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Artisanal Crustacean Nursery Ponds’ Shifting Operations for Fishing Squatter Community in Recife, Brazil Canna Xiaojing Zhao 2016


Indeterminate Fields is published by RMIT University ISBN 21259-3480424 All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior permission of the publishers.

Articles, photography, images retained by the authors or original owners.

Disclaimer The opinions expressed in Indeterminate Fields are those of the authors and are not endorsed by the Editorial Team or RMIT University.

Editor & Graphic Design Canna Xiaojing Zhao

Acknowledgment The editor would like to thank everyone involved in the production of the journal for their generous assistance and support during the process of this publication.

For all requires contact: RMIT Landscape Architecture Program School of Architecture and Design RMIT University U14-52 Leicester Street Carlton VIC 3053 Australia Phone: +61450701011 Email: canna.xj.zhao@gmail.com

Client This document is for client - CPRH - AgĂŞncia Estadual de Meio Ambiente (State Environment Agency) to conduct project procedure between various private and public cooperative sectors.


CONTENTS

3 Program Palettes

0 Introduction •Project Description •Position •Executive Summary •Client •Design Strategy •Operation Procedure •Zeca Island Plan

1 5 7 11 15 19 21

1 Initial Operation •Hydrology Recirculation •Community Access

23

•Natural Habitat Corridor

25

•Organic Shrimp Pond •Decision Making Process

27 28

Check Datum Adapt to Site Mock Negotiation

•Wind Direction and Sediment •Pond Terrain Transition Process

33

•Recreational Suggesting Program

47

Fishery Deck Mangrove Nursery Field Solar Desalination Pond Zeca Island Dock Market Trading Shed

Aquatic Amusement Hub Soccer Field Restoration

4 Adaptation Fields

2 Terrain Formulations Lowland Mangrove Corridor Tidal Marsh Corridor

•Functional Upgrading Program

29 31

•Selective Fields for Emergency •Selective Expansion Sites in Recife

51 53

5 Precedent & Reference •Project Precedent •Reference

55 57


“Ecological reflection, passive recreation, active sports and exercise, creativity, performance and cultural events, community development, economic enhancenment and neighbourhood revitalization all take their place alongside the micro-macroscopic process of lifescape. It is fully integrative. Lifescape is not a loose metaphor or representation- it is a functioning reality, an autopoietic agent.� Praxis, 2002


INTRODUCTION

0


PROJECT DESCRIPTION Indeterminate Fields is a land development planning for shrimp farming fields that created and occupied by squatter communities in Recife, which permits them access to rearing fishery cultivation fields and help them to improve environment quality, incomes and basic essentials. Based on applying a pond transition from chemical cultivation pond to organic shrimp nursery with increasing mangrove coverage inside pond, these peculiar but precious fields are going to be restored and prepared for more potential and beneficial programs for riverfront residents as well as whole citizens in terms of cultural identity, social exchange and spatial marginalization. Furthermore, urban mangrove forest is conserved and valued at same time for the whole city of Recife. Frames shifts in time and movement of hydrology, through sensitive acquiring local landscape literacy, proposing resilient fishery cultivation fields strategies for Recife. Indeterminate Fields catalyses post-mangrove aquaculture ponds for Recife urban recreational open space and takes advantage of various ecological problems, such as an excess of sediments that from shrimp farming process and frequent tidal flux, as opportunities for urban crustacean ponds development. This project conceives a process shift model for intensive shrimp farming industry with four steps: Initial Operation, Pond Terrain Formulation, Program Palette and Adaption Fields, which allow more potential usage of shrimp pond fields in Recife. In this document, Zeca Island is a pilot site to test a series of proposed operations in order to improve the capacities of rearing pond fields with multiple approaches. With the similar field conditions, proposals have resilient and adaptive capability coupling with symptoms: shrimp farming productivity, pond durable years, water contamination, high salinity, mangrove degradation, shortfall in receipts and the lack of basic amenities such as potable water, public toilet, leisure space and health service centre. Project Indeterminate Fields extends potential sites to other pond fields: Vila Ilha de Deus (adjacent to Pina Park) and Vila Afogados

•Project Location 34w55’00”

Recife

8s04’03”

Capital City of State Pernambuco, Brazil

Rio Capibaribe River

Center of Recife

Zeca Island

1


•Shrimp Pond Fields in Recife

0

0.5 km

1 km

2 km

1ha Mangrove Forest

1ha Rearing Ponds (before 2002)

Tabaiares Village

1ha Rearing Ponds (2002-2007)

Zeca Island

1ha Rearing Ponds (2007-present)

100 Househoods Squatter Community

Afogados Village

Deus Island Village

2


1951, Recife Satellite Image, Capibaribe River Estuary, Zeca Island

“Zeca Island, she is one of the last of our city that have characteristics as they were in the past the flooded areas and you see the margins of the Capibaribe River in the centre of our city.� 1966, Recife Satellite Image, Zeca Island

4


POSITION

• LA has Social & Cultural Performance Social and cultural effects of landscape architecture for a city are somehow hidden in short term but profound through time flying. The peculiarity of each site stand out because of what happened on site in history and how people are living there. That is what I understand about site literacy. In order to promote landscape literacy, understanding the development of local small scale artificial aquaculture is the departure point of this project. This project shifts current shrimp farms at the margin of urban mangrove forest and metropolitan area; highlights its unique environment and variety of local flora and fauna species, as well as the cultural, historical and geological prerequisites of Recife. “Landscape architecture…is cultural product with distinct forms and experiences that evoke attitudes and feelings through space, sequence and form.” (Elizabeth K. Meyer, 2008)

•Man-made LA should keep balance with resilience “Nature is no longer natural; on the contrary in order to survive nature will need to be artificially constructed, man-made and mass produced.” (Elizabeth K. Meyer,2008) “A resilient city is able to retain the essence of its form even after it has been deformed. In this way, resilience seems a better word than sustainability for design goals for the city. Resilient form maintains itself efficiently and seamlessly with both the landscape and the cultural networks of which it is a part.” (Hester 2006: 138-139) This process has been made with in-depth studies of the local prerequisites, which were then processed through applied theory, is order to understand the underlying views and representations which have influenced development of the city of Recife. Through this project, I identified strategies for promoting landscape literacy as a key-component to achieve resilient shrimp pond-mangrove fields in Recife. To be literate in landscape here means to be able to identify, analyse and add up the various components of the landscape to an interconnected whole, which results in an increased awareness and also caring for the local environment. “Nature, traditionally conceived as separate from cultural endeavour, can now be fully integrated into the man-made landscape. The result is a synthetic, integrative nature, simultaneously wild and cultivated, bewildering and cultivating. Nature is no longer the image we look at, out there, but the field we inhabit, an active life-scape where life below ground, on the ground, in the water and in the air is continually manufacturing new environments as it reproduces and evolves.” (Praxis, 2002)

5


•Attitude towards Shrimp Pond Fields For the conservation of mangroves in developing countries, where populations have increased over the last four decades, aquaculture must be developed only in the areas already modified by human action located in the coastal plateaus. Traditional populations can continue to exploit mangrove natural resources in a sustainable way. Furthermore, it is important that the traditional population socio-economically benefits from any implementation of future economic activity (e.g., port and oil exploration in near- and off-shore zones) in the coastal zone. This simple attitude is a potential but essential path to the worldwide conservation of mangroves and value of traditional crustacean farming industry. The Brazilian government must continue devolving powers to local communities to manage mangrove resources because the participation of local communities is critical to the development of an effective coastal management system, as described by Di Ciommo (2007). “Land development planning involves undeveloped land and provides a bridge between policy planning and individual development projects. Landscape architects working in this area have knowledge of real estate economics and development regulation processes, as well as an understanding of the constraints of working with the land. Landscape architects often head multidisciplinary project teams that integrate economic factors with good design to create quality environments for human use.” (ASLA)

“…I do not believe that design can change society, I do believe it can alter an individual’s consciousness and perhaps assist in restructuring her priorities and values.” Elizabeth K. Meyer, 2008

6


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY •Recife Recife in Brazil, nicknamed the “Manguetown”, has the largest urban mangrove forest in the world. Mangrove swampy areas in Recife of the lowland evergreen forests has undergone vast changes during the last century and is now struggling to find sustainable strategies for development. The mangroves here face great challenges as they are threatened by both natural forces such as sea level rises and anthropogenic forces like effects of urbanization and intensified land-use. The steadily increasing population of Recife Metropolitan area is challenging the resilience of mangroves, especially of informal communities occupied the mangrove margins. . In an effort to produce cheap shrimp, they develop shrimp ponds by stripping mangrove swamps, which pollute land, waterways, mangrove forests and their accompanying ecosystem, regarding as the leading cause of mangrove destruction in Recife.

•Ilha de Zeca (Zeca Island) With 25 hectares and surrounded by mangroves, Zeca Island is considered Nature Conservation Unit, in Relevant Ecological Interest Area category. The island is uninhabited and only one island left without any building in the capital of State Pernambuco. It is very close to the centre of Recife, a part of Capibaribe River bank located in its dead arm between Drowned and Coke, next to the Sport Club and near the Av. Agamemnon Magalhaes and Av, Abdias de Carvalho. The island had been transformed into a ZEPA type 2 - Special Area of Environmental Preservation - by a 2003 law, the law 16869, zoning defined in the Use Act and 1996 Land Occupation as applicable to “public or private areas with exceptional features forests, swamps, ponds and waterways. “ By decree, 60% of Zeca Island lands are aimed at implementation of a Public Area Recreation and 40% are released for construction of residential, mixed and non-residential type. The Area Private Use, which allows the city buildings, is 10 hectares (almost one and a half times the size of Jaqueira Park, North Zone of Recife), of which 70% must be kept as natural soil. In short, the area classification as a ZEPA types II and an explicit provision of Art. 3 of the 2012 decree, make the island one of Nature Conservation Unit (UCN) in the category Area of Relevant Ecological Interest (ARIE), the narrowest level of units that allow sustainable use.

• Tabaiares (Crab) Community Since 1996, the Tabaiares community has considered as a ZEIS area (Special Zone of Social Interest) of Recife. When an area is ZEIS means the real recognition that this does not have the conditions necessary for its (their) residents (the) live with dignity, even in community surroundings are located the Sport Club do Recife, the University of Pernambuco and several companies of trade and services. At the time of 2003, PHASE found that about 150 families crab and Tabaiares community live with the crustacean farming. Children from both communities play ball in the four grassy fields and other existing sand on site. “ The space we live in , by which we are thrown out of us months, which unfolds precisely the erosion of our lives, our time and our history, this space it erodes and erodes is also in itself even, a heterogeneous space, “says Foucault. Overall, projects for Zeca Island should not make any occupation of territory, except for leisure and enjoyment of neighbouring communities.

7


•Zeca Island and Tabalares Community fishermen househood shrimp pond mangrove

Mangroves NATURE CONSERVATION

Rio Capibaribe River

ZECA ISLAND

Tabaiares (Crab) Community

MUD FLATS PLAY FIELDS

Stream SALT MARSH

FISHERY MARINA

Shrimp Pond

OPEN SPACE

8


1950, mangrove forest became to city margins with urbanization

Morphology

Mangrove

1950-1960, massive rural-urban movement began

For all citizen in Recife: 1960-1970, rapid rural-urban urbanization

•Mangrove and Natural Habitat Degradation •Economic Development Imbalance •Marginal Social and Spatial Isolation •Lack of Public Space •Heave Mental Contamination

1970-1980, shrimp farming ponds exploration

Recife has the largest urban mangrove forest in the world. But a large part of mangrove swamps are facing a conversion threat to artisanal crustacean nursery ponds. 1980-1991, a lot of mangrove forests were cut down for inhabitant and shrimp farming

1991-2000, ponds were getting to be disused because of shrimp disease and high salinity

“The vast urban expansion in Brazil as a key component of the structural changes in Brazilian society, occurred in the second half of the twentieth century. Only in the 1960s the urban population became higher than rural. Therefore, the rapid process of urbanization is a relatively recent structural phenomenon, and its height measured by the speed of growth of the urban population between 1950 and 1970. Most of the urban population growth between 1960 and 1980 was due to the intense rural-urban migration. Only between 1960 and the late 1980s, it is estimated that left the countryside to the cities almost 43 million people, including the indirect effect of migration, ie children born by rural migrants in cities.”

2000 -2013, mangrove recolonization of disused ponds with the help of tidal inundation

Fausto Brito, 2006


• Rural-Urban Migration in Recife in Last 50 Years • The Symptoms

Squatter Settlement

Shrimp Pond

Road Circulation

For Zeca Island nearby residents: •Shrimp Disease / High Salinity / Production Drawdown / Income Decline •Lack of Fresh Water / Health Service •Lack of Recreation / Leisure Public Space •Lack of Toilet / Storage Room / Fishery Processing Space •Loss of Identity / Poverty

Rural-urban migration movements in last 50 years resulted in a large number of informal settlements living at the urban marginal area. Squatter communities are one type which are adjacent to mangrove forest.

The average lifetime of a shrimp pond varies depending on many factors such as management practices, water quality and sediment characteristics, but an average lifetime of 7-15 years has been estimated, considering improved management.

Fishermen working in place suffer from the accumulated garbage in the dead arm of the river. This makes it prohibited the construction of buildings in the area. “We advocate the preservation of the site precisely because it is the only uninhabited island of Recife,” said Alexandre Ramos. Despite being so close to the central area of Recife, Zeca Island is a place of difficult access. No signs and no projects to facilitate public. It is possible to combine the production of handmade shrimp with public leisure activities. The investment, he said, would not be high. He proposes improvement in afforestation, maintenance of artisanal shrimp nurseries and naked fields, as well as boating, which could be offered by local fishermen. “The visitor could know shrimp farming and the work of fishermen is an area with potential in the city,” said Moura. Community resident Crab, Joseph Elisio da Costa said there were 25 shrimp ponds on the island. Some occupy 1.5 hectares. He works in place for 45 years. It began with his father, who had fish ponds. “I inherited my father’s fishing activity and ten years ago I switched to shrimp farming.”

10


CLIENT The client of this project is CPRH (AgĂŞncia Estadual de Meio Ambiente), the Pernambuco State Environment Agency, which provides for environmental licensing, environmental administrative offenses and other measures. The CPRH is the body responsible for implementing the state policy on environment and water resources, and its mission exercise environmental agency function, operating in the protection, conservation and research applied to the activities of environmental control for the use of natural state resources. The CPRH was created by Complementary Law No. 049, of January 31, 2003, as a state special autarkic entity with legal personality under public law, with police power, with administrative, financial and patrimonial autonomy, linked to the Department of Environment and Sustainability. The CPRH is exercising public activities directly, exclusive and concurrent competence of the executive branch. Exercise management and control of the environment in Pernambuco, CPRH aims at environment sustainability and contributes to improving the quality of life and the development of environmental awareness. It is recognized as an institution of credibility and excellence in control of environmental management. The key pilot site- Zeca Island as shrimp farms was disused gradually in order to preserve the unique environmental assets; Recife is now promoting eco-tourism as an important source of revenue. With a great influx of recent settlers, Recife metropolitan area comprises a miscellaneous mix of inhabitants, of whom many lack knowledge of the local landscape and how to use its resources in a sustainable way. The effects of the farms on mangrove are vastly smaller than the overall effects of tourism and real estate development on Belizean mangroves at large. Shrimp farms depend on mangroves to clean their intake water and their effluents. In aggregate, they have planted more mangrove than they have removed. Some of them have applied independently for the mangroves in their area to be put into reserves. Shrimp farms have the potential to be one of the most potent forces for mangrove conservation in the region.

11


“Our study revealed a clear mismatch between the project’s goals and procedures, and the needs and livelihoods of the target population. One could argue that such slum upgrading projects, instead of looking at what the poor need, demand that they integrate into mainstream society and follow middle class norms of how to behave and use space – but without the jobs, money and other attributes for maintaining such a lifestyle. Eventually, as a consequence, many people have no other option than to leave their new dwellings and build a shack in another area of occupied land. In this way, slum upgrading programmes tend to differentiate among the urban poor and drive out the most impoverished”. Davis, 2006

12


With the management of CPRH, and in alliance with various Recife municipal administration departments, squatter communities, shrimp farmers and their families and relevant NGOs, Indeterminate Field proposes a set of operations to value traditional artisanal crustacean industry fields. Through breeding and marketing certified organic shrimp, supported pond transition and terrain formulation, exploited potential programs, mobilized access for shrimp farmers to certified markets through inclusive business, and build links to potential carbon financing, this project is exploiting potentials and best usages of this kind of land.

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Fishery Industry Flow

Mangrove Conservation Flow Amenity & Infrastructure Flow

13

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DESIGN STRATEGY “Sensitive site design produces developments that minimize both environmental impacts and project costs, while adding value to a site.�(ASLA)

1 CELEBRATE HYDROLOGY POWER Dynamic hydrology circulation and tidal inundation offers opportunities for self-remediation of intensive shrimp farming fields as well for mitigating Capibaribe River contamination. By recreating historical hydrology circulation and open edge of Island, tidal inundation brings dynamic power to rebuilt the site. Furthermore, the abundant source of seawater of coastal city provides various potential usages of it in future.

5m 4m 3m

3m

2m 1m

1m

2m

0m

2m

5m 4m 3m 2m 1m 0m river outline

15

1m 0m

mean low tide = 0.2 m mean high tide = 1.2 m summer current extreme high time = 2.3 m


• Phytoremediation + Nature Succession

“Mangroves are a supermarket for humans,� said Somsak of the mangrove conservation office, describing a food chain from leaves and parasites to crabs, fish and humans.

2 PHYTOREMEDIATION + NATURE SUCCESSION Tidal marsh and mangrove swamp both have capability to intercept silt in flowing river to reduce sediments in river and prohibit erosion during tidal change. Mangroves protect coastal areas against erosion; capture and retain sediments from inland streams; immobilize pollutants, such as heavy metals; to bolster the coastal food chain, for being a source of wooden products etc. They are valuable for their function as hiding places for juvenile fish and as feeding, breeding and resting places for many species of birds and the as aquatic and terrestrial mammals. Mangroves act as an important habitat for juvenile fish and a large variety of other species and constitute the livelihood of many local inhabitants. They are a crucial element but often overlooked part of the overall local ecosystem, facing threats due to urbanization, intensified land-use and lack of knowledge. Thus resifting mangrove field will hold the Recife landscape together, both physically and metaphorically. Meanwhile, natural habitat will be recovered with the help of public participation programs of tidal marsh restoration and mangrove propagation.

3 years after propagation

0-3 month after nursery

2.3 summer current extreme high time 1.2 m mean high tide 0.2 m mean low tide normal water level Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) closest to the sea Conocarpus erectus button mangrove outer edge of mangrove

Avicennia schaueriana (black mangrove) middle portion

Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) furthest from the sea, up the river

16


• Economically Feasible Built

Considering the existing economic condition of Recife and residents living nearby, this project tries to keep the construction cost affordable and installation feasible. To apply several local materials even including recycled ones, this project give the decision-making power back to citizens about what to be built and how much shift they are happy to accept. This kind of low-cost and easy-to-assemble design could be applied to expansion pond fields and other squatter communities in a variety of locations in Recife.

3 ECONOMICALLY FEASIBLE BUILT

BIG SIX 1.25 mm nominal thickness cover with 875 mm overrall wirh 920 mm

various size of scaffolder structure as frame

translucent corrugated polycarbonate sheet as wall or roof structure

bamboo culm with rope enwinded

Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Technology 60 square meters = 1 kilowattes =10 desktop PCs at full load = 1 modern refrigerator solar direct irradiation = 1700 kWh /m2 (Recife) household average electricity comsumption = 1834 kWh / year (2010, Brazil)

tensile solar structure as canopy

17

plastic boxes set up for fishing usage and support usage

collected local timber material as support stilts


• Wind Direction and Pond Buttom Condition wind direction distribution in Recife (year)

E

W

N

N

N

N

E

W

E

W

S

S

S

S

SE

SE

SE

SE

E

W

simulated sludge segnant volume and direction

wind direction distribution in Recife (year)

W

N

N

N

N

the lifespan of intensive shrimpE ponds E farms) W seldom exceeds 5–10 years W (ie highly managed and high-yielding

E

E

W

4 WIND DIRECTION & POND BUTTOM CONDITION a year-round southeast (SE) wind prevails in Recife

S

S

SE

SE

SE

SE

a surface water flow from northwest to southeast S

S

simulated sludge segnant volume and direction

shrimp live on or near the pond bottom are exposure to toxic material • reduced feeding • slower growth • mortality and higher sensitivity to disease

accumulated sludge

• anoxic condition • toxic material • higher value of organic matter • higher value of total nitrogen and phosphorous

southeast side of each pond bottom become a depression area

sediment

bottom soil

• sludge has positive impacts on the growth of some species of mangroves

the lifespan of intensive shrimp ponds (ie highly managed and high-yielding farms) seldom exceeds 5–10 years

a year-round southeast (SE) wind prevails in Recife a surface water flow from northwest to southeast

shrimp live on or near the pond bottom are exposure to toxic material • reduced feeding • slower growth • mortality and higher sensitivity to disease

southeast side of each pond bottom become a depression area • sludge has positive impacts on the growth of some species of mangroves

accumulated sludge

• anoxic condition • toxic material • higher value of organic matter • higher value of total nitrogen and phosphorous

sediment

bottom soil

18


OPERATION PROCEDURE • Initial Operation

Hydrology Recirculation Safe Access

• Pond Formulation

• Restore and maintain nature lowland swamp as a mangrove corridor or tidal marsh habitat. • Release disused shrimp ponds for natural secondary seeding succession. • Organic Shrimp Pond – Decision Making Process

Natural Mangrove Corridor Tidal Marsh Corridor Organic Shrimp Pond

19


• Program Palette

Mangrove Nursery Field

Market Trading Shed

Solar Desalination Pond Aquatic Amusement Hub Zeca Island Dock Socer Field Restoration Fishery Deck

• Adaptation Fields for Emergency

Zeca Island

Afogados Village

Deus Island Village

Vacant Fields for Emergency Shelter Potential Pond Fields in Recife

20


ZECA ISLAND MASTER PLAN

Event F

Tabaiares Village

Sport Field

Event Field

Tidal M

Organic Shrimp Pond Field

Gathering Area

21


N Capibaribe River

Mangrove Habitat Corridor

0

50

100

200m

Existing Mangrove

Fisherman Househood

Mangrove Restoration

Organic Shrimp Pond

6.5 m Carriageway

Sludge Accumulation and Transition Area

3.5 m Major Route

Tidal Marsh Habitat

1.5 m Dike Path

Potential Car Park

0.6 m Foot Path street lamp Tourism Entrance

Resting Platform Low Shrub Planting Zone

Fisherman Entrance

Pte Gregorio Bezerra

Field

Rio Capibaribe River

Gathering Area

Marsh Corridor

Tourism Circulation

Joana Bezerra Island

22


“…Every work of landscape architecture, whatever its scale, ought first of all to be responsible to the whole range of interactive systems – soils and geology, climate and hydrology, vegetation and wildlife, and the human community – that will come into play on a given site and will be affected by its design.” Elizabeth K. Meyer 2008


INITIAL OPERATION • Initial Operation

Hydrology Recirculation Safe Access

• Pond Formulation

1


HYDROLOGY RECIRCULATION “The opening of the site to the vicissitudes of tide and time through the actions of water has the corollary effect of activating dormant or redundant ecologies”. Landscape Urbanism

“Nature is never static, but a movable feast of continuous transformation. Landscape architecture contributes to shape a world in constant flux and evolution.” Eelco Hooftman, 2009

• Tunnel Bridge

23


• Creek Dredge

• Before: A Dead Arm of Capibaribe River

• After: Pond Water Recirculation with A Flowing Creek

Recirculate two historical tidal creeks, one will surround Zeca Island and one will cross this Island. By dredging through existing soil, its hydrology is going to be boosted for micro circulation. Safe access setting is based on the needs of existing walk board for local communities as well as for strengthen Zeca Island’s external connections with Recife metro city.

24


“…The act of designing landscape is a process of manipulate time (Jackson 1984: 8). Since sustainable landscapes reveal, enable, repair and regenerate ecological processes, they are temporal and dynamic. Sustainable beauty arrest time, delay time, intensifies time; it opens up daily experience to what Michael Van Valkenburgh calls ‘psychological intimate immensity,’ the wonder of urban social and natural ecologies made palpable through the landscape medium.” Elizabeth K. Meyer 2008


• Initial Operation

TERRAIN FORMULATION Hydrology Recirculation

2

Safe Access

• Pond Formulation

Natural Mangrove Corridor Tidal Marsh Corridor Organic Shrimp Pond


NATURAL HABITAT CORRIDOR Ponds locate between the contour lines range of 1-2 meter, generally are disused ponds, breach dikes for hydrology openness and prepare for mangrove seeding nursery or wetland recovery.

“Nature is not out there but in here, interwoven in the human urban conditions. Hydrology, ecology and human life are intertwined.”

Elizabeth K. Meyer 2008

• Mangrove Habitat Corridor

25


• Tidal Marsh Habitat Ponds’ sizes less than 0.15 ha, generally along the new tidal creek, are released to tidal inundation for tidal natural marsh, transformed to solar desalination pond for freshwater or recreational pond.

• Existing Small Pond Dike

inner island

dried pond

Capibaribe River

disused pond

inner collapsed dike external dike facing river

dike border on land 5 4 3 2 1 0m -1 -2

1.2 mean hign tide 0.2 mean low tide

0.4 0.6

1.50

1.55

1.40 0.1

• Proposed Tidal Marsh Habitat

inner island

lagoon

salt marsh swamp

Capibaribe River

2.5 m board access for extreme high tide inner collapsed dike external dike for construction

diverse slopes for natural succession 5 4 uplifted buffer 3 2 1 0m -1 1.45 -2

1.2 mean hign tide 0.2 mean low tide 1.5

1.5

1.40

2.5

2.0

breach dike to welcome tide inundation

26


ORGANIC SHRIMP POND Ponds’ sizes over 0.15ha, generally are rearing ponds, are adjusted with their dike width and slope for convenient delivery access as well as shrub restoration against erosion. Prepare soil and sediment for mangrove restoration to achieve future over 50% coverage of mangrove for organic shrimp farming shift. • Widen dikes for access • Diverse slopes for habitat • Inner mangrove restoration dike for organic shrimp farming

• Existing External Pond Dike

stilt house

the dead arm of Capibaribe River

rearing pond

external dike facing river

unsubstantial board walk 5 4 3 2 1 0m -1 -2

rearing pond

1.2 mean hign tide 0.2 mean low tide

0.65

abrupt-slope dike with fence

0.6

1.75 0.9

• Proposed Organic Shrimp Pond stilt house

organic shrimp pond

a flowing river

organic shrimp pond

tidal shrub restorion diverse slopes for hatibat and mangraove seeding 5 4 3 2 1 0m -1 -2

mangrove restoration on new dike

0.9

pond base slope at 0.5%

1.5

1.55 1.2

27


DECISION MAKING PROCESS

• Check: measure and identify the existing dike and pond width and depth

existing small pond dike section

• Adapt: adjust key datum of pond formulation planning with realtime tidal datum

island

5 4 3 2 1 0m -1 -21.50

dry pond

disused pond

Capibaribe River

inner collapsed dike external dike facing river dike border on land mean hign tide 5 1.2 0.4 0.2 mean low tide 4 0.6 3 2 1 0m -1 1.55 1.40 -2 0.1

• Moke Negotiation: community meeting for choosing suitable transition stategy for Zeca Island with site model

28


WIND DIRECTION & POND BUTTOM CONDITION

wind direction distribution in Recife (year)

E

W

E

W

E

W

S

E

W

SE

SE

SE

SE S

N

N

N

N

S

S

simulated sludge segnant volume and direction

the lifespan of intensive shrimp ponds (ie highly managed and high-yielding farms) seldom exceeds 5–10 years

a year-round southeast (SE) wind prevails in Recife a surface water flow from northwest to southeast

shrimp live on or near the pond bottom are exposure to toxic material • reduced feeding • slower growth • mortality and higher sensitivity to disease

southeast side of each pond bottom become a depression area • sludge has positive impacts on the growth of some species of mangroves

29

accumulated sludge

• anoxic condition • toxic material • higher value of organic matter • higher value of total nitrogen and phosphorous

sediment

bottom soil


N

E

W

• Southeast Perspective View of Sediment Accumulation Process

SE S

1

N

E

W

SE S

2

N

Dug the tench in pond bottom to capture sediment E

W

SE S

3

N

E

W

SE S

4 half year sludge accumulation

N

E

W

SE S

5

6 one year sludge accumulation

30


POND TERRAIN TRANSITION PROCESS

2016-Existing Conditon

5 4 3 2 1

1.2 m mean high tide

0 m -1 -2

2017 March - community new access/ pond dike maintainence with soil from digging trench

5 4 3 2 1

1.2 m mean high tide

0 m -1

pond water intake while high tide

-2

2017 June - shrimp production harvest after 3 months cultivation circle

5 4 3

southeast wind direction

2 1

1.2 m mean high tide

0 m -1

closed water gate

sludge captured with built trench

-2

2017 June - pond base access avaliable while water drained 5 4 3 2 1

0.2 m mean low tide 0 m

-1 -2

pond water drain outlet and sediment cleaning

2017 July - pond terrain transition with accumulated sediment and soil/ pond dike and bankment reconstrucion for access and against erosion 5 4 3

mangrove seeding process

2 1 0 m -1 -2

2020 August - organic shrimp pond transition phase (3 years duration based on mangrove restoration procedure) 5 4

3 year-old mangrove saplings restoration

3 2 1 0 m -1

mangrove restoration process

-2

2020 December - sediment dike refine and rebuilt process

5 4 3 2 1 0 m -1 -2

31

organic shrimp harvest and sell at 27 $/kg (14 $/kg ,2016)


32


“The organization of functions and events was as much an architectural concern as the elaboration of forms and styles.� Praxis, 2002


PROGRAM PALETTES • Program Palette

Mangrove Nursery Field

Market Trading Shed

Solar Desalination Pond Aquatic Amusement Hub Zeca Island Dock Socer Field Restoration Fishery Deck

• Adaptation Fields for Emergency

3


FISHERY DECK • Loading product / boat • Product processing / sitting box / solar panel shelter • Net hanging bamboo structure • Rest-room • Storage room for fishing tool kits • Toilet • Kitchen

N 0

33

5

10

20 m


• Fishery Tool-kits • Plastic box for sitting/ fishing • Fishing pole • Fishing net • Rubber boots • Hat • Bucket

36


MANGROVE NURSERY FIELD • Soils: the growth medium consisted of 50% sand and 50% peat • Watering regime: Salt-water inundated the ponds to a depth of approximately 20 cm twice each day and was kept at that level for approximately six hours each time • Species selection : Species selection will depend on the nature of the restoration work to be undertaken and the characteristics of the site from which the propagules will be collected on site seedlings mainly are Rhizophora mangle, which has successful germination results even without soaking • Propagules Collection: Propagules for mangrove nursery will be collected using dinghies and by hand from mangrove boardwalks, local beaches and boat ramps • Potting: Propagules collected for restoration purposes were potted into 100 mm plastic pots to conserve nursery space and maximise the total number of plants • Fertilising: Mangroves grown in a nursery environment require fertilisation at approximately six months of age to maintain healthy growth and replace the ‘food reserves’ of the propagules

0m

2m

2m • Density of mangrove propagules 10 m2 = 4500 pots

1m

• 0-3 months, mangrove propagation procedure • 6-12 months, mangrove seeding planting out process • After 3 years cultivation

2m N 0

37

5

10

20 m


• Mangrove Propagation Procedure • QFS found that seedlings between 6 to 12 months of age were optimal in terms of ease of transport, lower costs associated with propagation and greater ability to withstand the rigours of transplanting • Mangroves can be successfully planted out at any stage from propagules to seedlings up to three years old

38


SOLAR DESALINATION POND • Solar desalination pond use tidal marsh habitat as natural water infiltrator and purifier • This infrastructure reserves and captures water with opening Watergate at high tide peak • Structure includes evaporation/ condensation shed, bamboo pipe collector and plastic water tank for collected fresh water

2m 1m

0.2 m mean low tide 0m 1.2 m mean high tide

Capibaribe River N

39

0

5

10

20 m


• Construction Detail • Bamboo frame • Bamboo pipe • Plastic firm

10 m

0.5 m

1.0 m

0.5 m altitude difference for collecting freshwater from bamboo pipe

0.35 m

2.35 m existing water gate used to reserve water while high tide

1.2 m mean high tide

40


• Purification Performance • Process of desalination and evaporation cycle • This pond could purify salt, brackish or polluted water with solar energy

Recife solar direct irradiation = 1700 kWh /m2

the evaporated water gets leaded with gradient natural bamboo pipe and collected into plastic water tank

water gets heated up and evaporated

41


• Freshwater Harvesting

one quartern cutting off bamboo tube bamboo pipe as freshwater collecting medium

42


ZECA ISLAND DOCK

0.2 m mean low tide with open pedestrian access

43


2.5 m board walk built on the shifted dikes

water gate tidal habitat corridor for boat parking when1.2 m mean high tide

44


MARKET TRADING SHED The Market Shed is a everyday setup trading area with supporting of storage room and solar power source. Through the access of tunnel bridge and Zeca Island Dock, waste management service, tourism visiting and business activities activate this small market. It services with organic aquatic product such as shrimp, crab and mussel, as well celebrates pequliar handicraft made by shell and mangrove-related products. This market benefits Recife with more social exchange and local economy.

waste colleting spot 360 litre garbage bin

solar panel shelter as market shed

storage room for trading setup 2m

1m N 0

45

5

10

20 m


• Shed Set-up Process

• Setup toolkits for market trading area are maily plastic boxes and plywood boards. • Composite members are easy to assemble and movable with trading needs and selling product types.

• Setup toolkits for market trading area are maily plastic boxes and plywood boards. • Composite members are easy to assemble and movable with trading needs and selling product types.

46


AQUATIC AMUSEMENT HUB • Swimming pool at 1.2 m tide level

water gate to control water level of swimming pool with tidal change 1m

1m

casual sport field

tidal marsh habitat as a filtering pond for water source of swimming pool 1m

2m

0m new flowing creek

N 0

47

5

10

20 m


• Swimming Pool + Changing Room

1.2 m regular water level

0.2 m dry season water level

48


SOCCER FIELD RESTORATION • Bleacher + club with service of potable water, shower room and toilet • Goal set up • Painted lines of soccer field

2m

3m

2m 50 m

casual soccer field for practice

95 m standard soccer field for formal use

50 m

80 m

2m 1m

2m 1m N

49

0

10

20

40 m


• Program Palette

Mangrove Nursery Field

Market Trading Shed

Solar Desalination Pond Aquatic Amusement Hub Zeca Island Dock Socer Field Restoration Fishery Deck

ADAPTATION FIELDS • Adaptation Fields for Emergency

Zeca Island

Afogados Village

Deus Island Village

Vacant Fields for Emergency Shelter Potential Pond Fields in Recife

4


ADAPTATION FIELDS FOR EMERGENCY This strategic design seeks to offer a paradigm for tropical traditional crustacean nursery ponds field and set up a framework of eco-friendly programs potentially could happen in these kinds of sites. Through necessarily inexpensive actions, the project skilfully constructs a hybrid of nature and culture that celebrate the site’s peculiarities, both in terms of man-made per-formative ecosystems for productive shrimp farming and an attractive and awarded landscape construct for public recreation. It proposes ways to choreograph on-site visitors into a narrative that invites them to explore what’s con-substantial to this peculiar landscape: natural habitat, fishery farming fields and other recreations. My hope is that Indeterminate Fields will serve as a platform where dialogue and education about the complexity of the mangroves and their role as part of the overall ecosystem can be held. The target group of this proposal is fishing squatter community and whole residents and visiting tourists in Recife; meanwhile, the mangrove conservation will shape the future of Recife and will be a link to the overall local population and the tourists through their increasing benefits facing global climate change.

51


• Emergency Fields for Shelter N 0

50

100

200m

vacant Industry backyards nearby elevation between 2-3 m levation 3 -4 m

52


ADAPATION POND FIELDS IN RECIFE

“Scarry suggests that when we experience beauty, it changes our relationship to that object or scene or person. She continues, ‘At the moment we see something beautiful, we undergo a radical decentring.” Elizabeth K. Meyer 2008

Indeterminate Fields catalyses post-mangrove aquaculture ponds for Recife urban recreational open space and takes advantage of various ecological problems, such as an excess of sediments that from shrimp farming process and frequent tidal flux, as opportunities for urban crustacean ponds development. This project conceives a process shift model for intensive shrimp farming industry with four steps: Initial Operation, Pond Terrain Formulation, Program Palette and Adaption Fields, which allow more potential usage of shrimp pond fields in Recife.

53


Rio Capibaribe River Urban Mangrove Forest Community Living beside Capibaribe River Crustacean Nursery Pond Fields

Existing Shrimp Prodect Price = $ 14 / kg Organic Shrimp Prodect Price = $ 27 / kg

Recife Mangrove Forest = 602.5ha in total = $ 6025000

Zeca Island

One recent estimate indicates that on an average the annual value of one hectare

Capibaribe River

of mangrove is approximately $10000

Afogados Village Deus Island Village

Pina Park

54 0

1

2

N 4 km


“The apprehension and experience of beauty, especially new, challenging forms of beauty, can lead to attentiveness, empathy, love, respect, care, concern and action on the part of whose who visit and experience designed landscape.� Elizabeth K. Meyer 2008


PRECEDENT & REFERENCE

5


PRECEDENT

•Mangrove Action Project (MAP) This rehabilitation project cost USD $440,000, which included physical rehabilitation, community organizing and governance work. An additional $150,000 was required to support Mangrove Action Project (MAP) staff assigned to EMR over a 4-year period. In total, 425 ha of restoration cost $590,000 or $1388/ ha.

•Mangroves and Markets (MAM) MAM provided training on breeding and marketing certified organic shrimp, supported replanting and management of the mangrove forest, mobilized access for shrimp farmers to certified markets through inclusive business, and build links to potential carbon financing.

• Farming Freshwater Prawns - A manual for the culture of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) • Queensland Fisheries Service-Fisheries Guidelines for Mangrove Nursery Construction, Propagation and Planting

•ACTA Algaida Path

•La Tancada Salt Fields- EMF Landscape Architecture

55


•The Louisiana Hamlet Pavilion in Kenya’s Kibera slum- SelgasCano and Helloeverything

• Jellyfish Barge - PNAT Floating, self-sufficient cultivation module

• German Pavilion Expo Milano 2015 - Solar Trees The German Pavilion is the first large international architecture project, in which the innovative products are used. Unlike conventional solar modules, the German Pavilion architectures had the possibility to use not only an existing technology here, but to design the flexible, leaf-integrated OPV modules to their optical appearance based on their own ideas, and to integrate them into the whole design of the pavilion.

56


REFERENCE Aerial images of Recife in 1951 - Part 2. cadernorecifense, recife notebook. Retrieved from http://cadernorecifense.blogspot.com. au/2014/04/imagens-aereas-do-recife-em-1951-parte-2.html Avnimelech, Y. and G. Ritvo (2003). “Shrimp and fish pond soils: processes and management.” Aquaculture 220(1): 549-567. Companies of Brazil Retrieved from http://empresasdobrasil.com/en/empresas/recife-pe ESIG information of recife. Retrieved from http://www.recife.pe.gov.br/ESIG/. http://www.recife.pe.gov.br/ESIG/ GLOMIS. Retrieved from http://www.glomis.com/top.html. http://www.glomis.com/top.html Ocean health index. Retrieved from http://data.oceanhealthindex.org/data-and-downloads. http://data.oceanhealthindex.org/ data-and-downloads plan of recife and vicinity Retrieved from http://www.sixtant.net/2011/artigos.php?cat=camp-ingram-recife-*-&sub=adm.-jonas-h.-ingram-(9-pages--52-images)&tag=2)camp-ingram-recife-* Shrimp culture: pond design, operation and management. FAO CORPORATE DOCUMENT REPOSITORY, POND DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/ac210e/AC210E05.htm Tropical Coastal Ecosystem Portal. Retrieved from http://www.nies.go.jp/TroCEP/index.html . (1647). Retrieved from http://www.jhna.org/index.php/past-issues/volume-5-issue-1/181-possessing-brazil-in-print Map of Mauritsstad, Recife and environs. (1647). Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AMH-7317-KB_ Map_of_Mauritsstad,_Recife_and_environs.jpg partie du brasil. Amer. Merid. 19. (1827). [atlas map]. Retrieved from http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/ RUMSEY~8~1~25258~5500118:Partie-du-Bresil--Amer--Merid--19-;JSESSIONID=4373f8a0-fecc-46dc-89d2-3890b6fbe627?showTipAdvancedSearch=false&showShareIIIFLink=true&showTip=false&helpUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fdoc.lunaimaging.com%2Fdisplay%2FV72D%2FLUNA%2BViewer%23LUNAViewer-LUNAViewer&title=Search+Results%3A+List_ No+equal+to+%272212.303%27&fullTextSearchChecked=&advancedSearchUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fdoc.lunaimaging. com%2Fdisplay%2FV72D%2FSearching%23Searching-Searching&thumbnailViewUrlKey=link.view.search.url . (1848). [atlas map]. Retrieved from http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~25258~5500118:Partie-du-Bresil--Amer--Merid--19-;JSESSIONID=4373f8a0-fecc-46dc-89d2-3890b6fbe627?showTipAdvancedSearch=false&showShareIIIFLink=true&showTip=false&helpUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fdoc. lunaimaging.com%2Fdisplay%2FV72D%2FLUNA%2BViewer%23LUNAViewer-LUNAViewer&title=Search+Results%3A+List_ No+equal+to+%272212.303%27&fullTextSearchChecked=&advancedSearchUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fdoc.lunaimaging.com%2Fdisplay%2FV72D%2FSearching%23Searching-Searching&thumbnailViewUrlKey=link.view.search.url FARMING FRESHWATER PRAWNS A manual for the culture of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). (2002). PRAXIS: journal of writing + building. (2002). (A. S. Amanda Reeser Ed.). Grupos de Produção Solidária. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.pensebrasil.org/foto/grupos-de-producao-solidaria/

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root multiplicity (2012). Retrieved from http://www.williambloomer.com/Root-Multiplicity An island lost in Recife can be Destroyed. (2013). Retrieved from http://ecosbrasilong.blogspot.com.au/2013/05/uma-ilha-perdida-no-recife-podera-ser.html Recife City Council releases construction in environmental protection area. (2013). JCONLINE(URBANISM). Retrieved from http:// jconline.ne10.uol.com.br/canal/cidades/geral/noticia/2013/04/09/prefeitura-do-recife-libera-construcao-em-area-de-protecao-ambiental-79111.php ilha de deus (2014). Retrieved from http://www.diariodepernambuco.com.br/app/noticia/vida-urbana/2014/12/29/interna_vidaurbana,551631/a-ilha-de-deus-dos-camaroes-dos-mariscos-dos-homens-e-das-mulheres.shtml Imagens aéreas do Recife em 1951 - Parte 2. (2014). Retrieved from http://cadernorecifense.blogspot.com.au/?view=classic tide-forecast. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.tide-forecast.com/locations/Recife-Brazil/tides/latest. http://www.tide-forecast. com/locations/Recife-Brazil/tides/latest CISNEROS, L. (2013). Brief account of the hearing on Zeca Island. Urban rights | Recife. Retrieved from https://direitosurbanos. wordpress.com/2013/05/03/breve-relato-da-audiencia-sobre-a-ilha-do-zeca/ Clarke, A., & Johns, L. (2002, March 2002). Mangrove nurseries: Construction, propagation and planting Retrieved from https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/75635/ FHG004-Fish-Habitat-Guideline.pdf Ebson, C. (Producer). (2016, 19 JUN). Ilha do Zeca, sustentabilidade no coração do Recife. Retrieved from https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=c3N5sJm2FBI Harding, R. (2015). Generating power and creating shade. MERCK(INNOVATION). Retrieved from http://www.magazine.emerck/en/ innovation/solar_trees/organic_photovoltaics.html Hooftman, E. (2009). Design against nature. Harvard Design Magazine, 31(2009), 10. Joseph Harari, R. d. C. M. G. ON TIDES AND MEAN SEA LEVEL OF RECIFE (8º3.3’S 34º51.9’ W) AND BELÉM (1º26.2’S 48º29.6’W). Retrieved from http://www.mares.io.usp.br/aagn/12o9.html Meyer, E. K. (2008). Sustaining beauty. The performance of appearance: A manifesto in three parts. Journal of Landscape Architecture, 3(1), 6-23. Oliveira, P. (2015). Heritage Reef, Mangrove Park is forgotten. leiaja, news(cities). Retrieved from http://www.leiaja.com/noticias/2015/03/11/patrimonio-do-recife-parque-dos-manguezais-esta-esquecido/

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Indeterminate_Fields _Crustacean Pond Land Development Planning  

Xiaojing Zhao_MLA_project_RMIT

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