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such a large scale demands considerable resources, extensive trade networks, empire. The punishment of Azazel for bringing these arts to the world may be nation in its multifarious manifestations. and characters. Parallels are readily evident, for instance, between the Azazel Works and Days lurgy and the disintegration of society, as men of the Third Age produce bronze secrets revealed by Azazel correspond closely to the teachings of the Age of

That said, one of the easiest places to see direct engagement and subversion of In general, the Enochic literature takes an oddly ambivalent position on culture heroes, reifying the revelations of Enoch in the Astronomical Book, while decrying those of Azazel, Shemihazah and others. Nickelsburg and Baltzculture heroes like Azazel may be less a critique of culture in general, and more a critique of existing power structures, meant to subvert dominant cultures as illegitimate and born of false revelations. This sort of polemic against culture has technology in Genesis, with Azazel’s metallurgical skills echoing Tubal-Cain of inverted the Mesopotamian intellectual traditions with the intention of showthe creation of anti-culture heroes by Jewish authors that was used to usurp the Mesopotamian apkallus. Given that the apkallus were seen as the ancestors of contemporary kings, priests, and scholars, a critique of the original revelations by the apkallus was thus necessarily a critique of its contemporary inheritors with contemporary social concerns and power dynamics. The relationship between Azazel and Prometheus is a matter of scholarly

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Canons IX:2  

Personal Study, Personal Religion McGill University Undergraduate Journal of Religious Studies

Canons IX:2  

Personal Study, Personal Religion McGill University Undergraduate Journal of Religious Studies

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