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Institut de recherche de la Société canadienne du cancer

Rapport sur l’impact de la recherche | 2012


TABLE DES MATIÈRES MESSAGE DE LA VICE-PRÉSIDENTE À LA RECHERCHE ET DU PRÉSIDENT SCIENTIFIQUE DU CCR…………………………………...………………………………...….. 2 CONTEXTE …………………………………………………………...…………………………… 3 Processus d’évaluation par les pairs …………………………………………...…………………...... 4 CCR et comités d’établissement des objectifs ……………………………………..………………... 5 Partenariats …………………………………………………………………………..…………….. 6 RÉSUMÉ …………………………………………………………………………………..…...…... 7 PRINCIPAUX INVESTISSEMENTS EN RECHERCHE DE L’IRSCC EN 2012 ……...……. 9 Investissements selon l’objectif ……………………………………………………………………. 10 Investissements selon le programme et la province ………………………………………………... 11 Investissements selon le siège du cancer ……………………………………………………...…… 12 Investissements selon le siège du cancer par rapport aux taux d’incidence ……………………….... 13 PRINCIPAUX RÉSULTATS ET IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE FINANCÉE PAR L’IRSCC ………………………………………………………………………………………..….……...... 14 DIX PRINCIPAUX PROJETS DE RECHERCHE FINANCÉS PAR LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER EN 2012 ………………………………………………..…….… 19 HISTOIRES D’IMPACT DE RECHERCHE (en Anglais) …………………....………….....…22 REGARD VERS L’AVENIR …………………………………………………………………….....…57 Ouvrir la voie aux percées de demain : faits saillants des subventions pour l’innovation en 2012…... 57 Subventions pour l’innovation accordées en 2012 …………………………………………………..58 Recherche en innovation : tendances ……………………………………...………………………...58 Subventions d’équipes multisecteurs pour la recherche sur la prévention …………………………...59 Programmes à venir en 2013 …………………………………………………...…………………...60 ANNEXE ……………………………………………………………………………………………62 Sigles et acronymes …………………………………………………………...…………………….62


MESSAGE DE LA VICE-PRÉSIDENTE À LA RECHERCHE ET DU PRÉSIDENT SCIENTIFIQUE DU CCR Organisme caritatif qui finance le plus la recherche sur le cancer au Canada, l’Institut de recherche de la Société canadienne du cancer (IRSCC) s’enorgueillit d’appuyer les meilleurs projets de recherche sur le cancer au pays. D’ailleurs, bon nombre de publications, de collaborations, de politiques et de brevets témoignent de nos réussites en la matière, réussites qui s’inscrivent dans nos visées d’amélioration de la qualité de vie des personnes touchées par le cancer et des membres de leurs familles, d’une part, et de prévention du cancer dans nos communautés, d’autre part. En ce sens, les données sur l’espérance de vie des personnes souffrant d’un cancer sont évocatrices : en 1947, les Canadiens atteints d’un cancer avaient 25 % de chance d’être toujours en vie 5 ans après l’annonce du diagnostic. Aujourd’hui, ce taux est passé à 60 % grâce aux meilleurs soins de santé découlant de la recherche.

Dre Christine Williams Vice-présidente à la recherche

Nous finançons la recherche de pointe qui se traduira par l’amélioration durable des normes en matière de soins de santé aux patients et de la santé des Canadiens. En 2012, nous avons accordé nos premières subventions aux termes de notre portefeuille de recherche remanié. Défini en tenant compte des divers commentaires de la communauté scientifique et de la haute direction de la Société, le nouveau programme de recherche de l’IRSCC cadre avec le plan stratégique national de la Société. Il a pour objectif de soutenir les Dr Brian Wilson Président scientifique, CCR projets de recherche les plus innovateurs qui auront le plus grand impact sur les Canadiens. Nos nouvelles fonctions de vice-présidente de la recherche et de président scientifique du conseil consultatif sur la recherche (CCR) au sein de la Société font de nous les témoins privilégiés des nouvelles idées avancées quotidiennement dans le domaine de la recherche sur le cancer. Ce sont ces idées qui constituent nos priorités. L’IRSCC vit une ère de transition alors que nous remanions notre portefeuille tout en respectant les engagements financiers que nous avons pris en matière de recherche. Le présent rapport fait état de nos premiers investissements à la suite du remaniement de notre portefeuille ainsi que des résultats et de l’impact de la recherche que nous finançons. Dès l’an prochain, nous pourrons compter sur l’intégralité de notre programme de recherche remanié. Notre portefeuille est des plus prometteurs, et nous sommes impatients de constater l’impact des travaux financés sur les résultats liés au cancer et sur la réduction du nombre de diagnostics de cancer au Canada. Notre succès dépend tout autant de la créativité et du dévouement des scientifiques jouissant de nos subventions que du soutien du personnel de la Société, des bénévoles, des donateurs et des gens du public. Au cours de la dernière année, des représentants des communautés et des experts scientifiques du monde entier ont consacré beaucoup de temps et apporté leur savoir-faire au processus d’évaluation par les pairs afin d'évaluer les projets de recherche. Au total, 330 bénévoles ont « donné » chacun en moyenne 24 heures de leur temps pour siéger aux comités des subventions et pour examiner ces dernières, ce qui représente 325 jours de bénévolat. Nous sommes heureux de pouvoir compter sur le soutien incroyable des représentants dévoués de nos communautés et souhaitons les remercier de leur contribution. Ensemble, nous poursuivrons notre lutte contre le cancer.

Christine Williams, Ph.D. Vice-présidente à la recherche, Société canadienne du cancer

Brian Wilson, Ph.D Président scientifique, CC

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RAPPORT SUR L’IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE DE L’INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER 2012

CONTEXTE L’IRSCC est l’Institut de recherche de la Société canadienne du cancer. L’IRSCC administre, examine et finance la recherche sur le cancer menée par les chercheurs canadiens. L’IRSCC peut compter sur dix employés à temps plein qui travaillent pour la Société. La Société canadienne du cancer a pour mission d’éradiquer le cancer et d’améliorer la qualité de vie des personnes atteintes de cette maladie ainsi que des survivants. L’illustration ci-dessous vient détailler notre approche pour remplir la mission de la Société. Elle comprend les trois objectifs à long terme de l’organisation, soit la réduction de l’incidence du cancer (déjouer), la réduction de la mortalité par le cancer (dominer) et l’amélioration de la qualité de vie des personnes touchées par le cancer et des survivants (défier). Ces objectifs inspirent nos travaux de recherche (en bas), nos politiques et les causes que nous défendons (au milieu) ainsi que nos programmes (en haut). Par ailleurs, nous finançons la recherche qui poursuit les objectifs de la Société afin d’amalgamer la recherche, les politiques et les programmes d’une façon qui permettra d’avoir un plus grand impact sur le cancer. Le portefeuille de recherche de l’IRSCC est articulé autour de ces trois objectifs et s’inscrit dans la vision stratégique de la Société. Dans ce rapport, nous faisons référence aux trois objectifs dans leur ordre habituel afin de mieux mettre en perspective la recherche que nous finançons et son apport dans la poursuite de ses objectifs à long terme.

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RAPPORT SUR L’IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE DE L’INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER 2012

PROCESSUS D’ÉVALUATION PAR LES PAIRS Nous sommes souvent interrogés sur la qualité de la recherche que nous finançons. Comment nous assuronsnous de financer les meilleurs projets de recherche sur le cancer au Canada ? La réponse est simple : grâce à un processus rigoureux d’évaluation par les pairs ainsi qu’à une surveillance et une évaluation continues du succès de notre programme. Nous sommes fiers de notre processus d’évaluation par les pairs respecté à l’échelle internationale. Sa complexité n’enlève rien à notre capacité de ne sélectionner que les meilleurs projets de recherche sur le cancer au pays. Voici les quatre étapes du processus : 1- Chaque demande de financement reçue est soumise à une évaluation par une équipe d’experts qui forme un comité d’examen des projets de recherche. 2- L’IRSCC met sur pied des comités pour chaque catégorie de financement. Les comités comptent un ou deux membres du public, souvent des survivants. À titre de représentants de la communauté, ils apportent leur point de vue à l’égard de la demande et évaluent la pertinence de la recherche par rapport à la réalité. 3- Avant que les membres du comité ne se réunissent, ils évaluent individuellement chacune des demandes soumises à leur attention. Chaque membre scientifique se voit assigner un certain nombre de demandes pour lesquelles il doit rédiger un argumentaire, en tant qu’examinateur principal ou secondaire. Les argumentaires sont présentés aux membres à l’occasion d’une rencontre du comité et servent de fondement aux discussions approfondies entre les membres, dirigées par le président du comité. 4- Ces discussions permettent d’attribuer une note à chaque demande. Les conclusions des membres sont communiquées au CCR, qui soumet ses recommandations à la Société quant aux subventions à accorder en fonction des fonds disponibles et de la qualité des projets examinés.

La sélection des projets à financer repose sur notre processus d’évaluation par les pairs reconnu à l’échelle internationale. L’an dernier, 330 chercheurs bénévoles ont consacré plus de 7 808 heures (325 jours) à ce processus rigoureux. Ainsi, nous nous assurons de financer les meilleurs projets de recherche sur le cancer, sans égard à l’endroit où ils se dérouleront au pays.

De gauche à droite : Dr Michael Woods (Université Memorial), récipiendaire d’une subvention de recherche, Dr Andrew Craig (Université Queen’s), récipiendaire d’une subvention de recherche et lauréat du Prix à un jeune chercheur de la SCC, Dre Bharati Bapat (hôpital Mount Sinai), récipiendaire d’une subvention pour l’innovation 4


RAPPORT SUR L’IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE DE L’INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER 2012

CCR ET COMITÉS D’ÉTABLISSEMENT DES OBJECTIFS L’IRSCC s’en remet à l’expertise et aux recommandations du CCR qui formulera des conseils stratégiques relativement aux programmes de recherche de l’Institut, avec pour but ultime d’assurer la sélection des meilleurs projets de recherche sur le cancer au Canada. Le CCR est composé d’experts canadiens qui possèdent une compréhension extensive de la recherche sur le cancer et de sa pertinence dans la lutte contre cette maladie. Anciens membres ou présidents de comités d’examen par les pairs, les membres du CCR entretiennent des liens étroits avec l’IRSCC. Les membres participent à l’évaluation du processus d’évaluation par les pairs de l’IRSCC, conseillent la haute direction relativement aux stratégies de financement de la recherche, formulent des recommandations quant à certaines subventions et certains programmes, et participent à la supervision de l’orientation générale de l’organisation. Les membres du CCR consacrent bénévolement de leur temps au conseil afin d’aider la Société à remplir sa mission. Membres du CCR en 2012 Brian Wilson, Toronto (président scientifique) Carolyn Gotay, Vancouver (vice-présidente) Cal Roskelley, Vancouver (vice-président) Zeev Rosberger, Montréal (vice-président) David Malkin, Toronto (président scientifique sortant) Marie-Élise Parent, Laval (représentante du conseil d’administration national) James Rutka, Toronto (représentant du conseil d’administration national) Dallan Young, Calgary (représentant du conseil d’administration national) Keith Humphries, Vancouver David Huntsman, Vancouver Martin Kabat, SCC, division de l’Ontario Hanne Ostergaard, Edmonton Louise Parker, Halifax Stephen Robbins, Calgary Gary Rodin, Toronto Jeremy Squire, Kingston Michel Tremblay, Montréal Fei-Fei Liu, Toronto (mandat terminé) Michael Brundage, Kingston (mandat terminé) Anne Vézina, SCC (membre nommée d’office) Christine Williams, SCC (membre nommée d’office) La Société ayant procédé à une refonte de son programme de recherche afin de l’aligner avec ses objectifs stratégiques, l’IRSCC a mis sur pied trois sous-comités du CCR axés sur l’établissement des objectifs. Ces sous-comités visent à encadrer la création d’un nouveau programme de recherche et prévoient du soutien et la formulation de conseils au CCR et à l’IRSCC relativement aux programmes de financement de la recherche et à leurs priorités. Les comités d’établissement des objectifs sont présidés par des membres du CCR et comptent dans leurs rangs d’autres membres de la vaste communauté scientifique.

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RAPPORT SUR L’IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE DE L’INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER 2012

PARTENARIATS La Société est également partie prenante de nombreux partenariats et milite en la faveur du système de financement de la recherche sur le cancer au Canada. La Société est membre de l’Alliance canadienne pour la recherche sur le cancer (ACRC), du Partenariat canadien contre le cancer (PCCC), du Portefeuille de recherche internationale sur le cancer (PRIC), de l’Union internationale contre le cancer (UICC) et de la Coalition canadienne des organismes de bienfaisance en santé (CCOBS). Au chapitre du financement de la recherche, l’IRSCC s’associe aux Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada (IRSC) ainsi qu’à d’autres organismes de bienfaisance dans le domaine de la santé ou, si l'occasion se présente, à des organismes gouvernementaux.

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RAPPORT SUR L’IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE DE L’INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER 2012

RÉSUMÉ En 2012, le portefeuille principal de recherche de l’IRSCC disposait de 38,38 M$, répartis entre 259 chercheurs principaux au Canada1. Nos investissements couvrent les trois objectifs à long terme de la Société, qui visent à réduire l’incidence du cancer, à réduire la mortalité et à améliorer la qualité de vie des Canadiens atteints du cancer et de ceux qui ont survécu à la maladie. Par l’intermédiaire de nos programmes de subventions et de bourses, nous finançons des travaux de recherche des plus variés, de la recherche sur les sciences fondamentales et du comportement à la recherche psychosociale et sur la prévention, en passant par la recherche clinique et translationnelle. De plus, l’IRSCC apporte son concours à trois programmes d’importance : le Groupe des essais cliniques de l’INCC (GEC de l’INCC) de l’Université Queen’s, le Centre pour l’avancement de la santé des populations Propel de l’Université de Waterloo et le Centre canadien de recherche appliquée pour la lutte contre le cancer (ARCC), un réseau pancanadien ayant racine en ColombieBritannique et en Ontario. Le GEC mène des essais cliniques alors que le Centre se penche sur la santé des populations et que l’ARCC est une initiative axée sur l’économie de la santé, les services, la politique et la déontologie. L’année 2012 a été marquée par le financement de deux nouveaux programmes découlant du portefeuille de recherche remanié de l’IRSCC. En appui à des concepts non conventionnels et des idées novatrices, l’IRSCC a annoncé la remise de 51 subventions pour l’innovation, soit un engagement de 9,8 M$. Qui plus est, les scientifiques bénéficiant du financement de la Société tirent profit de partenariats avec des experts en programmes et politiques pour faire avancer la cause de la prévention du cancer. L’IRSCC s’est engagé à octroyer trois nouvelles subventions d’équipes multisecteurs pour la recherche sur la prévention, qui totalisent 2,89 M$.

Dr Jean-Simon Diallo (Institut de recherche en santé de l’Hôpital d’Ottawa), récipiendaire d’une subvention pour l’innovation

Par ailleurs, nos engagements à long terme envers des programmes de recherche de partout au pays continuent de porter leurs fruits. Les scientifiques ayant obtenu du financement l’an dernier ont réalisé des progrès considérables dans le passage de leur théorie à la pratique. Voici quelques faits saillants : 1

Le rapport porte sur l’exercice 2012-2013.

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RAPPORT SUR L’IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE DE L’INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER 2012

   

 

La recherche du Dr David Hammond relative aux mises en garde sur les paquets de cigarettes a été citée dans un rapport du Directeur du Service de santé publique des États-Unis et par l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé (page 26). Le Centre pour l’avancement de la santé des populations Propel a lancé l’application mobile Écraser l’envie, la première application fondée sur des faits destinée aux jeunes adultes qui veulent cesser de fumer. Cette application figure parmi les cinq applications médicales les plus populaires au Canada selon Global News (page 30). L’outil de diagnostic des lymphomes du Dr Ryan Brinkman a été adopté par la BC Cancer Agency (page 34). La recherche du Dr Imed Gallouzi est la première à ouvrir la voie à un possible traitement de l’atrophie musculaire consécutive à des tumeurs (page 38). Le Dr John Lewis a testé une nouvelle sonde d’imagerie qui pourrait se révéler un outil utile pour détecter le cancer malin de la prostate (page 40). Un essai du Groupe des essais cliniques de l’INCC a permis de conclure que les patients atteints d’un lymphome hodgkinien ont une espérance de vie plus longue s’ils ne subissent que de la chimiothérapie, ce qui signifie que ces patients peuvent recevoir un traitement efficace tout en évitant les effets secondaires à long terme de la radiothérapie (page 41). Le biomarqueur du sarcome synovial découvert par le Dr Torsten Nielsen a été intégré aux stratégies de test de diagnostic de laboratoires de pathologie de partout dans le monde (page 42). La Dre Camilla Zimmerman a mis en évidence la nécessité de transférer promptement les patients atteints d’un cancer vers les soins palliatifs spécialisés (page 56).

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RAPPORT SUR L’IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE DE L’INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER 2012

PRINCIPAUX INVESTISSEMENTS EN RECHERCHE DE L’IRSCC EN 2012

38,38 M$ 310

259 CHERCHEURS PRINCIPAUX

INVESTISSEMENTS INDIVIDUELS

435 CO-DEMANDEURS ET CO-CHERCHEURS PRINCIPAUX*

Dr Colin Collins (Université de la Colombie-Britannique), récipiendaire d’une subvention pour l’innovation

DÉJOUER

DOMINER

DÉFIER

INCIDENCE RÉDUITE

MORTALITÉ RÉDUITE

QUALITÉ DE VIE AMÉLIORÉE

OBJECTIF 1

OBJECTIF 2

OBJECTIF 3

13 %

79 %

8%

5,05 M$

30,13 M$

3,20 M$

39 projets

249 projets

22 projets

* Il est possible que des chercheurs soient associés à plus d’un projet de recherche et qu’ils possèdent plus d’un titre.

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RAPPORT SUR L’IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE DE L’INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER 2012

INVESTISSEMENTS INVESTISSEMENTS SELON SELON L’OBJECTIF L’OBJECTIF EN EN 2012 2012

DÉJOUER INCIDENCE RÉDUITE (OBJECTIF 1)

DOMINER MORTALITÉ RÉDUITE (OBJECTIF 2)

DÉFIER QUALITÉ DE VIE AMÉLIORÉE (OBJECTIF 3)

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RAPPORT SUR L’IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE DE L’INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER 2012

INVESTISSEMENTS SELON LE PROGRAMME ET LA PROVINCE EN 2012 PAR PROGRAMME : Principaux programmes – GEC, Propel et ARCC (3) 7,78 M$

Nouvelles subventions et bourses en 2012* (69) 4,27 M$

Subventions ou bourses maintenues (238) 26,33 M$ * Exemples des nouvelles subventions et bourses versées en 2012 : subventions pour l’innovation, bourses aux étudiants pour des emplois d’été, subventions d’équipes multisecteurs pour la recherche sur la prévention, bourses supplémentaires transposées en faveur de la prévention du cancer, subventions de prolongation d’un projet et subventions de recherche sur les interventions pour la santé des populations.

PAR PROVINCE : 1,49 M$

6,29 M$

0,91 M$

0,29 M$

22,60 M$

6,80 M$

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RAPPORT SUR L’IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE DE L’INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER 2012

INVESTISSEMENTS SELON LE SIÈGE DU CANCER Le graphique suivant illustre les investissements en recherche de l’IRSCC selon le siège du cancer. À noter que si une subvention est accordée à 50 % pour la recherche sur le cancer de la prostate et à 50 % pour la recherche sur le cancer colorectal, le montant versé est réparti conformément à ces pourcentages. Des 38,38 M$ consacrés à la recherche par l’IRSCC, 20,79 M$ sont remis à des projets de recherche selon le siège du cancer. Les autres projets de recherche, qui ne portent pas sur un siège de cancer précis, se partagent les 17,59 M$ restants, dont une grande partie est affectée aux principaux programmes, soit GEC, Propel et ARCC.

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RAPPORT SUR L’IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE DE L’INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER 2012

INVESTISSEMENTS SELON LE SIÈGE DU CANCER PAR RAPPORT AUX TAUX D’INCIDENCE Le graphique suivant représente la répartition des 20,79 M$ versés par l’IRSCC pour la recherche selon le siège du cancer, comparée aux nouveaux cas diagnostiqués en 2007, le tout en pourcentage 2.

2

Source des nouveaux cas : CANSIM, tableau 103-0550, Nouveaux cas pour les sièges primaires de cancer de la CIM-O-3, selon le groupe d’âge et le sexe, Canada, provinces et territoires, annuel. Registre canadien du cancer – 3207.

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RAPPORT SUR L’IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE DE L’INSTITUT DE RECHERCHE DE LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER 2012

PRINCIPAUX RÉSULTATS ET IMPACT DE LA RECHERCHE FINANCÉE PAR L’IRSCC La section précédente de ce rapport donnait un aperçu des principaux projets de recherche financés par l’IRSCC en 2012 et des engagements financiers prévus. La présente section aborde certains résultats et l’impact de la recherche mis en lumière grâce aux rapports de progression des activités reçus en 2012. Les rapports financiers et de progrès sont soumis par les chercheurs principaux ayant touché une subvention ou une bourse, à certains moments de la période de financement. L’IRSCC exige la présentation des rapports suivants : rapports financiers et de progrès annuels, rapports de fin de période de subvention et rapports de période postsubvention (deux ans après la fin de la subvention). Les rapports de progrès permettent à l’IRSCC de faire le suivi de l’incidence des projets puisqu’il dispose alors d’une variété de renseignements qualitatifs et quantitatifs sur les résultats et l’impact de la recherche. Un échantillon des résultats et de l’impact parmi les 263 rapports de progrès soumis en 2012 sont synthétisés et mis en correspondance avec la chaîne hiérarchique des résultats3. L’IRSCC a adapté la chaîne hiérarchique des résultats afin d’illustrer l’impact diversifié des activités de recherche sur notre mission. Cet outil procure à l’IRSCC une méthode systématique et uniforme de suivi et d’évaluation de la recherche, en fonction du temps et du champ de la recherche. Structurée en sept niveaux de résultats, la chaîne hiérarchique des résultats fournit une description simplifiée d’un programme. De plus, elle indique les liens logiques entre les ressources investies, les activités entreprises et la suite de changements qui en résulte. Les objectifs ultimes des programmes et projets de recherche financés par l’IRSCC sont souvent ambitieux et s’inscrivent dans le long terme. Il est donc impératif de décrire les programmes avec force de détails, non seulement sur les résultats attendus sur le long terme, mais également sur les résultats à court terme et à moyen terme et sur l’ordre dans lequel ils devraient être atteints. L’IRSCC classe les indicateurs de rendement de la recherche en fonction des niveaux de la chaîne hiérarchique des résultats. ►

► ►

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Contributions (niveau 1) : Ressources investies, y compris le budget du programme, le financement renouvelable, les étudiants, les stagiaires et d’autres membres du personnel. Activités et aboutissements (niveau 2) : Recherche menée et autres activités liées à la recherche, notamment la formation et l’enseignement. Engagement et participation (niveau 3) : Collaboration et activités de recherche multidisciplinaire. Réactions (niveau 4) : Couverture médiatique, demandes des médias, distinctions ou prix, rôles de leadership et demande de présentation des résultats. Changements dans les connaissances, l’attitude, les aptitudes et les aspirations (niveau 5) : Nouvelles connaissances ou méthodes dans le domaine de la recherche sur le cancer, publication des résultats de la recherche, présentation, consultations et séances d’information. Changement de pratique et de comportement (niveau 6) : Utilisation de la recherche par les praticiens du domaine médical et les experts en application des programmes, utilisation de la recherche par les responsables des politiques et les défenseurs de la cause pour influer sur les politiques publiques, citation ou utilisation de la recherche par d’autres chercheurs, utilisation de la

La chaîne hiérarchique des résultats a été créée et adaptée pour la Société par Steve Montague (PMN).

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recherche pour la formation des nouveaux chercheurs, commercialisation de la recherche et orientation des stagiaires dans des carrières de recherche sur le cancer. Résultats obtenus (niveau 7) : Mesures de l’impact sur les trois objectifs à long terme de la Société, soit la réduction des taux d’incidence du cancer, la réduction des taux de mortalité causée par le cancer et l’amélioration de la qualité de vie des Canadiens atteints du cancer et des survivants4.

Source : Adapté de Claude Bennett, 1979. Tiré de Utilization-Focused Evaluation: The New Century Text de Michael Quinn Patton, Thousand Oaks, Californie, 1997. p. 235

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Les rapports de progrès sont produits annuellement et font état des résultats et de l’impact à court terme. L’impact associé au niveau 7 suppose une vision à long terme et n’est généralement révélé qu’après des études d’évaluation approfondies. Par conséquent, les renseignements liés à ce niveau ne font pas l’objet du présent rapport.

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NIVEAU 6 – CHANGEMENT DE PRATIQUE ET DE COMPORTEMENT

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91

projets de recherche subventionnée qui ont eu un impact sur la pratique dans le domaine médical et l’application des programmes (p. ex. recherche citée dans le matériel éducatif pour les professionnels de la santé ainsi que dans les directives aux cliniques et services, recherche utilisée dans la création de programmes, recherche mentionnée dans des publications, etc.)

projets de recherche subventionnée qui ont eu un impact sur les travaux d’autres chercheurs (p. ex. recherche citée dans des revues scientifiques pertinentes, etc.)

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20

projets de recherche subventionnée qui ont eu un impact sur les politiques (p. ex. recherche citée dans des documents de politiques publiques, des publications des défenseurs de la cause, etc.)

projets de recherche subventionnée qui ont eu un impact sur la formation des nouveaux chercheurs (p. ex. recherche citée dans les manuels, les listes de livres recommandés, etc.)

COMMERCIALISATION

4

brevets délivrés

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NIVEAU 5 – CHANGEMENTS DANS LES CONNAISSANCES, L’ATTITUDE, LES APTITUDES ET LES ASPIRATIONS

907

publications

154 753

1502

publications non évaluées par les pairs

publications évaluées par les pairs

présentations lors de conférences, d’ateliers, de réunions, etc.

204

Moyenne de 2,9 publications évaluées par les pairs, par subvention

consultations ou séances d’informations auprès des décideurs des secteurs public, privé et sans but lucratif

NIVEAU 4 – RÉACTIONS

147

552

distinctions et prix

mentions dans les médias (articles dans les journaux, entrevues à la radio ou à la télévision, etc.)

826

membres de comités consultatifs, rôles de leadership, etc.

117

communiqués

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NIVEAU 3 – ENGAGEMENT ET PARTICIPATION

983

collaborations avec d’autres chercheurs, des responsables des politiques, des défenseurs de la cause, des praticiens du domaine médical, des experts de l’application des programmes et d’autres intervenants

NIVEAU 1 – CONTRIBUTIONS

1050

membres du personnel

Étudiants au laboratoire du Dr Michael Taylor (Hôpital pour les enfants malades), récipiendaire d’une subvention de recherche

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DIX PRINCIPAUX PROJETS DE RECHERCHE FINANCÉS PAR LA SOCIÉTÉ CANADIENNE DU CANCER EN 2012 Les chercheurs subventionnés par la Société canadienne du cancer découvrent sans cesse de nouveaux moyens de réduire l’incidence du cancer et la mortalité liée à la maladie, mais aussi d’améliorer la qualité de vie des Canadiens qui sont ou ont été atteints du cancer. Voici leurs 10 percées les plus remarquables en 2012. 1. Le décodage d’une forme mortelle de cancer du sein devrait permettre de créer des traitements personnalisés Pour la première fois, une équipe internationale de scientifiques a percé la génétique complexe d’une forme de cancer du sein difficile à traiter, le cancer du sein triple négatif. À Vancouver, le Dr Sam Aparicio a dirigé cette étude, qui a découvert une grande variété de gènes mutés chez les personnes atteintes. C'est un important premier pas vers une compréhension plus approfondie de cette forme mortelle de cancer du sein. L’apport de nouvelles connaissances sur les gènes en cause pourrait changer la façon dont la maladie est diagnostiquée et jeter les bases d’une nouvelle génération de traitements. Référence : Nature, avril 2012 2. L’équipe MAGIC trouve de nouvelles façons de traiter les tumeurs cérébrales malignes chez l’enfant À Toronto, le Dr Michael Taylor fait partie de l’équipe MAGIC (Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium ou Consortium international pour l’étude de la génomique avancée du médulloblastome). Ce groupe d’experts a découvert plusieurs anomalies génétiques à l’origine du médulloblastome, une tumeur cérébrale maligne. Cette recherche a permis d'identifier des caractéristiques génétiques qui pourraient être ciblées par des traitements. Plus efficaces, ces traitements pourraient éviter à certains enfants la radiothérapie et ses effets secondaires. Référence : Nature, juillet 2012 3. Allonger la survie des patients atteints d'une forme rare de cancer du pancréas Le Groupe des essais cliniques de l’INCC a démontré que les patients atteints d'une forme rare de cancer du pancréas, l’adénocarcinome périampullaire, vivent plus longtemps s'ils subissent une chirurgie accompagnée d’une chimiothérapie adjuvante. Cette découverte représente un grand pas vers l’avant, en améliorant le taux de survie particulièrement bas du cancer du pancréas. Référence : Journal of the American Medical Association, juillet 2012 4. Un essai clinique démontre que les patients atteints d’un lymphome hodgkinien vivent plus longtemps s’ils ne reçoivent que des traitements de chimiothérapie Un essai clinique mené par le Groupe des essais cliniques de l'INCC a révélé que les patients atteints d’un lymphome hodgkinien à un stade peu avancé qui reçoivent seulement une chimiothérapie standard vivent plus longtemps que ceux qui sont également traités par radiothérapie. Cette découverte signifie que cette

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maladie peut être traitée efficacement tout en évitant aux patients les effets secondaires à long terme de la radiothérapie. Référence : The New England Journal of Medicine, décembre 2011 5. Des obstacles retardent l’accès aux soins palliatifs Une étude menée par la Dre Camilla Zimmermann à Toronto a révélé que les oncologues canadiens recommandent des soins palliatifs à leurs patients en phase terminale trop tard, quand ils n’ont souvent plus que quelques mois à vivre, parfois même quelques jours. Parmi les principaux obstacles, l’étude a pointé le nombre limité de services de soins palliatifs. En dirigeant les patients vers des services de soins palliatifs plus tôt, on permet aux équipes de soins de s’occuper de leur détresse, de soulager leurs symptômes, de leur fournir les services sociaux adéquats et de les conseiller sur les soins à venir. Cela favorise l’amélioration de la qualité de vie des personnes atteintes de cancer et de leurs familles. Référence : Journal of Clinical Oncology, octobre 2012 6. Un produit naturel extrait d’éponges de mer prévient l’atrophie musculaire causée par le cancer À Montréal, le Dr Imed Gallouzi et son équipe de recherche ont constaté qu’un produit naturel extrait d’éponges de mer pouvait être utilisé pour prévenir efficacement l’atrophie musculaire chez les souris. Les personnes chez qui le cancer a entraîné une atrophie musculaire, aussi appelée « cachexie », perdent en qualité de vie et décèdent souvent de façon prématurée. L’atrophie musculaire causerait environ 30 % des patients atteints de cancer. Lors d’études précliniques, les chercheurs ont découvert que, lorsqu’il était administré à de faibles doses, ce produit naturel, appelé « patéamine A », prévenait la perte musculaire ou l’arrêtait lorsqu’elle avait déjà débuté. Référence : Nature Communications, juin 2012 7. Une étude démontre qu’un médicament peut détruire les cellules souches cancéreuses humaines tout en épargnant les cellules saines Le Dr Mick Bhatia, un expert des cellules souches cancéreuses de renommée mondiale, a découvert qu’un médicament actuellement utilisé comme antipsychotique, la thioridazine, détruit avec succès les cellules souches à l’origine des leucémies tout en épargnant les cellules souches normales. Les cellules souches cancéreuses favorisent le développement du cancer et elles joueraient un rôle dans la récidive du cancer après le traitement. Les chercheurs souhaitent mener des essais cliniques pour évaluer le médicament notamment chez des patients atteints d’une leucémie aiguë myéloblastique qui a récidivé après un traitement de chimiothérapie. Référence : Cell, juin 2012 8. Des traitements plus efficaces contre des cancers rares touchant les jeunes adultes À Vancouver, le Dr Torsten Nielsen et son équipe de recherche ont réussi à comprendre la genèse du sarcome synovial : en cause, une mutation génétique interagissant avec de nombreuses protéines dans la cellule. Le sarcome synovial est une forme de cancer rare et souvent mortelle qui se développe le plus

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souvent dans les bras ou les jambes de jeunes adultes. Les chercheurs ont observé qu’en réprimant ces protéines par des médicaments et des inhibiteurs génétiques on tuait les cellules tumorales; cela aidera les chercheurs à développer des traitements mieux ciblés. Référence : Cell, mars 2012 9. La vitamine D contrôle des protéines pour empêcher le développement du cancer Pour comprendre les mécanismes moléculaires expliquant les propriétés anticancer de la vitamine D, le Dr John White et son équipe de recherche de Montréal se sont penchés sur la protéine cMYC, en excès dans plus de la moitié des cas de cancer. Les chercheurs ont découvert des moyens par lesquels la vitamine D peut bloquer la protéine cMYC dans les cellules humaines. Ces résultats s’ajoutent aux données de plus en plus nombreuses sur l'action de la vitamine D face au cancer. Ils vont suscité d'autres études pour mieux comprendre le rôle de cette vitamine contre le développement du cancer. Référence : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, novembre 2012 10. Un médicament prometteur contre la leucémie aiguë myéloblastique La leucémie aiguë myéloblastique (LAM) est un cancer du sang et de la moelle osseuse qui peut devenir agressif s’il n’est pas traité. À Toronto, le Dr Aaron Schimmer et ses collègues ont étudié plusieurs médicaments déjà homologués pour d’autres maladies pour savoir si certains pourraient également cibler les cellules de LAM. C’est le cas de la méfloquine, un médicament contre la malaria, qui fait éclater ces cellules. Cette découverte laisse entrevoir de nouvelles approches pour traiter ce type de leucémie. Référence : The Journal of Clinical Investigation, décembre 2012

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RESEARCH IMPACT STORIES End 1: Reduced cancer incidence rates for Canadians Neill B Baskerville Angela Cheung Caroline Diorio Pamela Goodwin David Hammond Rayjean Hung Ryan Kennedy Jennifer O’Loughlin Steven Narod Michael Pollak Ryan Rhodes Barbara Riley

Propel-University of Waterloo The Toronto Hospital Universitaire de Québec Mount Sinai Hospital University of Waterloo Mount Sinai Hospital University of Waterloo Centre de recherche du CHUM-Pav. Hotel-Dieu Women’s College Hospital Jewish General Hospital University of Victoria Propel-University of Waterloo

24 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 29 30

End 2: Reduced cancer mortality rates for Canadians Ben Alman Raymond Andersen Sam Aparicio Cheryl Arrowsmith Kristin Baetz Mick Bhatia Ben Blencowe Ryan Brinkman Mark Cattrall Damien D’Amours John Dick Jacques Drouin Shoukat Dedhar Vincent Dion François Fagotto Imed Gallouzi Chi-Chung Hui Xiaoyan Jiang Pierre Lavigne John Lewis Aaron Marshall Ralph Meyer Michael Moran Torsten Nielsen Michael Ohh Hanne Ostergaard Jerry Pelletier Laurence Pelletier James Rutka

Hospital for Sick Children University of British Columbia University of British Columbia University Health Network University of Ottawa McMaster University University of Toronto British Columbia Cancer Research Centre The Toronto Hospital Université de Montreal University Health Network Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal BC Cancer Agency Friedrich Miescher Institute McGill University McGill University Hospital for Sick Children BC Cancer Agency University of Sherbrooke University of Alberta University of Manitoba NCIC CTG; Queen’s University Hospital for Sick Children University of British Columbia University of Toronto University of Alberta McGill University Mount Sinai Hospital Hospital for Sick Children

31 31 32 32 32 33 33 34 35 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 42 42 43 43 44 44 44

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Guy Sauvageau Aaron Schimmer Arun Seth Nahum Sonenberg Jeremy Squire Lillian Sung Michael Taylor James Uniacke David Waisman Valerie Wallace John White David Williams George Yousef Roger Zemp

Université de Montreal Ontario Cancer Institute Sunnybrook Research Institute McGill University Queen’s University Hospital for Sick Children Hospital for Sick Children University of Ottawa Dalhousie University Ottawa Hospital Research Institute McGill University University of Toronto St Michael’s Hospital University of Alberta

45 46 46 47 47 48 49 49 50 50 50 51 51 52

End 3: Enhanced quality of life for Canadians living with and beyond cancer Eva Grunfeld Christopher Longo Donald Mabbott Mary McBride Erin McGowan Sally Thorne Camilla Zimmermann

University of Toronto McMaster University Hospital for Sick Children BC Cancer Agency University of Alberta University of British Columbia Princess Margaret Hospital

53 53 54 54 55 55 56

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END 1: REDUCED CANCER INCIDENCE RATES FOR CANADIANS

Neill B Baskerville Propel Centre for Population Health Impact University of Waterloo End Results Chain

1 6

Dr Baskerville published a paper in the Annals of Family Medicine focused on “practice facilitation”, which among other things, aims to promote the adoption of evidence-based guidelines to improve cancer screening and the management of chronic illness in primary care settings. The paper was cited in a key document from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (United States) and influenced policy decision-makers to support the passing of a bill to expand practice facilitation across the United States. In Canada, there are at least three facilitation projects that have benefitted from Dr Baskerville’s work. One example is the BETTER project (Building on existing tools to improve chronic disease prevention in family practice) that helps primary care practices in Toronto and Edmonton with the aim of improving prevention and screening for cancer and other chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Baskerville NB, Liddy C, Hogg W. (2012). Systematic review and meta-analysis of practice facilitation within primary care settings. Ann Fam Med. 10(1):63-74.

Angela Cheung The Toronto Hospital End Results Chain

1 5

A Canadian-led clinical trial in 2011 showed that the drug exemestane reduced the risk of developing breast cancer by 65% compared to placebo in a group of postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing the disease. A follow-up study led by Dr Cheung focusing on potential side effects from the drug showed that the drug appears to worsen age-related bone loss. The new study involved 351 postmenopausal women, with a median age of 61 years, who were not previously diagnosed with osteoporosis, were not on bone-density preserving medications and were taking calcium and vitamin D supplements. The research team measured bone mineral density using high-resolution CT scans to assess the density or bone strength. After two years, the study found a 7.9% loss of bone density in women taking exemestane compared to a 1.1% loss in those taking the placebo. The findings were published in The Lancet Oncology. Additional follow-up studies will be important to help clinicians and patients assess the risk versus benefit of taking exemestane for the prevention of breast cancer. Cheung AM, Tile L, Cardew S, Pruthi S, Robbins J, Tomlinson G, Kapral MK, Khosla S, Majumdar S, Erlandson M, Scher J, Hu H, Demaras A, Lickley L, Bordeleau L, Elser C, Ingle J, Richardson H, Goss PE. (2012). Bone density and structure in

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healthy postmenopausal women treated with exemestane for the primary prevention of breast cancer: a nested substudy of the MAP.3 randomised controlled trial. 12(3):275-84.

Caroline Diorio Universitaire de Québec End Results Chain

1 5

Women with dense breasts have been shown to have a four- to six-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer. Dr Diorio’s research aims to uncover new biomarkers associated with high breast density. In a recent study using 1560 women aged 31 to 81 years, Dr Diorio and colleagues reported on the link between the intake of a specific fatty acid commonly found in fish, and breast density. Using a computer assisted method to evaluate density from screening mammograms and a food supplement questionnaire, the research team showed that an increased intake of long chain n-3 fatty acids caused an average decrease in breast density. For increasing quartiles of n-3 fatty acid intake, mean breast density was 29, 29, 27, and 25% respectively. Findings from the study that were presented at 3rd North American Congress on Epidemiology suggest that long chain fatty acids could have potential as breast cancer prevention agents and warrant future research followup. Diorio C, Berube S, Brisson J. (2011). Intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and mammographic breast density. 3rd North American Congress of Epidemiology, Montreal, Quebec, June 21-24, 2011, abstract 0025, American Journal of Epidemiology 2011, 173(Suppl):S8.

Pamela Goodwin Mount Sinai Hospital End Results Chain

1 5

The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) P-1 cervical trial was a clinical trial conducted in the United States to determine if the drug tamoxifen could be used as a preventative agent for invasive breast cancer. The trial reported that tamoxifen reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer by 49%. Dr Goodwin recently conducted a study using the NSABP P-1 data to determine how vitamin D and insulin play a role in the risk of invasive breast cancer and if they modify the tamoxifen benefit seen in the original trial. Biochemical tests performed on the samples obtained from the NSABP repository showed no association of vitamin D levels with breast cancer risk and did not alter the effectiveness of tamoxifen as a preventative agent for breast cancer. These results highlight the need for additional work to fully understand the influence of vitamin D and cancer risk. In addition, the results showed no harmful effects of vitamin D levels related to cancer risk or prevention. Dr Goodwin’s work was published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

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Amir E, Cecchini R, Ganz PA, Costantino JP, Beddows S, Hood N, Goodwin PJ. (2011). 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D and Association Variables as Predictors of Breast Cancer Risk and Tamoxifen Benefit in NSABP-P1. J Clin Oncol. (suppl; abstr 1528).

David Hammond University of Waterloo End Results Chain

1 6

Dr David Hammond is the first in Canada to assess the role of menu labelling on caloric consumption. Dr Hammond recruited 635 adults to study their behaviour when presented with menu items that included calorie content information. Compared to a control group that were presented with menus lacking any nutritional information, participants with calorie labelling were much more aware of the nutrition of the food options and calorie content, and ultimately consumed fewer calories. These results were presented to the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Task Group on Provision of Nutrition Information in Restaurants and Foodservices, which is currently developing national level policy in this area. The results will be published imminently. Dr Hammond also continues his work in the field of tobacco health warnings. His research on tobacco health package warnings has been cited in a US Surgeon General’s report and by the World Health Organization, among other internationally-recognized health agencies. Dr Hammond has also served as an expert advisor in this area to the European Commission, the Commonwealth of Australia, and the UK Department of Health.

Rayjean Hung Mount Sinai Hospital End Results Chain

1 5

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Canada and throughout the world. While tobacco is known to be a major risk factor, less than 20% of smokers eventually develop lung cancer. Dr Rayjean Hung recently led an international study as part of the International Lung Cancer Consortium to better understand the familial risk of the disease. In the largest analysis to date, using 24,380 cases and 23,399 controls, Dr Hung’s research team analysed the lung cancer risk associated with having a family history of the disease in a first-degree relative. Using statistical analysis it was found that individuals have a 50% increased risk of developing lung cancer when a first-degree relative has suffered from the disease. This association remains strong regardless of gender, race, the type of lung cancer diagnosed, and any known lung cancer risk factors such as smoking. This study strongly suggests the value of increased screening for individuals with close family members who have had lung cancer. Future work is focused on identifying the underlying genetics related to the increased risk of lung cancer.

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Coté ML, Liu M, Bonassi S, Neri M, Schwartz AG, Christiani DC, Spitz MR, Muscat JE, Rennert G, Aben KK, Andrew AS, Bencko V, Bickeböller H, Boffetta P, Brennan P, Brenner H, Duell EJ, Fabianova E, Field JK, Foretova L, Friis S, Harris CC, Holcatova I, Hong YC, Isla D, Janout V, Kiemeney LA, Kiyohara C, Lan Q, Lazarus P, Lissowska J, Le Marchand L, Mates D, Matsuo K, Mayordomo JI, McLaughlin JR, Morgenstern H, Müeller H, Orlow I, Park BJ, Pinchev M, Raji OY, Rennert HS, Rudnai P, Seow A, Stucker I, Szeszenia-Dabrowska N, Dawn Teare M, Tjønnelan A, Ugolini D, van der Heijden HF, Wichmann E, Wiencke JK, Woll PJ, Yang P, Zaridze D, Zhang ZF, Etzel CJ, Hung RJ. (2012). Increased risk of lung cancer in individuals with a family history of the disease: A pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Eur J Cancer. 2012 Sep; 48(13):1957-68.

Ryan Kennedy Propel Centre for Population Health Impact End Results Chain

1 6

As part of Propel’s work on smoking cessation, Dr Kennedy works directly with optometrists. Over the past year, his studies with optometrists identified a significant gap in Canadians’ understanding of the association between smoking and vision loss, as well as practitioners’ lack of training in how to address tobacco use among patients. To address these unmet needs, a continuing education course was developed for optometrists entitled “Introduction to tobacco education, cessation and ocular health,” along with a set of optometry-specific resources (e.g. pamphlets, brochures, etc.) that address optometrists’ interests and needs related to the implications of tobacco use on eye health. The bilingual resources have been disseminated to over 650 optometrists in 10 provinces and continue to be distributed.

Jennifer O’Loughlin Centre de recherche du CHUM-Pav. Hotel-Dieu End Results Chain

1 5

Smoking cessation is influenced by many factors, including the gene encoding the principal nicotine inactivating enzyme, CYP2A6. Depending on the form of CYP2A6 that an individual has inherited, they may be slow metabolizers (SM) or normal metabolizers (NM) of nicotine. Among adolescent smokers, it has been shown that SMs are at increased risk of acquiring nicotine dependence relative to NMs, but are slower to develop a dependence on nicotine and also escalate their cigarette consumption more slowly. Dr O’Loughlin and her team have now shown that there is a statistically significant increase in quitting smoking among SM youth – or those with decreased CYP2A6 activity. These findings provide insight into why it may be easier for some youth to quit smoking compared to others. The results were published in the journal Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. Dr O’Loughlin’s pioneering work in adolescent smoking and cessation continues to be covered by the media. A prognostic tool for adolescent smoking developed by Dr O’Loughlin’s group was featured in last year’s CCSRI Research Impact Report. Over the past year, the online tool has garnered significant media attention including coverage from the Canadian Council for Tobacco Control.

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Chenoweth MJ, O’Loughlin J, Sylvestre M-P, Tyndale R (2013). CYP2A6 slow nicotine metabolism is associated with increased quitting by adolescent smokers. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics. In Press.

Steven Narod Women’s College Hospital End Results Chain

1 5

Dr Narod and his team are trying to identify lifestyle and other factors that influence the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers. They are studying 13,000 women who have mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that are at a high risk of inherited breast and ovarian cancers. The researchers have found that removing the ovaries of women with a BRCA1 mutation after they have entered menopause substantially decreases their subsequent risk of developing breast cancer. This information will be useful in planning preventive strategies for healthy women with BRCA mutations and also raises further questions about the role of hormones in inherited breast cancers. Kotsopoulos J, Lubinski J, Lynch HT, Kim-Sing C, Rosen B, Foulkes WD, Ghardirian P, Tung N, Klijn J, Narod SA and the Hereditary Breast Cancer Clinical Study Group. Oophorectomy after Menopause and the Risk of Breast Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prev. 2012; 21(7):1089-96.

Michael Pollak Jewish General Hospital End Results Chain

1 5

Dr Pollak is trying to understand the link between dietary consumption, biochemical markers, and the risk of colorectal and prostate cancers. The goal of Dr Pollak’s project is to identify cancer risk related to the dietary factors commonly found in Western diets. Results from Dr Pollak’s research show that higher intakes of calcium, phosphorus, and whole fat milk are associated with a significantly increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. Dr Pollak’s team has also identified a group of individuals that are much more likely to progress to a fatal outcome from prostate cancer, representing approximately 20% of all patients. These patients have elevated Body Mass Indices (BMIs) and increased levels of C-peptide in their blood. Finally, Dr Pollak’s group has also shown that increased levels of vitamin B6 in the blood could be associated with improved survival for patients with colorectal cancer. This work has been published in numerous journals over the past year. Zhang X et al., (2011) A prospective study of intakes of zinc and heme iron and colorectal cancer risk in men and women. Cancer Causes & Control. 2011; 22(12):1627-37. Cao Y et al. Body mass index, prostate cancer-specific mortality and biochemical recurrence: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011; 4(4):486-501.

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Ma J et al. Prospective study of energetic risk and prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality in men with localized prostate cancer. In preparation. Cao Y et al. IGF pathway genetic polymorphisms, circulating IGF1 and IGFBP3 levels and progression to fatal prostate cancer after diagnosis. In preparation. Wilson KM et al. Calcium and phosphorus intake and prostate cancer risk: a 24-year follow-up study. In preparation.

In a separate project, Dr Pollak is studying the effect of the diabetes drug metformin on colorectal cancer risk. His research group is currently in the process of recruiting patients to participate in the clinical trial, which will measure hormone levels and growth rates of colon cells. This project has the potential for great impact in that it could provide an easy to apply strategy for colon cancer prevention. In other Society-funded work Dr Pollak’s research team has shown that metformin can reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultured cells treated with a specific DNA-damage inducing chemical. Metformin not only reduces the levels of oxidative stress produced by ROS, but also reduces DNA damage in the cells. These results are exciting as they demonstrate a link between metformin and reduced DNA damage – a common cancer initiating event. The results were published in Cancer Prevention Research. Algire C, Moiseeva O, Deschenes-Simar X, Amrein L, Petruccelli LA, Birman E, Viollet B, Ferbeyre G, Pollak MN. (2012). Metformin reduces endogenous reactive oxygen species and associated DNA damage. Cancer Prev Res 5:536-43.

Ryan Rhodes University of Victoria End Results Chain

1 5

Regular physical activity is linked to the prevention of most major cancers, yet over half of Canadians are inactive. Using an innovative method for improving activity in parents and children, Dr Rhodes and his group are evaluating the effect of an interactive exercise video bike compared to a stationary bike in front of a TV within a family home setting. The trial has finished two waves of recruitment (35 families complete, another 18 nearing completion) at two sites in Canada (Victoria and Halifax). Data collection for the trial will be completed in 2012-13. The pilot study showed that children favoured the use of video bike, while there was no difference for parents. The pilot study has been accepted for publication in the Journal of Physical Activity and Health. In addition, Dr Rhodes’ research on physical activity and family development was instrumental to the Friends of Europe (EU) in their creation of materials for "Encouraging Healthy Eating and Active Living in the Family Setting" guide produced in 2012. Dr Rhodes was the Canadian representative among a table of 10 academics who were part of the roundtable presentations and talks. Dr Rhodes’ research was featured in both the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and the American College of Sports Medicine Training manuals used for the certification of personal trainers and fitness professionals in North America. Mark, R. & Rhodes, R.E. Testing the effectiveness of exercise videogame bikes among families in the home-setting: A pilot study. J Phys Act Health. 2012 Jun 12.

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Barbara Riley Propel Centre for Population Health Impact University of Waterloo End Results Chain

1 6

In April 2012, the Propel Centre for Population Health Impact launched the mobile app, “Crush the Crave”. Designed for young adults, the app is based on scientific findings related to tobacco use and offers a customized quit plan to help young people monitor habits and understand craving triggers. Crush the Crave is the first evidence-based mobile app developed in Canada that targets young adults aged 19-29 – a group with the highest smoking rates in Canada and the highest smartphone use. Users achieve virtual awards, can share results and gain support from friends online. Social media tools are also available, such as videos and ways to chat with friends online, offering distraction until a craving subsides. The app has proven to be popular (17,500 Facebook fans, 700 Twitter followers from April-November), and was named one of the top five medical apps in Canada by Global News. Another body of work led by Propel has resulted in smoking bans in government owned/managed housing that involves multiple-unit dwellings in Waterloo. Similar legislation is now being passed in Ottawa to adopt smoke-free policies in multiple-unit dwellings.

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END 2: REDUCED CANCER MORTALITY RATES FOR CANADIANS

Ben Alman Hospital for Sick Children End Results Chain

2 5

Dr Alman is studying aggressive fibromatosis, an extremely rare condition that involves the presence of desmoid tumours, which are locally invasive, soft-tissue tumours. Although the tumours never metastasize, they can cause organ dysfunction and result in amputation of affected limbs. Dr Alman’s group performed a screen for drugs that could target desmoid tumours which revealed the drug Nefopam that is mainly used in European countries for pain management. They tested Nefopam in mice and showed that the mice developed significantly fewer tumours when treated with the drug and their tumours were 25% smaller than control mice. Further testing showed that the drug affects an important regulator of fibromatosis, a protein called beta-catenin and the drug can also be used to dramatically reduce scar formation. Dr Alman’s work was published in PLoS One and received significant media coverage, including a feature in the Globe and Mail. Poon R, Hong H, Wei X, Pan J, Alman BA. (2012). A high throughput screen identifies Nefopam as targeting cell proliferation in β-catenin driven neoplastic and reactive fibroproliferative disorders. PLoS One. 7(5):e37940.

Raymond Andersen University of British Columbia End Results Chain

2 5

Prostate cancer can progress to a late stage referred to as castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC), where current treatment options are limited and only prolong life for 2 to 6 months. Research has shown that a protein in the cell called the androgen receptor (AR) is the major driver of all stages of prostate cancer, including CRPC. While there are drugs that target AR, they often fail because the AR gene is able to mutate and escape drug therapy. Dr Andersen’s group recently screened a library of natural products from marine sponges and characterized the structure and activity of a promising new class of drugs – two forms of niphatenone (A and B). Results from the study published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, show that niphatenone B can bind directly to AR and is able to stop the growth of prostate cancer cells. Dr Andersen’s group also successfully created the compound in the lab and showed that it could be just as effective, if not more effective, in its synthetic form. These results have identified a new class of drugs that should be further studied for the treatment of the deadliest stage of prostate cancer. Labros G, Meimetis LG, Williams DE, Mawji NR, Banuelos CA, Lal AA, Park JJ, de Voogdt NJ, Sadar MD, Andersen RJ. Niphatenones, Glycerol Ethers from the Sponge Niphates digitalis Block Androgen Receptor Transcriptional Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells: Structure Elucidation, Synthesis, and Biological Activity. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2012, 55, 503514.

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Sam Aparicio University of British Columbia End Results Chain

2 5

Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) refer to breast cancers that do not express three proteins: the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR) or the Her2 receptor. As a result, TNBC cannot be treated with currently available drugs that target these proteins. The classification and prognosis of TNBC patients could be improved if other proteins that define them could be identified. In a landmark genomics study published in the journal Nature, Dr Aparicio and colleagues from across Canada, the US, and the UK molecularly characterized 104 cases of TNBC. Using multiple technically advanced methods, the team found that there is great genetic variation between TNBCs from different patients. This work paves the way for identifying new markers that could be targeted by novel therapies to expand the treatment options for TNBC. Shah et al. (2012). The clonal and mutational evolution spectrum of primary triple-negative breast cancers. Nature. 486(7403):395-9.

Cheryl Arrowsmith University Health Network End Results Chain

2 5

Dr Arrowsmith’s group is interested in understanding the three-dimensional shapes of proteins in the cell, how they interact with one another, and how this control network goes wrong in cancer. This past year, Dr Arrowsmith’s team published multiple studies, including one focused on the analysis of proteins involved in responding to a specific form of DNA damage, known as double-strand breaks (DSBs). Unrepaired DNA damage has been shown to lead to cancer. The study published in the journal Molecular Cell demonstrates how different proteins are able to identify the double-stranded breaks and initiate a cell signalling pathway to help repair the damage. This work will be useful in identifying new drug targets for therapeutic intervention. Panier S, Ichijima Y, Fradet-Turcotte A, Leung CC, Kaustov L, Arrowsmith CH, Durocher D. (2012). Tandem protein interaction modules organize the ubiquitin-dependent response to DNA double-strand breaks. Mol Cell. 2012 Aug 10; 47(3):383-95.

Kristin Baetz University of Ottawa End Results Chain

2 5

Some proteins act as enzymes that can functionally interact and change the chemistry of different components inside and outside of the cell. Dr Baetz studies a group of enzymes that are known as KATs

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(lysine acetyletransferases) which have been implicated in cancer. Using large scale functional genomics and proteomics techniques, Dr Baetz and colleagues developed a new method to find targets of KATs in yeast – an excellent model organism for these types of studies. Using this new strategy, the researchers found novel proteins that are regulated by the KAT enzymes. These new target proteins will help in the design of specific drugs for therapy. The results of this study were published in the journal PLoS One. Mitchell L, Lau A, Lambert JP, Zhou H, Fong Y, Couture JF, Figeys D, Baetz K. (2011). Regulation of septin dynamics by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae lysine acetyltransferase NuA4. PLoS One 6(10):e25336.

Mick Bhatia McMaster University End Results Chain

2 5

Scientists have shown that tumours can begin from a small cluster of cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs). These cells are very robust, can sustain the growth of the cancer and may also be implicated in a cancer recurrence after treatment. Current chemotherapy strategies kill all cancer cells equally. In a study published in the journal Cell, Dr Bhatia’s team identified an antipsychotic drug, thioridazine, which can selectively target blood CSCs responsible for initiating certain leukemias. The drug targets dopamine receptors and opens up a new road for clinical trials in this area. Sachlos E, Risueno R, Laronde S, Shapavalova Z, Lee JH, Russell J, Malig M, McNicol J, Fiebig A, Graham M, Levadoux-Martin M, Giacomelli AO, Hassell JA, Collins T, Fischer-Russell D, Bhatia M. (2012). Identification of Drugs Including a Dopamine Receptor Antagonist that Selectively Target Cancer Stem Cells. Cell. June 8, 2012; 149:1-14.

Using stem cells made from human skin, Dr Bhatia and his team have also identified a primitive blood cell that they are currently testing for its ability to regenerate a healthy blood and immune system. This could be critical in creating a resource that could substitute for the scarce sources of bone marrow available for transplantation into cancer patients.

Ben Blencowe University of Toronto End Results Chain

2 5

Alternative splicing refers to the process used by cells to assemble genetic material into different gene products. For example, depending on how a gene becomes “spliced” it may be shorter or longer, or it may contain special features. This allows for genes in different cell types to have specific functions. Dr Blencowe’s research group recently identified an evolutionarily conserved form of splicing that is important in embryonic stem cell development. They found an alternatively spliced form of the gene FOXP1 which is necessary for maintaining pluripotency – or an embryonic-like state – during development. This is an important discovery

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for stem cell biology and for understanding how to identify cells or cancer cells with ‘embryonic’ properties. The work was published in the journal Cell. Dr Blencowe’s group is also developing a new tool for cancer diagnosis. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), along with advanced computational and experimental strategies, Dr Blencowe and colleagues have developed a tool that can be used for the detailed profiling of a patient’s tumour. The new technology has been tested on bladder cancer samples and results show that RNA-Seq is effective in distinguishing between low and high grade tumours. This advanced way of analyzing tumour samples will provide new insight into the mechanism of how tumours develop, and provides a new clinical strategy to characterize cancers. Lahiry P, Lee LJ, Frey BJ, Rupar CA, Siu VM, Blencowe BJ, Hegele RA. (2011). Transcriptional profiling of endocrine cerebro-osteodysplasia using microarray and next-generation sequencing.PLoS One. 2011; 6(9):e25400. Gabut M, Samavarchi-Tehrani P, Wang X, Slobodeniuc V, O'Hanlon D, Sung HK, Alvarez M, Talukder S, Pan Q, Mazzoni EO, Nedelec S, Wichterle H, Woltjen K, Hughes TR, Zandstra PW, Nagy A, Wrana JL, Blencowe BJ. (2011). An alternative splicing switch regulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and reprogramming. Cell. 2011 Sep 30;147(1):132-46.

Ryan Brinkman BC Cancer Research Centre End Results Chain

2 6

Accurate diagnosis is important to give clinicians the ability to efficiently treat patients. Dr Ryan Brinkman is developing new bioinformatics and statistical methods in order to improve the classification of lymphomas and leukemias. In a study published this past year in the American Journal of Clinical Pathology, Dr Brinkman’s group improved diagnostic criteria that significantly changed how accurately lymphomas were diagnosed. Using this new method 100% of mantle cell lymphoma cases were diagnosed correctly, up from 64%, and 97% of small lymphocytic lymphoma cases were assigned correctly, up from 69%. This method for accurately distinguishing between these two types of lymphoma is now being used at the BC Cancer Agency as a diagnostic aid. In a separate study, Dr Brinkman’s group profiled 229 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most commonly diagnosed form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cell sorting techniques identified a subset of 71 cases with a distinct pattern that was associated with decreased survival. This unique biomarker can be used by clinicians to better assess treatment options for patients with DLBCL and is of particular interest because most clinical laboratories are already set up to perform similar tests and therefore could easily adopt this new approach without incurring additional costs. Bashashati A, Johnson NA, Khodabakhshi AH, Whiteside MD, Scott DW, Lo K, Gottardo R, Brinkman FSL, Connors JM, Slack GW, Gascoyne RD, Weng AP, Brinkman RR. (2012). B-cells with high side scatter parameter by flow cytometry correlate with inferior survival in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Am J Clin Pathol 137: 805-814. Zare H, Bashashati A, Kridel R, Aghaeepour N, Haffari G, Connors JM, Gascoyne RD, Gupta A, Brinkman RR, Weng AP. (2012). Automated analysis of multidimensional flow cytometry data improves diagnostic accuracy between mantle cell lymphoma and small lymphocytic lymphoma. Am J Clin Pathol 137:75-85.

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Mark Cattrall The Toronto Hospital End Results Chain

2 5

Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial to the immune system because they recognize proteins not normally found in the body, including those on cancer cells, and alert immune killer cells which then destroy the “foreign” matter. Functioning and robust DCs enable immunotherapy to be effective. Dr Cattrall’s project is investigating why dendritic cells malfunction in cancer patients in order to improve cancer vaccines and immunotherapy options. In a recent study, Dr Cattrall’s group found that DCs found within a tumour – or intra-tumour DCs play a key role in stimulating other immune cells to kill tumour cells. This was the first time intra-tumour DCs were studied in detail. Using mouse models, the researchers found that the tumours actually cause defects in the intra-tumour DCs and perhaps lead to suppressed immune responses which allow the cancer cells to spread unchecked. This work was published in the journal Blood and a review of the paper was published in Nature Medicine. Future follow-up studies will be important to understand how to restore function to dendritic cells within tumours, so that they can properly target cancer cells for destruction. Diao J, Mikhailova A, Tang M, Gu H, Zhao J, Cattral MS. (2012). Immunostimulatory conventional dendritic cells evolve into regulatory macrophage-like cells. Blood 119(21): 4919-27.

Damien D’Amours Université de Montréal End Results Chain

2 5

Dr D’Amours’ work focuses on proteins involved in cell division. During growth, cells divide to create new cells. During this process, chromosomes are separated equally between the old or “parent” cell and the new or “daughter” cell. Incorrect cell division is often linked with cancer initiation. In many cases, the chromosomes are unstable and do not get separated properly. This past year, Dr D’Amours’ team published a paper in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that showed a unique role for the Cdc5 protein in maintaining chromosome stability during cell division. Cdc5 is a member of the Polo-like kinase family, a group of proteins that contain a region within their structure known as the PDB domain. The PDB domain is used to recognize specific signals in the cell. Dr D’Amours and colleagues showed that deleting the PDB domain of Cdc5 causes genome fragility that results in improper chromosome sorting during cell division that can lead to cancer initiation. This study highlights a novel role for Cdc5 and a potential route for therapeutic targets. Ratsima H, Ladouceur AM, Pascariu M, Sauvé V, Salloum Z, Maddox PS, D'Amours D.(2011). Independent modulation of the kinase and polo-box activities of Cdc5 protein unravels unique roles in the maintenance of genome stability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Oct 25; 108(43):E914-23. Epub 2011 Oct 10.

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John Dick University Health Network End Results Chain

2 5

Cancer stem cells are a subset of cancer cells that have similar characteristics as normal stem cells, in that they can self-renew or differentiate into other types of cancer cells. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there exists a cancer stem cell, or what is known as a leukemia-initiating cell (L-IC), that shares many of the same features as normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). While L-ICs have a gene expression profile very similar to HSCs, they also have a set of distinct markers that make them unique. Dr Dick’s team is the first to develop a method of screening L-ICs, with the goal of finding drugs that specifically target them while sparing normal blood cells. Dr Dick’s group screened 4000 compounds and found 10 potential drugs that fit the mold to specifically target L-ICs without affecting HSCs. The study found that one of these compounds, kinetin riboside, could effectively kill L-ICs while maintaining the HSC population in both human leukemic cells and mice. This not only puts forward a new screening method for AML, but all types of cancers where cancer stem cells have shown to play an important role in maintaining cancer growth. McDermott SP, Eppert K, Notta F, Isaac M, Datti A, Al-Awar R, Wrana J, Minden MD, Dick JE. (2012). A small molecule screening strategy with validation on human leukemia stem cells uncovers the therapeutic efficacy of kinetin riboside Blood 119(5):1200-7. O’Brien CA, Kreso A, Ryan P, Hermans KG, Gibson L, Wang Y, Tsatsanis A, Gallinger S, Dick JE. (2012). ID and ID3 Regulate the Self-Renewal Capacity of Human Colon Cancer-Initiating Cells through p21. Cancer Cell. Jun 12; 21(6):777-92.

Jacques Drouin Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal (IRCM) End Results Chain

2 5

The pituitary gland is the source of many important hormones in the body. Pituitary tumours disrupt the balance of hormones leading to many changes in normal body functions. Dr Drouin has determined that a regulator of cell growth called Pax7 is associated with the development of cortisol-secreting pituitary tumours. These tumours that respond to Pax7 are also characterized by dopamine receptors so that already available drugs that target the dopamine pathway may be useful for treating some types of pituitary cancers. Budry L, Balsalobre A, Gauthier Y, Khetchoumian K, L'honoré A, Vallette S, Brue T, Figarella-Branger D, Meij B, Drouin J. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling. Genes Dev. 2012 Oct 15; 26(20):2299-310.

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Shoukat Dedhar BC Cancer Agency End Results Chain

2 5

Dr Dedhar’s group discovered a protein called Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK), which is activated in cancer cells and promotes cancer cells to spread (metastasize). Understanding how ILK works will help identify the most appropriate targets for cancer therapy. In a recent study published in the journal Oncogene, Dr Dedhar’s team described how ILK works at the molecular level to transform normal cells into cancerous ones that metastasize. The ILK protein interacts with a protein known as Rictor in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Experiments were performed in cellular models of breast cancer and therefore the ILK/Rictor complex may be a potential target for treatment of breast cancer and other tumours. Serrano I, McDonald PC, Lock FE, Dedhar S.(2012). Role of the integrin-linked kinase (ILK)/Rictor complex in TGFβ-1induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Oncogene. doi:10.1038/onc.2012.30.

Vincent Dion Post-PhD Research Fellowship Friedrich Miescher Institute End Results Chain

2 5

Under normal conditions DNA damage may cause a cell to die, however if a cell continues to live and the damage is not repaired (or the repair is faulty), the cell may become cancerous. Many leukemias and lymphomas result from an abnormal form of DNA repair that causes DNA to be swapped, or “translocated” from one chromosome to another. Dr Dion’s work is focused on understanding how cells repair damaged DNA. Using 3D imaging techniques in real time, Dr Dion has uncovered some of the fundamental mechanisms of DNA repair. Dr Dion is a Post-PhD fellow supported by the Society and works with a research team at the Friedrich Miescher Institute in Germany. In a recent paper in the journal Nature Cell Biology, Dr Dion has shown that DNA moves quickly after it is damaged – a process that is regulated by specific proteins in the cell. The speed at which DNA moves after it is damaged determines its probability of being correctly repaired. These fundamental findings will help explain how specific cancers initiate and the ways these genetic events may be prevented. Dion V, Kalck V, Horigome C, Towbin BD, Gasser SM. (2012). Increased mobility of double-strand breaks requires Mec1, Rad9 and the homologous recombination machinery. Nat Cell Biol. 14(5):502-9.

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François Fagotto McGill University End Results Chain

2 5

During cancer progression, epithelial cells – often found in a tissue such as the skin or intestine – are transformed into a more aggressive cell type that resembles what are known as mesenchymal cells. Mesenchymal cells have a greater ability to spread, or metastasize, throughout the body. Dr Fagotto recently published the first analysis of the differences between the surfaces of these two cell types in the Journal of Proteome Research in order to better detect cancer cells in the body and understand why cancer cells resemble mesenchymal cells. By using a cutting-edge technology known as DiGE (2 dimensional difference gel electrophoresis), Dr Fagotto’s group identified the different proteins found on the outside of the two cell types, which will help explain the specific functions of these cells. Wang R, Liu X, Kuster-Schock E, Fagotto F. (2012). Proteomic Analysis of Differences in Ectoderm and Mesoderm Membranes by DiGE. J Proteome Res. 7; 11(9):4575-93

Imed Gallouzi McGill University End Results Chain

2 5

Dr Imed Gallouzi and his research team at McGill University found that a natural product from sea sponges could effectively prevent muscle wasting in mice. Muscle wasting, or “cachexia”, affects nearly half of all cancer patients and leads to many cancer deaths. The study, published in Nature Communications, found that the natural product known as pateamine A (PatA) can be used at low doses to not only prevent muscle loss in mice with cancer, but also stop muscle wasting that had already begun. This research is the first to show a potential treatment option for those affected with tumour-induced cachexia. Di Marco S, Cammas A, Lian XJ, Kovacs EN, Ma JF, Hall DT, Mazroui R, Richardson J, Pelletier J, Gallouzi IE. (2012). The translation inhibitor pateamine A prevents cachexia-induced muscle wasting in mice. Nat Commun 3:896.

Chi-Chung Hui Hospital for Sick Children End Results Chain

2 5

Basal cell carcinoma skin cancer is the most common type of tumour diagnosed in humans. Dr Hui is interested in how a cellular signalling pathway, the Hedgehog pathway, contributes to the formation of basal cell carcinoma. By using mouse models, Dr Hui has found two new regulators of the Hedgehog pathway,

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Sufu and Kif7. Sufu turns down the pathway to inhibit cancer formation, while Kif7 inhibits the activity of Sufu and promotes cancer growth. Surprisingly, the Kif7 protein can also inhibit cancer growth when Sufu isn’t present. These results are exciting as they show the diverse nature of this cancer-initiating pathway and identify potential new strategies for targeting basal cell carcinomas. The study was published in the journal Development. Li Z, Nieuwenhuis E, Nien W, Zhang X, Zhang J, Puvindran V, Wainwright BJ, Kim PCW, Hui C-c. (2012) Kif7 regulates Gli2 through Sufu-dependent and –independent functions during skin development and tumorigenesis. Development 139(22):4152-61. Ngan ES-W, Garcia-Barcelo M-M, Yip BH-K, Poon H-C, Lau S-T, Kwok CK-M, Sat E, Sham M-H, Wong KK-Y, Wainwright B, Cherny SS, Hui C-c, Sham PC, Liu VC-H, Tam PK-H. Hedgehog-Notch induced premature gliogenesis represents a new disease mechanism for Hirschsprung’s disease. (2011) J Clin Invest 121, 3467-3478.

Xiaoyan Jiang BC Cancer Agency End Results Chain

2 5

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the white blood cells. While there are treatment options available including drugs known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as Gleevec, many patients still find themselves undergoing relapse due to the presence of leukemic stem cells which resist therapy and then divide to produce more leukemic cells. Dr Jiang is trying to find new ways to combat these resistant cells in order to improve outcomes for patients. In a recent study, Dr Jiang’s team showed that an oral drug that targets the JAK2 protein can be taken in combination with TKIs to improve survival and induce the death of CML stem cells in mice. The study will soon be published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. This work will inform the design of new therapies that can be used with existing drugs to produce more effective treatments for CML. Chen M, Gallipoli P, DeGeer D, Sloma I, Forrest Dl, Chan M, Lai D, Joregenson H, Ringrose A, Wang HM, Lambie K, Nakamoto H, Saw KM, Turhan A, Arlinghaus R, Barnett MJ, Eaves A, Eaves C, Holyoake TL, Jiang X. Targeting primitive chronic leukemia cells by effective inhibition of a new AHI-1-BCR-ABL-JAK2 complex. J Natl Cancer Inst. In press.

Pierre Lavigne University of Sherbrooke End

2

Results Chain

5

One of the very first proteins shown to play a role in transforming normal cells to cancer cells is a protein called c-Myc. c-Myc controls many important cellular processes and when malfunctioning can cause a cell to become cancerous. The challenge has been to target c-Myc in cancer cells while leaving healthy cells alone. Previous work showed that inhibiting a specific region of the c-Myc protein causes tumour cells in mice to die, leaving healthy cells intact. With these results in mind, Dr Lavigne’s group decided to test potential

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therapeutic strategies for inhibiting c-Myc. In a recent publication in PLoS ONE, Dr Lavigne showed that a protein related to c-Myc, known as Max, can easily move across the cell membrane and repress c-Myc functions. Moving forward Dr Lavigne is collaborating with a laboratory in Spain to test whether genetically engineering mice to express high levels of Max can improve lung and brain tumours in these animals. Montagne M, Beaudoin N, Fortin D, Lavoie CL, Klinck R, Lavigne P (2012). The Max b-HLH-LZ can transduce into cells and inhibit c-Myc transcriptional activities. PLoS ONE 7(2):e32172.PMID: 22384171

John Lewis University of Alberta End Results Chain

2 6

Cancer deaths can often be attributed to the spreading or metastasizing of cancer cells. Dr Lewis’ research group is studying how tumour cells move and strategies for stopping their spread. Using state-of-the-art imaging technology in chicken embryos, Dr Lewis has identified 18 novel genes that are required for cell migration and is characterizing new biomarkers for detecting, diagnosing and predicting the outcome of cancer. This past year, Dr Lewis filed a provisional patent related to the detection of metastatic prostate cancer using a novel antibody-based detection technology. In a recent study, Dr Lewis’ team tested a new imaging probe for detecting malignant prostate cancer. The probe, which tests for the protein GHSR, was used on 13 human prostate biopsy samples which were collected from surgery specimens. The probe signal was almost five times higher in the prostate cancer cells compared to benign tissue. These results suggest that this new probe may be a useful tool for detecting malignant prostate cancer. The study was published in Prostate and cited in Nature Reviews Urology. Lu C, McFarland MS, Nesbitt RL, Williams AK, Chan S, Gomez-Lemus J, Autran-Gomez AM, Al-Zahrani A, Chin JL, Izawa JI, Luyt LG, Lewis JD. (2012). Ghrelin receptor as a novel imaging target for prostatic neoplasms. Prostate. 2012 72(8):825-33.

Aaron Marshall University of Manitoba End Results Chain

2 5

The progression of leukemia is associated with the movement of cancer cells from the blood into bone marrow and lymph nodes. Dr Marshall is investigating the molecular properties that control leukemia cell migration with the goal of identifying new targets for therapy. Dr Marshall and colleagues studied a group of 189 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and looked at plasma levels of various inflammation proteins. Results from the study published in the journal Leukemia and Lymphoma showed that overall survival was lower for patients over 70 years, although the causes of death remained similar regardless of age. However, elderly patients had increased levels of two inflammatory proteins, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), in their blood. Experiments showed that these proteins can help CLL cells bind to other

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nearby cells, and potentially help with migration. Outcomes from this research point to IL-6 and IL-8 as important prognostic markers for the elderly with CLL. Yoon J-Y, Lafarge S, Dawe D, Lakhi S, Kumar R, Morales C, Marshall A, Gibson SB, Johnston JB. (2012). Association of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 with Poor Prognosis in Elderly Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients. Leuk Lymph. Sep; 53(9):1735-42.

Ralph Meyer NCIC Clinical Trials Group Queen’s University End Results Chain

2 6

The NCIC Clinical Trials Group generated 45 peer reviewed publications this past year, participated in 55 trials that were open to accrual, and accrued patients to 47 of these trials. A total of 3,517 patients were accrued into trials including 1,649 patients from Canada, 1,427 from the United States, and 441 patients from other countries. A trial led by the NCIC CTG found that a specific form of chemotherapy for Hodgkin’s lymphoma is associated with a higher overall survival rate when not used in combination with radiation therapy. The HD.6 trial was conducted on 405 patients with limited-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with a combination of chemotherapy drugs – doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) alone, or to ABVD treatment with radiation. The trial showed a greater survival rate for those treated with chemotherapy (ABVD) alone, with a 12 year survival rate of 94%. The group that also received radiation therapy had a 12-year survival rate of 87%. These results will have a substantial impact in helping develop more accurate treatment strategies for those with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. This work was presented at the American Society of Hematology, published in the The New England Journal of Medicine, and has already been cited in the 2012 National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines and will have a substantial impact on treatment strategies for Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients. The publication has been cited by over 30 other publications and is being used by researchers around the world. Meyer RM, Gospodarowicz MK, Connors JM et al. ABVD Alone versus Radiation-Based Therapy in Limited-Stage Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. N Engl J Med 2012; 366(5):399-408.

Periampullary adenocarcinoma is a rare form of pancreatic cancer that forms at the top of the pancreas. In collaboration with an international team of investigators, the NCIC CTG has shown that patients with periampullary cancer who received chemotherapy and surgery lived longer than patients who did not receive chemotherapy. These results stem from the European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer (ESPAC)-3 periampullary trial, a randomized clinical trial performed at 100 centers in Europe, Australia, Japan, and Canada. This is the first trial to test adjuvant chemotherapy for this particularly rare form of pancreatic cancer. The study was published in the high impact Journal of the American Medical Association. Neoptolemos JP, Moore MJ, Cox TF, Valle JW, Palmer DH, McDonald AC, Carter R, Tebbutt NC, Dervenis C, Smith D, Glimelius B, Charnley RM, Lacaine F, Scarfe AG, Middleton MR, Anthoney A, Ghaneh P, Halloran CM, Lerch MM, Oláh A, Rawcliffe CL, Verbeke CS, Campbell F, Büchler MW; European Study Group for Pancreatic Cancer. (2012). Effect of

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adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracil plus folinic acid or gemcitabine vs observation on survival in patients with resected periampullary adenocarcinoma: the ESPAC-3 periampullary cancer randomized trial. JAMA; 308(2):147-56.

Michael Moran Hospital for Sick Children End Results Chain

2 5

Proteins in the cell are turned on and off by enzymes called kinases and phosphatases. The balance of the two kinds of enzymes is critical for normal cell function but is disrupted in cancer. Dr Moran and his team are using cutting-edge mass spectrometry techniques to quantify the activity of thousands of kinases and phosphatases in a variety of cancers such as multiple myeloma and acute leukemias. In a recent study, Dr Moran and colleagues performed a comprehensive assessment of the activity and expression of protein phosphatases. They found that human cells and tissues, including cancer cells have a distinctive set of protein phosphatases, revealing yet another layer of complexity between normal and cancerous cells. The results have been published in Cell and the paper was cited as a "must read" by the "Faculty of 1000", which identifies and evaluates the most important articles in biology and medical research publications. Karisch R, Fernandez M, Taylor P, Virtanen C, St-Germain JR, Jin, LL, Harris IS, Mori J, Mak TW, Senis YA, Ostman A, Moran MF, and BG Neel (2011) Global proteomic assessment of the classical protein-tyrosine phosphatome and “redoxome”. Cell 146:826-840. PMID: 21884940

Torsten Nielsen University of British Columbia End Results Chain

2 6

Synovial sarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue tumour that presents in young adults often close to a joint, such as the knee or elbow. Almost all cases of synovial sarcoma have the same molecular mutation where a portion of chromosome X is swapped onto chromosome 18. This swapping of genetic material, referred to as a translocation, drives tumour growth, although scientists have yet to understand the mechanism. In a landmark study published in Cancer Cell, Dr Nielsen’s team has shown that the product of this translocation, SS18-SSX, represses genes that are normally turned on in the cell. The mechanism involves the binding of SS18-SSX to the synovial sarcoma biomarker, TLE1 and a modulator of gene expression known as ATF2. Furthermore, the study showed that strategies that suppress this complex of genes caused the death of synovial sarcoma tumour cells. Dr Nielsen is now finalizing data he accumulated from a Society-funded Phase II clinical trial that demonstrated the effectiveness of inhibiting this crucial molecular pathway in patients. In related work the biomarker discovered by Dr Nielsen’s group for synovial sarcoma, TLE1, continues to be incorporated into diagnostic algorithms used in pathology laboratories around the world, most recently at Stanford University.

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Su L, Sampaio AV, Jones KB, Pacheco M, Goytain A, Lin S, Poulin N, Yi L, Rossi FM, Kast J, Capecchi MR, Underhill TM, Nielsen TO. Deconstruction of the SS18-SSX fusion oncoprotein complex: insights into disease etiology and therapeutics. Cancer Cell. 2012 Mar 20; 21(3): 333-47.

Michael Ohh University of Toronto End Results Chain

2 5

Dr Ohh is interested in the development of blood cells to better understand blood-related cancers. His project focuses on the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein that is associated with a rare disease called Chuvash polycythemia, which is characterized by overproduction of red blood cells. Mutated VHL is also found in tumours in the eye, brain, spinal cord, kidney, pancreas, and adrenal glands. Dr Ohh’s team recently showed that a protein called JAK2 works with VHL to regulate normal red blood cells but doesn’t function properly in Chuvash polycythemia. The study results were published in the prestigious journal Nature Medicine and bring new insight into how blood cells are produced. These new genes will be assessed as potential drug targets for anti-cancer therapies. Russell RC, Sufan RI, Zhou B, Roche O, Sybingco SS, Bunda S, Heathcote SA, Richmond TD, Heir P, Chow VWK, Hickey MM, Fuller FH, Barber DL, Cheresh DA, Simon MC, Kim WY, Irwin MS, Ohh M. 2011. Loss of JAK2 regulation via a heterodimeric VHL-SOCS1 ubiquitin ligase underlies Chuvash polycythemia. Nature Med 17:845-53.

Hanne Ostergaard University of Alberta End Results Chain

2 5

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, also known as killer cells, are white blood cells in the immune system that act as important weapons to fight cancer. Dr Ostergaard is trying to understand how these killer T cells eliminate tumour cells and how this process might be improved upon to enhance the ability of the immune system to combat cancer. In a recent study published in the Journal of Immunology, Dr Ostergaard studied a protein found in killer T cells called Paxillin that was already known to be involved in tumour spread and showed how it helps killer T cells bind to tumour cells. By tagging Paxillin with a green fluorescent molecule, Dr Ostergaard was able to study the location of the protein within killer T cells and exactly where it relocates to upon killing tumour cells. The group discovered that Paxillin helps to correctly place the killer cell in relation to the web of proteins involved in cellular movement and adhesion. Understanding how Paxillin works will help to enhance the tumour-fighting capabilities of killer T cells. Robertson LK and Ostergaard HL. (2011). Paxillin associates with microtubule cytoskeleton and the immunological synapse of CTL through its LD domains and contributes to microtubule organizing center reorientation. J Immunol 187(11):5824-33.

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Jerry Pelletier McGill University End Results Chain

2 5

Dr Pelletier’s work involves characterizing new small molecule inhibitors that target the machinery in cells that synthesis proteins, which is particularly vulnerable in tumours. In a recent study published in the journal Oncogene, Dr Pelletier’s group targeted one specific protein involved in the synthesis pathway, namely eIF4E which is elevated in some human cancers and has been associated with poor prognosis and outcome. Dr Pelletier used mouse breast cancer models to show that targeting the pathway that controls eIF4E delays breast cancer progression and the onset of metastasis, showing the potential benefits of targeting eIF4E to improve treatment for patients. Nasr Z, Robert F, Porco Jr JA, Muller WJ, Pelletier J. (2012). eIF4E suppression in breast cancer affects maintenance and progression. Oncogene.

Laurence Pelletier Mount Sinai Hospital End Results Chain

2 5

Mitosis refers to the process of a single cell dividing to form two daughter cells. During mitosis, chromosomes are carefully divided and tiny structures known as centrosomes help to anchor them to ensure they divide properly. Dysfunctional centrosomes can cause the loss or gain of chromosomes in daughter cells, which can lead to cancer. Centrosomes are so small that they are undetectable using standard light microscopy. Dr Pelletier’s research team has been able to view centrosomes using new super resolution imaging methods. The group’s study published in Nature Cell Biology uses live 3D imaging along with mathematical modelling to build a model of the centrosome components which will help scientists understand the role of centrosomes in cancer formation. Lawo S, Hasegan M, Gupta GD, Pelletier L. (2012). Sub-diffraction imaging reveals higher-order organization principles of pericentriolar material. Nature Cell Biology. In press.

James Rutka Hospital for Sick Children End Results Chain

2 5

Brain tumours are the most common solid childhood cancer and medulloblastoma is the most frequent brain tumour subtype. Dr Rutka and his team are studying the role of cMET which they recently found plays a role

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in medulloblastoma development and growth. Several drugs that target cMET are currently in clinical trials for other cancers, and Dr Rutka is testing these experimental therapies in a mouse model of medulloblastoma. If the drugs are shown to be successful in mice, studies in patients could be initiated relatively quickly and may lead to new treatment options. Faria CMM, Smith C, Rutka JT. Foretinib, a multikinase inhibitor of MET and PDGFRb, crosses the blood brain barrier and reduces metastasis in a mouse model of disseminated medulloblastoma. In preparation. Onvani S, Terakawa Y, Smith C, Northcott P, Taylor M, Rutka J. Molecular genetic analysis of the hepatocyte growth factor/MET signaling pathway in pediatric medulloblastoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012 Jul; 51(7):675-88 PMID: 22447520.

Guy Sauvageau Université de Montréal End Results Chain

2 5

While genetics refers to the genes that are passed on from one generation to the next, epigenetics involves the tags that are attached to DNA that can cause genes to be activated or repressed. While the sequence of DNA is usually fairly static, epigenetic changes can quickly cause genes to be turned on or off, sometimes resulting in disease. Dr Sauvageau’s team uses mouse models to study how different epigenetic changes can lead to leukemia. This past year, the researchers showed that mice lacking the EZH2 enzyme, which regulates epigenetics in cells, lacked many DNA tags and developed T-cell leukemias. These findings not only help explain how leukemias can develop, but also highlight the potential for new therapeutic strategies. The study was published in the journal Genes and Development. Simon C, Chagraoui J, Krosl J, Gendron P, Wilhelm B, Lemieux S, Boucher G, Chagnon P, Drouin S, Lambert R, Rondeau C, Bilodeau A, Lavallee S, Sauvageau M, Hebert J, Sauvageau G. (2012). A key role of EZH2 and associated genes in mouse and human adult T-cell acute leukemia. Genes Dev. 2012 Apr 1; 26(7):651-6.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can develop into different blood cell types in a tightly regulated process and cancers can develop if errors in this process occur. By introducing various changes to the DNA of mouse bone marrow cells, Dr Sauvageau’s team identified several proteins that promote or inhibit cancer. These results provide valuable insight into how blood cancers develop and progress. Isaillon R, Wilhelm BT, Krosl J, Sauvageau G. C-terminal domain of MEIS1 converts PKNOX1 (PREP1) into a HOXA9collaborating oncoprotein. Blood 2011 Oct 27;118(17):4682-9. Herault O, Hope KJ, Denault E, Mayotte N, Chagraoui J, Wilhelm BT, Cellot S, Sauvageau M, Andrade-Navarro MA, Hebert J, Sauvageau G. A role for GPx3 in activity of normal and leukemia stem cells. J Exp Med. 2012 May 7; 209(5):895-901.

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Aaron Schimmer Ontario Cancer Institute End Results Chain

2 5

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow that can become very aggressive if not treated quickly. Dr Schimmer and colleagues in Toronto tested several drugs that are already approved for other conditions to determine whether any of them could also target AML cells. The researchers found that the antimalarial agent mefloquine specifically causes AML cancer cells to burst, uncovering a potential new therapeutic strategy for these leukemias. The results of the study were published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation. Sukhai MA, Prabha S, Hurren R, Rutledge AC, Lee AY, Sriskanthadevan S, Sun H, Wang X, Skrtic M, Seneviratne A, Cusimano M, Jhas B, Gronda M, Maclean N,Cho EE, Spagnuolo PA, Sharmeen S, Gebbia M, Urbanus M, Eppert K, Dissanayake D, Jonet A, Dassonville-Klimpt A, Li X, Datti A, Ohashi PS, Wrana J,Rogers I, Sonnet P, Ellis WY, Corey SJ, Eaves C, Minden MD, Wang JC, Dick JE, Nislow C, Giaever G, Schimmer AD. (2013). Lysosomal disruption preferentially targets acute myeloid leukemia cells and progenitors. J Clin Invest 123(1):315-28.

Arun Seth Sunnybrook Research Institute End Results Chain

2 5

Dr Seth is studying the fusion gene TMPRSS2:ERG, which is present in 40%-80% of prostate cancers, to understand its function and assess whether it could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis. Using a high-tech RNA sequencing technology to examine prostate tumour samples with the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene, Dr Seth uncovered that a gene called RGB was expressed 14 times more strongly in tumours versus normal cells. Further studies showed that RGB works with the fusion gene to promote the growth of prostate cancer cells. These results show the value of using this technique to discover biomarkers and will pave the way for future studies on RGB as a potential marker for prostate cancer. The results were published in the journal AntiCancer Research. Chow A, Amemiya Y, Sugar L, Nam R, Seth A. (2012). Whole Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Established and Novel Associations with TMPRSS2:ERG Fusion in Prostate Cancer. AntiCancer Research. 32(9):3629-41.

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Nahum Sonenberg McGill University End Results Chain

2 5

Translation is the process used by cells to create proteins. The translation process itself is controlled by a distinct set of proteins that can malfunction in cancer cells. This past year, Dr Sonenberg showed that eIF4E, a protein important for the initiation of translation, also controls a key component of the antiviral response. When an organism is infected by a virus, Type I Interferon is released and activates the immune system to stop the virus from replicating. Dr Sonenberg has shown that eIF4E can control the levels of Type I Interferon, which in turn affects the antiviral response. The results published in the journal Nature Immunology are key to our understanding of immunity, and also open up a new field to discover how we can control the immune system to fight cancer cells in the body. Herdy B, Jaramillo M, Svitkin YV, Rosenfeld AB, Kobayashi M, Walsh D, Alain T, Sean P, Robichaud N, Topisirovic I, Furic L, Dowling RJ, Sylvestre A, Rong L, Colina R, Costa-Mattioli M, Fritz JH, Olivier M, Brown E, Mohr I, Sonenberg N. Translational control of the activation of transcription factor NF-kB and production of type I interferon by phosphorylation of the translation factor eIF4E. (2012) Nature Immunology 13(6) 543-552.

In another study published in Molecular Cell Biology, Dr Sonenberg’s team identified a new complex of proteins involved in translation. While eIF4E is the main protein involved in the initiation of translation in adults, a protein in flies called 4EHP can play a similar role. In this study, Dr Sonenberg’s group showed that 4EHP works with two other proteins to regulate the translation of proteins during embryonic development. Disruption of this complex containing 4EHP in mice caused death before birth. These findings uncover new mechanisms of translational control and will help researchers better understand how cancer cells can avoid some of these traditional pathways. Morita M, Ler LW, Fabian MR, Siddiqui N, Mullin M, Henderson VC, Alain T, Fonseca BD, Karashchuk G, Bennett CF, Kabuta T, Higashi S, Larsson O, Topisirovic I, Smith RJ, Gingras AC, Sonenberg N. (2012). A Novel 4EHP-GIGYF2 Translational Repressor Complex Is Essential for Mammalian Development. Mol Cell Biol. Sep;32(17):3585-93.

Jeremy Squire Queen’s University End Results Chain

2 6

Dr Squire’s research is focused on understanding how osteosarcomas form in the bone and how patients can be classified based on their cancer’s genetic make-up to improve treatment outcomes. In one ongoing study, Dr Squire has shown that over-expression of a gene called RUNX2 can drive osteosarcomas to an aggressive state. Understanding how this mechanism works and how it can be used to develop new or improved treatments for patients is the focus of this project. Dr Squire’s research group found that alteration of the RUNX2 gene can cause major chromosomal instability resulting in what is referred to as ‘chromothripsis’ – or the shattering of DNA. This pioneering study was done on two tumour samples and will be published in the coming year.

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Squire A et al. Role of catastrophic changes to the osteosarcoma genome in treatment response and metastatic disease. In preparation.

In a publication that is in preparation, Dr Squire’s research team has shown how RUNX2 and other specific genes can be used to predict patient response to chemotherapy in osteosarcoma. The report also shows that tumours with increased levels of the CDC5L gene do not respond as well to chemotherapy. Martin J, Chilton-MacNeill S, Zielenska M, Squire JA. Gene expression signature of differential response to chemotherapy in pediatric sporadic osteosarcoma. Oncology Letters in preparation. 2013.

In another study published in Cancer Genetics, Dr Squire’s group looked at the role of small RNA molecules known as microRNAs in osteosarcoma tumour samples. MicroRNAs have been shown to be misregulated in various types of cancers and other diseases. Over 700 microRNAs were studied from 7 osteosarcoma samples and it was found that 38 microRNAs were differentially expressed in the tumour samples compared to normal bone cells. Dr Squire’s work showed that many of the misregulated microRNAs are important in osteosarcoma development. Maire G, Martin JW, Yoshimoto M, Chilton-MacNeill S, Zielenska M, Squire JA. Analaysis of miRNA-gene expression-genomic profiles reveals complex mechanisms of microRNA deregulation in osteosarcoma. Cancer Genet. 2011 Mar; 204(3):138-46.

Dr Squire is collaborating with a company to develop a molecular ‘bar code’ that can identify which osteosarcomas will respond better to which types of treatment. These ‘bar codes’ are based on tumour DNA and RNA profiles that were identified in Dr Squire’s laboratory.

Lillian Sung Hospital for Sick Children End Results Chain

2 6

Acute Myeloid Leukemia(AML) is a blood cancer that begins in the bone marrow. One in ten children with AML is expected to die from infection. Dr Sung is leading a clinical trial to analyze the DNA of children with AML and measure infection to better understand who is most susceptible in order to optimize treatment. Dr Sung is a co-Chair of the International Pediatric Febrile Neutropenia Guideline Group that recently published a set of evidence-based guidelines in the Journal of Clinical Oncology to help clinicians improve care to children with cancer. The panel focused on initial presentation of infection, ongoing management, and antifungal therapy options. While some of the recommendations are similar to adult guidelines, there are important distinctions for children addressed in the document. These guidelines will be instrumental in improving the care of childhood cancer patients suffering from infection. Lehrnbecher T, Phillips R, Alexander S, Alvaro F, Carlesse F, Fisher B, Hakim H, Santolaya M, Castagnola E, Davis BL, Dupuis LL, Gibson F, Groll AH, Gaur A, Gupta A, Kebudi R, Petrilli S, Steinbach WJ, Villarroel M, Zaoutis T, Sung L. (2012). Guideline for the Management of Fever and Neutropenia in Children With Cancer and/or Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation. J Clin Oncol.

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Michael Taylor Hospital for Sick Children End Results Chain

2 5

Medulloblastoma is the most common childhood brain cancer and occurs at the back of the brain in the cerebellum. Dr Taylor and his research team have found that as medulloblastoma spreads, or metastasizes, the metastasized tumours are genetically very different from the original tumours, but similar to each other. This explains why treatment is not effective for some children once their cancer has spread. Previously, researchers had assumed that medulloblastoma cells spread as a result of random cell movement, however Dr Taylor’s team discovered that only a small subset of cells from the primary tumour are able to metastasize to new sites on the brain or spinal cord. These findings are crucial in order to develop treatments that will be able to target both the original tumour and metastasized ones. An international team of experts led by Dr Taylor – called MAGIC, short for Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium – has performed the largest analysis of childhood brain cancers to date. The researchers collected over 1,200 medulloblastoma samples from 45 hospitals around the world to identify chromosomal abnormalities. Medulloblastoma had previously been characterized into 4 main subgroups. This landmark study clearly showed specific drug target options for each subgroup, in hopes of developing more targeted and effective treatments for this devastating disease. These results, which are already being used to help design clinical trials for children with medulloblastoma, were published in the high impact journal Nature and have been cited by multiple groups around the world. Northcott PA et al. Subgroup-specific structural variation across 1,000 medulloblastoma genomes. Nature. 2012; 488(7409):4956.

James Uniacke University of Ottawa End Results Chain

2 5

Understanding how cells deal with low-oxygen (hypoxic) conditions is important as tumours can quickly deplete the oxygen stores around them, leaving areas of the tumour extremely hypoxic. Dr Uniacke studies how cells can make proteins under hypoxic conditions when their normal machinery to do so is repressed. In a recent publication in Nature, Dr Uniacke and colleagues showed that cells use different proteins during hypoxia to build new proteins and specifically rely on a protein called HIF-2α. Interestingly, many of the proteins produced in low-oxygen environments are also implicated in cancer. This work helps to provide scientists and clinicians with new options for targeted therapies for hypoxic tumours. Uniacke J, Holterman CW, Lachance G, Franovic A, Jacob MD, Fabian MR, Payette J, Holcik M, Pause A, Lee S. (2012). An oxygen-regulated switch in the protein synthesis machinery. Nature. 6; 486(7401):126-9.

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David Waisman Dalhousie University End Results Chain

2 5

For tumours to grow and leave their initial site, they require disease-fighting white blood cells known as macrophages. Macrophages provide tumour cells with signals to grow and divide and they act like bulldozers, clearing an escape route for the tumour cells to follow. Dr Waisman has shown that a protein called S100A10, also called p11, is needed for macrophages to travel from the blood to the tumour site. Using mice whose macrophages were lacking p11, Dr Waisman’s group showed that the growth of lung carcinomas and fibrosarcomas were drastically reduced as compared to mice with normal macrophages. These findings that were published in Cancer Research point to p11 as a potential drug target to stop tumour growth. Phipps KD, Surette AP, O’Connell PA, Waisman DM. (2011). Plasminogen Receptor S100A10 is Essential for the Migration of Tumor-Promoting Macrophages into Tumor Sites. Cancer Res 71:6676-6683.

Valerie Wallace Ottawa Hospital Research Institute End Results Chain

2 5

Dr Wallace studies genes that control cell growth in the brain in order to find new ways to treat cancer. In a number of tissues, including the brain, the Hedgehog family of proteins can cause cancer when not regulated properly. Functioning correctly, Hedgehog proteins tell a cell to divide but it is not known exactly how this signal is transmitted. This past year, Dr Wallace’s group identified a gene that is turned on by Hedgehog proteins. Blocking this new gene may be a novel way of stopping Hedgehog-related tumours from growing. The study was published in Human Molecular Genetics. McNeill B, Mazerolle C, Bassett E, Mears AJ, Ringuette R, Lagali P, Picketts DJ, Paes K, Rice D, Wallace VA. (2012). Hedgehog regulates Norrie Disease Protein to drive neural progenitor self-renewal. Hum Mol Genet. Nov 30. [Epub ahead of print]

John White McGill University End Results Chain

2 5

Vitamin D has been shown to control cell growth and can prevent the initiation of certain cancers and/or stop further growth. In a recent study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Dr White’s team started to unravel some of the molecular mechanisms behind vitamin D’s cancer-fighting abilities. The study looks at the c-Myc protein, which is elevated in at least 50% of cancers, and showed that

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vitamin D can inhibit c-Myc in multiple ways. This work was highlighted in the Montreal Gazette and will form the basis for future studies on vitamin D’s role in cancer. Salehi-Tabar R, Nguyen-Yamamoto L, Tavera-Mendoza LE, Quail T, Dimitrov V, An B-S, Glass L, Goltzman D, White JH. (2012). Vitamin D receptor as a master regulator of the c-MYC/MXD1 network. PNAS 109(46):18827-18832.

David Williams University of Toronto End Results Chain

2 5

Dr Williams is studying how the immune system can recognize and kill tumour cells. Tumours display proteins on their surfaces, called MHC class I molecules, which mark them as “foreign” to immune cells in the body. Dr Williams’ research looks at how MHC class I molecules are correctly formed within tumour cells and has characterized many components that are required for the proper formation of the molecules. In a study published in the journal Molecular Biology of the Cell, Dr Williams showed for the first time that the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) protein was important for maintaining cell viability. This presents a potentially new avenue for cancer therapy. Rutkevich LA and Williams DB. (2012). Vitamin K epoxide reductase contributes to protein disulfide formation and redox homeostasis within the endoplasmic reticulum. Mol Biol Cell 23(11):2017-2027.

George Yousef St. Michael's Hospital End Results Chain

2 6

Personalized medicine allows physicians to tailor therapy for people with cancer by taking advantage of the genetic make-up of their individual tumours. Treatments that target specific tumour characteristics are available for several cancers, but as yet there are none available for kidney cancer. Dr Yousef and his team aim to change that situation by identifying biomarkers that can be used to classify patients into subgroups. By using a cutting-edge approach that analyzes thousands of potential biomarkers simultaneously, they successfully identified a group of proteins that play a role in kidney tumour development and spread (metastasis). The team has discovered several potential biomarkers for kidney cancer and Dr Yousef has been granted two patents which will help to validate them in future studies. Girgis AH, Iakovlev VV, Beheshti B, Bayani J, Squire JA, Bui A, Mankaruos M, Youssef Y, Khalil B, Khella H, Pasic M, Yousef GM. Multilevel whole-genome analysis reveals candidate biomarkers in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Res; 72(20); 5273-84.

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Roger Zemp University of Alberta End Results Chain

2 5

To properly diagnose, treat, and monitor cancer, clinicians need robust imaging technologies. Dr Zemp’s group is developing unique imaging systems that have greater resolution and user-friendly features to make imaging easier, faster, and more accurate for doctors around the world. This past year, Dr Zemp’s team developed a new imaging technology called optical resolution photoacoustic microendoscopy that allows for visualization of cancers and their blood supply using a flexible miniature microscope the size of a thin wire. The technology uses new lasers with specialized optics and ultrasound devices to create a system that can see features that were undetectable with other imaging techniques. The system was tested and validated in live mice that had been implanted with human tumours and has been adapted to a hand-held form that can be used for dermatological cancer imaging. Shao P, Shi W, Hajireza P, Zemp RJ. (2012). Integrated micro-endoscopy system for simultaneous fluorescence and opticalresolution photoacoustic imaging. J Biomed Opt. Jul; 17(7):076024. Jiang Y, Forbrich A, Harrison T, Zemp RJ. (2012). Blood oxygen flux estimation with a combined photoacoustic and highfrequency ultrasound microscopy system: a phantom study. J Biomed Opt. Mar; 17(3):036012.

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END 3: ENHANCED QUALITY OF LIFE FOR CANADIANS LIVING WITH AND BEYOND CANCER

Eva Grunfeld University of Toronto End Results Chain

3 6

This past year, Dr Grunfeld published an analysis of a clinical trial that was the first to formally evaluate a survivorship care plan (SCP) for patients who have completed primary treatment for breast cancer. An SCP is meant to help improve the quality of care of cancer survivors as they move beyond their treatment. Overall, 408 survivors were enrolled through nine cancer centers. All patients were seen by their primary care physician (PCP) for follow-up, however one group also received an SCP, which was reviewed with a nurse and provided to their PCP as well. The study showed that an SCP does not in fact improve patient-reported outcomes such as cancer-related distress or quality of life. A standard discharge visit with the patient’s oncologist to facilitate transfer of care to the PCP had the same outcome as those patients that received an SCP. This work was published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology and is being cited in Cancer Care Ontario’s systematic review on models of follow-up care and the American Society for Clinical Oncology’s guideline on breast cancer follow-up. Grunfeld E, Julian JA, Pond G, Maunsell E, Coyle D, Folkes A, Joy AA, Provencher L, Rayson D, Rheaume DE, Porter GA, Paszat LF, Pritchard KI, Robidoux A,Smith S, Sussman J, Dent S, Sisler J, Wiernikowski J, Levine MN. (2012). Evaluating survivorship care plans: results of a randomized, clinical trial of patients with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2011 Dec 20; 29(36):4755-62.

Christopher Longo McMaster University End Results Chain

3 5

Dr Christopher Longo, Associate Scientist to the Canadian Centre for Applied Research in Cancer Control (ARCC), leads a team from Ontario and British Columbia studying cancer patients’ perspectives on the extent of out-of-pocket costs during treatment and quality of life. The results will increase understanding of how individuals manage their cancer experience and financial burdens. Moreover, this ARCC project focuses on the quality of life for Canadians living with and beyond cancer in addition to examining the financial pressures patients are facing. Early study results have shown that patients experience financial stress in housing and dietary needs. A case in point, some patients have to change residences due to personal finances and modify their diets to better facilitate treatment.

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Donald Mabbott Hospital for Sick Children End Results Chain

3 5

Dr Mabbott is studying the biological origins of cognitive malfunctioning following brain irradiation for paediatric brain tumours. In a recent publication in the journal Cortex, Dr Mabbott’s team showed that a technique used to measure white matter integrity, called Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), can be used in children to predict information processing speed. Using this novel technique, Dr Mabbott’s research group showed that children treated with radiation for a specific form of brain tumour had impaired working memory due to a compromised white matter pathway. These results are important to help inform future health practises and may influence the dosage and distribution of radiation given to patients to try and avoid cognitive impairments. Dockstader C, Gaetz W, Rockel C, Mabbott DJ. (2012) White matter maturation in visual and motor areas predicts the latency of visual activation in children. Hum Brain Mapp. 33(1): 179-91. Dockstader C, Gaetz W, Bouffet E, Tabori U, Wang F, Bostan S, Laughlin S, Mabbott DJ (Accepted). Neural correlates of delayed visual-motor performance in children treated for brain tumours. Cortex.

Mary McBride BC Cancer Agency End Results Chain

3 6

Childhood cancer treatments can result in lifelong effects, including medical, psychological, education, and social problems, about which little is currently known. Due to advances in treatment, approximately 80% of Canadian children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer now survive 5 or more years after diagnosis. Mary McBride and her research team completed a study on childhood and adolescent cancer survivors in BC who had been diagnosed before age 20 and survived at least 5 years post-diagnosis. The study published in Canadian Family Physician analysed the behaviour of 1157 survivors compared to an age-sex matched population. This work showed that cancer survivors were 96% more likely to visit at least one physician and 157% more likely to visit a specialist during a 3-year follow-up period. These results demonstrate the demand for physician care among young cancer survivors and the need for unique healthcare programs and services for childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. This work has been used as evidence in a proposal for a riskbased follow-up care program for cancer survivors. McBride ML, Lorenzi MF, Page J, Broemeling AM, Spinelli JJ, Goddard K, Pritchard S, Rogers P, Sheps S. (2011). Patterns of physician follow-up among young cancer survivors: report of the CAYACS Research Program. Can Fam Physician. Dec; 57(12):3482-90.

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Erin McGowan University of Alberta End Results Chain

3 5

Dr McGowan has been working under the leadership of Dr Courneya at the University of Alberta to improve the quality of life for cancer survivors. While it has been shown that physical activity improves health outcomes for colorectal cancer survivors, participation rates remain low. Dr McGowan recently completed a study published in Support Care Cancer that surveyed colorectal cancer survivors in Alberta and their sport participation rate. A total of 600 colorectal cancer survivors completed the survey with almost a quarter participating in a sport activity within the last month. Barriers to participation included time, age, agility, and interest. Over half of participants were interested in learning more about sport opportunities indicating that this may be a strategy to increase physical activity for colorectal cancer survivors. Dr McGowan has also recently completed a comprehensive trial assessing a simple, time efficient and cost effective behavioural intervention for prostate cancer survivors that involves telephone-assisted support and mailings. A total of 423 prostate cancer survivors were enrolled in the trial. Participants were randomly divided into three groups: (1) a standard physical activity group (control), (2) a self-administered physical activity group, and (3) a telephone assisted physical activity group. Physical activity in both the selfadministered and telephone-assisted groups increased after 1 month showing that these strategies could be used to increase physical activity levels in cancer survivors and help reduce the side effects of treatment and disease. The results of the study have been submitted for publication. McGowan EL, Speed-Andrews AE, Rhodes RE, Blanchard CM, Culos-Reed SN, Friedenreich CM, Courneya KS. (2012). Sport participation in colorectal cancer survivors: an unexplored approach to promoting physical activity. Support Care Cancer. McGowan EL, North S, Courneya KS. (2012). Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavior Change Intervention to Increase Physical Activity and Quality of Life in Prostate Cancer Survivors. In preparation.

Sally Thorne University of British Columbia End Results Chain

3 6

Dr Thorne studies communication from the patient perspective with the goal of improving the quality of care for those on their cancer journey. In a recent study published in the Journal of Cancer Survivorship, Dr Thorne analyzed a database of interviews conducted with Canadian cancer patients who were undergoing a transition from an oncology specialist to a general care provider. The interviews demonstrated the complexities involved in the transition to survivorship. Overall, communication gaps and misinterpretations were linked with feelings of confusion, insecurity, vulnerability, loss, and abandonment when individual needs were not addressed. These results will provide valuable areas for health providers to focus on when communicating with individuals that are about to undergo a transition to survivorship.

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Findings from Dr Thorne’s work have been used to inform Canadian Cancer Society information specialists’ responses to patients’ phone requests for assistance with managing healthcare communication issues. In addition, the research is being used in a communications training program for physicians who are taking residency programs in oncology and palliative care in BC. Thorne SE, Stajduhar KI. (2012). Patient perceptions of communications on the threshold of cancer survivorship: implications for provider responses. J Cancer Surviv. 6(2):229-37.

Camilla Zimmermann Princess Margaret Hospital End Results Chain

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In Canada, home care (HC) services are available through the publicly funded healthcare system, however patients who require palliative HC often do not receive it. Dr Zimmerman conducted a study through her hospital’s oncology palliative care clinic (OPCC) to assess how patients are referred to HC services. Dr Zimmermann’s team assessed 1,224 patients who suffered from a variety of cancers with varying levels of independence and ability to self-care. Results from this study were published this past year and showed that the percentage of patients referred to HC increased from less than half to 88% when they had a consultation with the OPCC. Furthermore, HC services were increased for 43% of patients who had previously been referred to HC by their physician. The study also showed that older patients were more likely to be referred to HC by the OPCC. These results are the first to show a very important role for OPCCs in providing valuable HC services to patients with advanced cancer. In a separate study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, Dr Zimmerman’s team found that Canadian oncologists are referring patients too late to specialized palliative care services. While 80% of doctors refer terminally ill cancer patients to palliative care, most patients are only referred in the last few months or weeks of life and many are only referred in the last days. Specialized palliative care gives patients access to a multidisciplinary team of health practitioners, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, chaplains, social workers and psychologists, who can create a plan of care to relieve suffering in all areas of a patient’s life. The approach is a holistic one, aimed at improving the patient’s quality of life and focusing on pain management and psychosocial and spiritual care. The study surveyed oncologists throughout Canada and showed that while 73% say they have access to palliative care clinics, only one third are referring patients upon diagnosis of an incurable cancer. The main barriers to referral were availability and comprehensiveness of specialized palliative care services and that not all services accept patients undergoing chemotherapy. In addition, one third of those surveyed said they would refer patients to palliative care earlier if it were renamed “supportive care.” Jang RW, Burman D, Swami N, Kotler J, Banerjee S, Ridley J, Mak E, Bryson J, Rodin G, Le LW, Zimmermann C. (2012) Am J Hosp Palliat Care. Sept 2012 Wentlandt K, Krzyzanowska MK, Swami N, Rodin GM, Le LW, Zimmermann C. (2012). Referral Practices of Oncologists to Specialized Palliative Care. J Clin Oncol. Oct 2012.

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REGARD VERS L’AVENIR OUVRIR LA VOIE AUX PERCÉES DE DEMAIN : FAITS SAILLANTS DES SUBVENTIONS POUR L’INNOVATION EN 2012 Les subventions pour l’innovation se sont retrouvées à l’avant-plan en 2012 puisqu’elles constituaient les premiers investissements aux termes du programme de recherche remanié de l’IRSCC. Ces subventions visent à appuyer la recherche innovatrice et créative sur le cancer, c’est-à-dire les idées qui permettront de résoudre autrement les problèmes liés au cancer. Certains vont jusqu’à décrire les subventions pour l’innovation comme un capital intellectuel de risque avec une perspective de rendement élevé. Après deux concours, 51 projets ont été financés, représentant tous les domaines de la recherche. Le potentiel des projets financés a suscité l’enthousiasme du personnel de la Société, des donateurs, des chercheurs, des médias et des gens du public. Par ailleurs, la communauté scientifique a fortement adhéré au nouveau programme, comme en témoigne la croissance constante des demandes lors des concours subséquents. De plus, 14 % des candidats retenus étaient de nouveaux chercheurs qui n’avaient jamais bénéficié du financement de l’IRSCC auparavant.

SUBVENTIONS POUR L’INNOVATION EN 2012 9,95 M$ ENGAGÉS 51 SUBVENTIONS VERSÉES

Dr Senthil Muthuswamy (hôpital Princess Margaret), récipiendaire d’une subvention pour l’innovation

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SUBVENTIONS POUR L’INNOVATION ACCORDÉES EN 2012 -

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Augmentation de l’apport sanguin à une tumeur pour aider à prévenir la propagation du cancer à d‘autres parties du corps (Dr Geoffrey Pickering, London) Modèle en trois dimensions du pancréas aux fins d’observation des différents stades du cancer du pancréas dans un objectif de découverte de nouveaux biomarqueurs pour détecter et diagnostiquer la maladie de manière plus précoce (Dr Senthil Muthuswamy, Toronto) Effet immunomodulateur naturel de l’histamine (libérée lors d’une réaction allergique) dans la régulation de la capacité du corps de combattre les tumeurs (Dr Jean Marshall, Halifax) Recours à un antioxydant naturel pour prévenir la perte de l’ouïe chez les patients qui reçoivent de la chimiothérapie à base de cisplatine (Dr François Meyer, Québec) Études de nouveaux anticorps de la lamproie marine pour le développement de nouveaux outils de détection, de diagnostic et de prédiction de l’issue du myélome multiple et d’autres cancers (Dr Goetz Ehrhardt, Toronto) Compréhension de la croissance des tumeurs par suite de changements du métabolisme afin de découvrir de nouvelles cibles thérapeutiques et de nouveaux médicaments (Dr Christopher Loewen, Vancouver)

RECHERCHE EN INNOVATION : TENDANCES Voici quelques sujets d’actualité en 2012 pour lesquels nous finançons plusieurs chercheurs menant des projets de recherche complémentaires.

1- VIRUS ONCOLYTIQUES Les virus sont des agents infectieux microscopiques qui se reproduisent en présence d’une cellule. Certains virus détruisent la cellule qu’ils infectent alors que d’autres demeurent inactifs (dormants). Les virus oncolytiques (VO) ont pour fonction d’attaquer les cellules cancéreuses sans nuire aux cellules normales. Au cours de la dernière année, l’IRSCC a financé quatre projets portant sur l’utilisation des VO pour combattre le cancer. Ces projets visent à tester différentes méthodes dans le but d’améliorer l’efficacité technique des VO. Les récipiendaires des subventions sont énumérés ci-dessous. 

Dr Jean-Simon Diallo (Institut de recherche en santé de l’Hôpital Ottawa) : Combining chemical, genetic and in silico approaches to improve oncolytic virotherapy (Combinaison d’approches chimiques, génétiques et in silico pour améliorer la virothérapie oncolytique) Dre J. Andrea McCart (Toronto General Hospital) : Designing a next generation oncolytic vaccinia virus using high throughput functional screening (Création d’un virus de la vaccine oncolytique de nouvelle génération grâce à un criblage fonctionnel à haut rendement) Dr Robert Korneluk (Centre hospitalier pour enfants de l’Est de l’Ontario) : Synergistic combination of IAP antagonists and oncolytic viruses to treat cancer (Complexe médicamenteux d’antagonistes des IAP et de virus oncolytiques pour traiter le cancer) Dre Rebecca Auer (Institut de recherche en santé de l’Hôpital Ottawa) : Oncolytic viruses for perioperative targeting of natural killer cells in cancer (Ciblage péri-opératoire des cellules tueuses naturelles par virus oncolytiques dans le traitement du cancer)

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2- ÉPIGÉNÉTIQUE L’épigénétique est l’étude des changements de l’activité génétique qui n’entraînent toutefois aucune modification du code génétique. En effet, il est plutôt question de marqueurs épigénétiques qui activent ou désactivent les gènes, lesquels marqueurs se transmettent d’une génération à l’autre. En 2012, nous avons financé quatre projets sur l’épigénétique et son rôle dans le traitement du cancer. Les travaux sont des plus variés, de la recherche de marqueurs épigénétiques utiles au diagnostic du cancer à ce qu’apporterait une compréhension de la structure d’un chromosome au chapitre du développement du cancer. Les récipiendaires des subventions sont énumérés ci-dessous. 

 

Dre Leigh Murphy (Université du Manitoba) : Epigenetic-like codes for estrogen receptor alpha (ERa): ERa phosphorylation profiling ex vivo in human breast tumours (Codes analogues à l’épigénétique pour le récepteur des œstrogènes alpha [ERα] : profilage ex vivo de la phosphorylation des ERα dans les tumeurs du sein humaines) Dre Bharati Bapat (hôpital Mount Sinai) : Genome-wide distribution and dynamic regulation of 5hydroxymethylation in prostate carcinogenesis (Distribution pangénomique et régulation dynamique de la 5hydroxyméthylation dans la carcinogenèse de la prostate) Dre Josée Dostie (McGill) : Discovering three-dimensional cancer epigenetics (Découverte de l’épigénétique du cancer en trois dimensions) Dre Francine Durocher (Centre hospitalier de l’Université Laval) : Characterization of an alternative spliced form of the DNMT3B methylation gene in breast cancer tumorigenesis (Caractérisation d’une variante épissée de l’ADN méthytransférase 3B dans la tumorigénèse mammaire)

SUBVENTIONS D’ÉQUIPES MULTISECTEURS POUR LA RECHERCHE SUR LA PRÉVENTION En novembre 2012, nous avons introduit les subventions d’équipes multisecteurs pour la recherche sur la prévention. Les récipiendaires de ces subventions sont des équipes formées d’experts, notamment des membres du personnel de la Société, qui œuvrent à trouver des réponses à des questions complexes de recherche en matière de prévention du cancer et de réduction du risque. Ce nouveau programme vise à encourager l’interaction collective pour produire des résultats à fort impact, lesquels peuvent orienter les programmes, les activités et les travaux d’élaboration de politiques de la Société en matière de prévention du cancer et de réduction du risque. Les équipes multisecteurs présentées ci-dessous ont reçu une subvention. 

Le Dr Paul Demers du Centre de recherche sur le cancer professionnel dirigera un groupe de scientifiques, d’épidémiologistes et d’économistes de la santé à l’occasion d’une recherche pancanadienne afin d’estimer le fardeau humain et économique lié à l’exposition aux carcinogènes en milieu de travail. La Dre Jennifer O’Loughlin de l’Université de Montréal mettra sur pied un programme d’abandon du tabac destiné aux jeunes du Québec. Faisant appel aux omnipraticiens et aux infirmières, le programme a pour objectif de cibler les jeunes fumeurs et de réduire l’incidence du cancer en misant sur les interventions, la prestation périodique et suivie de conseils et le soutien des pairs. La Dre Joan Bottorff du campus d’Okanagan de l’Université de la Colombie-Britannique constituera un groupe d’organismes de soins de santé qui œuvreront à réduire les taux de cancer dans le nord de la Colombie-Britannique, où l'on dénote les plus hauts taux de tabagisme, d’obésité et de décès par cancer de la province.

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VOTRE TRAVAIL VOUS REND-IL MALADE?

Dr Paul Demers (Centre de recherche sur le cancer professionnel), récipiendaire d’une subvention d’équipes multisecteurs pour la recherche sur la prévention

PROGRAMMES À VENIR EN 2013 En 2013, la totalité du programme de recherche aura été remaniée et sera en vigueur. Les premières subventions pour un impact, constituant notre nouveau programme phare, seront attribuées en février 2013. Le programme de subventions pour un impact vise à contribuer au conduit d’idées scientifiques en appuyant la progression majeure de programmes de recherche sur le cancer, que ce soit dans le continuum des découvertes de base pour un impact ou grâce à des travaux de nature translationnelle ayant une pertinence manifeste sur la pratique clinique. Ces subventions ont pour objectif de donner vie aux innovations découlant de la recherche sur le cancer. Nous prévoyons financer des projets qui pourront avoir un impact important sur les patients et les gens du public. L’année 2013 marquera également l’arrivée des subventions de recherche sur la qualité de vie. Ces subventions ont été créées dans le but d’appuyer la recherche sur la qualité de vie qui peut avoir d’importantes répercussions sur le fléau qu’est le cancer pour les patients, les survivants et les prestataires de soins. Toujours en 2013, l’IRSCC versera les premières subventions « Des connaissances à la pratique ». Ces subventions viendront combler l’écart entre les connaissances découlant des recherches et l’application de ces dernières. Elles ont pour objectif de financer les projets de recherche qui approfondissent les découvertes actuelles en matière de recherche sur le cancer et visent à améliorer les résultats et les expériences des gens et populations à risque, des patients, de leur famille et des collectivités, à tous les stades du cancer, grâce à la transposition des connaissances. Enfin, les programmes de réduction du risque et de prévention du cancer de l’IRSCC seront axés sur le renforcement de la capacité canadienne en la matière, un meilleur réseautage et la mise à profit des activités existantes. Les bourses de développement de carrière du programme de prévention verront le jour au début

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de 2013 et appuieront le perfectionnement professionnel des chercheurs débutants dans le domaine de la prévention du cancer et de la réduction du risque ainsi que dans celui de la recherche clinique communautaire en prévention du cancer, leur donnant l’assurance de pouvoir consacrer du temps à leur recherche. Puisque 2013 marque l’année de notre 75e anniversaire, elle sera sans aucun doute une année historique pour l’IRSCC, qui peut maintenant compter sur tout un programme de recherche remanié et s’enorgueillir des résultats qui en découlent déjà. En tant que chef de file en matière de financement de la recherche sur le cancer au Canada, l’IRSCC est fier de son nouveau programme. Nous espérons de tout cœur qu’il se traduira par un impact important dans notre lutte contre le cancer.

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ANNEXE Sigles et acronymes ACRC

Alliance canadienne pour la recherche sur le cancer

ARCC

Centre canadien de recherche appliquée pour la lutte contre le cancer

CCOBS

Coalition canadienne des organismes de bienfaisance en santé

CCR

Conseil consultatif sur la recherche

CD

Cellule dendritique

CSC

Cellule souche cancéreuse

GEC de l’INCC

Groupe des essais cliniques de l’INCC

ILCCO

International Lung Cancer Consortium

IRSC

Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada

IRSCC

Institut de recherche de la Société canadienne du cancer

LCM

Lymphome à cellules du manteau

LDGCB

Lymphome diffus à grandes cellules B

LPL

Lymphome à petits lymphocytes

MAGIC

Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium

NSABP

National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project

P et E

Carcinogènes professionnels et environnementaux

PCCC

Partenariat canadien contre le cancer

PRIC

Portefeuille de recherche internationale sur le cancer

PROPEL

Centre pour l’avancement de la santé des populations Propel

TDM

Tomodensitométrie

UICC

Union internationale contre le cancer

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Profile for Canadian Cancer Society

Rapport sur l'impact de la recherche  

Rapport sur l'impact de la recherche

Rapport sur l'impact de la recherche  

Rapport sur l'impact de la recherche