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CannabisNow issue one FALL 2010

magazine

“STAYING

+

LEGAL SAFE”

MONTANA’S

BEST

CAREGIVERS.

5

TOP MOUNTAIN

STRAINS

PROOF,

&

PATIENCE PRUDENCE PAVE THE WAY FOR GLOBAL LEGALIZATION.

THE VOICE OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS, PACIFIC NORTHWEST, AND NORTHERN CALIFORNIA

issue one

Contents

FALL 2010

Features History 4. History of Cannabis: The Early Years 6. Proof, Patience & Prudence The executive Director of the Montana Medical Grower’s Association weighs in on Medical Marijuana Legislation.

Caregiver Profiles: 8. Lionheart Caregiving: Bozeman 12. Soultonix: Bozeman 14. Top 5 Mountain Strains: Photos of our favorites 24. Better Life MT: Missoula 26. Creating a Medical Culture: Billings

Current Events: 28. More-itoriums: 29. 5 Ways to stay Legal: Advice from Brant Leody, esquire. 30. Berkeley Medical: More CA reforms and what they mean. 32. Weed Scene: Politics and economics 34. Kids-Sea of Grey: Patient, Caregiver and Parent.

Economics: 38. Where Does the Cannabis Money Trail Lead?

Opinion 40. View from an Activist: Have strong views about marijuana? 45. Integrity of Medical Marijuana In SoCal. 47.Process of Getting a Medical Card An amusing series of a regular PTA-attending mother and her journey to obtain a medical card.

Recipes 52. It’s all in the butter.

ON THE COVER: Montana Silvertip / T-minus. inset: Party Boy / Strain- Blue Dream

CannabisNow

The voice of the Rocky Mountains, Pacific Northwest and Northern California.

Publishers Notes Welcome to Cannabis Now Magazine! In the past few years, medical cannabis and the issues surrounding its legalization has taken the Rocky Mountains, Pacific Northwest and California by storm. By including only responsible content, we hope to enlighten and educate the public on the legitimate and beneficial side of cannabis. Quarterly, we will introduce the latest news, political updates, horticultural advancements, and medical information. Informing the public is important to us in order to lift the mystery surrounding this ever expanding and highly misunderstood industry. Once Cannabis and its importance are reveled, citizens and legislators will be able to make informed decisions. Send us your photos, stories, and comments to help us build a better magazine. We are excited to collaborate as much as possible to remain relevant and on the cutting edge. We are Cannabis Now. If you are interested in adverting or writing for Cannabis Now Magazine ™ please contact us at.

customerservice@cannabisnowmag.com Together, we can help the cannabis industry legitimately and efficiently grow. Thanks and enjoy!

2.

Strain: Grunk photo: D. Armstrong

CannabisNow

History of Marijuana in America

The Early years.

varies in the percentages of anti-psychoactive cannabinoids (CBD) and psychoactive cannabinoids (THC). Cannabis plants containing less than one percent of THC are called “hemp,” which can be used in the production of about 25,000 different industrial products. Cannabis plants containing ten to twenty percent THC are known as “marijuana.” Both types of cannabis have been in use for centuries.

By Leena Finga

Marijuana inherits its name from Mexico, although it has a past steeped with global tradition. Long before its U.S. debut, marijuana was widely used, and popular among, some of the world’s earliest civilizations. History documents show that the fiber-rich cannabis plant was used to produce rope and woven fabrics around 7000 B.C. in Central and South Asia. Additionally, it was referenced in Chinese manuscripts dating back to 2700 B.C. and ancient Indian scriptures have attributed medicinal properties to it. After being used by half of the world for nearly 8,000 years, marijuana traditionally reached North America with Christopher Columbus in 1492 A.D. Initially, cannabis was only used to make industrial goods; its recreational use in America didn’t become popular until the early 20th century. It wasn’t until then that the misunderstandings about cannabis truly began to popup. The recreational use of marijuana soon became considered as harmful as cocaine or heroin. However, it has never led to a single case of human death from overdose in its entire history. This is a sharp contrast to the heavy mortality rate of its supposed counterparts. Nonetheless, the use and cultivation of the cannabis plant was made illegal at the hands of many capable antidrug advocates. 4.

The distinction between marijuana and hemp has always been confusing. Botanically, they are species of the same genus, cannabis, though their composition

Domestic production of the marijuana plant was encouraged in various parts of America during the 17th century. The cannabis sativa plant, whose dried flower extracts can form potent recreational marijuana, was in great demand because of its long fibers which could be used for the production of clothing, ropes, and sails. In fact, The Assembly of Jamestown Colony, Virginia, passed legislation in 1619 making it compulsory for every farmer to grow the Indian hempseed – ironically America’s first marijuana law. Other colonial states like Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania allowed hemp to be exchanged as legal tender and could even be used to pay taxes. The plant was an essential requirement during war times and farmers would be jailed if they were not able to produce enough hemp. Men who Americans hold in great reverence grew and encouraged the growth of hemp. George Washington grew hemp as his primary crop in the late 18th century for fiber production at Mount Vernon. Thomas Jefferson grew the plant as a secondary crop at Monticello and urged farmers to grow hemp in place of tobacco due to its many useful qualities. Even Benjamin Franklin used cannabis as the raw material to start one of America’s pioneering paper mills. Hemp is truly imbedded in our American history. Patriot wives and mothers spun threads of hemp fibers to provide clothing for Washington’s Continental Army; both the first and second draft of the Declaration of Independence was written on hemp paper; even the first American flag was made from the hemp fibers. Additionally, the first U.S. Treasury Secretary, Alexander Hamilton, realized the worth of hemp in terms of boosting the economy of the early republic. Hemp flourished through the U.S.’s early years. It was the first crop to be grown in many states. By 1850, production reached 40,000 tons making cannabis the third

largest agricultural crop grown in America. In fact, hemp remained the largest cash crop until the advent of the 20th century. However, the status of hemp in America started to change after the Civil War when several imported and domestic materials were used in its place. These textile replacements rendered the plant’s use primarily for recreational and medicinal purposes. By the mid 19th century, marijuana’s medicinal properties were recognized in North America and it was used as a popular ingredient in many medicinal products. The United States Pharmacopeia had marijuana on its list of pharmaceuticals from 1850 until 1942, and many companies like Brothers Smith, Eli Lilly, Parke-Davis, and Tildens produced a cannabis extract, which Sir William Osler, “the father of modern medicine,” pronounced as the best treatment for migraines. Marijuana was prescribed for various pain-relieving and moodaltering conditions such as nausea, labor pains, and rheumatism. A score of medical papers were published in this era flaunting the curing abilities of cannabis, and even the personal physician of Queen Victoria, Sir John Russell Reynolds, announced cannabis as having amazing powers to treat painful maladies. It was sold openly and was easily available in public pharmacies. However, during this time, marijuana was also starting to be used more often as an intoxicant. The recreational use of marijuana started on a small scale in the late 19th century in the northeastern United States with the opening of many Turkish smoking parlors. It was also during this time that about two to five percent of America’s population had unknowingly become addicted to morphine as most over-the-counter medicines contained levels of the substance. Among the addicts were soldiers, businessmen, housewives, and children. In response, the American government passed the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906 and formed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in part to help counter and control the addiction situation. The law, though not targeting marijuana specifically, also required cannabis -based medications to have its contents mentioned on the label. The Spanish-American War, and the subsequent Mexican revolution of 1910, also influenced the marijuana scene in America. During the postrevolution years there was a great influx of Mexican-

George Washington grew hemp as his primary crop in the late 18th century for fiber production at Mount Vernon. Thomas Jefferson grew the plant as a secondary crop at Monticello and urged farmers to grow hemp in place of tobacco due to its many useful qualities. Americans who mostly found work on large farms in American fields. These immigrants cultivated marijuana, which they brought with them from Mexico, and indulged in its smoking for recreational purposes. Strong prejudice against the immigrants caused many to view the plant as an addictive and violence-inducing drug that created criminals, murderers, and delinquents. Not until the 1930’s, when the Federal Bureau of Narcotics and its director, Harry J. Anslinger, began drafting a bill to tax marijuana did an all out smear campaign begin, which eventually led to its national ban. State regulation of cannabis started in Massachusetts in 1911 and in New York and Maine by 1914. California passed the first state marijuana prohibition law in 1913, outlawing the preparations of hemp or “locoweed,” which was more a prejudiced controlling measure over the Mexican immigrant population than a controlling measure over the marijuana itself. More states came up with laws that banned marijuana, including Wyoming in 1915, Texas in 1919, and Nebraska in 1927. The states of Iowa, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Arkansas took this step in 1923. Marijuana was prohibited by 29 states by 1931 due largely to the poor socio-economic conditions during The Great Depression. With unemployment at its peak, many American’s found themselves competing against Mexican immigrants for jobs in the fields. Consequently, Mexican workers and their associated drug marijuana became easy targets for attack. By this time, marijuana’s misleading reputation began to overshadow its historic medicinal and industrial applications. Marijuana had become increasingly popular among musicians and artists, especially Jazz entertainers, who believed its psychoactive and mind-altering properties were a necessary muse. These musicians travelled the Jazz circuit in New Orleans, Chicago, and Harlem producing some of the greatest hits of all time and taking their “inspiration” with them. The musician’s glamorization of marijuana helped marijuana’s recreational popularity and soon, business for marijuana picked up in the Black Market. The paving stones for marijuana’s tainted reputation and complicated legal policies were laid. 5.

History.

Proof, Patience and Prudence

Pave the Way for Global Legalization

But in order to earn that freedom, Montana caregivers must first prove that they can stay in-line with the current set laws and regulations. The number one priority of the MMGA in the fight for legalization is education. This is why on May 28, 2010, in Helena, Montana, the Grower’s Association opened discussions between law enforcement, caregivers, patients, and representatives of the Montana community. The consensus of these talks was a desire for a new regulatory board funded by license fees as well as a focus on continuing caregiver education in ethics, safe handling of the product, and grow tips with input from the Department of Agriculture.

Jim Gingery, Executive Director of the Montana Medical Grower’s Association, outlines the bumpy path that leads through this exciting and crucial time for cannabis. By Emelia J. Dixon

T

he Montana Medical Grower’s Association (MMGA) is on hand to assist all Montana caregivers with the ethical and safe practice of distributing medical marijuana. Not only are they going above and beyond by advocating for patients and caregivers, but they are fighting on the legal front lines for a dispensary system that works for all. “We are trying to help individual cities figure out how to work with their city councils,” said Jim Gingery, Executive Director. “We are battling a lack of education, ignorance, misunderstanding, and fear mongering. But, you can’t blame people, they just don’t know.”

6.

Compared to California, Montana is a conservative state, which makes for a tense climate when it comes to the controversial nature of legal, medical marijuana. But there’s an upside to a place made of small towns and conventional values. “You can actually pick up a phone and petition a senator, that’s what’s nice about Montana,” said Gingery, who also believes city zoning changes are fair and justified.

Even though medical marijuana has made great strides in Montana, Gingery feels that the standard list of afflictions that allow for the medical use of cannabis omits some crucial ailments. “Insomnia is an ideal example, and if only we could get anxiety on the list. We need to have the government stop telling us what can and cannot help our aliments.”

“Bozeman is the model city. A city has every right to zone in order to protect its citizens, but some of them have done it wrong. We may see a lot of lawsuits as a result. The perception is that people receive licenses for things that don’t require or qualify for the agreed upon standards of medical marijuana; consequently, only doctors with MD certifications can prescribe cannabis and it may be harder for some people to get renewed.” As always, it comes down to doctors and prescriptions. “Traveling Caravans [medical marijuana clinics on the move] used to be a good thing before the concept started being abused. The problem is we still need the ability to get limited mobility patients in front of a physician who cannot necessarily get into town to a clinic.”

Though many current legal standards are defensible, Gingery believes that some of these laws just make for bad business and need to be clarified. For example, “It’s currently illegal for one caregiver to sell to another caregiver, which is too bad, because that’s just good business. If you’re running a business, you need to control your inventory and your costs. There needs to be an exception in the system for the sharing of new genotypes in order to create new strains. But things like this simply mean that the product needs to be tracked by the caregiver from inception to delivery.” While sharing seems to be integral to successful progressive growing, outsourcing is not the main goal. “This needs to be a Montana-grown industry… if we’re

going to call it a medication we need to treat is as such-- a medical product with known origins.” This opens a whole new chapter on needs for medical marijuana. Testing the product for THC, other cannabinoids, molds, moisture, and metals is essential. Bozeman recently became home to its own testing facility, Montana Botanical Analysis, which will hopefully help Montana caregivers step up their quality of medicine. There is also the ever prevalent question of dosing.

“Marijuana is not easily quantified into doses yet, but once we are at that point it should be allowable in schools. For example, kids who need Adderall go to the school nurse when it is time for their medication and that works because we understand the dosing.” Along with scientific progress aiding medical practices, legalization on any level also calls for community responsibility. “The black market [those caregivers selling outside the law] should be prosecuted. But that doesn’t mean people with medical cards need to flaunt them. Some people don’t like it and don’t want it in front of their kids in public places, and that must be respected. So, if a dispensary needs to change their ostentatious pot signage, let’s change it and keep the community calm. It’s frustrating dealing with some outspoken radicals; I wish they would just get on a bus and come back next June. We have to conduct ourselves with common sense and common decency. We need to understand that socially, this is a very long-term investment.” For more information on MMGA, visit www.montanamedicalgrowers.org.

7.

Caregiver Profiles

Photos: Left- inside the 4 Corners facility. Below: inside the Helena store.

Lionheart Caregiving

Providing quality patient care. By Brittney Billings

8.

In a community such as Montana, we practice what we preach by respecting the importance of local, organically grown products from businesses that give back and support locals.

Medical marijuana dispensaries should be no different. At least that’s what Chris Fanuzzi believed when he started Lionheart Caregiving. “By engaging in the community and actively supporting it, the community will support the business in return.” In a free market spirit, Fanuzzi believes that society will support something as a whole that benefits the wellbeing of the people and the economy. This is why it is important to prove to the public that when they have the freedom to choose their medicine and their provider, businesses who respect the public’s wants and needs will grow in response to the demand. Businesses, such as

“By engaging in the community and actively supporting it, the community will support the business in return.”

Lionheart, exist to serve the people and support other Montana business. “Lionheart dedicates its revenue to developing business infrastructure for producing cannabis and providing medical patients across the state with quality care.” It is clear that Montana grown cannabis is in demand. God willing the state and national representatives will support our production, distribution, and use the added tax revenues to help support the communities.” Deregulation, commerce, and the nature of the competitive free market system will help evolve the cannabis industry and create 9.

Caregiver Profiles

up on the shelf.” The flushing process removes buildups of excess phosphorus and fertilizers the plant did not use. This process along with proper drying and curing methods helps with the flavor and quality of the cannabis.

Cannabis at Lionheart is grown mostly indoors in soil or using hydroponic mediums with advanced nutrient feeding systems.

efficient production and distribution which translates into better quality, lower prices, and stimulated economic growth.

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These principle ideas have created Lionheart Caregiving’s vision of quality, consistency, sustainability, safety, and professionalism. Lionheart’s dedicated and friendly staff make Lionheart Caregiving an environment for success. Patients can aquire affordable, legal, and safe quality medicine at any of the three main dispensaries located in Bozeman, Helena

and Four Corners, open daily to registered card holders. An emense variety of cannabis strains, various products such as salves, oils, lotions, soaps, lip balms and topical ointments, infused lemonade, baked goods and tinctures, hemp clothing, accessories, and more are made available by Lionheart Caregiving. Cannabis at Lionheart is grown mostly indoors in soil or using hydroponic mediums with advanced nutrient feeding systems. Lionheart’s growing methods optimize the quality and availability of the medicine. “Each plant is flushed thoroughly before harvest and the herb is cured properly before it ends

Lionheart Caregiving works closely with doctors, patients, and caregivers across the state to aid patients and qualified individuals interested in becoming a registered cardholder. Doctor appointments are available at the 7th Street office in Bozeman and with various doctors across the state. “Some patients have a hard time affording medicine so we discount based on our clients financial and medical situation.” The care is big with Lionheart. With enough time and political support, Chris Fanuzzi founder of Lionheart Caregiving, sees the industry growing to be the revolutionary start of a local sustainable commerce widely accepted by the community and the nation for its economic, medical, and social benefits. He and his dedicated staff currently supply patients with quality patient care at three locations: 1117 N 7th Suites 1&2 in Bozeman; 80127 Gallatin Road Suite F in Four Corners; and 1211 Elm Street in Helena, MT, as well as statewide delivey. Store fronts are coming soon in Butte and Billings. Open daily, Fanuzzi and his friendly, knowledgeable staff are available for questions and appointments.    For more information please visit www.lionheartcaregivers.com

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Caregiver Profiles

Soul Tonix

The Caregiver’s Screener

By: Smith Michaels

by treatments. Sahil says that the biggest effort they undertake is trying to keep up with each patient to find the right type of care for that individual. Each patient screened by Soultonix faces different limitations and health problems, which is why it is imperative for the care team to follow-up with each patient and to continually track and record results. SoulTonix owner: Sahil

S

ome of the largest challenges a medical marijuana caregiver faces in the state of Montana is inaccurate information and the scrutiny that most major media outlets place on them. However, there is a group of caregivers at the Soultonix dispensary in Bozeman, Montana who are focused on providing as much accurate information about medical marijuana as they can. Soultonix provides a library of information about medical marijuana nearly seven days a week “complete with both sides to the medical cannabis story,” said owner Sahil. “Soultonix’s goal is to provide the most effective alternative care as possible, which starts with education.” This library includes articles, books, magazines, and videos all about cannabis, cannabis treatments, and the debate.

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Sahil’s caregiving dispensary and educational center is diverse enough to provide a wide variety of care since each person is affected differently

The in-house medical team places each patient at Soultonix on an individual level. Some will find better results with tinctures; others will find baked goods work best for them. Not to mention, the dispensary offers an extremely wide variety of cannabis strains. Each product is tested by a professional to identify the strength and purity of the product and is backed by a certificate showing how much THC each plant contains. “We want our patients to know where their medicine comes from and what it is made of,” Sahil said. “How do you know what you are using is pure and effective, without knowing exactly what is in it?” Between the medical care team tracking patient records on what products work best in different scenarios, and the constant research performed on the actual product, Soultonix is a leader in alternative medical assistance in Montana.

For more information please visit www.soultonix.com.

Negative media attention has clouded the medical marijuana industry throughout the United States, especially in Montana. However, there is one Montana man, among many others, who has seen a different side than what the media has portrayed. His name is “Lee,” and once a week he prescreens patients seeking medical help at Soultonix in south-central Montana.

Soultonix provides a library of information about medical marijuana nearly seven days a week “complete with both sides to the medical cannabis story.” -Sahil Soultonix, in Bozeman, is a dispensary with an inhouse doctor. Before a patient visits the doctor, Lee prescreens them to help identify if the patient is really in need of help or just someone looking to make their hobby legal. “We don’t just give people their green cards,” Lee said. “We help people in pain and with disabilities function throughout the day.” Lee, who’s primary profession is a denturist, began hearing stories from his patients with chronic pain. “Some of these patients have turned to medicinal marijuana for help,” he said, “and they were getting it.” So, Lee decided to look further into how medicinal marijuana helps people in pain perform tasks that they normally couldn’t. During a screening, a carpet layer once told Lee that he worked on his knees all day. When the pain got bad enough he was forced to take a number of pain pills to finish the job. But, what the man told him next made Lee realize that “[medical marijuana] really works!” The man told him the pain was manageable while on prescription pain pills, but interacting with his family was next to impossible. According to Lee, he has prescreened many patients who say, “I can take six prescription pain pills and lay on the

couch all day, or I can take one pain pill with a hit of marijuana and still perform the tasks needed to feed my family.” Lee’s interaction with patients doesn’t stop at the screening. He also follows-up with each of his patients via email to make sure their symptoms are being taken care of and that any side effects are manageable. The use of medicinal marijuana in Montana has taken over the headlines for the past year and half, which has put the industry under great scrutiny. Consequently, the positive stories often go untold. However, sitting with Lee for ten minutes will open anyone’s eyes to the positive influence medical marijuana has had on numerous lives. And if you’re lucky, you’ll get a little history lesson as well. Lee likes to point out that in the 1930’s, when the national law to end medical cannabis research was open for debate, a group of doctors deep into this research were not even invited or present to speak at the debate hearing. Instead, a delegate spoke on behalf of the doctors who gave misleading and false information. Subsequently, medical marijuana research, as well as all cannabis related research, was banned. Since that day, all progress was lost, and now, in 2010, Lee is determined to pick up where they left off.

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Caregiver Profiles

5 TOP

MOUNTAIN

STRAINS

Strain:

1

#

montanaSILVERTIP

14.

15.

Top 5 Mountain Strains

Strain:

purpleURKEL photo: morthphotography.com

# Strain:

2

purpleURKEL

17.

Top 5 Mountain Strains

Strain:

Purple cole photos: danarmstongphotography.com

Strain:

#

3

purpleCOLE 19.

Top 5 Mountain Strains

#

Strain:

Strain:

4

blue DREAM

blue DREAM Top 5 Mountain Strains

Strain:

Strain:

PINK kush

5

PINK kush

#

Top 5 Mountain Strains

Better Life Montana

Quality over Quantity. By: Smith Michaels

They call him “Dave,” and for the last four months he’s

been providing organic, medical-grade marijuana to residents in Western Montana. Dave’s business, Better Life Montana, is taking a different route than some of the caregivers across the state.

“I want to do business off the streets,” Dave says. He services his patients in an office where he can sit and visit with each one individually. This provides a discreet atmosphere for the patients and protects their individual private rights. Every possible patient participates in a brief screening with Dave and then they are referred to a doctor. He handles every transaction himself and sometimes drives 80 miles or more, six days a week, to better serve his customers.

the plants are matured naturally so that the integrity of Dave’s product is never compromised. Not to mention, at $225 an ounce, Better Life Montana offers one of the most affordable prices in the Missoula area. Dave’s services don’t stop at quality product. He also spends half his time helping his patients set up their own personal growing space. “We encourage them to grow,” he said, which surprisingly doesn’t affect business as much as one would think. Ultimately, what’s best for the patients is best for him. His business really is about aiding people in anyway they need. For more information on Better Life Montana’s strains and services visit www.betterlifemontana.com.

Dave takes pride in his high-grade strains and stresses quality rather than quantity. “We have high standards for our product and we make it as affordable as possible,” he said. In fact, each first-generation plant and clone is made with what Dave calls “tried and true” genetics that makes his product one of the best around the Missoula area. Each strain, which originates from the Netherlands, is grown with techniques guaranteeing medical-grade quality. Additionally,

at $225 an ounce, Better Life Montana offers one of the most affordable prices in the Missoula area.

24.

25. PHOTO right: Missoula, Montana.

Caregiver Profiles

Creating a Medical Culture

An interview with caregiver Mark Higgins, owner of Montannabis INC.

“These [caregiver stores] are not places to hang out; we need to legitimize everything and move away from the ‘drug culture’ and become a ‘medical culture,” - Higgins

By: Brittney Billings

Walking into Montannabis INC., located at 116 N 11th St. in downtown Billings, feels more like walking into a doctor’s office than a medical marijuana caregiver’s office. It’s a large, spacious, well-lit room adorned with large, comfortable couches and a plasma screen TV for waiting patients. There are no jars of medical marijuana in view because Mark Higgins, the owner and caregiver since 2008, believes that the medicine should stay out of sight until the patient needs it. In fact, he runs his business with philosophies that would surprise most of the public. With the numerous loop holes in the Montana medical marijuana legislation, Higgins believes in following the laws to a tee.

26.

For example, this means not selling marijuana butter or other edibles since there are no specific guidelines as to dosage and size for edibles. Additionally, existing laws that limit the weight sold can get confusing when other ingredients are added in. Higgins is also the only one in his operation that dispenses the marijuana to patients since legislation does not specifically state that employees can dispense marijuana; consequently, Higgins does all of the dispensary’s home deliveries himself as

proposed the moratorium in Billings and the 1,000 foot barrier zoning law around schools. Higgins believes that these moves will prevent problems associated with medical marijuana, and feels that clarification of legislation is needed before moving forward with approving more caregivers. Clear guidelines will allow caregivers to operate more efficiently and prevent people from taking advantage of the system. “This way,” he explains, “the caregivers operating for reasons other than providing the best quality and affordable medicine will weed themselves out through competition; leaving room only for those operating their businesses legitimately.”

well-- a very time consuming project. This is why he decided to open up shop in April to create an inviting professional area for his patients. “These [caregiver stores] are not places to hang out; we need to legitimize everything and move away from the ‘drug culture’ and become a ‘medical culture,’” Higgins says. So where one would expect to see Rastafarian colors on the walls, there are pharmaceutical ads instead. He wanted to create a place where even his 70 year-old patients could feel comfortable coming to. “Walking into a place such as this gives patients a sense of relief. That’s why I don’t operate under shady conditions.” This medical culture Higgins has created has been very successful in helping build a positive view of medicinal marijuana in Billings. In fact, amongst all the negative press, vandalizing, and opposition groups against caregivers in town, Higgins has never experienced negative feedback. He is the only caregiver in town to sit on the City Council’s Medical Marijuana Ad Hoc Committee and is an Ambassador for Americans For Safe Access (ASA). ASA Ambassadors are known for their experience and political savvy to move the medical marijuana movement forward in a safe manner. He actually

Some of the wrinkles in legislation that he thinks need to be ironed out include: caregiver to caregiver transfers; whether or not caregivers need to be patients; whether or not hash, oils, and food containing cannabis are legal; and the legal size and weight restrictions of cannabis infused food. This way, patients can receive a large cookie with the same dosage as a small one depending on preferences and needs. Higgins seems to have thought of everything when it comes to following the law and helping his patients. He designed his shop to be much more than a regular dispensary. A class room in the back offers space to teach large classes at around $45 per class. This Cannabis University will instruct patients on how to make their own weed butter and how to bake using medical marijuana as the main ingredient. Growing classes will also be offered to caregivers and patients alike so that no one will be set up to fail. Around the corner from the waiting room is an inhouse doctor to make referrals. After seeing this doctor, patients are free to choose any caregiver they wish; Higgins just wanted a professional and welcoming place for people to come talk with a

doctor without any angst. These services will soon be available in Bozeman and Glendive as well. Across the hall from the doctors’ offices is the in-house Holistic Health Counselor who offers services such as life coaching, holistic healing through nutritional approaches, and Tibetan Usui Reiki Massage. Higgins wants to be sure to continue his reputation of never running out of medicine and providing quality, consistent, affordable product. To help him achieve this, his facility houses four grow pods complete with a CO2 system of his own design, and he harvests about 40 plants weekly. In the spirit of helping other caregivers be more legitimate as well, Higgins has made a room available for rent by the hour in his shop. This moves operations off of the streets and erases the need to make deals in parking lots or from partaking in other unsavory practices. Montannabis INC. is truly a shop set up with patients’ needs and feelings in mind. During the interview, Higgins took call after call from patients asking questions about everything from their medicine to information on how to get a medical card. All calls were answered jovially. In fact, Higgins treats every patient that stops by or calls as a good friend, which certainly makes patients feel at ease. After helping one wheelchair-bound patient out of the car, Higgins expressed the satisfaction he gets out of helping so many people. He remembers that “one mother told me I gave her her daughter back… that meant a lot.”

27.

Caregiver Profiles

I’m

LEGAL!

More-atoriums. By: Smith Michaels

to stay

One of the first things you’ll hear from a city civics manager or planning department is, “regulations grow from expansions.” Cities expanding, subdivisions being put up, and shifting economics all see how this is true, and now, so is the Montana medical marijuana scene.

Since the Montana Medical Program was approved by about 60 percent of the state in 2004, more than 12,000 residents held a medical card and more than 2,000 of them were caregivers, according to a study performed in April by the Montana Department of Health and Human Services. There are reports, published in August, that have read over 20,000 Montanans have their medical cards. Last fall after the Obama administration announced they would not interfere with state law, storefronts started to hit the streets across Montana, leading to the first round of laws and moratoriums in Northwestern Montana.

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Gallatin county political leaders have been dropping bombs on caregivers and medical growers since Belgrade’s moratorium vote on July 7th; followed by more restrictions just ten miles east in Bozeman. At the Belgrade meeting, one caregiver spoke in opposition of the list of regulations, saying the rules could negatively affect his business. Much of the regulations deal with zoning, where and how medical marijuana transactions would be handled within city limits, and how licensed businesses would be allowed to operate within the city limits, where he has already been operating. The new regulations do allow for licensed caregivers to be “grandfathered” into the business community. Five others spoke in favor of banning the growth and distribution within city limits. Bozeman’s City Commission met several times in July where they discussed the business side of medical marijuana and set licensing, zoning and operating ordinances that finalized at the end of the month. At the time, 16 businesses were licensed to work as a medical marijuana business and several other applications were pending. The city will only allow a certain number of licenses for caregivers within city limits, according to the long, drawn out and unclear ordinance. Not even two weeks later, Livingston, a town 26 miles east of Bozeman also passed a list of regulations for caregivers

“The rules are so undefined,” one Belgrade council member said of the Montana state law.

1.

5 TOP WAYS

LEGAL& MEDICATED

Carry the card – it will help to ease a tense situation if the card is handy.

within city limits, limiting the growth and transactions of medical marijuana by licensed caregiversEach city meeting, from Missoula to Billings has had the common thread of ambiguity. “The rules are so undefined,” one Belgrade council member said of the Montana state law. We hope the next legislative session will clear up a lot of our problems so that we can have more guidance,” she continued. The two Gallatin County towns, up until recently, were a safe zone to many Montana medical patients and caregivers since the flood of city restrictions that zone where marijuana can be grown and distributed across the state. Every major city in Montana, along with smaller communities have addressed the medical marijuana caregiving scene and many have created six-month moratoriums that limit the growth, distribution and licensing protocol within city limits until an answer is given by the legislature. Local governments in Great falls, Missoula, Billings, Bozeman, Livingston, Eureka, Cascade, and Belgrade have placed banns and restrictions on the commercial use of medical marijuana. In Butte, most recently, the City Council has rejected a moratorium, but also started working to add tighter restrictions. T he Montana Medical Marijuana Subcommittee is currently working on a bill that would not allow local governments to create restrictions for medical marijuana. To be considered in the next legislative session, the document must first be approved by the full Children, Families, Health, and Human Services Committee. Every “more-atorium” passed is temporary, in hopes the next spring legislative session can define more clearly the medical marijuana rules. But until then, the inner-city commerce is being pushed out to industrial county land.

News. Updates.

2.

Don’t carry more than one ounce per patient – the

one ounce rule includes everything in possession at a given time. One patient carrying a one ounce bag plus a temporarily forgotten one gram head-stash is over the limit and potential for trouble.

3.

Don’t flaunt it – though it may be tempting to publically exercise a newly acquired right to smoke marijuana, some people out there haven’t figured it out yet and are itching to cause trouble for medical marijuana participants. Don’t give them the chance.

4.

Be respectful when questioned

– when the police or curious inquirers pose questions maintain a respectful demeanor and tone. This will demonstrate a sense of personal dignity and reflect the healing qualities of medical marijuana. And, perhaps most importantly, it will typically diffuse any growing animosity.

5.

Reset the mindset – embrace,

practice, and believe that marijuana is a doctor recommended medicine – not a dangerous drug.

By: Brant Loedy

Berkeley, California:

A Leader in the Industry New laws up for vote this November would increase the number of grow facilities as well as profits for the city. By: Doug Oakley

One of the two ballot questions also asks voters if the city should reduce a current buffer zone of 1,000 feet between dispensaries and public schools to 600 feet. It also adds private schools to the 600 foot buffer rule, which previously were not mentioned in city law. Existing dispensaries that are closer than 600 feet to schools would be allowed to remain. During public comment at a July 6th Council meeting on the ballot questions, about 20 people spoke--none with a negative take.

Six large-scale medical marijuana growing facilities sanctioned by the city of Berkeley, California and new taxes on the industry are set for a vote of the people this coming November. The City Council also placed two questions on the ballot at its July 13th meeting that would increase the number of medical marijuana dispensaries in the city from three to four. The grow operations would be limited to 30,000 square feet each and the city would offer permits to local growers. Council members said they want the city to discourage giving the grow permits to large tobacco or multinational corporations. Under the new laws, growers would also be allowed to bake pot brownies, cookies, and cakes but, would not be able to sell edibles at the facilities.

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Berkeley’s three existing medical marijuana dispensaries, Berkeley Patients Group, The Cannabis Buyers Club of Berkeley, and The Patients Care Collective, report sales of $18.5 million a year according to a city report. New proposed taxes would increase income for the city from $30,000 a year to about $330,000.

“It’s obvious you respect the cannabis community,” said Richard Muller. “We’re seriously ill, so I want you to think of people in terms of fixed incomes.” Berkeley Mayor Tom Bates said three high priorities for council members when crafting the language of the new laws were: that some weed from the grow facilities, possibly 10 percent, be given away free to low-income patients; that growers somehow “offset” their electric use; that the city give preference to locals when issuing permits for the grow operations. “We don’t want some major corporation like WalMart or Philip Morris coming in and sucking up all the business,” Bates said. Councilman Laurie Capitelli said he wanted a large number of grow facilities in the city in order to level the playing field among growers. “I want to increase competition because that’s good for just about any business,” Capitelli said.

Photo: UC Berkeley,1967

“It seems quite simple to me; the more competition you have, the better product you’re going to have at a lower price.” Taxes on dispensaries will increase if the measures are approved. Dispensaries currently are taxed $1.20 per $1,000 in sales. New taxes on for-profit dispensaries would rise to $25 per $1,000 of sales. New taxes on non-profits would be $25 per square foot for the first 3,000 square feet of their operation and $10 per square foot for anything over that.

“We don’t want some major corporation like Wal-Mart or Philip Morris coming in and sucking up all the business.” Berkeley Mayor Tom Bates

One of the ballot measures also allows an unlimited number of medical marijuana collectives, which are already allowed under state law. Collectives are different from dispensaries in that they have no retail locations. Collective grow operations would be allowed in homes in residential areas only and would be allowed to grow 200 square feet of weed or 25 percent of the floor area. Considering these proposed measures, every vote will count this November! Please stay informed and voice your opinion.

News . updates.

The Weed Scene: A legal and economic look at medical marijuana in American society. By: Brant Loedy - Attorney at Law

Today, it is difficult to articulate the subtle boundaries

of the medical marijuana laws in Montana. While some things remain clear, other details exhaust those who attempt to analyze these laws. For example, the prohibition against medical use in public parks, which conforms to the general ban on non-medical or recreational use in public parks, is clear and easy to determine. But, the law regarding caregiver to caregiver transactions, for example, is not so clear. There is not an express provision in the Medical Marijuana Act that authorizes caregiver to caregiver transactions but, if the transactions are illegal, then the entire purpose of the law is severely undercut--and that can’t be right.

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The purpose of the law is to provide medicine to qualifying patients. But the providers of that medicine are hindered by the catch-22 they find themselves in. That catch-22 is the legal contradiction between being authorized to provide the medicine while at the same time potentially committing crimes in an effort to provide it. In short, caregivers are authorized to provide it, but not to purchase it. This inhibits their ability to provide the medicine, which in turn, causes the patients to suffer. The Medical

Marijuana Act’s purpose is to alleviate suffering, not to cause it. Thus, it would seem that caregiver to caregiver transactions must be legal, but without a precise provision in the statute or some case law authorizing these transactions, it remains an unanswered question. With many people with different beliefs and ideas about marijuana spouting off about a vague statute and with limited case law, the circumstances lend to an atmosphere of confusion and opposition. So, given the presently contrasting laws that define legal medical use and illegal recreational use, it is confusing, to say the least, when attempting to determine what is legal or not legal. In a word, it’s a quagmire, and will continue to be so for awhile. Beyond the legal confusion that abounds today, some things relative to medical marijuana seem to be certain. Relative to politics, medical marijuana has become a red hot issue across the state. Everyone, from right-wing conservatives still floundering under the propaganda of reefer madness to aged hippies stoned from the effects of the latest indica strain, wants to be heard. And the State of Montana has taken notice. The state legislature commissioned a committee to study the

“ Relative to economics, the medical marijuana industry is bolstering a faltering economy at a time when support is needed most.” - Loedy

situation. That committee will inform the legislature on its findings when it convenes in January 2011. Other interested parties will also get the opportunity to voice their questions, comments, ideas, beliefs, and opinions when the legislature convenes. This political climate will surely produce some lively debates in 2011. (Stay tuned for updated information in future publications of Cannabis Now.) Relative to economics, the medical marijuana industry is bolstering a faltering economy at a time when support is needed most. However, even though business is slow, the medical marijuana industry is gaining attention. Lately, the media is filled with stories about Montana communities struggling with incorporating the new industry. This demonstrates the industry’s blooming growth. Dispensaries continue to open and advertisements for free gifts, including free pot, for patients registering with a caregiver are commonplace. These businesses support other businesses, which in turn support communities. Medical marijuana is becoming more and more popular, and with this increased popularity will come increased revenues for communities’ coffers. With the flurry of economic activity these businesses generate, it

will only be a matter of time before their economic value is widely recognized. Relative to society and culture, medical marijuana is poised to revolutionize American lifestyle. The days of reefer madness are slowly fading away. Today that outdated and unsupported propaganda carries little weight. While there are still a few staunchly preaching this viewpoint, it’s clearly on its way out and on its way in are more contemporary attitudes about marijuana; such as the notion that marijuana is not nearly as dangerous as cigarettes and alcohol, or the notion that using marijuana typically lends to a feeling of euphoria not rage. American citizens are learning that the scare tactics of reefer madness were just scare tactics, and in actuality, marijuana is a miraculous plant that fosters both physical and spiritual healing. This revolutionary perspective along with the increased notoriety of medicinal purposes and potential economic benefits will revolutionize our lives--guaranteed.

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Legal Advice.

KIDSGrey. A Sea of

By: Doug Oakley

Being involved with medical marijuana can lead to serious legal consequences for parents. By: Chris Lyndsey, Attorney at Law.

For anyone operating within the Medical Marijuana guidelines

in Montana, it isn’t hard to find gray areas. It’s practically a cliché by now to say that the law has issues. One such gray area relates to patient and caregiver activities that might take place when children are present. When marijuana can be legally grown and consumed in the home under state law, obvious questions arise about children in these environments. The question of what is appropriate is of course a popular one right now. Many professionals and affected people including family counselors, politicians, law enforcement officers, attorneys, activists, and judges are trying to work that out. The areas I describe below are meant to provide a snapshot of where things appear today. Of course there will be continued debate on Medical Marijuana policy, and there should be, so as to best determine what is suitable for society.

The Nitty Gritty

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The two areas I see most in this arena are: state actions taken when a child is reported at risk and court cases in which parents are fighting over custody-related issues. (For a complete list of people who are required to report an incident in which a child may be affected by THC, see sidebar.) I primarily address state action here; however, I believe lessons learned from state actions can shed light on what a court might look to in determining a parenting action case.

Warning: None of this information should be seen as legal advice for you, your family or business. If you have specific questions about how this information applies to your situation, you should talk with a family law attorney who can speak to your history, circumstances, and goals.

Medical Marijuana Use Can be Reported to CFS

At the time I write this, the Department of Public Health and Human Services’ Division of Family Services (DFS) and Child and Family Services (CFS) do not have any formal position on the use or cultivation/manufacturing of cannabis when children are present. However, while there is no official policy, parents can and do get reported to CFS for endangering children if they use medical cannabis both as a caregiver and/or as a patient. Under state law, a professional person who has knowledge that a child has been “affected” by a controlled substance (in this case, THC found in cannabis) is required to report it to CFS (Section 41-3-201, MCA). CFS is then required to do an investigation to insure the child is not at risk (Section 41-3-202, MCA). There are many examples in which an investigation can be initiated by CFS. But, a few prominent instances include: if a child goes to the emergency room and a routine blood test shows positive for the presence of THC; if a child at school discusses marijuana use in his/ her presence at home; if a child is present in a car while an officer detects the odor of marijuana. Typically, an investigation amounts to an interview of the parent(s) by a CFS caseworker who tries to determine whether or not a child has been placed at risk through the parents’ conduct. The caseworker will also interview the child or children as well as any other possible witnesses. Additionally, a visit to the home may occur. Based on my discussions with several state CFS

caseworkers and a local director (all off record since there is no official state policy), there are three main areas of focus in an investigation where marijuana is present in a home: inappropriate exposure to THC; physical risk of being around grow operations; the possibility of impairment of parental responsibilities. There is a growing consensus on what parents should safeguard against when it comes to Medical Marijuana use, and patient/caregiver parents should know about these emerging standards. First, the potential risk of access to cannabis or cannabis products is a paramount concern to many around the state. Simply put, your kids are not medical marijuana patients just because you are. Involuntarily medicating a child is a felony both at the state and federal level and is a horrible charge for any parent to face. Moreover, if THC shows up in a child’s blood, the state will attempt to find an answer and hold you responsible. It doesn’t matter if the THC found in a child’s bloodstream is metabolized or not, nor does it matter if it is in a low amount. Consequently, simply smoking around your children could put you in some hot water. Also, in any preliminary investigation, if a CFS worker knows you or your spouse/partner is a patient, the worker will ask your child if he/she has been around when adults smoke cannabis. While it is possible for children under 18 to be registered as patients, it is unlikely yours is since only five children in the state of Montana are cardholders.

Possible Dangers

Cannabis and cannabis products should be stored somewhere inaccessible to kids. That means, lock it up and keep it out of the way of family traffic! Keep in mind that this could be a challenge with edible cannabis products that

need to be refrigerated or that take the form of attractive foods like brownies, cookies, or ice cream. As special diligence is required with edibles, it might be a good idea to keep a locked mini fridge in the garage or basement -- it is better than the risk to your family.

When marijuana can be legally grown and consumed in the home under state law, obvious questions arise about children in these environments. Another way a child can be exposed, and something CFS may have questions about, is through a nursing mother who is a cardholder. I had one CFS worker indicate that there is a period of about twelve hours following the use of cannabis that THC will show in breast milk, which can be passed onto a nursing child. A possible solution for nursing mothers is to store THCfree milk in the fridge to better accommodate times when you may require the use of medical marijuana. Another area of concern is simply the danger posed by a grow operation. The presence of water, electricity, equipment with buttons, lights, fans, construction tools, and hardware can each present a hazardous environment for inquisitive children. Keep the grow room locked and out of the child’s life, at least until he/she is old enough to understand what can be dangerous. The third big area of concern is the risk of what I would call “impaired parenting.” As with alcohol or prescription drugs, cannabis can be consumed to the point of intoxication and those responsible for the well-being of children cannot forget the important duty they have to their family. Again, there is no official policy but, in my experience, CFS treats cannabis use like alcohol use. CFS workers understand that cannabis is legal for cardholders and will, therefore, be a part of some people’s lives. But, just like alcohol, it can be abused. ( continued- next page...)

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Legal Issues.

For example, alcohol may be lawfully consumed by most adults; however, a parent that does not meet the standard of any “typical” parent, for instance by driving while impaired with a child in the car, faces serious consequences. That being said, it is very important to keep in mind that a person’s status as a patient may have no effect on the parent’s standard of care for a child.

Major Consequences If CFS thinks a parent actually did in fact place a child at risk, the state would likely seek temporary custody of the child or children through the courts. This is a legal proceeding initiated by CFS and can be a truly frightening prospect. Once a proceeding begins, referred to as a Dependent-Neglect proceeding, the state gains an incredible amount of control over you and your children. If the state can convince a judge that you present a risk to the children’s well-being, the state is given custody. A caseworker (a different one than the one who preformed the investigation) has the authority to say where your children reside, with whom they reside, how often you see them, and what you need to do to get them back. Ultimately, this caseworker provides his/her opinion to a judge as to whether or not you will ever get custody back. Your own children will be used as the ultimate carrot to get you to change your behavior. (Scared yet?)

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If this happens, you will be given a Treatment Plan or a series of things you need to do to qualify to regain custody (and there is no guarantee you will, even if you do everything just right). It might be parenting classes, locks on doors, different living arrangements, psychological evaluations, drug dependency tests - the list goes on. If all goes well, the state drops custody around six months later. If you don’t finish the Treatment Plan in time (even if it’s something like counseling that might not be completed in six months), state custody continues in six-month increments

following a hearing to extend the time. Keep delaying the completion of your plan, and the law and the judge will presume the kids are better off somewhere else-permanently.

Avoiding the Worst

Yes, losing custody of your kids is the worst case scenario; however, it could happen. You may think I am fear-mongering or making more of this than it is but, I have seen dozens of similar proceedings against parents in Montana on everything from abandoned kids to children who have drugs in their system at birth. When you combine the increased presence of cannabis in our lives with the reporting requirements for teachers, doctors, and daycares, these issues are sure to arise more often and to affect more families in Montana. Don’t let your’s be one of them. Medical marijuana is clearly treated as a pharmaceutical wherever possible by the state. Do the same for yourself and your family:

Keep marijuana out of the reach of children, including edible products.

Many folks are finding that cannabis is more accepted as apart of life, just as a serious medical condition is sometimes apart of life. Do not forget your responsibility to your family. Be diligent, set standards for your own use of cannabis, and don’t place your loved ones at risk.

Professionals and officials required to report to the state when a child has been exposed to THC are:   (a) a physician, resident, intern, or member of a hospital’s staff engaged in the admission, examination, care, or treatment of persons;    (b) a nurse, osteopath, chiropractor, podiatrist, medical examiner, coroner, dentist, optometrist, or any other health or mental health professional; 

Do not expose children to smoke, vapors, edibles, or breast milk that contains THC, CBD, or CBN.

     (c) religious healers; 

Do not engage in dangerous conduct like impaired driving (ever) but, obviously this is especially true with children present.

     (e) a social worker, operator or employee of any registered or

Do not allow children near grow locations. The equipment and growing requirements can present hazards.

     (f) a foster care, residential, or institutional worker; 

Don’t be impaired when you are responsible for the safety of your children. (Cheech and Chong 1. would make criminally negligent parents pretty quickly, and it wouldn’t be very funny.)

authorized to investigate a report of alleged abuse or neglect; or 

     (d) school teachers, other school officials, and employees who work during regular school hours;  licensed day-care or substitute care facility, staff of a resource and referral grant program or of a child and adult food care program, or an operator or employee of a child-care facility;       (g) a peace officer or other law enforcement official;       (h) a member of the clergy;      (i) a guardian ad litem or a court-appointed advocate who is      (j) an employee of an entity that contracts with the department to provide direct services to children. 

37.

Legal Issues.

A few more figures from Gettman’s report worth noting:

- Marijuana Prohibition results in the creative destruction of $31.1 billion in tax revenue. - In 2004, cannabis arrests cost taxpayers $10.7 billion. - These arrests accounted for 5.5% of all arrests in 2004.

Where Does the Money Trail Lead? How much money is really in the cannabis industry today? It could be more than you think.

in regards to the production and consumption of cannabis in the United States:

- In 2002, an estimated 24 million pounds of cannabis was smuggled into the U.S.

At one point, cannabis economics was

simple. A lid was $10 or you could go to Mexico and pay $50 a kilo. Buttoday, an 1/8 of an ounce can cost $50 and the demand has not subsided. So popular in fact, cannabis has become the number one cash crop in the United States beating out corn (currently about $4.65 per bushel), wheat (about $7.40 per bushel) and soybeans (about $10.35 per bushel).

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Jon Gettman, the former national director of a nonprofit advocacy group known as National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), has put together some pretty astounding numbers

- An almost equal amount was estimated to have been produced in the U.S. - Averaging pricing data suggests a value of $224 per ounce (from “schwag” to “kind” bud). I’m not an economist, but if we take Gettman’s $7.87/gram figure and follow this math, a pound of marijuana is worth $3,570/ pound. This makes cannabis worth $7,871,480 per metric ton; consequently, the annual supply of 14,349 metric tons available in the United States is worth around $112.9 billion. That is $113 billion worth of cannabis consumed by U.S. cannabis consumers-- Annually!

A landmark economic report was produced in 2005 by Dr. Jeffrey Miron, Visiting Professor of Economics at Harvard University. This report, The Budgetary Implications of Marijuana Prohibition in the United States, was endorsed by over 500 economists including: three Nobel Laureates, Dr. Milton Friedman of the Hoover Institute, Dr. George Akerlof of the University of California at Berkeley, and Dr. Vernon Smith of George Mason University. In his report, Miron estimates that ending the prohibition on cannabis would produce a combined savings and collected taxes worth an estimated $10 - $14 billion annually. Miron’s figures are substantially less than Gettman’s estimates, but in our current economic crunch either figure would be a modest boost to the US Gross Domestic Product (GDP). For example, assume we arrest nearly 100 people an hour in the U.S. Almost 900,000 arrests a year have their costs. While it is true that most cannabis arrests are simply for possession and do not lead to incarceration, there are still millions of hours of criminal justice costs as well as costs to the arrestees and society. For instance, wages and time lost while attending court proceedings prevents arrestees (that is 900,000 people/year) from contributing to and stimulating the economy. Not just arrestees, but their employers and fellow citizens are consequently affected.

University of Washington’s Katherine Beckett, Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology Law, Societies and Justice Program, and Steve Herbert, Associate Professor in the Department of Geography Law, Societies and Justice Program, published the Consequences and Costs of Marijuana Prohibition. In their study, the authors state, “The number of marijuana arrests taking place in the United States each year has skyrocketed in the past few decades. In 2006, there were 829,625 marijuana arrests. Today, nearly half (44%) of the roughly 1.9 million annual drug arrests now involve marijuana. Both the absolute number and rate of marijuana arrests are at record levels and increasing.” Surely then, with arrest rates “skyrocketing” and law enforcement and judicial costs in the billions of dollars, there must be some measure of success? In fact, there is no evidence of success at all. Let’s look at California and its CAMP eradication program (Campaign Against Marijuana Planting). In 1983 CAMP reported seizing 64,579 plants. In 2008 they seized 2,905,232 plants. That is nearly 45 times the increase in seizures in 25 years. Law enforcement and government estimate that they seize between 10 - 20% of consumer cannabis per year. Again, using simple math and law enforcement’s higher estimate of 20% seizure , nearly 15 million plants made it to the market from California alone!So, 15,000,000 multiplied by $1,700 (figuring on 1/2 a pound per plant) means California’s outdoor cannabis crop grosses $25,500,000,000. The Associated Press reported earlier this year that in the 40 years since President Richard Nixon escalated drugs prohibition, the United States has spent $1 trillion fighting this full scale doemestic drug war. In economic terms, the drug war has failed to stem the tide of cannabis use. In the beginning, President Nixon’s annual anti-drug budget was $100 million. Today the budget is around$15 billion. In those 40 years, some 10 million people in the United States have been arrested for cannabis; meaning, over $1 trillion has been spent. How expensive must failure become before it is eliminated as official policy? And when will the government realize they are sitting on part of a solution for our current economic crisis? You do the math.

39.

Legal Issues.

Views from an Activist By: Allan Erickson

When I first approached Cannabis Now about

writing for their premier edition, I was thinking it was time I wrote something new, something bold, an in-your-face prosecution of the war that rages against cannabis. But then I thought “why?” I’ve been railing against the drug war and arguing for the benefits of cannabis for over a decade. I have lobbied in the print media, I have written letters to editors, I have done opinion pieces, and I have helped other activists with their writings. And what has all this work led me to believe? I can sum it up in one sentence:

The cannabis plant is one of humanity’s oldest and most useful agricultural commodities and the government war against this versatile plant is a fraud. You may think this is a pretty basic opinion; however, it’s a truth I began realizing in the 1970s. As a young GI serving overseas in S.E. Asia, I happened to be one of those that unknowingly began the “overgrow the government” movement. Now, 35 years later, here I am still raking the muck around cannabis and its prohibition. You may ask what makes my fight different today compared to then. Well, I’m armed with facts and friends --lots of friends in high places and lots of high friends in places. Of course the whole political landscape around cannabis has changed. We now have 14 states 40. with medical cannabis laws in place. We have a President of the United States who once puffed

large and admits to “inhaling.” In fact, the last Olympic Games gave us an amazing, pot smoking swimmer, Michael Phelps, who set new world records hand over fist. Gone is the Tommy Chong stereotype. Stoners today are Presidents and Olympic champions. Even the term “stoners” no longer fits reality as many contend that virtually all cannabis use is an act of self-medicating. Believe it or not, the U.S. government grows cannabis at the University of Mississippi. They distribute that same cannabis in 1/2 pound tins of pre-rolled cigarettes to four patients who are the remaining enrollees in the federal Compassionate Investigational New Drug program. The government even owns Patent 6630507 or Cannabinoids as Antioxidants and Neuroprotectants. Yet, they are still adamant in maintaining cannabis’ ridiculous placement as a “schedule I” substance under the Controlled Substances Act. Drugs under the schedule I classification are considered dangerously addictive in nature and do not have a medical use in treatment. Oregon’s Board of Pharmacy bucked that nonsense with their recent rescheduling of cannabis to schedule II, a classification that contends there is a medical use for the drug but that it is still dangerously addictive. However, Marinol, a 100% synthetic THC pill is a schedule III drug; meaning, patients are less likely to abuse this drug and/or to become dependent. How can a chemical drug be better than something that comes from nature? Certainly there are compelling reasons the government resorts to such weird distortions. At least one would think so and hope so. The facts, however,

paint a far different picture. The fact is there is an overwhelming government effort to obscure the scientific truth. They have shut studies down and buried findings to a point of irrationality. I am sure few are aware that a cannabis study conducted in the early 1970s showed that cannabis has extreme potential as a cancer fighting agent. In this study, funded by the National Institute of Health (NIH) at the Medical College of Virginia, it was discovered that THC slowed the growth of lung and breast cancer as well as a virusinduced leukemia. This was quickly shut down but, in 2000, researchers, led by Dr. Manuel Guzman of Complutense University of Madrid, announced the destruction of incurable brain tumors in rats by injecting them with THC.

Does it bother anyone that a possible cure for cancer has been hidden for nearly three decades simply because of our government’s insistence on maintaining a cannabis prohibition? A prohibition that extends even to hemp, the industrial fibrous cousin of the medicinal cannabis plant that has no possibility of intoxicating anyone. Most industrialized nations (including China, Canada, and Austria) don’t share our prohibition of industrial hemp. It is an extremely versatile substance, which is good for textiles, paper, fuel, food, and many other environmentally friendly industrial uses. Hemp has been good enough to have been a mainstay in the farms of our founding nation and good enough to have served on the USS Constitution as sails and rigging.

Today however, so much policy momentum exists for fighting drugs that cannabis is often the first casualty of the drug war. Unfortunately, in this war there have been very real human casualties, and not from cannabis use, but from its prohibition. You will notice that government spokespeople will never mention those casualty names. However, when best-selling author Peter McWilliams died awaiting trial on his federal charges of cultivation for symptoms from AIDS and non-Hodgkins lymphoma - a death that could have possibly been prevented - the best response the government could offer was “regretful.” The fact that they knew cannabis aided in McWilliams’ survival by taming his medication symptoms and possibly fighting cancer yet denied McWilliams even the right to present his “medical use” defense in court was an injustice of the system. At about the same time that the NIH was discovering cannabis fought cancer, President Richard Nixon had a conservative Republican, Pennsylvania Governor Raymond P. Shafer, study the issue. Shafer’s report was dismissed by Nixon because the report, Marijuana, a Signal of Misunderstanding, advocated decriminalization.

[...] criminal law is too harsh a tool to apply to personal possession even in the effort to discourage use. It implies an overwhelming indictment of the behavior which we believe is not appropriate. The actual and potential harm of use of the drug is not great enough to justify intrusion by the criminal law into private behavior, a step which our society takes only “with the greatest reluctance.”

In 1988 the Drug Enforcement Administration’s (DEA) administrative law judge, Francis Young, studied the available facts and declared cannabis one of “the safest” therapeutic substances known to man. If a DEA judge can say cannabis is not just safe but, one of the safest

Opinion...

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substances known to man, how can cannabis remain so criminalized and its users so wrongly stereotyped? We know humans have had cannabis in their gardens for thousands of years and we now know cannabis may fight cancer. The truth is here and is documented. That’s my message for this generation. It is a sham. Our government has covered the evidence and the “drug czars” have fear mongered. Science hasn’t dominated and common sense certainly hasn’t played a role. It is important to remember, we didn’t reduce cigarette smoking by use of residential SWAT raids; we did it by educating the public and we accomplished that ourselves. If you are reading this, chances are you’re already a step above the casual cannabis or weekend drug war activist. And if you are not, then get to work! Educate, educate, educate. Don’t stop. Educate your government representatives, educate your families, and educate your friends. But most of all, educate yourself so that you may present an accurate portrayal of the benefits of cannabis and be able to point out the failures of its prohibition.

health is private and our own personal experience. We know there are a plethora of medical conditions cannabis is an effective treatment for; therefore, the use of medicinal marijuana is a matter of our personal privacy, which is guaranteed to us in the Bill of Rights.

ACTIVIST PHOTO??

Finally, please remember... we have not made the strides we’ve made by upholding the “stoner” stereotype. It has been through the concise educational efforts of citizens of all shapes and sizes that we have gotten to where we are today. Be safe, be smart, and be kind (remember there is a reason it’s known as “the kind bud”). Be a part of solution to find the truth and stop the lies.

Cannabis is not just medicine. Cannabis is a good and beneficial plant with much to share including economic and environmental characteristics. Fight for your rights and the rights of others. Don’t sit on the sidelines; use your knowledge to better our society. I have an activist friend, Jim Greig, who suffers from arthritis so intense he is often bedridden or wheelchair bound. I think the best argument comes from him, “if we can have ‘death with dignity’ in Oregon, why not ‘life with dignity’ too?” The state has become the arbiter of one’s own health. Our

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Opinion...

I

Integrity of Medical Marijuana A day in the life: Running a so-called dispensary in Southern California. By: Lauren Vikander

had an interview set up with a friend of a friend in Orange County, whom I understood was running a completely legitimate business. I was going to meet him at his dispensary, do the interview, get a life-changing story and move on with my life. My plan didn’t go as smoothly as I’d intended it to though. The morning of the interview, I called *Tyler to confirm that we were still on. He had completely forgotten about it and asked if I could come over to his apartment to talk instead. Sure, no problem, I said, thinking he lives in one of the nicest apartment complexes in Irvine and my friend (his roommate) would be there. When I walked into his apartment, my senses were engulfed with the pungent smell of cannabis and the darkness in the living room. My eye’s had to adjust to find Tyler, who was sitting on the couch with two of his buddies passing around a water bong and engaging in conversation about which strain of marijuana was their favorite. “Kim Dog, dude, hands down the most legit.” “Yeah, that’s mellow, but common, when you’re tokin’ during the day, Sour Diesel is it man.” “Nah, nah, you guys don’t even know, the new thing is the OG Kush. It kills!” At this point, I’m not really sure where to cut in, to announce my presence. Luckily, the cloud of smoke dissipated just enough for Tyler to see me across the room. After the introductions, I gave them the interview spiel explaining that I was a guest writer for a pro-cannabis magazine and why I was there. As I finished by telling them I was there to help the medical marijuana movement, I scanned their faces for some approval; instead what I saw was paranoia. I had three skeptical interviewees. Both of Tyler’s friends made it totally clear that they wanted nothing to do with this interview, and Tyler said he didn’t want his name or any other identifying information to be used in the story. I agreed to their terms thinking I had about an hour to win them over. I started the conversation by asking why they weren’t working today. Tyler told me that they had to close the dispensary down again. His buddy *Tom (sitting on the couch next to Tyler) who was the caregiver of the collective got pulled over and had beyond

the legal amount of cannabis in his car, so his lawyer recommended they close the dispensary immediately. Just as I was about to start to ask questions, Tyler’s cell phone rang. “I’ll be right back, I’ve got to meet someone really quickly, said Tyler. Great, now I have to make small talk with these guys who want nothing to do with me. I squeezed some historic information on medical marijuana in Orange County out of them, which was helpful and kept the conversation flowing until Tyler came back with the person he was going to meet. The newest addition to the room was carrying a large re-usable grocery bag with him. My first instinct told me this was kind of an unusual thing for a guy in his late 20’s to be carrying around with him, until he started unloading its contents. Of course. It was marijuana. Pounds and pounds of marijuana. He was carelessly unloading it all onto the kitchen counter, which was visible from the living room where I was sitting on the couch. I was trying to look cool, but was feeling more and more anxious by the minute. “Well here’s the best stuff on the market right now,” said the newest addition. Tyler picked up one of the bags, smelled it and asked, “What’s your price? Can you cut me a deal if I take a lot of it off your hands?” The conversation between them went back and forth for awhile, and my mind started to wander.

What would happen if the cops knocked on the front door right now? How many of them . . .( us ) would get a felony? Is this the kind of in-home deal moving medical marijuana in the right direction? I thought about all of these questions, and concluded that I didn’t like the answer to any of them. Luckily the guy with the re-usable grocery bag came and left without any complications. And I got most of my questions answered about quality of product, city zoning laws, and some of Tyler’s hopes for the future of medical marijuana in California. Unfortunately, I 45. didn’t succeed in winning anyone over though. I expected to leave this interview completely

convinced that Tyler and people like him, trying to run dispensaries, are doing the right thing and that medical marijuana in California is a model for the rest of the United States. Instead, this experience combined with research I did later, informed me that the legalities and integrity of the medical marijuana movement in California are not what I thought they were. California’s medical marijuana law, proposition 215 has too many loopholes for lawmakers and caretakers alike. Rather than making marijuana available to people who really need it for medical reasons, both sides are taking advantage of the situation and are making it hard on each other. It’s created a vicious cycle; cities make it impossible to open up a dispensary legally so instead people are opening them without the proper licensing. —Which in turn, opens the door for these ‘non profit’ businesses to do everything under the table and make exorbitant amounts of pocket money. –At least until the city finds out the dispensary exists and shuts it down to ‘keep the community safe.’ –Which ultimately, causes dispensary owners (which is exactly what they are by definition of the word) to make deals in apartment complexes where families live. I could make these kinds of comparisons all day and not even

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scratch the surface of the real problems of medical marijuana in California. The ironic thing is, Tyler and his buddies will re-open shop next month for the fourth time, knowing someday it will be closed by law enforcements and they will have to do it all over again. “When they shut us down, we’ll just have to find a new city,” says Tyler. “All I care about is pushing the movement forward, because it’s what I believe in.” Tyler hopes that in the future, people could become more open minded about medical marijuana and that he’ll be able to run a dispensary without worrying about when it will be shut down. In California, we’ve come leaps and bounds on our views of cannabis in the last 15 years, but unfortunately, reality is there are more people against medical marijuana than are for it. Until people’s attitudes change about this type of herbal healing, there will only be obstacles and paranoia.

Process of Getting a Medical Card

Part One and Two

Part 1

Should I or shouldn’t I? It helps to be prepared as any good Boy Scout will tell you. Preparedness was unfortunately something I never took all that seriously. I have never been the type to actually sit down and plan for anything. By most standards you could say I am notoriously unprepared for almost everything. I waited until I was 8 months pregnant to start buying anything baby-ish and, of course, ran out of or just didn’t have practically everything that I actually needed. I blame this on my free-thinking, hippie parents who believed life was worth living in the moment not in the planning for the future. I was never in the Boy Scouts. What I am is a wife, a mother, and one more of Montana’s ever increasing number of medicinal marijuana users. And there’s no amount of planning that could have ever prepared me for that. Montana is one of 14 states that allow the use of marijuana for medical purposes. The use of medical marijuana was legalized by voters on November 2, 2004. A whopping 62% of the voting population agreed that marijuana can and should be used to help alleviate such symptoms as chronic pain and/or muscle spasms, seizures, and nausea. There have been countless newspaper articles and television news stories about Montanans

By: Delilah Cole

using marijuana for any reason, medicinally or otherwise. Concerns swarm over how these people will get their marijuana and what it will do to local businesses, neighborhoods, and the public in general. So who are these people and why are there so many new patients popping up with an unmanageable amount of pain? That’s just exactly what I had intended to find out when I placed my own name on a three month long waiting list to be evaluated for a prescription for medicinal marijuana. My world up until this point had consisted of changing diapers, fixing meals, and helping my third grader finish his homework. Suddenly it became surrounded by a huge cloud of prescribed smoke. So how did this unsuspecting, fly by the seat of her pants housewife with two kids end up waiting in line for a legal dime bag? It all started back in 2001; at least that’s when the pain started. It was after a long, extremely painful, and unsuccessful labor that I relented to having a cesarean section with my first child. Prior to the birth of my son, I had never experienced any kind of uterine pain whatsoever. In fact, I would often scoff at the notion that any woman would ever even think to use “cramps” as an excuse for anything. Of course that was also before I believed in PMS and couldn’t figure out why every month I was crying at commercials and yelling at my dog for looking at me. Nevertheless, I strolled through puberty and even my early twenties

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blissfully unaware of the fact that thousands of women suffer from extremely painful, and sometimes debilitating, menstrual cramps in the three to five days leading up to the onset of their period. In the six months following my son’s arrival, I began to notice a big change in the way I felt during the days prior to my period. Not only was I extremely moody and irritable but, I began to have hours of unbelievable cramping for three to four days prior to my actual period. These pains would continue through my cycle and finally taper off towards the last day. Of course I discussed this new and fun symptom with my gynecologist who seemed unconcerned and assured me that this was all “normal.” He explained that my formerly painless, unobtrusive periods would return soon enough and that I shouldn’t worry too much about it. Through the next few years, however, I encountered a myriad of new and fascinating ways to hate my period. Not only did the cramping not mellow out as my doctor had promised me but, it had gotten much worse over the years. By the time I got pregnant again and had my baby girl, my periods and their pain had become almost unbearable. My husband will be the first to discuss the miracle that is our daughter only because our sex life had been shoved to the farthest corner of our lives, hindered in great part by my constant uterine discomfort. But what’s a woman to do? As many of us do, I would usually resort to the usual repertoire of pain relief: taking a few Advil, soaking in a hot bath, lying still with a heated pad on my stomach, (easier said than done with a toddler to look after). I did it all in the hopes of eliminating the agony that had become my monthly “gift.” It wasn’t until I watched a documentary on the History Channel recounting the many uses of cannabis and the centuries of its use as a medicinal herb that I even considered trying it. I listened intently about how the Native Americans used hemp to fashion baskets and blankets, and

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of how there were recorded references to the plant found in China that dated as far back as 2700 B.C. The part that really stuck with me was the noted reports of Queen Victoria using marijuana to help with menstrual cramps. What’s this, getting high helps with cramps? Surely this couldn’t be right. After all, who could possibly believe that smoking pot could have any effect on anything other than your urge to consume all the food in your fridge and to fall asleep immediately afterward? I had to learn more! I mean sure, I smoked pot in high school. In fact, one of my first and only encounters with the plant started with a 17-year-old me skipping last period to hang out and get stoned. This experience quickly ended with me trying desperately to fight off the paranoia that everyone could tell “just by looking at me” while stumbling home. I remember looking up and finding myself face to face with a giant roadside anti-drug billboard that read: “Get High, Get Stupid, Get Aids.” I was forever imprinted with the idea that if I ever smoked it again I would end up homeless in a ditch and dying of some incurable disease. This revelation left me in a panic and vowing to never touch the vile weed again. Blame it on cable TV but, it was in that 120 minutes of pro-marijuana propaganda that I became, shall we say, curious. I began reading everything I could find about hemp and the many different uses of cannabis, including smoking it. I learned about how Columbus brought ropes made of hemp on his ship when he arrived in the New World. I discovered that George Washington grew crops of hemp at Mt. Vernon and that it wasn’t until the early 1900’s that it became illegal. As with all things misunderstood, a flurry of scandal and controversy surrounded it; thus, it has been vilified as this crazy-making, gateway drug that will have you “hooked” the very first time you try it. With all the reasons not to smoke it, I figured there had to be a few positive reasons out there, or else why all the fuss? So that’s what originally sparked my own urge to channel the investigative journalist inside of me and to light one up. With the ibuprofen ritual falling short and the monthly pain-fest fresh in my mind, I realized that to not try it would be foolish. Who’s to say that this natural substance isn’t my saving grace? After all, it has been used by thousands of people for hundreds of years and there have been NO reports ever of anyone overdosing. And besides,

the ibuprofen regimen- that when added up amounted to over 50 pills a month- wasn’t really getting the job done anyway. I also wondered what all those pills were doing to my liver; I decided to go for it.

Part 2 : Going all the Way Being that I have two children and knowing that I am not the sort of person who would flourish inside an American prison, I decided to do it the legal way. But I then wondered: how exactly does one do that? It’s not as though you can just bring it up at your next checkup, “So, Doc…what do you think about, uh…um you know, …oh never mind.” And it’s not like people are just talking about it at the grocery store. I don’t know anyone who has their medical card and I don’t know how I would even go about asking someone who did. So, as with all unanswerable questions, I turned to Google. I simply typed in “how to find a doctor that would discuss medical marijuana use in my state,” and voila! I was immediately directed to a list containing the names of several local doctors who would be more than happy to make an appointment. As it turns out, there are more than 200 doctors in the state of Montana who are willing to make the recommendation. I found large, detailed websites advertising walk-in clinics and discount pricing as well as small, anonymous blurbs referencing “…this

doctor is the coolest!” But how to choose and does it really matter? Should I go out of town or stay local? Should I go to a big clinic or a smaller one? All good questions but, until I actually made the appointment I would never get any answers. Through a bit more internet searching, I found a doctor and made the call. I was relieved when a pleasant-sounding woman answered the phone and happily told me she could schedule an appointment in three months. Three months? It had never occurred to me that I would have to RSVP. But I made the appointment, listened as she listed the documents I would need to bring, and was pleasantly surprised when she graciously thanked me for calling. I have to admit that I was shocked by her professionalism and at the ease of the call. This seemed like a “real” doctor’s appointment. I arrived about 15 minutes early for my appointment and entered a small office decorated with painted portraits and large saltwater fish tanks. The receptionist looked like anyone’s grandmother and spoke with the same friendly voice I had remembered from my phone call. She gave me a clipboard that held several questionnaire type forms and asked me to attach any medical history I had brought with me. At first, this appeared to be as routine as any other doctor visit. My initial feeling of dread had eased quietly into a cool relaxation.

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Opinion... Opinion

Within only a few minutes, the small waiting room filled to max capacity and standing room only. There were several people struggling to fill out their paperwork whilst balancing against the wall. I was surprised to see so many different types of people in the room. There were older couples, single young men and women, and even a few families. In an attempt to break up the idleness of what had now become a pretty long wait, I began making small talk with the other patients. I talked about the fish tanks and the weather but, whenever I would ask any question pertaining to their being here for medical marijuana, the conversation was over. It was almost as if we were all here for the same reason but we were all too afraid to talk about it. As I looked around the room, I began to notice that no one would maintain eye contact with me. It was almost like when you got sent to the principal’s office in school and you have to just sit there until your parents show up. I felt like I was doing something wrong and I had a strong suspicion that I wasn’t alone in that thinking. The receptionist began to gather us into small groups and we were quickly moved into a smaller room where we were told we would be watching an informative video. We sat there for about 30 minutes as we watched and listened to the doctor discuss the rules, laws, and technicalities surrounding our obtaining a medical marijuana card. Afterwards, we were individually taken back to another waiting room where we would eventually see the doctor. When the doctor arrived he was pleasant and possessed an almost Santa Claus like jolliness. He was professional and courteous and as he talked about the various methods in which to consume marijuana I felt oddly like a college freshman as my mind frantically tried to absorb all the new information on the first day. I almost felt that at any moment he would whip out his pipe and strike one up. He shattered every image of what I had foolishly envisioned a medical marijuana doctor to look and act like. Not only was he clearly an

He was professional and courteous and as he talked about the various methods in which to consume marijuana I felt oddly like a college freshman as my mind frantically tried to absorb all the new information on the first day. educated man who was articulate and friendly but, he was also a medical professional who really knew his stuff. He answered all my questions honestly and I started to feel much less iniquitous and more like a patient seeking an alternative treatment. After about a 30 minute examination with him, I was on my way home with my recommendation in hand. With this paper I would now have to locate a caregiver, fill out the form, and send it in to the State Health Department (along with the $25 non-refundable fee) for approval. This all still seemed a little too easy but, at the same time I felt relief in that I would finally be able to alleviate some, if not all, of my symptoms.

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Opinion.

It’s all in the Butter Lessons in Edibles. By: Emelia J. Dixon

Everyone loves a delicious treat and edibles are often a healthier alternative to smoking. Baking allows dosing to be somewhat quantifiable, which makes the relief of medicinal cannabis more manageably available to both young and elderly patients. Every chef does it differently and there are hundreds of right ways to do it. But, as with most things in life, successful baking is all about ratios and keeping things fresh. The best edibles start with quality clippings. Clippings should be cured and dried in whatever method is most convenient to the grower/groomer. Next, high-quality butter should be chosen, but when it comes right down to it, fat is fat. Now, fire up that food processor to break down the clippings (remove long, sugarless stems first) in order to get more plant matter in with your butter. Then, decarboxylate your mixture.

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A little organic chemistry lesson - decarboxylation is the event that takes place when THCA, the dormant acid form of marijuana, is heated to a point of boiling or combustion causing it to transform into active THC (i.e. sparking a joint). You can munch on leaves all day long, but if they aren’t heated, you won’t feel any effects. In order to achieve decarboxylation you need fire, heat or alcohol. Tinctures, butters, chocolates and salves require boiling, while smoking and vaporizing require combustion.

One of the greatest myths of making butter, tea, and tinctures is that they will be stronger if they are heater for a longer duration of time. The actuality is that most of that time is extraneous and completely unnecessary. The best butter simmers in a double boiler for about an hour and a half. A double boiler consists of two fitted saucepans. The bottom saucepan is filled with water which is brought to a boil. The inner saucepan uses this indirect heat to decarboxylate your mixture. (If you don’t have a double boiler, one can be improvised by using two saucepans separated by a heat resistant spacer like a trivet.) Keep your double boiler covered to contain the steam, but stir regularly. A good ratio is about four ounces of plant matter to one pound of butter. You’ll need about a cup of water in order to keep things moving in your pot. (When beginning with fresh butter, allow for a little bit of water in the butter, adjusting the recipe if necessary. However, if you didn’t use fresh butter to start, freeze it and water will separate and crystallize into ice on top. You can then break the ice away and your butter will match the consistency of fresh.) Now, you can use this cannabutter for your favorite recipe. Following is an apple pie recipe that, with fresh butter, will make your hands tingle when you’re done kneading its crust. If it does, you know you did something right and you’re truly in for a treat!

Apple Pie Filling: Pie Crust:

4. c. all purpose flour 2 ¼ c. cannabutter 1 tsp. white sugar 1 tsp. salt 2/3 c. ice water 1 egg 1 tsp. distilled white vinegar

Beat together the flour, cannabutter, sugar, salt, water, vinegar and egg. Once it starts forming a ball, remove from bowl, knead until hands tingle and refrigerate for half an hour. Then flour your surface and roll out your crust. Brush with egg and sprinkle with cinnamon and sugar. Prebake for 3 minutes at 450 degrees.

6 thinly sliced apples 2 Tbsp. lemon juice 1/2 c. white sugar ½ c. brown sugar 1 Tbsp. butter 1 Tbsp. cannabutter 1 tsp. cinnamon 1 Tbsp. flour ½ tsp. vanilla ½ tsp. nutmeg Melt butter and mix together with sugar and spices, drizzle over apples in crust. Make a lattice top with remaining dough. Bake at 450 degree for 10 minutes, then turn oven down to 350 degrees and bake for 35-45 minutes. Optional: Remove from oven and brush with corn syrup thinned by water and melted cannabutter. Sprinkle Sugar in Raw all over the top and put it back in the over for a few minutes. Makes about 12 servings. This pie was reported by eaters to achieve the mental high usually associated with smoking as well as the trademark ediblerelated body high.

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