journal of the civil air navigation services organisation
ISSUE 04 QUARTER 1 2009
How CANSO’s environment programme will help airlines cut costs
SURVIVING THE DOWNTURN: Responding to the financial crisis “It’s a bit like making wine” – Paul Riemens on LVNL’s noise management
PERFORMANCE BASED NAVIGATION: Push for implementation
The integrated tower, ANSP transformation, and leading news and comment from across the world of ATM AIRSPACE QUARTER 1 2009 1
CONTENTS COMMENT 5 EDITOR’S NOTE What grounds do we have for optimism in the current climate? 8 THE CEO COLUMN His Excellency Abdullah M.N. Al-Rehaimi, President, GACA Saudi Arabia, on GACA’s plans to work with CANSO and its neighbours in the Middle East.
9 THE GUEST COLUMN Marie Desseaux, CANSO’s Director of European Affairs, discusses the effects of positive lobbying in Brussels. 10-11 LETTER FROM AMERICA ‘Thomas Paine’ sets out the options facing the FAA, and reveals the thoughts of Ray LaHood, the new Secretary of Transportation.
ATM NEWS Airspace No. 4 ISSN number 1877 2196 Published by CANSO, the Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation Transpolis Schiphol Airport Polaris Avenue 85e 2132 JH Hoofddorp The Netherlands Telephone: +31 (0)23 568 5380 Fax: +31 (0)23 568 5389 Editor:
Chris Goater firstname.lastname@example.org
Advertisement Manager: Gill Thompson email@example.com Telephone: +44 (0)1273 771020
Design: i-KOS Telephone: +44 (0)1322 277255 Web: www.i-kos.com The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright, full details of which are available from the publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any other means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of the publishers. The views and opinions in this publication are expressed by the authors in their personal capacity and are their sole responsibility. Their publication does not imply that they represent the views or opinions of CANSO and must not be interpreted as such. The reproduction of advertisements in this publication does not in any way imply endorsement by CANSO of the products and services referred to herein.
6-7 THE LATEST INFORMATION ON CANSO’s new statistics service, Obama’s NextGen funding, new CANSO members, Dieter Kaden on ANS board and Middle East ANSP action plan.
FEATURES 12-14 ATM AND CLIMATE CHANGE – TARGETING AIRSPACE EFFICIENCY Emissions reductions are firmly on the agenda for the Copenhagen talks at the end of this year, and aviation is expected to be included, but how does CANSO’s environmental work fit in?
16-18 AVIATION IN CRISIS: REFORMING ATM CHARGES Airlines are calling for drastic measures to prevent ATM charges rising. But what measures are ANSPs already taking, and what are the obstacles preventing genuine ATM finance reform?
PEOPLE 22-23 PAUL RIEMENS The acting Chairman of the Board of LVNL on aviation clusters, why CO2 will never be a bigger priority than noise, and the similarities between community relations and wine making.
24-25 CHRISTOPH BAUBIN The former CEO of AustroControl and the CANSO ExCom champion for Business Transformation talks to Gudrun Held about the future of ATM.
TECHNOLOGY & OPERATIONS 19-21 PBN – A KEY STEP TOWARDS AIRSPACE MODERNISATION ICAO’s push for faster implementation of PBN will mean the whole industry pulling together to give it new impetus. 26-27 THE INTEGRATED GLASS TOWER The air traffic control tower is an aviation icon, but inside it is undergoing a quiet technological revolution. Tony Lo Brutto of Sensis explains the key elements of the transformation.
Copyright CANSO 2009
civil air navigation services organisation
28-29 FOCUS ON… WWW.CANSO.ORG CANSO’s recently relaunched website sports a whole new look, improved content, and enhanced functionality. Here we show you some of the site’s key features.
30 WHO WE ARE AND WHAT WE DO Information on joining CANSO and benefits to members.
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4 QUARTER 1 2009
great deal of up’. There’s a ng ki o ‘lo f o eme n, but there h good reaso I think it is a th it e, w d em an th y, a s m If this issue ha t on the econo at the momen m o lo g d an d oom m. ds for optimis (indeed, are also groun iate dif ficulties ed m im ur o f bers are etail o CANSO mem off the fine d s, es in ey la p ur ex o is ke is e to It’s hard to ta e economic cr e can manag page 16 on th tions) but if w lu n o so e ing m ur en er at p -t fe p rt sho is ha as our tr ying to find much of what in at th ed lv e se l one vo in n ta y vi ca is a re, we intimatel TM. This year A the big pic tu r n fo o s re cu tu fo fu ar d it s p t. ghter look up an ec ted to play for a much bri p ay ex w e e b th ill g w in n be able aviatio now is prepar what ATM will change, and g e in at at ul im lc cl t ca ns y ai e is has been bus in the fight ag 12 notes, ther ure on page ent Workgroup at nm fe ro e bills, vi th el s en A fu ’s ine ienc y. CANSO ent and to airl airspace ef fic nm f o ro s vi rm en te e th in to to achieve enefits, both do, but the b to t lo l fu aw an ant. remain will be signific in ways which rk o w s it s cu fo ng-term aims imate is to re sight of our lo the current cl in ng si m lo ai r n ve ai ne m throughout hile CANSO’s challenges w amples of this ry ex ra y o p an m em at nt re eag what the relevant to co stem. There ar clusive ar ticle sy ex e s hi ac p in rs s ai in pla seaux for a seamless wn Marie Des . Al-Rehaimi ex o ’s .N M SO h N la A ul C d b le .A all about, whi , we have this issue: H.E ac tion plan is e II. Elsewhere SP ag N ck A Pa rn S te SE as PBN, which ith the Middle E celeration of n achieved w ac ee an b s d ha an t er ha shows us w the future tow cal ar ticles on ni ch te t an rt o imp d IATA. NSO, ICAO an A C y b d le usual CANSO is being bal, where as lo G TC A at e azin n halls. Please ading this mag and exhibitio re ce e b en er ay nf m u co the e’d be very Many of yo e felt, both in NSO team. W nc A C se e re p th s to it lf g will be makin oduce yourse stand and intr ur o t si vi d an come eet you. pleased to m Chris Goater
QUARTER 1 2009 5
ATM NEWS CANSO news
CANSO LAUNCHES GLOBAL ATM STATISTICS SERVICE CANSO has developed a new statistics service which will help keep aviation stakeholders up-to-date on the latest trends in air traffic management. Starting with a bulletin in each month’s ‘CANSO News’, the statistics will focus on traffic numbers – an especially important trend to watch in the current economic climate. The statistics will also be viewable online at www.canso.org, as an important part of the improved website (which will be launched in March). It is anticipated that further analysis of these figures, and other ATM data, will become available in the coming months. Members are invited to submit information and suggestions for further extension of the statistical reports; please email Anouk Achterhuis: firstname.lastname@example.org This statistics service is in addition to the work of the CANSO Global Benchmarking Workgroup, which will continue to develop key ANSP indicators in their annual reports. An executive summary of the 2008 report will also be available on the CANSO website.
Middle East region
OBAMA INCREASES NEXTGEN FUNDING A significant rise in funding for the US Next-Generation Air Transportation System has been announced in President Obama’s first budget. The move was expected as it follows from a recommendation issued last year by the Bush administration to accelerate NextGen funding. Around $800m (up from $600m) will be provided to deliver more accurate satellite-based navigation systems as well as develop more efficient airspace routes and improvements in meteorological information.
Barak Obama’s first budget has raised NextGen funding by $200m
6 QUARTER 1 2009
Monthly ATM movements will be published in CANSO News
CANSO ANNOUNCES ACTION PROGRAMME FOR THE MIDDLE EAST REGION CANSO concluded its 1st Middle East Conference in January, with unanimous agreement on a clear programme of action. The Conference, held in Jeddah and hosted by the General Authority of Civil Aviation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (GACA), reached agreement on a programme focused on safety, airspace design, technical/operational improvements, and enhanced regional cooperation. Alexander ter Kuile commented; “This conference has shown that ANSPs in the Middle East have a clear vision and commitment to cooperating on air navigation services in the MID region. This ANSP Action Plan marks the first step in a programme of work which will improve the safety and efficiency of airspace.” The Conference was opened on 27th January by His Excellency Abdullah Al-Rehaimi, President of GACA Saudi Arabia, and CANSO Secretary General Alexander ter Kuile. Other speakers in the opening session included the ICAO Regional Director Mr Mohamed Khonji, Mr Abdul Wahab Teffaha, Secretary General of the Arab Air Carriers Organisation, and Dr Majdi Sabri, Regional Vice President for IATA.
CANSO WELCOMES NEW MEMBERS Despite the economic downturn, membership growth at CANSO remains strong, reflecting the importance ANSPs and ANS companies are attaching to working closely with ‘the global voice of ATM’. In the period since November 2008, CANSO has welcomed PIA JSC Kosova as a full member, and Avitech AG, Metron Aviation, Saab, Ubitech and WIDE as Associate members. CANSO Secretary General Alexander ter Kuile noted: “It is a testament to the strength of CANSO that we are still attracting members even at this time of financial difficulty for the aviation industry. One of the most valuable aspects of CANSO is that it offers instant access to the global ATM community – a one-stop-shop for ATM business. The addition of these new members proves that CANSO’s position as the global voice of ATM continues to grow, and we are very pleased to welcome them to the CANSO family.”
DIETER KADEN MADE FIRST CHAIRMAN OF EUROCONTROL ANS BOARD Former CANSO Chairman and current Chairman and CEO of DFS, Dieter Kaden, has become the first ever Chairman of the EUROCONTROL ANS Board. The Board was created following European States’ acceptance of a second Single European Sky package last year, which called for stricter separation between regulation and service provision at the European regional level. It is tasked with ensuring that all of the major groups involved in ATM are integrated into EUROCONTROL’s decision-making structures and can play their part in shaping the agency’s work in support of SES 2. At the Board’s first meeting on 10th February, Mr. Kaden said: “The newly established ANS Board ushers in a new era of cooperation of airspace users, airports, the military, and ASNPs with EUROCONTROL. The key objective is to agree views about priorities in shaping the future which should lead the business planning process of the EUROCONTROL agency and enhance the efficiency of the overall ATM supply chain.”
AVIATION ORGANISATIONS GEAR UP FOR ACCELERATED PBN IMPLEMENTATION A number of key aviation organisations, including CANSO and IATA, have agreed to work with ICAO to accelerate take-up of Performance Based Navigation procedures. A number of PBN routes already exist around the world, but the significant savings in noise, emissions and fuel burn brought by PBN has encouraged the industry to create a campaign to increase the use of the technique. It is expected that the campaign will begin with an industry declaration of intent, similar to that signed by the leading aviation groups at the Geneva Environment Summit last year. The campaign will go on to encompass an implementation team and technical support and information, backed by promotional material.
Aviation organisations have prepared a promotional campaign for PBN implementation
QUARTER 1 2009 7
The CEO column His Excellency Abdullah M.N. Al-Rehaimi, President, GACA Saudi Arabia The 1st CANSO Middle East conference held in Jeddah and hosted by the General Authority of Civil Aviation (GACA) of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was opened on Tuesday 27th January 2009 and showed that the ANSPs in the Middle East have a clear vision and commitment to cooperate on air navigation services in the MID region. The 1st CANSO Middle East conference reached agreement on four programmes, which will focus on safety, airspace design, technical and operational improvements, and cooperation between ANSPs in the Middle East. On safety, we will launch a dedicated Workgroup for safety specialists under CANSOâ€™s global Safety Standing Committee. To improve airspace design, we will look to strengthen the implementation and coordination of airspace planning, including Civil/Military cooperation. To progress technical and operations developments, we will share operational requirements and create a common vision for a regional ANSP network. Perhaps most importantly of all, we have agreed an action programme to enhance ANSPs coordination in the MID Region. Global interoperability and harmonisation are key to making further improvements to the global ATM system. In fact, most improvements can only be made through recognition of the need to work and to cooperate at regional and global level. This requires a broader more inclusive vision, a wider planning perspective, and planning for implementation of facilities and services over larger geographical areas. GACA is in transition from a government-controlled transport sector to a competitive, liberalised operating environment, and is facing the challenge to provide a seamless airspace, based on costeffective and efficient services, with sufficient capacity to meet air transport needs. GACA is remodeling the national airspace, implanting two new ACCs in Jeddah and Riyadh, one APP in Madinah, tendering the National Aeronautical Network and an En-route Surveillance system, establishing new routes based on GNSS Navigation System, enhancing the existing voice communications systems, building a new international airport in Jeddah, and expanding and modernising most of its domestic, and international airports. During the restructuring process GACA has activated a Safety Management System in order to conform to the tasks and obligations at international and local levels; this new section is meant to achieve the integration between the system components with respect to all activities related to safety in the field of air navigation services, in addition to the periodical evaluation of the different elements, with a view to determine the areas where performance improvement is essential. GACA is strongly committed to achieve the CANSO agreed programme, and based on the ICAO recommendations, supports an approach to planning based on performance needs, expected benefits and achievement timelines. Such management and planning of ATM performance will be needed to ensure that throughout the transition process to a more global and seamless system, the expectations of the entire community are met.
8 QUARTER 1 2009
The CANSO column Marie Desseaux, Director of European Affairs SES II – the outcome is positive The European institutions, European Commission, European Parliament and Council of Ministers hope to reach a political agreement on the Single European Sky package at the end of March 2009. I think that European ANSPs can be satisfied with the outcome. Indeed the European office of CANSO has been active, under the guidance of the European CANSO CEO Committee, to achieve a more balanced package. Another good outcome is that the regulation is of sufficiently high level to permit further detailed discussions on the Implementing Rules, leaving us with more room for flexibility. This good result was due to the continued contacts of CANSO directly, and of CANSO members individually, with officials of the European Commission and members of the European Parliament on one side and with State officials on the other. Together we have shown that Air Navigation Service Providers can influence rulemaking if they are capable of explaining appropriately why they do not support certain specific proposals. The good thing about CANSO’s work in Europe is that we always have joint delegations, with representatives of the trade association and the companies together. This is one of the strengths that has led to good results. FABs – real progress and quick wins ANSPs continually have to express to political decision-makers that implementation of FABs takes time because it requires major institutional agreements by States. This is sometimes interpreted as a way to slow down the process by ANSPs. However, the evidence is quite the opposite. Despite the difficult institutional environment, the ANSPs have used the discussions to launch a very important debate looking for synergies and even integrated activities in some cases. Quick wins are being searched for and found. For example: • Introduction of shorter flights as soon as possible; this has been done in Scandinavia, in the Danube FAB, in the FAB Europe Central, and also in the Mediterranean area. This will permit increased flight efficiency, with environmental improvement (fuel burn, CO2 etc) and direct cost savings for airspace users; • Common route and airspace planning – some of the changes are possible in the short term, while others require international agreements to be implemented (for example when military cross-border activities are involved) • Common strategy and network planning for the technical and operational systems; mainly this coordination has a long term effect, because existing systems have different life cycles and it would not be cost effective to replace them earlier than necessary. What is important is that the FAB discussions create convergence between ANSPs; this will finally end up in lower costs for airspace users. • Major discussions are taking place for a single unit rate per FAB by aligning the economic subjects between the different ANSPs involved. In such a reorganisation process some go quicker than others, some are more radical in their proceedings, but what is important is that the sector as a whole has fundamentally changed since the start of Single European Sky, becoming more performance-oriented and customer-focused organisations. Also, the whole ATM sector has become more obviously united and cooperative. This is probably the cultural change that the Single European Sky framework has delivered.
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The CANSO column Letter from America Obama: decision time There is great excitement about President Obama and his message of change. He has appointed Secretary Ray LaHood, a Republican member of Congress from the state of Illinois, as the head of the Department of Transportation. During his confirmation hearing Secretary LaHood, with the help of his transition team, laid out his priorities for the Federal Aviation Administration. His first priority is a significantly improved relationship between the FAA and its employees. His second is the implementation of the Next Generation (NextGen) air traffic control system, focusing on those things that can be implemented in the next five years. His third priority is finding an FAA administrator that can deliver on the first two points. I was privileged to have a conversation with the Secretary, during which he talked about his priorities, which I would like to share with our readers. He saw the labour issues and NextGen as intertwined; he believes he cannot get to NextGen without a good relationship between FAA labor and management. He saw the need to have employeesâ€™ support changes in technology and procedures, as well as their changing roles within NextGen. An important point was that the FAA cannot lose sight of safety as its prime directive. If the public has a perception of diminished safety or if there is a real reduction of safety, then efficiency, capacity and the environment become secondary issues whose timelines for implementation become unimportant. He spoke of the importance of legislation, specifically FAA reauthorisation, not a surprise from someone who spent eight terms as a U.S. Congressman. Part of the U.S. legislative process is to reauthorise executive branch agencies like the FAA about every three to four years. It is the reauthorization process that lays the ground work for FAA funding and regulatory authority. This legislation creates both a constant funding stream and allows for regulation that is the engine for change. These two parts are critical to the future success of NextGen. This yearâ€™s reauthorisation package also has some points that are of interest for our readers. One in particular is a section that will affect the implementation of NextGen. This section creates a new executive position within the FAA, the Associate Administrator for the Next Generation implementation. The position will report directly to the FAA Administrator. This removes the implementation of NextGen and all the functions of the Joint Planning and Development Office from the Air Traffic Organization and places them in the new directorate. It also assigns the new Associate Administrator the responsibility to ensure global interoperability for the NextGen system. Both of these issues have international importance because of the need for the U.S. to work closely with Europe on SESAR.
10 QUARTER 1 2009
This new office was created because Congress, who has oversight of the FAA, believes that the operating elements of the Agency have not viewed NextGen with the level of priority they wanted them to have. Congress thought that the FAA was not moving fast enough on implementation and were missing a clear roadmap for NextGen progress. This change will cause the ATO to operate significantly different than it does today. It gives a level of independence and importance to NextGen that it did not previously have... quite a change. There is a strong possibility that there will be a period of confusion as the details are worked on the implementation of the office and the selection of the new Associate Administrator. Changes in a bureaucracy are difficult and can be chaotic regardless of people’s best intentions.
An important point was that the FAA cannot lose sight of safety as its prime directive. If the public has a perception of diminished safety or if there is a real reduction of safety, then efficiency, capacity and the environment become secondary issues whose timelines for implementation become unimportant. At the time of writing, Secretary LaHood has made his selection for FAA Administrator but has not publically announced that selection. The path for the FAA’s success will be clear, but difficult for the new Administrator, safety, labor management relations, NextGen, funding and regulation. The devil is in the details and it will be up to the FAA Administrator to navigate this complex environment. I wish that person success in these difficult times.
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ATM and climate change
Targeting airspace efficiency 2009 promises to be a very significant year for aviation and the environment. The world is preparing for an agreement on global greenhouse gas emissions cuts, to be concluded in Copenhagen this December. The agreement has been dubbed ‘Kyoto 2’, as it will supersede the 1997 Kyoto Protocol which set the first round of emissions reductions, to 2012, but which was never ratified by the United States, or many of the larger developing states. What would success for ‘Kyoto 2’ look like? Analysts suggest that three elements will be important: meaningful cuts in CO2 agreed by the major industrialized countries; an agreement from the major developing countries that they cannot expand on a ‘business as usual’ basis; and thirdly the richer countries will need to agree on how to mitigate the effects of the climate change, especially for poorer countries. The targets and timescales for the lifespan of Kyoto 2 are unclear. However, it is likely to reflect the 2007 G8 declaration that it would seek to halve global CO2 emissions by 2050. For some time, it has been assumed that aviation emissions – which were exempt from the Kyoto Protocol – would be included in Kyoto 2. However, it is not expected that binding reductions on the absolute level of aviation emissions will be set. More likely is that aviation emissions will be part of the total emissions levels that will have to be cut, and it will be left to individual states or
CANSO launches new environment Webhub As part of its commitment to promoting its ‘Imagine 2010’ programme, CANSO has completely overhauled its website to enable it to focus more easily on its priority work projects. Environment has been given its own ‘Webhub’ where the latest information and output from the CANSO ATM Environment Workgroup, will be displayed. The Webhub can be visited at www.canso.org/environment
regions to decide how best to achieve those reductions. It is also expected that Kyoto 2 will make continued use of emissions trading mechanisms. Aviation is likely therefore to be under increased pressure to create a global emissions trading scheme along the lines of the system already operating in Europe. As part of the industry input into the pre-Copenhagen discussions, ATAG (the Air Transport Action Group, of which CANSO is a member) was invited to submit a number of papers to ICAO to help guide its policy input. The Organisation has found itself under increasing pressure to create more momentum for aviation CO2 reductions, and in response it created a new committee, GIACC (group on International Aviation and Climate
Global ATM Efficiency
between 92% & 94%
between 92% & 95%
between 93% & 95%
between 95% & 98%
Table 1: CANSO ATM Efficiency Aspirational Goals
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Change) charged with setting targets for emissions reductions. GIACC has called on the aviation industry to outline its emissions reduction strategies, and ATAG has worked with each aviation sector to agree realistic targets. CANSO Environment Manager Adam Phelan notes that the timing was ideal. “CANSO was already working on benchmarking its members’ current airspace fuel efficiency,” he says, “and based on that work, it has been able to set targets for improvements in airspace efficiency (and thus, reductions in fuel burn) up to 2050.”
Adam J. Phelan – CANSO environment workgroup has benchmarked airspace fuel efficiency
CANSO’s work, which was lead by Phil Stollery and the ATM Environment Workgroup, identified that on average ATM is 92-94% efficient. Stollery explains that efficiency in this sense is the difference between the exact point-to-point distance of a flight at the most fuel efficient altitude and speed, and the actual flight mileage flown. CANSO aims to increase that efficiency over the coming decades to reach approximately 96% efficiency by 2050 (see figure 1). 100% efficiency is not possible due to numerous interdependencies and trade-offs which are noted in the box on page 14.
Airspace Efficiency Improvements
On a ‘business as usual’ case we would expect to see emissions increase as more and more aircraft are forced to take longer routes or are placed in Holds in order to cope with increased traffic numbers.”
ATM Efficiency %
88% 86% 2000
Another important aspect of the CANSO average figure masks the fact that some parts of the world – due to airspace fragmentation, traffic numbers, airport capacity and any number of other factors – are less efficient than others. For example Europe is estimated to be only 89% efficient in lower airspace, leaving much more room
Figure 1: Interdependencies and recoverable efficiency
Airspace Efficiency & Air Traffic Growth 4%
ATM Efficiency gains
ATM Efficiency (%)
CANSO ATM Goal 96% ATM efficiency decreases as traffic congestion increases
Figure 2: Effect of increased congestion on ATM fuel efficiency (conceptual only)
“While a 4% improvement in ATM efficiency over the next 40 years may seem a modest target, it is essential to remember that this will be in the context of an expected tripling of passenger numbers” notes Stollery. “Historically, aircraft fuel efficiency declines as
Phil Stollery: “Historically, aircraft fuel efficiency declines as congestion increases”.
congestion increases. Preventing this kind of ‘capacity crunch’ remains the key driving force behind projects such as NextGen and the Single European Sky: environmental benefits are a secondary gain from these reforms. Therefore the CANSO targets are a stretch.
System efficiency % global aviation activity
Subtotal Rest of the world Total
Table 2: ATM system efficiency baseline 2005
for improvement than Australia, which is estimated at up to 98% efficient (see table 2). The very gradual improvement in efficiency to 2050 may also not be a smooth curve; depending on demand levels, efficiency will vary over the short-medium term, especially in areas where significant regional and civilmilitary cooperation is lacking. A number of key procedures and technological improvements are planned which are expected to deliver the savings looked for in the CANSO targets. The SESAR joint undertaking has identified the need for a 10% environmental improvement over the next 20 or so years, and the NextGen project has a similar aim. Projects such as ASPIRE in the far east (see box overleaf) and AIRE across the Atlantic show that it is possible to deliver a fully optimised flight, which indeed does create an efficiency improvement in the region of 4%. The huge job now for ANSPs and ATM regulators is to create AIRSPACE
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FEATURE Finding the 4%: ASPIRE CANSO’s aim of a 4% increase in airspace fuel efficiency over the coming decades looks achievable when put in the context of the fuel-optimised flights currently being trialed in Oceanic airspace. ASPIRE (Asia and South Pacific Initiative to Reduce Emissions) is a project jointly run by the FAA, Airways New Zealand and Airservices Australia, to run flights at maximum efficiency across their airspace, to and from the Pacific seaboard of the US. So far three flights have been conducted: from Auckland to San Francisco, from Los Angeles to Melbourne, and from Sydney to San Francisco. Each flight investigated the latest in ‘free flight’ techniques, routing aircraft to take advantage of prevailing winds, as well as other techniques such as tailored arrivals. The results so far show an average 4% improvement in fuel efficiency over the course of the flight – in line with CANSO targets. The challenge however is to move from isolated flights across Oceanic airspace, to optimising the entire system so overland flights in congested airspace can take advantage of the same improvements. With traffic forecast to double over the next 20 years, and airport congestion expected to increase, achieving these aims will be highly challenging and both technically and politically difficult.
the conditions where these isolated test flights become the norm. Despite these improvements, ATM remains a small part in the aviation emissions equation. The IPCC estimated in 1999 that ATM was about 12% inefficient. CANSO’s work has identified that over the last 10 years ANSPs have reduced that figure by around a third – mostly due to the implementation of procedures such as RVSM (see figure 3). The low-hanging fruit has already been picked, and the next steps will be considerably more challenging. The rest of the aviation community is well aware that ANSPs themselves will be unable to deliver all of the efficiency it seeks. States will need to accelerate reforms to the airspace system and civil-military cooperation will have to
Examples of unrecoverable interdependencies • Safety • Noise • Capacity • Weather • Airline behaviour
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IPCC (1999) Aviation emissions
CANSO (2008) ATM Goals
Updated & Recovered 1999-2005 = 4%
Airframe, engine and fuel 82%
Recoverable 2005-2050 3-4%
Figure 3: C ANSO’s work has identified that airspace efficiency improvements are in line with the IPCC estimates
drastically improve. Some difficult political decisions, especially concerning airport capacity, will have to be taken. ATM reform will not by itself make the industry sustainable: far greater emissions reductions can be found through the improvements to engine and airframe design, or the introduction of biofuels. In the short-medium term, aviation will probably have to buy emissions permits if it wants to continue to grow. But ATM is still an important part of the total aviation package being presented to the environment ministers who will have to find a deal in Copenhagen. CANSO has been at the forefront of the industry response every step of the way – in the thoroughness of its research, in the balance between ambition and realism of
its targets, in arguing its case with industry colleagues, and in the communication of its work with aviation stakeholders. There is a great deal of work still to be done. No-one can yet be sure what will emerge prior to Copenhagen and what shape the agreement will eventually take. Two things are certain. The first is that if we are to prevent environmental catastrophe, the world must have an agreement to curb greenhouse gas emissions, and aviation must be a part of that agreement. The second is that aviation - and ATM - has faced and overcome every challenge laid before it over the last hundred years: it will undoubtedly conquer this challenge as well.
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Aviation in crisis: reforming ATM charges Aviation has entered a downturn which is almost unprecedented in its scope and speed. Every indicator is negative, some at critical levels. IATA is reporting that its traffic numbers are down by nearly 6%. International cargo was down by 23% in December. Demand is falling faster than airlines can cancel flights and mothball aircraft, and some smaller players, already crippled by the high oil prices last year, have gone bust.
CANSO has begun compiling its own monthly traffic figures since the end of last year. Its statistics show a uniform decline across all regions, with some local success stories (see graph right). But the overwhelming news is negative, and this has major repercussions for ANSP cash flow. For those ANSPs reliant on air traffic related revenue, as cash flow declines, they are forced to cut costs to preserve their organisations. Those able to keep contingency funds are finding they have a breathing space, whereas those without are having a ‘fire sale’. LVNL for example is cutting staff numbers by 10%, over the next 2 years, which will mean 100 redundancies, some possibly compulsory. Other ANSP’s are facing similar decisions. But the scope for cost reductions is limited
Total 2007 4,040,114
Total 2008 4,147,007
Air Traffic -13%
ANSP cost cuts -12%
As long as ANSP cost measures are lower then the fall in air traffic movements, Nav Charges will rise.
16 QUARTER 1 2009
and certainly cannot match the reductions in traffic numbers. As a result, fees are likely to rise, leading to protests from the airlines.
ANS charging system drives instability
“The airline wish to reduce ATM charges is understandable. But it must be remembered that unlike airlines, who can reduce capacity swiftly by grounding planes, ANSPs are fixed infrastructure providers who cannot simply turn radars off” says CANSO Secretary General Alexander ter Kuile. “Moreover almost all ANSPs find themselves in a regulatory straight-jacket which prevents them from responding to economic cycles in the way any other business would. Within the confines of the system they operate in, many ANSPs have done their best to help airlines, but the reality is
that most cannot significantly overcome the deficiencies of the ATM charging model, and this situation will continue to have negative repercussions on the aviation industry unless it is remedied.” Although it is important to note that no two ANSPs are the same, and that the problems of ATM economics do not apply equally in all parts of the world, CANSO has identified five general deficiencies in ATM finance. Firstly, in many cases there is the impossibility of building reserves. Secondly, for those having to provide compulsory services, there is not always compensation in return. Fourthly, there are concerns with cross-subsidising services. And fifthly, there is the absence of normal business practices. In the current ‘cost recovery’ system, once traffic falls, revenue falls as well. It is a ‘fair weather’ system which runs into great difficulty during a storm. This problem is acute in Europe, which runs on a ‘cash-flow’ basis. In other parts of the world solutions do exist; NAV CANADA, for example, is allowed to hold a contingency reserve. Under the cost recovery method, ANSPs have to balance the books, so underrecovery in one year requires them to compensate in future years, which can result in increased charges. In other cases, airline bankruptcies result in the unpaid fees being paid by surviving carriers. It is hard to argue that this system, created during the years of predictable growth and protected national flag carriers, is suitable for the modern, liberalised and dynamic aviation industry. ANSPs have highlighted other areas of concern which should be addressed, such as the potential imbalance between the amounts charged to large commercial airliners, compared to other airspace users. But the core of the problem is still the fact that governments – particularly in Europe – set or approve nav charges, and most
New charging model requirements • Does not endanger (defined) safety levels, but enhances efficiency • Guarantees mid/long-term capacities • Is accepted by users and regulators • Must comply with national and international rules (to be modified if required) • Creates incentives (profits) and penalties (losses) • Provides business perspectives • Considers fair risk sharing • Reflects the (limited) flexibility of costs • Must be as robust as the current system but allow flexible adaptation
ANSPs still have little control over their own businesses, rarely given the chance to set their charges according to service quality. Although the introduction of a corporatised environment has given many ANSPs greater independence, very few have true, full, financial independence. ANSPs remain businesses without access to proper business tools, and remain servants to, not masters of, their financial destiny. The move towards full operational managerial independence is a frustratingly slow process for most ANSPs, but there are some things which States can and should do quickly – actions which CANSO members have identified as representing best practice in the industry. Firstly, introduce a full separation between the state and ANSP budget. Secondly, achieve greater transparency of all individual charges. Thirdly, completely separate the provision and regulation aspects of ATM. Fourthly, state contributions to third parties (such as EUROCONTROL) should be outside the ANSP budget. Implementing these steps across the board would mark a big advance for the ATM financial system, but it is clear that in the long-term, more fundamental reform is needed.
The cost recovery system is fundamentally flawed, creating a shortage of capacity during an economic upturn, and unable to respond to cost pressures in a downturn. While ANSPs remain monopoly providers they must be carefully regulated, but within that framework, like every other industry, it is time for ANSPs to be given the proper financial instruments and
Alexander ter Kuile: “this situation will continue to have negative repercussions on the aviation industry unless it is remedied.”
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FEATURE incentives to manage the size and shape of their industry. So what hurdles are in the way of a successful implementation of these four recommendations? Crucially, there has not been agreement among all the various players of the best way forward. The various actors – states, ANSPs, airlines, and unions – all differ on the best economic prescription for ATM. But slowly in the past few years a consensus has started to emerge, and this has been given greater impetus by the economic crisis. For example, despite its flaws the European cost recovery system has been relatively stable over the last decade, but this is not going to be the case for the next few years. The debate over the funding of the FAA, stalled during the previous administration, looks like it may be re-opened. And a number of ANSPs have been privatised or corporatised either as profit or non-profit enterprises, which has given
In the cost recovery system, once traffic falls, revenue falls as well rise to the concept of shareholder or stakeholder value. In Europe, the introduction of FABs and the move to a Single European Sky will increasingly mean ANSPs co-operating on major investment issues such as procurement and training, which in turn may lead
to new efficiencies and harmonised accounting systems. These changes create uncertainty, which must be managed carefully. To assist with this, CANSO members have laid down a number of key criteria by which any reforms to the charging system should be judged (see box page 17). This can be summarised by a statement of principle, which holds that ANS is a public service, but it needs to be based on business principles for optimum effectiveness and efficiency, as an integrated part of the commercially-driven aviation value chain. In the final analysis, ANSPs are aware of the cost pressures on airlines and the need to reduce costs, but without States sponsoring a fundamental reform of the ATM charging system, opportunities to match business size to economic reality will be few and far between.
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TECHNOLOGY & OPERATIONS
PBN – a key step towards airspace modernisation ICAO is leading a global initiative to introduce performance-based navigation standards that will meet future airspace operational needs. All member states are expected to have an implementation plan for Performance Based Navigation (PBN) by the end of this year, under the Assembly Resolution 36-23 passed in 2007. The long-term aim is to create global harmonisation of navigation specifications so that operators can take advantage of modern avionics to improve both flight efficiency and environmental performance. The introduction of common navigation standards underpins modernisation programmes like SESAR and NEXTGEN, which use precise aircraft navigation concepts to improve airspace safety and capacity. PBN relies on area navigation systems that include satellite signals with advanced cockpit technology to fly the aircraft without depending on navigation to/from conventional ground-based navigational aids. It requires a shift from ground-based navaids that emit signals to aircraft receivers, to in-aircraft systems that compute the aircraft’s position. The result is more direct a flight path that no longer needs to zig-zag between beacons on the ground. Many such navigation systems are already implemented and in daily use, but their ad-hoc development and lack of regulatory requirements has led to prescriptive applications, regional variations, and extra cost. Under ICAO’s PBN initiative, navigation is defined based on operational requirements. Operators then evaluate options in respect of available technology and navigation services. The concept represents a shift from sensor-specific navigation to performance-based navigation. It offers a number of advantages, not least in the way it allows technology to evolve over time without requiring a specific and costly certification process for each new operation. Operators have a limited set of navigation specifications that apply on a global basis. These are designed to support fuel-efficient route profiles, respond to noise abatement programmes, terrain issues, and in the long-term reduce costs associated with conventional ground-based infrastructure. Air traffic management relies on communications, navigation, and
surveillance (CNS) to safely operate the airspace. While PBN refers to the navigation element of CNS, it nevertheless has to operate effectively with the communications and surveillance infrastructure. To encourage states to adopt advanced navigation concepts, ICAO has published an implementation guide, called the PBN Manual (ICAO Document 9613), which details performance requirements for aircraft operators and navigation service providers. It describes the PBN concept; along with RNAV systems performance requirements; safety assessments, and ICAO specifications which are to be used by states as a basis for certification and operational approval. Area navigation (RNAV) enables aircraft to fly independently of ground-based navaids, within conventional flight
segment airspace design. A defining characteristic of more precise RNP operations is the ability of the aircraft navigation system to monitor the navigation performance it achieves by means of onboard checks and alerting systems. Navigation specification defines performance required of the RNAV system together with any aircraft and crew requirements. Each navigation specification has a designator: for example RNAV 5, Basic RNP 1, RNP APCH, RNP AR APRCH. The number in the designator represents the minimum lateral navigation accuracy in the nm that must be maintained for at least 95 per cent of the time. The detailed airworthiness requirements for RNAV and RNP were developed by the US and European bodies RTCA and
Performance-based navigation offers potential savings in fuel and emissions
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TECHNOLOGY & OPERATIONS Eurocae. These standards specify system accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability requirements for aircraft navigation and flight management systems. PNB, and in particular the RNP navigation specifications, allow the introduction of precise, curved paths on the aircraft trajectory. It offers advantages during approach phases of flight, where it can support routes that avoid densely populated areas, or difficult terrain. At the most extreme end of the scale, RNP AR (Authorisation Required) criteria are specially customised and require advanced aircraft equipage and training, but yield more in terms of benefits for the operator. For example, RNP AR paths can reduce straight-in segments, typically 7-10 nm from the start of an Instrument Landing System, down to 4nm or less. ICAO Air Navigation Bureau PBN Task Force leader Erwin Lassooij says: “We are not introducing a new type of navigation. The problem is not equipment onboard the aircraft. The challenge is on the implementation side. There are small pockets where it is in place, but we would like to move the whole world in that direction.” He adds there are big efficiency and environmental gains, in addition to the recognised safety benefits, to be gained from implementation. One of the priorities for the Task Force is to communicate these benefits to potential users, and help them understand the path to implementation. RNAV 5 and B-RNAV routes are already used in en route and continental airspace. The introduction of B-RNAV in Europe contributed to over 20 per cent increase in en route capacity in the late 1990s. In addition to the numerous RNAV 2 routes in the en route environment, the US has introduced hundreds of RNAV 1 routes in terminal airspace that provide alternatives to crowded conventional routes for suitably equipped aircraft. “People fly RNAV routes, but do not always know what they are flying. They use the equipment and airspace, but in the past it has not been regulated. PBN not only requires the equipment to be onboard, but for the 20 QUARTER 1 2009
correct ground infrastructure to be in place as well. So for certain designated RNAV 1 routes, there will be a requirement to have certified Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) on the ground.” ICAO joined with FAA and EUROCONTROL to conduct PBN seminars to explain PBN planning processes and navigation specification requirements, visiting every ICAO region. Ten such seminars have been carried out, with more planned. Lassooij explains that PBN will become easier to implement as satellite navigation services expand. At present, reliance on a single constellation of Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites means aircraft need integrity checks from equipment onboard as well as on the ground. The launch of Europe’s Galileo system in the medium term, and an extra L5 bandwith for GPS, will provide many more independent signals and different frequencies to help mitigate these integrity issues. For the present, PBN performance requirements support the safety case for implementation, and a number projects worldwide already demonstrate big gains including reduced fuel use, greener operations, and capacity gain. Among successful projects, Airservices Australia introduced RNP approach procedures at Brisbane International Airport in 2007. During the first year of operation Qantas carried out over 15,500 procedures including more than 8,000 approaches. The airline achieved a reduction in track miles of 10.7nm
(average 2 minutes 40 seconds) for each arrival, saving 650,000kg of CO2 and 200,000 kg of fuel over the year. Airservices worked closely with Naverus Inc, Qantas Airways, Avtech of Sweden and Australia’s safety authority CASA to implement six RNP approach procedures and 12 RNP departures based on proprietary criteria. Brisbane reported additional benefits. In addition to a reduction in aircraft noise impact, non-RNP aircraft experienced reduced delays resulting from shorter arrivals for RNP aircraft. Australia has introduced RNP procedures at close to 15 airports. Naverus Chief Technical Officer Steve Fulton says: “In Australia, the results clearly have shown that RNP is not so much a Next Generation solution as it is a solution available today.”
Advanced ideas from ICAO ICAO’s PBN Study Group is concentrating on developing an Advanced RNP navigation specification that will increase benefits without the need for an AR specification. “We hope to have a draft version by the end of the year that will apply to TMA and approach operations,” says Lassooij. “Advanced RNP takes into account controlled turns (radius to fix) down to the approach phase, and represents the first steps into 4D navigation with required time of arrival (RTA). We are working together with Eurocontrol and the Europeans to include RF (radius to fix) in the terminal area. It will also incorporate helicopter requirements.” Only a few B737 and A320 aircraft have the capability to downlink 4D trajectory
Benefits of PBN implementation • Fuel savings – reduced track miles • Fuel savings – continuous descent profiles •F ewer denied boarding due to payload restrictions • Increased revenues •F ewer delays •F ewer flight diversions • L ower engine maintenance rates •R educed environmental impact •M ore effective aircraft utilisation •M ore efficient gate utilisation
RNP procedures introduced at Brisbane reduced the 70 dB and 75 dB footprints, and allowed the procedure to be placed over non-residential areas such as the Brisbane River according to AVTECH.
information, as the airlines are reluctant to pay for this option until ATC has the tools to make use of this data. The SESAR Joint Undertaking has launched a cofunded project to demonstrate the environmental benefit that can be derived from using current aircraft capabilities. The Minium Co2 in TMA with current capabilities (MINT) programme is a consortium of Avtech, LFV, Novair, Airbus and Egis Avia. Avtech Programme Manager Christer Forberg says: “Many commercial aircraft can already support RNP and time-based operation. If RNP is used not only for terrain purposes but also for efficiency in the TMA (ie to shorten the final) then a lot of fuel could be saved. This could start already during the low density periods. Of course peak periods will be more challenging and arrival management needs to set the sequence earlier than today. In peak periods, ATC would issue RTAs to spread out arrival traffic over time, and thereby sequence arrivals in a smooth way instead of arrival peaks. The future support system will be a form of arrival manager, sequencer and/or conformance monitoring tool.” The experiences of operations at Brisbane in Australia,
Unlike RNAV or RNP-APCH, RNP-AR paths can be designed with curves and reduced straight-in segments while still providing precision guidance. Reduced track miles translate into reduced flight times, fuel consumption, CO2 and other emissions... plus money.
Benefits of RNP procedures
Innsbruck in Austria, and several US airports show clearly that RNP operations result in benefits in terms of route efficiency and environmental impact. While the requirements for RNP AR are rigorous, many operators are beginning to discover the benefits can outweigh the costs in instances where terrain and noise issues are at stake. More importantly, the concept of
Performance Based Navigation moves airspace management away from conventional flight segments, towards trajectory-based operations, with the maximum benefit gained through using RNP approach procedures. It is therefore central to helping to meet the industry’s long-term capacity and environmental challenges.
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Paul Riemens Paul Riemens is acting Chairman of the Board of LVNL, the air navigation service provider for the Netherlands, succeeding Eric Kroese in October 2008. He joined the board of LVNL in January 2008 as Chief Operating Officer, after nearly five years as managing director for air traffic management.
Can you explain the origins and ethos behind the aviation Knowledge and Development Centre (KDC) in the Netherlands? There was a feeling around the end of the 1990s that the various aviation projects and the whole system infrastructure was too fragmented. There was a need to create a coherent and competitive aviation cluster to get the best value from the various government subsidies that were available. So in 2002 we developed the KDC to improve and develop the infrastructure. It’s easier in a network – critical mass makes subsidies more attractive. We’ve now got a EUR 2m turnover. We’re looking to important models like SESAR integration. For example, ADS-B rollout affects airport and aircraft investment as well as the ANSP. There’s the opportunity to tie it in with local stakeholders and the community. It’s a ‘value network chain’ – part of a complete matrix together with our work with FAB EC. With FAB EC you can see an example of horizontal integration, whereas the KDC is more about vertical integration. 22 QUARTER 1 2009
How is the FAB EC progressing? I believe that FAB EC is the ‘kernel’ of Europe. It absolutely has to succeed. You now see that people are fed up with the fragmentation within the airspace and the service providers. We need to face the future and bring not only the ANSPs together but also the states and the civil-military questions. We need to bring these different cultures together with a vision and a strategy. The pressure to drive forward FAB EC is coming from the European Commission and the airlines, but the ANSP CEOs have a passion and willingness to make this work. Consolidation will be the future, but we have to be realistic – it will take years and it will need treaties between states. In order to get FAB EC to work we will need achievable targets which enable us to ‘act as one company’. It is vital that we have complete trust between the various levels of management; CEO, CFO, COO etc. We will need to avoid a culture of win and lose, and instead encourage give and take, so that we are all in a win-win situation.
But we have to remember that we need to go step by step with the States, and that means the States have to move. LVNL has a long history of working closely with local communities. How would you characterise your community relations at the moment? The history of the last 20 years of Schiphol is that it has had an immense theoretical capacity, but this has been restricted by noise. There is great pressure on the Dutch aviation system to compromise with the community, but it is difficult for us because it is not LVNL doing the flying! Around Schiphol we have what we call ‘microclimates’ – each village has a unique position. It is a bit like growing wine: just as a grape grown in one valley can produce a wine that tastes entirely different to a wine from the same grape grown in a different valley, so as with the effects of aircraft noise in the communities around Schiphol. We needed to innovate to address this problem and we currently have four ‘microclimate’ projects running. One of the issues we are looking at is the difficulties with the fleet mix. There
Schiphol airport’s immense theoretical capacity has been restricted by noise
are big variations in how the FMS in each aircraft works. For example it’s often the case that two seemingly identical 737s actually have FMS which subtly alter, say, the turn. It may not seem like much but this can make a huge difference to the noise impact. So, through our work in the KDC we are working at reprogramming the FMS of the fleet at Schiphol to make it more consistent. What is LVNL’s policy on reducing CO2 against the need to reduce noise? While we of course want to reduce the fuel burn for our customers, which has both an environmental and financial advantage, noise is our first priority. For example, the design and layout of Schiphol airport is fully focused on reducing noise for the local communities, at the expense of greater fuel burn. If we were to focus exclusively on reducing CO2, we would have to introduce a completely different airport system. So I think it’s up to other areas of the aviation system to deliver major CO2 cuts – for example through cleaner technology. Government policies also make a difference of course: we’ve seen
the Dutch government introduce an aviation tax recently which I would say has not had a positive effect on our traffic numbers, although from an environmental point of view some might argue that is the whole point. I think it important to judge whether these are journeys that have been cancelled or whether the traffic has been displaced to neighbouring countries. In the current economic climate it is difficult to know for certain. In any case, it is not the business of LVNL to interfere – we will respond to whatever framework the State sets up.
What other priorities do you think are important for customer relations?
Ultimately, the aviation system in the Netherlands may need to refocus on quality rather than quantity. That may be the key to keeping the system sustainable. LVNL would support this process, although since we are funded by airlines it may mean that the funding system of ATM needs to change. The most important point is communication: aviation is a very complex system with a large number of trade-offs and interdependencies, not only between noise and CO2, but on a grander scale between economy and ecology. The public and our customers need to be better informed about these choices.
Finally, what key attributes do you think are needed for ANSPs to meet the challenges of the coming years?
The most important thing is to try and bridge the different cultures that exist between ANSPs and airlines. Airlines are used to operating globally, and their views are informed by a wide experience of dealing with different ANSPs, which enable them to notice flaws in certain systems. CANSO’s customer relations Workgroup has been working hard to bridge that culture gap, but there remain some big challenges ahead.
Trust is essential, but most important of all is passion and perseverance. The hurdles we face will only be overcome with these values. Leadership is the key: we sometimes forget that one person with a vision can make a difference. I was reminded of that at the launch of the SESAR joint undertaking when Daniel Calleja led a tribute in remembrance of Loyola de Palacio. It was her vision that fired the new push on the Single European Sky, and it is leadership like that which will transform ATM in future. AIRSPACE
QUARTER 1 2009 23
Christoph Baubin To mark a new phase in CANSO’s Business Transformation programme, Gudrun Held, Director of Business Transformation, spoke to Dr. Christoph Baubin, former CEO of AustroControl and the CANSO ExCom champion for BT about his vision for, and the importance he attaches to, the delivery of this vital project.
Dr. Baubin, as an ExCom member you were one of the ‘Fathers’ of CANSO’s Global Vision on the Future of ANS and Imagine 2010 programme. Why did you believe that CANSO needed a 2 year programme solely devoted to Business Transformation? It has long been CANSO’s goal to effectively integrate ANS into the future development of the aviation value chain. The traditional structures and methods of ANS are currently suboptimal in terms of flexibility, capacity, supply, punctuality and cost efficiency and even – in some areas of the world – in safety. The way to overcome these challenges is described by CANSO in its Global Vision, which has become even more important in the prevailing economic environment. It has got to a stage where concrete and visible results are definitely possible in the near future, but only a comprehensive ‘cultural change’ can provide a basis for the required progress. The stakeholders of ANS are impatient for the results. Consequently, the ‘business model’ by which we provide ANS has to be adapted to the future needs and possibilities of air transport, for the benefit 24 QUARTER 1 2009
of states, airlines and airports, as well as for our employees, where in the long run the best job guarantee will be the optimizing, not maximising, of jobs. The Business Transformation programme will accelerate the realisation of the goals of the Global Vision, providing a practical tool box for ANS stakeholders. So the Business Transformation projects formulated until mid-2010 are not new strategic programmes, but a pragmatic compilation of realistic and realisable steps for states, regulators, ANSPs and others, that will make all stakeholders aware of the changes and future requirements and how to best comply with them. Which of the major changes that you foresee in the Aviation Industry will most influence ANS and ANSPs? There are a number of changes needed to create a more efficient ANS system. Principally, we must allow users to operate globally under equal conditions, in a ‘seamless airspace’. There will be regional and local differences according to the specific situation in different areas, but those specific conditions must be governed by the principles of safe and efficient use of airspace, not by historic
national borders or the influence of regulators defending their territory. Of course, military interests have to be considered; but wherever possible they should not have priority. The technology of ANS has to be adapted to the state-of-the-art possibilities in data processing, digital communication, satellite-based positioning and automation. The major hurdle will not be affordability, but overcoming the conservatism of traditionally-minded people, using ‘safety’ as an argument against any innovation. Thus, the change has to come to and by the people involved, be it on the legislator’s, the regulatory or the ANSP side. Management, technical and ops personnel will have to adjust their way of thinking. Customer-orientation and the understanding that quality and safety must come together with performance are the key issues. ANSPs will be increasingly separated from regulators, be it organisational or even legally (i.e. by corporatisation). In their attempts to increase efficiency, they will have to follow modern management methods, to accept benchmark measurement and the resulting ‘quasi-market’ consequences,
have to seriously consider managed services or outsourcing, and will develop areas of non-regulated activities. Thus, the management styles of ANSPs and market-driven organisations will become more similar. How can CANSO support the industry (individual ANSPs) to prepare for this “new future” that you just described? CANSO can develop or promote best practice models and behavior because they are not dictated to from outside, but come from inside the ANS community with its practical competence and experience. Additionally, CANSO can deal with other organisations, such as IATA, on equal basis to create an efficient ‘customer forum’ supporting and coordinating ANSP customer relations. Furthermore, CANSO can be a recognised partner with States. Internally, CANSO contributes to a common mind-building in the global and regional ANSP community, as a pathfinder into the future and good conscience of the ANSP community to stick to its self-given principles, especially its Global Vision, and prepares respective practical guidance and tools; the BT programme is all about just that.
What are the key benefits that CANSO’s BT Programme will deliver by 2010? One has to be realistic – the world can’t be changed in 18 months. But if the BT programme delivers an action plan for implementing the very generic statements of CANSO’s ’Global Vision’; a comprehensive map of the change areas which need to be explored; an explanation of the specific characteristics of the different stages of the Transformation Journey; and the flexibility to address regional differences, priorities and approaches, then it will undoubtedly be a success. In addition, I think we need to be clear that business transformation requires the joint commitment of all the CANSO members, both ANSPs and industry. And finally, customer relations are vital: we must do this with the consent and support of the airlines. If you were asked to predict the three main challenges or areas of change that ANSPs will have to weather in the short and long-term, what would you say? And what would be your advice?
As CEO until recently of an organisation with the ambition to be at the forefront of developments in ANS, I see the three most pressing challenges in the coming years as cost-efficiency, flexibility, and most importantly convincing regulators and employees about the need and urgency for change. The airline industry is in difficult times, undergoing a constant and deep restructuring process. They rightly expect the utmost effort and support of all stakeholders, especially within the value chain, to create a stronger industry. The splendid isolation of national monopolies is no option. Internal processes, methods, employment conditions, managed services and external restructuring, such as cross-national cooperation or mergers, must not only be allowed but required and actively supported. The key is to convince the people responsible for leading aviation of the need and urgency for change, without losing grip of the daily business. The way to success, through the joint efforts of all stakeholders, is well known, not least through CANSO’s Global Vision and BT programme. But still we need more joint commitment and action to do it.
ExCom Programme Champion Dr. Christoph Baubin
Advisory Board Members Hai Eng Chiang Carey Fagan Otto Fischer Francis Schubert
BTWG Chairman Irakli Dadiani, Head HR Dep., Sakaeronavigatsia Irakli, (pictured second from left) a Finance Expert, who studied Economics in Georgia and the U.S., brings some challenging views from other industries to the BTWG. Before joining Sakaeronavigatsia in 2006, he held several positions in the Finance and Energy sector, in Georgia and abroad.
QUARTER 1 2009 25
TECHNOLOGY & OPERATIONS
The Integrated Glass Tower The air traffic control tower is an icon of aviation as well as an architectural symbol for many airports. Staffing these facilities are dedicated air traffic controllers responsible for the safe and efficient movement of aircraft and vehicles on the airport surface and for controlling landings and departures – a demanding job that is becoming even more challenging as traffic increases.
Growth in aviation and mounting airport congestion has led to the proliferation of technology and equipment in the tower cab, competing for limited real estate and adding complexity to the controllers’ tasks. To delve even further into their role, tower controllers must be able to communicate, monitor traffic on the airport surface and within the terminal manoeuvering area, have access to flight data, keep tabs on weather conditions, control and monitor runway and airport lighting, check the status of navigation aids, security and other critical systems – all while performing their primary mission of safely sequencing and separating arriving and departing air traffic at the airport. The number and complexity of the air traffic systems controllers must use is a function of the size and traffic levels of a particular airport. Often, these disparate systems increase the controllers’ workload, reduce efficiency or even become a distraction, negating their intended purpose. 26 QUARTER 1 2009
One potential solution for successful consolidation is the “Integrated Glass Tower” – a concept borrowed from the airplane glass cockpit where mechanical gauges were replaced with computer controlled displays. The concept addresses the need to consolidate functions within the air traffic control tower, putting multiple functions on a single piece of glass: a controller working position display. High accuracy surveillance, digital voice communications systems for air/ground communication, radio navigation aid monitoring, meteorological data display and airport traffic information service provide essential data air traffic controllers need to control aircraft movements. Further, harnessing the intelligent use of automation and the ability to effectively interface and integrate these functions promises to reduce clutter in the tower cab, standardize operations, reduce controller workload and increase efficiency, reduce training and lower overall costs. Although the integration of existing, legacy
systems may present cost prohibitive technology challenges, retrofitting existing or the building of new towers presents an opportunity to adopt the Integrated Glass Tower concept. The new Integrated Glass Towers will be adaptable, flexible and expandable. Common, customizable workstations, with advanced, interactive touch panel displays, will provide the ability to adapt to any operational task such as local control, ground control, clearance delivery, flight data, lighting control, or tower supervision. Positions will be able to be distributed or consolidated as traffic levels dictate, and the same technology can be deployed at any airport regardless of size or traffic level. As the global air traffic control infrastructure moves towards NextGen and SESAR – leveraging Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) – the air traffic control tower will need to become a seamless, integral part of the
The ‘Integrated Glass Tower’ is a concept borrowed from the airplane glass cockpit where mechanical gauges were replaced with computer controlled displays.
operational concept. CDM, a joint government/industry initiative, is aimed at improving air traffic management through increased information exchange among the various stakeholders in the aviation community with the result of increased efficiency, capacity and safety while reducing costs and the environmental impact. By providing an intelligent integrated platform which includes features like: accurate surface and terminal surveillance, Arrival and Departure Management software, Electronic Flight Strips, current “real time” airport operating status and weather information, Glass Towers will support CDM transformation. Integrated Arrival and Departure Management Software use by controllers in a Tower along with its use in TRACONs and enroute facilities will optimise aircraft traffic flows, increasing airport capacity and ease air traffic controllers’ workload especially when combined with automated taxi conformance monitoring and safety alert features.
The new Integrated Glass Towers will be flexible and expandable Another CDM benefit of Glass Towers is the ability to easily distribute surveillance and flight information data to other stakeholders such as airlines and airports. This enables the various stakeholders to make decisions based on shared, common information. With high quality, real time information, airlines will be able to better manage their resources and airports will have
increased visibility into their operations. Integrated Glass Towers CDM capability combined with envisioned Surface Management Systems will make optimum use of all the airport’s available resources to make flight operations for the airlines more efficient. These improvements will extend from gate side and parking ramps to inbound and outbound taxiing and ultimately to the runways for all aircraft eventually reducing ecological impacts such as pollution and noise. The air traffic control tower is a vital component of the global aviation system. Technological and operational advances exist to streamline tower operations, reduce costs and increase efficiency, and today, industry equipment providers and leading Air Navigation Service Providers are beginning to collaborate to offer these solutions. The Integrated Glass Tower concept promises to provide the air traffic controller with the advanced tools necessary to support NextGen, SESAR and CDM concepts. AIRSPACE
QUARTER 1 2009 27
Focus on… www.canso.org CANSO, the Global Voice of ATM, has unveiled its all-new website, accessible at www. canso.org. The new site boasts many new features, enhanced functionality and usability, and CANSO’s updated visual identity.
The new www.canso.org
The redesigned site is born out of CANSO’s Imagine 2010 Strategy, which calls for greater emphasis on communications and the provision of commercial services. More information on each of the new site’s features can be found below.
CANSO News, the best of ‘Airspace’ magazine, and our regional updates.
contact Marc-Peter Pijper, Director Products & Services.
And to manage your subscriptions to our publications, and to sign up for our email newsletters, select the ‘manage your subscription’ tool, which can be found on many pages around the site.
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Addressing the big ATM issues
Products and services that interest you
To raise awareness and improve understanding of what CANSO and its Members are doing to improve global ATM, www.canso.org includes dedicated pages on CANSO’s policy development, best practice, and Global Work Programmes. Our ‘Imagine 2010’ webhubs give special emphasis to our Safety, Environment and Business Transformation programmes, with blogs, interactive graphics, events calendars, and documents. Click on the ’Programmes’ tab.
The latest ATM news and analysis To keep abreast of the latest industry news and CANSO developments click the ‘Media’ tab. This will take you to an archive of the latest ATM News, 28 QUARTER 1 2009
Breaking new ground, the CANSO online ATM Marketplace is the first online ‘one-stop shop’ for ATM related products, services, and events. Despite being recently launched, the Marketplace already lists an extensive range of products which includes training courses and ICAO publications, with more products being added all the time. Click on the ‘Products & Services’ tab. Many pages feature a Products & Services box which displays relevant content. This way, visitors don’t need to actively look for products and events of interest. To learn more or to advertise on the CANSO website,
All industry conferences, meetings, and events are listed on the site’s calendar, helping visitors keep their diaries up-to-date. Click the ‘Events’ tab. Visitors can also register for events and meetings on the site. Interactive member map and profiles Avoid trawling through 100 separate websites to learn about ANSPs and ATM products and service providers around the world. www.canso.org provides organisation overviews and contact information for all of CANSO’s Full and Associate Members. And in case you want to know more, links to member websites are also included. Click ‘About CANSO’ and then ‘Members’
Global ATM data CANSO works closely with its ANSP Members, regularly collecting data and
CANSO’s relaunched website aims to be the premier online resource for ATM
statistics that provide insight into the state of global ATM. www.canso.org is the only place on the web that offers the facility to monitor aggregated global ATM data, including much sought-after monthly comparisons of global IFR movements, organisations’ financial performance, and benchmarking data. Click the ‘Data’ tab.
Documents and presentations Not only can the most critical information be found on www.canso.org, the site contains a comprehensive archive of the most recent and relevant documents and presentations. Visitors can also search for and download CANSO publications and presentations from anywhere on the site.
About CANSO As a Trade Association, funded by and working for its members, organisational transparency is vital for CANSO. ‘About CANSO’ provides information about the Association’s objectives, staff, and Executive.
About ATM and industry links Along with the general information on the ‘About ATM’ page, a comprehensive and constantly growing links page is a useful resource for visitors wanting to learn more about ANSPs and the companies that provide ATM products and services. Click ‘Links’.
Global ATM net
adverts. In this way, CANSO ensures that information about new products, services, and events reaches the right people.
Joining canso CANSO Membership is open to all ANSPs, and organisations providing ATM related products and services.
More than 1,000 ATM professionals from Member organisations take advantage of CANSO’s Global ATM Net to exchange ideas and information. A direct link to this award-winning extranet can be found on the ‘ATM NET’ tab.
Benefits of membership include regular senior management events, free electronic copies of in-depth industry publications, advertising/sponsoring opportunities at reduced rates, as well as the possibility of directly contributing to Workgroups with a view to shaping the future of air traffic management.
Helping visitors keep up-to-date with the most recent developments on canso.org, a ‘Latest Updates’ box is located on most pages around the site.
Advertising/Marketplace/Data Marc-Peter Pijper, Director Products & Services email@example.com
News/Publications/Content Chris Goater, Director of Communications firstname.lastname@example.org +31 (0)23 568 5380
CANSO offers advertisers the opportunity to target their campaigns by selecting the most relevant pages for displaying
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Who We Are and What We Do
Dark area illustrates airspace controlled by CANSO members
CANSO – The Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation – is the global voice of the companies that provide air traffic control, and represents the interests of Air Navigation Services Providers worldwide. CANSO members are responsible for supporting over 80% of world air traffic, and through our Workgroups, members share information and develop new policies, with the ultimate aim of improving air navigation services on the ground and in the air. CANSO also represents its members’ views in major regulatory and industry forums, including at ICAO, where we have official Observer status.
contribute to CANSO Workgroups, delivering the standards and policies that will drive the future development of Air Navigation Services. Full (ANSP) Membership is open to all ANSPs, regardless of whether or not they are autonomous of their government. Associate members can apply for either Gold or Silver status, which brings differing levels of event and advertising discounts and access to CANSO Workgroups. All members get a free listing in the CANSO Yearbook, and have access to the Global ATM Net, an extranet that is the hub of CANSO’s activities, and home to an extensive member database.
The membership of CANSO is drawn from a wide range of ANSPs and companies involved with the delivery of air traffic services. Membership offers them the chance to network formally and informally, exchange best practice, and
For further information on joining CANSO, please contact Marc-Peter Pijper on +31 (0)23 568 5380 or email email@example.com
Aena – Spain AEROTHAI – Thailand Airports Authority of India Airservices Australia Airways New Zealand ANS of the Czech Republic ATNS – South Africa ATSA – Bulgaria Austro Control – Austria Avinor – Norway AZANS – Azerbaijan Belgocontrol – Belgium CAAS – Singapore DFS – Germany DHMI – Turkey DSNA – France EANS – Estonia ENAV SpA – Italy Federal Aviation Administration – USA Finavia – Finland GACA – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Hellenic Civil Aviation Authority HungaroControl Irish Aviation Authority ISAVIA – Iceland
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Kazaeronavigatsia – Kazakhstan LFV – Sweden LGS – Latvia LPS Slovak Republic LVNL – the Netherlands MATS – Malta NAATC – Netherlands Antilles NAMA – Nigeria NANSC – Egypt NATS – UK NAV CANADA NAV Portugal Naviair – Denmark OACA – Tunisia Oro Navigacija – Lithuania P.I.A. J.S.C. – Kosova PANSA – Poland ROMATSA – Romania Sakaeronavigatsia Ltd – Georgia Serco skyguide – Switzerland Slovenia Control SMATSA – Serbia State ATM Corporation – Russia UkSATSE – Ukraine
Gold Members Boeing Era Corporation FREQUENTIS AG GroupEAD Europe S.L. ITT Corporation Lockheed Martin Raytheon SELEX Sistemi Integrati S.p.A. Sensis Corporation Thales Silver Members Adacel Inc. Airbus ARINC ATC Global (CMP Information Ltd) ATCA – Japan Aviation Advocacy Sarl Avitech AG Barco Orthogon GmbH Booz Allen Hamilton Comsoft GmbH Entry Point North ESR Technology Aviation
GM Merc A/S Helios HITT Traffic Indra Sistemas Integra A/S Intelcan Technosystems Inc. Jeppesen L-3 Communications ESSCO Lochard Ltd The MITRE Corporation – CAASD Metron Aviation M.L.S. International College Naverus, Inc. PA Consulting Group A/S Northrop Grumman Park Air Systems QinetiQ Quintiq SAAB AB SITA Sun Microsystems Inc. Swedavia AB Terma A/S Ubitech Systems Inc. U.S. DoD Policy Board on Federal Aviation WIDE
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