Page 1



FEB 2012

$4.50 CDN

PM #40063001





Forced to Work, Forced to War


Help in C Major


Game On!


It’s life or death for these kids

Our musicians sing for aid

Playing for peace and fun

FAIR-ly Delicious!

Treats that help, not harm


Hey readers, I don’t mean to brag, but, well, we’re pretty proud of this super-sized issue of Kayak. We’ve got 64 pages all about Canada and the world — how we’ve helped others in the past and how we still help today. And you know who’s really

Cover Illustration: Stéphane Boutin

A History of Caring

Canada reaches out to the world

Psst! These symbols spell "Kayak" in Inuktitut.

28 History Mystery 34 You Think YOU Have it Tough? 56 Games 60 Jokes 61 Bubbleology

changing the world? You! Young Canadians are out there volunteering in all kinds of ways to build a brighter future for everyone on the planet. When you’re done reading, you can find out more at And be sure to visit, too, to tell us what you think!





aybe it’s because Canada’s such a young country. Maybe it’s because all of us who aren’t Inuit or from a First Nation came here from somewhere else. Whatever the reason, our country has looked to the rest of the world since, well, before it was even a country. Canadians know they’re part of a community that includes the whole planet, and that we’re among the most fortunate people who’ve ever lived. After all, there hasn’t been a war fought on Canadian soil in two centuries, and we don’t have the kinds of floods, droughts and earthquakes that have crushed other countries. And when you have that kind of good fortune, of course you should share.

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

International development isn’t fast and it isn’t easy, but it’s important. It’s the process where one country or several countries together provide help to a nation in need. It might be for a fairly short time, like sending tents, clean water and medicine after an earthquake. But it usually takes much longer, because the results have to last a long time, too. That means building schools, helping create a fair voting system, digging wells, training teachers, and teaching farmers new ideas so their crops grow better. By helping people in other countries to have the basics of life — nutritious food, clean water, a place to live and health care — as well as the

Illustrations: Anthony Brennan

things needed to make the future better — schools, farms, fair government, equal treatment — we’re helping build a more peaceful world. And as you’ll find out, Canada and Canadians have been doing it for hundreds of years.

If you find any of the words in this issue confusing, check out the game on p. 58. It has meanings for the words and a fun puzzle, too!

Illustrations: Anthony Brennan Kayak #39 FEB 2012

From missionaries sent by churches to bring farming and health tips to those in other lands, to modern charities providing Internet training, Canada has been reaching out to people in need overseas for a very long time.

Photo: National Film Board / Library and Archives Canada

Norman Bethune perfoming surgery in China, 1939

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Doctor in China Canadian surgeon Norman Bethune is a hero to millions of Chinese people. His communist beliefs took him to China in 1938 to help in the fight against Japanese invaders, setting up movable clinics right on the battlefield. He did medical operations for poor people, trained doctors and started more than 20 hospitals. He once operated for 69 hours straight to look after 115 patients. Bethune accidentally cut himself during an operation in 1939. The cut became infected and he soon died.

Photo: Franklin D. Roosevelt Library

Eleanor Roosevelt was a member of the group that came up with the Declaration of Human Rights, and the wife of President Franklin Roosevelt

Rights for All

It was once unheard-of that all people had rights that should be respected. The United Nations passed the Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. A Canadian named John Humphrey wrote it. His work helped the world see human rights as everyone’s concern.

Photo: Canada. Dept. of National Defence/ Library and Archives Canada

Health Head Ontario doctor and psychiatrist Brock Chisholm was given a great honour when he was elected the first director general of the new World Health Organization in 1948. He led the WHO for five years. He was ahead of his time in insisting that the idea of health should include both mental and physical health. Major-General G. Brock Chisholm

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Ay, Colombo!

Delegates to the 1950 meeting Photo: Colombo Plan Secretariat

Poverty causes political problems. That was the thinking in 1950, when several Commonwealth countries — those ruled at some point by the United Kingdom — got together. The result was known as the Colombo Plan, named after the city in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) where the meetings were held. The group included Canada, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia and later the United States. They contributed tens of millions of dollars to build roads, factories, universities, railways and airports in hopes of lifting countries such as India, Pakistan, Indonesia and Bangladesh out of poverty.

The Path to Peacekeeping

Lester B. Pearson Photo: Library and Archives Canada

It was 1956. The Egyptian government had grabbed control of the European company that ran the all-important Suez Canal — the route for ships to get from the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. Furious with Egypt’s actions, France, Israel and the U.K. attacked, even bombing the canal area. Lester B. Pearson, who would go on to become our prime minister, was in charge of foreign affairs for Canada. He led the way at the United Nations to create an emergency force to keep the situation from becoming an all-out war. (The first commander of that force, E.L.M. Burns, was also a Canadian.) Pearson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for helping create what we now know as the United Nations peacekeeping forces.

Children’s Rights The idea that kids have rights of their own is a pretty new one — children used to be seen as their parents’ property. The United Nations passed the Declaration of the Rights of the Child in 1959. It doesn’t mean you don’t have to clean your room, but it does aim to safeguard you and all kids. For instance, it says that all children have the right to be protected against cruelty, to go to school for free, to have love and care from family and government and to be taught the importance of peace, understanding and friendship. In 1989, the U.N. went a step further with the Convention on the Rights of the Child. When governments sign it, they agree to do everything they can to uphold children’s rights. Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Photo: Library and Archives Canada

Photo: Piero and Lucille Corti Foundation

African Operator

Dr. Lucille Teasdale with a young patient in Uganda

Not only was Lucille Teasdale one of the first women surgeons in Canada, she was a great believer in helping those in need. After hearing missionary nuns talk about their work with orphans in China, she decided she must do something useful herself. She had to go to France because neither Canada nor the United States would train a woman as a surgeon. In 1961, she headed to Africa to work in a tiny hospital in Uganda with the man she eventually married. She spent 35 years doing operations on anyone who needed one. The hospital she and her husband set up now has dozens of doctors, many of whom Teasdale trained.

Photo: CUSO

Beyond Government One of the most important non-governmental groups, or NGOs, in Canada is CUSO, started in 1961 mainly by people from universities. The letters of its name stood for Canadian University Services Overseas. Its goal was to train people who had just graduated from university to be teachers in other countries. It still places hundreds of skilled people in places where they can help local people with everything from mines to crafts to farming. Its francophone arm, SUCO, or Service universitaire canadien outre-mer, became a separate organization in 1981.

Organizing Aid Our most important government organization for helping those in other countries was born in 1968. The Canadian International Development Agency provides money and advice for projects that will improve the lives of poor people living in developing countries. CIDA also supports international groups such as the United Nations and World Bank. Its mission is to “lead Canada’s international effort to help people living in poverty.” Photo: ACDI-CIDA/Roger


Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Friends en Francais Many countries, including Canada, share a historical connection to France and have many people who speak French. In 1970, governments of these countries decided they needed an organization to help each other out on things such as culture, education and science. Now known as the Francophonie, it aims to support democracy, peace and human rights among all its members, which mainly come from Europe and Africa. It also provides aid to help its poorest members.

Reaching out through Research Solutions to problems in other countries may often be quite different from the ones that work here. In 1970, the Canadian government set up the International Development Research Centre. Its goal is to put the knowledge of Canadians and local people together, using science and technology to find answers that work. What does that mean? Programs to protect the environment, advance farming, improve health and create better communication systems. Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Drought Aid The countries in the Sahel region — a band across the widest part of Africa — saw little rain for more than five years starting in 1968. The area is always dry, but the lack of rain meant that 200,000 people starved to death. By 1974, Canada had responded with millions of dollars, providing food and protection for plants that survived the drought.

Danger Underfoot A landmine is an explosion waiting to happen. A device is buried out of sight so that it blows up when someone walks on it. Even when a war is over, there are often deadly landmines left behind. The Mine Ban Treaty was signed in Ottawa in 1997 after a challenge from Canada’s foreign minister to get rid of these awful weapons.

One type of landmine Photo: © ACDI-CIDA/ Wendell Phillips

Prize for Peace The international organization Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) sends doctors into war zones and disaster areas all over the world to help the sick and wounded. In 1999 it won the Nobel Peace Prize. Accepting the award was James Orbinski, the Canadian who was president of MSF at the time and had worked in Africa, Peru and Afghanistan.

Dr. James Orbinski in Rwanda, 1994

Photo: White Pine Pictures.

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Illustrations: David Namisato

Illustrations: David Namisato

Forced to Work,

Forced to War You may not know it, but in Canada, there are rules that protect you from working too many hours, in dangerous conditions or at too young an age. Many kids around the world are not so lucky. By Jason Santerre Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Photo: Free The Children


s you read this, there are children just like you who are at war, according to the organization War Child Canada. Ordinary kids might be laying dangerous landmines or shooting at other soldiers — maybe even other children.

There are more child soldiers in Africa than anywhere else. Michel Chikwanine was one of them. He was just five when he was rounded up on a soccer field outside his village in Congo, a country that has lost nearly six million people to war in the last 15 years. One moment Michel was playing with friends; the next he was being blindfolded, driven to a faraway camp and drugged. The terrified boy had a rifle shoved into his hands and was ordered to shoot his best friend, Kevin, to prove he was ready to become part of the rebel army fighting the country’s government. Michel managed to escape and eventually ended up in Canada. “It was January. I landed in Ottawa. It was minus 40 degrees Celsius, and I had never seen snow before,” recalls Michel of the day he’ll never forget — the day he was finally free.

Michel Chikwanine

Going quiet for a day to remember those who can’t speak up for themselves

Silent Support

Michel wants every Canadian kid to know about Free The Children’s “Vow of Silence.” Every year, tens of thousands of children around the globe don’t talk, text or email for 24 hours to draw attention to kids who are silenced by war and poverty. “I think one of the coolest things about Canada is the opportunity for young people to act,” says Michel. “So many people around the world don’t have that right, that choice to speak out. That’s why the Vow of Silence will get people’s attention and help raise awareness. They’ll ask, ‘Why aren’t these kids talking?’” Photo: Free The Children

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

In Bolivia, young boys heave pickaxes to break up big rocks, day after day. In Ivory Coast, children work long days in the cocoa fields, breathing in the poisons constantly sprayed on the crop. In other countries, young girls work as maids for very little pay. Nobody wants to see kids working at all, let alone in such dangerous conditions. Sometimes kids can work part-time to help their

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

families, but still have time for their studies and maybe even play. As long as they’re safe, that’s okay. In many countries, children help their families in the fields or sell things on the street, but they are treated well and work reasonable lengths of time. The problem comes when kids have no choice but to work long hours in dangerous conditions.

Photo: © ACDI-CIDA/David Trattles

More than 130 million children around the world must work to support themselves and their families, according to the Canadian International Development Agency.

Those kinds of jobs include young girls going to live in someone else’s home as a cleaner or a child being forced to weave carpets for 12 hours a day. It’s unthinkable, but some kids are even taken into slavery.

In some places, children as young as five or six years old have to work


NO! Canadians are helping make sure kids

have the right to say no to bad work, and

that they are still free to go to school. The good news is that the world is starting to pay attention. Between 2000 and 2004, the number of child labourers around the globe fell by 16 per cent.

A young Craig Kielburger visits a factory in southern India that used child labour

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Photos: Free The Children

One of the most important groups working to end child labour began right here in Canada! A 12-year-old boy named Craig Kielburger started Free The Children with 11 friends in 1995. Today, more than one million kids have joined the fight.

Photos: Istock



WORLD Canadians have lots of great ideas and they’ve created lots of great things to benefit people all over the globe. Check out these gifts that are helping others who need it. Kayak #39 FEB 2012




When people are in desperate need of food because of war, crop failure or flood, what’s available isn’t always as nutritious as it could be.

Campbell Canada has come up with a product called Nourish. It contains two full servings of vegetables, a serving of specially developed oats from Manitoba and nearly 20 grams of protein. It can be eaten as soon as it’s opened, without added water or being heated, so it’s perfect to send as food aid to hungry people overseas.

Photo: Campbell’s

Photo: UN/Eskinder Debebe

PROBLEM: Photo: Istock

UNCLEAN WATER AT HOME Dirty water makes people sick, but in many countries, it’s hard to afford a well or water treatment system.


Photo: David Manz

David Manz, a professor of engineering at the University of Calgary knew there had to be a better way. He saw the harm being done by dirty water in South Africa and the Philippines, so he came up with the BioSand filter that gets rid of some of the worst bacteria and diseases in water. With the help of the International Development Research Centre, he perfected the system. Fine sand in a cement box traps and gets rid of the things that make people sick. BioSand filters are being used all over the world to help poor people clean their own water and lead healthier lives. Kayak #39 FEB 2012




When you’ve been bitten by a snake, eaten something dangerous or breathed in dangerous chemicals, you need to know what to do — fast. But in developing countries, you can’t always pick up the phone and call someone.

The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety has created a computer program that brings together advice from 100 poison experts. That means even a small location can find instant advice, and contribute its own information to make sure a poisoning accident doesn’t cost lives.

Photos: Istock


Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Photo: UN/Marco Dormino

The terrible earthquake in Haiti in 2010 was made even worse by badly made houses and other buildings. The Haitian government didn’t want to repeat that mistake, so it asked designers from all over the world to come up with a better plan for homes that wouldn’t cost too much but would still be safe.




Photo: UN/Albert Gonzalez Farran

Photo: Sprinkles Global Health Initiative

A researcher from the University of Toronto, Dr. Stanley Zlotkin, realized there was an easy way to give young kids those essential things they were missing. He mixed them and put them in a small packet about the size of a tea bag. The packet could be opened and sprinkled on their food. (It’s no surprise the product is called Sprinkles.) The powder packages are used all over the world to help kids grow up healthy.

Many children around the world are malnourished. That is, they’re not getting enough nutritious food to eat. What wasn’t realized for a long time is that many kids also don’t get enough micronutrients — things like zinc, iron and vitamins that their bodies and brains need to develop properly. It’s sometimes called “hidden hunger.”


Photos: Tenta

Montreal tent designer Maurice Monette’s design has foam walls that slide into an aluminum frame. That means that if the earth moves, the house can move too, instead of cracking and collapsing. The house would take about a week to put up with a crew of four people. Monette calls his design “The Human.” It also has a system to collect rainwater and make it drinkable, and the toilet composts what’s put into it so it can be used for fertilizer.

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

By Bridget Wayland

Canadian musicians have been raising money for those in need for more than 25 years When is a song more than a song? When it’s recorded or performed to raise money for charity. If there’s a natural disaster, flood or famine, good-hearted Canadian musicians use their talents — and their star power — to encourage others to give money for a good cause. So lend an ear as Kayak recalls the recent history of musical goodwill. All-star concerts to help others started with the Concert for Bangladesh in 1971. The idea was dreamed up by George Harrison, one of the members of the Beatles, the best-selling pop music band of all time. More than 40,000 people jammed New York’s Madison Square Garden to listen to music from some of the biggest stars of the day. They raised millions for victims of flood, war and a food shortage in the Asian country of Bangladesh.

Kayak #39 FEB 2012


When widespread hunger hit Ethiopia in northeastern Africa, musicians decided they had to help. It started with what’s now known as a charity single — a song recorded to raise money for a specific cause. A collection of superstars calling themselves Band Aid (get it? Band Aid?) recorded the song “Do They Know It’s Christmas?” which became a huge hit. In Canada, Vancouver-based pop star Bryan Adams and 55 of his famous friends banded together as Northern Lights to record the catchy tune “Tears Are Not Enough.” If you ask your parents about it, they’ll probably remember most of the words. It went to number one on the charts in 1985, raising more than $3 million. An American group also recorded a charity single called “We Are the World” to get people to donate to end hunger in Ethiopia.

Photo: Dimo Safari

1985: Tears Are Not Enough

2005: One World

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Photo: © ACDI-CIDA/Benoit Aquin

When a giant ocean wave smashed into Indonesia and seven other countries in December 2004, people around the world wanted to help those who’d lost their homes, their loved ones and their jobs. At Toronto’s star-studded “Canada for Asia” concert, which was shown on TV, 150 performers helped raise more than $4 million for the victims of the terrible tsunami. Less than two weeks later, Canadian pop stars Avril Lavigne, Sarah McLachlan, Sum 41 and the Barenaked Ladies put on “One World: The Concert for Tsunami Relief.” This Vancouver show benefited groups such as Oxfam, Care Canada, Doctors Without Borders and War Child.

2010: 25 For Haiti Although it was not an anniversary anyone wanted to be repeated, 25 years after “We Are the World,” there was another reason for artists to reach out: the devastating earthquake in Haiti. Canadians Justin Bieber, Celine Dion and dozens more pop idols recorded a new version of the song, called “We Are the World 25 For Haiti,” in the same studio where the original took place.

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

2010: Young Artists for Haiti Photo: Cameron Maclennan

With so many young, cool Canadian musicians gathered in Vancouver for the 2010 Olympics while Haiti still needed so much help, it would have been a shame not to come together. So they did! Fifty of them popped into Bryan Adams’ studio to record a version of “Wavin’ Flag” by Somali-Canadian hip-hop artist K’naan. All the money went to three charities working in Haiti: World Vision, Free The Children and War Child.

Photo: Cameron Maclennan

Hope Rising! The Stephen Lewis Foundation is a Canadian group working to help Africans who are struggling with the impact of the disease AIDS. When mothers and fathers die from the disease, it’s often the grandmothers who must raise children left alone. At this May 2011 concert in Toronto, seven grannies from Swaziland and South Africa appeared on stage with major pop stars such as Alicia Keys and Canadians K’naan and Rufus Wainwright. Kayak #39 FEB 2012


BASICS 10 Canadian projects that put first things first By Bridget Wayland Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Let’s Eat! Photo: UN World Food Programme

Counting on Lunch Kids can’t learn if they have nothing to eat. But students at the Simon Bolivar Primary School in the Central American country of Honduras get a good meal every day — rice and bean soup with a fried tortilla, pancake and drink. So do more than one million other students in that country, where poverty and tough farming conditions make food hard to come by. It’s all part of the third-largest School Feeding Program in the world, run by the United Nations’ World Food Programme and supported by Canadian contributions.

To the Rescue Photo: WFP/Siegfried Modola

Many families in Somalia, Africa, had to walk for days just to get their next meal when fighting and drought — a long period with no water for crops or animals — hit their country. When they made it to refugee camps, areas set aside for people like them, they finally got to eat. What’s on the menu? A healthy 10-year old would receive about a kilogram and a half of corn and soy cereal a week, plus a little sugar and oil, says Action Against Hunger Canada, a group feeding 100,000 refugees in Dollo Ado, Ethiopia.

Morning Milk Photo: Istock

Four farm children enjoy a glass of fresh milk every morning. No big news there, except the Kastuli family lives in Karatu, Tanzania, where farmers are “paying it forward” with goats! It all started when the kids’ mum, Scolastica, received two dairy goats from the group Canadian Physicians for Aid and Relief. When the goat had kids, Scolastica gave two to another needy family. And so it went. Now, everybody gets breakfast!

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Wonderful Water Photo: © ACDI-CIDA/Stephen Edgar

Safe to Drink If you lived in the mountains of Bolivia, South America, you might not have safe drinking water or a bathroom at home. But you might at school, thanks to a United Nations program with Canadian support that has brought clean water to more than 200,000 people and built washrooms in 20 rural villages. The enemy? Disease-causing viruses that are passed around when people’s hands aren’t clean. With showers, toilets and sinks where they can wash up, more kids will stay healthy.

BIG ideas

Photo: Ryan’s Well

little kid,

He was only six years old but Ryan Hreljac made a difference. When the Ontario boy learned that without clean water to drink, many people got sick and died, he rolled up his sleeves. Ryan earned $70 by doing extra chores at home, then sent the money to dig a well that would provide clean water at Angolo Primary School in Uganda, Africa. Since then, the Ryan’s Well Foundation has been responsible for almost 700 wells where they are needed most.

Home Sweet Home When the worst-ever flooding hit Pakistan in July 2010, millions lost their homes. The Canadian Red Cross and its international partners used our donations to set up tents and tarpaulins. They also provided kitchen sets, blankets and more, helping more than 1.6 million people until new homes could be built.

A Roof Over Their Heads Even with buildings all around, people can have trouble finding somewhere to live. In the African country of Zimbabwe, for example, Rooftops Canada has been working hard to build new houses and help some of the 700,000 city people who were kicked out of their homes by the government. Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Photo: Angela Sevin

Shelter from the Storm

Classy Stuff Photo: Istock

ABC, 1-2-3 It’s hard to get an education if there’s no teacher, no school, not even a library nearby. A Quebec-based group called Terre sans Frontières (in English, World Without Borders) aims to improve that situation. In the Philippines, for instance, the group runs a project that will build schools and provide supplies so that 900 kids, especially girls, will get a chance to learn and improve their lives.

Photo: Istock

Skills to Pay Bills Whether you live in Calgary or Cameroon, you need to know how to do the right things if you’re going to get the right job. In the capital city of Yaoundé, a New Brunswick organization called LearnSphere Canada is helping a local centre train at least 500 young people in telephone and computer networks. Graduates have a good shot at well-paying high-tech jobs.

It’s finally time for kids to get back to class after the earthquake of 2010. With $20 million from Canada, the Inter-American Development Bank is helping Haiti build 35 earthquake-proof schools, pay school fees for 35,000 needy kids, and give 35,000 more children back-to-school kits that include backpacks, uniforms, books and pencils.

Photo: UN/Marco Dormino

Back to School

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Canadian people and dollars work all over the world in all kinds of different ways to improve life for others. Which of these projects are considered international development?

Mongolia Photo: International Development Research Centre

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

How do you get the Internet to small groups of people in a huge, mountainous country? With Canadian help! The Mongolian government gave Canada’s International Development Research Centre its highest honour for the centre’s support in creating computer networks. Those connections are now being used to train rural doctors and give students a better education.

Ukraine No matter where you are, there will probably be some young people who get into trouble by breaking the law. A group called Agriteam Canada is working to build a better system for those youth in Ukraine. Its program is training judges and setting up a centre that provides the kind of help that troubled young people need.

Photo: Agriteam Canada

Iraq Half a million people used to live in a huge, marshy area of Iraq where they fished, raised water buffalo and made crafts from the reeds. When the government drained the marshlands in 1989, those people had nowhere to earn a living. The University of Victoria and the University of Waterloo are working with Iraqis to return the area to the way it was, and help people there return to their way of life.

Photo: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers


Photo: CODE Writer: Wili Liberman Illustrator: Janine Carrington

ISBN# 978-0-9876981-0-0

The graphic novel The Shadowed Road tells the story of a 14-year-old Ethiopian girl, Selome. When she learns that her family can’t afford to send her to high school, she sets out to find her aunt in the big city. The book, which is published by the Canadian Organization for Development through Education, is available in French and English. It aims to help Canadian kids and teachers understand more about life in Ethiopia.


Photo: World Neighbours Canada

Ordinary people in Nepal can’t do much about pollution outdoors. But pollution indoors? That’s something they can control, with a bit of help from World Neighbours Canada. Cooking stoves that don’t create smoke inside the house are an easy way to greatly reduce problems with breathing and eye irritation.

answers on page 62 Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Game On! For kids living with war, hunger and fear, the idea of playing in safety is as hard to imagine as living in peace. That’s why several Canadian groups are working to make sure kids, even in some of the world’s most troubled places, have the chance to play. Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Illustrations: Keith Milne

After all, when you kick a soccer ball around, you’re not hurting anyone and no one’s hurting you. You’re getting to know other people and having fun in a safe place. And that can’t help but make your life and your community better. Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Photo: © ACDI-CIDA/ Roger LeMoyne

Refugee camp in Africa

Safe Sports When people have to leave their homes because of violence, they often end up in refugee camps — places where they can survive, but not really build a life. They rarely have schools or places to work, because they’re only supposed to be in the camps for a short time. And long days with nothing to do can mean boredom and worse. That’s where the Canadian group ONEXONE decided to help. It created safe places to play, like basketball and volleyball courts in huge refugee camps in the African country of Chad, along the border with Sudan. It trained more than 350 coaches and teachers, and supplied nets, balls and other equipment. In the end, more than 12,500 children have had a chance just to have fun and be kids. A few moments of peace and play gives them something normal to do in the middle of the stress and sadness of life as a refugee.

Photo: Hincks-Dellcrest Centre

Protected by Play Parents who play with their kids help young minds and bodies grow, and help prepare them to start school. Toronto’s HincksDellcrest Centre runs Learning Through Play programs in Nicaragua, Peru, El Salvador, Jamaica and other countries. Workers teach parents about what happens as their children grow. Parents also learn how to help their kids stay healthy by playing with them to encourage their creativity and mental health. The results? Parents understand more and worry less, which makes for happier, healthier kids. Not to mention lots of fun playtime! Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Right to Play in action around the world

Photos: Right To Play

Awesome Athletes During the Olympics, the world’s attention is on the competition among great athletes. But at the 1994 winter games in Lillehammer, Norway, organizers wanted to share the spotlight with people in countries suffering from war and other tragedy. Johann Koss, a Norwegian speed skater, donated much of the money he won to Olympic Aid, and challenged others to do the same. He also asked for money to be donated for each gold medal a country won. The result was more than US $18 million US for building hospitals and schools and supporting mothers and children with disabilities. In 2001, Olympic Aid set up sports and play programs for refugees in the African countries of Angola and Côte d’Ivoire. It changed its name to Right To Play, and is now based in Canada. It works to ensure every child has a chance to build a healthy body through sports, and enjoy the fun of playing. What’s the payoff? Well, when kids are having fun with each other, they can forget about war, hunger and disease for a while. Right To Play leaders can also teach them about how to stay healthy and to solve problems peacefully. Today, Right To Play is helping kids in 20 countries in Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

What’s the connection between the Olympics and a temporary end to war? At the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, U.S., Olympic Aid and the United Nations Children’s Fund raised $13 million. That money was used to vaccinate more than 12 million children against serious diseases. In places like Afghanistan and northern Iraq there were temporary declarations of peace known as Olympic Truces. All fighting stopped so UNICEF staff could give life-saving immunizations to the women and children who needed them most. Kayak #39 FEB 2012



Photo: Nancy Payne

The sun has just set and you’re trying to enjoy a bonfire with friends, but clouds of mosquitoes buzz and bite and drive you crazy. Or maybe you’re out for a hike, swatting away stingers. Or trying to get to sleep while that one obnoxious mosquito whines around your head.

Mosquitoes are incredibly irritating, but except in very rare cases, the worst thing that happens to kids here is an itchy bump after a bite. Occasionally, Canadians are bitten by a mosquito carrying West Nile virus, which makes you feel like you have the flu. Older people or those who are already sick can be more seriously affected or even die. But mostly, mosquito bites in Canada aren’t much more than a nuisance.

60 YEARS Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Malaria was wiped out in Canada about 60 years ago. In Africa, a child dies from malaria every 45 seconds.



Poke. Slap. Itch.

What comes next is very different for you and for someone your age in other countries.

----------------------------------------Photo: Spread The Net


Some species of mosquito have a parasite — another tiny creature living off of them — that moves into humans’ blood stream when that mosquito bites. The result is malaria, a disease that kills close to one million people every year, mostly children. An infected child who doesn’t die may still be left paralyzed, brain damaged or blind. Poorer people are more likely to live in conditions where mosquitoes breed. That means they are also more likely to get bitten and more likely to get malaria and other diseases. Malaria occurs in parts of the Caribbean, Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. It can be treated with drugs if it’s discovered right away, but many people can’t afford those treatments.



There’s an easy way to fight malaria and other diseases carried by mosquitoes: bed nets. These long-lasting nets keep bugs from biting kids in the night. One $10 donation buys a net that’s been treated with insecticide. It can protect up to five children. The Canadian charity Spread the Net has sent more than half a million bed nets to the African countries where malaria problems are the worst. Kayak #39 FEB 2012






: Ja

oto Ph

Fair trade chocolate from Ten Thousand Villages

How to make sure your favourite treats are both tasty and good to those in other countries who make them Even though we live in one of the world’s richest countries, we still love to get food cheap. But those cheap treats might come at a high price for the people in other countries who are growing or making them if they are forced to work in unsafe factories or to take a low price for their crops. Seems unfair, doesn’t it? Well, that’s where the idea of FAIR TRADE came from. It had been around for at least 50 years when some people got together in the 1980s to come up with ways to ensure that the things we buy from other countries are fair to the people doing the trading. Fair trade organizations check out every step of a product’s journey to make sure it’s being grown and processed in a way that’s good to people and the environment. They also return a fair price to those who made the product, often by paying them directly. That way there’s no “middle man” who takes too much of the money that should go to the farmers or craftspeople. Here’s the scoop on four common fair trade foods. (We threw in some non-food stuff, too!) Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Chocolate Chocolate starts with cocoa, which starts with cocoa beans. Those beans come from farms that are often smaller than five hectares, mainly in West Africa, but also in South America and Asia. Especially in Africa, kids are often forced to work on the farms, sometimes as slaves. Many farmers are paid much less than their crop is worth. Fair trade pays them enough to send their children to school and improve their farms. There are fancy chocolate bars with the fair trade logo, but even better, the makers of ordinary brands you see in Canadian stores are also starting to go fair trade.

YAy! Boo!

Cadbury Canada is increasing the amount of fair trade cocoa and sugar it uses. All of its Dairy Milk products now use fair trade cocoa. According the American organization Raise the Bar, Hershey doesn’t track where its cocoa comes from, meaning its candy may have been made with child labour.

Okay, so you don’t drink it, but lots of people do. In fact, Canadians drink more than 40 million cups of coffee every day. Most of that comes from people who are paid very little for the coffee beans they produce. The good news is that fair trade coffee is catching on — in 2008, more than five million kilograms of it was sold in Canada.

Photo: Istock

Sugar Even though the world loves sugar, prices have dropped to about a quarter of what they were 25 years ago. Competition from wealthier countries that also produce sugar has made it hard for farmers in southern countries to earn a living, even though their families’ lives depend on it. Those who produce fair trade sugar know they are guaranteed a price that will cover their expenses and allow them to earn a living.

Photo: Istock

Photo: Istock



In smoothies, banana splits or your lunch, bananas are Canada’s most popular fruit. But in Canada, just one out of one hundred of those bananas is produced under fair trade conditions. Most are grown on tropical farms where workers get hit with the chemicals that are sprayed on the fruit. Many don’t get holidays or even a guaranteed wage for their work. And there’s no health plan when those chemicals make them sick. Kids as young as eight are often found working on banana plantations in South America. In 2004, the first fair trade certified bananas came to Canadian markets, but they can still be hard to find. Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Photos: Istock

Sports Balls Getting booted around isn’t the only problem with the equipment we use for soccer, football, rugby, volleyball and more. Sports balls are often hand-stitched by people in countries like Pakistan, India, China and Indonesia. They may work in factories or in their homes. Most work 10 to 12 hours or more every day, but are often paid much less than they are supposed to make. In an effort to earn more, they may make their children sew as well. Fair trade certified sports balls do not use child labour and are made by companies that pay at least the minimum wage.

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

What You

Can Do

Ten Thousand Villages One of the first champions of fair trade was an American named Edna Byler. She and her husband were Mennonites who believed deeply in helping others. After a visit to a sewing group in Puerto Rico in 1946, they brought back five dollars’ worth of samples. She showed them to others and within a few years had sold $30,000 worth of crafts, always giving a fair price back. She added other items, taking them with her all over North America when she spoke. Eventually the business became so big that the Mennonite Central Committee took it over and set up special stores called Ten Thousand Villages. The first one in Canada opened in Winnipeg in 1972. Now there are more than 48 of these stores across the country where you can buy fair trade crafts and food from all over the world.

Inside Ten Thousand Villages store in Winnipeg Photo: James Gillespie

Ask your parents to look for this logo when you’re shopping. It guarantees that a product has been approved by Fairtrade Canada or Fairtrade International. The Quebec group Équiterre is another good place to find information about fair trade choices. Ask your favourite restaurant to use fair trade chocolate, bananas, cocoa, nuts and spices . . . and keep asking! Ask your school board to buy fair trade sports balls. You can make a big difference in other people’s lives just by what you buy. Yes, fair trade stuff is usually more expensive, but you know it’s not hurting anyone, and that’s worth a lot more than money!

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Making it Happen! Young Canadians just like you can learn all about the world with the click of a mouse. And they want to make it a better place. When they hear about other kids who don’t have enough to eat, or proper schools, or who are treated badly, they don’t just sit around. They get to work! And that work is making a huge difference where it’s needed most.

Photos: Canada in Afghanistan Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Many women and girls in Afghanistan can’t read or write, but Canadian kids are helping to change that

Little Women for Little Women in Afghanistan When Alaina Podmorow was just nine years old, she heard a speech by Canadian journalist Sally Armstrong about the terrible treatment of many young girls in Afghanistan. The British Columbia girl was so shocked that she asked what she could do to help. The answer? “Educate girls.” So Alaina and some friends organized a silent auction and a bottle drive to raise money. Soon they had enough to pay the salary of four teachers for a full year. The group, which is based in B.C.’s Okanagan region, has raised thousands of dollars since then to help pay for more teachers so girls can go to school and improve their lives. The motto of Little Women for Little Women in Afghanistan says it all: “Education=Peace.”

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Canada World Youth brings together young people from around the world to learn and work

Canada World Youth The best way to help others is to experience the world for yourself. That’s the idea behind Canada World Youth, which started in 1971. It gives Canadians who are at least 15 years old a chance to learn about other cultures and countries so they can build a fairer, healthier world that respects the environment. Volunteers work in Canada and in other countries so they see both ways of life. The CWY program is so impressive that countries including the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Netherlands have used it as the model for their own.

Play to Help Test your word power and donate rice to the World Food Programme at the same time, just by playing an online game! Visit to try it out. k

: Istoc


Kayak #39 FEB 2012


s: Can

ada W orld Y outh

Check out the story of Ryan’s Well on p. 26 to read more about the Ontario boy who’s bringing clean water to African villages. Photo: Ryan’s Well

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Me to We “Better Choices for a Better World.” That’s the slogan of Me to We, a group that inspires Canadian kids to volunteer and raise money for projects that will truly help those in need. It organizes trips for volunteers to work all over the world, and puts on the huge We Day events in Canada’s biggest cities to get kids excited about doing good. It also sells environmentand people-friendly products and gives half the profits to Free the Children, an organization started by a Canadian boy who wanted to end child labour. (See more about it on p.15)

Photos: Me To We

How YOU Can Change the World, Too! Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Photos: 30-Hour Famine

Money raised at events like this 30-Hour Famine concert go to help hungry people around the world, and to send North American kids to check out the situation for themselves

30-Hour Famine Most of us get grumpy if we miss a single meal, but thousands of kids and teens across Canada go without food for a whole day to raise money that goes to help people overseas. Known as the 30-Hour Famine, it’s run by the aid group World Vision. Young Canadians collect pledges while they go hungry to help others. The money goes to help provide food, clean water, schools and health care.

You don’t have to start a big organization to do your part. There are lots of ways you can help those who need it. One of the easiest is to think about gifts in a new way. If you give your teacher a present at Christmas or the end of the year, instead try getting together with friends to make a donation in your teacher’s name to a charity like the ones featured in this issue of Kayak. Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Outside Afghanistan’s big cities, only one in five boys and one in 10 girls were enrolled in school. Canadians have built or repaired 50 schools in Kandahar province. And we are training more teachers, especially women. (See p. 41 to learn how Canadian kids are helping!) Very few girls stay in school past Grade 9, so having more women teachers will encourage more girls to attend classes. Thanks to Canadian efforts, over 3000 teachers have been trained in Kandahar Province alone, and over 100, 000 teachers have been trained nationally in Afghanistan. In addition, more than 27,000 Afghans have completed literacy training with support from CIDA. A whole new life is opening up for people — especially girls and women — who once thought they were too poor and powerless to change their lives. All Photos: Canada in Afghanistan

A classroom in Afghanistan

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

In better times, the region along the Arghandab River Valley was known as the breadbasket of Afghanistan — the main area for growing food to feed the country. Canada is working to repair the huge Dahla Dam, which is creating thousands of jobs for local families. Farmers will also have water to keep crops growing. The dam will help an area that’s half the size of Prince Edward Island. That means more crops, more food and more money, which is good news for families. Two views of the huge Dahla Dam

Immunizing kids against polio

Polio is a terrible disease that can paralyze or even kill. It was a big worry everywhere until a vaccine was invented in the 1950s. Now there are just four countries where children still get polio — Afghanistan is one of them. As part of a worldwide project, the Canadian International Development Agency is working with the United Nations and the World Health Organization to wipe out polio in Afghanistan forever. More than seven million children across Afghanistan are getting the vaccine that will keep them from getting polio.

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Farm in a

Bag written by Allyson Gulliver illustrated by Dena Seiferling

he three boys raced along the dusty streets, yelling and laughing as they ducked under laundry lines and jumped muddy streams. “You’re so slow!” teased Kwasi. “You’ll never beat me to my house.” His friend Harrison poured on the speed. “Yes, I will!” he called. “And then we’ll see about this crazy garden of your mother’s.” The third boy, Charles, saved his breath for the final sprint, passing the others and slamming to a stop in front of a small shack with a tin roof. It was jammed in beside all the others, but this one was different. Hanging beside the front door were


six plastic sacks. Each one had lots of wide green leaves sticking out at all angles. “Hey, is that sukuma wiki*?” “Yes, it is, young man,” said Kwasi’s mother, Ruth, emerging from the little shack with a container of water. “And you’ll stay away from my little farm if you want to keep your head on your shoulders.” Her grin and wink told Charles he wasn’t in any danger. He and Harrison stared in amazement as Ruth carefully poured water into the plastic bags. When she was finished, she stood back and smiled at her crop. “You see? Even though we have no land, I can still grow healthy vegetables.” * kale, a leafy vegetable related to broccoli

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

A tired-looking woman wandered up, holding a little girl on her hip. “Hello Makena,” said Ruth warmly. “Your little one is looking well.” Makena smiled weakly. “Yes, but with her father gone, I don’t know where I’m going to get food to keep her strong.” Ruth immediately snapped off some leaves. “Here’s some sukuma wiki for you. I’ll still have enough for supper, and there will be more leaves tomorrow.” She tilted her head to one side. “You know, Makena, you could start a garden like mine. All it takes is a few bags and some earth.” “There’s more to it than that, Mama,” Kwasi piped up. “You also put in fertilizer and some scraps from the kitchen.” “Well, yes,” said his mother. “To make the soil richer. But then after you put in the little seedling plants, all you have to do is water them.” “And poke holes so they can stick out,” said Kwasi. “Of course,” said Ruth. “I still can’t quite believe it. Each sack can have 50 plants growing from it.

Sometimes I even have extra to sell at the market.” “You are so smart to think of this,” said Charles in amazement. “Oh, it’s not my idea,” said Ruth. “Some women in Kitui came up with it. I heard about it on Kisima Radio, a program about farming. And now, look at me — I am a farmer, too!” she said, a huge grin on her face. “Don’t bugs eat your plants?” asked a doubtful Makena. “Not any more. We spray the leaves with a mixture of garlic and pepper so nothing wants to eat them.” “Except me!” laughed Kwasi. Ruth turned to her neighbour. “You see, Makena? The children are healthier because they are eating more vegetables. And from what I sell, I can buy other food that is good for them.” Slowly, Makena began to smile. “Will you help me?” “Of course,” Ruth declared. “You’ll have your very own crop before you know it.” “A farm growing from the side of some houses in Kibera*,” laughed Harrison. “Who would ever have imagined?” K * a very poor neighbourhood in Nairobi, Kenya

Kayak #39 FEB 2012


FARMING In 1975, Canadian radio broadcaster George Atkins was on a bus in Zambia. The CBC host was travelling with farm broadcasters from other countries — people who, like him, shared stories about farming over the radio. He turned to the man from the African country of Sierra Leone. “What was your last program about?” The man replied, “We told our listeners how to clean sparkplugs in their tractors’ engines.” “Really?” asked Atkins. “How many of them actually have tractors?” “About one in 80,000,” was the answer. “And you have how many listeners?” “Oh, we have a big audience — about 800,000.” Atkins did the math. “So you did a whole broadcast about fixing engines when only 10 of your listeners probably have tractors?”

That day, the idea for Farm Radio International was born. Atkins returned to Canada with a plan to send out the kind of free farming information that would really help Africans. The group researched and wrote scripts to be sent to Africa where they would be read on the radio, which was the easiest, cheapest way to get real-life tips to millions of farmers. Now there are more than 370 radio stations in more than 35 African countries broadcasting information sent to them by Farm Radio International. FRI also provides a newsletter and training for African broadcasters, who in turn supply ideas and research for scripts. The story of Ruth’s sack farm is based on an actual project in Nairobi, Kenya. FRI turned the story into a radio script so people throughout Africa could learn how to make sack farms, too.

George Atkins recording an interview for Farm Radio

Photo: Flickr

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Illustrated by Alex Diochon

If the World Were a School Picture a school with 100 students. Imagine that school represented the entire world. That is, if you took the population of the planet and shrunk it to 100 people, this school is what it would look like. For instance, there would be 50 girls and 50 boys. Seven would speak Spanish, and so on. Now it’s your turn — try to answer these questions about the 100 students at this small-world school.

1. How many kids would have a disability? 2. How many would speak some form of Chinese? Portuguese?

3. How many would live on less than $1.25 a day?

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

4. How many can’t read?

If you liked this game, check out If the World Were a Village, by David J. Smith, with illustrations by Shelagh Armstrong. It’s published by Kids Can Press.

If you ha ve home w a ith a refrige a bed, rator an d a closet , you are richer th an quarters threeof th people in the wor e ld.

5. How many live without

proper toilets connected to sewers or septic systems?

7. How many have a computer and Internet service?

6. How many live in towns or cities?

8. How many go hungry

some or all of the time?

Illustrations: Brendan Hong Brendan Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Hidden Help International development is a big issue. And sometimes it requires some big words. How many of these words can you find? Answers can be forward, backward, up and down or diagonally. (You only have to find the first word, not the definition in parentheses.)













Aid (Money, things and services provided to people in need)

Famine (Widespread hunger and deaths from a lack of food, usually because of crop failure)

CIDA (Canadian International Development Agency; Canada’s national government organization for providing development aid)

Humanitarian (Concerned with making life better for people)

Developing (A country with more poor people) Development (Helping people have food, clean water and shelter, as well as an education and the ability to earn a living) Disaster (A terrible event like a flood or war) Drought (A long period that harms crops because there is little rain) Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Literacy (The ability to read and write) Malnutrition (When someone does not have enough nutritious food to let them live a normal, healthy life) NGO (Non-governmental organization; a charity or other group that is not part of government and does not make profit from its work) Sanitation (Proper toilets connected to sewers or septic systems)

1. Where would you find the country of Mali? (a) South America (b) Europe (c) in the Pacific Ocean (d) Africa 2. True or false: The average working adult in Ukraine earns about $3,000 per year? 3. If a Canadian can expect to live to age 81, to what age can a person from Senegal expect to live? 4. Which of these is not a country in the Caribbean? (a) Laos (b) Montserrat (c) Saint Lucia (d) Anguilla 5. Do more people live in Vietnam or Indonesia? 6. What percentage of people in Pakistan can read and write? (a) 35 (b) 55 (c) 75 (d) 95 7. True or false: The official name of Bolivia is actually the Plurinational State of Bolivia.

Answers on page 62 Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Q. Which country Knock, knock

loves to race?

A. Iran

Who’s there? Kenya Kenya who? Kenya think of any countries in Africa?

Q. What’s the

fastest country in the world?

A. Russia Q. What country

gets nervous around Thanksgiving?

A. Turkey

Knock, knock Who’s there? Francis Francis who? Francis a country in Europe

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

Mail in your entry

#39 Photos: Right To Play


Or, enter online at

What was this boy thinking?

WINNER: WINNER : Kaylyn, 12 Ottawa, Ont.


“Finally! Now I can buy ‘Boardwalk!’”

RUNNERS-UP: Photos: Glenbow Archives

“One million and . . . DANG! Lost count again!” Aidan, 11 Oromocto, N.B.

“Now that I got this money . . . uuummm, what should I do with it?” Pascal, 9 Bradford, Ont.

What was this man thinking?


You’ve seen the best, now see the rest - online!

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

History Mystery: The Real Deal  p. 28-29 All of the items are examples of international development--ways Canadians are helping build a better world.

If the World Were a School p. 56-57 1. 12 2. 22 (Chinese); 3 Portuguese 3. 21 4. 14 5. 38 6. 47 7. 8 8. 47

Totally Trivia  p. 59 1. (d) Africa 2. True 3. 56 4. (a) Laos is in Asia 5. Indonesia. It has more than 232 million people, while the population of Vietnam is about 89 million. 6. (b) 55 7. True

Hidden Help  p. 58 O M J V K F G U R N Q N N J G M N V M A D I C E A O J R E L T D D M Y I P G F I O G B F G Q G I L R S D N T R P B N G U D N O I T A T I N A S R V J E E L Q O H S R P A T V E O V M V D W K G T K O X I I Y A Y G E I Y T U E O L T N C A K W A L V U N O R W E D A P H H M X O N L I R K H V R M G U G D M P A S T D C W E G U H E J P A M W A N N U T D J H U I Y L A E H H V V I L K E C Y H Q O I N U A R L F Y S Q S P G R V O T Q V M Q U O A D B W F P C S

Kayak #39 FEB 2012

KAYAK: Canada’s History Magazine for Kids (issn 1712-3984 ) is published four times a year by Canada’s National History Society Bryce Hall, Main Floor, 515 Portage Ave, Winnipeg, MB, R3B 2E9

Editor Nancy Payne Art Director James Gillespie New Media Editor Tanja Hütter

Phone: (204) 988-9300 Fax: (204) 988-9309 Email:

New Media Manager

Editorial guidelines can be found on our website. While every care will be taken of manuscripts and illustrations submitted, no liability will be assumed for loss.

Community Engagement Co-ordinator

Copyright ©2011 by Canada’s History Society All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission from the publisher is strictly forbidden.

Joel Ralph

Joanna Dawson

Education and Outreach Co-ordinator

Jean-Philippe Proulx Historical Advisors

Catherine Carstairs, Tim Cook, Brian Young Proofreader Beverley Tallon Advertising Representative Nick Cino

President and CEO Deborah Morrison Circulation and Marketing Manager

Danielle Chartier


Member Services email: Website:

Member Services Kayak Magazine, PO Box 1274, Station K, Toronto, Ontario M4P 3E5 Phone: 1-888-816-0997 Fax: (416) 932-2488 Email: Two-year subscription price (8 issues): Canada $29.98 (plus tax). Please add $8.00 for U.S. orders and $15.00 for international orders. Single copy price: $4.50. G.S.T. Registration Number 13868 1408 RT. Mailing preference KAYAK does not currently make its mailing list available to third parties. PUBLICATIONS MAIL AGREEMENT NO. 40063001 We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Periodical Fund of the Department of Canadian Heritage. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: KAYAK Magazine, PO Box 1274, Station K, Toronto, ON M4P 3E5 Second class postage paid at Winnipeg. Kayak wishes to thank the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) for its contribution to this special issue.

Printed in Canada.

Kayak #39 FEB 2012



62825 70232


Kayak: Canada and a Better World  

The history of Canadians and international development.

Kayak: Canada and a Better World  

The history of Canadians and international development.