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En couverture : â&#x20AC;&#x153;La Combade au moulin de Soumagnas (Roziers St-Georges)â&#x20AC;? photo Pierre Morlhigem.


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Extrait du registre des arrĂŞtĂŠs du PrĂŠfet du DĂŠpartement de la Haute-Vienne du dix-huit dĂŠcembre mil huit cent douze. Le baron de lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Empire, prĂŠfet du dĂŠpartement de la HauteVienne, membre de la LĂŠgion dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Honneur ; Vu les plaintes qui lui sont parvenues de diverses parties du dĂŠpartement sur la cupiditĂŠ des meuniers, la fixation arbitraire de leur droit de mouture ; Vu les dispositions des coutumes des provinces dont le territoire se trouve en partie aujourdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;hui rĂŠuni au dĂŠpartement de la Haute-Vienne et notamment des coutumes de Poitou et de la Marche qui prescrivent aux meuniers de tenir les tambours de leurs meules ronds et bien fermĂŠs et ont règlĂŠ le droit de mouture de telle sorte que le meunier est tenu de rendre un boisseau comble de farine pour un boisseau ras de blĂŠ nettoyĂŠ ; ce qui, par expĂŠriences rĂŠitĂŠrĂŠes qui en ont ĂŠtĂŠ faites, laisse au meunier un seizième pour son salaire ; Vu la connaissance traditionnelle des anciens règlements de police faits pour la ci-devant province du Limousin et qui avoient adoptĂŠ pour le droit du meunier la retenue du seizième de la quantitĂŠ du grain donnĂŠ Ă moudre ; Vu lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;usage adoptĂŠ en diverses autres parties de lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;empire et particulièrement Ă  Paris de payer en argent le droit de mouture en rendant par le meunier le mĂŞme poids de farine que celui quâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;il a reçu en grain. Vu lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ordonnance de mil sept cent quarante-neuf qui oblige les meuniers Ă  avoir dans leurs moulins des poids et des balances pour comparer les quantitĂŠs reçues avec celles rendues ; Vu enfin lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;article quatre cent quatre-vingt quatre du code pĂŠnal de mil huit cent dix portant que, dans toutes les matières qui nâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ont pas ĂŠtĂŠ règlĂŠes par ce code et qui sont rĂŠgies par des lois et règlements particuliers, les cours et tribunaux continueront de les observer ; ConsidĂŠrant quâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;aucune loi, depuis lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;abolition des coutumes, ne sâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;est occupĂŠe de la construction des tambours ou lits des meules des moulins ni de la perception du droit de mouture ; que, dans le silence de la lĂŠgislation, les particuliers qui donnent leur blĂŠ Ă  moudre se trouvent entièrement livrĂŠs Ă  la cupiditĂŠ des meuniers ; quâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;il importe de faire cesser les plaintes qui sâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ĂŠlèvent de toutes parts et rappelant les dispositions des anciennes lois municipales ou des usages qui en tenaient lieu ; ConsidĂŠrant que le droit de mouture rĂŠglĂŠ par ces coutumes ĂŠquivaut Ă  un seizième, quâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;il a ĂŠtĂŠ ĂŠvaluĂŠ Ă  ce taux par diffĂŠrents règlements sur cette matière, que lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;usage constant de la ci-devant province du Limousin a fixĂŠ Ă  cette quantitĂŠ la rĂŠtribution du meunier ; que si les meuniers perçoivent une plus forte remise, câ&#x20AC;&#x2122;est en contravention Ă 


la loi commune, à l’exécution de laquelle il convient qu’ils soient promptement ramenés ; Considérant que le décalitre et le boisseau dont l’usage a été autorisé par l’arrêté de son excellence le ministre de l’intérieur du vingt-huit mars mil huit cent douze, ayant le diamètre égal à la hauteur, la remise de la farine boisseau comble pour boisseau ras paraît contraire aux intérêts des propriétaires de la denrée en ce que ces mesures étant plus étroites que celles mentionnées dans les coutumes elles contiennent nécessairement moins de farine sur leur comble ; qu’ainsi il convient, en abandonnant le texte précis des coutumes, d’y substituer la mesure équivalente et généralement adoptée en Limousin et dans les païs même soumis à l’empire des dites coutumes de rendre par le meunier au propriétaire une quantité de farine égale en poids à celle du blé qui lui aura été livré, sous la déduction du seizième, soit en nature, soit en argent, si les parties s’accordent sur leur valeur ; qu’à cet effet il est nécessaire d’astreindre les meuniers à avoir dans leurs moulins les poids et les mesures nécessaires ;




Considérant enfin que les meuniers ne se bornent pas à exiger une rétribution plus forte que celle qui leur est allouée par les lois, coutumes et usages, qu’il en est encore parmi eux qui changent les grains ou altèrent les farines par des mixtions et que ces coupables abus appellent toute la sollicitude de l’administration et doivent être d’autant plus sévèrement punis qu’ils sont plus difficiles à constater ; Arrête : - Article premier : Tous les moulins à farine du département seront, conformément à l’article trente-sept de la coutume du Poitou et à l’article trois cent onze de celle de la Marche tenus à point rond. - Article 2 : Le cercle ou tambour environnant les meules sera bien clos, convenablement et suffisamment serré pour que toute la farine tombe exactement dans la huche par l’auget. - Article 3 : Tous ceux qui ont des moulins à point carré seront tenus de les faire mettre à point rond d’ici au premier mars mil huit cent quatorze, à peine de démolition des moulins trouvés à point carré au premier mars, laquelle sera administrativement ordonnée. - Article 4 : Les meuniers seront tenus de rendre en farine le même poids qui leur a été confié en blé, sous la retenue seulement du seizième pour leur droit de mouture. Ce seizième pourra, du consentement du meunier, lui être payé en valeur numéraire équivalente. Tout autre mode de restitution de la farine ne pourra avoir lieu que d’un consentement réciproque du meunier et du propriétaire du grain. - Article 5 : Si le particulier qui a donné à moudre croit, en recevant sa farine, avoir à se plaindre que, pour accroître le poids, le meunier l’ait placée à l’air ou dans un lieu humide, il pourra exiger que ses sacs soient fermés et scellés pour n’être pesés que huitaine après, en présence du meunier ou gens de sa part. Le meunier sera tenu à la restitution de ce qui se trouverà manquer. - Article 6 : Défenses sont faites à tous meuniers d’exiger un plus fort droit que celui mentionné en l’article ci-dessus, à peine d’être poursuivis et punis suivant la rigueur des lois et règlements, sans préjudice de la restitution de la farine indûment perçue. - Article 7 : Defenses leur sont pareillement faites de changer les grains qui leur sont donnés à moudre et d’altérer des farines en y mélangeant des recoupes, du son, des poids, des fèves et toutes autres substances, à peine d’être punis suivant la qualité de la fraude, conformément aux lois et règlements. -

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pourvoir dans le délai de l’article trois ci-dessus 1°/ de tous les poids, fléaux et balances nécessaires pour peser les grains et farines lorsqu’ils en seront requis. 2°/ d’un boisseau ferré de la dimension et capacité déterminées par l’arrêté de son excellence le ministre de l’intérieur du vingt-huit mars mil huit cent douze. 3°/ d’une mesure du seizième de ce boisseau pour la perception de leur droit de mouture. Cette mesure sera conforme au modèle qui sera déposé dans le bureau de vérification de chaque arrondissement. - Article 9 : Les poids, fléaux, balances et mesures mentionnés en l’article précédent seront vérifiés et étalonnés avant qu’il puisse en être fait usage et ils seront vérifiéschaque année et revêtus de la marque annuelle. - Article 10 : Tout meunier au domicile duquel il sera trouvé des poids et mesures autres que ceux dont l’usage est permis par la loi ou qui, quoique autorisés, ne seraient pas revêtus de la marque annuelle, seront traduits devant les tribunaux compétents pour être poursuivis conformément à l’article cent soixante dix-neuf du code pénal.




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”après quoi nous avons été au moulin de Soumagnas où nous avons trouvé Léonard Paris qui nous a dit être domestique de Jean Maumot meunier dudit moulin, lui ayant fait savoir le sujet de notre transport il nous a conduits dans ledit moulin, avons remarqué qu’il y a la place de deux meules mais qu’il n’y en qu’une à présent, qu’il y a cependant deux roues dont il y a un des arbres pourris, ledit Paris nous a fait remarquer que la porte est rompue, que les murs et la couverture de paille sont en très mauvais état. Finalement nous nous sommes portés au moulin de La Cour où nous avons trouvé Léonard Jumellou dit Giraud auquel nous avons aussi fait savoir le sujet de notre transport, nous avons entré dans ledit moulin où nous avons trouvé deux meules et deux roudets (2) , ledit Jumellou nous a fait observer que les murs des deux côtés de la porte sont éboulés et que l’écluse est en ruine” Ce descriptif montre, sans aucun doute possible étant donné la vétusté des lieux, que l’ancienneté de ces moulins est bien antérieure à 1717. Le second document est “l’état des moulins à farine en activité dans la commune de Roziers-Masléon (3)” signé du maire le 13 mars 1809. De ce dernier, il ressort à propos des moulins recensés dans ladite commune, que “la qualité des moutures est de trois livres par quintal de seigle et de dix livres par quintal de blé noir, la production quotidienne étant de trente quintaux de farine de seigle et d’autant de blé noir”.

Le moulin de Soumagnas. Le moulin de Soumagnas, comme beaucoup de moulins, tire son nom du hameau auquel il est rattaché (voir plan page suivante).


Le moulin de Soumagnas aujourd’hui

(2) : Roudet : roue horizontale à cuillères. (3) : De 1800 à 1831, Masléon et Roziers St-Georges ne formeront qu’une seule commune qui prend le nom de “Roziers-Masléon”.


151

Localisation du moulin de Soumagnas, d’après le cadastre “Napoléon” de la commune de Roziers St-Georges

Outre le procès-verbal ci-dessus, son histoire connue remonte au coeur du XIXe siècle, lorsque la mère de l’arrière-grand-père de M. Martial Reilhac, le dernier propriétaire l’a acheté au (4) “seigneur de Neuvic” . A la suite de ce contrat, durant quatre générations, de père en fils, la famille Reilhac a fait tourner le moulin de Soumagnas (4). Martial Reilhac prit la succession de Guillaume Reilhac à la tête de ce moulin, d’après la matrice cadastrale de Roziers St-Georges. L’ancienne matrice cadastrale de cette commune, déposée aux Archives Départementales de la Haute-Vienne, nous révèle les noms de Léonard Reilhac (enquête de 1892), de Martial Reilhac (enquête de 1865), de Denis Latour (enquête de 1838) parmi les meuniers rattachés au moulin de Soumagnas. Celui-ci a cessé définitivement de fonctionner le 1er janvier 1967. Il a été partiellement démoli en 1945 et remplacé par le moulin actuel (4). Son pertuis était de 2,70 m et sa capacité d’écrasement de deux quintaux métriques par 24 heures. Sa production était très diversifiée : blé noir, seigle, huile de noix, huile de colza, cidre. Sur le plan technologique, le moulin était actionné par une roue à aubes établie sur un bief, lequel séparait le moulin en deux bâtiments. Dans un bâtiment se trouvaient une meule pour le blé noir, une meule pour le seigle et une troisième meule inachevée. Dans l’autre bâtiment, se trouvaient les deux meules complémentaires du moulin à huile ainsi qu’un pressoir à cidre (5). En 1972 (6), date de l’étude de M. Gaudy, les pièces encore visibles sont les suivantes : la roue à aubes montée sur un arbre, le roudet monté à l’autre bout de l’arbre, une roue à pied surmontée d’un mouton (7), une roue à pied surmontée d’une poulie, des fragments du conduit en bois amenant l’eau sur la roue.

(4) : Témoignage de Mme Reilhac. (5) : Enquête menée par la DRAC en 1980-81. (6) : Bulletin de l’Association Française des Amis des Moulins, Fernand Gaudy : “les moulins dans le sud du département de la Haute-Vienne”, 33 / 3605, 1972 (7) : mouton : meule à oléagineux.


152

La roue à aubes du moulin de Soumagnas Photo Fenand Gaudy - 1972

Vous trouverez page suivante, tirée de “Les moulins dans le sud de la Haute-Vienne” (8), une étude de M. Fernand Gaudy sur la roue du moulin de Soumagnas. Précisons que si M. Gaudy à situé le moulin de Soumagnas à Masléon, ce moulin, comme le village du même nom, est bien sur le territoire de la commune de Roziers St-Georges.

Le moulin de Lacour.

Le moulin de Lacour

(8) : Bulletin de l’Association Française des Amis des Moulins, Fernand Gaudy : “les moulins dans le sud du département de la Haute-Vienne”, 33 / 3605, 1972.


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Le moulin de Lacour a été démoli en 1943 puis transformé en propriété privée. Son pertuis était de 3,80 m et sa capacité d’écrasement de cinq quintaux métriques par 24 heures. Nous avons recueilli des informations précieuses sur son fonctionnement grâce à une communication de M. Fernand Gaudy (voir photo page 156 et schéma explicatif page précédente (10) du mécanisme de démultiplication) . (10)

Toujours en 1972 , date de l’étude de M. Gaudy, les pièces encore visibles sont les suivantes : les restes d’une des trois meules, les restes d’une bluterie, le mécanisme de levage des meules.

Le barrage du moulin de Lacour et son pertuis




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Les moulins de la Combade - 2  

Les moulins de la Combade - 2

Les moulins de la Combade - 2  

Les moulins de la Combade - 2

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