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PM #40009439 Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: Suite 201, 2400 Bevan Ave., Sidney BC, V8L 1W1


In This Issue 18 A Better Life for Canada’s Horses The new Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Equines

46 The Magic of the Horse and Carriage A step back in time to a distant heritage.

HORSE HEALTH 14 Laminitis and Insulin-Resistance Is there herbal help? 16 Mycotoxins in the Equine Environment Reduce the risk of exposure to toxins.

TACK & GEAR 24 How to Select and Fit a Riding Helmet Get a good fit for safety and comfort. 30 When Horses Behave Badly Unwanted behaviour may be caused by your saddle.

58 New & Noteworthy Products A collection of products available in Canada from horse industry businesses.

BARNS & PROPERTIES 36 Turn your Tractor into a Workhorse Innovative accessories and

implements can transform your tractor into a multi-tasking machine.


Departments 6 Editorial 8-10 Hoofbeat 12 Horse Council BC News 60-62,Inside B/Cover Country Homes & Acreages 63 Celebration of Horses Photo Contest 64 Canadian Therapeutic Riding Association News 65 To Subscribe

EquiNetwork 66 Hitchin’ Post 67 Classifieds 68 Roundup The Alberta Stables Initiative





June 2014

4 • June 2014




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Laminitis and Insulin-Resistance IS THERE HERBAL HELP? BY DR. WENDY PEARSON, PhD (DR. OF VETERINARY TOXICOLOGY) Laminitis and insulin-resistance (IR) are troublesome conditions in and of themselves; so it is all the more frustrating that they tend to travel together. So while fresh, rich springtime grass beckons winter-weary horses, the insulin-resistant ones must stand resigned and glum on the wrong side of the fence as their wellintentioned owners toss them last year’s browning hay. right: The horse with insulin-resistance should be kept away from fresh spring grass due to its high sugar content.


below: The insulinresistant horse is typically a round couch potato whose diet has included too much starch and sugar.

14 • June 2014

IR can occur in horses just as easily as in humans, and often for the same reasons. The IR horse is typically rather round, has enjoyed too much sugar and starch in his/her diet, is a bit of a couch potato, and may have some mineral imbalances. These predisposing characteristics help the cells of the horse’s body to become resistant to the presence of insulin. This causes the pancreas to produce excessive amounts of insulin in an effort to get cells to respond to the presence of insulin. The clinical signs of IR include rather odd fatty deposits in various places on the horse’s body, excessive drinking and urination and, of course, laminitis. Laminitis is frustratingly robust to the healing hands of time, and it can take many months before the horse returns to his functional livelihood after an episode. To understand why laminitis is so frequently comorbid with IR, we need only look to the diabetics in our own lives who struggle with poor circulation in their feet, hands and legs. This occurs because insulin-resistant cells are also defective in production and secretion of nitric oxide, a key molecule which regulates dilation of blood vessels. When less nitric oxide is present the blood vessels cannot dilate properly, typically in metabolically active tissues like those in the feet — or the horse’s hooves. This creates a breeding ground for fatty deposits in capillaries which cause release of inflammatory compounds which further exacerbate the problem. The most effective method for preventing IRdependent episodes of laminitis is to treat the IR. There are a number of herbs which have shown excellent efficacy in treating IR in humans, one of the most wellstudied of which is fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum). Enriching your horse’s diet with high-quality fenugreek and herbs which promote peripheral circulation such as ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) will help to regulate your horse’s blood sugar, increase circulation to those sensitive bones in his hooves, and may let him finally go where the grass truly is greener. b Dr. Pearson received her PhD from the Dept. of Biomedical Sciences at the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, with a specialization in efficacy and safety of nutraceutical products in horses with arthritis. After graduating from her doctoral program in 2007, Dr. Pearson worked for a multinational research and development consulting firm specializing in natural veterinary drug development. She then accepted an NSERC-funded post-doctoral research fellowship at the University of Guelph studying the effect of “designer plants” on arthritis in horses.


Mycotoxins in the Equine Environment BY DR. WENDY PEARSON, PhD (DR. OF VETERINARY TOXICOLOGY) Mycotoxins are compounds produced by molds and fungi, and can be found in pastures as well as on dried forages, bedding, grains, and complete feeds. Of all the agricultural species, horses are among the most sensitive to toxicosis from mycotoxins. An important reason for this is that horses typically have a much longer lifespan than any other agricultural species and exposure to mycotoxins can take place over many years. Clinical signs of pathological exposure to mycotoxins may include reduced growth rates in foals and young horses, respiratory dysfunction, problems with fertility and reproduction, neurological and/or brain disorders, liver or kidney damage, allergic reactions, anorexia, reduced performance, and colic.

more prone to contamination with mycotoxins, including rye-grass, fescues and white clover. Ideal conditions for the endophytes to proliferate on these grasses are periods of hot, dry weather followed by rains. Toxicosis from these endophytes may present as “ryegrass staggers,” in which horses lose coordination and balance; the condition also causes abortion, headshaking, and collapse. Other conditions include “fescue poisoning,” which presents as loss of appetite, abortion and foaling problems; and “slobbers” (excessive salivation, tears, uncontrolled diarrhea and urination) induced by exposure to slaframine from contaminated white clover. These conditions can also result from exposure to preserved forages prepared from contaminated grasses. It has been reported that approximately 15 percent of Canadian hay is contaminated with mycotoxins. Preservation of high-moisture hay (haylage) may be an excellent strategy to reduce mycotoxin exposure, as commercial inoculants used to facilitate the ensiling process in well-made haylage create conditions that are unfavorable for mold growth and can reduce mycotoxin exposure by about 25 percent.

Grains and Commercial Feeds The type and magnitude of reactions to mycotoxin exposure can vary widely, depending on many factors. These include duration of exposure to the toxin (repeated exposure to low-dose toxins can result in greater sensitivity), previous toxin exposure (single bouts of toxicosis lead to intensified reactions during subsequent exposures), age, breed, workload, immune and nutritional status, and type of toxin to which the horse is being exposed. Furthermore, if the toxins are being delivered in contaminated feed, there is frequently more than one type of toxin present. This often leads to synergistic toxicities, amplifying toxic effects of individual compounds.

Cereal grains, especially maize (corn), can be a ready source of mycotoxin contamination. Grains can become infected with mold either in the field or during storage. Common mycotoxins found on cereal grains include aflatoxin, fumonisins, tricothecenes and zearalenone. Aflatoxin toxicosis can result in death, growth suppression, cancer, liver damage, and inhibition of mineral absorption

including iron, phosphorus and copper. Ponies fed diets high in aflatoxin (2 ppm) show significant liver damage, whereas much lower concentrations (0.3 ppm) have reportedly caused death in horses. Poisoning with fumonisins results in a neurological disease called equine leukoencephalomalacia. This disease presents as loss of coordination, depression, muscle tremors, and loss of swallowing reflex. Tricothecene toxicosis causes clinical signs including anorexia, weight loss, immune suppression, poor performance and colic. Zearalenone is a common culprit in horses experiencing reproductive problems.

Bedding Bedding can be an important source of mycotoxin poisoning in horses, and straw is a particular risk because horses are often quite willing to consume it when not offered an alternate forage source throughout the day. A common practice of sprinkling water on straw bedding to reduce dust can accelerate mold growth and encourage subsequent mycotoxin formation.

Summary Mycotoxins are an omnipresent risk throughout the equine environment. While complete eradication is an unlikely scenario, awareness of the risk and mitigation of exposure can result in a meaningful reduction in toxic signs. Tolerance limits of important mycotoxins (see table below) provide a basis for testing for mycotoxin contamination of feedstuffs and bedding, to help horse owners restrict exposure of their horses to potentially dangerous intakes. b Reprinted with permission from


Maximum Tolerable Level (ppm)


0.02 ppm

T2 Toxin

No effect on ovarian activity when fed at 1 ppm


2 ppm of total diet or 5 ppm in cereal feed

Pastures and forage


No effect on ovarian activity when fed at 1 ppm

Most horses spend a significant portion of their days during the growing season grazing on pastures. Certain grasses are


Less than 5 ppm


0.3 – 0.5 ppm

16 • June 2014

A Better Life for Canada’s Horses BY JUDITH LAVOIE

It’s raining, with a chilly wind blowing across the open field, and, as usual, the dull-eyed horse is standing at the gate, hanging his head. His ribs are showing, there is minimal shelter and concerned neighbours have reported the owner to the SPCA or local humane society. Until last year, too often, there were times when little could be done to help the animal, especially if the owner resisted education and insisted he was caring adequately for a horse by providing the bare necessities of life. But, last summer, Canada’s new Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Equines was released by Equine Canada and the National Farm Animal Care Council and those standards should help educate horse owners, provide tools to enforcement agencies, and ultimately mean a better life for many horses, donkeys and mules in Canada. The 2013 Equine Code, put together by an 18-member committee of horse owners, horse industry 18 • June 2014

representatives, veterinarians, scientists, and animal welfare groups, spells out better standards of care for horses and, when necessary, gives a framework that can be used to prosecute neglectful or cruel horse owners. Although the new Code is not legally binding, it will be used as a reference document, said Bill desBarres, chairman of the Horse Welfare Alliance of Canada. “Provincial organizations have said it will be a valuable tool to assist with regulations and that is as much as we could ever hope for,” desBarres said. In addition to enforcement officers using the Code to educate horse owners, the provisions will be used to show courts the standard of care expected by the horse industry.


Code committee member Les Burwash, manager of horse programs for Alberta Agriculture, is hoping the new Code sets out requirements that horse owners and handlers will not be able to ignore. “What the Code does is establish a standard of care for horses, donkeys and mules that the industry says is acceptable,” he said. “If everyone lived by the Code, man, our horses would be in great shape.” The new Code, which took two-and-ahalf years to hammer out, replaces guidelines that had not been updated for more than 15 years. It has 75 requirements for equine care, instead of 25 in the 1998 code, and there are numerous recommendations on how to provide good care from birth to euthanasia. In future, the aim is to have the Code updated regularly to reflect new research, information or changing societal attitudes. The Code specifies how horses should be housed and fed, sets out how social needs should be met, details adequate hoof care and exercise requirements, and spells out how to identify when euthanasia is the best option. Recommendations on improving horse care range from minimizing stress during training and providing the best nutrition for your horse to having a handy first aid kit during trailering and checking that blankets are waterproof. In one of the more controversial moves, the Code identifies unacceptable practices and forbids tail blocking, tail docking for cosmetic purposes, and tail nicking – cutting the horse’s tail muscle so the animal carries the tail high. Committee members hope the document will be used not only by those dealing with cases of neglect or abuse, but by every horse owner and those contemplating buying a horse. “We tried to set standards that were easy to understand,” said Jack de Wit of Brooklin, Ontario, chairman of the Code Development Committee and an Equine Canada director. “We wanted to keep in mind that we were not only writing it for professionals, we were also writing it for little Sally Smith in rural Canada and for the people who don’t always have a veterinarian at their fingertips,” he said. The goal now is to pass the information to the wider horse community. Animal advocacy organizations and sport groups across the country are briefing members and encouraging trainers to pass on information to their students. “We’re doing outreach to make sure people know about the new standards,” said Erica Mattson, BC SPCA stakeholder

relations officer. The key is reaching beyond those who turn out for community meetings as they are usually the responsible horse owners, said Dr. Bettina Bobsien, an equine veterinary specialist who represented the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies and BC.

above: The Code is meant to provide recommendations to be used not only in cases of neglect or abuse, but to educate new horse owners who may not know the basics of horse care or understand the related costs, as well as to provide guidance to owners in rural areas who do not have easy access to a veterinarian.

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Select & Fit a Riding Helmet



24 • June 2014

As an experienced rider, you know that falls and injuries are a very real possibility whether you are training or competing. However, statistics on head injuries are pretty sobering. In the report “Ten years of major equestrian injury: are we addressing functional outcomes?” published in the February 2009 issue of the Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes, lead author Jill Ball and a team of health professionals with the University of Calgary, the Foothills Medical Centre and the Calgary Health Region explored the outcomes of severe and serious equestrian injuries. Selecting a study period from 1995 to 2005, they reviewed all trauma patients and identified 151 injured when horse riding. Ten died, all from catastrophic head injuries. Of the remaining 141, all had a mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 20 (major trauma) as a direct result of their injuries. According to the Brain Injury Alliance of Kentucky, hospital emergency rooms in the U.S. treat approximately 70,000 equestrian related injuries, three of every five equestrian accident deaths are due to brain injuries, and there is a four-fold increase in mortality for injured, non-helmeted riders. Of all injuries caused by large animals that are treated by trauma units, horses are responsible for more than half, and approximately one-third of these are brain or head injuries. According to Horse Council BC, a human skull can be shattered on impacts of 7 to 10 kilometers per hour (kph) and a horse can gallop at over 60 kph. A fall from just two feet can cause brain injury, yet when sitting on a horse, the rider’s head is at least eight feet above the ground. If a horse bucks the rider off, she is often torpedoed head first to the ground. A study published in the journal Nature in 2002 stated that head injuries outnumber spinal injuries five to one. A proper helmet can drastically reduce the chance of a head injury. When the United States Pony Club tightened its regulations for headgear, concussions were reduced by


above: Three out of every five equestrian accident deaths are caused by brain injuries. A proper helmet can greatly reduce the risk of a catastrophic head injury.


��������������������������������������� hair is part of your head measureleft: Your ments, and if you compete in multiple disciplines each requiring a different hair style, you may need to purchase a helmet for each discipline.

29 percent and head injuries by 26 percent during the following two years. Although a helmet cannot protect the rider from injury under every circumstance, the benefits of protective headgear cannot be discounted. However, for helmets to function as intended, they must: • Fit properly • Receive proper care • Be replaced when needed

Fitting a Helmet Because a helmet must fit properly to provide adequate protection, a helmet should not be used by more than one rider. The first step in purchasing a helmet is to take accurate measurements of your head. Use a measuring tape that is marked in centimeters as this yields the most accurate results. Be

sure to write down the measurements as you take them. Having someone else assist you can make the task easier. Remember to take into account that helmet sizes are like shoe sizes and can vary among brands. Measuring your head may give you a guide as to the size you need, but it will come down to the specific fit when selecting the helmet in the store. Style your hair just as you wear it when you ride. Different competitive disciplines have different dress codes, and if you compete in multiple disciplines and wear your hair differently in each, you may need to purchase a helmet for each. This is especially important if you have long or thick hair that is tucked under the helmet for one event, such as jumping, and then worn in a bun when you compete in dressage. Remember that your hair comprises part of your head measurements, so if you go from long hair to short or vice versa, your helmet might fit improperly. Hair needs to be styled in a manner in which the safety factor of the helmet is the top priority. Full hair crammed inside a helmet can jeopardize the fit, therefore your protection. Find the widest part of your head, which will include the prominent rounded area on the back of the head. Typically, the widest part of the head will be about an inch above June 2014 • Canadian Horse Journal


When Horses Behave Badly Unwanted behaviour may be caused by a poorly fitting saddle.



30 • June 2014

There have been an abundance of articles discussing such problems as how to slow down the rushing horse, how to ride the stumble out of your horse, or how to make your horse go forward. Often rider error is perceived to be the cause, addressed by suggesting ways to change rider behaviour. In some cases, consulting a veterinarian is suggested. However, these negative and unwanted behaviours may actually be caused by something as simple as an improperly fitting saddle. A saddle that does not sit correctly impacts the reflex points and causes basic instinctive reactions in the horse, rather than conscious behaviours. Sometimes there are health reasons at the heart of negative behaviour, such as illness or lameness. However, before calling the vet, consider investing in a simple diagnostic evaluation of your saddle. A qualified saddle fitter understands equine biomechanics and anatomy, as well as the ramifications for your horse if the saddle does not fit properly. It is widely accepted that horses do not consciously behave badly; rather, they react to outside stimuli. A variety of unwanted behaviours can be caused by a poorly fitting saddle or an incompetent or untrained rider, or both. How and where a rider’s weight is carried on the horse’s back can make a huge difference to the horse’s comfort level, and the horse can develop resistant or evasive behaviours when a rider’s aids are misunderstood or mishandled. Frustration mounts when a rider does not get what she is asking for, and an unpredictable or dangerous situation could be the result. Some of these adopted behaviours become stereotypical. They are not vices, as vices would infer that the horse is at fault; instead, their reactions are responses to an external stimulus, such as a poorly fitting saddle.


right: The white chalk drawing shows the actual saddle support area and where the saddle should lie. The red triangles on the withers area show the highly sensitive area where a saddle should never ever lie.

Cranial Nerve 11 (CN11)


32 • June 2014

If the saddle puts pressure on the reflex points along the spine because of a gullet channel that is too narrow, or the saddle twists during movement because of natural asymmetry, the horse will reflexively lower its back to escape the pressure or pain. The goal to have the horse engage its back becomes unachievable. The forward impulse and momentum is lost, the rider is out of balance, and the horse becomes defensive and won’t go on the bit. The result is a frustrating experience for both horse and rider. The horse would like to respond to the rider’s aids, but the pressure on his reflex points inhibits his ability to do so. Think about your own reflexes. Even when your doctor asks you to refrain from kicking out when he taps your patella, your reflexes instinctively react with leg movement which you are unable to control. A saddle that consistently puts pressure on the horse’s reflex points, known as cranial nerve 11, is not only uncomfortable for the horse but could eventually cause injury. For example, what happens when you give your horse the signal to move forward? If the saddle tree angle is too wide, or the tree width is too narrow, the tree is putting too much pressure on the reflex points and the horse cannot really comply. When the saddle hits the reflex point it hinders the horse’s ability to move. The horse’s actual instinctive reaction at this point is to drop his back, locking the shoulder, and rotating the pelvis. Despite best intentions, the horse instinctively will not, and more importantly, cannot move forward. He wants to obey his rider’s desire to go forward but needs to obey his own instincts to stay still. It is a losing proposition for the horse physically and psychologically as the rider thinks his immobility is simply stubbornness and starts using spurs and whip. Horses evolved in North America over millions of years, adapting and evolving with their habitat. As climates cooled, forests retreated and grassland dominated. Horses became grazers and learned that herding and living in small groups enhanced their chances of survival. Social behaviours developed as well as combative behaviour among stallions. To protect harems and defeat opponents, stallions developed the instinct to bite their opponents in the wither area and literally bring rivals “to their knees.” Stallions will also bite mares in the same area in preparation for mating – to stop them from moving

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that was operating were tractors and heavy duty machinery, none of which we owned. My husband and I agreed that it was time to buy our own equipment. So began our life on the farm with equipment that met every specific and seasonal need. We started out with a Ford tractor, upgraded to a Massey Ferguson, then traded that in for a 60 horsepower June 2014 • Canadian Horse Journal




Horse & Carriage

Visitors to Victoria enjoy a tour that passes the British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria’s Inner Harbor.



The sandy-coloured mare stands quietly. The man slips the rawhide, bitless bridle over her head. He watches the mare’s eye, seeking her trust. The wildness has not left but the animal has learned to allow touch. The man, a Botai village horse herder, slips the circular rawhide thong over the mare’s neck so it rests at the shoulder. A young boy holds the bridle while the herder attaches the rough leather traces to the wooden frame covered in hide. He whistles softly. The mare moves forward, pulling the travois for the first time. In that moment 5,500 years ago on the high grassland steppe in Kazakhstan, the little harness mare walks onto the pages of history. • June 2014

No animal so profoundly changed the human way of life as the horse. Once they were harnessed for work, horses gave the hunter-gatherers a major shift in mindset and world view. They could settle, travel, trade, expand social contact, and return home. Their needs drove innovation as, over the centuries, the travois became the cart, the war chariot, the tram, the buggy, and the carriage until cars, trains, and planes pushed them aside. Today in noisy, vehicle-cluttered cities, a ride in a horse-drawn carriage is a unique step back in time to a distant heritage – and a step forward in an unrealized appreciation for the skilled, dependable harness horse. While horse and carriage rides have traditionally been tours around city parks, carriage operators also offer their services for weddings, festive and ethnic occasions, parades, movie shoots, and funerals. Each has its special needs and the horses used in harness


must match that need, even down to their colour. The draft horse breeds are used for carriage work and the most popular are Percheron, Belgian, and Clydesdale, as well as the Friesian. While soundness and a calm nature are priorities, experience and training are equally important when purchasing new stock. “We look for some form of work experience in downtown traffic,” said Emily May, human resources manager with Victoria Carriage Tours in BC. “Our last three horses were parade horses. We (also) buy from the Amish people. We have found through experience that Amish horses are superbly trained and very gentle. The Amish are incredibly good horse trainers.” Victoria Carriage Tours has 22 working horses ranging in age from pre-teens to mid-twenties and they operate eight vehicles, the majority of which are Robertson carriages as well as one Hawaiian and one Landau. They also have six trolleys that are pulled with two-horse teams and which can accommodate up to 20 passengers. May said that they do some training themselves before taking customers on tours. “Horses with less downtown experience start on a two-horse team vehicle paired with an experienced horse to build their confidence downtown before training them ‘in single’ (on a single-horse vehicle). The first time we ask a horse to pull in single we do so without customers until it is clear it has the confidence to continue as a single horse.” Colour can play a major role, especially for carriage operators focusing on specific festive occasions. “We want white horses and usually Percherons that turn white,” said Louie Reale, owner of Caledon Horse & Carriage in Toronto. “The original Percherons were white. Because horses take anywhere from eight to twelve years to turn white, we get them fully grown.” Reale started his business 24 years ago and specializes in weddings year-round, including ethnic weddings. Many of his clients are East Indian but he has also catered to Greek, Portuguese, and Italian families. He has 12 horses, mostly the white Percherons he favours, as well as two black Friesian horses. His 12 horse-drawn vehicles include not only carriages but chariots, wagonettes, covered wagons, and trams. Using the black Friesian breed, Reale is planning a breeding program to start offering funeral services. “For those who love horses and pass away, we will use Friesians,” he said. “We will have a hearse, a flower car, and carriages for the family so there will be several units following each other in a cortege. It will be for people who have grown up with horses and want to leave this world in that way.” “We don’t acquire our horses too young,” said Gerry O’Neil, owner of Stanley Park Horse Drawn Tours who offers services for weddings, proposals, anniversaries, birthdays, parades, funerals, and visits to seniors’ homes with individual horses. “Generally the age bracket is seven to ten years. At that age they have had a fair amount of mileage and training.” Each new horse is on a one-year probation and paired with one of O’Neil’s “anchor” horses, which has proven to be consistently reliable. All his horses are geldings in accordance with the City of Vancouver regulations.

above: Colour is an important consideration for carriage operators who cater to specific occasions. While Caledon Horse & Carriage prefers mature, white Percherons for many of their services, owner Louie Reale is also planning to use his two black Friesians to offer funeral services. left: Carriage horses in training are put through their paces at a farm near Victoria, BC. June 2014 • Canadian Horse Journal


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It is estimated that one in seven horses over age 15 has PPID, although horses as young as seven can develop it. In addition, up to 70 percent of clinical laminitis cases may also be affected by underlying PPID. Symptoms include abnormal hair growth, abnormal sweating, weight loss, muscle wasting, abnormal fat distribution, lethargy, laminitis, polyuria/polydipsia, and chronic or recurrent infections. While PPID is not curable, PRASCEND® provides medication to better manage the symptoms and provide a quality of life for the horse. The approval from Health Canada assures consumers that PRASCENT® has met all the regulatory standards in terms of quality, purity, and consistency. For more information contact your veterinarian or your Boehringer Ingelhem (Canada) Ltd., animal health representative. The information in this feature was provided by participating businesses. The products and services mentioned have not been tested or endorsed by this publication. Please contact the businesses indicated in the feature for more information.

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Ride N Drive Horse Supplies AIRDRIE, AB • 1-877-821-9745 • June 2014 • Canadian Horse Journal


Your Horse b Your Passion


Your Magazine

Sophia Jacobs and Rusty, an Arabian/QH gelding owned by Rose Schroeder. “He has taken me and many of my friends and students on some amazing and memorable journeys. Bless his big horse heart.”


Save 65% UP TO

Rose Schroeder (from our 2010 Photo Contest)


Includes: • Print and Digital editions • The Annual Equine Consumers’ Guide Proud to offer Reduced-Rate Subscriptions to members of Canada’s Provincial Equine Federations: • • • • • •


Horse Council BC Alberta Equestrian Federation Saskatchewan Horse Federation Manitoba Horse Council Ontario Equestrian Federation Fédération équestre du Québec

• • • • •

New Brunswick Equestrian Assoc. Nova Scotia Equestrian Federation Island Horse Council Newfoundland Equestrian Assoc. Equestrian Association of Yukon


• Visit • Call 1-800-299-3799, ext. 212 • Email


Canadian Horse Journal - PREVIEW - June 2014  

Canada's Leading General Interest Horse Magazine

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