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JOURNAL EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Svitlana Dubina DEPUTY EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Yulia Lytvyna ASSISTANT EDITOR Olexandr Vynogradov EDITORS, REVIEWERS AND ADVISORS Ludmyla Moskalyova Dmitrijs Zaparanuks Olha Hulets Giovanni Mariani Svetlana Migdissova Igor Jordano Cassemiro Gondim Alia Abukiwan Anne-Sophie Champod Julien Berard Stephen Marsh Iryna Melnykova Antonina Nenaseva Jiban Shrestha Emanuel Dinis Karman Victor Oxana Zagrebelnaya Anya Dashe Oleksandra Melnykova Chiara Cardelli Olga Stiuca Natasha Sokova Andrea Doria Egor Arcea Jura Fridkins Renzo Russi Sabrina Michaliszyn Alexander Sakhonenko Sara Specchia Oxana Diaconescu Camillla Palmieri Gordon Marsh Petro Savchuk Xiuping Gao Ivan Starchenko Volodymyr Fisanov G.Amangaliyeva Olga Dolska Yuriy Denisov Boris Bilynsky Lilia Zub DESIGN Alexandra Corbu

MEDICAL SCIENCE

CO

04

INTRAOPERATIVE COLOR DETECTION OF LYMPH NODES METASTASES IN THYROID CANCER Authors: Mikhail Shapetska, Vitali Papok, Pavel Korotkevich

09

COMPARATIVE SURVIVAL ANALYSIS OF PATIENTS WITH STOMACH CANCER AFTER COMBINED SURGERY Author: Yuriy Oliynyk

18

HISTOCHEMICAL POLYMORPHISM OF KERATIN PEARLS IN SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE LUNG Authors: Yuriy Gasyuk, Boris Filenko

25

ETIOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE URINARY SYSTEM INFECTIONS, ITS DYNAMIC, DEPENDENCE ON PATIENTS SEX AND RELATION WITH RESIDENT URINE MICROFLORA AMONG INHABITANTS OF CHERNIVTSI REGION AND TOWN OF CHERNIVTSI Authors: Volodymyr Bezruk, Oleksandr Blinder, Tetyana Bezruk, Olena Blinder, Sviatoslava Yurniuk

POLITICAL SCIENCE

36

TO THE QUESTION OF PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES IN CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL TRADE DIPLOMACY Authors: Danial Saari, Aigul Adibayeva

41

ETHNICITY AS POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONSTRUCTIONS IN TERMS OF THE SPECIFIC HISTORICAL CONTEXTS Author: Valentyna Bohatyrets

DIFFERENT AUTHORS REQUIRE DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO PUBLISHING The policy of publishers of Canadian Scientific Journal is aimed at the expansion of international contacts in the sphere of scientific collaboration. Canadian Scientific Journal is meant for students, postgraduates, doctoral candidates, seekers of degree, interns and scientists. Canadian Scientific Journal is a channel of scientific information exchange and it gives the chance to present the results of their work in the scientific environment.


NTENTS TECHNICAL SCIENCE

49

ENSURING AIR QUALITY IN THE WORK AREA WHEN FORMING POLYAMIDE THREADS Authors: Nataliia Denisova, Nataliia Buialska

55

MODERN METHODS OF MICROSTRUCTURE RESEARCH TROUGH COMPUTER MATERIALS SCIENCE USING APPLIED TECHNOLOGY Authors: Oleksandr Povstyanoy, Yuliya Kuts

PHILOSOPHY

64

Philosophical fundamentals of polycultural dialogue re-semantization: methodologeme and sense search Authors: Tamara Troitskaya, Olena Troitskaya

69

AXIOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF HARMONIOUS RELATIONS IN THE SYSTEM “NATURE-MAN” Author: Galina Taranenko

pedagogy

74

The work with the student in the residential areas as one of the leading directions of educational work Author: Alona Halysheva

Forestry and fishery

80

Influence of the non-biological parameters of water (water temperature) on the paddlefish larvae (Polyodon spathula) ongrowing in the conditions of the south of Ukraine Authors: Natalya Grudko, Vladimir Kornienko

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Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Contents lists available at Canadian Scientific Journal

Canadian Scientific Journal journal homepage: www.csjournal.ca

Intraoperative color detection of lymph nodes metastases in thyroid cancer Shapetska Mikhail,* Papok Vitali, Korotkevich Pavel Belarusian State Medical University, Department of oncology, Minsk, Belarus ARTICLE INFO

ABSTR AC T

Article history:

The subject of a research was the group of patients with morphologically confirmed

Received 21 October 2014

diagnosis of a thyroid cancer. We carried out an analysis of follow-up process for

Received in revised form 30 October 2014

11 patients (9 – with a papillary thyroid cancer, 2 – with a medullary thyroid cancer).

Accepted 12 November 2014

All patients underwent surgical treatment according to the standard for this category of patients – a total thyroidectomy with bilaterial radical and/or selective lymphatic

Keywords:

dissection. 1% blue dye glucose solution was injected into the thyroid tissue surrounding

Thyroid cancer

the tumor with an insulin syringe at the periphery of the square into 4 points at a volume

Sentinel lymph nodes

of 0,2 ml in each point. The median exposition of the dye distribution (15 minutes) was

Blue dye

chosen empirically. Papillary thyroid carcinoma metastases to lymph nodes have also been morphologically confirmed in 7 patients. In medullar thyroid carcinoma, massive, seen intraoperatively lesion of levels II – IV lymph nodes has been confirmed morphologically as well. But in medullar cancer, no one lymph node among those visualized ad oculus has been stained with blue dye. In 7 from 9 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, the ultra sound scanning did not reveal neck lymph nodes metastases while color detection method showed a false-positive only result in 2 patients. The lymph node staining with blue dye allows detecting regional lymph nodes containing metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. © 2014 Canadian Scientific Journal. All Rights reserved

1. Introduction Therefore, the preoperative or intraoperative visual detection of lymph nodes containing tumor tissue seems to be very expedient when making a decision about the extent of the lymph node dissection. * Corresponding author at: Belarusian State Medical University, Department of oncology, 83, Dzerzhinski str., Minsk, 220116, Belarus. Fax: +375172724163

E-mail addresses: shepetjko@gmail.com (M. Shapetska) www.csjournal.ca


M. Shapetska, V. Papok, P. Korotkevich / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

5

Intraoperative color detection of lymph nodes metastases in thyroid cancer

Radical surgery in cancer patients consists of complete tumor removal as well as appropriate node dissection. In 1977, Cabanas RM et al., first, proposed the sentinel lymph node concept (Alex 1993). In 1992, Morton D. et al. using the indirect lymphoscintigraphy with Te 99 proved this concept to be true taking skin melanoma as an example. Simultaneously with using the radioisotope tracer Te 99 for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma, the aqueous solution of blue dye was proposed. The dye has proved to be highly effective in detecting a sentinel lymph node, this finding being unexpected. The technique included blue dye peri-tumoral injections from several points. A lymph node positive for the tumor tissue presence was determined ad oculus (Balch 2000). Conducted international randomized studies aimed at the identification of regional lymph nodes using blue dye and radioisotope tracer in melanoma have shown these techniques to be highly effective (Cabanas 1977; Cox et al. 1999). Aim of study: to determine a feasible use of blue dye for intraoperative visualization of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) metastases spreading into regional lymph nodes.

2. Materials and methods 11 patients with DTC, 8 women and 3 men aged 47,8±2,1 years were enrolled in the study group. The intrathyroid tumor did not exceed the limits of the capsule, its median morphological size being 16,9±2,5 mm, corresponding to pT1/T2 descriptor according to the TNM/pTNM Classification of Thyroid Cancer. All patients suspected for having the cancer underwent ultrasound (US) scanning of the neck for assessing tumor size and enlarged neck lymph nodes. Cytologically, the diagnosis was confirmed in 100% of cases using fine-needle aspiration biopsy, papillary carcinoma was revealed in 9 patients, medullar cancer in 2 patients. Intraoperative contrast study of neck lymph nodes 1% blue dye glucose solution (Neopharma GmbH & Co. KG) was injected into the thyroid tissue surrounding the tumor with an insulin syringe at the periphery of the square into 4 points at a volume of 0,2 ml in each point. Due to the excellent vascularization and perfusion capacity of the thyroid tissue, the median exposition of the dye distribution (15 minutes) was chosen empirically. (Fig. 1, 2). The total resection of the thyroid gland was performed for securing the non-recurrence and making the conditions for the radioiodine therapy. The lymph node dissection was performed with treatment and prophylaxis (prevention) aims and was determined as radical, modified radical and selective. Topographically, regional neck metastases were defined depending on the level of lymph drainage (I – submandibular and submental lymph nodes; II – upper jugular lymph nodes; III - middle jugular lymph nodes; IV - inferior jugular lymph nodes; V - lymph nodes of the posterior triangle of the neck; VI - pre-, paratracheal, perithyroid and cricothyroid lymph nodes).

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M. Shapetska, V. Papok, P. Korotkevich / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Intraoperative color detection of lymph nodes metastases in thyroid cancer

Fig. 1. Injecting the blue dye into the thyroid tissue surrounding the tumor

Fig. 3. Stained lymph node in lymphatic tissue

Fig. 2. Metastatic node on the jugular vein is contrasted 15 minutes later

Fig. 4. Metastasis of the same node seen microscopically

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7

M. Shapetska, V. Papok, P. Korotkevich / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Intraoperative color detection of lymph nodes metastases in thyroid cancer

3. Results The thyroid carcinoma has been morphologically confirmed in 100% of patients. Papillary thyroid carcinoma metastases to lymph nodes have also been morphologically confirmed in 7 patients. In medullar thyroid carcinoma, massive, seen intraoperatively lesion of levels II – IV lymph nodes has been confirmed morphologically as well. But in medullar cancer, no one lymph node among those visualized ad oculus has been stained with blue dye. In 7 from 9 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, the ultra sound scanning did not reveal neck lymph nodes metastases while color detection method showed a false-positive only result in 2 patients: level III of lymph drainage (1 lymph node false-positive), level IV (1 lymph node falsepositive), and level VI (2 lymph nodes false-positive) (Table 1).

Table 1. Comparison characteristic of lymph nodules by US scanning and intraoperative color detection

Papillary thyroid cancer Levels of lymph drainage US scanning

Intraoperative color detection with blue dye

II

III

IV

V

VI

+

+

+

+

+

Medullar thyroid cancer II III IV V

VI

+

+

+

+

+

(2 patients) (2 patients) (1 patient) (1 patient) (2 patients) *2LN+ 2LN+ 5LN+ 0 6LN+ 0

0

0

0

0

**LN±

1LN±

2LN±

+ Detected lymph nodes are positive * LN+ lymph nodes positive **LN± lymph nodes false-positive 0 Detected lymph nodes are negative

4. Discussion In breast cancer, the combined use of radioisotope and color detection allowed identifying involved lymph nodes in 95% of cases and performing an adequate lymph node dissection [5]. The results of the first contrast lymph nodes studies in colorectal cancer have shown only a 70% informativity of color detection technique, and the combined use of blue dye and radioisotopes did not allow increasing the accuracy when determining the metastatic involvement of mesentery and retroperitoneal lymph nodes (Joosten 1999; Merrie et al. 2001). Identifying sentinel lymph nodes allowed decreasing the extent of ilioinguinal lymph node dissection in 6080% of patients with vulva and cervical cancer, thus contributing to a decreased postoperative complications rate (Morton 1992). Performing a D2 or D3 lymph node dissection is still the matter of a controversy, the lymph nodes mapping www.csjournal.ca


8

M. Shapetska, V. Papok, P. Korotkevich / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Intraoperative color detection of lymph nodes metastases in thyroid cancer

being of a prognostic value when choosing an optimal surgical strategy for gastric cancer (Terada 1998). In our study, we have demonstrated the feasibility of this method for treating the patients with thyroid cancer and determining the volume of lateral neck dissection.

5. Conclusions The lymph node staining with blue dye allows detecting regional lymph nodes containing metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. This method can help to choose appropriate volume of node dissection at early-stage thyroid carcinoma. Sentinel lymph node containing metastasis indicates the necessity of lateral neck node dissection in all patients. The sentinel lymph node staining allows differentiating early or advanced medullary and papillary thyroid carcinomas.

References 1.

Alex J, Weaver D, Fairbank J (1993). Gamma-probe-guided lymph node localization in malignant melanoma Surgical Oncology, Vol. 2, 303-308.

2.

Balch C, Soong S, Ross M (2000). Long-term results of a multi-institutional randomized trial comparing prognostic factors and surgical results for intermediate thickness melanomas (1.0 to 4.0 mm). Intergroup Melanoma Surgical Trial Annals of Surgical Oncology, Vol. 7, 87-97.

3.

Cabanas R (1977). An approach for the treatment of penile carcinoma. Cancer, Vol. 39, 456-466.

4.

Cox C, Bass S, Boulware D (1999). Implementation of new surgical technology: outcome measures for lymphatic mapping of breast carcinoma Annals of Surgical Oncology, Vol. 6, 553-561.

5.

Hiratsuka M, Miyashiro I, Ishikawa O (2001). Application of sentinel node biopsy to gastric cancer surgery Surgery, Vol. 129, 335-340.

6.

Joosten J, Strobbe L, Wauters C (1999). Intraoperative lymphatic mapping and the sentinel node concept in colorectal carcinoma British Journal of Surgery, Vol. 86, 482-486.

7.

Merrie A, van Rij A, Phillips L (2001). Diagnostic use of the sentinel node in colon cancer Diseases of the Colon&Rectum, Vol. 44, 410-417.

8.

Morton D, Wen D, Wong J (1992). Technical details of intraoperative lymphatic mapping for early stage melanoma Archives of Surgery, Vol. 127, 392-399.

9.

Terada K, Coel M (1998). Combined use of intraoperative lymphatic mapping and lymphoscintigraphy in the management of squamous cell cancer of the vulva Gynecologic Oncology, Vol. 70, 65-69.

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Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Contents lists available at Canadian Scientific Journal

Canadian Scientific Journal journal homepage: www.csjournal.ca

Comparative survival analysis of patients with stomach cancer after combined surgery Oliynyk Yuriy* The Danylo Halytsky Lviv State Medical University, Lviv, Ukraine ARTICLE INFO

ABSTR AC T

Article history:

Study included 1114 patients (804 men and 310 women) after combined surgery due to

Received 27 September 2014

stomach cancer. It was investigated sex and age features and their influence of survival

Received in revised form 20 October 2014

with Kaplan-Meier methods, including Log-rank and Breslow tests and χ2-statistics.

Accepted 30 October 2014

It was determined the prevalence of male patients over women (ratio 2.6:1), total gastrectomy (TG) over distal and proximal subtotal gastrectomy (SG) (ratio 4.6:1.5:1).

Keywords:

Significant differences between the average life expectancy of men and women

Locally advanced stomach cancer

after combined TG were not found (p>0,1). Instead, there is a difference between

Combined operations

life expectancy of men and women after combined TG and SG (p<0,001). 3- and

Survival rate

5-year survival rate after combined TG was respectively 16.7% and 10.1%, and after combined SG subtotal – 29.6% and 24.2%. The difference between the 3- and 5-year survival rates of patients of both sexes after completed combined SG was statistically significant (χ2=4,692, p=0,032). Our results on average life expectancy, 3- and 5-year survival rates indicate the feasibility of the implementation of combined surgery as current trend to expand the possibilities of surgical radical treatment of patients with gastric cancer, and indications for their conduct. © 2014 Canadian Scientific Journal. All Rights reserved

1. Introduction The incidence rate of stomach cancer is gradually decreasing throughout the world (GLOBOCAN 2008). However, in Ukraine stomach cancer shows the highest incidence rates (4th-6th rank positions) and it is the second leading cause of death from malignant neoplasms for men (after lung cancer) and women (after * Corresponding author at: The Danylo Halytsky Lviv State Medical University, Oncology and Radiology Department, Lviv, Ukraine Tel.: +380504306612

E-mail addresses: ongeorge@rambler.ru (Y. Oliynyk) www.csjournal.ca


10

Y. Oliynyk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Comparative survival analysis of patients with stomach cancer after combined surgery

breast cancer) (Cancer in Ukraine 2012). The value of multiorgan resection in the treatment of timely and locally disseminated stomach cancer has been discussed for years. It should be emphasized that men predominated significantly among these patients, and the ratio of men to women is 2:1 (Carboni et al 2005), which is slightly higher than the ratio of the incidence rate of stomach cancer (1.5:1) in Europe (GLOBOCAN 2008). Particular attention is paid to the study of patients’ survival (Dzhuraev et al 2008). Some authors have reported on some changes in the survival of patients who underwent gastrectomy with splenectomy or pancreatosplenectomy (Piso et al 2002; Radovanović et al 2004). In contrast, in some studies there was indicated possible higher mortality, increased rates of complications and long term inpatient treatment connected with an extended organ resection (Ahn et al 2011; Carboni et al 2005; Li et al 2004). Some studies have argued about the need to add an extended lymphadenectomy and resection of adjacent organs and, in particular, it has been justified that the potential benefit of extended resection is to improve the quality of resection surgery for these lesions (bring to level R0) (Carboni et al 2005).

2. Material and methods The study group consisted of 1114 patients, including 804 men and 310 women. Various combined surgeries for stomach cancer were held in Lviv State Oncological Center from 1962 to 2012. Combined surgeries were considered such ones, in which the main type of surgery (subtotal gastrectomy (SG) or total gastrectomy(TG) was combined with en bloc resection or removal of other (related) organs (mesentery of the transverse colon, the transverse colon, the body and tail of the pancreas, spleen, diaphragm, soft tissue of the anterior abdominal wall). Depending on the location of the primary lesion and other JGCA criteria (Japanese Gastric Cancer Association 2011) subtotal distal gastrectomy (SDG), subtotal proximal gastrectomy (SPG) or TG was performed. Additional organ resections were performed for following purposes: promoting greater lymphadenectomy, obtaining greater radicalism (eradication of tumor), or because of iatrogenic damage of the organ (ex., spleen). All digital data were entered into the program for statistical analysis – SPSS, version 13.0 (statistical package for the Social Sciences, Inc Brooklyn, NY; ABD for Windows). Parameters affecting survival rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank and Breslow tests, χ2-statistics. A statistically significant result was recognized at p <0,05.

3. Results Age of operated patients ranged from 21 to 87 years. Most patients were in the older age groups. Among men the majority of patients were within the age group from 50 to 74 years – 83.8% (674), most of the women were also within the age group of 50-74 years – 77.4% (240). Among all patients men predominated (male to female ratio = 2.6: 1 (72.2%: 27.8%)). TG was made 719, SDG– 240, SPG – 155. The relationship between them was following: 4.6: 1.5: 1 (Table. 1).

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Y. Oliynyk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Comparative survival analysis of patients with stomach cancer after combined surgery Table 1. Distribution of patients due to localization of tumor, sex and type of surgical operation

Localization of tumor

Proximal part of stomach4 Body of stomach5

Distal part of stomach 6 Distal part of stomach with extension to body (subtotal involment)7 Fundus of stomach8

Total involment9

Other localizations

Total operations Men/Women

All operations, n (%) Men/ Women, n (%)

TG1, n (%) Men/ Women, n (%)

SDG2, n (%) Men/ Women, n (%)

SPG3 n (%) Men/ Women, n (%)

Significance level, p

521 (46,8)

367 (70,4)

-

154 (29,6)

411/110

286/81

p1-3 <0,0001

(78,9/21,1) 251 (22,5)

(77,9/22,1) 251 (22,5)

170/81

170/81

(67,7/32,3) 238 (21,4)

(67,7/32,3) -

147/91

125/29 -

(81,2/18,8) -

238 (21,4)

-

(61,8/38,2) -

p4-6 <0,0001 p5-6 >0,1

-

-

3 (27,3)

p4-7 <0,0001 p5-7 <0,001 p6-7 <0,001 p4-8 <0,0001 p5-8 <0,0001 p6-8 <0,0001 p7-8 <0,05 p4-9 <0,0001 p5-9 <0,001 p6-9 <0,001 p7-9 <0,01 p8-9 <0,01 -

147/91

(61,8/38,2) 24 (2,6)

24 (2,6)

18/6

18/6

(75,0/25,0)

(75,0/25,0)

11 (0,9)

8 (72,7)

11/0

8/0

3/0

(100,0/0)

(100,0/0)

(100,0/0)

60 (5,4)

60 (5,4)

40/20

40/20

(66,7/33,3)

(66,7/33,3)

9 (0,8)

9 (0,8)

7/2

7/2

(77,8/22,2)

(77,8/22,2)

5 (0,4)

5 (0,4)

4/1

4/1

(80,0/20,0) 1114

-

-

-

-

(80,0/20,0) 719 (64,5)

238 (21,4)

157 (14,1)

804/310

529/190

147/91

128/29

(72,2/27,8)

(73,6/26,4)

(61,8/38,2)

81,5/18,5)

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p4-5 <0,025

p1-2 <0,001 P1-3 <0,001 P2-3 <0,01


12

Y. Oliynyk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Comparative survival analysis of patients with stomach cancer after combined surgery

Distribution of patients of both sexes after combined surgeries is presented in table 2 by age groups. Table 2. Distribution of patients of both sexes after completed combined surgery by sex and age groups

Age group (years)

Men

Women

All patients

n % from sick men

n

% from sick women

n

% from all patients

1

20-24

-

-

1

0,3

1

0,1

2

25-29

2

0,25

-

-

2

0,2

3

30-34

3

0,4

5

1,6

8

0,7

4

35-39

13

1,6

9

2,9

22

2,0

5

40-44

35

4,4

18

5,8

53

4,7

6

45-49

45

5,6

29

9,4

74

6,6

7

50-54

104

12,9

37

11,9

141

12,6

8

55-59

144

17,9

39

12,6

183

16,4

9

60-64

165

20,5

62

20,0

227

20,4

10

65-69

173

21,5

70

22,6

243

21,8

11

70-74

88

10,9

32

10,3

120

10,8

12

75-79

28

3,5

6

1,9

34

3,1

13

80-84

4

0,5

2

0,65

6

0,5

Total

804

100

310

100

1114

100

During the analysis of age structure of all patients it was established that the median (Me) was 61 year, the arithmetic mean (M) = 59.95 years, standard errors of means (m) = ±0.28, minimum (min) = 22 years, maximum (max) = 84 years. Among men: Me = 61.4 years, M = 60.37 years, m = ±0.32, min = 25 years, max = 83 years, and female patients: Me = 60.8 years, M = 58.87 years, m = ±0.59, min = 22 years, max = 84 years. A clinical observation on life expectancy of 767 patients of both sexes was carried out after performed combined surgery of malignant tumors of the stomach. Analyzing the life expectancy of patients depending on the type of surgical operation the following features were detected. Among 540 patients of both sexes, who had a combined TG, M = 22.9 months, m = ±1.67 months, (p <0.0001); Me = 9.3 months. Also separately studied survival of 397 male patients who had combined TG: M = 23.25 months, m = ±2,05 months, (p <0.0001); Me = 8.9 months. Also separately studied life expectancy of 143 female patients who had the combined TG: M was 22.28 months, m = ±2.75 months, (p<0.0001); Me = 11.5 months. (Fig. 1).

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Y. Oliynyk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

13

Comparative survival analysis of patients with stomach cancer after combined surgery

Fig. 1. Comparing survival distribution function for patients after combined total gastrectomy according to sex

There was studied the survival rate of 227 patients of both sexes who had combined SG (distal and proximal), while M was 45.96 months, m = ±4.42 months, (p <0.0001); Me – 16.37 months. Life expectancy of 162 male patients who had combined SG was studied separately, where M was 39.41 months, m = ±4.76 months, (p <0.0001); Me – 14.1 months. Life expectancy of 65 female patients with completed combined SG was also examined separately, where M was 62.25 months, m = ± 9.64 months, (p <0.0001); Me – 25.51 months. (Fig. 2)

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Y. Oliynyk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Comparative survival analysis of patients with stomach cancer after combined surgery

Fig. 2. Comparing survival distribution function for patients after combined subtotal gastrectomy according to sex

Comparison of the life expectancy of patients of both sexes who had combined TG and SG has revealed the significant difference between them – p<0.01 (t = 4.89). Similar difference was between the life expectancy of male patients who had combined TG and SG – p<0.01 (t = 3.16). The same difference in life expectancy was detected for female patients – p<0.01 (t = 3.93). The difference between survival rates of patients who had combined SG and TG among men and women was statistically significant (p <0.001). This was especially evident in the interval of 25-250 months. (Fig. 3).

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Y. Oliynyk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

15

Comparative survival analysis of patients with stomach cancer after combined surgery

Fig. 3. Comparing survival distribution function for patients of both sex after combined subtotal gastrectomy and total gastrectomy

4. Discussion

Significant differences between the average life expectancy of men and women who had combined TG were not found (p>0.1). A significant difference between the average life expectancy of men and women who had combined SG (p>0.05) was established (Ahn et al 2011). While comparing the survival of patients of both sexes who had combined TG and SG, a significant difference between survival in both men and women (p <0.001) was found. This is especially evident in the interval of 25-250 months (Carboni et al 2005; Li et al 2004). 3 and 5-year survival after combined TG was respectively 16.7% and 10.1%, with no significant difference between the men and women (p=0.861). 3- and 5-year survival rate after combined

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Y. Oliynyk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Comparative survival analysis of patients with stomach cancer after combined surgery

SG of the stomach was respectively 29.6% and 24.2%, for men – 25.5% and 21.1%, and for women – 39.2% and 31.4%. The difference between the 3 and 5-year survival of patients of both sexes who had combined SG was statistically significant (χ2 = 4.692, p = 0.032) (Ahn et al 2011; Dzhuraev et al 2008; Kitamura et al 2000).

Conclusions

Combined surgeries on locally disseminated stomach cancer mainly were performed on older patients, mostly men. This should be considered with the view of the current trend of operational interventions volume increase and expanding indications for their conduct. Our results show the feasibility of the implementation of this type of surgeries that extend the capabilities of radical surgical treatment of stomach cancer.

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Y. Oliynyk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

17

Comparative survival analysis of patients with stomach cancer after combined surgery

References 1.

Ahn HS, Lee HJ, Yoo MW, et al (2011). Changes in clinicopathological features and survival after gastrectomy for gastric cancer over a 20-year period. Br J Surg Feb;98(2):255-260. doi:10.1002/bjs.7310.

2.

Brady MS, Rogatko A, Dent LL, Shiu MH. (1991). Effect of splenectomy on morbidity and survival following curative gastrectomy for carcinoma. Arch Surg Mar;126(3):359-364.

3.

Cancer in Ukraine, 2010 - 2011 (2012). Incidence, mortality, activities of oncological service Bulletin of national cancer registry of Ukraine.

4.

Carboni F, Lepiane P, Santoro R, et al (2005). Extended multiorgan resection for T4 gastric carcinoma: 25-year experience. J Surg Oncol May 1;90(2):95-100.

5.

Dzhuraev M.D, Egamberdiev DM, Mirzaraimova SS, Khudoyberdieva MS. (2008). Surgical treatment results of locally disseminated stomach cancer. Onkologyja (ukr) 10(4):406-408.

6.

GLOBOCAN 2008: cancer fact sheet. Lyon: IARC; (2008). [cited 2011 July 15]. Stomach Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide in 2008 Summary [Internet]. http://globocan.iarc.fr/factsheets/cancers/stomach.asp

7.

Japanese Gastric Cancer Association. Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines 2010. (2011) Gastric Cancer 14:113–123.

8.

Kitamura K, Tani N, Koike H, et al (2000). Combined resection of the involved organs in T4 gastric cancer. Hepatogastroenterology. Nov-Dec;47(36):1769-1772.

9.

Li W, Sun XW, Zhan YQ, et al (2004). Efficiency of combined multiple organs resection in advanced gastric carcinoma. Ai Zheng Mar;23(3):330-333.

10. Otsuji E, Yamaguchi T, Sawai K, et al (1999). Total gastrectomy with simultaneous pancreaticosplenectomy or splenectomy in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. Br J Cancer Apr;79(11-12):1789-1793. 11. Piso P1, Bellin T, Aselmann H, et al (2002). Results of combined gastrectomy and pancreatic resection in patients with advanced primary gastric carcinoma. Dig Surg 19(4):281-285. 12. Radovanović D1, Stevanović D, Pavlović I. et al (2004). Multiorgan resection in patients with gastric cancer. Med Pregl SepOct;57(9-10):480-486. 13. Saito H1, Tsujitani S, Maeda Y. et al (2001). Combined resection of invaded organs in patients with T4 gastric carcinoma. Gastric Cancer 4(4):206-211. 14. Sougioultzis S1, Syrios J, Xynos ID. et al (2011). Palliative gastrectomy and other factors affecting overall survival in stage IV gastric adenocarcinoma patients receiving chemotherapy: a retrospective analysis. Eur J Surg Oncol Apr;37(4):312-318. doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2011.01.019.

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Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Contents lists available at Canadian Scientific Journal

Canadian Scientific Journal journal homepage: www.csjournal.ca

Histochemical polymorphism of keratin pearls in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung Gasyuk Yuriy*, Filenko Boris Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy, Poltava, Ukraine ARTICLE INFO

ABSTR AC T

Article history:

The aim of the research is to study histochemical features of keratin pearls in keratinizing

Received 23 August 2014

squamous cell carcinoma of lung irrespective of its localization. Methods: histochemical

Received in revised form 16 September 2014

methods of staining have been also used during the investigation: neutral fats stained

Accepted 9 October 2014

with Sudan III and with finish hematoxylin staining. Combined histochemical staining has been also used: neutral mucoproteins and acid glycosaminoglycans with PAS-

Keywords:

reaction-alcian blue and PAS-reaction with tionine blue. The results of histological and

Squamous cell carcinoma

histochemical analyses detected three types of keratin pearls of different structures and

Keratin pearls

tinctorial features: eosinophilic or tionine-positive, PAS-positive (containing glycogen)

Histochemistry

and light or sudanophilic (containing lipids). Taking into consideration the obtained data,

Polymorphism

it can be assumed that tumor clusters with heterogenous keratin pearls by tinctorial features are differed according to the degree of cells’ differentiation, keratinization and related to various stages of tumor progression. Histochemical analyses of keratin pearls are not normally taken into consideration during morphological studies and it is regarded as differentiated keratinizing cancer. However, the results of morphological investigations show that it is necessary to consider histochemical features of cancerous clusters for adequate morphological analysis of tumor progression. © 2014 Canadian Scientific Journal. All Rights reserved

1. Introduction Lung cancer, the development of which is associated with clearly defined exogenous factors, remains relevant medical-social and environmental problem of current oncology. According to WHO (World Health Organization) classification, histological type of keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of lung is assigned * Corresponding author at: Higher medical educational institution of Ukraine “Ukrainian medical stomatological academy”, 23 Shevchenko Street, Poltava 36024, Ukraine, Tel.: +380 5322 28684

E-mail addresses: Patomorphology@mail.ru (Y.Gasyuk), borius007filenko@ukr.net (B.Filenko) www.csjournal.ca


Y.Gasyuk, B.Filenko / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014) 1-11

19

Histochemical polymorphism of keratin pearls in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

to organ nonspecific one, as it occurs in various organs (skin, esophagus, neck of uterus, larynx, bronchi, etc.) (Akopov 2011; Travis et al. 2004). Histological structure of such type of cancer is characterized by the formation of a keratin pearl. The latter one is formed due to concentric arrangement of eosinophilic keratinous squamulae (Filenko 2012). Squamous cell carcinoma is mostly found in central or peripheral localization of tumor in lungs. The following identical zones have been detected regardless of the localization of the given histological type: zone of cancroid corpuscles, proliferation zone and invasion zone (Boyko et al. 2014). According to the publications, keratinizing carcinoma occurs due to metaplasia of multirowed ciliated epithelium into pavement one. The prominent oncologists consider smoking as one of the major etiological factors of the development of metaplasia (Zaridze 2004; Radzikowska et al. 2002; Proctor 2001; Wang et al. 2009). The lack of the unified concept of morphogenesis determines the need for detailed morphological studies of lung cancer.

2. Purpose The aim of the research is to study histochemical features of keratin pearls in keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of lung irrespective of its localization.

3. Object and Methods In compliance with the objectives of the study a complex of histological and histochemical methods has been applied during the investigation. The analysis has been carried out on post operational material, taken from 25 patients with keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of lung. The obtained material was first fixed in 10% buffered solution of neutral formalin with further paraffinization. The obtained sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin in compliance with standard techniques. Histochemical methods of staining have been also used during the investigation: neutral fats stained with Sudan III and finish stained with hematoxylin. Combined histochemical staining has been used, too: neutral mucoproteins and acid glycosaminoglycans with PAS (Periodic Acid-Schiff)-reaction-alcian blue and PAS-reaction with tionine blue. Since lipids are dissolved in alcohol and xylene in handling of specimens in compliance with conventional technique, then, during traditional histological hematoxylin and eosin staining, the cytoplasm of cellular lipid elements becomes glassy. Consequently, during the investigation detections of intracellular lipid inclusions were initially based on identification of cellular elements with visually glassy cytoplasm and further justified by specific histochemical Sudan III staining on neutral fats and with finish hematoxylin staining on prefrozen sections. Stained specimens have been analyzed on the “Olympus BX-41” digital light microscope with ×10, ×20, ×40, ×100 lenses, and their exposure have been performed by the “Olympus C 4040” digital camera.

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Y.Gasyuk, B.Filenko / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014) 1-11

Histochemical polymorphism of keratin pearls in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

4. Results and Discussion In microscopic analysis keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of any localization consists of tumor clusters of various sizes formed by atypical cells of different sizes with polymorphous heterochromatic nuclei. Keratin pearls are found in the depth of cancerous clusters, which are formed due to concentric arrangement of acanthocytes. Gradual growth of keratinization occurs in the direction from the periphery to the center that is justified by the presence of eosinophilic keratinous squamulae, forming the sinuous structures in the focus of pearls. It should be noted that necrotic zones of various sizes are detected in the focus of some keratin pearls. Their sizes probably depend on the degree of differentiation and vascularization, mainly due to neoangiogenesis. The more the necrotic zone is, the less tissue vascularization is. Stroma of tumor, in depth of which the strongly pronounced areas of tumor cells were found, was strongly pronounced and presented in the form of coarse-fibered connective tissue and vessels of various sizes in some cases. The results of histological and histochemical analyses detected three types of keratin pearls of different structures and tinctorial features: eosinophilic or tionine-positive, PAS-positive (containing glycogen) and light or sudanophilic (containing lipids). Eosinophilic keratin pearls are formed of concentric keratinous fusiform angular cells. Cytoplasm of such cells is homogeneously intense eosinophilic. In some cells aggregation of fine intense eosinophilic granules are identified. Nuclei are prolate, hyperchromatic with coarsely granular chromatin. Such keratin pearls are surrounded by polymorhous atypical cells and a zone of moderately pronounced inflammatory infiltrate. In finish staining with tionine-blue such keratin pearls are dark-purple, i,e., tionine-positive. They consist of individual heterochromatic keratinized cells. Peripheral part of a cell is more hyperchromatic than the central one (Fig.1).

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Y.Gasyuk, B.Filenko / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014) 1-11

Histochemical polymorphism of keratin pearls in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

Fig. 1. Tionine-positive keratine pearl in keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of lung. Ă&#x2014;1000.

Tionine-blue stain. Original magnification

It can be assumed that such tinctorial features of keratin pearls indicate the processes of intensified formation of keratohyalin, i.e., hyperkeratosis.

Keratin pearls, containing glycogen, are formed with

keratinized cells of larger size, in comparison with eosinophilic pearls. Their cytoplasm is light eosinophylic in conventional histological staining. Nuclei of such cells are prolate-ovoid, hyperchromatic with coarsely granular chromatin. Karyopyknosis is found in some cells. Presence of glycogen in such keratin pearls is justified by the results of histochemical analyses made by the PAS-reaction. Cells of PAS-positive keratin pearls contain glycogen staining their cytoplasm purple. In combined PAS-tionine blue staining it is detected that such keratin pearls contain tionine-positive central part surrounded with concentric PAS-positive homogeneous structures on the periphery. Keratin pearls, mostly consisting of only PAS-positive concentric structures, are also often found (Fig. 2).

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Y.Gasyuk, B.Filenko / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014) 1-11

Histochemical polymorphism of keratin pearls in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

Fig. 2. PAS-positive keratin pearls in keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of lung. PAS-reaction stain. Original magnification Ă&#x2014;400.

It can be assumed that such staining of PAS-positive keratin pearls is due to development of parakeratosis, i.e. the process of keratinization abnormality. In conventional histological hematoxylin and eosin staining the third type of keratin pearls is revealed, which are characterized with weak eosinophilic staining of cellsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; cytoplasm or contained foam cytoplasm. Nuclei of such cells, located on the periphery, are large and ovoid, hyperchromatic with mainly medium granular chromatin. Cells with karyopyknosis and karyolysis are identified in the central part of keratin pearls. The study concluded that cells of such keratin pearls contain lipids, which are dissolved in alcohol and xylene while handling of specimens in compliance with conventional techniques. This assumption is confirmed by the results of histochemical analyses, using Sudan III staining. Sudanophilic keratin pearls are strombuliform ones and consist of sudanophilic structures. Clusters of cancer cells of keratin pearls containing lipids are orangophilic indicating the content of fats in them. Thereafter lipids are found both in cellsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; cytoplasm and intercellular space. Cells, in which lipids are arranged intracellular, are characterized by saving the nucleus; karyopyknosis, karyorrhexis and karyolysis are found in extracellular www.csjournal.ca


Y.Gasyuk, B.Filenko / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014) 1-11

23

Histochemical polymorphism of keratin pearls in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

lipid aggregation. While lipids are going beyond the cytoplasm boundaries, a highly dispersed or atomized sudanophilic substance is identified in the intercellular spaces (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. Sudanophilic keratin pearl in keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of lung. Sudan III staining with finish hematoxylin staining. Original magnification Ă&#x2014;400.

Such pearls are formed due to development of dyskeratosis in them.

5. Conclusions Taking into account the obtained data, it can be assumed that tumor clusters with heterogenous keratin pearls by tinctorial features are differed according to the degree of cellsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; differentiation, keratinization and related to various stages of tumor progression. The zone of tumor clusters with keratin pearls is characterized by the formation of heterogenous keratin pearls by the histochemical features: eosinophilic or tionine-positive, PAS-positive or glycogen-comprising and sudanophilic or lipid-comprising ones. www.csjournal.ca


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Y.Gasyuk, B.Filenko / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014) 1-11

Histochemical polymorphism of keratin pearls in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

Histochemical analyses of keratin pearls are not usually taken into consideration during morphological studies and it is regarded as differentiated keratinizing cancer. However, the results of morphological investigations show that it is necessary to consider histochemical features of cancerous clusters for adequate morphological analysis of tumor progression.

6. Perspectives of further research As for further research, it is planned to carry out cytogenetic and immunohistochemical study of tumor clusters of squamous cell lung cancer with keratin keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of lung.

References 1.

Akopov А (2011) Modern approaches to the classification of lung cancer. Doctor 12:7-12.

2.

Boyko М, Boyko D, Filenko B (2014) Histotopographic features of squamous cell lung cancer with keratinization against cicatrix. World of medicine and biology 2:103-105.

3.

Filenko B (2012) Morphological and morphometric features of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Bulletin of biology and medicine problems 4:210-212.

4.

Proctor R (2001) Commentary: Schairer and Schoniger’s forgotten tobacco epidemiology and the Nazi quest for racial purity. Ins J Epidemiol 30: 31-34.

5.

Radzikowska E, Raszkowski K (2002) Lung cancer in women: age, smoking, histology, performance status, stage, initial treatment-based study of 20561 cases. Annals of Oncology 13:1087-1093.

6.

Travis W, Brambilla E, Muller-Hermelink H, Harris C (2004) World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Pathology and Genetics of tumours of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart. IARC Press, Lyon.

7.

Wang X, Chin Y, Qiu H, et al (2009) The roles of smoking and cooking emissions in lung cancer risk among Chinese women in Hong Kong. Annals of Oncology 4: 746-751.

8.

Zaridze D (2004) Carcinogenesis. Medicine, Moscow.

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Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Contents lists available at Canadian Scientific Journal

Canadian Scientific Journal journal homepage: www.csjournal.ca

Etiological structure of the urinary system infections, its dynamic, dependence on patients sex and relation with resident urine microflora among inhabitants of Chernivtsi region and town of Chernivtsi Bezruk Volodymyr*,1, Blinder Oleksandr2, Bezruk Tetyana1, Blinder Olena2, Yurniuk Sviatoslava1 1

Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine

2 State enterprise «Scientific center of the preventive toxicology, food and chemical safety named after academic L.I.Medved, Ministry of Health of Ukraine», Department of the medico-ecological problems, Chernivtsi, Ukraine

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTR AC T

Article history:

During 2009 - 2913 years 2828 urine samples of the patients (2432 – children’s and

Received 10 November 2014

396 - adults) of the medical network of the Chernivtsi region were investigated with

Received in revised form 19 November 2014

bacteriology method with purpose of verification of the diagnosis «Infections of the

Accepted 22 November 2014

urinary system»; 801 strains of bacteria and fungi were isolated as etiological agents. The main etiological role of the E. coli and enterobacteria family in general was

Keywords:

demonstrated. It was revealed, that etiological structure of the infections of the urinary

Infection of the urinary system

system and the content of the residential urine microflora depend on the patient’s sex.

Urine microflora

As causative agent of the infections of the urinary system, E. coli has been isolated more frequently of the urine samples of female patients. In contrary, Proteus spp. has been isolated more frequently of the urine samples of male patients. As a part of the urine resident microflora, E. coli strains were isolated of the female urine samples more frequently. © 2014 Canadian Scientific Journal. All Rights reserved

* Corresponding author at: Bukovinian State Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, neonatology and perinatology of medicine Bukovinian State Medical University. 2, Teatral’na square, 2, Chernivtsi, 58000, Ukraine. Tel.: +380 372 553 754

E-mail addresses: vladimyrbezruk@yandex.ru (V. Bezruk) www.csjournal.ca


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V. Bezruk, O. Blinder, T. Bezruk, O. Blinder, S. Yurniuk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Etiological structure of the urinary system infections, its dynamic, dependence on patients sex and relation with resident urine microflora among inhabitants of Chernivtsi region and town of Chernivtsi

1. Introduction Infections of the urinary system (IUS) – is a group of heterogeneous diseases that are combined by presence of infectious factor in the urinary tract and / or kidney, which causes inflammation in them (Kolesnyk et al. 2007; Stepanova et al. 2005). They occupy one of the leading places among infectious diseases in outpatient practice as well as in hospital (Rafalsky et al. 2006). Annual population surveys show a steady growth of the cases of IUS amongst children. Among infants (first three years of life), this pathology is more common than acute respiratory infections (Korovina et al. 2002; Serova, Paunova 2007). The incidence of acute cystitis in women is second only to respiratory infections (Sidorenko, Ivanov 2005). IUS also occupy a prominent place among nosocomial infections. For example, among patients in critical condition, their share could reach 40%. According to cumulative data of the foreign researchers they occur in 6-8% of patients of the intensive care departments (Grabe (Chairman), Bishop, Bjerklund-Johansen et al. 2012; Zorkin 2007). Regarding the etiology of IUS among experts in this field the unanimous opinion on the leading role of enterobacteria dominates (Grabe (Chairman), Bishop, Bjerklund-Johansen et al. 2012; Kolesnyk et al. 2010; Ramakrishnan, Scheid 2005). And among the latter the strains of E. coli are isolated the most often in 70-95% of cases of uncomplicated IUS (Korovina et al. 2002; Loran, Sinyakova, Kosova 2005; Rafalsky et al. 2006; Romanenko, Stepanova, Rudenko et al. 2013; Zorkin 2007). In the overwhelming number of cases (95%) of uncomplicated IUS the causative agent is presented by one strain (Loran, Sinyakova, Kosova 2005). However, in the case of nosocomial IUS the range of causative agents is wider and includes both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (Kolesnyk et al. 2007; Kolesnyk et al. 2010; Zorkin 2007). Attention is drawn to the fact that the etiologic structure of IUS may vary in different geographical regions (Korovina et al. 2002). It should be also taken into account that under bacteriological examination of the urine of patients with IUS in 0.4-30.0% of cases abnormal microflora was not isolated (Loran, Sinyakova, Kosova 2005).

2. Purpose of the Study

Purpose of the Study is to set the current etiologic structure of the IUS, its dynamic, dependence on patient gender and relations with the urine resident microflora among Chernivtsi region population.

3. Material and methods.

During 2009 - 2913 years 2828 urine samples of the patients of the medical network of Chernivtsi region were investigated with bacteriology method with purpose of verification of the diagnosis «infection of the urinary system» (IUS).

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V. Bezruk, O. Blinder, T. Bezruk, O. Blinder, S. Yurniuk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Etiological structure of the urinary system infections, its dynamic, dependence on patients sex and relation with resident urine microflora among inhabitants of Chernivtsi region and town of Chernivtsi

S.epidermidis) , enterococci (E.faecalis), streptococci (S.pyogenes), yeast fungi (C.albicans). Based on the taxonomic proximity all strains that were isolated in etiologically significant quantities were divided into 5 groups: I gr. – Enterobacteriaceae (Proteus spp. excluded); II gr. – Proteus spp.; III gr. – Pseudomonas spp.; IV gr. – Gram-positive cocci; V gr. – Yeast fungi. In the study the fourth group was the most diverse, because it consisted of representatives of coccal flora (staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci). This was due to the fact that these strains of pathogens were isolated in a very small number of cases which did not allow making analysis by different genera. During 2009 - 2913 years 801 strains of bacteria and fungi were isolated as etiological agents from urine. In the overwhelming number of cases, only one etiologically significant strain was isolated from one sample of urine. The data were processed statistically using the Excel program and the methods of variation statistics. Distribution of surveyed patients accordingly to their age and sex is shown in the table 1.

Table 1. Distribution of patients examined during 2009-2013 years accordingly to the age and sex

adults

children

Age group

The total number of analyses performed

Sex of the patient male

female

up to 3 years

632

207

425

4 - 6 years

604

164

440

7 - 14 years

887

303

584

15 - 18 years

309

119

190

19 - 35 years

223

39

184

36 - 45 years

68

13

55

46 - 65 years

89

26

63

older 65 years

16

3

13

2828

874

1954

In sum

4. Results and discussion. Among the patients studied the majority were children under the age of 15 years with peak values per age group of 7 - 14 years. The dependence on sex is notable among the examined patients. In all examined age groups the number of female patients exceeded the number of male patients in 1.6 - 4.7 times. The maximum difference was observed among the age groups of adults (19 - 35 years; 36 - 45 years and older than 65 years (Fig. 1).

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V. Bezruk, O. Blinder, T. Bezruk, O. Blinder, S. Yurniuk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Etiological structure of the urinary system infections, its dynamic, dependence on patients sex and relation with resident urine microflora among inhabitants of Chernivtsi region and town of Chernivtsi

Fig. 1. The age and sex distribution of bacteriological assays conducted among patients with infection of the urinary system during 2009-2013.

Dynamics of frequency of isolation of etiologically significant strains of bacteria and fungi from the urine of the patients also revealed dependence on the age and sex of patients. In the age group surveyed children under 3 the percent of isolation of IUS causative agents among boys was higher than among girls. In all other examined age groups the percentage of isolated pathogens in female patients was higher. In general, for both sexes it was observed a gradual decrease in the percentage of isolated IUS causative agents from the youngest age group up to 15 - 18 years inclusive. At the same time it should be noted a significant difference in percentage of isolated pathogens between adolescent female patients and their peers. In the older age groups of adults increased frequency of isolation of the etiologically significant strains was observed (Fig. 2).

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V. Bezruk, O. Blinder, T. Bezruk, O. Blinder, S. Yurniuk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

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Etiological structure of the urinary system infections, its dynamic, dependence on patients sex and relation with resident urine microflora among inhabitants of Chernivtsi region and town of Chernivtsi

Fig. 2. The age and sex distribution of the clinically significant strains of bacteria and fungi isolated from patients urine samples

Among the IUS pathogens, isolated in 2009 - 2013 years, Enterobacteriaceae spp. (excluding Proteus spp.) was on the first place – from 63.6% to 76.6% of total cases isolation etiologically significant microflora. Proteus spp. was on the second place – from 10.27% to 15.58%. Pseudomonas spp., Gram-positive cocci and fungi were being isolated from the urine with approximately equal frequency: Pseudomonas spp. – 5.48-10.39%, Gram-positive cocci – 3.05-9.58%, yeast fungi – 3.59-7.14% (Fig. 3).

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V. Bezruk, O. Blinder, T. Bezruk, O. Blinder, S. Yurniuk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Etiological structure of the urinary system infections, its dynamic, dependence on patients sex and relation with resident urine microflora among inhabitants of Chernivtsi region and town of Chernivtsi

Fig. 3. Etiological structure of urinary system infections in the population of Chernivtsi region

The results are consistent with findings of researchers (Grabe (Chairman), Bishop, Bjerklund-Johansen et al. 2012; Kolesnyk et al. 2010; Korovina et al. 2002; Ramakrishnan, Scheid 2005), who have pointed out to a key role of the Enterobacteriaceae spp. in the etiology of IUS. However, the question of dependency of the IUS etiological structure on the patients’ sex in the scientific literature is not highlighted enough. Analysis of the results revealed age and gender dependence of the IUS etiological structure. Frequency of isolation of the Enterobacteriaceae spp. (excluding Proteus spp.) was significantly higher while examining female patients, except for the oldest age group. For examined three age groups the difference was statistically significant, namely: for children of 4 - 6 years (n = 105, Student’s t-test value = 2.20, p <0.05); children 7 - 14 years (n = 113, Student’s t-test value = 2.36, p <0.05) and for adults 36 - 45 years (n = 12, Student’s t-test value = 5.48; p <0.001). Within the same sex the frequency of isolation of the Enterobacteriaceae spp. (excluding Proteus spp.) revealed a small dependence on the age of patients. The sharp rise in this index was observed only in patients older than 65 years old (Fig. 4).

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V. Bezruk, O. Blinder, T. Bezruk, O. Blinder, S. Yurniuk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

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Etiological structure of the urinary system infections, its dynamic, dependence on patients sex and relation with resident urine microflora among inhabitants of Chernivtsi region and town of Chernivtsi

Fig. 4. Dynamics of isolation of Enterobacteriaceae spp. (except Proteus spp.) from the urine of patients with urinary tract infection in different age groups

For Proteus spp. reversed pattern appeared. Among patients under 35 the percent of Proteus spp. isolated of urine was higher among male patients. The difference was statistically significant for children of 4 - 6 years only (n=34, Studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s t-test value = 2.80; Ń&#x20AC; < 0.01). In the age groups over 35 Proteus spp. were isolated more often from the urine of female patients. It is noteworthy that for patients of both sexes the frequency of Proteus spp. isolation decreased with increasing the age of the patient (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5. Dynamics of isolation of Proteus spp. from the urine of patients with urinary tract infection in different age groups

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V. Bezruk, O. Blinder, T. Bezruk, O. Blinder, S. Yurniuk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Etiological structure of the urinary system infections, its dynamic, dependence on patients sex and relation with resident urine microflora among inhabitants of Chernivtsi region and town of Chernivtsi

Frequency Pseudomonas spp. isolation from the urine of patients of both sexes under age 35 years was about the same; and it was changing a little in the different age groups. The sharp rise of this index was registered only among male patients at mature age and older. However, in these cases the difference compared with the corresponding figures for female patients was not statistically significant. It can be explained by the small total number of cases of the pathogen allocation. For the patients of both sexes in the age group of 36-45 only two cases of isolation were registered, and in the age group 46-65 years - 8 cases (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6. Dynamics of isolation of Pseudomonas spp. from the urine of patients with urinary tract infection in different age groups

For Gram-positive cocci and yeast fungi clear relationship between age, gender and frequency of their isolation of urine as IUS pathogens was not found. During the study the hypothesis was formulated: if the etiological spectrum of pathogens IUS was dependent on the sex of the patients, then the resident microflora urine may show the similar patterns. Moreover, namely the resident microflora at favorable factors for it (for example reduction in local or general immune defense, urodynamics malfunction) may cause the IUS. In cases, when only the resident microflora was isolated from urine, from one to four species of bacteria and fungi were found in one urine sample. The average values of isolated strains per one analysis varied by different years of observations (2009-2013 yy.) - from 1.6 to 1.8. 小oagulase-negative strains of staphylococci were isolated the most frequently, Corynebacterium spp. was on the second place and enterococci was on the third one (Fig. 7).

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V. Bezruk, O. Blinder, T. Bezruk, O. Blinder, S. Yurniuk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

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Etiological structure of the urinary system infections, its dynamic, dependence on patients sex and relation with resident urine microflora among inhabitants of Chernivtsi region and town of Chernivtsi

Fig. 7. The structure of the urine resident microflora of the Chernivtsi region population

Statistically significant differences between the sexes in the frequency of isolation of Corynebacterium spp. and Enterococcus spp. were not found. Сoagulase-negative strains of staphylococci were isolated more frequently from the male patients (n=1139, Student’s t-test value = 3.18; р<0.001). Lactobacillus spp. were isolated only from urine of female patients, it is explained by the generally known fact of their belonging to the resident microflora of female genital tract. There were single cases of isolation from urine Micrococcus spp., S.viridans, Bacillus spp., non pathogenic Neissеria spp. Frequency of isolation of yeast fungi of the genus Candida, as a part of the resident microflora varied from 0% to 0.7% during different years of observations. Differences between the sexes with this indicator were also not revealed. Enterobacteriaceae spp., as a part of the urine resident microflora, took the fourth place by frequency of isolation. But based on the fact that the most frequent causative agent of the IUS are just Enterobacteriaceae spp. (Kolesnyk et al. 2010; Ramakrishnan, Scheid 2005), the isolation frequency dynamics of those strains among patients of different age groups was investigated. Based on the results of observations, frequency of isolation of Enterobacteriaceae spp. for patients of both sexes has tendency to decrease with increasing age of patients. This group of bacteria was isolated more often from female patients under 18. For the three age groups, the difference was statistically significant: for children up to 3 (n=86, Student’s t-test value = 3.14; р<0.01), for children of 7 – 14 (n=63, Student’s t-test value = 5.05; р<0.001) and adolescents (n=21, Student’s t-test value = 2.70; р<0.05) (Fig. 8).

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V. Bezruk, O. Blinder, T. Bezruk, O. Blinder, S. Yurniuk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Etiological structure of the urinary system infections, its dynamic, dependence on patients sex and relation with resident urine microflora among inhabitants of Chernivtsi region and town of Chernivtsi

Fig. 8. The dynamics of Enterobacteriaceae spp isolation as a part of the urine resident microflora among different age groups

Differences between the sexes in the frequency of Enterobacteriaceae spp. isolation as part of the resident microflora undoubtedly underlie the gender differences in the frequency of their isolation as the etiologic agent of the IUS. Enterobacteriaceae spp. belong to obligate resident intestinal microflora, as well as enterococci. However, the frequency of isolation of enterococci, in contrast to Enterobacteriaceae spp., was almost identical in patients of both sexes. The reason for the detected differences may be due to different mechanisms of interaction of enterobacteria spp. and enterococci with uroepithelium female and male urinary tract (Romanenko, Stepanova, Rudenko et al. 2013).

Conclusions.

1. For the epidemiology and etiology of urinary tract infections among the population of town Chernivtsi and Chernivtsi region the signs are common for this pathology: the number of female patients is predominant the number of male patients in all age groups; among children up to 3 the percentage of isolation etiologically significant microorganisms from urine is higher among boys, and in all other age groups etiologically significant microflora is isolated more often from female patients; the main etiological agent of infections of the urinary system are Enterobacteriaceae spp.. www.csjournal.ca


V. Bezruk, O. Blinder, T. Bezruk, O. Blinder, S. Yurniuk / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

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Etiological structure of the urinary system infections, its dynamic, dependence on patients sex and relation with resident urine microflora among inhabitants of Chernivtsi region and town of Chernivtsi

2. Between the sexes there are differences in the species composition of the urinary system infection agents. Among female patients E.coli is isolated more often and bacteria of the genus Proteus - among male patients. 3. The differences between sexes in the composition of the resident microflora of urine do exist. Among female patients the strains of E.coli are isolated more often, which may be a prerequisite for the top spot of the pathogen in the etiology of infections of the urinary system among women and girls.

References 1.

Dyadyk O, Lunyova G, Khomenko M (2007) Laboratory diagnostics mistakes in nephrology practice. Laboratory dŃ&#x2013;agnostics 1: 47-52.

2.

Grabe (Chairman) M, Bishop V, Bjerklund-Johansen T et al (2012) Guidelines on urological infections. European Association of Urology

3.

Kolesnyk M et al (2007) Etiological spectrum infections in the urinary tract. Ukrainian journal of nephrology and dialysis 3: 1629.

4.

Kolesnyk M et al (2010) Spectrum of bacterial microflora of the urogenital tract in patients with pyelonephritis and its antibiotic sensitivity. Ukrainian journal of nephrology and dialysis 4: 5-10.

5.

Korovina N et al (2002) Guidelines on antibacterial therapy of urinary tract infections in children. Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 4 (4): 337-345.

6.

Loran O, Sinyakova L, Kosova I (2005) The role of urogenital infections in etiology of cystitis and non-obstructive pyelonephritis in females (part 1). Urology 2: 74-78.

7.

Rafalsky V et al (2006) Resistance of causative agents of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in Russia. Urology 5: 34-37.

8.

Ramakrishnan K, Scheid D (2005) Diagnosis and management of acute pyelonephritis in adults. Am Fam Physician 5 (71): 933-942.

9.

Romanenko O, Stepanova N, Rudenko A et al (2013) Features of the microbial spectrum urogenital system of women with recurrent pyelonephritis. Ukrainian journal of nephrology and dialysis 4: 5-10 1(37): 25-31.

10. Serova G, Paunova S (2007) Urinary tract infections in children. Nephrology and dialysis 1(9): 86-91. 11. Sidorenko S, Ivanov D (2005) Results of the study on antibiotic resistance emergence among pathogens of community-acquired urinary tract infections in Moscow. Phase I. Antibiotics and chemotherapy 1(50): 3-10. 12. Stepanova N et al (2005) Clinical and microbiological description infections in the urinary tract in females. Clinical antibacterial therapy 6(38): 33-35. 13. Zorkin A (2007) Nosocomial infections in the urinary tract of patients in emergency and intensive care units. Problems of clinical medicine 1(9): 98-102.

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Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Contents lists available at Canadian Scientific Journal

Canadian Scientific Journal journal homepage: www.csjournal.ca

To the question of perspectives and challenges in contemporary international trade diplomacy Danial Saari1,*, Aigul Adibayeva2 1

International Academy of Business, Almaty, Kazakhstan

2

Kazakhstan Institute of Management, Economics and Strategic Research, Almaty, Kazakhstan

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTR AC T

Article history:

New trends in modern world market relations require a completely up-to-date approach

Received 30 October 2014

to settle problems concerning transnational corporations and other key actors with-

Received in revised form 6 November 2014

in the frameworks of multilateral diplomacy. Commercial diplomacyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s involvement in

Accepted 12 November 2014

this issue is very crucial and globally important due to contemporary political changes on the world arena. Transnational corporations are vulnerable to those changes as well and have to be strongly protected by modified international law regulations clearly

Keywords:

fixed in proper multilateral legal agreements. Since the legal status of foreign business

Commercial diplomacy

companies, transnational corporations and other participants in the global trade are-

Transnational corporations

na is pretty much blurred the world countries and international business entities are

Sanctions

dramatically concerned in this question. This article discovers the problems most of

Global trade

transnational corporations face at present on the example of McDonalds and offers a number of applicable suggestions how to find the way out from difficulties, which occur due to conflicts and confrontation between nation states nowadays. It also proposes some dissent recommendations for the settlement of international trade conflicts in order to prevent them in the future. Š 2014 Canadian Scientific Journal. All Rights reserved

1. Introduction

Today the world diplomacy starts focusing on promoting national interests through the activities of transnational corporations worldwide. The latter is of a growing importance as a participant due to the

* Corresponding author at: International Academy of Business, 227, Rozybakiyev, Almaty 050060, Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Institute of Management, Economics and Strategic Research, office 116, 4 Abai ave., Almaty, 050010, Kazakhstan

E-mail addresses: danialsaari@hotmail.com (D. Saari), aadibayeva@mail.ru (A. Adbayeva) www.csjournal.ca


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To the question of perspectives and challenges in contemporary international trade diplomacy

complex influx of global changes, opportunities, and challenges the world community faces at present. As Walter Roberts mentions, the political orientations of classic diplomacy typical to pre-globalization period, needs to be transformed today into a new mechanism to settle both legal and economic problems that many transnational corporations face because of a changing political atmosphere on international arena (Roberts, 1991). For example, the central question of traditional diplomacy was always about politics, - that is power, which lacked the other aspects of foreign relations both in the frameworks of bilateral and multilateral agreements. Today the economic aspect is having an increasing importance in the world politics, and thus, needs to be reflected in the all diplomatic procedures, moving forward commercial diplomacy for benefits of all sides of the world trade market. This article is aimed at brief highlighting some current challenges multinationals experience as subjects of global politics, which, in its turn, stresses the importance of states and blocks of states guaranteeing economic and legal security of trade companies overseas.

2. Statement of research objectives

Nowadays commercial diplomacy is largely involved both in exportation of goods and licensing contracts for producing goods in foreign states. The more company may interfere in management contracts that designed for operating foreign companies. Furthermore, joint venture with a company in the home country is completely a different form of business relations. As a final point, transnational corporations may found entirely owned subsidiaries or branches with production facilities in the home country. Therefore, in developing a global policy an international company has many options and challenges as well as for the settlement of which commercial diplomacy is specifically designed.

2. Analysis of recent research

Many attributes may cause conflicts between the more company and the home country. Nationalistic self-interest may darken the profitability gained through mutual aid. In the same way, social and cultural differences may also lead to collapse in cooperation and consequent disagreements. A large transnational corporation may also have such uncontrollable economic effects on a small country that the home country feels pretty beleaguered. For example, some transnational corporations have been charged with making too much profit, hiring the best local people away from local companies and operating contrary to social customs. To minimize such negative experience, and increase the economic viability and security of international companies functioning abroad, contemporary diplomacy is to develop a scope of certain economic approaches. Looking back at the commercial diplomacy phenomenon appearance and development, one should trace that commencing from the interwar period (1918-1939) the world major countries have expanded the spheres of their activity beyond the regional frames into a global economic diplomacy. Stephen Woolcock,

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To the question of perspectives and challenges in contemporary international trade diplomacy

an associate research fellow at the comparative regional integration studies programme of the United Nations University, proposed a definition of economic diplomacy for the period from the end of the Second World War and the Cold War as economic and diplomatic relations between countries that are represented by officials (Woolcock, 2014). In that regard, it has to be noted that the origin of the so-called commercial diplomacy was firstly suggested by the former Prime Minister of Italy Silvio Berlusconi in 1994. He reapplied to this diplomacy again and again in 2001-2006, performing quite successfully in some directions. In 2009 in particular while having working visits in the frameworks of so-called commercial diplomacy to the Gulf States he traveled to Saudi Arabia and Qatar Emirate (Bannerman, 2009). These visits were both of political and economic importance. The concept of commercial diplomacy was indeed a Copernican revolution in the philosophy of the Italian foreign policy. Diplomacy was traditionally representational with a strong political approach. Usually diplomats paid little attention to the real economy and the interests of Italian companies that wanted to work abroad. For decades small and medium-sized companies were forced to look for ways to enter new markets themselves mostly due to the personal managerial skills of owners or their representatives. In the end, Berlusconi played the role of the representative of Italian businessâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; interest. Saudi Arabia is a largest in area and is the biggest oil-producing country. Moreover, Saudi Arabia has a special political influence which was manifested in many conflicts that occurred in the region. It is a country with a moderate traditionalist religion and politics. Its relationship with the West remained unchanged from 1991 (the Gulf war). Since then, Saudi Arabia has become a major political ally of the US and Europe. Qatar is very different from Saudi Arabia, but it is no less interesting. Being a small country with no large energy potential as Saudi Arabia, it nevertheless has a dynamic and fast-growing economy. Berlusconi led active diplomatic talks with the countries that could help Italian companies to find the way out of the crisis that dropped them on their own markets. He has tirelessly made contacts in all directions, thereby increasing international influence and prestige of his country.

3. Discussion

The listed above example does not always serve as a permanent framework neither for commercial diplomacy efficiency, nor for the state leaders conscious visions. In fact, the status quo realms often demonstrate an opposite character of the transnational business conduct. The latter becomes a subject of political and geo-political configurations and, thus, allowing states, governments, and alliances to ambitiously manipulate the international companies. In this context the recent bright example of insecure vulnerability of transnational corporations that are called to conduct trade operations abroad is the case with McDonalds Company in Russian Federation at the end of August 2014. Even though the presence of McDonalds in Russia was a success story of the company, within more than twenty years being the biggest branch and serving around 950,000 customers a day (Matlack, 2014), have failed to perform its activity anymore in this country due to confrontation between

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To the question of perspectives and challenges in contemporary international trade diplomacy

Russia and the West on the matter of the Crimea issue. The “domino” principle as a basis of the latest trends of political and economic technologies is being constantly used by the main actors of global politics. As a tool of impact for states and their potential alliances to maneuver and manipulate their interests, companies suffer a time of conflicts which eventually bring great losses. Developing rapidly in Russia’s food market with forty five branches through the country, McDonalds had to experience a crisis in 2014. Right after the sanctions were imposed against Russia by the West, there were organized regular check-ups of the restaurants, followed soon by moratorium. Undoubtedly the reasons behind the stoppage of the McDonalds’ activity in Russia are not declared as directly linked with sanctions Russia experiences. However, one may definitely assume the evident link between the two phenomena, which, in its turn, openly sets the agenda for necessity of commercial diplomacy to be enacted interfering the process.

4. Conclusion

Being in the middle of nation-states and international organizations by status, the transnational corporations have unclear legal position to be entirely secured incase of conflicts. As of unclear legal definition, the transnationals thus, are somewhat of a perception as “satellites” of certain states and political and economic blocks. Assuming in case of McDonalds that Russia considers this corporation as an “agent” or representative of the West policies, it would be worthwhile to raise the question of whether and why transnational corporations have to be responsible for the foreign political actions of their home countries. To prevent this concern, firstly, the legal status and immunities of TNCs have to be clearly defined by the Geneva Conventions, which could be used thereafter by commercial diplomacy worldwide. The latter leads to logical reasoning on why the population of sides involved into the confrontation has to suffer from boycotting policies imposed by governments. Moreover, the governments would not be able to use the TNCs as marionettes in their hands to peruse their own political ambitions. Apparently, as long as the legal status and immunities are not clarified for TNCs, the leaders of their home countries have to be aware at least of their personal responsibility for possible financial losses of TNCs in case of foreign relations break up.

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References 1.

Anderson L, Earley J, Feketekuty G, Williamson I (2004). Legal Analysis in Commercial Diplomacy Analyzing Applicable Domestic Laws and International Agreements. ITCD. San Diego Global University. Retrieved from: http://www.commercialdiplomacy.org/ manuals/manual_legal_analysis.htm

2.

Bannerman L (2009). Silvio Berlusconi Ridiculed Over Gas Pipe Diplomacy Claims. The Times, August 7, 2009.

3.

Kobrin S (2008). Globalization, Transnational Corporations and the Future of Global Governance. Handbook of Research on Global Corporate Citizenship. Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, 2008.

4.

Losavio J (2014). Crimean crisis and International Law: What Laws are Broken? Foreign Policy News Journal. April 2, 2014.

5.

Matlack C (2014). Could McDonald’s Be the Latest Victim of Russian Retaliation? Bloomberg Businessweek com., August 20, 2014. Retrieved: October 12, 2014.

6.

Pomeranz W (2014). Is There a New Crack in the West’s Sanctions Regime Against Russia? REUTERS Edition, September 26, 2014. From: http://blogs.reuters.com/great-debate/2014/09/26/is-there-a-new-crack-in-the-wests-sanctions-regime-againstrussia/.Retrieved: October 12, 2014.

7.

Roberts W (1991). Diplomacy in the Information Age. The World Today (The Royal Institute of International Affairs), July, 1991. Published in German by: Europaische Rundschau.

8.

Woolcock S (2014). The Pillars of the International Trading System: Telò, Mario, (ed.) Globalisation, Multilateralism, Europe: Towards a Better Global Governance? Globalisation, Europe, multilateralism series (2). Ashgate, Farnham, Surrey, UK, 203-214. ISBN 9781409464488.

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Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Contents lists available at Canadian Scientific Journal

Canadian Scientific Journal journal homepage: www.csjournal.ca

Ethnicity as political, social and cultural constructions in terms of the specific historical contexts Bohatyrets Valentyna* Yurii Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine ARTICLE INFO

ABSTR AC T

Article history:

The article canvases the problem of ethnicity as political, social and cultural construc-

Received 23 September 2014

tions, persisting in Europe. In a globalized world, postmodern world, ethnic identity

Received in revised form 5 November 2014

becomes more relative. In the newer notions of ethnicity, conception of ethnic identity

Accepted 7 November 2014

has not lost hold of the place and ground from which it has come from or from which we speak from, yet it is no longer constrained or contained within that place in essence. Humanity tends to have multiple identities at any one point in time. Simultaneously, it is possible to have a global, national, ethnic, national, neighborhood, class, status

Keywords: Ethnicity

identity at the same time. Due to the diversification of lived worlds people can have

Ethnic identity

multiple identities in an increasingly globalized world marked by migration. The modern

Political, social, cultural constructions

concept of Europe as a federation of communities is based on the concept of ethnic

Public policy

pluralism that respects the interests and rights of peoples as ethnic and cultural com-

Modern politics

munities. Ethnic pluralism involves fundamental differences between peoples; those are expressed not only in external features, but also spiritual and mental differences in the different perception of reality and position according to it. © 2014 Canadian Scientific Journal. All Rights reserved

“As long as our civilization keeps trundling along generally forwards, then there is the possibility of a future where ethnicity is merely an interesting badge, not a uniform you can’t take off” (David Mitchell)

1. Introduction Ethnicity is one of Europe’s outstanding geographical characteristics and it is entirely appropriate that this has been given due recognition in the science domain. * Corresponding author at: Yurii Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, College of History, Political Science and International Studies 2, Kotsiubynskoho, Chernivtsi 58012, Ukraine,

Tel.: +38 050 6188405, Fax: +38 0372525141

E-mail addresses: vbohatyrets@yahoo.com (V. Bohatyrets) www.csjournal.ca


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Ethnicity as political, social and cultural constructions in terms of the specific historical contexts

However the negative aspects have often been emphasized in such a way as to suggest that discrimination and intolerance are normal occurrences. Problems have generally arisen when democracy and security have broken down and minorities have been unable to defend themselves against xenophobic excesses and territorial changes arising out of war on a local, regional or world scale. Many key terms in the interpretative social sciences and history – ‘ethnicity’, ‘race’, ‘nation’, ‘citizenship’, ‘democracy’, ‘class’, ‘community’, and ‘tradition’, are equally categories of social and political practice and analysis. The ‘categories of practice’, let’s say, ‘native’, ‘folk’ or ‘lay’ categories – are considered the ones of everyday social experience, developed and deployed by ordinary social actors, as distinguished from the experience-distant categories used by social analysts (Geertz 1983). The basic contrast goes back at least to Durkheim’s Rules of Sociological Method, which criticized the sociological use of ‘pre-notions’ or lay concepts that have been created by experience and for it (Durkheim 1964). It’s preferable to use the expression ‘category of practice’ to the alternative, for while the latter imply a relatively sharp distinction between ’native’ or ‘folk’ or ‘lay’ categories on the one hand and ‘scientific’ categories on the other, such concepts as ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’, or ‘nation’ are marked by close reciprocal connection and mutual influence among their practical and analytical uses (Wacquant 2004). This paper aims at demonstrating theoretical framework of ethnicity as political, social and cultural constructions. It is an essential part of the vernacular milieu, especially in closed rural communities anchored in a specific language and culture where no other identity could be contemplated. People gain powerful community solidarity from such situation; for example, it might help the Ukrainians to survive in often hostile environment, reflecting a generally negative image. Yet this survival mentality is hardly in keeping with modern Europe: human rights’ equality is a basic requisite for progress to EU membership and the security that follows in its wake.

2. Theoretical perspective 2.1 Ethnicity - an imperative concern in the modern world

According to Oxford dictionary ethnicity is “The fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition: the interrelationship between gender, ethnicity, and class” (oxforddictionaries) Ethnicity is an important issue in the modern world. In each nation state some groups stand aside from the mainstream (Horowitz 1985) and seek power sharing and influence as part of the tension between the global and the local (Rothschild 1981; Rupasinghe and Tishkov 1995). Now here in Eastern Europe is the nation state ideal achieved whereby compact nations are contained neatly within their respective territorial cradles (Yevtukh 2012). It is extreme ethnic diversity that is invariably highlighted as characteristic of Eastern Europe in contrast to them or homogeneous societies of Western states. Ethnicity has been widely perceived as a source of stress rather than cultural enrichment (Kovacs 1991), if human resources are to be effectively harnessed for growth and prosperity this constraint has to be overcome. Ethnic issues maybe over-dramatized as a result of recent well-known cases of flagrant discrimination and even genocide www.csjournal.ca


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resulting from states and minorities being in conflict (Poulton 1994). While modern Western society is regarded as the inevitable evolutionary outcome (Rostow 1961), other cultures must not be forgotten (Bloom 1987). Resistance from the periphery to any imposition of European culture will remain, with all its problematic implications (Glenny 1999). Issues of race and ethnicity dominate the academic discourse of many disciplines, including the field of multicultural education, and the socio-political arena. Heightened interest in these issues is in response to the demographic reality of increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the whole globe (Yash 2000, Unander 2000, Peter 1999, Dragunskii 1995). According to D. Dragunskii, the ethnic categorization and marginalization was the central cause of the Soviet Union’s state building ideology. After Soviet Union’s economic and political ideology declined, its breakup was not led by ideological conflict but by ethno-territorial conflict. According to the researcher, conflict tensions are divided primarily on ethnic lines as a result of the Soviet Union’s own ethnic policies and categorizations. John R. Bowen challenges the common, popular notion that many international ethnic conflicts are ageold problems of cultural and ethnic differences which can never be cured. Instead, the author focuses on examples in Yugoslavia and Rwanda to demonstrate how colonial and post-colonial states create ethnic categorization and division for economic and political purposes (Bowen 1997).

2.2 Ukraine case study

In terms of the above-mentioned study it should be noted, that the question of Ukraine’s ethnicity crisis could be another case study. Ukraine is a Texas-sized country wedged between Russia and Europe. It used to be the part of the Soviet Union until 1991, and since then has been a less-than-perfect democracy with a very weak economy and foreign policy that wavers between pro-Russian and pro-European (Fisher 2014). The country is divided by ethnic heritage, language and politics. Broadly, the eastern half is more pro-Russia while the west has sought a closer partnership with Europe, a division at the heart of the protests that ultimately led to the ouster of Kremlin-backed President Viktor Yanukovych. The borders of what the world knows as modern-day Ukraine were only settled in 1945, after centuries of conflict and war. The western part of the country had a brief flirtation with independence between the two world wars, but was otherwise part of Poland and the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The eastern parts of the country were more closely aligned with the Russian empire for several hundred years before the Soviet Union annexed the entire area after World War II. Political differences are less about ideology, and more about identity, People have tended to make their affiliations based on their location and heritage, which were reflected in the 2010 election (Kaplan 2014). The roots of a present-day crisis go back to the last days of the Soviet Union, whose demise Mr. Putin has lamented as the “greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the century”. Moscow has long cast an acquisitive eye on Ukraine – now the second-largest Slavic state, previously a vast part of the Soviet Union and always

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Russia’s uneasy neighbor. The current Ukrainian crisis and Russia’s occupation of the Crimea are directly linked to Moscow’s project of taking advantage of ethnic conflict and reintegrating the space of the former Soviet Union into a comprehensive economic, political and military Eurasian Union. When Ukraine voted for independence on Dec. 1, 1991, it sealed the Soviet Union’s fate. More than 90% of Ukrainian citizens voted in favor of statehood. Even in the Crimea, which then (as now) had an ethnic Russian majority, 54% voted for independence. In Sevastopol, the Soviet naval base in the Crimea, 57% were in favor. The Russians of Ukraine, in short, voted in large numbers for Ukrainian independence. Backsliding into dreams of Soviet empire isn’t something the world can afford just now (Plokhy 2014).

2.3 Ethnicity as a way of categorizing similarity and differences

Significantly, ethnicity is the use of culturally expressed characteristics as markers of similarity and difference. It refers to groups who share customs and language. Ethnicity is a more encompassing acceptable way of categorizing similarity and differences. The use of race to classify and categorize people is however, often viewed negatively. Ethnicity is a better concept than race as it reflects positive tendencies of identification whilst race is often thought of as label imposed by a dominant group in order to maintain a position of power over the subordinate/minority group. Hence race is associated with negative tendencies of dissociation and exclusion while ethnicity involves voluntary self-identification as it enhances one’s selfesteem and status in society. Ethnic identity refers to how individuals relate themselves to a particular ethnic group. Ethnic identity can be understood as individual identity. Individual identity can be looked at a few levels. It can be seen/ related to/as being sure of yourself ie; psychological understanding of oneself. Identity can also be seen as group identity. But an individual is always part of a social group. Henceforward, individual identity can be equated to social identity. Ethnic identity is yet another way of thinking of individual identity (Ethnicity 2014). Assuming an outer stance; I reckon ethnicity manifestation is triggered most often by two conflicting social and cultural influences. First, deep conscious immersion into cultural traditions and values through religious, familial, neighborhood, and educational communities instills a positive sense of ethnic identity and confidence. Second, and in contrast, individuals often must filter ethnic identity through negative treatment and media messages received from others because of their race and ethnicity. Racial and ethnic identity is supposed to define and stress the importance of examining these concepts from a multidimensional frame. Furthermore, racial and ethnic identity is seen through developmental and descriptive lenses and highlighted the strengths and limitations of the models presented. Ethnic identity is often considered a social construct as well. It is viewed as an individual’s identification with “a segment of a larger society whose members are thought, by themselves or others, to have a common origin and share segments of a common culture and who, in addition, participates in shared activities in which the common origin and culture are significant ingredients” (Yinger1976). Ethnic identity seems most often to be a frame in which individuals identify consciously or unconsciously with those with whom they feel a common bond because

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of similar traditions, behaviors, values, and beliefs (Ott 1989). These points of connection allow individuals to make sense of the world around them and to find pride in ‘who they are’. If, however, positive ethnic group messages and support are not apparent or available to counteract negative public messages, a particular individual is likely to feel shame or disconnection toward their own ethnic identity. Ethnic identity development consists of an individual’s movement toward a highly conscious identification with their own cultural values, behaviors, beliefs, and traditions. Ethnic and racial identity models provide a theoretical structure for understanding individuals’ negotiation of their own and other cultures (Chávez 2012).

3. Ethnicity and ethnic identity

There is an element of primordiality to ethnic identity. However, as much as it can be primordial, ethnic identity can also be situational and instrumental. It can be latent and it can manifest itself when triggered with intrusions or faced with threat. In a globalized world, postmodern world, ethnic identity becomes more relative. In the newer notions of ethnic identity, conception of ethnic identity has not lost hold of the place and ground from which it has come from or from which we speak from, yet it is no, longer constrained or contained within that place in essence. Humanity tends to have multiple identities at any one point in time. Simultaneously, it is possible to have a global, national, ethnic, national, neighborhood, class, status identity at the same time. Due to the diversification of lived worlds people can have multiple identities in an increasingly globalized world marked by migration. Recently, there have been talks and arguments of doing away with ethnic identity altogether from/by the post-modern perspective. Ethnic identity presents a person’s stance in the society. There is no way in which people can act or speak from the margins or reflect on their own experiences unless they come from some place, have some history or have certain cultural traditions. Ethnic identity establishes and structures social relationships and maintains an order in society. Ethnicity is what we require in order to make sense of ourselves and to think about the relationship between identity and difference. As long as it does not essentialize other ethnic groups and naturalize differences or lead to stereotyping or constraining individual agency, it is still an important and necessary way to organize society. These days ethnicity is much talked issues in the contemporary world, especially in the Third World, so called underdeveloped countries by developed western countries. Ethnic identity always materializes in relation to somebody else. Identity is contextual in both derivation and expression-that is easily manipulated and changeable is now well known and is surely expectable, for it shares these features with all that is cultural (Rishikeshav 2003). It is almost impossible to delineate the boundaries of one cultural identity and the beginning of another. The relationship between nationalism and ethnicity is complex. Neither is vanishing as part of an obsolete traditional order. Both are part of a modem set of categorical identities invoked by elites and other participants in political and social struggles. These categorical identities also shape everyday life, offering both tools for grasping pre-existing

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homogeneity and difference and constructing specific versions of such identities. While it is impossible to dissociate nationalism entirely from ethnicity, it is equally impossible to explain it simply as a continuation of ethnicity. Numerous dimensions of modern social and cultural change, notably state-building, individualism and the integration of large-scale webs of indirect relationships all serve to make both nationalism and ethnicity salient. Nationalism, in particular, remains the preeminent rhetoric for attempts to demarcate political communities, claim rights of self-determination and legitimate rule by reference to ”the people” of a country. Ethnic solidarities and identities are claimed most often where groups do not seek “national” autonomy but rather an internal recognition to or cross-cutting national or state boundaries. The possibility of a closer link to nationalism is seldom altogether absent from such ethnic claims, however, and the two sorts of categorical identities are often invoked in similar ways (Calhoun 1993). This suggests that even if ethnicity plays a role it cannot be a sufficient explanation. Furthermore, nationalism has largely been treated as a kind of second-order political movement based on a false consciousness which ethnicity helps to produce but cannot explain because the deeper roots lie in political economy not culture (Alter 1985). In each of these cases, it is critical that the topic of race and ethnicity receives continual examination. Consequently, we can conclude, the ideology and myth of racial and ethnic differences cannot be confirmed to back or legitimate superiority, privilege, or conflict as has often been the case in both historical and global contexts. A more precise assessment is sure to challenge counterbalance of these dangerous misconceptions so that mere differences, in whatever form, are not constructed as a rationale for compel. Generally speaking, the most prominent twentieth-century analysts of nationalism have rejected the claim that nationalism can be explained by pre-existing ethnicity. According to the latest study, the crucial role of modem politics, especially the idea of sovereignty has been emphasized. Furthermore, another angle of the encompassed problem is seeing nationalism as a sort of religion. More recently, emphasis has been placed on the number of cases of failed or absent nationalisms: ethnic groups which mounted either little or no attempt to become nations in the modem senses.

4. Findings and final conclusions Summarizing, we found it quite difficult to cover and highlight all issues concerned, nevertheless, having studied the cluster of topics centered on ethnicity as political, social and cultural constructions in the historical context, several themes emerged that take our ethnicity awareness to a profounder extend. Ethnic identity is neither permanent, nor is stable. Ethnic identity is multi- faceted and not cast in stone. It evolves overtime. Older notions of ethnicity can be viewed as somewhat narrower and far more restraining. Being more essential in nature and differences it would have been rejected. Ethnic identity can be conceptualized as a process of identification i.e.; as taken for granted, something happening over time and that is never undeniably constant. Instead it is subjected to play of history (understanding our roots, we cannot ignore our background) and the play of difference. It is not an end state and there is nothing tangible

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to it. It is a social process that involves mediation. Ethnic identity is also relational, in the sense that it signifies the bond between an individual and the ‘other’. Ethnic identity is a social construct. It is constructed overtime through the accumulation of many things over time. The transition to democracy is a slow-moving and frail process. The advance of practical and rigorous public policies that are relevant, acceptable, and inclusive is vigorous for the democratic systems establishment. Such policies are reckoned to be pursued by citizens and supported by governments. To achieve this goal, initiatives must also overcome entrenched nativist attitudes if they are to be truly deep-rooted in the community. The issue is how to articulate and deliver such policies that will underpin the putting in the democratic ideal and which address the contexts unique to the countries undertaking this process. First, racial differences become more aware in the mind than in the genes. Consequently, we conclude superiority and inferiority associated with racial differences are often socially constructed to satisfy the socio-political agenda of the dominant group. Second, racial and ethnic categories are neither fixed across societies nor within a society. Racial and ethnic categories are fluid and changing depending on the socio-political context of a society at any given time. Third, ethnic and racial differences do not inherently result in conflict. Instead, these differences can take on a social meaning of hierarchy leading to a conflict when split groups fail to negotiate. In such cases, the imbalance of power, not the racial or ethnic differences per se, is the underlying cause of the conflict (for example, current Ukraine conflict (the Crimea, Donetsk, Luhansk) – Russia. To be more precise, Ukraine crisis is not to simply be degraded to “yet another conflict” as each conflict has unique situations and terrible consequences. Yet still, it is another significant sign of how power struggles have imprints throughout the globe and throughout history.

References:

1.

Alter P (1985) Nationalism. London: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Anderson.

2.

Bloom A (1987) The closing of the American mind. Simon & Schuster, New York.

3.

Bowen J (1997) Ethnic conflict: Challenging the myth. Current, 389:16-21.

4.

Calhoun C (1993) Nationalism and Ethnicity. In: Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 19: 211-239.

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Chávez A (2012) Racial and Ethnic Identity and Development. In: New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, No 84: 39-48.

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Dragunskii D (1995).Imposed Ethnicity. In: Russian Social Science Review, 36 (2): 71-82.

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Ethnicity as political, social and cultural constructions in terms of the specific historical contexts 7.

Durkheim E (1964) The Rules of Sociological Method. trans. S. Solovay and J. Mueller, ed. G. E.G. Catlin, 8th ed. New York: Free Press.

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Ethnicity & Ethnic Identity Anthropology and Ethnicity+%26+Ethnic+Identity Accessed 25 May 2014

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Fisher M (2014) What is the Ukraine crisis? http://www.vox.com/cards/ukraine-everything-you-need-to-know/what-is-the-ukrainecrisis Accessed 10 September 2014.

the

Human

Condition

http://sc2218.wikifoundry.com/page/

10. Geertz C (1983) From the Native’s Point of View, in Local Knowledge, New York: Basic Books. 11. Glenny M (1999) The Balkans 1804-1999: Nationalism War and the Great Powers. Granta, London. 12. Horowitz D (1985) Ethnic Groups in Conflict. University of California Press, Berkeley. 13. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/ethnicity Accessed 5 March 2014 14. Kaplan R (2014) A-look-at-Ukraine/s-internal-divisions/ www.cbsnews.com/news/ Accessed 10 June 2014 15. Kovacs Z (1991) Ethnic Tensions in Eastern Europe. In: Geography Review, 4(4): 37-41. 16. Ott S (1989) The Organizational Culture Perspective. Chicago: The Dorsey Press. 17. Peter S (1999) Race and Ethnic Relations in Canada. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 424p. 18. Plokhy S (2014) The Roots of the Ukraine Crisis/ http://online.wsj.com/news/articles Accessed 17 May 2014. 19. Poulton H (1994) The Balkans: Minorities and States in Conflict. Minority Rights Group, London. 20. Rishikeshav E (2003) Ethnicity and Identity. In: Occasional Papers in Sociology and Archeology. Vol.VIII, Tribhuvan University Kathmandu, Nepal. 21. Rostow W (1961) The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 22. Rothschild J. (1981). Ethnopolitics: A Conceptual Framework. Columbia University Press, New York. 23. Rupasinghe K and Tishkov V (1995) (eds) Ethnicity and Power in the Contemporary World. United Nations University Press, Tokyo. 24. Unander D (2000) Shattering the Myth of Race: Genetic realities and Biblical Truth. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press. 25. Wacquant L (2004) Towards an Analytic of Racial Domination. In: Political Power and Social Theory 11: 221-234. 26. Yash P (2000) Autonomy and Ethnicity: Negotiating Competing Claims in Multi-Ethnic States. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 27. Yevtukh V (2009) Civil Society Relations Partnerships: Ethnopolitical Management. In: Education Policy and Minorities. Pilot Project – Ukraine. –Strasbourg, Roma in Ukraine: Ethnodemographical and Sociocultural Contexts. In: Roma in Central and Eastern Europe. Social Sciences Eastern Europe. № 02: 57- 61. 28. Yevtukh V (2012) Ethnicity: Encyclopaedic handbook. Kyiv: Dragomanov National Pedagogical University Publishing House, 396 p. 29. Yinger J (1976) Ethnicity in Complex Societies. In. Coser L and Larsen O (eds.) The Uses of Controversy in Sociology. – New York: Free Press.

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Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Contents lists available at Canadian Scientific Journal

Canadian Scientific Journal journal homepage: www.csjournal.ca

Ensuring air quality in the work area when forming polyamide threads Denisova Nataliia*, Buialska Nataliia Chernihiv National University of Technology, Chernihiv, Ukraine ARTICLE INFO

ABSTR AC T

The world growth of polyamide threads production with a simultaneous increase in

Article history:

the number of occupational diseases of operators affect the need for the studies of

Received 7 September 2014 Received in revised form 18 September 2014 Accepted 9 October 2014

discharge mechanism of pollutants and activities for the reduction of increased concentrations of polluting compounds in the air of working area. Following studies of sanitary and hygienic work conditions and pollutant discharges of low molecular weight compounds (LMWC) of caprolactam in the work area during the formation of polyamide

Keywords: Low

molecular

weight

compounds

of

threads it was revealed that the largest number of LMWC discharges are in the areas

caprolactam

of high turbulence air of blower ducts. A complex of methods for the labor protection

Air pollution in the work area

based on the research of air condition and particle distribution along the height of the

Formation of polyamide threads

ducts and in the production area is proposed. This comprehensive solution includes

Methods for ensuring air quality

predictive control of blowing air pressure and formation temperature, as well as identifying a minimum pollution location to place control room equipment in. Implementation of the developed methods will lead to reducing the risk of elevated concentrations of hazardous substances and ensuring the ambient air quality in the production area. Š 2014 Canadian Scientific Journal. All Rights reserved

1. Introduction

Considering the occupational safety in manufacturing of polyamide fibres through a chain of manufacturing processes (polymer synthesis, preparation of spinning paste for thread forming, formation of threads, their heat treatment and drawing, and textile use), and based on the analysis of the plant working conditions, there was revealed a risk of elevated concentrations of low molecular weight compounds in operatorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; workplace ambient air. * Corresponding author at: Chernihiv National University of Technology, 95 Shevchenko St., Chernihiv, 14000, Ukraine. Tel.: +380634386793, +380681309522

E-mail addresses: 422786@rambler.ru (N. Denisova), buialska@gmail.com (N. Buialska) www.csjournal.ca


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N. Denisova, N. Buialska / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Ensuring air quality in the work area when forming polyamide threads

The relevance of research on pollutant discharges of low molecular weight compounds (LMWC) of caprolactam and its oligomers is explained by an increased incidence of respiratory diseases in polyamide thread-forming operators with an almost fourfold excess of MPC (MPCukr. = 10 mg/m3) (Denisova 2005). Therefore, the work is aimed to ensure air quality in the work area of thread-forming operators, and, consequently, to create better working conditions and reduce the incidence rate in workers. To comply with the EU standard for caprolactam (cl) aerosol concentrations in the work area air (5 mg/m3) will be an important task.

2. Methods

The parameters of ambient air were controlled using a standard technique in compliance with sanitary regulations DSN - 3.3.6.042-99. The technological parameters of the manufacturing process and the quality characteristics of threads were monitored in compliance with standard GOST 2263-2002. The ejection and turbulence areas in the blower duct were studied using a directed flow of soap bubbles. A point-estimate method was developed to carry out experimental studies of LMWC discharges and their distribution in the work area air. The experimental results were assessed by methods of mathematical statistics and systems analysis (two-factor variance analysis of effects of distance and time spent by operators in the polluted area, least-squares method for development of mathematical models of pollutant discharges and predictive control of airflow, mathematical method of linear programming to establish minimum values to locate minimally polluted safe areas). We used Microsoft Excel, OpenOffice Calc and MathCad.

3. Analysis and discussion of the results of experimental studies

Effects of caprolactam concentrations in the forming work area air on the incidence of respiratory diseases in operators were assessed using a comprehensive approach aimed to creating a safe and healthy working environment and based on the results of monitoring air pollution in the work area, production workload and incidence rate (Denisova 2010). After processing the data collected at Chernigovskoe chimvolokno OJSC, it was established that the incidence of respiratory diseases in workers is directly proportional to concentrations of caprolactam in the air (Сcl): ζ = а + b •Сcl where ζ - specific incidence rate (number of respiratory diseases per 100 people per year), a, b - constants.

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Ensuring air quality in the work area when forming polyamide threads

The constant a defines a relatively constant number of respiratory diseases that is independent of the working environment, and b•Сcl is a criterion for increasing the number of diseases caused by elevated

concentrations of hazardous substances in the air. Modifying this parameter can not only reduce the number of respiratory diseases, but also bring significant economic benefits. Using a correlation coefficient of 0.85, the equation is represented as follows: ζ = 44,84 + 8,53 • Ccl

(1)

Considering the above, it was established that decreasing the concentration by 1.0 mg/m3 reduces by 16% the total number of respiratory diseases in workers. The calculated dependences are obtained for the first time. The studies showed that decreasing LMWC discharges from blower ducts is a necessary but not sufficient condition for work safety of thread-forming operators. In the previous studies (Bhuvanech 1990, Azarov 2004) showed in order to solve the problem of increased air pollution personal protective equipment should be used, but it is known that its regular use is extremely uncomfortable for employees. Therefore this issue requires a comprehensive solution that includes not only reducing the risk for exposure to a pollution source in technology terms, but also reconstruction of general and local ventilation systems, reducing working shifts time, placing control room equipment in areas with minimal air pollution, the stimulation of the use of personal protective equipment for respiratory protection (PPERP) by workers. For operators, the risk of staying inside the work area with consideration for pollutants distribution in it was assessed using the elaborated point-estimate method for estimation of LMWC discharges (Denisova 2010). The data were processed using two-factor variance analysis, where the factors were the distance and the time of the operator’s exposure within the hazardous area, and the response function was sediment accumulations on test indicators. The analysis showed that the most hazardous area in terms of air pollution is located at 0.5 m from the front edge of the blower duct. Pollutant accumulation on this site is increased by about 10% per hour. Since the operator workplace is within this distance, the use of PPERP is required, and the shift time may be reduced as dictated by specific conditions of production. The obtained results differ significantly from those of previous studies by Pankeeva A.M. (Pankeev, Cherednichenko, Korneeva 2005) where it was assumed that the contamination has even distribution along the height and the distance from the blower ducts. Minimally polluted areas suitable for the operator’s stay were selected using point method findings, where measurement points were placed over the entire area. A design diagram of pollution flow directions is shown in Fig. 1.

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Ensuring air quality in the work area when forming polyamide threads

Fig. 1. Design diagram of analysis of pollution flow directions in the formation area

The experimental research data were processed using the linear programming method with search for minimum through flows. Calculations show that the minimum air pollution in the thread-forming area is located at points 3, 11, 12. It was found out that the optimal place for control room equipment would be an area (see Fig. 1, an area near point 12) 1.5 times less polluted than the average for the site, and 6.5 times less polluted than in the area of maximum discharges. Air supplied by general ventilation was estimated using a point method for assessing pollution. Since the supply-and-exhaust ventilation in thread-forming areas adds blowing air to forced air, the following equation was used for calculations: Ccl = ( Σq i •n•k•Sd)/[Sti•(V1+V2•n)],

(2)

where is the average weight of sediment on test indicators; n - number of blower (working) ducts; k - factor of conversion of point method data to LMWC concentration defined by standard methods (experimentally, k = 2,17); Sd - front surface area of the blower duct, m2; Sti - surface area of test indicator, m2; V1, V2 - air supplied to the area and a separate workplace, respectively, m3/h. Using known values of Σq i , n, V1, this equation allows to calculate a nomogram (Fig. 2: 1 – tf = 548 К; www.csjournal.ca


N. Denisova, N. Buialska / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

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Ensuring air quality in the work area when forming polyamide threads

2 ‒ tf = 555 К; 3 ‒ tf = 567 К) to determine V2 required to ensure a given LMWC concentration under any

changes in process variables, the number of workplaces and the range of threads.

Fig. 2. Nomogram of required air exchange depending on cooling conditions to ensure Сcl=MPC/2

On the basis of the above, the rise of formation temperature tf up to 567 K leads to increasing of LMWC concentrations at all process levels except for the blower air pressure, P = 294 Pa. Therefore, the inflow changes slightly at this temperature. When tf = 555 K and tf = 548 K, pressure reduction leads to increasing Ccl concentrations and requires a significant increase in air exchange. When the area performance changes

at constant parameters of threads cooling, V1 is directly proportional to the number of workplaces. A change

in the shop productivity also leads to a change in formation rate and linear density of threads, and requires new values for factors Σq i and V1 of the equation (2). Applying the above method to other factories manufacturing anide polyamide, polyester and polyamide threads of another linear density requires updated quantitative values of the factors that affect airflow. Manufacturing application of the developed methods can reduce concentrations of pollutants (caprolactam)

in the air of forming areas by ΔСcl = 43% (calculated using the equation (2)), meet the international standards for caprolactam aerosol concentrations in the work area air (5 mg/m3), and reduce the incidence of respiratory diseases in workers by Δζ = 28% (calculated using the equation (1)). www.csjournal.ca


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Ensuring air quality in the work area when forming polyamide threads

The solutions obtained can be used not only in manufacturing other ranges of polyamide threads, but also in manufacturing polyester, anide polyamide and other synthetic threads, which are formed in a similar pattern of melting. They also can be used to improve the engineering, economical and environmental performance of closed ducts. Implementation of air pollution-reducing methods at thread-forming operator workplaces also has a social effect and an economic impact on the overall plant performance, which leads to increasing the professional activity period of workers and labour productivity, reducing staff turnover and sick leave costs paid by a company, savings in raw materials that evaporate and are irretrievably lost.

4. Conclusion

It was developed a set of methods to improve sanitary and hygienic work conditions of thread-forming operators; this makes it possible to reduce concentrations of pollutant discharges of LMWC in the air of thread-forming areas by 43%, and meet the international standards for caprolactam aerosol concentrations in the air of thread-forming areas (5 mg/m3). As a result, the number of respiratory diseases in workers will be decreased by 28%. In addition to the process method, this comprehensive solution includes predictive control of LMWC concentrations in the work area air in case of process modifications, and a formula that takes into account the simultaneous intake of blower air and general dilution air to ensure air quality in the work area.

References 1.

Azarov N (2004) Comprehensive assessment of the dusting situation and the development of measures to reduce dusting in the air environment of industrial enterprises. Dissertation, Rostov-on-Don National University of Technology.

2.

Bhuvanech Y, Gupta V (1990) Computer simulation of melt spinning of poly (ethylene terephthalate) using a steady-state model. Indian Journal of Textile Research, 4: 145-153.

3.

Denisova N, Ivanova I (2005) Formation of polycaproamide. Some issues of labour protection. Vestnik Chernigovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnologŃ&#x2013;cheskogo unŃ&#x2013;versiteta, 25: 90-93.

4.

Denisova N (2010) Reducing air pollution levels in the work area during the formation of polyamide threads. Dissertation, National research Institute of industrial safety and labour protection.

5.

Pankeev A, Cherednichenko P, Korneeva S (2005) The research and modeling of the process of threads chilling during forming. Chernigov.

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Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Contents lists available at Canadian Scientific Journal

Canadian Scientific Journal journal homepage: www.csjournal.ca

Modern methods of microstructure research trough computer materials science using applied technology Povstyanoy Oleksandr*, Kuts Yuliya Lutsk National Technical University, Lutsk, Ukraine ARTICLE INFO

ABSTR AC T

Article history:

A complex analysis of the research modern methods of porous penetrating material microstructures is given. It is shown from the analysis of modern literary sources that macroscopic behavior and topology of surface directly depend on the features of its microstructure. Therefore measuring and control of properties of initial powders and finish goods by modern facilities and software are an important factor for making high-efficiency and progressive porous penetrating materials. Possibilities and estimation of modern software are shown for computer facilities of research at processing of metallography images of different sort of materials. It was revealed that the study of possibilities and modern software for computer facilities of research of metallography images with the purpose of determination of quality and quantitative descriptions of materials is dictated by scientific and production tasks that arose up in the modern science of materials. In this article it is well-proven that presented modern software products for the analysis of micro images are a universal instrument for the quality analysis of image of porous penetrating material microstructures in science and production. The given methods of non-destructive and rapid control that determine and analyze the changes of material structure can be successfully used as an instrument of control of quality of the off-the-shelf product.

Received 22 August 2014 Received in revised form 13 September 2014 Accepted 9 October 2014

Keywords: Microstructure Computer materials science Porous material Visualization

Š 2014 Canadian Scientific Journal. All Rights reserved

1. Introduction Swift development of the computing engineering and methods of the digital processing of images have given an opportunity considerably to extend computerization of science-research works in many areas of SciTech lately. Macroscopic behavior of material directly depends on the features of its microstructure. * Corresponding author at: Lutsk National Technical University, Potebni, 56, Lutsk, 43018, Ukraine Tel.: +380 639 387 654, +380 506 611 333

E-mail addresses: povstjanoi@mail.ru (O.Povstyanoy), pywochek@gmail.com (Y.Kuts) www.csjournal.ca


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Quantitative approach in analyzing allows educing the optimal structure which meets the terms of service of material the best. On the other hand, the successful solution of basic tasks of world industry development nowadays is determined by the increase of manufactured products’ competitiveness. Thus, there are high requirements to material purity, cleanness of liquid and gaseous working environments of technological processes, reliability and longevity of work of machines, devices and etc. (Vutiaz 1987). With each new developed technological process the powder metallurgy demonstrates some advantages that allow getting materials with the best or newest qualities or making things by the most economically profitable method. Among these things there are porous penetrating materials (PPM) used practically in all branches of industry (Whitehouse 1994). Creation and development of new highly-efficient PPM are impossible without measuring and control of properties of initial powders and finished products. PPM is characterized by the row of structural and operating parameters which usually are determined by qualities of initial powders and technology of their production. Porosity, its distribution on the PPM, its kind (open, closed, dead-locked); form, sizes of pores (middle and maximal), coefficient of pores sinuosity; coefficient of porous structure regularity; penetration coefficient; specific surface; mechanical durability, corrosive firmness and others can be named as important descriptions of PPM (Belov 1987).

2. Analysis of the last researches and publications Study of PPM structural descriptions is one of the key tasks of modern science of materials on the basis of which the process of creation of new materials and improvement of properties of already existed materials is based. Making high-quality metallographic analysis is connected with some known difficulties determined by large physical load on a researcher’s organism (in particular organs of sight), subjectivity of supervisions and small speed of research process. Application of devices working on the basis of linear mechanical involute of optical objects causes the limits in interpretation of received signals and also deprives possibilities of “intellectual” interference into the measuring process (Pytianin 1990; Lindly Kereig 1996). As small changes at making analysis and processing of images have large influence on the further future of a finished product. So the methods of non-destructive and rapid control that determine and analyze these changes can be successfully used as an instrument of product quality control (Andersson 2000). The study of possibilities and estimation of modern software for computer facilities of research of metallographic images with the aim of determination of PPM qualitative and quantitative descriptions is dictated by scientific and production tasks in modern science of materials. Metallographic images can be presented by combination of various structural constituents at different correlation: by phases characterized by various sizes, forms and colors and also by the limits of grains that can be presented either by separate lines on an image or cover an image with a continuous net. Combination of these structural constituents can give a very complicated picture to interpret, so an analyzing program must possess a great enough part of rightness of implementation. Therefore the basic requirement to the quality analysis of images is as follows: on a photo under a microscope it is necessary to distinguish structural constituents, and after to classify them by brightness, size and form. Practical implementation of this question includes such tasks which have already become classic, such as segmentation, filtration of defects and selection of objects from a background, determination of limits of objects, recognition of

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patterns (Stas 2000). For successful performing of metallographic analysis the most important question is about reliability of image segmentation. As far as metallographic images are complicated there is not a single possibility to define descriptions of objects. Therefore a process of segmentation must be adaptive and if it is possible to distinguish all objects of interest regardless of their sizes or brightness. Thus, there must be possibility of intervention from an operator into the process of recognition, at least, for the object correction (Mandelbrot 1982). That is why study and perfection of metallographic methods and computer facilities for measuring, analysis, determination, processing and prognostication of properties and structure of PPM are an actual and practical task.

3. Statement of research objectives - describe the metallographic analysis of “PHOTOM”, “OPTIMAS”, “VIDEOTEST”, “IMAGE EXPERT PRO”, “ AVIZO”, “SMART - EYE®” - determine possibilities and evaluation of advanced software tools for computer research in the processing of metallographic images.

4. Results The modern stage of development of software is characterized together with the increase of functionality and such tendencies, as: • Its simplicity of operation; • Increase of the productivity by the system itself; • De-skilling effect of a user professional level. Today there are many various application programs for image analysis. Products that are the simplest in operation become the most successful. Taking into account functional possibilities among the variety of software for the image analysis the most successful are the following application programs - “PHOTOM”, “OPTIMAS”, “VIDEOTEST”, “IMAGE EXPERT PRO”, “ AVIZO”, “SMART-EYE®” and many others. In the arsenal of these programs there are all the algorithms necessary for processing of technical images (Povstyanoy 2004). They are high-frequency and low-frequency filtration, selection of image limits, arithmetic and logical operations, brightness/contrast correction and others. In this case image processing is not directed at the improvement of visual perception, but on its preparation for the further analysis. On the basis of analysis of mentioned above algorithms these programs allow to calculate the average brightness of every object according to the brightness scale fixed in the systems. By means of this chart in all application programs of this specific the following sequence of algorithms is offered to process and obtain descriptions of metallographic structure: 1. Filtration of image with the aim of exception of casual noise. 2. Previous segmentation focused on the selection of homogeneous areas. 3. Correction of an object with the aim of determination of its brightness threshold.

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4. 5.

Final segmentation with the use of the defined base-line value that allows defining objects in full. Analysis of the distinguished objects with the purpose of their parameter determination.

The final task of metallographic analysis has to be considered the statistical processing of object descriptions obtained during the process of measuring, determination of average values and also building graphic curves for visualization of the analysis process. The easiest in use and determination of these descriptions there is the program “PHOTOM” intended for photometry. Loading of black and white images is performed in format .BMP and .JPG. This program carries out the calculation of photo absorbency calculated taking into the consideration background in average (on the highlighted area) and for a separate photo as well (Picture 1).

Picture.1 Generation of binary image and construction of histograms of structure analysis of the micro section of porous penetrating material obtained from powder of steel of BBS15

Besides the calculation of absorbency it is possible to invert, increase the contrast and smooth out an image, generate a binary image, determine distances between objects and carry out calculation of a necessary area in a photo. Moreover, there is also mode of calibration provided to count all coordinates in metrical units (microns). The analyzer of images “OPTIMAS” is an integration of modern methods on image processing created on the basis of powerful mathematical methods tested in practice. A wide row of unique functions and methods of work is developed specially for this program. Two control panels are created: standard tuning and tuning of user. The standard tuning provides with button access to file processing, clipboard and printing actions; tuning of user allows adding up to twenty other macro instructions to panels of user. There is an automatic threshold for multiphase images; possibility of reflection of histogram, due to the use of more flexible and functional tool of graphic – display of histogram (Picture.2); maintenance of automatic image segmentation in the specified amount of intensity.

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Picture 2. Maintenance of automatic image segmentation with the reflection of powder particle zones of porous penetrating material

The mounted mechanism of automation is absolutely transparent for a user and allows accumulating and analyzing data from many points of view, getting integral descriptions and pore distribution without excessive efforts on the program. The result of the program â&#x20AC;&#x153;IMAGE EXPERT PROâ&#x20AC;? performance is obtaining of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of structures. In this case for material engineer there can be distribution of grains by points, percentage ratio of phases in the structure, amount of inclusions and their division according to size and form, analysis of textures, porosity and others. This analyzer of metallographic images allows creating and keeping the charts of actions performed over images, and then applying these charts to the similar images. The obtained data can be presented also as histograms, as well as tables, images, average or general data after all objects or individually on each. As for as the innovations, unlike the previous programs, we can refer the following things: there are facilities of work with a video camera, possibility of calibration of the optical system complex, dynamic mode of view for most methods, automatic division of recovering objects, complex reflection of results, fine-tuning of the modes of results output. The special difference is possibility of fully automatic formation of quality sharp image of three dimension object (Picture 3).

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Picture 3. The automatic formation of quality image of a three dimension object of the micro section structure of porous penetrating material and presentation of results

The substantial difference of program “VIDEOTEST VT4” from the previously presented ones, where the process of segmentation is built on the principle of adaptive binarization, is the division of objects according to their determined average brightness (Picture 4).

Picture 4. Determination of division of image objects according to their average brightness by means of the program “VIDEOTEST VT4” www.csjournal.ca


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The difference of this program is in the possibility of determination of phase analysis of any material, marking the image with masks to determine the size of pores and porosity of alloy. The specific feature of this software product is possibility to control the process of growth of thin film coverage with stable functional properties. Many tasks of industrial control and planning require the receipt of data on geometrical forms of objects in three-dimensional space. To solve these tasks the noncontact methods of measuring are widely used; the optical methods are among that most successful ones (Serra 1992; Stampfl 1996). Formation of 3d-image by means of software environment of “AVIZO” is made by imposition of flat transverse sections of appropriate range on the height of the finished porous powder material (Picture 5).

b)

а) Picture 5. Visualization of the received image of transversal cut of porous powder material : а) 3d-image with the use of “AVIZO”; б) sciagram

The essence of the work of “AVIZO” is based on system understanding of morphology and microstructure of the pre-production model. This knowledge has high-priority at the estimation of finished product quality. For the complete and quality estimation of a sample it is necessary to define and investigate the basic morphological parameters of structure, namely: • Determination of the amount of particles of different sizes and forms; • Determination of structural defects of the model; • Determination of pores forms and particle forms; • Determination of general distribution of pores in a cut and the whole volume; • Determination of general distribution of certain form particles on a perimeter and volume. In general, the quality analysis of image of finished product - porous penetrating material - is conducted to determine such parameters of objects as average brightness, perimeter, area, minimum and maximal diameters, factor of the form, coefficient of form and other (Boukhair 2000; Zhang 1998). By means of other application program “SMART - EYE®” it is possible to define these descriptions, necessary for a qualitative and quantitative estimation of structures of any material, including porous ones (Picture 6).

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Picture 6. A process of calibration of sample and introduction of the real dimension by means of the program “SMART - EYE®”

The final task of metallographic analysis by means of “SMART - EYE®” is statistical processing of the object descriptions, determination of average values obtained in the process of measuring, and also construction of graphic curves for visualization of analysis process (Picture 6).

Picture 7. Determination of forms and sizes of pre-production model pores

In order to get more adequate estimation of the received results by means of “SMART - EYE®”, binarization image must be conducted. The essence of binarization lies in considering enormous quantity of probable variants. In this case, binarization is regeneration of a grey picture of micro section image into a raster black

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and white picture. 5. Conclusions Thus, the described products for metallographic analysis “PHOTOM”, “OPTIMAS”, “VIDEOTEST”, “IMAGE EXPERT PRO”, “ AVIZO”, “SMART - EYE®” are effective enough to solve difficult problems of modern computer science of materials. These kinds of software for the micro images analysis are the universal instrument for the qualified analysis of image in science and industry, equally irreplaceable both at the analysis of laboratory structures and at a quantitative analysis according to Ukrainian and international standards.

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Andersson A, Holmquist F, Lindquist P, Nilsson W (2000) Analysis of film coating thickness and surface area of pharmaceutical pellets using fluorescence microscopy and image analysis, J. Pharm. Biomed. 22: 325–339.

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Belov S, Vutiaz P, Sheleg V (1987) Porous permeable materials. Metallurgy, Moscow.

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Bodla D, Murthy M, Garimella A (2010) Microtomography-based simulation of transport through open-cell metal foams. Numer Heat Transfer Part A; 524:527.

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Boukhair D, Haessler R, Nourreddine A (2000) New code for digital imaging system for track measurements. Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 160: 550–555.

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Feldkamp D, Davis A, Kress E (1997) Practical cone beam algorithm J. Microsc. 185: 67–75.

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Kereig L (1996) Practical image processing in C. World, Moskow.

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Mandelbrot A (1982) The Fractal Geometry of Nature. Freeman, San-Francisco.

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Maziyk A, Pulunevuch P, Rak D, Savuch S, Tymulovuch A(2005) Porous powder materials with anisotropic pore structure for the filtration of liquids and gases. Tonpik, Minsk.

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Povstyanoy O, Zabolotnuy O, Chmil I (2004) Computer methods in metallographic analysis with applications.Scientific notes, Luck. 15: 244-25.

10. Pytianin A, Averun I (1990) Image processing in robotics. Mechanical Engineering, Moskow. 11. Serra S (1992) Image Analysis and Mathematical Morphology. Academic Press, London. 12. Stampfl S, Scherer E, Gruber D, Kolednik W (1996) Determination of the fracture toughness with automatic image processing. Int. J. Frac., V.2–44: 119-121. 13. Stas S, Gavruliyk I (2000) Computer methods in metallographic analysis. Research methods and quality control of metals: V.2: 48—52. 14. Vutiaz P (1987) Porous powder materials and their products. Higher School, Minsk. 15. Whitehouse A (1994) Handbook of Surface Metrology. Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol and Philadelphia. 16. Zhang W, Marshall H (1998) A universal algorithm for fast and automated charge state deconvolution of electrospray mass-tocharge ratio spectra. J. Am.Soc. Mass Spec.:V. 9: 225–233. www.csjournal.ca


Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

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Philosophical fundamentals of polycultural dialogue re-semantization: methodologeme and sense search Troitskaya Tamara1,*, Troitskaya Olena2 1 2

Melitopol State Pedagogical University named after Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Melitopol, Ukraine Institute of Philosophy Education and Science, National Pedagogical Dragomanova University, Kyiv, Ukraine

ARTICLE INFO

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Article history:

Among all scientific tasks of modern poly-functional, harmony developed person development the founding of dialoguness implementation by a personality as nature feature has to be considered the most important one and the organization of polycultural dialogue has to be considered as the theoretical-methodological and practical purpose. Determining the role of the dialogue and dialogueness it is very difficult to overestimate their role as well as underestimate the necessity of these phenomena essence clarification. In great experience of dialogue comprehension there are a lot of interpretations of its essence and content with reference to phenomenon polysemy instead of the exact definition. For dialogue re-sematization, in particular polycultural one, and its return into the area of senses it is necessary for contemporary humanistics to address to dialogue reflexion by prominent philosophers of the past and today, in particular to the methodologemes of dialogue purposes, content and organization. We outline these guidelines as the search of cognitive process gradual development mechanisms, enrichment of subject dialogue interaction with new (proper and other) ideas as correction of view points (disputable and opposite ones), as means of personality maxims implementation and their conformation with social imperatives and also dialogue raising to sense comprehension of people co-existence, consensual ethics of co-world.

Received 6 October 2014 Received in revised form 5 November 2014 Accepted 11 November 2014

Keywords: Discourse Dialectics Dialogue Human dimension Culture level Maieutics, polycultural dialogue Dialogue sense

Š 2014 Canadian Scientific Journal. All Rights reserved

1. Introduction Nowadays the contemporary humanistics is facing two principal tasks: the first one is to unite the huge experimental material accumulated for centuries into one theory which allows understanding the human behavior; the second one is to implement the concepts of innovative, full-featured, dialogue human development into scientific view about the world. * Corresponding author at: Melitopol State Pedagogical University named after Bohdan Khmelnytsky Lenyna st., 20, Melitopol, 72312, Ukraine

E-mail addresses: troizka@ukr.net (T. Troitskaya) www.csjournal.ca


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That is a person who is able to live and be happy in rapidly changed events, civilization challenges, complicated, multi-optional, amphiboles and controversial natural and social-spiritual environment. These tasks have to be based on the new methodology of new knowledge obtaining and also exploring new (proper) assessments of projects, mechanisms of life activity in the polycultural world by a human. Thus, contemporary humanistics addressing to the problem of human dialogueness is not excessive; with the help of dialogue Homo scientis (knowledgeable) will grow into Homo sapiens (wise); a human will enter the area of the mankind’s huge experience interpretations, the area of diversification thinking and the world of authentic ideas and approaches; the mystery of “Other” for a man is revealed in dialogue communication which will enrich the inter-subjectivity of a man; in the dialogue the actualization of people co-existence and the fundamentally important phenomenon of full people co-existence – a meeting - due to which people’s destinies cross and inter-perception of the people world micro-spaces takes place. According to E. Andros, the most important mechanism of civilized arrangement of modern human existence is being worked out through the dialogue. Namely alienation minimization is carried out in practice in the today society which often atomizes the human existence and makes a man alone and withdrawn (Andros 2004). At the same time as polycultural dialogue, intercultural dialogue, area dialogization, polycultural education, discourse and others are used as notions, terms and even categories which likely reflect one phenomenon. So there is an urgent necessity to determine at least the meanings of these notions and free them from connotations, falsifications and non-intellectual layers.

2. Objectives. In extremely limited volume of the article on the basis of encyclopedia editions widely used by humanistics representatives we will try to clarify some moments of both essential and existential content of reflexion of the dialogue in the polycultural society. The discovery of phenomenon essence will enable its interpretation as a phenomenon and an activity and ensure the true orientation to the constructive action.

3. Methods. On the basis of reconstruction of the most important concepts of past philosophical thought concerning the polycultural dialogue the complex of research analytical methods and techniques as well as methodological tools of phenomena study (convention, conceptualization etc.) was used.

4. Results. Starting the analysis of the dialogue essence it is necessary to mention that almost all dictionaries uncover it as a conversation, a talk, problem telling, an utterance exchange etc., indicating the Greek origin of the notion “dialogue” (dialogos). In this comprehension there is the necessity to tell about some terminological interpretations that the notions acquire in concrete-scientific thesauruses as a separate genre in literature including philosophical one, or as one form of art to conduct a talk (Contemporary Philosophy 1957). It also interpreted as a way of the progressive development of cognitive process when the movement to the desired result is carried out by the way of interaction, points of view that are different to some extent (Rapatsevich 2005), or forms of communication between people when the sense is changed depending on www.csjournal.ca


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the purpose of communication (Bulatov 2009) and other. Namely this reduction and fragmentation allow almost all talks that are non-constructive in consensus search to be as a dialogue. Emphasizing the functional mission of a dialogue, in particular its defining as the purpose-ideal (a consciously chosen image of the anticipated result) and as a mechanism of the environment changing, as a mechanism of endless process of new purposes creating (purpose-laying) it is the time to turn to the thoughts of dialogue founders – Socrates and his followers. Socrates and pupils (primarily Plato) evolved the dialogue to its high degree of perfection on the basis of clearing the essence of one or other notions with help of questions and answers where the most important thing was not only knowledge itself but wisdom as lifestyle, as its sense (how to live, according to which notions). The essence of Socrates’ dialogue can be presented in comparison with philosophisizing of thinkers of that time and the next epochs: - as opposed to dogmatic presenting of the philosophical teaching Socrates searched the truth; - he considered a man and his morale as the only interesting subject of a dialogue, while the majority of philosophers had interest in natural philosophy; - Socrates determined the consideration and disproof of many answers on the essence of the good, evil, fairness etc. as the main purpose of a dialogue; this process had to go on until “the correct answer” was found from the point of view of the dialogue leader; the other philosophers, in particular sophists, were satisfied by the rhetorical effect; - according to Socrates, the definition of the discussed subject denied the relativist comprehension of the truth; according to sophists, the truth was almost always relative. Not taking into account the rhetorical (only rhetorical) effect, Socrates constructed answers as a logical operation where the dialectics plays the main role – the art of the anthropological content which continues maieutics (from Greek) – literally the midwife art. Socrates compared his method of philosophizing with this one and thought that helping the truth birth in other people he continued the work of his mother, the midwife Fenarete, in morale sphere (Bulatov 2009). Since those times the dialogue has been changed terminologically and conceptually according to many scholars (M. Bulatov, V. Tancher, V. Andruschenko and others) and it was developed by M. Buber, M. Bakhtin, K. Apel, Ju. Habermas. The last ones comprehended the dialogues as the discourse within communication ethics, as the theoretical-analytical procedure, as the way of scientific analysis of problem complex emphasizing the sober, logical, notional elements; and the analysis means upon the condition of adding with different approaches, interpretation penetration, value correlation and rhetorical strength. But to our point of view, its primary (essential) purposes-eidos and the dialogue content as a dialectics form, the definition of notions as a method of the truth finding out are beyond the phenomena comprehension and they were transformed into the analysis of many existentialists. The comprehension of the dialogue was greatly enriched by L. Feuerbach, “in formulation of development tendencies of new time philosophy he focused on the necessity of theology transforming to anthropology, in particular the God transforming to the Mind and the Mind transforming to the Man. At the same time he was trying to create new religion the principle of which is “a man to a man is the God”, and their main connection is love. Moreover, he “presented the principle of dialogue dialectics – the dialogue “I - You” – opposed to monologue dialectics of Hegel” (Feuerbach 1955). Nevertheless, remembering Socrates who considered human problems worth of dialectics attention, it should be mentioned that he was the first who laid the praxeological foundations of the dialogue as a logical operation and the way of philosophizing and even “midwife” art of the truth birth in other people (maieutics).

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That is exactly why taking into account requirements, in the basis of the analysis of today researches, according to A. Maydanov, E. Andros, V. Boychenko, M. Bulatov, it is necessary to mark the dialogue essence in the modern polycultural world: - a dialogue is the form of gradual development of cognitive process when the movement to the desired result is fulfilled by the way of interaction of various viewpoints, approaches, trends which do not contradict each other. At the same time the interaction is having the character of advancing mobile movement which ensures the progress of cognitive process in certain way. So each act of interaction gives the birth to more optimal results or more considerable and direct pre-conditions to correlate the desired one for the future similar acts. Besides, in the dialogue interaction the understanding of one’s dialogue viewpoint by another one takes place and that involves clarification, correction, improvement, development and enrichment with proper ideas; - as the means of scientific creativity a dialogue performs several functions simultaneously: function of search optimization (its variety encouragement); correction function which is reflected in mutual detailing and interacting viewpoint correction; synthesize function which plays the role of the consolidation means of obtained interaction results ( Rapatsevich 2005); - since a dialogue is changed depending on the communication purpose, the polycultural dialogue is becoming increasingly important one directed towards peaceful and productive development of the mankind and represented in the modern conditions as the communication of various unique cultures. It should be acknowledged that without the “dialectic dialogue” it is impossible to prevent the destruction of cultures as a whole, the acquisition of some cultures by more technically developed ones and, moreover, - the encouragement of culture keeping, the augmentation of cultural heritage and the creation of a “cultural circle”; - a dialogue on the basis of responsibility ethics confirmation is worth attention; it has replaced the educational ethics – the ethics of abstract duty – which discredited itself during the last century and which “was unable to help under the conditions of endless wars (inter-state, civil, world), terrible practice of totalitarian regimes, ethnic cleansing etc., under the conditions of catastrophic value loss of human dignity and proper life, personal people existence” (Andros 2004). This dialogue can be considered as the ethics of community discourse, its fundamental principles and norms are not external for a man, but they are maxims and the result of inter-subjective, mutually coordinated expression of the will. The principally important in this context is the understanding of proper notion “culture” (Latin culture – processing, education, development, mastering), from its literally comprehension to the combination of ways and means of arrangement, the implementation and search of people life activity senses as well as the combination of material and spiritual acquisitions and time and space localized social-historical formations (by B. Boychenko) (Andruschenko, Gorlach 1997).

5.Conclusions. Realizing the many-sidedness of all kinds of a dialogue and the actuality and the significance of the polycultural dialogue undoubtedly, it is necessary to know that their context expansion (even with the help of discourse suggested by Ju. Habermas, F. Grebner, V. Schmidt, Y. Henkel and others; which has to be fulfilled on the basis of rational impartiality, without giving preferences to one or other values) is impossible without turning to Socrates understanding of a dialogue. It means that into the basis of polycultureness it is necessary to lay the principle of pluralism, recognition of parity and equal rights of all ethnical, social, political, www.csjournal.ca


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age, religious, confessional groups, to our mind, in the case if they do not allow elements of discrimination by signs of one or another belonging. Moreover, a dialogue cannot be opened around the truth search unless we “address” to Socrates, his morality, human philosophy or we recognize the human dimension and the human measurability of the intercultural dialogue in the modern context as criteria of the culture level; hence the self-perfection of man’s will, his faithfulness to cultural values (Socrates dreamt about this). For the sense comprehension we suggest to add the operational organization and the consideration of the culture level of the dialogue subjects and the definition level in science, practice of dialogue theme and also the direct contemporary humanistic researches for recognition of trangressiveness, contextuality, reflexiveness as the methodological foundations of scientific search and the organization of the dialogue interaction.

References 1.

Andros E. (2004). Communicative nature of human existence. Philosophy: Man’s World.Kyiv. p. 225-245.

2.

Andruschenko V., Gorlach M. (1997). Social Philosophy: Brief Encyclopedic Dictionary. Kyiv-Kharkiv. 400p.

3.

Bulatov M. (2009). Philosophical Dictionary. Kyiv. 515p.

4.

Contemporary Philosophy: Dictionary and Reading book (1957). Rostov-na-Donu. 511p.

5.

Feuerbach L. (1955). Main fundamentals of Philosophy of future. Vol.1.Moscow. 136p.

6.

Rapatsevich E. (2005). Pedagogy: Big modern encyclopedia. Minsk. 720p.

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Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Contents lists available at Canadian Scientific Journal

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Axiological dimensions of harmonious relations in the system “nature-man” Taranenko Galina * Melitopol State Pedagogical University named after Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Melitopol, Ukraine ARTICLE INFO

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Article history:

The necessity to form new system of values corresponding to global changes in human-nature system has been substantiated. The attention on the appropriateness of the appeal to axiological paradigm of education in the context of harmonization of educational space has been focused. The person’s consciousness ecologization is analyzed in the context of culturaleducational space harmonization. The attention was focused on human dimension and human measurability of the new paradigm creation of the co-world and ecological knowledge transfer. The harmony of the nature and the man is conceptualized as a strategy guideline of person’s cultural-educational space ecologization. There is an emphasize on the importance of addressing to the ethics of the nature, coevolutional worldview, noospherization of human thinking and other determinants of anthropoecologization of the nature space in the process of harmonious formation of the nature and human unity. The necessity to change anthropocentric outlook, dominant in the society, towards integration in world-view of human-commensurable systems, possessing powerful potential of formation of human beings’ value attitude to nature has been substantiated. The basis can be formed with the idea of co-evolution of a human-being and nature, ecological imperative of activity, admitting genetic priority of nature in relation to a human-being, as well as ethics of responsibility.

Received 8 October 2014 Received in revised form 12 October 2014 Accepted 1 November 2014

Keywords: Consciousness ecologization Person’s cultural-educational space harmonization Human dimension and human measurability of ecological knowledge Axiology of the nature

© 2014 Canadian Scientific Journal. All Rights reserved

1. Introduction The social progress of the latest centuries, the significant feature of which was the development of science, technique and technology, has caused some global problems. The escalation of these problems is leading to the necessity of the personality new type formation with the marked innovative potential and the ability to cultural creativity and efficient dialogue with the nature. * Corresponding author at: Melitopol State Pedagogical University named after Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Lenyna st., 20, Melitopol, 72312, Ukraine Tel.: +38 067 665 99 33

E-mail addresses: taranenkogg@mail.ru (G. Taranenko) www.csjournal.ca


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The complexity and universality of ecological global problems of the nowadays force scientists of various science branches for the search of the ways of their solution. The development of new ecological knowledge is defined more often as the most efficient one in the determined context. According to I. Knysh, it provides: the eco-philosophy creation, the ecological knowledge development, the transfer of the human activity into the eco-activity and distribution of ecological knowledge and beliefs through the system of education (Knysh 2008). The actuality of person’s cultural-educational space ecologization problem research is caused by the practice needs, first of all, the needs of education of eco-conscious personality who is able to implement the eco-keeping technologies in the attitude to the nature, society, culture and man.

2. Objectives Analyzing the modern relationship in the system of “nature-man” it is evident that there is man’s insufficient awareness of the consequences of his scornful, destructive, utilitarian-pragmatic attitude to the nature. Thus, there is an urgent need in orientation of personality cultural-educational space for learning and upbringing of the ability and the need to live in eco-safe way, the formation of the will feeling, the competence to live and create through the optimal coordination with the nature. In our opinion, the most efficient factor of the mentioned is the education, and its ecologization is the objective tendency of its development which becomes the strategy resource of the ecological danger overcoming and person’s eco-safe life and creativity forming.

3. Methods The method of dialectics and hermeneutics were chosen as the research method. It allowed to cover the problem as the integrity in the historical context, the nowadays and the prospects development. Concerning hermeneutics it enabled to comprehend the essence of the ecologization process and reveal the inner nature of the indicated process as a filling of all content of education and upbringing with ecological knowledge, values and technologies.

4. Results Ecological education is one of the conditions of human thinking noospherization and the main institution which is able to suggest the solutions of the crisis. For contemporary education process it becomes the foundation of new models creating which have to combine the theoretic knowledge on the nature with practical knowledge on limits and consequences of human activity. It should be pointed out that change of priorities in the man’s attitude to the nature, the society and himself in the eco-safe context is directly connected with the change of his consciousness, thinking, feelings and the will. Hence, until the axiology of the nature becomes the inner feeling of a human there will not be any positive improvements in the eco-dangerous environment. Ecological values have to become dominant ones, and all trends and branches of science, culture and education have to be penetrated with them. Addressing to the axiological constituent of ecological paradigm confirms the depths of inner (spiritual) crisis of the today man. Nowadays for him the ecological paradigm is getting more features of the worldview

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and morale value. It means that the morale ecologization, the formation of ecological imperative, the ethics of responsibility, the co-evolutional worldview, the recognition of the nature genetic priority concerning a man are becoming the powerful factors of standartization and harmonization of the relations in the system “nature-man”. The question is on the new morale consolidation which is possible through the revival of spirituality in human life, confirmation of ontological status for higher values. This foresees the significant changes in man’s consciousness, his worldview principles and priorities connected with confirmation of a new eco-centric type of ecological consciousness. Namely such man with planetary thinking, whose new attitude to the nature in the way of life and behaviour is the integral feature, has to become an ideal of contemporary upbringing. Various institutions and organizations of the society are making their contribution into solving of this global problem. But the essential role in this process belongs to the system of education which allows introducing the ecological knowledge through various links during all human life. At the same time it should be mentioned, that despite great successes of education there is more evidence that it has the global crisis. According to S. Podmazin, nowadays there is incapacity to form such type of man’s thinking which would encourage the solution of global problems of the mankind (Podmazin 2006). Thus, the thought of M. Zlotnikov is actual one in the indicated context, according to which a today man needs to reanimate the need in esthetical component of “man-nature” interconnections, i.e. “returning” its special spiritual and esthetical value to the nature (Zlotnikov 1990). This exactly why, to our mind, the education ecologization is an objective tendency of its development as a respond to negative processes destructive for the nature as well as for the society, culture and a man. It is clear that eco-cultural personality is not formed spontaneously. He\she is the result of direct, systematically organized general (and ecological) education and upbringing, conscious work on himself\ herself etc. Simultaneously we should point out that the ecological paradigm determining the character, intensity and directions of the interaction of a man and the nature is not new. It is a shame that it is often connected with the increase of hour quantity that are given to biological and ecological subjects within the curricula. According to L. Bol’shak, the inclusion of ecological component to the basic part of education outlines vividly the efforts to justify the necessity of creation of independent education branch – eco-education- on the basis of specially developed methodological platform which will enable to formulate its aims and tasks, methodological and didactical tools etc. In general, the researcher defines this platform as ecologuzation of education sphere providing the implementation of eco-education principles into other constituents of education. At the same time the education on the environment issues does not have to be only a subject liable to be included into the existing curricula. It has to become a catalyzer of updating the system, concepts and methods of education. In the scholar’s opinion, the ecologization of education and upbringing is the process of their content filling with knowledge, values, feelings, information, technologies etc. Forming man’s corresponding awareness, all these things also form competences and means of activity directed to prevention or minimization of the increasing ecological danger (Bol’shak 2012). This thought is supported by N. Morozova, who considers the ecologization of education content as the process of improvement (updating, reconstruction) implemented in education program introduction, new program development directed to mastering of ecological constituent of education content by future specialists. The mastering is aimed to ensure the forming of all-round personality ready for creation (keeping) and development of material and spiritual culture of the society (Morozova 2012). Thus, education ecologization can be considered as the system of measures on ecological knowledge mastering optimization by a personality, i.e. the knowledge on objective laws of the environment functioning

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and the interaction of the nature and a man, whose purpose is ecological culture forming. All the mentioned require the development of new methods and the improvement of existing ones in ecological subject teaching at different links of education as well as the introduction of ecological knowledge elements into various subjects teaching (both humanities and sciences). We believe that education ecologization is the process of filling of education content with ecological knowledge, development of ecological culture, skills and habits of practical activity with implementation of ecological policy principles. Concerning the ecologization of personality cultural-educational space we mean the ecological knowledge expansion and replenishment as well as creation of the conditions encouraging the deep comprehension of the essence of phenomena and processes that take place at modern stage of the society and nature interaction by a personality, his ability to apply obtained knowledge, compare facts and assess the condition of the environment, forecast the influence results and consequences on the nature and be able to make reasonable decisions. In the mentioned context it is principally important to take into account social and philosophical foundations of education, in particular: - innovative type of society development on the basis of efficient usage of scientific knowledge and new “breakthrough” information technologies which will enable to decrease resource consumption and reduce the anthropological loading on the nature up to the level that ensures the sustainable development of the civilization; - noosphere worldview based on the idea of co-evolution of the man and the nature, the ecological imperative, the ethics of responsibility, the genetic priority of the nature concerning a man and the high personal responsibility of each person for keeping all forms of life on the planet. Generalizing the problem of cultural-educational space ecologization it is necessary to emphasize the actuality and importance of development of innovative technologies on harmonization of man and nature’s relationship, in particular: - creation of new approaches on reinterpretation of previous experience and modern base achievements (anthropoecological approach); - introduction of the human dimension principle of science into the process of ecological knowledge creation which has to correspond to new needs of the personality’s life; - involvement of ecophilic traditions and ideas of the native and the world history into a new political context and their implementation in the activity of scientific, educational, cultural-educational institutions; - introduction of the system of scientific, educational and technical measures aimed at the man and the environment’s relationship harmonization; - giving the priority to the ethical dimension of interaction in the system of “nature-man”.

5.Conclusions Thus, the cultural-educational space harmonization cannot be implemented completely without a new paradigm of education. Changing scientific foundations, basics, orientation and character of education significantly, this paradigm will acknowledge the creative innovative activity, critical and logical comprehension of concrete situations, and orientation to the solution of real problems facing the society and a man as the main dominants. Education ecologization is becoming an important constituent of person’s cultural-educational space harmonization. Through education ecologization there is a formation of a new level of the man and nature’s relationship, implementation of sustainable development ideas, strengthening of modern ecological culture www.csjournal.ca


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values and norms, formation of eco-centric and ecological awareness. By giving the priority to the ethical dimension of interaction in the system “nature-man” it is possible to find the optimal vectors of the global problems’ solution by the way of education and upbringing ecologization.

References 1.

Bol’shak L. (2012). Education ecologization as a social need of modern society: (PhD thesis). – 20p.

2.

Knysh I. (2008) Ecological knowledge in modern educational discourse: (PhD thesis). – 20p.

3.

Morozova N. Education ecologization as means of ecological culture formation [Electronic resource]: http://www.rae.ru/fs/?section=content&op=show_article&article_id=7982157

4.

Podmazin S. (2006) Personality oriented education (social-philosophical analysis) (Thesis of Doctor of science). Dnipropetrovsk. 44p.

5.

Zlotnikov N.(1990). Nature as esthetical value. Philosophy and ecological problem. Moscow. 313p.

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Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Contents lists available at Canadian Scientific Journal

Canadian Scientific Journal journal homepage: www.csjournal.ca

The work with the students in the residential areas as one of the leading directions of educational work Halysheva Alona* Melitopol State Pedagogical University named after Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Melitopol, Ukraine ARTICLE INFO

ABSTR AC T

Article history:

The article is about the education and educational work with the students in their residential areas. It presents different views and analysis of recent researches of the well-known educators about the definition of the term “education”. The article deals with the social environment as a factor which influences the development of a child. The definition of educational work in the residential areas and its developing in the south of Ukraine, in Melitopol, in the second part of the XX century is analyzed. It is opened the development of different clubs for the interests and other educational institutions in the article. Basing on the researches of the scientists and leading educators the author gives detailed analysis of this problem in the article. The article shows that nowadays it is important to involve the students into the active types of the after – classes activities in their free time for their self-education and vital self-determination.

Received 14 November 2014 Received in revised form 20 November 2014 Accepted 21 November 2014

Keywords: Education Educational work in the residential areas Social environment Child’s development

© 2014 Canadian Scientific Journal. All Rights reserved

1. Introduction The conceptual ideas of the development of education are as follows: providing the intensive innovative development of the education, updating the maintenance and technologies of educational process in accordance with democratic values, market principles of economy, modern scientific and technical achievements. The implementation of these tasks connects with involving of the students into the active types of after-

* Corresponding author at: Melitopol State Pedagogical University named after Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Lenyna st., 20, Melitopol, 72312, Ukraine Tel.: +380972175859

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classes activities which will be the instruments of self-education and vital self-determination in their spare time.

2. Analysis of recent research

The process of education was studied by well-known educators as P. Blonsky, A.Pinkevich, V.Karakovskiy, L. Novikova, M.Rozhkov. The problem of the influence of the educational environment on the youth upringing was analyzed by K. Ushinskiy, A. Lazurskiy , P. Lesgaft, I.Kohn, N.Shurkova, U. Manuylov.

3. Statement of research objectives. - To study the definition of the term “education”; - to analyze the problem of the educational work with the students in their residential areas; - to consider the development of the educational work in the residential areas in the south of Ukraine, in Melitopol, in the second part of the XX century.

4. Results To study the problem of educational work with students in the residential areas it is necessary to give the definition of the process of education which was analyzed by different educators and scientists. According to “the free dictionary” by Farlex the process of education is a field of study concerned with pedagogies of teaching and learning and the act of process of educating or being educated. P. Blonskiy thought that education was deliberate, organized, long impact on development of some organism and the object of such influence could be any living being – a person, an animal and a plant. A. Pinkevich described the process of education as deliberate systematic impact of one person (people) on another (others) in order to develop biologically or socially useful natural properties of the personality. Both of these educators thought that the education is the bilateral process the aim of which is to organize the life and activity of pupils, to accumulate them to social experience. V. Karakovskiy and L. Novikova have also been studying this term. They think that the education is the purposeful management of the personality development. M. Rozhkov has been examining the educational work as the influence of an educator on a pupil within implementation of professional functions. It includes realization of a complex of the organizational and pedagogical tasks which are solved by the teacher to ensure optimum development of a personality of a pupil; a choice of forms and methods of pupils’ education according to the tasks and the process of their implementation. Studying the term of “educational work in the residential areas” we have found the following definition of it. The educators think that it is the direction of the pedagogical work which is connected with the activity with www.csjournal.ca


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The work with the students in the residential areas as one of the leading directions of educational work

young people in the residential districts. We know that clubs it the place of residence unite children with adults in their free time and create conditions for their communication and their common activity. Due to the resolution of the Central committee of Ukraine and Council of Ministers of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic on December 8th, 1966 № 900, item №12, on actions of further improvement of the work of the general secondary school in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, there was such a statement – to introduce the position of an organizer of the after-classes and out – of – school work with children into the staff of a secondary school. Today there are a lot of after-classes institutions such as sport centers, children and youth stations, and clubs by interests which are forms of out – of - school activities. The topicality of our research is connected with social needs of the society in upbringing children in the residential districts and not enough developed problem of additional education. Analyzing the direction of educational work with the students in the residential areas it is necessary to investigate the problem of the influence of the educational environment on the youth upbringing. There were a lot of educators such as K. Ushinskiy, A. Lazurskiy, P. Lesgaft, who studied this problem. A child interacts with the surrounding since the birth: with family, friends and schoolmates. Studying the concept “environment” and its influence on the development and formation of the personality we analyzed a number of researches and publications which were made on this topic. One of the interesting statements to us was provided by I.S Kohn. The way through “influences of the environment which recruits the individual to the public life, teaches him to understand culture and behavior in society, performance of different social roles” (I. S. Kohn) is one of the directions of indirect educational influences. This approach provides creation of space in which development of a sociality of an individual as the social personality for his own effective social formation and transformation becomes possible. Essence of this approach is to bring up the children through that environment which surrounds them as a community, in the organization of perception of this environment which is improved by children with the help of teachers, parents, and friends. N. E. Shchurkova subdivides the educational environment into visually spatial, behavioral, event and information cultural environment. Visually spatial environment of a pupil creates a psychological background where relationship of its participants develops. The behavioral environment of the school is distinguished as unity of behavior that is peculiar to a pupil at a certain school, due to wide use of these or those behavioral forms: they are mimicry and gestures at conversation, poses at dialogues, and also the difficult situations which are connected with ethical order. Analyzing the concept of the event environment, we know that it is a certain set of events which are directed to the center of perception of a pupil and become the reason for certain vital conclusions and reflections. Informational environment has the educational function if there is a wide range of literature in a school library, everyone has textbooks, and teachers involve the children to the vigorous activities, such as public statements, competitions, abstract performances, conferences. According to U. Manuylov using of the environmental approach in the educational process is a necessary www.csjournal.ca


A. Halysheva / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

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The work with the students in the residential areas as one of the leading directions of educational work

condition of its implementation and means of optimization of the influence on the personality of the pupil. This is a good method that allows teachers to act as researchers, to be grouped in collectives which work together and have common logic and talk on common vernacular. Searching the facts of this problem we have analyzed the educational work with the students in the residential areas in the south of Ukraine, in Melitopol. We have known that in the late fifties - in the 60th of the XX century the construction was being built in Melitopol. Together with the new five-storey buildings in the housing residential districts the rooms for pupils called as pioneer outposts, translated as an advanced post from German, were opened. In the south of Ukraine, in Melitopol there were many examples which proved and interesting that society worried about the problem of leisure of children and wanted to be useful and interesting for pupils. In 1962 the nurseries were organized by the house management together with the members of the house committee. There were such directions as: •

aircraft modelling; automodelling;

photo club;

puppet theatre;

young sculptors;

library and hockey team.

Photo 1. Hockey team in Melitopol

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A. Halysheva / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

The work with the students in the residential areas as one of the leading directions of educational work

Photo 2. The children were preparing for start of rockets

There were a lot of clubs by the interest, lectures were given there and the discussions were organized. The first heads of the clubs were: S. Fefelov, T. Babenko, T. Rudenko, L. Dyuzhayeva. Children’s committees were organized there after some time. Stepanov I.S. paid a lot of attention to this work. In 1974 outposts were renamed into the children’s junior clubs, but little outposts were named as the room for school students. So it is necessary to emphasize that at that time a certain structural unit of the leisure organizations for students which included clubs at the place of residence, sports platforms, nurseries, children’s committees, clubs that were founded at each comprehensive school, palaces of culture as: 1)

«Rovesnik»; 2)

«Samodelka»; 3) «Dzerzhіnets»; 4) «Burevіsnik»; 5) «Vognik»; 6) «Antey»; 7)

«Prometey»; 8) «Olіmpіya»; 9) «Yunіst’»; 10) «Chervona gvozdika»; 11) «David»;12) «Gerkules»; 13) «Gvozdіchka»;14) «Molodіzhniy»; 15)«Fakel» was established there. The main aim of foundation of the outposts was to organize a substantial leisure in the residential areas of the children and teenagers and to involve them into sports, technical modeling, and applied creativity.

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A. Halysheva / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

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The work with the students in the residential areas as one of the leading directions of educational work

5. Conclusions

Having analyzed the archive materials and scientific works in our article we can make general conclusion. We have considered the definition of the term “education” and “educational work in the residential area” by the different educators and realized that education is the bilateral process and the work which is aimed to develop a personality. Educational work in the residential area is the direction of pedagogical work which is connected with the activity in the residential districts with the young people. We have considered the historical development of this work in the south of Ukraine, in Melitopol in the second part of the XX century and made a conclusion that a certain structural unit of the leisure organizations for students was established there.

References 1.

Karakovskiy V, Novikova L, Selivanova L (2000) Education? Education…Education! : Theory and practice of the school educational system, after edn. of N Selivanova, Moscow

2.

Manuylov U (1997) Environmental approach in education. Dissertation, University of Moscow

3.

Meleshko V (2008) Environmental approach: an experience of the experimental work in the country school. After edn. of Native3 school. - №1/2/, 24 – 27

4.

Prikhodchenko K (2010) Environmental approach in training and educating of youth. After edn. of The way of education. - №3, 22 – 27

5.

Shchurkova N (1996) Education as the pedagogical phenomenon. General regularities and principles of education. After the edn. of P Pidkasistiy, Mockow

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Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Contents lists available at Canadian Scientific Journal

Canadian Scientific Journal journal homepage: www.csjournal.ca

Influence of the non-biological parameters of water (water temperature) on the paddlefish larvae (Polyodon spathula) ongrowing in the conditions of the south of Ukraine Grudko Natalya*, Kornienko Vladimir Kherson State Agrarian University, Kherson, Ukraine Ukraine ARTICLE INFO

ABSTR AC T

Article history:

Techonology of propagation and cultivation of paddlefish (Polyodon spathula

Received 23 August 2014

(Walbaum)) in terms of Southern Ukraine has some features different from such in

Received in revised form 16 September 2014

native region. Authors studied relationship between water temperature and ongrowing

Accepted 9 October 2014

results. Attention payed to such markers as average individual mass, survival rate and fish productivity. Special investigations to set up relationship between water

Keywords: Paddlefish Larva Water temperature Growth potential Stocking density Survival rate

temperature and results of ongrowing paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) larvae were carried out at the base of Dneprovsky sturgeon fishplant which located in the Kherson region (Southern part of Ukraine, Eastern v) at 2004-2006, 2013. Received data shows that most efficient is to grow paddlefish larvae at the early stages of postembryogenesis keeping water temperature near 20oC. It allow larvae to realize their growing potential and more effective using of the food items. This in turn boosts up fish productivity. Ongrowing larvae with such temperature allowed receiving in short terms fish with average individual mass of 1.4-1.8g while survival rate was up to 62.2%. Instead, decreasing water temperature to 16oC led to slower growth. Š 2014 Canadian Scientific Journal. All Rights reserved

1. Introduction Growing technologies used to receive sturgeons in artificial conditions are based on fundamentals, both technological and ecological ones. Furthermore, ecological parameters of water have significant effect on the results of ongrowing (Vinogradov et al., 2003; Milstein, 1982).

* Corresponding author at: Kherson State Agrarian University, 23, Rozy Luksemburg st, Kherson, 73000, Ukraine Tel.: +38095 642 59 79; Fax.: +380552319113

E-mail addresses: ngrudko@mail.ru (N. Grudko) www.csjournal.ca


N. Grudko, V. Kornienko / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Influence of the non-biological parameters of water (water temperature) on the paddlefish larvae (Polyodon spathula) ongrowing in the conditions of the south of Ukraine

81

Sturgeons are poikilothermal animals like other fish and the temperature of water is the main factor of the environment which determines organism resistance rate. It has effect on growing rate of larvae, their intensity of food intake and its indigestion, metabolic activity. At the same time as for growing technologies of paddlefish this problem is studied insufficiently in conditions of south of Ukraine and may have important effect on the growing technology (Kornienko, Shevchenko, 1999). Taking into account the mentioned above, there is an urgent need for special investigation aimed at examining such temperature mode of water which allows receiving maximum amount of viable fish stock of paddlefish.

2. Materials and Methods Special investigations were carried out on the base of Dneprovsky sturgeon fish plant located in Kherson region (southern part of Ukraine, Eastern Europe). Paddlefish larvae were held in the circular concrete basins (total square 5m2) and square plastic basins (total square 2m2). Larvae of paddlefish were the objects of this investigation. Different alternatives were formed using the analogue method. In attempt to determine the influence of water temperature we formed 4 alternatives with triple replication (each replication with different stocking density â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 600, 1000 and 2000 fish/m2). Different years of growing were used as alternatives while other technology and non-bilogical parameters were the same. Feeding of fish in experimental basins was made using only natural food (Daphnia sp.) 6 times a day in amount of 40% of larvaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mass per day. Once per 5 days we took samples to analyze the growth rate of larvae. Average individual mass of larvae at the beginning of experiment was almost the same in all alternatives and ranged from 10.4 to 10.9 mg. The main goal was to evaluate the results of research by primary fishery indexes, such as average individual mass, survival rate and fish capacity. Water sampling and its physic-chemical analysis was made using well-known recommendations (Alyokin, 1970).

3. Results

After analyzing non-biological conditions of water we established that main chemical markers of water were almost constant, varied little in the range, which was optimal for growth of paddlefish larvae in basins. Concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water was favorable and ranged from 5.8 to 8.0g O2/m3. pH of the water was the weakly alkaline and ranged within 7.8-8.4. The main attention in our research was focused on the dynamics of water temperature and dissolved oxygen. In the first alternative the temperature was rather low and ranged from 13.3 to 18.2oC (56-65 oF) with average 16.0 oC (60.8 oF) (Figure 1).

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N. Grudko, V. Kornienko / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Influence of the non-biological parameters of water (water temperature) on the paddlefish larvae (Polyodon spathula) ongrowing in the conditions of the south of Ukraine

Figure 1. Dynamics of water temperature in experimental basins in the process of paddlefish larvae ongrowing.

In second alternative the water temperature was more favorable and ranged from 19.0 to 22.8oC with average 20.9oC, though at the beginning (till 4th day) it reached 22oC, than decreased to 19oC and systematically increased to 22.8oC at the end of ongrowing. Such dynamics allowed paddlefish larvae to shift to mixed feeding on the 5-6 day, which is 3-5 days earlier than in other alternatives. Third alternative the water temperature was a bit lower for the preceding year and ranged from 16.0 to 21.4oC with average 18.9oC. The last fourth alternative, unlike others, had minor water temperature fluctuations during growing process. At the beginning it reached 19.8oC, on 20th day it increased up to 20.3oC. Only last 5 days were marked with sudden warming of water up to 23.6oC. Average water temperature in this alternative was 20.2oC. After analyzing the obtained data we have discovered that the highest individual mass of paddlefish larvae was received in 2nd and 4th alternatives (average water temperature â&#x20AC;&#x201C; near 20oC) (Table.1)

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83

N. Grudko, V. Kornienko / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Influence of the non-biological parameters of water (water temperature) on the paddlefish larvae (Polyodon spathula) ongrowing in the conditions of the south of Ukraine

Table 1. Relationship between water temperature and results of paddlefish larvae ongrowing Alternative

1

2

3

4

Water temperature, o C average (min-max)

Stocked quantity, fishes/m2

16,01 (13,3-18,2)

20,9 (19,0-22,8)

18,9 (16,0-21,4)

20,2 (18,6-23,6)

Produced individual mass, mg

Survival rate, %

Fish capacity,

individual mass, mg

quantity, fishes/m2

600

10,9

378,0

397,9

63,1

149,7

1000

10,5

402,5

386,7

40,2

151,5

2000

10,7

468,7

358,8

23,4

160,6

600

10,4

373,0

1866,7

62,2

695,4

1000

10,4

374,7

1780,0

38,2

662,2

2000

10,5

407,3

1461,1

20,4

588,1

600

10,7

393,0

895,3

65,5

346,6

1000

10,5

407,0

856,7

41,0

344,6

2000

10,9

494,3

742,0

24,7

358,0

600

10,0

359,0

1750,0

59,8

623,6

1000

10,2

435,3

1440,0

43,5

619,0

2000

10,2

489,3

990,0

24,5

461,6

g/m2

Similar to the individual mass, the highest fish capacity was marked in 2nd (from 588.1 to 695.4 g/m2) and 4th (from 461.6 to 623.6 g/m2) alternatives. The lowest productivity was noticed in 1st alternative (from 151.6 to 160.6 g/m2) Average individual mass of paddlefish larvae in 2nd alternative was 4.1-4.6 times bigger than 1st one and 1.7-2.1 times bigger than in 3rd one. It is remarkable that survival rate had low relationship with water temperature and revealed minor fluctuations. Instead, stocking density was effected directly. Thus, in series with stocking density of 600 fishes/m2 the survival rate was about 62.2-65.5%. The lowest survival rate was registered in series with highest stocking density (2000 fishes/m2) and it ranged from 20.4 to 24.7% in different alternatives.

4. Conclusions

As we can see, it is more efficient to grow paddlefish larvae at the early stages of postembryogenesis keeping water temperature around 20oC. It allows larvae to realize their growth potential on the basis of more effective usage of fish food. In turns, this boosts up the fish capacity. Larvae ongrowing at such www.csjournal.ca


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N. Grudko, V. Kornienko / Canadian Scientific Journal 2 (2014)

Influence of the non-biological parameters of water (water temperature) on the paddlefish larvae (Polyodon spathula) ongrowing in the conditions of the south of Ukraine

temperature allows receiving fish with average individual mass of 1.4-1.8g in short terms at the survival rate up to 62.2%. On the contrary, water temperature decreasing to 16oC led to slower growth; consequently it did not allow obtaining high mass indexes.

References 1.

Alyokin Đ&#x17E; (1970) Basics of hydrochemistry. Hydrometeoizdat, Moscow

2.

Vinogradov V, Melchenkov E, Yerohina L (2003) Biological fundamentals of propagation and cultivation of paddlefish (Polyodon spathula (Walbaum)). Rosinformagrotech, Moscow

3.

Kornienko V, Shevchenko V (1999) About cultivation of paddlefish in Southern Ukraine. In: Conservation technologies in aquaculture. Adler. pp 119-120

4.

Milstein V (1982) Sturgeon Culture. Pischevaya Promyschlennost, Moscow

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Canadian Scientific Journal. Issue 2. 2014  
Canadian Scientific Journal. Issue 2. 2014  

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