Page 1

CONTAINMENT WASTE PRODUCTION IN ALAMEDA COUNTY Complied and designed by CANDICE TANU


CONTAINMENT WASTE PRODUCTION IN ALAMEDA COUNTY Complied and designed by CANDICE TANU


CONTAINMENT WASTE PRODUCTION IN ALAMEDA COUNTY BO O K D ESI GN C OP Y R I GHT © 20 0 9 B Y C A N D IC E TA N U . P U B L IS H E D B Y C A N D I CE TA N U FO R CO U R S E GR . 6 0 1 , T Y P E S Y S T E M S . TA U G H T O N L IN E B Y C A R O L IN A D E BA RTO LO I N FA LL 2009 AT AC ADE MY OF AR T U N IV E R S IT Y, S A N F R A N C IS C O , C A . P R INTED AT H & H I MA G ING , S AN F R ANC I S C O, C A. U S A . B O U N D AT K E Y B IN D IN G , O A K L A N D , CA . U SA . A LL RIG H TS RES E R V E D.


CONTENTS


[ 002 ]

SUMMARY BACKGROUND AND APPROACH

INTRODUCTION NEED FOR THE PROJECT

[ 020 ]

PROFILING SELECTING ESTABLISHMENTS

[ 028 ]

ACTIVITIES STUDIES OF SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES

[ 040 ]

[ 086 ]

INDEX

[ 094 ]

ISSUES COMMON TO SEVERAL ACTIVITIES


SUMMARY BACKGROUND AND APPROACH


INTRODUCTION In December, 2000, the Alameda County Source Reduction and Recycling Board (SRRB) engaged the team of Environmental Science Associates, Skumatz Economic Research Associates, and Natural Logic to perform a Waste Production Measurement Study. The initial phase of study planning and research, to identify best practices and major opportunities, is summarized herein. Phase II provides a comparative analysis of these opportunities to indicate those most suitable for active support and promotion by the SRRB.

PURPOSE The

primary purpose of this project is to gain a detailed understanding of the ways that nonresidential establishments produce solid wastes, and to seek the most effective ways to prevent those wastes from occurring. A further purpose has been to identify and prioritize the waste prevention strategies that will be most effective if applied throughout Alameda County. OBJECTIVES In defining this Study, the SRRB stated several Objectives, which may be broadly summarized as follows; on an Activity and Business Type basis, provide data on waste production that can be generalized and used for program planning and modeling, based on estimates of waste prevention potential and related cost savings, identify workplace practices to be targeted for SRRB programs and outreach. This detailed report summarizes the data gathered from approximately 90 site visits and 350 phone interviews at a wide range of Alameda County businesses. [[[[[ Since its formation over a decade ago, the SRRB has had the goal of preventing wastes. For nonresidential wastes, the SRRB and the Alameda County Waste Management Authority have undertaken a variety of efforts, including the StopWaste Partnership, to assist non-residential establishments with environmental performance improvement. From these efforts, it has become clear that at most establishments, several distinct activities take place continually within the organization. [[[[[ For example, consider a hypothetical factory with 150 employees on site. The production line is operated by 100 of these employees; another 15 perform


product testing and research; 10 more handle shipping and receiving; 20 have administrative duties (sales, management, accounting, etc.); and five handle plant maintenance. [[[[[ This factory is a cluster of five waste-producing units, each requiring a distinct approach to waste prevention. For study purposes these units are termed “Activities.” Most non-residential sources of waste are like this factory: they have a core operation plus several distinct support functions, all operating in one facility. Each activity produces waste, and each requires its own approach to waste prevention. Tactics that work well in the administrative office (e.g. training to copy double-sided) will be ineffective on the factory floor – and vice versa. An “Activity”-based approach was used for this study to enable participants to quickly identify and apply waste prevention techniques from comparable settings. [[[[[ The relationships between types of businesses (typically defined by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Code) and types of Activities are fundamental to this study. Because most businesses house several Activities, it may seem that the Activity-based approach complicates the waste prevention problem. In fact, the Activity-based approach provides a real advantage: many types of businesses have Activities in common (e.g., Sales), so waste prevention tactics keyed to particular Activities should be broadly applicable. Field work for this project has borne this out. TARGET This study was designed to include most commercial, industrial and institutional Activities taking place in the County. Certain Activities were intentionally excluded because they have unique features or are already being addressed. Primarily, those were landscaping, construction, demolition, and resource extraction (agriculture, mining, etc). Several other Activities were deemed to be too narrow for detailed treatment in this study. These were performance production (theater, film, etc.), pollution control, laundry / dry cleaning, and managing byproducts. [[[[[ Early in this study, available data indicating the rates at which various types of businesses generate wastes were used to identify major waste producing categories of businesses in the County. This led to a preliminary list of the “top ten” categories.

[ 004 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


THE LIST OF THE “TOP TEN” CATEGORIES FROM LARGEST TO SMALLEST IN TERMS OF ESTIMATED WASTE PRODUCTION ARE: 1. Retail trade 2. Business and Professional Services 3. Manufacturing 4. Construction 5. Accommodation/ Food Service 6. Health Care/ Social Assistance 7. Scientific/ Technical Services 8. Wholesale Trade

S UMMAR Y [ 005 ]


S UMMAR Y [ 007 ]


METHODS The first step of the study was to develop a useful list of Activities. No such list existed, but several lists of business types provided a useful starting point. Team members’ experience in assessing resource use and solid waste production at businesses supported the construction of the Activity list that was used for study work. At this stage, the Activities list was considered to be a living document, useful for study purposes and subject to further refinement. [[[[[ The next step was a telephone survey of businesses, which served three purposes; it established a matrix of relationships between Business Types (as defined with SIC codes) and Activities, and it identified key materials, so the study team would know which Activities to pursue, where to find them, and how to extrapolate the data; it explored issues regarding businesses’ receptiveness to incentives, waste audits and other technical assistance. [[[[[ In the matching of Major Activities (the two predominant Activities at each site) to Business Types, it was found that; administrative and Shipping /Transportation Activities occurred as Major Activities among a wide variety of business types (as defined by SIC Codes); manufacturing, Retail and Patient Care Activities were tightly focused within certain business types; the Facilities Maintenance and Food Service Activities occurred in a number of distinct business types but were only Major Activities in a few of those. Using the Activities x Business Types matrix, site visits were scheduled to study specific Activities. Because of the wide range of types of businesses in the County, the 90 visits were spread across approximately 20 categories or types of Activities.

[ 008 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


FIG 1. HISTORIC COMPARISON OF COUNTY WIDE COMPOSITION BY MEAN

Paper

Plastic

Glass

Metals

Waste Yard W aste

Organics

Figure 1 presents the historic comparison of major waste materials by mean percentage. As you can see, trends in the average amounts of material, although useful, are quite different than those shown in the tonnage estimates.

S UMMAR Y [ 009 ]


[[[[[ Several waste prevention issues were found to occur across a wide range of Activities: 1. Existing Values – With regard to waste prevention issues, establishments and their employees exhibit a wide range of values. Some facilities welcomed this study, showed their facilities and waste diversion programs with pride, and asked what more they could do to prevent waste. Others willingly participated but stated that they felt that little or no additional waste prevention was possible. Future waste prevention efforts should anticipate a broad spectrum of attitudes and values, from positive to negative. 2. Corporate Control – Many establishments are simply one branch of a corporate structure that directly controls, or sets standards for, practices that affect waste production. An auto dealership may not be able to limit the amount, for example, of protective material that is shipped with their new cars. A store manager may not have the authority to convince their distribution center to use less stretch wrap. 3. Complexities due to Specific Materials or Methods – Composite materials are often more difficult to recycle, and their use is increasing. Also, in some industries a waste can be “prevented” by redirecting the material into wastewater, packaging, or some other output stream. This approach differs from waste prevention that is accomplished by reducing the use of materials, but it is viewed as an option in these industries. [[[[[ Other issues arose repeatedly with regard to certain Activities; for manufacturers, there is a continuing need for technical assistance to determine the cost effectiveness of specific waste prevention measures; local retailers and some other businesses have little or no control over packaging materials that they receive. Until this is changed, the cardboard carton will continue to be in general use, and other problematic materials will remain in circulation. Paper recycling programs are widespread and may be viewed as “the solution” by the companies implementing them.

[ 010 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


S UMMAR Y [ 011 ]


S UMMAR Y [ 013 ]


FIG 2. HISTORIC SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL BY WASTE STREAM

Single Family

Multi Family

Commercial

Roll Off

Self Haul

Figure 2 provides the amount of material by waste stream and percent change from 2000. Commercial and roll-off waste (primarily consisting of commercial and/or industrial) experienced the largest declines in waste disposal.

[ 014 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


TRENDS The following trends were noted across many of the Activities studied: The ongoing downturn in business activity complicates efforts to measure waste production, and it also complicates business management in general, limiting the attention that managers could give to this study at this time. The business cycle is never completely stable, but it may be advisable to await a more stable period than the present one before attempting to work with business managers on waste prevention issues. [[[[[ The use of reusable packaging (such as totes) is spreading, at least for certain product lines. More and more retailers recognize this concept and are learning to plan for reusable containers, which require storage space and minor changes to ordering, tracking and stocking procedures. The conversion of local retailers (and restaurants) to chains has had a mixed effect in terms of waste prevention. Local owners’ decision-making has been supplanted with corporate policy, which may not recognize waste prevention needs and methods. However, the more efficient stock-handling systems employed by larger chain stores can serve to prevent waste in several ways. If waste prevention messages can be raised with these large corporations by County-level agencies, there is the potential for significant further reduction of wastes. IMPORTANCE OF WASTE PREVENTION Although the phone survey was able to obtain the planned number of responses, the low response rate (350 responses from several thousand sites contacted) was a cause for some concern and extra effort. The large number of businesses available in the County enabled the planned number of surveys to be completed. However, this serves as a warning signal that most businesses do not automatically take an interest in responding to waste prevention queries raised by others. Like the phone survey, the refusal rate for site visits was high enough to serve as a cautionary note: most businesses are not willing to devote management time to an unsolicited effort to assist with waste prevention. Roughly one out of six businesses participated willingly, with higher participation from some types of businesses than from others. [[[[[ The telephone survey posed a series of questions about current waste prevention practices and barriers. The most general finding from this portion of the survey was that about 30% of all responding firms were able to identify specific waste reduction measures that they had instituted. Reducing the use of office paper was the most commonly cited single measure (16%

S UMMAR Y [ 015 ]


of respondents). Also, most respondents categorized waste management costs as “of moderate importance” in relation to their other operating costs. Except for the largest firms, few firms had performed any kind of process or resource use audit. OPPORTUNITIES FOR WASTE PREVENTION The most widespread opportunities exist with regard to administrative work. Single-sided copying, the printing of reports simply for filing purposes, and other such practices consume far more paper than appears to be necessary. Both the Administrative and Printing Activities would prevent significant materials use if they made broader use of electronic documents. [[[[[ Many local manufacturers are independent and can implement recommendations without lengthy review; hence they can benefit immediately from technical assistance. Manufacturers often simply lack the time to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of a process change that could prevent waste. Also, a cost-benefit analysis often finds that a waste prevention measure reduces some general costs, such as transportation or labor, thereby making that measure more worthwhile. [[[[[ Patient Care Activities incorporate a useful mechanism into their selection of products: the “Value Assessment Team” evaluates a range of potential new devices or products and chooses the most suitable one for their system. This presents the opportunity to add waste prevention to the decision criteria, and it also provides a useful model for discussion with other types of businesses. [[[[[ The establishments that conduct scientific research sometimes use more sophisticated management practices, such as ISO 14000 standards, that call for the minimization of wastes. Consequently, these places have a number of recycling and waste prevention measures in place. (This was first indicated in the telephone survey and was confirmed during visits.) Their management practices provide a useful real-world example for discussion with other types of businesses.

[ 016 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


ADDITIONAL RECYCLING Most Food Service and Food Manufacturer locations that are using food waste composting services are experiencing a net benefit. There are many more potential food waste sources for these programs among the restaurants, cafeterias and food manufacturers in the County. [[[[[ Similarly, for manufacturers and transporters, there appear to be many more opportunities for film plastic recycling than there are current participants, although contamination and composite-material issues can cause problems at some locations. [[[[[ As noted above, there are fewer commercial recycling services available in some Alameda County cities, and this limits the options for businesses in those locations. In the phone survey, more than 30% of establishments reported that they did not have a recycling program. Business types with the lowest presence of recycling programs included “wholesale and retail trade” and “social and medical care.”

S UMMAR Y [ 017 ]


S UMMAR Y [ 019 ]


INTRODUCTION NEED FOR PROJECT


PROJECT SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Alameda County’s twenty percent goal is more than an ambitious statement: the goal is intended to make waste prevention the primary and preferred diversion strategy. This is important because not using materials at all, and never managing them as wastes, is a more effective conservation strategy than dealing with materials at the end of their life cycle. Furthermore, while both recycling and composting are subject to the vagaries of materials markets, waste prevention is less subject to external forces. Because the benefits of waste prevention are not widely recognized or understood, however, it is necessary to obtain useful baseline data to fully assess the costs and benefits of waste prevention for businesses and institutions. This will enable the SRRB to develop effective programs and to provide businesses and institutions with information that will assist them in making intelligent decisions regarding efficient materials management. [[[[[ The SRRB has embarked on a planning effort to reach its goals. For the commercial-industrial sector, the plan is based partially on three interrelated studies: a waste characterization study; a study of the weight of waste produced by different kinds of businesses; and this Waste Production Measurement Study. The primary purpose of this study is to develop sufficient understanding of commercial, industrial and institutional waste generation practices to develop waste prevention programs that will encourage and assist Alameda County establishments to become full partners in the effort to achieve 20 percent waste prevention. The concept of “Activity type� is key in the Waste Production Measurement Study: rather than looking at businesses and institutions as the basic unit of commercial waste generation, the Study looks at particular Activities that businesses and institutions engage in, but that may cut across business categories. An example is food service, which is the primary (though not the only) Activity of restaurants, bars, and caterers, but which is also found within such diverse places as schools and universities, airports, hotels, and factory cafeterias. The value of using Activity types as the


basic unit of waste production is based on the premise that particular commercial and institutional Activities produce similar waste streams in similar ways. When an Activity that produces waste is well understood, it should be possible to develop Activity-focused, broadly applicable waste prevention programs for the Activity. A waste prevention program that targets food service Activities in restaurants, therefore, could also be used to target food service Activities in airports and schools. [[[[[ As noted earlier, the Study focuses on Alameda County’s commercial / industrial / institutional sector. Certain business types and Activities, such as landscapers and landscaping, are excluded from the Study, as they have already been the subject of extensive inquiry and outreach by the SRRB. Because of the emphasis on the commercial and institutional sector, the success of the Study is dependent upon cooperation from individual establishments. For the Study itself, cooperation includes willingness to respond to a lengthy telephone survey, willingness to allow site visits, and in some cases enabling the Study team to perform in-depth assessments of Activities. Later, as the SRRB moves beyond the exploratory phase of this project and into the development of program recommendations, businesses and institutions may be asked by the SRRB to cooperate in revising their Activities to reduce and prevent waste. [[[[[ The objectives of the Study, as enumerated by the SRRB, are to: Establish a baseline on the amount and type of materials used, materials not used, recycling, and disposal for selected prevalent Activities which occur in the nonresidential sector throughout Alameda County; Provide data by type of facility and Activity at a level that will be useful for waste prevention program development, including predictive models; Add to the body of knowledge regarding waste production versus recycling trends per unit of service or product delivered for the selected study Activities; Use data collected to estimate the amount of achievable waste prevention (including materials use, recycling, and waste production) by Activity type and business type. Predict amount of waste prevention and cost savings by Activity type. Also identify a menu of options to assist in reaching 20% waste prevention by 2010; Identify non-residential workplace practices to be targeted for future waste prevention programs; Identify opportunities for waste prevention

[ 022 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


program development and promotion by the Agency, as opposed to waste prevention practices likely to be adopted due to market forces alone; and Provide data and analysis on any local conditions that should be considered when the Agency designs proposals to achieve local waste production and waste prevention goals. BREADTH AND DEPTH OF ANALYSIS Certain details concerning the scope of work for this study were the subject of considerable discussion, and some adjustment, as the project moved forward. The main issue of concern was the number of Activities to be evaluated and the amount of time spent on each. If fewer Activities were assessed, then more time could be spent with each, learning potentially useful details about the factors that could motivate organizations to prevent waste. [[[[[ However, Alameda County has a very diverse business community, and only understanding a few commercial Activities very well might not enable the SRRB to effectively promote the necessary waste prevention strategies. Moreover, the consulting team was reluctant to assume that businesses would contribute more than a few hours of staff time to the project. Therefore, after considerable discussion, the initial proposed scope (which involved conducting 120 site visits and investing an average of 10 person hours per company in contacting, soliciting cooperation, obtaining information, and creating a database record about each) was modified to cover a total of 90 site visits, with 75 of them at the “Basic” level (10 hours) and 15 of them at the “In-Depth” level (30 hours). In practice, the solicitation of assistance was manageable at the Basic level and rather difficult at the In-Depth level.

I N T R ODUC T I ON [ 023 ]


METHODS: TELEPHONE SURVEY As part of the Waste Production Measurement Study, Skumatz Economic Research Associates (SERA) and the Northwest Research Group, as subcontractors to ESA, performed a telephone survey of Alameda County businesses and institutions. The primary purpose of the telephone survey was to match Activity types with business types. In addition, the survey gathered information on the relative prevalence of various waste producing activities in Alameda County’s commercial and institutional establishments; on existing waste prevention and recycling activities; and on the potential for increasing waste prevention. The results of the survey, especially the matching of Activity types with business types, was used as a basis for designing the next phase of the Waste Production Measurement Study; this involved on-site visits to gather detailed information on Activity types, the waste that they produce, and the opportunities for waste prevention that they offer. The telephone survey was used to extrapolate the results of the on-site visits (as well as the data gathered from the businesses and institutions responding to the survey) to the County as a whole. This was possible because the telephone survey used a statistical sampling of all businesses and institutions in the County. Therefore, the survey results themselves, as well as information from the site visits, can be applied statistically to the entire population of businesses and institutions represented by the sample.

[ 024 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


SITE VISITS One fundamental technique in this study was to use site visits and interviews to gain a thorough understanding of the workings of each Activity of interest. The Basic assessment was designed to obtain several types of information; Baseline data: size of business and Activity, in terms of employees, area, material flow and revenue, for comparison and extension to similar Activities throughout the County; Process-related data: the steps involved in performing the Activity, and the related decisions and information loops; Materials data: sources, types and quantities of materials used, as well as their packaging and transport; Services data: present levels of service for solid waste and recycling; Time-related data: seasonal and longer term trends in Activity level; Controls, priorities and decisions: how the use and disposition of materials is determined, by whom, and on what basis. [[[[[ The In-Depth assessment was designed to delve further into all of these areas and to examine real-world options, especially those that could prevent waste, in more detail. For example, if a manufacturer can and should use plastic pallets instead of wood, where can they be obtained? At what cost? Who fixes them when they break? And, what is the likely cost or savings to be realized in conjunction with this waste prevention step, taking into account related changes in labor, resource use, and other modifications that may be needed? InDepth assessments also involved a close examination of the “supply chain� for the Activity, to provide a good understanding of the range of options available to the business being studied.

DATABASE Data from the Basic site visits was

collected and incorporated into the opportunities tables throughout the report. Data from the In-Depth site visits is contained in Appendix B: In-Depth Studies of Specific Activites. [[[[[ Although the effort was made to design a data form that would be applicable to all types of Activities, there were a few Activities that required a more free-form means of data collection. These tended to be the types of Activities that have no regular schedule: space planning, building and equipment maintenance, and scientific research were the most problematic. The more flexible the Activity, in time and/or space, the more difficult it was to quantify.

I N T R ODUC T I ON [ 025 ]


I N T R ODUC T I ON [ 027 ]


PROFILING SELECTING ESTABLISHMENTS


INTRODUCTION To select establishments for study as objectively as possible, and to focus the effort in areas that will have the greatest benefit, four steps were necessary: 1. Define the full range of Activities that occur in businesses and institutions (this actually occurred prior to the phone survey); 2. Examine the types of establishments in the County to determine which types are most numerous and are likely to produce the most waste; 3. Identify the major Activities occurring in those types of establishments; and 4. Identify specific establishments and solicit their cooperation. [[[[[ Therefore this Section covers the following topics: basic data describing the number, types and sizes of business establishments present in Alameda County; estimating the amounts of waste produced at these establishments; the use of Activity types, rather than Business types, as the primary basis for planning waste prevention; the choice of Activity types that were the focus of this study. DATA DESCRIBING COUNTY BUSINESSES Four sources of information were used to provide information that identified the population for this study. For an overview, the US Census Bureau’s “County Business Patterns” data from 1997 provided a simple summary of the business population, useful for planning the telephone survey and later visits. The Census Bureau’s data were somewhat dated; this summary is only prepared by the Census Bureau every five years. [[[[[ The SRRB subscribes to the “iMarket” business list service, which provides an extensive list of known employers in the County, based on information from Dun and Bradstreet and other sources. This list is updated quarterly and contains roughly 57,000 records. The data in this list includes Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, employee headcounts (in most cases), gross sales (in some cases), and detailed contact information. iMarket has some shortcomings; specifically: the smallest businesses are less well represented (some are missing); the data are generally a few months old and may not reflect recent changes in size, location,


etc.; data quality is imperfect, with some errors in spelling and data entry; and public agencies, churches and other less-commercial sorts of establishments are less well represented. [[[[[ Despite these issues, iMarket was the most useful single source of information for study purposes. A third source was a list of County establishments, based on local tax rolls, made available to the study by a cooperating agency. This list included employee headcounts and business locations. As expected, most of the data on this list could also be found in the iMarket data, but it did add several hundred businesses to the total. [[[[[ The fourth source of data was not a list of businesses but a set of factors used to estimate waste production by specific groups of businesses. The California Integrated Waste Management Board makes these factors available as part of an ongoing Waste Characterization database development project. These factors are expressed as tons per employee per year and are based on samples taken from a variety of businesses during studies spanning the past several years. They provide a general estimate of wastes disposed, but they do not take into account any waste prevention programs that may have been in place when the businesses were sampled. The factors are defined for groups of businesses (based on SIC codes) that have similar wastes. [[[[[ In Figure 3 the total annual tonnage is roughly consistent with the results of the most recent (2000) estimate of commercial waste disposal prepared by the Alameda County Waste Management Authority. The profile in Figure 3 gives a useful general indication of those types of businesses that are likely to be producing the most wastes for disposal. When other recent studies of commercial wastes are completed by the SRRB and Waste Management Authority, it will be instructive to revisit Figure 3 and adjust factors where possible. For example, the Weight-Based Disposal Study may provide reliable, locally based factors for waste generation per employee for the more numerous types of businesses in its study area.

[ 030 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


P R OF I L I N G [ 031 ]


FIG 3. WASTE GENERATION ESTIMATES

(In Thousands)

Retail Trade

Business/ Manufacturing Professional Services

Construction Food Services Services

Health Car Caree

Number of Establishments Estimated Tons Per Year Disposed Figure 3 presents the historic comparison of major waste materials by mean percentage. As you can see, trends in the average amounts of material, although useful, are quite different than those shown in the tonnage estimates.

[ 032 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


ACTIVITY TYPES Studies of waste generation from commercial, industrial and institutional establishments typically organize the establishments into sectors or categories. This approach addresses the issue of differences in waste generation patterns between disparate sources; for example, the wastes produced in a restaurant will bear little resemblance to those from an insurance company. Moreover, those wastes are produced in very different ways, and any effort to prevent or reduce those wastes will need to take these differences into account, to be effective in each situation. [[[[[ Within most establishments, there are likely to be several distinct ways that wastes are produced. For example, a garment company’s plant may include its offices, a production area, warehouse and shipping space, and a lunchroom or cafeteria. For the purposes of this study, each of these identifiable subsections of the establishment is considered as an Activity, and the study examines these Activities rather than whole businesses. [[[[[ For study purposes, an Activity is defined as a distinct set of actions, with distinct inputs and outputs, which is recognizable regardless of the type of business or institution where it occurs.

P R OF I L I N G [ 033 ]


[[[[[The first task for the study team was to translate this rather abstract definition into a meaningful list of Activity Types; the second task was to prioritize the investigation of those Activity Types so that the most prevalent and “waste-intensive” Activity Types received the most attention. Several sources were consulted to provide structure and guidance for the Activity definitions; the SIC Manual provided useful structure and terminology; however, it defines codes for whole businesses (not activities) and has become somewhat outmoded; the successor to the SIC system is the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). It is being phased into use and will eventually replace SIC codes. It has the advantage of having been designed to recognize the processes within businesses rather than types of businesses. This approach is more compatible with the Activities concept. Unfortunately, NAICS is not yet in widespread use; the iMarket database, and most other current lists of businesses, still use SIC codes exclusively; recent articles in the Journal of Industrial Ecology were surveyed for analyses of businesses that could provide guidance. No single article defining Activities was found, but discussions in several articles were helpful. After preparing an initial list of Activities, the study team reviewed it internally and used team members’ experience with other business analyses, as well as familiarity with the workings of a wide variety of businesses, to test and refine the list. Several members of the study team have performed waste and environmental audits of various businesses for ten years or more and have considerable first-hand knowledge of business practices and activities, in manufacturing, retail, and most other business sectors. Discussions with third parties knowledgeable about specific industries were also used to refine the list further. [[[[[ The Activities of greatest interest were broadly defined as those that would provide the information that will be most helpful in planning programs to reach the Board’s 75% waste prevention goal. The phone survey was used to identify the most widespread Activities and those that recycled their “major materials” the least, and so had an opportunity to recycle a “major material.” Also, using the phone survey’s linkage between Activities and business types, the Activities most prevalent in the “top ten” generators were favored for consideration.

[ 034 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


[[[[[ The following criteria were used to select Activities: Unrecognized opportunities: Activities producing preventable or recyclable discards that, at least in some types of businesses, have not yet been the focus of an effort to reduce or recycle. For a variety of material types, the phone survey tabulated the businesses that reported recycling or reducing more than half of a particular type of material. The low-value cells in these tables indicate businesses and activities that are most likely to offer waste prevention and reduction opportunities. Widespread occurrence: Activities that are the most widespread among various business types. The phone survey provided associations between Activities and business types. For each Activity, the business types that cited it as a “major Activity� (one of the two most intensively performed Activities at that location) more than 40% of the time were identified. Future programs that are designed for those Activities could affect a larger number of businesses in the County. Sufficient variety: A breadth of Activities sufficient to support development of programs for the wide variety of business sectors present in Alameda County. [[[[[ No single business sector dominates the economy of Alameda County; to reach 75% waste reduction, there is likely to be a need for programs tailored for a variety of sectors. This implies that a variety of Activities should be investigated. High generation: The major Activities that take place at businesses that generate the most commercial waste. above, uses the CIWMB industry-specific waste generation factors to indicate the business types likely to produce the most waste, and the phone survey enabled us to match Activities with those business types. As noted in the Executive Summary and Introduction, at this stage, the decision was made to drop landscaping-related Activities, as well as construction and demolition Activities, from further consideration. This was done because these Activities are the subject of other studies and programs, and they are well understood.

P R OF I L I N G [ 035 ]


P R OF I L I N G [ 037 ]


SELECTION OF BUSINESSES FOR SITE VISITS Prior to conducting site visits for this study, several levels of screening took place. First, a list of probable target businesses was generated by filtering the iMarket database to obtain businesses with SIC codes that indicated the target Activity. In some instances, the iMarket database was supplemented with other business list data for the County. In all cases, the smallest businesses were also filtered out, to eliminate home-based businesses and obtain those businesses that could be readily measured. The filtering was based on the number of employees, and the filtering level was adjusted for each Activity until a useful number of businesses was listed (typically 50 to 100 for a given Activity). It was sometimes necessary to modify this approach slightly for particular Activities. For example, Space Planning is a well-defined Activity only in the largest businesses, so that list included very large businesses of all SIC codes. [[[[[ The next step of this process was to randomize the list and ask SRRB staff to strike any businesses that should not be contacted. This was done to avoid conflict with ongoing staff efforts such as the StopWa$te Partnership. At this point, any appropriate businesses that had indicated an interest in further involvement during the phone survey were added to the top of the list. [[[[[ Next, businesses were called in order and their cooperation was solicited. The cooperation rate by businesses was approximately 20%, i.e., roughly one out of five businesses listed was able to be scheduled for a visit. [[[[[ Self-selection bias was recognized as a possible issue for this process. That is, the study team might have obtained the best cooperation from businesses that are pro-recycling, and this could have skewed the findings. Since random participation could not be assured and the intrinsic incentives to cooperate were small, bias must be considered. If this had been a survey of attitudes and interest, the problem would be very serious. However, this study is an examination of ongoing business practices and (in part) a search for Best Practices, so the bias issue is less significant and actually may have been helpful because those with “Best Practices” would be more interested in the subject and more likely to consent to being studied. In any case, it could not be avoided, so Team staff remained alert to the possibility of “spin doctoring” by interviewees and encouraged candor in discussions and visits.

[ 038 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


FIG 4. 2008 SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL BY WASTE STREAM (TONS) In order to develop comprehensive waste characterization results, annual waste q u a n t i t i e s p ro vid e d b y Sto p Wa ste we re a p p lie d to c o rre s p o n d i n g c o mp o s i ti o n p ro fi l e s . Wa s te co mp o sitio n p ro file s we re ca lcu la te d b a s e d o n re p re s e n ta ti v e wa s te s a mp l i n g a n d so rtin g to id e n tify th e a ve ra g e a llo cati o n o f ma te ri a l s ( b y s ta ti s ti c a l me a n ) wi th i n a sp e cifie d wa ste stre a m.

Single Family Residential

[ 275,079 ]

Commercial

[ 237,315 ]

Multi Family Residential

[ 132,081 ]

P R OF I L I N G [ 039 ]


ACTIVITIES STUDIES OF SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES


MANUFACTURING FROM RAW MATERIALS This Section presents findings from research into business practices at the Activities targeted for this study. The order of presentation for the Activities is similar to the hierarchy used in the SIC system: heavy industrial activities come first, followed by the more laborintensive (less material intensive) types, concluding with Activities that involve the lowest amounts of material per location, such as building maintenance. For each Activity, the following topics are covered; a general description of the Activity; specific types of establishments that were visited (these have been made generic because many businesses requested anonymity); a flow diagram showing the movement of materials; decision points: those decisions made by management that affect the generation and flow of materials; drivers: the factors that most strongly influence management decisions; best practices: the most effective waste prevention methods found in connection with site visits; waste prevention opportunities: descriptions of methods that could be used to prevent the generation of waste; waste prevention issues and barriers: notes, from site visits, about specific issues related to waste prevention. [[[[[[ This Activity emphasizes manufacturing from primary (relatively unprocessed) raw materials. Some of these activities are relatively simple such as blending and formulation, while some require a considerable degree of precision, including purification. Companies receive raw materials in quantities ranging from truckloads to grams; materials may then be conditioned (e.g., ground to finer granularity) and blended, or refined and/or extracted and then blended. In some cases conditioning and refining may take place after blending. Products range from low value commodities to high value pharmaceuticals and are packaged for shipment in a wide range of packaging. Primary non-products1 include: inbound packaging that is not reused; surplus or out- of-quality raw materials; production scrap (surplus or out-of-quality); packaging waste (trim, defects, etc) from final packaging.


DECISION POINTS Management decision points regarding waste prevention are listed below, together with key considerations related to each decision: bulk quantities; packaging type; reusable/returnable packaging (at least for key suppliers, major ingredients); disposition of incoming packaging (supplier takeback, save for reuse, adequate storage space, recycling procedures followed by employees); Quality Control (QC); product formulations; production sequencing (and scaling to orders & demand); internal materials handling and staging; inventory management; sanitation; QC; process optimization; line & inventory automation; capture line spillage for rework; reusable/returnable packaging for major accounts; machinery age and maintenance; QC; training; packaging choices (size (amount of trim), materials, etc); packaging specs (e.g., stretchwrap protocol); ownership of fleet; truck packing systems and protocols; driver QC role; employee training (e.g. rework v recycle v trash). BEST PRACTICES The most effective waste prevention practices that were seen at this category of businesses are listed below. These practices may be appropriate for use by other businesses with similar Activities. Packaging take back to suppliers, packaging take back to customers, production management & workflow systems, packaging reuse.

[ 042 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


WASTE PREVENTION ISSUES AND BARRIERS ISSUES AND BARRIERS THAT MAY INTERFERE WITH THE SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF WASTE PREVENTION AND RECYCLING PROGRAMS FOR THIS ACTIVITY ARE LISTED BELOW:

1. Contamination of materials to be reused/recycled 2. Customer willingness 3. Mixed media packaging 4. Shipping distances, logistics of product or packaging 5. Regulator standards (EPA, FDA, etc) 6. Industry standards 7. Possible other issues driving plastic bag use

AC T I V I T I E S [ 043 ]


[ 044 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


FIG. 5 PROCESS FLOW: MANUFACTURING FROM RAW MATERIALS

MATERIALS RESOURCES (W ATER, ENERGY ) PACKAGING MATERIALS

RECEIVE/ UNP ACK

PALLETS

PRODUCTS TO MARKET

PACKAGE TRIM, CASES, AND BREAKAGE

HIGH TSS W ATER

BATCH WASTE

MATERIAL P ACKAGING

REJECT M ATERIAL

HEAT, COOL

QUALITY CHEC K

BLEND MATERIALS

PURIFY, REFINE

UNIT PACKING

CASE PACKING PALLETIZING BULK P ACKAGE

Return to supplier

Alternate use in house

Rework

Sell/give recycler

Discard

AC T I V I T I E S [ 045 ]


AC T I V I T I E S [ 047 ]


MANUFACTURING, NON-FOOD

This Activity emphasizes assembly and/or

modification of previously manufactured materials. This may include assembly, cutting, machining, fastening, molding, blending, formulating or other activities. Production activities are typically guided by plans or formulas, and include both standardized and custom or built-to-order products. Products may be intermediary to another process, or may be complete as they leave these facilities. Materials may enter and leave these facilities in a wide range of packaging. Primary nonproducts include: inbound packaging that is not reused or recycled; out of quality, or surplus raw materials; production scrap (broken, surplus or out of quality); packaging waste (trim, defects, etc) from final packaging. DECISION POINTS Management decision points regarding waste prevention are listed below, together with key considerations related to each decision; Purchasing: bulk quantities; packaging type; reusable/returnable packaging (at least with key suppliers, major ingredients); Receiving: disposition of incoming packaging (supplier takeback, save for reuse, adequate storage space, recycling procedures followed by employees); Production: product formulations; production sequencing (and scaling to orders & demand); internal materials handling and staging; inventory management; sanitation; QC; process optimization; line & inventory automation; capture line spillage for rework; Packaging: reusable/returnable packaging for major accounts; machinery age and maintenance; QC; training; packaging choices (size (to reduce trim waste), materials, etc); packaging specs (e.g., stretchwrap protocol); Shipping: ownership of fleet; truck packing systems and protocols; driver QC role; General: employee training (e.g. re rework v recycle v trash)

[ 048 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


WASTE PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES The major waste prevention opportunities found to be available to most businesses were; Purchase inbound materials in bulk (vs. cardboard, drums, pails, etc) where feasible; Computer optimization of material utilization, production process, etc to maximize yield, minimize raw materials and scrap; Computerized management of inventory, ordering, warehouse pick-&-pack: Process changes, better specifications and procurement, etc. to reduce waste; Non-computerized optimization of production planning and work layout; Replace solvent-based with water-based coatings; Reduce inventory of raw materials/ just-in-time production; Bulk supply of stable chemicals with permanent on-site containers; Reduce consumer packaging; Arrange packaging take-back where possible, with both suppliers and customers; Reusable containers for internal plant movement/storage cause product damage.

FIG 6A.WASTE PRODUCTION/ PREVENTION ISSUES: NON-FOOD MANUFACTURING ISSUE: INTEREST/ LEVEL OF EFFORT

La ck o f in fra stru ctu re , la b o r to e mp ty a n d se p a ra te

P o s s i b l e v e n d o r b a rri e rs

Re cycle r re q u ire me n ts

B ra n d i n g re q u i re me n ts ma y l i mi t re u s e

Yes: Issue is a constraint for this specific establishment No: Issue is not a constraint for this specific establishment N/A: Issue is not applicable to the establishment, or insufficient information

AC T I V I T I E S [ 049 ]


FIG 6B.WASTE PRODUCTION/ PREVENTION ISSUES: NON-FOOD MANUFACTURING ISSUE: INTEREST/ LEVEL OF EFFORT

E mp l o ye e educati on, l a b o r t o separate paper

P ro ce ss e fficie n cy limita tio n s

R e cycl i n g di ffi cul t due to l abel s, m e t a l h a n d l es, and pl asti c

Yes: Issue is a constraint for this specific establishment No: Issue is not a constraint for this specific establishment N/A: Issue is not applicable to the establishment, or insufficient information

[ 050 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


AC T I V I T I E S [ 051 ]


FIG 7. PROCESS FLOW: FOOD PRODUCTION

QUALITY CHEC K

RECEIVER/UNPACK

REJECT MATERIAL

PALLETS

[ 052 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N

INGREDIENTS PACKAGING

Discard

BLEND INGREDIENTS

Sell/give recycler

BATCH WASTE

Rework

HIGH BOD WATER

TRIM, CORES BREAKAGE PRODUCTS TO MARKET

Alternate use in house

COOK, FREEZE, ETC.

UNIT PACKING CASE PACKING PALLETIZING

Return to supplier

INGREDIENTS RESOURCES (W ATER, ENERGY ) PACKAGING MATERIALS


FOOD PRODUCTION Food production activities are relatively simple, if highly varied from product to product. All companies visited receive one or more raw/ feedstock materials, in a variety of packages or conveyances ranging from small boxes, jars and sacks, to five and 55 gallons pails and drums, to 50 pound sacks, to 40,000 pound truckloads or 180,000 pound railcars. Ingredients are blended, wide range of packaging. Primary non-products include: inbound packaging that is not reused or recycled; surplus or out-of-quality raw materials; production scrap (surplus or out-of-quality); packaging waste (trim, defects, etc) from final packaging. Issues unique to this Activity include: purity of ingredients and product; sanitation; spoilage; appearance; resource use (energy, water, wastewater treatment) and the opportunity to rework off-spec product. DECISION POINTS Management decision points regarding waste prevention are listed below, together with key considerations related to each decision: purchasing: bulk quantities; packaging: type; reusable/returnable packaging (at least with key suppliers, major ingredients); receiving: disposition of incoming packaging (supplier takeback, save for reuse, adequate storage space, recycling procedures followed by employees)’ production: product formulations; production sequencing (and scaling to orders & demand); internal materials handling and staging; inventory management; sanitation; QC; process optimization; line & inventory automation; capture line spillage for rework.; packaging reusable/returnable packaging for major accounts; machinery age and maintenance; QC; packaging choices (size (to reduce trim waste), materials, etc); packaging specs (e.g., stretchwrap protocol); shipping: ownership of fleet; truck packing systems and protocols; driver QC role; general: employee training (e.g. re rework v recycle v trash). WASTE PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES

The major waste prevention

opportunities found to be available to most businesses were; Bulk supply of stable feedstocks/ingredients (subject to workflow requirements); Reusable containers with key suppliers and customers; Adjust machinery to minimize product and packaging trim waste; Minimization or optimization of product change sequencing; or maintain separate lines for major products; Tune process to reduce product spillage or loss; Eliminate or replace extraneous packaging.

AC T I V I T I E S [ 053 ]


[ 054 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


FIG 8. WASTE PRODUCTION/ PREVENTION ISSUES: FOOD PRODUCTION

In te re st: P e rce p tio n th a t wa ste p re ve n tio n sa ve s d o lla rs

I n te re s t: Di s tri b u ti o n c e n te rs : Di s a d v a n ta g e : L o c a l re c y c l i n g o p ti o n s not sought

In te re st: Own e rs in vo lve me n t in d e ta ils o f b u sin e ss

K n o wl e d g e / I n fo rma ti o n : We l l i n fo rme d a b o u t o p ti o n s

ABILIT Y: Ma n a g e r(s) ca n / ca n ’t d e vo te time to wa ste p re ve n tio n

AB I L I T Y: L e v e l o f s ta ffi n g : To o b u s y to a d d a re c y c l i n g ta s k

Yes: Issue is a constraint for this specific establishment No: Issue is not a constraint for this specific establishment N/A: Issue is not applicable to the establishment, or insufficient information Min: Issue is present, but is not considered substantial

AC T I V I T I E S [ 055 ]


PRINTING AND PUBLISHING Printers receive paper, ink, solvents and packaging materials, as well as photographic materials. Images are applied to a plate, which is loaded into a press, which is charged with ink, which is transferred to sheet or roll fed paper, which is trimmed, folded and packaged. In digital printing, image composition is performed electronically, and printing accomplished by laser or ink jet printers. In publishing, writing, rights acquisition and editing produce a digital file that is transferred electronically to an ink or digital printer for final production. This group included a binding products manufacturer that receives glue formulations in barrels and sacks, melts and applies the glues to paper rolls cut from larger rolls, trims the rolls, slices them into lengths, and packages them. DECISION POINTS Management decision points regarding waste prevention are listed below, together with key considerations related to each decision; Purchasing: bulk quantities; packaging type; reusable/returnable packaging (at least with key suppliers, major ingredients); Receiving: disposition of incoming packaging (supplier takeback, save for reuse, adequate storage space, recycling procedures followed by employees); Production: product formulations; production sequencing (and scaling to orders & demand); internal materials handling and staging; inventory management; sanitation; QC; process optimization; line & inventory automation; capture line spillage for rework; Packaging: reusable/returnable packaging for major accounts; machinery age and maintenance; QC; training; packaging choices (size (to reduce trim waste), materials, etc); packaging specs (e.g., stretchwrap protocol); Shipping : ownership of fleet; truck packing systems and protocols; driver QC role; General: employee training (e.g. re rework v recycle v trash).

[ 056 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


FIG 9. PROCESS FLOW: PRINTING AND PUBLISHING

MATE R I ALS R E S OUR C E S ( WAT E R , E N E R GY) PACKAGING MAT E RIAL

R E C E I V E / UNPACK QUAL I T Y C HE CK

P HOT OGR AP HY

P R E S S S E T-UP

P R E S S C L E AN -UP F OL D

UN I T PA C K I N G

C AS E PAC K I N G PALL E T I Z I N G

PALL E T S R E J E C T MAT E R I AL S

P L AT E MAK I N G S C R AP

S C R AP

WAST E WAT E R

PRINT

S C R AP

R AGS , PAP E R T OW E L S , S OLV E N TS C UT / T R IM

S C R AP

V OC S

WA ST E I N K

WA ST E WAT E R

S C R AP

P R ODUC T S T O MAR K ET

Return to supplier

Alternate use in house

Rework

Sell/give recycler

Discard

AC T I V I T I E S [ 057 ]


FIG 10A. WASTE PREVENTION/ RECYCLING OPPORTUNITY: PRINTING AND PUBLISHING

R e d u ce i n a ppropri ate use of sol ve n ts, ch e mica ls, a n d o t h e r m a t e ri al s through training, restricted access and substitution

R e p l a ce so l vent-based w i th w ater-b a se d co a tin g s

I n k d e wa t e ri ng and reuse

Wa st e O C C as pal l et spacers vs. n e w OCC

Not in progress, but material and opportuniy is present In progress N/A: Not applicable; materials not present or in small quantities; or procedures not used or a minor part of Activity

[ 058 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


BEST PRACTICES Among the visited businesses, the observed best practices generally had to do with the willingness of the business to redirect recyclable materials from the waste stream to reuse and recycling. Retail were particularly proactive and were more motivated by corporate philosophy than by cost effectiveness. WASTE PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES A “best practice� that we did not observe but which could be applied by two of the five companies would be to use reusable plastic totes in lieu of cardboard boxes for some of their recurring shipments. This was particularly true for the Retail warehouse, which acts as a small distribution center for its nine Bay Area locations. This was discussed with Retail, and they were willing to consider this but had a concern that their cardboard boxes are sized perfectly for delivery of their products; those products cannot rattle or spill while in transit. The smaller operations presented few if any new opportunities, in part because they were already pursuing good practices, and in part because of the simplicity of their operations and the small volumes of material involved. WASTE PREVENTION ISSUES AND BARRIERS In general, the issue that impedes the adoption of these practices is the responsibility for return of reusable packaging such as totes, pallet ties, etc. Some industries, such as dairy product and bread suppliers, have overcome these impediments to an extent. However, they have certain advantages: their products are generally in standard sizes, and they use corporate (not third party) delivery systems. Deposits on shipping materials (primarily pallets) are being implemented by certain major manufacturers and shippers, but there is reluctance among smaller companies to burden customers with both the cost and the administrative burden associated with a deposit system.

AC T I V I T I E S [ 059 ]


FIG 10B. WASTE PREVENTION/ RECYCLING OPPORTUNITY: PRINTING AND PUBLISHING

In cre a se u se o f e le ctro n ic file tra n sfe r, i n tra n e t/ o n l i n e p ro o f e d itin g , a n d re tu rn a b le z ip d is k p ro o f e d i ti n g v s . p a p e r p rin to u t

We ig h wa ste to id e n tify p ro b le ms a n d me a s u re imp a ct o f imp ro ve me n t me a su re s

P a p e r co re re u se

In cre a se re u se o f ca rd b o a rd

Not in progress, but material and opportuniy is present In progress N/A: Not applicable; materials not present or in small quantities; or procedures not used or a minor part of Activity

AC T I V I T I E S [ 061 ]


FIG 11. WASTE PRODUCTION / PREVENTION ISSUES: PRINTING & PUBLISHING

ISSUE INTEREST/ LEVEL OF EFFORT

Concern about possible confidentiality issues if proposed intranet editing breached

No

Yes

No

No

Concern about editor preferences & resistance to e-mail and returnable zip disk proof editing vs. paper printout

No

Yes

No

No

Concern about printing efficiency/ jams with default duplex settings

No

Yes

No

No

Concern about product quality generates multiple edits and printed drafts

No

Yes

No

No

Proprietary issues

No

No

Yes

No

[ 062 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


SHIPPING / TRANSPORTATION For study purposes, two separately-defined Activities have been included in this category. Order Picking refers to the process by which goods are selected from a warehouse (or other storage facility) and assembled into an order for delivery to a customer. Warehousing and Storage refers to the more general process of receiving, organizing and holding goods for future use, and preparing them for shipment. There is a wide range of storage systems in use. The “system� includes the layout of the building, the types of shelving, the containers on the shelving, the size and shape of the items themselves, and the sophistication (and reliability) of stock location systems. These all have an impact on cost effectiveness. To an extent, the volume and variety of goods determines the complexity of the system. Some warehousing is done simply to serve in-house production needs; some is performed in a Distribution Center role for retail outlets, and some is done to hold products until ordered by third parties [[[[[ There are several key decision points that relate to waste prevention. Some are obvious, such as the decision to dispose or recycle outdated materials and empty containers. More subtle is the set of decisions relating to the materials used when preparing items for shipment: plastic or wooden pallets? What thickness of stretch wrap? Reusable totes or cardboard boxes? Based on our observations it appears that many businesses, particularly those with a warehousing function embedded in a larger manufacturing operation, may not be aware of the full range of options or their waste prevention implications.

AC T I V I T I E S [ 063 ]


FIG 12. PROCESS FLOW: SHIPPING AND TRANSPORTATION

R E C E I V E / I N S P E CT

S H E LV E

DAMAGE D AN D R E J E C T E D I T E M S

[ 064 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N

PALL E T S , B OX E S , W R AP

Discard

OUT DAT E D I T E MS

Sell/give recycler

C H E C K FR E S H NE S S

Alternate use in house

DAMAGE D PA L L E T S , R OL L C OR E S , E T C

OR DE R T O C US T OME R

Rework

P U LL S T OC K

B O X U P A ND P AL L E T I ZE

Return to supplier

GOODS CU ST OME R ORDER PA LLE T S , BO XES, WRAP


RETAIL: DEPARTMENT AND SPECIALTY; GROCERY

Four distinct Retail

Activities were defined for this study. Two are presented here because they have many similarities. Each of the other two is presented in a subsequent section. These retail Activities involve receiving, unloading, unpacking, stocking, disposal of packaging, and return of unsold or expired products. Decisions about wastereduction and recycling are typically made by the general manager or corporate. Products are packaged in a variety of materials and are usually palletized. Packaging that is most often used includes film plastics such as stretch wrap, cardboard, and pallets. [[[[[ The type of packaging used is determined by the manufacturer or the purveyor and is based on cost, product protection, convenience, and health regulations. Products are received in a loading dock/receiving area from vendors/ manufacturers. At this point products are positioned for unpacking and stocking. Stocking usually does not occur until late hours when few customers are in the store. Some vendors stock shelves and remove products that are damaged, expired or unsold and haul back immediately. Often pallet jacks or hand trucks are used to carry products onto the floor for stocking. [[[[[ The stores do back stock some products but for perishable items such as dairy, meat, and produce, this is minimal. Some stores receive pharmacy and cosmetics in reusable plastic totes that are back-hauled to the vendor after being unpacked. It appears feasible for some grocery stores to receive produce in similar reusable totes. However, because it may be most useful to some stores to use the same totes for the display of the produce, appearance and functionality are issues. Although the totes may add convenience and reduce waste for the store, they could be an inconvenience for vendors who must back-haul, store, and wash the totes. Observations for this study were consistent with the findings in the SRRB’s 1999 study of tote use for produce. [[[[[ At all stores, dry goods and non-perishables are stored on pallets and usually are delivered in cardboard boxes; pallet return and cardboard recycling were done at all stores that were visited. Two of the three grocery stores were in cities that offered food waste recovery, and they participated actively in that program.

AC T I V I T I E S [ 065 ]


[ 066 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


FIG 13. PROCESS FLOW: RETAIL: DEPARTMENT AND SPECIALTY; GROCERY

DISPLAYS

PRICING

PRODUCTS FROM OTHER SOURCES

PRODUCTS FROM DIST. CENTER

RECEIVE/UNPACK

STORAGE

STOCKING

SHIPPING/PRODUCT RETUR N

PACKAGING

USED DISPL AYS

UNSOLD AND/OR DAMAGED PRODUCTS

Return to supplier Alternate use in house Rework Sell/give recycler Discard

AC T I V I T I E S [ 067 ]


RETAIL: AUTO, APPLIANCE, FURNITURE These retail activities involve receiving, unloading, unpacking, stocking, disposal of packaging, and return of unsold or expired products. The distinguishing features of this type of retail outlet are that the customer has generally made, or is about to make, a significant outlay for their purchase; and that customers come to these outlets when they have a special need, not as a matter of routine. At these outlets, products are usually received from corporate distribution centers but may also be shipped by independent suppliers or direct from the factory. Decisions about waste-reduction and recycling are usually made on a corporate level. Often, the stores have made commitments to specific brands and have excluded competing brands, on the basis of style, price, or perceived customer preference. Issues of packaging and waste prevention are seldom part of this evaluation process. Packaging that is most often used includes film plastic, cardboard, and pallets. [[[[[ The type of packaging used is determined by the manufacturer or the supplier and is based on cost, product protection, convenience, and (for some automotive products) state regulations. Products shipped on pallets are received in a loading dock/receiving area; automobiles and other oversize items (e.g. spas) may be unloaded into a storage yard. Products are typically stored with all packaging, except that some samples will be unpacked and displayed. When an item is sold from inventory, it goes through a dealer preparation and delivery process; this is the stage at which wastes are produced. For some articles, particularly unassembled furniture, the item may be delivered with most packaging still in place; but automobiles, auto components such as tires, and appliances typically require preparation prior to delivery.

[ 068 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


DECISION POINTS

For this set of retailers, the primary decision point is

the placement of an order for additional goods. At this stage, they might seek reduced packaging or other waste preventive features. Other decisions related to waste diversion, reuse, etc. would occur at any point in time that these issues are being considered by management. The main factors that influence waste disposal/prevention/recycling decisions are; Costs / revenues, Hazardous material regulations, Value of used components, Space limitations, Employee training, Product protection requirements. For these high-value products, protection requirements are a major influence on packaging; damage prevention is vitally important to product acceptance. Still, there was evidence that at the factory and supplier level, efforts are being made to reduce packaging. [[[[[ However, this was driven entirely by the producer, not by the retailer. These retailers’ dialogue with suppliers is primarily about local customers’ interests in product styles and details. The value of these products is so much greater than the dealers’ preparation and packaging-disposal costs (particularly for autos), that the issue of waste prevention is not given priority in that dialogue. As a consequence, factories and suppliers package their goods as they see fit, i.e. for maximum protection, and dealers adapt. WASTE PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES On the whole, the automotive parts stores that were visited appeared to be preventing waste to a reasonable extent, with no further major opportunity available to them. At the auto dealership, however, little waste prevention effort was made; the establishment’s focus is on sales, which have a high return. Waste prevention or recycling provides relatively little value, from the dealership’s perspective, and is a low priority. There were opportunities to divert cardboard, wood, film plastic, and mixed paper, and possibly other materials, from their waste stream. [[[[[ One waste prevention opportunity that might be of interest to producers / shippers of high-value items, especially autos, would be reusable covers in place of the film plastic wrapping now used to block scratches and dirt. This would need to be implemented at the factory, on a very large scale, and it would require backhaul of empty covers to the sources by a shipping company or the factory’s delivery service. (Or, the dealer might provide the cover to the customer when the item is sold.).

AC T I V I T I E S [ 069 ]


FIG 14. WASTE PRODUCTION / PREVENTION ISSUES: RETAIL ISSUE: INTEREST/ LEVEL OF EFFORT

I n t e r e st : Ow ner i nvol vem e n t i n d etai l s of b u si n e ss

In te re st: Bu sin e ss p h ilo so p h y in clu d e s e n viro n me n ta l e th ic

I n t e r e st : C orporate i n vo l ve ment i n detai l s of b u si n e ss

In te re st: P e rce p tio n th a t wa ste p re ve n tio n sa ve s

I n t e r e st : T hi nki ng “beyo n d ca r d b oard”

In te re st: Distrib u tio n ce n te rs: d isa d va n ta g e : lo ca l re cyclin g o p tio n s n o t so u g h t

Not in progress, but material and opportuniy is present In progress N/A: Not applicable; materials not present or in small quantities; or procedures not used or a minor part of Activity

[ 070 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


RETAIL: OTHER The “Other Retail” Activity focused on unique smaller-scale retailers, which differ in some important ways from chain-store, grocery, or largeitem retailers. These businesses handle smaller goods, often (but not always) mass produced, and they are more likely to receive those goods from a general distributor than from a corporate distribution center or the manufacturer. As with other retailers, most of the wastes that are produced at their location are from secondary packaging associated with shipments of goods. One key characteristic of these retailers is their uniqueness; these store managers generally have more control over all aspects of the operation than chain store managers do. Decisions about waste-reduction and recycling can typically be made on-site. However, these retailers are usually storefront-size, with smaller volumes of customers and materials. In addition to having greater control, managers at these stores tended to exhibit more knowledge of the details of their operation, including seasonality and the preferences of specific customers. [[[[[ These stores are also much more likely than grocery and “big box” stores to be in a multi-tenant situation with shared refuse and recycling service. There is a further characteristic that distinguishes these retailers from the other retail Activities: in these stores, customer browsing is much more common. Unlike car/appliance/furniture, grocery, or big box stores, many customers enter these retailers’ shops without a clear intent to purchase a specific item. This difference in customer attitude is reflected in these stores’ attention to style. A change in business practices need not pass muster with corporate HQ, but it must be compatible with the manner in which the store is run. As simple a change as beginning to ask (e.g. Retail 4) welcome waste prevention opportunities because that is consistent with the company’s style, and their customers expect it. Other stores place the highest priority on individual customer service and are not inclined to spend time or resources on other matters. This Activity involves receiving, unloading, stocking, disposal of packaging, and return of unsold or damaged products, as well as the use of in-store displays. Products are packaged in a variety of materials but are not usually palletized.

AC T I V I T I E S [ 071 ]


AC T I V I T I E S [ 073 ]


[[[[[ Packaging usually includes film plastic stretch or shrink wrap, and corrugated cardboard. The type of packaging is determined by the manufacturer or the supplier and is based on cost, product protection, and convenience. Reusable plastic totes are not used for these businesses due to the smaller quantities shipped, less frequent shipments, and lack of control over the return of the totes, which cost considerably more than cardboard boxes. There is typically little or no stockroom space in these stores, so items are placed for sale as soon as possible after receipt. As part of the stocking process, sensors may be attached to prevent shoplifting. WASTE PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES This Activity involves businesses that handle a wide variety of goods, but the wastes disposed from these businesses are quite similar in appearance. Film plastics, mixed paper, and bottles and cans were readily seen in the businesses’ discards. Major opportunities applicable to most businesses, Donate/discount unsold or damaged product, Recycle all bottles, cans, cardboard, and mixed paper, Reduce level of service for refuse disposal and increase for recycling, Educate employees about recycling programs, Improve recycling signage and labels on bins, [[[[[ A possible long-range opportunity is the use of totes for shipment of merchandise from regular suppliers to the stores. These types of stores commonly have a very few wholesale suppliers that provide most of the goods in stock. For returnable secondary packaging to work with independent stores, the return of the packaging to the source must be virtually automatic, and that is not the case at present. Sources at UPS indicate that they have experimented with the use of two-way containers but without success.

[ 074 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


FIG 15. PROCESS FLOW: RETAIL: OTHER

PRICING

S T O C K , DI S P L AY

S T O R A GE

P R ODUC T S F R OM DI S T R I B UT OR

R E C E I V E / UNPACK

FLYE RS, P OST E R S

PACK AGI N G

UN S OL D AN D/ OR DAMAGE D P R ODUC T S

OL D F LY E R S

OL D P OS T E R S

Reuse Recycle Discard Donate Return to Supplier

AC T I V I T I E S [ 075 ]


AC T I V I T I E S [ 077 ]


FOOD SERVICE

Food preparation activities begin with receiving products

packaged in a variety of materials. There are deliveries every day; restaurants typically order only what they may use within a few days (to assure freshness), and many kitchens have limited storage space. The products are unloaded by the purveyor and then unpacked by restaurant staff. Perishable food is prepared or stored immediately. Much of the waste that is produced during food preparation is packaging, over which the food service operation has little or no control. Produce usually is delivered in cardboard (waxed or unwaxed) boxes and is often prepared directly from the box or placed in plastic storage containers to be refrigerated. Many meats and some seafood arrive vacuum-sealed in film plastic and within a cardboard box that is refrigerated immediately. Loose sea food is commonly delivered on ice in styrofoam or waxed cardboard boxes. Dry goods arrive in a variety of ways, usually within plastic tubs or 50 lb. sacks. Canned foods are usually ordered in large #10 metal cans packed by the (corrugated cardboard) case. Other preserved foods are in glass or plastic jugs, jars and tubs. [[[[[ After food is received, it is either stored or set aside for immediate preparation. Preparation cooks typically come in before the facility opens to receive deliveries, unpack/store food, and perform basic preparation such as chopping produce, making sauces, and baking. Later the chefs come in to perform the actual cooking and preparation of orders. In restaurants with table service, completed orders are placed on dishes and taken to customers by servers. Beverage service usually involves ready-to-serve beverages in bottles or boxes, and it may involve the use of a “fountain” for soft drinks. COMPANIES VISITED The food service Activity occurs in a variety of settings: restaurants, institutions, and membership organizations are three of the most common. The study team focused on restaurants for several reasons: 1. Food service methods at membership organizations are less consistent, ranging from catered events to pot-luck dinners to simple “bulk feedings” (soup kitchens, spaghetti dinners, pancake breakfasts) 2. Institutional food service is in fact very much like that in some restaurants, and 3. Restaurants are the most visible and widespread type of food service establishment. An effort was made to observe operations at a wide range of restaurant styles.

[ 078 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


FIG 16. WASTE PRODUCTION / PREVENTION ISSUES: FOOD SERVICE: RECYCLING

OPPORTUNITY SOURCE REDUCTION

Reusable plastic totes

Use reusable plates, cups, utensils

Reuse plastic 5-gallon buckets

Reduce packaging

Reuse cardboard boxes

Reduce paper towel use

Paper take-out containers

Food donation

In progress Not in progress, but material or opportunity is present Not applicable; materials not present or in small quantities or procedures not used or are a minor part of Activity

AC T I V I T I E S [ 079 ]


WASTE PREVENTION OPPORTUNITIES At virtually all of the establishments that were visited, significant waste prevention and reduction opportunities were seen in the following areas; Food waste composting: food waste arises from ordering, storage, preparation and portion control practices. All of the establishments that were visited for this study exhibited a keen interest in saving money (thereby preventing waste) by ordering no more than necessary. However, this was counteracted to a degree by the need to keep enough ingredients on hand to serve all customers in a somewhat unpredictable marketplace. Inevitably, some food products are unused and must be discarded. Additional food waste is generated during preparation; meat scraps are usually taken by a renderer, but vegetables, breads, etc. are discarded unless separate collection for composting is known to be available. Portion size standards vary among restaurants, but regardless of the standard, uneaten food occurs and is discarded. [[[[[ Most of this food could be separated for a composting service when plates are prepared for washing. Only one of the visited restaurants recycled food waste, but most expressed interest, Food donation: unused foods, especially those with longer shelf lives, could be donated to food banks, shelters and related programs. A method for transporting these foods to end users appears to be needed, Reusable produce containers: The cardboard boxes that hold produce travel from packing shed to wholesaler to restaurant supplier to (finally) the restaurant itself, where they must be disposed or recycled. Restaurant suppliers could use returnable plastic totes, and the totes might be most easily used for mixed or partial orders. It will be important for such totes to nest in order to conserve space. A number of other opportunities for waste reduction were apparent at many of the sites visited. [[[[[ Because the sites have little control over the amounts of packaging that they receive, the major opportunities were generally related to increasing recycling, rather than waste prevention. Those opportunities included; Recycle all paper including mixed paper and cardboard, Purchase paper products and take-out containers with recycled content, Recycle all bottles and cans, Reduce level of service for refuse disposal and increase for recycling, Educate employees about recycling programs, Improve recycling signage and labels on bins. Packaging not typically recycled included 5-gallon buckets, film plastic, mixed paper, plastic containers, and metal food cans.

[ 080 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


[[[[[ Most cities offer recycling services that include plastic and metal containers; however, these were not usually recycled by the restaurant, either by choice or due to a lack of information. It was also noted that the use of a compactor-type refuse container severely constrained space in the very area where space is needed for source separation at the restaurant. Programs promoting source separation at restaurants (or any highly space-constrained business) should begin by determining if a compactor is in use, and if it can be eliminated to free up space. The economics of this change can be positive or negative and depend strongly on the net costs of all waste related services. One of the sites that was visited obtained some of their cooked foods from a central kitchen. This type of arrangement shifts the focus for waste prevention back to that kitchen, which is analogous to the distribution center serving a chain of retailers. There may be additional opportunities for waste prevention with this system; a larger kitchen might be able to require its suppliers to use less packaging, and it may be able to backhaul recyclable, “donatable� and compostable materials to a central location, saving space at its satellite restaurants. If a trend toward central kitchens emerges, it is suggested that this be investigated further.

AC T I V I T I E S [ 081 ]


[ 082 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


FIG 17. WASTE PRODUCTION / PREVENTION ISSUES: FOOD SERVICE: RECYCLING

OPPORTUNITY

R s trt 1

R s trt 2

R s trt 3

R s trt 4

RECYCLING

Re cycle mixe aper Recycle mixedd ppaper

Re cycle aaluminum lu min u m ca ns Recycle cans

R e cycle glass g la ss Recycle

R e cycle ste e l ca ns Recycle steel cans

R e cycle ca rd b o a rd Recycle cardboard

Recycle film plastic

Co mp o st food fo o d wa st e Compost waste

Imp ro ve re cyclin g sig nage Improve recycling signage

In progress Not in progress, but material or opportunity is present Not applicable; materials not present or in small quantities or procedures not used or are a minor part of Activity

AC T I V I T I E S [ 083 ]


AC T I V I T I E S [ 085 ]


ISSUES COMMON TO SEVERAL ACTIVITIES


INTRODUCTION In visits to about 90 establishments throughout the County, several issues that relate to waste prevention were noticed in a wide variety of contexts. The breadth of distribution of these issues suggests that they should be kept in mind throughout SRRB’s planning and program development processes. Descriptions of these issues are provided below. LEVEL OF CONTROL BY CORPORATE PARENT Many businesses, particularly in retail, manufacturing and food service, are one of several operations managed by a corporate “parent.” In most cases the parent sets standards for the quality of products and services, and the parent often defines operating procedures, sources of material, and other details that directly affect materials management at the business. Some of the larger parent corporations make all arrangements for disposal and recycling by contracting with a regional or nationwide services broker. This approach can enhance or diminish a local business’ waste prevention efforts. For example, the regional management of Retail 4 stores has arranged for a centralized pallet exchange to provide and maintain all pallets throughout the region. Regardless of local managers’ priorities and distractions, pallets are provided, repaired, returned to the Distribution Center for reuse, and recycled at end of life. [[[[[ On the down side, the corporate parent is less likely to take up or support waste prevention measures suggested by a local branch, and branches are passively or actively discouraged from taking a “do it yourself” approach with new ideas. For example, the local manager of the Rstrt 4 restaurant in Hayward has quietly put some waste reduction measures into place but must comply with the corporate procedure to provide paper, not cloth, napkins during lunch. Ultimately the issue for the SRRB is that when a regional corporate parent sets a targeted company’s standards, the agency loses some of its power to persuade and provide incentives.


VALUE SYSTEMS OF COMPANIES AND INDIVIDUALS Pre-existing value systems, whether articulated by company founder/policy or by key individuals, play a clearly significant role at many companies. These values-based commitments provide a background against which different standards of “normal” are apparent at each company. (The based, financially based, or both.) At these Efficient/ Conserver companies, it is expected that people will not waste. In some cases, this shows up as a rigorous process control practice (e.g., Printer 3); in some cases, it shows up as people noticing small things. In all cases, it seems a relatively intangible value, one that can be affected by training/communication/signage, but which seems to depend more fundamentally on a basic commitment from founders, owners or management to set the context for the company. AVAILABILITY OF PROGRAMS Differences in the waste prevention and recycling programs offered from city to city inhibits waste reduction in several ways. First, there is the direct effect of the lack of service: in cities with food waste collection, for example, the infrastructure is in place for establishments to divert substantial quantities of this material; in cities without food waste collection, this opportunity does not exist. Second, the inconsistency across the region hinders full participation from regional multi-site companies. Regional managers, pressed for time, will focus on issues that are region wide and neglect resources that are only available at some locations, or that have inconsistent requirements across the region. More consistent provision of services throughout the County would simplify managers’ understanding of their options. This principle is as applicable to waste prevention technical

[ 088 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


support as it is to more traditional recycling programs. If a regional manager can be assured of receiving advice that is valid in most or all of the County, they will be more receptive to technical support, and their learning curves and their directives to staff will be greatly simplified. In site visits, this was especially apparent when dealing with chain retailers and restaurants, but it is no less valid for large corporations or manufacturers that have operations in several cities. COMMON SITE-SPECIFIC CONSTRAINTS Staging of materials for reuse or for recycling requires allocation of space, and space is often in short supply. There is a noticeably higher participation and utilization rate when collection containers are placed convenient to workstations. The cost of service was found to be another constraint to source reduction opportunities, but in an unexpected way. Because of the relatively low cost of waste disposal in most establishments’ cost structures, waste management rarely gets priority attention. Source reduction initiatives are more likely to be driven by the cost of materials, by labor and space savings, or by an establishment’s values, rather than by savings on their waste hauling services.

I S S UE S [ 089 ]


COMPOSITE MATERIALS The engineering properties of composite materials provide such strong advantages that they are implemented with little thought for the waste prevention implications. One example of this was described in the Contamination issue, above. As another example, the large insulated cartons used to ship temperature sensitive materials to and from biological process labs combine the strength of a corrugated cardboard shell and liner with insulating properties from a polyurethane foam core. Because the foam is injected between the cardboard shells when still liquid, it is glued to the cardboard, creating a nonrecyclable carton. Cryovac plastic film is widely used to package and help preserve food products. It is heavily used by meat suppliers and processors, including at least one food manufacturer observed for this study. However, the emerging film plastics market finds Cryovac virtually impossible to process, because it is a laminate of several plastic films with distinct properties. Attempts to process this film by the usual method of melting at a controlled temperature are frustrated by the fact that some layers of the laminate become heat damaged before others have fully melted. This inhibits plastic film recyclers from establishing diversion programs with food manufacturing plants, even though these plants produce substantial amounts of film. Virtually every business sector provides examples of composite materials that provide short-term advantages at the expense of reusability or recyclability. “Wooden� doors with foam cores and particle board cabinetry are two examples of materials that are difficult to reuse because their size generally cannot be adjusted. Perhaps the ultimate example of a composite material with a short life span and limited further use is the computer upon which this report is being written. The challenge is to use these materials in ways that provide a net savings of resources, and the secondary challenge is to reliably measure such resource use.

[ 090 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


I S S UE S [ 091 ]


I S S UE S [ 093 ]


INDEX

[ 094 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


A Accommodation

14, 35

Administrative

10, 12

B Baseline data

39

Basic level

28

Benefits

22

Bottles Boxes Branding Business type

28, 32, 54 20 11, 15 32

C California integrated waste management board

31

Canned foods

40

Cans

23

Cardboard

18

Catalyzation

75

Chain stores

33

Commercial

19

Composite

21

Composite materials

65

Constraints

38

Construction

24

Consumer

14

Containers

60

Contamination

27

Controls

10, 17

I N DE X [ 095 ]


Corporate policy

23

Cost savings

31

Cryovac plastic film

28

D Disposal Distribution center Donate Dry goods Dun and bradstreet

17, 19, 20, 23, 35 41,42 8 22, 24 13

E Ecology

10

Educational services

39

Effective

48

Engineering

23

EPA

27

Expedience

12

F FDA

51

Film

22

Film plastics

31, 32, 48

Food banks

11

Food donation

14

Food production

24

Food service

34

G Goal

17

Good manufacturing practices (GMPs)

20

[ 096 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


H Hayward

22, 82

Hazardous material

48

Health care

27

I I-Market

7, 10, 75

In-Depth

22, 24

Industrial

61

J Jacks

10

K Key

48

L Local retailers

27

M Major materials

63

Manufacturing

51

Materials

22

Materials costs

31, 32

Materials data

14

Measure D

24

Meats

84

Methods

10, 15

Mixed paper

20

Multi-site businesses

27

N Net labor costs

67

I N DE X [ 097 ]


Non-products

41

Non-residential wastes

32

North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)

22

O Optimization

37

Order picking

39

P Packaging

23

Phone survey

27

Plastic totes

12

Polyurethane foam core

41

Preserved foods

51

Prevention

22

Printers

43, 45

Printing activities

11

Process related data

14

Producers

24

Production

38

Publishing

20, 33, 40

Purchasing

71

Q Quality Control (QC)

58

R Raw materials

28

Receiving

21

Regional

33

Response rate

[ 098 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N

41,42


Restaurants Retail activities

10 21, 25, 30

Retail trade

18

Retailers

11

Reusable

61

S Sanitation

23

Scientific

48

Seafood

12

Services data

25

Shelters

51

Shipping

22

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)

31, 32, 48

Site visits

11

Skumatz Economic Research Associates (SERA)

72

Social assistance

24

Soft drinks

48

Standard industrial classification (SIC)

17

Stop waste

10

Storage

38

Stretch wrap

21

Styrofoam

28

Surplus

17

T Technical services

41,42

Technical support

18

Telephone survey

24

I N DE X [ 099 ]


Time related data

56

Transportation

13

U United States Census Bureau

74

W Warehousing

48

Waste management authority

47

Waste reduction

20, 34, 46, 54, 67

Wastewater

60

Weight based disposal study

14

Wholesale trade

51

[ 100 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


I N DE X [ 101 ]


[ 102 ] WA S T E P ROD U CTI O N


CONTAINMENT WASTE PRODUCTION IN ALAMEDA COUNTY BOOK DESIGN, INFORMATION DESIGN, AND PHOTOGRAPHY BY CANDICE TANU TYPEFACE USED IS UNIVERS LIGHT CONDENSED AND UNIVERS BOLD CONDENSED CREATED IN ADOBE INDESIGN, ADOBE PHOTOSHOP, AND ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR PRINTED BY H&H IMAGING IN SAN FRANCISCO, CA BOUND BY THE KEY PRINTING AND BINDING IN OAKLAND, CA

[ 103 ]


Containment Waste  

Compiled and designed by Candice Tanu

Advertisement