop will leave a series of ~ripples" in the straight down Oll the chisel holding the mortise. To remove these ripples and back of the chisel tight to the guide also complete the mortise, I use a chisel block (Step 1). and the guide block to pare the sides of After marking the perimeter of the the mortise (Step .'5). (Again, work from mortise, remove the guide block and both sides.) Finally, \0 insert the tenon more make a second angled chisel cut thal intersects with the Jln;t (Slep 2). easily, I like to "back cut" the mortise Then remove all the lillie three-sided slightly (Step 5a).

SETOVT PERIMETER OF MORTISE

CHISEl GUIDE BLOCK

~G

a.

CHISEL SHAllOW TROUGH

AROUND PERIMETER OF MORTISE

WITH CHISEL AND EDGE GUIDE

First mark ends of the mortise using a try square and pencil. Then make a block for marking the sides with a chisel.

After scoring sides with a chisel, "set out" the mortise by chiseling a slight bevel inside score lines. Set out ends too.

Rough out mortise by drilling a series of holes inside the score lines. Use a Forstner bit smaller than the mortise.

a.

CHISEL GUIDE HElPS CUT STRAIGHT

FACEr: ""OS."E=Dlodll-2~=:'l1n

SHOUI.DERS

CLEAN UP CHEEKS ON ALL FOUR SIDES OF MORTISE

Finish roughing out the mortIse from the opposite side of the workpiece. But keep the same face against the fence.

Complete the mortise by chiseling the sides of the mortise smooth and flat. Use the guide block to keep the chisel

-~-

CHISEL '-- SLIGHT BEVEL

straight up and down. After cutting from both sides of the mortise, chisel a slight bevel from the'good face. MISSION BOOKCASE

85


CUTT A tenon can come in any shape or size. But there's only one thing that counts how well it fit" in a

mortise. One of the easiest ways to cut a tenon is 10 usc a dado blade in the table saw. And to help set up the saw just right, I start by cutting a tenon on a lest. piece. (l;sc a piece of wood that's the same thickness and width as the actual workpiece.) TEST THICKNESS. To begin work on the tenon, raise the dado blade and make a shallow cut across one end

--

-.-TEST PIECE IS SAME THICKNESS AS ACTUAL PIECE

AUXIUARY FENCE

ON MrTER GAUGE --_. --

-

-

--J TEST PIECE

r7â&#x20AC;˘

,.'1

;,

II

â&#x20AC;˘ Begm cutting the tenon on a test piece. Sneak up on thickness of tenon by adjusting height of the dado blade.

HOLD PIECE ON EDGE C:::::,~i.(;" TO COMPlETE I TENON

(5l(,11 1). Then flip the piece and make a second pass on the opposite face.

Note: for the most control - and the cleanest cut - I cui tenons using the miter gauge with an auxiliary fence attached. This helps prevent chipoul as the blade exits the workpiece. Now check the test tenon in one or the completed mortises (Step 2). The idea is to sneak up on the height of the blade until the end of this short tenon fits the mort.ise perfectly - not too tight and not too loose. CUT CHEEKS. \Vhcll the thickness of the tenon is set, the tenon can be cut to length (Sle-p S). To do this, I again use the miter gauge and auxiliary fcnce. But this time the rip fence on the table saw is llsed as a stop. Position the rip fence so the distance between the outside of the dado blade and the fence equals the desired length of the tenon. Now, cut the tenon by making several passes over the dado blade for each cheek. CUT SHOULDERS. The last thing to do is cut the tenon to the desired width. You may have to chang(: the hcight of the dado blade to determine this width. Note: Again, r test the height first by making cuts near the end of a test piece of the same width. To keep the position of t.he tenon shoulder consistenl all the way around the workpiece. [ used the same fence selup as I did when cUlting the tenon cheeks. The only difference is that the workpiece is stood on edge now as it passes over the blade (StepJ). 86

MISSION PROJECTS

Test the fit of the tenon in a mortise. If the tenon is too tight, raise the height of the dado blade and cut again.

USE MITER GAUGE TO GUIDE WQRKPIEG

When the blade is adjusted for the correct thickness, cut the tenon to the desired length. Use the fence as a stop.

Now the tenon can be cut to width. Don't move the fence, but the height of the blade may need to be adjusted.


Removing the doors and using blind mortise and tenon joints makes for a simpler version ofthe Mission Bookcase. The one shown here is also shorter than the original.

----r-r-

'Ille basic construction of this short

opell version is virtually the same as for the Iull Mission Bookcase. The main

I

difference is that. the size and number of some of the parts differ, and none of the

-

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--.

.

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y,," SHElf PI N HOLES

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1

11

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CHANGED PARTS A Side Par.els (4) B Panel Cores (2) C Post.s(4) D Top Side Rdib (2)

E Btm. Side Rails (2) G Front Rail (ll K Bild: Panel (1) V Shelves (2)

''''i

(similar to those on the front rail) because the shelf standards (X) are removed (Fig. 1). Now you can drill shelf pin holes directly into the posts.

MAnRJALS UST

~

~ "-1\10

.i

% ply - 9 31;6 X33)/16 'Is hdbd. - 9)116 x 33>;,& l%x 13/4 -47 1 x 3'12 -11 1 x g'l< - 11

Note: Do not need partsO,EQ.R,S, r; U, V. W, X, hinges, door catches, or glass panes.

% x4'/~ -42% lid ply -41 1h x 38'1; 1 x11'h-<1rh

~.i ._~_2

:1 w

a·c.....•1 .' ;~::.,

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front rail (G) and shelves (Y) are made wider to extend to the front of the bookcase Wig. 2). The shelves win need notches on their rronl and back corners

Ii' cr-~{.,

.

r'

.... .. lr---_. OPEN BOOKCASE

:

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-- ~/-i

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use blind tenons on the fronts of the rails (D, E) identical totheoncson their backs (Fig. I). This makes each rail slightly shorter (11 '1 ). '[lIe posts (C) also need to be shortened for this clesi~n. TIley an' now cut 10 a length of 47 11 (Fig. 1). And their mortise:; arc shallower (l5!Jli" deep) to ,KeepL the shorter lenons on the rails, The back panel (K) is once again cut Lo fit the rabbets in the back of the case. (Mine ended up 38 1/l high,) Finally, since there are no doors, the

~.....

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L1

To make this version simpler. you can

A

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First, the side panels (A) and panel corcs (B) are cUl to a length of ;-):)3/1(," (Fig. 1). ([heir width is tile same.)

1\10

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overall height wjJl be 11 u shorter (48 1').

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hardware or parts for the doors arc needed (see Materials List). Note: 'l11C width and depth of thi" bookcase will remain the same, but the

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NOTE: 1'7Y,"·DEEP MORTISES ON BOTH FRONT AND BACK LEGS

Jt/ CHAMFER FRONT EDGES -h;>"

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MISSION BOOKCASE

87


â&#x20AC;¢


T

he term "country" suggests a straightforward, pmct.ical st.yle of furniture. Typica!ly made from pine boards, it has a "dmvn-home" feel. So it Illay be surprising ro see a coat rack made from onk.

Its simple, decorative curves and traditionc"ll pegs give it a distinctly coumry look. There's also a painted pine version.

Knotty pine is the perfect m<lterial for the high back bench and jdly cupboard. Both projects offer options that let you chnnge the kx)k without changing their chann. But not 8ll pine is knotty. Using clear pine for the dove-

tail chest highlights the hand-cur dovemils. Or for a dif~

ferenr look,

tl)'

the frame-aod-panel version.

Coat and (-'love Rack Designer's Notebook: Square Pegs 92 Shop Tip: Hanging System ••..•.•......•...•.... 94 Designer's Notebook: Milk Paint/Aging:...•.•••..•.• 9S

High-Back Bench Shop Tip: Spacing Slats ..•...•......•.•••••..... 98 Designer's Notebook: Heart Cutout .........•..•.. 99 Shop Tip: Mortises With a Jig Saw ....•.....•••.. 100 DesiKflcr's Notcbook: UnJer~Seat StOr<lgc .....••... 102 Finishing: Milk Paint ..................•.•••.. 104

Jelly Cupboard Shop Tip: Routing Custom-Fit Dadoes ........•... 108 Shop lip: Clamping with Wedges .......•...•.... 109 Designer's Notebook: Wood Raised Panels •...•••.. 113

Dovetail Chest Shop Tip: Sanding Flush •.•••..••••..••••.•••.. 117 Shop Jig: Flush Trim Jig ..•.................... 117 Finishing Tip: Shellac .....•.............••...• 119 Joinery: Hand-Cut Dovetails .••....•.•....•..... 120 Designer's Notebook: Frame and Panel Chest .•..... 124


Coat and Glove Rack Hang coats and mittens or cups and linens on this rack that features additional storage behind its door. Choose a finish that highlights the wood, or try one that turns your rack into an "instant antique." â&#x20AC;˘

hen I started building this project, I never considered haJlging anything more than my coats and hats on it. But when a friend saw it, she insisted I build one for her. And she wanted to know if I cou Id make it look like a wcll,used antique (more about that in a moment). JOINERY. The cOIlstruction of the coat and R"love rack is very simple. '111e shelves both sit in dadoes in the sides

and are then screwed in place. And the back pieces are screwed to the shelves.

DOOR. TIle only trick to this country coaL rack is tittingthc door. How do you get a uniform gap around each side? I

started with the Rap at the bottomil's determined by the depth of the

hing-c mortises. Then after the bottom 90

COUNTRY PROJECTS

gap is set, creat.ing the other gaps is just a matter of trimming the door to size. HANGING SYSTEM. The rack itself doesn't weigh that much, buL when it's full of coats you want to know it will stay put. So the back is beveled and this bevel then locks into a mating cleat screwed to the wall (refer to the Shop Tip on page 94). It's strong and makes it. easy to position the rack. fiNISHES. On the oak versioll showll here, 1used an oil/varnish combination to let the wood grain show throuJ.{h. My friend wanted a more ~country" look, so 1 built he~ out of pine. And to make it a bit more rustic, I tried milk paint for a finish. (DIe Technique box

on page 104 tells you how to usc milk paint) Then, to make it look like it had seen years of use, I distressed the wood and finish. You can sec the results (am\ Jearn more about doing this) in the Desi,gner's Notebook Oil page 95. HARDWARE ANO PATTERNS. A hardware kit, as well as fun-size patterns for the sides and the back, are available from Woodsmilfl flrojrct Sllppi'im;. For more information, other sources, and finishing supplies, see page t 26.


EXPLODED VIEW OVERALL DIMENSIONS:

36W x 90 x 16H

SIDE@ 4dFINISH~

NAIL

\

-!.

~--:::-

.........

MOLDING

HANGING

CLEAT

_--

CD

STRIP

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I

@ DOOR

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I

2" x 1%." 'UTI HINGE

DOOR KNOB

1'-, 3," SHAKER

PEG

#8x 1WFh

WOODSCREW

MATERIALS UST

CUTTING DIAGRAM

WOOD

A Sides (2)

%x8%-16

B Top Shc!f (1)

'10; 71fl - 34 1h

C Bottom ShelUl) o Molding Strip (1) E BilCk(l) F Hdnging Cleat(ll G PegRail(l) H Door(l)

% x 7111 - 33lf? '14 x·% - 60 rough

%x7'/4-33'/2 Y4X 1//8-32 -'lf4 x 6% - 33'/J 1;4X4%-32%

HARDWARE SUPPLIES (24) NO.8 x 1'12· Fh woodscrews (2) 2" x 1%" butt hinges wI screws

(1) Magnetic catch and plate wI screws (6) 3'h· Shaker pegs (1) '"oClkdoorknobw/screw (10) J/s' oakflat-topplug5

114) 4d(l'h")fini,hnails

lJ< x 9Y., - 72 (5 Bd.

Ft.)

11:::::::;;===' ===~~ \:oF COAT AND GLOVE RACK

91


NOTE: CUT DAOOES TO MATCH THICKNESS OF STOCK

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WCOUNTER-- BORE

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\, CENTER HOLES ON DADOES (SEE DETAIL b)

The country coat rack is held tOR'ether by the sides (A). Start by cutting two blanks roughly 8112" wide. Then cut them to aIinished len~,'lh of 16'1 (Pig. I). CUT DADOES. The shelve:; fit into W'deep dadoes cut ill the blanks (Fig.lb). Position the first dado SIN' from t.he bottom edge, the second 10'12". CUT RABBETS. After clItting the dadoes, cut the rabbets for t.he back pieces. They're cut along the inside back edge of each blank W(q. Ja). Next, cut the side blanks to linished

=cS,=--_p If you want. to add another interesting detail to the coat rack, try using square pegs instead of round plugs to fill the screw counterbores. '1he square plugs stand a bit "proud" of the surface. • To make square pegs, first cut a %"SQuare blank to a rough length of 18T'. • Next, using a disc sander, shape each end of the blank Lo a slight pyramid (Fig. 1). 1llcn cut off a peg about %" long from each em!. • Repeat this procedure until you have enough pegs to fiJI all the holes. • TIle pegs will fit easier if you round their boltom edges with sandpaper. • Next, carefully square up the screw

COUNTRY PROJECTS

~

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width (8lf4") (Fig . .I). Doing this after cutting the dadoes deans UI) any chipout. Just be sure to trim off the front edges - not the rabbeted edges. SCREW HOLES. To screw the shelves 10 the sides, you'llnC(.'(/ to drill Yg''-dia. counterbores. They're centered on the width of each dado (/"i!r~. { and lb). (Ine counterbores are filled with plugs later.) Then, drill a 3f16T'-dia. shank hole Lhrough each counterbore. CUT SHAPE. '1'0 cut an identical shape on both sides (A), tape them together wilh carpet tape (dadoes facing in). Now layout Ole curved pattern on

~-f;

(

STO' ROUNDOVER 1" >ROM SHElf LEDGE

USE

BACKING BOARD

,I 1

0 0 0

fi

With the sides complete, I began on Lhe shelves. '1'0 make the top shelf look as if it extends through lhe sides, I adJed molding strips on the fronl and sides.

l

ANGLE CHISEL __ FOR TAPERED;1 HOlE

SCRAP FOR

.

one face anl! cut just out.side the lines (Fig. 2). Then J usecl a drum sander anl! file to linish the shape. ROUND OVER EDGES. To complete the sides, I routed W' roundoverson all the exposed edges excepl the back. Note: To prevent gaps, don't round over Ole edges where noted in Pig. 2((.

holes using a small chisel (Fig. 2). Finally, place a drop of glue in each hole and spread it around the sides of the hole. (A straightened paper clip works well for this.) Then gently lap the pegs in place.

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CUT TO SIZE. To begin, rip the lOP shelf (B) and bottom shell (C) to width. To find the width, measure the length of the lower dado on a side (A) (Figs. ,J and 4). Start from the shoulder of the back rabbeL. (Mine were 7ljz" wide.) Next, cut the bolto1U shelf (C) to lengtll (33W') (!,1ig. ~). Then damp the shelf between the two sides (A) and measure from the outside face of one side to the outside of the olher. 'Illis will be the length of the top shell (C) (34!N 1 in my case) (Pig. ,<]). TOP SHELF. The top shelI extends across the front edge of each side, so cut a notch out of each back corner (Fig. 3). The length of this notch equals the len,l(th of the Lop dado in the sides (A). (Again, measure from lhe shoulder of the back ~abbeL) At this point, I drilled pilot holes for the door catch (Fig. 3). Inset the door catch a distance equal to the thickness of the door rl1l.B the catch plate. I attached tllC plate to Ihe catch and positioned them 'J!4" in from the front edg-c. BOTTOM SHELF. Next, 1 went back to the bottom shelf. First, layout the locations of the hinge mortises (Fig. 4). r wanted a uniform 1/161' gap around the door. If the hinges were mounted flush wilh the surface, the gap between the shelf and the door would be about %". So r cut the mortise on the shelf a little deeper - to half the thickness of the hinge barrel (f'ig. .4u). After the mortises arc cut, drin pilot holes for the screws. Then, round over the front bottom cdge (Fig. 4U). ASSEMBLY. At this point, dryassemble the shelves (B, C) and sides

W TAPERED

( - PlUGUG

rn-

~

NOTCH ENDS TO FIT SIDE OADOES

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,

CENTER MAGNETIC -

CATCH

BOTTOM SHELf

©_

C¥." rHICK)

DRill. PILOT HOLES PRIOR / _ TO ASSEMBLY-------=::

.,

_----::

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(A), and drill pilot holes into the shelves (Fig. "i). Then glue and screw lhe shelves between the sides. To prevent the top shelf from cupping' at the front, 1 also drilled and screwed the shelf to the sides from the top (Figs.:"j and ,"ju). Then r plugged all the screw holes except those covered by the molding strips. MOLDING. 'Inc molding strips cover the edges of the top shelf. (Thc thick· nesses of each should match.) r started by rounding over the front edg'cs of the

If

-

v." ROUNDOVER

'" ;J

HALF THE THICKNESS OF HINGE BARREL

4d FINISH NAILS'"""

WITH BACK EDGE

:(

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I

molding strips (D) (Fig. 6). 'l1len I cut one 40'1-long strip, plus two 101'-long strips. For the best fit at the mitered corners, I cut the front piece firsl so the distance between the short points equals the length of the top shelf (Fig. 6). Afler the front strip is glued on, miter the other strips to fit on the sides. But glue the strips only to the shelf, not the sides. Then nail the strips on with 1d (ll/zll) finish nails (Fig. 6). lois allows lhe sides 10 expand and contract.

TRIM SIDE

~

/

3N'-wide

,.<; STRIPS flUSH

!

a. b~-'~=f!J"t·~ MORTISE IS

v.."ROUNDOVER ON BOTTOM EDGE, STOPPING l?" FROM EACH END

SHELVES MUST BE flUSH WITH SHOULDERS OF RABBETS

a.

118 ~ lYl Fh >MJOOSCREW

NOTE.: POsmON CATCH TO AlLOW FOR Tl-lICKNESS OF CATCH f'LATE AND DOOR

ON SHELF

9

~

--------"'\

w COUNTERBORE

Yo" DEEP

" ,. /®", ..

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".

SHANK HOLE

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BLEND IN --- ROUNDOVERS WITH FILE

F" ,/

y.," RO\JNDOVERS

ON TOP AND BOTTOM

OF STRIPS

GLUE SlDE/'-!.".-, STRIPS AT FRONT ENOS ONLY

CQAT AND GLOVE RACK

91


BACKS

&)[}{]@!P '[J(]L')

Instead of one wide back for the coat rack, it's two separate pieces. The gap between the pieces allows the coat rack to hang on a beveled cleat. See the Shop Tip at right for details. BACK. The hanRing cleat (F) is originally parl of the back (E). Start by ripping the piece to a rough width of 9W 1• Next, cui it to length to fit between the rabbets in the sides CA). 'Then tilt the table saw blade to 45 0 and rip the back to a width of 7W ' (Pig. 8). The waste piece is used for the hanging cleat. CURVES. The next step is to layout the curve on the back side of the back (E) (Figs. 7 and 8). Then rough out the curve with a band saw or jig- saw. I used a drum sander to smooth up to the line. PEG RAIL. The peR" rail (G) makes up the lower half of the back (Fig. 10). To determine the width of this piece, mea~ure from the top edge of the bottom shelf to the bottom of the side pieces (6lf4") (Fif}. fJ). Like lhe back, it filS between the mbbds (33 Ih" long). DRILL PEG HOLES. After the peg rail is cut to size, drill holes for the coat pegs

r

Here's how the hanging system works. First, the back is cut to finished length. Next, a beveled cleat is ripped from one edge of the back. Then screw the cleat to a pair of studs in the wall. After it's finished, hang the shelf on the cleat so the mating bevels interlock. Note: This same system can be easily adapted for other styles of shelves or wall-hung cabinets.

l

( ®

HANGING

CLEA,

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STOP ROUNDOVER

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AUGNPAmRN "§~!tl~WlTH CENTERUNE _-= ON BAG< SIDE

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----..: 32-___

HMIGING ClEAT

ON SHELVES :

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BACK

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COUNTRY PROJECTS

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4d FINISH

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....-:::--BLEND ROUNOOVER

r

~HAKER -PEG /'

94

,

Note: To prevent any gaJlS where the back pieces fit into the rabbets, stop the roundovers IN' from the ends of each piece. ATTACH BACKS. Now. drill countersunk screw hoks through the back pieces and into the shelves (Fig. ]0). 111cn screw the top and bottom into the shelves. To hold the backs in tight. I nailed them into thc rabbets as well.

®

a.

ON BOTTOM EDGE. STOPPING \7" FROM EACH END

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CENTER SCREV\iS

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WALL SlUD

Yl FROM EDGE

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NOTE: AUGN THI~ ED:GE WITH CENTE"RLINE -,---ON WORJ<PIECE

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EACH SQUARE rEQUALS 1"

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7%

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(Fig. 9). Center these holes on a line drawn 2 3N' from the boltom euj.{c. Begin with a hole centered ;{'I from the end of the piece. Then drill the remaining five holes at 5112" intervals (center to center). ROUT BACKS. Next, I routed a %" roundovcr along the nppa front edge of the back (E) (Fig. lia) and the tOWel" front edge of the peg rail (G) (Fig. 9).

BAa< HALf.4>ATTERN

~

Hanging System

BLENO ROUNDOVERS ON FRONT EDGE -_

" _____


Note: To avoid splitting the wood, I drilled pilot holes and used 4d finish nails, angling them slightly. BLEND ROUNDOVERS. Some of the roundovcrs 011 lhe sides (A) and the backs (E, G) were stopped short so there wouldn't be gaps at the joints. Now that these pieces are assembled, you can finish rounding them over with

CENTER DOOR IN

OPENING AND MARK HINGE lOCATIONS

=

,

-_"::::~'%;~,--

a file (Figs. Ga aJ/cllO).

,

MORTISE IS CATCH~ All that's left is the door. It should have a THIO<NESS OF Nore "-'TE HINGE lEAF BEVEL DOOR SUGHTlY consistent gap around each side. To ,get TO CLEAR SHELf_ this, I Cllt the door to 6\ tight and WHEN CLOSING trimmed it for an even gap later. CUT DOOR, Start by measurin,g the DOOR SHOULD BE CUT opening and cut the door (H) to fit. .. TO PRODuce A UNIFORM Then rip it I/Wll narrower than the / ' - ··GAPAROUNDOP€NING I height of the opening so you can close the door when the hinges arc mounted. - --;.low, screw the hinges to the bottom shelf. Then, clamp the door to them and mark their position (Fiy. 10. Note: The door should be centered across the opelling. CUT MORTISES. Next, cut the hinge mortises on the door edR"c (Fiy. Ua). TIlese mortises can be cut lo the thickness of the hinge leaf. the door and trim its top and sides. DOORKNOB AND CATCH. Finally, drill TRIM DOOR. Arter mounting the Then soften the edges with sandpaper. pilot holes for the catch plate and door door, measure the gap along the bottom Note: When trimming the top edge, knob (I<''i,qIS. 11 and 12). Then apply a and mark the door's top and sides so cu!: a slight bevel so the inside cdg-e of finish to the coat rack and mount the they'll have uniform gaps. ;.Iext, remove the door will dear the shelf. • catch, pegs, .md door knob.

~

For tips on applying milk paint, see the Finishing article on pages 104-105. To give the coat rack a worn appearance, sand some of the edges after painting, ann round the corners thai' would get the most wear. To distress the wood and finish more, add dings and scratches. But do a little bit at a time - it can be overdone.

COAT AND GLOVE RACk

9S


High--Back Bench Choose from several options to make the bench you want. It can be built with or without storage under the seat, with your choice ofdesigns in the back, and finished with astain or milk paint.

robably the first thing you notice aboullhis bench is all the curves. Anel you may wonder how to cut these on such large panels. Actually, it's easy to do with a pattern, ajigsaw, and a bit of sanding. V-GROOVE. But there's another feature that helps give this high back

bench iL,> old-fashioned look. That's the V-R"roove between the boards in each panel. It highlights all of the jointsinstead of hiding them.

[ used two techniques to cut these grooves. Since the back of the bench is

made up of individual boards that arcn 'r glued together, the edges of the boards 96

COUNTRY PROJECTS

are chamfered before assembly. Then they're held together with cleats. But the scat and sides are glued-up panels. It's casier to cut these grooves after gluing up each paneL I did this on a table saw with the blade tilted to 45°. WOOD. I used %"-Lhick No. 2 Ponderosa pine for most of the bench, and straight-grained lIIt"-thick stock for the supports under the seat. FINISH OPTIONS. I actually built two benches just so , could tryout a different finish on each of them. The first bench (shown above) was stained to give the deep color that a hundred-year-old bench would have

acquired over time. To do this, I first applied a scaler to help the pine absorb the stain evenly. Then I used a 50/50 blend of a golden oak color mixed with a maple stain. For the top coat, I used two coat."l of a salin finish clear sealer. On the second bench, I used milk paint, a finish that's been used since colonial times. (You can see this bench on page 104.) After a bit of "distressing," this finish helps the bench look like an authentic antique. DESIGN OPTION. To make YOllr bench even more useful, the Designer's Notebook on page 102 shows how to build it with under¡seat storage.


EXPLODED VIEW OVERAll DIMENSIONS: 52W x 200 x 47H

a. TOP CLEAT

--.---'© TOP ClEAT

REAR SLATS

©-'1,

"'=-.-'" -',

(D---

@, ---

@

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BACK SLATS

BACK SLATS

FRONT SLATS

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,

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CD

SEAT SLAT

-@ SIDE SUPPORT

",m,

SUPPOl\T

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CD

fRONTIBACK SUPPORTS

CROSS SECTION

CUTTING DIAGRAM If. x s%· 72

(f;~ Roard~ @2.aad.

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MATERIALS LIST WOOD

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A Back Slats (10) %x5-34% B BtmJCtr Cleats (2) Y~x5-52 C Top Cleat (1) 3f4 xl'h-14 o Apron (1) F G H I J K

7-52 YdS-24

3/4X

E Front Slats (II) Rear Slats (4)

%x5-42

(orner Blocks (2)

1'12x1%-6%

Seat Slats (4)

%x5-50

Center Supporl (1)

l'hxPh-ll%

Side Supports (2) 1112x'"h-13 /4 ' Fr.lBk. Supports (2) 1'/,x1'11-47

HARDWARE SUPPLIES (46) No. R x 1111 ' Fh woodsaews (69) No.8 x 2' Fh woodscrcws

117 x 5h - 60 (3.4 ad. Ft.)

E§",,,!,,,,,,gum!:!;,,uWfffl2W~ HIGH-BACK BENCH

97


I started work on the bench by building the back. The back consists of len slats supported by two cleats - much like a picket fence. BACK SLATS. I ripped t.he ten back slats (A) to width from %"-thick boards (Fig. i) and cut them 31:lj4'llong. Kext, to give the bench a traditional look, I routed IN' chamfers on the long edges of each slat (Fig. :laY. (Don't chamfer the ends.) BOTTOM AND CENTER CLEATS. To make the bottom and center cleats (B), first rip two boards 5" wide (Fig. 1). Then. cut them to length. Note: The cleats are 2" longer than the combined width of aU the back slats. In my case, Lhey were 52" long. The ends of the cleats serve as through tenons. To dress them up a little, I routed a 114" chamfer around both ends of each cleat (Fif!. 20). BACK ASSEMBLY. Once the cleats arc chamfered, the back can be assembled. To ensure the proper distance across the back, Ilrst position the two o'ttt.~idf: slats 50'1 apart measured from outside edge to outside edge (F'i,q. 2). Next, place the bottom deat on top of the two slats (Fig. 2). 'l1,en, adjust the position of the cleat so it overhangs the side of each slat by II', ann is flush with the bottom end of each slat. Use only one screw ateaeh cleat/slat point for now - you'll drive the second screw after the frame is square. 'Ilte center deat can be attached the same way. Position it 13Vl up [rom the lop edg-e ofthe bottom deat Wig. Z). ~ow, square up the frame and install a second screw at each joint. Then attach the remaining slats, working from the outside in. Sec the Shop Tip at riR"ht for a tip Oil doinR this. TOP CLEAT. Finally, cut a small top deal (e) to size (Fig. I). later. this cleat helps support the two cenLer slats after you've cut a design in the back. But before the cleat is screwed in place, the patterns in the back are laid out and cut

To add a bit of country flair to the back, I cut a double curve along the top edge and a diamond in the center of the back. (An alternate hearl~shaped cutout is shown in the Designer's Kotebook on the opposite page.) 98

COUNTRY PROJECTS

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AS SHOWN IN DETAIL a

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CENTER CLEAT

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BOTTOM VIEW

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CLEATS OVERHANG BACK SLATS BY 1"

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0GO::W W . .. . . . . . Spacing Slats If you build the bench in a dry shop, each S· -wide slat may swell across its width by about 1%, or as much as 3/64 • as the humidity increases. So attach them to the cleats with a gap this size between them. To space the slats evenly and consistently, I used playing cards as spacers. The thickness of three cards is just about the right amount of space.

Note: You may have to trim the width of a few of the inside slats and rechamfer the edges.


BACK PATTERN. To shape the back as symmetrically as possible, first draw the balf-pattern fu 11 size on a piece of l/.-:"-thick hardboard to be used as a template (Fig. 3). Then cut and sand the hardboard template to finished shape. SHAPING THE BACK. Now the pattern can be traced onto the back side of the back. To do this, trace around the template onto one half of the back. Flip the template over to the opposite half and trace it again. Notc: I worked rrom the back side becausc my jig saw cuts on the up"troke. This way, any splintering is hidden in the back. CHAMFER EDGES. After the curved lop edge and cutout have been cut, $<lnd the edges. Next, rout a III chamfer on thc front and back of the top edge and inside the cutout (Vi,q8 . .'f awl 4(1). Because the router bit can't reach into the light corners, I completed the chamfers with a file. Nter you're through chamfering the edges, attach the top cleat (C) to the rear of the back, just above the cutout.

Drill 2W'-dia, holes to make the curved top portion of the heart. Cut out the lower portion with a jig saw. Chamfer the edJ.!es. Complete the chamfer on the bottom point with a file.

MAKE HALF-PAffiRN TEMPLATE FROM HARDBOARD

'111e next step is to cut an apron (D) that fits bclow the scat and between the sides. Cut the apron 7" wide from a 3/4"_ thick board (Fig. 5). Then, cut the apron the same length as the back deaL'> (B). (In my case, 52" long.) TENONS. Next, Cllt the notches to CHAMfER BIT NOTE; form a tenon on each end of the apron CHAMFER fRONT "";;;;;:;~~Z AND BACK EDGES ~ . (Fig. 5a), These tenons will fit into mortises that are cut later inlO the side panels orthe bench. To cut the notches, .. _.. -I raised the table saw blade ~I' high and COMPLETE CHAMFERS made a cull" from each end. Then, I INTO CORNERS WITH FILE removed the waste with a back ,;aw. After the tenons are formed, the end of each tenon is chamfered the same as the ends on the deals (Fig. 5u.). Note: Chamfer the botlom edR"e of the same manner as thc back. First, cut out the shape, and sand it smooth. the tenon with a back saw or liIe. make a hardboard template (Pi,l). 6). Finally, rout IN' chamfers along the PATTERN. The apron can be shaped in Then trace the template onto the apron, bottom edges of the apron.

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HIGH-BACK BENCH

99


Next, work can begin on the two gluedup side panels. SIDE PANELS. Start by ripping enough 3J4"-thick stock to width for four front slat~ (E) and four rear slat~ (F) (Fir;. 6). TIlen, rough cut the front slats 25" long and the rear slats 4:~'llong. Now, form each "L"-shaped side by gluing two front and two rear slats together (Pi,q. (j). Once the glue dries, sand them Oat and cul them to final size. NOTCHES. Now, layout notches on the back edge of each panel for the back cleats (l"i,q. (j). 1used ajig saw to cut the three edges on each notch a little short. Then 1used a chisel to sneak up on their final size unUl lhe notches fit the deaL<;. MORTISES. l\cxt, layout the location for each mortise to attach the apron (1) (Hy. (j). Then, cut each mortise 1.0 lit the apron tenons. (Sec the Shop Tip below for one way to do this.) CUT V-GROOVES. To make the joints on the side I>aneb look like those on the back, 1 Ctlt V-grooves along each one.

NOTE: CUT PIECES OVERSIZED IN LENGTH AND SQUARE UP ENDS

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Mortises With A Jig Saw

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DRILL A PILOT HOLE AT EACH END

Layout the mortise centerline, ends, and pilot holes '/e" from each end.

100 COUNTRY PROJECTS

Drill a 3/<1" hole at each end. Use these holes to layout edge of mortise.

SAW TO VIIlTHIN 1'.;" OF LAYOUT UNES

Remove waste using a jig saw (or chisel). Cut to within 7;'6" ofaI/layoutlines,

CHISEL HALf'NAY

THROUGH EACH SIDE

TO CLEAN OUT MORTISE

Chisel up to layoullines. To help prevent chipout, work from ooth faces_


To do this, I uf>ed a rip blade (bt:causc of the blade's flat-top profile) tilted to 45° (Fig. 7a). Before moving' the rip fence to cut the next. groove, Dip the panel over to cut the opposite side of the joint. CUT TO SHAPE. To complete the sides. make a pattern as you did for the back and al)rOn (Fi,g. 8). Then chamfer all the edgeR except inside the notdles (refer to Fig..iQ, on page 99).

n

SECOND: UFT BOTTOMfCENTER ClEATS

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SSEMBL Before making the bench seat, the side panels <Ire glued to the back and apron. To do this, first spread glue around the edges of the apron tenons. Then, insert the tenons inlo t.he mortises in the sides and clamp the assembly togdher (Fig. 9). Note: Make sure the tenon shoul· ders are tig"ht against the sides. Kow, lift the back into place, and slip the deats into the side panel notches (}''ig. .9). Then, drill and screw the cleats into the notchcf> (/t'ig. Va).

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SEAT,-_ Once t.he glue haR dried, the final steps are building the seat support and seal. SEAT SUPPORT. The scat support consists of a frame and center support made from 1W' x 1W' boards ("V/.lO). Bq,'in by cutting two corner blocks (G) to a length of 63N'. Then, glue and screw them in place. Next, cut two side supports (1-0 to fit bet.ween the back slats (1\) and the corner blocks (G) (Fig. 10). Now, drill and screw (don't glue) the supports in place. 'the sides must be able 10 shrink and swell during changes in humidity. Now, cut the front and back supports (I) to length (Fi!!. 1O). Then, drill and screw them to the apron and back slats. SEAT. To make the seat, first rip four %"-thick boards for the seat slats to a width of 5" and slightly over 501' long (pig. II). Then, glue and clamp the boards together for the scat blank. Once the glue has dried, cut the panel 10 fit between the sides. Nf'xt, cut V-grooves along all three glue joints. Then, rip the front and back slats to width unlil the V-grooves in the seat align with the side grooves (Pig.i!). l'\ext, rout a l/l roundovcr on the (ront edge of the scat (Fig. lla). Then chamfer the top outside ends, and complete the chamfer with a Iile (Fig, lIb).

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WOOOSCREVVS ·--'''.-j,!-,L/ NOTE: FIRST ATTACH SEAT PANEL TO SUPPORTS, THEN ATTACH CENTER SUPPORT

ATTACH SEAT. Now, drill lind screw the seat supports to the seat (Fig. 11). Finally, screw a center support (K)

FINISH CHAMFERING ROUNDQVER WITH FILE

to lhe bottom of the seat between the front. and back supports (rder to detail 'a' in Exploded View on page 97). • HIGH-BACK BENCH

101


You can make the high-back bench more versatile by building a hidden storage area under the seat. To allow access to this compartment, the seat panel doubles as a hinged lid.

c For this bench, the back is built the &fmc, except irs a bit longer (taller). So first cut the back slats (N to width (5") and to a length of37%" (Fig. O. • Af>semble the back with the bottom cleat (B) flush with the bottom edg-es of the back slat,>. 'Incn position the bottom edge of the center cleat (B) 16%11 from the lop of the boltom cleat (ll) (Pig. 1).

Now complete the back the same as for the regular bench.

Next, glue up two Slf2'I-wide boards to make a panel for UlC apron (D) (Fig. it). • After cutting the apron to length

(52'1), a tenon is cut on each end, centered on the width oCthe apron (Fig. 2). To do this, first raise the table saw blade to just under 31'. Then set the rip fence II' from the Qut8ide of the blade as a stop. With the workpiece standing on edge against the miter gaug"e, make a pass on each end. Sneak up on the final blade height, makinR" a pass on cach edge until the distance bctween the kerfs is 5 1l • If your saw blade won't go high enough, use a hand saw to finish the cuts. Then remove the wasle with a back saw. Rout III chamfers on all the edges of \.he tenons. • Cut a V-groove along the joint line as shown in Fig. 7a on page 100. • To accept the boltom panel (added later) cut a %".wide groove %'1 deep on the back face of the apron (FifJ.1!).111e top edge of the groove should align with the bottom of \.he tenon. • TIle apron pattern on this bench has shallower curves (Fig. 2). Layout the pattern so it's below the groove. • Tbe side panels have two differences from the regular bench. The mortises

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102

for the apron and the notches for the back face of the bottom cleat and screw bottom cleat are cul so their bottom and glue it to the bottom cleat (Fig. 7). Cut two bottom supports (N) 143N' edges are 9!f4" from the bottom edge of long. Butt them against the underside each side panel (Fig.•'1). Once the remaining notch and the V· of the boltom (M), lhen screw (don't grooves are cut in each side panel, you g-lue) Ule1l1 to the side panels (Fig. 7). can assemble the sides with the back Cut three seat slats 0) and a hinge slat (L) \0 width (5'1) and to rough length. panel and apron. ~ext, cut the side supports (H) to fit Glue up the three scat slats U) to between the back panel and the apron make the seal. panel. When ies dry, cut (Fig. 4). Screw (don't glue) them to the it to rmished lensrth so it will fit betwecn sides. Tben cut the corner blocks (G) to the side panels, kss IN'. length to fit between the side supports Cut V-grooves along the glue joints and the top ofthe groove in the apron. and complete the edges of the seat as Finally, add the back support 0). shown in Figil. 11 a and 11 b on page 101. Note: -J1Jere is no frout support. To match the seat panel, chamfer the Now you can glue up a panel (or the jhnd and 'lide edges of the hinge slat bottom (M). When the glue is dry, cut it and 1-eUl' edge of the seat panel. To position the hinges on the hinge to len!-,t1.h 10 fit between the side panels. Its width will be the distance from the slat (1.), measure 3%" from each end back face of the bottom cleat (8) to the (Fig. 5). Center 111e third hinge on the back ofthe apron, plus WI (Fig. 7). slat's length. At these positions, cut Slkle the bo1.l.olll panel illto the groove mortises the full depth oIlhc hinges. in the apron. Align its rear edge with the Cenler the hinge slat between the

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MATERIALS UST CHANGED PARTS

A BackSlals(10)

%x5-37%

DApron(l)

'IAx11-52 G Corner Blocks (2) I'll x Ph - 611., H Side Supports (2) 1111. x til? - 14.lf4 I BackSupporl(1) 111;xl'h-47

J Seal Slats (3)

% x 5 - 49'1~

NEW PARTS L Hinge Slat (1)

%x5-493j~

MBoHam(l}

%x16%-50 N 8tm. Supports (2) 1'/:;, x 1 '12 - 14"% o Seat Cleats (3) 3/1 x 1. - 11 Note: Don't need part K, only one part I HARDWARE SUPPLIES

(3) PIa" x 21/2" butlhingcs (55) #8 x 11/4' Fh woodscrews (42) 1t8

x 2· Fh woodscrews

sides. Glue it to the back support (I), tig-ht againsllhe bench back (Fir,. 5). (Do not glue the slat to the back panel.) Now cut three seat deaL'I (0). Their

length is the distance from the front edge of the hinge slat to the inside edge of the apron, less '14'1. Cui a 31811 chamfer across each end (Fig. (j), Mount a seat. cleat 3%;' from each end or the seat (Fig. 6). Mount the third cleat centered on the scat's length. The cleats should be flush with the rear edge of the seat panel. Screw the hinges to lhe rear hinge slat and then screw the seat panel in place.

,I HINGESl.AT

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NOTE: TO ALLOW BOTTOM TO

CORNER BLO<jf #Sx2"

BACK SUPPORT "

NOTE;

Fh WOODSCREVoJS ~ I NOTE: SCREW BUT DO ' NOT GLUE SUPPORTS TO BACK AND SIDE PANELS

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MORTISE TO FUll DEPTH Of HINGE

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BOTTOM

HIGHvBACK BENCH

103


[J~D~GiJD[?8@

make their own paint. But that doesn't mean you can run down to the grocery store and get a quart of 2%, then add a few ingredients to end up with milk painl. The pigments and inR"redienrs can be found, but to be honest, it's a lot more convenient just to buy pre-mixed Ix>Wder. (For sources, see page 126.)

MIXING PRE-MIX. All you have to do with the pre-mix is add together equal parts (by volume) of water and powder. I usc a large, dean jar to mix in. A vigorous shakinJ,! (with the lid on) helps dissolve most of the powder. To remove any powder clumps (haL weren'l completely dissolved during the mixing, strain the solution through cheesecloth.Uthe clwnps are left in tile mixture, they will break open during brushing and powder will be smeared across the wood. DIFFERENT RESULTS. One of the neat things about using milk pain\" is you can get different results by using difJcrent techniques as shown below. You can just brush it on and be done, or use antiquing steps to make a project look old and worn. (For the bench shown above, I used the "Aging" technique.)

out of the first coat of paint, and it allows the paint to cure as it's drying. PAINTING. 'With the wood still damp, brush on the first coat of milk paint with a stiff bristle brush. (Foam brushes can cause streaking.) 'nlen allow the first coat to dry at least four hours. Lf you want to completely cover the wood ,grain, apply a second coat of paint.

POLISHING. For a smoother, R'lossier surface, lightly rub out the finish with a nylon scouring pad. For a really polished surface, buff in a small amount of Danish oil with a soft rag. Note: The oil will darken the milk paint, so it's a good idea 10 test it first on a hidden part of the project or on a sample piece of painted wood.

I owdo you add 150 years of age ami wear to a project in just a short time? Part of the secret is knowing whaL

finish might have been used that long ago. A good guess would be milk paint. PRE-MIXED POWDER.

It's called milk

paint because milk was one uribe materials farmers used when they had lo

The casiest way to usc milk paint is to

simply brush all a couple of coats over bare wood. The result is a flat, dull color that has a rough texture once it's dried. PREPARATION. Milk painL doesn't

require a primer. After you've mixed up a batch of milk paint, just wipe the workpiece down with a damp sponge. This prevents the wood from drawing water

Milk f1:1int

1. Apply the first coat of milk paint on bare, dampened wood. 2. When the first coat is dry, apply the second coat. 1 Let paint dry overnight, then smooth by buffing with a nylon scouring pad. 4. Polish with a light COdt of Danish oi!. 104

COUNTRY PROJECTS


In Colonial days, a couple coats of milk paint were all that was required for a piece of furniture. With daily use, the paint slowly wore away and exposed some of the wood. And \.he more the piece was used, the more polished the paint and wood became. AGED LOOK. To simulate this look, first apply a coat of stain over the bare

wood. Once the stain has dried, apply two coats of milk paint. Let the first coat

dry before adding the second coat. The next step is to simulate years of daily usc. On the bel1ch, I sanded areas that would have been rubbed on, sat 011, and even scuffed with boots and shoes. Using 180 grit sandpaper, lightly sand the selected areas down to the

stain - bUl don't sand throo... dIr stain 10 expose tht' bare wood ~ do happen to sand through the- .....'2IIL. just touch up the area ",ith mort' - . POLISH. To remove the rough te:J31Ir'r and tlat, dull look of the milk paint. I'lIIJ out the entire piece .....ith a nyloo scouring Vad. 11lCfl buff in a coat of Danish oil to darken and polish it. 1. To simulate aged wood, app 0f'Ie coat of stain over the bare 'NOOd 2. Apply two coars of piJ n! ..e7 e'<Kt': coal dry thoroughly l, Lightly sand through fM expose the stained vJOCld beJol,v 4. Rub out and fXJ/ish w :r Dantsn

AY a piece of furniture required a new coat of milk paint, sometimes a different color was used. And if the top layer was dinged or scratched, the underlying color would show through. DINGS AND SCRATCHES. When lay¡ ering milk paint, I like to give the piece a little ~lIatural~ wear first.

To do this, use the edge of a small file to make dings and scratches wherever they may have normally occurred. At arst, there's a tendency to be cautious, but once you get started it's easy to gel carried away - don't. When you're through distressing, stain the entire piece to simulate aRed wood.

'VllCfl

LAYERING. Once the ,;tain l~ dry, apply the (jrs! coal of milk painL \\ben it's dry, apply the second color. After the paint dries. rub out theentire piece with a nylon scouring pad to remove the paint's rough textun' 'l11CO create wear spots and polish the finish with Danish oil.

1. Apply the first coat of m >( pa n' ~ on stained wood. 2. Apply the second coat of po "7 :J'? over the first color. ], Lightly sand through the rOf' cokx ::::l expose the bottom eofor. 4, Polish with a light coat 0: DiJ"rs/l

I ::\1ilk paint left in the sun or elements would often dry out and ~al1igator:' CRACKLE FINISH. To simulate this look, a special crackle gel is used. (For sources, see page 126.) First, I stained the bare wood. ll1en I applied the first coat of milk paint. Note: Only apply stain if you're going to create wear spot.." later.

Once the milk paint is thoroughly dry, brush the crackle gel on the paint Note: You may wanl" to simulate where sunlight took its toll by only applying the crackle gel on places that may have been directly hit by sunlight. Once the crackle gel has dried for two hours, apply the next color of milk paint. Don't brush this coat of milk paint

too much - the paint and gel may mix together into a messy sludge_ Simply load the brush up with painL then ~ it in one smooth stroke. The .aIligatoring~ will appear as the paint dJies. POLISH. 'When the fmal coat of paint is dry, rub out the entire piect" 'Aim ~ nylon scouring pad. Create wear _ (if desired) and buff with Danish lil 1. Apply the first coat of m Ie po r' 'f:d

on stained wood. 2. When the first coat fS dry, ,a::dy crackle gel. Allow to dry M'O hours l. Apply the second coat of pa nr g"E'!?"l over the gel. 4. Polish with a light coat of DantSh ()I HIGH-BACK BENCH

lOS


Jelly Cupboard Back when jelly was made at home, a simple cupboard like this stored the finished product. But even a simple cupboard can still offer some interesting joinery and several options to "dress it up." very fall, my grandma made home-

E

made jelly. After each jar was sealed, it was set in a jelly cup-

board similar to this one to cool. I always liked the "down¡home" look

of that cabinet and tried to duplicate that appearance with this version. JOINERY. The shelves in this cupboard could have been mounted on adjustable shelI brackets. But I did

something different this time. By gluing the shelves into dadoes in

the cupboard sides, the shelves are permanently attached. '1l1is helps keep the

cabinet from racking. So the shelves are bol.h functional and structural.

The door frame is assembled with half-lap joinb reinforced with dowel pim, at the corners. This joint is easily cut on the table saw or router table. TIN PANELS. The door holds four tin panels. The pattern punched in each one is decorative, but it also serves a practical purpose. 11lC holes allowed air to circulate so moisture from the jelly wouldn't build up inside the cabinet. And making these panels is easy. Just use a punch and follow a pattern. You can draw your own pattern or Woodsmilh Project S11pplies offers the patterns shown on the opposite page. Sec page 126 for more del:1ils. The cupboard can also be built with wood raised panels instead of tin. The Designer's l\"otebook on page 113 shows how to make this option. BACK SLATS. Ordinarily 1 use plywood for a cabinet back, but for a "country" project like this. ply-wood seemed out of place. So I used solid pine - but not a glued-up panel. Instead, I cut rabbets on the slats for a "ship lap" joint. This allows them to expand and contract without pushing on the cupboard sides. FINISH. To prevent a blotchy finish, I coated the pine with a sealer first. 'Then I stained it to make it look aged. 106

COUNTRY PROJECTS


EXPLODED VIEW OVERALL DIMENSIONS: 20W x 12%0 x 58H

PUNCHeD TIN PATTERNS

(SEE SOURCES ON PAGE 126)

rc---'-----,-" :: i KEEPER

2"

Bun

HINGE

"--~

""" ®~

, 0

""

FACING

STRIP

@

\

t~: HARVEST FRUIT

,.

.

.

_.. .

.

:~;;

GRANDMA'S PIE

,......

..............................., :.~~::.

PUNCHED

,c:. -::::'" ?""

>, J;;;tj~;7i'

"" '--

PANEL

~

.::.....) .- ., ....:.. .'>,. ( .....:..•.....; ' ' ••••• -' ..... ,< •• >"

....................... .............. ".(..... HEARTS ON A BLANKET

FRUfT BASKET

··········:,····",,···

""'" Iii

DIVIDER

\.

~

SPRING FLOWERS

00'"

ROTTOM FAONG

OOW"

""([J

KICKBQARD

PIN

®

~ ~

V

-'.. . . -®

"""

DAISY SWIRL

MATERIALS LIST

®j

DOVVEL-_

/P

SIDE FACING STRIP

®

S!DE

KICKBOARD

CUTTING DIAGRAM %.714 60 (four Boards@3.3Bd. Ft. Each) NOTE: PARTS G & L ARE CUT FROM AN 18" LENGTH OF Y~·DOWEL.

KEEPER STRIPS (N) ARE CUT FROM OVERSIZE BLANKS. CUT LATCH ROD (0) FROM"" DOWEL.

CUT FLIPPER (PI FROM SCRAP.

CASE A Sides (2) :"14 x 11114 - 57 1/4 B Shelves (5) % x 10'12 - 173J~ C Side Facing Str. (2) % xl· 57'14 o TopFilcinyStrip(1) %xl-15 112 E Bot.F~cingStrip(l) %x2-16 1/;, F Kid.board (1) % X 5'/}.18 1/? G Kickbd. Dwl. Pins (4) lf4 dowel- 211~ H Back Slats (4) % x 4% - 51 1/4 I Top(1) '%x 1H,,-2Q DOOR J Door Stiles (2) %x2 1/}-49% K Door Rails (2) %x2 1h-16iJa L Door Dowel Pins (8) lf4 dowel· % M Door Dividers (3) 'l4x2 1h-12lfa N Keeper Strips (16) 1j~ x %. 13 rough o Latch Rod (1) 3Je dowel- 1% P Flipper(1) lJsx1/~·1IVI6 HARDWARE SUPPLIES (24) No.8 x 1112. Fh woodscrews (6) NO.8 x 1%" Fh woodscrevr.; (3) 2" x 19J1G " butt hinges wi screws (4 pieces) 10" x 14" tin (rough size) (40) 112· wire brads (1) JlI4" -dia. maple knob (20) 4d (1 11) "·Iong) square cut finish nails (optional)

JELLY CUPBOARD 107


TAPE SPACER TO STRAIGHTEDGE

Back when cupboards like this were a common fixture in the kitchen or pantry, they would probably have been made of knotty pil](~. So to make this jelly cupboard look authentic, I used No.2 common pine. After letting the lumber dry out in the shop for two weeks, I started work on the sides of the cupboard. CUT TO SIZE. In order to minimize the cupping that may occur with wide boards, I edge-glued each of the sides from two narrower boards. When the glue dried, I cutlhe sides (A) to a finished width of 11 W' and linished length oI57W'(Fiq. O. SHElf DADOES. Five shelves hold the sides of the cupboard together. The shelves arc held in {Jadoes spaced apart evenly (Fig. 1). But there are a couple tricks to routing the dadoes in the fiides and getting them to align after the cupboard is assembled. First, I damped bolh cupboard sides together with their top ends flush and the inside faces np (Pig.t). Then [ laid out the positions of the dadoes by mea· suring down from the top end. To follow the layout lines for the' dadoes, 1 guided the router against a straightedge clamped to the workpiece. And because the pine for the shelves was slightly lesff than %'1 thick, I Ilsecl a WI straig-ht bit in the router. J routed each dado to the correct width in two

/-

';,."/-STRAIGKT

~.,,"

BIT

SEE SHOP TIP BELOW FOR ROUTING DIIDOES

NOlt:

TO ROUT

g~t~IDES

THICKNESS OF SHELVES

TOGETHER WITH INSIDE FACES UP

THICKNESS OF BACK

AUX

FENCE

AUX. FENCE

passes by using a removable "pacer against the straightedge (Fig. 1). (Refer to the Shop Tip below for details.) BACK RABBET. After rouling the dadoes for the shelves, a rabbet call be cut in each cupboard side for installing the back slat,; (Fi,qlj. 2 und2u). :'\lotc: To make sure the rabbets arc routed along the correct CURes (the sides are "mirror" image,,), it helps to

, I a. --I:;;?;i~,,:;~1~STRAJGHT BIT-""--

stand the sides up first. and mark the edges 10 be rabbeted. DECORATIVE CUTOUTS. The last cuts [0 make on the cupboard sides look simply to be decorative - but they also serve a purpose. 'l1lC semi-circular cutout at the bottom of each piece creates a pair of "feet." (Fiy. ,7). This allows the cabinet to "bridge" uneven spots in the noor.

Routing Custom-Fit Dadoes fence with a soacer strip that determines the exact finished width of the dado. The width of the strip, plus the diameter of the router bit should equal

the finished width of the dado (Fig. 1a). After the first pass, remove the spacer. Then make the second pass to complete the dado (Fig. 2).

""'"

SPACER-

PASS

--:--.:.

REMOVE SPACER;::0 TO COMPlETE D~

108 COUNTRY PROJECTS

LINES FOR DADOES

NOr£.: DADOES ARE 12W APART. MEASURED TOP EDGE TO TOP EDGE. ~

Since lumber is rarely the exact same thickness as the diameter of a router bit, I use a smaller bit and make two passes. To do this, Iset up a

ROUT IN DIREGION OF ARROW

I

--l./I.YOUT

0[gX§)[p 'jJ!][p. . When cutting a dado in a large panel. Ifind using a hand-held router is easier than wrestling with a large panel on my table saw or router table.

r

~6­

)

-_._--'" .:.:....

cr~-~_

SECOND O'ASS


.-®

/ " SHELF ClIT FIVE SHElVES ~ FROM b12 STOCK /

SIDE@

"'.,

( FRONT EDGE

i-t---4---t--'-1

--j,

,

~,- ~------

BACK EDGE

~6~

17% ...............-......::::::::-...·

,,/-

~~1O"

C1iECK

NOTE: IF lx121S CUPPED, RIP SHElf INTO THIRDS AND REGLUE WITH MIDDLE ~ECE UPSIDE DOWN, THEN PlANE FLAT

Fa'

SQUARE

\.. Note: Although the feet start out different widths, they'll eml up lhe same after a facing strip is added to the front (refer to Fig. 6 on page 110). After laying out the arc..<;, I used a jig saw to cut just shy of the layout lines. Then I smoothed up to the line with a drum sander. SHELVES. I\ext, I started on the shelves. r cut these [rom lx12s. A single board this wide will often cup. f( your stock is cupf)Cd, one way to natten it is to rip each shc1fblank in1J) thirds. Then glue the blank together with the middle piece upside down. When the glue dries, plane the blank fiat. Now the shelves can be ripped to wid1h so they're nush with lhe front edges of the sides and also the shoulders of the rabbets for the back slats (Fi!!. 5). 111cn cut the shelves (B) 10 fillished Icnl,,"th Wig. .0. To determine this length, measure between the hottoms of the dadoes on the case sides. ASSEM8LY. Finally, lhe case can be

Square-cut nails are an authentic detail. To prevent splitting the wood, drill pilot holes before driving the nails. Then "set" the heads just below the surface with a punch before sanding the side.

assembled WitJl the shelves glued into the dadoes (Fig. !j). The Shop Tip below shows one way to do this_ Note: Keep the shelves Dush to 1he front edges of lhe sides (A).

....... While dry-assembling the jelly cupboard, I ran into a problem. When the shelves were clamped between the sides, the centers of the side panels cupped out (Fig. 1).

"

....

I came up with a fix that uses opposing wedges. These wedges work against a clamping bar that "straddles" the sides (Fig. 2). This bar is simply a 2x4 block with a '/2· -thick WHEN USING ClAMPS ONLY, SIDES CAN CUP AWAY FROM SHElf

(

NOTE:---AlJGN SHELVES FlUSH WIll-' FRONT OF CASE SIDES AND SHOULDER OF RABBET

If you don't have enough clamps (or (or an authentic antique touch), you could assemble the case with squarecut nails (sec the photo above). (For sources of these nails, scc page 126.)

Clamping With Wedges

"",

spacer glued on each end, I stuck the spacers to the side of the Cdbinet using carpet tape. Then I clamped the cupboard assembly together. To force the center of WEDGES REMOVE CUPPING

(

the side pililel tight against the shelf, tap opposing wedges between the clamping bar and the sides until the shelf is completely seated in the dado (Fig. 2).

W-THICK SPACER

,.J

ClAMPING

BM

a.

ClAM~NG

"'''

JELLY CUPBOARD 109


C

a' l

/

...--~@ TOf' FACING

To create a frame that surrounds the door, facing strips are added next. The facing StrillS afC attached to the front edges of the cabinet sides and to the top and bottom shelves (Fig. 6).

srn"

we srn" Wxl"·16Y:>" FACING

RIPTO WIDTH.

TOP--SHElf

©

/SIDE FACING STRIP

N~

sides. Then glue these to the sides, flush with thc outside edges. TOP AND BOTTOM STRIPS. l\ext, I ripped a 2"-wide piece for the bottom facing strip (E) (Fig. 0). Then the top and bottom facing strips (D, E) can be cut to length to fit snugly between the side strips. ATTACH TO CASE. Refore gluing on the top and bottom strips, make marks on the top and bottom shelves to indicatc where the strips should be glued on (Fi{j.~. fia rt1ul fib). By leaving %'1 of each shelf euge exposed, a lip is created at the top and bottom of the door opening. These lips serve as stops for the door (attached later).

WITH TOPS OF

SIDE FACING STRJPS

SIDE

FACING STRIP

Wxl"·sn;"

b.

~~/

I"©

SIDE FACING

srn"

First, I ripped two side

facing strips (C) and one top facing strip (D) to a width of 11' (pig. (j). SIDE STRIPS. Now cuL the side slrips

to the same JenJ{th as the cupboard

AUGN TOP

FACING STRIP

©~

I

®

BOTIOM FACING SlRlP

FACING SlRIP 0/0")1. 2" - 16\0'/

A kickboanl at the bottom of the cup.board adds a decorative touch. CUT TO SIZE. To make the kick board (F), first rip a piece of 1!4'I-thick stock to

a width of 5'h" (Fig. 7). Then cnt it to

a. , "-WIDE REVEAl

"

/

® ..,

'--®r~;o"i

rD

® ',,- ---,

lilt

-

----

5~N DRILL

~l~ i"'!'"cI-1""t"i5~~ KICKBOARD

DOWEL PIN

V.·-DIA.x-~

lV,' LONG

©

110

?/

COUNTRY PROJECTS

NOTE,

ATTACH KICKBOARD WITH GLUE AND

DOWEL PlNS

--.---

-'''0..., rL' ©

'"

length Lo match the width of the case. ROUND OVER TOP EDGE. Next, to soften the transition between the kickboard and the lower facing strip, rout a 112" roundover along the top outsidc edge of the kick board (Pig. 7a). TOE OPENING. To make a toe opening on the kick board, I used my jig s<\w to cut out a profile along the bottom edge (Fig. 7). ATTACH TO CASE. Now the kickboard can be attached to the casco But I did this with dowel pins (G) (Fi,q. 8). First, damp the kickboard to the case and drill two 1f4"-<lia. holes that go through the kick board and facing strip into the cupboard side (Fig. 8a). Then cut four lengths of dowel to fit in the holes. Note: Cut the dowels so Lhey stand proud of the kickboanl when they're tappen into the holes (Fig. 8a). Then they can be trimmed and sanded flush aIler they're glued in place.


BACK

TO

The back of the cupboard is made of individual slats to allow for plenty of expansion and contraction. CUT TO SIZE. To make the back, start by ripping [our back slats (H) from %"thick slock to the same width (Fig. 9). The finished width allows for a I/ujl! gap between the installed slats (Fig. !}a). Next, cut the slats to finished length so they extend [rom the top of the cabinet sides to the bottom of the lower shclf(Fig..9), SHIP LAPS. The ship lap joint is really just ovcrlapJlin~ rabbets. The rabbets are cut to a depth half the thickness of the pieces (%"), and to identical width. Note: Cut rabbets on th(~ 07Jl)().~ile edges of the middle slats, but on just one edge of each outside slat (Fig. !)a). ATIACH SLATS. Now the back slats can be screwed to the cabinet, keeping the gaps between them equal (}'ig. 9a). TOP. The top (I) is an edge-glued blank (Pig. 10). Cut itto finished size to allow for a V~'1 overhang at the front and sides (Fig. lOa) but nut the back. Next, rout 'N' roundovers on the edges of the top, and sand a 1/1l" radius on the corners. l\ow the top can be attached using woodscrews driven up from below (Fig. lOa).

U) and two door rails (K) to finished width (Fig. 11). Then, to determine the length ofihe pieces, measure between the facing strips and subtract lis" to allow for a 1/11;" gap all around the door. Cut the .frame pieces to finished length (Fig. 11). END lAPS.l\ow cut the end lap joints half the thickness of each of the mating pieces (Fig. lJa). After the lap joint.,> are cut, the frame can be glued and clamped together.

CORNER PINS. I\cxt, I drilled two WIdia. holes through each corner of the (rame for the dowel pins (I.) (Pig. lla). Then glue the pins into the holes and trim them flush with the frame. RABBET. When the frame is assem· bled, rout a rabbet around the perimeter of the door opening in the back side (Figs. 12 nnd 12a). This creates a lip for the door panels. When the rabbet is cut. square up the corners with a chisel (Fig.12b). NOTE:

SlATS HAVE

EQUAL GAPS BETWEEN THEM

4%-..,

a. _

®

~

BACK --

SCAT

,r

CROSSSECTJON

-->j~ E~'-r-I

,

#axl\?" Fh WOODSCREW

\

a.

"

. "'-- ¥s" x 'l1l" lAPS

CROSS SECTION

CD TOP ® SHELF

D ORFRA '111e door of the cupboard isa frame and p;mel unit. Hs construction is the same whether you use tin or wood panels. DOOR FRAME. To make the door frame, start by ripping two door stiles

NOTE: ROUT%" ROUNDOVER ON All EDGES. SANDi's" RADIUS ON CORNERS

TOPJtlOTTOM IWL

®

!

r~'

® SIDE

~~"1

~

I/8xllj.,"

,

Hi

Fh

WOODSCREW

NOTE: ROlIT RABBET TO DEPTH IN

MULTIPlE PASSES (SEE DETAlL a)

~.~.J

SEE DETAlL b

----'

a.

®

TOPIBOTTOM IWL

" ~ ~

'"

'~' "\

~.

NOTE: aNTEFl

PINSON STILE

;) SQUARE UP CORNERS WITH CHISEL

'---------" JELLY CUPBOARD

111


KEEP:ER®/-~

When the frame of the door is complete, the dividers (M) can be built. The purpose of the dividers is to separateTIN and support - the door panels. 10' x 12' CENTER DIVIDERS. Start by ripping three blanks to finished width (Fig. 1.'3). DMDER Then cut them to length to fit between -¥.' x 2W -12W the rabbets in the door frame. TONGUES. The dividers are held in place by a short tongue on each end (/<'i,q. 18). r used a dado blade to cut the rubbets that form the ton&'lles Wig. H). NOTE: DMDERSARE EDGE RABBETS. :Jow the dividers can I INSTALLED AT EQUAL utflush down into the frame. But first, in FA~~ INTERVALS order to completely support the panels, two more rabbets are needed on the edges of each divider (f··iy. iDa). To cut these rabbets, I again used my dado blade (Fig . .1:";). Cut these with the front of the divider facing up. CUTRAB8ET KEEPER STRIPS. Once the dividers arc ON END glued in place, work can begin on the keeper strips. The panels arc held in place by small 1-% quarter-round keeper strips (1\) that are nailed to the door frame (Fig. lsa). To make these keeper strips, first rout ",.. ROUNDOVER 1/4 1' roundovcrs on both edges of a blank (Pig. 16). Then sel the rip fence IN' (rom the blade and cui a 3/8"-deep kerf on each edge. Finally, to separate a keeper strip from each edge, run the blank through the blade face down so the keeper strip falls to the waste side (Fig. 17). 11lis prevents kickback. TIN PANELS. To make the tin panels, tapc your pattern to the tin blank, then fasten the blank La a hardboard backing board. Punch the holes by striking an awl with a hammer. Usc softer strikes shallow mortise for each hin/{c in the for smaller holes, heavier strikes for door stile and the facing strip Wig . .18a larger holes. Whcn each panel is fill- and the Exploded View all pa,ge 107). isheo, trim it to size and secure it in the DOOR KNOB. Next, 1built a knob and latch assembly. To smrt, drill a 3N I-clia. door (Vi,q. IBn). MORTISES. After the panels arc in hole through the door stile (Fig. [,'1). place, the door is att.ached to the case. r lllCIl drill a hole in the wooden knob to used three 2'I-long hinges and cut a accept a length o( dowel (0) (Fi,q.19a).

p=/~' ~~.~.~.. ,.~.~'~.~'~";;;;±'

;CENTERv"••DIA. HOlE ON WlD~ OF STILE

''V KEEP:ER

---~p

;o''''rJ ,

®

LATGI

ROD

'

,

W WIRE PUNCHED TIN BRAD

FUPf'ER

,.-.--

" f -..J

LAY OUT

POSITIONS OF MORTISES FOR HINGES

~

a.

I'!!'I"@

~~-

-<:\......_

THICKNESS

OF FUPf'ER MATCHES SLOT --, IN DOWEL

MORTISE

DEPrH EQUAl.5 THICKNESS OF HINGE LEAF

COUNTRY PROJECTS

a. ",.

KEEPER STRIP

®

A short "flipper" (I') fits in a slot in the end of the dowel Wig. 19). When the knob is turncd, the flipper will calch the facing strip and prevent lhe door from swinging open (see photo). FINISH. I\ow the cupboard can be stained and finished. Since pine can stain unevenly, use a sealer first. _

DOOR LA'CH ASSEMBLY

'. . '. ~'"" "'?:?::::,j J

, ,

-,"!":-

112

I..

1___

NOTE: USE PUSH STICK

~

/

...- •./'" ,""";-<

"::>...~ -

Before gluing the latch together; make sure it wi/I rotate. If it doesn't, lightly sand the dowel until it does.


Change the look of the cupboardjust by using solid wood panels instead ofpunched tin. These raised panels can be made entirely on the table saw.

To make the wood pallel~ (Q), g-luc up four blanks from IN'-thick stock. Measure the rabbeted openings in the

back of the door frame. Cut the panels tN' less than these measurements 10 allow for a l/l(t gap all around (Fig. 2).

To steady the panels. fasLen a tall auxiliary fence to the tnble saw rip fence (Fig. 1). Then tilt the table saw blade 10° and raise the blade to lV,,,r'. CUI the bevels in rwo passes, moving

the rip fence slightly between passes. The ill'S! pass removes most of the waste. 111C second "skim" cut cleans up burn marks or blade swirls and creates the 1/16tl- w ide shoulder (Fig. 2). Not.e: Before moving the rip knee for the second pass, cut the bevels on all the edges of all your panels. Cut across the end j,,'Tain edges first. Then any chipout will be removed when the cut is made on the face ~rain edges. The tilted blade will slighlly undercut the shoulder. To square it up, make a sanding block with a bevel on one edge that matches the bevel on lhe panels. To make a tongue OIl llle edge of the panel, cut a ~N'-widc rabbet '14'1 deep on the back edR'es (Fly. 2). Now, fasten the panels in the door with keeper strips (Fig. 2).

MATERIALS UST NEW PARTS Q Door Panels (4)

%~9%-12

Note: Don't need tin panels

CUT PROFILE ON ENDS FIRST

""'"

SEOION

SOUDWOOD DOOR PANEL

KEEPER STRIP -

- -

TAU

RAJSE BLADE 1J,j," ABOVE TABLE ANDTlLT 10·

AUXILIARY

FENCE

"-:::;'-Y'

Y

\

\1"IMRE BRAD

©

\-J<'

SHOULDER (SQUARE UP

If a panel shrinks, an unfinished edge

SANDING BLOC1()

may be exposed. To prevent this, apply finish before mounting it in the frame.

""'"

JEUY CUPBOARD

111


Dovetail Chest Hand-cut dovetails give this chest a traditional country look and also add strength to each corner. For adifferent look, try the frame and panel version. Both offer plenty ofstorage and apull-out tray.

au don't want to rush hand-cut dovetails. They require careful, deliberate work. That doesn't mean they have to be perfect. After all, hanrJ.cut dovetails aren't ,l{oing to be machine-precise - especially when you're working with wide panels. BUl Ihal fils the charm of this chest. STEp¡BY¡STEP DOVETAILS. There was a time when I found the thought of CUl-

ling dovetails by hand rather intimidating. Hut that was be.fore someone walked me through it step-by-step. So if

you've never tried your hand at cutting this joint, we have complete, detailed instructions beginning on page 120. 114

COUNTRY PROJECTS

FRAME AND PANEL OPTION.

We also

oHer a frame and panel version of the chesL This style has a more formal appearance. Details on building this chest arc in the Designer's Kotebook on page 124. TRAY. Both versions offer a lift-out tray. It rides on a couple of runners fastened to the front and back uIthe chest, so there's still storage below it. The tray is built with a single wide tail at each corner. So even if you don't cut the dovet<\ils for the chest, the tray offers a chance to try the technique on a smaller scale. It's sorL of a "project within a projece"

FINISH. r wanted a finish that would match the "antique" character of the chest. So I chose a finish that adds character to many antiques - shellac. Shel1ac has been used on furniture a long time, and its color adds a natural warmth that's hard to get from an offthe-shell stain. OJ course, many woodworkers think of shellac as a "delicate" finish. And while it may not match the durability 01 polyurethane, a lot of antiqucs finished with shellac h,lVC put up with years of wear. And it's not difficult to apl-lly either. For step-by-step instructions, sec the box on page 119.


EXPLODED VIEW OVERALL DIMENSIONS: 38lfaW

x 18 14D l( 19 9f16H

TRAY FRONT

Q)

"---

=

'~

I ,

/TRIM @"END

""M \

FRONT~ BOTTOM

i

©

NOTE: All PANELS ARE

\

GLUED UP FROM

BASE "'-- END

SOLID WOOD

-(])

eASE

FRONT

®-

MATERIALS LIST WOOD A FrontIBack (2) BEnds (2) C Bottom (1) o TrilY Supports (2) E Base FrtJBk. (2) F Base Fnds (2) G Trim rrtJBk. (tI) H Trim End~ (4)

;/4X 18lf1 -36 %x18'/,-'6 %x15'/a -35'/g

-% x 3fs - 34V2

1'/'6 X3 - 40 rough

111'6 x 3 -;>0 rough "Iz x % - 40 rouCJh "h x 31" - 20 rough

I

lid (1)

1V 16X 18-38

J

Tray Frt./Bk. (2)

x 311) - 24 %1.3'1,-14% 1h x 13lf2 - 23%

K Tray Ends (2)

L Tray Bo:tom (1)

3/4

HARDWARE SUPPLIES (2) NO.8 x "Is" Rh brdss~rcws (l) 15" uri:l~schain

(1 pr.l 3· no-mortise hinges wi screws

CUTTJNGDIAGRAM % x 5·96 (Four Bwrds 0 33,~,,~,~,,~,~"'~h;'~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ [--~-

*

I

;'--

--r

1

x 5 - 96 (Two Boards 0 3.3 Bd. Ft. Each) B

%x

5-96

C~

B

L

:

00'"

(Two

_T

~222~~

~_~D:.... _ _

_~:

bH Fl.: ".'· I x 8 - 96

{Two Boords 0 3".3"",,,",'~'~'~"~hl,,

~x8-96 (53Sq,Ft)

1- -, B::J;J

A" _

_m_C,,_=::W~

L~j#l~~~

Boards,' • 66 Bd ". ''''''

[ ."

--~F~--

~~

__-'---.J'~~..:3 DOVETAIL CHEST

115


TIlis dovew.il chest sw.rls out as you'd expect: R"luinR" up oversi'l.ed panels for each of the sides and for the bottom. There isn't anything unusual or difficult about these five ·%"-thick panels. '!lIe imllortanl thing is that they are l1at and that the four side panels are all the same thickness. 'l'hiswilJ make it much casicr when it comes time to cut the dovetails. After the panels are glued up, the next step is to cut the frollt/back panels (A) and end panels (B) to finished size (Fig. I). (lne bottom will be cut to size later.) I began by simply ripping each of these panels to width. But when crossBOTIOM :;"'x 1514'.35%" cutting, the long panels require some extra support. To do this, I added a long auxiliary fence to the miter gauge. '111is way, it's much easier to get the cnds of the panels square to the sides. added later, so oncc the chest is comDOVETAILS. Arter the panels arc cut pleted, it looks the same as the other to si'l.e, work can begin OIl the dovetails. pins (Fig. 3). 111C dovetails arc laid out 3IN' on center With the layout finished, the pins (Fig. 2). This allows for 3'I-widc tails and tails can now be cul. and 112 1' pins, Note: For !Stcp-by-!Step instrucLions Actually, not all the pins :Ire 11211 • 'nlC on cutting dovetails by hand, see the top one is a little wider (1"). l{ut the Joinery article beginning on page 120. extra width is covered by some IIlolding GROOVES. When the dovetails are complete, there arc some grooves to cut FRONTIBACK in the panels before you can assemble the case. I used a dado blade in the table ~\ saw to cut these. 'Ine first two grooves arc for the tray supports (added later). They are %" wide, %1' deep, and cut un the inside faces of the front and back panels only (Fig . .4 ). I centered these grooves in '- , I· one of the pin openings. l1Jis way the -.~' pins on the end panels will hide the grooves when the case is assembled. 3 'Ine other groove is for the bottom of ~ I the chest (/"·iy. Ii). res :W' wide, V..,I' deep, and cut in all four pieces. 'lllis groove cut<; through a tail, so it'll be vis3 ible from the outside when the case is " i

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,-----

NOTE: ALL CASE PANELS

lIRE GLUED UP FROM

"'"-THICK STOCK

first assembled. But don't worry about lhis. Later, the groove will be covered by the molding that's fastened to the bottom of the ca!Se. BOTTOM. Now it's time to begin work on lhe bottom panel (C). But to do thi!S, first you necd to dry-assemblc the casc. Then you can measure the case opening to determinc the final size of the bottom (Fig. I). Remember to include the depth of both grooves in this measurement. Because the bottom is a solid wood panel amI not plywood, it needs enough room to expand and contract with changes in humirlity, To allow for this movement, r cut the bottom (C) l/{ smaller than each dimension (Fill. 5a). (Mine was 15%" x 35W'.) CASE ASSEMBLY. After the bottom panel is ready. you can glue the case together (rig. (J). (Dul don't usc glue on the bottom.) This takes quite a bit of time, so r used white glue. It sets up more slowly than yellow glue, so il gives you a little more time to work.

'--1_____

----

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WIDE PlN

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116

COUNTRY PROJECTS

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FRONT/BACK

3

AT TOP 15 COVERED BY

TRIM MOLDING - TAIL

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FRoNTIBACK

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TRAY SUPPORT

o


&')~ liiIP Sanding Flush

<ROSS

SECTION

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BOTTOM ~

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If the pins or tails (or both) stand proud of the side, one way to get them flush is to use a belt sander. However, it's easy to accidentally round over a corner. To prevent this, clamp a scrap piece across the end of the case flush with the panel the sander is riding on.

BOTTOMliI" SMAillR THAN OPENING

NOTE:

TO APPLY

CUTW-DEEP GROOVE FOR BOTTOM

PRESSUR~

ClAMPS SHOULD Bt

POSITlONED OVER TAIlS

IN AlL CASE PIECES

First, glue both end panels (B) to the front panel (A). Then sli(le the bottom panel (C) into the groove before adding the back panel to the assembly. TRAY SUPPORTS. While the glue is dryinj{, Cllt two %"-widc tray supports (D) to fit in the grooves inside the case (Fig. 4). This time, I wanted the glue to set Ull fast, so I used yellow g'lue. That way, 1didn't have to worry about usingdamps. Applying a little hand pressure [or a minute or Iwo was all it took.

At this point. the caRe is essentially complete. BuL if there arc pins or lails pWlrudin,g, you'll need to sand them nush with the sides of the case (see the Shop Tip at right). If some pins or tails need more trimming than can be easily sanded, see the Shop Jig box below for one way to trim them down. After the case is assembler! and the corners are smooLhed, all that's leIl to do is add the base molding, the trim molding, and the lid.

, , , , , , , , , , , , This jig replaces the plastic base of the router. That's because the edge of a regular base wiJI run into the pins or

ith this jig, a straight bit will trim

any over-long pins or tails perreetly !lush with the sides. HANDLE ..J

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-t, 3 fEED THE

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First. build an auxiliary base from 3ftJ"·thick stock. A straight bit in the router trims the sides of the joint flush The wide rabbet along the front of the jig provides cfe<Jrance for the bit

ROUTER SLOINLY Vv'HEN TR!MMING THE PINS OR TAIlS

With the base on the case side, set the bit so it barely touches the case. Move the bit off the case, start the router; and trim the joint.

Flush Trim Jig tails before the biL call get near enough to trim them flush. To solve that problem, this auxiliary base raises the router above the case side. The base is simply a :IN'-thick piece of stock with a wide rabbet cut on Lhe bottom (Step 1). To make the base stable, it's cut extra long (mine was 11'T). And for added control, there's a blo(k screwed and glued to one end for a handle. Use the plastic base from your router as a template to mark the mounting- holes and the bit hole. To use the jig, simply adjust the bit height so iL trims Lhc pins or tails Dush (Step 2). To do this, set the jig on the case si(Ie. TIlen adjust the bit so it jWit barely .l{razes the side panel. Now, with 111e bit extended past the casc, turn on the router. Move it onl0 the case and begin trimming. A slow feed rate will help prevent chipout.

DOVETAil CHEST

117


MOLDI I've seen wide, thick base moldin~ on some older chests. and I wanted the base on this chest to look Ihe ,:>arne. So instead of lIsing %"-thick slOck, I cut

the base pieces from 11/16"-Lhick stock. BASE. The base front/back (E) and base ends (F) are first cut to rough len,gth [rom 3'l- wille blanks. Kcxt, cut a necorative chamfer along the top edge (Fig. 8b)./ did thisonlhc table sawwilh the blade angled 15°. Then to complete the base, miter tbe pieces to length and glue lhcm to the case. TRIM MOLDING.

The next pieces to

add arc some strips of trim molding (Fig. 7). Some of this trim will siton top of the base molding. The rest will end

up flush with the lOp of the case. To make the trim front/bnck (G) and

r----- --3¡ NQ.MQRTlSE HINGE -

118

COUNTRY PROJECTS

"'.

trim ends (H), start with blanks that are WI thick ancl 2'1 wide (pig. Sa). Rout a IN' cove along two ed~cs. Then two 311". wide (tall) trim pieces can be ripped from each blank. Miter the pieces to length and glue them in place. (The cove profiles should face each other.) Finally, to prevent chipping the euge if the chest gets dragged across the Ooor, rout I/R" chamfers on the bottom edges of the case and moldinl{ (F'ig.ll).

ID Now that the case is complete, 1started work on \he lid (Fig. 9). This means you'll need to glue up another panel. But this panel is 11/16 1' tllick. Since you lift the lid from the edges, t wanted it to overhang the case a bit. So to determine the size of the lid (I), mca-

sure the case (including the trim) and cut the lid panel II' longer and wider. CHAMFER. I also wanted the lid to have the same chamfer that's around the base. But the panel is too long \0 stand on end on the table saw. So r used a block plane to cut this. Before planing, layout the edges of the chamfer (Fig.lO).TIlen plane down to these lines, sLarting with the ends of the lid. To avoid chipout, skew the plane slightly so it shears off thin shavings. HINGES. When the chamfer is cut, mount the lid to the case. To do chis, I used a special "no-mortise hin,ge." It has an o(fset barrel and, as you'd expect,

SKEW PLANE TO REDUCE CHIPOlJT

a.

_


doesn't require a mortise ("'ig. 11), (See page 126for sources of thi;; hinge.) To mount the hinges, first screw them to the case. Next, set the lid on top of the case and center it sidl'-to-side and front-ta-back. Then simply trace around the barrels of the hinges on the bottom of the lid. ::'row remove the lid and hinges. Then screw the hinges to the lid and reattach the hinges to the case, LID SUPPORT CHAIN. The last thing to add is a 15"-long piece of brass chain to the inside of the case (Fig. 11). This prevenL~ the lid from dropping back. Safety Note: H children will be opening and closing this lid, you should protect their fingers by inscalling a lid support. (Fonources, see page 126.)

HANDLES, Next, I wanted to add some "handles" to the ends of the tray, 'Illcse handles are simply ~lols drilled llild cut in the end pieces (Fig. L~). To do this, first dri1l1"-dia. holes to establish the length of the handle slot Then dean out the waste between the holes with a jig saw. Now sand the handles and rout small chamfers on both the inside and outside edge;;. When that's done, the tray can be glued together. FINAL TOUCHES, There are just two steps left. First, you want to chamfer lhe inside and outside edges so there are no sharp corners (Fig. 12). And finally, don't forget to plug the holes in the end pieces that were created by the grooves forthe tray bottom (rig. 1ft), •

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, 9 3' N().MORT/SE HINGE

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BRASS ROUNDHEAD SCREW

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TRAY BACK 0)--",

With the lid attached, the last step is to build a tray that fils in the casc and slides back and forth on tray supports. First, the tray front/back 0) and tray ends (I<) arc cut to finished size. Then to join these pieces, I cut the dovetails by hand (Fiys. II! and 1,'1), GROOVE AND BOTTOM, :"Jext, I cut a IN-wide groove :%" deep in each piece [or the tray bottom Wig. 13). The tray bottom (1.) is a solid wood pane!, glued up from Ill-thick stock Wig. 12). Artcr the glue dried, I cut the bottom to finished size. 'Ille panel should fit inside tile tray (including lhe grooves) minus 1/8". Of course, a 112'1thick panel won't lit into a 1/~'1 groove. So I cut a %"-wide rabbet along the boUom edge of the tray bottom to create a IN'-thick tonj.:!ue (Fig. 1:;).

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TRAY FRONT, BACK. AND ENDS ARE THICK

TRAY FRONT

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To give the chest a warm, "aged" color, I used three coats of shellac. The first coat was orange shellac. This gave the wood a nice, warm color - and it doesn't blotch like a pigment-based stain will. Then to keep the color light, but still add more protection, I applied two coats of blonde shellac. Shellac comes ready-to-use or in flakes that must be dissolved in alcohol. (See page 126 for sources.) Once dissolved, it begins to slowly deteriorate. So that I know it's

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Shellac

fresh, I mix my own from flakes. Shellac is mixed in "pound cuts" - the number of pounds of flakes to a gallon of alcohol. I used a 2 lb. cut. But I only mixed up a pint at a time (which requires 4 oz. of shellac flakes). Don't worry about being precise. Just get it in the ballpark. To apply shellac, I use a natural bristle brush. Don't work the finish too much with the brush. The shellac dries fast, so you can sand lightly after about three hours and apply another coat.

DOVETAil CHEST

119


• • • • • hich comes first, the pins or the tails? Frankly, you can cut them either way, but I like to start with the pins. There are some reasons for this, beyond the faet that ii's how J was taught and how I've always cut them. WHICH IS WHiCH? But maybe I'm jumping the ~llll. Nler all, when you look at Ihis joinl, it can be hard to tell which is the tail and which is the pin. The trick is to look at just thcface of the board, not the ends (Pig. 1). Looking at the face ofthe panel with the tails, you'll see the tails nare out -like a dove's tail. And from the face ofthe pin panel, the pins look straight, sort oflike boxjoinL<;. The pins slide in between the tails, but unlike box joints, they can only slide in one ctirection. 'Ibe angled sides act as wedges, so you can't pull them apart any other way. 1l1is wedge is what makes a dovetail joint so strong. PINS FIRST. So why do J cut the pins first? There are a couple reasons. First, I think the pins are easier to cut. But it's also easier to cut them accurately. And if they don't cnd up perfectly s(]uare to the baseline, it's easy to dean them up so they arc. This i!'; importanl because after the pins arc cut, you'lJ use them to layout the posilions of the tails. (L,ying out the tails from the pins is also easier than marking the pins (rom the tails.)

Regardless of which panel you stan with, your first step is always going to be Ihe same: stock preparation. FLAT AND SQUARE PANELS. Whether you're dealing with narrow boards or widc panels, each piece must be flat and

Hand-Cut Dovetails

smooth. In fact, all they should nee<l is a Hille finish sanding. It's also important for the ends of the boards to be square to the edges. ORIENTATION. When the panels are flat and square, the next lhing to do is arrange the panels so the project will look its best when it's put together. Once the panels are oriented, I labd the outside and inside faces, as well as the top edges Wig. i). Also, it's a gool! idea 10 label adjoining corners with a letter. When you transfer the pins to the mating tail panels later, Ihese labels can save you a lot of head scratching. BASELINE. Finally, J use a combination square and a pencil to mark baselines around the ends of each panel

(/<'ig. .9). '[be baselines show where to stop CUlling and are drawn on both faces (Fig. fl). (A rdlor knife can also be used to score lhe baseline into the panel.) JUSI set the adjustable square to the thickness of the panel. 't11en carefully run the square along the end of the panel while you mark the baseline. Note: If you're working with small pieces, the easiest way 10 layout the baseline is to use the boards themselves as a template. Stand up one board and place it against the end of the adjoining piece. Then simply trace around it. Now that the panels are Iflbe1ed and the baselines arc drawn, you can begin work on the pins.

NOTE: SET COMBINATION

SQUARE TO THICKNESS OF PANEL

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I I

120 COUNTRY PROJECTS


PINS:ST When cutting the layout the pins, make cut.., on each side of them with a hand saw, and remove the waste between them. LAY OUT. The first step is to lay out the position of each pin. (On the

TRANSFER LAYOVT UNES TO END OF PANEL

LAY OUT NARRQlNEST PART OF PlN ON OUTSIDE FAa OF PANEL

pins, there are three things to do:

Secure the panel in a vise. Then, layout the pins with the narrow part of the pin on the outside face of the panel.

To layout the pin angle on the end of the panel, hold a pencil on the mark, then bring a bevel gauge up to it.

chest, the pins arc on the end panels, B.) I starl with the outside face ofthc panelloward me (the face with the narrowest parl of the pins) (Step 1).

Next, the layout can be drawn around to the inside face. To layout the

angles across the ends, I use a bevel gauge (Step 2). (Since the chest was softwood, I used an angle of 14°. In hardwood, I'd use an angle 0£9".) When the pins are laid out, , always mark the waste sections (Step ,'I). This makes it harder for me to cut Oil the

"-- WASTE ----.

Use a square to transfer lines from the ends down to the baseline. Do this on both sides of the panel. Then, before cutting, mark the waste sections.

Use a fine-tooth saw to cut to the waste side of aI/lines. Stop when the kerf has reached the baseline on both sides. Don't cut past the baseline.

wrong side of the line. CUTTING THE PINS. Kow the pins can be cut (Step .4). Here, it's important to keep the saw straight up and down so the pin ends up square to the baseline. I keep the outside face of the panel toward me. This way, I can be extra careful with the good face. If I'm off the line a bit on the inside, it won't show. REMOVING THE WASTE. When all the pins are cut, you can clean out the waste between them (Steps 5-7). Here, I do two things. To ensure a clean, straight baseline, I damp a backing board to the panel. But this board can shift out of position. Especially when you start pounding on the chisel with a mallet. So to prevent this, r be/{in by removing tiny "bit.es." Another thing r do is undercut the shoulder (Step (j). That means after about 1/811 of waste is removed, I'll angle tbe top of the chisel slightly toward me when chopping out the waste. This way, it's easier to get a good, h!{hl tiL When all the waste is removed, you11 nccd to spend a little time cleaning up all the corners. And check that each pin is straight and square, making any adjustments if necessary (Step 8).

~.

~"

SCORE ALONG~ ~ '" • BASEUNE ~~. CHISEt ....."" "" ,

wITH

~ " Now clamp a backing board along the baseline. This will help keep your chisel straight up and down. Next, use a sharp chisel to establish the shoulder.

To remove the waste, chop straight down. Then chip in from the end to remove tiny chips. After removing I/S ' of the thickness, start a slight undercut.

(HISEL IN FROM

END TO REMOVE

0;'"

. .,----"'t:s <> PlNS SHOULD BE

STRAIGHT ANa SQUARE TO ENDS

/ When half the waste is gone, flip the panel over and reposition the backer board. Repeat the procedure to remove the rest of the waste.

After cleaning up the corners with a chisel, make sure each pin is straight and square to the end of the panel. Use a chisel to true up any out-of-square pins. DOVETAIL CHEST

121


TAILS: After the pins are complete, it's time OR KNIFE to work on the tails. T mark the tails directly from the pins. This way, they will match them perfectly. LAY OUT. To lay out the tails, first Layout the tails from the pins. Set the With the panels flush at both ends and set the tail panel tail panel inside-face up on the bench. the edges, trace the pins onto the tail on the workpanel. Use a sharp pencil. Set the pin panel on top so edges align. bench, with the inside face up. 'Inen stand the !;;~;:;:;~~ TOUSETRANSFER BEVEL GAUGE ANGLE pin panel on lop so FROM INSIDE FACE the panels form a TO OUTSIDE FAC7-""O:::j corner. The&') two lJE;2'~.ยง panels should be nush at the ends and thc edges, with both inside faces toward each othcr. (Here's where all that marking at thc beginning helps.) Note: To help the pin panel stand ""- To extend the fines around the panel, Transfer the angles on the inside face upright, I damp a piece of scrap to it oJ draw parallel lines across the ends. To 10 the au/side face. Adjust the bevel (Step 1). This also helps remove any do this accurately. position the pencil, gauge to match the angle on the inside slight cupping that may be in the panel. Now that the tails are marked on the then slide the try square up to it. face. Then draw it on the outside face. inside face, the lines can be transferred around tJ1C panel to the outside face (Steps 8- 4). Drawing the straight lines across the ends of the panel is easy. But to transfer the angles to the outside facc, you'llnced to usc the bevel gauge. To be safe, I don't just draw the same ~-"rBASEUNE -angle I used to draw the pins. Instead, J I , / ~ X ' check each angle on the insirle face, SAVE - โ€ข ~ ~ CLEAN UP SAW CUT WITH OlISEL adjust the bevel gauge if neccssary, and PENCILUNES then transfer this angle to the outside To form the sides of the rails, hold the Remove waste at the top and bottom face. 'Inen mark the waste areas. with a saw, cutting from the edges saw at an angle and begin cutting, CUTTING THE TAilS. When cutting staying on the waste side of the line. Stop toward the first tail. Then clean up the the tails, the saw isn't straight up and down - it's angled (Step !;). This when the kerf reaches the baseline. cuts with a chisel. means starling the cut is a little trickier. The saw may tend to skate across the end, so 1 start more toward lllC waste side of the line. This leaves more cleanI. up, but the dovetails fit together betler. / REMOVING THE WASTE. With all the kerfs cut, it's time to remove the waste. BACKING BOARD But this timC', usc the saw to remove the waste sections [or the pins at the top and bottom of the panel (Step 6). 'Inen dean up the shoulders wit.h a chisel. Nowyou can clean out the rest of the Use a chisel to remove the waste Remove half the thickness of the between the tilils. As with the pins, waste from one side of the panel. waste between the tails using the same clamp a backing board to the panel and Then flip the panel over and repeat the procedure used lO dean between the score the shoulder. process. Finally, test fit the joint. pins (Steps 7-8). TRACE PINS WITH

SHARP PENCIL

ClAMP SCRAP TO PANEL TO HELP BALANCE PANEL ON EDGE

~

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5

7

122 COUNTRY PROJECTS


Before Ihc joint can be fully as:>embled, you'lllikcly have to do some fitting. FITTING. To get the joint 10 fit, you'll probably need to remove a little material from either the lails or the pins. To sec jusl where to remove this material, dry-assemble the joint as much as possible (see photo at right). But don't force it. If you do, the pins at the top and boUom can split from the pressure. The goal is a final fit that can be dry-assembled with a few light taps. With the joint dry-assembled as much as possible, you should be able to see where the joint is binding. And when you pull the joint apart, the tight spolS will also be burnished slightly. To make these areas easier to see, I like to mark them with a pencil. CHISEL. To remove a lot of waste, you can pare it away with a chisel (Fig. 1). This removes the wood quickly, but it's

also easy to remove too much material. SANDING STICK. So I often use a lillie sanding slick (Fig. 2). I make one from a thin piece of scrap with some adhesive-backed sandpaperatlachcd.l bevel the edges to match the angle oilhe tails so I can sand right into the corner. ASSEMBLY. -When all the joints fit, the case is rearly to be assembled (Fig. 8). I use white glue when assembling a large case. It has a longer setup time than yellow glue, which helps with all the small faces that need to bc glued. 1usually apply glue just to the sides of tJle pins and !..,i1s. I don'l bother gluing the baseline since it's end grain. Clamping up dovetails usually takes a little preparation. To pull the joint tight, you only want to apply pressure to the tails (not the pins). You'll need a good number of clamps ready to go. If you don't have many damps, you

can distribute the damping pressure evenly across the joint with a special clamping block (J!'iy. 8).

NOTE: SCRAP PIECE WITH ADHESIVE-BACKED SAND"APER ON BOTTOM SIDE ONLY

APPLY PRESSURE . . -111/- '''"-

"VEe EDGES TO FrTINTO

CORNERS

TO TAIL PANEL ONLY

NOTCHED CLAMPING

BLOCK DiSTRIBUTES

\.

,

PRESSURE EVENLY

------j

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-~

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USE SHMP CHISel TO ./ CAREFUiLY PARE -AWAY MATERIAl.

Even after the joint fits together, there may still be some work to do. PROTRUDING TAILS AND PINS. One common problem is when either the mils or pins stick ouL But this is easily corrected with a little sanding or

routing. Heier to page 117 for some ways to do this. GAPS BETWEEN DOVETAILS. Gaps between a tail and it pin can be fixed with your hand saw and a spline. The idea is to cut an even kerf

RRSr. TO EVEN GAP, CVT KERF

Ihrough the gap (Fiy. I). Then glue a spline in the kerf to upalch~ it (Pig. la). GAPS AT BASELINE. You may find a gap along the baseline of the tails. Here the Cllt was too deep. The solution is to t1scwcdRCS to fill the gaps Wi!!. 2).

a. TO FILL BASELINE

GAP, GLUE IN --_ WEDGES AND TRIM FLUSH

SE~:GLUESPlJNE

IN KERF AND TRIM FLUSH

DOVETAIL CHEST

123


By using frame andpanel construction for the sides, the chest takes on a more formal appearance. To complement this classic look, choose a hardwoodsuch as oak, cherry, ash or walnut.

c Start by cutting all the rails and stiles

Glue up six IN'-thick blanks for the panels (T U). Cut them to finished size after the glue dries. To form the raised center on each panel, first fasten a tall auxiliary fence lo the lable saw nIl fence. Raise the blade I%11 and tilt it 8". Then position the rip fence:\/16'1 from the blade with the blade tilted away from the fence. Cut bevels on all four edges of alI six panels (Fig. I). Cut the ends first. then the edges to clean up any tearout. Safet.y Note: Use a zero clearance insert to help prevent the panel from tipping into the opening around the blade. Use a beveled sanding block to remove blalle marks and square up the shoulders of the raised panels. Apply a finish before gluing the frame and panel assemblies together. Refer to the photo on page 113. Now you can glue and clamp together the frame and panel assemblies. Do not use glue on the panels. Check that each assembly is fiat and square.

(M, N, 0, P, Q, R, S) to finished width and length (Fig. 1).

To accept the panels added later. cut 112'1 deep centered Oil the thickness of each piece (Fig. 1). Also cut grooves on b()lh edges of the front/back short stiles (N). CUL Ih"-Iong tenons Oil the ends of the f'Iils (0, I~ I{, S) to lit the grooves in the stiles Wig. 1). Also cut a tenon on each end of the front/back short stiles (N). Use a dado blade in the table saw to cut a rabbet along onc edge of each front/back long stile (M). This rabbet should be :IN' deep and fit the thickness of the end stiles (Q) (Figs. 1 and .':1). Now dry-assemble each set of raih> and stiles, and measure for the six panels. (Make sure the short stiles arc centered in the front/back assemblies.) Measure each opening, inside edge to inside edge, and add %11 to each dimension. The assemblies for opposite sirles should be the same width and length. 1/~II-wide grooves

fidore gluing the chest together, two sets of grooves need to be cut. first. cut grooves on the inside faces of all four assemblies to fit the thickness of the boltom panel (C) (Fig. 4). The boltom

MATERIALS UST CHANGED PARTS D Tray Supports (2) %x%-34:1; K TrClY Ends (2) 14 x 31/l- 13lfz l Tray Bottom (1) 'hx12%-23% NEW PARTS M Fr,lBk, Long Stiles (4) 314 x 2 • 1S I!] N Fr.lBk. Short Stiles (2)-% x 2 - 11 o FUEk. Top Rails (2) 314 x 2314 - 33 P Fr./Ek. Etm, Rails (2) %x 5~!4 - 33 Q End Stiles (4) % x 1"Is - 18'12 R EndTopRail,(2) %x2%-13 SEnd Blm. Rails (2) y",x 5'14 - 13 T fr./Bk. Panels (4) 11) x 10314 - 1S3r.. U End Panels (2) ,/;. x 103/~ - 12% V Tray Runners (2) 'fax '12 - 24 Note: Do not need piJrts A, B. HARDWARE SUPPLIES (8) #8 x %" rh woodscre'NS

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edge of each groove is 2 1/4" from the oollom edge of each assembly. ~ow cut %"-wide grooves %" deep for the tray supports toward the top of the fronl/back assemblies ouly Wig.'S. 4 alld 6). The top edges of these &l'fOOVCS are 1%" from the top edges of the fronl/back assemblies. Next, dry-assemble the case and measure for the bottom panel. To do this, measure the opening, including the depth of the bottom grooves.lllen subtract lfgT' from the width only to allow for expansion. Glue up a panel and cut it to these dimensions. To keep the corners aligned during glue up, two screws arc drivcn at each corner (Fig. 3). With the case dryassembled, drill a pilot hole and a shank hole %" from the top and bollom edj:!e on each front/back assembly. (These will be covered by trim later.) Drive screws in to pre-thread the holes, then remove them. FRAME AND PANEL Now it's time to assemble the case with the four sides and bottom !)ancl. Apply glue to eHch joint (but not to the bottom panel) and assemble the case wilh the screws. Use clamps as well. Glue them in place (Pig. 6). Rout a %11 stopped chamfer on the The tray is built the same as for the outside corner of each fronl/back long dovetail chest, except the tray ends (K) stile (M) Wig. 1). are lB 1h tl long (Fig. 5). Refer to page Cut tray supports (D) to fit into the 119 for details on building the tray. After the tray is assembled, cut grooves in the front and back assemblies and bet\veen the end assemblies. grooves on the front and back to

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NOTE: CUT TRAY SUPf'ORT GROOVES IN FRONT AND BACK ASSEM8UES ONLY

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DOVETAil CHEST 125


SOURC -'---One of the first things we take into COIl-

sideration when designing projects at Woodsmith is whether the hardware is commonly available. Most of lhe hard-

ware and supplies for the projects inlhis book can be round at local hardware stores or home centers. Sometimes. though, you may have to order the hardwa]"e through the maiL U that's the case,

we've tried to find reputable national mail order sources with toll-free pholle num-

bers (see box at right), In addition, Woodsmilh Project Supplies offers hardware for some of the

Some of the most important Utools" you can have in your shop are mail order catalogs. The ones listed below arc fined with special hardware, tools, linishes.lumber, and supplies that can't be found at a local hardware store or home center. You should be able to find many of the supplies for the projects in this book in one or more of these catalogs. H's amazing what you can learn

about woodworking by looking through these call110gs. If they're not currently in your shop, you may want to have Lhem sent to you. Note: TIle information below was current when this book was pr;nled. Time-Ijfe Books and August Home Publishing do not guarantee these product" will be available nor ('..n dorse any s{X:cillc mail orner company, catalog, or producL

project.s in this book (see below),

-----

Al the time of printing, U1e (allow-

ing project supply kits were available from lVoodxmilh Projed SuppliRAI.l11C kits include the items listed. but you must supply any lumber, plywood, or finish. For current prices and availability, call loll free:

1-800-444-7527 Hall Tree (pages 48-53) No. 8005-144 This kit provides full-size patterns for the hooks and feet.

Mission Bookcase (paRes 72-87)

No.790-200

2625 Beaver Avenue Des Moines, IA 50310 800-835-5084 Our own retail store filled with lools, jigs, hardware, books, and finishing supplies. 'lllOugh we don'L have a catalog, we do send out items mail order. Call for information.

2050 Eastchester Road Bronx, NY 10461 800-223-8087 www.constantines.com One of the original woodworking mail order catalogs. Find cotton Shaker tape, hinges, tin panels, milk paint and other finishin~ sllpplies.

560 Airport Industrial Park P.O. Box 1686 Parkersburg, WV 26102-1686 800-225-1153 www.woodcraft.com Has all kinds of hardware induding hinges. coat pegs, knobs and lid suppurLs. They also carry a good selcction of hand tools and accessories.

135 American Legion Highway Revere, MA 02151 800-767-9999 www.trend-lines.com Another cOTTlplete source for hinges, pegs, dowels, hardware, power tools and accessories.

Includes the hinges, ball catches, screws, shelf supports and brads.

Coat and Glove Rack (pages 90-95) No. 78G¡l 00 Includes full-size patterns for the back and sides, oak plugs, coat pegs, door knob, butt hinges and magnetic door catch. Jelly Cupboard (pages l06-113) Hardware Kit... No. 787-100 Screws, hinges, dowels for thc pins and wooden door knob. Tin Panel Kit... No. 787-110 Four blank tin panels ready lo be punched with your choice of paltcrns (see page 107), plus instructions on pUllching and aging tin. KEY: Tl04

126 SOURCES

4365 Willow Drive Medina, MN 55340 800-279-4441 www.roc:kler.com A great catalog of general hardware, specialty hardware, plus tool and shop accessories. It's also a good ~idea-start.er" for projects.

1108 North Glenn Road Casper, WY 82601 800-645-9292 Z-shaped faslenc~, power tools and accessories, hardware, shellac, milk paint and oLher finishing supplies, wood plug'S and more.

P.O. Box 70 Mound, MN 55364 800-441-9870 Inlhis plan-Iilled catalog, you'll also find pegs, lid supports, hinges, plus blank and pre-punched tin panels. P.O. Box 437 Montoursville, PA 17754 717-478-4127 A complete catalog of tin-punchillK sUJ)plies with pre-pWlched tin, punching tools, tin blanks and designs. P.O. Box 111 Wareham, MA 02571 800-842-0560 Over 175 years old and still making square nails the old-fashioned way.


INDEX Bookcase

\lissioll,72-87 Open, 87

Chair Rocking-, 2642

Chest Dovetail, 114-12:1 Frame and panel, 124-125 Coal and Glove Rack, 90-95 CottOIl Shaker tape, 38-41 Cutout patterns Diamond,99 Heart, 12,99

Jig:; Bevel,61 Chisel guide, 57 Flush trim, 117 Taperin,l{, 22-23, 56, 61 Joinery End lap, 111 HalI-lap;;, 51 Hand-cut dovetails, 10, 12()-123 Locked rabbeL, 20 :Miter with spline, 68-69 Mortise and tenon, 17, 57-58, 70, 76 Pegged mortise and tenon, 79 Tenons on dowels, 31 Through mortise and tenon, 84-86, 99..100

1)oors, 81-82, 95, 111-112

Panels, 112, In Shop--buill pulls, 83 Dovetail Chest, 111-125 Dovetails

CuUing, 121}-123 Fitting, 12;) TroubleshootinJ!. Dowels Making, 37

Lamp Table, 21

Milk paint, 95,104-105 Mission Bookcase, 72-R7 Mortises, 16, 57, 70 lllrough mortise and Lenon, 84-86,

12:~

Notching, 35 Pim" 110, 111

Tenons, 31 Finishes 1\l,ring, !J5, 105 Danish oil, 9

Milk paint, 104-105 Shellac, 119 Waxing, 7'2

Footstool, Shaker-Style, 43-45 Frame and panel, 75, 124-125

Frame and Panel Chest, 124-125 Glass

Beveled,68 Doors, 82 Glass-Top Coffee Table. 62-71

99-100 Oak Sofa Table, :l4-6l

Patterns Bench apron, 99 Bench back. 99 Bench side, 100 Clothes hooks, 49 Coat lind Glove Hack back, 94 Coat and Glove Rack sides, 92 Diamond cutout, 99 Foot, Hall CloLhes Tree, 49 Hcartcutoul, 12,99 Punched tin panels, 107 Hockers,36 Rocker arms, 34 Sources, 126 Weaving, 42

Pegs Hall Clothes Tree, 48-53

Hardware Chain, 119 Door catches, 82, 112 Hinges. 82, 95, 1m, 112, 118 Shelf pins, &1

Decorative, 79 Shaker, 94 Square, 92 Punched tin panels, 107,112 Sources, 126 ({aised panels, 113, 124-125 [{ocking Chair, 26-42

Sources, 126 Square-nltnail:o;,I09 Tin panels, 112 Z-shaped fa:;leners, 55, 60 High-Back Bench, 9('J--] 05 .Jelly Cupboard, 106--113

Shellac, 119 Shelves, SR, 60, 67, 83, 92-93, ] 09 Shop Tips Adding decorative pegs, 79 CIampinI{ with wedl{cs, 109 OrawinR an are, 65 Filling gaps, 9 Frame a~&:mbly, 75 Hanging system, 94 \1ortiscs with ajig saw, 100 Routing C'tlstolll"f1t darloes, 108 Sanding flush, 117 Scraping and sanding corners, 78 Shaping leg bot1.oms, 30 ShoV-built door pulls, 83 Spacing slats, 98 Special sanding block, 50 Tight-fit shoulders, 17 Sources, 126 Step Stool, &-13 Country version, 12-13 Stools Country Step Stool, 12-1;\ Shaker-Style Footstool. 4:l-45 Shaker SLep Stool, 8-13 Storage Coat and Glove Rack, 90-95 Dovetail Chest, 114-125 Hall Table, 14-25 High-Back Bench, 102-103 Jelly Cupboard, 106-113 Mission Bookcase, 72-87 Tray, 119 Square-cut nails, 109

Tables Coffee Glass-Top, 62-71 Solid Wood Top, 71 Hall, [4-25 Lamp, 21 SoIa, 51-61 Tapering legs Jigs, 22-23, 5f), &t On a jointer, 21-25 Tin panels, 112 Patterns, 107

\Veaving,38-12 Shaker Hall Table, 14¡25 Shaker Step Stool, 8-13 Shaker cotton tape, 38-41 Shaker-Style Footstool, 43

INDEX

127


TIME®

l!m

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From the editors of

â&#x20AC;¢ TIME Wcodsmith and m:n .':"::OKS

ISBN

~7835-59534

Profile for Caponito

American style shaker, mission & country projects  

American style shaker, mission & country projects  

Profile for caponito
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