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A BOOK OF TYPOGRAPHICAL EXERCISES BY CANDACE HOECKLEY


YOUR MISSION Congratulations on your promotion, D.O.G.I. Agent 0274. Now is your chance to protect not only the typography within the United States of America, but typography all over the world. We believe someone has hidden a secret message throughout this book of typographical exercises and we need you to crack the code. These exercises feature words that you need to locate and track in order to correctly interpret the hidden message. The message can be filled in on the last page. As a thank you for your service to your country, you will find a sealed envelope in the back of the book with a small token of our gratitude. Good luck, agent.


OPERATIONS

Operation 1: Anatomy Operation 2: Minimalization Operation 3: Syntax Operation 4: Grid Operation 5: Layout Operation 6: Found Type


GARAMOND REGULAR 100 PT

4 3 2

6

9 7

5

10

1 8

1

6

2

7

3

8

4

9

5

10


Baseline

The invisible line in which the letters rest upon and are aligned to

Meanline

The line that runs across the top of the lowercase letters

Capline

The line that runs across the top of the uppercase letters

Serif

The little tapered corners that appear on the end of a stroke

Stroke

The main stroke of a letter

Crotch

The intersection in which two diagonal lines meet

Hairline

The thinnest stroke of a letter

Vertex

The intersection in which two diagonal lines meet at the bottom of a letter

Aperture

Also known as an open counter, it is the open area within a letter

X-height

The space between the baseline and the meanline that defines the height of a lowercase letter


STROKE COMPARISON The main strokes in the letter W often vary in typefaces styles. In serifs, they are usually thicker than the hairlines, but with sans serifs, they are often the same width as the hairlines. Notice how Didot has a dramatic difference between its hairline and main stroke width, while Helvetica has no variation.

Ww Ww Ww Ww BODONI 40 PT MODERN SERIF

DIDOT 40 PT

MODERN SERIF

FUTURA 40 PT

GEO. SANS SERIF

BASKERVILLE 40 PT

TRANS. SERIF

VERTEX COMPARISON The vertices in the letter W also vary quite frequently from typeface to typeface. Some are traditionally pointed, such as the vertices on Garamond, and some are more unique, such as with English. A transitional sans serif such as Helvetica, however, has a flat-bottomed vertex.

Ww Ww Ww Ww GARAMOND 40 PT DIDOT 40 PT OLD-STYLE SERIF

MODERN SERIF

HELVETICA 40 PT

TRANS. SANS SERIF

ENGLISH 40 PT

SCRIPT


APERTURE COMPARISON The letter W can have three to four apertures depending on the typeface. Notice how Garamond and Goudy, both old-style serifs, have four, while Didot and Helvetica, a modern serif and transitional sans serif respectively, only have three. This added aperture is a way to identify old-style serifs.

Ww Ww Ww Ww GARAMOND 40 PT DIDOT 40 PT OLD-STYLE SERIF

MODERN SERIF

HELVETICA 40 PT

TRANS. SANS SERIF

GOUDY 40 PT

OLD-STYLE SERIF

X-HEIGHT COMPARISON One factor that makes various typefaces unique and interesting is the x-height. Typefaces ranging from old-style serifs to transitional sans serifs can have drastically different x-heights, such as Garamond and Helvetica. Helvetica’s x-height is almost twice the size of Garamond’s.

w

w w

GARAMOND 40 PT HELVETICA 40 PT OLD-STYLE SERIF

TRANS. SANS SERIF

ROCKWELL 40 PT

SLAB SERIF

w AUGUSTA 40 PT BLACKLETTER


SHOULDER COMPARISON In most typefaces, the letter W has no shoulders since it is commonly composed of straight lines. In certain typefaces such as Bauhaus, however, shoulders suddenly appear and become one of the most prominent ways to distinguish certain typefaces from others.

Ww Ww Ww GARAMOND 40 PT BAUHAUS 40 PT OLD-STYLE SERIF

TRANS. SANS SERIF

ROUND 40 PT

NOVELTY

SWASH COMPARISON One factor that can make the letter W so distinctive is swashes, the decorative flourishes at the end of a stroke. Depending on the typeface, swashes can be simple or grandiose. The swashes of the following typefaces are all very different, ranging from thick to thin.

W W W W BRUSH SCRIPT 40 PT ALLURA 40 PT SCRIPT

SCRIPT

ARIZONIA 40 PT SCRIPT

ALEX BRUSH 40 PT SCRIPT


STROKE TAPERING COMPARISON With well-made and high quality fonts required for good typography, tiny optical adjustments are made to make the letter look perfect to the naked eye. The strokes of the letter W are often adjusted to taper in very slightly towards the vertex to make it look correct. Look at the top of the stroke and the crotch it ends at to notice.

Ww Ww

KABEL 40 PT

GEO. SANS SERIF

TIMES 40 PT

TRANS. SANS SERIF

Ww Ww

FUTURA 40 PT GEO. SANS SERIF

HELVETICA 40 PT

TRANS. SANS SERIF


OVERHANG COMPARISON The strokes of the letter W are also often adjusted to extend above the capline and below the baseline to make the letter look visually correct. While serifs tend to have more modest overhangs, sans serifs such as Futura and Helvetica have very dramatic and noticeable overhangs.

Ww Ww GARAMOND 40 PT OLD-STYLE SERIF

TIMES 40 PT

TRANS. SERIF

Ww Ww

FUTURA 40 PT GEO. SANS SERIF

HELVETICA 40 PT

TRANS. SANS SERIF


APEX COMPARISON An apex is an upside down vertex and can vary in location within the W depending on the typeface style. In old-style serifs, they often sit below the crotch and in the very center of the W. In transitional and modern serifs, they are a bit higher, and in sans serifs, they are right at the very top.

Ww Ww Ww Ww GARAMOND 40 PT OLD-STYLE SERIF

TIMES 40 PT

TRANS. SANS SERIF

DIDOT 40 PT

MODERN SERIF

HELVETICA 40 PT

TRANS. SANS SERIF

CROTCH COMPARISON Crotches can vary in location depending on the typeface, and can also have multiple locations. In old-style serifs such as Garamond and some geometric sans serifs such as Kabel, there are four crotches, while modern serifs and other geometric sans serifs such as Didot and Futura have three.

Ww Ww Ww Ww GARAMOND 40 PT OLD-STYLE SERIF

TIMES 40 PT

GEO. SANS SERIF

DIDOT 40 PT

MODERN SERIF

HELVETICA 40 PT

GEO. SANS SERIF


ARM COMPARISON As with shoulders, arms are not often found in the letter W, unless you focus almost exclusively on old-style serif fonts. While often debated, arms are considered to be the smaller strokes that emerge from the crotch, essentially the X of a W. Take a look at the arms of these W’s.

Ww Ww Ww Ww GARAMOND 40 PT GOUDY 40 PT OLD-STYLE SERIF

OLD-STYLE SERIF

KABEL 40 PT

GEO. SANS SERIF

BODONI 40 PT MODERN SERIF

MODERN SERIF COMPARISON Not all serif typefaces are created exactly alike and there is a major difference to be found between old-style and modern serifs. Typically, old-style serifs have less contrast in their stem/hairline width, while modern serifs have more contrast since they were made more for pizazz.

Ww Ww Ww DIDOT 40 PT

MODERN SERIF

BODONI 40 PT MODERN SERIF

BELL 40 PT

MODERN SERIF


GEO. SANS SERIF COMPARISON If you thought transitional sans serif typefaces were geometric, say hello to geometric sans serifs. While fairly similar in appearance due to both having uniform stroke widths, geometric sans serifs are based on the proportions of geometric shapes and often feel very modern.

Ww Ww Ww FUTURA 40 PT

GEO. SANS SERIF

KABEL 40 PT

GEO. SANS SERIF

BAUHAUS

GEO. SANS SERIF

TRANS. SANS SERIF VS. HUMANIST SANS SERIF As with serifs, neither are all sans serifs created exactly alike. The differences between transitional and humanist sans serifs are that humanists are more human-looking, rounder, and more elegant, while transitionals tend to be more uniform and plain in appearance.

Ww Ww Ww Ww GARAMOND 40 PT ARIAL 40 PT TRANS. SANS SERIF

TRANS. SANS SERIF

OPTIMA 40 PT

TREBUCHET MS 40 PT

HUMANIST SANS SERIF HUMANIST SANS SERIF


TYPEFACE WITH LEGIBILITY ISSUES Blackletter, the oldest of all typeface classifications, is famous for having legibility issues. While very ornate, the letters often do not match with what they are supposed to look like, such as with the typeface Augusta. Notice how the lowercase w looks like an n with a swash.

Ww Ww HELVETICA 40 PT TRANS. SANS SERIF

AUGUSTA 40 PT

BLACKLETTER

FONT FAMILY COMPARISON A font family is designed to have varying styles while still retaining the proportions and look of the font it was based on. Helvetica, for example, has 6+ different styles in its font family, so as a designer, you can use the same font family while still maintaining consistency and variety.

(FROM LEFT TO RIGHT) LIGHT, LIGHT ITC, REGULAR, ITC, MEDIUM, BOLD, BOLD ITC


THE LETTER W AND COPYCATS Typeface designers have their work cut out for them when designing beautiful typefaces. So they often reuse a few pieces of typeface anatomy if they can. This reuse also promotes consistency within a typeface. In Garamond, the uppercase V and lowercase v and y are used. In Futura, only the lowercase v is used. In Bauhaus, however, the uppercase M, the lowercase m, and the lowercase u are used. Curiously, the lowercase n has slightly different proportions and was therefore not used.

WW V w wv w

GARAMOND 40 PT OLD-STYLE SERIF

ww v wv

FUTURA 40 PT GEO. SANS SERIF

WWwwu ww GEO. SANS SERIF

m

BAUHAUS 40 PT


MINIMALIZED BY SHAPES

The letter “X” is very distinctive in how it has two stems and four crotches. However, the four crotches are not necessary for the letter to be recognized. Here is the letter “X” minimalized with an exclamation point straight down the middle. BEBAS 240 PT


The lowercase “R,” however, is more recognizable for its shoulder that intersects with the stem. Emphasizing this shoulder, here is a lowercase “R” minimalized by a circle while still maintaining its legibility. OLD SANS BLACK 315 PT


MINIMALIZED BY OTHER LETTERS

The uppercase letter “E” is very unique since it is the only letter with three completely parallel arms. Therefore, it is known for those arms. Here is the letter “E” minimalized by the letter “V,” which cuts out all three of the arms, leaving only the serifs and a portion of the stem.

DIDOT 240 PT


In its simplest form, the lowercase letter “d” is only a bowl and a stem. While the stem or the bowl may be removed entirely, this makes the letter illegible and causes the resulting shape to be any letter with a bowl or any letter with a stem. Here is the letter “D” crafted by minimalization through the letter “S,” snaking around, but not cropping out any important features.

GARAMOND 370 PT


MINIMALIZED BY SHAPE CROPPING

The uppercase letter “P” can be very similar to the lowercase letter “D,” but depending on which way the stem goes: up or down. By showing the stem going down, it is able to be seen as a “P.” Here is the uppercase “P” minimalized by being placed within a circle and showing only the stem protruding downward and the bowl.

COURIER 235 PT


While the uppercase letter “F” could be confused with the uppercase letter “E” if not minimalized correctly, the lowercase “F” is much more distinctive. Its curving shoulder attached to a stem and an arm below that is what makes an “F” recognizable. Here is a lowercase letter “F” minimalized by being placed within a polygon, cutting off the bottom of the stem and leaving the rest.

BAUHAUS 370 PT


ILLEGIBLE EXAMPLES

When you look at this minimalization, what do you see? An uppercase or lowercase “X?” An uppercase or lowercase “Y?” It could be any of those options. Here is an example of the uppercase letter “Y” being minimalized within a square incorrectly, leaving the viewer unsure of which letter it could be.

COURIER 180 PT


In regards to the fact that bowls and stems are used to make up uppercase and lowercase letters “B” and “P,” and lowercase letter “D,” this could be any of those options, including the letter “O.” Here is an example of a lowercase “O” that could very plausibly represent the bowl of any letter with a bowl.

FUTURA 220 PT


times 7/15 Bring the margins into the design. Bring the design into the margins. Mark the reader’s way. Don’t restate the obvious. Use a modular scale to subdivide the page. Improvise, cal-

helvetica 7/9

culate, and improvise some more. Abandon any and all rules of hyphenation and pagination that fail to serve the needs of the text. Don’t permit the titles to oppress the text. Set titles and openings in a form that contributes to the Avoid over punctuating lists. Set lists and columns of figures to align flush overall design. Mark each right or on the decimal. For text and other matter, choose harmonious beginning and and legible tabular alignments. If the text is meant to invite continuous resumption of reading, set it in columns that are clearly taller than wide. Shape the type the text. Set headings in block so that it balances and contrasts with the shape of the overall page. a form that contributes to ghandi serif 7/12 the style of the whole. Use as many levels of headings as you need: no more and no fewer. Edit tables with the same attention given to the text, and set them as text to be read.


Typography exists to honor content. Letters have a life and dignity of their own. Read the text before designing it. Discover the outer logic of the typography in the inner logic of the text. Choose a typeface or a group of faces that will honor the character of the text. minion 10/12

garamond 7/12 Shape the page and frame the text block so that it honors and reveals every element, every relationship between elements, and every logical nuance of the text. Choose a basic leading that suits the typeface, text and measure. Do not indent the first paragraph of a story. In continuous text, mark all paragraphs after the first with an indent of at least one em. At hyphenated line ends, leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward.

calibri 7/9 Avoid leaving the stub-end of a hyphenated word, or any word shorter than four letters, as the last line of a paragraph. Avoid more than three consecutive hyphenated lines. Hyphenate proper names only as a last resort unless they occur with the frequency of common nouns. Hyphenate according to the conventions of the language. Avoid beginning more than two consecutive lines with the same word. Never begin a page with the last line of a multi-line paragraph.


avant garde 10/15

Typography exists to honor content. Letters have a life and dignity of their own. Read the text before designing it. Discover the outer logic of the typography in the inner logic of the text. Choose a typeface or a group of faces that will honor the character of the text. Shape the page and frame the text block so that it honors and reveals every element, every relationship between eleD o n ’t ments, and every logical nuance use a font you of the text. Choose a basic leaddon’t need. Use sloped Romans sparingly and artifiing that suits the typeface, text cially sloped Romans more sparand measure. Do not indent ingly still. If you wish to use text figures and small caps, choose faces the first paragraph of a story. actually designed to be with them. rockwell 7/5/9

Change one parameter at a time. Use the best available ampersand.


Consider bold faces on their own merits. Choose titling and display faces that reinforce the structure of the text face. Pair serif and sans serif faces on the basis of their inner structure. Choose your library of faces slowly and well. Don’t compose without a scale. Refer typographical disputes to the higher courts of speech and thinking. Consider the proportions of the page and proportions of the typeface before choosing a size set within a standard. To the marriage of type and text, both parties bring their cultural Consider bold faces presumptions, dreams on their own merits. and family obligations. Choose titling and display faces that reinforce the structure of the text face. Pair serif and sans serif faces on the basis of their inner structure. Choose your library of faces slowly and well. Don’t compose without a scale. optima 9.5/12

perpetua 11.5/12

Adjust the type and the spaces within the type block using typographic increments, but rely on free proportions to adjust the empty space. Keep the page design supple enough to provide a livable home for the text. Consider the medium for which the typeface was originally designed. When using digital adaptations of letterpress faces, choose fonts that are faithful to the spirit as well as the letter of the old designs. Check the weight and conformation of the letterforms at every proofing stage. minion 8.5/9


georgia 7/12 Avoid more than three consecutive hyphenated lines. Hyphenate proper names only as a last resort unless they occur with the frequency of common nouns. Hyphenate according to the conventions of the language. Avoid beginning more than two consecutive lines with the same word. Never begin a page with the last line of a multi-line paragraph. Avoid hyphenated breaks

news gothic 6.2/12

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Hyphenate according to the conventions of the language. Avoid beginning more than two consecutive lines with the same word. Never begin a page with the last line of a multi-line paragraph. Avoid hyphenated breaks where the text is interrupted. Abandon any and all rules of hyphenation and pagination that fail to serve the needs of the text. bell 8/9

gill sans 7/12 Edit tables with the same attention given to the text, and set them as text to be read. Avoid over punctuating lists. Set lists and columns of figures to align flush right or on the decimal. For text and other matter, choose harmonious and legible tabular alignments. If the text is meant to invite continuous reading, set it in columns that are clearly taller than wide.

Don’t permit the titles to oppress the text. Set titles and openings in a form that contributes to the overall design. Mark each beginning and resumption of the text. Set headings in a form that contributes to the style of the whole. Use as many levels of headings as you need: no more and no fewer. justus 11/15


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o the marriage of type and text, both parties bring their cultural presumptions, dreams and family obligations. Accept them. Don’t use a font you don’t need. Use sloped Romans sparingly and artificially sloped Romans more sparingly still. If you wish to use text figures and small caps, choose faces actually designed to be with them. Change one parameter at a time. Use the best available ampersand. Consider even the lowly hyphen. Use spaced em dashes rather than spaced en dashes or hyphens to set off phrases. Use close set en dashes or three-to-em dashes between digits to indicate a range. Use the

em dash to introduce speakers in narrative dialogue. Don’t use a numeral, a /, and then a numeral as a fraction. Use a fraction. Use a dimension sign rather than a serif x when dimensions are given. Use ellipses that fit the font. Minimize the use of quotation marks, especially with Renaissance faces. Hang quotation marks when needed. Eliminate other unnecessary punctuation. Check the type at every stage. Follow the work to the printer. Consult the ancestors. Look after the low as well as the high technology end. Typography exists to honor content. Letters have a life and dignity of their own. Read the text before designing it.


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When using digital adaptations of letterpress faces, choose fonts that are faithful to the spirit as well as the letter of the old designs. Check the weight and conformation of the letterforms at every proofing stage. Choose faces that suit the paper you intend to print on, or paper that

suits the faces you wish to use. Choose faces that suit the task as well as the subject. Choose faces that can furnish whatever special effects you require. Use what there is to the best advantage. Choose a face whose historical echoes and associations are in harmony with

the text. Allow the face to speak in its natural idiom. Choose faces whose individual spirit and character is in keeping with the text. Start with a single typographic family. Respect the integrity of roman, italic, and small caps. Consider bold faces on their own merits.

Choose titling and display faces that reinforce the structure of the text face. Pair serif and sans serif faces on the basis of their inner structure.


Use the best available ampersand. Consider even the lowly hyphen. Use spaced em dashes — rather than spaced en dashes or hyphens — to set off phrases. Use close set en dashes or three-to-em dashes between digits to indicate a range.Use the em dash to introduce speakers in narrative dialogue. Don’t use a numeral, a /, and then a numeral as a fraction. Use a fraction.

Use a dimension sign rather than a serif x when dimensions are given. Use ellipses that fit the font. Minimize the use of quotation marks, especially with Renaissance faces. Hang quotation marks when needed. Eliminate other unnecessary punctuation. Check the type at every stage. Follow the work to the printer. Consult the ancestors. Look after the low as well as the high technology end.


Avoid hyphenated breaks where the text is interrupted. Abandon any and all rules of hyphenation and pagination that fail to serve the needs of the text. Don’t

permit the titles to oppress the text. Set titles and openings in a form that contributes

to the overall design. Mark each beginning and resumption of the text. Set headings in a form that contributes to the style of the whole. Use as many levels of headings as you need: no more and no fewer. Edit tables with the same attention given to the text, and set them as text to be read. Avoid over punctuating lists. Set lists and col-

umns of figures to align flush right or on the decimal. For text and other matter, choose harmonious and legible tabular alignments. If the text is meant to invite continuous reading, set it in columns that are clearly taller than wide. Shape the type block so that it balances and contrasts with the shape of the overall page.


Improvise, calculate, and improvise some more. Adjust the type and the spaces within the type block using typographic increments, but rely on free proportions to adjust the empty space. Keep the page design supple enough to provide a livable home for the text. Consider the medium for which the typeface was originally designed. When using digital adaptations of letterpress faces, choose fonts that are faithful to the spirit as well as the letter of the old designs.

Check the weight and conformation of the letterforms at every proofing stage. Choose faces that suit the paper you in– tend to print on, or paper that suits the faces you wish to use. Choose faces that suit the task as well as the subject. Choose faces that can furnish whatever special effects you require. Use what there is to the best advantage. Choose a face whose historical echoes and associations are in harmony with the text. Allow the face to speak in its natural idiom. Pair serif and sans serif faces on the basis of their inner structure.


P, NOVELTY, MY PARENTS' HOUSE As I was visiting my parents in Panama City Beach, FL, I found this beautiful P in the form of one of the decorative chairs in their house. Due to its highly exaggerated bowl and counter in contrast to its normal sized stem, it is very reminiscent of a vintage display sans serif typeface such as Parisian. Due to its bowl not being a perfect circle, it does not seem to be a geometric sans serif and its overly large bowl also suggests that it is not a transitional sans serif.


Y, NOVELTY, DANDELION COMMUNITEA CAFE, ORLANDO On my journey to collect specimens of handwritten or handpainted type, I discovered a collection of handpainted signs which was even more interesting. The Y of the very bottom sign has a few swashes, which could place it in the script classification, but its red and white strokes along with the dots within the strokes places it distinctly into the novelty classification. Had it been a solid color with the same swashes and shape, it would have been an excellent example of a script.


B, NOVELTY, BROOKLYN BRIDGE, NYC As I was looking through the pictures I had taken for this assignment, I discovered this gem of an M on the Brooklyn Bridge that was still on my camera from when I visited NYC last summer. I would consider it to be a novelty typeface due to its highly stylized nature. It has modified shoulders due to its flat top, Gothic-esque arches as modified counters, and a very bold, stocky feel due to its wide stems and shoulders.


A, NOVELTY, DRUNKEN MONKEY COFFEE BAR, ORLANDO My first thought when it came to handwritten or handpainted type specimens was the Drunken Monkey Coffee Bar on Bumby Avenue due to its popular and well-known graffiti wall. I found this A highly interesting due to its modified cross bar. Cropping it so you could only see the crossbar and the bottoms of the stems would immediately turn it into a distinct M. Due to its highly stylized nature and rough edges, it is most definitely a novelty typeface within the grunge or graffiti categories.


E, SLAB SERIF, ALAFAYA DRIVE, ORLANDO I was driving around looking for natural forms of type in the world around us when I was stopped by a very long light on Alafaya Drive. I looked at the sunset and was surprised to see quite a few E’s hanging in front of me in the form of stoplights. Due to its thick, blocky feel, it seems to be closest to a slab serif. It also appears to be a bold or even black variation due to the very thin amount of space in between the arms of the E.


H, NOVELTY, COLONIAL DRIVE, ORLANDO Further along Colonial Drive, I spotted this interesting sign. At first, I though it was handpainted, but spotting an exact replica of the sign revealed that it was not. The H was my favorite letter of the bunch. Its swashes could place it into the script classification, but the handpainted look and exaggerated stem places it in the novelty classification. All of the strokes have varying thicknesses, which confirms its handpainted novelty classification.


K, NOVELTY, COLONIAL DRIVE, ORLANDO While driving past an auto shop on Colonial Drive, I spotted this handpainted van parked outside. The first thing I noticed was that its K was almost an exact replica of Special K’s K logo. The bulging ends of its strokes places it in the novelty classification, and even further into the retro classification. Its flowing and curved stem and top stroke move it firmly from the script classification and all sans serif classifications. It appears to be most like a handwritten novelty typeface and very much a display typeface.


W, SCRIPT, WOODBURY ROAD, ORLANDO A very short drive from my apartment complex yielded a beautiful W used as a decorative element on another apartment sign. As opposed to the other novelty typefaces with swashes, this W is clearly a script typeface due to its deliberate and purposeful stroke and swash thickness variation. Very thin strokes placed next to much thicker strokes add contrast and sophistication, while the swashes add a flowing elegance not achieved in most novelty typefaces.


A, SCRIPT, ALAFAYA TRAIL, ORLANDO A drive down Alafaya Drive provided this wonderful and unique A on an apartment sign. With swashes, flowing strokes, and a double crossbar with curved strokes, it is most definitely a script typeface. The terminals at the end of the crossbar and stem add an extra bit of elegance to the sign with decidedly less ornate lowercase letters. If cropped differently, this A could very easily be turned into an H, but the terminals convinced me to keep it an A.


M, MODERN SANS SERIF, COLONIAL DRIVE, ORLANDO A trip to fill up my car with gas at a Marathon gas station provided an excellent example of weathered type. At my pump, this M caught my eye due to its missing stems, vertices, and apexes. Due to these missing anatomical parts, had I not known it was supposed to be an M, I would have no way of recognizing it. Its legibility was severely diminished due to weathering. A closer look revealed a slight outline where the rest of the letter had been, but from far away, the rest of the letter would have not been visible at all.


O, OLD-STYLE SERIF, WOODBURY ROAD, ORLANDO The neighborhood adjacent to my apartment complex had an extremely weathered sign, so much so that I had a difficult time choosing a letter to discuss. This O, however, was the clear winner. It was distressed so much that an area of chipped paint could very well have once been a stroke that formed a Q. The letters surrounding it proved that it was not a Q, but on its own, it masquerades as a Q.


E, OLD-STYLE SERIF, MY CAR, ORLANDO The years-old Southern Mississippi sticker on my car had weathered the wind, rain, and hail, causing it to peel away. All of the E’s in the shot have peeled away so much that they could be B’s or E’s. Cropped down to just the letter E and no other frame of reference would make it very difficult to tell if each E was a B or an E due to its legibility problems.


E, TRANS. SANS SERIF, MY PARENTS' HOUSE A rubbing of the logo on my dad’s espresso machine provided an interesting look. Unfortunately, no legibility problems cropped up, but I noticed two distinctive looking E’s. Instead of a horizontal arm, its arm is rotated to form a diagonal. With a tiny eye and aperture, it contrasts greatly with the thick strokes of the rest of the letter.


C, SLAB SERIF, MY APARTMENT, ORLANDO I have a collection of old typewriter blocks of the letter C, so I chose this bold C to do a rubbing. Had I used a softer charcoal and not pressed as hard as I did, the open space that leads to the aperture very well might not have appeared. Had that happened, it would have formed an O.


E, MODERN SANS SERIF, HOBBY LOBBY, ORLANDO Hobby Lobby has quite a lot of signs and there I found a distinctive looking E in a sign for sale. A rubbing of it revealed stretched proportions and an unusual shaped eye and aperture. Its distorted proportions and little stroke width variation proves it to be a novelty font, particularly of the handwritten variety.


UNSCRAMBLE THE WORDS YOU FOUND TO REVEAL THE HIDDEN MESSAGE.

Type Secret: A Book of Typographical Exercises  

Student type book project consisting of 6 typographical exercises

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