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CANCER THERAPY

Volume 6 Number 2 December, 2008


CANCER THERAPY FREE ACCESS www.cancer-therapy.org

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Editor

Teni Boulikas Ph. D., CEO Regulon Inc. 715 North Shoreline Blvd. Mountain View, California, 94043 USA Tel: 650-968-1129 Fax: 650-567-9082 E-mail: teni@regulon.org

Teni Boulikas Ph. D., CEO, Regulon AE. Gregoriou Afxentiou 7 Alimos, Athens, 17455 Greece Tel: +30-210-9853849 Fax: +30-210-9858453 E-mail: teni@regulon.org

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Assistant to the Editor Maria Vougiouka B.Sc., Gregoriou Afxentiou 7 Alimos, Athens, 17455 Greece Tel: +30-210-9858454 Fax: +30-210-9858453 E-mail: maria@cancer-therapy.org

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Editorial Board

Ablin, Richard J., Ph.D., Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, USA Armand, Jean Pierre, M.D. Ph.D., European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), Belgium Aurelian, Laure, Ph.D., University of Maryland School of Medicine, USA Berdel, Wolfgang E, M.D., University Hospitals, Germany Bertino, Joseph R., M.D., Cancer Institute of New Jersey, USA Beyan Cengiz, M.D., Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Turkey Bottomley, Andrew, Ph.D., European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Data Center (EORTC), Belgium Bouros, Demosthenes, M.D., University Hospital of Alexandroupolis. Greece Cabanillas, Fernando, M.D, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, USA Castiglione, Monica, MHA, SIAK/IBCSG Coordinating Center, Switzerland Chou, Kuo-Chen, Ph.D., D.Sc., Pharmacia Upjohn, USA Chu, Kent-Man, M.D., University of Hong Kong Medical Center, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, China Chung, Leland W.K, Ph.D., Winship Cancer Institute, USA Coukos, George, M.D., Ph.D., Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, USA Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew, M.D., Ph.D., New York

Medical College, USA Der Channing, J. Ph.D, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, USA Devarajan, Prasad M.D., Cincinnati Children's Hospital, USA Dritschilo, Anatoly, M.D., Georgetown University Hospital, USA Duesberg, Peter H., Ph.D, University of California at Berkeley, USA El-Deiry, Wafik S. M.D., Ph.D., Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, USA Federico, Massimo, M.D. Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy Fiebig, Heiner H, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Germany Fine, Howard A., M.D., National Cancer Institute, USA Frustaci, Sergio, M.D., Centro di Riferimento Oncologico di Aviano, Italy Georgoulias, Vassilis, M.D., Ph.D., University General Hospital of Heraklion, Greece Giordano, Antonio, M.D., Ph.D., Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Temple University, USA Greene, Frederick Leslie, M.D., Carolinas Medical Center, USA Gridelli, Cesare M.D., Azienda Ospedaliera, "S.G.Moscati", Italy Hengge, Ulrich, M.D., Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Germany Huber, Christian M.D., Johannes-Gutenberg-


University, Germany Hunt, Kelly, M.D., The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, USA Kamen, Barton A., M.D. Ph.D, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, USA Kaptan, Kürsat, M.D., Gülhane Military Medicine Academy, Turkey Kazuma, Ohyashiki, M.D., Ph.D., Tokyo Medical University, Japan Kinsella, Timothy J. M.D., The research Institute of University Hospitals in Cleveland, USA Kmiec, Eric B, Ph.D., University of Delaware, USA Kosmidis Paris, M.D., "Hygeia" Hospital, Athens, Greece Koukourakis Michael, M.D., Democritus University of Thrace, Greece Kroemer, Guido, M.D. Ph.D., Institut Gustave Roussy, France Kurzrock, Razelle, M.D., F.A.C.P., M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, USA Leung, Thomas Wai-Tong M.D., Chinese University of Hong Kong, China Levin, Mark M.D., Sister Regina Lynch Regional Cancer Center, Holy Name Hospital, USA Lichtor, Terry M.D., Ph.D., Rush Medical College, USA Liebermann, Dan A., Ph.D., Temple Univ. School of Medicine, USA Lipps, Hans J, Ph.D., Universität Witten/Herdecke, Germany Lokeshwar, Balakrishna L., Ph.D., University of Miami School of Medicine, USA Mackiewicz, Andrzej, M.D., Ph.D., University School of Medical Sciences (USOMS) at Great Poland Cancer Center, Poland Marin, Jose J. G., Ph.D., University of Salamanca, Spain McMasters, Kelly M., M.D., Ph.D., University of Louisville, J. Graham Brown Cancer Center, USA Morishita, Ryuichi, M.D., Ph.D., Osaka University, Japan Mukhtar, Hasan Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, USA Ng, Eddie YK, Ph.D., Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Norris, James Scott, Ph.D., Medical University of South Carolina, USA Palu, Giorgio, M.D., University of Padova, Medical School, Italy Park, Jae-Gahb, M.D., Ph.D., Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea Perez-Soler, Roman M.D., The Albert Einstein Cancer Center, USA Peters, Godefridus J., Ph.D., VU University Medical Center (VUMC), The Netherlands Poon, Ronnie Tung-Ping, M.D., Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, China Possinger, Kurt-Werner, M.D., Humboldt University, Germany Rainov G Nikolai M.D., D.Sc., The University of Liverpool. UK Randall, E Harris, M.D., Ph.D., The Ohio State University, USA Ravaioli Alberto, M.D. Ospedale Infermi, Italy

Remick, Scot, C. M.D., University Hospitals of Cleveland, USA Rhim, Johng S M.D., Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, USA Schadendorf, Dirk, M.D., Universitäts-Hautklinik Mannheim, Germany Schmitt, Manfred, Ph.D., Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Germany Schuller, Hildegard M., D.V.M., Ph.D., University of Tennessee, USA Slaga, Thomas J., Ph.D., AMC Cancer Research Center (UICC International Directory of Cancer Institutes and Organisations), USA Soloway, Mark S., M.D., University of Miami School of Medicine, USA Srivastava, Sudhir, Ph.D., MPH, MS, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, USA Stefanadis, Christodoulos, M.D., University of Athens, Medical School, Greece, Stein, Gary S Ph.D., University Of Massachusetts, USA Tirelli, Umberto, National Cancer Institute, Italy Todo, Tomoki, M.D., Ph.D., The University of Tokyo, Japan van der Burg, Sjoerd H, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands Wadhwa Renu, Ph. D., Nat. Inst. of Advan. Indust. Sci. and Technol. (AIST), Japan Waldman, Scott A. M.D., Ph.D., USA Walker, Todd Ph.D., Charles Sturt University, Australia Watson, Dennis K. Ph.D., Medical University of South Carolina, Hollings Cancer Center, USA Waxman, David J., Ph.D., Boston University, USA Weinstein, Bernard I., M.D., D.Sci (Hon.), Columbia University, USA Werner, Jochen Alfred M.D., Philipps-University of Marburg, Germany Wieand, Harry Samuel Ph.D., National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP), USA Yamada, Akira Ph.D., Kurume University Research Center for Innovative, Japan Yu, Dihua M.D., Ph.D., The Univ. Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, USA Zagon, Ian, Ph.D., The Pennsylvania State University, USA


!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Associate Board Members

Chen, Jiguo, Ph.D, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, USA Chen, Zhong, M.D, Ph.D, National Institute of Deafness and other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, USA Dietrich Pierre Yves, Hopitaux Universitaires de GenFve Switzerland Jeschke Marc G, M.D., Ph.D. Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg. Germany Limacher Jean-Marc, MD Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France Los Marek J, M.D., Ph.D. University of Manitoba, USA Mazda Osam, M.D., Ph.D. Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Japan Merlin Jean-Louis, Ph.D Centre Alexis Vautrin, National Cancer Institute University Henri Poincaré France Okada Takashi, M.D., Ph.D. Jichi Medical School Japan Pisa Pavel, M.D, Ph.D. Karolinska Hospital, Sweden Squiban Patrick, MD Transgene SA France Taupin, Philippe, Ph.D., National University of Singapore, Singapore Tsuchida Masanori, M.D, Ph.D Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences Japan Ulutin, Cuneyt, M.D., Gulhane Military Medicine Academy, Turkey Xu Ruian, Ph.D., The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! For submission of manuscripts and inquiries: Editorial Office Teni Boulikas, Ph.D./ Maria Vougiouka, B.Sc. Gregoriou Afxentiou 7 Alimos, Athens 17455 Greece Tel: +30-210-985-8454 Fax: +30-210-985-8453 and electronically to maria@cancer-therapy.org


Instructions to authors: Cancer Therapy FREE ACCESS www.cancer-therapy.org

Scope This journal, bridging various fields is one of the most rapid with free access at www.cancertherapy.org. The scope of Cancer Therapy is to rapidly publish original and in-depth review articles on cancer embracing all fields from molecular mechanisms to results on clinical trials. Articles (both invited and submitted) review or report novel findings of importance to a general audience in cancer therapy, molecular medicine, gene discovery, and molecular biology with emphasis to molecular mechanisms and clinical applications. The journal will accept papers on all aspects of cancer, at the clinical, preclinical or cell culture stage on chemotherapy and new experimental drugs, gene discovery, cancer immunotherapy, DNA vaccines, use of DNA regulatory elements in gene transfer, cell therapy and drug discovery related to cancer therapy. The authors are encouraged to elaborate on the molecular mechanisms that govern a cancer therapy approach. To make the publication attractive authors are encouraged to include color figures. Type of articles Both review articles and original research articles will be considered. Original research articles should contain a generous introduction in addition to experimental data. The articles contain information important to a general audience as the volume is addressed to researches outside the field. There is no limit on the length of the articles provided that the subject is interesting to a general audience and covers exhaustively a field. The typical length of each manuscript is 12-60 manuscript pages (approximately 4-20 printed pages) plus Figures and Tables. Free of Charge publication, Complimentary reprints & Subscriptions There are no charges for color figures or page numbers. Corresponding authors get a one-year free subscription (hard copy) plus 25 reprints free of charge. The free subscription can be renewed for additional years by having one paper per year accepted for publication. Sections of the manuscript Each manuscript should have a Title, Authors, Affiliation, Corresponding Author (with Tel, Fax, and E-mail), Summary, and Introduction; review articles are subdivided into headings I, II, III, etc. (starting with I. Introduction) and subdivided into A, B, C, etc. You can further subdivide into 1, 2, 3, etc. Research articles are divided into Summary; I. Introduction; II. Results; III Discussion; Acknowledgments IV. Materials and Methods and References. Please include in your text citations the name of authors and year in parenthesis; for three or more authors use: (name of first author et al, with year); for two authors please use both names. Please delete hidden text for references. In the reference list, please, type references with year and Journal in boldface and provide full title of the article such as: Buschle M, Schmidt W, Berger M, Schaffner G, Kurzbauer R, Killisch I, Tiedemann J-K, Trska B, Kirlappos H, Mechtler K, Schilcher F, Gabler C, and Birnstiel ML (1998) Chemically defined, cell-


free cancer vaccines: use of tumor antigen-derived peptides or polyepitope proteins for vaccination. Gene Ther Mol Biol 1, 309-321. Please use Microsoft Word, font “Times” (Mac users) or “Times New Roman” (PC users) and insert Greek or other characters using the “Insert/Symbol” function in the Microsoft Word rather than simple conversion to font “Symbol”. Please boldface Figure 1, 2, 3 etc. as well as Table 1, 2, etc. throughout the text. Please provide the highest quality of prints of your Figures; whenever possible, please provide in addition an electronic version of your figures (optional). Corresponding authors are kindly requested to provide a color (or black/white) head photo of themselves (preferably 4x5 cm or any size), as we shall include these in the publication. Submission and reviewing Peer reviewing is by members of the Editorial Board and external referees. Please suggest 2-3 reviewers providing their electronic addresses, mailing addresses and telephone/fax numbers. Authors are being sent page proofs. Cancer Therapy (Volume 1, 2003) is published on high quality paper with excellent reproduction of color figures and electronically. Reviewing is completed within 5-15 days from receiving the manuscript. Articles accepted without revisions (i.e., review articles) will be published online (www.cancertherapy.org) in approximately 1 month following submission. Please submit an electronic version of full text and figures preferably in jpeg format. The electronic version of the figures will be used for the rapid reviewing process. High quality prints or photograph of the figures and the original with one copy should be sent via express mail to the Editorial Office. Citation in MedLine Articles accepted for publication by GTMB or Cancer Therapy can be included in MedLine (PubMed) as full articles upon the request of authors provided that the authors have completed their published work under a government grant by NIH (or EU/Japan government grant). If this is you case, please consult the NIH Manuscript Submission System http://www.nihms.nih.gov/. Editorial Office Teni Boulikas, Ph.D./ Maria Vougiouka, B.Sc. Gregoriou Afxentiou 7 Alimos, Athens 17455 Greece Tel: +30-210-985-8454 Fax: +30-210-985-8453 and electronically to maria@cancer-therapy.org The free electronic access to articles published in "Cancer Therapy" to a big general audience, the attractive journal title, the speed of the reviewing process, the no-charges for page numbers or color figure reproduction, the 25 complimentary reprints, the rapid electronic publication, the embracing of many fields in cancer, the anticipated high quality in depth reviews and first rate research articles and most important, the eminent members of the Editorial Board being assembled are prognostic factors of a big success for the newly established journal.


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Table of contents Cancer Therapy Vol 6 Number 2, December 2008

Pages

Type of Article

Article title

Authors (corresponding author is in boldface)

367-376

Research Article

Margot E. Kurtz, J Cleo Kurtz, Charles W. Given, Barbara Given

377-388

Review Article

Age and depressive symptomatology: impact on the relative effectiveness of two pain and fatigue control interventions among cancer patients Drug resistance in lung cancer

389-394,

Case report

Carcinosarcoma of endometrium: A case study with eleven DNA fluorescent in situ hybridization probes

Shamim A. Faruqi, Holly Prescott, Christopher Harsch, Harvey Spector, Joel S. Noumoff1

395-408

Research Article

William C. Dooley, Hernan I. Vargas, Alan J. Fenn, Mary Beth Tomaselli, Jay K. Harness

409-412

Case Report

Randomized Study of Preoperative Focused Microwave Phased Array Thermotherapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer Metachronous thyroid metastasis of primary rectal adenocarcinoma

413-420

Research Article

421-424

Research Article

425-438

Review Article

439-444

Review Article

445-456,

Review Article

457-462

Review Article

463-476

Review Article

477-490

Review

Outcome of Hispanics with colorectal cancer residing in Puerto Rico with access to adequate health care facilities: results are not inferior to USA or European caucasians Morphoeic type basal cell carcinoma of the perianal region: rare manifestation of a common disease Highlights from ASCO and ECCO 2007: Update on targeted treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma Functional and structural analysis of androgen receptors for anti-cancer drug discovery Actual role of multitargeted therapy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

Canine hemangiosarcoma: A tumor of contemporary interest Early breast cancer: A review The role of panitumumab in metastatic

Jozef !karda, Marian HajdĂşc, VĂ­t!zslav Kolek

Raffaele Longo, Francesco Torino, Roberta Sarmiento, Domenico Gattuso, Cinzia Bernardi, Giampietro Gasparini Luis Ignacio Echenique, Fernando Cabanillas, Viviana Freire, Ignacio A. Echenique

Sai Krishna Balakrishnan, Pankaj K Singh, Lucy Jane Smith, Vinay K Singh Robert J. Motzer

Zeina Nahleh

Alessandro Sciarra, Giovanni B. Di Pierro, Andrea Alfarone, Francesco Minisola, Alessandro Gentilucci, Stefano Salciccia, Luca Iannotta, Francesca Antonini, Cristiano Cristini, Franco Di Silverio, Vincenzo Gentile Stuart C. Helfand Kyriakos Kalogerakos, Chrisostomos Sofoudis, Nikolaos Baltayiannis Maria Anna Bareschino, Clorinda


Article

colorectal cancer

491-494

Case Report

Extrathyroidal anaplastic transformation

495-510

Review Article

511-536

Research Article

537-544

Review Article

545-552

Research Article

553-562

Research Article

563-570

Research Article

571-576,

Research Article

From here to eternity - the secret of Pharaohs: Therapeutic potential of black cumin seeds and beyond Analysis of gene expression profiles in the programmed cell death rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) Mouse mammary tumor virus: a cause of breast cancer in humans? Techniques for intratumoral chemotherapy of lung cancer by bronchoscopic drug delivery Dosimetric comparison of tomotherapy versus 4-field pelvic box altered fractionation radiotherapy treatment plans for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix Alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities and increased oxidative stress in cyclophosphamide- induced hemorrhagic cystitis in the rat Dosimetric evaluation of helical tomotherapy treatment planning for non-small cell lung cancer

577-596

Research Article

597-602

Review Article

603-610

Research Article

611-616

Research Article

617-622

Research Article

623-628

Research Article

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the pancreatoduodenal complex: A detailed review and development of new prognostic scoring system Contemporary management of adrenocortical carcinoma Disruption of Survivin in K562 cells elevates telomerase activity and protects cells against apoptosis induced by the Bcr-abl kinase inhibitor STI571 Efficacy of methotrexate as primary single agent therapy for non metastatic and low risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia at the University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital (UP-PGH) A Meta analysis assessment of bevacizumab in colorectal cancer inpatient to decide therapy with limited data Inhibition of endothelial cell adhesion and in vitro angiogenesis by Taurolidine

Schettino, Paolo Maione, Antonio Rossi, Dario Nicolella, Fortunato Ciardiello, Cesare Gridelli Todd Swanson, Senthilselvi Nanthakumar, Samuel Bugis, Sam M. Wiseman Subhash Padhye, Sanjeev Banerjee, Aamir Ahmad, Ramzi Mohammad, Fazlul H Sarkar Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Mohamed O. Buazza, Muad A. Maya, Nigel Cooper, Bryant A. Minnis Ish Ahmed, James R. Harvey, Simi Ali, John A. Kirby, Thomas WJ Lennard Firuz Celikoglu, Seyhan I Celikoglu, Eugene P Goldberg Don Yee, Robert Pearcey, George Dundas, John Hanson, Marc Mackenzie, Don Robinson, Colin Field, Lori Underwood, Raul Urtasun, Nadeem Pervez, B. Gino Fallone

Premila Abraham, Indirani Kanakasabapathy, Preethi Kulothungan Karen Chu, George Rodrigues, Slav Yartsev, A. Rashid Dar1, Edward Yu1,3, Robert Ash1, Brian Yaremko1, Marc MacKenzie, Harvey Quon, Glenn Bauman, Wilson Roa Raja R Gopaldas, Lori J Toedter, Sanford Dorman, Chand Rohatgi

Troy Guthrie Jr, Nikesh Jasani Zhanxiang Wang, Louis M. Pelus

Maria Stephanie Fay SamadanCagayan

Fabiana Rubba, Salvatore Panico, Patrizia Cuccaro, Antonio Della Vecchia, Maria Triassi Thomas Mรถhler, Martina WillhauckFleckenstein, Reinhard Schwartz-Albiez, Annette Merling, Hanns Mรถhler


629-646

Research Article

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Efficacy of Imaging Modalities in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): experience from a Phase III clinical study using tumor targeted Lipoplatin nanoparticles The role of percutaneous ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with breast cancer hepatic metastases

647-654

Research Article

655-664

Review Article

Antiestrogen therapy for Breast Cancer: An overview

665-672

Research Article

Detection of Epstein-Barr virus in Pediatric Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in Iran by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization

673-682

Research Article

683-686

Research Article

Conventional versus hyperfractionated radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer Efficacy of cancer treatment in Armenia: where is it going?

687-698

Review Article

Paraneoplastic syndromes in lung cancer

Stefanie Heinemann, Peter Zabel, HansPeter Hauber

699-706

Research Article

Luigi Vigorè, Fernando Brivio, Luca Fumagalli, Roberto Vezzo, Giusy Messina, Franco Rovelli, Massimo Colciago, Giovanna D’Amico, Giuseppe Di Fede, Paolo Lissoni

707-710

Case Report

711-728

Review Article

A clinical study of T-regulatory lymphocyte function in cancer patients in relation to tumor histotype, disease extention, lymphocyte subtypes and cortisol secretion An atypical tongue metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in a patient with metachronous hepatocellular carcinoma Chemotherapy in the treatment of primary liver tumours

Faye Lazarioti, Teni Boulikas

Gianpaolo Carrafiello, Domenico Laganà, Chiara Recaldini, Monica Mangini, Federico Fontana, Elisa Cotta, Maria Petullà, Raffaele Novario2, Salvatore Cuffari, Gianlorenzo Dionigi, Carlo Fugazzola Kishor S Kumar, Mahesh M.J Kumar Farzaneh Jadali, Abdollah Karimi, Fatemeh Fallah, Golareh Habibi, Ahmadreza Shamshiri, Atoosa Gharib, Mostafa Sharifian, Shahnaz Armin, Soraya Tabatabaii, Masumeh Mohkam, Zahra Chavoshizadeh, Reza Shiari, Saiid Fahimzad, Saiid Maham, Elham Mazaheri-Tehrani Azza Abd El-Naby, Aly Tawfek, Hala M. El-Shenshawy, Amal Halim, Rasha Hamdy Armen K. Nersesyan

Raffaele Longo, Daniela Baldini, Giampietro Gasparini

Jose J G Marin, Beatriz Castaño, Pablo Martinez-Becerra, Ruben Rosales, Maria J Monte


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 367! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 367-376, 2008

Age and depressive symptomatology: impact on the relative effectiveness of two pain and fatigue control interventions among cancer patients Research Article

Margot E. Kurtz1,*, J Cleo Kurtz2, Charles W. Given3, Barbara Given4 1

Department of Family and Community Medicine Department of Mathematics 3 Department of Family Medicine 4 College of Nursing, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA 2

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Margot E. Kurtz, PhD, Professor, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Michigan State University, B 211 West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA; Tel: 517.353.4732; Fax: 517.353.6613; e-mail: kurtzm@msu.edu Key words: pain; fatigue; cancer; intervention; depression; age Abbreviations: American Joint Committee on Cancer, (AJCC); automated telephone symptom management intervention, (ATSM); Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, (CES-D); nurse administered symptom management intervention, (NASM); Tumor, Node, Metastasis, (TNM) Received: 6 May 2008; Revised: 5 June 2008 Accepted: 11 June 2008; electronically published: June 2008

Summary Pain and fatigue are among the most frequently occurring symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. Numerous studies have described the impact these symptoms can have on patients’ physical and psychological functioning as well as quality of life throughout the trajectory of the cancer experience. Recent research has focused on different types of interventions to control cancer symptoms. Prominent among these are nurse administered interventions and automated telephone interventions. In this study we investigated whether, in the presence of high (low) depression at intake, a nurse administered symptom management intervention (NASM) was more effective than an automated telephone symptom management intervention (ATSM) in the reduction of cancer pain and fatigue. Secondly, we investigated whether NASM was more effective than ATSM in the reduction of cancer pain and fatigue among older versus younger patients. Three hundred fifty-one patients were recruited who had been diagnosed with a solid tumor cancer or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. These patients were randomly assigned to NASM (180) and ATSM (171). Separate ANCOVA models for predicting pain and fatigue showed that there was no difference in the effectiveness of NASM and ATSM in controlling either pain or fatigue, based on level of depression at intake. However, the ATSM intervention outperformed the NASM intervention in controlling severity of fatigue among younger patients, while NASM outperformed ATSM in controlling pain among older patients. These findings point in the direction that oncologists, when identifying the appropriate style of intervention for an individual patient, may need to determine, in consultation with the patient, which symptoms should receive the highest priority, and what approach would feel most comfortable to them, so that optimal symptom control can be achieved.

I. Introduction

1999; Given et al, 2001; Escalante 2003). Studies have indicated that during the six months following diagnosis, pain and fatigue seem to be the most problematic symptoms (Longman et al, 1997; Maquart-Moulin et al, 1999). The severity of these symptoms may be a function of the site and stage of the cancer, comorbidity, treatment regimen, or patient characteristics such as age and gender, and may change over time (Sarna 1993; Degner and Sloan

Pain and fatigue are among the most frequently occurring symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. Numerous studies have described the impact these symptoms can have on patients’ physical and psychological functioning as well as quality of life throughout the trajectory of the cancer experience (Portenoy et al, 1995; Groopman 1998; Jacobsen and Stein 367


Kurtz et al: Pain and Fatigue Control among Cancer Patients! symptom management intervention (ATSM) in the reduction of cancer pain and fatigue? 2. Is NASM more effective than ATSM in the reduction of cancer pain and fatigue among older versus younger patients?

1995; Pater et al, 1997; Stone et al, 1999; Redeker et al, 2000; Given et al, 2001, Kroenke 2001; Engel et al, 2003; Miaskowski 2004; Bower et al, 2006; Doorenbos et al, 2006a; Yoon et al, 2008). Pain and fatigue are prevalent particularly during chemotherapy, and some researchers suggest that their presence may add to the severity of other symptoms and increase the complexity of symptom management (Irvine et al, 1994; Miaskowski and Lee 1999; Given et al, 2001). The picture is further complicated, as patients with cancer experience considerable distress, and many manifest depressive symptoms in response to their illness (Dugan et al, 1998). As many as half of these patients may experience depressive symptomatology at a level that would qualify for clinical diagnosis (Hann et al, 1999), and this adds to the burden of treatment and may lead to more difficulty with general management and symptom control (Montazeri et al, 1998; Stommel et al, 2002, 2004). As observed by Maxwell in 2000, existing studies indicate a high prevalence rate and poor management of cancer pain in the elderly. In a recent retrospective study of cancer patients admitted to nursing homes, between 25% and 40% of these elderly cancer patients were found to experience daily pain, however 26% of those experiencing pain received no analgesia, and only 26% received morphine or its equivalent. Some of the barriers to good pain management in the elderly seem rooted in ageism. For example, elderly patients often underreport their pain because they expect pain to be a normal part of aging, or they do not wish to trouble their physician and be considered a “bad� patient. Bedeau and colleagues noted in 2004 that among cancer patients with pain, there were tendencies for younger persons to report more intense pain, and the elderly reported using more passive pain coping strategies. They indicated the need to develop interventions tailored to the unique characteristics of each age group. Recent research has focused on different types of interventions to control cancer symptoms (Given et al, 2002; Yates 2004; Doorenbos et al, 2006B; Godino et al, 2006; Sikorskii et al, 2006). Prominent among these are nurse administered interventions (Yates 2004; Sikorskii et al, 2006) and automated telephone interventions (Sikorskii et al, 2007). Sikorskii and colleagues compared in 2007 the effectiveness of a nurse administered symptom management intervention compared to an automated telephone symptom management intervention in controlling a composite of 17 cancer-related symptoms. The results suggested that while both interventions achieved a clinically significant reduction in symptom severity, neither was shown to be conclusively more effective overall than the other. This begs the question as to how these two types of interventions behave with prominent symptoms such as pain and fatigue, and with subgroups of patients (older versus younger, depressed versus not depressed). To address these questions we investigated the following: 1. In the presence of high (low) depression at intake, is a nurse administered symptom management intervention (NASM) more effective than an automated telephone

II. Materials and Methods A. Sample The study we are reporting, which focuses on control of the important symptoms pain and fatigue, uses data from a larger multifaceted longitudinal symptom control intervention involving cancer patients and their caregivers. This larger study included a random controlled trial focusing on a composite measure of a broad spectrum of cancer related symptoms, comparing a NASM intervention with an ATSM intervention, as well as a separate patient/caregiver intervention. Patients were recruited simultaneously for these studies from two comprehensive cancer centers, one community oncology program, and six hospital affiliated community oncology centers. Nurses were subcontracted from the participating institutions and trained to implement the recruitment and intervention protocols. In order to be eligible for the study, patients had to be: (1) 21 years of age or older, (2) have a diagnosis of a solid tumor cancer or non-Hodgkins lymphoma, (3) be currently undergoing chemotherapy (patients concurrently undergoing radiation therapy or surgery were excluded), (4) have a touchtone telephone, and (5) be able to speak and read English. Based on information in their medical records, 1605 cancer patients were eligible for the combined studies and were approached by nurse recruiters. Eight hundred fifteen expressed their willingness to participate by signing an informed consent form. Their socio-demographic information was entered into a web-based tracking system. An automated voice response version of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory was used during the recruitment phase to screen patients for symptom severity (Cleeland et al, 2000). According to established guidelines, a score of two or higher suggests a need for monitoring. Patients scoring two or higher on severity of at least one symptom (range 0 -10) were accepted into the study. Patients not scoring two or higher on any of the symptoms were called twice weekly for up to six weeks. Those failing to report a severity score of two or higher on any symptom were sent a letter thanking them for participation and were not entered into any of the studies. Of the 806 patients remaining, 257 had designated family caregivers and thus entered the patient/caregiver trial, 78 dropped out prior to entry and another 34 dropped out prior to the baseline interview, leaving 437 patients who completed the baseline interview. Of these, 219 were randomly assigned to the ATSM and the remaining 218 to the NASM. Figure 1 shows the accrual process and attrition in more detail. Informed consent procedures for the clinical intervention were approved by the appropriate university committee on research involving human subjects, as well as the institutional review boards of the individual recruitment sites.

368


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 369! skipped week five, were called in week six, skipped week seven, and received a final call in week eight. At 10 weeks all patients received a second interview to assess their status and measure the effectiveness of the interventions. A total of 75 patients dropped out between baseline and 10 weeks (34 from NASM and 41 from ATSM).

B. Intervention Patients accepted into both interventions underwent an intake interview and received a copy of a corresponding Symptom Management Guide (SMG) designed to accompany their intervention. Patients in both groups received a telephone call in each of the first four weeks,

Figure 1. Flowchart of Study Accrual and Attrition.

conditions (p=0.020), were more depressed (p=0.003) and were more likely to be suffering from late stage disease (p=0.007). !"# $%&"# "$'()# *+,'"-"# +.# $%-# ")/0$+/"# 01&.# 1.(# *1$&2'-3# 4-# (-",5&6-# $%-# &.$-57-.$&+."# 1"# $%-)# 5-81$-# $+# $%-"-# $4+# ")/0$+/"9# :%-# 01$&-.$"# &.# $%-# ;!<=#

The 351 patients who completed the 10 week intervention (either ATSM or NASM) formed the sample for this two-wave longitudinal study. A comparison of baseline information for those who dropped out, compared to those continuing in the study, revealed that those patients who dropped out reported more comorbid

369


Kurtz et al: Pain and Fatigue Control among Cancer Patients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n the ATSM intervention, the patients were queried on the severity of their pain and fatigue by a prerecorded pleasant female voice. Patients rated the severity of their pain and fatigue by pressing the appropriate numbers on their telephone keypads. For symptoms above threshold, patients were referred to the appropriate section of the SMG for information on strategies to manage that symptom. The ATSM was programmed so that on the subsequent contact, patients were asked whether they had tried the strategies suggested in the SMG, and if so, were they helpful in alleviating the symptoms. Patients could respond with numerical prompts using their telephone keypad. When the symptoms above threshold at the last contact had been reviewed, the system then elicited the current severity of pain and fatigue. Figure 2 contains examples of strategies available for moderate pain (severity level 4-6). In the NASM, the nurse intervened in the areas of teaching, prescribing, communication with the health care provider (HCP) and counseling and support. The right-hand column summarizes information on strategies for pain contained in the SMG used in the ATSM.

interview. Comorbid conditions were assessed at baseline as a count of comorbid conditions present, selected from a list of 15 comorbid conditions (diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, etc.) (Katz et al, 1996). For this study, we employed the !"#$%&' ($)*&' +*,-.,-./.' 0!(+1' .,-2/32' .4.,*# promulgated by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) in the United States. Determination of the stage involves consideration of a number of variables which are important for prognosis (e.g., extent of the tumor, histological type, differentiation, metastasis, etc.), and classifies tumors on a scale of 0-IV (0=localized…IV=distant metastasis) (Beahrs et al, 1992; Hermanek and Sobin 1992). To minimize the problem of small or empty cells in the analysis, stage was dichotomized into two groups: “early” (stages 0, I, II) and “late” (stages III, IV). Severity of the symptoms pain and fatigue was scored by patients on a scale ranging from 0 (not present) to 10 (worst possible) at the baseline interview, each of the six telephone contacts and the 10 week interview. Such 10-point scales are recommended in the National Cancer Care Network (NCCN) for measuring symptom severity (NCCN 2008), and are commonly used by physicians in the practice setting. Depressive symptomatology was measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) (Radloff 1977; Roberts and Vernon 1983). This is a well-established instrument used in population-based studies of depression, and has been used in many studies with cancer patients (Berry et al, 1984). The scale consists of 20 items, each scored on a scale of 0-3 (0=rarely/none of the time,..., 3=almost all of the time). The usual composite score was computed by summing the scores for the 20 items on the scale, with higher scores corresponding to greater depressive symptomatology. Respondents with a CES-D score of 16 or higher are commonly classified as depressed (Fechner-Bates et al, 1994). To establish a baseline for depressive symptomatology, patients were categorized at intake as either depressed (CES-D score 16 or higher), or not depressed (CES-D score less than 16).

D. Analysis As an initial step, basic descriptive statistics were computed for the socio-demographic variables as well as means and standard deviations for baseline values of all scale variables employed in the study. To investigate our research questions we used separate analysis of covariance models for predicting pain (respectively fatigue) based on intervention type, age group, baseline depression status, gender and stage of disease, as well as the interactions of intervention with depression status and intervention with age group, while adjusting for differences in the number of comorbid conditions and baseline severity of pain (respectively fatigue). Since the interaction of intervention with depression status did not approach significance for either pain or fatigue, this term was dropped from the models.

C. Measures Age, gender, cancer site and stage of disease were obtained from an audit of patients’ records, entered into the tracking system, and confirmed during the baseline

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 371! NASM Teach: !! Knowledge of pain management: prescriptive (administration, long vs. short-acting, break through pain treatment, OTC medications) !! Knowledge of pain management: non-prescriptive (ability to anticipate needs, barriers to pain control, alternative therapies) !! Problem solving strategies !! Coping strategies !! Stress importance of break through pain and HCP titrating medications for pain control Prescribe: !! Initiate prescriptive pain management !! Antiemetics !! Bowel management !! Other symptom management (fatigue, insomnia) Communicate with HCP: !! Bowel obstruction !! Inability to function/get out of bed !! Need for narcotic !! Pain uncontrolled with current medications !! Side effects of medication uncontrolled !! Rapidly progressing pain intensity Counsel and Support: !! Cognitive reframing !! Communicate and express feelings !! Coping strategies !! Optimistic thinking !! Uncertainty reduction

ATSM Tips to help manage your pain: !! Take your pain medication around the clock !! Try using heat or cold to your area of pain. Wrap your heating blanket or ice pack in a towel to protect your skin. !! Try using a journal or diary to keep track of your pain; this may help your doctor or nurse manage your pain too. What can family members and friends do to help me with my pain? !! Ask family members and friends to call your doctor if your pain medication is not helping to decrease your pain, or if your pain level is above 5. !! Ask them to remind you to take your pain medication as prescribed and stay on an even schedule, even through the night. What should I report to my doctor or nurse? !! How many hours per day you have pain, and how long the pain lasts after taking something for relief. !! Pain that is new or different from your last doctorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s visit. !! Pain along with fatigue, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal bloating. Where can I get more information? !! Contact a support group through local ACS office or cancer center. !! Call the American Cancer Society at: 1-800-ACS2345 or visit on the internet at: http://www.cancer.org. Click on Patients, Family and Friends, then Coping with Treatment.

Figure 2. Typical Strategies Proposed (NASM) and Information Provided (ATSM) to Address Moderate Pain (Severity Levels 4-6).

Means and standard deviations for pain and fatigue at baseline and 10 weeks according to age group and baseline depression group are presented in Table 2. It appears that the NASM may have some advantage over the ATSM in controlling pain among older patients (age 63 and above), as mean severity scores for pain decreased between baseline and 10 weeks for patients in NASM, while mean scores increased for patients in ATSM. No obvious differences were apparent for the two depression groups. Looking at fatigue, we see indications that the ATSM outperformed the NASM for younger patients (age < 53), as there is a substantial drop in these patientsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; mean fatigue severity scores between baseline and 10 weeks for patients in ATSM, with a much smaller improvement in scores for patients in NASM. As was mentioned earlier, the interaction effect of intervention group and depression status was not a significant predictor of severity of either pain or fatigue, which suggested that the two interventions did not behave differently with respect to either pain or fatigue for individuals who were depressed versus those who were not depressed. To further buttress this conclusion we implemented the models for pain and fatigue again for

We also investigated briefly whether the inclusion of a composite measure of the severity of other symptoms aside from pain and fatigue in the models would appreciably alter the results of interest, and found that this was not the case. Similarly, we experimented with the inclusion of a dichotomous variable separating out those patients experiencing pain and fatigue concurrently versus those where this was not the case, and again found no appreciable change in our results. Accordingly, these variables were not included in the models. All computations were carried out with SPSS 14.0.

III. Results Descriptive statistics are presented in Table 1. The average patient was 60 years old and suffered from 1.96 comorbid conditions. The patients were predominately female (75.6 %) and most were diagnosed with late stage disease (85.4%). Breast cancer accounted for 42.8% of cases, 15% were diagnosed with lung cancer, 13.3% with colon cancer, and the remaining 28.9% suffered from genital/urinary cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, gynecological cancer, pancreatic cancer, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, mesothelioma or other cancers. 371


Kurtz et al: Pain and Fatigue Control among Cancer Patients! significant predictors of severity of fatigue at 10 weeks. In this case, patients who were more depressed at baseline reported greater severity of fatigue at 10 weeks than those who were less depressed at baseline. In order to further clarify the interaction effect of intervention group and age group, we repeated the analysis of covariance for pain severity and fatigue severity for each of the three age groups separately, removing the interaction term. The result was that for patients less than 53 years of age, the ATSM intervention was more effective in reducing fatigue severity at 10 weeks than the NASM intervention (adjusted difference in means=1.435, p=0.002). For patients aged at least 53 but less than 63 there were no significant differences between the two interventions for either pain severity or fatigue severity. Finally, for individuals age 63 and above, the NASM intervention was marginally more effective than the ATSM intervention in reducing severity of pain at 10 weeks (adjusted difference in means=0.731, p=0.056).

each depression group separately, removing the interaction term. The results showed no effect of the intervention group for either pain or fatigue, for either group of patients. The interaction of intervention group and depression status was accordingly dropped from both models. In the case of the interaction of intervention group and age group however the situation was very different. The analysis of covariance model for pain severity revealed that the interaction of intervention group and age group was a significant predictor of pain severity, along with comorbidity and baseline pain severity, with more comorbid conditions or more severe pain at baseline corresponding to more severe pain at 10 weeks. (See Table 3) Patients who were more depressed at baseline (CESD ! 16) tended to experience marginally more severe pain at 10 weeks (p=0.06) than patients were less depressed at baseline (CESD<16). The analysis of covariance model for severity of fatigue similarly showed the interaction of intervention group and age group as well as baseline fatigue to be

Table 1. Patient sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity, cancer site and stage of disease (N=351).

Characteristic Gender Male Female Stage of Disease Early Late Age Group Age < 53 53 <= Age < 63 Age >= 63 Depression Status CESD ! 16 CESD < 16 Cancer Site Breast Colon Lung Genital/Urinary Gastrointestinal Gynecological Pancreatic Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Mesothelioma Other Age Comorbidityâ&#x20AC; â&#x20AC; 

NASM N Percent

ATSM N Percent

Combined N Percent

44 136

24.4 75.6

42 129

24.6 75.4

86 265

24.5 75.5

26 152

14.6 85.4

43 128

25.1 74.9

69 280

19.8 80.2

67 54 59

37.2 30.0 32.8

65 60 45

38.2 35.3 26.5

132 114 104

37.7 32.6 29.7

52 126

29.2 70.8

52 118

30.4 69.0

104 244

29.9 70.1

77 24 27 11 6 14 6 9 3 3 Mean 59.97 1.96

42.8 13.3 15.0 6.1 3.3 7.8 3.3 5.0 1.7 1.7 Std Dev 11.49 1.52

67 24 25 14 6 16 6 10 2 1 Mean 56.78 1.96

39.2 14.0 14.6 8.2 3.5 9.4 3.5 5.8 1.2 0.6 Std Dev 12.11 1.59

144 48 52 25 12 30 12 19 5 4 Mean 56.88 1.96

41.0 13.7 14.9 7.1 3.4 8.5 3.4 5.4 1.4 1.1 Std Dev 11.78 1.55

Scale 0-15

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 373! Table 2. Means and standard deviations for pain and fatigue by age group and baseline depression, at baseline and ten weeks (N=351).

Overall Age Group Age < 53 53 <= Age < 63 Age >= 63 Baseline Depression Group CESD < 16 CESD >= 16

Overall Age Group Age < 53 53 <= Age < 63 Age >= 63 Baseline Depression Group CESD < 16 CESD >= 16 †

Pain† Baseline NASM Mean

SD

Ten Weeks NASM Mean SD

ATSM Mean

SD

1.97

2.70

1.46

2.25

1.58

2.40

2.80 2.35 2.50

2.18 2.27 1.31

2.80 2.93 2.15

2.21 1.19 0.85

2.69 2.00 1.64

1.40 1.75 1.64

2.32 2.45 2.48

1.37 3.23 Fatigue† Baseline NASM Mean

2.28 2.95

1.76 2.48

2.52 3.05

0.99 2.63

1.87 2.69

1.44 1.92

2.20 2.80

SD

ATSM Mean

SD

Ten Weeks NASM Mean SD

ATSM Mean

SD

4.39

2.66

4.33

2.79

3.45

2.76

3.01

2.66

4.52 4.63 4.03

2.55 2.47 2.95

4.55 4.57 3.76

2.74 2.44 3.25

4.09 3.04 3.10

2.88 2.42 2.83

2.65 3.50 2.89

2.58 2.83 2.53

3.85 5.83

2.59 2.28

3.72 5.81

2.67 2.49

2.98 4.67

2.65 2.70

2.67 3.81

2.41 3.05

SD

ATSM Mean

1.91

2.62

2.63 1.69 1.31

Scale 0-10

Table 3. Analysis of variance for pain and fatigue (N=351).

Intervention Age Group Intervention by Age Group Baseline Depression Group Stage of Disease Gender Comorbidity Baseline Pain Baseline Fatigue

Pain F Value 0.441 1.666 3.555 3.413 0.007 0.002 7.020 41.641

Significance 0.522 0.191 0.030 0.066 0.933 0.964 0.008 0.000

Fatigue F Value 2.970 0.319 3.678 6.062 1.526 0.843 2.267 18.683 R2=0.154

R2=0.203

Significance 0.086 0.727 0.026 0.014 0.218 0.359 0.133 0.000

an ideal study population to compare the effectiveness of two competing symptom management interventions. For research question 1 the results indicate clearly that, although depression played a role in predicting both severity of pain and severity of fatigue at 10 weeks for both interventions, there was no detectable difference between the effectiveness of the two interventions in controlling the severity of either pain or fatigue. A closer inspection of Table 2 reveals that for each of the

IV. Discussion The patients in our study were quite ill with 80.2% having been diagnosed with late stage disease, were diverse in age, and approximately one-third of the patients in each intervention group were severely depressed (CESD at least 16) at baseline. As such, these patients could potentially benefit from assistance in managing their symptomatology, particularly pain and fatigue, and were

373


Kurtz et al: Pain and Fatigue Control among Cancer Patients! symptom distress in cancer patients. Cancer 89, 16341646. Degner L, Sloan J (1995) Symptom distress in newly diagnosed ambulatory cancer patients and as a predictor of survival in lung cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 10, 423-431. Doorenbos AZ, Given CW, Given B, Verbitsky N (2006a) Symptom experience in the last year of life among individuals with cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 32, 403-412. Doorenbos A, Given B, Given C, Verbitsky N (2006b) Physical functioning: effect of behavioral intervention for symptoms among individuals with cancer. Nurs Res 55, 161-171. Dugan W, McDonald MV, Passik SD, Rosenfeld BD, Theobald D, Edgerton S (1998) Use of the Zung selfrating depression scale in cancer patients: feasibility as a screening tool. Psycho-Oncol 7, 483-493. Engel J, Kerr J, Schlesinger-Raab A, Eckel R, Sauer H, Hölzel D (2003) Comparison of breast and rectal cancer patients’ quality of life: results of a four year prospective field study. Eur J Cancer Care 12, 215223. Escalante CP (2003) Treatment of cancer-related fatigue: an update. !"##$%&'Care Cancer 11, 79-83. Fechner-Bates S, Coyne JC, Schwenk TL (1994) The relationship of self-reported distress to depressive disorders and other psychopathology. J Consult Clin Psych 63, 350-359. Given CW, Given B, Azzouz F, Kozacik S, Stommel M (2001) Predictors of pain and fatigue in the year following diagnosis among elderly cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage 21, 456-466. Given B, Given C, McCorkle R, Kozachik S, Cimpich B, rahbar MH, Wijcik C (2002) Pain and fatigue management: results of a nursing randomized clinical trial. Oncol Nurs Forum 29, 949-956. Godino C, Jodar L, Duran A, Martinez I (2006) Nursing education as an intervention to decrease fatigue perception in oncology patients. Eur J Oncol Nurs 10, 150-155 Groopman JE (1998) Fatigue in cancer and HIV/AIDS. Oncology 12, 345-346. Hann D, Winter K, Jacobsen P (1999) Measurement of depressive symptoms in cancer patients: evaluation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). J Psychosom Res 46, 437-443. Hermanek P, Sobin LH, editors (1992) Classification of malignant tumors, 4th edition, 2nd rev., Berlin, SpringerVerlag. Irvine D, Vincent L, Graydon J, Bubella N, Thompson L (1994) The prevalence and correlates of fatigue in patients receiving treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cancer Nursing 17, 367-378. Jacobsen PB, Stein KD (1999) Is fatigue a long-term side effect of breast cancer treatment? J Moffett Cancer Center 6, 256-263. Katz JN, Chang LC, Sangha O, Fossel A, Bates D (1996) Can comorbidity be measured by questionnaire rather than medical record review? Med Care 34, 73-84.

interventions there is an apparent improvement in both severity of pain and severity of fatigue between baseline and 10 weeks, the situation being that more depressed patients begin and end the interventions at higher levels than those who are less depressed. Thus, although both intervention types proved to be efficacious, it is clear that more depressed patients tend to suffer worse pain and fatigue. This finding reinforces the importance of oncologists, physicians and health care professionals caring for cancer patients staying attuned to their patients’ depressive symptomatology, particularly when assisting patients in managing pain and fatigue. Patient age appears to be an important factor in determining the appropriate style of intervention for the management of pain and/or fatigue. Clearly, the study revealed that for younger patients, the automated telephone intervention outperformed the nurse administered intervention in controlling the patients’ severity of fatigue. We conjecture that this may be due to the fact that younger patients are more comfortable with and accustomed to the use of technology, and may have a preference for this intervention approach as they can utilize it whenever they feel they need it. On the other hand, the fact that the nurse assisted intervention outperformed the automated telephone intervention in controlling pain among older patients may have a similar explanation. Older patients may be less experienced with automated systems, and may have a preference for the personal contact offered by the nurse patient interaction. These findings point in the direction that oncologists, when identifying the appropriate style of intervention for an individual patient, may need to determine, in consultation with the patient, which symptoms should receive the highest priority, and what approach would feel most comfortable to them, so that optimal symptom control can be achieved.

Acknowledgement This research was supported in part by National Cancer Institute Grant # RO1 CA030724 Automated Telephone Monitoring for Symptom Management, Charles Given, PI, Barbara Given, Co-PI, and in affiliation with the Walther Cancer Institute, Indianapolis, Indiana.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 377! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 377-388, 2008

Drug resistance in lung cancer Review Article

Jozef ! karda1,*, Marian HajdĂşch2,*, VĂ­t"zslav Kolek3 1

Department of Pathology Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Pediatric Department 3 Department of Tuberculosis and Respiratory diseases Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc 2

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Joseph Skarda MD DVM, LF Palacky University, Olomouc LF Palacky University, Department of Pathology and Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, Olomouc, Czeck Republic; Tel./Fax: 004-2060-3436129; e-mail address: jojos@email.cz Key words: Drug resistance, lung cancer, resistance-related proteins, protooncogenes, DNA microarray technology Abbreviations: 50% inhibitory concentration, (IC50); antioxidant enzymes, (AOE); called multidrug resistance, (MDR); cyclindependent kinases (cdks); glutathione peroxidase, (GPX); glutathione S-transferase, (GST); glutathione, (GSH); hypoxia-inducible factor-1, (HIF-1); lung resistance protein, (LRP); Metallothioneins, (MTs); multidrug resistance-associated protein, (MRP); non-small cell lung cancer, (NSCLC); O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase, (ATase); P-glycoprotein, (P-gp); small cell lung cancer, (SCLC); surface enhanced laser desorption/ionisation, (SELDI); Thymidylate synthase, (TS); topoisomerase II, (topo II); World Health Organization, (WHO) Received: 7 May 20038; Revised: 5 June 2008 Accepted: 13 June 2008; electronically published: June 2008

Summary Drug resistance is an important problem in the treatment of patients with lung cancer. Tumours become resistant not only to the drugs used initially, but also to those to which they have not yet been exposed. Data obtained from various sources indicate that multiple mechanisms contribute to drug resistance. Many of them are inter-related or independent of each other, but may exist simultaneously in cancer cells or subpopulation of cells, producing an overall drug-resistant phenotype. The resistance-related proteins P-glycoprotein, glutathione-dependent enzymes, topoisomerases, metallothioneins, thymidylate synthase and O6-alkyl-DNA alkyltransferase have been found in various human lung tumours, but these alone cannot explain the drug-resistant phenotype. Cell-cycle-related proteins, angiogenic factors, protooncogenes, and tumour suppressor genes also play a role in the resistant phenotype. In future, a key challenge will be to determine the relative quantitative contributions of each of these mechanisms to overall resistance. The use of DNA microarray technology in drug resistance in lung cancer will yield insight into the mechanisms of drug resistance and the rational design of more effective strategies to circumvent resistance.

frequently in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Most patients with SCLC have an initial response to chemotherapy, but the majority relapses and their tumours will be largely refractory to further treatment. NSCLC are inherent resistant and are generally no responsive to initial chemotherapy.

I. Introduction Lung cancer is a global problem. It is the most frequent cancer in the world, and the epidemic of lung cancer is still continuing. The global incidence of lung cancer is increasing at 0.5% per year. Consequently, lung cancer will remain a major cause of world wide cancer death in the 21st century (Haugen, 2000). The prognosis of lung cancer is very poor: nearly 80% of patients die within 1 year of diagnosis. Despite major advances in patient management, chemotherapy and radiotherapy made over the past decades, long-term survival is obtained in only 5-10% of the patients (Richardson and Johnson, 1993; Mattern et al, 2002). The major problem in lung cancer chemotherapy is the emergence of inherent and acquired drug resistance of the cancer cells. Resistance to anticancer agents is observed

II. Definition of drug resistance in vivo and in vitro Clinical drug resistance criteria are defined on the basis of tumour response criteria documented by the World Health Organization (WHO) or other such organizations. When a patient does not show more than a partial response after chemotherapy treatment, the tumour is considered to be resistant to the anticancer drugs used.

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karda et al: Drug resistance in lung cancer (MDR) which describes the broad pattern of crossresistance that is seen following the development of resistance to certain drugs. MDR cells consistently over express a 170 kDa membrane-associated glycoprotein (Pglycoprotein) which is encoded by the ()&*#gene (Gros et al, 1986). Based on the homology of the ()&*#gene to a variety of genes encoding membrane transport proteins and on the ability of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to bind drugs, it is believed that the multidrug resistance results from the function of P-gp as an energy-dependent drug efflux pump (Bradley et al, 1988). Relatively high levels of P-gp/mdr1 expression have been shown in many intrinsically drug-resistant tumours derived from tissues which normally express P-gp, including adrenal gland, kidney, liver, colon and rectum (Fojo et al, 1987). Generally low, but detectable levels of ()&*# gene expression on performance of RNA slot blot analysis or RT-PCR have been found in lung cancer as well as in normal lung tissue despite the intrinsic chemoresistance of lung cancer (Lai et al, 1989; Abe et al, 1994). Other studies using similar techniques also demonstrated that lung tumours contain low or undetectable levels of mdr1 mRNA (Goldstein et al, 1989; Shin et al, 1992). In contrast, using various monoclonal antibodies reactive with P-gp, some studies have revealed a relatively high expression of this protein in lung cancer (Radosevich et al, 1989). The inconsistency with the very low mdr1 levels found in lung tumours may be attributed to the varying sensitivity of the different methods to detect mdr1/P-gp expression (Herzog et al, 1992). Several SCLC and NSCLC cell lines made resistant to some MDR related drugs or derived from tumoursâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; relapsing after chemotherapy have been shown to express mdr1 mRNA and P-gp (Lai et al, 1989; Twentyman et al, 1986). In NSCLC, there appears to be a relationship between P-gp expression and drug resistance !"#$!%&' (Volm et al, 1991). The significance of mdr1/P-gp expression as a predictor for response to therapy in lung cancer is not yet clear. Studies including larger numbers of patients are necessary to answer this question. In conclusion, there is no evidence to suggest a major role of P-gp in the MDR of lung tumours. The over expression of mdr1/P-gp alone does not completely explain intrinsic MDR, and thus other drug resistance mechanisms are thought to exist in lung cancers (Table 1).

Criteria for !"# $!%&' drug resistance are not clear. In most studies, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values are used. Various !"# $!%&' test procedures have been used to test the sensitivity or resistance of lung tumour cells to cytotoxic drugs prior to therapy. The soft agar clonogenic assay (Hamburger and Salmon, 1977), the most widely used test system for !"#$!%&' drug selection, has proven to be of limited practical use in lung cancer since drug testing can be performed in only a minority of cases because of technical problems. Renewed interest in !"# $!%&' testing has been generated by the use of dye exclusion assays which are simple colorimetric tests for cell proliferation and survival (Weisenthal et al, 1983). The use of xenografts for testing drugs !"# $!$' has also been used (Mattern et al, 1984; 1987; 1988). In most instances good agreement was found between the !"#$!%&' and the !"#$!$' results. However, it is common to all test systems used that tumours which demonstrate resistance during testing will not, with a high degree of probability, respond to therapy in the clinic (Mattern et al, 1982). Thus, lung cancers exhibit a drug resistance profile !"#$!%&' paralleling that observed in clinical practice. Cell lines established from untreated SCLC are often sensitive !"# $!%&' to cytotoxic drugs whereas cell lines from NSCLC or relapsed SCLC are resistant to multiple agents (Carmichael et al, 1985; Ruckdeschel et al, 1987). In an effort to understand better the mechanisms of drug resistance, many !"# $!%&' selected lines have been generated by continuous or pulsed exposure to drugs. Such induced drug resistance has been associated very often with changes in expression of certain intracellular and plasma proteins which are partly characteristic of resistance to certain drugs. Tc-99m MIBI single photon emission computed tomography imaging may be a functional probe of overexpression of Pgp in patients with lung carcinoma. However, Tc-99m MIBI single photon emission computed tomography imaging cannot be used to identify the MDR involved in the MRP1 or LRP in these patients (Zhou et al, 2001).

III. Specific mechanisms of drug resistance A.! Multidrug resistance One mechanism of resistance which has now been well characterized is the so-called multidrug resistance

Table 1: Resistance-related proteins and influenced anticancer agents/Resistance-related proteins Increased or decreased. Resistance to drugs: P-glycoprotein Increased Topoisomerase II Decreased Glutathione-S transferase- Increased Metallthionein Increased

alkyltransferase Increased Thymidylate synthase Increased Cell cycle-related proteins Decreased

DOX, ACT, VCR, VP16, VM26, COL, VDS, VBL, MTC DOX, ACT, VP16, VM26, MITOX, m-AMSA DOX, ACT, VP16, VM26, L-PAM, DDP, CTX, CHL, BCNU DOX, DDP, L-PAM, CHL 06-alkylguanine DNA BCNU, CCNU, ACNU, PC, CTX 5-FU, MTX, DOX, DDP DOX, MTX, VCR, ARA-C, HU, 5-FU, CTX

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!""#$%&'(&)*+,- 5-fluorouracil, (5-FU); actinomycin D, (ACT); amsacrine)m-AMSA); carmustine, (BCNU); chlorambucil, (CHL); cisplatin, (DDP); colchicine, (COL); cyclophosphamide, (CTX); cytosine arabinoside, (ARA-C); doxorubicin, (DOX); etoposide, (VP16); hydroxyurea, (HU); lomustine, (CCNU); melphalan, (L-PAM); methotrexate, (MTX); mitomycin C, (MTC); mitoxantrone, (MITOX); procarbacin, (PC); tenoposide, (VM26); vinblastine, (VBL); vincristine, (VCR); vindesine, (VDS)

dependent enzymes have been detected in cell lines derived from NSCLC compared to SCLC cell lines (D. Arpa and Liu, 1989). It is speculated that these alterations could account for the differences in drug sensitivity between these tumours types. Evidence that GST may be involved in drug resistance has come from the generation of drug-resistant cell lines &*- %&(#) and from transfection studies with GST cDNAs (Nakagawa et al, 1990). Changes in GST expression are most marked in cell lines made resistant to nitrogen mustard compounds and nitrosoureas and redox cycling drugs such as doxorubicin (Whelan et al, 1989). GST-! isoenzyme is also over expressed in lung tumours of smokers compared to non smokers (Volm et al, 1991). It is suggested that GST over expression may be a part of an adaptive response to environmental stress to protect against toxic injury. Frequently, a co expression of P-gp and GST-! is found (Volm et al, 1991; Linsenmeyer et al, 1992). But also a coordinated induction of MRP1 and GSH-related enzymes is reported in malignant cells after exposure to cytostatic agents (Van der Kolk et al, 1999). These observations led to the suggestions that these genes share common regulatory mechanisms, and that perhaps a single transcription factor or regulating protein may be involved in their regulation. However, it is unlikely that alterations in the GST are causally related to the development of drug resistance in lung tumours, but rather that co-modification along with other resistance related enzymes could mediate drug resistance. Besides these detoxifying enzymes, normal lung is also efficiently protected against exogenous free radicals by antioxidant enzymes (AOEs). Major human AOE include superoxide dismutases, catalase and enzymes associated with GSH metabolism, all of which are expressed in human lung. In addition, human lung also expresses several thiol-containing proteins including the families of thioredoxins, thioredoxin reductases and peroxiredoxins. Their expression in human lung is located mainly to alveolar macrophages, bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar epithelium, critical areas in the oxidant protection of human lung (Kinnula et al, 2004). These proteins not only have effects on cell proliferation and cell death, but also protect both non-malignant and malignant cells against radiation and chemotherapy. The redoxregulating proteins are highly expressed in lung tumours (Soini et al, 2001) and are associated with lymph node status and prognosis in NSCLC (Kakolyris et al, 2001).Peroxiredoxins also have effects on the progression and prognosis of lung cancer (Lehtonen et al, 2004).

Within the past few years a variety of further MDR associated genes was identified: mainly the discovery of the MDR- associated protein MRP1 going along with its family members MRP2 to MRP6 of this transporters family (Cole et al, 1992; Borst et al, 1999) and the lung resistance-related protein (LRP) acting as the major vault protein in the nucleocytoplasmic transport (Scheper et al, 1993). They confer the MDR phenotype that is distinct in pattern from mdr1-related resistance, but includes many of the same drugs. MRP belongs to the ABC transporter gene super family and operates as an ATP-dependent primary active transporter for substrates conjugated with glucuronide or glutathione (Ishikawa et al, 2000). Over expression of MRP and LRP is frequently observed in primary NSCLC, especially in the well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (Nooter et al, 1996) and expression is significantly higher in NSCLC samples when compared to SCLC samples (Dingemanns et al, 1996).There is also evidence that expression of MRP1 and LRP can be up regulated by sub lethal exposure of lung cancer cells to some MDR-related drugs (Berger et al, 2000; Yoshida et al, 2001). Ota and colleagues examined in 1995 the levels of expression of MRP in 104 NSCLC and found that MRP over expression was associated with a worse prognosis in patients that received postoperative chemotherapy with MRP-related anticancer drugs (vindesine/etoposide). However, the concomitant operation of several resistance mechanisms may be often necessary to cause the MDR phenotype. Experimental data indicate that the genes coding for P-gp, MRP and LRP are differentially regulated by extra cellular stimuli.

B. Glutathione-dependent enzymes Another important arsenal that cells utilize to detoxify the cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs are glutathione (GSH) and the GSH-related enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). GST catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic metabolites to GSH to facilitate their excretion. GPX utilizes GSH to remove reactive oxygen intermediates. GSH and its related enzymes are ubiquitously distributed in many normal tissues as well as tumors and are involved in resistance to a wide variety of drugs such as alkylating agents, anthracyclines and vinca alkaloids (Tew, 1994). There is increasing evidence that these enzymes are a determinant factor in the sensitivity of lung tumors to anticancer drugs (Carmichael et al, 1988; Sharma et al, 1993). GST isoenzymes are found in significant amounts in bronchioles and alveoli of normal lung (Awasthi et al, 1987) and most intensely in the bronchial epithelium (Anttila et al, 1993). A number of studies have shown that the amount of GST isoenzymes is even higher in tumors of the lung relative to the surrounding normal tissue (Di Ilio et al, 1988; Clapper et al, 1991). In particular, high levels of glutathione

C. Topoisomerases In addition to P-gp and non-P-gp-mediated MDR, other mechanisms for resistance to multiple drugs have been described including frequent alterations of topoisomerase II (topo II) activity (Eijdems et al, 1985;

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karda et al: Drug resistance in lung cancer growth factors, tumours promotors and many other chemicals. Some stressful environmental conditions such as heat, cold and starvation also induce MT (Hamer, 1986).Recently, the synthesis of MT by tumour cells has been proposed as a possible mechanism for the intracellular inactivation of metal-containing chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. MT content and MT mRNA levels correlated well with the sensitivity of SCLC cell lines to cisplatin (Kasahara et al, 1991). A transfected cell line that over expresses MT proved not only resistant to cisplatin but also resistant to chlorambucil, melphalan and doxorubicin (Kelley et al, 1988). However, cells of various origins selected for cisplatin resistance often, but not always show increased MT expression, suggesting that an increased MT expression alone may not be the sole mediator of cisplatin resistance. Matsumoto and colleagues found in 1997 that the proportion of MT-positive tumours was significantly higher in treated NSCLC compared with untreated NSCLC and treated SCLC, whereas Joseph and colleagues demonstrated in 2001 that MT over expression was predictive of short-term survival in patients with SCLC undergoing chemotherapy. In a study with human NSCLC, we found a significant relationship between MT expression and doxorubicin resistance !"#$!%&' (Mattern et al, 1992). Thus, a number of factors may be involved in the development of drug resistance in lung tumour cells and expression of MT may be one of them.

Cole et al, 1991). Topo II is an ambiguous nuclear enzyme that is essential for many aspects of DNA function, including replication, recombination and transcription. There is evidence that this enzyme is the target of many clinically important antineoplastic drugs such as anthracyclines, ellipticines, amsacrines and epipodophyllotoxins (Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Arpa and Liu, 1989; Zijlstra et al, 1990). These drugs stabilize the cleavable complex formed between topo II and DNA, resulting in increased DNA excision, detectable as DNA single-strand or doublestrand breaks, and DNA-protein cross-links. Drug-induced cell destruction is proportional to the level of topo II, the more enzyme the greater the toxicity. This explains how a reduction in topo II could be a major mechanism of resistance to many antineoplastic drugs. Topo II has also been reported to play a role in cell proliferation. High levels of this enzyme are found in proliferating cells, and very low levels in quiescent cells (Zijlstra et al, 1990). In contrast, there are some reports that increased topo II is associated with resistance to certain DNA-damaging agents (Dingemans et al, 1999). It is also speculated that the increased affinity of topo II for cross-linked DNA in alkylating agents-resistant cells contribute to alkylator resistance by changing DNA topology, thereby facilitating DNA repair (Eder et al, 1995; Pu and Bezwoda, 1999). In surgical tissue samples of primary untreated lung tutors, significant intra- and intertumour variation in topo II expression has been observed. Topo II activity is higher in NSCLC as compared to breast cancer (McLeod et al, 1994). On the other hand, topo II activities of SCLC cell lines have been reported to be 2-fold higher than those for NSCLC cell lines, corresponding to their sensitivities to doxorubicin and etoposide (Kasahara et al, 1992). A correlation between topo II gene expression and sensitivity to doxorubicin, etoposide and cisplatin was also found in lung cancer cell lines not selected !"# $!%&' for drug resistance (Giaccone et al, 1992). Most lung cancer cell lines selected for resistance to doxorubicin demonstrate decreased levels of topo II expression in addition to P-gp over expression (Eijdems et al, 1985). Therefore, low levels of topo II expression may predict reduced sensitivity of human lung cancer to several drugs. However, as with mdr1/P-gp expression, this cannot solely explain the drug-resistant phenotype of NSCLC.

E.O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase A number of DNA-damaging anticancer agents attack the O6 position on guanine, forming the potent cytotoxic DNA adduct. The DNA repair enzyme O6alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (ATase), encoded by the gene ()(*, repairs alkylation at this site and is responsible for protecting tumour and normal cells from these agents. ATase activity varies widely among different organs, with lung tissue on average lower than others (Citron et al, 1991). However, ATase activity in normal peripheral lung tissue of smokers is significantly higher than that of nonsmokers (Drin et al, 1994; Mattern et al, 1998). Most human lung tumours contain amounts of ATase similar or greater than the tissue from which they originate (Kelley et al, 1988). In SCLC, ATase was found to be significantly lower than in NSCLC, but wide interindividual variations were observed (OberliSchrämmli et al, 1994). However, approximately 12% of human lung tumours are deficient in this enzyme (Citron et al, 1993). These ATase-deficient tumours are very sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of agents that alkylate the O6-position of guanine, such as nitrosoureas (Pegg, 1990). Thus, evidence suggesting a possible role for ATase in drug resistance of lung tumours comes from the following observations: (1) the level of ATase in tumour cells correlates well with the sensitivity to nitrosoureas (Brent et al, 1985), (2) transfection of the gene for alkyltransferase to ATase-deficient cells decreases the sensitivity to alkylating agents (Kaina et al, 1991), and (3) depletion of the activity of this enzyme by addition of O6benzylguanine significantly enhances toxicity (Dolan et al, 1993). Whether the ATase gene is a member of and

D. Metallothioneins Metallothioneins (MTs) are intracellular proteins of low molecular weight (6-7 kDa) that are present in a wide variety of eukaryotes. MT are characterized by a high content of cysteine and the ability to bind heavy metal ions including zinc, copper, cadmium and platinum. The physiological function of MT is not well understood. Most mammalian tissues contain a basal level of MT, which may vary with the type of tissue. MT has also been demonstrated in a variety of malignancies including colorectal tumours (Ă&#x2013;fner et al, 1994), testicular germ cell tumours (Chin et al, 1993) and ovarian tumours (Murphy et al, 1991). MT in lung cancer tissue is significantly elevated when compared to non-malignant lung tissue (Hartet al, 1993). The synthesis of MT is easily inducible in lung or other organs by certain hormones, cytokines, 380


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 381! 1974; Arai et al, 1994). Moreover, patients whose lung tumours have a high proportion of cells in the S-phase generally die earlier than patients whose tumours have a low proportion of these cells (Volm et al, 1985; 1988; 1995; Alama et al, 1990). Thus, the determination of cell proliferation in clinical material provides a potentially useful marker to estimate sensitivity or resistance to anticancer drugs. Cell proliferation is regulated by both growth stimulatory and growth-inhibitory proteins (Sherr, 1993). Protein complexes that are composed of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) are important factors for cellular proliferation. Cyclins are regulatory proteins for cdks and are differentially synthesized and degraded at specific points during the cell cycle (Cordon-Cardo, 1995). Five major classes of mammalian cyclins have been described (cyclin A-E). Cyclin C, D and E reach their peak of synthesis and activity during the G1 phase and regulate the transition from G1 to S-phase. Cyclins A and B achieve their maximum peaks during S- and G2-phases. We and others could demonstrate that cyclin A expression closely correlates with the proportion of Sphase cells measured by flow cytometry (Volm et al, 1997). Furthermore, patients with cyclin A-positive lung carcinomas had significantly shorter median survival times than patients with cyclin A-negative carcinomas. A significant correlation between expression of cyclin A and response of NSCLC to doxorubicin "#! $"%&' was also detected (Volm et al, 1997).

coregulated with other stress-responsive genes and controlled by a common set of transcription factors remains to be elucidated. !

F. Thymidylate synthase Thymidylate synthase (TS) plays a central role in DNA biosynthesis and is the target of many chemotherapeutic agents, such as 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate and fluorodeoxyuridine (Washtien, 1982). Moreover, tumour cells resistant to cisplatin and doxorubicin display increased levels of this enzyme (Scanlon et al, 1988; Chu et al, 1991). Human NSCLC strongly express TS in a high percentage of cases (Volm and Mattern, 1992a; 1992b). This expression of TS is significantly related to doxorubicin resistance "#!$"%&' and associated with cross-resistance to 5-fluorouracil (Volm et al, 1979). Moreover, TS-positive lung tumours have been noted to be clinically progressive, the affected patients living a significantly shorter time than those with TS negative tumours (Volm and Mattern, 1992a). In addition, evaluation of intratumoral TS activity accurately predicts responsiveness to 5-FU-based chemotherapy in NSCLC patients (Huang et al, 2000; Shintani et al, 2004). It has often been reported that the higher the TS level, the more resistant is the cell to antineoplastic drugs, in particular to 5-fluorouracil (Johnston et al, 1995). However, the relevance of TS relates not only to the importance of this enzyme as a chemotherapeutic target, but also as a DNA synthetic enzyme associated with cell division and proliferation (Stammler et al, 1995; Nakagawa et al, 2004). Nevertheless, high intrinsic levels of TS do not necessarily lead to higher proliferation rates than in cases with low levels of TS (Pestalozzi et al, 1995). A recent study has shown that TS protein binds to ()*+( mRNA suggesting an involvement in the coordinate regulation of a number of other genes (Chu et al, 1994).

H. Hypoxia Because the rate of neovascularisation frequently fails to keep pace with tumour growth, tumour vasculature is often inadequate for the tumour mass. Therefore, many solid tumours contain subpopulations of cells that are hypoxic and are relatively resistant to certain drugs (Teicher, 1994) and irradiation (HĂśckel et al, 1993). This is partly caused to poor vascularisation that reduces the influx of cytostatic agents and lowers the levels of oxygen and nutrients. A growing body of evidence indicates that cells respond to hypoxic stress by altering the expression of specific genes or proteins (Wilson and Sutherland, 1989; Sutherland et al, 1996). Hypoxia is known to induce one or more transcription factors, the best characterized of which is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which in turn stimulates expression of several genes including those involved in drug resistance and endothelial cell growth. Hypoxia-induced resistance to doxorubicin and to methotrexate has been attributed to an amplification of the P-glycoprotein gene and the dihydrofolate reductase gene (Rice et al, 1986; 1987; Luk et et al, 1990; Kalra et al, 1993). Murphy and colleagues have recently shown in 1994 that metallothionein IIA mRNA levels were significantly increased during hypoxia and during reoxygenation. Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Dwyer and colleagues investigated in 1994 the effects of hypoxia on the expression of a group of enzymes involved in drug metabolism. Exposing colon carcinoma cells to hypoxia resulted in a notably increased glutathione content. In a clinical study with NSCLC, it has been shown that poor vascularisation, as measured by

G. Cell cycle-related proteins There exists general agreement that cancer chemotherapy is most successful when used on rapidly growing malignant cells (Valeriote and Van Putten, 1975). Experimental data obtained in a variety of systems ranging from mammalian cell cultures to transplanted rodent tumours show that proliferating cells are more sensitive to most cytotoxic agents than are resting cells (Drewinko et al, 1981). These experimental data are supported by the clinical observations that fast-growing tumours usually respond to treatment, whereas tumours with a low rate of proliferation very often show no response. To estimate the proliferative activity of cancer, various techniques including 3H-thymidine labeling (Alama et al, 1990) or flow-cytometric analysis (Volm et al, 1985; 1988) have been used. Several antibodies have also been produced that label preferentially the nuclei of proliferating (Volm et al, 1995a) and nonproliferating cells (Volm et al, 1995b). Although human lung tumours show a wide variation in proliferative activity and tumour doubling times, NSCLC have on average lower labelling indices and longer doubling times than SCLC, perhaps partly accounting for their resistance to cytotoxic drugs (Muggia,

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! karda et al: Drug resistance in lung cancer Overproduction of bcl-2, a blocker of apoptosis, prevents cell death induced by nearly most anticancer drugs and radiation, thus contributing to treatment failures in patients with cancer (Miyashita and Reed, 1993; Sartorius and Krammer, 2002). However, several homologs of bcl-2 have been discovered, some of which function as inhibitors of cell death and others as promoters of apoptosis that oppose the actions of the bcl-2 protein. Thus, the role of bcl-2 as a clinically significant prognostic factor of drug resistance remained open (Martin et al, 2003). In a study with 85 human squamous cell lung carcinomas, we found a positive correlation between expression of bcl-2 and expression of the resistance related proteins P-gp and GST-! . Moreover, all bcl-2- positive carcinomas were resistant to doxorubicin in an !"# $!%&' predictive test (Volm and Mattern, 1995). These results indicate that bcl-2 may contribute to drug resistance in NSCLC.

vessel density, correlates with an upregulation of glutathione Stransferase-! , metallothionein and thymidylate synthase (Koomägi et al, 1995). In another study involving rectal cancer, poor angiogenesis is also linked to an expression of glutathione S-transferase and metallothionein (Mattern et al, 1996). Moreover, lung tumours with low microvessel density and low VEGF expression were more frequently to doxorubicin !"# $!%&' than tumours with high microvessel density and high expression of VEGF (Volm et al, 1996). These studies show that hypoxia or poor vascularisation result in over expression of certain detoxicating enzymes which provides an additional insight into cell resistance. Some studies have demonstrated the presence of drug resistance mechanisms in endothelial cells of normal and tumour tissue (Cordon-Cardo et al, 1990; Terrier et al, 1990). The MDR-associated P-glycoprotein and glutathione Stransferase have been localized in normal human endothelial cells and in the stroma of some tumours. Furthermore, Huang and Wright found in 1994 that some members of the fibroblast growth factor family, which are potent angiogenic peptides, may mediate resistance to some cytotoxic agents and modify gene amplification properties of tumour cells. Furthermore, there is experimental evidence that tumour cells and vascular endothelial cells within a solid tumour may stimulate each other by paracrine factors (Rak and Kerbel, 1996). On the basis of these studies, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that a highly vascularised tumour may produce elevated levels of angiogenic peptides that induce proliferation of chemo resistant endothelial cells which may confer tumour cell resistance to conventional anticancer therapy.

IV. Co-expression of resistance mechanisms and their putative regulation During the past few years it has become apparent that multiple mechanisms of resistance play a role in the clinical manifestation of drug resistance. The study of drug resistance in lung cancer has not identified one single, specific mechanism as a major cause of the resistance observed in a clinical setting. There are now various reports that cell populations exist in human lung tumours which have several resistance mechanisms at once. The parallel assessment of drug resistance parameters in human tumours has shown that individual tumours exhibit different patterns: none, several or all of the monitored resistance markers are elevated. This indicates that each tumour has its own unique resistance factor profile. In lung tumours, Oberli-Schrämmli and colleagues observed in 1994, in a majority of tumours, the concomitant over expression of ATase and GSH-related parameters. In contrast, over expression of ATase together with P-gp was never observed. There was no correlation between ATase and GSH or its enzymes in colorectal tumours (Redmond et al, 1991), however, ATase was frequently co-expressed with other drug resistance parameters in ovarian tumours (Joncourt et al, 1998). An increased expression of P-gp was detected not only concomitant to an over expression of GST, but also accompanied by a coordinate over expression of metallothionein and thymidylate synthase in human lung tumour (Volm and Mattern, 1992). A relationship exists between the extent of resistance measured !"# $!%&' and the number of detected resistance mechanisms. With an increasing extent of resistance, the number of resistance mechanisms increases (Volm et al, 1992). The reasons for the concomitant expression of different resistant mechanisms in human lung tumours are unknown. The increased expression of several resistance markers might be the result of induction of a cascade ofrelated gene products triggered by chemotherapy or environmental factors. It was found from !"# $!%&' studies that NSCLC of smokers are more frequently resistant and express a higher degree of P-gp and GST-! than tumours of non-smokers (Volm et al, 1991). Thus, smoking may up regulate different

I. Programmed cell death The recent progress in the field of biology has indicated that programmed cell death (apoptosis) plays an important role in the chemotherapy-induced tumour cell killing. Since the different antineoplastic agents induce a similar pattern of cell death, it was suggested that a common pathway of apoptosis could exist in the drug induced apoptosis and the defect in the signaling pathway of apoptosis could cause a new form of multidrug resistance in tumour cells. Recent studies in human leukemia cells have demonstrated that chemo sensitivity also depends on activation of caspases that are an integral part of the CD95 signalling pathway (Los et al, 1997). Inhibition of caspases not only retarded the apoptotic process but also provided protection from drug-induced death. In a study with NSCLC, caspase-3 expression correlated with a lower incidence of lymph node involvement and the median survival time was longer for patients with caspase-3-positive tumours than for those with caspase-3-negative tumours (Koomägi and Volm, 2000). Thus, impairment in the protease effectors’ phase of apoptosis may lead to chemo resistance against several anticancer drugs that is not due to other well-characterized resistance mechanisms such as over expression of anti apoptotic bcl-2-related proteins or increased expression of P-gp (Friesen at al, 1997).

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 383! (Chu et al, 1994). Whether the ATase gene is a member of and co-regulated with other stress-responsive genes and controlled by a common set of transcription factors remains to be elucidated.

detoxifying enzymes, depending on histopathological and clinicopathological variables, to protect the cells from carcinogens but as a consequence render them resistant to drugs. The coordinate expression of different resistance mechanisms in the same tumour may explain why tumours are also resistant to drugs not involved in therapy and why a single marker, e.g. GST-! , may serve as a general marker for resistance and prognosis, irrespective of whether it is itself involved in the resistance mechanism (Mulder et al, 1995).Another explanation for the presence of different resistance mechanisms in human tumours is that tumours are mostly detected at a relatively late stage when they are already large and have metastasized. These tumours are for the most part hypoxic and the vascular networks for supply of oxygen and nutrients is substantially lower (Mattern et al, 1996). In fact, it has been shown that various resistance parameters are up regulated in tumours with poor vascularisation (Koom채gi et al, 1995) and that the reduced vascularisation of tumours together with up regulated resistance-related proteins may represent an import contributing factor to the poor response to chemotherapy and irradiation. There are several hints that detoxifying systems may share common regulatory elements. One possibility is that the resistance factors present in human tumours belong to a set of genes that can be co-ordinately expressed to protect cells from injury and against different xenobiotics. Many oncogene products are implicated in the regulation of cellular proliferation and, because the growth rate of tumours is an important determinant for the response of tumours to chemotherapy, oncogenes might influence drug resistance by regulation of proliferative activity. It has been reported that c-fos is involved in growth control and cellular differentiation (Verma, 1986). The cfos protein is associated with the gene product of the proto-oncogene cjun. The c-fos/c-jun protein complex binds specifically to a DNA sequence referred to as the AP-1 binding site and thereby affects the transcriptional expression of cellular genes (Sassone-Corsi et al, 1988). It has been also demonstrated that the promoter region of the Chinese hamster P-gp gene contains the AP-1 binding site and that this latter is essential for full promoter activity (Teeter et al, 1991). The promoter region of the genomic GST-! also contains an AP-1 motif, which suggests that this gene may be regulated by the cellular oncogenes c-fos and c-jun (Morrow et al, 1989). In a clinical study, surgical specimens of NSCLC of untreated patients were analyzed for expression of c-fos, c-jun and for resistance to doxorubicin. A significant association between drug resistance and expression of c-fos and c-jun proteins was found (Volm, 1993). With a c-fos-transfected cell line it was demonstrated that a ribozyme-mediated decrease in cfos expression was associated with reduced levels of thymidylate synthase, DNA polymerase " and metallothionein IIA (Scanlon et al, 1991). These results suggest that Fos may mediate DNA replication and repair processes through transcriptional activation of the aforementioned genes. A recent study has shown that thymidylate synthase protein binds to c-myc mRNA suggesting an involvement in the coordinate regulation of a number of other genes

V. Future directions The recent development of DNA microarray technology for large-scale analyses of gene expression has had a profound impact on biomedical research. Microarrays allow the simultaneous analysis of thousands of genes or proteins in a single experiment. Thus, it is not surprising that the old concept of prediction of drug response and individualized therapy is experiencing a revival. Staunton and colleagues determined in 2001 whether the gene expression signatures of untreated cells are sufficient for the prediction of drug sensitivity. Using a panel of 60 human cancer cell lines, gene expressionbased classifiers of sensitivity or resistance of 232 compounds were generated. They found that the accuracy of chemo sensitivity prediction was considerably better than would be expected by chance. Kudoh and colleagues used in 2000 the cDNA microarray to monitor the expression profiles of MCF-7 cells that are selected for resistance to doxorubicin. They found that a subset of genes was constitutively over expressed in cells selected for resistance to doxorubicin. Ikehara and colleagues conducted in 2004 a study with 47 human lung tumors (using cDNA microarray analysis) to determine whether expression levels of genes were correlated with survival after chemotherapy. They analyzed the expression levels of 1176 genes and found that three genes, G1/S-specific cyclin D2, type II cGMPdependent protein kinase and hepatocyte growth factor like protein, were significantly correlated with survival. Wigle and colleagues performed in 2002 expression profiling on tumour specimens from 39 NSCLC patients and could identify distinct profiles of gene expression correlating with disease-free survival. Significant technological advances in protein chemistry in the last decades have established mass spectrometry as a tool for protein study. The recently developed ProteinChip technology using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionisation (SELDI) mass spectrometry facilitate protein profiling of complex biological mixtures and could be used to discriminate e.g. normal vs. tumor tissues or treated vs. untreated cells. Preliminary results with this technology show that this method could be used to classify and predict histological subgroups as well as nodal involvement and survival in resected NSCLC (Yanagisawa et al, 2003; Zhukov et al, 2003). The promising aspect of all these new methods is the hope that it will be improve the ability to identify those patients who are at high risk of failing therapy.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 389! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 389-394, 2008

Carcinosarcoma of endometrium: A case study with eleven DNA fluorescent in situ hybridization probes Case report

Shamim A. Faruqi1,*, Holly Prescott1, Christopher Harsch1, Harvey Spector2, Joel S. Noumoff1 1 2

Department of OB/GYN Department of Pathology, Crozer-Chester Medical Center, Upland, PA, USA.

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Shamim A. Faruqi, Ph.D., Director, Division of Gynecologic Oncology Research, Department of OB/GYN, CrozerChester Medical Center, One Medical Center Blvd., Upland, PA 19013, USA; Tel: 610-447-2775; Fax: 610-447-2939; e-mail: gynoncob@aol.com Key words: Mixed mullerian tumor, carcinosarcoma, endometrium, DNA probes, fluorescent !"# $!%& hybridization; ZNF217, PML, RARA, 5p15, 5q31, 7q22, inv(16), Her-2/Neu Abbreviations: promyelocytic leukemia, (PML); retinoic acid receptor alpha, (RARA) Received: 15 January 2007; Revised: 26 October 2007 Accepted: 13 April 2008; electronically published: June 2008

Summary Carcinosarcomas (previously identified as Mixed Mullerian Tumors, or MMT) of the uterus are uncommon and complex malignancies. Cytogenetic studies of these tumors are few and molecular investigations of their oncogenes are rare. We present a case including a study of this tumor with a panel of eleven fluorescent DNA probes of PML/RARA, RB-13q, c-myc, 20q13.2 (ZNF217), inv 16, Cyclin-D, LAVysion (to determine EGFR counts), Her2/Neu, 19p13.3, 7q22/7q35, and 5p15/5q31 by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. In this investigation we identified the deletion of both 5q31 and one 5p15 loci, partial deletion of the 7q22 region, fusion of the PML gene at chromosome 15q22 to the RARA gene at 17q21.1, inversion of chromosome 16 and low level amplification of Her-2/neu. More importantly, the probe for the oncogene ZNF217 at 20q13.2 revealed significant amplification. This is the first known finding of this oncogene in a carcinosarcoma. ZNF217 has recently been implicated in certain ovarian and breast cancers, suggesting a potential primary role in the etiological onset of these conditions.

gene abnormality. For example, use of the drug Herceptin to treat Her-2/Neu-positive breast cancers or the use of RNA-i to stop the abnormal activity of a particular gene (Nakata et al, 2005). These approaches to contain malignancy require knowledge as to which specific cancer genes are abnormal in a given case. With these points in mind, we present this case study which includes an investigation using a panel of eleven FISH probes covering fifteen loci, chosen for their potential roles in the initiation or progression of the tumor.

I. Introduction Carcinosarcomas are rare malignancies where two different tissue types, namely carcinomatous element and sarcomatous element are present, contribute towards the formation of this complex tumor. Although only a small number of cases have been studied, so far the clones of this malignancy could be fairly complex as seen in their genomic makeup (Mitelman 1994; Halbwedl et al, 2005). A comprehensive plan for this type of tumor requires understanding of its genetic makeup for effective treatment and follow-up care of patients. This has become more important as there is now a radical change in the strategy behind finding treatments for cancer. Identifying genetic abnormalities, especially at the molecular level, would ideally enhance our understanding of the tumor biology and ultimately optimize treatment strategies. Today the focus is not only to find a single miracle drug for all the cancers; rather, the effort is highly diversified, such as finding a specific drug (or drugs) for a specific

II. Case report The patient initially presented as a 69 year old African American female gravida 8, para 8, some 20 years postmenopausal with no history of hormone use. When seen on routine annual examination, she complained of new onset of postmenopausal spotting and on physical examination what was felt to represent a new pelvic mass noted. The patientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s review of systems was essentially negative. Past medical history was significant for hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia and surgical

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!"#$%&'()'"*+',"#-&./0"#-/1"'/2'(.3/1()#&$1' ' history consistent with that of inguinal hernia repair. Physical examination revealed a mass palpable abdominally, apparently arising from the pelvis and extending above the symphysis which she herself had noted. Pelvic examination showed the vagina to be of normal mucosa and cervix without lesion. The uterus was palpable at approximately 12 cm in size with no obvious adnexal pathology appreciated. Ultrasound examination revealed an endometrial mass which was expanding the uterus. CT and MRI scans were also consistent with a similar uterine enlargement, describing a dilated endometrial canal containing enhancing material and myometrial thickening. A suggestion of right pelvic sidewall adenopathy was noted as was a ventral abdominal hernia. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a 15 cm uterus with an enlarged lower uterine segment. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection and repair of ventral wall hernia were performed. The final pathology report revealed a carcinosarcoma invading the superficial myometrium with no evidence of angiolymphatic involvement. All lymph nodes were benign as were the adnexa and omentum. Immunohistochemical analysis favored a carcinosarcoma of the uterus with the epithelial component focally expressing neuroendocrine activity.

min to 2XSSC at ambient temperature. Slides were then treated with a pepsin solution for 10 min at 37oC (pepsin stock solution was made by dissolving 0.5g of pepsin in 5 ml d.H2O, 20ul of this solution was diluted in 40ml of 0.1N HCl and preheated to 37oC), again washed in 2XSSC for 5 min at ambient temperature and fixed in 4% formalin for 5 min. A final pass is made through 2XSSC for 5 min and slides were dehydrated in an ethanol series (75%, 85%, and 100% for 2, 2 and 5 minutes, respectively). Slides were then examined for individual cells under the microscope and 2-3ul of probe was added to the area on each slide with the most individual cells. Slides were placed in Hybrite programmed at 80oC for 1 min and 37oC for 48 hours. After this time, cover slips were removed and the slides were washed in 0.1% NP-40 in 2XSSC at 73oC for one min, followed by a wash in similar solution for 10 sec at ambient temperature and finally mounted in DAPI-1. Microscopic examination was for signal number and color under UV light; responsive cells were scored and photographed.

IV. Results Eleven DNA FISH probes covering fifteen oncogenes were used in this study, and consolidated results for the two abnormal monochromatic probes â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ZNF217 (Figure 1) and Her-2/Neu (Figure 2) - are given (Table 1). Averaged results of the dichromatic (red/green) probes 7q22/7q35, 5p15/5q31 and PML/RARA are also presented (Table 2, Figures 3-5). Inversion 16, due to its three possible colors, is presented by itself (Table 3). Probes for RB-13q, cyclin D1, LAVysion, 19p13.3 and cmyc were normal. The cells stained with the PML/RARA fusion probe (Figure 5), on examination, had 106 cells where a single red and single green signal were seen together, which typically appeared yellow. Four clear signals - two pairs of independent genes - were seen only in one single cell out of the 125 cells scored. The averaging of probes per cell suggests that there is one copy of each gene missing from almost all cells counted, and the remaining copy may be a fusion product.

III. Materials and Methods Tumor sample was accessioned by the histopathologist while following the IRB protocol. For oncogenic evaluation, directly labeled, fluorescent DNA probes of RB13q, c-myc, ZNF217, cyclin-d, LAVysion, Her-2/Neu, 19p13.3, dual-color probes 5p15/5q31 and 7q22/7q35, the fusion probe for inversion 16, as well as the linkage probe PML/RARA (monochromatic when PML and RARA genes are linked together, and dichromatic when the linkage is normal) were procured from Vysis of Abbott Molecular (Downers Grove, Illinois, USA) for fluorescence insitu hybridization staining. 5-6 um thick sections of the tumor in paraffin block were cut onto individual slides and exposed overnight at 56oC, deparaffinated with three ten minute changes in warmed (56oC) xylene and placed in acetone for five minutes. Slides were passed through ethanol twice. They were then treated twice for 5 min each in a citric acid solution (0.2g citric acid, Sigma Cat# C0759; 2.7g Sodium Citrate, Sigma Cat# S-4641; 1 liter d.H2O) on the high setting of a microwave oven, cooled, and exposed for 5

Table 1. Signal Counts for Monochromatic FISH Probes Used in the Oncogenic Study of Carcinosarcoma. Probe Name! ZNF217! Her-2/Neu!

0 signals!

1 signal! 2 signals!

3 signals!

4 signals!

>4 signals!

Cells!

Avg. Sig./Cell! % Abnorm!

0! 0!

0! 12!

4! 18!

32! 7!

59! 10!

100! 99!

4.45! 2.51!

5! 52!

95.0%! 47.5%!

Table 2. Mean Counts for Dichromatic FISH Probes Used in the Oncogenic Study of Carcinosarcoma. Probe Name*! 7q35/7q22! 5q31/5p15! PML/RARA!

Mean Cell! 1.80! 0.08! 0.91!

Red

Probes/! Mean Cell! 1.39! 0.90! 1.01!

Green

Probes/

Total Cells Scored!

% Abnormal Cells!

51! 49! 125!

94.1%! 100%! 99.2%!

*Probes are listed in Red/Green order with relation to the target sites. This is not necessarily how the probes are identified by Vysis, but is a simplification in order to make presentation of the data simpler. PML/RARA has had yellow (fusion) responses distributed as 1 red and 1 green. There was a fusion rate of 84.8% (106/125).

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 391! Table 3. Mean Counts for Trichromatic Probe Inversion (16) in Carcinosarcoma. Probe Color*! Yellow! Red! Green!

Average Probes/Cell, 59 cells! 0.51! 1.31! 0.46!

*Probe Combinations Identified are: 1Y, 2Y, 1R, 2R, 3R, 4R, 1G, 2G, 1Y+1R, 1Y+2R, 1Y+3R, 2Y+1R, 1R+1G, 2R+1G, 3R+1G, 4R+1G, 1Y+1R+1G (Y being yellow, R being red, and G being green). The following probes resulted in principally normal signal patterns, that is, two (+/- 0.2) red signals per cell: c-myc, RB-13q, cyclin-D1, LAVysion and 19p13.3

Figure 2. Single cell image of Her-2/Neu, red fluorophore, showing a single cell with three highly positive responses. Note that the response in the lower left-hand corner is outside of the cell.

Figure 1. Single cell image of ZNF217, red fluorophore, showing a single cell with five probe responses.

Figure 4. Single cell showing the single green fluorescence of 5p15. This cell is representative of the average appearance of cells stained with this probe â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a single copy of 5p15 is all that appears in most of these cells.

Figure 3. Single cell showing the yellow result for 7q22/7q35. The genetic proximity of these two loci leads normal chromosomes to fluoresce yellow. One chromosome appears to be deleted in this image.

Figure 5. Two cells showing yellow fusion products for PML/RARA. Each cell only provided one fusion gene, suggesting deletion of the complementary gene.

Figure 6. Two cell image of Inversion (16), each cell containing a single red fluorophore and one yellow fusion fluorophore.

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!"#$%&'()'"*+',"#-&./0"#-/1"'/2'(.3/1()#&$1' ' in cancers of the breast (Kumaravel and Briston, 2005; Shimada et al, 2005) and ovary (Marwah et al, 2007) and uterus (Raspollini et al, 2005; Vilella et al, 2006). Hyperactivity of this gene is correlated to poor prognosis in patients with cancers of these tissues (Borst et al, 1990; Berchuck et al, 1991). Amant and colleagues in a study in 2004 of uterine carcinosarcomas reported five cases out of 21 examined with positive staining for Her-2/Neu in the carcinomatous portion of the tumor, where all sarcomatous portions were negative for said gene; this pattern is similar to the results for ZNF217, c-myc and PML/RARA. Her2/Neu is also an oncogene which plays a role in the epithelial cells. 36.8% of our cells are found to have amplified signals of Her-2/Neu. These results may indicate that Her-2/Neu mutation is a chronologically later occurrence in this case. Translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17 yields a hybrid protein, the fusion product of the PML (promyelocytic leukemia) and RARA (retinoic acid receptor alpha) genes. This translocation is commonly associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia, APL (Caprodossi et al, 2005). In a normal cell, two red and two green signals are observed, while any abnormalities may have the appearance of a yellow signal, due to the adjacency of the red and green signals for each gene. Evidence of translocation in this tumor is quite high with only one cell out of 125 showing a normal pattern of two red and two green signals. 106 of 125 cells analyzed (84.8%) showed a fusion pattern in one chromosome set and a deletion in the other (1Y, or 1 R/G proximity). The dual-color probe 7q22/7q35 provided normal results for the 7q35 probe and suggested a deletion for 7q22. Research has suggested that deletions in the 7q22 region are associated with uterine fibroids (Vanharanta et al, 2005), hairy cell leukemia (Andersen et al, 2004) and with an increased susceptibility of Hodgkinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lymphoma patients towards a secondary neoplasia (Lillington et al, 2002). Our other dual-color probe, 5q15/5q31, suggested single and double deletions, respectively. 5q15 deletion has been shown to be a factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas (Noutomi et al, 2006) and cervical carcinomas (Arias-Pulido et al, 2002). Jenkins and colleagues reported in 1993 an ovarian carcinoma with an add 5(q31), suggesting that abnormality of this gene may play a role in carcinomatous tissues. Deletion of 5q or 7q and loss of either chromosome 5 or 7 have been found in hematologic malignancies, principally myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myelocytic leukemia (Beyer et al, 2004). RB-13q, or RB-1, is located at 13q14 and its deletion is associated with the onset of retinoblastoma (Knudson, 1971). Since its discovery as a retinoblastoma initiator and the discovery of other complementary genes linked to retinoblastoma causation, RB-13q has been implicated in a number of different cancers, including epithelial ovarian cancer (Villeneuve et al, 1999). However, there has been no evidence of amplification of this gene with regard to carcinosarcoma analyses in the current literature, and our findings do not differ in this respect. Cyclin D1, located at 11q13, has been noted as abnormal in other gynecologic cancers (Zhuang et al,

Inversion 16 is a three color probe (Yellow = Y, Red =R, Green =G) covering two loci within the CBFB gene, which produced multiple combinations of visualized probes (Figure 6). Data are presented in terms of the average number of probes per cell of a given color.

V. Discussion Carcinosarcomas of the uterus are neoplasms with carcinomatous as well as sarcomatous elements. Emoto and colleagues inferred in 1997 that the sarcomatous portion of the tumor originated from the carcinomatous element. On the basis of chromosomal analysis, we had reached the same conclusion in our laboratory (Faruqi et al, 1997). Prior studies on carcinosarcoma oncogenes have investigated multiple composite probes, such as in the present investigation. Those studies which were published previously have yielded conflicting or varied results. To date, studies have implicated amplification of plateletderived growth factor, beta chain, PGDF-B (Kacinski et al, 1989), the oncogenes Her-2/Neu, HRAS, KRAS, and tumor suppressor p53 (Lynch et al, 1998). More commonly, c-myc oncogene amplification in carcinosarcomas has been connected with significant range differentials from normal expression (Monk et al, 1994; Jeffers et al, 1995). C-myc is one of the common oncogenes amplified in a variety of malignancies, including both hematologic cancers and solid tumors, such as breast, cervix and ovary. N-myc, while sporadically found in these cancers, has not been shown to have the significance as an indicator that c-myc has been attributed (Emoto, et al, 1997). As noted previously, our c-myc value averaged that of a normal cell (2.15 probes/cell versus an expected 2.00 in a normal cell). We therefore find it unlikely that c-myc was the initial oncogene activated in this case. We have instead found interest in the location of the ZNF217 oncogene at 20q13.2. The probe targets this specific locus of the chromosome, and it is a gene whose amplification has been identified in other malignancies, including ovarian (Dimova et al, 2005) breast (Collins et al, 1998), and non-endocrine cancers such as colorectal carcinoma (Rooney et al, 2004) and urothelial tumors (Toncheva and Zaharieva, 2005). The high percentage of cells showing amplification in our sample (95%) suggests that ZNF217 is a potential etiological factor in this carcinosarcoma. Most of the reports of oncogenic activity of this region are from ovarian carcinomas (Collins et al, 1998; Tanner et al, 2000; Dimova et al, 2005) and as best as we can determine, there is no evidence of its presence in sarcomas. As pointed out earlier, ZNF217 is a gene which is frequently amplified in carcinomas. This gene therefore is potentially of significance with regard to the etiology of this tumor, and hence supporting Emotoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inference regarding the sarcomatous elementâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s origin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to have definitively shown ZNF217 as a significant amplification source and a possible oncogenic initiator in this uterine malignancy. Similarly, the proto-oncogene Her-2/Neu (also called erbB-2) at 17q21.1 was also amplified, though not to the extreme level as ZNF217. Her-2/Neu is expressed mainly 392


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 393! Dimova I, Yosifova A, Zaharieva B, Raitcheva S, Doganov N, Toncheva D (2005) Association of 20q13.2 copy number changes with the advanced stage of ovarian cancer-tissue microarray analysis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 118, 81-5. Emoto M, Iwasaki H, Oshima K, Kikuchi M, Kaneko Y, Kawarabayashi T (1997) Characteristics of rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines derived from uterine carcinosarcomas. Virchows Arch 431, 249-56. Faruqi SA, Deger RB, Noumoff JS (1997) Non-random chromosomal aberrations in two Mixed Mullerian sarcomas of the endometrium. Amer J Hum Genet A362, Abstr. 2118 Halbwedl I, Ullmann R, Kremser ML, Man YG, Isadi-Moud N, Lax S, Denk H, Popper HH, Tavassoli FA, Moinfar F (2005) Chromosomal alterations in low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma as detected by comparative genomic hybridization. Gynecol Oncol 97, 582-7. Jeffers MD, Richmond JA, Macaulay EM (1995) Overexpression of the c-myc proto-oncogene occurs frequently in uterine sarcomas. Mod Pathol 8, 701-4. 8"-E6-*% ]!'% !)$+"2+% 4% 8$'% B+)2D<"$,"$% 5'% 5"$*<-*% 4'% 4)12% ]8'% 5<A$)+G% ;'% ;""-"#% 7'% 9)$+3)--% ^J% K0112L% (#+<,"-"+6>% *+UA6"*% <M% "V6+1"26)2% <=)$6)-% >)$>6-<3)J% $%&'()* +(&(,* $-,./(&(,%SRKRL'%S_@T_J% Kacinski BM, Carter D, Kohorn EI, Mittal K, Bloodgood RS, Donahue J, Kramer CA, Fischer D, Edwards R, Chambers SK, et al, (1989) Oncogene expression in vivo by ovarian adenocarcinomas and mixed-mullerian tumors. Yale J Biol Med 62, 379-92. Knudson AG Jr (1971) Mutation and cancer, statistical study of retinoblastoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68, 820-3. Kumaravel TS, Bristow RG (2005) Detection of genetic instability at HER-2/neu and p53 loci in breast cancer cells using Comet-FISH. Breast Cancer Res Treat 91, 89-93. ^6% 5'% /)6-"*@!)-A6"$)% B'% ;U<% I^'% 7U)-% `'% BU-% `'% 9622*% /'% 9U)-,% 7'% (<226-*% (('% ^"U-,% 5('% 7$)#% 8I'% CU"$*V"$,% aJ% KZWWSL/U2+6V2"% $<2"*% <M% +1"% >)-A6A)+"% <-><,"-"% bacZRS% 6-% <=)$6)-% "V6+1"26)2% -"<V2)*+6>% V$<,$"**6<-J% 3&,* 4* $%&'()% RZWK[L'%RT_Q@SQJ% Lillington DM, Micallef IN, Carpenter E, Neat MJ, Amess JA, Matthews J, Foot NJ, Lister TA, Young BD, Rohatiner AZ (2002) Genetic susceptibility to Hodgkinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s disease and secondary neoplasias, FISH analysis reveals patients at high risk of developing secondary neoplasia. Ann Oncol 13 Suppl 1, 40-3. Lynch HT, Casey MJ, Lynch J, White TE, Godwin AK (1998) Genetics and ovarian carcinoma. Semin Oncol 25, 265-80. Marwah N, Bansal C, Gupta S, Singh S, Sapna , Arora B. (2007) Immunohistochemical study of the expression of Her-2/Neu oncogene in ovarian lesions. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 50(3), 482-92. Mitelman F (1994) Catalogue of Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer. Wiley and Sons Publishing. New York, NY. Monk BJ, Chapman JA, Johnson GA, Brightman BK, Wilczynski SP, Schell MJ, Fan H (1994) Correlation of Cmyc and HER-2/neu amplification and expression with histopathologic variables in uterine corpus cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 171, 1193-8. Noutomi Y, Oga A, Uchida K, Okafuji M, Ita M, Kawauchi S, Furuya T, Ueyama Y, Sasaki K (2006) Comparative genomic hybridization reveals genetic progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma from dysplasia via two different pathways. J Pathol 210, 67-74. ])*V<226-6% /]'% BU*6-6% ?'% C3U--6% 7'% 5),26"$)-6% /'% ?)AA"6% C'% /)$>16<--6% /'% B>)$*"226% 7'% ?)AA"6% 7^J% K!""5L% (de@Z'% >@ ;f?% )-A% 9F]@ZO-"U% "gV$"**6<-% 6-% U+"$6-"% >)$>6-<*)$><3)*X%

2001), but not noted in carcinosarcomas; our results do not differ. The gene targets that are the most likely initiators of this tumor - ZNF217, PML/RARA, 7q22, and 5p15/5q31 deserve further exploration to determine their specific roles. The latter three targets are being researched in terms of hematologic cancers, but ZNF217 seems to play a particularly strong role in gynecologic cancers. ZNF217â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s function is poorly understood in normal cells, but its overexpression is associated with a reduction in the p53 and pRB proteins in ovarian cells (Li et al, 2007). Given that our FISH results for RB suggested a normal quantification of genes, further study would require us to determine if the expression level is also normal. An ideal next step will be an immunohistochemical analysis of both RB1 and p53 activity to determine if the same principle is at work in uterine malignancies as well. If this proves to be the case, additional study of ZNF217 will be needed to identify its role in the initiation and progression of carcinosarcomas.

References Amant F, Vloeberghs V, Woestenborghs H, Debiec-Rychter M, Verbist L, Moerman P, Vergote I (2004) ERBB-2 gene overexpression and amplification in uterine sarcomas. Gynecol Oncol 95, 583-7. Andersen CL, Gruszka-Westwood A, Ostergaard M, Koch J, Jacobsen E, Kjeldsen E, Nielsen B (2004) A narrow deletion of 7q is common to HCL, and SMZL, but not CLL. Eur J Haematol 72, 390-402. Arias-Pulido H, Narayan G, Vargas H, Mansukhani M, Murty VV (2002) Mapping common deleted regions on 5p15 in cervical carcinoma and their occurrence in precancerous lesions. Mol Cancer 1, 1-3. Berchuck A, Rodriguez G, Kinney RB, Soper JT, Dodge RK, Clarke-Pearson DL, Bast RC Jr (1991) Overexpression of HER-2/neu in endometrial cancer is associated with advanced stage disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol 164, 15-21. !"#"$% &'% ()*+),-.% ('% /012"3)++"$% 4'% 5)$26"$% &'% 730$% 8'% 9"**% :'% ;<=)>*<=6>*% ?'% /"#"$@/<-)$A% B'% ?6>1"226% C'% ?<D2"$% C'% 8)>E#% F'% B>1)-G% :'% !)$,"+G6% /'% 9),"3"6H"$% C'% A"% I6++"% ?'% =)-% /"22"% 7'% 8<++"$)-A% /JK!""#L% B#*+"3)+6>% *>$""-6-,% )+% A6),-<*6*%<M%@NOA"2KNLKPQRL'%@S'%<$%>1$<3<*<3"%T%)-"UV2<6A#% D#%6-+"$V1)*"%M2U<$"*>"->"%6-%*6+U%1#D$6A6G)+6<-%6-%RRW%)>U+"% 3#"2<>#+6>% 2"UE"36)% )-A% 16,1@$6*E% 3#"2<A#*V2)*+6>% *#-A$<3"% V)+6"-+*X% ><-><$A)->"*% )-A% A6*>$"V)->6"*% Y6+1% ><-="-+6<-)2%>#+<,"-"+6>*J%$%&'()*+(&(,*$-,./(&(,%RNZKRL'% Z[@\RJ% Borst MP, Baker VV, Dixon D, Hatch KD, Shingleton HM, Miller DM (1990) Oncogene alterations in endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 38, 364-6. Caprodossi S, Pedinotti M, Amantini C, Santoni G, Minucci S, Pelicci PG, Fanelli M (2005) Differentiation Response of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells and PML/RARa Leukemogenic Activity Studies by Real-Time RT-PCR. Mol Biotechnol 30, 231-8. Collins C, Rommens JM, Kowbel D, Godfrey T, Tanner M, Hwang SI, Polikoff D, Nonet G, Cochran J, Myambo K, Jay KE, Froula J, Cloutier T, Kuo WL, Yaswen P, Dairkee S, Giovanola J, Hutchinson GB, Isola J, Kallioniemi OP, Palazzolo M, Martin C, Ericsson C, Pinkel D, Albertson D, Li WB, Gray JW (1998) Positional cloning of ZNF217 and NABC1, genes amplified at 20q13.2 and overexpressed in breast carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 8703-8.

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!"#$%&'()'"*+',"#-&./0"#-/1"'/2'(.3/1()#&$1' ' !"#$%#&'()* +,)'#"&* #"* !#'-%'(,.* /,"0-"&* +#"* ',"$-'-1* '2-",!(-&3*!"#$%&'()#%&'*4567897:4;5<=* >##%-?*@A9*B##%&#%$*C9*D)E,1?-%*DF9*D)G-#1*AG9*F,&&(1?* H9* FI"",%* J9* DI"",?* KL=* 6*++,8* M2-* ),%1(1,'-* #%)#$-%-* NOEP7<* (&* +"-QI-%'.?* ,/!.(+(-1* (%* )#.#%* ),%)-"=* -( ./01&'* PRS6T89*PUP;U=* Shimada M, Imura J, Kozaki T, Fujimori T, Asakawa S, Shimizu N, Kawaguchi R (2005) Detection of Her2/neu, c-MYC and ZNF217 gene amplification during breast cancer progression using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Oncol Rep 13, 63341. M,%%-"* DD9* K"-%/,%* J9* V#I.* C9* H#2,%%&&#%* W9* D-.'X-"* @9* @-Y#Z()*M9*B#"$*C9*L&#.,*HH=*6*+++8*E"-QI-%'*,/!.(+(),'(#%*#+* )2"#/#&#/,.* "-$(#%* PRQ7P;Q7T* (%* #Z,"(,%* ),%)-"=* 2'3#( 2/#%(4$5*56:89*7UTT;4=* Toncheva D, Zaharieva B. (2005) F#-[(&'-%)-* #+* )#!?* %I/\-"* )2,%$-&*#+*1(++-"-%'*$-%-&*6LOVSC9*-"\B;79*-"\B;P9*FD]F9* FFO^7* ,%1* NOEP7<8* (%* I"#'2-.(,.* 'I/#"&=* 678&79( :3&'* P56P89*UT;4T=

Vanharanta S, Wortham NC, Laiho P, Sjoberg J, Aittomaki K, Arola J, Tomlinson IP, Karhu A, Arango D, Aaltonen LA (2005) 7q deletion mapping and expression profiling in uterine fibroids. Oncogene 24, 6545-54. _(..-..,* HC9* F#2-%* J9* J/('2* ^A9* A(\&2##&2* A9* A-"&2/,%* ^=* 6*++;8*A`>;Pa%-I*#Z-"-[!"-&&(#%*(%*I'-"(%-*!,!(..,"?*&-"#I&* ),%)-"&* ,%1* ('&* !#&&(\.-* '2-",!-I'()* (/!.(),'(#%&=* <#0( -( !"#$%&'(2/#%$9*756:89*7U4<;4RP=* _(..-%-IZ-* HB9* J(.Z-"/,%* DB9* C.1-"-'-* B9* F.(\?* bC9* G(* A9* F"#$2,%* KC9* @#1",'X* VF9* H-%0(%&* >B=* 6=>>>8* G#&&* #+* /,"0-"&* .(%0-1* '#* B>FC7* !"-)-1-&* .#&&* ,'* (/!#"',%'* )-..* )?).-* "-$I.,'#"?* $-%-&* (%* -!('2-.(,.* #Z,"(,%* ),%)-"=* !$#$5( 219&8&5&8$5(2/#%$9*P:6789*5:;4=* Zhuang YH, Sarca D, Weisz A, Altucci L, Cicatiello L, Rollerova E, Tuohimaa P, Ylikomi T (2001) Cell typespecific induction of cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1) expression by estrogen in rat endometrium. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 78, 193-9.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 395! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 395-408, 2008

Randomized Study of Preoperative Focused Microwave Phased Array Thermotherapy for EarlyStage Invasive Breast Cancer Research Article

William C. Dooley1,*, Hernan I. Vargas2, Alan J. Fenn3, Mary Beth Tomaselli4, Jay K. Harness5 1

The University of Oklahoma, Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center Torrance, California 3 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 4 Comprehensive Breast Center, Coral Springs, Florida 5 St. Josephâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hospital, Orange, California 2

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: William C. Dooley, MD, Department of Surgery, Breast Institute, University of Oklahoma, 920 S.L. Young Boulevard, Suite 2290, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 73104; Fax: (405) 271-4443; E-mail: William-dooley@ouhsc.edu Key words: breast cancer, ablation, minimally invasive, focused microwave thermotherapy, cancer treatment Abbreviations: cumulative equivalent minutes, (CEM); ductal carcinoma in situ, (DCIS); focused microwave thermotherapy, (FMT); hematoxylin and eosin, (H&E)

This manuscript is original and has not been published or under consideration by any other peer-reviewed journal. A portion of the results presented in this manuscript is taken in part with permission from Chapter 8 of the book: Fenn AJ, Breast Cancer Treatment by Focused Microwave Thermotherapy, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA 2007. Received: 31 October 2007; Revised: 2 June 2008 Accepted: 6 June 2008; electronically published: July 2008

Summary Microwave energy is a promising method of tumor ablation, because it can preferentially heat and kill high-water high-ion content breast carcinomas, compared to adipose and glandular tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that preoperative focused microwave thermotherapy (FMT) kills breast carcinomas prior to surgery and reduces the incidence of positive margins. This is a prospective, randomized multi-center study of preoperative focused microwave phased array thermotherapy for patients with T1, T2 invasive breast cancer receiving breast conservation therapy. Tumor dose was measured as cumulative thermal equivalent minutes (CEM) of treatment relative to 43oC. Outcomes measured were pathologic margin status, surgical reexcision rates including second incisions, excised tissue volume, pathologic tumor necrosis, focused microwave thermotherapy related side effects. Interim statistical analysis was performed on a study group of 75 patients, consisting of 34 patients (mean age, 59.4 years) treated with thermotherapy prior to surgery and 41 patients (mean age, 58.0 years) that received surgery alone. At enrollment based on ultrasound measurements, mean tumor diameter was 1.7 cm in the thermotherapy arm versus 1.6 cm in the control arm (p=0.49). After treatments were completed, in the thermotherapy arm 0 of 34 (0%) patients had positive margins and in the surgery-alone arm 4 of 41 (9.8%) patients had positive margins (p=0.13). Preoperative focused microwave thermotherapy can be performed safely with minimal morbidity. Confirmatory data from a larger study should be considered to determine whether focused microwave thermotherapy can reduce the rate of positive margins compared with breast conservation surgery alone. implementation of screening mammography have contributed to a decrease in the size of breast cancer (Cady et al, 1996). Therefore, less invasive procedures such as breast conservation instead of mastectomy have been increasingly used for the treatment of breast cancer (Fisher

I. Introduction Breast cancer treatment has changed considerably in the last three decades. Changes in therapy have followed changes in clinical presentation (Edney, 2002). Increased patient education and awareness, public advocacy and the 395


Dooley et al: Preoperative Focused Microwave Phased Array Thermotherapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer studies of adaptively focused microwave thermotherapy for breast cancer used a phased array of 8 radiating antenna elements at 915 MHz for a tightly focused microwave beam in phantom breast tissue with a maximum dimension on the order of 2 cm (Fenn et al, 1994) which might be useful for treatment of small breast cancers such as T1a (>0.1 to !0.5 cm) or T1b (>0.5 to !1 cm) tumors. Although this tightly-focused beam could be electronically steered to treat a larger region in the breast (Fenn, 1994), for general treatment of T1 tumors (!2 cm) the resulting treatment time would then be excessive when taking account of the additional time needed to steer the beam and heat and kill microscopic cancer cells in the tumor margins. Thus, because of margin considerations this tighter focus is not desirable for T1 or T2 breast cancers. Transcutaneous wide-aperture waveguide applicators opposing the breast are used to produce a wide-field focused microwave beam with a maximum heating dimension of 8 to 10 cm to irradiate and heat the high-water, high-ion content primary breast lesion as well as tumor cells in the margins (Gardner et al, 2002; Vargas et al, 2004, 2007; Fenn, 2007). Preoperative focused microwave thermotherapy has been explored in combination with preoperative anthracycline-based chemotherapy for improved tumor response compared to preoperative anthracycline-based chemotherapy alone in a small randomized study for patients with large T2, T3 breast carcinomas (Vargas et al, 2007) " the desired tumor thermal dose during active microwave heating for this study was in the range of 80 to 100 CEM at tumor temperatures in the range of 44 to 46ºC in each of two treatments administered during the first two of four cycles of chemotherapy. The primary aims of the present study were to determine whether focused microwave thermotherapy prior to surgery could 1) reduce the rate of close or positive margins and/or 2) reduce the rate of second incisions compared to surgery alone in a multi-center randomized setting. Tumor temperatures desired in this study were in the range of 48 to 52ºC with the equivalent tumor thermal dose delivered during active microwave heating in the range of 140 to 180 minutes relative to 43ºC, while avoiding skin damage and other morbidity. To reach the desired minimum thermal dose of 210 minutes (210 CEM43), additional thermal equivalent minutes were accumulated during a cool-down phase after microwaves were powered off.

et al, 2002). The impact of breast cancer tumor margins (negative, close, or positive) on locoregional recurrence has been reviewed in detail (Singletary, 2002). For example, from three studies involving 912 patients (Singletary, 2002), after breast conservation therapy when negative margin width for invasive ductal carcinoma was defined as 1 mm, the mean local recurrence rates with 45 to 123-month follow-up were 4.3%, 6.6%, 19% for negative, close (tumor cells 1 mm or less from the cut edge of the surgical specimen), positive margins, respectively. Similarly, after breast conservation, when negative margin width for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is defined as 1 mm, local recurrence rates tend to be significantly higher when positive margins for DCIS occur compared to negative margins (Singletary, 2002). The goal of any improved breast conservation procedure is to conserve as much breast tissue as possible, while achieving negative margins for carcinomas and to reduce recurrence rates without significant added side effects. Breast cancer tumor ablation as part of a multimodality approach in the treatment of breast cancer is the subject of recent interest as discussed in a number of review articles (Hall-Craggs, 2000; Singletary, 2001; Noguchi, 2003; Agnese and Burak, 2005; Huston and Simmons, 2005; Esser et al, 2007). Clinical rationale for exploring thermal ablation of primary breast carcinomas prior to surgery for improving breast conservation includes (1) reducing the rate of positive margins to reduce recurrence and (2) reducing the rate of second incisions to improve cosmesis (Fenn, 2007). Furthermore, if thermal ablation can reliably kill all breast cancer cells prior to surgery and can provide a recurrence rate equal to or less than that provided by surgery, then thermal ablation could potentially be used instead of breast conservation surgery (Singletary, 2001; Noguchi, 2003; Agnese and Burak, 2005; Huston and Simmons, 2005; Esser et al, 2007; Fenn, 2007). The use of thermal energy with radiofrequency (Jeffrey et al, 1999; Izzo et al, 2001; Singletary et al, 2002; Burak et al, 2003; Fornage et al, 2004), interstitial laser photocoagulation (Dowlatshashi et al, 2002; Dowlatshashi et al, 2004), focused ultrasound (Huber et al, 2001; Wu 2005), cryotherapy (Pfleiderer et al, 2002; Sabel et al, 2004), or focused microwaves (Gardner et al, 2002; Vargas et al, 2004; Fenn, 2007; Vargas et al, 2007) has demonstrated some success in achieving ablation of breast tumors. A previous dose-escalation study of externally applied focused microwave thermotherapy (FMT) for treatment of primary breast cancer in 25 patients demonstrated that a cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM) tumor thermal dose of 210 minutes or greater (relative to 43oC) is predictive of 100% necrosis for invasive breast carcinomas (Vargas et al, 2004). Microwave energy is promising because it can preferentially heat and damage high-water high-ion content breast carcinomas, compared to lesser degrees of heating that occurs in lower-water lower-ion content adipose and glandular tissues (Fenn, 2007; Joines et al, 1994; Campbell and Land, 1992). Adaptive microwave phased arrays, commonly used for radar applications (Fenn, 2008), can be used to concentrate (focus) the microwave energy at a tumor site in tissue (Fenn, 1991; Fenn et al, 1999). Initial preclinical

II. Patients and Methods A. Patient Selection Between November 2002 and May 2004, patients with primary invasive breast carcinomas seen at (1) University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City; (2) Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California; (3) Comprehensive Breast Center, Coral Springs, Florida; (4) Mroz-Baier Breast Care Center, Memphis, Tennessee; (5) Pearl Place, Tacoma, Washington; (6) St. Joseph’s Hospital, Orange, California; (7) Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, UK; (8) Breast Care Specialists, Norfolk, Virginia; (9) Breast Care, Las Vegas, Nevada; and (10) Carolina Surgery, Gastonia, North Carolina were invited to participate in this FDAapproved thermal dose safety and efficacy clinical trial. This study was approved and monitored by the Human Subjects

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 397! Committee at each participating institution. Other eligibility criteria included: (1) Karnofski performance status >70%, (2) core needle biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer with clinical classification T1 (0 to 2 cm clinical diameter, with the further designations T1a (>0.1 cm to 0.5 cm), T1b (>0.5 cm to 1.0 cm), T1c (>1.0 cm to 2.0 cm)) or T2 (>2 cm to 5 cm clinical diameter), (3) planned breast-conservation treatment by partial mastectomy or lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy, (4) visible tumor measurable by ultrasound, (5) absence of involvement of the skin or pectoralis muscle. All patients were required to undergo counseling and to sign written, informed consent. Specific exclusion criteria were (1) pregnancy, (2) breastfeeding, (3) presence of breast implants, (4) clinically significant heart disease, (5) pacemakers or defibrillators, (6) unable to tolerate prone position or breast compression, or (7) diagnosis of cancer made by lumpectomy or incisional biopsy. Other exclusion criteria were: (8) known bleeding diathesis, (9) laboratory evidence of coagulopathy (PT, INR > 1.5; PTT > 1.5), (10) thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100,000/mm3), (11) anticoagulant therapy, (12) evidence of chronic liver disease or renal failure, (13) presence of any factor or condition, other than tumor size, which would preclude lumpectomy including multicentric (multifocal) disease or prior history of collagen vascular disease, or (14) breast cancer with a high probability of extensive intra-ductal in situ disease, Additional exclusions were (15) clinical tumor fixation to the pectoralis major muscle or skin, (16) involvement of the nipple or inflammatory breast cancer, or (17) skin metastases.

B. Study Treatment Plan

Design,

Treatment

treated toward the midpoint of the applicator apertures, leaving an air gap of about 1.0 to 2.0 cm from the breast tissue to allow the desired airflow and surface cooling. During treatment, the amount of breast compression, focused microwave power, aircooling of the skin are adjusted to reduce or avoid discomfort for the patient-the microwave phase focusing is verified and adjusted under computer control as necessary after any change in breast compression. For treatment of small or large tumors, a single focal position is used for the entire therapy by means of the single microwave focusing probe positioned within the tumor throughout the treatment. During some treatments, the microwave applicators are repositioned closer or farther from the breast tissue, the relative phase of the applicators is adjusted under computer control to maintain the focus at the microwave focusing probe. Figure 4 shows a photograph of a breast cancer patient receiving a focused microwave thermotherapy treatment. Subject to patient tolerance and the success in heating the tumor to the target temperature, the maximum allowed thermotherapy treatment time was sixty minutes in this study. The clinical rationale and technology for this approach of wide-field focused microwave phased array thermotherapy for tumor ablation was previously described (Fenn et al, 1999; Gardner et al, 2002; Vargas et al, 2003, 2004, 2007; Fenn, 2007). Patients were monitored for toxicity following treatment. Breast conservation surgery was to be performed within 60 days of thermotherapy.

System,

This study was designed as a prospective, multi-center randomized study with two treatment arms (thermotherapy plus surgery, surgery alone as the control arm). The planned study population was 222 patients allowing for 10% patient attrition. An interim analysis was planned to be performed when approximately 50% of the patients had all of the necessary data collected. Microwave treatment was performed on an outpatient basis using local anesthesia with patients in the prone position. A Food and Drug Administration IDE-approved two-channel 915 MHz focused microwave adaptive phased array thermotherapy system (Microfocus APA-1000 APA; Celsion (Canada) Limited) was used in this study. A schematic diagram of this system is shown in Figure 1, a photograph of the clinical system is shown in Figure 2. This minimally invasive treatment system uses opposing microwave waveguide applicators and produces a phase-focused microwave field in the compressed breast to heat and destroy high-water high-ion content tumor tissue. A sensor catheter is used to monitor parameters in the tumor during the focused microwave treatment. Prior to inserting the catheter, a local anesthetic (1% lidocaine) is infused at the skin entry point, then the skin is nicked with an 11 blade. A 16-gauge (1.65 mm OD, 1.22 mm ID) closed-end plastic catheter is inserted into the tumor under ultrasound guidance, a single-use disposable combination E-field focusing sensor (1.12 mm OD) and fiber optic temperature sensor (Figure 3) is inserted in the catheter to focus the microwaves and measure the tumor temperature during thermotherapy. The combination sensor has the fiber optic temperature sensor at the tip and the E-field sensor is 1.5 cm from the tip. The patient is positioned prone with the breast pendulant through a hole in the treatment table and the breast is compressed to a thickness of between about 4 and 8 cm depending both on size of the breast and on patient comfort. Seven temperature sensors are taped using thin sterile elastic skin closures to the skin and nipple to monitor the skin temperature during thermotherapy. Two microwave applicators are positioned on opposite sides of the compression plates with the tumor to be

Figure 1. Schematic diagram for a focused microwave adaptive phased array thermotherapy system for heating a breast tumor in the compressed breast. Reproduced from Fenn et al, 1999 with kind permission from Taylor & Francis.

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Dooley et al: Preoperative Focused Microwave Phased Array Thermotherapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer

Figure 2. Focused microwave adaptive phased array thermotherapy clinical system for treating breast cancer. Photo courtesy of Celsion (Canada) Limited.

thermal dose is more rapidly accumulated in the tumor. The thermal treatment time required for a 210-minute equivalent treatment at 43ºC can be reduced, for example, to about 6.4 minutes at 48ºC, 3.2 minutes at 49ºC, or 1.6 minutes at 50ºC. The cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM) thermal dose was calculated from the measured temperatures recorded by the sensor in the tumor and also for seven sensors on the skin and nipple-the desired tumor thermal dose during active microwave heating for this study was in the range of 140 to 180 CEM43ºC at tumor temperatures in the range of 48 to 52ºC. To reach therapeutic temperature from the initial tumor temperature, the desired heating rate of the tumor was in the range of 1!C/minute to 2!C/minute. Once the desired temperature range and thermal dose range is achieved during active microwave heating (140 to 180 equivalent minutes) the microwave power is reduced to zero and breast compression is maintained during a 5-minute cool down period. During the cool-down period, as a result of reduced blood flow from the breast compression and the thermal insulation of the surrounding breast tissues, the thermal dose continues to accumulate in the tumor toward the goal of a minimum of 210 thermal equivalent minutes. As an example of the gross tumor necrosis induced by focused microwave thermotherapy, Figure 7 shows a photograph of a gross section from a case in the prior Phase II doseescalation study (Vargas, 2004). In this case, the peak tumor temperature was 48.4!C and the equivalent thermal dose was 206 minutes, which produced an induced tumor necrosis of 85% by volume with a rim of viable tumor.

Figure 3. Photograph of a combination E-field and fiber optic temperature probe for focused microwave thermotherapy treatments. The specific absorption rate (SAR) is a quantitive measure of the rise in temperature during the time period in which heat energy is applied to tissue (Field and Hand, 1990). The focused microwave thermotherapy system shown in Figure 2 has been used to heat breast phantoms with a 6 cm thickness and with simulated tumors of various sizes (Fenn, 2007). Figures 5 and 6 show measured specific absorption rate profiles in the simulated 6-cm thick breast phantom with simulated tumors of dimensions 2 ! 2 ! 2 cm and a 2 ! 2 ! 6 cm, respectively. The x axis is parallel to the breast compression dimension and spans the central 4 cm region. The z axis is the lateral dimension and is parallel to the long dimension of the simulated tumor. Due to the difference in water and ion contents in the simulated breast tissue and in the simulated breast tumor in these two examples, the microwave SAR profile matches closely the dimensions of the tumor.

D. Outcomes Measured In this study, outcomes measured were pathologic margin status, surgical reexcision (intraoperative and second incision) rates, excised tissue volume, pathologic tumor necrosis, focused microwave thermotherapy related side effects. Margins for the primary excision were assessed relative to multi-color inking to identify the medial, lateral, superior, inferior, anterior, posterior aspects of the breast tissue. In this study, tumor margins were assessed as follows: A positive margin was used to refer to breast tumor cells located at the surgical margin, close margin referred to breast tumor cells located at a distance 1 mm or less from the surgical margin, negative margin referred to breast tumor cells located at a distance greater than 1 mm from the surgical margin.

C. Thermal Dose Experimental studies support the concept that tumor cell heating for 60 minutes at 43ºC is tumoricidal, the period of time to kill tumor cells decreases by a factor of two for each degree increase in temperature above about 43ºC (Sapareto and Dewey, 1984). During the tumor temperature increase above 43ºC,

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Figure 4. Photograph showing a breast cancer patient receiving focused microwave thermotherapy treatment. Photo courtesy of Celsion (Canada) Limited.

Figure 5. Measured relative specific absorption rate (SAR) profile for a simulated compressed breast phantom with a 2 x 2 x 2 cm simulated breast tumor. Reproduced from Fenn, 2007 with kind permission from Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA.

Figure 6. Measured relative specific absorption rate (SAR) profile for a simulated compressed breast phantom with a 2 x 2 x 6 cm simulated breast tumor. Reproduced from Fenn, 2007 with kind permission from Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA.

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Dooley et al: Preoperative Focused Microwave Phased Array Thermotherapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer

Figure 7. Photograph of gross section in which focused microwave phased array thermotherapy induced 85% tumor necrosis. Reproduced from Vargas et al, 2004 with kind permission from Springer Science and Business Media.

Tumor cell kill was based on tumor necrosis and was estimated from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histological sections (performed at each participating site) from wide local excision of the primary breast tumor. Necrosis was estimated and expressed as a percentage of necrotic tumor areas in relation to necrotic and viable tumor areas. If viable tumor cells were found either close (1 mm or less from the inked margin) or at the inked margin, intraoperative reexcision was recommended by the pathologist. Adverse events, vital signs, laboratory measurements (complete blood count, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, bilirubin, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, routine chemistries) were monitored to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the thermal dose. Performance status was recorded after thermal therapy.

from the study analysis were as follows: 1 patient had an excisional biopsy (prior to enrollment there was no tumor remaining) who was enrolled by error, 1 patient had a T3 tumor (the tumor clinical size was 9 cm, the patient received a double mastectomy instead of breast conservation), 5 patients did not receive thermotherapy and were withdrawn from the study, 2 patients went on chemotherapy prior to surgery, 3 patients had multifocal tumors. In the surgery-alone arm, 5 patients excluded were as follows: 1 patient signed informed consent but did not participate, 1 patient developed metastatic pancreatic cancer and was withdrawn from the study, 2 patients had multifocal tumors, 1 patient had extensive DCIS. Demographics for the 75 patients included in the interim statistical analysis are summarized in Table 1. Thirty-four patients (mean age: 59.4 years) were treated with thermotherapy prior to surgery and 41 patients (mean age 58.0 years) received surgery alone. At enrollment, mean tumor maximum diameter based on ultrasound was 1.7 cm (range 0.7 to 3.6 cm) in the thermotherapy arm versus 1.6 cm (range 0.7 to 2.7 cm) in the surgery alone arm. Clinically in the thermotherapy arm there were 64.7% T1 and 35.3% T2 tumors, in the surgery alone arm there were 75.6% T1 and 24.4% T2 tumors. Clinically, at enrollment in the thermotherapy arm 93.9% of patients were node negative and 6.1% were node positive, in the surgery alone arm 87.8% of patients were node negative and 12.2% were node positive. Based on pathologic final diagnosis, 32 of 34 (94%) patients in the thermotherapy arm had invasive ductal carcinomas compared with 37 of 41 (90%) patients in the surgery alone arm. DCIS was present in 12 of 34 (35.3%) patients in the thermotherapy arm compared to 25 of 41 (61%) in the surgery alone arm (p=0.04) at final diagnosis.

E. Statistical Analysis Statistical differences between thermotherapy and surgery alone groups were quantified using Student t test and Fisherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s exact test (InStat, GraphPad Software, Inc.), as appropriate (Armitage, 1994). All tests were two-sided and p values !0.05 were considered statistically significant. Parameters were quantified by mean, range, standard deviation (SD), 95% confidence interval (CI) as appropriate. Cases excluded from the statistical analysis included patients that did not receive treatment, patients with multifocal tumors, patients with extensive DCIS determined by pathological evaluation of the excised breast tissue, patients discontinued or withdrawn from the study, patients that received an excisional biopsy, or patients with tumors not T1 or T2.

III. Results A. Patient Characteristics A total of 92 patients were enrolled (46 in each arm), 17 cases were excluded from the interim statistical analysis, based on the criteria discussed in the previous section, providing a study group of 75 patients for analysis. In the thermotherapy arm, 12 patients excluded 400


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 401! Table 1. Demographic and tumor characteristics of the study population of 75 patients for the interim analysis. Reproduced from Fenn, 2007 with kind permission from Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA

N Age, Years Tumor Size Based on Ultrasound Measurements at Enrollment

Clinical Tumor Classification at Enrollment

Clinical Nodal Status at Enrollment Tumor Histology (final diagnosis)

Tumor Grade (final diagnosis)

Mean Range

Thermotherapy 34 59.4 42-89

Surgery Alone 41 58.0 41-89

Mean, cm

1.7

1.6

Range, cm 95% Confidence Interval, cm

0.74-3.64

0.70-2.73

1.47-1.94

1.44-1.77

T1a

0%

2.4%

T1b T1c T2

20.6% 44.1% 35.3%

19.5% 53.6% 24.4%

Negative / Positive

93.9% / 6.1%

87.8% / 12.2%

Invasive Ductal Carcinoma Invasive Lobular Carcinoma Colloid DCIS Component Present High Grade Intermediate Grade Low Grade

94%

90%

3%

7%

3% 35% 40% 43% 17%

3% 61% 36% 33% 31%

B. Thermotherapy Characteristics and Tumor Necrosis

In the thermotherapy arm, 16 of 34 (47.0%) tumors were located laterally, 9 of 34 (26.5%) medially, 9 of 34 (26.5%) at either the 6 o’clock or 12 o’clock position. In the surgery-alone arm, 19 of 41 (46.3%) tumors were located laterally, 12 of 41 (29.3%) medially, 10 of 41 (24.4%) at either the 6 o’clock or 12 o’clock position. In the thermotherapy arm, 79.4% of patients were postmenopausal compared to 73.2% in the surgery-alone arm. In the thermotherapy arm, 76.5% of patients were estrogen receptor (ER) positive, 50% progesterone receptor (PR) positive, 21.2% HER-2/neu positive. In the surgery-alone arm, 82.8% of patients were ER positive, 75.6% were PR positive, 34.1% were HER-2/neu positive.

The relevant thermal parameters for the 34 thermotherapy-treated patients are summarized in Table 2. Breast compression at the start of thermotherapy had a mean value of 5.3 cm (range 3.0 to 9.2 cm). Microwave treatment time had a mean value of 26.6 minutes (range 5.0 to 60 minutes). The cumulative equivalent thermal dose had mean value182.0 minutes (range 0 to 645.0 minutes). Microwave treatment energy dose had mean value 150.7 kilojoules (range 28.8 to 350.3 kilojoules). Tumoricidal temperatures (> 43oC) were reached in 31 of 34 (91.2%) patients. The desired target tumor temperature of (48oC or greater) was achieved in 15 of 34 (44.1%)

Table 2. Thermal parameters achieved in the thermotherapy study arm of 34 patients in the interim analysis. Reproduced from Fenn, 2007 with kind permission from Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA

Breast Compression During Microwave Treatment (cm) Microwave Treatment Time (minutes) Microwave Energy Dose (kilojoules) Peak Tumor Temperature (!C) Time at Tumor Temperature !48!C Cumulative Thermal Dose CEM43 (minutes) Number of Days Between Thermotherapy and Surgery

Mean

Range

Standard Deviation

95% Confidence Interval

5.3

3.0-9.2

1.4

4.8-5.9

26.6 160.7 46.7 1.2 182.0

5.0-60.0 28.8-350.3 34.6-51.4 0.0-5.2 0-645.0

14.9 88.5 3.2 1.66 152.6

21.4-31.8 129.3-192.1 45.5-47.8 0.6-1.8 127.9-236.1

19.6

7-60

14.1

14.2-25.1

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Dooley et al: Preoperative Focused Microwave Phased Array Thermotherapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer surgery-alone arm (p=0.07). The mean volume of excised breast carcinoma (residual) from gross pathology in the first surgery was 3.24 cc in the thermotherapy arm and 3.05 cc in the surgery-alone arm (p=0.82). The mean volume of excised breast tissue including first excision and all reexcisions was 117.8 cc in the thermotherapy arm and 94.7 cc in the surgery-alone arm (p=0.13). The pathologic margins and second incision results are given in Table 4. In the thermotherapy arm 29 of 34 (85.3%) patients had negative margins, in the surgeryalone arm 30 of 41 (73.2%) had negative margins (p=0.26). In the thermotherapy arm, 5 of 34 (14.7%) patients had close margins, in the surgery-alone arm 7 of 41 (17.1%) had close margins (p=0.81). In the thermotherapy arm 0 of 34 (0%) patients had positive margins and in the surgery-alone arm 4 of 41 (9.8%) patients had positive margins (p=0.13). In the thermotherapy arm, 2 of 34 (5.9%) patients received a second incision, in the surgery-alone arm 4 of 41 (9.8%) patients received a second incision (p=0.68).

patients. The targeted thermal dose of 140 to 180 equivalent minutes during active microwave heating was achieved in 20 of 34 (58.8%) patients. With the additional tumor heating that occurred during the cool-down phase, the minimum desired thermal dose of 210 minutes was achieved in 17 of 34 (50%) patients. Patients underwent breast-conserving surgery on average 19.6 days after thermotherapy (range: 7-60 days, SD=14.1 days, 95% CI 14.2 to 25.1 days). Mean pathologic tumor necrosis by volume was 29.8% (range 0 to 100%) in the thermotherapy arm and 0.1% in the surgery-alone arm (p=0.0001). In the group of 17 patients that received the minimum desired thermal dose of 210 equivalent minutes, the minimum targeted temperature of 48!C was achieved in 15 of 17 (88.2%) cases and the mean tumor necrosis by volume for these 17 patients was 38.0% with two of the patients having 100% tumor necrosis. The desired target tumor temperature of (48oC or greater) was achieved in 15 of 34 (44.1%) patients. In the group of 15 patients that received the minimum desired target temperature of 48oC, the minimum thermal dose of 210 equivalent minutes was achieved in 15 of 15 (100%) cases and the mean tumor necrosis by volume for these 15 patients was 36.3% with two of the patients having 100% tumor necrosis. Therefore, the cases receiving the target temperature and target thermal dose were highly overlapping.The most consistent high degree of tumor necrosis occurred when all of the following parameters occurred together: 1) a cumulative thermal dose greater than 210 minutes was achieved in the tumor, 2) the tumor temperature was maintained above 48!C for greater than 2.0 minutes, 3) the microwave treatment time was greater than 10 minutes, 4) the microwave energy dose was greater than 50 kilojoules.

D. Side Effects Side effects for the 34 patients in the interim-analysis group receiving thermotherapy prior to surgery are listed in Table 5. In this study, 3 of 34 (8.5%) patients receiving thermotherapy had a skin burn less than 3 cm in size that, in each case was excised during the subsequent breast conserving surgery procedure. These three patients received peak skin temperatures of 44.2!C, 42.4!C, 41.7!C and skin thermal doses of 5.7, 1.5, 2.7 equivalent minutes, respectively. One of the patients (case 2004) in this study received a skin burn at the site of scar tissue on the skin. This skin burn is likely associated with reduced blood flow in the scar tissue, which can increase the scar tissue temperature relative to surrounding normal skin tissue that has normal blood flow which can remove heat.With respect to the overall thermotherapy treatment, 15 of 34 (44.1%) of patients had no discomfort during thermotherapy, 11 of 34 (32.4%) had mild discomfort, 3 of 34 (8.8%) had moderate discomfort, 5 of 34 (14.7%) had intolerable discomfort. During thermotherapy treatment 3 of 34 (8.8%) patients experienced nausea. None of the patients (0 of 34 (0%)) in the thermotherapy arm developed a fever, hypotension, dizziness, or ulceration as a result of thermotherapy. Skin reddening (erythema) occurred in 4 of 34 (11.8%) patients as a result of mechanical compression of the skin or from microwave treatment. Edema was reported in 3 of 34 (8.8%) cases. Moderate ecchymosis possibly related to thermotherapy occurred in 1 of 34 (2.9%) patients-the event resolved within 9 days. Mild nipple retraction possibly related to thermotherapy occurred in 1 of 34 (2.9%) patients. Mild subcutaneous fibrosis occurred in 1 of 34 (2.9%) patients. Moderate abscess caused by necrotic tissue surrounding the tumor occurred in 1 of 34 (2.9%) patients-the patient was given antibiotics and the wound was irrigated, the event was resolved within 29 days. Hematoma / seroma was reported in 6 of 34 (17.6%) thermotherapy patients-3 cases were mild, 2 cases were mild/moderate, 1 case was moderate severity.

C. Excised Tissue and Margin Status Predicted and actual excised breast tissue volumes for the thermotherapy arm and control arm are given in Table 3. At enrollment, based on ultrasound tumor measurements in three dimensions, the calculated mean tumor volume (Ellipsoidal volume = Length x Width x Depth x 0.524) was 2.5 cc in the thermotherapy arm and 1.5 cc in the surgery-alone arm (p=0.14). Assuming a 2 cm surgical margin surrounding the ellipsoidal tumor, the predicted mean volume of excised breast tissue was 88.7 cc in the thermotherapy arm and 80.4 cc in the surgeryalone arm (p=0.18). The mean volume of excised breast tissue in the first surgery, including any intraoperative reexcisions, was 115.0 cc (range 24.3 to 363.1 cc, 95% CI 91.2 to 139.0 cc) in the thermotherapy arm and 90.7 cc (range 4.4 to 282.0 cc, 95% CI 71.4 to 110.0 cc) in the surgery alone arm (p=0.11). The rate of intraoperative reexcisions during the first surgery was 0.74 per patient in the thermotherapy arm and 0.71 per patient in the surgeryalone arm (p=0.88). Based on gross pathology, the maximum dimension of excised breast tumor had mean value 1.87 cm in the thermotherapy arm and 1.85 cm in the surgery-alone arm (p=0.94). The gross maximum dimension of the initial excised breast tissue (prior to any re-excisions) had mean value 8.3 cm in the thermotherapy arm and 7.4 cm in the 402


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 403! Table 3. Summary of excised tissue volumes in both arms of the study for the interim analysis. Reproduced from Fenn, 2007 with kind permission from Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA

Number of patients per arm Ultrasound measured maximum diameter at enrollment (cm)

Ultrasound measured ellipsoidal volume at enrollment (cc)

Thermotherapy 34

Surgery Alone 41

P

tumor

Mean

1.7

1.6

0.61

tumor

Range 95% Confidence Interval Mean

0.74-3.64 1.49-1.97 2.5

0.7-2.73 1.44-1.77 1.5

0.14

Range

0.13-14.12

0.1-6.7

95% Confidence Interval Mean

1.33-3.58 88.7

1.05-2.03 80.4

Range

52.4-182.6

50.2-133.8

95% Confidence Interval

77.9-99.5

73.9-86.8

Mean

0.74

0.71

0.88

Mean

1.87

1.85

0.94

Range

0.0-4.5

0.8-3.3

95% Confidence Interval Mean Range

1.5-2.2 8.3 4.5-14.0

1.6-2.1 7.4 3.0-11.7

95% Confidence Interval

7.6-9.0

6.7-8.1

Mean

3.24

3.05

Range

0-13.95

0.15-14.15

95% Confidence Interval

2.0-4.47

1.98-4.12

Mean Range 95% Confidence Interval Mean Range

117.8 24.3-363.1 93.7-141.9 41.7 -65 to 253

94.7 4.4-282.0 75.1-114.2 16.5 -94 to 240.9

95% Confidence Interval

12.0 to 71.5

-6.5 to 39.4

Predicted breast tissue excision volume based on 2 cm margin surrounding ellipsoidal tumor measured by ultrasound in three dimensions (cc) Number of interoperative reexcisions per patient Pathology measured maximum tumor diameter from initial excised specimen (cm)

Pathology measured maximum tissue diameter of initial excised specimen (cm)

Pathology measured ellipsoidal tumor volume from excised specimens in first surgery (cc) Actual breast tissue excision ellipsoidal volume including first excision and all reexcisions including second incisions (cc) % Excess breast tissue (by volume) excised compared to predicted

0.18

0.07

0.82

0.13

0.18

DCIS = ductal carcinoma in situ P>0.05 not significant

Table 4. Summary of margin status and second incision rates in both arms of the study in the interim analysis. Reproduced from Fenn, 2007 with kind permission from Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA. Thermotherapy 34

Surgery Alone 41

P

Rate of negative margins

29/34 (85.3%)

30/41 (73.2%)

0.26

Rate of close margins

5/34 (14.7%)

7/41 (17.1%)

0.81

Rate of positive margins

0/34 (0%)

4 of 41 (9.8%)

0.13

Rate of close or positive margins Invasive only

5/34 (14.7%)

11/41 (26.8%)

0.26

3/34 (8.8%)

7/41 (17.1%)

0.33

DCIS only

0/34 (0%)

4/41 (9.8%)

0.13

Both invasive and DCIS

2/34 (5.9%)

0/41 (0%)

0.20

2/34 (5.9%)

4/41 (9.8%)

0.68

Number of patients per arm Margin status at completion of first surgery

Incidence rate for type of tumor cells involved in close or positive final margins (Invasive only, DCIS only or both invasive and DCIS) for first surgery Rate of second incisions DCIS = ductal carcinoma in situ P>0.05 not significant

403


Dooley et al: Preoperative Focused Microwave Phased Array Thermotherapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer Table 5. Summary of side effects for the group of 34 patients in the interim analysis receiving focused microwave thermotherapy prior to surgery. Side Effect Abscess Hematoma/Seroma Subcutaneous Fibrosis Nipple retraction Ecchymosis Fever Hypotension Dizziness Ulceration Nausea Edema Erythema Discomfort during thermotherapy None Mild Moderate Intolerable

No. of Patients 1 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 3 4

% 2.9 17.6 2.9 2.9 2.9 0 0 0 0 8.8 8.8 11.8

15 11 3 5

44.1 32.4 8.8 14.7

et al, 1996; Vernon et al, 1996; van der Zee et al, 2000; Falk and Issels, 2001). The main objective of this study was to determine whether focused microwave phased array thermotherapy could decrease the rate of positive margins, without clinically significant toxicity in a multi-center randomized setting. The target cumulative thermal dose of 210 equivalent minutes was achieved in 17 of 34 (50%) patients and the target tumor temperature of 48oC or greater was achieved in 15 of 34 (44.1%) patients. Based on H&E staining, complete (100%) necrosis of breast cancer was achieved in 2 of 17 (11.8%) cases receiving the targeted cumulative thermal dose-in both of these cases there was no pathologic evidence of viable invasive carcinoma or DCIS cells. To achieve a high degree of necrosis of breast cancer, in addition to the target cumulative thermal dose of 210 equivalent minutes, this study indicates that the target tumor temperature should also be maintained above 48!C for greater than 2.0 minutes. Tumor cell kill measured by other pathologic testing such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotidediaphorase (NADH) and immunohistochemistry, as used in other breast tumor ablation studies (Gardner et al, 2002; Huston and Simmons, 2005), were not evaluated in this study. An apparent reduction in the incidence of positive margins was suggested (but did not reach statistical significance) in the thermotherapy arm; however, both consistent delivery of the targeted tumor thermal dose and consistent tumor necrosis were not achieved in this study. The desired target tumor temperature of (48oC or greater) was achieved in 15 of 34 (44.1%) patients. The targeted thermal dose of 140 to 180 equivalent minutes during active microwave heating was achieved in 20 of 34 (58.8%) patients. With the additional tumor heating that occurred during the cool-down phase, the minimum desired thermal dose of 210 minutes was achieved in 17 of 34 (50%) patients. The maximum allowed treatment time (60 minutes) was reached in only one case. The tumor

IV. Discussion There is an increasing interest in the use of minimally invasive ablative techniques in the treatment of breast cancer (Singletary, 2001). A new treatment paradigm in which systemic therapy may be followed by minimally invasive local therapy to eradicate any residual local tumor has been proposed and is the subject of research studies. This paradigm is seen as the next step in an evolution of therapy that is designed to offer lessinvasive means of therapy to patients presenting with small cancers that are detected as a result of screening practices (Singletary, 2001). The objective of using minimally invasive treatment techniques is to cause complete local tumor regression and long-term local control of breast cancer with minimal damage to the surrounding normal breast tissue and the skin. Other characteristics of the ideal treatment are that it must be an outpatient procedure using a percutaneous or transcutaneous application without the need of sedation or general anesthesia. The morbidity and local complications must be minimal. Thermal ablation has taken a prominent role in minimally invasive approaches to treat neoplasms (Singletary, 2001). Freezing can be achieved through cryoablation (Pfleiderer et al, 2002), whereas heat energy can be generated by the use of interstitial laser photocoagulation (Dowlatshashi et al, 2002), radiofrequency induced coagulation (Izzo et al, 2001), focused ultrasound (Huber et al, 2001),or focused microwave ablation (Vargas et al, 2004, 2007; Fenn, 2007). The cytotoxic effects of thermotherapy on cancer cells using temperatures in the range of at least 45 to 53ยบC have been demonstrated on cancer cells in vitro (Gerhard, 1978). Clinical trials have demonstrated improved efficacy of hyperthermia with temperatures in the range of about 42 to 46ยบC when used with radiation therapy and chemotherapy (Valdagni and Amichetti, 1993; Overgaard

404


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 405! (Ryoo et al, 1989; Smitt et al, 1995; Recht et al, 1996; Park et al, 2000). However, this difference in positive margins did not reach statistical significance and might be the result of a type 2 statistical error requiring a larger clinical trial to demonstrate a statistical difference. Therefore, the hypothesis that focused microwave phased array thermotherapy treatment prior to breast conservation surgery provides significant tumor cell kill in the primary tumor and in the margins and is responsible for a low incidence of positive margins requires further critical study. Two other factors might be responsible for this finding regarding positive margins: 1) A smaller volume of breast tissue on average was excised in the surgeryalone arm and might have contributed to a higher rate of positive margins in the surgery-alone arm compared to preoperative thermotherapy; however, this volume difference was not statistically significant. Possible explanations for the larger volume of breast tissue excised in the thermotherapy arm might include increased firmness (induration) of the breast cancer mass as a result of thermotherapy effects leading to better resection, or investigator bias because this was not a blinded study. Future studies of focused microwave thermotherapy could investigate whether induration of the breast tumor occurs more frequently in the thermotherapy arm compared to surgery alone. Future studies should investigate whether thermal effects on tissue such as induration and coagulative necrosis have any impact on hemostasis in surgery. 2) At final pathologic diagnosis, a higher rate of ductal carcinoma in-situ (61.0% in the surgery-alone arm versus 35.3% in the thermotherapy arm (p=0.04), based on final pathology) might have been a contributing factor to the higher rate of positive margins in the surgery-alone arm compared to thermotherapy-two of the four cases in the surgery-alone arm had positive margins for DCIS. Elements of intraductal carcinoma might extend outside the tumor mass and can be difficult to detect preoperatively with mammography (Holland, 1990). This characteristic of DCIS is a potential pitfall of minimally invasive ablative approaches. In addition, microwaveheating properties of DCIS lesions need to be evaluated in future studies to determine whether DCIS is high-water high-ion content similar to invasive breast carcinomas. If DCIS cells are high-water high-ion content similar to invasive breast carcinoma, they might be successfully treated with wide-field focused microwaves and more global heating of the breast while sparing the normal healthy breast tissue. Studies demonstrate that the differentiation of DCIS is correlated with the grade of the associated invasive ductal carcinoma (Douglas-Jones et al, 1996; Cadman et al, 1997) indicating a pathological similarity between DCIS and invasive ductal carcinoma cells. If microwave thermotherapy does not preferentially heat DCIS compared to normal breast tissues, then DCIS might be a potential exclusion criterion. In this study, patients were determined to have DCIS at the final pathohistological assessment (post surgery) from the excised tissue. Future studies of thermal ablation must consider selecting patients with invasive carcinoma with lower risk of an intraductal carcinoma component based on pre-treatment mammography and percutaneous biopsy

thermal dose achieved for this case was 81.5 minutes and the peak tumor temperature achieved was 45.2!C. For this case, skin temperatures were elevated in the range of 40 to 42!C, but were not too high to cause any skin burn, erythema, or edema, the patient tolerated the treatment. In this study, the mean microwave treatment time was 26.6 minutes, suggesting that longer treatment times could have been used, which could have increased the percentage of patients receiving the desired thermal dose. The decision to stop a treatment prior to completing the targeted thermal dose depended primarily on the temperature achieved in the tumor and on the skin, as well as on patient comfort. In a typical stopped treatment, skin temperatures were in the range of about 40!C to 42!C and the tumor temperature was in the range of about 43!C to 47!C. Additional breast compression, elevated microwave power levels, adjustment of the skin cooling air-flow rate, applicator spacing to the breast tissue might have improved the heating rate of the tumors. As each patient can tolerate a different amount of breast compression for different periods of time during focused microwave thermotherapy, the investigator or technician operating the equipment must make decisions regarding the treatment parameters, which are subject to experience. For externally applied focused microwave heating of the breast for thermotherapy-alone treatments at target tumor temperatures in the range of 48!C to 50!C, additional skin cooling might be desirable. In terms of possible skin burns, air cooling in the present clinical system appears to be sufficient based on many treatments that have been conducted in patients; however, increased air cooling could be considered to decrease the possibility of skin burns. In this study, 3 of 34 (8.5%) patients receiving thermotherapy had a skin burn less than 3 cm in size that, in each case was excised during the subsequent breast conserving surgery procedure. During treatments, the microwave power can be lowered based on skin temperature measurements to decrease the skin temperatures and decrease the possibility of skin burns. Water cooling of the skin is not an option for the current focused microwave thermotherapy system which uses non-contact air-cooled applicators. Some of the cases in which the desired thermal treatment was not achieved might be a result of the learning curve associated with using a new treatment technology in a multi-institutional study setting. At this interim analysis, although an apparent (potential) reduced incidence of positive margins in the thermotherapy arm was suggested (p=0.13, but not statistically significant), due to the observed inconsistent delivery of the desired thermal dose and inconsistent tumor necrosis, it was decided to close the study early. The intent then was to document the data collected in this study to be used in developing a future, larger, clinical study of focused microwave thermotherapy (with improvements in the treatment delivery protocol) for preoperative treatment of breast carcinomas. An observation arising from this study is the 0% rate of positive margins in the thermotherapy arm in comparison to 9.8% positive margins in the surgery alone arm and reported incidences of positive margins after breast conserving surgery in the literature of 4% to 44% 405


Dooley et al: Preoperative Focused Microwave Phased Array Thermotherapy for Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer this possibility was not investigated in this study. A future study could consider investigating any such correlation. The local anesthetic used in this study is 1% lidocaine and it is injected into the breast in the region of the skin nick, prior to the skin nick, for insertion of the catheter that is placed into the tumor. The lidocaine injectate is ionic which could tend to be heated by microwave energy more rapidly in comparison to low ion content tissue. In this study, there did not appear to be any significant heating effects from infusion of lidocaine such as skin burn in the vicinity of the entry point for the tumor catheter. Approaches to measure the success of thermal ablation are essential if a non-surgical management is contemplated. Imaging with mammography is unlikely to provide additional valuable information. Ultrasound is most valuable in providing easy targeting and placement of the sensors within the mass, but may not provide information about the viability of the tumor. On the other hand, delayed contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging has the potential to show the effects of treatment as areas of devascularization (non-enhancement) within the treated area (Hall-Craggs, 2000). Alternatively, more extensive tissue sampling in follow up with core-biopsy or vacuum-assisted core biopsy may provide essential information of residual tumor. In the current study, FMT was conducted by the placement of a percutaneous sensor catheter for focusing of the microwaves (E-field sensor) and measurement of tumor temperatures (temperature sensor). In the future, focused microwave thermotherapy has the potential of being a transcutaneous procedure that does not require the insertion of any needle-type devices and targeting may be conducted based on imaging alone. Regarding the possibility of skin burns, it is relatively easy to heat a superficial tumor with a single microwave applicator facing the tumor, it tends to be more difficult for a second applicator on the opposite side of the breast to contribute significant power to this distal superficial tumor without burning the proximal skin. In this study, the protocol excluded patients with clinical tumor fixation to the skin, involvement of the nipple, or skin metastases. In this study the primary aims were to improve pathologic margins and reduce the rate of second incisions. Radiological quantitative assessment by mammography, MRI, ultrasound (pretreatment and presurgery) is planned to be used and documented in a future study. The ultimate goal of thermal ablation with focused microwaves would be to develop a protocol for ablationonly treatment and eliminate surgery. A clinical study to attempt to demonstrate this goal could be considered, once a consistent 100% tumor ablation with focused microwave thermotherapy is demonstrated pathologically in a randomized multi-center setting in which patients receive thermotherapy prior to surgery. It is worth noting that a portion of the patient population is unable to tolerate general anesthesia. Ablative procedures such as focused microwave thermotherapy or other heat-delivery techniques may be the only recourse for some patients.

results (Cadman et al, 1997; Bagnall et al, 2001). Future studies could determine whether wide-field focused microwave thermotherapy has an ablative effect on DCIS (Fenn, 2007). In the group of five patients with multifocal tumors that were excluded from the main analysis, each patient had positive margins after the first surgery was completed. Future studies of focused microwave thermal ablation should consider using magnetic resonance imaging (Huber, 2001; Saslow et al, 2007) to better identify patients with multifocal tumors or DCIS to possibly exclude these patients prior to enrollment. If focused microwave thermal ablation for multifocal tumors is to be studied in a clinical trial setting, to achieve negative margins multiple ablation treatments (one for each focal tumor site) should be considered. It is worth noting that in addition to sparing lowwater, low-ion content normal fatty breast tissues, focused microwave therapy should spare the chest wall and pleura. The opposing microwave applicator apertures are oriented, approximately, at right angles with respect to the chest wall and pleura and would tend not to heat these regions. The ability of focused microwave phased array thermotherapy to consistently deliver a specified therapeutic thermal dose and minimum temperature to breast cancer tumors and achieve consistent 100% pathologic tumor cell kill might depend on a number of factors including (1) breast compression thickness which impacts blood flow in the tumor and in surrounding tissues, the required penetration depth for the microwaves, (2) tumor size, (3) tumor histology, (4) tumor location, (5) accuracy, number and positioning of tumor temperature probes, (6) initial temperature of the tumor, (7) magnitude of skin surface cooling, (8) patient tolerance, (9) length of time between thermotherapy and surgery, (10) method of pathologic evaluation of tumor cell kill. It would be desirable in future clinical studies of pre-surgical heatalone focused microwave phased array breast thermotherapy to explore a more consistent delivery of a minimum 210-minute thermal dose (with a corresponding tumor temperature in the range of about 48 to 50ยบC) and higher thermal doses, potentially in the range of 240 to 360 thermal equivalent minutes, for more effective and consistent tumor cell kill (Fenn, 2007). In this study, the wide-field focused microwave thermotherapy system uses single sensor temperature measurements which provides limited monitoring and control of tumor thermal dose. Future studies of FMT could explore measuring the tumor blood perfusion rate with Doppler ultrasound when the breast is compressed prior to the start of thermotherapy, to assess the ability to overcome perfusion effects and more effectively heat the tumor-these perfusion measurements could be used as a guide to determine the desired breast compression thickness prior to the start of thermotherapy. Future studies conducted at more consistent and/or higher therapeutic doses of FMT will provide meaningful information regarding the success of this therapy for heatalone treatment of breast cancer based on pathological response. Comparison with other means of percutaneous thermal ablation of breast cancer will then be possible. It is possible that breast hydration due to the menstrual cycle can correlate with treatment effects, but

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 407! Century Perspective, Volume I: Congress Abstracts, (Chapman JD, Dewey WC, Whitmore GF, Editors), Academic Press, San Diego, California, 290. Fenn AJ (2007) 60*#%"(7#.&*0(20*#"8*."(9:(;,&4%*-()$&0,<#5*( 2+*08,"+*0#=:1(Sudbury, MA,(Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Fenn AJ (2008) >-#="$5*(>."*..#%(#.-(?+#%*-(>00#:%(@,0(/#-#0( #.-( 7,884.$&#"$,.%, Norwood, MA, Artech House Publishers, 133-160. Fenn AJ (1994) Minimally Invasive Monopole Phased Arrays for Hyperthermia Treatment of Breast Cancer, Proc 1994 Int Symp Antennas, Nice, France, November 8-10, 1994, pp. 418-421. Fenn AJ, Cheung AY, Cao H (1994) Adaptive focusing experiments for minimally invasive monopole phased arrays in hyperthermia treatment of breast cancer, 16th Annual IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society International Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, November 36, 1994, 766-767. Fenn AJ, Wolf GL, Fogle RM (1999) An adaptive phased array for targeted heating of deep tumors in intact breast: animal study results. Int J Hyperthermia 15, 45-61. Field SB and Hand JW, editors (1990) >.( A."0,-4&"$,.( ",( "+*( ?0#&"$&#'(>%=*&"%(,@(7'$.$&#'(B:=*0"+*08$#, London, Taylor & Francis, 242-274. Fisher B, Anderson S, Bryant J, Margolese RG, Deutsch M, Fisher ER, Jeong JH, Wolmark N (2002) Twenty-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. N Engl J Med 347, 1233-1241. Fornage BD, Nour SN, Ross MI, Mirza AN, Kuerer HM, Edeiken BS, Ames FC, Newman LA, Babiera GV, Singletary SE (2004) Small (!2-cm) breast cancer treated with USguided radiofrequency ablation: feasibility study, Radiology 231, 215-226. Gardner RA, Vargas HI, Block JB, Vogel CL, Fenn AJ, Kuehl GV, Doval M (2002) Focused microwave phased array thermotherapy for primary breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 9, 326-332. Gerhard H, Klinger HG, Gabriel E (1978) Short term hyperthermia: In vitro survival of different human cell lines after short exposure to extreme temperatures. in 7#.&*0( 2+*0#=:( 9:( B:=*0"+*08$#( #.-( /#-$#"$,., Streffer C, editor, Baltimore-Munich: Urban & Schwarzenberg. 201-203. Hall-Craggs MA, (2000) Interventional MRI of the breast: minimally invasive therapy, Eur Radiol 10, 59-62. Holland R, Hendriks JH, Vebeek AL, Mravunac M, Schuurmans Stekhoven JH (1990) Extent, distribution, mammographic/histological correlations of breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Lancet 335, 519-522. Huber PE, Jenne JW, Rastert R, Simiantonakis I, Sinn HP, Strittmatter HJ, von Fournier D, Wannenmacher MF, Debus J (2001) A new noninvasive approach in breast cancer therapy using magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery. Cancer Res 61, 8441-8447. Huston TL and Simmons RM (2005) Ablative therapies for the treatment of malignant diseases of the breast. Am J Surg( 189, 694-701. Izzo F, Thomas R, Delrio P, Rinaldo M, Vallone P, DeChiara A, Botti G, D'Aiuto G, Cortino P, Curley SA (2001) Radiofrequency ablation in patients with primary breast carcinoma. A pilot study of 26 patients. Cancer 92, 20362044. Jeffrey SS, Birdwell RL, Ikeda DM, et al. (1999) Radiofrequency ablation of breast cancer. First report of an emerging technology. Arch Surg 134, 1064-1068. Joines WT, Zhang Y, Li C, Jirtle RL (1994) The measured electrical properties of normal and malignant human tissues from 50 to 900 MHz. Med Phys 21, 547-50.

In the present study, thermal ablation with focused microwave thermotherapy was tolerated in a majority of cases and no significant complications were recorded. A higher thermal dose than used in this study would be required for increased tumor necrosis. The results of this study are suggestive of a reduction in positive margins in the preoperative thermotherapy plus breast-conserving surgery arm. A larger randomized study is required to verify this conclusion.

Acknowledgements Other investigators participating in this clinical study were: Christine T. Mroz, MD (Mroz-Baier Breast Care Center, Memphis, Tennessee), Lynne P. Clark, MD (Pearl Place, Tacoma, Washington), Claire M. Carman, MD (Breast Care Specialists, Norfolk, Virginia), John Winstanley, MD (Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, United Kingdom), Sandra B. Schultz, MD (Carolina Surgery, Gastonia, North Carolina), Theodore M. Potruch, MD (Breast Care, Las Vegas, Nevada). Study sponsored by Celsion (Canada) Limited.

References Agnese DM, Burak WE (2005) Ablative approaches to the minimally invasive treatment of breast cancer. Cancer J 11, 77-82. Armitage P and Berry G (1994) !"#"$%"$&#'( )*"+,-%( $.( )*-$&#'( /*%*#0&+1( 2+$0-( 3-$"$,., Oxford: Blackwell Science. 156163, 283-311. Bagnall MJ, Evans AJ, Wilson AR, Pinder SE, Denley H, Geraghty JG, Ellis IO (2001) Predicting invasion in mammographically detected microcalcification. Clin Radiol 56, 828-32. Burak WE Jr, Agnese DM, Povoski SP, Yanssens TL, Bloom KJ, Wakely PE, Spigos DG (2003) Radiofrequency ablation of invasive breast carcinoma followed by delayed surgical excision, Cancer 98, 1369-1376. Cadman B, Ostrowski J, Quinn C (1997) Invasive ductal carcinoma accompanied by ductal carcinoma $.(%$"4((DCIS): comparison of DCIS grade with grade of invasive component. The Breast 6, 132-137. Cady B, Stone MD, Schuler JG, Thakur R, Wanner MA, Lavin PT (1996) The new era in breast cancer: invasion, size, nodal involvement dramatically decreasing as a result of mammographic screening. Arch Surg 131, 301-308. Campbell AM and Land DV (1992) Dielectric properties of female human breast tissue measured $.( 5$"0, at 3.2 GHz. Phys Med Biol 37, 193-210. Douglas-Jones AG, Gupta SK, Attanoos RL, Morgan JM, Mansel RE (1996) A critical appraisal of six modern classifications of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast (DCIS): correlation with grade of associated invasive carcinoma. Histopathology 29, 397-409. Dowlatshashi K, Dieschbourg JJ, Bloom KJ (2004) Laser therapy of breast cancer with 3-year follow-up, The Breast J 10, 240-243. Dowlatshashi K, Francescatti DS, Bloom KJ (2002) Laser therapy for small breast cancers. Am J Surg 184, 359-363. Edney JA (2002) Breast cancer treatment for the future based on lessons from the past. Am J Surg 184, 477-483. Falk MH, Issels RD (2001) Hyperthermia and Oncology, Int J Hyperthermia1 17, 1-18. Fenn AJ (1991) Adaptive hyperthermia for improved thermal dose distribution, Radiation Research: A Twentieth-

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van der Zee, J, Gonzalez Gonzalez D, van Rhoon GC, van Dijk JDP, van Putten WLJ, Hart AAM (2000) Comparison of radiotherapy alone with radiotherapy plus hyperthermia in locally advanced pelvic tumors: a prospective, randomised, multicentre trial. Lancet 355, 1119-25. van Esser S, Maurice van den Bosch AAJ, van Diest PJ, Mali WTM, Borel Rinkes IHM, van Hillegersberg R (2007) Minimally invasive ablative therapies for invasive breast carcinomas: An overview of current literature. World J Surg 31, 2284-92. Vargas HI, Dooley WC, Fenn AJ, Tomaselli MB, Harness JK (2007) Study of preoperative focused microwave phased array thermotherapy in combination with neoadjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy for large breast carcinomas. Cancer Ther 5 401-408. Vargas HI, Dooley WC, Gardner RA, Gonzalez KD, HeywangKobrunner SH, Fenn AJ (2003) Success of sentinel lymph node mapping after breast cancer ablation with focused microwave phased array thermotherapy. Am J Surg 186, 330-332. Vargas HI, Dooley WC, Gardner RA, Gonzalez KD, Venegas R, Heywang-Kobrunner SH, Fenn AJ (2004) Focused microwave phased array thermotherapy for ablation of earlystage breast cancer: Results of thermal dose escalation. Ann Surg Oncol 11, 139-46. Vernon CC, Hand JW, Field SB, Machin D, Whaley JB, van der Zee J, van Putten WL, van Rhoon GC, van Dijk JD, Gonzalez Gonzalez D, Liu FF, Goodman P, Sherar M (1996) Radiotherapy with or without hyperthermia in the treatment of superficial localized breast cancer: results from five randomized controlled trials, Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 35, 731-744. Wu F, Zhi-Wang ZB, Zhu H, Chen WZ, Zou JZ, Bai J, Li KQ, Jin CB, Xie FL, Su HB (2005) Extracorporeal high intensity focused ultrasound treatment for patients with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 92, 51-60.

William C. Dooley

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Metachronous thyroid metastasis of primary rectal adenocarcinoma Case Report

Raffaele Longo1,*, Francesco Torino1, Roberta Sarmiento1, Domenico Gattuso1, Cinzia Bernardi2, Giampietro Gasparini1 1 2

Division of Medical Oncology, “San Filippo Neri” Hospital Rome, Italy Division of Anathomy & Pathology, “San Filippo Neri” Hospital Rome, Italy

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Raffaele Longo, MD, Division of Medical Oncology ‘San Filippo Neri’ Hospital, Via Martinotti 20, 00135 Rome, Italy; Tel: +39-06-33062272; Fax: +39-06-33062414; E-mail: raflongo@libero.it Key words: Colorectal cancer, Thyroid metastasis, chemotherapy Abbreviations: 5-fluorouracil, (5-FU); leucovorin, (LV) Received: 17 June 2008; Revised: 23 June 2008 Accepted: 26 June 2008; electronically published: July 2008

Summary Thyroid metastases occur frequently from lung, breast and renal cancer, with an overall incidence of 1.25% to 24.2% reported in autopsy studies (Shimaoka et al, 1961; Czech et al, 1982). Only a few cases of colorectal cancer metastatic to the thyroid have been reported to date. We describe the case of a 60-year old man who underwent right hemithyroidectomy with laterocervical lymph node dissection for a thyroid metastasis from a previous rectal adenocarcinoma surgically treated 11 years before.

II. Case report

I. Introduction

In September 1996, a 60 year-old Caucasian man underwent radical resection of a moderately differentiated low rectal adenocarcinoma (TNM stage pT3, pN0, M0; AJCC, 1997; Dukes B2) followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU: 425 mg/mq/d, d1-5, every 28 days) and leucovorin (LV: 20 mg/mq/d, d 1-5, every 28 days) (Mayo Clinic regimen) and standard loco-regional radiotherapy (50.4 Gy). In June 2001, a chest X-ray and then a whole body CT scan documented 2 lung metastases in the upper left lobe. No other systemic lesions were observed. Tumor marker levels (CEA and CA 19.9) were also in the normal ranges. The patient underwent lung metastasectomy. No other systemic treatments were started. In May 2004, the patient was submitted to lobectomy of the upper left lung for a new single metastasis, documented by a whole body CT scan. In June 2007,the patient noticed a swelling in the right side of his neck associated with dysphonia. Physical examination revealed a nodule in the right thyroid lobe along with an enlarged right, lower, laterocervical lymph nodes. Ultrasonography showed a mass, 3.0 x2.0 cm in size, with a non-uniform internal echo pattern and associated tracheal compression (Figure 1A, red arrow). A total body CT confirmed these data (Figure 1B, red arrow). No other concomitant diseases were documented. Blood chemistry, thyroid hormones, CEA, and CA 19.9 levels were all in the normal ranges. The patient underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid lesion. FNA cytology documented the presence of neoplastic cells, characteristic of

The occurrence of clinically-relevant thyroid metastases from colorectal cancer is rare compared to that from other tumors such as renal cell, breast, and lung cancer (Shimaoka et al, 1961; Czech et al, 1982). In contrast to clinical evidence, autopsy data show an incidence of 4% of thyroid metastases in patients with primary colon cancer (Czech et al, 1982). This discrepancy might be explained by the following: 1. only a few thyroid metastases become clinically symptomatic, 2. the frequent concomitant presence of metastases in other organs, such as liver, lung or brain, that usually determine the worse prognosis of these patients potentially masking thyroid metastases, 3. thyroid metastases could be mistaken for other thyroid diseases (Ivy, 1984). Based on these considerations, in a patient with a history of a previous cancer, the presence of a thyroid lesion requires careful evaluation typically with ultrasound scan, thyroid hormone tests, and fine-needle aspiration and/or biopsy. Treatment of thyroid metastases is not well established and depends on the presence of clinicallyrelevant symptoms, other concomitant systemic metastases, pre-existing co-morbidities and the patient’s overall prognosis.

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Longo et al: Metachronous thyroid metastasis of primary rectal adenocarcinoma rectal adenocarcinoma (Figure 1C, E!E, 20x, red arrow) and whith a pattern similar to that found in the primary tumor and in lung metastases. Due to the lack of other systemic metastases, the patientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s good performance status (ECOG: 0), the patientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s symptoms and the radiological tracheal compression, a right hemithyroidectomy plus isthmectomy with laterocervical lymph nodes dissection was performed in August 2007. Histology showed tall columnar cells in acinar structures infiltrating normal tissues (Figure 1D, E!E, 10x, red arrows). At the immunohistochemical analysis, tumor cells were negative for both TTF1 (Figure 1E, 10x, red arrows) and thyroglobulin, and positive for cytokeratin 20 (Figure 1F, 20x, red arrows). In contrast to this pattern, normal follicular cells were positive for both TTF1 (Figure 1E, 10x, green arrows) and thyroglobulin, and negative for cytokeratin 20 (Figure 1F, 20x, green arrows). Immunohistochemistry was consistent with metastasis from rectal cancer (Ivy, 1984; Kumamoto et al, 2006; Mattavelli et al, 2006; Iguchi et al, 2007). Metastases in 2 lymph nodes were also reported. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy was started. The patient was submitted to 12 cycles of postoperative systemic chemotherapy with 5-FU (400 mg/mq/d, d1-2, bolus; 600 mg/mq/d, d1-2, continuous infusion, every 14 days) and LV (100 mg/mq/d, d 1-2, every 14 days) (De Gramont regimen). He is

now alive, in good general condition and disease-free.

III. Discussion Thyroid metastases are rare, with an overall incidence of 1.25% to 24.2% reported in autopsy studies, the most frequent primary sites being breast and lung cancers (Shimaoka et al, 1961). In clinical series, renal cell carcinoma is the most common primary tumor associated to thyroid metastases (Czech et al, 1982). Despite an incidence of 4% of thyroid metastatic involvement secondary to colorectal cancer described in a large autopsy series, only a few clinical cases are reported in the literature to date (Shimaoka et al, 1961). Metastatic tumor involving the thyroid gland may pose diagnostic problems (Ivy, 1984; Iguchi et al, 2007). As metastatic tumors do not clinically differ from primary thyroid cancers and other thyroid benign diseases, it is crucial to consider this possibility in patients with a history of previous primary cancers in order to avoid misdiagnosis.

Figure 1. (A) Ultrasonography demonstrated a thyroid lesion in the right lobe of 3.0 x 2.0 cm in size with a non-uniform internal echo pattern (red arrow) and initial signs of tracheal displacement and compression (green arrow). (B) Chest CT scan confirmed the presence of a non-homogeneous thyroid lesion in the right lobe with tracheal displacement and initial aspects of compression (red arrow). (C) Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the thyroid lesion documented a cluster of neoplastic cells, characteristic of rectal adenocarcinoma (red arrow). (D) Histology showed tall columnar cells in acinar structures (red arrows) infiltrating normal thyroid tissue. (E) At immunohistochemistry, tumor cells resulted negative for TTF1 (red arrows) whereas normal follicular cells were positive (green arrows). (F) In contrast to the immunohistochemical pattern shown in Fig. 1E, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin 20 (red arrows) whereas normal thyroid cells were negative for this marker (green arrows).

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 411! that passes laterally along the middle hemorrhoidal artery and the iliac nodes and the obturator fossa. These anatomical characteristics might explain the presence of systemic metastases, particularly in the lung, without an hepatic secondary involvement. Both these two considerations could make the diagnosis very difficult as this clinical and radiological pattern might be confounded with that of other thyroid diseases that are usually treatedin a different way.

Three hypotheses could explain the rarity of thyroid metastases: first, mechanical stress associated with the abundant blood supply to the thyroid and its fast blood flow could make adhesion and implantation of metastatic tumor cells difficult (Iguchi et al, 2007); second, sex hormones effect at thyroid tissue may alter the occurrence of thyroid metastases that are more frequent in the women (Kumamoto et al, 2006; Mattavelli et al, 2006); third, the high oxygen saturation index and high iodine content of the thyroid gland could inhibit the growth of cancer cells (Willis, 1931). This last hypothesis is supported by the observation that patients with benign thryoid diseases, such as adenomatous goiter, that are characterized by lowoxygen/iodine states, have an increased risk of developing thyroid metastases (Smith et al, 1987). Though controversial, the treatment of choice is surgery aimed at reducing potential airway compression and difficulty with swallowing (Rosen et al, 1995). The extent of surgery can vary from partial lobectomy to total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection depending on patient and disease factors. The affected lobe and isthmus are usually removed. The extent of the surgical procedure does not seem to influence long-term prognosis, which is understandably worse in the case of concurrent systemic spread (Rosen et al, 1995). As is always the case, the final treatment recommendation should take into account the presence of synchronous metastases in other organs, the patientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s performance status and co-morbidities, as well as the clinical relevance of thyroid metastases-related symptoms (Poon et al, 2004). Our case illustrates two interesting points. First, the patient had a long cancer history of 11 years from the diagnosis of primary rectal cancer and the development of thyroid metastases. In clinical practice, it is not very common to observe a similar long history in colorectal cancer patients, particularly when metastases in other organs, such as in the lung, like in this case, are previously reported. Tumor genetic variables might explain this behaviour. The second aspect is related to the lack of other synchronous lesions. This latter aspect is more frequently observed in low rectal adenocarcinoma and depends on the particular venous lymphatic drainage of the lower rectum

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Outcome of Hispanics with colorectal cancer residing in Puerto Rico with access to adequate health care facilities: results are not inferior to USA or European caucasians Research Article

Luis Ignacio Echenique1,*, Fernando Cabanillas2, Viviana Freire1, Ignacio A. Echenique1 1 2

Hospital Auxilio Mutuo, San Juan, Puerto Rico Auxilio Centro de Cancer, Hospital Auxilio Mutuo, San Juan, Puerto Rico

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Luis Ignacio Echenique, Hospital Auxilio Mutuo, Torre Medica Suite 218, Ave. Ponce de Leon # 735, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 00918; Tel/Fax:787-296-0949/7872-296-0958; e-mail: liegio@yahoo.com Key words: Hispanics, colorectal cancer, health care facilities, Demographics, Outcomes, rectal carcinomas Abbreviations: carcinoembryonic antigen, (CEA); sphincter preservation rate, (SPR); Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, (SEER); Total mesorectal excision, (TME) Received: 20 November 2008; Revised: 18 March 2008 Accepted: 5 June 2008; electronically published: July 2008

Summary Colorectal cancer cure rates vary significantly according to ethnicity and race. No data regarding this are available for Puerto Ricans. We examined the outcome of 202 Puerto Ricans with colorectal cancer managed by one surgeon. We evaluated survival rates and sphincter preservation rate (SPR). Most presented with localized disease (69% stage I- II), 18% stage III and 13% stage IV. Median age was 66. Five year overall survival and cause specific survival were 77% and 85% respectively. SPR varied according to the location: 56/57 (98%) for those in the high/middle rectum (6-15 cm from the anal verge) and 12/24 (50%) for those in the low rectum. Age distribution was: <55 y/o=19.7%, 55-64= 25%, 65-74=28.9%, >75=23%. This age distribution reveals a younger population than USA. Data from the Island Cancer Registry confirmed this. Our survival data compares favorably with that of American Whites; this suggests that Puerto Ricans residing in the island don’t have an adverse prognosis provided adequate medical care is available. The unfavorable outcome of Hispanics might be related to disparities in health care access. In view of the younger age distribution, colorectal cancer screening for Puerto Ricans might have to be modified to start at 45 years.

the Veteran’s Administration system, where all patients have access to medical care, the results of AfricanAmericans with the same stage of disease are equal to those of Caucasians, thus suggesting that the difference in survival in the USA is mostly attributable to disparities in health care. Recent data suggest that the clinical outcome for Hispanics with colorectal cancer is superior to that of African-Americans but inferior to non-Hispanic whites (Clegg et al, 2002). It is not clear whether certain genetic differences might account at least in part for this difference. However, it is difficult to define accurately what a Hispanic is. For example there are huge differences between the genetic stock of immigrant Mexicans, whose

I. Introduction Colorectal cancer is a potentially curable disorder but cure rates vary significantly according to race (Howe et al, 2006), disease stage (Steele et al, 1994), surgical modality used (Wibe et al, 2002), hospital surgical volume (McGrath, 2005) as well as the surgeon’s volume (McGrath et al, 2005), and more recently whether adjuvant chemotherapy is used for stage II-III cases (Andre et al, 2004). In the USA, African-Americans have fared poorly when compared with Caucasians (Clegg et al, 2002). This has been attributed both to racial disparities in the delivery of adequate health care as well to potential biological differences in their colorectal cancer genes. However, in

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Echenique et al: Outcome of Hispanics with colorectal cancer with access to adequate health care facilities! cm and high rectum as 11-15 cm. Clinical stage was determined with the use of CT scans of abdomen and pelvis as well as chest x-rays or CT of chest. For clinical staging of rectal primaries, rectal sonograms were performed in 36 (44%) of the 81 cases and 57% of low and mid-rectal lesions; in cases which didn’t have a sonogram staging was performed with a CT scan. Total mesorectal excision (TME) was the surgical approach we used in patients with rectal cancer. Chemoradiation was utilized preoperatively usually for all T3-T4 lesions and for all low rectal cases except those who were managed with a local transanal excision. Those in the mid rectum with T3-T4 were also treated preoperatively. Usually cases with high rectal presentation didn’t receive preoperative radiation except selected cases who either had unfavorable prognostic features such as evidence of lymph node involvement or T3-T4 on CT or mucinous histology. Statistical analysis for survival and disease free survival was performed by Kaplan-Meier technique and log rank test was used to determine significance. All other statistical significance analysis was performed by chi square test.

genes are mostly of native Aztec and Mayan Indian extraction versus Puerto Ricans whose genetic makeup is more complex, being derived from a prominent mixture of Africans, European Caucasians and native Taino Indians (Fernandez-Cobo et al, 2001). On the other extreme are Hispanics from Buenos Aires, Argentina whose genes are mostly of European Caucasian derivation. Unfortunately there are not much data available regarding the outcome of Puerto Rican Hispanics with colorectal cancer who reside in Puerto Rico. This malignancy is the second most common tumor in Puerto Rico. For this reason we have examined the clinical features and outcome of 202 patients with colorectal cancer, all operated by the same colorectal surgeon, in a private practice setting. Although this sample might not be representative of the whole island, it does provide a profile of the experience with a group of patients whose socioeconomic level, although higher than average for the island, is uniformly composed of Puerto Rican “Hispanics”. Another advantage of this study is that we were able to obtain detailed and reliable data on stage, treatment delivered and outcome. This is frequently a limitation with data from tumor registries which rely on information derived from various sources.

III. Results A. Demographics Table 1 summarizes the demographic features of our population. Sixty nine percent of the patients presented with localized disease (stage I-II) and only 13% presented with metastatic stage IV disease. The median age was 66. Close to 45% of the patients were younger than 65 at the time of presentation. Figure 1 shows the age distribution in graphic form.

II. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 202 consecutive patients with colorectal cancer operated from January 2000 through January 2007. Median follow up of patients who are alive is 31 months; mean is 39 months and range 1-88 months. This study includes all patients operated during that time period by a single surgeon, Dr. Ignacio Echenique, who is a colorectal surgeon based at Auxilio Mutuo Hospital. The Auxilio Mutuo Hospital is a private non-profit institution. Although it accepts patients from essentially all health insurance plans including Medicare, it doesn’t contract with “Reforma” health insurance, which is the local government’s insurance plan for indigent patients. Consequently the patient mix is of a higher socioeconomic level than most hospitals in the island. The following data were collected: age, gender, preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, clinical and pathological stage, site of primary tumor (when rectal in origin, the distance from the anal verge was also identified), type of surgery performed, whether sphincter preservation was performed, whether preoperative chemotherapy and radiation was given and whether postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered. Overall survival, cause-specific survival and failure-free survival information was also examined. Overall survival was defined as the interval from the date of surgery to the date of death irrespective of the cause of death. Failure free survival was defined as the interval from the date of surgery until the first evidence of relapse or lethal toxicity from treatment. Causespecific survival (in this case, cancer related mortality) was calculated from the date of surgery to the date of death from cancer. For the latter analysis, five patients who died of unrelated causes such as cardiovascular or others not directly linked to the tumor or to lethal toxicity from treatment, were censored at the time of death. All survival curves were plotted using the KaplanMeier technique (Kaplan and Meier, 1958). For rectal cases, the level in the rectum was calculated usually by rigid proctoscopy and/or digital rectal examination and expressed as the distance from the anal verge. Low rectum was defined as 0-5 cm from the anal verge, mid-rectum as 6-10

Table 1. Demographic Features. Characteristic Median Age Gender Female Male Stage I II III IV Histology Well differentiated Moderately well differentiated Poorly differentiated Adenocarcinoma NOS* Primary Tumor Site Rectum Right Colon Sigmoid Left Colon Transverse Colon Level in Rectum** High (11-15 cm) Mid (6-10 cm) Low (0-5 cm) Median CEA preop * NOS=not otherwise specified **measured from the anal verge

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N 202 202 103 99 202 71 68 37 26 202 105 78

Distribution 66 (23-88) 100% 51% 49% 100% 35% 34% 18% 13% 100% 41% 49%

7 12 202 81 59 37 14 11 81 23 34 24 156

4% 6% 100% 40% 29% 18% 7% 5% 100% 28% 42% 30% 2.1 (0.1-5,000)


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 415!

Figure 1. Histogram Age Distribution Echenique Series. All Cases, All Stages

B. Outcome of colorectal cases

Figure 4, the postoperative pathological stage was used except for those cases who were clinical stage IV before surgery. The cancer specific survival for the same patients is shown in Figure 4. For stage I, II, III and IV the projected 5 year cancer specific survivals respectively were 96%, 92%, 87% and 28%. There was no significant difference in cause specific survival among stages I-III but the lower survival of stage IV cases was statistically significant. Figure 5 shows the failure free survival of the same cases shown in Figure 3 and 4.

The overall survival and the cause specific survival curves are shown in Figure 2. These curves include all stages of colon and rectal cancer. Five year overall survival and cause specific survival were 77% and 85% respectively. Five deaths considered not to be related to cancer were censored in the cause specific survival curve in this figure. Figure 3 depicts the overall survival of all colorectal cases according to stage. For this analysis as well as for

Figure 2. Survival of All Colon and Rectal Cases (N=202)

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Echenique et al: Outcome of Hispanics with colorectal cancer with access to adequate health care facilities!

Figure 3. Overall Survival of All Cases According to Stage

Figure 4. Cancer Specific Survival According to Stage

C. Management of colon cases excluding rectum

preoperatively and 16 of these also received chemotherapy concurrently. When all 24 cases with low rectal lesions are considered, 12 (50%) had sphincter preserving surgery. All patients who underwent sphincter saving procedures routinely had a temporary diverting colostomy.

For the 121 cases in whom the primary was located outside of the rectal area, information on the use of chemotherapy is shown in Table 2 which summarizes the use of chemotherapy according to stage. Most patients with stage II-III received adjuvant chemotherapy while 90% of stage IV received palliative chemotherapy.

E. Outcome of colon cases compared with rectal Figure 6 compares the cause specific survival of colon versus rectal carcinomas excluding those with stage IV presentation. No significant differences were observed, although the survival and failure free survival trends favor colon over rectum. When this same analysis was carried out focusing exclusively on stage I-III cases, the same pattern was observed (data not shown).

D. Management of rectal carcinomas Of the 81 cases of rectal primaries, 42 received preoperative radiation therapy, of which 41 also received chemotherapy concurrently. Of the 24 cases with low rectal primaries 17 received radiation therapy

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Figure 5. Failure Free Survival According to Stage

Table 2. Use of chemotherapy in colon cases. Stage I II III IV

N 30 43 25 20

# treated with chemotherapy 1 (3%) 29 (67%) 22 (88%) 18 (90%)

Figure 6. Cancer Specific Survival of Colon vs Rectum Excluding Stage IV

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Echenique et al: Outcome of Hispanics with colorectal cancer with access to adequate health care facilities!

F. Outcome of rectal cases

highly curable. However a closer look at Table 3 reveals that the age distribution in our series is very different from the USA, with a much higher proportion of cases diagnosed at a younger age. In order to determine if the young age of onset is an isolated event limited to the practice of one surgeon, we reviewed the island-wide statistics by contacting the Puerto Rico Cancer Registry at the Dept. of Health. The results confirmed that the proportion of patients younger than 55 years is also higher for the whole island as compared with USA (P<.00001) and similar to the results observed in our series (P=0.54). In a sense, our findings regarding the younger age of colorectal cancer patients in our series from Puerto Rico parallel those observed in African-Americans in USA (Agrawal et al, 2005). The colorectal screening recommendations for African Americans have recently been modified. The first colonoscopy for this minority group should be performed at the age of 45 years instead of 50 according to the American Gastroenterology Association (Agrawal et al, 2005). We propose that the current screening recommendations for Puerto Ricans should be changed so that it would start earlier. In order to capture that same ~80% of cases in their pre-malignant phase, we would have to start screening at 45 years old. This still would miss 10 cases who were younger than 45 years old when they were diagnosed but it would capture in the premalignant phase 82% of patients who were diagnosed after age 55 and in addition would have detected at an earlier stage those 7% diagnosed between 45-55 years old. A possible explanation for this earlier age of onset of colorectal cancer in Puerto Rico could be that the life expectancy in the island might be lower than USA. This could result in patients dying at an early age and thus not being at risk for developing colon cancer at an older age. In order to rule out this possibility as an explanation for the earlier age of onset, we compared the life expectancy in Puerto Rico with that of USA. In USA the life expectancy for females in 2001 was 79.8 and for males 74.4, as compared with 80.0 and 71.0 respectively in Puerto Rico (National Center for Health Statistics Health, United States 2005 With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans, 2005). Consequently, we donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t feel this is the explanation for the younger age of onset in Puerto Rico.

In the 81 cases of rectal primaries, it was possible to preserve the anal sphincter in 68 (84%). Of 57 with mid or high rectal presentations, 56 (98%) had sphincter preserving surgery as compared with 12/24 (50%) of low rectal cases. The failure free survival of patients whose sphincters were saved was not inferior to those ten requiring an abdominoperineal resection. In fact, the failure free survival tended to be superior for those who underwent sphincter saving surgery with 75% being failure free at five years versus 57% for those whose sphincter had to be sacrificed (P=.09). The same trend for a superior failure free survival was observed when the low rectal cases were analyzed separately. Of our cases with rectal cancer six were able to be treated with local excision and one recurred locally. This was managed with radiation and an abdominoperineal resection and the patient has remained continuously free of disease since then. Of our cases with rectal cancer, six were stage IV leaving 75 patients with stage I-III treated by radical resection, of which 11 experienced a relapse. Of these 11, only 2 were local recurrences (2.6 % of the 75 with stage I-III). Both local recurrences occurred in low rectal cases with ultrasound documented T3 and T4 lesions. The remaining 9 relapses were 8 distant and 1 distant plus local.

IV. Discussion The current colorectal screening recommendations in Puerto Rico are based on the age distribution of this disorder in the USA (Smith et al, 2002). Colon cancer in most instances is known to arise from a benign adenomatous polyp which with time develops molecular genetic events that lead to dysplasia and eventually to its transformation into an adenocarcinoma (Vogelstein et al, 1988). These events on the average take 10 years to fully develop from a polyp to an invasive adenocarcinoma. Table 3 summarizes the (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) SEER data on the age distribution of cases of colorectal carcinoma in the USA (Clegg et al, 2002). Seventy one percent of the USA cases are diagnosed after the age of 65 years and approximately 20% before 60 years. This means that the vast majority of colorectal cancers would be detected in their premalignant phase if screening colonoscopy starts at 50 years which is the current recommendation. A large fraction of the other 20% would be detected in their early stages when they are

Table 3. Comparison of age distribution in USA versus Puerto Rico. Country USA (SEER) Puerto Rico (our series) Puerto Rico Cancer Registry

N 91,850 202

<55 12.2% 18.8%*

55-64 16.8% 24.3%

65-74 27% 32.2%

>75 41.9% 24.8%

<65 29% 43.1%

1,538

17.9%**

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

N.A.

*P value USA SEER vs Puerto Rico (our series) =.0046 **P value USA SEER vs Puerto Rico Cancer Registry <.00001 *** P value for our series vs Puerto Rico Cancer Registry = .54

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 419! cumulative incidence at 5 yrs in patients with stage I-III tumors. If the T1 tumors are excluded from the denominator, the cumulative local relapse rate at 5 yrs was 7.5%. This is an acceptable rate and is in keeping with the published literature (Martling et al, 2000; Sauer et al, 2004). Most important is the fact that the high sphincter preservation rate was achieved without sacrificing the effectiveness of the surgical procedure as determined by the fact that the failure free survival of those whose sphincter was preserved was excellent. An inspection of the overall survival, cause specific survival and failure free survival curves shown in Figures 3-5 reveals the surprising finding that there were no major differences between stages I, II and III. Only for stage IV was there a significant difference. Although unexpected, part of the explanation could be that the vast majority of patients with stage III and most with stage II, received adjuvant therapy. Adjuvant therapy, particularly for stage III, has led to a major improvement in the outcome of these cases. In the seminal article where Andre et al describe the results of their randomized adjuvant trial, the Folfox chemotherapy arm had a 3 year failure free survival of 72.2% for stage III cases and 87% for stage II (Andre et al, 2004). Since the number of patients with stage III in our series is relatively small (N=28), our 3 year failure free survival of 85% for stage III, has a standard deviation of 26% which is compatible with Andre’s results of 72.2% survival. Our 3 year failure free survival of 89% for stage II was very similar to Andre’s results of 87%. In summary, our data suggest that the current recommendations for screening colonoscopy for the Puerto Rican population residing in the island might have to be reconsidered. In view of the younger age of Puerto Ricans with colorectal cancer, screening colonoscopy might have to start at 45 years of age. This is a theoretical proposal which should be confirmed with facts. Since our data regarding overall survival, failure free survival and sphincter preservation rates are in the range of that described for American Whites, this suggests that being of Puerto Rican extraction doesn’t carry adverse prognostic implications provided adequate medical care is available. Perhaps the slightly less favorable outcome of Hispanics with colorectal cancer in the USA might be related to disparities in health care access (Howe !"#$%, 2006). Finally our data suggest that when an experienced high volume colorectal surgeon performs colon cancer surgery with adequate facilities and a suitable infrastructure, the results are comparable with those obtained in North America and Europe.

A review of the 1973-2002 SEER survival data for colorectal cancer from the USA National Cancer Institute (Howe et al, 2006) reveals some similarities and some differences from our data. In first place, there was no significant difference in the survival rate for colon versus rectal cancer in the USA. Such is our experience also; we didn’t observe any statistically significant difference in the survival of colon versus rectal primaries (Figure 6). However, a notable difference is our 5 year overall survival which appears superior: 78% for our population versus 65% for USA. This difference can probably be explained by various factors. In first place, our patients were predominantly early stage with 69% in the category of stage I-II, however, our stage III cases also had an excellent outcome when compared with earlier stages. Another possible explanation is that our data are more recent since they were generated from 2000-07 which covers a 7 year period instead of 29 years (from 19732002). Recent advances in management are more prominently reflected in our series. Another contributing factor could be that our patient population is significantly younger. Younger age is known to correlate with a longer survival (Mitry et al, 2001), although Rodriguez-Bigas has identified very young age, defined as <30 years, as an adverse prognostic factor (Rodriguez-Bigas et al, 1996). In addition, our data pertain to a single surgeon who is highly experienced in colorectal cancer surgery. Finally, there could be a selection bias in favor of a higher socioeconomic status for our patient population. It is a well known fact that African-Americans with colorectal cancer have a significantly lower 5 year survival. In the 1983-90 SEER data, the 5-year survival rate for blacks with colorectal cancer was 49.5% versus 60.1% for whites (Clegg et al, 2002). This lower survival results in a lower average survival for the whole USA population. The sphincter preservation rate in rectal carcinoma cases, particularly for cases with low rectal primary tumors, is a good measure of the suitability of the surgery performed. In the past the sphincter had to be frequently sacrificed in most patients with rectal cancers. In 34 studies that included 6,570 patients, the average sphincter preservation rate was 50% for all cases with rectal cancer and 32% for the lower third of the rectum (Di Betta et al, 2003). Our sphincter preservation rate of 84% for all rectal cancers and 50% for the lower third of the rectum compares favorably with the rates recorded in those 6,570 cases. Advances in preoperative staging through accurate staging with transrectal ultrasound, CT scans and MRI and the recognition of the importance of invasion of the tumor into the mesorectal plane has allowed for a more accurate selection of patients for preoperative chemo-radiation (Rifkin and Marks, 1985; Zmora et al, 2004). This, coupled with the introduction of TME in the surgical treatment of low and mid rectal cancers, allows resection of tumors closer to the dentate line without a decrease in the survival rates thus allowing a higher number of patients to undergo sphincter saving surgery (Guillem et al, 2007). With TME, usually in combination with preoperative chemoradiation therapy, we achieved a very low local recurrence rate of 2/75 (2.6%) or 5.5%

References Agrawal S, Bhupinderjit A, Bhutani MS, Boardman L, Nguyen C, Romero Y, Srinivasan R, Figueroa-Moseley C; Committee of Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity, American College of Gastroenterology (2005) Colorectal cancer in African Americans. Am J Gastroenterol 100, 51523, discussion 514. André T, Boni C, Mounedji-Boudiaf L, Navarro M, Tabernero J, Hickish T, Topham C, Zaninelli M, Clingan P, Bridgewater J, Tabah-Fisch I, de Gramont A; Multicenter International

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Echenique et al: Outcome of Hispanics with colorectal cancer with access to adequate health care facilities! Study of Oxaliplatin/5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin in the Adjuvant Treatment of Colon Cancer (MOSAIC) Investigators (2004) Oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin as adjuvant treatment for colon cancer. N Engl J Med 350, 2343-51. Clegg LX, Li FP, Hankey BF, Chu K, Edwards BK (2002) Cancer survival among US whites and minorities: a SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) Program population-based study. Arch Intern Med 162, 1985-93. Di Betta E, D'Hoore A, Filez L, Penninckx F (2003) Sphincter saving rectum resection is the standard procedure for low rectal cancer. Int J Colorectal Dis 18, 463-9. Fernandez-Cobo M, Jobes DV, Yanagihara R, Nerurkar VR, Yamamura Y, Ryschkewitsch CF, Stoner GL (2001) Reconstructing population history using JC virus: Amerinds, Spanish, and Africans in the ancestry of modern Puerto Ricans. Hum Biol 73, 385-402. Guillem JG, Chessin DB, Shia J, Suriawinata A, Riedel E, Moore HG, Minsky BD, Wong WD (2007) A prospective pathologic analysis using whole-mount sections of rectal cancer following preoperative combined modality therapy: implications for sphincter preservation. Ann Surg 245, 8893. Howe HL, Wu X, Ries LA, Cokkinides V, Ahmed F, Jemal A, Miller B, Williams M, Ward E, Wingo PA, Ramirez A, Edwards BK (2006) Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2003, featuring cancer among U.S. Hispanic/Latino populations. Cancer 107, 1711-42. Kaplan EL, Meier P (1958) Non-parametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc 53, 457-481. Martling AL, Holm T, Rutqvist LE, Moran BJ, Heald RJ, Cedemark B (2000) Effect of a surgical training programme on outcome of rectal cancer in the County of Stockholm. Stockholm Colorectal Cancer Study Group, Basingstoke Bowel Cancer Research Project. Lancet 356, 93-6. McGrath DR, Leong DC, Gibberd R, Armstrong B, Spigelman AD (2005) Surgeon and hospital volume and the management of colorectal cancer patients in Australia. ANZ J Surg 75, 901-10. Mitry E, Benhamiche AM, Jouve JL, Clinard F, Finn-Faivre C, Faivre J (2001) Colorectal adenocarcinoma in patients under 45 years of age: comparison with older patients in a welldefined French population. Dis Colon Rectum 44, 380-7. National Center for Health Statistics Health, United States 2005 With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans (2005) Hyattsville, Maryland. ! Rifkin MD, Marks GJ (1985) Transrectal US as an adjunct in the diagnosis of rectal and extrarectal tumors. Radiology 157, 499-502. Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Mahoney MC, Weber TK, Petrelli NJ (1996) Colorectal cancer in patients aged 30 years or younger. Surg Oncol 5, 189-94.

Sauer R, Becker H, Hohenberger W, Rödel C, Wittekind C, Fietkau R, Martus P, Tschmelitsch J, Hager E, Hess CF, Karstens JH, Liersch T, Schmidberger H, Raab R; German Rectal Cancer Study Group (2004) Preoperative versus postoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. N Engl J Med 351, 1731-40. Smith RA, Cokkinides V, von Eschenbach AC, Levin B, Cohen C, Runowicz CD, Sener S, Saslow D, Eyre HJ; American Cancer Society (2002) American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 52, 822. Steele GD, Jr. (1994) The National Cancer Data Base report on colorectal cancer. Cancer 74, 1979-89. Vogelstein B, Fearon ER, Hamilton SR, Kern SE, Preisinger AC, Leppert M, Nakamura Y, White R, Smits AM, Bos JL (1988) Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development. N Engl J Med 319, 525-32. Wibe A, Møller B, Norstein J, Carlsen E, Wiig JN, Heald RJ, Langmark F, Myrvold HE, Søreide O; Norwegian Rectal Cancer Group (2002) A national strategic change in treatment policy for rectal cancer--implementation of total mesorectal excision as routine treatment in Norway. A national audit. Dis Colon Rectum 45, 857-66. Zmora O, Dasilva GM, Gurland B, Pfeffer R, Koller M, Nogueras JJ, Wexner SD (2004) Does rectal wall tumor eradication with preoperative chemoradiation permit a change in the operative strategy? Dis Colon Rectum 47, 1607-12.

Luis Ignacio Echenique

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 421! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 421-424, 2008

!"#$%"&'()*+$&),-.-/)(&//)(-#('0"1-)"2)*%&)$&#'-0-/) #&3'"04)#-#&)1-0'2&.*-*'"0)"2)-)("11"0)5'.&-.&) Research Article

Sai Krishna Balakrishnan678, Pankaj K Singh97)Lucy Jane Smith3, Vinay K Singh4) 1

ST1 Core Surgical Trainee, Luton & Dunstable Hospital NHS Trust, Lewsey road, Luton LU4 0DZ, UK Clinical Research Fellow, Neurovascular Surgery, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK 3 FY 2, Dept of General Surgery, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Infirmary Square, Leicester LE1 5WW, UK 4 Registrar Trauma and Orthopaedics Surgery, Luton & Dunstable Hospital NHS Trust, Lewsey Road, Luton LU4 0DZ, UK 2

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: SK Balakrishnan, ST1 Core Surgical Trainee, Luton & Dunstable Hospital NHS Trust, Lewsey road, Luton LU4 0DZ, UK; Phone: 00-44-7757669448; Email: we.publish@googlemail.com Key words: Basal cell carcinoma, perianal region, morphoeic type Abbreviations: Basal cell carcinoma, (BCC); basal cell nevus syndrome, (BCNS); basaloid carcinoma, (BC); carcinoembrionic antigen, (CEA); epithelial membrane antigen, (EMA) Received: 14 April 2008; revised: 6 June Accepted: 10 June 2008; electronically published: July 2008

Summary Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common dermatological malignancy. Sunlight being the most important aetiological factor, it remains an exceptional rarity in non-sun exposed parts, including the perianal area. We report an atypical case of BCC of the perianal area in an elderly man, who presented with itching and haemorrhoids. The macroscopic appearance of the lesion was typical of the morphoeic variety. The case was successfully treated by wide local excision and the patient remained symptom-free at three years. The case remains unique, both in terms of the perianal location being unusual, as well as the rare macroscopic presentation. Due to a striking histopathological resemblance, perianal basaloid carcinoma (BC) makes an important differential diagnosis. Histopathologists must be able to distinguish between the two entities, as both exhibit entirely different biological and clinical behaviours, thus requiring dramatically different treatments.

specific history of past skin cancers, exposure to carcinogens like arsenic or other chemicals, nude sunbathing or tanning. In addition, the patient denied any history of burns or trauma to the perianal region, homosexuality. The patient sought consultation mainly due to concerns regarding the increasing size of a ‘mole’ near the anus. On examination an erythematous, small, raised plaque, 3 mm in diameter was present in the perianal region at the 4 o'clock position (Figure 1). The lesion was non-tender and firm on palpation without evidence of active bleeding, and was confined to the perianal skin in its entirety without extension into the anal canal. Proctoscopy revealed the presence of co-existing grade-1 haemorrhoids. Due to the growing size and suspicious nature of the lesion, it was decided excision should be performed to establish a histopathological diagnosis. The patient was admitted for further investigations and the lesion was excised with a 5 mm margin under general anaesthetic. The haemorrhoids were banded at the same sitting. A surgical specimen of 12x8 mm size, preserved in 10% buffered formalin, was sent for histopathological examination. On staining with haematoxylin and eosin, typical basophilic cells were seen with dominant peripheral palisading nuclei. There were no signs of necrosis, and

I. Introduction Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common type of human dermatological malignancy accounting for more than 75% of all non-melanomatous skin cancers (Miller, 1991). It is mainly seen in sun-exposed sites with ultraviolet rays playing an important role in etiopathogenesis (Gloster, 1996). BCC of non-sun exposed sites like the perianal area remains a rarity, constituting less than 0.1 per cent of all anorectal tumors (Espana et al, 1992; Gibson et al, 2001), and prompts the need for exploring some alternative etiological factors other than ultraviolet rays.

I. Case report A 60-year-old white Caucasian male attended our outpatient clinic with a two year history of itching and a slowly growing ‘mole’ in his perianal area. The patient had smoked cigarettes for the past 40 years and had no significant past medical history and was not immunosuppressed. There was no

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Balakrishnan et al: Perianal basal cell carcinoma! there was a clear plane of demarcation between the tumour and surrounding normal tissue (Figure 2). Further immunohistochemical evaluation showed positive staining for Ki-67 (Figure 3) and bcl-2 (Figure 4). After establishing the margins were tumour free, the patient was discharged. He remained symptom-free at three years with no signs of recurrence.

A. Epidemiology In spite of being the commonest skin cancer, perianal occurrence of BCC is rare. In a large series, Gibson and colleagues, scrutinized in 2001 18,943 cases of BCC diagnosed at their institute between 1985 and 1996 and retrieved only 20 cases of perianal BCC, constituting 0.1 per cent of the total. A slight male preponderance has been noted by some authors! (Armitage et al, 1955) but the fact is not agreed upon universally (Nielsen et al, 1981). BCC of the perianal region primarily affects the elderly population, with most of the patients presenting in the sixth and seventh decades (Armitage et al, 1955; Nielsen et al, 1981).

II. Discussion Basal cell carcinoma is by far the commonest form of skin malignancy in humans and accounts for more than 75% of all non-melanomatous skin cancers (Miller, 1991). Ultraviolet rays and exposure to sun remain the two most important aetiological factors with the face being the most preferred site (Gloster, 1996). Not surprisingly, BCC of non-sun exposed sites like the perianal area remains a rarity,!accounting for less than 0.1 per cent of all anorectal tumours (Espana et al, 1992; Gibson et al, 2001).

B. Risk factors Whereas sunlight and ultraviolet rays are well accepted risk factors for the common photo-distributed variety, the exact etiology for perianal BCC is a matter of debate. A number of theories have been postulated by different authors. Ultraviolet radiation itself has been

!

! Figure 2. Haematoxylin and Eosin x200; to show typical peripheral nuclear palisading of a basal cell carcinoma. A clear plane of demarcation can be seen between the tumour and normal tissue (arrows).

!

! Figure 4. !"#$% staining x200; shows strong cytoplasmic staining of the tumour cells.

Figure 1. A diagrammatic representation of superficial lesion measuring about 3 mm situated between 3 and 4 Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; clock position (arrow).

Figure 3. Ki67 is a nuclear proliferation marker. This illustrates the relatively high percentage of positively staining tumour nuclei within the lesion.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 423! carries a far graver prognosis due to an aggressive course and early metastases (Alvarez-Canas et al, 1996) BC has a completely different treatment protocol to BCC. Basaloid carcinoma, also known as cloacogenic carcinoma or transitional carcinoma is considered to be a variant of squamous cell carcinoma by most authors. It originates from the transitional cell epithelium of anus recapitulating features of this zone in both light and electron-microscopy (Gillespie et al, 1978). On the other hand, the histological features that support the diagnosis of BCC are prominent nuclear palisading, absence of necrosis, low invasiveness, minimal nuclear pleomorphism and an absence of atypical mitosis (Alvarez-Canas et al, 1996). Alvarez-Canas and colleagues discussed in 1996 the different ways of differentiating between these two closely related entities. The different immunoreactivity patterns for keratin are shown by two neoplasms. Whereas BC can be readily labelled, BCC remain consistently negative, except for the squamous foci.! Levy and colleagues suggested in 1991 the value cytokeratin polypeptide expression in distinguishing between BC and BCC. Cytokeratin 19 labelled BC extensively, but was almost absent in BCC. Quite the contrary, cytokeratin 10/11 immunoreactivity was observed in BCC, but not in BC. Immunohistochemical markers such as carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and the lectin Ulex europaens agglutinin I (UEA-I), shows the similar results. All these show a positive reactivity with BC, while failed to stain BCC. Monoclonal antibodies Ber-EP4 is another tool to establish the diagnosis. BCC shows an intensive labelling with BC being uniformly negative. At last, the S-phase fraction analysed by flowcytometry could also prove helpful in distinguishing perianal BCC from BC with S-phase fraction being remarkably greater in BC than BCC.

proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of non-sun exposed BCC by depressing the immune surveillance, even at a distant site (Strickland et al, 1985). Gibson et al, and others (Gorlin et al, 1987;! Kraemer et al, 1987) suggested the possibility of underlying genetic factors. A particular association has been noted with xeroderma pigmentosa, acanthosis nigricans and, Haily-Haily disease. Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) may be especially important, with 25% (n=5) of perianal BCC diagnosed by Gibson and colleagues !"# $%%&, occurring secondary to BCNS. Immunosuppression and ionizing radiation may also play a role. Gibson and colleagues reported in 2001 a case of perianal BCC who had received radiotherapy (dose not known) for prostate carcinoma. They also implicate previous trauma and burn scars as possible etiological factors in the development of perianal BCC. In spite of doubtful suggested significance of HPV 2 and 16 (Eliezri et al, 1990; Pierceall et al, 1991; Gibson et al, 2001), investigators have failed to detect the presence of HPV from the perianal variety (Nahass et al, 1992; Nehal et al, 1998; Kort et al, 1995). None of the above mentioned factors were noted in our patient; however pruritus ani and chronic perianal irritation, as suggested by Gibson and colleagues in 2001 may be a possible underlying cause.

C. Histopathological considerations Perianal BCC shares a number of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics with its counterpart, photodistributed variety. The usual location is perianal skin, but can extend to the anal canal (Alvarez-Canas et al, 1996). Macroscopically, the ulcerated type is the most common presentation. In the Gibson and colleagues in 2001, series 29.4% cases have showed a tendency of central ulceration. It has been suggested that the common occurrence of ulceration in perianal BCC has a possible correlation with delay in diagnosis. The patient may consider the initial symptoms of itching and irritation as trivial, or the physician himself may mistake the condition with inflammatory dermatoses (Collins et al, 1981). The absence of ulceration and small size of tumour in our patient indicated an early diagnosis and treatment. Our case remains a unique in terms of the macroscopic presentation of the morphoeic type, as described above. After a thorough search of literature we could not find any other case of a morphoeic type BCC in perianal region. To authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s knowledge this is the first reported case of morphoeic type of perianal BCC. Contrary to our case, where the size was 3 mm, the average size of lesion at the time of diagnosis was 1.95 cm in Gibson at all series. Perianal BCC shows a huge variety of microscopic patterns with solid being most common (Alvarez-Canas et al, 1996).

E. Prognosis and treatment Most of the authors think that similar to photodistributed variety perianal BCC carries a good prognosis if diagnosed and treated early. In spite of few reports, metastasis (Nielson et al, 1981) and local recurrence (Gibson et al, 2001) remains an exception. Wide local excision with a 5 mm tumour free margin is considered to be curative. Due to the low propensity for nodal involvement, no further screening is required, if there is 5 mm tumour free margin (Gibson et al, 2001). Kharfi and colleagues advocated in 1992 Mohâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s micrographic surgery yielding the best results, especially when the tumour is large, or the histology is aggressivee.g., morphaeform, metatypical and micrnodular. The aim is to preserve the maximum possible normal tissue. Carbon-dioxide laser and electrodesiccation with curettage are other modalities tried successfully. Nielsen and colleagues reported in 1981 a crude five year survival rate of 72.6%, with no deaths attributed to the tumour itself.

D. Differential diagnoses- clinical and histopathological Squamous cell carcinoma and condyloma accuminata are the two most important differential diagnoses for a clinician. On the other hand, the histopathologist must distinguish BCC from the basaloid carcinoma (BC) of anus, which it histopathologically resembles closely, but

III. Conclusions The relative rarity of perianal BCC requires a high index of suspicion and dictates the need for the 423


Balakrishnan et al: Perianal basal cell carcinoma! Gloster GM, Broadland DG (1996) The epidemiology of skin cancer. Dermatol Surg 22, 217-22. Gorlin RJ (1987) Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Medicine 66, 98-113. Kharfi M, Mokhtar I, Fazaa B, Pierard-Franchimont C, Rustom KAl, Nikkels AF, et al, (1992) Vulvar basal cell carcinoma. Eur J Dermatol 2, 81-84. Kort R, Fazaa B, Bouden S (1995) Perianal basal cell carcinoma. Int J Dermatol 34, 427-428. Kraemer KH, Lee MM, Scotto J (1987) Xeroderma pigmentosum: cutaneous, ocular, and neurologic abnormalities in 830 published cases. Arch Dermatol 123, 241-250. Levy R, Czernobilsky B, Geiger B (1991) Cytokeratin polypeptide expression in a cloacogenic carcinoma and in the normal anal canal epithelium. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat 418, 447-455. Miller SJ (1991) Biology of basal cell carcinoma (part 1). J Am Acad Dermatol 24, 1-13. Nahass GT, Blauvelt A, Leonardi CL, Penneys NS (1992) Basal cell carcinoma of the scrotum. J Am Acad Dermatol 26, 574-578. Nehal KS, Levine VJ, Ashinoff R (1998) Basal cell carcinoma of the genitalia. Dermatol Surg 24, 1361-1363. Neilson OV, Jenson SL (1981) Basal cell carcinoma of the anusa clinical study of 34 cases. Br J Surg 68, 856-857. Pierceall WE, Goldberg LH, Ananthaswamy HN (1991) Presence of human papillomavirus type 16 DNA sequences in human nonmelanoma skin cancers. J Invest Dermatol 23, 880-884. Strickland PT, Creasia D, Kripke ML (1985) Enhancement of two-stage skin carcinogenesis by exposure of distant skin to UV radiation. J Natl Cancer Inst 74, 1129-1134.

enthusiastic efforts of biopsying every unusual lesion in the perianal area. In the absence of sunlight as a causative agent, other aetiological factors need to be considered. Due to high cure rates the importance of early diagnosis and treatment cannot be overemphasised. Owing to the striking histological resemblance and entirely different biological and clinical behaviours, the histopathologist needs to be aware of differentiating between BCC and BC, and reporting whether there is a 5 mm tumour free margin.

References Alvarez-Canas MC, Fernandez FA, Rodilla IG, Val-Bernal JF (1996) Perianal basal cell carcinoma: a comparative histologic, immunohistochemical, and flow cystometric study with basaloid carcinoma of the anus. Am J Dermaopathol 18, 371-379. Collins PS, Farber GA, Hegre AM (1981) Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 7,711-713. Eliezri YD, Silverstein SJ, Nuovo GJ (1990) Occurrence of human papilloma virus type 16 DNA in cutaneous squamous and basal cell neoplasms. J Am Acad Dermatol 23,836-842. Espana A, Redondo P, Idoate MA, Serna MJ, Quintanilla E (1992) Perianal basal cell carcinoma. Clin Exp Dermatol 17, 360-362. Gibson GE, Ahmed I (2001) Perianal and genital basal cell carcinoma: A clinicopathologic review of 51 Carcinoma of the anal canal. J Am Acad Dermatol 45, 68-71. Gillespie JJ, MacKay B (1978) Histogenesis of cloacogenic carcinoma. Fine structure of anal transitional epithelium and cloacogenic carcinoma. Hum Pathol 9, 579-587.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 425! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 425-438, 2008

Highlights from ASCO and ECCO 2007: Update on targeted treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma Review Article

Robert J. Motzer Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Robert J Motzer, MD, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA; Tel.: 646 422 4312; Fax: 212 988 0806; E-mail: motzerr@mskcc.org Key words: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma, Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, Targeted therapy, Combination therapy, First-line treatment, Second-line treatment, Cytokine-refractory, Sunitinib, Sorafenib, Temsirolimus, Bevacizumab, Novel agents, Interferon-alfa, Tumor response, Overall survival, Prognostic factors, Quality of life, Cost-efficacy Abbreviations: Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Sorafenib Expanded Access Program-North America, (ARCCS); Adverse event, (AE); American Society of Clinical Oncology, (ASCO); confidence interval, (CI); continuous daily dosing, (CDD); dose-limiting toxicity, (DLT); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, (ECOG); epidermal growth factor receptor, (EGFR); European Cancer Conference, (ECCO); Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Biological Response Modifiers, (FACT-BRM); glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor, (RET); hazard ratio, (HR); imatinib mesylate, (IM); interferon-alfa, (IFN-! ); intravenously, (IV); loss of function, (LOF); mammalian target of rapamycin, (mTOR); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, (MSKCC); metastatic renal cell carcinoma, (mRCC); million units, (MU); objective response rate, (ORR); orally, (PO); overall survival, (OS); partial response, (PR); performance status, (PS); platelet-derived growth factor, (PDGF); platelet-derived growth factor receptor, (PDGFR); progression-free survival, (PFS); progressive disease, (PD); quality-adjusted life-year, (QALY); quality of life, (QoL); receptor tyrosine kinase, (RTK); renal cell carcinoma, (RCC); selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist, (SERA); stable disease, (SD); stem-cell factor receptor, (KIT); time to tumor progression, (TTP); time without symptoms and toxicity, (TWiST); twice daily, (BID); vascular endothelial growth factor, (VEGF); vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, (VEGFR); Von Hippel-Lindau, (VHL) Received: 10 June 2008; Revised: 20 July 2008 Accepted: 21 July 2008; electronically published: July 2008

Summary Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is highly resistant to conventional forms of treatment and is associated with a poor prognosis in most patients; only approximately 10% of patients with metastatic disease remain alive 5 years after diagnosis. However, recent years have witnessed the successful development of a number of targeted agents and combination therapies that have shown efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of mRCC in first-line and second-line settings, including sunitinib, sorafenib, temsirolimus, and bevacizumab plus interferon-alfa. This report reviews current reference standards for the first- and second-line treatment of mRCC, and discusses efficacy and safety data for the targeted agents in this setting based on presentations given at the 2007 American Society of Clinical Oncology and European Cancer Conference meetings. Clinical trial data presented at the meetings concerning novel targeted agents, including everolimus, axitinib, and volociximab, are also reviewed, and new combination therapies, sequential treatments, and dosing schedules with targeted agents are discussed. As targeted therapies are beginning to improve prognoses in patients with mRCC, and quality of life (QoL) is becoming an increasing focus, so the importance of prognostic and predictive factors for treatment response and survival is gaining increasing recognition. Recent trial evidence concerning prognostic and predictive factors that may assist in tailoring treatments and optimizing patient management are reviewed. Finally, key data presented at the meetings concerning the cost-efficacy of targeted agents and their effects on QoL in mRCC patients are evaluated.

al, 2006). RCC is estimated to account for about 2% of all cancers worldwide, with the highest rates observed in North America, Australia, and Europe (Parkin et al, 2005). Until recently, patients with metastatic RCC (mRCC) had

I. Introduction In the USA, approximately 51,000 new cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and approximately 12,900 deaths from this malignancy were expected in 2007 (Schรถffski et 425


Motzer: Highlights from ASCO and ECCO 2007: Update on targeted treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma Barcelona, Spain). The report reviews current reference standards for the first- and second-line treatment of mRCC, and summarizes clinical trial data concerning novel targeted agents, new combination therapies and dosing schedules with targeted agents, and prognostic and predictive factors for treatment response and survival with RTK inhibitors. Through this report, I aim to translate findings from recent trials into the clinical practice setting.

extremely poor prognoses, as advanced disease is highly resistant to conventional forms of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonal therapy (Lilleby and Fosså, 2005; Rohrmann et al, 2005). As a result, the 5-year survival rate for patients with metastatic disease is approximately 10% (Godley and Taylor, 2001; Ravaud, 2007). Within the last 3 years, advances in our understanding of mRCC have resulted in the successful development of a number of novel targeted anticancer agents that have shown efficacy and tolerability in the clinical setting. This has resulted in a move away from conventional cytokine-based therapies, which are associated with low response rates and high risks of toxicity (Négrier et al, 1998; Yang et al, 2003a; McDermott et al, 2005; Schöffski et al, 2006). Several targeted agents are currently indicated for the treatment of advanced RCC, including sunitinib malate (SUTENT®; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA), sorafenib (Nexavar®; Bayer Healthcare AG, Leverkusen, Germany), and temsirolimus (Torisel™; Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USA). Sunitinib is an oral multitargeted inhibitor of several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR-1, -2, and -3), platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR-! and -" ), stem-cell factor receptor (KIT), FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor (RET) (Abrams et al, 2003; Mendel et al, 2003; Murray et al, 2003; O’Farrell et al, 2003; Kim et al, 2006). RTKs play a key role in tumor growth and angiogenesis (Krause and Van Etten, 2005), and VEGF and PDGF are viable targets in the RCC setting. Sunitinib is approved multinationally for the treatment of advanced RCC and imatinib-resistant/-intolerant gastrointestinal stromal tumors (SUTENT® Prescribing Information, 2007). Sorafenib, also a multikinase inhibitor, targets a range of RTKs (VEGFR-1, -2, and -3, PDGFR-" , c-KIT, and RET) and downstream Raf kinase isoforms (Raf1, BRaf, and mutant !"#$% V600E) in tumor cells and the tumor vasculature (Wilhelm et al, 2006; Nexavar® Prescribing Information, 2007). Sorafenib is indicated for the treatment of patients with advanced RCC who are unsuitable for interferon-alfa (IFN-! ) or interleukin-2 therapy or in whom such treatment has failed, and for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (Nexavar® Summary of Product Characteristics, 2007). Temsirolimus is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) that reduces levels of hypoxiainducible factor-1 and -2! and VEGF, and arrests tumor cell growth; temsirolimus is indicated for the treatment of advanced RCC (Torisel™ Prescribing Information, 2007). This report discusses the use of targeted agents for the treatment of mRCC, including sunitinib, temsirolimus, sorafenib, and the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab (Avastin®; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland). The data are based on presentations given at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) 43rd annual meeting (1-5 June 2007; Chicago, Illinois, USA), and include updates from the 14th European Cancer Conference (ECCO; 23-27 September 2007;

II. First-line treatment of mRCC Current international treatment guidelines (Ljungberg et al, 2007; National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2008) recommend angiogenesis inhibitors, including sunitinib, bevacizumab plus IFN-! , temsirolimus (in poorrisk patients), and sorafenib (in selected patient populations), as first-line treatments for mRCC. Efficacy and safety data for a number of targeted agents, including sunitinib, temsirolimus, sorafenib, and bevacizumab, in the first-line setting in mRCC were presented at the ASCO and ECCO 2007 meetings. &

A. Sunitinib Sunitinib is indicated for the first-line treatment of clear-cell mRCC, when administered as an oral dose of 50 mg/day for 4 weeks, followed by a 2-week rest period in a 6-week cycle (Schedule 4/2); this agent continues to be the standard of care in the first-line setting (Motzer et al, 2007a). Updated data from the phase III clinical trial support the significant efficacy advantage of sunitinib over IFN-! in patients with mRCC, regardless of their prognostic risk, according to Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk status (Motzer et al, 2007b,c). Independent assessment showed an objective response in 39% of sunitinib-treated patients (n=365) compared with 8% of patients treated with IFN-! (n=346) and a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 11.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.7-13.4) with sunitinib versus 5.1 months (95% CI, 3.9-5.6) with IFN-! (Motzer et al, 2007c). When assessed by MSKCC risk group, median PFS was longer in each prognostic group treated with sunitinib compared with IFN-! therapy (Motzer et al, 2007b,c). Sunitinib 37.5 mg in combination with IFN-! 3 million units (MU) may have clinical utility as a first-line combination therapy for patients with mRCC, as shown in a recent phase I dose-finding study (Kondagunta et al, 2007a,b). Three patients showed partial responses (PR) in this study, resulting in an objective response rate (ORR) of 12% (95% CI: 2.5-31.2) in 25 evaluable patients; median time to tumor progression (TTP) was 11.9 months (95% CI: 5.5-12.3). Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) with this combination treatment included myelosuppression and fatigue. The investigators concluded that sunitinib 37.5 mg in combination with IFN-! 3 MU is tolerable in this patient population, while higher dose combinations (sunitinib 50 mg/IFN-! 9 MU, sunitinib 50 mg/ IFN-! 6 MU, and sunitinib 37.5 mg/ IFN-! 6 MU) were poorly tolerated (Kondagunta et al, 2007b).

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 427! insufficient number of patients with intermediate prognostic risk was enrolled to enable any meaningful assessment of this subgroup (Dutcher et al, 2007). These data suggest that, in line with international treatment guidelines, temsirolimus may be an effective treatment for poor-risk RCC patients who exhibit three or more predictors of short survival (Figure 1).

B. Temsirolimus Phase III clinical trial data in patients with mRCC receiving temsirolimus, the latest agent indicated for the treatment of advanced RCC, were released immediately prior to the ASCO 2007 meeting and updated at ECCO 2007 (De Souza et al, 2007; Hudes et al, 2007). In patients with untreated, advanced RCC and poor prognoses (defined as exhibiting ! 3 of 6 modified MSKCC risk criteria predictive of short survival), weekly single-agent intravenous temsirolimus 25 mg significantly improved overall survival (OS; 10.9 versus 7.3 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63-0.97; p=0.0252) and PFS (3.8 versus 1.9 months; HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.90; p=0.003) compared with IFN-" monotherapy. However, OS in the temsirolimus/IFN-" combination arm of the trial did not differ significantly from that in the IFN-" monotherapy group (8.4 versus 7.3 months; HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.751.15; p=0.4902). Further supporting the benefits of temsirolimus in poor-risk mRCC, fewer patients receiving single-agent temsirolimus reported severe (grade 3-4) adverse events (AEs) compared with IFN-" monotherapy (69% versus 79%; p=0.024) (De Souza et al, 2007). Based on the data published by Hudes and colleagues in 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration approved temsirolimus for the treatment of advanced RCC. Further analyses of data from this trial showed that temsirolimus was superior to IFN-" , regardless of tumor histology, with improved OS and PFS in both clear-cell and non-clear-cell RCC with temsirolimus versus IFN-" (clear-cell RCC: OS, 10.6 versus 8.2 months; PFS, 5.5 versus 3.8 months; other RCC subtypes: OS, 11.6 versus 4.3 months; PFS, 7.0 versus 1.8 months) (Dutcher et al, 2007). The data also revealed improvements in OS and PFS with temsirolimus versus IFN-" therapy regardless of age (<65 versus ! 65 years), and showed no apparent agerelated differences in terms of reported AEs. In the trial, temsirolimus was shown to be superior to IFN-" in patients with poor prognostic features (OS, 10.2 versus 6.0 months; median PFS, 5.1 versus 2.3 months). However, an

C. Sorafenib Data from a phase II trial of first-line sorafenib in 189 patients with advanced RCC found no significant improvement in the primary endpoint of PFS compared with the active comparator IFN-" (5.7 versus 5.6 months, respectively, p=0.504), suggesting that sorafenib may be of limited benefit as a first-line treatment for advanced RCC (Szczylik et al, 2007). The ORR, determined by independent assessment, was 5% with sorafenib 400 mg twice daily (BID) versus 9% with IFN-" . Of interest, however, was the finding that tumor regression occurred in 68% of patients receiving sorafenib 400 mg orally (PO) BID compared with 39% of patients receiving IFN-" , and sorafenib was associated with a longer time to health status deterioration than IFN-" , as determined using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Biological Response Modifiers scale (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 1.43-2.85; p=0.0001) (Figure 2) (Szczylik et al, 2007). The effects of sorafenib dose-escalation and switching from IFN-" to sorafenib were also assessed in patients with disease progression in this trial. No objective responses were noted in 44 patients who were doseescalated from sorafenib 400 mg BID to 600 mg BID, but there was an additional PFS benefit of 4.1 months following escalation from the 400 mg to the 600 mg dose, and the higher dose was well tolerated. Among the 41 patients who switched from IFN-" to sorafenib therapy, 22% demonstrated objective responses by independent assessment, with a median PFS of 5.7 months (Szczylik et al, 2007).

Figure 1. Hazard ratios for overall survival by patient subgroup in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving temsirolimus or interferon-alpha. Reproduced from Dutcher et al, 2007 with kind permission from Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Motzer: Highlights from ASCO and ECCO 2007: Update on targeted treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma

Figure 2. Time to health status deterioration in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sorafenib versus interferon-alfa (IFN-! ), as determined using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Biological Response Modifiers (FACT-BRM) scale. Reproduced from Szczylik et al, 2007 with kind permission from Journal of Clinical Oncology.

D. Bevacizumab

with favorable (11.1 versus 5.7 months, respectively; p=0.0012) and intermediate (8.4 versus 5.3 months, respectively; p=0.0017) MSKCC risk status, while nonsignificant improvements were observed in the poor-risk subgroup (3.3 versus 2.6 months, respectively; p=0.25). ORR was 25.5% with combination therapy versus 13.1% with IFN-! monotherapy (p<0.0001). The most common serious AEs in both arms of the trial were fatigue (37% versus 30%) and anorexia (17% versus 8%), with combination or single-agent therapy, respectively. Findings from the large AVOREN and CALBG 90206 trials indicate that bevacizumab, in combination with IFN-! , is associated with a statistically significant improvement in PFS and tumor response when administered in the first-line setting. In a smaller randomized phase II trial, the addition of erlotinib to bevacizumab was well tolerated but did not provide additional clinical benefit compared with bevacizumab alone (Bukowski et al, 2007a). However, data from the trial support the clinical benefit of bevacizumab in patients with previously untreated mRCC.

Randomized clinical trials have reported beneficial effects with bevacizumab in patients with advanced RCC (Yang et al, 2003b; Bracarda et al, 2007; Bukowski et al, 2007a; Escudier et al, 2007a; Melichar et al, 2007; Rini et al, 2008). Data on the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenously [IV] every 2 weeks) in combination with IFN-! versus IFN-! alone in the firstline setting were reported in the randomized, controlled, multicenter, phase III AVOREN trial in 649 patients with advanced RCC (Bracarda et al, 2007; Escudier et al, 2007a; Melichar et al, 2007). Bevacizumab plus IFN-! significantly increased PFS compared with IFN-! plus placebo, as determined by investigator assessment (10.2 versus 5.4 months; HR, 0.63, p<0.0001) (Escudier et al, 2007a). PFS benefits with bevacizumab plus IFN-! were achieved regardless of baseline prognostic factors (Bracarda et al, 2007) or IFN-! dose reductions (Melichar et al, 2007). Furthermore, ORR was significantly higher in the bevacizumab/IFN-! group than in the IFN-! plus placebo group (31% versus 13%; p<0.0001); however, OS could not be determined due to a lack of mature data. The most common serious (grade 3-4) AEs associated with bevacizumab/IFN-! versus IFN-! plus placebo were fatigue and hypertension (23% versus 15%, and 3.9% versus 0.7%, respectively). Hemorrhage was reported in 11 patients (3.3%) receiving bevacizumab plus IFN-! versus 1 patient (0.3%) receiving IFN-! plus placebo. More recently, interim data from the similar CALBG 90206 study were reported at the ASCO 2008 Genitourinary Cancers Symposium. In this study, patients with clear-cell mRCC were randomized to receive firstline bevacizumab and IFN-! (n=369) or IFN-! alone (n=363) at the same doses as in the AVOREN trial (Rini et al, 2008). Overall, patients achieved a median PFS of 8.5 months (95% CI, 7.5-9.7) with bevacizumab plus IFN-! versus 5.2 months (95% CI, 3.1-5.6) with IFN-! alone (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.61-0.83; p<0.0001). Compared with monotherapy, significant improvements in PFS were also achieved with combination therapy in patient subgroups

E. Atrasentan A phase II trial of the selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist (SERA), atrasentan (Xinlayâ&#x201E;˘; Abbott Laboratories, IL, USA), has recently been completed in patients with mRCC (Manola et al, 2007). Atrasentan inhibits the activity of endothelin-1, a protein implicated in stimulating the spread of cancer cells. The phase II trial showed that atrasentan (10 mg/day PO) was well tolerated but findings from the trial did not support its use as a firstline monotherapy in patients with mRCC (Manola et al, 2007). The data revealed a median PFS with atrasentan of 2.3 months (95% CI, 2.0-3.5 months), and a percentage of patients remaining progression-free at 6 months, stratified according to disease status and prior immunotherapy, of between 0% and 17%.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 429! use of this agent in the second-line setting (Gore et al, 2007a,b). In the program, antitumor activity with sunitinib was reported across a diverse patient population, and safety and tolerability outcomes were similar to those observed in previous clinical trials with sunitinib (Motzer et al, 2006a,b). In 3997 evaluable patients, the ORR was 11.4%, with a further 44.6% of patients exhibiting stable disease (SD) at ! 3 months. Sunitinib was associated with acceptable tolerability in specific patient subgroups, including patients with poor performance status (PS ! 2), older patients (aged >65 years), and patients with brain metastases (Gore et al, 2007b). Sunitinib also demonstrated substantial antitumor activity in 61 bevacizumab-refractory patients in a phase II, single-arm, open-label study (George et al, 2007a; Hutson et al, 2007). Partial responses (PRs) were observed in 23% of patients (n=14) and SD in 59% of patients (n=36), with a median PFS of 30.4 weeks (95% CI, 18.336.7). The positive findings from this study in patients who had received previous treatment with bevacizumab indicate an absence of cross-resistance between these two agents that target the VEGF pathway (George et al, 2007a; Hutson et al, 2007). This suggests that the therapeutic activity of sunitinib in RCC may be mediated via multiple pathways, and sunitinib may even inhibit signaling pathways involved in bevacizumab resistance.

III. Recent advances in second-line treatment of RCC National and international treatment guidelines support several targeted agents that have been associated with improved patient outcomes compared with historical therapies as second-line treatments in mRCC (Ljungberg et al, 2007; National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2008). Currently recommended targeted therapies include sorafenib, sunitinib, temsirolimus, and bevacizumab in patients with cytokine-refractory mRCC. Data presented at the 2007 ASCO and ECCO congresses concerning the use of targeted agents in the second-line treatment of mRCC are discussed below.

A. Sunitinib Clinical benefit with sunitinib in the second-line setting was confirmed in an updated, pooled efficacy analysis of two phase II trials that reported substantial antitumor activity in patients with cytokine-refractory mRCC (Rosenberg et al, 2007). In 168 evaluable patients, investigator-assessed ORR was 45% (95% CI, 39-54) and PFS was 8.4 months (95% CI, 7.9-10.7). Median OS was 19.9 months for the pooled population, which compared favorably with historical experience of other agents in the second-line setting, in which median OS of 12.7 months was reported (Motzer et al, 2004). Prognostic factors for survival were similar to those previously identified in association with cytokine therapy, including performance status, time from diagnosis to treatment, and serum hemoglobin level (Table 1) (Motzer et al, 2004; Rosenberg et al, 2007). Updated data from the larger of these two trials in 105 evaluable patients, showed an ORR of 33% (95% CI, 24-43%) with a median duration of response of 14.0 months. Median TTP and PFS were 10.7 and 8.8 months, respectively, and median survival was 23.9 months; 43 patients remained alive at a median follow-up of 29.7 months (Motzer et al, 2007d). Efficacy and safety data from an international expanded access program of sunitinib in mRCC were presented at both the 2007 ASCO and ECCO meetings; these data provide a practical clinical perspective on the

B. Sorafenib Final data from the phase III TARGET trial (Target Approaches in Renal Cancer Global Evaluation Trial) of second-line sorafenib versus placebo with best supportive care in advanced RCC showed no statistically significant difference in OS between sorafenib and placebo (median OS, 17.8 versus 15.2 months; HR, 0.88; p=0.146) (Escudier et al, 2007b; Bukowski et al 2007b). However, some clinicians consider that sorafenib may offer clinically important benefits, and it seems likely that the crossover of placebo patients to the sorafenib treatment arm, due to significant improvements in PFS with sorafenib, may have confounded the final analysis.

Table 1. Pretreatment predictors of overall survival as determined by multivariate analysis from a pooled analysis of 168 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib as second-line therapy in two single-arm phase II clinical trials. Reproduced from Rosenberg et al, 2007 with kind permission from Journal of Clinical Oncology. Variable Time interval from diagnosis to treatment ! 1 year vs <1 year Hemoglobin* ! 13/11.5 g/dL vs <13/11.5 g/dL Baseline ECOG PS 0 vs 1 or 2 Number of metastatic sites 0 or 1 vs 2 or ! 3

Hazard ratio 0.384

95% CI 0.255-0.580

P-value <0.0001

0.427

0.280-0.651

<0.0001

0.552

0.363-0.840

0.0056

0.445

0.218-0.906

0.0257

*Cut point is 13 g/dL for males and 11.5 g/dL for females CI = confidence interval, ECOG PS = Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status

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Motzer: Highlights from ASCO and ECCO 2007: Update on targeted treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma phase, and targeting VEGF, thus inhibiting angiogenesis (Jac et al, 2007). In a phase II, single-arm trial, administration of everolimus at an oral dose of 10 mg/day by continuous daily dosing (CDD) in a 28-day cycle to 37 evaluable patients with progressive mRCC in the secondline setting resulted in a PR in 12 patients (32.4%) and SD for >3 months in 19 patients (51.4%). Median OS in the trial was >11.5 months (range 1->20) (Jac et al, 2007). Treatment-related AEs included mucositis, skin rash, pneumonitis, thrombocytopenia, anemia, laboratory abnormalities, and decreased metabolic activity (Jac et al, 2007). Following positive early results, studies are ongoing in patients in whom prior sunitinib or sorafenib therapy failed.

In the open-label ARCCS (Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Sorafenib Expanded Access Program-North America) trial, sorafenib treatment was evaluated in 2502 patients with advanced RCC who would not otherwise have been eligible for inclusion in clinical trials (Knox et al, 2007). Fifty percent (n=1255) of these patients received sorafenib as a second-line treatment. Of 936/1255 secondline patients, one patient had a PR (3%) and 161 patients (17%) showed unconfirmed responses. SD was observed in 759 patients (81%), and clinical benefit was achieved in 84% of patients. Similar results were observed in the 1247 patients in the program who received sorafenib as a firstline treatment. More than 1150 patients have been recruited into EU-ARCCS, the European arm of this openlabel study, and analyses are ongoing in these patients (Beck et al, 2007). Despite the positive results achieved in this program to date, the trial is limited by its non-rigorous design and short duration of follow-up (~12 weeks).

B. Axitinib Axitinib is a potent small molecule RTK inhibitor of VEGFRs, PDGFR-! , and c-KIT (Rugo et al, 2005) that has been shown to be active in cytokine-refractory mRCC (Rini, 2005). Activity of axitinib as a second-line therapy in patients with mRCC that is refractory to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as sunitinib and sorafenib, is of clinical interest (Rini et al, 2007a). An open-label, multicenter, phase II trial was recently undertaken to investigate oral axitinib administered twice daily at a dose of 5 mg in this setting (Rini et al, 2007a,b). In 62 evaluable patients who had received prior treatment with sorafenib or sorafenib and sunitinib, axitinib therapy was associated with PR in 15% of patients (n=9) and SD in 37% of patients (n=23), with some level of tumor shrinkage in 51% of patients (Figure 3). Median PFS was not reached, but preliminary data indicated an overall median PFS of >7.7 months (Rini et al, 2007a,b). Based on these data, axitinib appears to exhibit substantial antitumor activity in patients with sorafenib-refractory mRCC, and a tolerability profile that is manageable and characteristic of this class of agents.

IV. Novel targeted agents in the second-line treatment of RCC Promising data with several newer targeted agents in the second-line setting in mRCC were presented at the 2007 ASCO and ECCO meetings, including data from trials of the mTOR inhibitor, everolimus (RAD001; Certican, Novartis International AG, Basel, Switzerland), and the novel agents axitinib (AG-013736; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA) and volociximab (M200; Biogen Idec, Zug, Switzerland; PDL Biopharma Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA).

A. Everolimus Like temsirolimus, everolimus is an oral mTOR inhibitor that is believed to exert anti-tumor activity by shutting down tumor cell responses to nutrients and growth factors, arresting the cell cycle in the late G1 ! !

Figure 3. Tumor regression, measured as maximum percent reduction in target lesions, in 42 evaluable patients with TKI-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving axitinib monotherapy in the second-line setting. Reproduced from Rini et al, 2007 with kind permission from Journal of Clinical Oncology.

! !

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C. Volociximab

with an overall median PFS of 11.3 months. The most common grade 3 treatment-related AEs were diarrhea, which occurred in 14% of patients (n=6), and nausea and rash, each in 5% of patients (n=2 each); no grade 4 treatment-related AEs were observed (Redman et al, 2007). Combined inhibition of mTOR and PDGFR may prevent tumor growth and angiogenesis through vertical blockade of the PI3K/AKT pathway and its stimulatory effects on VEGF (Arsham et al, 2004; Chan et al, 2007). The therapeutic potential of such blockade provided the rationale for a phase II study of combination therapy with everolimus (2.5 mg/day PO) and imatinib mesylate (IM; Glivec速; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland; 600 mg/day PO) in patients with previously treated advanced RCC (Chan et al, 2007). Among the 10 patients who were evaluable for the primary endpoint (PFS), three patients were progression-free at 3 months. Nine patients were evaluable for best response by RECIST, among whom SD was the best response in seven patients and PD occurred in two patients. The combination of everolimus and IM was associated with moderate toxicity. Grade 3 AEs included fatigue, thrombocytopenia, peripheral edema, rash, and abdominal pain. In addition, two cases of grade 3 pneumonitis and angioedema (n=1 each) were considered as potential everolimus-related toxicities (Chan et al, 2007). In a similar phase I-II, single-arm study, PTK/ZK (PTK787/ZK222584; Novartis, Basel Switzerland; Schering, Berlin, Germany; 1000 or 1250 mg/day PO), a novel orally active multitargeted kinase inhibitor against VEGFR and PDGFR, was evaluated in combination with everolimus (5 or 10 mg/day PO) in 27 patients with advanced solid tumors who may have received prior VEGF inhibitor therapy (Speca et al, 2007). Preliminary data from 13 mRCC patients who were evaluable for response showed PR in two patients (15%) and SD for >3 months in eight patients (62%); median TTP in these patients was 6 months. DLTs included grade 3 asthenia and mucositis, and grade 4 hypertension (Speca et al, 2007). The investigators concluded that the combination of PTK/ZK 1,000 mg plus everolimus 5 mg was well tolerated and was associated with clinical activity in patients with advanced RCC, despite prior treatment with VEGF pathway inhibitors in some cases (Speca et al, 2007).

Volociximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that blocks the binding of fibronectin in the extracellular matrix to integrin a5! 1, and thus induces apoptosis in proliferating endothelial cells (Yazji et al, 2007). The efficacy and safety of volociximab was assessed in a multicenter, open-label, phase II study in 40 evaluable patients with refractory or relapsed clear-cell mRCC. Patients received intravenous volociximab at a dose of 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression. PR was confirmed in one patient, with SD in 32 patients (80%). Median TTP was 4 months, and median OS had not been reached at 22 months, with 68% of patients remaining alive at 22 months (Yazji et al, 2007). Most frequently reported side effects included grade 1-2 fatigue, nausea, dyspnea, and arthralgia. The investigators concluded that volociximab was well tolerated and was associated with anti-tumor effects in a large percentage of patients. Further studies of this novel agent are planned.

V. Combination therapy with targeted agents in RCC Combination therapy with targeted agents is a logical next step in optimizing the treatment of patients with mRCC. Combinations of targeted agents may offer more complete inhibition of a single pathway (vertical blockade) or may inhibit several pathways to mediate a range of therapeutic effects (horizontal blockade); however, this type of treatment has raised concerns regarding increased risks of toxicities compared with single-agent treatments. Data from several phase I/II trials of combination therapies with targeted agents were presented at the 2007 ASCO and ECCO meetings (Chan et al, 2007; Feldman et al, 2007; Merchan et al, 2007; Patel et al, 2007; Patnaik et al, 2007; Redman et al, 2007; Speca et al, 2007). Temsirolimus in combination with bevacizumab was evaluated in a phase I study in 12 patients with stage 4 mRCC, in which patients could receive full doses of each agent in monthly cycles (temsirolimus 25 mg/week IV; bevacizumab 10 mg/kg once every 2 weeks) (Merchan et al, 2007). This combination demonstrated clinical activity, including PR in 7 patients, without enhanced toxicity (Merchan et al, 2007). In contrast, however, data from a similar phase I study of temsirolimus (15 or 25 mg/week IV) in combination with sorafenib (200 or 400 mg BID) in patients with advanced solid tumors revealed significant mucocutaneous toxicity when full doses of sorafenib were given. PR was observed in 2/24 patients and prolonged SD was noted in one patient. Evaluations of this combination at revised dose levels are ongoing (Patnaik et al, 2007). The combination of oral sunitinib (37.5 or 50 mg/day on Schedule 4/2) and gefitinib (Iressa; AstraZeneca, London, UK; 250 mg/day), an orally active selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, was assessed in a phase I/II trial based on preclinical data, which suggested that simultaneous inhibition of VEGFR and EGFR may act synergistically to inhibit tumor growth (Patel et al, 2007; Redman et al, 2007). Among 42 patients with mRCC who were evaluable for a response, PR was noted in 17 patients (40%) and SD in 19 patients (45%),

VI. Sequential treatment of targeted agents in RCC Until recently, few data have been available on the use of sequential targeted therapies in patients with mRCC in whom antiangiogenic treatments have failed. The 2007 ASCO and ECCO meetings highlighted several studies that have begun to address this important clinical question. Anecdotal reports have suggested that patients respond to sunitinib treatment following sorafenib failure and vice versa (Dham and Dudek, 2007; Sablin et al, 2007). A study presented at ASCO 2007 evaluated the efficacy of sequential therapy with sorafenib or sunitinib in 37 patients who had switched treatment due to disease progression (n=32) or unacceptable toxicity (n=5) 431


Motzer: Highlights from ASCO and ECCO 2007: Update on targeted treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma the use of alternate doses and schedules with sunitinib and sorafenib in mRCC. Following favorable phase III trials with second-line sorafenib (400 mg BID) showing efficacy in mRCC patients, a single-arm, phase II, dose-escalation study in 44 evaluable patients with mRCC demonstrated that the majority of patients were able to tolerate much higher doses of sorafenib (Amato et al, 2007). Patients underwent monthly dose-escalation from 400 mg BID to 600 and then 800 mg BID, and received treatment for a median duration of ! 6 months. Doses were escalated to 600 mg BID in 41 of 44 patients (93%) and to 800 mg BID in 32 of 44 patients (73%). The investigators reported that treatment was well tolerated, with AEs including hand-foot syndrome, skin rash, diarrhea, alopecia, fatigue, hypertension, hypophosphatemia, and elevated amylase and lipase levels, as might be expected with this regimen. ORR was a considerable 55%, with complete response noted in 16% of patients and PR in 39% of patients; 20% of patients exhibited SD for ! 6 months (Amato et al, 2007). In addition to the wealth of available data regarding the use of sunitinib 50 mg/day PO administered on Schedule 4/2, a recent study showed that CDD with sunitinib 37.5 mg PO had comparable efficacy to intermittent dosing with sunitinib 50 mg PO in 107 patients with cytokine-refractory mRCC (Srinivas et al, 2007; Escudier et al, 2007c). The study investigated the efficacy and tolerability of CDD and compared morning and evening dosing regimens. In total, a PR was confirmed in 22% of patients, while 48% of patients exhibited SD for >3 months; median PFS was 8.3 months (95% CI, 6.58.8). The study showed no differences between morning and evening dosing. The investigators concluded that administration of sunitinib by CDD is associated with a manageable tolerability profile and additional flexibility in terms of dose scheduling (Escudier et al, 2007c). This dosing regimen may offer a useful alternative to existing intermittent treatment schedules and may be explored in future combination studies. Findings from a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of the exposure-response profile of sunitinib in mRCC, based on data from three phase II trials in 237 patients, supported the benefits of CDD with sunitinib (Houk et al, 2007a,b). The meta-analysis showed greater efficacy in patients with the greatest exposure to the drug, and revealed that increased exposure was associated with a higher probability of PR, greater OS, and longer TTP. Higher exposure was also associated with greater changes in tumor volume. Comparable efficacy was observed when sunitinib was administered as an oral dose of 37.5 mg by CDD and when it was given at a dose of 50 mg/day PO on Schedule 4/2 (Figure 4) (Houk et al, 2007a,b).

following first-line sunitinib or sorafenib (Dham and Dudek, 2007). The study showed that disease control was achieved with both sequential treatments; however, median duration of SD was longer in patients who received sorafenib followed by sunitinib rather than vice versa (sorafenib followed by sunitinib, 32 weeks [range 637]; sunitinib followed by sorafenib, 8 weeks [range 410]) (Dham and Dudek, 2007). A retrospective analysis in France assessed sequential therapy in 90 patients who received sorafenib followed by sunitinib (n=68) or sunitinib followed by sorafenib (n=22) over a 3-year period in clinical studies or extended-access programs (Sablin et al, 2007). Overall, PR rates were 17.6% for sorafenib followed by sunitinib and 22.7% for sunitinib followed by sorafenib. PD occurred in only six patients receiving both drugs, all of whom were of intermediate or poor risk, with 3 or more metastatic sites. These data support the sequential use of sorafenib and sunitinib and suggest no cross-resistance between the two therapies (Sablin et al, 2007). A subsequent study, presented at ECCO 2007, assessed the comparative toxicity of sunitinib and sorafenib by self-reported questionnaire in patients who received the two treatments sequentially, 17 patients receiving sorafenib first and 10 patients receiving sunitinib first (Plantade et al, 2007). Patients reported fatigue as a more important side-effect of sunitinib than sorafenib, irrespective of the order of administration. Stomatitis was more common with sunitinib, regardless of treatment sequence, while diarrhea and hand-foot syndrome were more common with sorafenib. Anorexia occurred with similar frequency with both drugs, and patients reported similar effects on quality of life (QoL) with both agents. Overall, treatment with sunitinib was more acceptable to patients than sorafenib therapy (Plantade et al, 2007). Data from studies such as these highlight the potential of sequential targeted therapies, indicating that responses to treatment can be achieved in mRCC patients who receive targeted agents following the failure of an initial RTK inhibitor. Findings from the studies suggest that improved responses are achieved in patients who receive sunitinib following sorafenib failure, and that sunitinib is more acceptable to patients (Dham and Dudek, 2007; Plantade et al, 2007; Sablin et al, 2007).

VII. Refining existing therapies using alternate schedules and doses As our clinical understanding of existing RTKs and other targeted agents increases, so also does our interest in optimizing currently available treatment regimens in order to improve patient outcomes. Several research groups presented data at the ASCO and ECCO 2007 meetings on

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Figure 4. Comparison of time to progression and overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving sunitinib at 50 mg/day following a 4/2 Schedule (4 weeks on treatment followed by 2 weeks off treatment in a 6-week cycle; n=188) or at a dose of 37.5 mg/day by continuous daily dosing (CDD) (n=49). Reproduced from Houk et al, 2007 with kind permission from Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Choueiri et al, 2007); however, variation in treatment outcomes occurs and the association remains unclear (Choueiri et al, 2007). To address this issue, Choueiri and colleagues used polymerase chain reaction analysis to assess VHL mutational status in 123 mRCC patients who had received prior treatment with anti-VEGF therapy (sunitinib, sorafenib, axitinib, or bevacizumab); findings were correlated with clinical and laboratory features and treatment outcomes. Loss of function (LOF) mutations (p=0.03), normal hemoglobin levels (p=0.01), and the absence of prior radiotherapy (p=0.04) were identified as independent predictors of response in a multivariate analysis. The presence of a LOF mutation was associated with an ORR of 52% versus 31% for those without the mutation. Of the four treatments, sunitinib was associated with the greatest ORR in patients with VHL mutations or promoter hypermethylation, while axitinib conferred the greatest ORR in patients with wild-type VHL status. However, PFS and OS were not affected by VHL status. The researchers concluded that certain types of VHL mutation - such as LOF mutations, which have been correlated with poor patient prognosis (Kim et al, 2005) may be associated with greater responses to VEGFtargeted therapies (Choueiri et al, 2007).

VIII. Prognostic and predictive factors The identification of prognostic or predictive factors for individual patient outcomes is important in order to develop tailored treatments that reduce the risk of relapse and enhance the chance of successful management. Prognostic and predictive factors for survival were the focus of a number of publications and presentations at the 2007 ASCO and ECCO meetings. Motzer and colleagues undertook an analysis of prognostic risk factors based on data from the phase III trial of first-line sunitinib versus IFN- in mRCC (Motzer et al, 2007a). They observed improvements in PFS with sunitinib versus IFN- , irrespective of MSKCC prognostic risk factor group (favorable, intermediate, or poor), indicating that sunitinib is an effective treatment for a range of mRCC patient populations (Motzer et al, 2007b,c). Using a multivariate analysis, the researchers identified three baseline prognostic factors predictive of prolonged PFS with sunitinib (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS 0 versus 1 [p=0.007], time from diagnosis to treatment ! 1 year versus <1 year [p<0.001], and corrected calcium level " 10 versus >10 mg/dL [p=0.0084]). Median PFS was 14.9 months (95% CI, 13.417.4) with sunitinib versus 8.4 months (95% CI, 7.8-11.0) with IFN- in patients with favorable risk; 10.7 months (95% CI, 8.3-11.4) versus 3.8 months (95% CI, 3.7-5.1), respectively, in patients with intermediate risk; and 3.9 months (95% CI, 2.5-13.5) versus 1.2 months (95% CI, 1.0-5.1), respectively, in patients with poor-risk mRCC (Motzer et al, 2007c). Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene inactivation through mutation is strongly associated with clear-cell RCC in a majority of cases (Kaelin, 2002; Rini and Small, 2005). VHL inactivation is thought to be associated with a greater objective response to VEGFtargeted therapy (Kaelin, 2002; Rini and Small, 2005;

IX. QoL and cost-effectiveness As newer targeted therapies in oncology offer patients longer disease-free periods, there is an increasing need to understand the effects of these therapies on patient QoL and management costs. At both the ASCO and ECCO 2007 meetings, Cella and colleagues (Cella et al, 2007a,b) examined the correlation between baseline QoL variables and PFS in the previously reported phase III trial comparing sunitinib with IFN- as first-line therapy in patients with mRCC (Motzer et al, 2007). The analyses showed that baseline

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Motzer: Highlights from ASCO and ECCO 2007: Update on targeted treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma cytokines and/or targeted agents. Sunitinib and sorafenib have shown efficacy in this setting, while novel agents, such as axitinib, have yielded positive data in patients with RTK-refractory disease. As in first-line treatment, solid clinical evidence supports the efficacy of sunitinib in this setting, including poor-prognosis patients and those who would not normally be eligible for enrolment in clinical trials. Recent studies have demonstrated clinical efficacy with sunitinib in patients aged over 65 years, patients with brain metastases, and those with poor PS. Improved outcomes in a range of patient populations have lead to investigations of sunitinib, sorafenib, and other targeted agents using alternative treatment strategies, including CDD, and as a part of combination and sequential therapies, in order to optimize treatment efficacy. The publication of long-term survival data for sunitinib in the mRCC setting is anticipated at ASCO 2008, and these data and the subsequent release of mature survival data for other targeted agents is likely to strengthen the robust body of evidence supporting their use in this setting. Historically, mRCC is a highly treatment-resistant malignancy for which few therapeutic options have been available until recently. The ongoing development of novel targeted therapies, greater understanding of prognostic factors, and the investigation of alternative dosing schedules and treatment combinations are continuing to improve our ability to treat patients with mRCC. Such advances may assist clinicians in tailoring treatment strategies to individual patients and combating problems of treatment resistance and treatment-related toxicities in order to prolong PFS and improve QoL.

QoL score was predictive of PFS, regardless of treatments and other demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline (Cella et al, 2007a). The superior treatment effect of sunitinib on PFS in comparison with IFN-! remained when QoL and other baseline variables were controlled (Cella et al, 2007a). However, treatment advantages with sunitinib versus IFN-! were greater in European, Australian, and Canadian patients than in US patients (Cella et al, 2007b). In another phase III study, QoL was compared in poor-prognosis mRCC patients receiving first-line temsirolimus and IFN-! versus either agent alone (Parasuraman et al, 2007). The study investigated QoL in terms of quality-adjusted time without symptoms of progression or toxicity (TWiST), and found that survival benefits with temsirolimus were correlated with improvements in QoL. Patients receiving temsirolimus alone exhibited 38% greater TWiST than those receiving IFN-! alone (6.5 versus 4.7 months, p=0.0005, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in TWiST values between the combination and IFN-! monotherapy treatment arms (P=0.1288) (Parasuraman et al, 2007). Data from the international phase III trial of first-line sunitinib in the mRCC setting (Motzer et al, 2007a) have also been used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of sunitinib in comparison with IFN-! in mRCC patients from a US societal perspective (Rémak et al, 2007; Négrier et al, 2007). Markov models were used to project survival and costs over 5- and 10-year time horizons based on data from the trial. The evaluation showed that the probability of sunitinib providing a cost-effective alternative to IFN-! was 45.9% with a threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), and 64.9% with a threshold of $100,000 per QALY. Furthermore, when compared with multiple therapies, sunitinib was the optimal treatment above a threshold of $55,000 per QALY. These data suggest that sunitinib represents a costeffective first-line treatment for mRCC, with costeffectiveness ratios within the established cost thresholds that society is willing to pay for health benefits (Rémak et al, 2007; Négrier et al, 2007).

Acknowledgements Editorial support was provided by ACUMED® (Tytherington, UK) with funding from Pfizer Inc.

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X. Conclusions In recent years, greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in mRCC growth and angiogenesis have prompted the development and evaluation of a number of targeted antitumor agents that have been associated with improved clinical outcomes in this setting. Randomized clinical trials have shown that sunitinib, temsirolimus, and bevacizumab are effective in the firstline treatment of mRCC. Robust clinical trial data support sunitinib as the current standard of care in this patient population, while clinical findings suggest a potential role for temsirolimus in poor-risk patients. Bevacizumab, in combination with IFN-! , has been shown to confer clinical benefit in patients with previously untreated mRCC. However, there is little evidence to support sorafenib as a first-line treatment for mRCC. A host of agents is available for use in the secondline setting in patients with mRCC that is refractory to 434


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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 439! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 439-444, 2008

Functional and structural analysis of androgen receptors for anti-cancer drug discovery Review Article

Zeina Nahleh Karmanos Cancer Institute, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Wayne State University, 41 4HWCRC, Detroit, USA

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Zeina Nahleh, M.D., Karmanos Cancer Institute, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Wayne State University, 4100 John R, 4HWCRC, Detroit, MI 48201, USA; Tel: 313-576-8722; fax: 313-576-8767; e-mail: nahlehz@karmanos.org Key words: Androgen receptor, cancer, nuclear, structural Abbreviations: Androgen Receptor, (AR); Androgen Response Element, (ARE); binding protein, (CBP); cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein, (CREB); DNA-binding domain, (DBD); epidermal growth factor receptor, (EGFR); estrogen receptor, (ER); glucocorticoid receptor, (GR); Hormone Response Elements, (HREs); insulin-like growth factor-I( IGF-I); ligand binding domain, (LBD); Nuclear Receptor, (NR); peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR); progesterone receptor, (PR); prostate-specific antigen, (PSA); retinoic acid receptor, (RAR); Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators, (SERMs); steroid receptor coactivator 1, (SRC1); steroidogenic receptor 1, (SF1); thyroid receptor, (TR); vitamin D receptor, (VDR)

Received: 1 July 2008; Revised: 18 July 2008 Accepted: 21 July 2008; electronically published: August 2008

Summary Understanding the molecular mechanism(s) by which Nuclear Receptors (NRs) regulate developmental processes is an essential step toward the utilization of one or many of these mechanisms for anticancer drug research. This manuscript discusses the structures, functions and molecular mechanisms that regulate the interactions of the Androgen Receptors (AR) as a model for potential drug targeting in hormonally-driven solid tumors. ARs â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;nuclear function, transcriptional factors and their cytoplasmic interaction with growth factor-initiated signaling pathways and coregulatory proteins are reviewed. Potential mechanisms for AR antagonism, inhibition, and modulation, as well as newer strategies are discussed.

1 (SF1).

I. Introduction to Nuclear Receptors Super family

II. The Androgen structural analysis

The nucleus is a cellular compartment that is crucial for coordinating the responses to diverse signals. It plays a critical role in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. This is mostly established through the regulatory effects of lipophilic ligands such as steroidal and non-steroidal hormones and the interaction with their specific nuclear receptors (NRs) (Thompson et al, 1966). NRs can be classified into three classes(2): Class 1 is the steroid receptor family, and includes the progesterone receptor (PR), the estrogen receptor (ER), the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the androgen receptor (AR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor; Class 2 or the thyroid/ retinoid family, includes the thyroid receptor (TR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR; and Class 3 of nuclear receptors, known as the orphan receptor family and includes steroidogenic receptor

Receptor:

a

Understanding the molecular mechanism(s) by which NRs regulate developmental processes would be an essential step toward the utilization of one or many of these mechanisms for anticancer drug development (Suzuki et al, 1993; Ribeiro et al, 1995; Aranda and Pascual, 2001; Tata, 2002; Berns et al, 2003; RobinsonRechavi et al, 2003; Xu and Li, 2003; Ring and Dowsett, 2004; Perissi and Rosenfeld, 2005; Pooley et al, 2006; Bain et al, 2007; Lange et al, 2007; Rody et al, 2007; Pearce et al, 2008). A typical nuclear receptor is a single polypeptide chain with three major domains: a variable amino-terminal domain (the A/B domain), a highly conserved DNAbinding domain (DBD or C domain), and a less conserved carboxyl-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD or E 439


Nahleh: Functional and structural analysis of androgen receptors for anti-cancer drug discovery Guo et al, 2006). These factors may serve as the basis for studying AR function and role as a drug target in other endocrine driven tumors like breast cancer.

domain) (Tata, 2002; Robinson-Rechavi et al, 2003; Bain et al, 2007). All nuclear receptors modulate gene transcription, although amongst the three classes there are differences in the mechanisms through which this is achieved (Ribeiro et al, 1995; Aranda and Pascual, 2001; Bain et al, 2007). The steroid receptors (class 1) which include AR are bound to Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp), such as Hsp90 and Hsp70, in the cytoplasm. Upon binding to their hormonal ligand, the activated receptors undergo restructuring, release Hsps, translocate into the nucleus, and the receptor then binds directly to specific Hormone Response Elements (HREs) in the promoter regions of target genes. ER recognizes a consensus sequence of AGGTCA, and the remaining steroid receptors recognize a consensus AGAACA sequence. DNA binding is coupled to the recruitment of co-activator proteins such as the p160 family (Xu and Li, 2003), and subsequent transcriptional activation. AR classically targets the Androgen Response Element (ARE) -containing prostate-specific antigen (PSA), maspin, p21, and fibroblast growth factor 1 promoters (Lange et al, 2007). Additional mechanisms have been described; for example treatment with steroid hormones also leads to an upregulation of regulatory molecules that lack a classical ARE in their proximal promoter regions, such as androgen-regulated epidermal growth factor receptor (Brass et al, 1995; Lange et al, 1998), c-fos (Richer et al, 1998; Church et al, 2005) and cyclin D1 (Groshong et al, 1997; Gregory et al, 2001). Without canonical HREs, NRs regulation of these genes can occur through indirect DNA-binding mechanisms, as in the case of AR regulating genes via interaction with the SMAD family of intracellular proteins. In the following sections, we will focus the discussion on AR as a model for drug targeting in the treatment of endocrine driven cancers, based on the experience learned in prostate cancer.

A. AR Mutations Structural mutations in the nuclear hormone receptors gave insight into many inherited disease processes and further elucidated the role of NRs in various pathologies (Suzuki et al, 1993; Ribeiro et al, 1995; Berns et al, 2003; Ring and Dowsett, 2004; Pooley et al, 2006; Rody et al, 2007; Pearce et al, 2008). Mutations in Xlinked ARs result in testicular feminization syndrome with androgen unresponsiveness or hypo-responsiveness. Furthermore, earlier studies have suggested that genetic variants in some of the nuclear hormone receptors may be associated with increased cancer risk, although results have been inconsistent (Rody et al, 2007; Pearce et al, 2008). The loss of certain nuclear hormone receptors in human tumors may also have significant implications on outcome. For example, the loss of the AR expression together with the observed loss of other steroid hormone receptors in BRCA1-mutated breast tumors may lead to a hormone-independent growth or to anti-hormone resistant growth of these tumors (Berns et al, 2003). In turn, the increased AR expression level was shown to be associated with the development of resistance to antiandrogen therapy (Chen et al, 2004). The extent of this increased expression and its frequency need to be further elucidated. Also, the development of certain nuclear receptors gene mutations may confer endocrine therapy-resistance, as seen in breast cancer (Ring and Dowsett, 2004) and prostate cancer (Suzuki et al, 1993).

B. AR interaction with growth factors The frequency of AR mutation is generally low and probably only accounts for less than 10% of the cases surveyed (Taplin et al, 2003). On the other hand, the interaction between growth factor and AR-signaling pathways in prostate cancer cells has been well documented. It is believed that cross talk with other signaling pathways may allow AR to continue to function even in the absence of androgens or in the presence of very low levels of androgens. Exploration and understanding of these other signaling pathways may be a potential venue for targeting AR for cancer therapeutics. Most research on cross talk between ARs and androgen-independent signaling pathways has occurred in the context of prostate cancer and therefore may reflect dysfunctional cellular processes. Current data support at least three distinct ways in which ARs engage in cross talk with other signaling pathways. First, kinases from other signal transduction pathways directly phosphorylate AR and modulate its transcriptional activity. Second, kinases from other signal transduction pathways phosphorylate dedicated steroid receptor coactivator/corepressor proteins and regulate their activity. Third, AR participates directly in cross talk via protein-protein interactions with signal transduction intermediates from other signaling pathways (Lange et al, 2007). Thus, AR would be a model for drug target as it functions not only as a transcription factor but also as a node that integrates multiple extracellular signals.

III. The Androgen Receptor: drug targeting and endocrine resistance In adult males, AR is essential for maintaining many male-specific organs, including the prostate gland. Blocking the activity of AR results in loss of the secretory activity and epithelial apoptosis in the prostate (Staack et al, 2003). This normal function of AR has been exploited for more than 65 years as the basis for androgen ablation therapy in prostate cancer (Denis and Griffiths, 2000). However, despite an initial response to the treatment, the therapy eventually fails in virtually all patients, resulting in androgen-independent prostate cancer. However, the majority of androgen-independent prostate cancers continue to express AR and to transactivate AR-responsive genes (Staack et al, 1995; Chen et al, 2004). Therefore, AR signaling appears to play a central role in androgendependent treatment response, but may continue to be the basis of antiandrogen resistance mechanisms (Guo et al, 2006). Mutations and amplification of AR, alterations in protein kinases, growth factors, and nuclear receptor coactivators have all been proposed to modulate AR signaling and may, therefore, play key roles in the development of androgen independence of prostate cancer as detailed below (Taplin et al, 2003; Chen et al, 2004; 440


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D. AR and coregulatory proteins

Some of these interactions are listed below: increases in autocrine and paracrine growth factor loops are among the most commonly reported changes correlated with the progression of prostate cancer from a localized and androgen-dependent disease to a disseminated and androgen-independent disease. Similar observations have been made in experimental models of prostate cancer in which androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell lines require exogenous growth factors to efficiently form tumors in athymic mice, whereas androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines do not (Gleave et al, 1992; Pietrzkowski et al, 1993; Thalmann et al, 1994). Moreover, forced overexpression of HER2/neu in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells drives androgenindependent growth (Craft et al, 1999). Also, inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/HER2 signaling can inhibit prostate cancer cell growth !"#$!%&' and !"#$!$' (Agus et al, 2002; Mellinghoff et al, 2002) as well as AR transcriptional activity, protein stability, DNA binding, and phosphorylation on serine 81 (Mellinghoff et al, 2004). Previous work by Hobisch et al. has suggested that AR is transcriptionally activated in a ligand-independent manner by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), EGF, and keratinocyte growth factor in human prostate tumor cell lines (Culig et al, 1994). HER-2/neu activates the AR pathway in the absence of ligand and increases AR responses in the presence of low levels of androgen in prostate cancer cells (Craft et al, 1999).

Other studies have implicated a direct role for AR coregulatory proteins in prostate cancer. Transcriptional coregulators are frequently overexpressed in advanced prostate cancer, facilitating AR activity. These include steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1), cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), binding protein (CBP), p300, amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1). All contribute to prostate cancer progression to androgen independence and have been identified as targets of signaling pathways (He et al, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006; Lange et al, 2007). Their role in other tumor types need to be further elucidated. #

E. AR modulators

antagonists,

inhibitors

and

Flutamide, nilutamide and bicalutamide are nonsteroidal androgen antagonists currently used in the treatment of prostate cancer. The mechanism of action of bicalutamide has been further elucidated by studying the crystal structure of a mutant form of AR, the ARW741L mutant, when bound to bicalutamide (Bohl et al, 2005a). This naturally occurring mutation confers agonistic activity to bicalutamide and is thought to contribute to the bicalutamide withdrawal syndrome (resistance of prostate tumor cells to antiandrogen therapy). The mutation generates additional space such that the sulfonyl-linked phenyl ring of bicalutamide is accommodated at the location of the missing indole ring of W741. In wild-type AR, the presence of the W741 side chain probably forces bicalutamide to protrude out thus precluding the active position of H12. In contrast, due to their modest size, flutamide and nilutamide probably antagonize AR through the mechanism of “passive antagonism”.

C. AR in” other “tumor types The interaction between AR and other growth factor signaling pathways was further elucidated recently in both prostate and other tumor types (Migliaccio et al, 2005). A novel interplay between the EGF-activated EGFR, its partner HER 2/neu, and ARs was suggested using experiments on MCF-7 and LNCaP cells. These are hormone-responsive cells derived from human mammary and prostate cancers, respectively; they express AR and either ER! (MCF-7) or ER" (LNCaP) and are widely used to analyze the effect of sex-steroid hormones and the cross-talk between growth factors and steroid hormones. The EGF-activated Src, which is associated with ER/AR dimer, acts strongly on EGFR phosphorylation. Conversely, when ER and/or AR are locked in an inactive conformation (i.e., by hormone antagonists or when the steroid receptor levels are down-regulated), their action on Src and EGFR is missing or heavily impaired and EGFinduced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation is minimal. Interestingly, in MCF-7 cells, steroid antagonists and silencing of steroid receptor genes abolished the EGFelicited DNA synthesis, thus indicating that such an effect requires steroid receptors. A new model of cross-talk between steroid receptors and EGFR with a central role of the physical and functional interactions between EGFR, steroidal receptors, and Src has been suggested (Migliaccio et al, 2005). From these and many other reports, it seems that cross-talk between growth factors and ARs, which occur at multiple levels, is involved in cancer progression and in endocrine resistance.

F. AR: Novel therapeutic approaches Current treatments of prostate cancer with AR antagonists are facing problems of adverse effects and resistance similar to those observed with the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs). The lack of AR structures in the antagonist conformation obviously limits the structural information that could aid in the development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) on a rational basis. Studies have shown that resistant AR mutants that convert antagonists into agonists adopt an active conformation when bound to these ligands (Bohl et al, 2005a,b; Salvati et al, 2005; Baek et al, 2006). Mutations alleviate steric hindrance in the hormone binding pocket and permit accommodation of antagonists in the active AR conformation. Potential solutions to approach this problem are : 1) Use the current knowledge of the structural basis for binding of nonsteroidal ligands to these AR mutants in order to allow for the rational modification of existing drugs to obtain effective antagonists which will retain an antagonist profile against the wild-type and mutant ARs. 2) Conduct further studies to visualize further how antagonist-bound AR interacts with corepressors, since the recruitment of corepressors by AR appears to be required for the therapeutic effectiveness of antiandrogens (Baek et al, 2006). 3) Pursue a detailed

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Nahleh: Functional and structural analysis of androgen receptors for anti-cancer drug discovery enzymatic components of coactivator and corepressor complexes function at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels? Clearly, the many secrets of nuclear receptor regulation need to be further unraveled. We considered AR as a study model. It appears that every component of the AR signaling pathway (growth factors, growth factor receptors, AREs, coactivators that include kinase substrates and AR itself) may be a potential target for anti-cancer therapeutics. This constellation of mutually reinforcing mechanisms however underscores the continuous challenge ahead to develop effective therapies for cancer Many studies as detailed above have given us enormous insight into the properties of nuclear receptor, yet it is still not fully clear how the subunits of the receptors interact to generate a holoprotein function. AR is an exciting target for cancer research and treatment. Most research on ARs and androgen- dependent and independent signaling pathways has occurred in the context of prostate cancer. However, we believe that AR as a therapeutic target should be explored in other tumors (Nahleh, 2008). For example, 70% of breast cancers express AR which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease (Sola, 1993; Moinfar et al 2003; Nahleh, 2008), rendering AR an ideal target for further exploration in breast cancer. In addition, newer approaches to designing inhibitors should be explored in order to overcome the current inescapable resistance in cancer treatment that targets ARs. The understanding of the AR structural and functional domains, the transcriptional regulation, and the coordination with numerous coactivators and corepressors is the beginning. A detailed understanding of the rules of regulation applied on a genome-wide basis should be pursued including the exploration of chromatin remodeling complexes that are recruited to their target genes and can be potential cancer therapeutic targets that can activate, nullify or switch their function. A combination of these potential targets with other known agents such as selective AR modulators (SARMS) and SERMs can potentially achieve additional activity. Clearly, the stage is set for an exciting new era in which the nuclear receptor regulation exemplified by AR as an anti cancer strategy will be further unraveled.

understanding of the rules of regulation applied on a genome-wide basis. For example, a particular feature of AR is that it prefers the aromatic-rich motif FxxLF which can be found in a subset of AR-specific coactivators (He et al, 2002) and in the A/B domain of AR itself where it mediates an interaction with the LBD that has been shown to be important for androgen-regulated gene expression (He et al, 2000). It has been suggested that an evolutionary decline in LxxLL motif binding that favors interdomain interaction through the N-terminal FxxLF sequence could account for the functional predominance of AF-1 in AR (He et al, 2004). However, the ARV730M mutant that displays increased affinity for LxxLL fragments and increases AR activation has been identified as a somatic mutation in prostate cancer (He et al, 2006). This information can be, for example, the basis of the possibility of developing specific peptidomimetics that mimic the binding face of LxxLL coactivator motifs and block the interaction of the ARs with required cofactors in target cells (Leduc et al, 2003; Hall and McDonnell, 2005). It is anticipated that drugs of this type could be used in combination with selective AR modulators (SARMS) and SERMs to achieve a complete blockage of AF-2 activity. Other potential features of AR that could be pursued for therapeutic purposes involve tyrosine phosphorylation which modulates AR transcriptional activity, as suggested by the work of Brodie A. and her colleagues (Guo et al, 2006). They have observed that the overall level of tyrosine phosphorylation is significantly increased in hormone-refractory human prostate tumor xenografts derived from castrated male mice, suggesting that tumor cells may utilize the autocrine/paracrine factors activating tyrosine kinases to compensate for loss of androgens. Furthermore, AR is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to several growth factors, including EGF, heregulin, and IL6. An interesting observation on growth factor-induced androgen-independent activation of AR transcriptional activity is that growth factor (e.g., EGF or IL-6) alone in general can only induce a few-fold increase of AR transcriptional activity. This seems to be negligible in comparison to the magnitude of the optimal induction by androgens. Thus, it is possible that a few-fold increase of AR transcriptional activity may be sufficient for regulating a subset of AR-regulated genes that are required for promoting the survival/growth of prostate cancer cells (Guo et al, 2006). EGF, heregulin, and IL-6 are known to be either highly expressed in prostate tissues or elevated in prostate tumors, and could be pursued as a potential target for modulation

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 445! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 445-456, 2008

Actual role of multitargeted therapy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) Review Article

Alessandro Sciarra*, Giovanni B. Di Pierro, Andrea Alfarone, Francesco Minisola, Alessandro Gentilucci, Stefano Salciccia, Luca Iannotta, Francesca Antonini, Cristiano Cristini, Franco Di Silverio, Vincenzo Gentile Urology, Department ‘’U.Bracci’’, University ‘’Sapienza’’, Rome, Italy

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Alessandro Sciarra, Department of Urology ‘’U. Bracci’’, University ‘’Sapienza’’, Viale Policlinico 155, 00161 Rome, Italy; e-mail: a.sciarra@lycos.it Key words: renal cell carcinoma (RCC), angiogenesis, VEGF, PDGF, VHL, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, sorafenib, targeted therapy, temsirolimus Abbreviations: basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF); complete response, (CR); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG); Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR); European Organization For Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC); European urological association, (EAU); FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3); hypoxia inducible factor, (HIF); interferone, (IFN); interleukine, (IL); mammalian-target of rapamycin, (mTOR); National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN); objective response rate (ORR); overall survival (OR); plateled-derived growth factor, (PDGF); progression-free survival (PFS); renal cell carcinoma, (RCC); Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST); Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG); tyrosine kinase, (TK); University of California Integrated Staging System (UISS); vascular endothelial growth factor, (VEGF); Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) Received: 27 May 2008; Revised: 24 June 2008 Accepted: 3 July 2008; electronically published: August 2008

Summary This paper reviews the recent progress in understanding the molecular basis of RCC tumourigenesis, and the development and application of new therapies targeted at key molecules involved in angiogenesis, a key process in tumour growth and progression, in order to address the treatment approaches with multitargeted therapies in advanced RCC. We reviewed the international recent literature using Pubmed search. RCC is genetically linked to factors regulating angiogenesis, in particular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Sunitinib is a multitarget receptor tyrosine-kinase (TK) inhibitor, acting on VEGF receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR). Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor (VEGFR and PDGFR) showing also inhibitors effect on the Raf system. Similar compound, axitinib, is now in clinical development and directly inhibit the VEGF and PDGF receptors (VEGFR and PDGFR). Bevacizumab is a recombinant human antibody against VEGF binds and it neutralizes all biologically active isoforms of VEGF. Phase I trials showed a consistent safety profile with these new therapies. Phase II and phase III trials showed that these antiangiogenic agents are effective in the treatment of advanced RCC. Survival benefits exist in particular when advanced RCC patients undergo cytoreductive nephrectomies before the initiation of the systemic therapy. Although patients with mRCC are now offered a better prognosis, several questions remain: how to optimise the clinical use of new agents; differences among different compounds; the identification of patients most likely to benefit from multitargeted therapy; advantages of combination or sequential therapies. The new targeted therapies have showed therapeutic feasibility and efficacy, leading to dramatically improvement in survival, both progression-free and overall, and with acceptable toxicity. Multitargeted therapy with Sunitinib and Sorafenib has been approved to FDA and is revolutioning how we clinically approach advanced RCC.

lives each year, and > 200000 new cases are diagnosed annually (Ferlay et al, 2000). Although prognosis is predominantly for the 20% of patients presenting with distant metastases, 5-yr survival is < 10% (SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2004, 2007). Such statistics have

I. Introduction The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been increasing over the past decades. Overall, cancer of the kidney and renal pelvis, of which RCC is the most common type (Kovacs et al, 1997) claims about 100000 445


Sciarpa et al: Actual role of multitargeted therapy in renal cell carcinoma In the last years new advances have begun to revolutionize the management of advanced RCC and offer hope for the future. First, a proven role for aggressive surgical resection of the primary lesion and metastasectomy has been underlined. Second, a series of exciting new approaches, so called â&#x20AC;&#x153;targeted therapyâ&#x20AC;?, are revolutionizing the management of advanced RCC. In particular, the recent progress in understanding the molecular basis of RCC has led to the identification of angiogenesis, PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) as a significant therapeutic target in patients with advanced RCC (Ferrara, 2004). Both PDGF and VEGF promote angiogenesis (Iliopoulos et al, 1996; Wiesener et al, 2001). Several studies using strategies to inhibit VEGF and PDGF activity have demonstrated significant antitumour effects in the management of RCC. In addition, studies have showed that these cytokines are frequently over-expressed in clear-cell RCC, likely contributing to the hypervascularity (Takahashi et al, 1994; Tsuchiya et al, 2001). This article reviews the present and future perspectives of advanced RCC treatment and will address, in particular results from clinical trials and strategies to maximize the potential of these agents in advanced RCC. We will try to highlight how far we have come, where we are now and how far we are going. Several reviews related to this topic have been published; here we will focus on new findings and suggestions. In particular we reviewed the international recent literature using PUBMED search (advanced RCC, targeted therapy), in order to analyze new findings on the role of anti-angiogenic targeted therapies in advanced RCC.

prompted an intensive search for newer more effective therapies for metastatic RCC advanced. The diagnostic trend is mainly due to the use of non-invasive abdominal imaging procedures, which show incidental renal tumours. The majority of incidentally detected RCC are at low stage. The management of clinically localized RCC is represented by surgical treatment and it represents a consistent approach to offer a cure for patients with this localized disease. However, a stable proportion of 20%30% of patients still present with metastatic disease and one quarter with clinical localized tumour at the time of nephrectomy will later develop metastatic disease (Rabinovitch et al, 1994; Zisman et al, 2002). These patients would clearly benefit from effective adjuvant therapy, but there is no clinically proven adjuvant treatment for patients at high risk of relapse following surgery (Jacobsohn and Wood, 2006). Previous therapies for RCC advanced, including chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy have generally had only limited success in a small proportion of patients. The RCC is consistently resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapy with response rates for single agent and combination therapies generally < 15% and often with important or unacceptable toxicity (Motzer and Russo, 2000). Investigation into newer therapies alone or combination of drugs has led to little results. In recent years, basic research into the molecular basis of RCC tumourigenesis has resulted in developement of agents blocking key proteins of angiogenesis and able to improve the prognosis and survival in patients with RCC, providing response rates of > 40%. Previous therapies for advanced RCC including chemotherapies, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy have only had limited success, leading to response rates generally < 10% (Bukowski, 1997; No author listed, 1999; Atzpodienet al, 2001; Brouwerset al, 2005). The immunogenity of RCC has represented the basis supporting the use of immunotherapy in advanced RCC. As immunotherapeutic agents either interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-! (IFN-! ) have been used. High dose IL-2 was approved by US FDA, as it leads to occasional durable complete responses (Fyfe et al, 1995). However, due to its toxicity, a minority of patients are eligible for high-dose IL-2 therapy and only 5% experience a durable complete remission (Fyfe et al, 1995). However, improved remission rate did not always correlate with survival benefit, but it seems that IFN therapy leads to modest improvements in survival (No author listed, 1999). Combination of IL-2 and IFN has not significative improved clinical results (Mcdermott et al, 2005). Several combination of cytokines, with or without other systemic therapies, have been trialled, but no regimen seems to be consistently superior. In addition, only few patients would likely benefit from cytokine therapy, therefore these therapeutics are indicated only for selected patients with intermediate prognosis and good risk profile (Motzer and Bukowski, 2006; Mcdermott et al, 2005; Ljungberg et al, 2007). Based on this, new therapies for metastatic RCC patients have been long sought.

II. Clinical rationale for a targeted therapy: the concept of cytoreductive surgery An important consideration in the management of advanced RCC is the role of removing the primary tumour, the cytoreductive nephrectomy. Generally, surgeons prefer to remove the whole tumour, which sometimes involves considerable morbidity and mortality (Kirkali and Van Poppel, 2007). Indeed, patients with advanced disease have a high risk of recurrence and require, in many cases, multidisciplinary approaches to increase survival and outcomes (Rigaud et al, 2006; Ljungberg et al, 2007). Different retrospective studies on metastatic RCC cases identified nephrectomy as a favourable treatment if entire tumour is removed and surgery is combined with systemic therapy (Wood, 2003). Moreover, previous studies showed that locally advanced or metastatic RCC cases treated with primary nephrectomy and cytokines improved survival and treatment outcomes than cases without cytoreductive surgery (Zisman et al, 2003; Haferkamp et al, 2007). Based on this, 2 prospective randomized trials were initiated on T-any, N-any, M1 RCC cases and ECOG performance status 0 or 1. The Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) randomized 241 metastatic RCC cases to IFN-! alone or nephrectomy followed by IFN-! therapy (Wood,

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 447! necrosis) based on the Mayo Clinic experience on RCC cases (Frank et al, 2002). These systems may be useful for the selection of high risk patients most suitable for adjuvant treatment trials and the assignation of patients with metastatic RCC to different treatment strategies and different targeted therapies.

2003). Patients submitted to cytoreductive nephrectomy had a survival advantage over those receiving IFN-! alone (11.1 versus 8.1 months respectively: p=0.012) (Flanigan et al, 2001). The second trial, the European Organization For Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) trial randomized 85 advanced RCC patients to IFN-! alone versus nephrectomy plus IFN-! (Mickisch et al, 2001). Also in this trial the median survival was significantly better for the surgery arm (17 versus 7 months: p=0.010). The benefit of cytoreductive surgery was more evident in ECOG score 0 cases, but not dependent on site of metastasis. The development of new targeted therapies, with promising activity (Escudier et al, 2007; Motzer et al, 2007) and greater results than those with immunotherapy, more set the problem of whether and when surgery is required, in which patients it is useful combining these therapies and surgical approach, and whether or not multitargeted therapy might obviate the nephrectomy in certain patients, even if now there are no data to support this proposal (Hudes et al, 2007). The benefit with targeted therapies in phase 3 clinical trials has been so that these are now recommended in EAU guidelines for treatment of metastatic RCC (Ljungberg et al, 2007) and United States NCCN guidelines (Motzer et al, 2006). All these data strongly suggest that an overall survival benefit exists when advanced RCC patients undergo cytoreductive nephrectomy before the starting of a systemic therapy (Flanigan et al, 2004). This concept has been proved using immunotherapy as a systemic therapy but it should be proved also for targeted therapy as systemic treatment. EAU guidelines raccomend nephrectomy for patients with metastatic disease and good performance status when combined with INF-! (Ljungberg et al, 2007). Proper patients selection is essential to maximize the benefits of cytoreductive nephrectomy (Haferkamp et al, 2007). Prognostic algorithms and nomograms are useful tools in order to identify those patients who are more likely to benefit from combination therapy. For example, Garcia and Rini considered in 2007 optimal candidates those with (Kovacs et al, 1997) good performance status, (Ferlay et al, 2000) a resectable primary tumour representing the majority of tumour borden, (SEER Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2004, 2007) no evidence of central nervous system metastases, (Zisman et al, 2002) no prohibitive medical conditions, (Rabinovitch et al, 1994) no evidence of rapidly progressive extrarenal disease. Resection of solitary (or limited in number) metastases can be associated to significant results in 30% of such patients. Good results have been obtained in cases with pulmonary metastases or also after excision of hepatic, adrenal, brain and pancreatic metastases. At now, there is an increasing interest in using integrated staging system to select RCC cases in different prognostic categories. TNM stage, Furhman grade and ECOG score, compose the University of California Integrated Staging System (UISS) which now stratifies 6 categorie, 3 for non-metastatic and 3 for metastatic RCC. A second validated score is the SSIGN (stage, size, grade,

III. Action mechanism multitargeted therapies

of

The main targeted therapy in RCC recently analysed is that against angiogenesis, VEGF and PDGF signalling pathway. This targeted therapy appears to be associated with more favourable clinical results. In the present review, we considered the analysis of the mechanism of action and the results from clinical trials related to specific anti-VEGF and anti-PDGF therapies.

A. Experimental rationale for targeted therapy 1. Angiogenesis The clinical knowledge that RCC is a highly vascular cancer and that the Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein has an important role in sporadic RCC, have made antiangiogenic strategies an attractive approach (15-21). RCC is genetically linked to factors regulating angiogenesis, such as VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (Iliopoulos et al, 1996; Tsuchiya et al, 2001; Wiesener et al, 2001; Ferrara, 2004; Motzer and Bukowski, 2006; Negrier, 2006; Ljungberg et al, 2007). VEGF is the strongest proangiogenic protein in RCC and there is a strong rationale for blocking VEGF in this tumor. Approximately 60% of clear RCC have an inactivated VHL tumor suppressor gene (50% through somatic mutation and 10% through promoter methylation). A normal VHL protein indirectly blocks transcription of hypoxic-inducible genes, such as VEGF (Iliopoulos et al, 1996; Tsuchiya et al, 2001; Wiesener et al, 2001; Ferrara, 2004; Motzer and Bukowski, 2006; Negrier, 2006; Ljungberg et al, 2007). Therefore, under hypoxic conditions or VHL gene inactivation, there is an induction of VEGF transcription, over-expression of VEGF protein and angiogenesis (Iliopoulos et al, 1996; Wiesener et al, 2001). Different studies showed that nearly all RCC express high levels of VEGF and that this over-expression correlates with tumor progression and prognosis (Ljungberg et al, 2007). VEGF has several isoforms: VEGF-A is involved in angiogenesis, whereas VEGF-C and VEGF-D are more related to lymphoangiogenesis (Motzer and Bukowski, 2006; Negrier, 2006). VEGF plays major roles in different steps of tumor development with increase of microvascular permeability, permeabilization of blood vessels, extravasation of plasma proteins, introduction of endothelial cell division and migration, promotion of endothelial cell survival (Iliopoulos et al, 1996). Hypoxia in RCC plays an important role in the VEGF pathway. When tumors are exposed to hypoxia as a result of a rapid growth beyond existing blood supplies, the tumor become necrotic. Larger tumors have an inadequate blood supply and thus, hypoxia

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Sciarpa et al: Actual role of multitargeted therapy in renal cell carcinoma angiogenesis, which is disregulated in cancer. In solid tumours Bevacizumab is not currently approved for use in RCC. This drug acts through 3 potential mechanisms: 1) repression of microvasculature, 2) normalization of mature vasculature, 3) inhibition of the production of new vasculature. In RCC the direct effect of Bevacizumab on microvasculature, leads to tumour regression and slowing the tumour growth (Figure 1).

occurs, causing up-regulation of VEFG (Iliopoulos et al, 1996). For this reason in the peri-necrotic areas the hypoxic conditions are a major stimulus for the production of VEGF. There are two possible approaches for targeting VEGF signaling: ligand blockade through a monoclonal antibody (Bevacizumab) and blocking signalling by targeting the receptors with either a monoclonal antibody or a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Sorafenib and Sunitinib).

C. Temsirolimus Temsirolimus is intravenously administered and inhibits the mTOR kinase (Hu-Lowe et al, 2002). Stimulation of mTOR results in the expression of several proteins involved in cell cycle progression, and also controls protein synthesis in response to oxygen starvation (including synthesis of HIF-1! in RCC cells) (Hudson et al, 2002; Patel et al, 2006) (Figure 1). It has been incorporated into the recently revised EAU Guidelines on RCC (Ljungberg et al, 2007) and the United States National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines (Motzer et al, 2006).

2. mTOR pathway The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has a central role in the regulation of cell growth, and it appears to be dysregulated in cancer (Hudes et al, 2007). mTOR receives stimuli from growth factors, hormones, nutrients and it stimulates proteins syntesis. The mTOR pathway also contributes to angiogenesis (Hudes et al, 2007). A UCLA study showed that mTOR pathways is affected in RCC patients with poor prognostic factors (Hudes et al, 2007). As inhibitors of this pathway, at present there are 3 mTOR inhibitors that are in clinical development as anticancer agents: Temsirolimus, AP23572 and RAD001.

D. Sunitinib Sunitinib is a recent small molecule, acting as multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, implicated in tumour angiogenesis, growth, and progression (Tsuchiya et al, 2001; Bergers et al, 2003; Sulzbacher et al, 2003). It showed antitumour activity against RCC cells dependent upon signalling through PDGF receptor, VEGF

B. Bevacizumab Bevacizumab is a recombinant human antibody against VEGF, that it is binds and it neutralizes all biologically active isoforms of VEGF (Presta et al, 1997). It has a central role in the regulation of growth and

! Figure 1. Targeted therapies on angiogenesis in RCC. Reproduced from European Urology Supplements, 2008 with kind permission from Elsevier B.V. HIF = hypoxia inducible factor; mTOR = mammalian target of rapamycin; PDGF = platelet-derived growth factor; PDGFR = PDGF receptor; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGFR = VEGF receptor

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 449! and epistaxis more commonly in the high dose Bevacizumab arm. All toxicity episodes were reversible after cessation of the therapies. The study showed that time to progression was significantly longer in patients treated with high dose Bevacizumab (4.8 months) than in those with placebo (2.5 months; p=0.001; HR=2.55). No differences between placebo and low dose Bevacizumab arms in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) were found. In this trial the tumour burden reduction observed in Bevaciumab arms, did not meet criteria for objective response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) as ! 30% tumor burden reduction). More recently the effect of Bevacizumab monotherapy in untreated RCC was defined in a randomized phase II trial of Bevacizumab (10mg/kg every 2 weeks) Âą Erlotinib, an oral Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases inhibitor (150 mg /day) (Bukowsy et al, 2006). The objective response rate (ORR) was 13% and median PFS with Bevacizumab monotherapy was 8.5 months. The addition of Erlotinib did not improve clinical results. Two different randomized phase III trials using Bevacizumab in combination with IF versus IF alone have completed accrual (CALGB-90206 and B017705) (Sonpavde et al, 2007). Recently, promisig results have also been reported in combination with INF-" during a phase 3 trial in patients with metastatic RCC: PFS was 10.2 month with Bevacizumab plus INF-" compared with 5.4 month for INF-" alone (Escudier et al, 2007).

receptor, FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) and stem cell factor receptor (KIT) for proliferation and progression (Mendel et al, 2003). In addition, sunitinib showed to block angiogenesis through inhibition of PDGF receptor, and VEGFR signalling in VEGFR-expressing vascular endothelial cells, and PDGFR-expressing pericytes, stromal cells, or fibroblast. Therefore, Sunitinib may block the tumour growth and progression directly inhibiting its cells as well as blocking angiogenesis through inhibition of vascular endothelial cells and associated supporting cells (Figure 1).

E. Sorafenib Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that was originally developed because of its inhibition on the Raf system (regulatory system on the transcription of relevant proteins), and on several tyrosine kinases that regulates cell proliferation and angiogenesis (Yang et al, 2003). In particular Sorafenib targets the VEGFR and PDGFR and the kinase activity of both C-Raf and B-Raf . All these data suggest that Sorafenib in RCC may inhibit tumour growth by a duel mechanism of action: either directly on the tumor (Raf signalling) and/or indirectly on tumour angiogenesis (VEGFR and PDGFR signalling).

IV. Clinical results from phase I-III trials Different phase I-III clinical trials using Bevacizumab, Sorafenib, Sunitinib and Temsirolimus have been developed and all show that each of these antiangiogenic agents is effective in the treatment of metastatic RCC (Patard, 2008). In most of these studies, the population analyzed was represented by metastatic RCC in progression after cycles of cytokine therapies. Nowadays, sunitinib is recommended as first-line therapy for patients with metastatic RCC and low or intermediate risk; this follows the initial approval for only use in cytokine-refractory patients (Motzer et al, 2006a,b). Recent studies have also demonstrated the efficacy of sorafenib in second-line treatment of metastatic RCC (Cancer Pain Assessment and Treatment Curriculum Guidelines, 1992; Motzer and Bukowski, 2006; Motzer et al, 2006b; Ratain et al, 2006; Escudier et al, 2007; Hudes et al, 2007).

B. Temsirolimus Temsirolimus is considered as first-line treatment in poor-risk patients, as defined by modified MSKCC criteria, and has shown a survival benefit compared with IFN-" in these patients (Houk et al, 2002). In a multicentre phase III study, 626 previously untreated and with poor prognosis were randomised to receive either 25 mg temsirolimus weekly, 3 MU INF-" (with an increase to 18 MU) subcutaneously three times week, or combination therapy with 15 mg temsirolimus weekly plus 6 MU INF-" three times a week. Results showed better response in patients receiving temsirolimus alone: median survival was 7.3 months in INF-" goup, 10.9 months in temsirolimus group and 8.4 in temsirolimus plus INF-" . There was no significant difference in OS between temsirolimus plus INF-" compared with INF-" alone. Termsirolimus as a single agent was better tolerated than IFN-a alone and combination therapy (Houk et al, 2002).

A. Bevacizumab Bevacizumab is indicated in US for treatment of advanced RCC, instead EAU recommends this drug as first-line therapy in poor risk patients with metastatic RCC (Ljungberg et al, 2007). The clinical efficacy of Bevacizumab in metastatic RCC was first investigated in a randomized phase II trial in which 116 cases received placebo versus low-dose (3mg/kg) Bevacizumab, versus high dose (10mg/kg) Bavacizumab (intravenously every 2 weeks) (Yang et al, 2003). All patients showed disease progression after at least one cycle of systemic cytokines treatment (95% IL-2). No life-threatening toxicities or deaths related to Bevacizumab were reported. Toxicity episodes included hypertension (36% of cases), proteinuria

C. Sunitinib Sunitinb is indicated for treatment of advanced RCC and/or metastatic RCC (Sutinib malate: summary of product characteristics, 2006). Either as first-line therapy or as second-line therapy in disease refractory to cytokine therapy (Motzer et al, 2006a,b, 2007). The recommended dose for Phase II trials using Sunitinib, was defined in phase I trials as 50 mg/day orally for 4 weeks, followed by 2 weeks off, in repeated 6 weeks cycles (Faivre et al, 449


Sciarpa et al: Actual role of multitargeted therapy in renal cell carcinoma Sunitinib as first-line therapy in patients with good and intermediate risk (Ljungberg et al, 2007). Sunitinib was also evaluated in patients who have failed prior Bevacizumab therapy in a phase II trial (61 cases). An ORR of 16% was demonstrated with 61% of cases with stable disease.

2006). A recent meta-analysis of the pharmacocynetic of Sunitinib from 10 phase I studies, determined that hepatic and renal function had no effect (Houk et al, 2002). In phase I studies, fatigue was the most commonly reported adverse event (70% of cases included) (Pawson, 2007). This symptom was generally associated with lethargy, asthenia, weakness. Hypothyroidsm was also observed in approximately 65 % of treated cases who underwent thyroid testing in clinical trials.The results of phase I trials suggest that thyroid disfunction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of fatigue during Sunitinib therapy. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities reported included fatigue (10%), neutropenia (8%), thrombocytopenia (7%) (Chow et al, 2007). Two phase II trials have been conducted in patients with metastatic RCC in progression after cytokine therapies. The two trials had similar elegibility criteria (age ! 18 yr, histologic comfirmation of RCC, measurable disease with evidence of metastases, failure of one cytokine therapy because of disease progression ECOG performance status " 1, and adeguate organ function) and treatment plans. Treatment was continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or withdrawal of consent., with primary end point the ORR and secondary end points PFs, overall survival (OR) and safety. In a population of 168 evaluable patients, Sunitinib induced an ORR of 40% with a median time to progression of 8.7 months and a median survival of 16.4 months. A longer PFS was observed in patients with favourable ECOG score and normal serum haemoglobin. The Sunitinib was well tolerated in the two phase 2 trials, with manageable toxicity and the most common adverse events were fatigue and diarrhoea (Motzer et al, 2006a,b). These results induced US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of Sunitinib for the treatment of advanced RCC. A large, randomized, phase 3 study demonstrated that Sunitinib significantly increased PFS and ORR compared with INF- in previous untreated patients with mRCC and its superiority as first-line therapy (Motzer et al, 2006b, 2007). In this multicentre study, 750 patients were randomized in 1:1 ratio to receive either Sunitinib or IFN, and Sunitinib (50 mg) was administered orally once daily in 6 weeks cycles consisting of 4 weeks of treatment followed by 2 weeks without treatment. After a median treatment duration of 11 months for Sunitib and 4 months for IFN- the median PFS was 11 months for the Sunitinib arm and 4 months for the IFN- arm (HR=0.415, p<0.0001) . The ORR was 31% versus 6% (p<0.00001). Four patients were considered to have had CR (complete response) with Sunitinib and two patients with IFN- ., and median duration of response was 12 months for Sunitinib and 10 months for IFN- . Therefore, Sunitinib showed acceptable safety profile, although most general adverse events of all grades occurred more frequently in the Sunitinib group, adverse events leading to withdrawal from the study occurred in 8% of cases with Sunitinib and 13% with IFN- . Data are not yet mature for the assessment of overall survival, but the investigators concluded that Sunitinib should be considered the new standard for the first line treatment of metastatic RCC and, based on these outcomes, the EAU guidelines recommend

D. Sorafenib In December 2005, the FDA approved Sorafenib for the treatment of patients with advanced RCC (Goodman et al, 2007). In European Union it is indicated as therapy in patients with advanced RCC refractory to cytokine therapy or who are unsuitable for such therapy; instead, in US it is indicated for patients with advanced RCC (Nexavar summary of product characteristics, 2006; Nexavar US prescribing information, 2007). The EAU guidelines recommend the use of Sorafenib as second-line therapy in mRCC. The approval was based on randomized trials evaluating Sorafenib, in particular in cases in progression after cytokine therapies. Sorafenib has been evaluated as monotherapy in four, phase I, trials with distinct schedules of administration: interrupted dosing and continuous administration (Strumberg et al, 2007). In these trials 173 patients with advanced solid tumours were enclosed. Sorafenib was generally well tolerated at dosing " 400 mg bid. The most frequently reported adverse events related to the drug were fatigue (40%), anorexia (35%), diarrhoea (34%) and rush handfoot skin reaction (25%). These adverse events were mainly < grade 3 (90%) and were resolved either reducing the dose or discontinuing Sorafenib. A treatment related hypertension was observed in 5-11% of cases. The maximal tolerated dose for Sorafenib was defined in these trials as 400 mg bid. The hypothesis is that reactions are related to EGFR and Raf inhibition, whereas hypertension to VEGF inhibition (Flaherty et al, 2006). A first phase II randomized discontinuation trial evaluated the effect of Sorafenib in 202 patients with advanced RCC (all with ECOG score 0 or 1; 75% clear RCC; 89% with prior nephrectomy; 76% with prior IL-2 or IF therapy) (Ratain et al, 2006). Patients received Sorafenib 400 mg bid during an initial run-in period and thereafter (12 weeks) cases with changes in tumour measurement < 25% were randomized to Sorafenib versus placebo for other 12 weeks. Patients with 25% tumour growth discontinued treatment whereas patients with 25% tumour shrinkage continued open-label Sorafenib. At 24 weeks, 50% of Sorafenib treated patients were progression-free versus 18% of the placebo group (p=0.007). Median PFS was 24 weeks in Sorafenib versus 6 weeks in placebo group (p=0.008). A randomized phase II trial of Sorafenib versus IFN in untreated metastatic RCC is ongoing to define the role of this drug in this setting (Rini, 2006). The clinical advantage of Sorafenib was confirmed in a multicentre, randomized, phase III trial, that compared Sorafenib with placebo as second-line therapy in patients with advanced metastatic RCC and, subsequently, randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive either Sorafenib or placebo.The PFS was longer in the Sorafenib arm (5.5 mo vs 2.8 mo) and the analysis demonstrated that Sorafenib reduce the risk of death 450


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 451! In a phase I trial, 24 patients with metastatic RCC received Bevacizumab plus Sorafenib. The combination showed preliminary evidence of antitumor activity but a dose-limiting toxicity related to hand-foot syndrome, anorexia, and fatigue, was reported (Sosman et al, 2008). Combining of anti-VEGF strategies with agents targeting other relevant mechanisms in advanced RCC have been also planned. A phase II trial analyzed the combination of Bevacizumab with Erlotinib (EGFR inhibitor). The trial showed that Erlotinib does not significantly add to the clinical efficacy of Bevacizumab (Bukowsy et al, 2006). A promising combination strategy considered antiVEGF drugs with Temsirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (PFS of 3.7 months versus 1.9 months, p=0.0001 in a phase III trial comparing Temsirolimus with IF in advanced RCC) (Hudes et al, 2007).

compared to placebo. Sorafenib was superior than placebo also in relation to CR (1 patient vs none), PR (10% vs 2%), SD (74% vs 53%) and PD (12% vs 37%). The most common adverse events were diarrhoea, fatigue, rash, hand-foot skin reactions, alopecia, nausea, and about 10% of patients discontinued the treatment because of these (Escudier et al, 2007).

E. Combination Sorafenib or Sunitinib

therapies

using

The rationale for targeting VEGF in advanced RCC is important, but also other factors, including PDGF, are able to influence the angiogenenetic process in this tumour. Therefore, enhanced antitumours activity, could be obtained by a simultaneous targeting of different factors involved in this process. Different preclinical studies suggest that IF has antiangiogenic properties and that combinating 2 or more agents with antiangiogenic properties may result in additive or synergistic antitumour activity (Rini, 2006). Clinical trials have been started to examine the possibility of combination targeted therapies in advanced RCC. Combination of Bevacizumab and IF versus IF monothrerapy has been evaluated in two randomized phase III trials as first line therapy in metastatic RCC (Rini et al, 2006). However these trials did not fully define the additive or synergic effects of this combination regimen due to the absence of a Bevacizumab monotherapy control arm. Two phase II trials combining sorafenib 400 mg bid with IF 3-times week have been reported (Gollob et al, 2006; Ryan et al, 2007). These trials suggest that this combination regimen can be safely used in untreated advanced RCC patients. Among 24 cases evaluable for response, the ORR by RECIST criteria was 42% (38% partial and 4% complete response); moreover 46% of cases showed stable disease.

V. Paradigmatic cases report Several case reports on extreme cases of advanced RCC treated by targeted therapies have been recently reported in the literature. These cases help also to suggest new possible indications of targeted therapies in RCC cases. Here, we present, as example, a case that shows the efficacy of anti-angiogenic targeted therapies as neoadjuvant treatment to surgery in advanced RCC. In March 2007, a 71 year old white male was diagnosed at CT scan as having a voluminous (8.0 cm in diameter) solid mass at left kidney level (Figure 2a). Moreover, the CT scan (chest, abdomen and pelvis) evidenced lymph-nodes involvement (maximal diameter 3 cm, at para-aortic and left renal vein level) and a thrombus at left renal vein and inferior vena cava level (Figure 3a). No other distant metastases were evidenced (also a bone scan was negative). ECOG performance status was 3. Family history for kidney or other neoplasm was negative.

Figure 2. (A) Pre-treatment CT scan showing a 9.0 cm solid mass at left kidney level. (B) Post Sorafenib treatment CT scan, showing a 9.0 cm solid mass at left kidney level with modification of its pathway

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s Figure 3.. (A) Pre-treatment CT scan showing a thrombus at left renal vein and inferior vena cava level. (B) Post Sorafenib treatment CT scan showing a reduction in thrombus extension and vena cava involvement.

In March 2007 the patient started a medical treatment with Sorafenib given orally at a dose of 400 mg daily. Treatment with sorafenib was well tolerated without side effects. There was also an improvement in ECOG performance status (score 2), starting after 3 months. In August 2007 a new CT scan confirmed: the presence of a 9.0 cm in diameter solid mass at left kidney level (Figure 2b); no modifications at lymph-nodes level; a reduction in thrombus extension, limited at left renal vein level without involvement of the inferior vena cava (Figure 3b). After 6 months of neoadjuvant treatment with sorafenib, in September 2007 the patient was submitted to an open left radical nephrectomy. No intra-operative and post operative complications were developed. Macroscopic examination at left kidney level showed a 9 x 7 cm solid mass involving the upper pole and the medial aspect of the kidney. The mass was well delimited by a pseudo-capsule. The renal capsule, the ureter and the renal vessels resulted no involved by the mass and, in particular, the renal vein resulted free from thrombus. Histological examination revealed that over 90% of the solid mass was substituted by necrotic tissue: the residual neoplastic component was diagnosed as a clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), Furhman grade 2. At pathology, all lymph-nodes removed resulted negative for neoplastic involvement. At now (February 2008) the patient is in good physical conditions; there is a normalization in ECOG performance status (score 1) and the quality of life is good. Treatment with sorafenib was interrupted after surgery. At 5 months from radical nephrectomy (February 2008) a new CT scan was negative for local progression or distant metastases. It is important to underline that the patient did not develop embolic events.

VI. Future points to be addressed Guidelines on how to treat advanced RCC as first line treatment or at failure as second line treatment, using targeted agents are emerging. The information that we presented supports the clinical rationale for targeting angiogenesis and the VEGF pathways and they show that this strategy is feasible and it can result in tumor shrinkage and PFS advantages. To better use this kind of targeted therapy, different points should be developed in the future: 1) the identification of the clinical characteristics of RCC patients that can be used to predict outcomes and responses to therapy; 2) the definition of the differences among different compounds; 3) the advantage of combination therapies; 4) the possibility of sequential treatments. The selection of patients who most likely to respond to targeted therapies, should be crucial to optimize the use of these agents in the clinical setting. Advanced RCC, prior nephrectomy, a clear cell histology were inclusion criteria in almost trials. Clear cell histology criterion was based on the biology of Von Hippel Lindau inactivation and subsequent VEGF hyperexpression, which is confirmed to this histologic type of RCC. In some trials, however, there have been reports of activity of anti-VEGF agents also in cases with non clear cell histology. This point should be better defined in future trials. The median PFS of 13 months obtained with VEGF targeted agents in metastatic RCC is significantly superior to that reported in other trials involving earlier therapies (Choueiri et al, 2008). The real value of PFS, however, may change in relation of the selected group of patients who is considered for the treatment. Predictive biomarkers of response should also be largely investigated and VEGF expression is an obvious candidate. Another important point is the statistically similar PFS of patients receiving VEGF targeted therapy for

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 453! Moreover, considering that Sorafenib can target endothelial cells also through Raf pathways rather than through VEGFR pathways, it could be possible that Sorafenib may overcome a resistence of the tumour to VEGF inhibitors such as Sunitinib. All these suggestions strongly support the need for a direct comparison of targeted therapies. An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) phase III trial, with patients randomized to Sorafenib versus Sunitinib versus placebo is ongoing. To understand the role and the advantage of a combination therapy in this setting, different questions should be addressed: 1) which target is most important? 2) which agent better inhibits each target? 3) Is there a synergic effect using combination therapy? 4) Which is the advantage to be reached (improvement in the rate and duration of clinical response, prevention of clinical resistence)? 5) Which population may better respond (first line therapy, cytokine resistant tumors, second or third line targeted therapy)? There are different concepts of combination targeted therapy for RCC. “Horizontal blockade” is when different target molecules are contemporaneally and individually inhibited: tumour cells (EGFR), endothelial cells (VEGFR) and pericyte (PDGF). To obtain this kind of blockade, specific single inhibitors or multitargeted agents (Sorafenib and Sunitinib) could be used. “Vertical blockade” is when a specific pathway is targeted and than inhibited at 2 or more different levels (for example VEGF and TK).

metastatic disease as first line or second line treatment (Choueiri et al, 2008). This finding supports the hypothesis that the biology of RCC that mediates response to anti VEGF therapies may not be influenced by prior exposure to cytokine therapies. This represent another important point that should be better defined. Recently, a possible treatment algorithm incorporating the rationale for use of various agents in advanced RCC has been proposed (Figure 4). The recent approval of different multitargeted Tirosyn Kinases inhibitors that both modify the natural history of RCC must induce to compare these drugs together. Also this approach helps to determine how best to use them in metastatic RCC. In this kind of analysis, Sunitinib bound 73 kinases in addition to VEGFR, whereas Sorafenib bound 40 additional kinases. The clinical relevance of inhibiting “off target” kinases has not been yet defined in terms of clinical advantage. Sorafenib, unlike Sunitinib, is also an inhibitor of Raf kinase. Also in this case, the relevance of EGFR and Raf system in RCC is controversial and therefore it remains uncertain whether Raf activity inhibition has a clinical role in the treatment of advanced RCC. It should be interesting to define a possible different role of Sorafenib, Sunitinib and Bevacizumab as first line therapy or after cytokine treatment resistance. The drugs should also be extensively examined and compared in the treatment of RCC patients with non clear tumours. It is possible that one drug over the other may have a potential role in the treatment of papillary and chromophobe RCC.

Figure 4. Treatment algorithm for advanced RCC. Reproduced from Porta et al, 2007 with kind permission from Kidney Cancer Journal.

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In RCC the horizontal blockade is intended to block tumour progression acting at different levels, either directly on tumour cells or indirectly on angiogenesis. The vertical blockade helps to resolve the problem of resistance that may develop during targeted therapy. In terms of resistance to targeted therapy for advanced RCC, there are no guidelines at present on how sequencing drugs or how to treat RCC after failure of first or second line agents. The hypothesis of no cross-reactivity among the different targeted therapies has set the basis for a strategy based on a sequential therapy. The determination of the correct sequence in using targeted therapy in RCC is a very important point that also support the rationale for continuing targeting the angiogenic pathways throughout progression and resistance of the RCC tumour.

VII. Final comment The large number of scientific articles published on the role of targeted therapy (in particular antiangiogenic/anti-VEGF) in advanced RCC, strongly underlines the actual relevance and the innovative role of this therapeutic approach in a setting in which other previous systemic treatments (chemiotherapy, radiotherapy and partially also cytokine inhibitors) failed. These new therapeutic approaches sustain the role of surgery, either in terms of cytoreductive nephrectomy or metastatectomy, as first treatment for advanced RCC. On the contrary the activity of these agents without prior nephrectomy remains undefined. It is possible to predict a future extension for the indications of these targeted therapies in RCC, for example as adjuvant to nephrectomy in high risk non metastatic cases, or as neoadjuvant, before surgery. We must also underline limits of these therapies. The novel agents are more likely to be cytostatic than cytotoxic and therefore we still fall to achieve complete and durable responses, but only advantages in terms of PFS or as disease stabilization can be expected.

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Tsuchiya N, Sato K, Akao T, Kakinuma H, Sasaki R, Shimoda N, Satoh S, Habuchi T, Ogawa O, Kato T (2001) Quantitative analysis of gene expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor-related factors and their receptors in renal cell carcinoma. Tohoku J Exp Med 195, 101-113. Wiesener MS, Münchenhagen PM, Berger I, Morgan NV, Roigas J, Schwiertz A, Jürgensen JS, Gruber G, Maxwell PH, Löning SA, Frei U, Maher ER, Gröne HJ, Eckardt KU (2001) Constitutive activation of hypoxia-inducible genes related to overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in clear cell renal carcinomas. Cancer Res 61, 5215-5222. Wood CG (2003) The role of cytoreductive nephrectomy in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am 30, 581-88. Yang JC, Haworth L, Sherry RM, Hwu P, Schwartzentruber DJ, Topalian SL, Steinberg SM, Chen HX, Rosenberg SA (2003) A randomized trial with Bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, for metastatic renal cancer. N EnglJ Med 349, 427-434. Zisman A, Pantuck AJ, Wieder J, Chao DH, Dorey F, Said JW, deKernion JB, Figlin RA, Belldegrun AS (2002) Risk group assessment and clinical outcome algorithm to predict the natural history of patients with surgically resected renal cell carcinoma..J Clin Oncol 20, 4559-4566. Zisman A, Wieder JA, Pantuck AJ, Chao DH, Dorey F, Said JW, Gitlitz BJ, deKernion JB, Figlin RA, Belldegrun AS (2003) Renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus extension: biology, role of nephrectomy and response to immunotherapy. J Urol 169, 909-916.

Alessandro Sciarra

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 457! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 457-462, 2008

Canine hemangiosarcoma: A tumor of contemporary interest Review Article

Stuart C. Helfand Oncology, Oregon State University, Magruder Hall, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Stuart C. Helfand, D.V.M., Professor, Diplomate ACVIM (Oncology and Internal Medicine), Oregon State University, Magruder Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA; Tel: 541-737-4830; Fax: 541-737-4818; e-mail: Stuart.Helfand@oregonstate.edu Key Words: Canine hemangiosarcoma, tumor, adjuvant chemotherapy, immunotherapy, receptor tyrosine kinase Abbreviations: galectin-3, (Gal-3); hemangiosarcoma, (HSA); histone deacetylase, (HDAC); inducible protein-10, (IP-10); interleukin12, (IL-12); liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide phosphotidylethanolamine, (L-MTP-PE); receptor tyrosine kinase, (RTK); suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, (SAHA) Received: 9 June 2008; electronically published: August 2008

Presented in the Theilen Tribute Symposium at UC Davis 31st May- 1st June 2008.

Summary Hemangiosarcoma is an endothelial cell-derived malignancy that continues to be a fatal cancer in dogs. Death is almost always due to local and systemic metastases despite numerous attempts to alter the clinical course with adjuvant chemotherapy. A benefit from doxorubicin-based chemotherapy, albeit modest, has been established unambiguously and represents the current standard of adjuvant care following surgical removal of hemangiosarcoma. Survival times, however, typically are not appreciably prolonged beyond six months. A small number of studies employing immunotherapy approaches indicate the potential to develop this modality for better tumor control. As more information detailing cellular and molecular aspects of hemangiosarcoma cell function is revealed, new opportunities for development of novel treatments, with implications for antiangiogenic approaches for cancer, are emerging. Targeting hemangiosarcoma cell surface adhesion molecules, differentiation molecules, and growth factor receptor pathways may provide the opportunities needed to impact on hemangiosarcoma growth and improve clinical outcome.

I. Introduction

II. Lessons learned from adjuvant chemotherapy

Dogs develop hemangiosarcoma (HSA) more frequently than any other species. Hemangiosarcoma originates from transformed endothelial cells and while endothelial malignancies such as angiosarcoma and Kaposi sarcoma are seen in humans, their incidence is low compared to canine HSA. At least 7% of all canine cancer is due to HSA and its profoundly aggressive behavior almost always portends an unfavorable outcome in affected dogs. The veterinary profession has singularly dealt with the challenge of this deadly cancer but despite the plethora of novel treatment strategies, HSA has refused to be tamed and remains a formidable clinical problem. Despite the frustrations associated with numerous unrewarding, yet novel treatment efforts for HSA, the quest to improve survival time has provided a unique opportunity to learn about endothelial cell biology including subcellular pathways and the process of angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels.

It has been more than 20 years since the first reports of adjuvant chemotherapy for canine HSA were published. Since then, numerous studies have appeared, all of which confirm several apparent truths. These include: 1) adjuvant chemotherapy extends the disease free interval and survival time following removal of the primary (splenic) HSA; 2) the benefit obtained by adjuvant chemotherapy is short lived; 3) adjuvant chemotherapy protocols should include doxorubicin. There is a consensus of opinion that chemotherapy given during the micrometastasis phase of HSA extends survival, but close inspection of various reports fails to show much difference in outcome regardless of the novel question studied. Doxorubicin-containing protocols rarely extend life much beyond six months compared to the two or three month survival time of dogs not receiving chemotherapy (Hammer et al, 1991; Sorenmo et al, 1993; Ogilvie et al,

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Helfand: Canine hemangiosarcoma: A tumor of contemporary interest 1996). More recent efforts to improve survival employed a variety of strategies including the destruction of intraabdominal metastasis by intraperitoneal administration of liposome-doxorubicin (Sorenmo et al, 2007), continuous low-dose oral chemotherapy (i.e., cyclophosphamide, etoposide, piroxicam) (Lana et al, 2007) and immunotherapy using a potentiated allogeneic HSA antigen vaccine combined with doxorubicin (U'Ren et al, 2007), all failed to improve survival time compared to that observed with systemically administered doxorubicin containing protocols. Survival times of canine HSA patients were similarly unaltered by modified adjuvant doxorubicin protocols testing an accelerated (dose intensified) protocol (Sorenmo et al, 2004) or the addition of a putatively antiangiogenic antibiotic minocycline (Sorenmo et al, 2000). Table 1 summarizes the median survival times reported in these studies. Death is always due to widespread metastasis, often affecting the lungs (Figure 1). Taken together, it is readily apparent that major breakthroughs in controlling canine HSA will not come from adjuvant chemotherapy alone.

III. Potential of immunotherapy Several lines of evidence indicate immunotherapy may play a role in suppressing HSA micrometastases. These include approaches that elicited both cell-mediated and humoral responses. In fact, the most impressive survival times reported for canine HSA patients were those described by Vail and colleagues in 1995 in which dogs were treated with the macrophage activator liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide phosphotidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE) concurrently with multiple chemotherapy cycles consisting of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. The median survival time for all 18 dogs receiving chemoimmunotherapy was 277 days, but of note were the eight dogs with stage I disease that had a median survival time of 425 days, although not significant in comparison to the placebo-treated dogs due to the small numbers. The recent report by Uâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ren and colleagues in 2007 provides evidence of the potential to elicit humoral immune responses to unknown HSA

Table 1. Median survival times of dogs with hemangiosarcoma treated with splenectomy and chemotherapy. Study

Year

Treatment

Wood and colleagues Hammer and colleagues

1998 1991

Sorenmo and colleagues Ogilvie and colleagues Lana and colleagues* Sorenmo and colleagues Sorenmo and colleagues Sorenmo and colleagues Lana and colleagues*

1993 1996 2007 2000 2004 2007 2007

splenectomy, no chemotherapy vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide doxorubicin doxorubicin doxorubicin, minocycline doxorubicin every 2 weeks pegylated doxorubicin intraperitoneal daily low dose etoposide, cyclophosphamide, piroxicam

Median survival time (days) 86 145 202 172 133 170 257(I)#, 210 (II), 107 (III) 131 178

*Same study comparing standard doxorubicin every three weeks vs. daily low dose etoposide, cyclophosphamide, and piroxicam. # Results reported by clinical stage in parenthesis.

Figure 1. Canine hemangiosarcoma pulmonary metastasis. Diffuse pulmonary metastatic hemangiosarcoma nodules are readily visible (numerous small white densities) in the thoracic radiograph of a dog presented for a penile hemangiosarcoma (left). At postmortem (right), the lungs are filled with large numbers of round maroon nodules comprised of metastatic hemangiosarcoma. A section of lung has been excised (center) to establish a hemangiosarcoma cell line from metastatic lesions (see Figure 3).

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 459! normally triggered by the malignant cells (Akhtar et al, 2004; Dickerson et al, 2004). Figure 2 shows an example of canine HSA-induced neovascularization in a corneal angiogenesis assay. Furthermore, using a canine HSA xenograft model in which HSA was transplanted into immunoincompetent mice, we demonstrated unambiguously the potential for IL-12 to suppress growth of canine HSA (Akhtar et al, 2004). Although there are, as yet, not many studies exploring a role for immune modulation in controlling HSA, it appears that such strategies may offer promise, especially when combined with other modalities.

antigenic determinants following vaccination with allogeneic canine HSA cell lysates in combination with liposome containing (non-coding) DNA complexes (LDC). The inclusion of LDC with the tumor cell lysate was intended as an adjuvant as LDC reportedly trigger enhanced immune responses in a variety of vaccine protocols (U'Ren et al, 2007). While the survival time of the treated dogs was not much different than animals given chemotherapy alone, the development of specific humoral immune responses to the HSA vaccine is a promising step in overcoming immune tolerance. Our laboratory has investigated the potential to develop interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an adjuvant therapy for canine HSA. This line of research evolved from our interest in exploiting the immunotherapeutic potential of IL-12 coupled with the discovery that IL-12 also mediates antiangiogenic activity. Interleukin-12 is a potent inducer of cell-mediated immune responses making it attractive as part of immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer. It is a potent inducer of interferon-!, which in turn stimulates production of interferon inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and the chemokine Mig (monokine induced by interferon-!), both of which mediate angiostatic activity. Since HSA cells likely share functional properties in common with neoangiogenic endothelium within tumors, i.e., mitotically active endothelial cells that form new blood vessels within the tumor microenvironment, agents that inhibit angiogenesis may also be of value in suppressing HSA growth. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo methods, we demonstrated that IL-12 could be targeted to adhesion molecules (i.e., "v#3 integrin) expressed by dividing endothelial cells comprising the neovasculature induced by canine HSA (and other tumor) cells. This in turn, resulted in marked suppression of vascular ingrowth

IV. Form provides clues to function We have just begun to scratch the surface in understanding the characteristics of the transformed cells that give rise to canine HSA. Learning more about them on a cellular and subcellular level will ultimately reveal clues as to where they may be vulnerable which in turn, will facilitate design of strategies that can lead to improved therapeutic outcomes. Information is gradually accruing relating to HSA cell dependency on external growth factors, expression of surface receptors that interact with the extracellular environment, signaling pathways, stem cells, and genetic abnormalities. A variety of contemporary research tools are helping with these discoveries, including cellular, molecular, protein, and genomic interrogation techniques. Table 2 shows a partial list of surface molecules reportedly expressed by canine HSA cells. Assuredly, more features of HSA cells will come to light as research progresses. Several of these have been the subjects of studies exploring unique therapeutic strategies.

Figure 2. Canine hemangiosarcoma cells are inducers of angiogenesis. In this corneal angiogenesis assay, a polyvinyl sponge containing canine hemangiosarcoma cells surgically placed into a corneal pocket of a BALB/c mouse elicited ingrowth of new blood vessels arising from the normal limbic vessel (bottom). After binding to receptors expressed on mature endothelial cells comprising the limbic vessel, proangiogenic proteins released by the hemangiosarcoma cells induce angiogenesis with arborized neovessels clearly homing towards the hemangiosarcoma cells, the source of the angiogenic stimulus. Details of this assay can be found in Dickerson et al (Dickerson et al, 2004).

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Helfand: Canine hemangiosarcoma: A tumor of contemporary interest Table 2. Surface molecules of potential interest in canine hemangiosarcoma. Molecule !v"3 integrin (adhesion molecule)! (Akhtar et al, 2004; Fosmire et al, 2004)! ICAM-1 (Thamm et al, 2006) c-kit (CD117) (Akhtar et al, 2004; Fosmire et al, 2004) VEGFRs (Akhtar et al, 2004) PDGFR (Helfand, unpublished) Galectin-3 (Johnson et al, 2007) CD34, CD133, c-kit (Lamerato-Kozicki et al, 2006) PTEN (cytoplasmic) (Dickerson et al, 2005)

Importance RGD targeting (cytokines, chemotherapy) Adhesion molecule Tyrosine kinase inhibition Tyrosine kinase inhibition, mAb target Tyrosine kinase inhibition Gal-3 inhibition (modified citrus pectin, lactulosyl-L-leucine) HSA stem cells Tumor suppressor protein

Another recent report by Lamerato-Kozicki and colleagues in 2006 was the first to clarify that a small subset (i.e., <1%) of canine HSA cells coexpress surface markers of hematopoietic stem cells (CD133, CD34, c-kit) with commitment to endothelial differentiation. This study lends credence to the idea that HSA is really a bone marrow derived malignancy with progenitor cells arising from lineage committed stem cells that circulate and eventually give rise to HSA in specific organs. The significance of this finding is not trivial because it implies that complete eradication of HSA in affected dogs will require elimination of these apparent HSA stem cells. Cancer stem cells have proven to be the most resilient and resistant to therapy and are capable of regenerating a tumor even from a residual microscopic tumor population. This may help to explain, in part, the poor results obtained with chemotherapy of HSA in the microscopic disease setting that is routine after splenectomy for a primary splenic HSA. Information regarding the HSA genome is gradually emerging as well, which may facilitate identification of numerous genes in tumor cells that are either over- or under-expressed compared to non-cancerous endothelial cells. The advent of genomics, sequencing of the entire canine genome, and commercially available canine gene chips that allow vast numbers of genes to be examined in microarrays, is beginning to reveal the complexity of canine HSA at the gene level. To this end, splenic HSAs from Golden retrievers, a breed at above average risk for developing this cancer, have recently been found to have a unique pattern of gene under expression (Dr. Jaime Modiano, personal communication 2008). It is tempting to wonder if some of these genes may actually code for tumor suppressor proteins that may have been silenced either as a consequence or as a cause of malignant transformation. The single case report of a dog with splenic HSA that was treated with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), that lived >1000 days post splenectomy, more

As mentioned earlier, the authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s laboratory investigated a novel approach targeting IL-12 to the adhesion molecule !v"3 integrin by molecular engineering of a fusion protein consisting of the peptide ligand for !v"3 integrin (RGD4C) combined with IL-12 (Dickerson et al, 2004). This strategy resulted in a vastly superior anti-antiangiogenic effect against neovascularization induced by canine HSA (and other tumor histologies) compared to that observed with untargeted IL-12. More importantly, IL-12 suppressed growth of canine HSA in a xenograft model, but the !v"3 integrin-targeted IL-12 was vastly more potent than untargeted IL-12 in suppressing the growth of tumors in a murine neuroblastoma model (Dickerson et al, 2004). Taken together, it would seem that there is merit in pursuing novel therapeutic constructs that target !v"3 integrin. An informative review of this concept was recently published describing benefits of targeting a variety of molecules capable of arresting tumor cell growth to !v"3 integrin including radioisotopes, TNF-!, doxorubicin, IL-12, and others (Temming et al, 2005). We are continuing to investigate this approach in our laboratory for canine HSA. Johnson and colleagues chose to explore targeting galectin-3 (Gal-3) they believed to be expressed on the surface of canine HSA cells (Johnson et al, 2007). Gal-3 is a member of a group of surface carbohydrate binding proteins, overexpressed in numerous human malignancies, and participates in a variety of cellular processes important to cancer including cell differentiation, cell-cell and extracellular matrix adhesions, metastasis, and apoptosis (Johnson et al, 2007). It also participates in angiogenesis providing a rationale to examine it as a target in canine HSA. The authors identified Gal-3 expression on naturally occurring canine HSA biopsies and showed that proliferation of a Gal-3 positive murine HSA cell line could be inhibited in vitro by Gal-3 inhibitors. Clearly, more needs to be done to determine if Gal-3 blockade can be developed as a meaningful therapy for canine HSA, but the novelty of this approach bears obvious consideration.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 461! strategies will continue to come forth. Most likely, progress will be the result of multimodality interventions as canine HSA has proven itself to be a stubborn foe.

than four times longer than most dogs with this malignancy, may possibly be explained on the basis of upregulation of silenced tumor suppressor genes by the SAHA treatment (Cohen et al, 2004). HDAC inhibitors are a class of new anticancer agents capable of inhibiting promiscuous histone deacetylation in cancer cells that results in gene silencing. There are alternative explanations for the favorable results in this case report, such as the potential for a good outcome regardless of treatment as this dogâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tumor was reported to be low grade (Thamm, 2005). There is continuing interest in developing HDAC inhibitors for canine HSA and the example of genomic investigation of canine HSA in Golden retrievers will be instructional in exploring the effects of HDAC inhibitors on HSA from a mechanistic perspective. Since we discovered transcripts in canine HSA cells that encode c-kit and VEGFR-1 and -2 as well as their respective ligands, stem cell factor and VEGF (Akhtar et al, 2004; Fosmire et al, 2004), we have been interested in examining the possibility that these cell surface receptors, members of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family, may be important players in this malignancy. Much has been written about RTKs and their role in various malignancies. Briefly, RTKs are at the interface of the cell and its extracellular environment and respond to external stimuli by triggering intracellular growth promoting pathways (London, 2004). In health, they are protooncogenes in which their activity is tightly regulated, but numerous transforming mutations have been reported in a variety of cancers in which they function as oncogenes. Indeed, many malignancies appear to be addicted to mutated tyrosine kinases as a means to promote their immortality. Activated RTKs (as well as cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), rely on phosphorylation of tyrosine residues for their activity (London, 2004). We are continuing to explore the role of certain RTKs in canine HSA and have found that PDGFR-!, an RTK important in endothelial differentiation and vascular development (Zhu, 2006), is expressed by canine HSA cells. Development of PDGFR-! antagonists is an active area of cancer research because of the potential to arrest neoangiogenesis in a broad range of cancers. In regards to HSA, this concept is entirely compatible with the idea that canine HSA is a malignancy of primitive endothelial cells (Fosmire et al, 2004). The ligand for PDGFR-! is PDGFBB and when stimulated by PDGF-BB, PDGFR-! is activated through phosphorylation of various tyrosine residues. Figure 3 shows a western blot illustrating activation (i.e., phosphorylation) of PDGFR-! in response to stimulation by exogenous PDGF-BB in a canine HSA cell line developed in the authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s laboratory. We are continuing to examine the importance of this pathway in canine HSA. It would seem that we are now finally able to begin to develop potentially meaningful therapeutic approaches based on specific information about the composition of HSA cells. The stage is set through the processes of discovery and innovation, for advancements that are likely to improve the prognosis for dogs with HSA. As more is revealed about the dysregulated processes driving canine HSA, it is likely that previously unimaginable treatment

Acknowledgments The author would like to thank numerous collaborators and colleagues for their contributions to various aspects of the hemangiosarcoma research summarized here including Drs. Erin Dickerson, Jaime Modiano (and his laboratory team), Nasim Akhtar, Robert Auerbach, Matthew Breen, John Wojcieszyn, Valerie MacDonald, and Michelle Turek. The author would also like to thank Marcia Padilla, Wade Edris, and Kevin Marley for their excellent contributions to some of the studies mentioned in this review. Support for studies from the Helfand laboratory came from the National Institutes of Health (R01 CA86264), Morris Animal Foundation (D03CA-71), AKC Canine Health Foundation (2025), Midwest Athletes Against Childhood Cancer, and the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine Companion Animal Fund.

Figure 3. Response of PDGFR-! to stimulation by PDGF-BB in a canine hemangiosarcoma cell line (Rio-HSA). Cell lysates from hemangiosarcoma cells (Rio-HSA) derived from a pulmonary hemangiosarcoma metastatic lesion in a dog (Figure 1) were examined by western blot analysis following overnight culture in serum starved medium without (0 min) or with PDGFBB (30 ng/ml) after 10 (middle lane) and 60 minutes (right lane) and probed with an antibody specific for canine PDGFR-! phosphotyrosine position 857 located in the kinase domain. The cellular response is normal in this line in that the cells were not autophosphorylated (time 0), but responded rapidly to PDGF-BB stimulation by phosphorylating tyrosine after 10 minutes with down regulation of the phosphotyrosine response by 60 minutes despite further stimulation. As a loading control, the blot was stripped and reprobed with an antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA) that recognizes total PDGFR-! regardless of phosphorylation status (bottom).

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Helfand: Canine hemangiosarcoma: A tumor of contemporary interest Efficacy and toxicity of a dose-intensified doxorubicin protocol in canine hemangiosarcoma. J Vet Intern Med 18, 209-213. Sorenmo KU, Jeglum KA, Helfand SC (1993) Chemotherapy of canine hemangiosarcoma with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. J Vet Intern Med 7, 370-376. Temming K, Schiffelers RM, Molema G, Kok RJ (2005) RGDbased strategies for selective delivery of therapeutics and imaging agents to the tumour vasculature. Drug Resist Updat 8, 381-402. Thamm DH (2005) SAHA and hemangiosarcoma: another view. Vet Comp Oncol 3, 101-101. Thamm DH, Dickerson EB, Akhtar N, Lewis R, Auerbach R, Helfand SC, MacEwen EG (2006) Biological and molecular characterization of a canine hemangiosarcoma-derived cell line. Res Vet Sci 81, 76-86. U'Ren LW, Biller BJ, Elmslie RE, Thamm DH, Dow SW (2007) Evaluation of a novel tumor vaccine in dogs with hemangiosarcoma. J Vet Intern Med 21, 113-120. Vail DM, MacEwen EG, Kurzman ID, Dubielzig RR, Helfand SC, Kisseberth WC, London CA, Obradovich JE, Madewell BR, Rodriguez C, Fidel J, Susaneck S, Rosenberg M (1995) Liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE) adjuvant immunotherapy for splenic hemangiosarcoma in the dog: a randomized multi-institutional clinical trial. Clin Cancer Res 1, 1165-1170. Wood CA, Moore AS, M GJ, Ablin LA, Berg RJ, Rand WM (1998) Prognosis for dogs with stage I or II splenic hemangiosarcoma treated by splenectomy alone: 32 cases (1991-1993). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 34, 417-421. Zhu Z (2006) PDGFR!: a multifaceted player in vascular and hematopoietic development. Blood 108, 1788-1789.

References Akhtar N, Padilla ML, Dickerson EB, Steinberg H, Breen M, Auerbach R, Helfand SC (2004) Interleukin-12 inhibits tumor growth in a novel angiogenesis canine hemangiosarcoma xenograft model. Neoplasia 6, 106-116. Cohen LA, Powers B, Amin S, Desai D (2004) Treatment of canine haemangiosarcoma with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Vet Comp Oncol 2, 243-248. Dickerson EB, Akhtar N, Steinberg H, Wang Z-Y, Lindstrom MJ, Padilla ML, Auerbach R, Helfand SC (2004) Enhancement of the antiangiogenic activity of interleukin-12 by peptide targeted delivery of the cytokine to avb3 integrin. Mol Cancer Res 2, 663-673. Dickerson EB, Thomas R, Fosmire SP, Lamerato-Kozicki AR, Bianco SR, Wojcieszyn JW, Breen M, Helfand SC, Modiano JF (2005) Mutations of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 in canine hemangiosarcoma. Vet Pathol 42, 618-632. Fosmire SP, Dickerson EB, Scott AM, Bianco SR, Pettengill MJ, Meylemans H, Padilla M, Frazer-Abel AA, Akhtar N, Getzy DM, Wojcieszyn J, Breen M, Helfand SC, Modiano JF (2004) Canine malignant hemangiosarcoma as a model of primitive angiogenic endothelium. Lab Invest 84, 562-572. Hammer AS, Couto CG, Filppi J, Getzy D, Shank K (1991) Efficacy and toxicity of VAC chemotherapy (vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide) in dogs with hemangiosarcoma. J Vet Intern Med 5, 160-166. Johnson KD, Glinskii OV, Mossine VV, Turk JR, Mawhinney TP, Anthony DC, Henry CJ, Huxley VH, Glinsky GV, Pienta KJ, Raz A, Glinsky VV (2007) Galectin-3 as a potential therapeutic target in tumors arising from malignant endothelia. Neoplasia 9, 662-670. Lamerato-Kozicki A, R, Helm KM, Jubala CM, Cutter GC, Modiano JF (2006) Canine hemangiosarcoma originates from hematopoietic precursors with potential for endothelial differentiation. Exp Hematol 34, 870-878. Lana S, U'ren L, Plaza S, Elmslie R, Gustafson D, Morley P, Dow S (2007) Continuous low-dose oral chemotherapy for adjuvant therapy of splenic hemangiosarcoma in dogs. J Vet Intern Med 21, 764-769. London C (2004) Kinase inhibitors in cancer therapy. Vet Comp Oncol 2, 177-193. Ogilvie GK, Powers BE, Mallinckrodt CH, Withrow SJ (1996) Surgery and doxorubicin in dogs with hemangiosarcoma. J Vet Intern Med 10, 379-384. Sorenmo K, Duda L, Barber L, Cronin K, Sammarco C, Usborne A, Goldschmidt M, Shofer F (2000) Canine hemangiosarcoma treated with standard chemotherapy and minocycline. J Vet Intern Med 14, 395-398. Sorenmo K, Samluk M, Clifford C, Baez J, Barrett JS, Poppenga R, Overley B, Skorupski K, Oberthaler K, Van Winkle T, Seiler G, Shofer F (2007) Clinical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of intracavitary administration of pegylated liposomal encapsulated doxorubicin in dogs with splenic hemangiosarcoma. J Vet Intern Med 21, 1347-1354. Sorenmo KU, Baez JL, Clifford CA, Mauldin E, Overley B, Skorupski K, Bachman R, Samluk M, Shofer F (2004)

Stuart C. Helfand

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 463! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 463-476, 2008

Early breast cancer: A review Review Article

Kyriakos Kalogerakos1,*, Chrisostomos Sofoudis1, Nikolaos Baltayiannis2 1 2

Breast Unit Metaxa Cancer Hospital, Piraeus Greece Department of Thoracic Surgery Metaxa Cancer Hospital, Piraeus, Greece.

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Kyriakos Kalogerakos, Metaxa Cancer Hospital, 51 Botasi, Piraeus, Greece; e-mail: ageliki@diagoras-travel.gr Key words: Early breast cancer, early breast cancer diagnosis, early breast cancer treatment, minimally invasive procedures Abbreviations: 5-fluorouracil, adriamycine, cyclophosphamide, (FAC); 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, (FEC); Advanced Breast Biopsy Instrumentation system, (ABBI); American Joint Committee on Cancer, (AJCC); American Society of Clinical Oncology, (ASCO); Aromatase inhibitors, (AIs) axillary lymph node dissection, (ALND); Axillary lymph node dissection, (ALND); breast conserving surgery, (BCS); breast conserving therapy, (BCT); clinical breast examination, (CBE); cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5fluorouracil , (CMF); ductal carcinoma in situ, (DCIS); Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group, (EBCTCG); estrogen receptor, (ER); extensive intraductal carcinoma, (EIC); fine needle aspiration, (FNA); Focused Ultrasound Ablation, (FUA); Food and Drug Administration, (FDA); Magnetic resonance imaging, (MRI); Minimally Invasive Breast Biopsy, (MIBB); progesterone receptor, (PR); radiationtherapy, (RT); Radiofrequency Ablation, (RFA); selective estrogen receptor modulator, (SERM); sentinel lymph node biopsy, (SLNB); sentinellymph node, (SLN); tumor, nodal, metastasis, (TNM) Received: 2 July 2008; Revised: 4 August 2008 Accepted: 21 August 2008; electronically published: September 2008

Summary Breast cancer remains a common disease throughout the world. The prognosis of early breast cancer is generally favorable. Especially, ductal carcinoma in situ has been regarded as a non-life-threatening disease. Therefore, early diagnosis and early onset of the treatment has been important. Early age at menarche, late age at first birth and late age at menopause are related to breast cancer risk. Examination by mammography and ultrasonography is still the most effective means of detection for premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. Additionally, there have been important advances in MRI, sentinel lymph node biopsy, breast-conserving surgery, partial breast irradiation, neoadjuvant systemic therapy and adjuvant systemic therapy. Another approach is to treat primary tumors without surgery. For this purpose, several new minimally invasive procedures, including radiofrequency ablation, interstitial laser ablation, focused ultrasound ablation and cryotherapy, are currently under development and may offer effective tumor management and provide treatment options that are psychologically and cosmetically more acceptable to the patients than are traditional surgical therapies. Here we review new knowledge about early breast cancer the last years.

(Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit (WCISU), 2004; Office for National Statistics, 2005). One-third of new breast cancer cases are aged 70 years or over. The likelihood of diagnosis increases with age, doubling about every 10 years until the menopause, when the rate of increase slows dramatically (Quinn et al, 2001, Mcpherson et al, 2000). In Greece the incidence is more than 3000 per year and the annual increase over the last 20 years has been 1.3 %. The disease is unusual before the age of 40, but increases rapidly thereafter. Although the incidence of breast cancer has been increasing in Greece its mortality rate has been decreasing. This decline in mortality could be due to widespread use of mammography, advances in evaluation techniques and

I. Introduction Breast cancer continues to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in the United States, accounting for 26% of all female cancers (Jemal et al, 2006). In 2007, approximately 178, 480 women and 2, 030 men will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and 40, 460 women and 480 men will die from the disease (Ries et al, 1975-2000; American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2004 and 2005). Additional breast cancer is the most common cancer amongst women in England and Wales: 38, 651 women were diagnosed as having breast cancer in 2003. The most common age at diagnosis was between 55 and 59 years, although the median age was between 60 and 64 years

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Kalogerakos et al: Early breast cancer: A review With stage 0, the cancer is non-invasive, meaning it has not spread to surrounding normal tissue (sometimes called carcinoma !"#$!%&). In stage I cancer, the tumor is two centimeters in size or smaller and has not spread outside the breast. And, in stage II, either: !!There is no tumor in the breast, but cancer is found in the axillary lymph nodes (nodes under the arms); or, !!The tumor is two centimeters or smaller and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes; or, !!The tumor is two-to-five centimeters and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes; or, !!The tumor is larger than five centimeters and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes or, !!The number of lymph nodes involved with cancer is not more than three (Table 1).

effective adjuvant treatment. Despite this, approximately 1600 patients die from breast cancer every year in Greece. TNM stages I, II and IIIA are the "early" stages of invasive carcinoma and most of these tumors are traditionally considered operable. More than 90% of breast cancer diagnoses are made early in the disease. Early-stage breast cancer is potentially curable with surgery, radiation therapy and systemic therapy (Mirshahidi and Abraham, 2004). In patients with early breast cancer who receive appropriate treatment, 5-year survival rates are in excess of 75%. This article is a review for early-stage breast cancer.

II. Definition The term "early breast cancer" refers to breast cancer in stages 0, I and II at the time of diagnosis (AJCC, 2002). Table 1. TNM classification Primary tumor (T).

TX-Primary tumor cannot be assessed T0-No evidence of primary tumor Tis-Carcinoma in situ !! Tis (DCIS)-Intraductal carcinoma in situ !! Tis (LCIS)-Lobular carcinoma in situ !! Tis (Paget's)-Paget's disease of the nipple with no tumor; tumor-associated Paget's disease is classified according to the size of the primary tumor T1-Tumor 2 cm or less in greatest dimension !! T1mic-Microinvasion 0.1 cm or less in greatest dimension !! T1a-Tumor more than 0.1 but not more than 0.5 cm in greatest dimension !! T1b-Tumor more than 0.5 cm but not more than 1 cm in greatest dimension !! T1c-Tumor more than 1 cm but not more than 2 cm in greatest dimension T2-Tumor more than 2 cm but not more than 5 cm in greatest dimension T3-Tumor more than 5 cm in greatest dimension T4-Tumor of any size with direct extension to (a) chest wall or (b) skin, only as described below: !! T4a-Extension to chest wall !! T4b-Edema (including peau d'orange) or ulceration of the breast skin, or satellite skin nodules confined to the same breast !! T4c-Both (T4a and T4b) !! T4d-Inflammatory carcinoma Note: Dimpling of the skin, nipple retraction, or any other skin change except those described for T4b and T4d may occur in T1-3 tumors without changing the classification. Regional lymph nodes (N): Clinical classification NX-Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed (eg, previously removed) N0-No regional lymph node metastases N1-Metastasis to movable ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes(s) N2-Metastasis to ipsilateral axillary lymph node(s) fixed or matted, or in clinically apparent ipsilateral internal mammary nodes in the absence of evident axillary node metastases !! N2a-Metastasis to ipsilateral axillary lymph node(s) fixed to one another (matted) or to other structures !! N2b-Metastasis only in clinically apparent (as detected by imaging studies [excluding lymphoscintigraphy] or by clinical examination or grossly visible pathologically) ipsilateral internal mammary nodes in the absence of evident axillary node metastases N3-Metastasis to ipsilateral infraclavicular lymph node(s) with or without clinically evident axillary lymph nodes, or in clinically apparent ipsilateral internal mammary lymph node(s) and in the presence of clinically evident axillary lymph node metastases, or metastasis in ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph nodes with or without axillary or internal mammary nodal involvement !! N3a-Metastasis to ipsilateral infraclavicular lymph node(s) !! N3b-Metastasis to ipsilateral internal mammary lymph node(s) and clinically apparent axillary lymph nodes !! N3c-Metastasis in ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph nodes with or without axillary or internal 464


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 465! mammary nodal involvement Regional lymph nodes: Pathologic classification (pN)-Classification is based upon axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) with or without sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND). Classification based solely on SLND without ALND should be designated (sn) [eg, pN0 (i +) (sn)). pNX-Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed (eg, previously removed, or not removed for pathologic study) pN0-No regional lymph node metastasis; no additional examination for isolated tumor cells (ITCs, defined as single tumor cells or small clusters not greater than 0.2 mm, usually detected only by immunohistochemical or molecular methods but which may be verified on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains. ITCs do not usually show evidence of malignant activity [eg, proliferation or stromal reaction]) !! pN0 (i -)-No histologic nodal metastases and negative by immunohistochemistry (IHC) !! pN0 (i +)-No histologic nodal metastases but positive by IHC, with no cluster greater than 0.2 mm in diameter !! pN0 (mol -)-No histologic nodal metastases and negative molecular findings (by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR) !! pN0 (mol +)-No histologic nodal metastases, but positive molecular findings (by RT-PCR) pN1-Metastasis in 1 to 3 ipsilateral axillary lymph node(s) and/or in internal mammary nodes with microscopic disease detected by SLND but not clinically apparent !! pN1mi-Micrometastasis (greater than 0.2 mm, none greater than 2.0 mm) !! pN1a-Metastasis in 1 to 3 axillary lymph nodes !! pN1b-Metastasis to internal mammary lymph nodes with microscopic disease detected by SLND but not clinically apparent !! pN1c-Metastasis in 1 to 3 ipsilateral axillary lymph node(s) and in internal mammary nodes with microscopic disease detected by SLND but not clinically apparent. If associated with more than 3 positive axillary nodes, the internal mammary nodes are classified as N3b to reflect increased tumor burden. pN2-Metastasis in 4 to 9 axillary lymph nodes or in clinically apparent internal mammary lymph nodes in the absence of axillary lymph nodes !! pN2a-Metastases in 4 to 9 axillary lymph nodes (at least one tumor deposit >2 mm) !! pN2b-Metastasis in clinically apparent internal mammary lymph nodes in the absence of axillary lymph nodes pN3-Metastasis in 10 or more axillary lymph nodes, or in infraclavicular lymph nodes, or in clinically apparent ipsilateral internal mammary lymph nodes in the presence of one or more positive axillary nodes; or in more than three axillary lymph nodes with clinically negative microscopic metastasis in internal mammary lymph nodes; or in ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node(s) !! pN3a-Metastasis in 10 or more axillary lymph nodes (at least one tumor deposit greater than 2.0 mm), or metastasis to the infraclavicular lymph nodes !! pN3b-Metastasis in clinically apparent ipsilateral internal mammary lymph nodes in the presence of one or more positive axillary nodes; or in more than three axillary lymph nodes with microscopic metastasis in internal mammary lymph nodes detected by SLND but not clinically apparent !! pN3c-Metastasis in ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node(s) Distant metastasis (M) MX-Distant metastasis cannot be assessed M0-No distant metastasis M1-Distant metastasis STAGE GROUPINGS Stage 0-Tis N0 M0 Stage I-T1 N0 M0 (including T1mic) Stage IIA-T0 N1 M0; T1 N1 M0 (including T1mic); T2 N0 M0 Stage IIB-T2 N1 M0; T3 N0 M0 Stage IIIA-T0 N2 M0; T1 N2 M0 (including T1mic); T2 N2 M0; T3 N1 M0; T3 N2 M0 Stage IIIB-T4 Any N M0 Stage IIIC-Any T N3 M0 Stage IV-Any T Any N M1

diagnosis, the more likely that a genetic component may be involved. About 5-10% of breast cancer is thought to be linked to changes (mutations)in certain genes. The most common are those of the BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes. Women with mutations in BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 have a high risk of

III. Risk factors Women with a family history of breast cancer should obtain as much information as possible about those relatives, including age at onset and type of cancer. The risk of breast cancer development related to family history increases with the number of affected relatives, specific lineage and age at diagnosis. The younger the age at 465


Kalogerakos et al: Early breast cancer: A review is an additional tool to further define abnormalities detected on CBE or mammography (Figure 1). Several studies have reported that mammographic screening reduces breast cancer mortality by 23% (Vachon et al, 2007). Digital mammography employs detection software that can highlight suspicious lesions in the breast not initially seen by a radiologist. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended as a screening tool for women who have a 20%-25% or greater increased lifetime risk of breast cancer. That includes women with a strong family history of breast cancer and women who are survivors of a previous malignancy that was treated with chest radiation therapy (Kaiser et al, 2008). MRI is not routinely indicated for women with a personal history of breast cancer, despite a 5%-10% increase in risk of a second primary cancer in the first 10 years after diagnosis, as the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy significantly decreases overall risk to less than 5% (Hazard and Hansen, 2007).

developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer and several other types of cancer during their lifetimes. However, most cases of breast cancer occur “by chance”. The causes are still unknown, but there is probably a combination of factors including lifestyle factors, environmental factors and hormone factors. A list of several risk factors for breast cancer are shown in Table 2 (Mcpherson et al, 2000; Ceschi et al, 2007; Evans and Howell, 2007; Kiley and Hammond, 2007; Pruthi et al, 2007; Vitiello et al, 2007).

IV. Diagnosis Early breast cancer does not usually cause pain. When the cancer grows, it causes changes in the size or shape of the breast: a lump or thickening may be noticeable. In advanced cases the tumour can show signs of ulceration of the skin and fixation to the chest wall and in the worst cases large lymph nodes may be present (Reeder, 2007; Albrand and Terret, 2008; Rolz-Cruz and Kim, 2008). If any of these symptoms appears a proper investigation should be initiated. The “triple diagnosis” includes clinical examination, mammography and/or ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration for cytology or coreneedle biopsy for histopathological examination (Soares and Johnson, 2007). Mammography provides radiographic images of the breasts with at least two sets of images, the mediolateral oblique and cranial-caudal views. It remains the most reliable and widely used method of breast cancer screening. Radiation exposure to the breast and surrounding structures is limited to one rad per breast when performed with a modern mammography unit. Ultrasonography, another imaging tool, uses sound waves that pass through a gel-covered skin probe to determine whether nodules or densities found on a mammogram or physical examination are solid or cystic. The benefit of total breast ultrasound continues to be studied and it is not considered a replacement for screening mammography but

Table 2. Risk factors for breast cancer Elderly Developed country Age at menarche before 11years Age at menopause after 54 years Age at first full pregnancy in early 40s Family history Previous benign disease (atypical hyperplasia) Cancer in the other breast Diet with high intake of saturated fat Body mass index >35 Alcohol consumption (excessive intake) Exposure to ionising radiation Oral contraceptives Hormone replacement therapy Diethylstilbestrol (during pregnancy)

Figure 1. Mammography: Early cancer of the left breast.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 467! Today a growing number of breast lesions, visible on MRI only, are being detected, posing diagnostic difficulties. Since the development of so-called “breast biopsy coils” MRI-guided percutaneous large-core or vacuum-assisted needle biopsy has become available in some selected centers with success (Perlet et al, 2006).

V. Minimal invasive diagnosis For a long time, open surgical breast biopsy after needlewire localization was considered to be the standard diagnostic procedure for nonpalpable lesions. But now the international guidelines state that at least 90% of breast cancer patients should have received a diagnosis of malignancy before entering the operating room (Mastology EESo. EUSOMA Guidelines. 2005, 2006). Several different percutaneous biopsy techniques are applied to obtain material of nonpalpable lesions: fine needle aspiration (FNA), large-core needle biopsy and vacuumassisted needle biopsy. FNA is a well-established tool for the evaluation of palpable breast lumps but it can’t to distinguish between invasive and in situ cancer and frequently we take inadequate sampling and we have false-negative rates (Wells, 1995). These problems with the application of FNA have led to the introduction of large-core needle biopsy for the diagnosis of nonpalpable breast lesions. Large-core needle biopsy is less operator-dependent than FNA. It allows identification of an invasive component additional it facilitates the assessment of tumor grade and provides sufficient material for additional immunochemistry staining. Diagnostic accuracy of large-core needle biopsy is high 93-99%, whereas falsepositive results are extremely rare (Verkooijen, 2002). However, in some cases, the severity of the disease is underestimated. In up to 40%-50% of needle biopsies containing high-risk lesions these are underestimated. In an attempt to reduce disease underestimate rates, vacuum-assisted breast biopsy was introduced in 1995. With this technique, tissue samples are acquired by using a single insertion of a probe (11-gauge) and vacuum suction to retrieve core specimens. Several studies have showed that vacuum-assisted needle biopsy can reduce the high-risk and some advocate vacuum-assisted needle biopsy (Kettritz et al, 2004). Ultrasound guidance is the technique of first choice for percutaneous biopsy and can be applied for image guidance of FNA, large-core needle biopsy and vacuumassisted needle biopsy. But some nonpalpable lesions cannot be identified by ultrasound. For these types of lesions, stereotaxis is used. With stereotactic imaging, two digital images of the targeted lesion are taken at +15o and -15o from the central axis. This allows precise calculation of the coordinates of the lesion. With this information, a biopsy needle can be inserted into the lesion and while the biopsies are being harvested, repeat stereotactic images can be taken to confirm the position of the needle. Stereotactic image guidance can be provided either by add-on devices, which are attached to standard mammography units, or dedicated prone biopsy tables. With the latter, the patient is positioned in the prone position on a biopsy table while her affected breast passes through an opening in the table (Vlastos and Verkooijen, 2007).

VI. Staging The TNM staging system was designed to be a useful instrument in determining the prognosis of cancer patients and in planning their treatment. The system is derived from tumour size (T), lymph node status (N) and distant metastasis (M). Clinical stage is based on all information, including physical examination and imaging before surgery. Pathological staging (pTNM) adds additional information gained by examination of the tumour microscopically by a pathologist.

A. Definition of pTNM 1. Primary tumour (T) Tx, primary tumour cannot be assessed; T0, no evidence of primary tumour; Tis, carcinoma in situ or Paget disease of the nipple; T1, tumour 20 mm or less; T2, tumour more than 20 mm but nor more than 50 mm; T3, tumour more than 50 mm; T4, tumour of any size with direct extension to chest wall or skin, or inflammatory breast cancer.

2. Regional lymph nodes N0, no node metastasis (includes cases with only isolated tumour cells, or small clusters of cells, not more than 0.2 mm); N1mi, micrometastasis (larger than 0.2 mm, but none larger than 2 mm); N1, metastasis in 1-3 ipsilateral axillary node(s) and/or in ipsilateral internal mammary nodes with microscopic metastasis detected by sentinel lymph node dissection but not clinically apparent; N2 metastasis in 4-9 ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes or in clinically apparent internal mammary lymph node(s); N3, metastasis in 10 or more ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes, or in infra- or supraclavicular lymph nodes, or in both ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes and clinically apparent ipsilateral internal mammary lymph nodes. 13.

3. Distant metastasis (M) M0, no distant metastasis; M1, presence of distant metastasis (AJCC, 2002; Singletary et al, 2002, Woodward et al, 2003) (Table 1).

B. Treatment 1. Surgical therapy Breast cancer surgery has changed dramatically over the past 20 years. With the emergence of breast conserving therapy (BCT), many women now have the option of preserving a cosmetically acceptable breast without sacrificing survival (Veronesi et al, 2002). BCT refers to surgical removal of the tumor without removing excessive amounts of normal breast tissue. The aim of BCT are to provide a cancer operation equivalent to mastectomy and a cosmetically acceptable breast, with a low rate of recurrence in the treated breast (Veronesi et al, 467


Kalogerakos et al: Early breast cancer: A review Absolute contraindications include pregnancy (first or second trimester), diffuse suspicious calcifications, previous radiation to the region and inability to achieve negative margins (particularly with EIC-extensive intraductal carcinoma). Relative contraindications include two or more gross tumors (multicentric disease) in different quadrants, tumor greater than 5 cm initially or after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, large tumorbreast ratio for cosmesis and collagen vascular disease (Daniel et al, 2008). Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s truth that breast conserving surgery is not an option for all women. If the tumour is ! 4cm, multifocal or if radiotherapy has to be avoided, mastectomy is the method of choice. Regardless of the method used, an axillary lymph node dissection is always mandatory. The reason for this is that we know from several studies that the axillary lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor for recurrence and survival (Moore and Kinne, 1997; Orr, 1999). Two different operations of the axilla can be preformed. Traditional axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy (Figure 2). The former has been the standard procedure for a long time with additional side effects such as sensory disturbances, lymphedema, pain, seroma formation, poorer cosmetics and infections (Sener et al, 2001; Blanchard et al, 2003; Reitsamer et al, 2003). The sentinel node biopsy is by definition the first lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a tumour. Today, the technique is considered to be standard procedure (Bergqvist et al, 2008).

1990; Fisher et al, 2002). All of the available data, including six randomized trials directly comparing BCT with mastectomy and an overview of completed trials, show equivalent survival with BCT as compared to mastectomy (Early Breast Cancer Trialistsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Collaborative Group, 2000). The critical obstacle to widespread acceptance and utilization of BCT is the risk of in-breast recurrence. Most doctors advise against BCT and instead recommend mastectomy if they estimate the risk of in breast recurrence to be >10 to 15 percent over the succeeding 5 to 10 years, even after surgery and radiation. BCT provides an acceptable alternative to mastectomy for many, but is applicable to only 60 to 75 % of newly diagnosed women. The last years a growing number of women with early-stage breast cancer seem to be choosing to have the whole breast removed instead of just the cancerous lump, doctors are reporting. Now, a study of about 5, 500 women at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., shows that mastectomies are on the rise (The Associated press, 2008). The study was released Thursday 05.15.2008 by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and will be presented at the group's annual meeting later this month. In the Mayo Clinic study, about 45 percent of breastcancer patients chose mastectomies in 1997. That declined to 30 percent in 2003, then started to rise. By 2006, 43 percent were opting for the more radical treatment (www.azstarnet.com, 05.16.2008). There are very few contraindications to BCT. For most women, the choice of BCT versus mastectomy can be a matter of personal preference.

Figure 2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is standard care for patients with early-stage breast cancer.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 469! The procedure was well-tolerated under local anesthesia and sedation but the investigators don’t proposed the RAF as an alternative to open surgery because the patients have residual disease after application of the intervention (Jeffrey et al, 1999; Singletary et al, 2002; Hayashi et al, 2003; Fornage et al, 2004).

2. Minimally invasive procedures Today breast conservation therapy has become the treatment standard for early-stage breast cancer patients and sentinel lymph node biopsy allows prediction of axillary lymph node status without the need for axillary lymph node dissection (Sener et al, 2001; Blanchard et al, 2003; Reitsamer et al, 2003; Albrand and Terret, 2008; Bergqvist et al, 2008; Doughty, 2008). The next challenge is to treat the primary tumor without open surgery but with minimally invasive procedures. Percutaneous tumor excision, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), interstitial laser ablation, focused ultrasound ablation (FUS) and cryotherapy provide interesting alternatives to open breast surgery.

5. Focused Ultrasound Ablation Thermal tumor ablation has also been evaluated using FUS. After localization of the tumor within the breast, ultrasound can be focused and rapidly generate a substantial increase in local temperatures of up to 90°C by converting acoustic energy into heat. FUS ablation heats the tumor and causes cell damage and tumor death (Chen et al, 1999). FUS is based on a 1.5-MHz ultrasound source. Tumor ablation is monitored through temperature probes and skin monitors. Duration of FUS ablation is usually 10 minutes. The major advantage of FUS over other ablative techniques is that no skin incisions are needed. However, tumors close to the skin may be treated with less success and with such adverse effects as skin burns.

3. Percutaneous Stereotactic Excision Percutaneous stereotactic biopsy techniques have been used as a treatment option for excision of benign and malignant breast lesions (Fine et al, 2003). Stereotactic biopsy systems, including the Advanced Breast Biopsy Instrumentation (ABBI) system (U.S. Surgical, Norwalk, CT, http://www. ussurgical.com), other vacuum-assisted core-sampling devices such as the Mammotome (Ethicon, Cornelia, GA, http://www.ethicon.com) and the Minimally Invasive Breast Biopsy (MIBB; U.S. Surgical Corporation), were developed and subsequently used in a percutaneous excisional purpose; although the patients who treated with these approaches were highly selected and conclusions cannot be applied to all breast cancer patients.

6. Laser Ablation Another technique currently being investigated for local treatment of breast cancer is laser ablation. Laser ablation is a technique that generates heat and subsequently causes cell death and tumor destruction. Laser energy is delivered directly to the target tumor through a fiberoptic probe inserted under imaging guidance. Several laser types have been evaluated and used for thermal ablation: the Nd:YAG laser (1064 d, 1, 320 nm), semiconductor diode laser (805 nID) and argon laser (488 and 514 nID). Laser type 805 nID was used more because it is a portable device and may be applied in tumors through special needles. Laser ablation consists in delivering 2-2.5 W in 500 s (>1, 000 J for each fiber) on the tumor. The size of tumor destruction can be increased with the use of several fibers. Laser treatments may be performed under imaging guidance (mammography, ultrasound, or MRI). A target temperature of 80°C-100°C is generated during 1520 minutes to obtain tumor ablation. Laser ablation for the treatment of early-stage breast cancer has not been studied extensively, but some have shown that small tumors can be ablated with negative margins (Mumtaz et al, 1996). After technical improvements, the success rate for complete tumor ablation rose to 93% (Harms, 2001).

4. Radiofrequency Ablation Radiofrequency ablation has been used successfully for the treatment of primary or metastatic tumors of numerous organs, such as liver, lungs, bones, central nervous system, pancreas, kidneys, or prostate Radiofrequency Ablation destroys the tumor with heat (Arciero and Sigurdson, 2008, Lehman and Landman, 2008; Steinke, 2008; White and D'Amico, 2008). A radiofrequency probe (15-gauge) with RFA electrodes is inserted in the tumor and an alternating highfrequency electric current (400-500 kHz) is administered. The heat that is generated affects the cell membrane’s fluidity and the cytoskeleton proteins and finally acts on the nuclear structure, resulting in the interruption of cell replication. This finally leads to irreversible tumor destruction, as tumor cells are more susceptible to heat than are normal cells. The RFAtargeted tumor volume depends on applied tension (up to 200 W). Under imaging guidance, the RFA probe is inserted into the center of the lesion and a star-like array of electrodes is deployed from the tip of the probe. At least 5 minutes are necessary to gradually reach the target temperature (95°C). This temperature is maintained for 15 minutes to achieve complete ablation and is followed by a 1-minute cool-down period. Temperature is monitored during the entire procedure by sensors (van Esser et al, 2007). Several studies evaluated the use of RFA ablation in the treatment of breast cancer.

7. Cryotherapy Cryotherapy was initially developed and used in the treatment of nonoperable liver metastases from colorectal cancers. Cryotherapy uses coldness to achieve tumor destruction (Whitworth and Rewcastle, 2005). Energy is produced by an external generator composed of an argon or nitrogen freezing system and a helium heating system. Cryosurgery involves the use of a freezing probe linked to the generator. Several probes (up to seven) can be used simultaneously to treat larger tumors, as thermal conduction increases the volume of cooled tissue. The 469


Kalogerakos et al: Early breast cancer: A review to others and need not take special precautions with clothes, urine, or stool. Typical side effects include skin reactions ranging from mild redness, dryness and itching to less frequent moist desquamation, ulceration and infection. All usually heal well after treatment. The patient may also experience occasional mild shooting pains in the treated breast and axilla, as well as some fatigue, which is not usually related to low blood counts. There is a low but long-term risk of scarring or fibrosis (eg, fat necrosis) of the treated breast and tumor bed, alteration of breast symmetry and hyperpigmentation, telangiectasias, or altered skin texture (Kissinet al, 1986, Meric et al, 2002). Adding radiotherapy after surgery increases the risk of lymphedema-especially following axillary lymph node dissection (18%) as opposed to sentinel lymph node dissection (10%)-and decreased range of motion of the ipsilateral upper extremity (Meric et al, 2002). Other potential side effects, such as neuropathy, plexopathy, radiation pneumonitis, rib fracture, cardiac events and mortality in women with left breast cancer and risk of secondary primary malignancies, all average less than 1%. There is no correlation to risk of contralateral breast cancer (Bartelink et al, 2001; Recht et al, 2001). In spite of the data and excellent tolerability of treatment, more than 40% of women with early-stage breast cancer still opt for mastectomy, despite long-term local recurrence and survival rates comparable with those for BCT. Up to 25% of women who undergo lumpectomy do not proceed to radiation therapy (Recht et al, 2001). According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guidelines postoperative radiotherapy after mastectomy, is recommended to patients with tumours >5cm regardless of lymph node status and to patients with four or more positive lymph nodes (Recht et al, 2001). This recommendation is some what controversial, as two Danish randomised studies have shown a survival benefit from radiotherapy in patients with tumours <5cm and one-three positive lymph nodes (Overgaard et al, 1999).

probe is inserted in the center of the tumor under imaging guidance (ultrasound or MRI) through a tiny incision. Once the probe is positioned correctly, an iceball is created at the needle tip. This iceball destroys the tumor as well as 5-10 mm of additional breast tissue surrounding the lesion. During each freeze cycle, temperatures from -185째C to -70째C are obtained and constantly monitored (Staren et al, 1997; Sabel et al, 2004; Vlastos et al. 2004). Currently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved cryotherapy without resection as a treatment option for core biopsyproven fibroadenomas. For early-stage breast cancer (tumors less than 10-15 mm), cryotherapy is promising, as this technique can be realized under local anesthesia (Bouchardy et al, 2003; Caleffi et al, 2004).

8. Radiotherapy after surgery Postoperative radiotherapy is known to substantially reduce the risk of locoregional recurrence and improve breast cancer mortality, both when given after mastectomy and after breast-conserving surgery (EBTCG, 2005). The meta-analysis by the EBCTCG included a total of 7300 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery +/- postoperative radiotherapy towards the remaining breast. The locoregional recurrence rate after 5 years was 7% versus 26% (reduction 19%) and 15 years breast cancer mortality risks 30.5% versus 35.9% (reduction 5.4%) (EBTCG, 2005). Patients have many fears in anticipating the radiation experience. Fortunately for patients having BCT, the treatment course is usually well tolerated and produces limited side effects. Of note, if systemic chemotherapy is indicated, it will usually be completed before the initiation of radiotherapy because there is no negative impact on local control or disease-free survival and the chemotherapy may benefit overall survival (Whelan et al, 2002). Doses of 45 to 50 Gray (Gy) are typically given to the whole breast, in daily, Monday-to-Friday fractions of 180 to 200 centiGray (cGy), over a 5-week period, followed by a tumor bed boost of an additional 10 to 16 Gy over 1 to 2 weeks (Shelley et al, 2000; Owenet al, 2006). Pathologic nodal status will determine whether regional nodal groups also require concomitant adjuvant radiotherapy in doses that are similar to those given to the whole breast. In discussing treatment with the patient, the clinician should explain that treatments are typically given on a linear accelerator and that there will be a treatment planning session or simulation of about an hour before the start, which will define the treatment fields and mark the skin. Total daily treatment time usually averages 15 to 20 minutes. The treatments are not painful and the radiation cannot be seen or felt. Radiotherapy is a local treatment that works only where the beams are pointed. Breast irradiation will not cause hair loss of the scalp, nausea, or lowered immunity and it should not harm the heart, lungs, or spinal cord. Reassure the patient that she will not be radioactive, does not need to monitor physical proximity

9. Adjuvant chemotherapy Adjuvant systemic therapy refers to the administration of chemotherapy, hormone therapy and/or trastuzumab (a monoclonal antibody directed against HER2) following primary surgery for early breast cancer. The purpose is to eliminate or delay the subsequent appearance of clinically occult micrometastases, thought to account for distant treatment failures in women undergoing local therapy alone. A major determinant of the choice of adjuvant therapy is whether an individual breast cancer expresses estrogen (ER) or progesterone (PR) receptors. Hormone therapy benefits patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, but not those with hormone receptornegative disease (Berry et al, 2005). The use of adjuvant chemotherapy was first introduced in the mid-1970s.Two prospective randomised trials in patients with node positive patients showed

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 471! et al, 2006). Compared to women who did not receive chemotherapy, those who received it were significantly more likely to visit emergency rooms for all causes (61 versus 42 percent) and for chemotherapy-related serious adverse effects (16 versus 5 percent). The percentages of chemotherapy recipients who were hospitalized or visited the emergency room during the year after their breast cancer diagnosis were: fever or infection 8.4 %, neutropenia or thrombocytopenia 5.5 %, dehydration or electrolyte disorders 2.5 %, nausea, emesis, or diarrhea 2.4 %, anemia 2.2 %, constitutional symptoms 2 %, deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolus 1.2 % and malnutrition 0.9 %. These data suggest that the risks of chemotherapyrelated side effects in populations of breast cancer patients may be higher than those reported from large clinical trials, due in part to the intense monitoring and supportive care that patients receive in clinical trials.

promising results in terms of delayed tumour recurrence (Fisher et al, 1975). Despite the fact that both studies had very short follow-up times (18 and 27 months, respectively) adjuvant chemotherapy was considered the treatment of choice for many women in most developed countries. The original regimen used was cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil (CMF). Thereafter, many other regimes have been used. According to the meta-analysis by EBCTCG, adjuvant poly chemotherapy, consisting of either CMF, 5fluorouracil, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide (FAC) or 5fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide (FEC), reduces both recurrence and mortality from breast cancer (Bonadonna et al, 1976). The absolute reduction in breast cancer mortality for women <50 years was 10% and for women aged 50-69 3%. When CMF-based poly chemotherapy was compared with anthracycline-based there was a moderate but significant advantage for anthracyclines, especially in women <50 years (Singal and Iliskovic, 1998). Adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the annual breast cancer death in both node negative and node positive patients. The absolute improvement in 15-years survival is 5% (intention to treat 20) for node negative and 15% for node positive patients. Hence, overtreatment with systemic chemotherapy is a common problem in node negative patients, especially as the side effects generally increase as the drugs get more effective. For example, the FEC regimen induces cardiotoxicity and the incidence of secondary leukaemia (Martin et al, 2005; Praga et al, 2005). The role of taxanes (docetaxel and paclitaxel) has been investigated in several studies (Henderson et al, 2003; Roche et al, 2004). A recent meta-analysis, including 15.500 patients treated with either docetaxel or paclitaxel, shows an absolute survival gain for node positive patients of 3% compared to anthracyclines (Bria et al, 2006). Due to increased toxicity, taxanes are only recommended for patients at moder16 ate/high risk of recurrence (node positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) positive, young age). Nausea, vomiting, stomatitis (mucositis) and bone marrow suppression are acute and reversible side effects of systemic chemotherapy. Alopecia is nearly universal with regimens containing an anthracycline or a taxane, while the extent of alopecia varies with the dose and schedule of CMF. Approximately 40 percent of women treated with oral CMF develop alopecia compared to 67 percent of those receiving IV CMF (Fisher et al, 1990; Zambetti et al, 1992). The number, nature and costs of severe adverse effects experience by younger (ie, nonelderly) women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer is relatively unknown and may be more common than suspected from the results of large clinical trials. This was illustrated in a series of 12, 239 women aged 63 or younger with newly diagnosed breast cancer (4075 of whom received chemotherapy during the 12 months after the initial diagnosis), derived from a database of medical claims made by individuals with employerprovided health insurance between 1998 and 2002 (Hassett

10. Adjuvant therapy antibody Trastuzumab

with

monoclocal

Around 20% of breast cancers overexpress HER2 and this is associated with an adverse prognosis. Trastuzumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody directed against the external domain of the receptor with clinical activity as a single agent in patients whose cancers overexpress HER2. Approximately 25-30% of breast cancer tumours have an amplification of the Her2 gene or overexpression of its protein product (Vlastos and Verkooijen, 2007). Overexpression of the receptor is associated with increased disease recurrence and worse prognosis. Adjuvant trastuzumab in combination with or followed chemotherapy has been investigated in five randomised studies (Piccart-Gebhart et al, 2005; Romond et al, 2005; Slamon et al, 2005; Joensuu et al, 2006). Pooled results from the four major trials and the smaller FinHer study have recently been analysed in a metaanalysis by Viani and colleagues in 2007. It concluded that trastuzumab showed a significant reduction of mortality (p<0.00001), recurrence (p<0.00001) and metastases rates (p<0.00001) compared to patients never treated with adjuvant trastuzumab (Viani et al, 2007). Due to these results, all Her2 positive patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapyn should be considered for one year treatment with trastuzumab. So trastuzumab is becoming a common component of adjuvant treatment programmes for most women whose tumours overexpress HER2. Side effects such as cardiac toxicity grade III or IV was reported in all five studies especially after treatment with antracyclines. The risk for cardiac toxicity was 2.45 fold higher (95% CI 1.89-3.16) in the group of patients treated with trastuzumab (Viani et al, 2007). However, patients that developed cardiac heart failure generally improved on removal of the agent. Despite this, regularly monitoring of the heart is recommended throughout treatment. In Sweden but and in others countries of the Europe an echocardiogram is preformed prior to starting the treatment and thereafter every third month (Andersson et al, 2002; Sengupta et al, 2008). 471


Kalogerakos et al: Early breast cancer: A review Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) markedly suppress plasma estrogen levels in postmenopausal women by inhibiting or inactivating aromatase, the enzyme responsible for synthesizing estrogens from androgenic substrates (Smith and Dowsett, 2003) (Table 3). In contrast to tamoxifen, these compounds lack partial agonist activity. Several trials have investigated the effectiveness of aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women with ERpositive, early breast cancer. Regardless of whether it is given â&#x20AC;&#x153;up frontâ&#x20AC;? or sequentially after tamoxifen an improvement in treatment outcomes have been noted (Coombes et al, 2004; Jakesz et al, 2005; Howell et al, 2005; Thurlimann et al, 2005). The MA-17 trial compared letrozole versus placebo following five years of tamoxifen (Goss et al, 2003). The MA17 trial showed that the aromatase inhibitor letrozole further decreased the risk of recurrence and improved overall survival (OS) for node positive patients when given as extended treatment after five years of tamoxifen (Jemal et al, 2006). AIs are associated with an increased incidence of musculoskeletal complaints, although the prevalence of these symptoms is unclear. Most published trials as well as data derived from patient surveys suggest that as many as 44 to 47 percent of women experience joint pain or stiffness while taking an AI in the adjuvant setting (Crew et al, 2006). In contrast to tamoxifen, which has estrogenic (ie, protective) effects in the bones of postmenopausal women, all AIs cause bone loss by lowering endogenous estrogen levels. The best way to prevent bone loss associated with AIs is unclear. Guidelines from ASCO and others suggest that women with T-scores lower than -2.5 should exercise and receive calcium, vitamin D and a bisphosphonate; use of a bisphosphonate is "optional" for women with bone densities between -1.5 and -2.5 (Hillner et al, 2003; Perez and Weilbaecher, 2006). However, most endocrinologists recommend pharmacologic therapy for postmenopausal women with T-scores less than -2.0, regardless of risk factors for fracture and with T-scores less than -1.5 if risk factors are present. In all of the trials, compared to tamoxifen alone, AIs have been associated with a lower risk of venous thromboembolic and ischemic cerebrovascular events. In some but not all trials, AIs have also been associated with an increase in the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease compared to tamoxifen, although the magnitude of the excess risk appears to be small (Mouridsen, 2006; Mouridsen et al, 2007).

11. Endocrine therapy Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells by competitive antagonism of estrogen at the ER. However, its actions are complex and it also has partial estrogen agonist activity. These agonist effects can be both beneficial (eg, prevention of bone demineralization) and detrimental (increased risk of uterine cancer and thromboembolic events) (Lee et al, 2008). Several overviews of randomised trials have shown reduced mortality in the adjuvant setting. The latest Oxford overview (15 years follow-up) confirmed a 31% reduction in mortality in women with ER-positive disease who received tamoxifen for five years, regardless of age, menopausal status or nodal status and a 39% reduction in the incidence of contralateral breast cancer (EBTCG, 2005; Albrand and Terret, 2008). A number of potential adverse effects are associated with the administration of tamoxifen. These include hot flashes and vaginal discharge in the short-term and a longterm increase in the risk of thromboembolic events, as well as a two- to three-fold higher risk of endometrial cancer and uterine sarcomas (Rutqvist et al, 1995; Cosman and Lindsay, 1999; Benson and Pitsinis, 2003; Riggs and Hartmann, 2003). Several factors may contribute to tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer, including variable expression of estrogen receptor alpha and beta isoforms, interference with binding of co-activators and co-repressors, alternatively spliced ER mRNA variants and modulators of ER expression such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR1, also called HER1) as well as the type 2 EGFR, also called HER2 (Lipton et al, 2005). Emerging studies also suggest that relative resistance to tamoxifen may be related to inheritance of certain drug metabolizing CYP2D6 genotypes that are associated with a reduced activation of tamoxifen to its active metabolite endoxifen. However, at present, routine assay to identify the CYP2D6 genotype as a means of selecting patients for tamoxifen is not considered standard practice (Jin et al, 2005). Tamoxifen 20 mg daily is a standard adjuvant treatment option for both premenopausal and postmenopausal women with ER+ early breast cancer. Until more data become available, the recommended duration of therapy is five years. Aromatase is an enzyme that naturally converts oestrogen from androgen. In premenopausal women, most of the oestrogen is produced in the ovaries, but in postmenopausal women, most oestrogen is synthesised in peripheral tissue from conversion of androgens (Simpson, 2003). Table 3. Aromatase inhibitors Generation First (nonselective) Second (selective) Third (superselective)

Steroidal (type 1) Formestane Exemestane (Aromasin)

472

Nonsteroidal (type 2) Aminoglutethimide Fadrozole Anastrozole (Arimidex) Letrozole (Femara)


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VII. Conclusion Increased awareness among women and improvement in diagnostic procedures have enabled earlier and better detection of breast cancer. Improvement in breast cancer treatment has undoubtedly also increased the long-term survival of patients as reflected by the improved overall survival across all breast cancer stages. The prognosis of breast cancer has become relatively good, with current 10-year relative survival about 70% in most western populations.

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The role of panitumumab in metastatic colorectal cancer Review Article

Maria Anna Bareschino1,2,^, Clorinda Schettino1,2,^, Paolo Maione2, Antonio Rossi2, Dario Nicolella2, Fortunato Ciardiello1, Cesare Gridelli2,* 1

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Surgery ‘F. Magrassi and A. Lanzara’, Second University of Naples, School of Medicine Via S. Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy. 2 Division of Medical Oncology, “S.G. Moscati” Hospital, Avellino, Italy.

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Cesare Gridelli, M.D., Division of Medical Oncology, “S.G. Moscati” Hospital, Contrada Amoretta, 83100 Avellino, Italy; Telephone: 39-0825-203573; Fax: 39-0825-203556; e-mail: cgridelli@libero.it Key words: EGFR, mCRC, Panitumumab, K-RAS, FISH, Monoclonal Antibodies Abbreviations: antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cellular, (ADCC); area under the concentrationtime curve, (AUC); best supportive care, (BSC); chromogenic in situ hybridization, (CISH); disease control rate, (DCR); eastern cooperative oncology group, (ECOG); epidermal growth factor, (EGF); epidermal growth factor receptor, (EGFR); food and drugs administration, (FDA); gene copy number, (GCN); health related quality of life, (HRQoL); immunohistochemistry, (IHC); monoclonal antibody, (mAbs); metastatic colorectal cancer, (mCRC); median survival time, (MST); maximum tolerated dose, (MTD); progression of disease, (PD); platelet derived growth factor, (PDGF); progression free survival, (PFS); partial responses, (PR); quality of life, (QoL); response rate, (RR); stable disease, (SD); transforming growth factor ! , (TGF-! ); time to progression, (TTP); vascular endothelial growth factor, (VEGF)

^This author have equally contribute to this manuscript

Received: 3 July 2008; Revised: 1 August 2008 Accepted: 4 August 2008; electronically published: September 2008

Summary Colorectal cancer constitutes one of the most common malignancies and the second leading cause of death from cancer in the western world representing one million new cases and half a million deaths annually worldwide. Even if therapeutic options and survival times for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer are improved considerably over the last decade, due to availability of modern chemotherapy agents such as irinotecan and oxaliplatin, there is a need for new active treatment options in this setting. Two classes of biologic agents have recently approved for the treatment of mCRC: monoclonal antibodies direct against vascular endothelial growth factor and monoclonal antibodies direct against the epidermal growth factor receptor. Panitumumab is the first fully monoclonal antibody that binds EGFR approved by Food and Drugs Administration for the treatment of EGFR expressing CRC patients with disease progression on or following fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan containing chemotherapy regimens based on improvement in progression free survival and response rate.

response rate (RR) of approximately 20% and reaching median survival of 10-12 months (Simmonds et al, 2000). Several options are currently available for the mCRC treatment including different regimens of chemotherapeutic compounds. The addition of irinotecan to 5-FU in first line therapy increased RR to 40-50%, prolongs median time to progression (TTP) by approximately three months and resulted in an improvement in survival of 2-3 months approximately

I. Introduction Colorectal cancer (CRC) belongs to the leading causes of death from cancer. Approximately 20% of patients with CRC present metastatic disease, and it is estimated that ~ 50% of CRC patients develop metastases and eventually die of disease. The treatment of metastatic CRC (mCRC) was based on fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy for over 50 years producing objective tumor

477


Bareschino et al: The role of panitumumab in metastatic colorectal cancer phase II randomized clinical trial demonstrating a statistically significant improvement of RR (22% vs 10.8%; P=0.007) and progression free survival (PFS) (4.1 vs 1.5 months; P<0.001) when cetuximab was given in combination with irinotecan compared to cetuximab alone in irinotecan refractory mCRC. Survival, however did not differ significantly between two groups, although its was numerically longer for patients receiving cetuximab and irinotecan (8.6 vs 6.9 months P=0.48) (Cunningham et al, 2004). The efficacy of single agent cetuximab in heavily pre-treated mCRC patients has been recently confirmed by a phase III randomized clinical trial, in witch patients randomized to receive cetuximab achieved a statistically significant improvement in OS compared with those receiving best supportive care (BSC) alone [median OS: 6.1 versus 4.6 months; hazard ratio (HR)=0.766; P=0.0048, stratified log-rank test] (Jonker et al, 2007). Based on this finding, in October 2007 regular approval for single-agent cetuximab was granted for use in this patient population. The most important phase II/III trials investigating the role of cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy in first line setting and second and further line treatment of mCRC are summarized in the tables 1 and 2 (Table 1, 2). Bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody directed against the VEGF, was approved in the US in 2004 for use in combination with irinotecan containing regimens for the first-line treatment of mCRC. This approval was based on the demonstration that the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy provides significant clinical benefit to patients by increasing OS, PFS, and overall RR (Kabbinavar et al, 2003; Hurwitz et al, 2004) (Table 3).

compared to 5-FU/LV alone (Douillard et al, 2000; Saltz et al, 2000) and also in pretreated patients irinotecan monotherapy increased the median overall survival (OS) by 2-3 months from the 6-8 months (Rougier et al, 1998; Cunningham et al, 1998). Similar results were obtained adding oxaliplatin to infused 5-FU/LV (De Gramont et al, 2000, Giacchetti et al, 2000). The comparison between the irinotecan/infused 5FU/LV (FOLFIRI) and oxaliplatin/infused 5-FU/LV (FOLFOX) regimens sequentially used, regardless of order, show that these regimens are equally effective resulting in median survival time (MST) reaching 21 months approximately (Turnigand et al, 2004). Data from 11 phase III clinical trials has showed that median OS is significantly correlated with the percentage of patients who received all three drugs (5-FU, irinotecan and oxaliplatin) in the course of their disease (P =0.0001) independently of sequence in which they were administered (Grothey et al, 2004, 2005). Therefore, several novel targeted agents are being investigated in combination with chemotherapy and as single agents. Two classes of biologic drugs has recently been approved for the treatment of mCRC: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitors (cetuximab and panitutumab) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) inhibitor (bevacizumab). Cetuximab is a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds to the extracellular domain of the EGFR, and was the first biologic agent to receive approval in 2004 by Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in the United States (US) for use in combination with irinotecan for the treatment of EGFR expressing irinotecan refractory mCRC patients and as single agent in those intolerant to irinotecan-based chemotherapy. This approval was based on results of a

Table 1. Cetuxuximab in combination with chemotherapy in second and third line mCRC treatment. Treatment

N째pts

Study details

Second/third Line

218

Cetuximab + irinotecano vs Cetuximab Cetuximab+ irinotecano vs irinotecan Cetuximab+ irinotecano Cetuximab+ irinotecano Cetuximab;

Second/third Line

111 648 650

Second/third Line Second/third line Second/third line

79 121 2

14 Second/third line

40

Second/third Line

123

Cetuximab+ irinotecano Cetuximab/ capecitabine/ oxaliplatin Cetuximab+ irinotecan

RR (%) 22.9

TTP (months) 4.1

PFS (months)

OS (months) 8.6

-

Study Phase II randomized, Cunningham and colleagues Phase III, Sobrero and colleagues

10.8 16.4

1.5 -

4.0

6.9 10.7

4.2

-

2.6

10.0

17.7 *

9.7

-

-

-

-

-

-

Phase II open-label, Buzaid and colleagues Phase II open-label, Saltz and colleagues Phase II retrospective, Chung and colleagues

20

3.0

-

10.7

Phase II open-label, Souglakos and colleagues

13.8

-

12.1

9.5

Phase II open-label, Lim and colleagues

26.6 17 25

25

Pts= patients; RR= response rate; PFS= progression free survival; TTP= time to progression; OS= overall survival.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 479! Table 2. Cetuxuximab in combination with chemotherapy in mCRC first line treatment.

Treatment

N째pts

Study details

Second/third Line

218

Cetuximab + irinotecano vs Cetuximab

Second/third Line

111 648

RR (%) 22.9

79

Second/third line

121

Second/third line

PFS (months)

OS (months) 8.6

-

Cetuximab+ irinotecano vs irinotecan

650 Second/third Line

TTP (months) 4.1

10.8 16.4

1.5 -

4.0

6.9 10.7

4.2

-

2.6

10.0

17.7 *

9.7

-

-

-

-

-

-

20

3.0

-

10.7

13.8

-

12.1

9.5

Cetuximab+ irinotecano 26.6

Cetuximab+ irinotecano

2

14 Second/third line

40

Second/third Line

123

17 25

Cetuximab; Cetuximab+ irinotecano Cetuximab/ capecitabine/ oxaliplatin

25

Cetuximab+ irinotecan

Study Phase II randomized, Cunningham and colleagues Phase III, Sobrero and colleagues Phase II openlabel, Buzaid and colleagues Phase II openlabel, Saltz and colleagues Phase II retrospective, Chung and colleagues Phase II openlabel, Souglakos and colleagues Phase II openlabel, Lim and colleagues

* 1-year rate of PFS Pts= patients; RR= response rate; PFS= progression free survival; TTP= time to progression; OS= overall survival;

Table 3. Registration trials with biologic agents in mCRC.

Trial

Treatment

Cunningham et al. 2004 (phase II)

Cetuximab vs Cetuximab + Irinotecan 5FU/LV vs 5FU/LV+Bev 5mg/kg vs 5FU/LV+Bev 10mg/kg IFL+ Placebo vs IFL+ Bev

Kabbinavar et al. 2003 (phase II)

Hurwitz et al. 2004 (phase III) Van Cutsem et al. 2007 (phase III)

Pmab + BSC vs BSC

N째 Pts RR TTP (%) (months) 10.8 1.5 111

PFS (months)

OS (months)

_

6.9

218

22.9 4.1

_

8.6

36 35

17 40

5.2 9.0

_ _

13.8 21.5

33

24

7.2

_

16.1

411 402

34.8 44.8

6.2 10.6

15.6 20.3

231 232

10 0

8* 7.3*

NR** NR**

*Weeks; ** No significant differences was observed (HR= 1.00). Pts= patients; RR= response rate; PFS= progression free survival; TTP= time to progression; Bev= bevacizumab; pmab= panitumumab;

479


Bareschino et al: The role of panitumumab in metastatic colorectal cancer BSC= best supportive care; NR= no reported.

production of fully humanized antibodies that in contrast with chimeric antibodies results to be less immunogenic and to have reduced Fc domain based effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cellular (ADCC). The result is the non-immunogenic mAbs generation, with reduction of the risk of hypersensitivity reactions during treatment administration and of the formation of human antimouse antibodies which can reduce the efficacy of the agents (Chua et al, 2006). Panitumumb was generated by immunizing the XenoMouse strain of mice with human cervical epidermal carcinoma cell line A431 known for EGFR iperexpression (Yang et al, 2001). This drug binds specially and selectively to the EGFR and blocks binding of EGF and TGF-! reducing EGFR signalling causing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, apoptosis, decrease production of growth factors such as VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokine as interleukin-8. The panitumumab-coated receptor is rapidly internalized resulting in receptor down-regulation although is not clear if the receptor is next degraded or recycled to the plasma membrane. Panitumumab was evaluated for pharmacologic activity in human tumor cell lines in vitro and in vivo in human xenograft tumors in immunodeficient mice; and for toxicity and pharmacokinetics profile in immunodeficient mice and cynomolgus monkeys. Tissue binding studies showed that panitumumab bound with moderate to strong intensity to surface EGFR in tissue samples of epithelial origin from both human and cynomolgus monkey. Treatment of tumor-bearing immunodeficient mice with panitumumab alone or in combination with several different biological agents or chemotherapy regimens resulted in delayed growth of human colon, breast, or pancreatic cancers (Yang et al, 1999). The preclinical activity of this agent is more pronounced in cells expressing the EGFR at levels of " 15000 per cell and inactive in EGFR negative tumors suggesting that a threshold level of EGFR expression is required for tumor response to panitumumab (Ranson et al, 2003). Panitumumab administered as a single agent exhibits non-linear pharmacokinetics. Following a single 1-hour infusion the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) increased in a greater than dose-proportional manner, and clearance of panitumumab decreased from 30.6 ml/kg per day to 4.6 ml/kg per day as the dose increased from 0.75 mg/kg to 9 mg/kg. However, at doses above 2 mg/kg, the AUC of panitumumab increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner. Following the recommended dose regimen (6 mg/kg given once every 2 weeks as a 1-h infusion), panitumumab concentrations reached steady-state levels by the third infusion peak and trough concentrations of 213 ± 59 and 39 ± 14 µg/ml, respectively. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-tau) and clearance were 1,306 ± 374 µg · day/ml and 4.9 ± 1.4 ml/kg/day, respectively. The elimination half-life was approximately 7.5 days range, 3.6-10.9 days. Selected covariates such as age, gender, race, mild-to-moderate renal and hepatic

Panitumumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets EGFR is approved in the US in September 2006 by FDA for the treatment of mCRC EGFR positive patients and is approved in Europe in 2007 by EMEA only in wild-type K-RAS mCRC patients. In this review we will focus on the clinical results available with panitumumab in the treatment of colorectal cancer and the molecular mechanisms involved in resistance and response to this drug.

II. Biology of EGFR The EGFR is a member of the ErbB family cell membrane receptors which also includes ErbB2/Neu/HER2, ErbB-3/HER3, and ErbB-4/HER4 that are important mediators of cell growth, differentiation and survival. The EGFR is a transmembrane glycoprotein, that consists of an extracellular domain that recognizes and binds to specific ligands, a hydrophobic trans-membrane domain, involved in interactions between receptors within the cell membrane, and an intracellular domain that contains the tyrosine kinase enzymatic activity. The are several ligands binding EGFR including Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Transforming Growth Factor ! (TGF-! ), neuregulin family and some others. Once the ligand binds to the extracellular domain, EGFR undergoes homo-dimerization or hetero-dimerization. Dimerization induces the activation of the tyrosine kinase domain, which leads to autophosphorylation of critical tyrosine residues on the cytoplasmic terminal. These tyrosine residues serve as attachment sites for a range of cellular docking proteins, activating a variety of downstream signalling cascades to affect gene transcription (Yarden et al, 2001). Three pathways downstream of EGFR have been identified: the Ras/Raf mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, PI3K/Akt, and Jak2/STAT3 pathways. Activation of these pathways starts a cascade of complex cell biochemistry that result in different cellular responses such as proliferation, migration, differentiation or apoptosis. Elevated levels of EGFR expression have been found in a variety of epithelial tumors: colorectal, head and neck, breast, renal cell cancer (Salomon et al, 1995). The blockade of EGFR signalling in cancer cells causes not only inhibition of cell proliferation but also other effects that could be relevant in the clinical setting including: induction of apoptosis; anti-angiogenesis through inhibition of angiogenic growth factors production; inhibition of invasion and metastasis; potentiation of anti-tumor activity of cytotoxic drugs and radiotherapy (Normanno et al, 2003).

III. Panitumumab: mechanism action and pharmacokinetics

of

Panitumumab (Vectibix, ABX-EGF; Amgen Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA) is a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody targeting the EGFR. Panitumumab was initially developed using XenoMouse transgenic technology based on inactivation of the endogenous mouse immunoglobulin genes that are replaced by genes containing the human heavy and K chains. This technology permits the

480


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 481! dysfunction, had no apparent effect on pharmacokinetics of this drug (Giusti et al, 2007).

fluoropyrimidine and either irinotecan or oxaliplatin, were tested for EGFR expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The patients were also prospectively divided in two cohorts: patients with EGFR staining of 2+ and 3+ ! in 10% of cells (cohort A), and patients EGFR staining 2+ and 3+ " 10% of cells, but 1+, 2+ or 3+ ! 10% of tumor cells (cohort B). Panitumumab was administrated at dose of 2.5 mg/kg weekly. This trial has reported a RR of 9% and a 29 % of SD resulted similar between two groups; PFS and MST was 14 weeks and 9.0 months respectively. The major toxicities reported were rush and fatigue; skin rash was reported in 95% of patients, (5% grade 3 and 0% grade 4 toxicity) (Hecth et al, 2007). Another phase II trial have evaluated panitumumab activity in 150 refractory or pretreated mCRC patients with low (1%-9%) or negative (<1%) tumor EGFR levels detected by IHC. Patients received panitumumab at dose of 6 mg/Kg every two weeks. Disease Control Rate (DCR) was 35% in patients with low EGFR levels, and 28% in patients with negative EGFR tumors; PFS was 7.8 and 8.3 weeks respectively. Median OS was 8.7 months for patients with low EGFR levels and 10.1 months patients with negative EGFR tumors. Results confirmed earlier findings that panitumumab has anti-tumor activity in patients with low or undetectable EGFR tumor membrane levels (Hecht et al, 2008a). However these data are in contrast to preclinical data suggesting that a threshold level of EGFR expression is required for tumor response to panitumumab (Cohenuram et al, 2007). The predictive value of EGFR positivity is therefore more questioned. At moment several bias characterize IHC methodology such as a significant variability in EGFR immunoreactivity depending on fixation method; an important reduction in EGFR staining intensity occurred with increased storage time of the tissue samples; and different IHC EGFR expression between an individual patients primary tumor and metastatic tissue specimens. Another possible explanation may be the presence of two biologically distinct EGFRs (high and low affinity for EGF) and may be hypothesized that a small number of high-affinity EGFR might be responsible for susceptibility to mAbs treatment even if its absolute number is below the threshold of IHC detection (Francoual et al, 2006). Panitumumab have also a good safety and tolerability profile in combination with chemotherapy as showed in a phase II clinical trial in which panitumumab at dose of 2.5 mg/kg/week was combined with irinotecan- and 5-FU based treatment in previously untreated mCRC patients. Initially, nineteen patients were treated with panitumumab plus the bolus 5-FU (IFL regimen), and twenty-four with infusional 5-FU (FOLFIRI) regimen. Has been reported an overall RR of 46% in IFL and 42% in FOLFIRI regimen, PFS was 5.6 and 10.9 months and OS was 17 and 22.5 months for IFL and FOLFIRI group, respectively. Skin toxicity was the predominant toxicity observed, occurring at any grade in 84% and 75% of patients treated in the IFL and FOLFIRI cohorts, respectively; another common toxicity reported was grade 3/4 diarrhea occurred specially in IFL arm (58%) compared to FOLFIRI regimen (25%). In general, the incidence of toxicities was lower in the

the

IV. Clinical efficacy A. Phase I clinical trials Forty-three patients with several cancer types such as colorectal, esophageal, and prostate cancer, enrolled in a phase I trial have received up to 4 weekly doses of panitumumab monotherapy, from 0.01 to 2.5 mg/kg with no loading dose. Panitumumab has been well tolerated, no allergic reactions infusion-related were reported and no human antihuman antibodies were detected. The rash, characteristic of EGFR blocking antibodies, was observed in all patient receiving a dose of 2.0 mg/kg/week or more of panitumumab. One patient with colorectal cancer had for 4 months stable disease (SD) at the 1.5 mg/kg dose and SD was achieved for 7 months in one patient with esophageal cancer at the 0.1 mg/kg dose; one patient with prostate cancer experienced a minor response for 6 months at dose 0.75 mg/kg (Figlin et al, 2002). The exposure and tolerability profile is comparable between different dose levels and schedules of panitumumab monotherapy ranging from 0.01 to 5.0 mg/kg once per week (QW), 6.0 mg/kg once every 2 weeks (Q2W) or 9.0 mg/kg once every 3 weeks (Q3W), and no maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was reached as reported in a phase I trial. In this trial ninety-six EGFR positive solid tumor patients received panitumumab; among 39 CRC patients has been reported 5 (12.8%) partial responses (PR), and 9 SD were observed (Weiner et al, 2008). In other studies in which panitumumab was administered at 6 mg/kg every two weeks or 9 mg/kg every three weeks has been showed that both schedules were generally well tolerated resulting in exposure and tolerability profiles comparable to dose of 2.5 mg/kg weekly (Arends et al, 2005; Weiner et al, 2005). Panitumumab is also being studied in combination with chemotherapy (FOLFIRI or FOLFOX) and motesanib diphosphate (AMG 706), an oral drug with activity against multiple tyrosine kinases including VEGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) and Kit receptors in a phase Ib clinical trial. Among forty-five patients enrolled were reported 6 dose-limiting toxicities: FOLFIRI n=4, all grade 3 (diarrhea n=2; deep vein thrombosis n=1; high GI output n=1); FOLFOX n=2 (all fatigue, grade 3). Treatment-related adverse events for both regimens (FOLFIRI/FOLFOX) included: fatigue 55/58%, anorexia 24/50% diarrhea 24/33% epistaxis 27/0% and hypertension 15/8%. The overall RR was 11/22 (50%) for the combination of biologic agents with FOLFIRI chemotherapy and 5/10 (50%) for the same combination of biologics plus FOLFOX; these preliminary data show that the combination of panitumumab and AMG 706 plus chemotherapy was well tolerated with little effect on AMG 706 pharmacokinetics (Schwartzberg et al, 2007).

B. Phase II clinical trials In a phase II clinical trial tumor specimens from 148 mCRC patients, who had failed treatment with a 481


Bareschino et al: The role of panitumumab in metastatic colorectal cancer FOLFIRI treated patients cohort (Berlin et al, 2007a). In

the table 4 were summarized phase II studies (Table 4).

Table 4. Panitumumab phase II-III studies in mCRC. Pts (n째) 148 EGFR low (43) EGFR high (105) 150 EGFR negative (71) EGFR low (79)

RR (%)

PFS (weeks)

Naive

Phase

Authors

5 8

8 8

NO

II

Hecht (2007)

8.3 7.8

NO

II

Hecht (2008)

46 42

5.6 10.9

YES

II

Berlin (2007)

4.2 5.1

43 IFL + pmab (19) FOLFIRI + pmab (24) 463 pmab (231) BSC (232) 230 Iri/Bev+pmab (115) Iri/Bev (115)

10 0

8 7.3

YES

III

Van Cutsem (2008)

55 46

10.6* 10.7*

YES

III

Hecht (2008)

823 Ox/Bev+pmab (413) Ox/Bev (410)

45 46

9.5* 11.0*

YES

III

Hecht (2008)

* months Pts= patients; RR= response rate; PFS= progression free survival; EGFR= epidermal growth factor receptor; pmab= panitumumab; BSC= best supportive care; Iri= irinotecan; Bev=bevacizumab; Ox= oxaliplatin

C. Phase III clinical trials

following treatment with a fluoropyrimidine, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin were randomized to receive panitumumab 6 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus BSC (n = 231) or BSC alone (control arm; n = 232). Patients were required to have 1% or more EGFR tumor cell membrane staining by IHC.

The efficacy and safety of panitumumab has been evaluated in a randomized, controlled, open label, phase III study (Figure 1). In this trial, a total of 463 mCRC patients with documented progression of disease during or

Figure 1. Panitumumab + Best Supportive Care (BSC) vs BSC alone in mCRC, design of the registered phase III clinical trial.

Randomization stratification: !! Easter Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score: 0-1vs 2 Geografic region : Western EU vs central vs Eastern EU vs rest of the world 482


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 483!

on PFS favored panitumumab vs BSC in spite of age or ECOG status. Similar PFS and OS times and ORR were seen between elderly and younger pts and within both ECOG status groups, among patients receiving panitumumab. This evidence suggest that the efficacy and tolerability of panitumumab in mCRC patients was similar regardless of age and ECOG status (Van Cutsem et al, 2007b). Another analysis of this study, characterises the association of PFS with health related quality of life (HRQoL), symptoms related to disease, and OS. At week 8 lack of disease progression was associated with significantly and clinically important lower CRC related symptoms for both treatment groups and higher HRQoL only for panitumumab treated patients. OS favoured patients alive at week 8 without progression of disease (PD) compared to patients reporting PD (Siena et al, 2007). A further analysis of this trial has evaluated patients randomized to BSC arm who received panitumumab in the separate crossover study. Among 232 patients receiving BSC, 176 with PD has been enrolled in the crossover study. The objective RR was 11.6% (1 CR, 19 PR), and 33% (58/176) of patients achieved SD; median PFS and MST were 9.4 (95% CI= 8.0 to 13.4) weeks and 6.3 months (95% CI 5.1-6.8) respectively. The most frequent reported adverse event was skin toxicity. These findings were consistent with that seen in patients receiving panitumumab plus BSC in the phase III study as well as in previous panitumumab monotherapy studies and also in these patients panitumumab appear well tolerated with a manageable toxicities profile (Van Cutsem et al, 2008a). The preliminary safety data of the first phase III clinical trial investigating the combination of panitumumab with FOLFIRI chemotherapy as second line treatment for mCRC patients has been recently reported. Seven hundred one patients were randomly assigned to receive panitumumab plus FOLFIRI at standard dose or FOLFIRI alone. The most common adverse events observed were skin toxicity (61%), diarrhea (55%), nausea (43%), fatigue (28%) (Peeters et al, 2008). Another randomized, multicenter phase III clinical trial have tested the panitumumab in combination with FOLFOX chemotherapy in untreated mCRC patients. After a median follow up time of 15 weeks a safety interim analysis including 601 patients have showed that panitumumab is well tolerated and most common toxicities were: skin reactions reported in approximately half of patients, diarrhea (43%), nausea (39%), neutropenia and fatigue (Siena et al, 2008). A phase III study to assess whether the addition of panitumumab to first-line chemotherapy (either oxaliplatin or irinotecan-based) plus bevacizumab would have improved PFS compared to treatment with chemotherapy plus bevacizumab alone (PACCE trial) has been conducted. Of this complex and intricate trial has been examined separate strata of patients receiving either oxaliplatin or irinotecan based chemotherapy/bevacizumab Âą panitumumab. Based on the first interim efficacy analysis of oxaliplatin stratum demonstrating a shorter PFS and an increased incidence of toxicities for the

A significant improvement of PFS was observed in patients who received panitumumab plus BSC compared with those who received BSC alone; median PFS time was 8 weeks (95% CI = 7.9 to 8.4) for panitumumab and 7.3 weeks (95% CI=7.1 to 7.7) for BSC arm. Patients receiving panitumumab achieved a decrease of 46% in the rate of tumor progression compared with those receiving BSC alone (HR=0.54; 95% CI= 0.44 to 0.66). After a 12-month minimum follow-up, 10% of RR (all PR) among patients receiving panitumumab and no response in the BSC group were observed (P<0.0001); median duration of response was 17.0 weeks (95% CI= 7.9 to 76.7); however no difference in OS (HR= 1.00; 95% CI= 0.82 to 1.22 P=0.81) among two groups was reported. Among patients receiving BSC alone 176 (76%) received panitumumab in a cross-over protocol after progression disease and the median time to cross-over was 7 weeks. The high rate and rapidity of cross over of the patients in the BSC group and the similar activity of panitumumab observed in the cross-over population could confounded survival data. Panitumumab was well tolerated and skinrelated toxicities including dermatitis acneiform, pruritus, erytema, rash, skin exfoliation, paronychia, dry skin and skin fissures occurred in 90% of patients in the panitumumab group and in 9% of patients in the BSC group respectively. Among patients in the panitumumab arm, a better PFS was reported for patients with a worst severity of grade 2 to 4 versus grade 1 skin toxicity (HR=0.62; 95% CI= 0.44 to 0.88); 19/22 (86%) of responders patients had a maximum skin toxicity severity of either grade 2 or 3, and only 3 (14%) responders patients had a maximum skin-toxicity severity of grade 1. Other common adverse events were hypomagnesemia and diarrhea occurred in 36% and 21 % of patients in the panitumumab arm (Van Cutsem et al, 2007a). Based on results of this trial on September 2006 the FDA granted approval to panitumumab (Vectibix, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA) for the treatment of patients with EGFR-expressing m- CRC with disease progression on or following fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan containing chemotherapy regimens. This is the first clinical trial to demonstrate the superiority of a targeted agent used as monotherapy in mCRC compared to BSC alone. However a phase III randomized clinical study has showed that cetuximab as a single agent compared to BSC significantly improves survival in mCRC patients refractory to approved chemotherapy agents including irinotecan, oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidines. In this study the median survival was 6.1 months for patients treated with cetuximab vs 4.6 months for patients receiving BSC alone (P=0.005; HR=0.77), futhermore cetuximab improves PFS and preserve quality of life (QoL) (Jonker et al, 2007). An exploratory analysis of registrative trial including elderly (<65 vs >65 years) and poor performance status [Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score 0-1 vs 2-3] patients has been conducted. The treatment effect

483


Bareschino et al: The role of panitumumab in metastatic colorectal cancer efficacy has been evaluated in mCRC patients enrolled in several clinical trials. Data emerging from five clinical trials (4 phase II and 1 phase III studies) including a total of 612 patients show that the most common skin toxicities (any grade) were erythema 54%, pruritus 53%, dermatitis acneiform 52%, and rush 39%. The RR was 3.3% in patients with grade 0- 1 vs 12.6% in patients with grade 2-4 skin toxicity, also PFS, and OS appeared to favor patients with grade 2-4 skin toxicity (PFS 8.0 vs 13.1 weeks respectively; OS 4.5 vs 8.5 months respectively P<0.0001). This large combined analysis demonstrates that the severity of skin rash was correlated with increased efficacy of panitumumab in terms of overall clinical outcome (Berlin et al, 2007b). Considering that the skin toxicities could be assemble only after the start of treatment it may not be considered as a predictive marker but can serve as a surrogate marker of efficacy.

combination oxaliplatin/bevacizumab plus panitumumab (Ox/bev + pmab) in March 2007 Amgen discontinued this study. An recent updated analysis of 823 patients randomized in the oxaliplatin stratum have reported a PFS of 9.5 months in Ox/bev + pmab arm compared to 11 months in the Ox/bev alone and an unfavorable benefit/risk report for this combination in the treatment of mCRC patients (Hecht et al, 2008b). These data suggest that a negative interaction between the combination of VEGF and EGFR antibodies can not be excluded. In fact similar results were recently reported in a randomized phase III study (CAIRO II) in which has been investigated the effect of adding cetuximab to capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CapOx) and bevacizumab in untreated mCRC. The combination of both antibodies to CapOx regimen results in a significant decrease of PFS compared to bevacizumab plus CapOx chemotherapy (Punt et al, 2008). However, early studies have suggested that combining EGFR, VEGF inhibitors and chemotherapy improve efficacy (Shaheen et al 2001; Saltz et al, 2007). In a phase II clinical trial (BOND2) the combination of cetuximab, bevacizumab and irinotecan vs cetuximab and bevacizumab alone in irinotecan-refractory mCRC patients has been compared. The results of this trial suggest a preliminary evidence of the clinical benefit combining cetuximab and bevacizumab and the activity seen with the addition of bevacizumab seems to be favorable when compared to historical controls treated with cetuximab/irinotecan or cetuximab alone in this setting (Saltz et al, 2007). Preliminary data of irinotecan stratum (PACCE Trial) including 230 patients show that the RR were higher in the irinotecan/bevacizumab (iri/bev) plus panitumumab compared to iri/bev alone (55% vs 46%) such as toxicities related to treatment, while PFS was similar between two arms, (10.6 vs 10.7 months) and no difference in OS was seen. Most patients withdrew due to non progressive events (59% on panitumumab + iri/bev arm, 71% on iri/bev) similar to the Oxaliplatin chemotherapy cohort, limiting the utility of PFS as a valid endpoint in this trial (Hecht et al, 2008c). In the table 4 were summarized the phase III studies (Table 4).

B. The predictive role of EGFR gene copy number The identification of patients who are likely to benefit from EGFR targeted mAbs is increasingly crucial for improving therapeutic strategies; the first step is to identify the genetic alterations associated with the clinical response, the second is the elucidation of molecular basis for primary or acquired resistance to these drugs. A first retrospective trial to evaluate the association between EGFR gene copy number (GCN) and response to mAbs (cetuximab/panitumumab) has been conducted by Moroni. Tumor specimens from 31 mCRC patients receiving panitumimab or cetuximab were analysed for EGFR GCN by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Eight of nine patients with objective responses had an increased EGFR GCN, while among non responders only one patients had an increased EGFR GCN (P<0.0001). An interesting aspect of this trial is the demonstration of heterogeneity across tumor areas with regard to EGFR amplification with tumor areas showing normal genoma vs other areas showing clear amplification (Moroni et al, 2005). The predictive role of EGFR GCN has been evaluated in other subsequent clinical trials including mCRC patients treated with cetuximab (Lenz et al, 2006; Lievre et al, 2006). An increased EGFR GCN assessed by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) was significantly associated with an objective tumor response to cetuximab (P=0.04) (Lievre et al, 2006). In another study conducted by Lenz et al the evaluation of EGFR GCN by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on 34 mCRC patients receiving cetuximab. However this trial have failed to show an association between GCN and response and PFS, but a significant positive correlation with OS was seen and it could reflect the role of EGRF GCN as an independent prognostic variable (Lenz et al, 2006). The discrepancies between these studies could be a result of methodologic differences for this reason prospective designed trials are needed to address this question. The association between EGFR GCN and clinical

V. Clinical and molecular predictors of response to Panitumumab A. Skin toxicity as a potential surrogate marker of panitumumab efficacy The major challenge for an optimal use of EGFR targeting drugs is to define which patients are more likely to have a therapeutic advantage from the treatment. Inhibition of EGFR by Mabs or tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) leads to the development of a characteristic papulopustular rush also related to as acneiform rush that is histologically characterized by a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermal tissue particularly in the infundibular part of hair follicle (Busam et al, 2001). Data from several clinical trials with cetuximab show a positive correlation between rash and response and/or survival (Saif et al, 2007). The predictive value of skin toxicity severity for panitumumab 484


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 485! 33%), and a longer PFS 7.7 vs 5.5 months, respectively (Bokemeyer et al, 2008). KRAS mutation status has been also retrospective evaluated in tumor specimens from the phase I/II EVEREST trial, in which irinotecan-refractory mCRC patients were treated with irinotecan and escalating doses of cetuximab. Patients treated with cetuximab dose escalation have reported an higher RR compared to those receiving cetuximab at standard dose (46.4 % vs 21.1%, respectively), KRAS wild type patients achieved considerable benefit from irinotecan plus cetuximab treatment, while KRAS mutated patients did not profit from irinotecan plus cetuximab treatment and cetuximab dose escalation did not increase responses in these patients (Tejpar et al, 2008). In a series of 48 mCRC patients treated with cetuximab or panitumumab, it has been demonstrated that the presence of KRAS and/or of B-RAF mutations is negatively associated with the possibility of a PR (P=0.005), and the median TTP was significantly worse in patients bearing a mutated KRAS and/or B-RAF gene in their tumours (P=0.0259) as compared with those carrying wild-type genes (Benvenuti et al, 2007). KRAS status was retrospectively analyzed in metastatic CRC patients enrolled in the registratory panitumumab phase III trial. K-RAS mutations were found in 43% of 427 patients. In this trial PFS results significantly greater among wild type KRAS patients receiving panitumumab (12.3 weeks for panitumumab vs 7.3 weeks for BSC). While in KRAS mutated patients, in whom no panitumumab benefit was reported (HR=0.99), PFS was 7.4 vs 7.3 weeks in panitumumab and BSC group respectively. Wild type KRAS patients receiving panitumumab have also a better RR (17% vs 0%) and longer OS (HR=0.67, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.82) compared with mutant group (Amado et al, 2008). Another phase II trial (PRECEPT trial) has been designed to evaluate the effect of KRAS mutation status on the combination of panitumumab with FOLFIRI chemotherapy following first-line FOLFOX and bevacizumab. At moment preliminary data of first 51 patients suggest that this combination appear well tolerated and active (14% PR) as just observed in unselected population; however data of RR, OS and PFS according to KRAS status will be presented (Cohn et al, 2008).

outcome has been evaluated in a larger and more homogeneous patients cohort from the registratory phase III clinical trial. In patients treated with panitumumab (58 pts), a mean EGFR GCN <2.5/nucleus or <40% of tumor cells displaying chromosome 7 polysomy within the tumor predict for shorter PFS (P=0.039 and P=0.029, respectively) and OS (P=0.015 and P=0.014, respectively). None of treated patients had tumor response when the EGFR GNC was less than the value of <2.47/nucleus whereas 6/20 obtained objective response when EGFR GNC was superior than this cutoff value (P=0.0009). Six of 19 patients with chromosome 7 polysomy ! 43% obtained objective tumor response compared to none of 39 patients with chromosome 7 polysomy less then this value (P=0.0007). Evaluation of BSC-treated patients (34 pts) showed no correlation between EGFR GCN or chromosome 7 polysomy status and PFS, suggesting a predictive, rather than prognostic value of this genetic feature. These data confirm that non increased EGFR GCN is associated to failure of response to mAbs, conversely seem to emerge that only a fraction of tumors with increased EGFR GNC achieves objective response (Sartore-Bianchi et al, 2007).

C. RAS/RAF mutation status as a selection marker for panitumumab treatment EGFR signalling pathway includes the activation of downstream GTPases encoded by RAS genes. Mutations in the RAS family members results in EGFR-independent MAPK pathway activation and they are found in approximately 30% to 50% of CRC tumors, and are also common in other tumor types (Esteller et al, 2001; Malumbres et al, 2003). Several trials indicates that the presence of mutant K-RAS in lung and CRC tumors correlates with poor prognosis (Andreyev et al, 2001; Bazan et al, 2002) and is associated with lack of response to TKIs and mAbs (Pao et al, 2005; Lievre et al, 2006; Benvenuti et al, 2007; De Roock et al, 2007; Di Fiore et al, 2007). A retrospective molecular analyses to evaluate the influence of KRAS mutation status in first line patients treated with FOLFIRI with or without cetuximab enrolled in CRYSTAL study, has been recently reported. KRAS mutations were detected in 35.6% (192/540) of pts with evaluable samples. A statistically significant difference in favor of cetuximab was seen in KRAS wild type pts for PFS (P=0.0167) and best overall response [59.3% (cetuximab + FOLFIRI) vs 43.2% (FOLFIRI), P=0.0025]. Subgroup analyses in KRAS mutated patients show no significant differences between treatment groups for PFS (P=0.75; HR= 1.07) and best overall response (P=0.46) (Van Cutsem et al, 2008b). Efficacy analyses of the randomized phase II OPUS trial have previously failed to show a significant improvements in PFS or overall response when cetuximab was added to FOLFOX versus FOLFOX alone in the firstline mCRC treatment; however a following molecular analysis of KRAS status have show a higher RR in wild type KRAS patients compared to mutated patients (61% vs

VI. Conclusion The panitumumab have increased our repertoire of biological agents and is the first fully human mAbs approved for the treatment of mCRC. The advantage of this drug compared to other mAbs such as cetuximab is the less antigenic potential with less hypersensitivity reactions and no antibody formation. Panitumumab have demonstrated safety and promising activity in several phase I and II clinical trials, however itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s approval is based on a clinically modest but highly statistically significant improvement of PFS as showed in a single, open-label, randomized registratory phase III trial. PFS is a surrogate end point that is probably to predict effect on survival. However no difference in survival in favor to panitumumab were reported in this study and it may be 485


Bareschino et al: The role of panitumumab in metastatic colorectal cancer Arends R, Yang B, Schwab G, Lockbaum P, Funelas C, Roskos L (2005) Flexible dosing schedules of panitumumab (ABXEGF) in cancer patients (Abst 3089). J Clin Oncol 23, No 16S (June 1 Supplement). Arnold D, Höhler T, Dittrich C, Lordick F, Seufferlein T, Riemann J, Wöll E, Herrmann T, Zubel A, Schmoll HJ (2008) Cetuximab in combination with weekly 5fluorouracil/folinic acid and oxaliplatin (FUFOX) in untreated patients with advanced colorectal cancer: a phase Ib/II study of the AIO GI Group. Ann Oncol in press. Bazan V, Migliavacca M, Zanna I, Tubiolo C, Grassi N, Latteri MA, La Farina M, Albanese I, Dardanoni G, Salerno S, Tomasino RM, Labianca R, Gebbia N, Russo A (2002) Specific codon 13 K-ras mutations are predictive of clinical outcome in colorectal cancer patients, whereas codon 12 Kras mutations are associated with mucinous histotype. Ann Oncol 13, 1438-46. Bendell JC, Uronis H, Morse M, Blobe G, Aklilu M, Nixon A, Niedzweicki D, Ashton J, Howard L, Hurwitz H (2008) Initial results of a phase II study of oxaliplatin (OX), capecitabine (CAP), bevacizumab (BV), and cetuximab (CET) in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). 2008 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. Benvenuti S, Sartore-Bianchi A, Di Nicolantonio F, Zanon C, Moroni M, Veronese S, Siena S, Bardelli A (2007) Oncogenic activation of the RAS/RAF signalling pathway impairs the response of metastatic colorectal cancer to antiepidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapies. Cancer Res 15, 2643-48. Berlin J, Posey J, Tchekmedyian S, Hu E, Chan D, Malik I, Yang L, Amado RG, Hecht JR (2007) Panitumumab with irinotecan/leucovorin/5-fluorouracil for first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer 6, 42732. Berlin J, Van Cutsem E, Peeters M, (2007) Predictive value of skin toxicity severity for response to panitumumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC): A pooled analysis of five clinical trials (Abst. 4134). J Clin Oncol 25, No 18S (June 20 Supplement). Busam KJ, Capodieci P, Motzer R, Kiehn T, Phelan D, Halpern AC (2001) Cutaneous side-effects in cancer patients treated with factor receptor antibody c225. Br J Dermatol 144, 1169-76. Chua YJ, Cunningham D (2006) Panitumumab. Drugs today 42, 711-19. Chung KY, Shia J, Kemeny NE, Shah M, Schwartz GK, Tse A, Hamilton A, Pan D, Schrag D, Schwartz L, Klimstra DS, Fridman D, Kelsen DP, Saltz LB (2005)Cetuximab shows activity in colorectal cancer patients with tumors that do not express the epidermal growth factor receptor by immunohistochemistry. J Clin Oncol. 23, 1803-10. Ciuleanu TE, Kurteva G, Ocvirk J, Beslija S, Koza I, Papamichael D, Vrbanec D, T. Brodowicz T, Scheithauer W, Zielinski CC (2008) A randomized, open-label CECOG phase II study evaluating the efficacy and safety of FOLFOX6 + cetuximab versus FOLFIRI + cetuximab as first-line therapy in patients (pts) with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) (Abstr 4032). J Clin Oncol 26, No 15S (May 20 Supplement). Cohenuram M, Saif MW (2007) Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition strategies in pancreatic cancer: past, present and the future. JOP 8, 4-15. Cohn AL, Smith DA, Neubauer MA, Houston G, Khandelwal P, Wiggans RG, Suzuki S, Yassine , Deeter R, Sikorski R (2008) Panitumumab (pmab) regimen evaluation in colorectal cancer to estimate primary response to treatment (PRECEPT): Effect of KRAS mutation status on second-line

due to several reasons as the rapid crossover study before the first tumor assessment and the high rate of patients in the panitumumab arm who had an unscheduled tumor evaluation before the first planned analysis. The addition of panitumumab to combination of irinotecan or oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab, as first line treatment (PACCE trial) have demonstrated no additive effect on PFS, even a shorter PFS in oxaliplatinum stratum, and an increased toxicity profiles for both combinations. However panitumumab efficacy in mCRC seem to be confined to wild type KRAS patients, indicating that KRAS status must be considered when selecting mCRC patients as candidates for this treatment. Finally confirmation of clinical benefit will be further required, and future research areas to investigate may be: the combination with other targeted agents, to test this drug in other setting of disease such as in curative settings, and to asses prospectively whether KRAS mutations may also influence response to panitumumab when combined to chemotherapeutic agents.

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Morse M, Chen HX (2007) Randomized phase II trial of cetuximab, bevacizumab, and irinotecan compared with cetuximab and bevacizumab alone in irinotecan-refractory colorectal cancer: the BOND-2 study. J Clin Oncol 25, 4557-61. Sartore-Bianchi A, Moroni M, Veronese S, Carnaghi C, Bajetta E, Luppi G, Sobrero A, Barone C, Cascinu S, Colucci G, Cortesi E, Nichelatti M, Gambacorta M, Siena S (2007) Epidermal growth factor receptor gene copy number and clinical outcome of metastatic colorectal cancer treated with panitumumab. J Clin Oncol 25, 3238-45. Schwartzberg LS, Hurwitz H, Stephenson J, Kotasek D, Goldstein D, Tebbutt N, McGreivy J, Y. Sun Y, Yang L, Burris H (2007) Safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of AMG 706 with panitumumab plus FOLFIRI or FOLFOX for the treatment of patients (pts) with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) (Abst 4081). J Clin Oncol 25, No 18S (June 20 Supplement). Shaheen RM, Ahmad SA, Liu W, Reinmuth N, Jung YD, Tseng WW, Drazan KE, Bucana CD, Hicklin DJ, Ellis LM (2001) Inhibited growth of colon cancer carcinomatosis by antibodies to vascular endothelial and epidermal growth factor receptors. Br J Cancer. 85, 584-89. Siena S, Peeters M, Van Cutsem E, Humblet Y, Conte P, Bajetta E, Comandini D, Bodoky G, Van Hazel G, Salek T, Wolf M, Devercelli G, Woolley M, Amado RG (2007) Association of progression-free survival with patient-reported outcomes and survival: results from a randomised phase 3 trial of panitumumab. Br J Cancer 97, 1469-74. Siena S, Tabernero J, Burkes RL, Cassidy J, Cunningham D, Barugel ME, Humblet Y, McPhie C, Shing M, Douillard J (2008) Phase III study (PRIME/20050203) of panitumumab (pmab) with FOLFOX compared with FOLFOX alone in patients (pts) with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC): Pooled safety data. (Abst 4034).! J Clin Oncol 26, No 15S (May 20 Supplement). Simmonds PC (2000) Palliative chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Colorectal Cancer Collaborative Group. BMJ 321, 531-35. Sobrero AF, Maurel J, Fehrenbacher L, Scheithauer W, Abubakr YA, Lutz MP, Vega-Villegas ME, Eng C, Steinhauer EU, Prausova J, Lenz HJ, Borg C, Middleton G, Kröning H, Luppi G, Kisker O, Zubel A, Langer C, Kopit J, Burris HA 3rd (2008)EPIC: phase III trial of cetuximab plus irinotecan after fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin failure in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 26, 2311-19. Souglakos J, Kalykaki A, Vamvakas L, Androulakis N, Kalbakis K, Agelaki S, Vardakis N, Tzardi M, Kotsakis AP, Gioulbasanis J, Tsetis D, Sfakiotaki G, Chatzidaki D, Mavroudis D, Georgoulias V (2007) Phase II trial of capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) plus cetuximab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who progressed after oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Ann Oncol 2007 18, 305-10. Tabernero J, Van Cutsem E, Díaz-Rubio E, Cervantes A, Humblet Y, André T, Van Laethem JL, Soulié P, Casado E, Verslype C, Valera JS, Tortora G, Ciardiello F, Kisker O, de Gramont A (2007) Phase II trial of cetuximab in combination with fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 25, 5225-32 Tejpar S, Peeters M, Humblet Y, Vermorken JB, De Hertogh G, De Roock W, Nippgen J, von Heydebreck A, Stroh C, Van Cutsem E (2008) Relationship of efficacy with "#$% status (wild type versus mutant) in patients with irinotecanrefractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), treated with irinotecan (q2w) and escalating doses of cetuximab (q1w):

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 489! The EVEREST experience (preliminary data) (Abstr 4001). J Clin Oncol 26, No 15S (May 20 Supplement). Tournigand C, AndrĂŠ T, Achille E, Lledo G, Flesh M, MeryMignard D, Quinaux E, Couteau C, Buyse M, Ganem G, Landi B, Colin P, Louvet C, de Gramont A (2004) FOLFIRI followed by FOLFOX6 or the reverse sequence in advanced colorectal cancer: A randomized GERCOR study. J Clin Oncol 22, 229-37. Van Cutsem E, Lang I, D'haens G, Moiseyenko V, Zaluski J, Folprecht G, Tejpar S, Kisker O, Stroh C, Rougier P (2008) KRAS status and efficacy in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treated with FOLFIRI with or without cetuximab: The CRYSTAL experience (Abst 2). J Clin Oncol 26, No 15S (May 20 Supplement). Van Cutsem E, Nowacki M, Lang I, Cascinu S, Shchepotin I, Maurel J, Rougier P, Cunningham D, Nippgen J, KĂśhne C (2007) Randomized phase III study of irinotecan and 5FU/FA with or without cetuximab in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC): The CRYSTAL trial (Abst 4000). J Clin Oncol 25, No 18S (June 20 Supplement). Van Cutsem E, Peeters M, Siena S, Humblet Y, Hendlisz A, Neyns B, Canon JL, Van Laethem JL, Maurel J, Richardson G, Wolf M, Amado RG (2007) Open-label phase III trial of panitumumab plus best supportive care compared with best supportive care alone in patients with chemotherapyrefractory metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 25, 1658-64. Van Cutsem E, Peeters M, Siena S, Humblet Y, Hendlisz A, Neyns B, Canon JL, Van Laethem JL, Wolf M, Amado RG (2007) A phase III randomized controlled trial of panitumumab (Pmab) in patients (pts) with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC): Subset analyses in elderly pts and in pts with poor performance status (Abst 349). Proceedings of the 2007 Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium, Orlando. Van Cutsem E, Siena S, Humblet Y, Canon JL, Maurel J, Bajetta E, Neyns B, Kotasek D, Santoro A, Scheithauer W, Spadafora S, Amado RG, Hogan N, Peeters M (2008) An open-label, single-arm study assessing safety and efficacy of

panitumumab in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy. Annals Oncol 19, 9298. Weiner LM, Belldegrun AS, Crawford J, Tolcher AW, Lockbaum P, Arends RH, Navale L, Amado RG, Schwab G, Figlin RA (2008) Dose and schedule study of panitumumab monotherapy in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Clin Cancer Res 14, 502-08. Yang XD, Jia XC, Corvalan JR,Wang P, Davis CG (2001) Development of ABX-EGF, a fully human anti-EGF receptor monoclonal antibody, for cancer therapy. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 38, 17-23. Yang XD, Jia XC, Corvalan JR,Wang P, Davis CG, Jakobovits A (1999) Eradication of established tumors by a fully human monoclonal antibody to the epidermal growth factor receptor without concomitant chemotherapy. Cancer Res 59,1236-43. Yarden Y, Sliwkowski MX (2001) Untangling the ErbB signalling network. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2, 127-37.

Cesare Gridelli

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 491! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 491-494, 2008

Extrathyroidal anaplastic transformation Case Report

Todd Swanson1, Senthilselvi Nanthakumar2, Samuel Bugis1, Sam M. Wiseman1,* 1

Department of Surgery, St. Paul’s Hospital & University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia,Canada Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, St. Paul’s Hospital & University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia,Canada 2

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Sam Wiseman, MD, FRCSC Department of Surgery, St. Paul’s Hospital, Burrard Bldg., Room C-303, 1081 Burrard St., Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y6. Canada; Tel: (604) 806-9108; Fax: (604) 806-9957; E-mail: smwiseman@providencehealth.bc.ca Key words: Extrathyroidal anaplastic transformation Abbreviations: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, (ATC); differentiated thyroid cancer, (DTC); papillary thyroid cancer, (PTC) Received: 29 April 2008; Revised: 14 July 2008 Accepted: 16 July 2008; electronically published: September 2008

Summary Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an uncommon and highly lethal endocrine malignancy. Accumulating clinical, pathological, and molecular evidence suggests that ATC represents the final end-point in the malignant progression of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Previous reports have described ATC identified in neck lymph nodes only at the time of recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancers (papillary, follicular, and Hürthle cell carcinoma). We report a case of ATC that presented as disease identified within cervical lymph nodes of an individual diagnosed with regionally metastatic papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). This individual’s treatment included thyroidectomy and unilateral selective neck dissection followed by postoperative radioactive Iodine-131 therapy and external beam radiation treatment. Four years following treatment this individual has remained disease free. This unique case of the synchronous presentation of a PTC primary tumor and ATC in neck nodal metastasis provides further clinical evidence to support the concept that ATC transforms from pre-existing DTC. It also illustrates a good outcome for ATC detected early and treated aggressively.

thyroid cancer. Papillary, follicular, and Hürthle cell thyroid carcinomas have all been identified in association with ATC. A review of the world literature reported that from 23% to 90% of ATC may have an associated DTC component (Wiseman et al, 2003). Japanese investigators have reported recurrences of DTC in cervical lymph nodes leads to the development of progressively more aggressive and undifferentiated thyroid tumor characteristics (Ozaki et al, 1999). In a cohort of 14 patients these authors demonstrated that 15% of nodal recurrence eventually exhibited anaplastic characteristics. Several other investigators have also reported ATC as being diagnosed in cervical lymph node recurrences following a previously treated DTC (Kapp et al, 1982; Mooradian et al, 1983). Follicular thyroid cancer resection, followed by a diagnosis of ATC in lung metastasis, has also been reported (Moore et al, 1985). Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with associated ATC has also been described in extra-thyroidal tissues including brachial cleft cysts (Togashi et al, 2004) and medial ectopic thyroid tissue (Nussbaum et al, 1981). Hürthle cell thyroid cancer with associated mediastinal ATC has also been reported (Mai et al, 2000). We were unable to

I. Introduction Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) represents one of the deadliest and most aggressive human malignancies. With widespread adoption of immunohistochemistry, ATC was histopathologically separated from medullary cancer and lymphoma of the thyroid in the 1980s (Holting et al, 1990). Historically, an ATC diagnosis implied a mean survival that ranged from 4 to 12 months and a dismal 5 year survival that ranged from 1.0% to 7.1% (Wiseman et al, 2003). Multimodal therapy, which includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, has recently improved ATC 3 year disease free survival (Crevoisier et al, 2004) in those individuals who can tolerate these aggressive treatment regimens. Cure is uncommon and with multimodal therapy ATC patients generally succumb to metastatic disease (Venkatesh and Ordonez, 1990). Traditionally mortality from ATC was secondary to locally advanced disease despite palliation with tracheostomy and/or tracheal stenting (Green and Mack, 2006). Accumulating clinical, pathological, and molecular evidence over the last two decades has supported the concept that ATC arises from pre-existing differentiated 491


Swanson et al: Extrathyroidal anaplastic transformation contained metastatic PTC. Two weeks later, the patient underwent a planned left selective left neck dissection for the palpable nodal metastases. Due to gross cancer involvement, the sternocleidomastoid muscle and internal jugular vein were resected, but the left accessory nerve was preserved. Pathologic evaluation revealed multiple cancer containing nodes. A matted mass of nodes replaced by metastatic PTC measured 4 cm x 2.5 cm x 2 cm in size. Within these level 2 neck nodes an associated focus of ATC was identified. The ATC was a spindle cell subtype (Figure 1). The metastatic PTC was positive for pancytokeratin and cytokeratin 19 immunostaining and the ATC focus was positive for pankeratin and vascular antigen CD31 and negative for cytokeratin19 and vascular markers Factor VIII and CD34 immunostaining. Postoperatively, the patient received 1850 MBq of Iodine-131 and 30 fractions of external beam radiation to his neck for a total dose of 60 Gy. A follow up radioactive iodine-123 scan carried out 1 month after completion of treatment did not demonstrate any evidence of residual disease. The patient was alive with no evidence of disease recurrence when followed up 4 years after treatment.

identify any prior reports of ATC being diagnosed in association with the nodal metastasis of a primary DTC at disease presentation.

II. Case Presentation A 68 year old male presented with a one year history of an enlarging left neck mass. His medical history was significant for a 10 year smoking history, coronary artery disease, WolffParkinson-White syndrome, and hypertension. He had no prior history of head and neck radiation exposure or family history of thyroid disease or cancer. Clinical examination revealed a firm 2.5 cm level 2 left neck mass and flexible nasopharyngoscopy revealed no mucosal abnormalities and normal vocal cord appearance and function. The patient subsequently underwent a fine needle aspiration of the left neck mass, which was diagnosed as metastatic PTC. A total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection was subsequently carried out and pathologic evaluation identified PTC (2 cm x 2 cm x 1.5 cm, follicular variant) arising from the left lobe of the thyroid and two of three lymph nodes removed

Figure 1. (A) Low power to contrast PTC (left) and adjacent anaplastic carcinoma (right) from lymph node metastasis. Scale for magnification at top for upper panel. (B) PTC (power 5 x "A"). (C) Anaplastic carcinoma (power 5x "A").

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 493! development of more effective treatments for individuals diagnosed with this fatal thyroid malignancy.

III. Discussion Currently, the incidence of ATC has been decreasing while the incidence of DTC is on the rise (Agrawal et al, 1996). There are several possible explanations for this observed decline which include: the decrease in incidence of endemic goiters due to adoption of iodized salt into the diets of developing countries, and earlier and more aggressive treatment of DTC (Are and Shaha, 2006). The incidence of DTC has been steadily increasing for greater than 10 years due to an increase in the number of newly diagnosed small PTC (Davies and Welsh, 2006). Survival rates of individuals diagnosed with ATC in association with a DTC may be better than for individuals diagnosed with ATC without a DTC component (Rodriguez and Pinero, 2000). Generally most long-term ATC survivors have their tumor incidentally noted in the specimen that was either resected for DTC or benign disease (Wiseman et al, 2003). This observation suggests that early initiation of therapy at a more critical junction in the malignant progression of the ATC may impact patient outcome. Accumulating molecular evidence has provided insight into the progression of ATC from DTC. Intrachromosomal changes identified utilizing inter-simplesequence-repeat polymerase chain reaction has provided evidence for anaplastic transformation (Wiseman et al, 2003). There is a higher incidence of mutations in the p53 gene in ATC when compared to DTC (Fagin et al, 1993). Wild type p53 antigen is undetectable in normal thyroid cells as well as most DTC (Donghi et al, 1993). Shingu and colleagues, reported in 2000 a DTC that transformed into ATC in a nodal recurrence and found that the DTC over expressed the p53 protein as did the ATC. Apart from p53, many genes and their products may be involved in the transformation of DTC into ATC. A recent study from our center evaluating 12 ATC cases, with associated DTC components, for a panel of 63 molecular markers; identified thyroglobulin, Bcl-2, MIB-1, E-cadherin, p53, ! -catenin, topoisomerase II-" , and vascular endothelial growth factor as being altered during the transformation process (Wiseman et al, 2007). Other markers that have been reported to be altered, and possibly involved in anaplastic transformation include: Met, c-myc, Nm23, ras, Cyclin D1, Cyclin E, Aurora A, Aurora C, uPA-R, and HER4 (Wiseman et al, 2003, 2007). Currently in-vivo and in-vitro studies evaluating molecular targeted therapy for ATC treatment show exciting potential for future clinical application (Kim and Prichard, 2006).

References Agrawal S, Rao R, Parikh E (1996) Histological trends in thyroid cancer 1969-1993: a clinico-pathologic analysis of the relative proportion of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. J Surg Onc 63, 251-255. Are C, Shaha A (2006) Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: biology, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment approaches. Ann Surg Onc 13, 453-464. Crevoisier R, Baudin E, Bachelot A (2004) Combined treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with surgery, chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated external radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60, 1137-1143. Davies L, Welsh G (2006) Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States1973-2002. JAMA 295, 2164- 2167. Donghi R, Longoni A, Pilotti S, Michieli P, Della Porta G, Pierotti MA (1993) Gene p53 mutations are restricted to poorly differentiated and undifferentiated carcinomas of the thyroid gland. J Clin Invest!91, 1753-1760. Fagin JA, Matsuo K, Karmakar A, Chen DL, Tang SH, Koeffler HP (1993) High Prevalence of Mutations of the p53 gene in poorly differentiated human thyroid carcinomas. J Clin Invest!91, 179-184. Green L, Mack L (2006) Anaplastic thyroid cancer and primary thyroid lymphoma: a review of these rare thyroid malignancies. J Surg Onc 94, 725-736. Hölting T, Möller P, Tschahargane C, Meybier H, Buhr H, Herfarth C (1990) Immunohistochemical reclassification of anaplastic carcinoma reveals small and giant cell lymphoma. World J Surg14, 291-295. Kapp D, Livolsi V, Sanders M (1982) Anaplastic carcinoma following well-differentiated thyroid cancer: etiological considerations. Yale J Biol Med 55, 521-528. Kim S, Prichard C (2006) Cetuximab and irinotecan interact synergistically to inhibit the growth of orthotic anaplastic thyroid carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. Clin Cancer Res 12, 600-607. Mai D, Mai K, Shamji F (2000) Fine needle aspiration biopsy of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma developing from a Hürthle cell tumor: a case report. Acta Cytol 45, 761-764. Mooradian AD, Allam CK, Khalil MF, Salti I, Salem PA (1983) Anaplastic transformation of thyroid cancer: report of two cases and review of the literature. J Surg Oncol 23, 95-98. Moore J, Bacharach B, Choi H (1985) Anaplastic transformation of metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. J Surg Onc 29, 216-221. Nussbaum M, Buchwald RP, Ribner A, Mori K, Litwins J (1981) Anaplastic carcinoma arising from median ectopic thyoid (thyroglossal duct remnant). Cancer!48, 2724-2728. Ozaki O, Ito K, Mimura T, Sugino K, Ito K (1999) Anaplastic transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma in recurrent disease in regional lymph nodes: A histological and immunohistochemical Study. J Surg Onc 70, 45-48. Rodriguez J, Pinero A (2000) Clinical and histological differences in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Euro J Surg 166, 34-38. Shingu K, Kobayashi S, Yokoyama S, Fujimori M, Asanuma K, Ito KI, Hama Y, Maruyama M, Kusama R, Amano J (2000) Likely transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma into anaplastic carcinoma during postoperative radioactive iodine131 therapy: report of a case. Surg Today 30, 910-913. Togashi S, Oka K, Kanayama R, Koyamatsu S, Tobita T, Yatabe Y, Matsumoto T, Hakozaki H (2004) Thyroid anaplastic

IV. Conclusions Ongoing molecular study may allow for identification of DTCs, which are at greatest risk of undergoing anaplastic transformation. More aggressive initial therapy of these ‘transformation prone’ tumors may further decrease the mortality due to ATC by preventing it from ever developing. Targeted therapeutic drugs are currently being applied to ATC and could build on the treatment benefits recently demonstrated using multimodal therapy. Our case illustrates how a good outcome in ATC can be accomplished with aggressive multimodal therapy. Overall, recent study of the transformation of DTC into ATC has offered insights that will be important for the 493


Swanson et al: Extrathyroidal anaplastic transformation carcinoma transformed from papillary carcinoma in extrathryoid areas!"Auris Nasus Larynx 31, 287-292. Venkatesh Y, Ordonez N (1990) Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. Cancer 66, 321-330. Wiseman S, Loree TL, Hicks WL (2003) Anaplastic thyroid cancer evolved from papillary carcinoma: demonstration of anaplastic transformation by means of the inter-simple sequence repeat polymerase chain reaction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 129, 96-100. Wiseman SM, Griffith OL, Deen S, Rajput A, Masoudi H, Gilks B, Goldstein L, Gown A, Jones SJ (2007) Identification of Molecular Markers Altered During Transformation of Differentiated Into Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma. Arch Surg 142, 717-727. Wiseman SM, Loree TR, Rigual NR, Hicks WL Jr, Douglas WG, Anderson GR, Stoler DL (2003) Anaplastic transformation of thyroid cancer: review of clinical, pathological, and molecular evidence provides new insights into disease biology and future therapy. Head Neck 25, 662-670.

Sam M. Wiseman

Wiseman SM, Masoudi H, Niblock P, Turbin D, Rajput A, Hay J, Bugis S, Filipenko D, Huntsman D, Gilks B (2007) Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Expression Profile of Targets for Therapy Offers New Insights for Disease Treatment. Ann Surg Onc14, 719-729.

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From here to eternity - the secret of Pharaohs: Therapeutic potential of black cumin seeds and beyond Review Article

Subhash Padhye, Sanjeev Banerjee, Aamir Ahmad, Ramzi Mohammad, Fazlul H Sarkar* Department of Pathology and Division of Internal Medicine, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI- 48201, USA

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Fazlul H Sarkar, Department of Pathology and Division of Internal Medicine, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Room-740 HWCRC Bldg., 110 E Warren, Detroit, MI 48201, USA; Tel: 313576-8327; Fax: 313-576-8389; E-mail: fsarkar@med.wayne.edu Key words: Thymoquinone, Chemoprevention, Chemotherapy Abbreviations: 1, 2-dimethyl hydrazine, (DMH); 2,2/-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), (ABTS); 2,2'-diphenyl-ppicrylhydrazyl, (DPPH); 20-methylcholanthrene, (MC); 5-fluorouracil, (5-FU); 5-lipooxynenase, (5-LOX); Advanced Glycation End Products, (AGEs); angiotensin II, (AT II); buthionine sulfoximine, (BSO); butylated hydroxytoluene, (BHT); carbon tetrachloride, (CCl4); chromosomal aberrations, (CAs); diabetes mellitus, (DM); dihydrothymoquinone, (DHTQ); dithymoquinone, (DTQ); Dithymoquinone, (TQ2, III); doxorubicin, (DOX); Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (EGCG); Experimental Allergic Encephalitis, (EAE); fibrosarcoma, (FsaR); Gentamicin, (GM); glutathione peroxidase, (GPx); glutathione, (GSH); High Performance Liquid Chromatography, (HPLC); hyperhomocysteinemia, (HHcy); interleukin-6, (IL-6); Leucotiriene-C4-synthase, (LT4synthase); leukotrienes, (LT); levo-dopa, (L-dopa); lipopolysaccharide, (LPS); Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka, (LETO); malondialdehyde (MDA); median inhibitory concentration, (IC50); mitogen-activated protein kinases, (MAPKs); multi-drug resistant, (MDR); Multiple Sclerosis, (MS); N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl esters, (l-NAME); N-Acetyl Glucosamine, (NAG); nitrate/nitrite, (NOx); nitric oxide, (NO); nuclear factor kappa B, (NF-! B); Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty, (OLETF); ovalbumin, (OVA); polobox domain, (PBD); Pololike kinase 1, (Plk1); proximal tubular epithelial cells, (pTECs); proximal tubular epithelial cells, (pTECs); quinone-reductase, (QR); reactive nitrogen species, (RNS); squamous cell carcinoma, (SCC VII); streptozotocin, (STZ); superoxide dismutase, (SOD); tert-butyl hydroperoxide, (TBHP); tert-butylhydroquinone, (TBHQ); Thin Layer Chromatography, (TLC); thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, (TBARS); Thymohydroquinone, (THQ); Thymoquinone, (I); thymoquinone, (TQ) Received: 23 July 2008; Revised: 22 August 2008 Accepted: 25 August 2008; electronically published: September 2008

Summary Over many centuries humans have been mining the bounties of nature for discovering substances that have been used for the treatment of all human diseases; many such remedies are useful even today as modern day medicine. Emerging evidence also suggests that the search is still continuing for harnessing active compounds from nature in combating human illnesses although pharmaceutical industries are equally active for synthesizing small molecule compounds as novel therapeutics. The lesson learned over many centuries clearly suggests that further sophisticated search for finding compounds from natural resources together with robust characterization and chemical synthesis will lead to the discovery of novel drugs that may have high therapeutic efficacy against all human diseases including cancer. Black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) oil extracts have been used for many centuries for the treatment of many human illnesses, and more recently the active compound found in black seed oil, viz. thymoquinone (TQ) has been tested for its efficacy against several diseases including cancer. However, further research is needed in order to assess the full potential of TQ as a chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent against cancers. Here, we have summarized what is known regarding the value of black seed oil and its active compound TQ, and how this knowledge will help us to advance further research in this field by creating awareness among scientists and health professionals in order to appreciate the medicinal value of TQ and beyond.

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Padhye et al: Chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of Thymoquinone! yellow, pink, pale blue or pale purple, with 5-10 petals. The fruit is a capsule composed of several united follicles, each containing numerous seeds while in some species (e.g. !"#$%%&'4&-&(/$.&), the capsule is large and inflated. The parts of the plant most commonly used for the therapeutic purposes in the “Alternative Medicinal” systems are the seeds (Figure 1B) which are contained in an inflated capsule formed from the united follicles containing considerable amount of oil having pungent and bitter taste. Commonly the seeds are used primarily as a spice and food preservative. In folk medicinal practices they are ingested with food or mixed with honey and are primarily used as lactogogues, carminitative and antihelmnthic agents. The seeds have also been used as diuretics, anti-hypertensive, muscle relaxants and as immunity enhancers in immune-compromised people. Importantly, the seeds have been reported to be safe when used orally in moderate amount in food (DerMarderosian. et al, 2005). They have been shown to stimulate uterine contractions when used in large amounts, leading to abortion (Aqel and Shaheen, 1996). There are reports that the oil from the seeds can be used to treat dermatitis topically (Zedlitz et al, 2002). Several beneficial pharmacological effects have been attributed to various crude or purified components of these seeds including antihistaminic (Chakravorty, 1993), antihypertensive (Zaoui et al, 2000), hypoglycemic (Al-Hader et al, 1993), antifungal (Khan et al, 2003), anti-inflammatory (AlGhamdi, 2001) along with significant anti-neoplastic (Worthen et al, 1998) activities. These studies collectively provide early indication that further development of agents derived from black cumin seeds could be useful in modern medicine.

I. Introduction Out of the several accompanying articles found in the tomb of Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamen were the seeds of Black cumin [!"#$%%&' (&)"*&; (Zohary and Hopf, 2001)] not to be mistaken with common cumin seed (+,-".,-' /0-".,-). It is a spice that grows in the Mediterranean region and in Western Asian countries including India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The historical references to these seeds are also found in some of the oldest religious and medical texts. For example, it is referred to as ‘Melanthion’ by Hippocrates and Dioscorides, while the Bible describes it as the ‘curative black cumin’ (Isaiah 28:25, 27 NKJV). It is, therefore, no wonder that they were thought to be worthy accompaniments in the ‘From Life here to Eternity’ by the pharaoh as described earlier. The black cumin herb goes by many different names. For example, in old Latin it is called as ‘Panacea’ meaning ‘cure all’ while in Arabic it is termed as ‘Habbah Sawda’ or ‘Habbat el Baraka’ translated as ‘Seeds of blessing’. In India it is called as Kalonji while in China it is referred as Hak Jung Chou (Aggarwal et al, 2008). The plant belongs to the 1&.,./,%&/$&$' family of flowering plants and genus of about 14 species including !"#$%%&' &2*$.("(3 !"#$%%&' /"%"&2"(3' !"#$%%&' 4&-&(/$.$3' !"#$%%&' 5"(6&."/&3' !"#$%%&' ".)$#2"78%"&3' !"#$%%&' ."#$%%&()2,-3' !"#$%%&' 82"$.)&%"(' &.4' !"#$%%&' (&)"*&3' 2$(6$/)"*$%0. Among these, !"#$%%&' (&)"*& is the species most exhaustively investigated for therapeutic purposes although other species have also been implicated for therapeutic uses (Aggarwal et al, 2008). The species grow to 20-30 cm tall, with finely divided leaves wherein the leaf segments are narrowly linear to threadlike (Figure 1A). The flowers are white,

Figure-1. (A) Morphological features of !"#$%%&'(&)"*&'plant, and (B) black cumin seeds containing oil having Thymoquinone (TQ) as the active principle.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 497!

A. Chemistry of the active compounds found in black seed extracts

constituents in the oil including TQ and Thymohydroquinone (THQ, termed ‘Nigellone’ by earlier workers) depends upon storage conditions. This is an important reminder to the researchers using oil as a source of test substance in various biological assays because such results may include a factor of variability depending upon the source and storage conditions of the Black seed oil. A HPLC method for quantifying the putative pharmacologically active constituents: TQ, DTQ (dithymoquinone), THQ, and thymol (THY), in the oil of !"#$%%&'(&)"*& seed has been described earlier (Ghosheh et al, 1999) employing a reversed-phase C18 analytical column and by using an isocratic mobile phase of water:methanol:2-propanol (50:45:5% v/v) at a flow rate of 2 ml min-1 and UV detection at 254 nm for TQ, DTQ, and THY, and at 294 nm for THQ. This method provides a good quality control methodology for the pharmacologically active components in these widely used !"#$%%&' (&)"*& extracts as a natural remedy for many human illnesses. Although TQ has been investigated presently for determining its therapeutic potential, the other constituents of !"#$%%&' (&)"*& seed oil also deserve further investigation for assessing their therapeutic value. Chemically, TQ belongs to 2, 5-di-substituted benzoquinone class of compounds having methyl and isopropyl groups at C-2 and C-5 positions, respectively. The compound can be readily prepared in gram quantities by oxidation of thymol as shown previously (Dockal et al, 1955). Since many of the biological activities of TQ largely originate from its antioxidant properties, the electrochemical characteristics are important. Michelitsch and Rittmannsberger (Michelitsch and Rittmannsberger, 2003) have described the polarographic behavior of TQ in Sörensen buffer: methanol (3:7, v/v; pH 8.5) and have found that the compound exhibits a single, reversible peak at dropping mercury electrode at -0.095 V vs. Ag/AgCl electrode. This perhaps can explain its facile interconversion under biological environment leading to its antioxidant nature. The polarographic method can be applied to determine TQ in black seed oil preparations where the limit of detection has been calculated to be 0.05µg/ml.

Most of the earlier studies on this plant involved use of either the seeds or the oil extracted from it. For example, the ethanol extract of !"#$%%&' (&)"*& seeds has been shown to possess antitumor activity as well as lifespan expanding activity in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by Musa and co-workers (Musa et al, 2004). Benkaci-Ali and co-workers (Benkaci-Ali et al, 2006) investigated different methods of extracting oil from !"#$%%&' (&)"*& and found that microwave extraction gave the best results in terms of reduction of extraction time and better yield in obtaining higher amounts of oil, and this is particularly significant since microwave extraction is a green technique reducing environmental burden. The chemical composition of the black !"#$%%&'(&)"*& seed is diverse and contains amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, fixed and volatile oils, alkaloids, saponins and many other compounds. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) screening of the oil samples showed the presence of four main components, viz. thymoquinone, carvacrol, tanethole and 4-terpineol, which demonstrated respectable radical scavenging property. These four constituents and the essential oil possessed variable antioxidant activity when tested in the 2,2'-diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay for non-specific hydrogen atom or electron donation. The oil samples showed variable antioxidant activity which was ascribed mainly to the variable composition of these constituents (Abou Basha et al, 1995). According to the common practices of ‘evidencebased herbal medicine’, the bioactive constituents of the volatile oil of black seed (54%) were identified by ElDakhakhany in 1963 showing that Thymoquinone (I) or, in short, TQ was the main active constituent of volatile oil of the black seed although it is accompanied by other analogous compounds such as Thymol (II) and Thymoquinone dimer named as Dithymoquinone (TQ2, III) (Figure 2). Ghosheh et al. (Ghosheh et al, 1999) carried out High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the oil of !"#$%%&' (&)"*& using the isocratic mobile phase of water-methanol-2-propanol (50:45:5 %v/v) which revealed that the concentration of different

Figure-2. Chemical structures of Thymoquinone, Thymol and Dithymoquinone.

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Padhye et al: Chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of Thymoquinone! Additionally, it was able to produce significant reductions in hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase. It has been shown that TQ could inhibit iron-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation efficiently in rats with doxorubicin-induced hyperlipidemic nephropathy (Badary et al, 2000). The compound was observed to decrease cellular oxidative stress by inducing glutathione in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in female Lewis rats (Mohamed et al, 2003). Multiple epidemiological studies have shown that a high intake of antioxidant rich foods is inversely related to cancer risk (Borek, 2004). Recent experimental and clinical studies have implicated oxidative stress in the development and progression of different cancers (Kim et al, 2004; Pathak et al, 2005). Present findings suggest that TQ has a potent chemopreventive potential of inhibiting the process of carcinogenesis by modulating lipid peroxidation and cellular antioxidant milieu (Badary, et al, 1999; Badary et al, 2007). Wilson and co-workers (Wilson-Simpson et al, 2007) have analyzed the effect of low and high doses of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), Selenium, and TQ on ES-2 ovarian cells at 24, 48, and 72 h in terms of morphology, cell count, and biochemical markers. During this phase I study, experimental groups were administered physiological doses of specific antioxidants, EGCG, selenium, and TQ. Selenium exhibited the largest effect on biochemical assays. Analysis of collected data showed that the antioxidants suppress metabolic activity, alter behavioral responses, and cause molecular damage. However, it has not been shown that the use of antioxidants results in total destruction of ES-2 ovarian cancer cells. Norwood et al. (Norwood et al, 2007) further confirmed the effects of sustained drug delivery of TQ, EGCG and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on the metabolic activity as well as structural changes in the SW-626 human colon cancer cells. Their results indicate that the sustained drug delivery of EGCG and TQ induces significant cellular destruction and interference of cellular metabolic functions which are comparable with damages caused by sustained drug delivery of 5-FU. Morphological cellular changes occurring at 24 h after exposure to these two agents are also comparable to those caused by 5-FU. Whether these results are indicative of a safer alternative to 5-FU using natural photochemicals remains to be seen and thus further in-depth investigations are needed. Sayed-Ahmed and co-worker (Sayed-Ahmed and Nagi, 2007) have investigated the possible protective effects of TQ against Gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity. Supplementation with TQ resulted in significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), and increased levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and ATP, and a complete reversal of the GM-induced increase in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and total nitrate/nitrite (NOx), and decrease in GSH, GPx, CAT and ATP to control values. Histopathological examination of kidney tissues confirmed the biochemical data wherein TQ supplementation prevents GM-induced degenerative changes in kidney tissues, suggesting that these effects, at

Khalife and Lupidi (Khalife and Lupidi, 2007) have found that TQ reacts with GSH, NADH and NADPH chemically. Such reactions occurring under the physiological conditions clearly indicate the formation of two products, viz. glutathione dihydrothymoquinone after rapid reaction with GSH and dihydrothymoquinone (DHTQ) after slow reaction with NADH and NADPH, respectively. Measurement of antioxidant activity of the reduced compounds against organic radicals such as 2,2/azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and DPPH revealed a potential scavenging activity for glutathionyl-dihydrothymoquinone similar to that of DHTQ while TQ showed lower scavenging activities. It is interesting to note that these compounds exhibit antioxidant capacity equivalent to Trolox which is considered as a standard antioxidant compound. These results indicate a possible intracellular non-enzymatic activation of TQ dependent upon GSH, NADH and NADPH representing perhaps the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;cellular switchâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; for modulating cellular antioxidant defenses. The crystal structure of TQ was determined by Pagola and colleagues in 2004 using high-resolution powder diffraction which indicated that it belongs to the triclinic system with Z = 2 and space group P . The thermal analysis performed on the crystals indicated that weak van der Walls forces are present in the molecules in the solid state and that only one crystalline system exists in the compound. Availability of this crystal structure opens up the possibility of using it for molecular modeling in various protein ligands.

B. Biological Activities of TQ Amongst the various bioactivities examined for TQ or the extracts of black seed oil, most are concerned with the anticancer or the antioxidant potential although only few have shown a direct correlation between the two. Several possible targets have been suggested for the observed activities and yet there seems to be no unique target. In this connection recent studies reported by Kaseb et al. have indicated effects of TQ on cell cycle regulatory and proapoptotic proteins in prostate cancer cells (Kaseb et al, 2007), and more recent studies have documented the cancer cell specific effects of TQ affecting multiple targets (Sethi et al, 2008; Yi et al, 2008; Aggarwal et al, 2008), suggesting that TQ deserves further in-depth investigations for delineating its role as an anticancer agent. Moreover, a few studies have been devoted to antiinflammatory properties and they obviously have connotations to the anti-cancer activities of TQ and thus prompt further in-depth investigation as indicated below.

1. Antioxidant Activity TQ has been shown to exhibit antioxidant property through different mechanisms in several recent reports. For example, it inhibits the production of 5-hydroxyeicosa-tetraenaoic as well as 5-lipoxygenase products (ElDakhakhny et al, 2002), both of which are required for the viability of colon cancer cells. It was shown to work as a scavenger of various reactive oxygen species including superoxide radical anion and hydroxyl radicals (Kruk et al, 2000; Mansour et al, 2002; Badary et al, 2003). 498


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 499! mg/kg). The smaller dose of TQ (5 mg/kg) produced partial protection, which clearly suggests that the effects of TQ could be partly due to its antioxidant activity. Mansour and co-workers have studied in 2002 the effects of TQ on antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and DT-diaphorase in hepatic, cardiac and kidney tissues of normal mice. Treatment with the different doses of TQ produced significant reductions in hepatic SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities although neither produced any change in GST activity nor influenced reduced glutathione content in any of the tissues studied. These differences were attributed to varying concentrations of DT-diphorase enzyme present in different tissues; highest being in the hepatic tissues which was responsible for the reduction of TQ to DHTQ. These results revealed that TQ and DHTQ acted not only as superoxide anion scavengers but as general free radical scavengers. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for TQ and DHTQ in biochemical and photochemical assays were in the nanomolar and micromolar ranges, respectively. These authors have suggested that the reported beneficial !"#$!$' protective effects of TQ are likely to be through the combined antioxidant properties of both compounds, which needs further confirmatory studies. Badary and Gamal have studied in 2001 the inhibitory effects of TQ against 20-methylcholanthrene (MC)-induced fibrosarcoma tumorigenesis where the compound delayed the onset of MC-induced fibrosarcoma tumors that appeared at 12 weeks and produced less MC-induced mortality. Compound alone showed a significant induction in the enzyme activities of hepatic GST and quinonereductase (QR). Mice treated with TQ along with MC showed reduction in hepatic lipid peroxides and increased GSH content and increased enzyme activities of GST and QR compared to the control group. The IC50 value for TQ against fibrosarcoma cells was found to be 15 ÂľM, indicating its potential as a powerful chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent. The effects of TQ on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)induced hepatotoxicity have been investigated in male Swiss albino mice by Nagi and colleagues in 1999 (Nagi et al, 1999). Oral administration of TQ in a single dose (100 mg/Kg) resulted in a significant protection against the hepatotoxic effects of CCl4. When tested as a substrate for mice hepatic DT-diaphorase in the presence of NADH, TQ was found to undergo reduction to DHTQ which turned out to be more potent than TQ and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The IC50 values for DHTQ, TQ and BHT were found to be 0.34, 0.87 and 0.58 ÂľM, respectively. The data suggests that the protective action of TQ against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity may be mediated through the combined antioxidant properties of TQ and its metabolite DHTQ. The influence of TQ on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced hyperlipidemic nephropathy and oxidative stress in rats has been examined by al-Shabanah and colleagues in 1998. Treatment with TQ significantly suppressed DOXinduced proteinuria, albuminuria, and urinary excretion of N-Acetyl Glucosamine (NAG) which confirmed the involvement of free radicals in the pathogenesis of nephropathy induced by DOX. The study suggested that

least in part, may be related to the ability of TQ to modulate cellular oxidative stress. The protective effects of TQ have been assessed by Khattab and Nagi in 2007 in rats after chronic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis with N (omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl esters (l-NAME). Treatment with TQ decreased the elevated creatinine and increased GSH levels compared to normal levels and inhibited the !"# $!%&' production of superoxide radicals in enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, thus offering protection against l-NAME-induced hypertension and renal damage possibly via antioxidant activity of TQ. Both (!)*++,# -,%!$, oil and TQ can partly protect gastric mucosa from acute alcohol-induced mucosal injury which is partly ascribed to their radical scavenging activity (Kanter et al, 2005). The gastroprotective activity of (!)*++,# -,%!$, oil and TQ against gastric mucosal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion in rats was also investigated by El-Abhar and co-workers (El-Abhar et al, 2003) who found that both agents offer protection against the gastric lesions and these might be related to the conversion of the gastric mucosal redox state. Interestingly, Farah and colleagues in 2005 have compared the effects of the water soluble and lipid soluble fractions of Black seed and pure TQ on A549 cells in culture for 24, 48 and 72 h wherein the cell number was found to decrease and remained so for the duration of the study. The water soluble fraction showed a trend similar to TQ but the ethanol fraction showed a negative shift in cell number at 48 h when compared with the control. This is contrary to the expectation that lipid soluble TQ shall accompany the ethanol fraction and hence needs further corroboration from the HPLC profiles of both the fractions, which clearly suggests further in-depth investigation. The state of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) appears to be associated with higher risks of coronary, cerebral and peripheral vascular diseases as well as a number of other clinical conditions and is thought to be capable of inducing a pathogenic state of oxidative stress although its underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully elucidated. El-Saleh and co-workers (El-Saleh et al, 2004) have shown that active antioxidant components of black seeds of (!)*++,#-,%!$, plants are capable of rendering protection against the development of methionine-induced HHcy and its associated state of oxidative stress. Pre-treatment of rats with an oral dose of 100 mg/kg of TQ for 30 min and for one week provided complete protection against induced HHcy after methionine load (100 mg/kg). Under the state of induced HHcy, there were significant increases in the plasma levels of triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and cholesterol as well as in the activities of glutathione peroxidase and SOD although catalase activity was not affected. The total antioxidant status was significantly depressed. All of these effects were almost totally blocked by the prior treatment with TQ. Mahgoub has investigated in 2003 the effects of TQ on acetic acid-induced (intracolonic injection of 3% acetic acid) colitis in rats. The study showed that pre-treatment of rats for 3 days with TQ (10 mg/kg) was able to give complete protection against acetic acid-induced colitis as against the control group treated with significantly higher dose of sulfasalazine (500

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Padhye et al: Chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of Thymoquinone! lead to a delay in cancer progression and may improve patient’s morbidity and mortality as well. Arachidonic acid is another example of a major precursor of several classes of signal transduction molecules whose metabolism is altered significantly in human carcinogenesis. For example, it has been well established that 5-lipooxynenase (5-LOX) converts arachidonic acid to hydroxyl-eicosaterraenoic acids or leukotrienes (LT) which, in turn, enhance proliferation and survival and suppress apoptosis of human cells. It may, therefore, be expected that inhibition of 5-LOX protein may lead to apoptosis (Hoque et al, 2005). As a result, potential of TQ in suppressing inflammation through inhibition of leukotrienes constitutes a very active area of research at the present time. The compound is reported to be a potent inhibitor of leukotrienes formation in human blood cells (Mansour and Tornhamre, 2004). The inhibitory effect was found to be dose as well as time-dependent, and the effect was exerted on both 5-lipooxgenase and Leucotiriene-C4-synthase (LT4synthase) activity (Mansour and Tornhamre, 2004). In another study (Mahgoub, 2003), the rats pre-treated with oral TQ doses showed complete protection against acetic acid-induced colitis compared to sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) control group wherein TQ was found to suppress the production of NO by macrophages which is useful in ameliorating the inflammatory and autoimmune conditions (El-Mahmoudy et al, 2002). El-Dakhakhny and co-workers have evaluated in 2002 the effects of (!)*++,# -,%!$, oil, TQ and polythymoquinone (Nigellone) on the synthesis of 5-LOX products from polymorphonuclear leukocytes from rats. TQ inhibited the production of 5-LOX products (IC50= 0.26 mg/ml) and 5-HETE production (IC50=0.36 mg/ml) which may be ascribed to its antioxidant potential. These observations explain the traditional use of (!)*++,# -,%!$, oil for ameliorating inflammatory conditions in various folk medicinal systems. El-Gazzar et al, reported in 2007 that TQ inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in RBL-2H3 cells by blocking GATA transcription factor expression and promoter binding, which demonstrates its anti-inflammatory effect (ElGazzar et al, 2007). The compound inhibits LPS-induced IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA expression as well as protein production but not the production of IL-10. Since LTs are important mediators in asthma and inflammatory processes, the effects of TQ on leukotriene formation were studied in human blood cells by Mansour and his coworker in 2004 found that it provoked a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of both LTC4 and LTB4 formation from endogenous substrate in human granulocyte suspensions with IC50 values of 1.8 and 2.3 µM, respectively, at 15 min. Their major inhibitory effect was on the 5-lipoxygenase activity (IC50=3µM) as evidenced by suppressed conversion of exogenous arachidonic acid into 5-HETE in sonicated polymorphonuclear cell suspensions. Staurosporine, which is an unselective protein kinase inhibitor, failed to prevent inhibition of LTC4 synthase activity induced by TQ which clearly indicates that the compound indeed inhibits the

TQ might be applicable as a protective agent against proteinuria and hyperlipidemia associated with nephrotic syndrome. The cardio toxicity of the widely used antitumor agent, Doxorubicin, has been suggested to result from the generation of oxygen free radicals. These workers observed that TQ offers protection against doxorubicin-induced cardio toxicity without compromising its antitumor activity. This finding was based on significant reductions in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase elevated levels, and further supplemented by histopathological examination of cardiac tissue. The compound did not alter the plasma and heart DOX levels as monitored by fluorometric analysis. TQ has also been tested in isolated rat hepatocytes as a hepatoprotective agent against the toxicity inflicted by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) by Daba and AbdelRahman in 1998 and compared against the protection offered by known hepatoprotective agent, silybin. Although both compounds prevented TBHP-induced depletion of GSH to the same extent, degree of protection by TQ against the liver enzyme leakage was less than that by silybin. The antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects of TQ and a synthetic structurally-related compound, viz. tertbutylhydroquinone (TBHQ), were examined !"# $!%&' by Badary et al. (Badary et al, 2003). Both compounds efficiently inhibited iron-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 16.8 and 14.9 µM, respectively. TBHQ was stronger than TQ as a scavenger of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals whereas TQ was more active than TBHQ as a superoxide anion scavenger. Only TBHQ significantly promoted DNA damage in the bleomycin-Fe (III) system. These results suggest that both compounds have strong antioxidant potentials although TQ acts mainly as a potent superoxide anion scavenger. Moreover, Al-Majed and co-workers (Al-Majed et al, 2006) have evaluated the neuroprotective effect of TQ against transient forebrain ischemia-induced neuronal damage in the rat hippocampus. The pre-treatment of ischemic rats with the compound decreased the elevated levels of MDA and increased GSH, catalase and SOD activities to normal levels. TQ and its reduced product, THQ, inhibited the !"# $!%&' non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in hippocampal homogenate induced by ironascorbate. The IC50 for TQ and THQ were found to be 12 and 3 µM respectively. This spectacular protection makes TQ a promising agent in pathologies implicating neurodegenaration such as cerebral ischemia.

2. Anti-inflammatory Chemopreventive Activity of TQ

and

Inflammation has been known to produce proinflammatory cytokines and diverse reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) creating pre-disposition to various patho-physiological disorders such as Cohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis (Greenstein et al, 1979; Ekbom et al, 1990; D'Haens et al, 1993; Brentnall et al, 1996; Krok and Lichtenstein, 2004), gastric helicobacter pylori infection (Crowe, 2005), and colorectal adenocarcinoma (Ekbom et al, 1990; Nielsen et al, 2005). Intervention in the inflammatory cascade can 500


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 501! neurodegeneration in hippocampus after chronic toluene exposure in rats. Treatment with TQ caused morphologic improvement on neurodegeneration indicating necessity of further preclinical research in this area. The author has also studied the effects of same compounds on histopathological changes of sciatic nerves in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (Kanter, 2008a). The histopathological evaluation of the tissues in diabetic animals treated with these compounds showed fewer morphological alterations. Myelin breakdown decreased significantly after treatment with both. The ultra-structural features of axons also showed remarkable improvement. These results suggest that further preclinical research may be able to highlight the advantages of using these agents as a potential treatment on peripheral neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats. McDermott and co-workers have assessed in 2008 the chemoprotective potential of two antioxidants, EGCG and TQ, against n-hexane toxicity in terms of increase in ROS formation with a corresponding decrease in Jurkat Tcell proliferation since n-Hexane is an important industrial solvent and ambient air pollutant. Treatment of cells with EGCG, at a concentration reached in plasma, reduced the ROS formation caused by exposure to n-hexane and inhibited the decrease in cell proliferation. Similar effects were obtained with TQ. Both the compounds were able to significantly reduced n-hexane-induced LDH leakage to the control levels. As indicated earlier, NF-! B is a molecular target of TQ (Sethi et al, 2008), and further studies by Mohamed and colleagues in 2005 showed the effects of TQ on the inhibition of activation of NF-! B in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the rat model of multiple sclerosis. The encephalomyelitis was induced in Lewis rats by injecting myelin basic protein emulsified in complete Freundâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s adjuvant. Several clinical and biochemical parameters including activation of NF-! B were determined to assess the degree of protection. TQ was able to counter peri-vascular cuffing and infiltration of mononuclear cells in the brain and spinal cord, increase the red blood cell glutathione, and inhibit the activation of NF-! B in the brain and spinal cord. These results clearly provide some early indication that many of the biological activity of TQ could in part be due to inactivation of NF! B and its downstream genes. Collectively, these results suggest that NF-! B is a molecular target of TQ among many other legitimate targets. Moreover, El-Gazzar and colleagues have investigated in 2007 the effect of TQ on LPS-induced TNF-" production in the rat basophil cell line, RBL-2H3 (El Gazzar et al, 2007). The administration of TQ to LPSstimulated cells did not noticeably alter NF-! B cytosolic activation or nuclear expression as demonstrated by western blot analysis. Instead, the compound significantly increased the amount of the repressive NF-! B p50 homodimer and simultaneously decreased the amount of transactivating NF-! B p65:p50 heterodimer, bound to the TNF-" promoter as revealed by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. These results suggest that TQ attenuates the pro-inflammatory response in LPS-stimulated mast cells by modulating

formation of leukotrienes in human blood cells (Mansour and Tornhamre, 2004). The anti-inflammatory activity of Black cumin seed oil has also been evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil-induced ear edema in mice by Hajhashemi and colleagues in 2004. Although oral administration of the oil at doses of 100, 200 and 400 Âľl/kg did not exert a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the carrageenan test, the intraperitoneal injection of the same doses significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema (Hajhashemi et al, 2004). The oil could also reduce croton oil-induced edema at smaller doses and was found to produce a significant analgesic effect in acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and light tail flick tests. It seems that mechanism other than opioid receptors is involved in the analgesic effect of the oil since naloxone, an opioid antagonist, could not reverse this effect. Being one of the major components of the oil (13.5%), TQ obviously has an important role in these pharmacological effects. Experimental Allergic Encephalitis (EAE) is a Tcell mediated autoimmune disease, which resembles the human disease of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in rodents. The infiltration of inflammatory cells and the induction of astrocyte proliferation correlate with the severity of the disease. Since oxidative stress has been postulated as the causative factor of initiation and progression of MS, the amelioration of the inflammation by TQ was examined by El-Gouhary and colleagues in 2005 who showed potent effects, which were thought to occur via induction of glutathione (El-Gouhary et al, 2005). El-Gazzar and colleagues has investigated in 2005 whether TQ affects Th2 cytokine response !"# $!%&' in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated rat mast cells. TQ significantly inhibited LPS-induced IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA expression and protein production but did not affect IL-10 production probably by blocking GATA transcription factor expression (El-Gazzar et al, 2005). The inhibitory effects of TQ on activation of the redoxsensitive transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF! B) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were studied !"# $!%&' (Sayed and Morcos 2007). Human proximal tubular epithelial cells (pTECs) in vitro were cultivated and stimulated with Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) and the effects of TQ were studied. A significant reduction of AGEinduced NF-! B-activation and IL-6 expression was observed in Human proximal tubular epithelial cells (pTECs) cultivated and stimulated with AGEs. Sayed studied in 2008 the effect of angiotensin II (AT II) on proximal tubular epithelial cells (pTECs) !"# $!%&'. AT II has been found to activate NF-! B and its controlled genes, IL-6, in a time-dependent manner wherein the first point of maximum NF-! B activation occurs after 12 h and the second after 3.5 days, respectively (Sayed 2008). TQ was found to decrease NF! B activation in a dose-dependent manner with maximum inhibitory effect at a concentration of 500nM. Preincubation of pTECs with TQ leads to disappearance of the second peak of NF-! B. These data suggest the therapeutic value of TQ in delaying end stage renal diseases in diabetics. Kanter has investigated in 2008 the possible beneficial effects of Black seed oil and TQ on

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Padhye et al: Chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of Thymoquinone! documented by multiple observations. For example, the p53 knockout-mice invariably develop spontaneous tumors within first 6 months of life highlighting the protective role played by p53 against cancer (el-Deiry et al, 1993). Although virtually all human tumors deregulate either the pRB or p53 pathway or sometimes both, the unique effects of TQ on p53 protein clearly warrant further studies in determining the precise molecular targets of TQ (Yamasaki, 2003). Moreover, TQ induced growth inhibition in spindle carcinoma cells by inducing G2/M cell-cycle arrest which was associated with an increase in p53 expression and down-regulation of cyclin B1 protein. It is worth mentioning that p53 can regulate the G2/M transition through either induction of p21 or 14-3-3 , a protein that normally sequesters cyclin B1-Cdc2 complexes in the cytoplasm, ultimately leading to the induction of apoptosis (Yonish-Rouach et al, 1991; Shaw et al, 1992; Hermeking et al, 1997; Bunz et al, 1998). These limited studies further suggest that it would be highly desirable to investigate the effects of TQ on other proteins that are involved in G2-M transition in order to delineate the molecular mechanism(s) by which TQ may function as an inhibitor of cell cycle progression and thus as an anti-tumor agent. Having shown that TQ is an anti-cellular and antineoplastic drug that induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells, Roepke and colleagues have evaluated in 2007 the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of TQ in two human osteosarcoma cell lines with different p53 mutation status. Cell viability was reduced more selectively in MG63 tumor cells than in normal human osteoblasts. Flow cytometric analysis showed that TQ induced a much greater increase in the Pre-G1 (apoptotic) cell population, but no cell cycle arrest in MG63 cells. G2/M arrest in MNNG/HOS cells was associated with p21WAF1 up-regulation. Using three DNA damage assays, the compound was confirmed to induce greater extent of apoptosis in p53 null MG63 cells. Although the Bax/Bcl-2 ratios were not differentially modulated in both cell lines, the mitochondrial pathway appeared to be involved in apoptosis induced by TQ in MG63 by showing the cleavage of caspases-9 and -3, respectively. Since TQ was found to induce p53independent apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells, it suggests the potential clinical usefulness of TQ for the treatment of these malignancies. The serine/threonine kinase Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is over-expressed in many types of human cancers, and has been implicated as an adverse prognostic marker. Plk1 localizes to its intracellular anchoring sites via its polobox domain (PBD). Reindl and colleagues have reported in 2008 that TQ and its synthetic C-1 imino analog, Poloxin, are good inhibitors of Plk 1 PBD !"# $!%&' and cause deregulation of its cellular localization, chromosomal defects, mitotic arrest and apoptosis in HeLa cells (Reindl et al, 2008). These results provide early indication as to the value of further research into the development of synthetic analogs of TQ as anticancer agents. Ivankovic and colleagues have investigated in 2006 the anti-tumor activity of TQ and THQ in L929 mouse fibroblasts and two other tumor cell lines, viz. squamous cell carcinoma

nuclear transactivation of NF-! B and TNF-" production. The above results collectively suggest that further in-depth research in this area is warranted.

3. Anti-proliferative (anti-tumor) and Cell Cycle Regulatory Activity Shoieb and colleagues have investigated in 2003 the anti-proliferative effects of TQ in cancer and normal cell lines, viz. canine osteocarcinoma (COS31) and its cisplatin-resistant variant (COS31/rCDDP), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), Human ovarian adenocarcinoma (BG-1) and Mandin-Darby canine (MDCK) cells (Shoieb et al, 2003). The compound was found to inhibit proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner as assessed by MTT assay. MDCK cells (normal kidney cells) were the most resistant cells to the inhibitory effects of TQ (IC50 = 101 µM). Ait and colleagues have evaluated in 2007 the anti-tumor properties of the black seed oil and its ethyl extract against P815 cell line and both were found to be cytotoxic. The extracts were also tested on a variety of cell lines such as ICO1, Vero cells and BSR cell line which showed that the extent of cytotoxicity depends upon the tumor cell type. In animal model employing DBA2/P815 (H2d) mouse model it was observed that the injection of the essential oil into the tumor site significantly inhibited solid tumor development as well as the incidence of liver metastasis, thus improving mouse survival. These results indicate that the anti-tumor activity or cell growth inhibition could in part be due to the effect of TQ on cell cycle. The cell cycle checkpoints allow the cells to correct possible defects and avoid progression to cancer (Hartwell and Weinert, 1989; Hartwell and Kastan, 1994). There are two major checkpoints to detect DNA damage: one at the G1-S transition that prevents the cell from replicating damaged DNA and one at the G2-M transition that prevents chromosome segregation, if the chromosome is not intact. The principle activity of TQ was found to be due to its effects on the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins. The treatment of cells with 30 µM concentration for 48 h induced G1 cell-cycle arrest in papilloma cells, which correlated with a sharp increase in the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 and downregulation of cyclin D1 protein expression (Gali-Muhtasib et al, 2004b). It would be helpful to define further targets of TQ by studying other cell cycle regulating proteins in future studies. In Flow cytometric studies of DNA content by propidium iodide staining it has been revealed that TQ induces G1 cell-cycle arrest of osteosarcoma cancer cells (COS31) as well as human colon cancer cells (HCT-116), at 100µM concentration treated for 48 h (Gali-Muhtasib et al, 2004a). The effect was observed starting after 24 h at a concentration of 50 µM for COS31 cells while for HCT116 cells it started at 60 µM, respectively. The G1 arrest was associated with up-regulation of p21WAF1 in HCT-116 cells which was suggested as the principal transcriptional target of p53 in the context of the G1 checkpoint. The resulting high levels of p21WAF1 blocks cdk2 activity and possibly cdk4 and cdk6 activities leading to G1 arrest. There was also an up-regulation of p53 expression which plays important roles in cancer development as 502


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 503! application of TQ alone or in combination with other agents as novel therapeutics. Although 5-FU continues to be the chemotherapeutic gold-standard for the treatment of colon cancer, the side effects of 5-FU are numerous due to its ability to attack both healthy and cancerous cells. Hence, Norwood and colleagues have compared in 2007 the effects of 5-FU and natural chemotherapeutic agents, EGCG and TQ on the metabolic activity as well as structural changes in the SW626 human colon cancer cell line. These studies indicate a significant cellular destruction and interference of cellular metabolic functions which opens up new possibility for sustained drug delivery of other natural agents for the safe alternative treatment of colon cancer. Consequently the studies were extended by these workers (Richards et al, 2007) to the ceramic drug delivery system of TQ which demonstrated the greatest reduction in cell count as well as the most cell membrane damage according to malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This supports the hypothesis that sustained delivery of antioxidants may be a means of treating cancers, both safely as well as effectively. Obviously further studies are needed to test the mechanisms behind these reactions. Badary and colleagues have shown in 2007 that TQ protects the mice against benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach carcinogenesis and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in mouse bone marrow cells when supplemented in the drinking water (Badary et al, 2007). It was observed that daily intake of the compound before and after or during exposure to benzo(a)pyrene significantly reduced the frequencies of CAs and damaged cells compared to the highly clastogenic activity of B(a)P alone. Womack and colleagues have evaluated in 2006 the effects of a single dose of 5 ÂľM of TQ which showed a 50% reduction in Hep-2 cell numbers after 24 h. After 48 h the cells exhibited a four-fold decrease in total cell number which indicates that TQ given in a sub-therapeutic dose could alter cellular viability. Tan and colleagues have also examined in 2006 the effects of TQ on the proliferation and viability of PANC-1 cell line. The PANC-1 cells were treated with three pre-determined doses of TQ (5, 25, and 50 Âľg/ml) and medium viability and morphology were examined microscopically after each 24 h interval. The compound was found to be the potent inhibitor of human pancreatic carcinoma, reducing their propagation activities. Recently, Richards and co-workers have used the androgen-dependent LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line as a cell model to evaluate the physiological effects to conventional treatments with both low doses and high doses of TQ (Richards et al, 2006). All treated cells showed a reduction in cell growth, and high doses of the compound seemed to be the most potent. The group treated with high doses of TQ also demonstrated the greatest decrease in total protein levels in comparison to the control. Morphologically, the cells demonstrated significant changes, such as swelling and irregularity in appearance upon TQ exposure. These results seem to suggest that TQ could serve as a chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer. However, further experiments are needed to understand the mechanism involved. Because

(SCC VII) and fibrosarcoma (FsaR), respectively. Both compounds showed dose dependent potent cytotoxicities, which was more pronounced in tumor cells compared to L929 normal fibroblasts. The growth inhibitory (antitumor) effects of TQ were further studied by Badary and colleagues in 2001 studied fibrosarcoma induced by 20methylcholanthrene (MC) in male Swiss albino mice. Administration of TQ (0.01% in drinking water) one week before and after MC treatment significantly inhibited the tumor incidence and tumor burden compared with the results in the group receiving MC alone (Badary et al, 2001). Moreover, TQ also delayed the onset of MCinduced fibrosarcoma tumors indicating that it could be a powerful chemopreventive agent against MC-induced fibrosarcomas (Badary et al, 2001). Gali-Muhtasib and colleagues have also evaluated in 2008 the therapeutic potential of TQ in two different murine colon cancer models, viz.1, 2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) and xenografts. They examined the growth of C26 mouse colorectal carcinoma spheroids and assessed tumor invasion !"#$!%&' and found that the tumor multiplicity was reduced from 17.8 in the DMH group to 4.2 in mice injected with TQ. This suppression was observed at week 30 and was long lasting since tumors did not re-grow even when TQ injection was discontinued for 10 weeks. In a xenograft model of HCT116 colon cancer cells, TQ significantly delayed the growth of the tumor cells. In addition to TQ, a recent review article has shown the beneficial effects of many chemical compounds isolated from natural resources (Aggarwal et al, 2008), suggesting that exploitation of natural compounds for therapeutic application is an active area of research. Moreover, recent studies have also shown that NF-! B is a legitimate target of TQ which was associated with cell growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells (Sethi et al, 2008). As indicated earlier, Kaseb and colleagues have observed in 2007 the biological effects of TQ in the inhibition of DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, and viability of prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, C4-2B, DU145, and PC-3) but not of the non-cancerous (BPH-1) prostate epithelial cells which was mechanistically linked with the down-regulation of AR and E2F-1. In LNCaP cells, this was associated with a dramatic increase in p21WAF1 (Cip1), p27 (Kip1), and Bax proteins. It also blocked the progression of synchronized LNCaP cells from G1 to S phase, with a concomitant decrease in AR and E2F-1 as well as the E2F-1-regulated proteins necessary for cell cycle progression. In a xenograft prostate tumor model, TQ inhibited growth of C4-2Bderived tumors in nude mice which was associated with a dramatic decrease in AR, E2F-1, and cyclin A as determined by Western blot analysis (Kaseb et al, 2007). These results collectively suggest that TQ may prove to be an effective agent in treating hormone-sensitive as well as hormone-refractory prostate cancers with reasonable degree of selectivity and other cancers (Kaseb et al, 2007; Aggarwal et al, 2008; Sethi et al, 2008). In the following section we will catalogue several other studies that are relevant to cancer prevention and/or therapy although further scientific studies are needed in order to justify the

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Padhye et al: Chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of Thymoquinone! TQ has been shown to initiate apoptosis even via p53-independent pathways through activation of caspase3, 8 and 9 in p53-null myeloblastic leukemia HL-60 cells (El-Mahdy et al, 2005). It was observed that caspase-8 activity was highest after 1 h following the treatment of TQ, while caspase-3 activity was highest after 6 h respectively. These observations were explained on the basis of up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein along with down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins resulting in enhance Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. It is thus apparent that TQ induces apoptosis through modulation of multiple targets and hence is a promising phytochemical that could be useful for the killing of many types of cancer cells. These results are also supported by reports in prostate and other cancer cells (Kaseb et al, 2007; Aggarwal et al, 2008; Sethi et al, 2008). A very recent report has identified checkpoint kinase 1 homolog, CHEK1, a serine/threonine kinase, as the target of TQ, leading to apoptosis in p53+/+ colon cancer cells (Gali-Muhtasib et al, 2008b). The study compared the effect of TQ on p53+/+ as well as p53-/- HCT116 colon cancer cells and p53+/+ cells were found to be more sensitive to TQ in terms of DNA damage and apoptosisinduction. As a possible explanation for such sensitivity, it was observed that CHEK1 was up-regulated upto 9 folds in p53-null HCT116 cells. Further, transfection of p53 cDNA and CHEK1 siRNA in p53 null cells resulted in restoration of apoptosis to the levels of p53+/+ cells. The results were also corroborated "+' *"*- and it was demonstrated that tumors lacking p53 had higher levels of CHEK1 which was associated with poorer apoptosis, advance tumor stages and worse prognosis. Despite the potential interest in TQ as a skin antineoplastic agent, its mechanism of action was not examined for a long time. Gali-Muhtasib and colleagues studied in 2004 the cellular and molecular events involved in antineoplastic activity of TQ using primary mouse keratinocytes, papilloma (SP-1) and spindle carcinoma cells. The non-cytotoxic concentrations of TQ reduce the proliferation of neoplastic keratinocytes by 50%. The sensitivity of cells to TQ treatment appears to be stage dependent. For example, papilloma cells are twice as sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of TQ as the spindle cancer cells. At longer times of incubation the compound induced apoptosis in both cell lines by increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression and decreasing Bcl-xL protein. Collectively, these findings support a potential role for TQ as a chemopreventive agent, particularly at the early stages of skin tumorigenesis. Rooney and Ryan sought to understand in 2005 the mechanisms involved in the action of ! -hederin and TQ which are the active constituents of !"#$%%&'(&)"*&, against human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp-2) cancer cells by using buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a selective inhibitor of GSH synthesis, to determine the importance of GSH in the apoptosis elicited and using cisplatin as internal standard. Both compounds elicited necrosis and apoptosis with a higher incidence of the latter induced by TQ. BSO significantly enhanced ! -hederin- and cisplatin- mediated toxicity without changes in apoptosis or necrosis levels.

TQ is a potent agent, it has been explored further for combination with other known chemopreventive agents; one such study reported by Brewer and colleagues showed in 2006 that selenomethione, lycopene and thymoquinone could be effective on SiHa cells in the presence or absence of estrogen (Brewer et al, 2006). Their results indicate that selenomethione alone appeared to be chemo-protective, however, when used in combination with estrogen, lycopene and TQ, it caused cellular damage as evidenced by decreased proliferation rate, increased glutathione levels, and increased MDA levels (Brewer et al, 2006). It appears that TQ is a pleiotropic agent targeting multiple signaling pathways in many patho-physiological conditions as documented earlier and thus TQ has also been tested for its optimal delivery. Martin et al. have determined the effects of TQ on the viability and metabolic activity of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells alone or challenged with levo-dopa (L-dopa) using conventional and sustained drug delivery routes (Martin et al, 2006). These results suggest that the compound is able to offer some protection although the exact mechanism for this is not yet known. It is suggested that the compound may be preventing the quinone formation, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease as a result of L-dopa auto-oxidation and thus it could be further investigated as a neuroprotective agent. Further studies using a crude gum, a fixed oil, and two purified components of !"#$%%&' (&)"*& seed, viz. TQ and DTQ were assessed for their cytotoxicity on several parental and multi-drug resistant (MDR) human tumor cell lines (Worthen et al, 1998). Although as much as 1% w/v of the gum or oil was devoid of cytotoxicity, both TQ and DTQ were cytotoxic for all of the tested cell lines. The parental cell lines and their corresponding MDR variants, viz. Doxorubicin-resistant and etopside-resistant cell lines, were equally sensitive to TQ and DTQ. The MDR modulator, viz. quinine, reversed MDR Dx-5 cell resistance to DOX and ETP by 6- to 16-fold, but had no effect on the cytotoxicity of TQ or DTQ These results suggest further pre-clinical "+' *"),- and "+' *"*- animal experiments to advance our knowledge on the subject.

4. Apoptosis Induction Activity It has been shown that TQ triggers apoptosis in HCT116 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner, starting at a concentration of 100 ÂľM after 12 h of incubation which is associated with a 2.5 to 4.5 fold increase in p53 and p21WAF1 mRNA expression and a significant decrease in Bcl-2 protein levels (Yamasaki, 2003). Co-incubation with pifithrin-! , a p53 inhibitor, restored the Bcl-2, p53 and p21WAF1 levels to the untreated control levels and absolved the effects of TQ. These results suggest role of TQ in influencing cell cycle regulators involved in apoptosis as well as in down-regulating the anti-apoptotic proteins. This was supported by similar effects on primary mouse keratinocytes, papilloma (SP-1), and spindle carcinoma cells respectively. At longer incubation times (48 h) the compound induced apoptosis in both cell lines by increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 protein expression and down-regulating the Bcl-xL protein.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 505! upon LPS stimulation. In absence of stimulation (IL-1" ) insignificant increase in nitrite concentration was observed which turned significant upon LPS stimulation. Sera of these animals, however, showed significant increase in TNF- ! level. The compound TQ normalized the elevated nitrite and cytokine profiles both !"# $!%&' and !"# $!$' but had no significant effect on the already decreased parameters in chronically affected OLETF rats. These data suggest that there is a tendency for macrophage inflammatory products to increase in acute type I Diabetes and to decrease in chronic type II Diabetes respectively. Collectively, TQ has been suggested to have the potential to normalize the elevated levels of these macrophagederived inflammatory mediators. It has been established that NO is involved in the destruction of " -cells during the development of type I DM. El-Mahmoudy and colleagues demonstrated in 2005 the possibility of rescuing " -cells by intervention with TQ using STZ rat diabetic model. The hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic responses to STZ were significantly abrogated in rats treated with TQ, and this abrogation persisted for 1 month after termination of the treatment. TQ was found to have no effect on either I B degradation or NF- B activation, although it significantly inhibited both p44/42 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) which contribute to the transcriptional machinery of inducible nitric oxide synthase and NO production, respectively. These data emphasize the protective role of TQ against development of type I diabetes via NO inhibitory pathway. The protective effect of black seed extract and TQ has been studied on mouse cells infected with schistosomiasis by Aboul-Ela in 2002. Bone marrow cells and spleen cells in both !"# $!%&'# (")# !"# $!$' experiments were used to evaluate the potentially protective effects on the induction of chromosomal aberrations. Karyotyping of the mice cells illustrated that the main abnormalities were gaps, fragments and deletions especially in chromosomes 2, 6 and some in chromosomes 13 and 14. The seed extract as well as TQ both offered protection against the chromosomal aberrations induced by schistosomiasis. Nigellone is the carbonyl polymer of TQ, isolated from *!+,--(#.(%!$(#L. seeds. The polymer is far less toxic but retains much of the pharmacologic properties of TQ, which is the active principle of the plant. Chakravorty’s investigations (Chakravorty, 1993), carried out on rat peritoneal mast cells !"#$!%&', have shown that nigellone, in relatively low concentrations, is very effective in inhibiting histamine release induced by the secretagogues antigen in sensitized cells, viz. compound 48/80, and the calcium ionophore,viz.A23187 respectively. The mechanism of action seems to involve decreasing intracellular calcium by inhibiting its uptake and stimulating the efflux as well as by an inhibition of protein kinase C. El-Gazzar and colleagues have examined in 2006 the effect of TQ on airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Intraperitoneal injection of TQ before airway challenge of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice resulted in a marked decrease in lung eosinophilia and the elevated Th2 cytokines; both !"#$!$' and !"#$!%&', following stimulation of lung cells with OVA. TQ also

The compound TQ and cisplatin significantly decreased GSH levels in a dose-dependent manner, with BSO pretreatment synergistically depleting GSH levels in only cells treated with TQ. Since the caspase-3 inhibitor significantly decreased apoptosis induced by the latter combination, it was concluded that GSH depletion and caspase 3-activation mediate apoptosis induced by TQ in this cell line, suggesting that exploitation of cause and effect relationship between the biological activities of TQ with many cellular targets are warranted. Tumor growth and metastasis are known to be angiogenesis-dependent and several clinical trials have suggested that anti-angiogenic therapy might provide an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Alteration in the balance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules in the local tissue microenvironment may provide the starting point for such strategy using the active constituent of black seed oil. The anti-aniogenic effects of TQ have been assessed by cell proliferation and migration assays (Bawadi et al, 2004). The TQ significantly decreased the proliferation of human breast (MCF-7), colon (Caco-2) and prostate (DU-145) cancer cells at concentration of 100 µM and also prevented their metastasis. It inhibited HIF-1! expression and decreased HIF-1! DNA binding activity in all cancer cells in addition to reducing VEGF and cathepsin D secretion in normal human lung fibroblast cells. It, however, did not affect normal cell proliferation even at 200µM concentration. Presently, there are no studies reported, dealing with effects of TQ on angiogenesis.

5. Other Activities The immunomodulatory and immunotherapeutic potentials of black seed oil and its active ingredients have been discussed by Salem in 2005. The oil and some of its active ingredients showed beneficial immunomodulatory properties, augmenting the T cell- and natural killer cellmediated immune responses. Further studies are urgently required to explore bystander effects of TQ on the professional antigen presenting cells, including macrophages and dendritic cells, as well as its modulatory effects upon Th1- and Th2-mediated inflammatory immune diseases which is likely to substantially improve the immunotherapeutic application of TQ in clinical settings. El-Mahmoudy and co-workers (El-Mahmoudy et al, 2005b) have compared the macrophage-derived cytokine and NO profiles in type I and type II diabetes mellitus (DM) in order to determine whether TQ has any modulatory effects. Peritoneal macrophages were collected from Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats as a model for type II DM and its control, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats, as well as from STZ-injected LETO ones as a model for type I DM. The cells were cultured and incubated with or without TQ (10 µM) in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide. Nitrite, IL-1" and TNF-! are significantly higher in macrophage supernatants and sera of the acutely affected STZ-LETO rats either with or without LPS stimulation compared to corresponding controls. On the other hand, chronically diabetic OLETF rats' macrophage supernatants showed significant decreases of IL-1" and TNF-! level

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Padhye et al: Chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of Thymoquinone! Al-Majed AA, Al-Omar FA, Nagi MN (2006) Neuroprotective effects of thymoquinone against transient forebrain ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Eur J Pharmacol 543, 40-47. al-Shabanah OA, Badary OA, Nagi MN, al-Gharably NM, alRikabi AC, Al-Bekairi AM (1998) Thymoquinone protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity without compromising its antitumor activity. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 17, 193-198. Aqel M, Shaheen R (1996) Effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on the uterine smooth muscle of rat and guinea pig. J Ethnopharmacol 52, 23-26. Badary,O.A., al-Shabanah,O.A., Nagi,M.N., al-Rikabi,A.C., and Elmazar,M.M. (1999). Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach carcinogenesis in mice by thymoquinone. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. +, 435-440. Badary OA, bd-Ellah MF, El-Mahdy MA, Salama SA, Hamada FM (2007) Anticlastogenic activity of thymoquinone against benzo(a)pyrene in mice. Food Chem. Toxicol 45, 88-92. Badary OA, bdel-Naim AB, bdel-Wahab MH, Hamada FM (2000) The influence of thymoquinone on doxorubicininduced hyperlipidemic nephropathy in rats. Toxicology 143, 219-226. Badary OA, Gamal el-Din AM (2001) Inhibitory effects of thymoquinone against 20-methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma tumorigenesis. Cancer Detect Prev 25, 362368. Badary OA, Taha RA, Gamal el-Din AM, bdel-Wahab MH (2003) Thymoquinone is a potent superoxide anion scavenger. Drug Chem Toxicol 26, 87-98. Bawadi HA, Bansode RR, Losso JN (2004) Thymoquinone in the control of hypoxia-induced angiogenic disease biomarkers: Insight into the mechanism of action in vitro 2004 IFT Annual Meeting 2004 Las Vegas NV USA 7-122004. Benkaci-Ali F, Baaliouamer A, Meklati BY (2006) Kinetic study of microwave extraction of essential oil of !"#$%%&' (&)"*& L.seeds. Chromatographia 64, 227-231. Borek C (2004) Dietary antioxidants and human cancer. Integr Cancer Ther 3, 333-341. Brentnall TA, Haggitt RC, Rabinovitch PS, Kimmey MB, Bronner MP, Levine DS, Kowdley KV, Stevens AC, Crispin DA, Emond M, Rubin CE (1996) Risk and natural history of colonic neoplasia in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 110, 331-338. Brewer J, Benghuzzi H, Tucci M (2006) Effects of thymoquinone, lycopene, and selenomethione in the presence of estrogen on the viability of SiHa cells in vitro. Biomed Sci Instrum 42, 37-41. Bunz F, Dutriaux A, Lengauer C, Waldman T, Zhou S, Brown JP, Sedivy JM, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B (1998) Requirement for p53 and p21 to sustain G2 arrest after DNA damage. Science 282, 1497-1501. Chakravorty N (1993) Inhibition of histamine release from mast cells by Nigellone. Ann Allergy 70, 237-242. Crowe SE (2005) Helicobacter infection, chronic inflammation, and the development of malignancy. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 21, 32-38. Daba MH, Abdel-Rahman MS (1998) Hepatoprotective activity of thymoquinone in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Lett 95, 23-29. DerMarderosian A, Lawrence L, Beutler J, Grauds C, Tatro DS, Cirigliano, DeSilva D (2005) The Review of Natural Products, 4th Edn. , Facts and Comparisions. Lipincott Williams & Wilkins). D'Haens GR, Lashner BA, Hanauer SB (1993) Pericholangitis and sclerosing cholangitis are risk factors for dysplasia and

decreased the elevated serum levels of OVA-specific IgE and IgG1. Histological examination of lung tissue demonstrated that the compound significantly inhibited allergen-induced lung eosinophilic inflammation and mucus-producing goblet cells. It was concluded that TQ attenuates allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting Th2 cytokines and eosinophil infiltration into the airways and thus demonstrating its potential anti-inflammatory role during the allergic response in the lung.

III. Conclusions and Future Directions We have attempted in summarizing the state-ofknowledge on the biological activity of TQ; however in this short article we were not able to include all the published results and thus we hope that the authors whose results have not been included in this article will forgive us. It is however tantalizing to speculate that because TQ has attracted significant scientific attention in recent years, further pre-clinical and clinical research to assess the health benefits of TQ is urgently needed. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that synthetic analogues of treasures from natural resources could indeed be useful for making more effective compounds than TQ which should also be an active area of research. It is hoped that this article will promote such research and thus novel agents could be discovered based on the chemical structure of TQ for the prevention and/or treatment of human diseases in the near future.

Acknowledgement The authorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; work cited in this review was partly funded by grants from the National Cancer Institute, NIH (5R01CA083695, 5R01CA101870, and 5R01CA108535) awarded to FHS, a sub-contract award to FHS from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center through a SPORE grant (5P20-CA101936) on pancreatic cancer awarded to James Abbruzzese, and a grant from the Department of Defense (DOD Prostate Cancer Research Program DAMD17-03-1-0042) awarded to FHS.

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Fazlul H Sarkar

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Analysis of gene expression profiles in the programmed cell death rat retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) Research Article

Abdelnaby Khalyfa1,2,*, Mohamed O. Buazza1, Muad A. Maya1, Nigel Cooper2, Bryant A. Minnis1 1 2

Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hospital Research Institute, Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Ph.D., Department of Pediatrics, Kosair Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Hospital Research Institute, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, 570 S. Preston St., Room 204, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA; Tel: 502-852-7524; Fax: 502-852-2215; Email: a.khalyfa@louisville.edu Key words: Genome microarray, gene expression, agilent microarray, RGC, RGC-5 Abbreviations: ciliary neurotrophic factor, (CNTF); death agonist, (BAD); false discover rate, (FDR); fetal bovine serum, (FBS); Gene Ontology, (GO); glycogen synthase kinase 3, (GSK-3); intraocular pressure, (IOP); ischemic preconditioning, (IPC); nitric oxide, (NO); photo-multiplier tube, (PMT); retinal ganglion cells, (RGCs) Received: 11 March 2008; Revised: 24 March 2008 Accepted: 11 April 2008; electronically published: September 2008

Summary The death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is the primary cause of losing vision in glaucoma, and the death of these cells may be due to the loss of neurotrophic factors. Molecular networks underlying RGCs response to serum deprivation are not fully understood. We hypothesized that there would be change in the gene expression levels associated with the biological pathways over the period of time for RGC-5 serum deprivation. The aim of this study was to further identify and characterize biological pathways for apoptotic RGC-5 time dependent programmed cell death. Agilent technology (genome-scale, long oligonucleotide microarrays) was used to characterize candidate genes involved in apoptotic signal transduction pathways in rat retinal ganglion cells. We identified the most highly up-and down-regulated genes for each time point. In addition, we identified 80 genes across all time points using one-way ANOVA (p-value <0.05). The most highly sinfigicant differentially expressed genes were imported into PathwayStudio software to build biological pathways of RGC cell death mechanisms. Gene Ontology (GO) and network analyses were employed to identify significant biological processes and regulatory networks critical for RGC-5s response to serum deprivation time courses. Microarray data was validated using Real Time PCR. For the differentially expressed genes, only the annotated genes were considered. We demonstrated that complement component 3 (C3), the major complement protein of the alternative complement pathway, was up-regulated in serum-deprived RGC-5. Immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy showed that C3 protein was detected in isolated RGC-5, including the rat retina itself. Our results provide a detailed view of the distinct temporal changes in gene expression induced by time courses of RGC-5 serum deprivation, and demonstrates the potential for discovery in applying systems biology approaches to understanding the mechanisms underlying RGC-5s response to apoptotic signals. An understanding of the apoptotic pathway in RGCs may lead to the development of new treatments that could block the apoptotic cell process during periods of stress.

pressure (IOP) is one of the highest risk factors of this potentially blinding disease (Armaly et al, 1980; Quigley, 1999; Sommer et al, 1991). The precise mechanisms involved in glaucoma have yet to be determined; however, a better appreciation of the factors involved in ganglion cell death is crucial to future development of an overall

I. Introduction Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of vision loss characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death (Quigley, 1996). In the eye, elevated pressure is associated with glaucoma and leads to apoptosis of neuronal RGCs, (Charles et al, 2005). This intraocular 511


Khalyfa et al: Analysis of gene expression profiles in the programmed cell death in RGC-5 RGC-5 cells induced apoptosis associated with the activation of caspases cascade, and also loss of mitochondrial function revealed by cytosolic release of cytochrome c (Charles et al, 2005). Analysis of large-scale gene expression has become a fundamental approach to functional genomics for identification of clinical diagnostic and potential drug targets. Microarray gene expression measures the expression levels for thousands of genes or the whole genome at the same time and allowing the analysis of differential gene expression patterns under different conditions (Schena et al, 1995; Lockhart and Winzeler, 2000). The advent of microarray technology along with exponential accumulation of biological data have recently led to a massive search for new knowledge that can be applied to improve our quality of life, with focus on human diseases (Ring and Ross, 2002). Many applications of microarrays have been reported, including behavioral neuroscience (Karssen et al, 2006), disease classification (Golub et al, 1999), and discovery of new disease subtypes (Bhattacharjee et al, 2001); ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in the rat retina (Kamphuis et al, 2007), in the optic nerve head after exposure to elevated intraocular pressure using a rat glaucoma model (Johnson et al, 2007) purified at retinal ganglion cells (Farkas et al, 2004). In addition, Ivanov and colleague in 2006 (Ivanov et al, 2006) compared a purified primary culture of RGCs with adult retinal ganglion cells. To identify groups of genes that are similarly regulated across biological samples, a variety of mathematical methods were developed that partitioned genes (samples) into groups, or clusters. Each gene product may be involved in one or more functions. These functions are accurately described in the Gene Ontology database. The GO consortium1 produces three independent ontologies for the gene products. The three ontologies form the basis to describe the molecular function, the biological process, and the cellular component of the gene products. The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of retinal dystrophies poses a problem with respect to rational development of therapeutic strategies. Identification of pathways that lead to pathogenesis, and delineation of the physiological functions of disease related genes, can pilot development of a systematic and global approach to genebased treatments (Yu et al, 2004). Therefore we attempted to characterize genome expression and biological pathways that RGCs use when they undergo apoptosis during serum deprivation. Our previous studies highlighted common and unique genomic changes after serum deprivation using basic statistical analysis (Khalyfa et al, 2007); whereas this study focuses on signal transduction pathways for each individual time point using additional detailed statistical analysis. In this study, we compared the genomic response of serum deprivation after induction of apoptosis with control non-serum deprived samples. A number of genes were regulated in the serum deprived and non-serum deprived samples; the majority of these modifications were previously unreported. We hypothesized that there would be changes in the gene expression levels associated with the biological pathways

strategy for treatment (Garcia-Valenzuela et al, 1995; Quigley et al, 1995). Recent studies have suggested that RGC may directly be involved in glaucoma pathogenesis instead of an inadvertent response to increased IOP (Wang et al, 2007). The first apoptotic RGCs were described in a rat optic nerve axotomy model (Berkelaar et al, 1994; Garcia-Valenzuela et al, 1995). Apoptosis of RGCs related to glaucoma has been demonstrated in monkey models (Quigley et al, 1995), in human models (GarciaValenzuela et al, 1995; Tatton et al, 2001), and in several other animal models. This type of cell death contains distinct morphological features involving a programmed series of molecular events genetically regulated by the inflicted cells, and can be induced by various stimuli (Wyllie et al, 1980). The RGCs are sustained by neurotrophic factors that are transported in a retrograde orientation to the ganglion cells (Pease et al, 2000). Neurotrophic factors withdrawal has been hypothesized as a primary cause of RGC death in glaucoma (Wadia et al, 1998; Charles et al, 2005). Charles and colleagues in 2005 reported that molecular pathways are implicated in RGC-5 cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway upon the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Apoptosis is essential for normal tissue development, and contributes to certain forms of pathological cell loss. RGCs death is a common feature of many ophthalmic disorders such as glaucoma, optic neuropathies, and retinovascular diseases, including diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusions. RGC death has been reported to occur via a variety of mechanisms, such as oxidative stress (Bonne et al, 1998), excitatory amino acids (Dreyer, 1998), nitric oxide (NO) (Neufeld, 1999), and apoptosis (McKinnon, 1997). Gupta and Yucel indicated in 2007 that there are similarities between glaucoma and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (which include the selective loss of neuron populations), trans-synaptic degeneration (in which the disease spreads from injured neurons to connected neurons), and common mechanisms of cell injury and death. RGCs are widely used as a model system for neurobiological studies of development, trauma, neuronal degeneration and regeneration (Farkas et al, 2004). Yuan and Yankner in 2000 reported that neuronal apoptosis plays a role construed as significant in neurodegenerative diseases; and elucidation of the cell death machinery in neurons promises to provide multiple points of therapeutic intervention. Agarwal and colleagues indicated in 2007 that neurotrophins are a family of proteins which promote development, survival, and differentiation of neurons, and deprivation of neurotrophic factors potentially ensues RGC apoptosis in glaucoma. Agarwal and colleagues have also determined in 2007 the expression profile of neurotrophins and their receptors in cultured primary rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the transformed RGC-5 cells. Apoptosis-related signaling pathways were investigated in a RGC-5 cell line deprived of growth factors after serum withdrawal from the culture medium (Charles et al, 2005). Ganglion cells die in several retinal diseases, including glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (Gardner et al, 2002; Levin and Gordon, 2002). Previously, we have show that serum deprivation of

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 513! 25 X fragmentation buffer were incubated at 60ºC for 30 minutes. A hybridization mixture of 490 !L was incubated at 60°C for 17 hrs in a hybridization chamber. The microarray slides were washed for approximately 30 seconds each in 6x SSPE, 0.005% sarcosine and 0.006x SSPE. Hybridization and washing of arrays was processed in an aseptic environment for protection from contamination by dust and dirt.

over a period of time for RGC-5 serum deprivation. Our aim was to provide an overview of the discrepancies in genomic expression levels occurring in serum deprived RGC-5; and to identify, in time- dependent biological pathways, individuals and groups of genes potentially involved in differential gene expression. Furthermore, the genomic response to serum deprivation after induction of apoptotic cell death was examined to construct biological pathways conceivably participating in apoptotic cell death. The application of Agilent oligonucleotide-based microarray technology was utilized when RGC-5s were induced to apoptosis by serum deprivation for 0, 8, 24, 48, and 96 hrs. We have investigated the molecular and cellular pathways of serum deprivation in a time dependent manner through combining large-scale gene expression approaches, data analysis, and careful selection of the differentially expressed genes. We also identified several of the neuronal apoptosis genes, and are in the process of up-loading the data into GEO databases. Our understanding of how deprivation of neurotrophic agents causes neuronal cell death relates to the signal transduction cascades by which these factors normally maintain variability.

C. Data analysis Microarray slides were scanned immediately following hybridization using a laser Typhoon 9410 scanner of 10 µm resolutions (GE HealthCare, Piscataway, NJ) exciting the Cy3 (Datta et al, 1999). Microarrays were scanned at 600 photomultiplier tube (PMT) voltages, and images were captured by ImageQuant software v. 5.2 (GE HeathCare, Piscataway, NJ). ArrayVision v.8.0 software (Imaging Research Inc., Ontario, Canada) was used to calculate the median intensities for each spot of Cy3 fluorescent signals. The net signal intensity was calculated by subtracting the background median intensities from the median of the spot intensities. The background corrected intensities were then normalized to the total signal intensities of each spot by the median. The differentially expressed genes were identified by the net intensity ratios between the two test groups. The Student %-test )-values (in which variances between the groups are not assumed to be equal) were used to compare intensities between the two groups. Log ratios for individual genes were calculated for each serum-deprived (test)/nondeprived (control) sample, from which the mean log ratio for each sample group was determined.

II. Materials and Methods A. Cell Cultures and RNA isolation Transformed retinal ganglion cells (Krishnamoorthy et al, 2001), RGC-5 (previously obtained from Dr. Neeraj Agarwal), were routinely cultured in DMEM containing 1 g/L glucose, supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100 ! /g/mL penicillin, and 100 ! g/mL streptomycin at 37°C. To induce apoptosis of RGC-5 cells, growth medium was withdrawn (serum starvation), and cells were maintained in DMEM free serum for 0, 8, 24, 48 and 96 hours (Khalyfa et al, 2007). The total RNA was extracted using RNase mini columns (RNeasy; Qiagen, Valencia, CA), followed by DNase treatment as described in the manufacturer's protocols. Total RNA was extracted from each time point and maintained at -800C until used for analysis. The RNA integrity was verified with an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA) and RNA Integrity Numbers (Khan-Farooqi et al, 2005).

D. Statistical analysis Student’s t-test was used to identify differentially expressed genes in each time point. This test was carried out on each gene in the data set. To test appropriate statistical thresholds for each time point, accounting for the multiplicity of testing thousands of genes in each data set, we used ANOVA and the false discover rate (FDR). For desired FDR, a threshold p-value of 0.05 was used (Benjamini and Hochberg, 1995).

E. Identification of signaling pathways Pathway Studio software was used to examine the gene list obtained from our microarray analysis to classify any specific signaling pathways, gene regulation, and protein interaction maps. Biological pathway networks of differentially expressed genes (RefSeq accession numbers) were only modeled onto the software. This software extracts functional information on specific genes from the RetNet database using a natural language processing algorithm named MedScan. Data analyzed with this program could be resolved into cogent models of the specific biological pathways activated under the experimental conditions used in the microarray analyses.

B. Microarray analysis Equal quantities of total RNA samples were labeled using Agilent low RNA input fluorescent linear amplification kit (Agilent), and hybridized to three independent identical arrays of Agilent oligonucleotide probe sequences. Three independent biological samples from each time point were used for cDNA synthesis. Four hundred !g of total RNA was reverse transcribed into cDNA briefly using Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus reverse transcriptase (MMLV RT) with oligo promoter primer, and incubated at 40oC for 2 hours. cRNAs were synthesized by !"# $!%&' transcription using T7 RNA polymerase, and labeled with cyanine 3-labeled dCTP (PerkinElmer, Boston MA). The labeled products were further purified using RNeasy mini purification columns (Qiagen). Twelve picomoles of the fluorescently labeled cRNAs were used for each of the microarray hybridizations. Preparation of hybridization solution was accomplished using Agilent’s !" s!%( Hybridization Kit Plus. The Agilent 60mer array was comprised of 22,775 rat probe sequences, with each array containing one probe sequence (60-mer) per transcript that was spotted using a non-contact spotter onto glass slides. Hybridizations were performed using Agilent’s oligo processing protocols. Approximately 0.75 !g of labeled cRNA and 5 !l of

F. Gene ontology and clustering Functional classification of the differentially expressed genes, based on their cellular component, biological process, and molecular functions, were conducted using GO. To further clarify the functional roles of the differentially expressed genes, GO analysis was conducted using GeneSifter ("#$%!&'()*!&&+*! Seattle, WA) and GeneSpring software (Silicon Genetics, Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA). The Ontology report provided information on how many genes in the list posses a particular ontology, and how many genes on the array have that same ontology. A z-score was calculated for each ontology, and if the z-score was greater than two or less than negative two, this indicated ontology was significantly over or under-represented in the list. The results from GeneSifter and GeneSpring were linked

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Khalyfa et al: Analysis of gene expression profiles in the programmed cell death in RGC-5 to KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, http://www.genome.ad.jp/kegg) databases for bioinformatics integration. To examine expression profiles of differentially expressed genes, clustering analysis was used with aid of GeneSifter software. This allowed genes to be grouped together based on the degree of similarity between their temporal expression profiles. Hierarchical dendrograms were drawn with the gene tree algorithm, and genes sharing similar expression profiles tended to be clustered together. The location of a branch containing the genes can be considered a benchmark for assessing resemblance of genetic expression. This measure is usually a correlation coefficient that compares the regulation of one gene to another at various experimental conditions. Genes were selected for the construction of a gene tree if the expression of the gene was twofold greater or less in the serum deprived samples, relative to that in the control (non-serum deprived).

PBS and incubated with the secondary goat antibody coupled to Alexa green 488 (Molecular Probes, Inc), and diluted to 1:200 in buffer for 1hr at room temperature. The samples were then rinsed in PBS. To visualize the nuclei, the sections and cells were stained with Hoechst nuclear stain (Invitrogen) for 5-10 minutes at room temperature in the dark. The sections and cells were again rinsed in PBS and double distilled water and mounted with an anti-fade mounting media. Next, the sections were examined with a Zeiss LSM410 confocal microscope (Carl Zeiss Microimaging, Inc., Thornwood, NY) using a 40X water immersion objective (numerical aperture 1.2). Samples were excited at 488 nm using an argon ion laser (Melles Girot/Omnichrome, Carlsbad, CA), and fluorescence was collected using a 510-525nm emission filter. The Hoechst nuclear stain was excited at 364 nm with a UV laser (Coherent Innova Technology, Santa Clara, CA), and fluorescence emission was collected using a 400-440nm emission filter.

G. Real-time PCR

III. Results

Quantitative Real-Time PCR (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA; 7300 instrument) of the differentially expressed genes detected in both serum-deprived (8, 24, 48 and 96 hrs) and nondeprived samples (zero time point), were used to validate microarray results. The same total RNA from apoptotic and nonapoptotic RGC-5 samples, used for microarray hybridization, was used for quantitative real-time PCR. One micrograms of the same total RNA used for hybridization was reverse transcribed using a High-Capacity cDNA Archive Kit, and TaqMan® Master Mix Reagent Kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The total volume of PCR reactions was carried out for each transcript of interest in 40 !l. The primer pairs for each cDNA were obtained from Applied Biosystem’s demand-assay (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The sequences for each selected gene from the microarray results were BLASTed against !"##$%& '()*+,-.$% on the NCBI database. Sequences of the primers designed were selected to be within the same region of the gene used to develop the microarray sequence probes. To ensure specific amplification, various negative controls were included in the PCR reaction. Triplicate PCR reactions were performed in 96-well plates for each gene in parallel with the 18S rRNA. All reactions were performed in triplicates, and statistical significance was evaluated by the Student t-test. The RT-PCR reaction program included the following: the initial step of 2 minutes at 50 C, denaturation at 95 C for 10 minutes, followed by 40 thermal cycles of denaturation (15 seconds at 95oC) and elongation (1 min at 60oC). The relative expression of the gene of interest was analyzed using the 2-!!CT method.

A. Differentially expressed genes RGC-5 Agilent rat microarray was used to generate a genome-wide expression profile for RGC-5 serum deprivation in order to characterize the molecular mechanisms, and identify apoptosis-related genes possibly involved in signal transduction pathways. Of the 22,775 transcripts, we identified two categories of genes (known and unknown) during the four separate time points. For the known genes, 168 were differentially expressed at 8hrs, 417 at 24hrs, 218 at 48hrs and 247 at 96 hrs. In addition 545 unknown genes were differentially expressed at 8hrs, 1550 at 24 hrs, 793 at 48 hrs, and 915 at 96hrs. Table 1 shows the top 10 up-and down-regulated differentially expressed genes in RGC-5 serum deprived time course 8, 24, 48 and 96 hrs, including their RefSeq accession number, UniGene number, chromosome location, tissue or cells of expression, sub-cellular location, fold change and p-value. The differentially expressed transcripts were identified in each individual RGC-5 serum deprived time point using statistical analysis and Student’s #-test p-values (p<0.05). In addition, the data presented in Table 2 shows the differentially expressed genes involved in neuronal cell death at 8, 24, 48 and 96 hrs.

B. Biological pathways To better understand the biological significance of the differentially expressed genes in RGC-5 serum deprived time course samples, the top 5 up and the top 5 down-regulated genes were used to build biological pathways utilizing the PathwayStudio software (Figure 1). The differentially expressed genes obtained from the microarray data was imported into PathwayStudio (Ariadne Genomics Inc.). Biological pathways were constructed using the differentially expressed genes in 8, 24, 48, and 96 hrs. The data (Figure 1, Panel A) exhibits the signaling pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed in 8 hrs serum deprivation. We found 7 candidate genes associated with the 10 genes (5 up-regulated, highlighted in /0$+, and 5 down-regulated, highlighted in&*-(0+#) identified by the microarray analysis using PathwayStudio. A total of 17 genes led to the further identification of three cellular processes which included regulation of signal transduction, proliferation, and

H. Confocal microscopy Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (Whole eyes) were isolated, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at a thickness of 5 !m, and deparaffinized prior to immunocytochemical treatment. RGC-5 cells were also fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, and rinsed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4). The samples were immersed in a 0.1 Triton X100 solution for 30 min, and rinsed three times in PBS for 5 minutes. Samples were then treated with a 0.05M solution of glycine for 15 min. Subsequently, the sections from tissues and cells were incubated in a blocking solution of 5% BSA and 10% normal serum of a second antibody host animal in PBS for 15 min. This was followed by an overnight incubation at 4ºC with primary antibodies for complement component C3 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), diluted to 1 !g/ml in a solution of 1% BSA and 1% normal serum of secondary antibody host animal within PBS. For controls, the primary antibody was omitted and replaced by goat IgG in the same concentration. After overnight incubation, the samples were rinsed four times in

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 515! We also found 30 candidate genes associated with the 10 genes identified by the microarray analysis, and five major biological processes were identified: 1) protein degradation, 2) differentiation, 3) cell survival, 4) proliferation, and 5) apoptosis. The data in Figure 1, Panel D displays 31 candidate genes associated with the 10 genes identified by the microarray analysis. Six major biological processes were identified: 1) apoptosis, 2) proteolysis, 3) differentiation, 4) proliferation, 5) cell survival, and 6) secretion.

apoptosis (!"##$%). The data (Figure 1, Panel B) shows the signaling pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed (top 5 up-regulated and top 5 down-regulated) in the 24 hrs. We identified 15 genes associated with the top 10 regulated genes identified by the microarray analysis, making a total of 25 genes leading to further identification of four cellular processes: 1) secretion, 2) proteolysis, 3) DNA protection, and 4) differentiation (Figure 1 Panel B). The biological pathway for the differentially expressed genes in 48 hr serum-deprived RGC-5 is shown in Figure 2, Panel C.

Table 1. List of most highly 10 down and up-differentially expressed genes in each time point of RGC-5 serum deprived. Symbol

Description

RefSeq ID

UniGene ID

chrom. Location

Expression Area

Subcellar Location

Fold change

p-value

Rn.22129 !

2q44!

brain; eye; other !

secreted!

0.344!

0.0003!

Rn.3272!

6q16!

brain; eye; other!

nuclear!

0.363!

0.0287!

Rn.22609 !

8q21!

other!

0.398!

0.0172!

Rn.3723 !

6q16!

0.407!

0.0221!

Rn.22258 !

5q36!

brain; other! brain; eye; other !

membrane! plasma membrane! NA!

0.422!

0.0419!

Rn.950 !

1q22!

brain; other!

NA!

0.425!

0.0265!

Rn.44298 !

2q11!

brain; other!

NA!

0.445!

0.0212!

Rn.24539 ! Rn.9828 !

13q26! 8q31!

secreted ! cyctoplasmic!

0.450! 0.456!

0.0488! 0.0321!

Rn.10957 !

1q22!

brain; other! eye; other! brain; eye; other !

membrane!

0.520!

0.0045!

Rn.1658 !

8q21!

brain; eye; other !

mitochondrial!

2.310!

0.0293!

Rn.14526 !

7q34!

membrane!

2.418!

0.0182!

Rn.54554 ! Rn.9942 !

8q23! 3q42!

NA! extracellular!

2.433! 2.506!

0.0334! 0.0118!

Rn.6302 !

2q45!

mitochondrial!

2.525!

0.0332!

Rn.18592 ! Rn.38451 !

4q34! 7q31!

NA! NA!

2.984! 3.152!

0.0407! 0.0456!

Rn.10211 !

20p12!

NA!

3.686!

0.0238!

Rn.764 !

15p14!

nuclear!

3.829!

0.0042!

membrane!

4.620!

0.0256!

NA!

0.270!

0.0005!

NA!

0.338!

0.0232!

NA!

0.349!

0.0269!

8hrs cysteine rich protein 61 ! Cyr61!

Id2!

Kcnj1! Ifrd1! Srm! Pace4! Rasa1! Tgfb2! Rbp2! Igf1r!

Atpi! Slc16a8! Cryab! Svs4!

Acadm! Mgll! A5D3! Lss! Lgals3! Fdft1! Col1a2! Anx3! Odc1!

NM_031327! Inhibitor of DNA binding 2, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein ! NM_013060! Potassium inwardlyrectifying channel, subfamily J, member 1 ! NM_017023! interferon-related developmental regulator 1 ! NM_019242! spermidine synthase ! NM_053464! subtilisin - like endoprotease ! NM_012999! RAS p21 protein activator NM_013135! 1! transforming growth factor, beta 2 ! NM_031131! retinol-binding protein 2 ! NM_012640! iInsulin-like growth factor 1 receptor ! NM_052807! ATPase inhibitor (rat mitochondrial IF1 protein) ! NM_012915! solute carrier family 16, member 8 ! NM_031744! crystallin, alpha polypeptide 2 ! NM_012935! seminal vesicle protein-4 ! NM_012662! acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, C-4 to C12 straight-chain ! NM_016986! monoglyceride lipase ! NM_138502! A5D3 protein ! NM_145093! 2,3-oxidosqualene: lanosterol cyclase ! NM_031049! lectin, galactose binding, NM_031832! soluble 3 ! farnesyl diphosphate farnesyl transferase 1! NM_019238! procollagen, type I, alpha 2! annexin III (Lipocortin III) ! arnitine decarboxylase !

NM_053356!

Rn.3252 ! 15p12! 24hrs Rn.16629 ! 4q13!

NM_012823!

Rn.6589 !

14q22!

NM_012615!

Rn.874 !

6q16!

515

other! brain; eye; other! other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! other; brain! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other!


Khalyfa et al: Analysis of gene expression profiles in the programmed cell death in RGC-5 Hsp60!

NM_022229!

Rn.44658 !

9q22!

NM_022929!

Rn.54458 !

10q12!

NM_032070!

Rn.29981 !

7q22!

NM_053827!

Rn.4445 !

5q36!

Cyslt2!

heat shock protein 60 (liver) ! Kv channel-interacting protein 1 ! non-histone chromosomal architectural protein HMGI-C ! procollagen-lysine, 2oxoglutarate 5dioxygenase 1 ! cysteinyl leukotriene CysLT2 receptor ! profilin II x!

Cyr61!

cysteine rich protein 61 !

NM_031327!

Rn.22129 !

2q44!

Dpp7!

dipeptidylpeptidase 7 !

NM_031973!

Rn.3363 !

3q13!

Cds1!

NM_031242!

Rn.18983 !

14q22!

Fbln5! Prdx4! Stmn1!

CDP-diacylglycerol synthase (phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase) 1 ! eucine rich repeat protein 3, neuronal ! fibulin 5 ! peroxiredoxin 4 ! stathmin 1 !

Mgp!

matrix gla protein !

P2rx4!

Kcnip1! Hmgic!

Plod1!

Cyslt2!

Lrrn3!

Fcgrt!

C3!

NM_133413!

Rn.74252 !

15p11!

NM_030873!

Rn.3515 !

2q31!

NM_030856!

Rn.39124 !

6q21!

NM_019153! NM_053512! NM_017166!

Rn.1699 ! Rn.17958 ! Rn.555 !

6q32! NA! 5q36!

NM_012862!

Rn.2379 !

4q43!

purinergic receptor P2X, NM_031594! ligand-gated ion channel, 4! Fc fragment NM_033351! immunoglobulin G receptor ! complement component 3 ! NM_016994!

Rn.7176 !

12q16!

Rn.2306 !

1q22!

Rn.11378 !

9q11!

procollagen, type I, alpha 2! ornitine decarboxylase !

NM_053356! NM_012615!

Rn.874 !

6q16!

NM_031716!

Rn.63486 !

7q33!

Cyr61!

WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1! cysteine rich protein 61 !

NM_031327!

Rn.22129 !

2q44!

Coq3!

coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) ! NM_019187!

Rn.3824 !

5q21!

Tgfb2!

transforming growth factor, beta 2 ! follistatin-related protein !

NM_031131!

Rn.24539 !

13q26!

NM_024369!

Rn.2979 !

11q21!

annexin III (Lipocortin III) ! biglycan !

NM_012823!

Rn.6589 !

14q22!

NM_017087!

Rn.783 !

Xq37!

solute carrier family 6, member 6 ! regulator of G-protein signaling protein 2 ! alanine and arginine rich domain containing protein! lectin, galactosidebinding, soluble, 2 (galectin 2)! stathmin 1 !

NM_017206!

Rn.9968 !

4q34!

NM_053453!

Rn.1892 !

13q21!

NM_145093!

Rn.38451 !

7q31!

NM_133599!

Rn.2982 !

7q34!

NM_017166!

Rn.555 !

5q36!

Odc1! Wisp1!

Frp! Anx3! Bgn! Slc6a6! Rgs2! Aard! Lgals2!

Stmn1!

0.0255!

0.362!

0.0236!

other!

NA!

0.364!

0.0422!

brain; eye; other!

membrane!

0.375!

0.0047!

membrane!

0.376!

0.0063!

NA!

0.392!

0.0032!

secreted!

0.410!

0.0198!

lysosomal!

4.037!

0.0144!

membrane!

4.067!

0.0012!

NA! secreted! NA!

4.243! 4.645! 4.719!

0.0045! 0.0138! 0.0094!

cyctoplasmic!

4.920!

0.0017!

secreted!

5.345!

0.0226!

membrane!

6.005!

0.0348!

membrane!

6.411!

0.0122!

NA!

6.457!

0.0116!

NA!

0.106!

0.0015!

NA!

0.252!

0.0291!

secreted!

0.256!

0.0401!

secreted!

0.281!

0.0004!

mitochondrial!

0.360!

0.0356!

secreted!

0.360!

0.0138!

secreted!

0.367!

0.0212!

NA!

0.375!

0.0275!

secreted!

0.377!

0.0392!

membrane!

0.379!

0.0022!

NA!

3.081!

0.0223!

NA!

3.273!

0.0438!

NA!

3.456!

0.0102!

cyctoplasmic!

3.626!

0.0121!

other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! other! other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other!

brain; other!

48 hrs Rn.16629 ! 4q13!

Col1a2!

0.355!

other!

mitochondrial! plasma membrane!

brain; other!

516

brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other!

eye; other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! brain; other! brain; eye; othre! brain; eye; othre! brain; eye; othre! brain; eye; othre! brain; other! braina; other!

brain; other! brain; eye; othre!


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 517! Ccl5! Lamp2! Bhlhb3!

Lamp1!

Lcn2! C3!

chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 ! lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 ! basic helix-loop-helix domain containing, class B3 ! lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 (120 kDa) ! lipocalin 2 ! complement component 3 !

Col1a2!

procollagen, type I, alpha 2! Cstn2! calsyntenin 2 ! (Epn2)! EH domain binding protein epsin 2 ! Tgfb2! transforming growth factor, beta 2 ! Lu! lutheran blood group (Auberger b antigen included) ! Hmgic! non-histone chromosomal architectural protein HMGI-C ! Prkwnk1! protein kinase, lysine deficient 1 ! Lmnb1! lamin B1 ! Col5a3! collagen, type V, alpha 3 ! Gabra4! gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptor, subunit alpha 4 ! Rgs2! regulator of G-protein signaling protein 2 ! Epha7! Eph receptor A7 ! Fth1! ferritin subunit H ! Cebpd!

Dnase1! C3!

CCAAT/enhancerbinding, protein (C/EBP) delta ! lectin, galactosidebinding, soluble, 2 (galectin 2) ! complement component 1, s subcomponent ! chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 ! deoxyribonuclease I ! complement component 3 !

Mgp!

matrix gla protein !

Lgals2!

C1s! Ccl5!

NM_031116!

Rn.8019 !

10q26!

NM_017068!

Rn.1722 !

Xq11!

NM_133303!

Rn.10784 !

4q43!

brain; eye; othre! brain; eye; othre!

secreted!

4.262!

0.0202!

membrane!

4.378!

0.0403!

membrane!

4.406!

0.0261!

nuclear! secreted!

4.811! 5.535!

0.0318! 0.0431!

NA!

7.264!

0.0151!

NA! membrane!

0.113! 0.320!

0.0005! 0.0045!

cyctoplasmic!

0.374!

0.0088!

brain; other!

secreted!

0.390!

0.0159!

brain; other!

NA!

0.394!

0.0479!

other! brain; eye; other! brain; other! brain; other!

NA!

0.406!

0.0377!

cyctoplasmic! nucleoplasmic! NA!

0.406! 0.430! 0.431!

0.0427! 0.0234! 0.0408!

brain; other!

NA!

0.439!

0.0077!

brain; other! brain; other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other!

NA! membrane!

5.827! 5.832!

0.0127! 0.0258!

NA!

6.143!

0.0027!

cyctoplasmic!

7.259!

0.0223!

NA!

8.427!

0.0326!

NA!

9.599!

0.0413!

secreted! secreted!

18.160! 18.922!

0.0287! 0.0282!

NA!

31.580!

0.0015!

secreted!

66.370!

0.0363!

brain; eye; other! NM_012857!

Rn.40177 !

16q12!

NM_130741! NM_016994!

Rn.11303 ! Rn.11378 !

NM_053356!

96hrs Rn.16629 ! 4q13!

NM_134377! NM_021852!

Rn.81212 ! Rn.44273 !

8q31! 10q23!

NM_031131!

Rn.24539 !

13q26!

NM_031752!

Rn.7003 !

1q21!

NM_032070!

Rn.29981 !

7q22!

NM_053794!

Rn.18103 !

4q42!

NM_053905! NM_021760! NM_080587!

Rn.11362 ! Rn.38654 ! Rn.81205 !

18q12! 8q13! 14q11!

NM_053453!

Rn.1892 !

13q21!

NM_134331! NM_012848!

Rn.10181! Rn.54447 !

5q21! 1q43!

NM_013154!

Rn.6975 !

NA!

NM_133599!

Rn.2982 !

7q34!

NM_138900!

Rn.4037 !

4q42!

NM_031116!

Rn.8019 !

10q26!

NM_013097! NM_016994!

Rn.6077 ! Rn.11378 !

10q12! 9q11!

NM_012862!

Rn.2379 !

4q43!

C. Networks analyses

3q11! 9q11!

brain; eye; other! eye; other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! NA! brain; eye; other!

brain; other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other! other! brain; eye; other! brain; eye; other!

1.5 fold (p-value <0.05). Furthermore, by applying more stringent statistical methods (Benjamini and Hochberg, 1995), 80 genes were identified (57 up-regulated, and 23 down-regulated) using a 2-fold cutoff and p-value (<0.05).! The highly significant differentially expressed genes (80) identified in all serum deprived RGC-5 were classified based on their involvement in specific biological processes using the GO database (http://www.geneontology.org). These genes were classified into three functional categories: 1) biological

A large number of genes were identified in each time point of serum deprived cells using a threshold cutoff of a 1.5-fold change and a !-value <0.05. We identified 137 transcripts down-regulated at 8hrs, 409 at 24 hrs, 228 at 48hrs, and 244 at 96hrs; we also identified 257 transcripts up-regulated at 8 hrs, 875 at 24 hrs, 352 at 48 hrs and 588 at 96hrs. In addition, using one-way ANOVA among all serum deprived samples (0, 8, 24, 48, and 96 hrs), there were 786 transcripts identified; among those 216 upregulated above 1.5 fold, and 483 down-regulated below

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Khalyfa et al: Analysis of gene expression profiles in the programmed cell death in RGC-5

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 519!

Figure 1. Schematic representation of direct biological association of differentially expressed genes involved in RGC-5 serum deprived time course (8, 24, 48, and 96 hrs). The biological pathways for the differentially expressed genes were conducted using PathwayStudio software (Ariadne Genomics Inc., Rockville, MD). Biologically linked proteins indicated by nodes, and biological processes are shown in the diagram. The top 5 down-regulated genes are in !"#$% &'"'(, and the top 5 up-regulated genes are in )*'"$+% &'"'(,% The colors highlighted in !"#$ and )*'"$+ are the genes identified by microarray analysis, and the colors in ($-% are% the potential target genes identified by the aid of PathwayStudio. In 8 hrs, three major biologic processes were identified (regulation of signal transduction, proliferation, and apoptosis) by .$""'/ color (Panel A). In 24 hrs, four major biologic processes were identified (secretion, proteolysis, DNA protection, and differentiation) and are represented by yellow color squares (Panel B). In 48 hrs, five major biologic processes were identified (protein degradation, differentiation, cell survival, proliferation and apoptosis), and are represented by .$""'/ color (Panel C). In 96 hrs, six major biologic processes were identified (apoptosis, proteolysis, differentiation, proliferation, cell survival, and secretion) (Panel D).

signaling pathway) for the 80 genes were identified. The genes involved in the cell cycle pathway were cyclindependent kinase inhibitor 2A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 alpha; genes involved in complement and coagulation cascades were complement component 1, s subcomponent, and complement component 3; genes involved in MAPK signaling pathway were calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, ! 1G subunit, and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45! . It should be understood that a gene may be involved in more than one pathway. Subcategories of the molecular function of these 80 genes were indicated for further investigation. These two sources of annotation provided an overview of the biological process, molecular function, cellular localization and cellular pathway information associated with a particular gene product.

process, 2) cellular component, and 3) molecular function. Table 3 summarizes the GO for the 80 most frequently differentially expressed genes, under serum deprivation conditions. The ontology of the genes in the biological process was classified as follows: physiological process (34%), cellular process (33%), regulation of biological process (13%), development (8%), response to stimulus (8%), and growth (2%). For the cellular components, genes were classified as cell (24%), cell part (24%), organelle (16%), extracellular region (12%), extracellular region part (9%), organelle part (6%), protein complex (5%), membrane-enclosed lumen (3%), and extracellular matrix (1%) (Table 3). For the molecular functions, genes were classified as binding (45%), catalytic activity (23%), signal transducer activity (11%), transporter activity (7%), transcription regulator activity (5%), enzyme regulator activity (4%), and structural molecule activity (4%) (Table 3). This annotation provided an overview of the biological process, molecular function, cellular localization and pathway information associated with a particular gene product. To gain insight into the biological significance of those 80 differentially expressed genes, several biological pathways using standard KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways were identified. For example, three major KEGG pathways (cell cycle, complement and coagulation cascades, and MAPK

D. Biological regulated genes

characterization

of

To understand the biological meaning of our investigation, we annotated the 80 significantly differentiated expressed genes {71% up-regulated (57 genes), and 29% down-regulated (23 genes)} identified by our microarray assesments with the controlled vocabulary provided by the Gene Ontology Consortium. Multifunctional proteins contain several annotations

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Khalyfa et al: Analysis of gene expression profiles in the programmed cell death in RGC-5

Figure 2. Hierarchical clustering for the significant differentially expressed genes in RGC-5 serum deprived time dependent manner. Panel A shows a heat map of the clustered genes and data presented in the matrix. The row coordinate is assigned to represent the level of single gene expression, and the column coordinate is assigned to the sample (0, 8, 24, 48 and 96 hrs), with red corresponding to high expression, green corresponding to low expression and black corresponding to an intermediate level of expression. Genes significantly changed above 2-fold across the time course following serum deprivation were only included in clustering. The averaged normalized intensity from triplicate arrays is represented by the color of the corresponding cell in the matrix. Color intensity reflects the magnitude of the signal intensity. Panel B shows hierarchical cluster of the genes arranged in the dendrogram in which the patterns and length of the branches reflect the relationship of the expression level. The ordering of the rows and columns was determined using hierarchical clustering and the associated dendrogram for the samples shown at the top of the figure.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 521! Table 2. List of neuronal differentially expressed genes detected in serum deprived RGC-5 time course p-value <0.05. 8 hrs Symbol! Cyr61 Tgfb2 Nfil3 Bdnf Bcl2l10 Ctf1 Dnase1 Mmp9 Ucn Sod1 Ngfr Prdx2 Dap Mapk8ip Cyr61 Prkg2 Tgfb2 Kcnb1 Gzma Bmf Madh7 Bok Tfpt Dnase1 Sod1 Gch Bad Prdx2 Bnip3l Gchfr Ngfrap1 Mapk8ip Pdcd4 Cyr61 Tgfb2 Kcnb1 Nrg1 Bok Sp1 Bard1 Bnip3l Rcl Gchfr Dnase1 Gch Gadd45a Cyr61 Tgfb2 Bcl2l Sp1

RefSeq number!

Gene Description! cysteine rich protein 61 transforming growth factor, beta 2 nuclear factor, interleukin 3, regulated Brain derived neurothrophic factor BCL2-like 10 (apoptosis facilitator) cardiotrophin 1 Deoxyribonuclease I matrix metalloproteinase 9 urocortin Superoxide dimutase 1, soluble Nerve growth factor receptor, fast peroxiredoxin 2 death-associated protein mitogen activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 24 hrs cysteine rich protein 61 protein kinase, cGMP- dependent, type 2 transforming growth factor, beta 2 Potassium voltage gated channel, member 1 granzyme A Bcl-2 modifying factor MAD homolog 7 (Drosophila) Bcl-2-related ovarian killer protein TCF3 (E2A) fusion partner (in childhood leukemia) Deoxyribonuclease I Superoxide dimutase 1, soluble GTP cyclohydrolase 1 bcl-2 associated death agonist peroxiredoxin 2 BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3-like GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein nerve growth factor receptor (TNFRSF16) mitogen activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein programmed cell death 4 48 hrs cysteine rich protein 61 transforming growth factor, beta 2 Potassium voltage gated channel, member 1 neuregulin 1 Bcl-2-related ovarian killer protein Sp1 transcription factor BRCA1-associated RING domain protein 1 BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3-like putative c-Myc-responsive GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein Deoxyribonuclease I GTP cyclohydrolase 1 growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 alpha 96 hrs cysteine rich protein 61 transforming growth factor, beta 2 B cell lymphoma 2 like Sp1 transcription factor

521

Fold change!

p-value!

NM_031327 NM_031131 NM_053727 NM_012513 NM_053733 NM_017129 NM_013097 NM_031055 NM_019150 NM_017050 NM_012610 NM_017169 NM_022526 NM_053777

0.344 0.450 0.611 0.828 1.102 1.174 1.257 1.296 1.552 1.577 1.610 1.787 1.900 1.925

0.000 0.049 0.003 0.019 0.035 0.012 0.027 0.046 0.046 0.044 0.022 0.041 0.006 0.011

NM_031327 NM_013012 NM_031131 NM_013186 NM_153468 NM_139258 NM_030858 NM_017312 NM_138870 NM_013097 NM_017050 NM_024356 NM_022698 NM_017169 NM_080888 NM_133595 NM_053401 NM_053777 NM_022265

0.410 0.506 0.558 0.578 0.578 0.597 0.631 0.686 1.349 1.464 1.638 1.713 1.986 2.080 2.262 2.317 1.806 2.838 2.317

0.020 0.012 0.020 0.036 0.043 0.020 0.024 0.021 0.039 0.023 0.033 0.022 0.040 0.010 0.020 0.003 0.021 0.005 0.011

NM_031327 NM_031131 NM_013186 NM_031588 NM_017312 NM_012655 NM_022622 NM_080888 NM_133525 NM_133595 NM_013097 NM_024356 NM_024127

0.281 0.360 0.468 0.555 0.560 0.753 1.754 2.087 2.169 2.326 2.343 2.550 3.076

0.000 0.014 0.028 0.020 0.027 0.029 0.050 0.031 0.013 0.000 0.006 0.008 0.043

NM_031327 NM_031131 NM_031535 NM_012655

0.338 0.390 0.479 0.536

0.037 0.016 0.045 0.017


Khalyfa et al: Analysis of gene expression profiles in the programmed cell death in RGC-5 Ghr Gzma Bok Lfg Dnase1l3 Mmp9 P2rx1 Nradd Atf3 Prdx2 Bad Trib3 Bnip3l Tpt1 Aqp1 Gch Nr4a1 Gadd45a Dnase1

growth hormone receptor granzyme A Bcl-2-related ovarian killer protein lifeguard deoxyribonuclease I-like 3 matrix metalloproteinase 9 Purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 1 neurotrophin receptor associated death domain Activating transcription factor 3 peroxiredoxin 2 bcl-2 associated death agonist tribbles homolog 3 (Drosophila) BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3-like tumor protein, translationally-controlled 1 aquaporin 1 GTP cyclohydrolase 1 immediate early gene transcription factor NGFI-B growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 alpha Deoxyribonuclease I

NM_017094 NM_153468 NM_017312 NM_144756 NM_053907 NM_031055 NM_012997 NM_139259 NM_012912 NM_017169 NM_022698 NM_144755 NM_080888 NM_053867 NM_012778 NM_024356 NM_024388 NM_024127 NM_013097

0.614 0.615 0.650 1.172 1.223 1.347 1.585 1.679 1.690 2.206 2.219 2.269 2.428 2.559 3.598 3.863 4.165 4.653 18.922

0.015 0.028 0.035 0.021 0.032 0.040 0.021 0.007 0.050 0.042 0.043 0.046 0.048 0.018 0.044 0.027 0.025 0.023 0.028

Table 3. Gene Ontology for the highly significance differentially expressed genes detected in all time courses above 2-fold change. Category Biological Process

Ontology physiological process cellular process regulation of biological process development response to stimulus growth

Gene percentage (%) 34 33 13 8 8 2

z-score 2.36 1.29 0.93 0.03 0.62 0.79

Cellular Components

cell cell part organelle extracellular region extracellular region part organelle part protein complex membrane-enclosed lumen extracellular matrix

24 24 16 12 9 6 5 3 1

-3.87 -3.87 -0.42 1.92 1.02 -0.54

binding catalytic activity signal transducer activity transporter activity transcription regulator activity enzyme regulator activity structural molecule activity

45 23 11 7 5 4 4

0.22 0.05 -0.29 -0.35 -0.35 0.34 0.77

Molecular Function

0.76 -0.36

for each gene. In addition, the molecular function for down-regulated genes were also classified as binding (44%), catalytic activity (39%), signal transducer activity (6%), structure molecule activity (6%), and transporter activity (6%), as shown in Table 5.

corresponding to their different functions. Several molecular functions were categorized for the up-regulated genes, which included binding (45%), catalytic activity (19%), signal transducer activity (10%), transporter activity (8%), enzyme regulator activity (6%), transcription regulator activity (6%), and structure molecule activity (4%), as shown in Table 4. The data presented in Table 4 displays the following: the total number of genes involved in each molecular function category, gene name, accession number and the function

E. Clusters of gene expression profiles The 80 highly significant genes were clustered, as shown in Figure 2. The selected genes contained in the

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 523! B, shows that genes segregating into seven major branches of the dendrogram were assigned seven cluster similarities based on their expression profiles across multiple conditions. Out of the 80 significantly differentiated expressed genes, 57 were up-regulated and 23 were down-regulated (Figure 3 and 4). The diagram in Figure 3, Panel A, shows a partition cluster for the up-regulated genes using silhouette widths. The heat map for the up-regulated genes is depicted in Figure 3, Panel B, and the hierarchical cluster analysis in Figure 3, Panel C. The partition cluster is shown in Figure 4, Panel A, the heat map in Figure 4, Panel B, and the hierarchical cluster in Figure 4, Panel C, using the same type of clustering indicated above for the down regulated genes.

clusters have expression values above 2-fold changes: either up or down-regulated, and p-values <0.05. GeneSifter software utilized clustering analysis to identify discrepancies in gene expression, and association of these changes to sets of genes with similar profiles. Figure 2, Panel A, shows the heat map cluster analysis of gene expression alterations across a serum deprived time course; each color represents a single gene expression value of the sample. The intersection of a gene and sample is colored according to its expression value: red indicates high expression and green indicates low expression. A hierarchical clustering method was used to group genes differentially expressed in a time dependent manner after induction of apoptosis on the basis of similar expression patterns (Figure 2, Panel B). The data in Figure 2, Panel

Figure 3. Hierarchical clustering of the significant up-regulated genes detected in RGC-5 serum deprived time course. Panel A can be construed as gene patterns dramatically changed above 2-fold, across time course following serum deprivation. Panel B shows the heat map of the hierarchically clustered genes. Each row represents a single gene and each column an experimental conditions (0, 8, 24, 48 and 96 hrs). The averaged normalized intensity from triplicate arrays is represented by the color of the corresponding cell in the matrix. Color intensity is proportional to the magnitude of signal intensity. Panel C displays a hierarchical cluster of genes arranged in the dendrogram, where the patterns and length of the branches reflect the relationship of expression level in 5 different experimental conditions. Genes were arranged in a dendrogam, where the patterns and length of the branches reflect the relationship of the expression level in 5 different experimental conditions.

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Khalyfa et al: Analysis of gene expression profiles in the programmed cell death in RGC-5

Figure 4. Hierarchical clustering of the significant down-regulated genes detected in RGC-5 serum deprived time course. Panel A displays partitioning methods k-medoids (18) algorithms. Only genes displaying significant 2-fold change across time course after serum deprivation were included in the hierarchical analysis, as evident from the graph. Panel B shows a heat map of hierarchically clustered genes. Data are presented in a matrix; each row represents a single gene, and each column represents experimental conditions (0, 8, 24, 48 and 96 hrs). The averaged normalized intensity from triplicate arrays is represented by the color of the corresponding cell in the matrix. Color intensity is proportional to the magnitude of signal intensity. Panel C shows a hierarchical cluster of the genes arranged in the dendrogram where the patterns and length of the branches reflect the relationship of the expression level in 5 different experimental conditions. In this cluster, genes are connected iteratively based on their similarity; genes with similar expression patterns were grouped together and connected by a series of branches, called dendrogram (or clustering tree).

Table 4. List of the differentially up-regulated genes found to be associated in the molecular function using Gene Ontology. Category !

Gene Name!

Binding!

AT rich interactive domain 5, (Mrf1 like)! ATPase, H transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit c, (Atp6v0c)!

!

Accession Number! NM_0010349 34! NM_130823!

NM_030845! NM_022214!

chemokine activity

Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit, (Cacna1g) !

NM_031601!

!

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), delta! Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, (Cxcl1) ! Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, (Cxcl5) !

NM_013154!

!

DNA binding! ATPase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of ions; hydrogen-transporting ATPase activity; metal ion binding; protein binding calcium ion binding; cation channel activity; ion channel activity; low voltage-gated calcium channel activity; voltage-gated calcium channel activity DNA binding; protein binding; protein homodimerization activity growth factor activity

!

!

Function!

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 525! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit B p60, (Chaf1b) ! Complement component 3, (C3)! Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, (Cdkn2a) !

NM_0010247 41! NM_016994! NM_031550!

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4), (Cdkn2c) ! Deoxyribonuclease I, (Dnase1) !

NM_131902!

Fc receptor, IgG, low affinity III, (Fcgr3) ! Ferritin, heavy polypeptide 1, (Fth1) !

NM_053843!

Golgi associated, gamma adaptin ear containing ARF binding protein 2, (Gga2) ! Growth arrest and DNA-damageinducible 45 alpha, Gadd45a! Growth factor, erv1 homolog (S. cerevisiae), Gfer ! Lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble 2, Lgals2 ! Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L23, Mrpl23 ! Nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2, Nfe2l2 ! RAB13, member RAS oncogene family, Rab13 ! response gene to complement 32, Rgc32! Solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, phosphate carrier), member 25, Slc25a25 !

NM_013097!

NM_012848! BQ191223!

ferroxidase activity; kinase binding metal ion binding; oxidoreductase activity; protein binding ADP-ribosylation factor binding; protein binding

NM_024127!

Protein binding!

NM_013222!

protein binding

NM_133599!

galactoside binding!

NM_022529!

RNA binding; structural constituent of ribosome

NM_031789!

NM_253722!

DNA binding; protein binding; transcription factor activity; transcription regulator activity; transcriptional activator activity GTPase activity; nucleotide binding

NM_054008!

protein binding

NM_145677!

calcium ion binding; transporter activity

ATPase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of ions; hydrogen ion transporter activity; hydrogentransporting ATP synthase activity, hydrogentransporting ATPase activity, hydrolase activity; metal ion binding; protein binding complement component C1r activity

Catalytic activity!

ATPase, H transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit c, Atp6v0c!

NM_130823!

!

NM_0010028 04! NM_138900!

!

Complement component 1, r subcomponent, C1r ! Complement component 1, s subcomponent, C1s ! Deoxyribonuclease I, Dnase1 !

!

Ferritin, heavy polypeptide 1, Fth1 !

NM_012848!

!

Flavin containing monooxygenase 1, Fmo1 ! GTP cyclohydrolase 1; Legumain, Gch ! RAB13, member RAS oncogene family, Rab13 !

NM_012792!

!

chromatin binding; histone binding; unfolded protein binding protein binding; receptor binding cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity; DNA binding; protein binding; transcription factor activity cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity; DNA binding; transcription factor activity actin binding; calcium ion binding; deoxyribonuclease I activity; hydrolase activity; protein binding IgG binding; IgG receptor activity; receptor activity

NM_024356!

complement component C1s activity; peptidase activity actin binding; calcium ion binding deoxyribonuclease I activity; endonuclease activity; hydrolase activity; protein binding ferroxidase activity; kinase binding; metal ion binding; oxidoreductase activity; protein binding dimethylaniline monooxygenase (N-oxide-forming) activity; monooxygenase activity; transporter activity hydrolase activity

NM_253722!

GTPase activity; nucleotide binding

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, Cxcl1 !

NM_030845!

Growth factor activity!

NM_022214!

chemokine activity!

NM_016994! NM_053843!

protein binding; receptor binding IgG binding; IgG receptor activity; receptor activity

!

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 5, Cxcl5 ! Complement component 3, C3! Fc receptor, IgG, low affinity III, Fcgr3 ! Toll-like receptor 2, Tlr2 !

NM_198769!

receptor activity

Transporter activity!

ATPase, H transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit c, Atp6v0c !

NM_130823!

ATPase activity, coupled to transmembrane movement of ions; hydrogen ion transporter activity; hydrogen-

! ! Signal transducer activity! ! ! !

NM_013097!

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Khalyfa et al: Analysis of gene expression profiles in the programmed cell death in RGC-5 transporting ATP synthase activity, rotational mechanism; hydrogen-transporting ATPase activity, rotational mechanism; hydrolase activity; metal ion binding; protein binding calcium ion binding; cation channel activity; ion channel activity; low voltage-gated calcium channel activity; voltage-gated calcium channel activity dimethylaniline monooxygenase (N-oxide-forming) activity; monooxygenase activity; transporter activity ion binding; transporter activity

!

Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit; Cacna1g !

NM_031601!

!

Flavin containing monooxygenase 1, Fmo1 ! and Solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, phosphate carrier), member 25, Slc25a25 !

NM_012792!

Enzyme regulator activity!

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, Cdkn2a !

NM_031550!

cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity; DNA binding; protein binding; transcription factor activity

!

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4), Cdkn2c !

NM_131902!

cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity; DNA binding; transcription factor activity

Transcription regulator activity! !

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, Cdkn2a !

NM_031550!

Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4), Cdkn2c ! Nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2, Nfe2l2 !

NM_131902!

cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity; DNA binding; protein binding; transcription factor activity cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity; DNA binding; transcription factor activity DNA binding, protein binding; transcription factor activity; transcription regulator activity; transcriptional activator activity extracellular matrix structural constituent; structural constituent of bone

!

!

Structural molecule activity! !

NM_145677!

NM_031789!

Matrix Gla protein, Mgp !

NM_012862!

Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L23, Mrpl23 !

NM_022529!

F. Confirmation expressed genes

of

differentially

RNA binding; structural constituent of ribosome

PCR results indicated that C3 is appreciably up-regulated in RGC-5 serum deprived cells.

To confirm the expression data from our microarray results, we validated 10 differentially expressed genes, including the following: BAD, AKT1, AKT2, AKT3, GSK3a GSK3b, Pik3r1, Pik3cb, Pik3c2g, and SGK; all for quantitative RT-PCR analysis. These genes were construed as having invariable trends of change by microarray analysis and real-time quantitative PCR (Table 6). Expression levels of 18S were used as an internal housekeeping gene control to normalize all selected genes observed from the microarray data (Table 6). Mean fold changes from microarray vs. RT-PCR experiments were calculated. Expression ratios obtained by quantitative RTPCR are in accordance with the ratios obtained from using microarrays. In general, relative expression level changes conveyed by microarray analysis were greater than those revealed by real-time RT-PCR; especially for genes that were clearly over-expressed. This may be explained by the increased sensitivity, and perhaps, the better reliability of microarray compared to the RT-PCR method. RT-PCR was performed in parallel for genes differentially expressed at each time point to confirm or support the detected changes of expression levels. A gene expression ratio greater than 1 is considered up-regulated, while a gene expression ratio less than 1 is down-regulated. The information gathered from our microarray data and RT-

H. Confocal microscopy Confocal microscopy was used to determine the expression pattern of complement protein (C3), using antibody against C3 in RGC-5 cells and rat retina. For the adult rat, the immunofluorescence labeling of C3 in the retina (Figure 5, Panel C) was observed predominantly in the RGC layer (white arrows in Figure 5, Panel C) and nerve fiber layer (fluorescent green arrow in Figure 5, Panel C), with positive immunolabeling in the photoreceptor cells (blue arrow in Figure 5, Panel C); RPE (light blue arrow in Figure 5, Panel C); choroids (red arrow in Figure 5, C); and an inner plexiform layer (purple arrow in Figure 5, Panel C). Diffuse labeling was observed throughout the thickness of the retina. The DIC image of the retina is shown in Figure 5, Panel A. The retina was also stained with Hoechst nuclear stain (Figure 5, Panel B), and the merged image for C3 and Hoechst nuclear stain is shown in (Figure 5, Panel D). As expected, there was no a positive immunoreactivity in IgG control retinas (data not shown). For the RGC-5 cells, the data in Figure 6, Panel C displayed intense C3 immunoreactivity in the cytosol with no reactivity in the nucleus. Merged images of C3 and Hoechst nuclear stain immunofluorescence clearly showed that C3 was expressed in the cytosol of the transformed RGC-5 cells (Figure 6, Panel D). As expected, there was no positive immunoreactivity with goat IgG controls (data not shown).

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 527! Table 5. List of the differentially down-regulated genes found to be associated in the molecular function using Gene Ontology. ! Category ! Binding! !

Gene Name ! Adenylate kinase 1, Ak1 Carbonic anhydrase VB, mitochondrial , Ca5b Crystallin, alpha B, Cryab

! !

Accession Number! NM_024349!

Function!

NM_001005551! NM_012935! NM_138548!

structural constituent of eye lens; unfolded protein binding ATP binding; deoxyribonuclease activity; DNA binding; kinase activity; magnesium ion binding; nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity; nucleotide binding; transferase activity poly(U) binding; protein binding; RNA binding

Expressed in non-metastatic cells 1, Nme1 !

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1, Hnrph1 Insulin-like growth factor 1, Igf1

!

Serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase, Sgk

!

WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1, Wisp1

Catalytic activity! ! !

Adenylate kinase 1, Ak1 Carbonic anhydrase VB, mitochondrial, Ca5b Expressed in non-metastatic cells 1, Nme1

! !

Lanosterol synthase, Lss Lysyl oxidase-like 1, Loxl1

! !

Signal transducer activity! Structural molecule activity ! Transporter activity!

Serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase, Sgk Transmembrane 7 superfamily member 2, Tm7sf2 Insulin-like growth factor 1, Igf1

adenylate kinase activity; kinase activity; nucleotide binding; transferase activity lyase activity; metal ion binding

NM_080896!

NM_001082477 NM_019232!

growth factor activity; hormone activity; insulin-like growth factor ; receptor binding; protein binding; steroid binding nucleotide binding; protein kinase activity; protein serine/threonine kinasemactivity; transferase activity

NM_031716!

insulin-like growth factor binding; protein binding

NM_024349!

adenylate kinase activity; kinase activity; nucleotide binding; transferase activity lyase activity; metal ion binding

NM_001005551! NM_138548!

NM_031049! NM_001012125! NM_019232! NM_001013071!

ATP binding; deoxyribonuclease activity; DNA binding; kinase activity; magnesium ion binding; nucleotide binding; transferase activity isomerase activity; lanosterol synthase activity electron carrier activity; oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-NH2 group of donors, oxygen as acceptor nucleotide binding; protein kinase activity; protein serine/threonine kinase activity; transferase activity delta14-sterol reductase activity, oxidoreductase activity

NM_001082477!

growth factor activity; hormone activity; insulin-like growth factor receptor binding; protein binding; steroid binding

Crystallin, alpha B, Cryab

NM_012935!

structural constituent of eye lens; unfolded protein binding

Potassium channel, subfamily K, member 2, Kcnk2

NM_172041!

outward rectifier potassium channel activity; potassium channel activity; voltage-gated potassium channel activity

neurodegenerative, autoimmune, cardiovascular and cancer diseases. As our understanding of apoptosis increases, further opportunities will arise for tailor-made therapies that will result in improvements in the clinical setting. Retinal ganglion cells play a key role in integrating visual information and relaying it to the visual centers of the brain via the optic nerve, and the health of these cells depends on the availability of various neurotrophic factors. A number of studies have shown that neurotrophins promote survival of injured RGCs and other retinal neurons (Mittag and Schmidt, 2004; Thanos and Emerich, 2005). It has been shown that optic neuropathies or retinopathies that disrupt the retrograde transport of trophic factors to the RGCs induce stress to these cells and

IV. Discussion In this study, we further identified and characterized differentially expressed genes, potentially involved in the apoptotic cell death of RGC-5 serum deprived with time courses 0, 8, 24, 48 and 96 hrs. This was performed using Agilentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s oligonucleotide-based microarrays. The serum deprivation time course was chosen based on DNA fragmentation, and cell death to survival ratios (Charles et al, 2005; Khalyfa et al, 2007). There has been limited progress in the past in identifying apoptosis-related genes in many models of neuronal cell death. Apoptosis is a process of cellular suicide, consisting of precise transcriptional alterations of a multitude of genes involved in a wide range of pathologic conditions that include:

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Khalyfa et al: Analysis of gene expression profiles in the programmed cell death in RGC-5 Table 6. Comparative analysis of microarray data and Real Time RT-PCR. Comparison of fold changes in expression for selected genes by microarray and real-time PCR. The data shown are means Âą SD from three replicates. Microarray p-value <0.05 Gene Name Phosphoinositide 3kinase, regulatory subunit, polypeptide 1 (p85 alpha) phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit, beta isoform phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, C2 domain containing, gamma polypeptide v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 Murine thymoma viral (v-akt) oncogene homolog 2 thymoma viral proto-oncogene 3 (Akt3), mRNA glycogen synthase kinase 3 alph glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta bcl-2 associated death agonist Complement component 3 complement component 1, s subcomponent growth arrest and DNA-damageinducible 45 alpha

RT-PCR p-value <0.05

Symbol

RefSeq number

Pik3r1

NM_013005

1.10

0.83

0.98

0.85

0.98

0.75

0.42

0.76

Pik3cb

NM_053481

0.89

0.68

0.70

0.83

0.98

0.74

0.42

0.76

Pik3c2g

NM_053923

0.69

0.92

0.59

0.70

0.24

0.37

0.07

0.11

Ak1

NM_033230

0.80

0.88

0.59

0.70

0.9

0.82

0.44

0.21

Akt2

NM_017093

1.01

0.97

0.90

0.56

1.13

1.05

0.9

0.61

Akt3

NM_031575

0.93

0.47

1.12

0.55

0.75

0.37

0.33

0.26

Gsk3a

NM_017344

1.16

0.93

0.62

1.03

1.16

0.84

0.49

0.61

Gsk3b

NM_032080

0.96

0.75

0.68

0.69

0.91

0.84

0.53

0.46

Bad

NM_022698

1.66

1.99

1.24

2.22

1.28

2.28

2.13

1.95

C3

NM_016994

1.15

6.46

7.26

31.58

0.26

11.25

14.89

24.61

C1s

NM_138900

0.88

2.23

2.86

9.60

0.81

4.39

20.41

24.15

Gadd45a

NM_024127

1.37

2.04

3.08

4.65

1.51

2.03

2.23

2.73

8 hrs

24 hrs

48 hrs

96 hrs

8 hrs

24 hrs

48 hrs

96 hrs

response. Our data provides insight into how gene expression in RGC-5 responds to treatment of serum deprivation with several time points, and how gene expression data is useful in identifying genes involved in different biochemical pathways. Differential gene expression analysis is one of the most widely used applications of microarray technology. To categorize the overall global changes of gene expression profiling in RGC-5 serum deprivation using a time-dependent manner (8, 24, 48 and 96 hrs), which includes a wide range of apoptotic cell death, we identified the significantly differentiated expressed genes between cell survival and cell death phenotype in each time point, and we applied multiple comparisons between all samples using different statistical analyses. In microarray data anlyses, genes are eventually divided into two groups, those that demonstrate differential expression and those that do not, often based on essentially arbitrary statistical or ad hoc criteria. We used a test to identify differentially expressed genes between two time points (i.e. 8hrs vs. 0 hr, 24 hrs vs. 0 hrs,

eventually their death. For example, in glaucoma, elevated intraocular pressure was shown to obstruct axonal transport at the optic nerve head, causing blockage of retrograde transport of neurotrophins (Anderson and Hendrickson, 1974; Nickells, 1996; Pease et al, 2000). Neurotrophins are a family of regulatory factors that mediate the differentiation and survival of neurons. It has been shown that the deprivation of these trophic factors is associated with vision loss in glaucoma resulting from apoptosis of the RGCs (Rabacchi et al, 1994; Quigley et al, 1995). It is clear that neurotrophins play an important role in the health and pathology of the RGCs (Agarwal et al, 2007). The cross-talk among various apoptotic pathways is complex. To understand the intricacies of cell death machinery, microarray analysis can facilitate a comprehensive evaluation of the role of individual signaling pathways in mediating apoptosis, and it can also provide insights into how apparently distinct pathways network with each other to coordinate a balanced 528


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Figure 5. Confocal immunocytochemical localization of complement components (C3) in the adult rat retina. A DIC image of retina is showing various layers of rat retina Panel A. The nuclear staining by Hoechst stain is shown in Panel B. Intense C3 immunolabeling Panel C was detected in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer (white arrow) including the nerve fiber layer (fluorescent blue arrow). The C3 labeling was also detected in the inner plexiform layer (purple arrow), photoreceptors (blue arrow), and the choroids (red arrow). The merged image of B and C is shown in D. INL indicates inner nuclear layer; ONL indicates outer nuclear layer; RPE indicates retinal pigment epithelium layer; and CH indicates choroids.

Figure 6. Confocal immunocytochemical localization of complement components (C3) in RGC-5 cells. The DIC image is shown in Panel (A) and the nuclear staining by Hoechst stain is shown in Panel B. Arrows in Panels A and B depict the cells and the nuclei of the RGC-5 cells, respectively. Complement components (C3) in green (arrows in Panel C). The merged images of these RGC-5 cells are shown in Panel D (arrows). CFH was expressed in the cytoplasm (arrows in Panels B and D).

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Khalyfa et al: Analysis of gene expression profiles in the programmed cell death in RGC-5 involved in cell survival and apoptotic pathways. We identified a series of interacting genes that constitute a potentially important gene-regulatory network related to cell death and survival pathways (Figure 7). We believe that gene expression profiling and identification of novel genes would provide a significant increase in our knowledge to the mechanisms and pathways regulating the transition from cell survival to cell death. We also believe that the pathway presented in Figure 7 is important in the apoptotic gene networks because those genes were confirmed using QRT-PCR in RGC-5 cells. In Figure 7, we included C3 and C1s which had previously validated by Khalyfa and colleagues in 2007, in addition to the genes that validated in this study by RT-PCR in order to build a gene-network interactions and possible link between complement components and PI3K/Akt gene members. Many apoptotic pathways have been reported in other literature. The decision between cell survival and death is believed to depend on the balance of pro- and antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, whom dimerize in the cell. Bad, a pro-apoptotic BH3-only containing protein, is one of the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, and is the target of a network of upstream survival signals. It has been indicated that PI3K/Akt/Bad signal transduction pathway is engaged in the control of apoptosis in many different cell types, particularly through phosphorylation of the Bcl-2 family protein Bad (Campos et al, 2003). Here, we show the involvement of this pathway in the programmed cell death of RGC-5 response to time dependent serum deprivation. In our microarray data, we identified the PI3K, Akt, GSK isoforms, and Bad. The validated genes, which are known to be involved in the PI3K pathway, were also used to build biological pathways. We believe PI3K is important because it is involved in both cell death and cell survival. To the best of our knowledge this study is the first to demonstrate the gene network interactions between C3, C1s and PI3K/Akt members in RGC-5 serum deprivation. Based on our data, we suggest that may be there is a link among those genes based on their gene interactions and connectivity.! Previously, it has been shown that complement activation occurs in the retina, that has been subjected to elevated IOP, which may have implications in the pathophysiology of glaucoma (Kuehn et al, 2006). P13K directly regulates certain cytoplasmic apoptotic pathway. Several studies have shown that PI3K and its downstream effectors, protein serine/threonine kinases (Akt), is a major signaling pathway by which survival factors prevent apoptosis (Yao and Cooper, 1995). PI3K plays a crucial role in implementing alterations in a broad range of cellular functions in response to extracellular signals. Several targets of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway have been identified, which may underlie the ability of this regulatory cascade to promote survival (Datta et al, 1999). Our microarray data shows three isoforms of PI3K were found to be consistently changed over time of serum deprivation. PI3K has three isoforms: Pik3r1, Pik3cb, and Pik3c2g, encoded by three different genes located on chromosomes 2q12, 8q31, and 4q44, respectively. Activation of PI3K pathway promotes proliferation and

48 hrs vs. 0 hr, and 96 hrs vs. 0 hr), then we used AVOVA for multiple comparisons to identify genes either up-or-down regulated utilizing GeneSifter software FDR <0.05. We are not expecting to have the same number genes for each time point to be the same even we used the same p-value cutoff (<0.05) for all time points. Based on the DNA fragmentation and cell death numbers for all the time points, 24 hrs was less apoptotic comparing to 48 and 96 hrs. We noticed that at 24 hrs the number of differentially expressed shows the highest number of genes (412) comparing to other time points. The highest number of genes in 24 hrs was surprise. We identified 80 genes that were differentially expressed at least two-fold following serum deprivation in all time points. Of these 80 genes, there were 57 genes up-regulated and 23 genes down-regulated. These particular gene expression discrepancies demonstrate a common retinal response to cell death, plausibly implicated in retinal cell death. Furthermore, besides monitoring changes in the expression patterns of individual genes at each time point, we also used the differentially expressed genes to design biological pathways. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the distinct temporal changes in gene expression induced by RGC-5 serum deprivation using GO and network analyses to identify significant biological processes and regulatory networks. We showed how gene expression data is useful in identifying genes involved in different biochemical pathways (Figure 1, Panels, A-D, and Table 1). Our data show that ontology analysis revealed that genes related to apoptosis as a group were significantly regulated in response to serum deprivation. Many of these genes are involved in proliferation, cell survival, differentiation, and apoptosis, as documented (Figure 1). Of the 80 genes there were three KEGG pathways significantly enriched in the genes associated with cell death, cell cycle, complement and coagulation cascades, and MAPK signaling pathway) in all time points of serum deprivation. For example, MAPK represents a critical link between cell surface signal transduction and nuclear processes, including regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival (Nozaki et al, 2001; Huffman et al, 2004). Our results also revealed that serum deprivation induced distinct sets of RGC-5 genes, which exhibited different temporal expression patterns (Tables 3, 4 and 5). The clustering process aided in distinguishing frequent expression patterns and highly specialized patterns, which probably required the participation of specialized sets of transcription factors. The up-regulated genes formed the largest clusters, followed by the down-regulated genes. All clusters showed the relative consistency of up-regulated and down-regulated genes (Figure 3). As indicated in Figure 3, the genes that are classified into the same clusters may have shared biological functions or may have been part of the same biological pathways. The comparative gene expression profile of RGC-5 serum deprivation conveyed resemblance of microarray data to quantitative RT-PCR. The microarray data were confirmed using 12 differentially expressed genes by realtime PCR (Table 6). Such validated genes were used to formulate and assemble biological pathways, conceivably

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Figure 7. Biological pathway for selected genes used for validation via QRT-PCR. The biological pathways for the selected genes were conducted using PathwayStudio software. The blue color represents the selected genes identified in microarray data and used for validation. Biologically linked proteins are indicated by nodes, and biological processes are shown in the diagram.

survival in several different cell types of the immune system. For example, (Homma et al, 2007) demonstrated that IGF-I is a key molecule that induces RGC apoptosis or RGC survival and regeneration in the retina during the early stages of rat retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve injury. Yu and colleagues also suggested in 2006 that insulin protects retinal neurons from oxidative stressinduced apoptosis. The ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promotes cell survival via the PI3K signaling pathway in !"#$% and in !"!%& (Ikeda et al, 2004). PI3K activates, phosphorylates and regulates the activity of several targets, including kinases, transcription factors and other regulatory molecules. The complement component has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (Stasi et al, 2006), and posses the potential to activate intracellular signaling pathways, such as TNF cascade, which can lead to the activation of downstream mediators (Alexander et al, 2005). Complement component 3 (C3) is the most abundant complement protein, playing a key role in the complement cascades that consist of the classical,

alternative, and lectin pathways (Sekine et al, 2001). Activation of C3 via the alternative pathway can induce TNF release (Levy et al, 2003). The complement expression was up-regulated within the retina of two glaucoma models (DBA/2 mouse and monkey) and some human glaucomatous eyes (Stasi et al, 2006). C3 is the converging point for activation of all three complement pathways, and is critical in biological processes mediated by complement activation (Sekine et al, 2001). In spite of the pathway where the complement cascade becomes activated, all pathways share the same downstream events that start with the generation of different C3 convertases (Sekine et al, 2001). The up-regulation of C3 and C1s, both part of the complement system, demonstrate an apoptotic immune response to the serum deprived RGC. The consistent up-regulation of complement proteins along with the simultaneous, consecutive down-regulation of Akt suggests that these systems may be interrelated. The complement cascade is initiated to help clear pathogens. C3 is activated proteolytically by enzyme complexes (the C3 convertases) yielding the 531


Khalyfa et al: Analysis of gene expression profiles in the programmed cell death in RGC-5 apoptotic response in tumor cells. Overexpression of Akt3 results in contractile dysfunction and increased susceptibility to cardiac injury (Taniyama et al, 2005). Akt may also promote cell survival in an indreict fashion by regulating another major signaling enzyme-glycogen synthase kinase 3". The glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is another gene was validated by qRT-PCR and highlighted in this study. The GSK-3 is a serine-threonine kinase encoded by two isoforms, termed GSK-3" and GSK-3! , that are inactivated upon phosphorylation by PKB (Woodgett, 1990; Cross et al, 1995). The two isoforms are encoded by different genes and share nearly identical sequences in their kinase domains. Inhibition of GSK-3! results in the protection against apoptosis (Pap and Cooper, 1998). It has been implicated in several major neurological disorders, and has been originally identified as a regulator of glycogen metabolism (Embi et al, 1980). GSK3" mediates an interaction between two major forms of synaptic plasticity in the brain (Peineau et al, 2007). GSK3" is involved in neurodevelopment, regulation of neuronal plasticity, cell survival, and potentially, it is a key component of several psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases (Grimes and Jope, 2001). In our data, GSK isoforms were down-regulated throughout each time point of serum deprivation (Table 6). GSK3 inhibition occurs when the p110 of PI3K/Akt pathway is activated by growth factors. Activated Akt then phosphorylates GSK3!, inhibiting GSK3 kinase activity. This activation of the p110-PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway, and inhibition of GSK3, delivers a strong anti-apoptotic signal to the cell (Turenne and Price, 2001). Serum withdrawal from cultured cortical neurons resulted in apoptosis along with decreased Akt activity and increased GSK3!!"#$%&%$'! (Grimes and Jope, 2001)(!The ability of trophic factors to promote cell survival has been attributed in part to the PI3K/Akt kinase cascade. Several targets of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway have been recently identified that may explain the ability of this regulatory cascade to promote survival (Datta et al, 1999). It is obvious that studying gene expression for thousands of genes at once allows us to examine biological pathwayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s analyses rather than looking at a single gene marker. Genes with common functions often exhibit correlated expression levels, which can be used to identify sets of interacting genes from microarray data (Voy et al, 2006). Gene Ontology (Ashburner et al, 2000) and clustering are the most commonly used methods for identifying a large group of genes detected by microarray data. Microarrays gene expression profiling have been used extensively in many human diseases which provided new possibilities for gaining superior insights into the pathogenesis of various diseases; to define biomarkers and possibly new candidate targets for novel treatments (Lindberg and Kappos, 2006). During the apoptotic process, the molecular players interact closely with each other to accelerate or interrupt the cellular process, some of these either up-regulated or down-regulated based on the signal of stimuli to the cells. The up-regulated genes are the candidates for the apoptotic signals and the down-regulated genes are the

anaphylatoxin C3a [which (Sekine et al, 2001) mediates inflammation (Bokisch et al, 1969)], and the major fragment C3b [which can covalently attach to target surfaces via its reactive thioester (Law et al, 1979)]. C3 plays a central role in the activation of the complement system, and C1s are involved specifically in the classical pathway. One significant effect of complement activation can be apoptosis, which can occur directly through cellular events stimulated by C5b-9, C5a (Sato et al, 1999; Nauta et al, 2002). The up-regulation of complement components (C1S and C3) in our data was also supported by the recent studies using microarray data published by (Yang et al, 2007) who suggested that the up-regulation of those genes in experimental glaucoma and optic nerve transaction rats injury. The pharmacological blockade of the PI3K/Akt pathway has been shown to reduce cell death in PC12 cells (Hillion et al, 2006). Here we show Akt was down regulated in both microarrays and QRT-PCR. Our data show that down-regulation of Akt members (Table 6). The down-regulation of Akt expression levels is an indication of apoptoic cell death in RGC-5. This Akt protein kinase has been identified as an important mediator of cell survival (Hillion et al, 2006). Akts are primary downstream effectors of PI3K. There are three closely related isoforms, which include: Akt1, (PKB!), Akt2 (PKB") and Akt3 (PKB#), encoded by three different genes located on chromosomes 14q32, 19q13 and 1q43, respectively. The Akt signaling pathway is recognized as one of the most imperative pathways in regulating cell survival. The activation of Akt pathway provides cells with a survival signal that allows them to withstand apoptotic stimuli (Yao and Cooper, 1995). Hillon and colleagues found that the pharmacological blockade of the PI3K/Akt pathway abated cell death (Hillion et al, 2006). In the nerve system, Akt expression is substantially upregulated during cellular stress, suggesting Aktâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s involvement in cellular protection. For example, Akt targets several key proteins needed for keeping cells alive, including apoptosis regulators and transcription factors (Yuan and Yankner, 2000). Activated Akt protein supports the survival of neurons in the absence of trophic factors, whereas a dominant-negative mutant of Akt inhibits neuronal survival even in the presence of survival factors. Activated Akt has been shown to mediate cell survival by phosphorylation of several targets including Bad (Thompson and Thompson, 2004). Phosphorylated Bad and Bax proteins ensues release of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 proteins and promotes survival (Masters et al, 2002). Bcl-2 associated death agonist (BAD), which is continually up- regulated throughout each time-point, as proven by microarray and QRT-PCR (Table 6), is known to be a pro-apoptotic gene (Campos et al, 2003). Dephosphorylated Bad translocates to the mitochondria where it binds to either the death antagonists Bcl-2 or BclxL, and prevents them from performing their per-survival activity, thus leading to cell death (Yang et al, 1995). Akt phosphorylates and inactivates GSK-3! (Cross et al, 1995), and (Koseoglu et al, 2007) suggested that inhibiting all three AKT isoforms is necessary to elicit maximal

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 533! prevention of diseases like glaucoma. Apoptosis is involved in a wide range of pathologic conditions, including neurodegenerative disease. The ability to understand apoptosis processes will arise for tailor-made therapies that will result in improved clinics. We believe identification of the potential target genes are and the biological pathways leading to apoptosis will be of great benefit therapeutically in the future. Only functional studies of individual genes can establish their actual role and mechanisms of action within apoptotic pathways. Our microarray data, highlighted by GO annotations and statistical analyses, have generated new hypotheses that could not be generated by any other approach. These hypotheses provide directions to investigations for elucidating the molecular mechanisms that lead to neuronal apoptosis. Theses studies may reveal unsuspected molecular pathways controlling the survival/death of neurons, and ultimately contribute to the identification of new target genes for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including glaucoma.

candidates for cell survival. Many of these genes and their products can activate several pathways including PI3K/Akt as a cell survival pathway. This enzyme inhibits apoptosis by many downstream effects. Most traditional research into neurodegenerative disease including glaucoma is focused on developing drugs that inhibit neuronal dysfunction and death early in the disease process. One approach is to block the apoptotic signal trigger and activation of anti-apoptotic pathways by treatment with neurotrophic factors is another approach. Our data, together with previously published (Khalyfa et al, 2007) suggest that the induction of RGC-5 cell death lead to complex changes in gene expression and these changes involve modulation of positive and negative regulatory pathways. We believe better understanding of the molecular and cellular targets will led to the identification of specific drug targets. Genotyping for those candidate genes using the single nucleotide polymorphisms is another direction of research. As we mentioned above, glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the world-wide, and successful development of a product capable of directly protecting both retina and optic nerve from glaucomatous damage would represent a significant advance in the treatment of the disease. Cell culture and animal studies support the concept of neuroprotective therapies may prevent RGC cell death after diverse kinds of injuries. Apoptosis is consequently of profound significance in physiology, pathology, and therapeutic medicine. Apoptosis of RGCs is central glaucomatous progression in human and experimental models. The analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in apoptosis is therefore of great importance in developing gene and drug therapies for many disease where the control of apoptosis is perturbed including glaucoma. The control of apoptosis is complex processes and involves many genes. Some of these genes are relatively well characterized, but there many genes have yet to be identified. Many experiments in the past have demonstrated that the requirement of de novo gene expression during neuronal apoptosis. We have chosen to use RGC-5 cell line to mimic certain events seen in RGC death. Although previous studies implicated individual genes or genetic pathways during apoptosis, the complete spectrum of genes involved in the distinct temporal domains is mostly unknown. To begin a comprehensive survey of the gene based mechanisms that underline neuronal apoptosis, we have used the unprecedented experimental opportunities that genome sequences and the DNA microarray technology to perform genome-scale expression analysis in RGC-5 in cell survival and cell death using RGC-5 cell line. In this study, we highlighted the use of this technology and identifying differentially expressed genes in time dependent serum deprivation which might be helpful for identifying specific pathway or targeting molecules in particular pathway. In conclusion, we have identified a large number of differentially expressed genes in RGC-5 time dependent manor of apoptotic cell death. These alterations of gene expression may help to provide essential support to develop unique markers and strategies for efficient

Aknowledgement This work was partially supported by NIH:NCRR P2016481. The authors would like to thank Dr. Neerj Agarwal for helping in confocal microscope data.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 537! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 537-544, 2008

Mouse mammary tumor virus: a cause of breast cancer in humans? Review Article

Ish Ahmed, James R. Harvey, Simi Ali, John A. Kirby, Thomas WJ Lennard* Applied Immunobiology and Breast Research Group, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, UK

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Professor Thomas Lennard, School Of Surgical & Reproductive Sciences3rd Floor, William Leech Building Faculty Of Medical Sciences Framlington Place Newcastle Upon Tyne Ne2 4hh, UK; Tel: 0191 222 7067; Fax: 0191 222 8514; E-mail: T.W.J.Lennard@ncl.ac.uk Key words: Mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV), breast cancer Abbreviations: 3' long terminal repeat, (LTR); ductal carcinoma in situ, (DCIS); fluorescence nested PCR, (FN-PCR); human endogenous retrovirus, (HERV); infiltrating ductal carcinoma, (IDC); lobulo-alveolar, (LA); mouse mammary tumour virus, (MMTV); open reading frame, (ORF); superantigen, (Sag); terminal ductal lobular unit, (TLDU) Received: 13 February 2008; Revised: 20 June 2008 Accepted: 30 June 2008; electronically published: September 2008

Summary The mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV), a B-type retrovirus, is known to be the most common cause of breast cancer in mice. However, its role in human breast cancer is very controversial. Here we review the evidence that supports the role of this virus in causing human breast cancer. It’s historical background, its possible transmission from mice to human and its mechanism of actions have also been reviewed.

newborn young of an inbred high-cancer mouse line (tumour incidence >80%) were fostered by females of a low tumour line. The fostered mice and their progeny lived considerably longer and had a tumour incidence of only 7.4%. With this and some other similar experiments, he concluded that an agent in milk influences the development of breast tumours. Though initially isolated in the milk, this agent was also obtained from both spontaneous and transplanted mammary carcinomas, lactating mammary tissue and whole blood. Bittner also showed that this agent could be carried through several passages in association with tumour transplants in mice that did not carry the milk influence themselves. The agent was smaller than a bacterium as it could pass through bacterial and seitz filters. By 1945, Andorvent went on to describe this milk factor as a virus (Gross, 1970), and gradually, this became widely known as the ‘Bittner Virus’. Today, the term MMTV includes Bittner’s virus and other closely related viruses (Labat, 1998). It is now well established that MMTV causes breast tumours in laboratory mice (Callahan, 1996), but its role in causing breast cancer in humans is a subject of significant controversy.

I. Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, accounting for about 25% of all malignancies in women; the proportion is higher in western, developed, countries. In England, there were around 36,500 new cases diagnosed in 2003, representing 32 per cent of all cancers in women and a rate of 120 cases per 100,000 women. (Quinn et al, 2003). Several risk factors have been implicated in breast cancer including age, diet, nulliparity, obesity and family history (Kelsey, 1993). With genetic predisposition (mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2) only accounting for approximately 5% of breast cancers (Szabo and King, 1997), extensive efforts have been made to account for the remainder. The mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) has been implicated as one of the unrecognized factors that might account for remainder of sporadic cases. The geographical variation in incidence of breast cancer provides additional grounds for this theory.

II. The origin of mouse mammary tumour virus The interest in MMTV as a cancer causing agent was generated several decades ago when Bittner demonstrated in 1939 an extra chromosomal factor in mice that contributes to breast cancer incidence. In his experiments,

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Ahmed et al: Mouse mammary tumor virus: a cause of breast cancer in humans? Identification of the MMTV envelope proteins in human breast cancer by using antibody against them was one of the earlier methods used. In one of these series, positive reactions were seen in 51 of 131 (39%) breast carcinomas with negative reactions in all normal breast tissue (Mesa-Tejada et al, 1978). However, the use of this antibody against the MMTV .-2elope protein has been disputed and places an uncertainty on the validity of these results (Hareuveni and Lathe, 1990). One of the major problems encountered at that time was the identification of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) in the human genome. The significant homology between HERV and MMTV made it extremely difficult to differentiate between the two. As a consequence, earlier results were disputed with claims that the identification of MMTV may actually be HERV. This problem was overcome when, among others, Wang and colleagues isolated a 660-bp sequence in human breast cancer (Wang et al, 1995). This sequence was highly homologous to the .-2 gene of MMTV and had a very low homology to HERVs. Isolating DNA from fresh and frozen breast samples and using the polymerase chain reaction, they detected this sequence in 38% of the 314 breast cancer samples and in none of the normal breast tissues. A similar 250-bp sequence homologous to MMTV were detected in 39.7% of the 151 human breast cancers and in 1 of 27 normal breast samples assayed from paraffin-embedded sections. Wang and colleagues suggested in 1998 that their findings may represent exogenous sequences from an agent similar to MMTV. They next investigated whether these .-2-positive tumours produced mRNA by assessing the expression of the 660-bp sequence in the human breast samples using reverse transcription PCR. They demonstrated the expression of this sequence in 66% of the .-2-positive tumours and in none of the .-2-negative tumours. Subsequent sequence analysis confirmed that the expressed sequence was 98% homologous to the .-2 gene of the MMTV with only one small stretch of 46 bp that was homologous to the endogenous viral sequences. The fact that not all .-2-positive tumours produced mRNA was slightly intriguing, and possible explanations suggested were degradation of the mRNA or that not all the cells within the tumour express the viral sequences (Wang et al, 1998). The use of MMTV .-2 sequences by Wang and colleagues in 1998 and his interesting results rekindled further interests on the role of MMTV in human breast cancer. Several groups undertook similar strategies in attempts to define such a role. Etkind and colleagues used in 2000 a similar approach and analysed the presence of MMTV-like .-2 sequences in breast tumours by analysing them for the presence of a 250bp DNA fragment after nested PCR reactions. The sequence was present in 37% of the 73 samples of human breast cancer. None of the normal breast tissues had these sequences. DNA sequencing confirmed these sequences to be 99-100% homologous to the MMTV .-2 gene sequences. Interestingly, they also identified these sequences in 3 of 19 non-Hodgkinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lymphoma (Etkind et al, 2000). Identifying the source of this sequence in human breast cancers is of paramount importance. To this end,

III. MMTV may explain the geographical variation in human breast cancer The incidence of human breast cancer varies significantly worldwide. The incidence is very low in Asia and Africa, very high in north America and northern Europe with an intermediate incidence belt in southern Europe and Latin America (Ahearne et al, 1999). People from lower incidence areas are known to develop an increase in its incidence when they move to an area of higher incidence (Winter et al, 1999). Several theories have been hypothesized to explain this increase in breast cancer incidence with migration. Andreeva and colleagues have reviewed 79 studies identifying risks and protective factors for the acquired risk. In their review, they have described that several studies (15 of the 79) have highlighted the importance of environmental and behavioural factors after migration. These include modification in diet, delay in childbirth, avoidance of breastfeeding and increasing socioeconomic status (Andreeva et al, 2007). Several groups have tried to explain the geographical variation in breast cancer incidence. Stewart and colleagues have described an explanation for this difference in incidence based on the distribution of MMTV in house mice of the genus !"#$%$!&$'"#(")"#*$!&$ ("#+,-."# and !&$ /0'.#+1("# (Stewart et al, 2000). !&$ '"#(")"# is present mainly in eastern Europe and !&$ /0'.#+1("# in western Europe (Sage et al, 1993). MMTV occurs both as exogenous infectious particles and as endogenous proviruses. !&$ /0'.#+1("# mice carried more exogenous virus and had more endogenous proviral loci than !&$'"#(")"#. Based on the incidence of human breast cancers described by Parkins and colleagues in 1997, he showed that the incidence of human breast cancer is higher in western Europe, inhabited by !&$ /0'.#+1("#, than eastern European lands of !&$ '"#(")"#. Interestingly, MMTV has been isolated from human breast cancer samples in other regions inhabited by this mouse specie. These include North America, Australia and Tunisia (Forsyth, 1985; Wang et al, 1995; Pogo et al, 1999; Etkind et al, 2000; Ford et al, 2004b; Levine et al, 2004). Regions not inhabited by this mice, including Vietnam, Sweden and Austria, are areas from where MMTV has not been isolated from human breast cancersamples (Ford et al, 2003; Witt et al, 2003; Bindra et al, 2007). It thus appears that human breast cancer may have a zoonotic connection with humans acquiring the virus from mice.

IV. Isolation of MMTV in human samples MMTV is known to cause breast tumours in laboratory mice. Numerous attempts have been made to identify a human analogue of MMTV that may cause cancers in human breasts. Most of the available data and its conclusion may point towards the presence of such an analogue in human breast cancer. Whether this plays any role in human breast cancer progression remains to be identified.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 539! show any significant difference between tumour grade and the presence of the MMTV !"# sequence (Zammarchi et al, 2006).

Melana and colleagues have tried to establish an exogenous source by examining the 250-bp sequence in archived cancer and normal tissues of the same patient. Of paired breast samples (normal and cancer) from 106 patients, they found 30% of 106 human breast cancers and only 1 of 106 normal breast tissues to be !"# positive (Melana et al, 2001). These results strongly indicated that the normal breasts of patients with !"# positive cancers do not contain the sequence, and led the authors to conclude that these sequences are of exogenous origin. However, they could not explain the finding of this sequence in the normal breast of one individual. The corresponding breast cancer from this patient was !"# negative. After several tests, they concluded that this may have been due to potential contamination with cancer tissue or DNA. The presence of the MMTV sequences in human breast cancers appears to have a geographical variation with areas of high and low positivity. In one study, MMTV-like gene sequences were amplified in only 1 of 120 and 0 of 40 breast cancer biopsy tissues from Vietnamese and Australian Vietnamese women, respectively. The same study showed the sequence in 19 of 45 breast cancers from Caucasian-Australian women (Ford et al, 2003). Earlier, this sequence was detected in 37.7% of 70 paraffin sections of human breast cancers in Italian women (Pogo et al, 1999). Recently, this sequence was isolated in 5 of 119 (4.2%) breast cancer biopsies in Mexican women (Zapata-Benavides et al, 2007). Most of the claims on the presence of MMTV in human breast cancers were initially based upon the amplification of MMTV-like sequences. However, in 2001, Liu and colleagues Isolated the complete virus from two human breast cancer samples that were !"# positive. This was done by amplifying three overlapping fragments and using the sequences to construct the complete virus by nested PCR. This 9.9-kb provirus was 95% homologous to MMTV and had a low homology to HERV. These proviral sequences were virtually absent in normal breast tissues (2%) and again suggest an exogenous origin (Liu et al, 2001). Primary culture of cells isolated from ascites or pleural effusion of patients with metastatic breast cancer have shown to contain viral sequences in their DNA, expressed env protein and retroviral particles on electron microscopy (Melana et al, 2007). A fluorescence nested PCR (FN-PCR) has recently been used to detect copies of the MMTV viral genome. Of the 45 frozen human breast cancers obtained by laser micro-dissection, the MMTV !"# sequence was found in 15 (33%). The sequence was amplified from none of the normal breast tissues and other cancers. Sequence analysis confirmed sequences amplified from breast cancer was highly homologous to the MMTV genome (Zammarchi et al, 2006). MMTV has also been shown to correlate with tumour grade in human breast cancers. In one study, MMTV-like !"# sequences were present in 26.3% of ductal carcinoma in situ and 53.8% of infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) (Ford et al, 2003). In a similar study, these sequences were present in 23% of IDC grade I, 34% of IDC grade II and 38% of IDC grade III (Ford et al, 2004b). However, Zammarchi and colleagues failed to

V. Transmission of MMTV in mice and humans MMTV, a B-type retrovirus, exists both as endogenous proviruses, which are transmitted vertically following Mendelian patterns of inheritance, and exogenous infectious viruses which are transmitted horizontally. The Mouse Mammary Tumour Virus originally isolated by Bittner was an exogenous MMTV. Both endogenous and exogenous forms of the virus may be present in a mouse; several mouse strains are known to carry variable copies of endogenous MMTV regardless of whether they shed MMTV particles (Varmus et al, 1972). Although all inbred mice strains contain MMTV proviral integrants ($%#&), very few produce infectious MMTV particles. Examples of endogenous MMTVs include $%#1, $%#'(, $%#'7)* $%#'17)* $%#'43* and* $%#'50. $%#-1 and $%#-2, in some mice strains, are known to be expressed in mammary glands and leads to the productions and secretion of the exogenous virus in milk. Significant differences have been described in the biology of the two strains. $%#-1 (in mice strain C3H) has a long latency period and a low incidence of tumours (50%). In contrast, $%#-2 (in mice strain GR) induces tumours at an early age and at a high incidence (>90%). New virus strains are produced from the recombination between endogenous and exogenous virus with a broader host range (Golovkina et al, 1994). Sarkar et al have described detailed characterization of the exogenous forms of MMTV in the mice strain RIII/Sa (Sarkar et al, 2004). These mice express MMTV-1 and MMTV-2 in their milk and mammary tumours. None of these viruses resemble another known exogenous MMTV; MMTV-4, the exogenous virus of BR6 mice (BR6 MMTV). MMTV-3 was another virus isolated in R111/Sa. In contrast to MMTV-1 and MMTV-2, this was an endogenous form of the virus originating from $%#-17. The authors concluded, based on expression pattern of the viruses in mice tumours and mutation analyses, that MMTV-2 may be the major determinant for tumorigenesis in these mice. In mice, transmission of exogenous viruses following ingestion of infected milk by the pups from a viremic mother has been described (Ross, 1998). The virions pass through the gut wall to the spleen and infect lymphoid cells. It is presumed that the passage to the spleen is via the gastric vein as neonatal mice with short gastric veins have an increased infective susceptibility (Roubinian and Blair, 1980). Thereafter, MMTV infects B cells in lymphoid tissue of the gut such as the peyerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s patches. It appears that, for efficient infection, MMTV requires the expression of a protein called superantigen (Sag). These bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and stimulate T cells by interacting with the V beta domain of the T cell receptor (Acha-Orbea and MacDonald, 1995). An open reading frame (ORF), located at the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) of the provirus, encodes for this protein (Held et al, 1993). Upon MMTV infection, Sag is presented to the appropriate T cell subset 539


Ahmed et al: Mouse mammary tumor virus: a cause of breast cancer in humans? do not exclude the possibility of a zoonotic origin of MMTV in humans. It remains unclear how humans may acquire MMTV. This may be through contact with mice faeces or dust. This theory has been supported by Stewart and colleagues who have cited ancient documents indicating the presence of mouse faecal pellets in stored grains (Stewart et al, 2000). However, this does not account for the increase in breast cancer is urban areas where human contact with mice is reduced compared to rural areas. An alternate suggestion has been made by Szabo and colleagues They suggest that a close homologue of MMTV may be present in cats and that cats may then transmit the virus to humans (Szabo et al, 2005). This is supported by the isolation of MMTV-like viral particles from feline cells following serial passages of MMTV from mice strains. These variants had been shown to be able to infect cells of a number of hosts (Howard et al, 1977). Prior to this, viruslike particles had been isolated from spontaneous cat mammary tumours, though these have not been characterized any further (Feldman and Gross, 1971). Theoretically, MMTV from mice may be acquired by cats through feeding and this may be transferred to their offspring via milk or licking. Humans, according to this hypothesis, may acquire the virus though contact with mice or cats (Szabo et al, 2005).

by B cells. The resulting immune reactions lead to preferential clonal expansion of infected B cells including memory cells. A stable MMTV infection is hence accomplished resulting in the spread to a variety of epithelial surfaces, of which the mammary epithelial is the most common (Smith, 1966; Callahan and Smith, 2000). There is a complex interplay of the T cell repertoire as a response to MMTV infection. Whilst Sags have been considered to lead to T-cell dependent expansion of infected B cells, Sags of some MMTVs result in deletion of V ! T cells. It has been demonstrated that the exogenous form of MMTV in RIII/Sa mice interacts with T cell subsets; V ! -2 T cells and V ! -8 T cells. Infection with these MMTVs lead to the deletion of V ! -2 T cells (>95%) in mice free of wild borne MMTV (BALB/c). Similarly, V ! -8 cells were also deleted, though to a much lesser degree (56%) (Uz-Zaman et al, 2003). Deletion of V ! -2 cells was much faster than deletion of V ! -8 cells. Moreover, MMTV infection induced clonal deletion of the V ! -2 and V ! -8 expressing immature thymocytes. It has been suggested that the two strains of RIII/Sa derived exogenous viruses, MMTV-1 and MMTV-2 have specificities for the V ! T cells; MMTV-1 specific for V ! -2 T cells and MMTV-2 specific for V ! -8 T cells. There have been suggestions that the virus may have a similar mechanism in humans. Labrecque and colleagues have shown that human T cells proliferate efficiently in response to minor lymphocyte stimulatory (Mls) antigens (Sags encoded by endogenous MMTV proviruses). An interesting observation they made was that this response was limited to T cells expressing a restricted set of T cell receptor V beta chains, and these are highly homologous to the mouse V beta chains that interact with Mls (Labrecque et al, 1993). Wang and colleagues have reported a 630-bp MMTV-like LTR sequence in 41.5% of human breast cancers (Wang et al, 2001). They have shown that these human isolates are highly homologous to the MMTV LTR SAg gene, and can stimulate a similar human T-cell response in vitro (Wang et al, 2004). It is not clear how the virus is acquired by humans. A similar transmission in humans through milk has been considered, which could explain the earlier observed increased risk of breast cancer in women whose mothers had breast cancer (Bucalossi and Veronesi, 1957; Tokuhata, 1969). However, these observations did not provide evidence of an association, and did not assess breast feeding status of the mothers. Moreover, the distribution of human breast cancers is low in areas where breast feeding is more common (MacMahon et al, 1970; Fraumeni and Miller, 1971). Titus-Ernstoff and colleagues specifically addressed this hypothesis by evaluating the risk of breast cancer in women who were breast fed by mothers who subsequently developed the disease. In this large population based study, they did not find any evidence of a positive association between having been breast fed and risk of breast cancer. They also showed that breast cancer was not increased by having been breast fed by a mother who subsequently developed the disease. These findings make a strong argument against the presence of such a transmissible agent in human breast milk (Titus-Ernstoff et al, 1998). However, these results

VI. Mechanism of action of MMTV MMTV is an insertional mutagen and inserts its DNA into the host DNA. One of the consequences of MMTV integration into the host genome is the genetic alteration of different genes in mammary tumours. Wint-1, Wnt-3, Wnt-10b, Fgf-3, Fgf-4, Fgf-8, int-3, int-6 were initially implicated [reviewed in (Callahan, 1996)]. More recently, 33 common insertion sites were identified in a high-throughput retroviral insertional mutagenesis screen in MMTV-induced human breast cancers (Szabo et al, 2005). It appears that the cells expressing MMTV sequences in humans may have an enriched transcriptional profile of genes involved in inflammation. This follows from the comparison made by Fernandez-Cobo and colleagues on the expression profiles of two sub-lines of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, one containing and one lacking the MMTV-like !"# sequence (Fernandez-Cobo et al, 2006). Of the genes upregulated in the MCF-7 containing MMTV-like sequences, there were 5 TNF and 2 TGF-! connected genes. They suggest that this enhanced expression of interferon-related genes in the !"# positive MCF-7 cells may suggest an increased potential for cell growth. Mutations in p53, a tumour suppressor gene, are known to be associated with human breast cancer. Estimates suggest the prevalence of p53 mutations in human breast cancer to be around 16-40% (Soong et al, 1997; Meng et al, 1999). Faedo and colleagues have demonstrated its increased prevalence in archival human breast cancers where MMTV-like sequences are present compared to tumours without these sequences (Faedo et al, 2004). The significance of this observation clearly warrants further clarity. 540


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 541! similarity was seen in lower grade human tumour. However, they could not demonstrate a significant correlation between the degree of similarity and the presence MMTV in the specimen (by PCR).

The cellular receptor that MMTV reacts with to initiate infection has recently been identified. Transferring receptor 1 (TfR1), a single membrane-spanning glycoprotein, binds the MMTV at the cell surface in mice. The virus is then trafficked to the endosomal compartment where fusion with the cell membrane occurs. Its human orthologue, however, was not able to mediate infection of human cells (Ross et al, 2002). Hence, identification of a receptor that mediates viral entry into the human cells remains to be identified. Even though such a receptor has not been identified yet, Indik and colleagues have confirmed the ability of MMTV to infect a range of human cells (Indik et al, 2005). Infection required the MMTV !"#elop protein to be intact. Heat inactivation of the virus and specific neutralising anti-MMTV serum could block the infection.

VII. MMTV

Pathology

of

tumours

VIII. Does MMTV cause human breast cancers? One of the strongest arguments in support of this notion has been made by Ford and colleagues who have based their arguments around some of the postulates (Ford et al, 2004c) suggested by Evans and Mueller that establish a causal link between an agent and the development of tumour (Evans and Mueller, 1990). According to Evans et al, the putative agent must be shown to be consistently associated with the disease and the agent must precede the onset of disease. In their arguments, Ford and colleagues describe several groups to have demonstrated the presence of MMTV-like sequences in a large proportion of human breast cancers, and in very few normal breast tissues. They also describe their group’s longitudinal study in which all non-malignant breast tissues excised up to 24 months after surgery for breast cancer were negative for MMTV-like sequences (Ford et al, 2004b). Even though many research groups have detected the MMTV-like sequences in human breast cancers using different approaches, several groups have not been able to do so. One of the recent was from a group in Sweden. Using real time PCR with a very high sensitivity, they did not detect the MMTV-like sequence in 18 human breast cancers they examined (Bindra et al, 2007). Yin and colleagues detected the sequence in only 1 of 60 human breast cancers by PCR (Yin et al, 1997). Witt and colleagues examined 50 Austrian human breast cancer samples and did not detect the MMTV !"# sequence in any of them. Even the breast cancer cell lines they examined did not reveal the sequence (Witt et al, 2003). Mant and colleagues detected the sequence in 16% of 44 human breast cancer samples, but all turned up to be falsepositives on subsequent DNA sequencing comprising host genomic DNA (Mant et al, 2004). Demonstrating the presence of MMTV prior to the onset of human breast cancer has not met much success. One of the earlier evidence in support of this has been the seroconversion of a woman working with MMTV-infected mice. Remaining seronegative over a 28 month period, she became seropositive at the 32nd month. She developed a breast mass 9 month later which was later confirmed to be an infiltrating ductal carcinoma (Poon et al, 1983). More recently, Ford and colleagues has reported a control subject who had !"#-positive benign breast tissue and went on to develop breast cancer (Ford et al, 2004a). Strong favour for this association has also been made by Holland and colleagues in 2004. In their review, they write, “ taken together, the presence of MMTV-like gene in a large proportion of breast cancers, which has been confirmed in many laboratories; the presence of the entire virus in breast cancers; reproduction of the virus from breast cancer cells $"%#$&'(; the demonstrated infectivity of !"#-positive breast cancer cells $"% #$&'( for normal breast cells; and variable penetrance in diverse populations present a plausible basis for considering causality (Wang

with

The mammary gland of mice and humans differs in structure and hormonal stimulation, although their basic biology and histology are quite similar. Most mice strains have 5 pairs of mammary glands in contrast to humans with one pair. The functional unit of the mammary gland, the terminal ductal lobular unit (TLDU) in humans and lobulo-alveolar units (LA) in mice, are hormone sensitive. Both have similar epithelial cells, produce milk and are the site of origin of most mammary cancers [reviewed in Cardiff and Wellings, 1999; Cardiff and Kenney, 2007]. Metastatic patterns of mouse mammary tumour are different from those observed in human breast tumours. Systemic dissemination in humans is seen following initial spread to the draining lymph nodes. In contrast, mouse mammary tumours rarely metastasize to regional lymph nodes; most metastases are seen in pulmonary vessels (Vaage and Harlos, 1987). Classification of spontaneous mouse mammary tumours has been based historically on the original description of Dr Thelma Dunn (Dunn, 1959). These fall into Dunn Types A (microacinar), B (ductal) or C. Type A tumours comprise small rounded regular sized and shaped cells with loose connective tissue. Type B tumours have a solid appearance with some glands and cysts. Types A and B are the predominant forms accounting for almost 90% of spontaneous mouse mammary tumours. In the past, mouse mammary tumours have been considered to be morphologically different from human breast cancers (Hamilton, 1974). Wellings observed that the histological characteristics of mouse mammary tumours were seen in some human breast cancer specimens (Wellings, 1980). Recent observations have demonstrated more similarities between human and mouse mammary tumours. Lawson et al have compared the morphology of human breast tumours and mouse mammary tumours (Lawson et al, 2006). They compared the morphology of specimens of human IDC and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). They demonstrated that 39.9% of IDC (17 of 43 specimens) had ‘some’ histological characteristics similar to those associated with mouse mammary tumours. This similarity was inversely correlated with tumour grade; greater

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Ahmed et al: Mouse mammary tumor virus: a cause of breast cancer in humans? samples. J Gen Virol. 88, 1806-1809. Bittner JJ (1939) Relation of nursing to the extra-chromosomal theory of breast cancer in mice. Am J Cancer 35, 90-97. Bucalossi P, Veronesi U (1957) Some observations on cancer of the breast in mothers and daughters. Br J Cancer 11, 337347. Callahan R (1996) MMTV-induced mutations in mouse mammary tumors: their potential relevance to human breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 39, 33-44. Callahan R, Smith GH (2000) MMTV-induced mammary tumorigenesis: gene discovery, progression to malignancy and cellular pathways. Oncogene 19, 992-1001. Cardiff RD, Kenney N (2007) Mouse mammary tumor biology: a short history. Adv Cancer Res 98, 53-116. Cardiff RD, Wellings SR (1999) The comparative pathology of human and mouse mammary glands. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 4, 105-122. Dunn T (1959) Morphology of mammary tumors in mice. In: Homburger F (ed). Physiopathology of cancer. A.J. Phiebig: New York, 38-83. Etkind P, Du J, Khan A, Pillitteri J, Wiernik PH (2000) Mouse mammary tumor virus-like ENV gene sequences in human breast tumors and in a lymphoma of a breast cancer patient. Clin Cancer Res 6, 1273-1278. Evans AS, Mueller NE (1990) Viruses and cancer. Causal associations. Ann Epidemiol 1, 71-92. Faedo M, Ford CE, Mehta R, Blazek K, Rawlinson WD (2004) Mouse mammary tumor-like virus is associated with p53 nuclear accumulation and progesterone receptor positivity but not estrogen positivity in human female breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 10, 4417-4419. Feldman DG, Gross L (1971) Electron microscopic study of spontaneous mammary carcinomas in cats and dogs: viruslike particles in cat mammary carcinomas. Cancer Res 31, 1261-1267. Fernandez-Cobo M, Melana SM, Holland JF, Pogo BG (2006) Transcription profile of a human breast cancer cell line expressing MMTV-like sequences. Infect Agent Cancer 1, 7. Ford C, Faedo M, Delprado W, Rawlinson W (2004a) Mouse mammary tumor virus-like gene sequences in breast tumors of Australian and Vietnamese women. Clin Cancer Res 10, 802. Ford CE, Faedo M, Crouch R, Lawson JS, Rawlinson WD (2004b) Progression from normal breast pathology to breast cancer is associated with increasing prevalence of mouse mammary tumor virus-like sequences in men and women. Cancer Res 64, 4755-4759. Ford CE, Faedo M, Rawlinson WD (2004c) Mouse mammary tumor virus-like RNA transcripts and DNA are found in affected cells of human breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 10, 7284-7289. Ford CE, Tran D, Deng Y, Ta VT, Rawlinson WD, Lawson JS (2003) Mouse mammary tumor virus-like gene sequences in breast tumors of Australian and Vietnamese women. Clin Cancer Res 9, 1118-1120. Forsyth A (1985) Mammals of the Canadian Wild. Camden House Printing: London. Fraumeni JF, Jr., Miller RW (1971) Breast cancer from breastfeeding. Lancet 2, 1196-1197. Golovkina TV, Jaffe AB, Ross SR (1994) Coexpression of exogenous and endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus RNA in vivo results in viral recombination and broadens the virus host range. J Virol 68, 5019-5026. Gross L (1970) Oncogenic Viruses. Pergamon Press: Coford, New York. Hamilton JM (1974) Comparative aspects of mammary tumors. Adv Cancer Res 19, 1-45.

et al, 1995; Etkind et al, 2000; Liu et al, 2001; Ford et al, 2003; Holland et al, 2003; Levine et al, 2004). The discovery of an antibody response that indicated infection occurred before breast cancer became apparent should add to the mounting evidence that a major proportion of human breast cancer is horizontally acquired”. Several other factors need careful consideration in linking MMTV with human breast cancer. There seems to be an unambiguous belief in MMTV’s role in causing breast cancer in mice. Comparing the mice and human cancer models points out several similarities and differences. The virus acts as an insertional mutagen in mice, and this may be the case in humans as well [reviewed in (Stewart et al, 2000). Stewart and colleagues have shown that immunosuppression decreases breast cancer incidence in mice. He has also shown a reduction in human breast cancers in patients who are completely immunosuppressed (Stewart and Heppner, 1997). While this may support MMTV’s role in human breast cancer, this is in marked contrast to the observed effect of most of the established oncogenic viruses where immunosuppression predisposes to malignant progression. TfR1, the receptor that MMTV reacts with to initiate infection in mice, has not been shown to be the receptor that mediates infection in human cells (Indik et al, 2005). However, they have confirmed the ability of MMTV to infect human cells. More recently, they have also shown that human cells infected by the virus can rapidly spread between human cells in culture, express MMTV structural proteins and release spike B-type virions. The group was able to block the infectivity of these by anti-MMTV antibody and the replication of the virus by an inhibitor of reverse transcription. They argue that the demonstration of their replication in human cells lends more weight to the link between MMTV and human breast cancer (Indik et al, 2007). Clearly, there remains a lot of controversy on the role of MMTV in human breast cancers. There certainly are many observations that draws one to believe a strong association between the two, but a lot more needs to be proven before such causation may be established.

Acknowledgements The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, the Seahouse & District Cancer Research and Relief Fund, the Cancer Research Prevention Trust and Northumbria Healthcare NHS Trust for their financial support.

References Acha-Orbea H, MacDonald HR (1995) Superantigens of mouse mammary tumor virus. Annu Rev Immunol. 13, 459-486. Ahearne PM, Leach SD, BW F (1999) Invasive breast cancer. In: Feig BW, Berger DH, Fuhrman GM (eds). The MD Anderson surgical oncology handbook. Lippinscott Williams & Williams: Philadelphia, 13-37. Andreeva VA, Unger JB, Pentz MA (2007) Breast cancer among immigrants: a systematic review and new research directions. J Immigr Minor Health 9, 307-322. Bindra A, Muradrasoli S, Kisekka R, Nordgren H, Warnberg F, Blomberg J (2007) Search for DNA of exogenous mouse mammary tumor virus-related virus in human breast cancer

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 543! Hareuveni M, Lathe R (1990) Breast cancer sequences identified by mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) antiserum are unrelated to MMTV. Int J Cancer 46, 1134-1135. Held W, Waanders GA, Shakhov AN, Scarpellino L, AchaOrbea H, MacDonald HR (1993) Superantigen-induced immune stimulation amplifies mouse mammary tumor virus infection and allows virus transmission. Cell 74, 529-540. Holland JF, Melana S, Wang Y, Fernandez-Cobo M, Jiang J-D, Pogo BG-T (2003) Human mammary tumor virus (HMTV) is horizontally, not vertically transmitted. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 22, 873.. Holland JF, Pogo BG (2004) Mouse mammary tumor virus-like viral infection and human breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 10, 5647-5649. Howard DK, Colcher D, Teramoto YA, Young JM, Schlom J (1977) Characterization of mouse mammary tumor viruses propagated in heterologous cells. Cancer Res 37, 26962704. Indik S, Gunzburg WH, Kulich P, Salmons B, Rouault F (2007) Rapid spread of mouse mammary tumor virus in cultured human breast cells. Retrovirology 4, 73. Indik S, Gunzburg WH, Salmons B, Rouault F (2005) Mouse mammary tumor virus infects human cells. Cancer Res 65, 6651-6659. Kelsey JL (1993) Breast cancer epidemiology: summary and future directions. Epidemiol Rev. 15, 256-263. Labat ML (1998) Possible retroviral etiology of human breast cancer. Biomed Pharmacother 52, 6-12. Labrecque N, McGrath H, Subramanyam M, Huber BT, Sekaly RP (1993) Human T cells respond to mouse mammary tumor virus-encoded superantigen: V beta restriction and conserved evolutionary features. J Exp Med 177, 1735-1743. Lawson JS, Tran DD, Carpenter E, Ford CE, Rawlinson WD, Whitaker NJ, Delprado W (2006) Presence of mouse mammary tumour-like virus gene sequences may be associated with morphology of specific human breast cancer. J Clin Pathol 59, 1287-1292. Levine PH, Pogo BG, Klouj A, Coronel S, Woodson K, Melana SM, Mourali N, Holland JF (2004) Increasing evidence for a human breast carcinoma virus with geographic differences. Cancer 101, 721-726. Liu B, Wang Y, Melana SM, Pelisson I, Najfeld V, Holland JF, Pogo BG (2001) Identification of a proviral structure in human breast cancer. Cancer Res 61, 1754-1759. MacMahon B, Lin TM, Lowe CR, Mirra AP, Ravnihar B, Salber EJ, Trichopoulos D, Valaoras VG, Yuasa S (1970) Lactation and cancer of the breast. A summary of an international study. Bull World Health Organ 42, 185-194. Mant C, Gillett C, D'Arrigo C, Cason J (2004) Human murine mammary tumour virus-like agents are genetically distinct from endogenous retroviruses and are not detectable in breast cancer cell lines or biopsies. Virology 318, 393-404. Melana SM, Holland JF, Pogo BG (2001) Search for mouse mammary tumor virus-like env sequences in cancer and normal breast from the same individuals. Clin Cancer Res 7, 283-284. Melana SM, Nepomnaschy I, Sakalian M, Abbott A, Hasa J, Holland JF, Pogo BG (2007) Characterization of viral particles isolated from primary cultures of human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res 67, 8960-8965. Meng L, Lin L, Zhang H, Nassiri M, Morales AR, Nadji M (1999) Multiple mutations of the p53 gene in human mammary carcinoma. Mutat Res 435, 263-269. Mesa-Tejada R, Keydar I, Ramanarayanan M, Ohno T, Fenoglio C, Spiegelman S (1978) Detection in human breast carcinomas of an antigen immunologically related to a group-specific antigen of mouse mammary tumor virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 75, 1529-1533.

Parkin D, Whelan S, Raymond L, Young J (1997) Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. IARC Scientific Publications: Lyon. Pogo BG, Melana SM, Holland JF, Mandeli JF, Pilotti S, Casalini P, Menard S (1999) Sequences homologous to the mouse mammary tumor virus env gene in human breast carcinoma correlate with overexpression of laminin receptor. Clin Cancer Res 5, 2108-2111. Poon MC, Tomana M, Niedermeier W (1983) Serum antibodies against mouse mammary tumor-virus-associated antigen detected nine months before appearance of a breast carcinoma. Ann Intern Med 98, 937-938. Quinn M, Babb P, Brock A, Kirby L, J J (2003) Cancer Trends in England and Wales 1950-1999. Office for National Statistics. Ross SR (1998) Mouse mammary tumor virus and its interaction with the immune system. Immunol Res 17, 209-216. Ross SR, Schofield JJ, Farr CJ, Bucan M (2002) Mouse transferrin receptor 1 is the cell entry receptor for mouse mammary tumor virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 12386-12390. Roubinian JR, Blair PB (1980) Short gastric veins as the major portal of entry for milk-borne murine mammary tumor virus. J Natl Cancer Inst 65, 795-800. Sage R, Atchley W, Capanna E (1993) House mice as models in systematic biology. Syst Biol 42, 523-561. Sarkar NH, Golovkina T, Uz-Zaman T (2004) RIII/Sa mice with a high incidence of mammary tumors express two exogenous strains and one potential endogenous strain of mouse mammary tumor virus. J Virol 78, 1055-1062. Smith GH (1966) Role of the milk agent in disappearance of mammary cancer in C3H/StWi mice. J Natl Cancer Inst. 36, 685-701. Soong R, Iacopetta BJ, Harvey JM, Sterrett GF, Dawkins HJ, Hahnel R, Robbins PD (1997) Detection of p53 gene mutation by rapid PCR-SSCP and its association with poor survival in breast cancer. Int J Cancer 74, 642-647. Stewart TH, Heppner GH (1997) Immunological enhancement of breast cancer. Parasitology 115 Suppl, S141-153. Stewart TH, Sage RD, Stewart AF, Cameron DW (2000) Breast cancer incidence highest in the range of one species of house mouse, Mus domesticus. Br J Cancer 82, 446-451. Szabo CI, King MC (1997) Population genetics of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Am J Hum Genet 60, 1013-1020. Szabo S, Haislip AM, Garry RF (2005) Of mice, cats, men: is human breast cancer a zoonosis? Microsc Res Tech 68, 197208. Titus-Ernstoff L, Egan KM, Newcomb PA, Baron JA, Stampfer M, Greenberg ER, Cole BF, Ding J, Willett W, Trichopoulos D (1998) Exposure to breast milk in infancy and adult breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 90, 921-924. Tokuhata GK (1969) Morbidity and mortality among offspring of breast cancer mothers. Am J Epidemiol 89, 139-153. Uz-Zaman T, Ignatowicz L, Sarkar NH (2003) Mouse mammary tumor viruses expressed by RIII/Sa mice with a high incidence of mammary tumors interact with the V beta-2and V beta-8-specific T cells during viral infection. Virology 314, 294-304. Vaage J, Harlos JP (1987) Spontaneous metastasis from primary C3H mouse mammary tumors. Cancer Res 47, 547-550. Varmus HE, Bishop JM, Nowinski RC, Sarker NH (1972) Mammary tumour virus specific nucleotide sequences in mouse DNA. Nat New Biol 238, 189-191. Wang Y, Go V, Holland JF, Melana SM, Pogo BG (1998) Expression of mouse mammary tumor virus-like env gene sequences in human breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 4, 25652568. Wang Y, Holland JF, Bleiweiss IJ, Melana S, Liu X, Pelisson I, Cantarella A, Stellrecht K, Mani S, Pogo BG (1995)

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microdissection approach. J Pathol 209, 436-444. Zapata-Benavides P, Saavedra-Alonso S, Zamora-Avila D, Vargas-Rodarte C, Barrera-Rodriguez R, Salinas-Silva J, Rodriguez-Padilla C, Tamez-Guerra R, Trejo-Avila L (2007) Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus-Like Gene Sequences in Breast Cancer Samples of Mexican Women. Intervirology 50, 402-407.

Thomas WJ Lennard

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 537! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 537-544, 2008

Mouse mammary tumor virus: a cause of breast cancer in humans? Review Article

Ish Ahmed, James R. Harvey, Simi Ali, John A. Kirby, Thomas WJ Lennard* Applied Immunobiology and Breast Research Group, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, UK

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Professor Thomas Lennard, School Of Surgical & Reproductive Sciences3rd Floor, William Leech Building Faculty Of Medical Sciences Framlington Place Newcastle Upon Tyne Ne2 4hh, UK; Tel: 0191 222 7067; Fax: 0191 222 8514; E-mail: T.W.J.Lennard@ncl.ac.uk Key words: Mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV), breast cancer Abbreviations: 3' long terminal repeat, (LTR); ductal carcinoma in situ, (DCIS); fluorescence nested PCR, (FN-PCR); human endogenous retrovirus, (HERV); infiltrating ductal carcinoma, (IDC); lobulo-alveolar, (LA); mouse mammary tumour virus, (MMTV); open reading frame, (ORF); superantigen, (Sag); terminal ductal lobular unit, (TLDU) Received: 13 February 2008; Revised: 20 June 2008 Accepted: 30 June 2008; electronically published: September 2008

Summary The mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV), a B-type retrovirus, is known to be the most common cause of breast cancer in mice. However, its role in human breast cancer is very controversial. Here we review the evidence that supports the role of this virus in causing human breast cancer. It’s historical background, its possible transmission from mice to human and its mechanism of actions have also been reviewed.

newborn young of an inbred high-cancer mouse line (tumour incidence >80%) were fostered by females of a low tumour line. The fostered mice and their progeny lived considerably longer and had a tumour incidence of only 7.4%. With this and some other similar experiments, he concluded that an agent in milk influences the development of breast tumours. Though initially isolated in the milk, this agent was also obtained from both spontaneous and transplanted mammary carcinomas, lactating mammary tissue and whole blood. Bittner also showed that this agent could be carried through several passages in association with tumour transplants in mice that did not carry the milk influence themselves. The agent was smaller than a bacterium as it could pass through bacterial and seitz filters. By 1945, Andorvent went on to describe this milk factor as a virus (Gross, 1970), and gradually, this became widely known as the ‘Bittner Virus’. Today, the term MMTV includes Bittner’s virus and other closely related viruses (Labat, 1998). It is now well established that MMTV causes breast tumours in laboratory mice (Callahan, 1996), but its role in causing breast cancer in humans is a subject of significant controversy.

I. Introduction Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, accounting for about 25% of all malignancies in women; the proportion is higher in western, developed, countries. In England, there were around 36,500 new cases diagnosed in 2003, representing 32 per cent of all cancers in women and a rate of 120 cases per 100,000 women. (Quinn et al, 2003). Several risk factors have been implicated in breast cancer including age, diet, nulliparity, obesity and family history (Kelsey, 1993). With genetic predisposition (mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2) only accounting for approximately 5% of breast cancers (Szabo and King, 1997), extensive efforts have been made to account for the remainder. The mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) has been implicated as one of the unrecognized factors that might account for remainder of sporadic cases. The geographical variation in incidence of breast cancer provides additional grounds for this theory.

II. The origin of mouse mammary tumour virus The interest in MMTV as a cancer causing agent was generated several decades ago when Bittner demonstrated in 1939 an extra chromosomal factor in mice that contributes to breast cancer incidence. In his experiments,

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Ahmed et al: Mouse mammary tumor virus: a cause of breast cancer in humans? Identification of the MMTV envelope proteins in human breast cancer by using antibody against them was one of the earlier methods used. In one of these series, positive reactions were seen in 51 of 131 (39%) breast carcinomas with negative reactions in all normal breast tissue (Mesa-Tejada et al, 1978). However, the use of this antibody against the MMTV .-2elope protein has been disputed and places an uncertainty on the validity of these results (Hareuveni and Lathe, 1990). One of the major problems encountered at that time was the identification of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) in the human genome. The significant homology between HERV and MMTV made it extremely difficult to differentiate between the two. As a consequence, earlier results were disputed with claims that the identification of MMTV may actually be HERV. This problem was overcome when, among others, Wang and colleagues isolated a 660-bp sequence in human breast cancer (Wang et al, 1995). This sequence was highly homologous to the .-2 gene of MMTV and had a very low homology to HERVs. Isolating DNA from fresh and frozen breast samples and using the polymerase chain reaction, they detected this sequence in 38% of the 314 breast cancer samples and in none of the normal breast tissues. A similar 250-bp sequence homologous to MMTV were detected in 39.7% of the 151 human breast cancers and in 1 of 27 normal breast samples assayed from paraffin-embedded sections. Wang and colleagues suggested in 1998 that their findings may represent exogenous sequences from an agent similar to MMTV. They next investigated whether these .-2-positive tumours produced mRNA by assessing the expression of the 660-bp sequence in the human breast samples using reverse transcription PCR. They demonstrated the expression of this sequence in 66% of the .-2-positive tumours and in none of the .-2-negative tumours. Subsequent sequence analysis confirmed that the expressed sequence was 98% homologous to the .-2 gene of the MMTV with only one small stretch of 46 bp that was homologous to the endogenous viral sequences. The fact that not all .-2-positive tumours produced mRNA was slightly intriguing, and possible explanations suggested were degradation of the mRNA or that not all the cells within the tumour express the viral sequences (Wang et al, 1998). The use of MMTV .-2 sequences by Wang and colleagues in 1998 and his interesting results rekindled further interests on the role of MMTV in human breast cancer. Several groups undertook similar strategies in attempts to define such a role. Etkind and colleagues used in 2000 a similar approach and analysed the presence of MMTV-like .-2 sequences in breast tumours by analysing them for the presence of a 250bp DNA fragment after nested PCR reactions. The sequence was present in 37% of the 73 samples of human breast cancer. None of the normal breast tissues had these sequences. DNA sequencing confirmed these sequences to be 99-100% homologous to the MMTV .-2 gene sequences. Interestingly, they also identified these sequences in 3 of 19 non-Hodgkinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lymphoma (Etkind et al, 2000). Identifying the source of this sequence in human breast cancers is of paramount importance. To this end,

III. MMTV may explain the geographical variation in human breast cancer The incidence of human breast cancer varies significantly worldwide. The incidence is very low in Asia and Africa, very high in north America and northern Europe with an intermediate incidence belt in southern Europe and Latin America (Ahearne et al, 1999). People from lower incidence areas are known to develop an increase in its incidence when they move to an area of higher incidence (Winter et al, 1999). Several theories have been hypothesized to explain this increase in breast cancer incidence with migration. Andreeva and colleagues have reviewed 79 studies identifying risks and protective factors for the acquired risk. In their review, they have described that several studies (15 of the 79) have highlighted the importance of environmental and behavioural factors after migration. These include modification in diet, delay in childbirth, avoidance of breastfeeding and increasing socioeconomic status (Andreeva et al, 2007). Several groups have tried to explain the geographical variation in breast cancer incidence. Stewart and colleagues have described an explanation for this difference in incidence based on the distribution of MMTV in house mice of the genus !"#$%$!&$'"#(")"#*$!&$ ("#+,-."# and !&$ /0'.#+1("# (Stewart et al, 2000). !&$ '"#(")"# is present mainly in eastern Europe and !&$ /0'.#+1("# in western Europe (Sage et al, 1993). MMTV occurs both as exogenous infectious particles and as endogenous proviruses. !&$ /0'.#+1("# mice carried more exogenous virus and had more endogenous proviral loci than !&$'"#(")"#. Based on the incidence of human breast cancers described by Parkins and colleagues in 1997, he showed that the incidence of human breast cancer is higher in western Europe, inhabited by !&$ /0'.#+1("#, than eastern European lands of !&$ '"#(")"#. Interestingly, MMTV has been isolated from human breast cancer samples in other regions inhabited by this mouse specie. These include North America, Australia and Tunisia (Forsyth, 1985; Wang et al, 1995; Pogo et al, 1999; Etkind et al, 2000; Ford et al, 2004b; Levine et al, 2004). Regions not inhabited by this mice, including Vietnam, Sweden and Austria, are areas from where MMTV has not been isolated from human breast cancersamples (Ford et al, 2003; Witt et al, 2003; Bindra et al, 2007). It thus appears that human breast cancer may have a zoonotic connection with humans acquiring the virus from mice.

IV. Isolation of MMTV in human samples MMTV is known to cause breast tumours in laboratory mice. Numerous attempts have been made to identify a human analogue of MMTV that may cause cancers in human breasts. Most of the available data and its conclusion may point towards the presence of such an analogue in human breast cancer. Whether this plays any role in human breast cancer progression remains to be identified.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 539! show any significant difference between tumour grade and the presence of the MMTV !"# sequence (Zammarchi et al, 2006).

Melana and colleagues have tried to establish an exogenous source by examining the 250-bp sequence in archived cancer and normal tissues of the same patient. Of paired breast samples (normal and cancer) from 106 patients, they found 30% of 106 human breast cancers and only 1 of 106 normal breast tissues to be !"# positive (Melana et al, 2001). These results strongly indicated that the normal breasts of patients with !"# positive cancers do not contain the sequence, and led the authors to conclude that these sequences are of exogenous origin. However, they could not explain the finding of this sequence in the normal breast of one individual. The corresponding breast cancer from this patient was !"# negative. After several tests, they concluded that this may have been due to potential contamination with cancer tissue or DNA. The presence of the MMTV sequences in human breast cancers appears to have a geographical variation with areas of high and low positivity. In one study, MMTV-like gene sequences were amplified in only 1 of 120 and 0 of 40 breast cancer biopsy tissues from Vietnamese and Australian Vietnamese women, respectively. The same study showed the sequence in 19 of 45 breast cancers from Caucasian-Australian women (Ford et al, 2003). Earlier, this sequence was detected in 37.7% of 70 paraffin sections of human breast cancers in Italian women (Pogo et al, 1999). Recently, this sequence was isolated in 5 of 119 (4.2%) breast cancer biopsies in Mexican women (Zapata-Benavides et al, 2007). Most of the claims on the presence of MMTV in human breast cancers were initially based upon the amplification of MMTV-like sequences. However, in 2001, Liu and colleagues Isolated the complete virus from two human breast cancer samples that were !"# positive. This was done by amplifying three overlapping fragments and using the sequences to construct the complete virus by nested PCR. This 9.9-kb provirus was 95% homologous to MMTV and had a low homology to HERV. These proviral sequences were virtually absent in normal breast tissues (2%) and again suggest an exogenous origin (Liu et al, 2001). Primary culture of cells isolated from ascites or pleural effusion of patients with metastatic breast cancer have shown to contain viral sequences in their DNA, expressed env protein and retroviral particles on electron microscopy (Melana et al, 2007). A fluorescence nested PCR (FN-PCR) has recently been used to detect copies of the MMTV viral genome. Of the 45 frozen human breast cancers obtained by laser micro-dissection, the MMTV !"# sequence was found in 15 (33%). The sequence was amplified from none of the normal breast tissues and other cancers. Sequence analysis confirmed sequences amplified from breast cancer was highly homologous to the MMTV genome (Zammarchi et al, 2006). MMTV has also been shown to correlate with tumour grade in human breast cancers. In one study, MMTV-like !"# sequences were present in 26.3% of ductal carcinoma in situ and 53.8% of infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) (Ford et al, 2003). In a similar study, these sequences were present in 23% of IDC grade I, 34% of IDC grade II and 38% of IDC grade III (Ford et al, 2004b). However, Zammarchi and colleagues failed to

V. Transmission of MMTV in mice and humans MMTV, a B-type retrovirus, exists both as endogenous proviruses, which are transmitted vertically following Mendelian patterns of inheritance, and exogenous infectious viruses which are transmitted horizontally. The Mouse Mammary Tumour Virus originally isolated by Bittner was an exogenous MMTV. Both endogenous and exogenous forms of the virus may be present in a mouse; several mouse strains are known to carry variable copies of endogenous MMTV regardless of whether they shed MMTV particles (Varmus et al, 1972). Although all inbred mice strains contain MMTV proviral integrants ($%#&), very few produce infectious MMTV particles. Examples of endogenous MMTVs include $%#1, $%#'(, $%#'7)* $%#'17)* $%#'43* and* $%#'50. $%#-1 and $%#-2, in some mice strains, are known to be expressed in mammary glands and leads to the productions and secretion of the exogenous virus in milk. Significant differences have been described in the biology of the two strains. $%#-1 (in mice strain C3H) has a long latency period and a low incidence of tumours (50%). In contrast, $%#-2 (in mice strain GR) induces tumours at an early age and at a high incidence (>90%). New virus strains are produced from the recombination between endogenous and exogenous virus with a broader host range (Golovkina et al, 1994). Sarkar et al have described detailed characterization of the exogenous forms of MMTV in the mice strain RIII/Sa (Sarkar et al, 2004). These mice express MMTV-1 and MMTV-2 in their milk and mammary tumours. None of these viruses resemble another known exogenous MMTV; MMTV-4, the exogenous virus of BR6 mice (BR6 MMTV). MMTV-3 was another virus isolated in R111/Sa. In contrast to MMTV-1 and MMTV-2, this was an endogenous form of the virus originating from $%#-17. The authors concluded, based on expression pattern of the viruses in mice tumours and mutation analyses, that MMTV-2 may be the major determinant for tumorigenesis in these mice. In mice, transmission of exogenous viruses following ingestion of infected milk by the pups from a viremic mother has been described (Ross, 1998). The virions pass through the gut wall to the spleen and infect lymphoid cells. It is presumed that the passage to the spleen is via the gastric vein as neonatal mice with short gastric veins have an increased infective susceptibility (Roubinian and Blair, 1980). Thereafter, MMTV infects B cells in lymphoid tissue of the gut such as the peyerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s patches. It appears that, for efficient infection, MMTV requires the expression of a protein called superantigen (Sag). These bind to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and stimulate T cells by interacting with the V beta domain of the T cell receptor (Acha-Orbea and MacDonald, 1995). An open reading frame (ORF), located at the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) of the provirus, encodes for this protein (Held et al, 1993). Upon MMTV infection, Sag is presented to the appropriate T cell subset 539


Ahmed et al: Mouse mammary tumor virus: a cause of breast cancer in humans? do not exclude the possibility of a zoonotic origin of MMTV in humans. It remains unclear how humans may acquire MMTV. This may be through contact with mice faeces or dust. This theory has been supported by Stewart and colleagues who have cited ancient documents indicating the presence of mouse faecal pellets in stored grains (Stewart et al, 2000). However, this does not account for the increase in breast cancer is urban areas where human contact with mice is reduced compared to rural areas. An alternate suggestion has been made by Szabo and colleagues They suggest that a close homologue of MMTV may be present in cats and that cats may then transmit the virus to humans (Szabo et al, 2005). This is supported by the isolation of MMTV-like viral particles from feline cells following serial passages of MMTV from mice strains. These variants had been shown to be able to infect cells of a number of hosts (Howard et al, 1977). Prior to this, viruslike particles had been isolated from spontaneous cat mammary tumours, though these have not been characterized any further (Feldman and Gross, 1971). Theoretically, MMTV from mice may be acquired by cats through feeding and this may be transferred to their offspring via milk or licking. Humans, according to this hypothesis, may acquire the virus though contact with mice or cats (Szabo et al, 2005).

by B cells. The resulting immune reactions lead to preferential clonal expansion of infected B cells including memory cells. A stable MMTV infection is hence accomplished resulting in the spread to a variety of epithelial surfaces, of which the mammary epithelial is the most common (Smith, 1966; Callahan and Smith, 2000). There is a complex interplay of the T cell repertoire as a response to MMTV infection. Whilst Sags have been considered to lead to T-cell dependent expansion of infected B cells, Sags of some MMTVs result in deletion of V ! T cells. It has been demonstrated that the exogenous form of MMTV in RIII/Sa mice interacts with T cell subsets; V ! -2 T cells and V ! -8 T cells. Infection with these MMTVs lead to the deletion of V ! -2 T cells (>95%) in mice free of wild borne MMTV (BALB/c). Similarly, V ! -8 cells were also deleted, though to a much lesser degree (56%) (Uz-Zaman et al, 2003). Deletion of V ! -2 cells was much faster than deletion of V ! -8 cells. Moreover, MMTV infection induced clonal deletion of the V ! -2 and V ! -8 expressing immature thymocytes. It has been suggested that the two strains of RIII/Sa derived exogenous viruses, MMTV-1 and MMTV-2 have specificities for the V ! T cells; MMTV-1 specific for V ! -2 T cells and MMTV-2 specific for V ! -8 T cells. There have been suggestions that the virus may have a similar mechanism in humans. Labrecque and colleagues have shown that human T cells proliferate efficiently in response to minor lymphocyte stimulatory (Mls) antigens (Sags encoded by endogenous MMTV proviruses). An interesting observation they made was that this response was limited to T cells expressing a restricted set of T cell receptor V beta chains, and these are highly homologous to the mouse V beta chains that interact with Mls (Labrecque et al, 1993). Wang and colleagues have reported a 630-bp MMTV-like LTR sequence in 41.5% of human breast cancers (Wang et al, 2001). They have shown that these human isolates are highly homologous to the MMTV LTR SAg gene, and can stimulate a similar human T-cell response in vitro (Wang et al, 2004). It is not clear how the virus is acquired by humans. A similar transmission in humans through milk has been considered, which could explain the earlier observed increased risk of breast cancer in women whose mothers had breast cancer (Bucalossi and Veronesi, 1957; Tokuhata, 1969). However, these observations did not provide evidence of an association, and did not assess breast feeding status of the mothers. Moreover, the distribution of human breast cancers is low in areas where breast feeding is more common (MacMahon et al, 1970; Fraumeni and Miller, 1971). Titus-Ernstoff and colleagues specifically addressed this hypothesis by evaluating the risk of breast cancer in women who were breast fed by mothers who subsequently developed the disease. In this large population based study, they did not find any evidence of a positive association between having been breast fed and risk of breast cancer. They also showed that breast cancer was not increased by having been breast fed by a mother who subsequently developed the disease. These findings make a strong argument against the presence of such a transmissible agent in human breast milk (Titus-Ernstoff et al, 1998). However, these results

VI. Mechanism of action of MMTV MMTV is an insertional mutagen and inserts its DNA into the host DNA. One of the consequences of MMTV integration into the host genome is the genetic alteration of different genes in mammary tumours. Wint-1, Wnt-3, Wnt-10b, Fgf-3, Fgf-4, Fgf-8, int-3, int-6 were initially implicated [reviewed in (Callahan, 1996)]. More recently, 33 common insertion sites were identified in a high-throughput retroviral insertional mutagenesis screen in MMTV-induced human breast cancers (Szabo et al, 2005). It appears that the cells expressing MMTV sequences in humans may have an enriched transcriptional profile of genes involved in inflammation. This follows from the comparison made by Fernandez-Cobo and colleagues on the expression profiles of two sub-lines of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, one containing and one lacking the MMTV-like !"# sequence (Fernandez-Cobo et al, 2006). Of the genes upregulated in the MCF-7 containing MMTV-like sequences, there were 5 TNF and 2 TGF-! connected genes. They suggest that this enhanced expression of interferon-related genes in the !"# positive MCF-7 cells may suggest an increased potential for cell growth. Mutations in p53, a tumour suppressor gene, are known to be associated with human breast cancer. Estimates suggest the prevalence of p53 mutations in human breast cancer to be around 16-40% (Soong et al, 1997; Meng et al, 1999). Faedo and colleagues have demonstrated its increased prevalence in archival human breast cancers where MMTV-like sequences are present compared to tumours without these sequences (Faedo et al, 2004). The significance of this observation clearly warrants further clarity. 540


Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 541! similarity was seen in lower grade human tumour. However, they could not demonstrate a significant correlation between the degree of similarity and the presence MMTV in the specimen (by PCR).

The cellular receptor that MMTV reacts with to initiate infection has recently been identified. Transferring receptor 1 (TfR1), a single membrane-spanning glycoprotein, binds the MMTV at the cell surface in mice. The virus is then trafficked to the endosomal compartment where fusion with the cell membrane occurs. Its human orthologue, however, was not able to mediate infection of human cells (Ross et al, 2002). Hence, identification of a receptor that mediates viral entry into the human cells remains to be identified. Even though such a receptor has not been identified yet, Indik and colleagues have confirmed the ability of MMTV to infect a range of human cells (Indik et al, 2005). Infection required the MMTV !"#elop protein to be intact. Heat inactivation of the virus and specific neutralising anti-MMTV serum could block the infection.

VII. MMTV

Pathology

of

tumours

VIII. Does MMTV cause human breast cancers? One of the strongest arguments in support of this notion has been made by Ford and colleagues who have based their arguments around some of the postulates (Ford et al, 2004c) suggested by Evans and Mueller that establish a causal link between an agent and the development of tumour (Evans and Mueller, 1990). According to Evans et al, the putative agent must be shown to be consistently associated with the disease and the agent must precede the onset of disease. In their arguments, Ford and colleagues describe several groups to have demonstrated the presence of MMTV-like sequences in a large proportion of human breast cancers, and in very few normal breast tissues. They also describe their group’s longitudinal study in which all non-malignant breast tissues excised up to 24 months after surgery for breast cancer were negative for MMTV-like sequences (Ford et al, 2004b). Even though many research groups have detected the MMTV-like sequences in human breast cancers using different approaches, several groups have not been able to do so. One of the recent was from a group in Sweden. Using real time PCR with a very high sensitivity, they did not detect the MMTV-like sequence in 18 human breast cancers they examined (Bindra et al, 2007). Yin and colleagues detected the sequence in only 1 of 60 human breast cancers by PCR (Yin et al, 1997). Witt and colleagues examined 50 Austrian human breast cancer samples and did not detect the MMTV !"# sequence in any of them. Even the breast cancer cell lines they examined did not reveal the sequence (Witt et al, 2003). Mant and colleagues detected the sequence in 16% of 44 human breast cancer samples, but all turned up to be falsepositives on subsequent DNA sequencing comprising host genomic DNA (Mant et al, 2004). Demonstrating the presence of MMTV prior to the onset of human breast cancer has not met much success. One of the earlier evidence in support of this has been the seroconversion of a woman working with MMTV-infected mice. Remaining seronegative over a 28 month period, she became seropositive at the 32nd month. She developed a breast mass 9 month later which was later confirmed to be an infiltrating ductal carcinoma (Poon et al, 1983). More recently, Ford and colleagues has reported a control subject who had !"#-positive benign breast tissue and went on to develop breast cancer (Ford et al, 2004a). Strong favour for this association has also been made by Holland and colleagues in 2004. In their review, they write, “ taken together, the presence of MMTV-like gene in a large proportion of breast cancers, which has been confirmed in many laboratories; the presence of the entire virus in breast cancers; reproduction of the virus from breast cancer cells $"%#$&'(; the demonstrated infectivity of !"#-positive breast cancer cells $"% #$&'( for normal breast cells; and variable penetrance in diverse populations present a plausible basis for considering causality (Wang

with

The mammary gland of mice and humans differs in structure and hormonal stimulation, although their basic biology and histology are quite similar. Most mice strains have 5 pairs of mammary glands in contrast to humans with one pair. The functional unit of the mammary gland, the terminal ductal lobular unit (TLDU) in humans and lobulo-alveolar units (LA) in mice, are hormone sensitive. Both have similar epithelial cells, produce milk and are the site of origin of most mammary cancers [reviewed in Cardiff and Wellings, 1999; Cardiff and Kenney, 2007]. Metastatic patterns of mouse mammary tumour are different from those observed in human breast tumours. Systemic dissemination in humans is seen following initial spread to the draining lymph nodes. In contrast, mouse mammary tumours rarely metastasize to regional lymph nodes; most metastases are seen in pulmonary vessels (Vaage and Harlos, 1987). Classification of spontaneous mouse mammary tumours has been based historically on the original description of Dr Thelma Dunn (Dunn, 1959). These fall into Dunn Types A (microacinar), B (ductal) or C. Type A tumours comprise small rounded regular sized and shaped cells with loose connective tissue. Type B tumours have a solid appearance with some glands and cysts. Types A and B are the predominant forms accounting for almost 90% of spontaneous mouse mammary tumours. In the past, mouse mammary tumours have been considered to be morphologically different from human breast cancers (Hamilton, 1974). Wellings observed that the histological characteristics of mouse mammary tumours were seen in some human breast cancer specimens (Wellings, 1980). Recent observations have demonstrated more similarities between human and mouse mammary tumours. Lawson et al have compared the morphology of human breast tumours and mouse mammary tumours (Lawson et al, 2006). They compared the morphology of specimens of human IDC and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). They demonstrated that 39.9% of IDC (17 of 43 specimens) had ‘some’ histological characteristics similar to those associated with mouse mammary tumours. This similarity was inversely correlated with tumour grade; greater

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Ahmed et al: Mouse mammary tumor virus: a cause of breast cancer in humans? samples. J Gen Virol. 88, 1806-1809. Bittner JJ (1939) Relation of nursing to the extra-chromosomal theory of breast cancer in mice. Am J Cancer 35, 90-97. Bucalossi P, Veronesi U (1957) Some observations on cancer of the breast in mothers and daughters. Br J Cancer 11, 337347. Callahan R (1996) MMTV-induced mutations in mouse mammary tumors: their potential relevance to human breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 39, 33-44. Callahan R, Smith GH (2000) MMTV-induced mammary tumorigenesis: gene discovery, progression to malignancy and cellular pathways. Oncogene 19, 992-1001. Cardiff RD, Kenney N (2007) Mouse mammary tumor biology: a short history. Adv Cancer Res 98, 53-116. Cardiff RD, Wellings SR (1999) The comparative pathology of human and mouse mammary glands. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 4, 105-122. Dunn T (1959) Morphology of mammary tumors in mice. In: Homburger F (ed). Physiopathology of cancer. A.J. Phiebig: New York, 38-83. Etkind P, Du J, Khan A, Pillitteri J, Wiernik PH (2000) Mouse mammary tumor virus-like ENV gene sequences in human breast tumors and in a lymphoma of a breast cancer patient. Clin Cancer Res 6, 1273-1278. Evans AS, Mueller NE (1990) Viruses and cancer. Causal associations. Ann Epidemiol 1, 71-92. Faedo M, Ford CE, Mehta R, Blazek K, Rawlinson WD (2004) Mouse mammary tumor-like virus is associated with p53 nuclear accumulation and progesterone receptor positivity but not estrogen positivity in human female breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 10, 4417-4419. Feldman DG, Gross L (1971) Electron microscopic study of spontaneous mammary carcinomas in cats and dogs: viruslike particles in cat mammary carcinomas. Cancer Res 31, 1261-1267. Fernandez-Cobo M, Melana SM, Holland JF, Pogo BG (2006) Transcription profile of a human breast cancer cell line expressing MMTV-like sequences. Infect Agent Cancer 1, 7. Ford C, Faedo M, Delprado W, Rawlinson W (2004a) Mouse mammary tumor virus-like gene sequences in breast tumors of Australian and Vietnamese women. Clin Cancer Res 10, 802. Ford CE, Faedo M, Crouch R, Lawson JS, Rawlinson WD (2004b) Progression from normal breast pathology to breast cancer is associated with increasing prevalence of mouse mammary tumor virus-like sequences in men and women. Cancer Res 64, 4755-4759. Ford CE, Faedo M, Rawlinson WD (2004c) Mouse mammary tumor virus-like RNA transcripts and DNA are found in affected cells of human breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 10, 7284-7289. Ford CE, Tran D, Deng Y, Ta VT, Rawlinson WD, Lawson JS (2003) Mouse mammary tumor virus-like gene sequences in breast tumors of Australian and Vietnamese women. Clin Cancer Res 9, 1118-1120. Forsyth A (1985) Mammals of the Canadian Wild. Camden House Printing: London. Fraumeni JF, Jr., Miller RW (1971) Breast cancer from breastfeeding. Lancet 2, 1196-1197. Golovkina TV, Jaffe AB, Ross SR (1994) Coexpression of exogenous and endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus RNA in vivo results in viral recombination and broadens the virus host range. J Virol 68, 5019-5026. Gross L (1970) Oncogenic Viruses. Pergamon Press: Coford, New York. Hamilton JM (1974) Comparative aspects of mammary tumors. Adv Cancer Res 19, 1-45.

et al, 1995; Etkind et al, 2000; Liu et al, 2001; Ford et al, 2003; Holland et al, 2003; Levine et al, 2004). The discovery of an antibody response that indicated infection occurred before breast cancer became apparent should add to the mounting evidence that a major proportion of human breast cancer is horizontally acquired”. Several other factors need careful consideration in linking MMTV with human breast cancer. There seems to be an unambiguous belief in MMTV’s role in causing breast cancer in mice. Comparing the mice and human cancer models points out several similarities and differences. The virus acts as an insertional mutagen in mice, and this may be the case in humans as well [reviewed in (Stewart et al, 2000). Stewart and colleagues have shown that immunosuppression decreases breast cancer incidence in mice. He has also shown a reduction in human breast cancers in patients who are completely immunosuppressed (Stewart and Heppner, 1997). While this may support MMTV’s role in human breast cancer, this is in marked contrast to the observed effect of most of the established oncogenic viruses where immunosuppression predisposes to malignant progression. TfR1, the receptor that MMTV reacts with to initiate infection in mice, has not been shown to be the receptor that mediates infection in human cells (Indik et al, 2005). However, they have confirmed the ability of MMTV to infect human cells. More recently, they have also shown that human cells infected by the virus can rapidly spread between human cells in culture, express MMTV structural proteins and release spike B-type virions. The group was able to block the infectivity of these by anti-MMTV antibody and the replication of the virus by an inhibitor of reverse transcription. They argue that the demonstration of their replication in human cells lends more weight to the link between MMTV and human breast cancer (Indik et al, 2007). Clearly, there remains a lot of controversy on the role of MMTV in human breast cancers. There certainly are many observations that draws one to believe a strong association between the two, but a lot more needs to be proven before such causation may be established.

Acknowledgements The Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, the Seahouse & District Cancer Research and Relief Fund, the Cancer Research Prevention Trust and Northumbria Healthcare NHS Trust for their financial support.

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Thomas WJ Lennard

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 545! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 545-552, 2008

Techniques for intratumoral chemotherapy of lung cancer by bronchoscopic drug delivery Research Article

Firuz Celikoglu1, Seyhan I Celikoglu1, Eugene P Goldberg2 1 2

University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty and Institute of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis, Istanbul, Turkey University of Florida, Biomaterials Center, Department Materials Science & Engineering, Gainesville, FL, USA

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Seyhan I Celikoglu Ph.D., Urguplu Caddesi, No. 16, Yesilyurt, 34800 Istanbul, Turkey; Tel.:+90 (542) 433 02 88; Fax: +90 (212) 663 96 38; E-mail addresses: seyhan@celikoglu.biz Eugene P Goldberg, Ph.D., University of Florida, Biomaterials Center, Department Materials Science & Engineering, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL, USA; Tel.: +352 392 4907; fax: +352 383 7416; E-mail: egold@mse.ufl.edu Key words: Direct intratumoral injection; Endobronchial chemotherapy; Interventional therapeutic bronchoscopy; Lung cancer therapy Abbreviations: 5-fluorouracil, (5-FU); computerized axial tomography, (CAT); endo-bronchial intratumoral chemotherapy, (EITC); endoscopic ultrasound bronchoscope, (EBUS); intratumoral, (IT); Sentinel lymph nodes, (SLN) Received: 11 March 2008; Revised: 8 June 2008 Accepted: 20 June 2008; electronically published: September 2008

Summary The objective of this review is to provide a detailed description of the technique for a new non-systemic therapeutic modality for NSC lung cancer chemotherapy. Described here is the technique for intratumoral injection of one or more cytotoxic drugs directly into tumor tissue through a flexible bronchoscope by means of a needle-catheter. The procedure is termed “endo-bronchial intratumoral chemotherapy (EITC)”. EITC is a loco-regional form of chemotherapy as well as an ablative cytotoxic procedure for removal of endobronchial tumor bulk for NSC lung cancer that presents with bronchial obstruction. In addition to the advantage of tumor burden reduction inside the airway lumen, intratumoral delivery of cytotoxic drugs may be regarded as an improved neoadjuvant therapy for use prior to irradiation and/or surgery. EITC differs significantly from conventional intravenous chemotherapy by virtue of the localized non-systemic route of drug delivery. The advantages include: precise delivery of a drug superdose directly to the tumor mass (a dose impossible to deliver safely by normal systemic chemotherapy), and little systemic drug toxicity (in contrast to systemic intravenous drug delivery which is severely dose-limited due to general toxicity). Future multi-center randomized clinical trials will be essential to confirm the short-term and longterm beneficial effects of EITC as a therapeutic strategy for more effective NSCLC treatment. Clinical studies should address the potential benefits for neoadjuvant intratumoral therapy of early NSCLC in combination with other treatments such as brachytherapy and/or photodynamic therapy, and surgery.

obstruction. IT injection is readily achieved through a flexible bronchoscope by means of an ordinary needlecatheter. This procedure, termed “endobronchial intratumoral chemotherapy (EITC)” is described here and is important for consideration as a more effective approach to debulking endobronchial tumor obstruction and neoadjuvant chemotherapy of lung cancer (Wagai et al, 1982; Celikoglu et al, 1991, 1997, 2004, 2006a,b; Liu et al, 2000; Celikoglu and Celikoglu, 2003; Seymour et al, 2006). Our objective is to update information concerning clinical techniques for the direct injection of cytotoxic drugs into endobronchial malignant tumors in order to instruct bronchoscopists and interventional pulmonologists and to facilitate the use of this treatment modality.

I. Introduction Intravenous chemotherapy often leads to severe complications and abandonment of therapy due to systemic toxicity. To overcome this problem, many recent studies have been devoted to alternative modes of delivery for anticancer drugs to decrease systemic toxicity and improve the therapeutic index for approved cancer drugs. Several studies have shown that intratumoral delivery of cytotoxic drugs by direct injection into the solid tumor mass can provide extremely high doses of drug throughout the tumor with minimal systemic toxicity. Direct intratumoral (IT) injection of cancer drugs therefore represents a new treatment paradigm which may be especially valuable for treating lung cancer, especially when complicated by endobronchial tumor mass 545


Celikoglu et al: Endobronchial intra tumoral chemotherapy! axial tomography (CAT) scan of the chest and upper abdomen should be carefully reviewed to locate with precision the extent of the extraluminal localization of the tumor. If it is considered necessary, a PET scan and a mediastinoscopy should be done. If available, though not mandatory, the use of an endoscopic ultrasound bronchoscope (EBUS) may be helpful in some cases to locate any extra luminal malignant growth IT treatment. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy, if available, may also be useful to define the margins of malignant infiltration on the bronchial mucous membrane.! An intravenous access site is established, and normal saline is infused during the procedure. Standard monitoring includes an electrocardiogram, non-invasive blood pressure recording and oxygen saturation. Supplemental oxygen is administered nasally as deemed necessary. Topical anesthesia of the oral-nasalpharynx is achieved with 4% lidocaine. Conscious sedation is achieved with 3-5 mg intravenous midasolam and meperidine.

II. Method For bronchoscopic intratumoral injection, patients undergo routine bronchoscopy through any type of standard flexible bronchoscope under local anesthesia in a fully equipped endoscopy suite; at either hospital or outpatient clinics. In addition to a bronchoscopist, the procedure requires 2 dedicated assistants. The IT injection technique consists of the following steps: 1. Bronchoscopy, to visualize the lesion to be treated. 2. Introduction of a needle-device through the working channel of the bronchoscope. 3. Insertion of the needle into the lesion and injection of drug into the tumor tissue. 4. Repeated needle insertions, as many as considered appropriate to completely perfuse the tumor mass. 5. IT drug injections usually performed weekly. In patients previously treated by standard cancer therapies, EITC can continue up to one to two months as deemed necessary. In newly diagnosed patients, after 4 weekly injection sessions standard cancer treatments may be administered. 6. At end of each bronchoscopic injection session, removal of drug induced necrotic debris may be appropriate using mechanical dissection or other ablation techniques accompanied by irrigation and aspiration.

D. Bronchoscopic complications Bronchoscopy may be generally regarded as quite safe and well tolerated if performed by an experienced bronchoscopist. Infrequent serious complications are usually associated with patients who have predisposing health factors: 1.! a history of asthma may result in bronchospasm 2.! infection may occur in immunocompromised patients 3.! superior vena cava obstruction predisposes to laryngeal edema and bleeding 4.! ischemic heart disease and dysrithmias are contraindications for bronchoscopy 5.! bleeding diatheses may give excessive bleeding when biopsy specimens are taken 6.! drug allergies should be noted and anticoagulants and/or cardiorespiratory drugs may need to be stopped A retrospective study by Credle and colleagues indicated a complication incidence of 0.45% and 0.01% mortality for bronchoscopy (Credle et al, 1974). However, as might be expected, patients with preexisting infections often exhibit a significant incidence of post-bronchoscopy infection and pneumonia. Antibiotic treatment is therefore needed for patients at risk for infectious disease complications. Some degree of airways obstruction and hypoxemia is inherent in bronchoscopy. We therefore recommend use of supplementary oxygen through the bronchoscope during EITC. This is mandatory for all patients with oxygen tension of 70 mm Hg or less. A single nasal oxygen delivery catheter is convenient for this purpose. Supplementary oxygen should be continued in these patients for at least two hours after the EITC procedure.

A. Criteria for patient selection and eligibility Patients treated for non-small call lung carcinoma are eligible for endobronchial intratumoral chemotherapy by bronchoscopy based on the following criteria: 1.! Patients present with inoperable lung carcinoma and/or recurrent disease 2.! Patients present with symptomatic airways obstruction with symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, postobstructive pneumonia or atelectasis 3.! Occlusion or partial occlusion of bronchus 4.! Prior surgery is not a contraindication 5.! Disease verified by bronchoscopy 6.! Patients may be receiving systemic chemotherapy and/or radiation 7.! No age limitation 8.! Metastatic disease may be present 9.! Require informed consent 10.!Not eligible if patient has predisposing factors for diagnostic bronchoscopy It is important to note that EITC is intended to serve as a loco-regional neoadjuvant treatment.

B. Staging of NSCLC and EITC Treatment EITC may be used for palliative debulking at all stages of NSCLC (from Stage I to Stage IV) including all patients who had been previously treated by other conventional modalities and who have relapsed with endobronchial obstructive tumor growth. In cases of advanced and previously treated NSCLC, the use of EITC usually benefits the quality of life but no evidence is available for prolonged survival. For newly diagnosed NSCLC at all stages, EITC can be useful as a neoadjuvant therapy or a sensitizer (with intratumoral Cisplatin) for radiotherapy. In these cases, prolonged survival may be achieved. Here too, EITC may be effective for down-staging NSCLC by removal of tumor bulk, clearing the airways and bronchus, and enabling surgery for patients previously indicated as inoperable.

E. Bronchoscopic EITC Procedure The flexible bronchoscope is passed trans-nasally or orally and introduced into the trachea in the usual manner. A full inspection of the tracheal-bronchial tree with conventional white light and auto-fluorescence, if available, is completed. Biopsy specimens would have been taken previously from the tumor to confirm the diagnosis. The biopsies from the sites proximal and distal to the lesion should also have been obtained to define tumor margins histologically. The lesions to be treated are inspected to determine whether they are projecting or bulging into the airway lumen or infiltrating the mucous membrane, and to define the position and extent of stenos or extrinsic compression that may exist. Tumor volume is estimated visually from visible length-width-height measurements over the bronchial surface. The volume of extra-luminal localization of the tumor is estimated from CAT scan or EBUS.

C. Preparation of patients Before carrying out intratumoral chemotherapy through a bronchoscope, routine clinical data is of course obtained from patients, including arterial blood gases, coagulation parameters, and blood biochemistry. The chest radiography and computerized

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 547! remains exposed. This maneuver allows the bronchoscope body to support the needle, so preventing the tubing from kinking and giving the operator greater control over the exact placement and advancement of needle. At the moment when the needle is uncovered, an assistant fixes the needle device manually at the proximal aperture of the bronchoscope working channel, so that both hands of the operator are free. This way, one hand of the operator can direct the tip of bronchoscope with the lever and the other hand can push the body of the bronchoscope with the needle uncovered at its distal end. The entire bronchoscope body is then pushed until the tip of needle contacts the targeted tumor area. The needle is then embedded into the tumor tissue to a depth appropriate for injection of drug into the tissue.

F. Handling of the needle device in the bronchoscope working channel 1. Characteristics of “the needle-device” used for intratumoral injection. The needle-device consists of a needle-catheter placed in an outer jacket or sheath (steel or plastic). The needle-catheter consists of a metallic needle attached to the end of a plastic catheter. The placement of the needle-catheter within a sheath is to prevent damage to the working channel by the sharp pointed needle during advancement into the working channel of the bronchoscope. During advancement in the working channel, the needle must be retracted into the sheath or outer jacket. Conventional needle devices designed for “transbronchial needle aspiration biopsy” or an “esophageal sclerotherapy catheter”, which are normally available in all endoscopy departments are quite suitable for the procedure. !

G. Injection of the drug 1. Mode of insertion of the needle into the lesion Injections of drugs are made directly into the targeted tumor tissues: endoluminal mass, mucosal, sub-mucosal, intramural, peribronchial infiltrative lesions or extra-bronchial locations of the tumor growth. The mode of insertion of the needle may be varied depending on the location, form, and appearance of the lesion to be treated. If the bronchoscopic appearance of the tumor is a polypoid or exophitic mass protruding in the bronchial lumen then the needle is inserted vertically into the tumor and adjacent bronchial mucous membrane (Figure 1). When a malignant lesion is seen as a slightly protruding infiltration above the surface of bronchial mucous membrane or as an infiltration in the sub-mucosal area or elsewhere within the airway wall, the needle is inserted into the lesion at an oblique angle of approximately 45 degrees (Figure 3). In the case of extramural disease causing an extramural compressive obstruction of the bronchial lumen (either by a tumor mass or by a conglomerate of metastatic lymph nodes adjacent to the tracheal-bronchial tree), then the needle is inserted at the wall of the airway at an angle of about 60-90 degrees (Figure 4). Once the needle is embedded into the tumor tissue; a syringe loaded previously with the drug is placed at the proximal end of the needle-catheter and the assistant starts the injection. To obtain the best therapeutic advantage for this IT drug delivery, it is desired that the drug fully perfuse the entire tumor mass. For protection of the maintenance personnel from the any probable adverse effects, the syringes are loaded with cytotoxic drugs beforehand in the oncology department under special hoods.

2. Selection of the size and length of the needle according to the morphology of lesion The needle size and the length will vary according the type and extent of the tumor growth. For endo-luminal exophytic, polypoid and bulgy tumors inside the airway lumen, 19-21 gauge and 10mm length needles are required. Mucosal, sub-mucosal or mural tumor growths usually require 23-25 gauge and 5mm length needles. Longer needles are best for trans-bronchial injection in extra-mural compressive obstructions because of the long distance from lesions. Therefore, for injecting peribronchial masses or extramural hilar and subcarinal lymph nodes adjacent to the bronchial wall, 21 gauge and 15mm or longer needles are most useful with a stiffer catheter. !

3. Plastic needle A unique needle made entirely of plastic without any metallic ending appears to be particularly useful for peripheral applications. It consists of an outer sheath and inner plastic catheter with a sharpened, beveled tip. The inner catheter can be withdrawn into the sheath during passage through the bronchoscope. The advantage of this needle lies in its lack of the rigid section that is characteristic of metal needles. As a result, plastic needles can generally be passed around sharper bends inside the working channel of bronchoscope than metal needles. This property is particularly useful in injecting upper lobe apical segment and lower lobe superior segment lesions and is also useful for other distally localized tumors.

4. Placement of the needle device in the bronchoscope working channel

2. Procedures to achieve complete tumor perfusion of drug during injection into tumor tissue

Initially, the bronchoscope is introduced into the bronchial tree in the conventional manner to visualize the lesion. Then, the needle-device is put into the entrance hole at the proximal aperture of the bronchoscope working channel with needlecatheter retracted in the sheath. The needle device is then advanced slowly into the working channel. As a precaution, it is advisable to pass the needle device through the bronchoscope channel with little or no distal tip deflection of the bronchoscope. The bronchoscope can then be flexed as needed once the distal end of the sheath is visible and out of the working channel. When the tip of the sheath is visualized out of the distal end of the bronchoscope working channel, it is forwarded further until the tip of the sheath is approximately 20 mm above the area to be injected. The needlecatheter itself can then be forwarded from its sheath until the needle is seen to be entirely uncovered. We emphasize that the metal needle should be forwarded from its sheath only after the distal end of the plastic sheath is visible through the bronchoscope. At this point, it is helpful to withdraw the sheath into the bronchoscope working channel so that only the needle

For complete dispersion of the drug solution throughout the tumor mass, the following technique may be useful: 1. The total volume of the drug, calculated according the volume of tumor, should be injected by repeated injections at several insertion points on the tumor surface until the total volume of drug is administered. Approximately, 0.50 ml of the drug solution should be injected at each insertion site. 2. After injecting a 0.50 ml aliquot of the drug solution at one insertion site on the tumor surface, the injection is stopped, the needle is withdrawn entirely from the tumor; and is then embedded at another location. After injecting another 0.50 ml aliquot, injection is stopped again; the needle is removed, and is again embedded at another site. These repetitive injection maneuvers are repeated several times (3-6x) until the entire desired total dose is delivered. 3. In order to obtain the most complete tumor perfusion of the drug, the following technique may also be useful: after embedding the needle into the tumor with the assistant pushing

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Celikoglu et al: Endobronchial intra tumoral chemotherapy! the piston of the syringe to inject drug, the needle is moved up and down by the operator in a fanning manner in the tumor mass. 4. To avoid spillage and leakage of drug into the airway lumen during removal of the needle from the tumor mass by the

operator, the pressure applied to the piston of the syringe by the assistant is halted and the piston is pulled back slightly to create a small negative pressure.

Figure 1. Shows the needle inserted vertically into an endoluminal polypoid or exophitic mass.

Figure 3. Shows the injection of the drug into tumor infiltrating the bronchial wall after removal of the endo-luminal component of the tumor mass.

Figure 4. Shows the injection of cytotoxic drug into a tumor that causes a compressive airway obstruction with intact bronchial mucous membrane. No bronchial fistula develops after intratumoral chemotherapy.

Figure 2. Shows the removal of tumor residues (debridements) by mechanical resection with forceps. The locally injected drug kills the malignant cells but does not remove them. The necrotic residues are therefore removed by mechanic debridement with forceps and facilitates delivery of additional cytotoxic drugs further into the tumoral mass if necessary.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 549! This procedure of repeated injections at different tumor sites, accompanied by up and down needle movements in a fanning manner provides for reasonably uniform dispersion of drug throughout tumor mass. After completing the delivery of the total volume of the drug, the needle is retracted into its sheath to prevent damage to the operating channel of the bronchoscope and then the entire needle-device is pulled back from the operating channel of the bronchoscope. After removal of the needle device from the bronchoscope working channel, irrigation and aspiration may be appropriate to avoid any local adverse effects of the drug due to any drug leakage.

chemotherapy with favorable results (Liu et al, 2000). Long acting formulas of cisplatin, mitoxantrone, carboplatin and paclitaxel are under investigation for intratumoral chemotherapy (Harper et al, 1999; Goldberg et al, 2006). !

J. Intratumoral Cisplatin injection for local neoadjuvant chemotherapy (prior to irradiation or surgery) in patients with NSC lung cancer presenting with bronchial obstruction Recent clinical trials with systemic cisplatin chemotherapy have shown cisplatin to be one of the most active agents against NSCLC. It is therefore the most frequently used cytotoxic drug in conventional systemic combination chemotherapy (Sandler et al, 2000; Gatzemeier et al, 2001). It has also been demonstrated that intravenous cisplatin can sensitize malignant cells to irradiation (Shaake-Konig et al, 1994; Yapp et al, 1998). Moreover, cisplatin in a collagen gel has been reported to successfully treat a variety of localized malignant tumors. Cisplatin has been administered by direct endoscopic injection for palliation of obstructive cancer of the esophagus (Monga et al, 2000), by IT injection for head and neck cancers (Burris et al, 1998), by CAT-scan guided IT injection into malignant liver tumors (Engelmann et al, 2002) and by endoscopic IT injection into gastric tumors (Monga et al, 1998). Endobronchial intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin was initiated by Celikoglu and colleagues for lung cancer patients presenting with bronchial obstruction. In previously untreated inoperable lung cancer patients, satisfactory results were obtained using bronchoscopic IT injections as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to irradiation. Significant relief of bronchial obstruction was seen for 75% of treated patients (Celikoglu et al, 2006a). Celikoglu and colleagues have also shown that intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin can result in down-staging NSCLC and enable surgical intervention (Celikoglu et al, 2006b).!

3. Post procedure clean-up of bronchoscope working channel At the completion of the bronchoscopic drug injection procedure, it is advisable to aspirate 1 liter of saline through the working channel of the bronchoscope in order to remove any remaining drug. The entire bronchoscope is then cleaned in a automated cleaner.

H. Volume of cytotoxic drug solution to be injected into tumor tissue The volume of the solution to be delivered by intratumoral injection and the dose of the drug to be administered are calculated from the estimated volume of the tumor (not according to the body weight of the patient). A volume of 0.5 ml of drug solution is usually readily injected for each cubic centimeter of the tumor volume. Exophytic or polypoid endobronchial tumor volume may be approximated from the bronchoscopic view. The volume of any existing extramural or extra bronchial component of the tumor may be estimated from previous CAT scan or EBUS by the equation (0.5xLxWxH) where “L” is the greatest length; “W” is the greatest width, and “ H” is the greatest depth or height of the tumor (Monga et al, 2000). A total solution volume of about half the estimated tumor volume is usually safely injected into the tumor tissue (at several injection sites) without leakage.

A. Cisplatin dosage for intratumoral injection at each IT injection session Cisplatin has been used in the solution form which is available for intravenous administration (Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b). Cisplatin may be utilized at a concentration of 2 or 4 mg/mL. That means, if a 0.5 mL aliquot is injected for each cc of tumor volume; 1 or 2 mg cisplatin is administered at each treatment session. Although the total dose of cisplatin delivered by intratumoral injection is based on the estimated total volume of the tumor mass, it is preferable that a total dose of not more than 40 mg of cisplatin be injected at each IT injection session (Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b).

I. Characteristics of cancer drugs used for intratumoral chemotherapy Preferred cytotoxic drugs for IT injection should not induce significant local necrotic changes in the normal mucosa, should have a normal pH of approximately 7.4, and should exhibit direct anti-neoplastic activity. Drugs that require hepatic activation (i.e. cyclophosphamide) are not suitable for intratumoral injection. For intratumoral injection, standard approved anticancer drugs in solutions for intravenous administration are used. Current research is also being devoted to the preparation of polymer-drug compositions that can enhance drug stability and prolong intratumoral activity with more limited diffusion away from the injection tumor. Injectable drug-loaded nano-meso-microspheres, liposomes, and polymer gels (i.e. collagen or alginate gels) promise to offer improved therapeutic IT efficacy in the future (Goldberg et al, 2002, 2006; Almond et al, 2003). Until such modified drugs are available for clinical use, currently approved aqueous I.V. drug solutions are useful for IT chemotherapy. Celikoglu and colleagues have studied in 1997 mixed drug regimens composed of methotrexate, bleomycin, mitoxantrone, mitomycin C, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for inratumoral injection (Celikoglu et al, 1997). Celikoglu and colleagues also studied in 2003 5-FU alone at higher doses for IT treatments with satisfactory debulking results (Celikoglu and Celikoglu, 2003. Liu, has reported the use of carboplatin for intratumoral

K. Scheduling of injection sessions and duration of intratumoral chemotherapy treatment 1. For previously untreated patients For previously untreated patients, cisplatin may be administered four times at weekly intervals (on days 1, 8, 15 and 22). Three to seven days after the last session of intratumoral chemotherapy, irradiation may be initiated if deemed appropriate (Celikoglu et al, 2006ba5). In operable cases or in cases where down-staging was achieved after EITC, surgery may be carried out 3-7 days after termination of IT treatment (Celikoglu et al, 2006b). !

2. For patients previously treated by surgery, by extra-beam irradiation, or by systemic chemotherapy For such patients, IT chemotherapy is carried out at weekly intervals. If a response is obtained, EITC therapy can continue for 6-8 weeks or longer until the disappearance of the

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Celikoglu et al: Endobronchial intra tumoral chemotherapy! endobronchial tumor growth. If there is no positive response after 3 weeks of weekly EITC injections, the IT therapy may be stopped. Other endobronchial ablation techniques such as laser photoresection, electrocautery, cryotherapy may then be tried. In cases of poor response to other interventional bronchoscopic procedures, it may be appropriate to evaluate EITC.

It is reasonable to regard the following factors as contributory to the haemostasis: 1.! Vasoconstriction of small vessels in or around the tumor growth due to reaction with a very high concentrations of the cytotoxic drug; 2.! Oligemia caused by the compression of small vessels in the tumor due to the volume of drug solution injected into the restricted intratumoral volume; 3.! Occlusive intravascular thromboses in the tumor vessels. The haemostasis is advantageous in that it facilitates resection of the necrotic tumor mass with forceps and removal of tumor tissue debris (Celikoglu and Celikoglu, 2003; Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b)

3. Patient follow-up For those patients previously treated by other standard cancer therapies, if bronchial obstruction has been relieved by IT chemotherapy, follow-up bronchoscopic examinations should be performed at least every three months. Biopsy specimens of the treated areas are taken and examined by the same pathologist who examined the initial specimens. It is advisable to use autofluorescence to detect any tumor recurrence. If tumor recurrence is noted, patients may be indicated to receive additional IT treatment. The same follow-up protocol is advised after radiotherapy.

L. Effects of intratumoral cytotoxic drugs on tumor tissue

delivery

N. Removal of residual tumor debris by ablation techniques after EITC of obstructive endo-luminal tumors Although a significant reduction in tumor size may be affected by IT chemotherapy and may thereby be sufficient to alleviate symptoms, tumor size reduction in some cases may not adequately restore the airway passage as quickly as desired. Cytotoxic drug injection into the tumor kills the cancerous cells but does not immediately result in elimination of necrotic residues. Thus, in urgent life threatening situations with severe dyspnea where immediate obstruction relief is obligatory, tumor cell debris, necrotic residues, and fibrin plugs should be removed by other means. In such cases, endobronchial ablation procedures such as mechanical resection, laser photoresection, electocautery or cryotherapy should be utilized. The limited haemostatic effect provided by IT drug injection often facilitates the removal of tumor residues by mechanical resection with forceps without serious bleeding (Figure 2). Piece by piece resection with forceps can therefore be useful for debulking of tissue residues after IT endo-bronchial chemotherapy (Celikoglu and Celikoglu, 2003; Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b).

of

1. Early effects The tumor mass is usually seen through the bronchoscope as an endo-luminal protruding polypoid mass. While injecting the drug solution, the tumor around the needle becomes swollen, pale and whiter. This is probably due to edema of the tumor tissue and compression of blood vessels inside the tumor by the volume of injected solution.

2. Delayed effects Three to seven days after intratumoral drug injection, bronchoscopic examination normally reveals some reduction of the tumor mass. Tumor surfaces appear to be covered with a white-yellow gel-like substance. Histopathology indicates the presence of necrotic tissue, devitalized tumor cell residues, fibrin coagulum, dissipated secretions and white blood cells. In some cases, weeks to months later, the tumor may disappear completely leaving a grey colored scar tissue in place of the tumor (Celikoglu and Celikoglu, 2003; Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b). This necrotizing effect of locally administered cytotoxic drug is presumably due to contact and interaction of the malignant cells with the extremely high concentration of drug to which the tumor is exposed by direct drug injection (Goldberg et al, 2002, 2006). A few days after IT drug delivery the texture of the malignant tissue may appear to soften and become brittle and is then easily separated into small fragments. This is likely due to an early necrobiosis or necrosis. As a result of the early necrosis and reduction in size of the tumor mass, in some cases the diameter of the airway passage may be amplified and symptoms alleviated even after the first session of treatment. In such cases, it is also possible to observe rather rapid recovery from accompanying pathology, i.e. atelectasis or obstructive pneumonia. When the tumor growth is present as an infiltrative process with slight protrusion on the surface of the bronchial mucous membrane, the infiltrative processes improve markedly after drug injection. This infiltrative tumor growth is usually converted to a white-yellow â&#x20AC;&#x153;membrane-likeâ&#x20AC;? substance (Celikoglu and Celikoglu, 2003; Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b).

M. Haemostatic effect injection of cytotoxic drugs

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O. Adverse effects of intratumoral chemotherapy During injection of the cytotoxic drug, patients report no pain or other disturbing sensations. Injection of the drug into normal mucous membranes around the malignant tissue also does not cause any important symptoms. No adverse effects such as irritation or necrosis have been noted due to contact of the drug solution with the surface of normal bronchial mucous membrane. After IT chemotherapy, transient moderate chest pain, a slight sensation of nausea, and/or a moderate fever of one day duration may be noted. No other important systemic or local side effects are observed. No systemic toxicity such as interstitial pneumonia, bone marrow suppression, worsening of inflammatory findings or hair loss has been observed. Nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and myocarditis, which are commonly associated with systemic intravenous administration of drugs such as cisplatin, are also not seen (Liu et al, 2000; Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b).

P. Dispersion of drugs in the tumor mass 1. Drug distribution by diffusion The success of intratumoral chemotherapy is dependent upon relatively complete permeation of the injected malignant lesion with a very high concentration of drug with minimal rapid diffusion from the injected tumor tissue into the systemic circulation. Protocols involving repetitive injections and weekly treatments for several weeks are designed to maximize the probability that all tumor cells in the injected lesion are subjected to lethal drug concentrations. Fortunately, although small drug molecules may associate with tumor tissues by inherent tissue

intratumoral

Clinical observations indicate that intratumoral injection of cytotoxic drugs may also provide a haemostatic effect on the tumor bulk. The bleeding tendency of tumor tissues is thereby often reduced after IT drug injection. In such situations, piecemeal resection of tumor debris with forceps does not provoke further bleeding (Figure 2).

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 551! affinity and by DNA binding, some diffusion away from the injection sites via the extra-cellular tumor tissue fluid can also occur to facilitate tumor perfusion by most drugs. The extent of such diffusion is proportional to ratio of the injection site drug concentration and the drug concentration in the surrounding tumor tissue. When there is a relatively uniform drug concentration within the tumor tissue, drug diffusion out of the tumor will be dependent on the rate of drug passage into the lymphatic and vascular systems. Repeated IT injections facilitate complete permeation of drug into the entire tumor mass. The drug transport process is also affected by the relative porosity of the tumor tissue with some variation in such porosity according to tumor type and size. Clinical CT scan observations have demonstrated that even when only a small part of the tumor is visible by bronchoscopy, the injection of cytotoxic drugs into an endoluminal portion of the tumor is effective in also decreasing the size of the extramural part of the tumor. This suggests that anticancer drugs injected into one portion of the tumor may diffuse throughout the tumor mass (Goldberg et al, 2002, 2006).

drug and the rate of transport into the systemic circulation is thereby so limited that no adverse systemic effects are observed.

IV. Discussion and Conclusions Reviewed here are the techniques and clinical indications for EITC. It is noted that EITC may be used as a preoperative or neoadjuvant procedure or used concomitantly or sequentially with other standard lung cancer treatments and interventional therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures. EITC is a novel therapeutic paradigm for lung cancer treatment, particularly for widespread application to malignant endobronchial tumor growths. By providing local delivery of cancer drugs, EITC achieves a significant reduction in systemic toxicity with few of the toxic side effects of systemic chemotherapy. The EITC procedure is not yet used to its full potential. Increased training for interventional pulmonologists in the techniques for bronchoscopic EITC is needed to help broaden clinical perspectives and to make clearer the therapeutic scope and opportunities for EITC. Increased attention should be focused on such less invasive and less toxic treatment strategies for lung cancer. In a recent study, Nader reported that intratumoral administration of cisplatin, as an adjunct to brachytherapy, was a safe and potentially useful modality to assist in the management of endobronchial tumor obstruction and possibly for long term efficacy. It was concluded that further studies are needed to more fully assess the benefits of this treatment (Nader, 2007). In addition to the obvious advantage of tumor burden reduction inside the airway lumen, intratumoral bronchoscopic delivery of cytotoxic drugs provides a unique loco-regional neo-adjuvant therapy for use prior to irradiation or surgery (Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b). It is chemotherapy which differs from intravenous chemotherapy only by its local route of delivery. Although the number of clinical studies to date are limited, intratumoral chemotherapy has been found to be advantageous compared to intravenous chemotherapy for effecting efficient tumor regression with minimal sideeffects. One example is a comparative clinical study by Liu and colleagues where intratumoral chemotherapy with carboplatin was combined with systemic carboplatin and found to be superior to systemic chemotherapy alone for prolonged survival of lung cancer patients (Liu et al, 2000). In addition to the development of statistically significant survival data, future clinical studies should also encompass: different drug combinations, IT drug dose response, timing of EITC injections, evaluation of drug serum levels vs. time, and mechanistic studies designed to measure T-cell/killer cell activity and tumor-specific immune response.

2. Sentinel lymph node drug perfusion (drainage of drug molecules via afferent lymphatic vessels) Sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) are the first lymphatic drainage site of a tumor and the likely site of initial metastatic tumor cell dissemination (Tiffet et al, 2005). Although the overall prognostic significance SLN micro-metastases in early lung cancer remains unclear, recent studies suggest that for larger and potentially resectable lung cancers there is a significant 5year survival advantage in patients with adenocarcinoma who do not have SLN micro-metastases when compared to patients with SLN micro-metastasis (62% with metastasis vs. 86% with no metastasis) (Wu et al, 2001). IT injected drug molecules can be transported by afferent lymphatic vessels into the sentinel and draining lymph nodes. Such drug transport to the lymph nodes may be expected to have a valuable therapeutic effect by eradication of lymphatic micrometastases. Clinical studies performed using pre-surgical radioisotopes, blue dye techniques, and even the blue cancer drug mitoxantrone, support this view of drug molecule transport from an IT injected site to sentinel and draining lymph nodes (Izbicki et al, 1996; Baitchev et al, 2001; Wu et al, 2001; Lardinois et al, 2003; Tiffet et al, 2005). As also suggested by Lardinois et al, drug injected through the bronchoscope into normal tissues around the tumor is also transported to sentinel lymph nodes. We deduce from this that EITC may have the added advantage of inhibiting metastasis by cytotoxic action on tumor cells which are migrating into the lymph nodes that drain the tumor area (Lardinois et al, 2003).

3. Low systemic concentration of IT injected drugs Although we have no human clinical data, animal studies have shown that very high doses of cytotoxic drugs (>10-30 times normal intravenous doses) are achieved within tumors by intratumoral injection. However, only minute amounts of IT drug pass into the systemic circulation (Goldberg et al, 2002, 2006). Minimal systemic drug concentrations occur because of several unique aspects of IT injection. Depending on the molecular structures of specific cancer drugs, factors such as drug-tissue affinity, drug instability, rapid drug metabolism, low plasma solubility, and low tissue diffusion rates limit the extent of drug transport into surrounding tissues and vasculature. Furthermore, a major drug transport pathway for IT injected drug molecules is via the afferent lymphatics to the sentinel lymph nodes and then leave lymph glands by efferent lymphatic vessels which ultimately empty into the thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct which then empty into the venous circulation. The amount of

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lung cancer tumor nodules in mice. Clin Cancer Research 5, 4242-4248. Izbicki JR, Passlick B, Hosch SB, Kubuschock B, Schneider C, Busch C, Knoefel WT, Thetter O, Pantel K (1996) Mode of spread in the early phase of lymphatic metastasis in nonsmall cell lung cancer: significance of nodal metastasis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 112, 623-630. Lardinois D, Brack T, Gaspert A, Spahr T, Schneiter D, Steinert HC, Weder W (2003) Bronchoscopic radioisotope injection for sentinel lymph-node mapping in potentially resectable nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer. Eur J Cardio-Thorac Surg 23, 824-827. Liu M, Ma P, Lu Z (2000) Local chemotherapy by fibrobroncoscopy for advanced broncogenic carcinoma. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 23, 550-551. Monga SP, Wadleigh R, Adib H, Harmon JW, Berlin M, Mishra L (1998) Endoscopic treatment of gastric cancer with intratumoral cisplatin/epinephrine injectable gel: a case report. Gasrointest Endosc 48, 415-417. Monga SP, Wadleigh R, Sharma A, Adib H, Strader D, Singh G, Harmon JW, Berlin M, Monga DK, Mishra L (2000) Intratumoral therapy of cisplatin/epinephrine injectable gel for palliation in patients with obstructive esophageal cancer. Am J Clin Oncol (CCT) 23, 386-392. Nader AD (2007) Intratumoral chemotherapy as an adjuct to endobronch覺al brachytherapy. Chest 32, (Suppl) 459s. Sandler AB, Nemunaitis J, Denham C, von Pawel J, Cormier Y, Gatzemeier U, Mattson K, Manegold C, Palmer MC, Gregor A, Nguyen B, Niyikiza C, Einhorn LH (2000) Phase III trial gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus cisplatin alone with patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small lung cancer. J Clin Oncol 18, 122-130. Seymour CW, Krimsky WS, Sager J, Kruklitis RJ, Lund ME, Musani AI, Sterman DH (2006) Transbronchial needle injection: A systemic review of a new diagnostic and therapeutic paradigm. Respiration 73, 78-89. Shaake-Konig C, van den Bogaert W, Daleiso O, Festen J, Hoogenhout J (1994) Radiosensitization by cytotoxic drugs. The EORTC experience by radiotherapy and lung cancer cooperative groups. Lung Cancer 10, S263-270. Tiffet O, Nicholson AG, Khaddag, Ladas G, Dubois F, Goldstraw P (2005) Feasibility of detection of sentinel lymph node in peripheral non-small lung cancer with radio isotopic and blue dye techniques. Chest 127, 443-448. Wagai F, Kinoshita M, Watanabe RSH, Kitamura S (1982) The direct injection of several anti-cancer drugs into the primary lung cancer through a fiberoptic bronchoscope. Jpn J Thorac Dis 20, 170. Wu J, Ohta Y, Minato H (2001) Nodal occult metastasis in patients with peripheral lung adenocarcinoma of 2.0 cm or less in diameter. Ann Thorac Surg 71, 1772-1778. Yapp DT, Lloyd DK, Zhu E, Lehnert SM (1998) The potentiation of the effect of radiation treatment by intratumoral delivery of cisplatin. Int J Radiat Oncol Rio Phys 42, 413-420.

From left to right: Firuz Celikoglu, Seyhan I Celikoglu, Eugene P Goldberg

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 545! Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 545-552, 2008

Techniques for intratumoral chemotherapy of lung cancer by bronchoscopic drug delivery Research Article

Firuz Celikoglu1, Seyhan I Celikoglu1, Eugene P Goldberg2 1 2

University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty and Institute of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis, Istanbul, Turkey University of Florida, Biomaterials Center, Department Materials Science & Engineering, Gainesville, FL, USA

__________________________________________________________________________________! *Correspondence: Seyhan I Celikoglu Ph.D., Urguplu Caddesi, No. 16, Yesilyurt, 34800 Istanbul, Turkey; Tel.:+90 (542) 433 02 88; Fax: +90 (212) 663 96 38; E-mail addresses: seyhan@celikoglu.biz Eugene P Goldberg, Ph.D., University of Florida, Biomaterials Center, Department Materials Science & Engineering, P.O. Box 116400, Gainesville, FL, USA; Tel.: +352 392 4907; fax: +352 383 7416; E-mail: egold@mse.ufl.edu Key words: Direct intratumoral injection; Endobronchial chemotherapy; Interventional therapeutic bronchoscopy; Lung cancer therapy Abbreviations: 5-fluorouracil, (5-FU); computerized axial tomography, (CAT); endo-bronchial intratumoral chemotherapy, (EITC); endoscopic ultrasound bronchoscope, (EBUS); intratumoral, (IT); Sentinel lymph nodes, (SLN) Received: 11 March 2008; Revised: 8 June 2008 Accepted: 20 June 2008; electronically published: September 2008

Summary The objective of this review is to provide a detailed description of the technique for a new non-systemic therapeutic modality for NSC lung cancer chemotherapy. Described here is the technique for intratumoral injection of one or more cytotoxic drugs directly into tumor tissue through a flexible bronchoscope by means of a needle-catheter. The procedure is termed “endo-bronchial intratumoral chemotherapy (EITC)”. EITC is a loco-regional form of chemotherapy as well as an ablative cytotoxic procedure for removal of endobronchial tumor bulk for NSC lung cancer that presents with bronchial obstruction. In addition to the advantage of tumor burden reduction inside the airway lumen, intratumoral delivery of cytotoxic drugs may be regarded as an improved neoadjuvant therapy for use prior to irradiation and/or surgery. EITC differs significantly from conventional intravenous chemotherapy by virtue of the localized non-systemic route of drug delivery. The advantages include: precise delivery of a drug superdose directly to the tumor mass (a dose impossible to deliver safely by normal systemic chemotherapy), and little systemic drug toxicity (in contrast to systemic intravenous drug delivery which is severely dose-limited due to general toxicity). Future multi-center randomized clinical trials will be essential to confirm the short-term and longterm beneficial effects of EITC as a therapeutic strategy for more effective NSCLC treatment. Clinical studies should address the potential benefits for neoadjuvant intratumoral therapy of early NSCLC in combination with other treatments such as brachytherapy and/or photodynamic therapy, and surgery.

obstruction. IT injection is readily achieved through a flexible bronchoscope by means of an ordinary needlecatheter. This procedure, termed “endobronchial intratumoral chemotherapy (EITC)” is described here and is important for consideration as a more effective approach to debulking endobronchial tumor obstruction and neoadjuvant chemotherapy of lung cancer (Wagai et al, 1982; Celikoglu et al, 1991, 1997, 2004, 2006a,b; Liu et al, 2000; Celikoglu and Celikoglu, 2003; Seymour et al, 2006). Our objective is to update information concerning clinical techniques for the direct injection of cytotoxic drugs into endobronchial malignant tumors in order to instruct bronchoscopists and interventional pulmonologists and to facilitate the use of this treatment modality.

I. Introduction Intravenous chemotherapy often leads to severe complications and abandonment of therapy due to systemic toxicity. To overcome this problem, many recent studies have been devoted to alternative modes of delivery for anticancer drugs to decrease systemic toxicity and improve the therapeutic index for approved cancer drugs. Several studies have shown that intratumoral delivery of cytotoxic drugs by direct injection into the solid tumor mass can provide extremely high doses of drug throughout the tumor with minimal systemic toxicity. Direct intratumoral (IT) injection of cancer drugs therefore represents a new treatment paradigm which may be especially valuable for treating lung cancer, especially when complicated by endobronchial tumor mass 545


Celikoglu et al: Endobronchial intra tumoral chemotherapy! axial tomography (CAT) scan of the chest and upper abdomen should be carefully reviewed to locate with precision the extent of the extraluminal localization of the tumor. If it is considered necessary, a PET scan and a mediastinoscopy should be done. If available, though not mandatory, the use of an endoscopic ultrasound bronchoscope (EBUS) may be helpful in some cases to locate any extra luminal malignant growth IT treatment. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy, if available, may also be useful to define the margins of malignant infiltration on the bronchial mucous membrane.! An intravenous access site is established, and normal saline is infused during the procedure. Standard monitoring includes an electrocardiogram, non-invasive blood pressure recording and oxygen saturation. Supplemental oxygen is administered nasally as deemed necessary. Topical anesthesia of the oral-nasalpharynx is achieved with 4% lidocaine. Conscious sedation is achieved with 3-5 mg intravenous midasolam and meperidine.

II. Method For bronchoscopic intratumoral injection, patients undergo routine bronchoscopy through any type of standard flexible bronchoscope under local anesthesia in a fully equipped endoscopy suite; at either hospital or outpatient clinics. In addition to a bronchoscopist, the procedure requires 2 dedicated assistants. The IT injection technique consists of the following steps: 1. Bronchoscopy, to visualize the lesion to be treated. 2. Introduction of a needle-device through the working channel of the bronchoscope. 3. Insertion of the needle into the lesion and injection of drug into the tumor tissue. 4. Repeated needle insertions, as many as considered appropriate to completely perfuse the tumor mass. 5. IT drug injections usually performed weekly. In patients previously treated by standard cancer therapies, EITC can continue up to one to two months as deemed necessary. In newly diagnosed patients, after 4 weekly injection sessions standard cancer treatments may be administered. 6. At end of each bronchoscopic injection session, removal of drug induced necrotic debris may be appropriate using mechanical dissection or other ablation techniques accompanied by irrigation and aspiration.

D. Bronchoscopic complications Bronchoscopy may be generally regarded as quite safe and well tolerated if performed by an experienced bronchoscopist. Infrequent serious complications are usually associated with patients who have predisposing health factors: 1.! a history of asthma may result in bronchospasm 2.! infection may occur in immunocompromised patients 3.! superior vena cava obstruction predisposes to laryngeal edema and bleeding 4.! ischemic heart disease and dysrithmias are contraindications for bronchoscopy 5.! bleeding diatheses may give excessive bleeding when biopsy specimens are taken 6.! drug allergies should be noted and anticoagulants and/or cardiorespiratory drugs may need to be stopped A retrospective study by Credle and colleagues indicated a complication incidence of 0.45% and 0.01% mortality for bronchoscopy (Credle et al, 1974). However, as might be expected, patients with preexisting infections often exhibit a significant incidence of post-bronchoscopy infection and pneumonia. Antibiotic treatment is therefore needed for patients at risk for infectious disease complications. Some degree of airways obstruction and hypoxemia is inherent in bronchoscopy. We therefore recommend use of supplementary oxygen through the bronchoscope during EITC. This is mandatory for all patients with oxygen tension of 70 mm Hg or less. A single nasal oxygen delivery catheter is convenient for this purpose. Supplementary oxygen should be continued in these patients for at least two hours after the EITC procedure.

A. Criteria for patient selection and eligibility Patients treated for non-small call lung carcinoma are eligible for endobronchial intratumoral chemotherapy by bronchoscopy based on the following criteria: 1.! Patients present with inoperable lung carcinoma and/or recurrent disease 2.! Patients present with symptomatic airways obstruction with symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, postobstructive pneumonia or atelectasis 3.! Occlusion or partial occlusion of bronchus 4.! Prior surgery is not a contraindication 5.! Disease verified by bronchoscopy 6.! Patients may be receiving systemic chemotherapy and/or radiation 7.! No age limitation 8.! Metastatic disease may be present 9.! Require informed consent 10.!Not eligible if patient has predisposing factors for diagnostic bronchoscopy It is important to note that EITC is intended to serve as a loco-regional neoadjuvant treatment.

B. Staging of NSCLC and EITC Treatment EITC may be used for palliative debulking at all stages of NSCLC (from Stage I to Stage IV) including all patients who had been previously treated by other conventional modalities and who have relapsed with endobronchial obstructive tumor growth. In cases of advanced and previously treated NSCLC, the use of EITC usually benefits the quality of life but no evidence is available for prolonged survival. For newly diagnosed NSCLC at all stages, EITC can be useful as a neoadjuvant therapy or a sensitizer (with intratumoral Cisplatin) for radiotherapy. In these cases, prolonged survival may be achieved. Here too, EITC may be effective for down-staging NSCLC by removal of tumor bulk, clearing the airways and bronchus, and enabling surgery for patients previously indicated as inoperable.

E. Bronchoscopic EITC Procedure The flexible bronchoscope is passed trans-nasally or orally and introduced into the trachea in the usual manner. A full inspection of the tracheal-bronchial tree with conventional white light and auto-fluorescence, if available, is completed. Biopsy specimens would have been taken previously from the tumor to confirm the diagnosis. The biopsies from the sites proximal and distal to the lesion should also have been obtained to define tumor margins histologically. The lesions to be treated are inspected to determine whether they are projecting or bulging into the airway lumen or infiltrating the mucous membrane, and to define the position and extent of stenos or extrinsic compression that may exist. Tumor volume is estimated visually from visible length-width-height measurements over the bronchial surface. The volume of extra-luminal localization of the tumor is estimated from CAT scan or EBUS.

C. Preparation of patients Before carrying out intratumoral chemotherapy through a bronchoscope, routine clinical data is of course obtained from patients, including arterial blood gases, coagulation parameters, and blood biochemistry. The chest radiography and computerized

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 547! remains exposed. This maneuver allows the bronchoscope body to support the needle, so preventing the tubing from kinking and giving the operator greater control over the exact placement and advancement of needle. At the moment when the needle is uncovered, an assistant fixes the needle device manually at the proximal aperture of the bronchoscope working channel, so that both hands of the operator are free. This way, one hand of the operator can direct the tip of bronchoscope with the lever and the other hand can push the body of the bronchoscope with the needle uncovered at its distal end. The entire bronchoscope body is then pushed until the tip of needle contacts the targeted tumor area. The needle is then embedded into the tumor tissue to a depth appropriate for injection of drug into the tissue.

F. Handling of the needle device in the bronchoscope working channel 1. Characteristics of “the needle-device” used for intratumoral injection. The needle-device consists of a needle-catheter placed in an outer jacket or sheath (steel or plastic). The needle-catheter consists of a metallic needle attached to the end of a plastic catheter. The placement of the needle-catheter within a sheath is to prevent damage to the working channel by the sharp pointed needle during advancement into the working channel of the bronchoscope. During advancement in the working channel, the needle must be retracted into the sheath or outer jacket. Conventional needle devices designed for “transbronchial needle aspiration biopsy” or an “esophageal sclerotherapy catheter”, which are normally available in all endoscopy departments are quite suitable for the procedure. !

G. Injection of the drug 1. Mode of insertion of the needle into the lesion Injections of drugs are made directly into the targeted tumor tissues: endoluminal mass, mucosal, sub-mucosal, intramural, peribronchial infiltrative lesions or extra-bronchial locations of the tumor growth. The mode of insertion of the needle may be varied depending on the location, form, and appearance of the lesion to be treated. If the bronchoscopic appearance of the tumor is a polypoid or exophitic mass protruding in the bronchial lumen then the needle is inserted vertically into the tumor and adjacent bronchial mucous membrane (Figure 1). When a malignant lesion is seen as a slightly protruding infiltration above the surface of bronchial mucous membrane or as an infiltration in the sub-mucosal area or elsewhere within the airway wall, the needle is inserted into the lesion at an oblique angle of approximately 45 degrees (Figure 3). In the case of extramural disease causing an extramural compressive obstruction of the bronchial lumen (either by a tumor mass or by a conglomerate of metastatic lymph nodes adjacent to the tracheal-bronchial tree), then the needle is inserted at the wall of the airway at an angle of about 60-90 degrees (Figure 4). Once the needle is embedded into the tumor tissue; a syringe loaded previously with the drug is placed at the proximal end of the needle-catheter and the assistant starts the injection. To obtain the best therapeutic advantage for this IT drug delivery, it is desired that the drug fully perfuse the entire tumor mass. For protection of the maintenance personnel from the any probable adverse effects, the syringes are loaded with cytotoxic drugs beforehand in the oncology department under special hoods.

2. Selection of the size and length of the needle according to the morphology of lesion The needle size and the length will vary according the type and extent of the tumor growth. For endo-luminal exophytic, polypoid and bulgy tumors inside the airway lumen, 19-21 gauge and 10mm length needles are required. Mucosal, sub-mucosal or mural tumor growths usually require 23-25 gauge and 5mm length needles. Longer needles are best for trans-bronchial injection in extra-mural compressive obstructions because of the long distance from lesions. Therefore, for injecting peribronchial masses or extramural hilar and subcarinal lymph nodes adjacent to the bronchial wall, 21 gauge and 15mm or longer needles are most useful with a stiffer catheter. !

3. Plastic needle A unique needle made entirely of plastic without any metallic ending appears to be particularly useful for peripheral applications. It consists of an outer sheath and inner plastic catheter with a sharpened, beveled tip. The inner catheter can be withdrawn into the sheath during passage through the bronchoscope. The advantage of this needle lies in its lack of the rigid section that is characteristic of metal needles. As a result, plastic needles can generally be passed around sharper bends inside the working channel of bronchoscope than metal needles. This property is particularly useful in injecting upper lobe apical segment and lower lobe superior segment lesions and is also useful for other distally localized tumors.

4. Placement of the needle device in the bronchoscope working channel

2. Procedures to achieve complete tumor perfusion of drug during injection into tumor tissue

Initially, the bronchoscope is introduced into the bronchial tree in the conventional manner to visualize the lesion. Then, the needle-device is put into the entrance hole at the proximal aperture of the bronchoscope working channel with needlecatheter retracted in the sheath. The needle device is then advanced slowly into the working channel. As a precaution, it is advisable to pass the needle device through the bronchoscope channel with little or no distal tip deflection of the bronchoscope. The bronchoscope can then be flexed as needed once the distal end of the sheath is visible and out of the working channel. When the tip of the sheath is visualized out of the distal end of the bronchoscope working channel, it is forwarded further until the tip of the sheath is approximately 20 mm above the area to be injected. The needlecatheter itself can then be forwarded from its sheath until the needle is seen to be entirely uncovered. We emphasize that the metal needle should be forwarded from its sheath only after the distal end of the plastic sheath is visible through the bronchoscope. At this point, it is helpful to withdraw the sheath into the bronchoscope working channel so that only the needle

For complete dispersion of the drug solution throughout the tumor mass, the following technique may be useful: 1. The total volume of the drug, calculated according the volume of tumor, should be injected by repeated injections at several insertion points on the tumor surface until the total volume of drug is administered. Approximately, 0.50 ml of the drug solution should be injected at each insertion site. 2. After injecting a 0.50 ml aliquot of the drug solution at one insertion site on the tumor surface, the injection is stopped, the needle is withdrawn entirely from the tumor; and is then embedded at another location. After injecting another 0.50 ml aliquot, injection is stopped again; the needle is removed, and is again embedded at another site. These repetitive injection maneuvers are repeated several times (3-6x) until the entire desired total dose is delivered. 3. In order to obtain the most complete tumor perfusion of the drug, the following technique may also be useful: after embedding the needle into the tumor with the assistant pushing

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Celikoglu et al: Endobronchial intra tumoral chemotherapy! the piston of the syringe to inject drug, the needle is moved up and down by the operator in a fanning manner in the tumor mass. 4. To avoid spillage and leakage of drug into the airway lumen during removal of the needle from the tumor mass by the

operator, the pressure applied to the piston of the syringe by the assistant is halted and the piston is pulled back slightly to create a small negative pressure.

Figure 1. Shows the needle inserted vertically into an endoluminal polypoid or exophitic mass.

Figure 3. Shows the injection of the drug into tumor infiltrating the bronchial wall after removal of the endo-luminal component of the tumor mass.

Figure 4. Shows the injection of cytotoxic drug into a tumor that causes a compressive airway obstruction with intact bronchial mucous membrane. No bronchial fistula develops after intratumoral chemotherapy.

Figure 2. Shows the removal of tumor residues (debridements) by mechanical resection with forceps. The locally injected drug kills the malignant cells but does not remove them. The necrotic residues are therefore removed by mechanic debridement with forceps and facilitates delivery of additional cytotoxic drugs further into the tumoral mass if necessary.

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 549! This procedure of repeated injections at different tumor sites, accompanied by up and down needle movements in a fanning manner provides for reasonably uniform dispersion of drug throughout tumor mass. After completing the delivery of the total volume of the drug, the needle is retracted into its sheath to prevent damage to the operating channel of the bronchoscope and then the entire needle-device is pulled back from the operating channel of the bronchoscope. After removal of the needle device from the bronchoscope working channel, irrigation and aspiration may be appropriate to avoid any local adverse effects of the drug due to any drug leakage.

chemotherapy with favorable results (Liu et al, 2000). Long acting formulas of cisplatin, mitoxantrone, carboplatin and paclitaxel are under investigation for intratumoral chemotherapy (Harper et al, 1999; Goldberg et al, 2006). !

J. Intratumoral Cisplatin injection for local neoadjuvant chemotherapy (prior to irradiation or surgery) in patients with NSC lung cancer presenting with bronchial obstruction Recent clinical trials with systemic cisplatin chemotherapy have shown cisplatin to be one of the most active agents against NSCLC. It is therefore the most frequently used cytotoxic drug in conventional systemic combination chemotherapy (Sandler et al, 2000; Gatzemeier et al, 2001). It has also been demonstrated that intravenous cisplatin can sensitize malignant cells to irradiation (Shaake-Konig et al, 1994; Yapp et al, 1998). Moreover, cisplatin in a collagen gel has been reported to successfully treat a variety of localized malignant tumors. Cisplatin has been administered by direct endoscopic injection for palliation of obstructive cancer of the esophagus (Monga et al, 2000), by IT injection for head and neck cancers (Burris et al, 1998), by CAT-scan guided IT injection into malignant liver tumors (Engelmann et al, 2002) and by endoscopic IT injection into gastric tumors (Monga et al, 1998). Endobronchial intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin was initiated by Celikoglu and colleagues for lung cancer patients presenting with bronchial obstruction. In previously untreated inoperable lung cancer patients, satisfactory results were obtained using bronchoscopic IT injections as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to irradiation. Significant relief of bronchial obstruction was seen for 75% of treated patients (Celikoglu et al, 2006a). Celikoglu and colleagues have also shown that intratumoral chemotherapy with cisplatin can result in down-staging NSCLC and enable surgical intervention (Celikoglu et al, 2006b).!

3. Post procedure clean-up of bronchoscope working channel At the completion of the bronchoscopic drug injection procedure, it is advisable to aspirate 1 liter of saline through the working channel of the bronchoscope in order to remove any remaining drug. The entire bronchoscope is then cleaned in a automated cleaner.

H. Volume of cytotoxic drug solution to be injected into tumor tissue The volume of the solution to be delivered by intratumoral injection and the dose of the drug to be administered are calculated from the estimated volume of the tumor (not according to the body weight of the patient). A volume of 0.5 ml of drug solution is usually readily injected for each cubic centimeter of the tumor volume. Exophytic or polypoid endobronchial tumor volume may be approximated from the bronchoscopic view. The volume of any existing extramural or extra bronchial component of the tumor may be estimated from previous CAT scan or EBUS by the equation (0.5xLxWxH) where “L” is the greatest length; “W” is the greatest width, and “ H” is the greatest depth or height of the tumor (Monga et al, 2000). A total solution volume of about half the estimated tumor volume is usually safely injected into the tumor tissue (at several injection sites) without leakage.

A. Cisplatin dosage for intratumoral injection at each IT injection session Cisplatin has been used in the solution form which is available for intravenous administration (Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b). Cisplatin may be utilized at a concentration of 2 or 4 mg/mL. That means, if a 0.5 mL aliquot is injected for each cc of tumor volume; 1 or 2 mg cisplatin is administered at each treatment session. Although the total dose of cisplatin delivered by intratumoral injection is based on the estimated total volume of the tumor mass, it is preferable that a total dose of not more than 40 mg of cisplatin be injected at each IT injection session (Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b).

I. Characteristics of cancer drugs used for intratumoral chemotherapy Preferred cytotoxic drugs for IT injection should not induce significant local necrotic changes in the normal mucosa, should have a normal pH of approximately 7.4, and should exhibit direct anti-neoplastic activity. Drugs that require hepatic activation (i.e. cyclophosphamide) are not suitable for intratumoral injection. For intratumoral injection, standard approved anticancer drugs in solutions for intravenous administration are used. Current research is also being devoted to the preparation of polymer-drug compositions that can enhance drug stability and prolong intratumoral activity with more limited diffusion away from the injection tumor. Injectable drug-loaded nano-meso-microspheres, liposomes, and polymer gels (i.e. collagen or alginate gels) promise to offer improved therapeutic IT efficacy in the future (Goldberg et al, 2002, 2006; Almond et al, 2003). Until such modified drugs are available for clinical use, currently approved aqueous I.V. drug solutions are useful for IT chemotherapy. Celikoglu and colleagues have studied in 1997 mixed drug regimens composed of methotrexate, bleomycin, mitoxantrone, mitomycin C, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for inratumoral injection (Celikoglu et al, 1997). Celikoglu and colleagues also studied in 2003 5-FU alone at higher doses for IT treatments with satisfactory debulking results (Celikoglu and Celikoglu, 2003. Liu, has reported the use of carboplatin for intratumoral

K. Scheduling of injection sessions and duration of intratumoral chemotherapy treatment 1. For previously untreated patients For previously untreated patients, cisplatin may be administered four times at weekly intervals (on days 1, 8, 15 and 22). Three to seven days after the last session of intratumoral chemotherapy, irradiation may be initiated if deemed appropriate (Celikoglu et al, 2006ba5). In operable cases or in cases where down-staging was achieved after EITC, surgery may be carried out 3-7 days after termination of IT treatment (Celikoglu et al, 2006b). !

2. For patients previously treated by surgery, by extra-beam irradiation, or by systemic chemotherapy For such patients, IT chemotherapy is carried out at weekly intervals. If a response is obtained, EITC therapy can continue for 6-8 weeks or longer until the disappearance of the

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Celikoglu et al: Endobronchial intra tumoral chemotherapy! endobronchial tumor growth. If there is no positive response after 3 weeks of weekly EITC injections, the IT therapy may be stopped. Other endobronchial ablation techniques such as laser photoresection, electrocautery, cryotherapy may then be tried. In cases of poor response to other interventional bronchoscopic procedures, it may be appropriate to evaluate EITC.

It is reasonable to regard the following factors as contributory to the haemostasis: 1.! Vasoconstriction of small vessels in or around the tumor growth due to reaction with a very high concentrations of the cytotoxic drug; 2.! Oligemia caused by the compression of small vessels in the tumor due to the volume of drug solution injected into the restricted intratumoral volume; 3.! Occlusive intravascular thromboses in the tumor vessels. The haemostasis is advantageous in that it facilitates resection of the necrotic tumor mass with forceps and removal of tumor tissue debris (Celikoglu and Celikoglu, 2003; Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b)

3. Patient follow-up For those patients previously treated by other standard cancer therapies, if bronchial obstruction has been relieved by IT chemotherapy, follow-up bronchoscopic examinations should be performed at least every three months. Biopsy specimens of the treated areas are taken and examined by the same pathologist who examined the initial specimens. It is advisable to use autofluorescence to detect any tumor recurrence. If tumor recurrence is noted, patients may be indicated to receive additional IT treatment. The same follow-up protocol is advised after radiotherapy.

L. Effects of intratumoral cytotoxic drugs on tumor tissue

delivery

N. Removal of residual tumor debris by ablation techniques after EITC of obstructive endo-luminal tumors Although a significant reduction in tumor size may be affected by IT chemotherapy and may thereby be sufficient to alleviate symptoms, tumor size reduction in some cases may not adequately restore the airway passage as quickly as desired. Cytotoxic drug injection into the tumor kills the cancerous cells but does not immediately result in elimination of necrotic residues. Thus, in urgent life threatening situations with severe dyspnea where immediate obstruction relief is obligatory, tumor cell debris, necrotic residues, and fibrin plugs should be removed by other means. In such cases, endobronchial ablation procedures such as mechanical resection, laser photoresection, electocautery or cryotherapy should be utilized. The limited haemostatic effect provided by IT drug injection often facilitates the removal of tumor residues by mechanical resection with forceps without serious bleeding (Figure 2). Piece by piece resection with forceps can therefore be useful for debulking of tissue residues after IT endo-bronchial chemotherapy (Celikoglu and Celikoglu, 2003; Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b).

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1. Early effects The tumor mass is usually seen through the bronchoscope as an endo-luminal protruding polypoid mass. While injecting the drug solution, the tumor around the needle becomes swollen, pale and whiter. This is probably due to edema of the tumor tissue and compression of blood vessels inside the tumor by the volume of injected solution.

2. Delayed effects Three to seven days after intratumoral drug injection, bronchoscopic examination normally reveals some reduction of the tumor mass. Tumor surfaces appear to be covered with a white-yellow gel-like substance. Histopathology indicates the presence of necrotic tissue, devitalized tumor cell residues, fibrin coagulum, dissipated secretions and white blood cells. In some cases, weeks to months later, the tumor may disappear completely leaving a grey colored scar tissue in place of the tumor (Celikoglu and Celikoglu, 2003; Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b). This necrotizing effect of locally administered cytotoxic drug is presumably due to contact and interaction of the malignant cells with the extremely high concentration of drug to which the tumor is exposed by direct drug injection (Goldberg et al, 2002, 2006). A few days after IT drug delivery the texture of the malignant tissue may appear to soften and become brittle and is then easily separated into small fragments. This is likely due to an early necrobiosis or necrosis. As a result of the early necrosis and reduction in size of the tumor mass, in some cases the diameter of the airway passage may be amplified and symptoms alleviated even after the first session of treatment. In such cases, it is also possible to observe rather rapid recovery from accompanying pathology, i.e. atelectasis or obstructive pneumonia. When the tumor growth is present as an infiltrative process with slight protrusion on the surface of the bronchial mucous membrane, the infiltrative processes improve markedly after drug injection. This infiltrative tumor growth is usually converted to a white-yellow â&#x20AC;&#x153;membrane-likeâ&#x20AC;? substance (Celikoglu and Celikoglu, 2003; Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b).

M. Haemostatic effect injection of cytotoxic drugs

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O. Adverse effects of intratumoral chemotherapy During injection of the cytotoxic drug, patients report no pain or other disturbing sensations. Injection of the drug into normal mucous membranes around the malignant tissue also does not cause any important symptoms. No adverse effects such as irritation or necrosis have been noted due to contact of the drug solution with the surface of normal bronchial mucous membrane. After IT chemotherapy, transient moderate chest pain, a slight sensation of nausea, and/or a moderate fever of one day duration may be noted. No other important systemic or local side effects are observed. No systemic toxicity such as interstitial pneumonia, bone marrow suppression, worsening of inflammatory findings or hair loss has been observed. Nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and myocarditis, which are commonly associated with systemic intravenous administration of drugs such as cisplatin, are also not seen (Liu et al, 2000; Celikoglu et al, 2006a,b).

P. Dispersion of drugs in the tumor mass 1. Drug distribution by diffusion The success of intratumoral chemotherapy is dependent upon relatively complete permeation of the injected malignant lesion with a very high concentration of drug with minimal rapid diffusion from the injected tumor tissue into the systemic circulation. Protocols involving repetitive injections and weekly treatments for several weeks are designed to maximize the probability that all tumor cells in the injected lesion are subjected to lethal drug concentrations. Fortunately, although small drug molecules may associate with tumor tissues by inherent tissue

intratumoral

Clinical observations indicate that intratumoral injection of cytotoxic drugs may also provide a haemostatic effect on the tumor bulk. The bleeding tendency of tumor tissues is thereby often reduced after IT drug injection. In such situations, piecemeal resection of tumor debris with forceps does not provoke further bleeding (Figure 2).

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Cancer Therapy Vol 6, page 551! affinity and by DNA binding, some diffusion away from the injection sites via the extra-cel