Tackling the Future of Ukrainian (Post) industrial Cities
STU DIO #2
CANactions school for urban studies Tackling the Future of Ukrainian (Post)industrial Cities
TABLE OF CONTENTS table of contents
TACKLING THE FUTURE OF UKRAINIAN (POST) INDUSTRIAL CITIES
Exploring THE city from within: Notes from Kramatorsk
The power of myths in Kramatorsk
Research focus: CULTURE & HERITAGE
Research focus: POLITICS & SOCIETY
Research focus: ENVIRONMENT & INFRASTRUCTURE
Research focus: ECONOMICS
SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
STRATEGIC SPATIAL PLANNING: TRENDY TERM OR REQUIRED TOOL FOR DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINIAN CITIES?
Analysis Focus: Culture & Heritage
Analysis Focus: Society & Politics
Strategic Focuses: Culture & Heritage, Society & Politics
SPATIAL CONSEQUENCES: “EYE-LEVEL” VISUALIZATION
Analysis Focus: ENvironment & Infrastructure
Analysis Focus: Economics
Strategic Focuses: EConomics, environment & Infrastructure
SPATIAL CONSEQUENCES: “EYE-LEVEL” VISUALIZATION
STUDIo #2 Students
STUDIo #2 Education Program Team
TACKLING THE FUTURE OF UKRAINIAN (POST) INDUSTRIAL CITIES Vladyslav Tyminskyi, Urs Thomann
Do (post)industrial cities in Ukraine, which are facing current local and global challenges, have a future? Have they truly become post- or do they still remain industrial? How to proceed from the utopian Soviet past towards contemporary resilient development? Based on the CANactions School educational approach, STUDIO #2 students have been working on finding answers to those and raising other relevant questions, being focused on interdisciplinary research of Kramatorsk – an Eastern Ukrainian city chosen for the case study.
Supported by tutors and mentors from “helsinkizurich” Architecture and Planning Consultancy (FI/CH), ‘ustwo’ Studio (SE), Amsterdam Academy of Architecture (NL), Laboratory of Critical Urbanism (LT), University of Helsinki (FI) and Zurich City Administration (CH), STUDIO #2 students were introduced to the methodology of Strategic Spatial Planning and Design. In the end of the course, the School students elaborated their own spatial development strategies for the city of Kramatorsk and publically presented them at CANactions International Architecture Festival in Kyiv.
STUDIO #2 STRUCTURE BLOCK #0: PREPARATION FOR THE STUDIO: READING LIST’ STUDY
BLOCK #1: INTRODUCTION TO URBAN STUDIES
BLOCK #2: KRAMATORSK CASE STUDY: EXPLORING THE CITY FROM WITHIN
BLOCK #3: KRAMATORSK CASE STUDY: SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
February 1 February 14, 2016
February 15 March 8, 2016
March 9 March 30, 2016
March 31 May 21, 2016
Invited experts: Anna Felicia Valdés / SE / ustwo Miodrag Kuc / DE / LCU Marieke Berkers / NL / Amsterdam Academy of Architecture
Workshop tutors: Anna Felicia Valdés / SE / ustwo Miodrag Kuc / DE / LCU Marieke Berkers / NL / Amsterdam Academy of Architecture Andrius Nemickas / USA / CANactions
Field trip curator: Marieke Berkers / NL / Amsterdam Academy of Architecture Invited experts: Andrius Nemickas / USA / CANactions Anna Viazovska / UA / KNUCA Michael Gentile / SE / University of Helsinki
STUDIO mentors: Mirjam Niemeyer /DE / helsinkizurich Miodrag Kuc / DE / LCU Andrius Nemickas / USA / CANactions Workshop tutors: Stefan Roschi / CH / Stadt Zürich Günther Arber / CH / Stadt Zürich
KRAMATORSK CASE STUDY
EXPLORING THE CITY FROM WITHIN: NOTES FROM KRAMATORSK
The power of myths in Kramatorsk Marieke Berkers
Cranes and lifts, winches, compressors, pumps, steam machines, presses and wire iron: business as usual for the Eastern Ukrainian city Kramatorsk at the turn of the twentieth century. The 1900’s were an exciting time. Kramatorsk developed from a cluster of small rural settlements into a bustling, modern industrial city. It was the place to be for hundreds of workmen; hands and brains to accomplish innovation. But also forces of leadership to manage plants and the city and architects that helped to create the city. The motor behind this development was industry: heavy machine production. Results of production were impressive and got awarded Grant Prizes in 1900 and 1910 at the international Exhibition in Paris. Quite an immaculate start of an era. But soon the new century brought turbulent political shifts. Two Word Wars and an extensive period of Soviet Union ruling, between 1922 and 1991, had a huge influence on the course of developments of Kramatorsk. Especially the systematic organization of all layers of society introduced by Soviet Union rulers influenced the lives of ordinary people deeply. The idea behind this holistic and systematic thinking was a belief in a makeable society. By conscientiously planning the future, an ideal society could be constructed. Kramatorsk is a sheer example of such a makeable society. The industry was still a key element in the development of the city, but it wasn’t the motor anymore. The motor of developments were the myths about the future of all aspects of life, that were presented as promising and true. Every aspect of the society was planned: the economics by multi-year plans, politics in a one-party rule with strict principles and central, hierarchically organized institutions, and cultural life by forcing artists to work with mental ‘malls’ in which results of their artistic processes had to fit. Soon these myths were given form in the tangible world. Looking at the spatial appearance of Kramatorsk for example, different ’ingredients’ of an ideal city catch the eye: axes in the ground plan, big open squares, a monumental house of culture, large-scale prospects, big statues of leaders and heroes of the past in a realistic style and colorful mosaics showing the myth of eternal progress. When myths start to interfere with reality a peculiar process starts. On the one hand, life develops via made-up, mental stories; on the other hand, life develops via a physically growing reality. Because myths were translated into reality the day by day life of Kramatorsk people - the way they
acted and thought - became drenched in this ideal ‘truth’. The make-ability of Kramatorsk became a fact. Facts we the team of students from CANactions - today are able to research. After the Soviet Union fell, the myths of Kramatorsk started to crack as well. The pillars of the makeable society are shaking. Some still turn out to be strong, a lot of them turn out to be rotten. Although myths of the makeable society might have disappeared, the tangible heritage of the myths is still present. And after so many years of living with myths, also mentally many people use traditional myths as incentives to act. It’s this moment in time that the students of Studio 2 of CANactions conducted their fieldwork in Kramatorsk. During the first days, they might have felt walking in a city that belonged to history: a myth. But in fact, that turned out to be a myth itself. As our eyes went along the firm lines that form the axes in the city, we saw a giant muscled man made out of hundreds of little pieces of mosaics holding a big red hammer, we met workmen and -women strolling out of the porches of the factories and we spoke to their leaders who still use a way of talking punctuated by terminology of a makeable promising future. We also captured many of these moments as images of memory in our phones. It was not a myth we were moving through, it was a reality! At the same time, we saw people forming new paths towards the future. The Economy Team spotted the rise and opportunities of small companies. Evidence of this trend was found in places and people. A newly formed entrepreneur club turns out to play an active role in organizing events for the community. Compared with the big factories these smaller companies tend to gather their network in small, more flexible locations like markets and fairs. The Infrastructure and Ecology team proved problems with ecology and health - a by-product of industrial ‘progress’ - to be evident and urgent. By using data and making graphics they made the invisible polluted water and air - visible, a first step towards dealing wit an inconvenient truth. Also, they reality-checked the system of infrastructure. Looking as a structure of connections on the map, it turned out to be a system that disconnects many people - like disabled people of bicyclists - from the possibilities of moving smoothly through the city. The Politics and Society team was eager to find new powerful players in the
city like NGO’s. Their research shows how people organize themselves in new ways, for example, to work on improvement of their houses. But their research also showed that new webs of power are very vulnerable. The “warp yarns”, the lines that keep the frames of power tight, are still formed by oligarchs with a long history of power in the region and firm relationships with the leaders of the plants. The Culture and Heritage team accurately unveiled that Kramatorsk had a true golden age of cultural life in the past and an impressive collection of buildings and urban structures forming a valuable heritage. But they also saw themselves confronted with the mental and physical voids of culture that exist today, also a heritage of that colorful history. How to fill these voids? How to transform opportunities into successes? And how to deal with problems that most people tend to close their eyes for? Looking at Kramatorsk today makes you feel confused. The one ‘true’, straight line to march into a planned laid-out in the future has faded away. Nowadays any route seems possible. But taking new ‘roads’ still makes you stumble over norms and structures - myths
- you thought belonged to the past. The overall outcome of this field trip might be the discovery of this confusing reality filled with contradictions. But - as the students showed with their results - many opportunities rise out of this complex situation. Maybe the approach when working on the future planning of Kramatorsk should be to organize complexity instead of aiming to solve it. As the idea of solving complexity looks like a new myth lurking around the corner…
CULTURE & HERITAGE
In the Shadow of “The Big White Elephant” DISCOvERINg ThE COllECTIvE MEMORy AND hERITAgE OF KRAMATORSK Anastasiia Danyliuk, Olena Kozakova, Andriy Kucher, Mykola Vognick
Intro Historically the development of the cultural sphere in the city was shaped by industrialization and urbanization – two driving forces that had been creating the regional identity of Donbas in the late XIX and early XX centuries. However, the specificity of Kramatorsk, which includes its strong specialization in machine building (instead of coal mining) as well as relatively “young” age (city status since 1932) makes it a very special place from social and cultural perspectives. After the first factories appeared in 1896 near the cossack-owned settlements, the local cultural life became diverse, as numerous groups settled their roots around the banks of Kasennyj Torez river. The first theater called “Era” was opened here in 1908 just on the territory of Kramatorsk Metallurgist Community (modern SKMZ factory) and the first famous ‘Triumph’ cinema operated in the settlement near the railway station “Kramatorska” since 1913. The trend of modern culture and leisure was spread in the city by Germans, Poles and Czechs - industrial specialists, traders and administrative workers, who had arrived to develop the industry and brought new progressive habits to the “Wild Field” (historical are free of serfdom). Before the breakdown of the Russian Empire, one of the most promising sports community was also organized here (physical culture and “active lifestyle” were promoted among engineers and metallurgists) with the stadium at Bernatskiy Garden.
Numerous spontaneous activities were conducted by the local artists and promoters. Even the religious life was diversified between different churches – Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant temples co-existed in the relatively small settlement before the installation of the communist regime. After the civil war in 1917-1920 socialistic ideology had become the one and only truth in which the city had to believe for almost 70 years. The “old” imperial past was covered by the shadow of new ideas towards the glorious future, where a communist mythology became the official “religion” which shaped the new social identity of the soviet citizen. For that purpose, the old institutions were adopted and new ones formed to re-shape the existing cultural and social practices. During the industrialization “the worker” became the new hero of the Industrial era, the time of progress and hope “to build a bright future”. Social realism in arts and different experiments (constructivism, neo-classicism) in planning and architecture designed the modern image of the city. The new Socialist City (Socgorod) near the giant and powerful Novokramatorskiy Machine-building Plant (NKMZ) became a manifestation of the power itself. As an archaic beast, the technology has been tamed to serve the people. Nowadays the dominant building of Kramatorsk, that officially represents the city culture, is located on the top of the central square (The Peace Square, previously Lenin’s Square). It is still impressive, even though the tile and trees around need to be renovated and probably reorganized after the removal of the Soviet symbols: the monument of Vladimir Lenin was demolished in 2015 while the ideological slogans were taken off in the early 1990s. All significant public events are held at this place (inside the building in the huge hall or outside just in front of the “White House”), but functionally the location is still more suitable for majestic events like marches and parades, than for comfortable interactions between independent individuals. The breath of the past is so evident, that it seems that if only there was no Anti-Terrorist Operation (“ATO”), and Kramatorsk wouldn’t appear on the map, as a new “temporary” center of Donetsk region, nothing would change for 20 years more. Literally, the cultural clock stopped somewhere between the 60s and 80s with punctuated intrusions of commercialization and privatization. During our visit, we were impressed by the unrecognized historical heritage of the city, the absence of new unifying positive ideas and permanent uncertainty caused by the 015
rapid changes of the last years. So, we collected the stories about the past and tried to explain the development of the city and its cultural life through its cultural institutions in the broad perspective, including observations, interviews with stakeholders and locals. Our main goal was to highlight the cultural blindness which appears under the brightness of the official culture, mainly inherited from the USSR and identify that could be found beside it. Metaphorically the industry itself could be drawn as a huge elephant with the strong voice and powerful body, but rather clumsy and fragile in the situation of rapid changes and limited resources. The huge Palace of Culture and Technics, that represents the NKMZ, and it’s both physical and cultural power, has the very loud voice, that is getting less influence with every year. This precious monument became a visiting card of the city. But what is hidden in the shadow of the past glory?
abandoned by now, but obviously may have a great potential for the city and region development as well in the future.
Uniqueness of the Old City atmosphere In the second half of the 1920s, the first architectural project was due to be build. This is how the Oktyabrskiy district appeared. Oktyabrskiy is the oldest district of Kramatorsk. It has all rights to be valued as the historical and cultural
A Crystal vase “The feast ended, guests left, the table is empty with the dirty dishes. Flowers are drying in the exquisite crystal vase. After the celebration often appears a feeling of certain emptiness and perplexity. And you probably have no idea when the next feast will take place. This metaphor depicts what I have experienced myself after visiting the Old City of Kramatorsk. I have never been to The East of Ukraine. What is more, I purposely didn’t collect the information about its architecture and history in general. I found it essential while working on this research to be free of extra knowledge and to plunge into the Kramatorsk atmosphere during the field trip without any preconceptions. There were only a few widespread clichés about the Eastern regions of Ukraine in my bag. Nothing more..”, - student’s first impression of the city.
Oktyabrskiy district of Kramatorsk
It turned out that Kramatorsk possesses a valuable heritage of the late nineteenth - the beginning of the twentieth century. While walking down the streets of the Old Kramatorsk you probably may feel that it has been ‘a feast’ in the past. Old city architecture depicts Kramatorsk’ replete cultural past. Various types of sources that were taking into consideration during the field trip (books, old postcards, interviews with locals, excursion to the Kramatorsk art and history of the city museums) additionally supported this suggestion of a diverse cultural past of Kramatorsk. Digging deeply into the history of Kramatorsk and surroundings revealed its awesome treasure , that has been
heritage. There is one distinguishing mark that makes this area as unique and precious. In contrast to other more or less alike locations, the Old city of Kramatorsk still remains
1950s, Lenin’s House of Culture
1906 - the school in Old city, also with Lenin’s name
Left: 100-flats house (was demolished). 1940 
untouched by the outer influence of any kind! The original urban concept was not upgraded, rebuild or recomposed. The architecture of Oktyabrskiy district together with other urban components is still totally original and stays untouched by ‘polluting’ marks of this time like advertisement on the streets. Even the sound in the Old City is tranquil. The project of Oktyabrskiy district was designed in 1925 by the architect A. Dmitriev (1878-1959). The construction of the district began in 1926-1927. By the early 1930s, the ideology of Garden City movement was fulfilled in a completely urban area. This idea was not random. According to Kramatorsk industrial background, it was extremely important to preserve the eco-friendly green zones for citizens of Kramatorsk to live in comfort. The Oktyabrskiy district consists of a radical sector and rectangular blocks. There were schools, kindergartens, Metallurgists and Star squares . Among others, a remarkable building is located at the intersection of Lynacharskyi and R.Luksemburg Streets. The school was built in the 1930s. What is awesome about this peculiar school is the duration of its construction which took only 30 days. There is also a so called ‘100-flats’ house, which is situated nearby the school (at the crossroads of Shkolnaya and Sadovaja Streets) “The aesthetics of the spotless mind” this is how the Constructivism ideology may be described. Another significant point that makes the Old Kramatorsk atmosphere worthwhile to maintain and conserve is the constructivism heritage, which is also original: - new city-planning concept; - sanitary-hygienic norms both with economic ones; - mitigation of the social contrasts in the city appeared. This is how Constructivism was established. In general, constructivism was not only about architecture and beautiful buildings. It was more about space organization and the new form of social life.
What was significant and brand-new in Constructivism is a new way of ‘BEAUTY’ interpretation .
Club project by Glosov. 1927. Moscow.
Only with erecting the huge ‘NKMZ’ plant on the Left bank of the river the “life” left the Old city. Actually, the city life was splitted. From that moment until now, there are two cities inside one Kramatorsk: the Old and the New. Speaking about people’s preferences the majority of locals would like to live in the New Socialist city. But at the same time those, who live in the Old city since the beginning adore their homes and are proud of being a part of it. For instance, inhabitants of the old part of the city do enjoy visiting the local Bykov House of Culture. 017
Constructivism heritage. Nowadays this building occupies military Commissariat. Lunacharskyi Street.
Constructivism Residential heritage. Sverdlova Street. Na Domennyh district.
Unique persisting Soviet atmosphere of Oktyabrskiy District
Residential house on the Oktyabrska Avenue
Lenin Palace of Culture in the 30’s of the XX century. 
Lenin Palace of Culture nowadays renamed to Leonid Bykov
This turned out from the various talks to locals on the Old city streets. One lady, approximately 45 years old, (unfortunately we haven’t asked her name) kindly helped us in the city orientation. While walking together we had a little conversation: - Were you born here, in the Old city? - Yes, I was born here, went to a local school and actually I am working here now. - Do you appreciate living in this part of the city or would rather move to the New one? - Actually, I do like this part of the city. You know, there is an unofficial splitting of local’s views upon this topic: inhabitants of the Old city both with inhabitants of a New city really enjoy places where they live and rarely leave them. Here we have our House of Culture together with other needed institutions.
The first House of Culture that was built in Kramatorsk was dedicated to Lenin, but nowadays it is named after a celebrity actor who was born in Kramatorsk - Leonid Bykov. The original building of the House of Culture was made in constructivist style. In the end of the Second World War when the Germans have been leaving the city, they destroyed the House, yet, it was rebuilt and now it looks like this.
ConclusionS Quite often or probably in the majority of occasions, our personal beliefs or stereotypes, imposed by society, may not pretend to be 100% certain. In this case, Kramatorsk is a bright and picturesque example. Literally this is a backside of the casual life when you are not able to identify the real value of an old exquisite crystal vase, hidden inside your commode.
A Pretty Soviet face
The House of Pioneers - modern Center for youth education `
An idea of visiting the Eastern industrial city, with the influential Soviet past as Kramatorsk has, might appear to be fascinating since you probably think that there is nothing valuable to be seen there at all. This is kind of the essential thoughts and most likely that you are one of those who do think so. Indeed, Kramatorsk is cute but brutal, open but close, rich but poor, gray but sunny. It is a versatile city. So what exactly does make it special? What is the quintessence of Kramatorsk? This is the story about Socgorod - a district risen in the 1930s to create the new city center near the big industrial zones. Such a position maintains till nowadays.
men couldn’t live in a ‘so-so city’. Indeed, many professionals were sent there to develop the new industrial spot. Kramatorsk is the city of intellectuals. We would advise going through Socgorod and grasp the charm of the elegant Stalinist style architecture and Soviet aesthetics. Then you might catch yourself on the thought that the stereotypes are ruined because the buildings are simply beautiful. An interesting fact is that one of the buildings had an elevator. It was extremely innovative because elevators have become ubiquitous only after the Second
The 1930s is a key point for Kramatorsk in terms of its rise as a real city. The process of urbanization kept step with the all-union industrialization in the USSR. The new plant NKMZ was found and Socgorod was raised. The core value of such a conception was to create the versatile city with all needed amenities and infrastructures. Sounds like a blueprint, but it was fully implemented in Kramatorsk. All of us used to think workers and plants as something rude, dirty and brutal. But Kramatorsk is strictly the opposite case. Our stereotypes and prejudices have been totally ruined when we researched the Museum of History and noticed one photo among the others . It was a group photo captured well-dressed men who looked like foreigners. We asked Natalia Voloshyna - a head of the Museum, about those men, and she told us: “They are workers, I can suppose they are engineers.” And we realized that such
House with an elevator.Mashynostroyteley Boulevard.
If we go further, the beauty of Socgorod is enhanced by another one conception of the Garden city. It was aimed among other - to ruin the clishé of the «gray-and-hazy industrial city». With our own eyes, we have seen the impressive amount of plants, parks and green zones. The Garden city is the significant part of the Kramatorsk’s DNA. Every plant or flower of the city yards looks like a tiny tribute to this old tradition which people used to revere. All of this contribute to the city mood with its naive and sentimental glimpses.It is even not surprising that the NKMZ is the garden-plant itself. At the beginning of the NKMZ foundation, there was created a recreational zone with parks with fountains for the plant’s workers. It is worth to mention that the idea of a ‘Gardencity’ is a vivid base of the new urbanism conception. So, as it was said, Kramatorsk had two core development ideas.Due to them, the city was rising, the city was flourishing.
Inside the NKMZ plant. 1930s.
Bird’s-eye view on the city center.
Thanks to this extremely powerful progress, cultural and social life have been finally moved from the Old city to the opposite side of the river. It is immediately connected with the birth of tremendous, brand-new NKMZ recreation center in 1962 which became the fresh spot of Kramatorsk evolution. Simultaneously, the new huge ‘Yuvileynyi’ park was growing and «stealing» all the infrastructure from Bernadskiy Gardens (the oldest city park).
Meanwhile, Kramatorsk is becoming the city which embodies typical Soviet image. If the Old part of Socgorod is about strict elegant Stalinist aesthetics, then the new one represents maybe little bit obvious but significant sights of the Soviet aesthetical code - mosaics and experimental building projects. The most illustrative samples are: - the Experimental school (1962) decorated with mosaics and the School of square classes (1965) designed by one of the most prominent Soviet architect Joseph Karakis, and the housing complex on Parkova street (1976-78), designed by Pavlo Vigderhaus.
Experimental school (1962) designed by Joseph Karakis. Ivan Bazilevsky
During our field trip to Kramatorsk,we met Ivan Bazilevsky - an artist, who moved here in the very beginning of the 1960s due to his work and being an active participant in the city cultural life for decades. He made a great impression with the story of the city fluorescence. That’s what he said: “- The period of the 1960s-70s is is the Golden age of Kramatorsk. People cared about Kramatorsk image, they were totally involved and full of joy. Our mayor Pavel Mostovoy did his best for the city development, he was a unique personality. One night I was sleeping and suddenly woken by the telephone ring. It was Mostovoy. He just said: “ -We need to talk, -Right now ?- I asked and was wondering because Mostovoy was having his vacation in Sochi (that was 879 km far from Kramatorsk). - Just say “Yes” and a car will take you to an airport in minutes.” - I agreed “ (laughing) . When the plane arrived he took me to the one flower shop and said: “I want the same one in Kramatorsk. Just look at this beauty!” I made the sketch and in a few months, it was realized in Kramatorsk.” The echo of Soviets - Yuri Gagarin on the wall at Akademichna St.
School with square classes, designed by Joseph Karakis.
The additional image-creative elements which absorb specific aesthetics of Kramatorsk are its museums. Actually, there are 3 of them: the Museum of History, the Art Museum, and the NKMZ Museum. All the three overlap with their histories and ways of the city representation. Each museum has its own specific situation without any connections or collaboration with each other. The NKMZ Museum and the plant itself are really significant points to be impressed with industrial splendor. The Museum of History is gently curated by its head Natalia Voloshyna but the financial issues are serious and really felt. The Art Museum is an extraordinary case. Your great expectations to meet nice Soviet realism paintings will be destroyed from the moment you overstep the doorsill. The current exposition of the Museum is full of disgusting pictures made by amateurish local painters. In the same time, the collection of good paintings (~2000 titles including works of Valentin Serov, Tetyana Yablonska, Mykola Hluschenko and plenty of Kazakhstan Soviet artists) jailed in a cellar and are dying because of unusable conditions.
Hluschenko M. Garden in blossom. 1975. Oil on canvas
Hluschenko M .Skiers, 1975. Oil on canvas
In the Art Museum warehouse.
Art Museum visitors.
The excuse of museum workers sounds like this: “People eager to see the new paintings. If we do not provide them with contemporary exhibitions, the Museum will have to be closed”. Now the Art Museum is acting as a platform which connects people rather than an educational institution which represent paintings with high aesthetic and quality level. Yet it’s obvious that the problem lies in a wider cultural context. Talking to people and walking through the city, it might be depicted that people perceive the beautiful Soviet heritage of Kramatorsk as something obvious but not precious as it appeared for us.
As the city which has the significant Soviet background, Kramatorsk is full of contradictions, paradoxes, and provocations. Its central heroes - the workers who are proud of their city, because it is vacant for proper and diverse living in. The multilayered history, current war, ideological debates make the situation very blurred. Simultaneously, it provokes the city to protect, re-think and re-invent its unique face.
Birth and death of public spaces: “Broadways of Kramatorsk” The first main street of Kramatorsk, founded in early 20’s was also called “Broadway” by inhabitants, referring to the street Broadway, filled with theaters, in New York. This first street had official name Bolshaya Street, later renamed to Triumfalna (as in 1913 the cinema “Triumph” was built here) afterward to Lunacharskogo and now is just Siverska Street that connects the Railway Station with the Old City Center. A century before here was a Market Square, where the first public events took place, but in general, there was no exact cultural center, as the settlement was developing spontaneously with the rise of industry. After the communist revolution and setting its rule over Kramatorsk in the 1920s, the new planned decisions were made in an up-to-date way. The social activity was spread over Oktyabrska Avenue. A summer stage was placed at adjacent Metallurgists Square. In the 1930’s the building of the plant, NKMZ was in its full swing. A new city appeared around the factory with new attractive places. During and after WWII, increased international affairs of the Soviet Union lead to a “leaking” of American culture into the USSR. But the interest in USA life was here long before it became a recognizable trend.
«Broadway is typically a central street of the city, served as a meeting place for dudes» - Brief dictionary of the Soviet hipsters (stilyagi)
One of the articles in the local newspaper from 1955 is full of indignation - young guys are dancing swing on the floor while dressed unacceptably. Unfortunately, it is not clarified if it was already in the Old city of on the newly built dancing stage at Pushkin’s Park. Kramatorsk keeps the trend of unofficial calling each new main street as the “Broadway”. It became the commonly recognized name for the current most popular street of the city, where people were hanging out from the early morning till the late night. It was a genuine public place. In Socgorod, it was the segment of Shkadinova street between the central square and Pushkin’s Park. The courtyards were filled with amateur musicians, playing among the groups of young people. The orchestra playing in the concert shell of the dance platform in Pushkin’s Park. Nearby was also the summer stage for performances, the library, the billiard room, the attractions, the stadium and the house of culture. Concerts and movies, performances, and lectures, meetings, datings, conversations and interactions – all day long. In the evening, people and buildings are illuminated with the street lights and fun goes on. Not accidentally “Rodina” cinema was built in the middle of the Shkadinova Broadway in 1950. Official and unofficial cultures existed here together since «Triumph» was destroyed by fire in 1964 and the main square moved from the Old City to Socgorod from 1965 till the end of the USSR.
“Triumph” cinema-hall at Lunacharskogo Street (Old “Broadway”) 1940s
Bright, free from prejudice stilyagi broke into the postwar life of the USSR as valiant dandy, spontaneously denying the gray realism of everyday life. They were dressed mainly by the principle of “the brighter, the better”. The subculture of stilyagi has been a kind of natural protest against adopted in the Soviet society stereotypes of behavior, and against uniformity in dress, music and fashion. Meanwhile, their image was derided in the press because of its contradiction to the aesthetics and ethics of proletarians.
“Rodina” cinema on the ”Broadway” at Shkadinova Str. in Socgorod, 1960s
Spaces are (FOR) people If we determine the existence as something touchable or at least perceptible, can we declare that space could exist without an observer? The answer is ‘no’. Only a human, and maybe also an animal, can bring life into space. The specificity of public spaces is in their accessibility and, consequently, vulnerability. There are no strangers in the public space: everyone there is a creator and an expert of his/her own space. Responsibility is small and pleasant: one just has to be there. One look – and space is created. One small step – and it moves on. One touch – and space is blossoming. Because of ideological reasons, public spaces in the Soviet city had the higher priority than private ones. It was accessible for all social groups, anytime. Parks, roads, pavements, streets, public squares: places where communication between people is available and comfortable, while individuals are able to maintain their privacy within a crowd. The theaters, libraries, government buildings are also considered as public spaces to a limited extend. The “Broadways” of Kramatorsk were the places where people could meet each other, where cultural programs were situated, where identity of Kramatorsk was formed, where people could learn and be entertained. The Broadways played the key role in the cultural development of Kramatorsk and the urban hierarchy in the city. They were the places where cultural initiatives had a chance to appear and grow.. In the late 1980s, the social movement around the Broadways began to decline. The dance platform and the summer stage in Pushkin’s Park became abandoned and later ruined, like many others public spaces. Only old people remember the meaning of the term “Broadway” nowadays.
2016, Abandoned summer stage in the middle of Pushkin’sPark
It’s a pity that minority of people is aware of this rich cultural heritage of Kramatorsk. The historical value of the public spaces should be revealed. Shkadinova Street is still the main street of the new city with some cultural activities. “Rodina” cinema is still functioning, not only as a movie theater but also as a bar and a nightclub. Old but saved architecture reflects the spirit of the past days. In the Old city, Oktyabrska Street remains attractive to the people of all ages: kids, young parents and old grannies. But often a sad drunkard may be noticed as well on the bench. Maybe, he misses the times when some cultural activities could be found any day and social initiatives were encouraged. What if he could go back and become a part of the community again, step-bystep reacquire the features of a social creature, would it be fun? Around the former and existing public spaces, the cultural heritage is accumulated. It is important to be aware of the behavior patterns of ancestors, so a person can build his/ her own behavior with confidence. Otherwise, the individuality turns into the cultural vacuum which cannot be creative in the social context. Personal growth tied to the interpersonal communication one way or another. The value of the “Broadway” heritage is in the image of highly efficient communication between the citizens. Simply with taking this image into consideration, one may reveal the good old mindset: naturally continuous social development is based on ordinary human interactions. Unfortunately, nobody cares about the public spaces nowadays as it was before. Private ideas have become dominating in the city life, since trends of commercialization appeared. Fortunately or not, but there is still a chance to save the valuable cultural heritage of Kramatorsk by means of its public spaces revitalization.
DIFFUSION AND CONCENTRATION OF CULTURE and concentration
LEGEND 1. ‘Era’ theater 1909 2. ‘Triumph’ cinema 1913 3. Bernadskoho Garden 1910s 4. Bykov’s (Lenin’s) Palace of Culture1930s 5. Oktyabrskaya Street 1920s 6. ‘Cementnik’ Hous of Culture 1954 7. Pushkin’s Palace of Culture and Park 1930s 8. ‘Stroitel’ Palace of Culture 1954 1981, The fountain in the Jubileyny Park
9. ‘Rodina’ cinema, Broadway 1950 10. NKMZ Palace of Culture and Technique 1965 11. Yuvileyniy Park 1967 12. Museum of Art and City History 1967 13. Central Library 1986s 14. ‘Fiesta’ club 2000s 15. ‘Vilna Hata’ 2015 Historical Pedestrian Streets: a. Lunacharski Street (Triumphalna St.) b. Shkadinov Boulevard (Academichna Blvd.)
2016, Dance floor remains at the Pushkin’s Park periphery
c. Oktyabrskaya Avenue (Metallurgists Ave.)
Instead of conclusions: Culture abhors a Vacuum, doesn’t it? The Big White Elephant shines with its backs: there are no political slogans on the front, and the communist past is slowly moving away. The powerful forces are vacant to pull the new ideas and symbols into a better future. A small yellow-blue flag flies on the top symbolizing the belongingness to Ukrainian identity and the presence of the state in the city. But is it a relevant answer to the question of cultural (and humanitarian in a broader sense) issues of disturbed society? Undoubtedly there is much more to do in the city than just paint buildings in patriotic colors. The Palace of Culture and Technics stays white despite all the challenges of time, uniting the past and the present. And this is a real function of culture - to unite.
come an important factor for the city development (e.g. by means of tourism). But also, we should state, that for the creation of comfort conditions for locals it still needed both material and human resources to imply. In the cultural sphere, it could be even more obvious because the way how it is managed and sponsored directly influence on social processes that are happening with the transition of society and healing its traumas and radicalization. Museums, theaters, galleries and parks could become the space for communication and finding the dialog both between Kramatorsk and the World, but also with the past, present and future. Nowadays these communications are rare and the diffusion is obvious in the public sphere. Finally, the inherited hard and soft infrastructure lead the city to the certain direction. By analyzing cultural institutions, we clarified some major trends that could be useful for further analysis.
Privatization: Visiting the main cultural institutions proved that the city has its unique and multilateral cultural sphere that is strongly willing to survive and create new senses to inspire citizens despite all the complexities of the hard times and ruination of its physical environment. However, its power and resources are rather small, as the museums, galleries and Palaces of culture inherited the centralized (mostly state-owned) institutional design with the same Soviet habits and modes. It caused serious problems for the satisfaction of modern cultural needs, so part of society simply does not recognize this powerful centers anymore, as they lack promotion and adaptation to provide more valuable services. Alternative centers of cultural life are mostly private and stays out of the main stage. However, such phenomenon as independent space “Vilna Hata” or the indie bar “Fiesta” provide the new possibilities and show the demand for new private initiatives to appear. Besides privatization could be successful even in Kramatorsk - famous cinema hall «Rodina» was closed since 1997 till 2004, while re-opened after the private investor came. Now it is functioning as a cinema, a club and a bar. Also, it seems that new laws on public service and management in culture may stop the misuse of the beautiful buildings and attract skilled managers. Postcard from the postwar period - celebration of life and memory, 1950s
The shadow of socialistic past had a significant impact on us. It appeared that our own perception and expectations were formed in very different social and cultural conditions. At large we were fighting with our own stereotypes from the beginning. On the other hand this «another glasses» on local culture, heritage (architecture, contemporary and folk art etc.) helped to recognize the hidden facts, which comes simply too obvious for the residents or in fact stays out of the sight. We were impressed by the value of the historical and architectural heritage of the city. The existence of old and new industrial zones, constructivist buildings, mosaics and socialistic architecture in its natural environment creates an illusion of the atmosphere of the XX century that could be-
Spirituality: Kramatorsk showed us both pretty and forsaken face at the same time. Carefully conserved city center with its dominant “The White House” (Palace of Culture and Tech of Novokramatorskiy Machine-building Plant) on the central square, the outskirts of the Old City, where good-old-times buildings stays without any care or attention and the lonely Central library, that is situated in the honorable loneliness either show the glory of the socialist project heritage and it’s neglected in recent times. “What should you find in Kramatorsk except our industry? Nothing special. Go to Svyatogorsk, there are really beautiful, blessed places”, - some of the locals say.
1965 - 2016 Palace of Culture and Tech built by NKMZ (main city hall, operated and owned by NKMZ)
1930s (1946) - 2000s Pushkin’s Palace of Culture owned by NKMZ (now belongs to the protestants community since 2000s)
1930 - 2000 Lenin’s Palace of Culture SKMZ (now under city ownership as Bykov’s Palace of Culture)
1954 -1998 Stroitel Palace of Culture belonged to Donmashstroy till the enterprise transfered it to the city (now in communal property, will be reconstructed soon)
1955 - 2011 Club Cementnik belonged to Kramatorsk Concrete Plant, one of the oldest manufacturers that was closed in 2015 (2011 - 2016 operating as a church)
And it is a paradox, but despite the implemented ideas of the “city garden” people still don’t recognize their city as the recreational or cultural place itself.
cial and military topics, ideas of progress, labor solidarity as praising the heroism and the path to a happy, rootless life, etc. However, currently, these components tightly faced with a new active history - the debate about patriotism and national identity. It appears that the collective memory is undergoing a moment of confusion as it is on the crossroad, which is typical and expected for a given situation.
“Spirituality” as a new trend in the post-Soviet society spreads quickly with new cultural centers – churches of all religions are raising on the ruins of Soviet heritage. It was rather unexpected to find that since the 1990s almost 50 religious institutions appeared in Kramatorsk. The role they play is arguable and spreads beyond this article, but it is truly visible.
Decommunization: The collective memory of Kramatorsk residents is majorly linked directly to the Soviet past and its diverse myths including WWII, the cult of Leonid Bykov with his heroic so-
Culturally it could be explained as a post-colonial trauma of the previous experience, if we recognize Ukraine as a colony of the Russian Empire and the USSR. However this optics is not recognized in the society, that inertially links the state and culture with previous myths unwilling to recognize old “brothers” as aggressors... It is believed that decommunization started from the streets renaming in the last years. Indeed, it was a very visible political act as it touched 72 streets in the city and was 029
72 re-named Streets of Kramatorsk according to decommunization
highlighted in the media. But if we dig dipper we will see that the symbolical change of local identity started long before - in 2007-2008, when the contest for the coat of arms was announced by the local authorities. Both symbolical «stories» are telling about the same industrial past of the city: first machine building and metallurgist industries, implementation of the ideas of the garden city, etc. The innovative part of modern symbols include a specific Ukrainian national yellow and blue colors and references to the traditions - the “noble” forms and two crusts that tells about the origins of the settlement and its connection to construction of railway station. These small but visible details shows that the reintegration of socialist heritage without its communist ideological burden could be possible and livable.
Soviet Emblem of Kramatorsk, 1970
During NKMZ tour
From the human scale decommunization is also possible, but provides more complex and specific visions towards the bridging stereotypes and building a dialog: “I’ve lived here for all my life and I know what it costs to achieve a good result - my career from am ordinary specialist to a chief of the department at the factory is just an example of how people can work hard and don’t give up under the hardest circumstances. And I’m proud of that. We passed the collapse of the USSR, the economic crises, the times of criminals... We didn’t stop while other surrendered, we were adopting to the situation, modernizing our production and optimizing the processes. And you know, we became successful because we believed that we can. We can produce valuable stuff in machine building for Ukraine, both for internal market and for export. Our state needs currency to push the reforms, I know that very well. But please, explain me, why people there «on the hills» (* - national government) does not accept us as patriots of our motherland? Why after 60 years of my life it appeared that I became “vatnik” (* - a person with outdated mindset and pro-russian mentality) in the eyes of “patriotic” society? Tell them, that they are mistaken”.
Ukrainian Emblem of Kramatorsk, 2008
Bibliography 1. Крихтенко В.И., Шугалий Н.А. Я люблю тебя, мой Краматорск. Краеведческий очерк. - Краматорск, 2009. - С.112 2. Шкуратова, Н. В. Краматорск : Путеводитель / Н. В. Шкуратова. - Донецк : Донбас, 1978. - 56 с. 3. Краматорск [Донецкая область] : план старой части города [Изоматериал] : чертеж, масштаб 1:2000, синька / МКХ-УССР Трест Геотопосьемка. - [Б. м. : [б. и.], 19--]. - 1 л. - (в пап.) : 0010.00 р. 4. Милютин, Н. А. Конструктивизм и функционализм [Текст] / Н. А. Милютин // Архитектура СССР : ежемесяч. теорет., науч.-практ. журн. - 1935. - № 8. - С. 5-10 5. Форум газеты ПОИСК, last modified March 30, 2016, http://forum.gp.dn.ua/viewtopic.php?f=25&t=662&start=135 100-flats house 6. USSR IN CONSTRUCTION. Illustrated Magazine. 1931 No. 3, accessed March 28, 2016, http://www. russianartandbooks.com/cgi-bin/russianart/02604R.html 7. Архитектура и строительство Краматорска краеведческий очерк. 2010 accessed March 28, 2016, http:// ru.calameo.com/read/0028742814f28b6671f87 8. Краматорськ - місто реальних можливостей - сайт міськради, accessed March 28, 2016, http://www.krm.gov.ua/article/view/12#met45 9. Гавриленко А. И. Ноткина А. Ф.Звезды не гаснут. - Краматорск: 2005. - 203с. 10. Краеведческий очерк, Краматорск в пятидесятые годы, Краматорск: 2012, accessed March 28, 2016, http:// lib-krm.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/%D0%9A%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%BE%D1 %80%D1%81%D0%BA-%D0%B2-%D0%BF%D1%8F%D1%82%D0%B8%D0%B4%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%8F%D1 %82%D1%8B%D0%B5-%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%8B.pdf
POLITICS & SOCIETY
“Let my people go”
where Is A future and what is THE reality now? Mykola Holovko, Kateryna Karelshtein, Olexander Ovsianko
Our study was focused on two main fields: politics and society. For each of them, we have also identified key subtopics and the most relevant trends that shaped an overall
picture of the various and complex situation in the city. We started with Kramatorsk timeline, dedicated to the main actors and their influence on the city development.
Personalities and forces which set up the directions of Kramatorsk development
Formation of the city
PETROVKA BELYANSKOYE VESELYI
International connections of Kramatorsk
The composition of society at different times
REPRESENTATIVES OF RELIGION
REPRESENTATIVES OF RELIGION
MANAGING DIRECTOR OF FACTORY
GOVERMENT PARTY WORKING PEOPLE PEASANTS
WORKING PEOPLE PEASANTS
MANAGING DIRECTOR OF FACTORY
WORKING PEOPLE PEASANTS
BUSNINESS WICH IS NOT RELATED TO THE INDUSTRY
2-th stage of industrialization
1-th stage of industrialization
BIG INDASTRIAL BUSINESS
WORKING PEOPLE PEASANTS
CREATORS OF I NDUSTRIAL BUSINESS
AGENTS OF RELIGION
KRAMATOROVKA KRAMATOROVKA KRAMA ATOROVKA PETROVKA PETR
THe SOCIALISTIC CITY The city is a phenomenon of human culture. People create its physical reality: housing, factories, infrastructure, etc. What are the needs and desires and what are the goals of further development? The answers to these questions are important for each city especially considering its further development. However, for various cities, the answers will be different. In this article, we would like to discover such an issue as changing the city function according to the historical transformation of the country: from the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union to independent Ukraine.
Since the Bolsheviks arrival in 1917, the Soviet city Kramatorsk has become an attractive place for tens of thousands people: mostly workers of the heavy machinery industry. Before the first five-year plan of 1928-1932, Commissar Ordzhonikidze had founded the NKMZ factory – an industrial flagman of the USSR. The construction of this plant was one of the most significant projects of the Soviet industrialization.
Commissar Ordzhonikidze Conrad Gamper
Our case study was dedicated to Kramatorsk - an industrial city in the East of the country. The history of Kramatorsk began with the developing of the Donbas railway hub and founding in 1886 the first industrial facility by Swiss entrepreneur Conrad Gamper. The decision to develop Donbas region was grounded on the outcomes of Crimean War in 1853-1856 during which the Russian government decided to develop the railway network in that part of the Empire. Thus, the first core functions of the Kramatorsk area were logistics and industry.
To understand the specificity of Kramatorsk, it is necessary to take into consideration that it is not a typical industrial city. It is the city that has been created and designed to perform the specific function in the vast scale of the USSR military industrial complex (MIC). At that time, the industrialization and creating the strong professional army were two main development priorities of the recently formed Soviet country. The term “Socialistic City” is well-known itself, yet just few people understand what is behind it. The
SHTEIHEROVKA E VKA
PETROVKA BELYANSKOYE VESELYI
term was invented by the young Soviet state managers in the 1920s , based on the ideas of Vladimir Lenin.
“The Socialistic City was an embodiment of the idea to create the new living conditions for the new Soviet man. That conception was based on the total state control over the citizens by means of forcing them to implement all decisions of the government bodies. Therefore, the Socialistic City claimed the importance of constructing the new cities as places that should be free of stereotypes of the previous lifestyle with its interpersonal relationships, variety of activity forms and the old-fashioned culture. On the whole, such a city had to become the brand new type of settlement rather than an adjustment of the existing one, by favoring the artificially created new organizational forms of work and life”. - Meerovich, M. (2007): The Socialistic City: the formation of new urban communities and the Soviet housing policy in the 1930s / The Soviet social poliсy of the 1920s-1930s: ideology and everyday life: M.: LTD. “Variant”: 84-117.
Implementation of the new ideas of the Soviet state such as the Socialistic city concept - was partly feasible due to the system of administrative and territorial division. That system was based on the priority of the “industry concentration” factor - the most decisive condition for the urban development of the particular territory. That meant that the whole life of each citizen was linked to the industry distribution. The theoretical base of the system of administrative and territorial division was developed and firstly introduced by Vladimir Lenin at the 7th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). The represented concept had converted all the workers and peasants into the “gears” of the huge machine of the Soviet military-industrial complex. The first person who initiated and implemented principles of the administrative and territorial division by organizing townships on the whole territory of the Russian Empire was Peter the Great in 1708. The Bolsheviks leader, Vladimir Lenin retained the same strategy of the unified division and centralized management of the territory. Yet the system itself was reorganized according to the new industry-oriented logic of the large scale urbanization. In this context,
much tied with criminals and who have been transformed in 2000s into the powerful industrial oligarchs - become the new “red commanders” of independent Ukraine controlling Kramatorsk citizens and the whole city.
the decentralization reform which was proclaimed by the European Charter of Local Self-Government of 1985, ratified by the Ukrainian society in 1997 and is ongoing now, could be seen as the next attempt to introduce the new system of administrative and territorial division of Ukraine, this time based on democratic values and more careful approach to existing socio-spatial context and regional diversity.
Those experienced and skilled “old school” managers have efficiently used the inertia of the “Soviet ideological machine” and privatized large Kramatorsk enterprises together with their workers and the entire infrastructure. A suitable metaphor for such a phenomenon would be the “contemporary Ukrainian feudal state” where influential business executives might play the role of medieval landlords for factory workers and their families.
As the result, we could identify an interesting regularity: by means of such rulers as Peter I, Vladimir Lenin and now Petro Poroshenko (who might be called Peter II), the strategy to create the unified system of dividing the territory for
its efficient (and, in fact, centralized) management restores itself through the history. And it seems like the Ukrainians have become the witnesses (and, probably, the victims) of the newest intention to reload the concept of “All power to the Soviets” with all its possible advantages and risks.
What is the CURRENT situation in THE city?
One of the challenges which independent Ukraine is facing now is the absence of identity which would be common for all the citizens as well as relevant and efficient ideology, proposed by the state. It could be assumed that this problem was one of the causes which have triggered the current situation in the Donbas region. Therefore, the newly appeared capitalists of the 1990s - which had been also very 038
In accordance with the described situation, we could identify a possible scenario of the city development: while active citizens of Kramatorsk are mostly emigrating, the state is trying to convince those who have still remained “to take responsibility” for the city’s future by implementing the decentralization reform. Yet there are a lot of eventual risks and concerns regarding the readiness and ability of Kramatorsk citizens to do it since we could find the examples of failed democratic reforms caused by a very strong dependence on the centralized decision making and a lack of participation practices.
What exact government policy should provide an efficient implementation of the democratic course? How to increase the involvement of citizens into the process of socio-political and urban development? With these questions, we’ve ended our field trip to Kramatorsk.
SquareS: TRADE - ADMINISTRATIVE - IDEOLOGICAL One of the most distinguished and recognizable parts of Kramatorsk is its center. It has a lot of interesting public places which have been transfromed from a constellation of various communication, trade and exchange spots into an administrative core of one of the biggest urban hubs in the region. It might be assumed that the whole history of Kramatorsk’ socio-spatial development could be researched by examining the places of people’s main concentration - the city’s squares.
The first city square was formed around the railway station and has been mostly used for trade and transportation. In the end of the nineteenth century the postal office has been added to its structure. In the Soviet period the square was reconstructed and fully transformed into the administrative center.
In should be mentioned that the Soviet machine has produced new urban spaces according to the ‘Socialistic City’ conception by means of combining the ideological and cultural purposes. One of the examplary cases is Lenin Square which was located in front of Lenin’s Palace of Culture. From the beginning of its creation, the square has served as a place for various cultural events with a strong ideological background: parades, meetings and manifestations for workers and other citizens. During the long period of time - till 1965 the square had been the determining place for shaping the
Nowadays, in independent Ukraine, we can still find a lot of events and holidays which might be seen as rituals which have been inherited from the Soviet mythology: Kramatorsk City Day, May Day, Mechanician Day, etc. Almost all of them are very important for the citizens and are held in the public spaces which have been designed for promoting the Soviet ideology. It’s interesting to notice that after privatization of the factories and the city’s infrastructure belonging to them, the new owners have perfectly understood power of the specially-designed spaces, such as squares. Therefore, the
mindset and worldview of Kramatorsk inhabitants. In 1965 the city center had been moved to the newly-created area near ‘NKMZ’ Palace of Culture. Despite of the original nature of the square which was based on meeting the logistical and trade needs, its new function at the new place - to be the main propaganda platform - had been strictly identified from the beginning.
newly-born capitalists have left them as their own property in contrast to much less promising facilities for usage (such as, nurseries).
What is the current situation with the city center? Undoubtedly, it is the largest area of Kramatorsk with a masterpiece of Soviet architecture - “NKMZ” Palace of Culture. At the moment, most of the buildings of this city part are privately owned. The rest of them are:
- the two private residential houses made in Stalinist Empire style; - the square with a Scythian sculpture which has been re-constructed in 2015.
- the typical nondescript buildings of the City Council and the Regional Council; - the neighboring squares where a small Taras Shevchenko monument is placed;
To conclude, it could be noted that Kramatorsk is a special place where we can explore the tangible influence of ideologically saturated physical environment on human beings. After our field trip it has become even more obvious that it’s not feasible to change the ‘spirit of the USSR’ just by
means of renaming the streets in the city. Decommunization is a far more complex process which demands the understanding that we - Ukrainian citizens are actively involved in the struggle of two ideologies â€“ the new democratic and the old totalitarian one. In this ideological battle, the Socialistic City with its strict planning structure and architectural dominants plays the crucial role by setting the life rhythm which is heavily based on the old Soviet principles.
Nevertheless, there is also an increasing trend towards re-thinking of the importance of Kramatorskâ€™s public spaces. According to initiatives of the City Council and some local NGOâ€™s, most of the former ideological spaces - parks, squares and streets - are proposed to be reorganized into the places for leisure and public interaction. As a result, the citizens of Kramatorsk - probably, the first time ever - have got the brand-new opportunity to live in the city, taking responsibility for their own future.
MY OWN PRIVATE KINGDOM In the USSR people’s life looked like a pendulum “homework”, sometimes people could afford to go to a concert or a movie, maybe even in a cafe or cultural center. Activity in each of these places was dictated and formed by the politicians from above, censorship and party. The man was only an object of influence. After the Soviet Union collapse, people were no more under such a strict control and dependency of the Party. This has shifted the role of a citizen to become the subject, actor, creator. But due to the historical causes, very few people were ready for that freedom.
We’ve decided to focus on self-organization and individual initiatives, thus, workplaces have not been analyzed, as they already represent an organized structure.
PLACES of living. “OSBB” Our research has been very much focused on the topic of “OSBB” (Сondominium associations). But firstly, a short description what “OSBB” is and how it differs from the usual house management. “OSBB” is an association of apartment owner of buildings who register themselves as non-profit organizations (NGO). The purpose of this association is to improve the condition of the house and adjacent territory, to take full control of all tenants management and maintenance problems. Public service organizations (or “GEC“) are now responsible for this in Ukraine, but it’s not a secret that they are very inefficient. Another important component of “OSBB” is social activation. People have an opportunity to be the master of their house, to cooperate around common problems. In 1998, it a law regulating was passed allowing the establishment and activities of “OSBB”, and people finally got an opportunity to influence the condition of their’s property. Before this, people did not have an opportunity to choose how to manage their residential areas and homes.
Period yers: 1998-2002 Quantity:
Educational and management policy of the Soviet Union had been affecting the development of four generations of citizens, diminishing the importance of individuality, freedom, responsibility for the decision-making. 25 years of Ukrainian independence has been enough for the new generation to grow up, that does not know the USSR methodology influence. Post-soviet industrial Kramatorsk can be characterized by the appearance of new actors, who’s life credo is: “I influence the city and I can fill the place with new meanings”. We have identified three main types of places of human activities: - Housing; - Workplaces; - Places for leisure. Activities around these places help to understand the society’s specificity, its needs, problems and challenges. 044
Why is it important? The conditions of people’s housing is an important aspect of their life and their relation to these places is an interesting indicator of the society’s development. The first “OSBB“ in Kramatorsk was organized back in 1998. Today, Kramatorsk holds the fourth position in the number and speed of “OSBB“ creation in Ukraine. By analyzing several periods of 4 years, it is possible to trace the tendency of “OSBB” growth, even in the crisis time. Same situation we can see now as there are 23 houses that have organized new “OSBB” over the last two years. It is important not only to analyze the tendency but also to understand the reasons for this growth and people’s motivation to create local governments and willingness to spend time on the housing activity.
is responsible the condition of housing? who Who is responsible for thefor condition of housing? Goverment Government
«Everything behind “Government is responsible the door of our forapartment the everything the shouldbehind be door of our apartment”, - 67 serviced by the Government» years old woman Women, 67 years old
«The government must
help people to take care help “Government must people, butButresidents of housing. residents are responsible for the house’s are responsable of houses conditions”, condition» - 84 years old man Men. 84 years old, pensioner
«Those who know “The one who knows how to bemaster The master to how be the of his of theirs house live house well. With the living well. there absence of Where government management, a possibility is no power exist possibility of ofprosperity prosperity»exists”, - 42 years Men,old 42man years old
HOW MUCH TIME ARE YOU READY TO SPEND FOR “osbb”? “I’m not ready to spend any of my time as I’m a student. It’s a job for the older people”,- 19 years old student
“I’m ready to pay for the services and participate in the meetings once per month.”,- 30 years old housewife
“I have to spend a lot of my free time for the “OSBB” activities as it’s a big responsibility”,- 55 years old engineer
“I’m ready to help with the organization and actively participate, but management is difficult for me”,- 67 years old woman
8 - ...
ConclusionS A short history analysis of the recent years and statistical data helps to trace the correlation between the political activity upturn and military conflict with the growth of OSBBs in the Donetsk region. We see this as a consequence of the society’s awakening after the serious upheaval and its understanding of the responsibility that is in its hands. On the other hand is the desire of the younger generation not to wait for the actions of the State, but its understanding of the importance and readiness to manage their own life and to take the responsibility for it.
What was the place of leisure in the USSR? It was mainly represented through the structured physical units that offered certain types of activities. Among them were: - Theaters; - Sports; - Cinemas; - Museums. How was it structured? Firstly, type of activity was set by the building function. The second factor was censorship, a wonderful tool for the freedom of choice and content regulation. As a consequence, any amateur initiative was regulated by the framework of the government ideology.
For many years of the Ukrainian independence, consumerism prevailed over the city’s cultural life. Only recently, after 25 years, noticeable changes has begun. A new generation of people, who grew up without the influence of the Soviet ideology an censorship has started to shape the environment they extremely need. They also need activities in the city of a better quality. This desire is a driving force for the active people who use old city spaces for the creation of new leisure possibilities. This shows the rise of content importance over the physical place itself. Of course, now it’s only the nucleation period of the “third places“, but it definitely will rise. “Vilna Hata“ is one of these places in Kramatorsk for the youth’s leisure. This no-profit project has no analogues in the city, as this is a platform for new ideas, communications, games, the internet and hot tea. The variety of actvities performed illustrates the public demand for such places rather than the desire for the beautiful parks and cinemas.
MAP OF PUBLIC ACTIVITIES NETWORK
“VILNA HATA” FREE SPACE CONNECTIONS WITH “VILNA HATA” POSSIBLE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN ACTORS ACTORS
This can also be interpreted as a reflection of Kramatorsk society needs, that is interested in a more intellectual content and participation in the complicated and important processes. Through the cooperation with various organisations, “Vilna hata” holds informational lectures on various topics, workshops, and classes with prominent experts, supports various projects with grants. This is also a place for the ideas and information sharing. As a good example, we’ve met young guys there, who had created a gym in the garage to practice sports activities. They also provide free classes for the all interested as well as train themselves.
Unfortunately, they have no money to build a big club, but they have their active position and desire for changes that brought them to “Vilna hata” and provoked their support for the initiative. This space is sometimes used by the government as a public platform for the informal communication with the city residents as well as guests from other cities (for example CANactions school) or even countries. This creates a situation that the place becomes a center that attracts different organizations and local players. This helps to familiarize small communities with each other, to establish new contacts and to develop a network of active citizens.
CONCLUSIONS With the emergence of self-organized actors, the situation in Kramatorsk has shifted to the state, when citizens themselves create activities in the places but not buildings, who had been the dictators of scenarios in the past . A way easier possibility of network communication and collaboration adds to these activities significantly. This is not a thing that can easily be spotted visually, but the dialog with activists and deeper research has shown that it is a growing trend and in a few years it can be expected to have not only “Vilna hata“ being active in Kramatorsk.
From the article at http://reinvent.platfor.ma/-vilna-khata-/
Bibliography 1. Крихтенко В.И., Шугалий Н.А. Я люблю тебя, мой Краматорск. Краеведческий очерк. - Краматорск, 2009.- С.112 2. Шкуратова, Н. В. Краматорск : Путеводитель / Н. В. Шкуратова. - Донецк : Донбас, 1978. - 56 с. 3. https://vk.com/kramatorsknews Краматорск сегодня 4. https://vk.com/amnkmz 5. Общественная организация молодёжи ПАО «Новокраматорский машиностроительный завод» г.Краматорск 6. http://kremenchug-kpu.org.ua/read/hs000020.htm «Завод заводов» - грустный праздник 7. http://www.kramatorsk.info/ Форум Краматорска 8. http://www.manekin.narod.ru/hist/forever/part1/op2.htm «ТРИ ДОНБАССА»/ Р.В.МАНЕКИН. ДОНЕЦК FOREVER. ОЧЕРКИ ИСТОРИИ ДОНЕЦКОГО КРАЯ 9. Собрание узаконений и распоряжений Рабочего и Крестьянского правительства (СУ РСФСР) Собрание узаконений и распоряжений правительства за 1921 г. // istmat.info 10. http://istmat.info/node/46595 № 454. Декрет Совета Народных Комиссаров. Временное расписание местностей Российской Социалистической Федеративной Советской Республики на пояса по таксе патентного сбора с торговых и промышленных предприятий. 11. http://pravo.levonevsky.org/baza/soviet/sssr7293.htm ДЕКРЕТ СНК РСФСР ОТ 10.09.1921 ОСНОВНОЕ ПОЛОЖЕНИЕ ПО ТАРИФНОМУ ВОПРОСУ 12. Правовые и организационные проблемы административно-территориального деления союзной республики - В.А. Немцев 13. В. А. НЕМЦЕВ, ПРАВОВЫЕ И ОРГАНИЗАЦИОННЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ АДМИНИСТРАТИВНОТЕРРИТОРИАЛЬНОГО ДЕЛЕНИЯ СОЮЗНОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ Иркутск 1974 http://adhdportal.com/book_729_ chapter_1_ANNOTAIJA.html 14. http://www.alyoshin.ru/Files/publika/meerovich/meerovich_sots.html Марк Меерович Соцгород 15. Краматорск в ожидании Порошенко: БТРы в центре города и площадь, заполненная людьми 16. http://www.kramatorsk.info/view/192052?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=facebook 17. http://www.dk-lenina.net.ua/p/blog-page.html ГДК им. Леонида Быкова (бывший ГДК им. Ленина) 18. Советская социальная политика 1920–1930-х годов: идеология и повседневность. Сборник статей Под редакцией П.В. Романова, Е. Р. Ярской-Смирновой Москва 2007 19. http://www.dsnews.ua/politics/eto-bitva-dvuh-ideologii-saakashvili-prizval-zapad-k-reshitelnym-deistvijam-v-ukraine_---the-wall-street-journal «ЭТО БИТВА ДВУХ ИДЕОЛОГИЙ»: СААКАШВИЛИ ПРИЗВАЛ ЗАПАД К РЕШИТЕЛЬНЫМ ДЕЙСТВИЯМ В УКРАИНЕ, - THE WALL STREET JOURNAL
ENVIRONMENT & INFRASTRUCTURE
HEALTH and infrastructure Vladyslav Doroshenko, Olga Gubynskaya, Smirnova Maria
Intro What do you see when you type the word “Kramatorsk” in the browser?... Right, the pictures that shows recent military operations that took place in this city. Going deeper, you can stumble upon information about president, who has visited this city few days ago, or info about the most advanced plant NKMZ. But if you want to make a deep research, you can find information about ecological situation, death statistic rate. We were very surprised when we have read that this rate is the highest comparing to all Eastern region. We asked ourselves: What is the reason? Why do people die? Our study of the city consisted of several stages: 1) Collection of general data about the city in three categories: ecology situation, health infrastructure, transport infrastructure. 2) Study of city the city infrastructure development history. 3) Search for the description of the environmental and health situation in the city at present time.
The history OF Kramatorsk DEVELOPMENT Kramatorsk is a big industrial center, located on the Kozenyi Torez river. The city actively developed since the building of the railway and railway station. In 1887, the Belgians built a plant of refractories, and in 1892 the first machine-building plant was constructed. These factories had given the city the first impetus to the development. Industry developed the city, so that in 1932 Kramatorsk received the city status and a new engineering plant - “Novokramatorsky Mashinostroitelny Zavod” (NKMZ). Also, in the 30s the first green barrier was built that in order to capture dangerous emissions from the air. During World War II, the city was badly damaged by the military operations, but then it was partially rebuilt by captivated German soldiers. Main factories were removed from Kramatorsk by Soviet government at the beginning of the war. After the end of World War II, government started building new streets and houses. During that period a district of Sotsgorod appeared. With the increase of production quantities, the city received funds to create large parks. Also, during that years, public transport was actively developing (trams and trolleybus). In 1950 the city launched buses which traveled to other big cities. In the 1970s it opened the largest park - Jubilee. Factories actively promoted healthy lifestyle, and built new stadiums. Industry became the main city forming element of Kramatorsk as due to it new factory buildings, new homes and districts were built. Because of the convenient geographical location of the city, there used to be many small separate communities in this area, that as a consequence, were connected into the network. Years after years these villages were integrated into Kramatorsk. During the period of Ukrainian independence, Kramatorsk factories reduced their production and as a result ceased construction of new residential buildings. In 2004 Kramatorsky landscape park was opened. The city developed in compliance with all town planning 053
regulations. Wide streets, parks, green sanitary protection zones, modern (for the time of setup) public transport (trams and trolleybuses). Simultaneously with the city’s development , trends started appearing, such as increase of emissions from factories, decay of ecological situation, downgrade of water quality in the river, increase of diseases among the citizens, growing number of vehicles.
WHO IS THE MAIN POLLUTER? We wanted to discover what was the cohesion between ecological situation and health issues in USSR times and how is it perceived now. On one hand, it was written in «Kramatorska pravda» in 1958: “It is well known that clean and healthy air increases life expectancy of the human, protects people from diseases and nerves.” However, if one continues reading, he will find out that in Kramatorsk “ …there is a big air contamination. The biggest source of fume, dust and gas is “Kuybyshev factory” (Kramatorsk Ferroalloy plant). The factory throws 25 tons of dust and gas and 19 tons of blast furnace №3 in the atmosphere.” On the other hand, in the book of Stank A.G «The fight for health and longevity», we may find: “Health is often lost by people who refer to it casually and don’t think about it, do not follow the rules of personal hygiene, and sometimes deliberately harm themselves. Such people grow old prematurely and cut their lives.” So, understanding of health problem was controversial: both ecological problem and human actions itself where mentioned as main health hazards in different sources. And there is still no common denominator in the human health question. Who is the main actor of this stage? And is ecology perceived by the locals and by officials to be important?
Chemical cocktail is in THE AIR The city of Kramatorsk has been developing from a small settlement into a city around the railway station since 1876. During the time of its development with help of foreign investors and engineers, first machine building factories appeared in this city. Those industry atlantes were built around the river. It was necessary to use this river as a cooler. So since the first factory had been built the state of ecology has become weak . During the last 100 years, factories have been emitting dangerous chemical elements into air and water. Our collection of data about environment in Kramatorsk consists of 3 parts: 1) Information describing past situation. 2) Quantity and quality data collected during the field trip. 3) Data analysis. ”I want to see Kramatorsk as industrial city but with no emissions from it”, – local woman from the “Jubilee Park” ”I don’t like this city. I came from a village near Khmelnytsky and I was happy there, having pigs and goats. There used to be a lot of fresh air and trees. My son brought me to this city. He said that I have to live here. And I feel bad. It was better there ” - one old lady from the street.
Pic.1 View of Ordzhonikidze street
Pic.2 View of Parkova street
Before the fieldtrip to Kramatorsk, we found information from different resources where data about ecological situation in the city was mentioned. Activities of enterprises in the metallurgical, energetical and mechanical engineering industries, as well as the enterprises of building materials and transport, are the reason for high technogenic load on the environment in the city. Based on the medical documents, that describe the tendency of diseases development in this region, one can see a big number of death rate in the city. Volunteers try to solve this issue, but the results of it are very small. One of the most important environmental issues, requiring urgently solutions in Kramatorsk, is the problem of improving the condition of air.
Analyzing data on sickness rate, regularity can be identified between dangerous emissions and people, who suffered from them. There is a program launched in 2008, by the ex-President of Ukraine V. Yanukovich, on air protection and recovery, that focuses on reduction of the air pollutants amount oin the city . Under this project, large enterprises had to modernize their facilities and start using more ecological equipment. In the area of protection of water resources, local government structures had to carry out reconstruction of the municipal wastewater treatment plants.
Kramatorsk is one of the largest industrial centers of the Donbass region. An outstanding feature of the region is the high content of carcinogens in the air. These elements are the result of emissions from the plants and vehicles . 056
But did it happen actually? If industry has really implemented this program, why the mortality statistic numbers are still increasing? In reality, state of the environment in Kramatorsk does not correspond to European standards and amout of pollution is almost critical.
“40% of all emissions are due to the increase of the number of vehicles going along the route through the city. Heat – electro station uses special filters, but they cann ot deal with all emissions. Most of the factories has upgraded the equipment, but it is not possible to significantly reduce the amount of emissions. The main problem – are people. They are guilty of what is happening in the city. They cut trees and throw away trash” – the local ecology activist. In accordance with the new general plan of the city, a new bypass road is supposed to be, but this project was stopped due to the lack of funding. According to the sanitary station on Ordzhonikidze Street (highway through the city), where about two thousand units of motor transport pass per hour on average, air gets half of the total emissions. Thus, new bypass road could lower the amount of CO2 emissions in the city. The demographic situation of the city is characterized by a negative natural increase. The analysis of this increase shows that there has been a steady decline in population for many years. The uman body absorbs substances through inhalation and unfortunately can not be avoided. In addition, the solid particles by entering the emissions into the atmosphere, later are deposited on the surface and can get into the digestive organs.
Pic.3 View on the «Foxes tail». Pollution from factory
For Kramatorsk index of industrial production growth is among of the highest in the region, social indicators are almost identical to the average for the region. However, the ecological indicators of the city are not unfavorable according to the level of growth of hurtful emissions into the atmosphere over the past several years, Kramatorsk is ahead of many cities in the region. Despite the fact that the emissions are relatively not large, the trend of 20% growth in emissions is one of the highest in the Donetsk region. From the total volume of emissions of certain ingredients in the Donetsk region, Kramatorsk measures metal emissions and their compounds. Hazardous substances in urban atmospheric pollution are nitrogen dioxide, phenol, hydrogen sulfide and formaldehyde. The situation for the rest of the ingredients (dust, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide) is prosperous.  “Do you think all factories have made this modernization? No. Two big factories still pollute the air… Our Ukrainian law in the protection of environment refers to European standards. But indicators are not European, they exceed the norms. Our law has a system of fines, but due to Anti-Terrorist Operation, a moratorium is imposed on data monitoring. Our laboratory takes data every year and sends it to sanitary-epidemic station”, - the expert from the laboratory that monitors air state.
Pic.4 View of “Concrete factory”
In 2015, the most notable increase was of elements like formaldehyde, where its average concentration was 4.3 MPC (while the norm is 3.65 Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC)), phenol – 1.3 MPC (and the norm is 1.09 MPC. Comparison of 2015 to 2014 the previous year, shows the growth of air pollution by sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, cadmium, copper, and zinc, reduction of air pollution by dust, carbon monoxide, nickel, manganese, chromium, iron and lead.  Pic.5 View of “Novokramatorsky Mashinostroitelny Zavod”
Dangerous chemicalS for the human are: - Oxides of nitrogen - nitrogen compounds lead to acid rain. As a result of this, there is a strong smog. These substances are emitted during the production of special steels. - Sulfur dioxide - a gas that mixes with water in the atmosphere, forms sulfurous acid, resulting in frequent acid rains, that are particularly harmful to plants and soil microorganisms.
Contamination of the human body by pollutants through inhalation can not be avoided. In addition, the solid particles, after entering the emissions into the atmosphere, are deposited on the surface and can flow into the digestive organs. People who live near industrial plants are affected in multiple ways as this happens because of production processes and material handling. Among the types of morbidity, which may be relevant to air pollution, respiratory diseases, the incidence of chronic bronchitis and asthma, as well as tumors should be allocated.
- Carbon monoxide - is a product of incomplete combustion of fuel, most of which is produced by cars. - Carbon dioxide - a natural component of the atmosphere. Despite the fact that it does not include harmful compounds of CO2, it causes the global warming. Lead exposure leads to serious diseases of the kidneys, liver, nervous system and other organs. - Formaldehyde and phenol. High level of formaldehyde may cause irritation of eyes, nose, throat and skin. Phenol is poisonous. It refers to highly dangerous substances.
“Yellow reek comes from the Kramatorsk Ferroalloy industry tube and goes in the direction of the city”, - worker of the newspaper kiosk in the Old city area.
Pic.6 View of «Kramatorsky ferroalloy plant»
The graph above shows the main polluters, based on collected data from the long-term monitoring of the environmental situation in the city by sanitary epidemiological service and independent experts from the regional newspaper. Among the factories located on the territory of Kramatorsk, the most significant impact on the city’s air condition has enterprises of the machine-building industry: “New Kramatorsk Machine-Building Factory” (NKMZ), “Old Kramatorsk Machine-Building Factory” (SKMZ), “Kramatorsky Heating - Electro Factory”. Also, the metallurgical industry contributes to the pollution of the city: “Kramatorsk ferroalloy plant”, “EMSS”, Enterprises of building industry should also be mentioned among contaminators: “Kramatorsk cement plant”, “Kramatorsk slate”. The city has several numerous private buildings districts, that are heated by charcoal, which also contributes to air pollution. During the last years, the number of vehicles increased substantially. Due to the lack of a developed network of public transport in the city, the number of private transportation companies and personal vehicles multiplied. In addition, highway Kharkiv - Donetsk passes through the center of the city, which greatly affects its air quality.
“The volume of emissions of motor transport remains one of the highest among the cities of the region (after Donetsk, Mariupol, Makeyevka), of which about 85% are auto-trucks running on gasoline”, - the ecology expert from ecology department.
Pic.7 View of «Kramatorsky heating - electro station»
As a result of the development, the city of Kramatorsk currently covers an area of more than 6.7 thousand hectares of 35.6 thousand hectares of Kramatorsk City Council and is extended in the direction of the North-South for 11 km, and in the direction West-East for more than 13 km. Today a high proportion of the land is occupied by industrial buildings in the city, and the share of land allocated for transport and social infrastructure is clearly insufficient. Historically, the uptown was designed around industrial enterprises, resulting that residential areas are located in the industrial zones. Many industrial cities of Donetsk region has a similar scheme.
According to the meteorological situation of this region, Western and North-Western winds prevail in summer and the Eastern with North-Eastern in the winter. We can see that in the current situation of emissions, “Old Town” suffers in the winter, and the South-Eastern part of the city in summer. That means, that if a local citizen wants to survive and be healthy, he or she needs to move to different parts of the city with the change of the season. “Despite the best efforts of public services, fires at the dump occur with alarming frequency. Do not forget about the so-called “unrecorded emissions” because of burning fallen leaves, and household waste by the hosts in their areas”, - the ecology expert from the local newspaper “Ecologia promislovogo krayu”
Let’s talk about water Water is the life source. It plays an important role in metabolic processes, it is the basis of life for many living organisms. The main pollutants of water are manufacturing plants, mines, bio trash, etc. Every year the river gets more than a million tons of salt, more than 16 thousand tons of suspended solids, 15 thousand tons of nitrate, 5 thousand tons of organic substances, etc. with a sewage. Discharges of untreated sewage in the area make nearly a billion of cubic meters per year - that’s 30% of the contaminated water in Ukraine.
Hydrographic network of Kramatorsk is sufficiently dense - it has six small rivers: Steer, Mayachka, Dry Face, Bilenka-1, Bilenka-2, White Mountain, as well as the main water artery of the city - the Kasennyj Torez river, which is a tributary of the largest Donbas river - the Siversky Donets, from which the channel of drinking water for Kramatorsk comes. “Even being in the city, you do not feel that it has a river” - the local citizen Shallowing of the river has reached a level when even factory pumps clog, by which companies take water for the technical needs.  The paradox is that the whole industry in Kramatorsk,
Pic.8 View ofn the Kasennyj Torez river
Pic.9 View of the Kasennyj Torez river
Druzhkivka, Slavyansk, Konstantinovka is centered around the river. Over the last 100 years, water resources have been actively used by industry for the manufacturing of different products and has been filled with heavy metals. Then, these substances were incorporated in the course of the Siversky Donets river, and then into the central water channel, creating a kind of vicious circle. Over the time, the use of the river in the industry has fallen, but that has not made the river cleaner.
- 6 times, nitrites - 5 times, oil products - by 2.5 times.
Veterinary Services strongly recommend not to go fishing and swimming in the river. Near Yasnogorki district sulfate content in water exceeds the Maximum Permissible Concentration (by fisheries regulations) 8.3 times, chromium
Almost 63% of the industrial plants waste water is discharged into Kasennyj Torez pool. Coal industry throws 68% and engineering industries discharge 20%.  As some industries still use water for their needs, the river is full of dangerous chemical elements. Also, due to the outdated water treatment facilities its salinity increases. People dump in the water solid domestic waste and other garbage. At this point, the river is not only dangerous for swimming, but it is also a potential source of infections.
According to the standards of protection of water resources, private houses should be located at 25 m distance from the river, and industry on 50 m. Today, the river Bichok became shallow, and in some places, it can be easy to cross. The same thing happened with the other rivers of the city.
centralized wastewater for many areas. As a consequence water comes back into the river not purified. This water quality does not allow the river usage to its full. This resulted in the river being closed for local citizens.
Most of the water from homes and workplaces is returned to rivers as sewage after the use. In Kramatorsk area covered by sewage networks is insufficient, there is no
People need to understand that the logic of the development of life on Earth is determined by human activities. Humans are the main cause of environmental pollution. Nature can exist without humans, but humans can not ex-
Pic.10 View of the main river tributary
Pic.11 View of the main river tributary and garbage
ist without biosphere. The deterioration of the environment and as a consequence of this high illness rate among the local population is another example of this. If it is possible to reduce emissions from the plants and modernize their
equipment, cleanliness, observed by the same people, that will lead to the change of environmental situation for the better.
Pic.12 View of the Kasennyj Torez river
HEALTH-FILES Donbas ecological situation has always been considered to be unbeneficial for human health. We may find mentions about this problem from the 1950s. With the time, flow experts started to realize the urgency of this problem. In documents from 2008 and 2007, we may find the description of diseases rates and mortality level and connection with pollution rates. It seemed that this fact should have been the wake-up call for the people and officials. But it turned to be vice versa. This call is not being heard for many years. Asking the official from Health Department if she sees the link between disease level and the ecology we’ve heard next: “Well, yes we do know that Donbas is an industrial region. But there are so many reasons for diseases”.
In 2007 the main mortality reasons in Kramatorsk were:
The connection itself can be observed. However, it is quite hard to prove the clear link between the ecological situation in the city and the disease level. Τhis issue became more of a background that is still there, but everybody ignores it. Why did it happen? Was the problem solved, or there are other reasons?
- Diseases of the circulatory system - 63% - Neoplasms - 16% - External causes of morbidity and mortality - 10% - Respiratory diseases - 3%
From the document «The program of protection and improvement of Kramatorsk air» we may read that ingestion of pollutants into the human body through breathing can not be avoided. In addition, solid particles and atmosphere emissions are deposited on the surface and can flow into the digestive organs. The composition of the dust particles that are particularly dangerous is lead and PAHs, dioxins. People, living near plants and factories are affected by multiple compounds, that result from production processes and material handling.
- Diseases of the circulatory system - 67% - Neoplasms - 14.4% - External causes of morbidity and mortality - 7.6 % - Digestive diseases - 3.7% - Respiratory diseases -1.8% - Infectious diseases -1.8%
Among the types of morbidity, which may be relevant to air pollution, respiratory diseases, bronchitis, and asthma, as well as tumors should be allocated. What is even more ironical, pollutants that are common for Kramatorsk, affect human health in a dreadful way. For example: ΝΟ2 (Nitrogen dioxide) - increases sensitivity to bacterial and viral infections. SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) damages respiratory system and circulatory system, increases the mortality, may affect stomach and liver. CO (Carbon monoxide) causes an increase of heart diseases, asthma, lung diseases, circulatory diseases, cardiovascular disease, pneumonia. NH3 (Ammonia) causes diseases of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract; respiratory system and circulatory diseases, tuberculosis, asthma.
In 2014 the main mortality reasons in Kramatorsk were:
Comparing these data, we may admit that health issue is still important. War situation in the region added extra factors that have adversely affected people’s health such as a decline in living standards and stress factors. Doctors admit that the level of culture among citizens should be raised. In the Children Hospital doctor said: “ Before searching the reasons of disease in soil contamination one need to look at the mother of a premature baby who smokes and drinks”. Taking into consideration all these aspects, a link between the ecological situation in the city and the disease level can’t be forgotten and needs to be investigated further. But what actually stops us from researching this question and why there is still no clear up to date picture of how ecology affects human’s health? Why is it possible to base the conclusions only on erudition and logic but not on rigid data? We’ve found several reasons for that.
FORBIDDEN MONITORING In 2014 the Ukrainian Law № 1669-VІІ about “Temporary measures on the period of the Anti-Terrorist Operation” which established a moratorium on inspections of bodies and officials authorized by law to execute state supervision (control) in the sphere of economic activity. Thus, the controllers are temporarily prohibited from per-
forming scheduled and unscheduled inspections of business entities on the territory in the period of the Anti-Terrorist Operation. However, this prohibition does not apply to unscheduled inspections of business entities that are related to a high degree of risk management subjects. To make it clear, aforementioned document means that according to the law, scheduled Ecological inspections to the factories are forbidden on the territory of Kramatorsk, however, unscheduled inspections may be performed, because all large- scale enterprises can be categorized as of the high degree of risk management.
AN ABSENCE OF THE SOCIAL REQUEST
We asked Lina Plushakova, the regional newspaper “Eсology of industrial region” editor, tο comment on this situation. Lina admitted that:
Other understands that the problem exists, but they lack hope that something can be done. This is the phrase sad by local citizen:
“There is an ecological inspection that has the right to examine factories if only there is a request from people. Βut people are suffering and it suits them. If only one complained, an inspection would enter the enterprise”.
“We will continue breathing as they will continue smelting. And nothing can be done because the «men» are sitting there and сollecting money. And they absolutely don’t care if you or I will die prematurely”.
- Who did this to you? - Moratorium. Sorry, I can’t protect you anymore.
So, is it really so easy for citizens to control factories by themselves, with the help of ecological inspection or there is something more? By law, a private individual may request the examination to be done in the case of an economic operator that, as in our case factory, has violated his rights. So the citizen of Kramatorsk who wants to be sure that factories respect ecological law have no chance to do that without proving that some harm has been done to him. That means that ordinary people don’t have the possibility to control. And even if they dare to try their application may be considered causeless and they will be liable under the law. As the result, we have the situation voiced by Galina, the worker of the newspaper kiosk: “Nobody is tracking this situation now.“
To some extent, people got used to the neighborhood with factories. Factories have always been the breadwinners of the region, and they are still preserved like that by some percentage of citizens without thinking about factories impact on their health. Also, some people see the decrease in factories production and presume ecological situation getting better without digging deeper.
The third category of people sees the urgency of the problem and tends to blame the government for being ignorant. But do people do something to change the situation or they remain silent?
POOR RESOURCE AND TECHNICAL BASE There are several gaps that can be observed in the process of data collecting and their analysis. We may presume that to some extent they affect the quality of official data, which makes it less reliable. Talking about data collection, there are some questions about the measures taken and their quality. Due to the war situation, some material base was lost and a lot of links between institutions where ruined. For example, regional laboratory stayed in the occupied territory and the whole database has been left there. From the words of SanitaryEpidemiological Station representative, there are good laboratories in the city but there is no virological laboratory. 065
What is more, City Sanitary Station doesn’t have fixed monitoring stations, that is why factories’ sanitary protection zones are being checked randomly once a month which, in our opinion, is not enough. In addition, some pieces of measuring equipment are pretty old and might not be able to grasp all necessary data. And the last but not the least, due to the high level of immigration, it is hard to clarify the correct number of citizens and because not all of them are registered at health facilities, the statistical data about illness level is not 100 % correct.
Hospitals, that are SICK What to do if you need a medical help? Right, go to the medical care institution. But what to do if the medical system is ill now and can’t be effective anymore. Μay be it’s time to give her a treatment ?
Restricted data aCcess What to do if you care what is going on in the city? Do you have the right to know or your hunger for knowledge will be buried under the piles of paper? We have requested information at the Sanitary Epidemiological Station about the resolution on emissions of the Kramatorsk Ferroalloy plant. Τhey told that this information can be obtained directly from the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine. The Ministry told us that this information is confidential and in order to obtain it a permission is needed. The direct request for the information to the factory didn’t give any result too. It seems that files about health are almost like X-files and are so hard to get.
DO I HAVE THE RIGHT
The ecology bell is ringing to attract attention to the danger for human’s health. So it is high time for us to hear this bell and to start acting. The real picture of the health and ecology question is now blurred due to the aforementioned reasons. Its time to fight against this reasons and make the picture clear. 066
There are two main reasons of medical system illness: idle medical reform and war situation. First of all, let’s figure out how the system is working. It consists of 3 branches (levels). The first one is a primary health care system, which is represented by district doctors. Then secondary health care system is represented by the specialized experts in the multifunctional hospital. The third branch of health care means is highly specialized hospital centers. Kramatorsk has two branches of medical care system infrastructure: the first and the second. The third was represented in Donetsk. So Kramatorsk and Donetsk were strongly connected. Patients that required special care could be transferred to Donetsk where both specialists and equipment were placed. This trip took only 40 minutes. If the patient was non-transportable, the specialist could come to Kramatorsk. Now this link is ruined. Patients need to be transported to Kharkiv, which takes much more time than it was before and there is no guarantee that in the end of the trip patient will be safe and sound. What is more the load on the existing hospitals in the city is bigger due to the increased population – now it is up to 200% -400% per doctor.
Surgical Department №1 and №2
The second problem is that the medical reform is not working. Doctors say: “They had ruined all that existed”. However, they admit that the idea was good. The idea of reform was to transfer 80% of medical treatment to the first level, that is pretty cheap. And the rest 20% would have remained on the secondary level. This measure would have helped to find “free” money for the infrastructure modernization. As the result the medical institutions where separated. Now there are there individual centers with general practitioners and hospitals without them. “The hospital without general practitioners is like a hand without fingers. To make this first level work effectively, a lot of measures are to be taken: from buying screenings for analysis to providing special education for doctors. Here we have nothing.” , – doctors say. As the result, nothing had been changed. So the secondary level of medical care institution is still serving 80% of patients, but with an even smaller amount of doctors. The load on doctors is colossal, which may lead to unexpected results. Doctors are not having time anymore to find the reasons of severe cases as they are overloaded with the easy one. As the result, they lose their professionality. Not only doctors, but people suffer too. Το get an appointment with the specialized doctor you must firstly go to the therapist. To get to the therapist you must take a special ticket. After visiting the therapist, you will be redirected to the specialist, but again you need to take a ticket. The tickets are always in short supply and you can not arrange meeting with a doctor in advance. Every single day people ought to go to the hospital to get these tickets. If there is no left, you should come next day and begin from the very beginning. Citizens say that sometimes
people are coming at 3 a.m. to be the first in the row. Also, people are mentioning that the live queue was better, which means people are absolutely disappointed and exhausted with the new system. In this relationship between the medical system and the citizens, both partners are suffering, which means that the existing system has to be changed. It’s time to cure the medical system of Kramatorsk.
Infrastructure Challenges of Kramatorsk
The History of the city officially began almost 150 years ago when in 1868 Kursk-Kharkov-Azov railroad was built. This road had brought life to Kramatorsk. Following the life processes of the citizens, who are the city builders, you may understand that cities have the tools - necessary facility tools, that help citizens in their everyday life.
City arteries You may get to Kramatorsk using two ways: - By railway - By the main road These ways are two main arteries of Kramatorsk that bring life to the city. A few years ago the number of cars has increased. But the number of disabled people increased too, so as a consequence the streets are not adapted for the new users. People say that crowded parking places are a new problem, wich has never been before. That is why hundreds of cars are parking in yards and do not give the free passage to pedestrians. The city is very compact, all residential buildings are centered around the industrial zone. To cross the city you should spend 2 hours by foot to reach industrial zone. However, itâ€™s not so easy to cross the city across because the huge industrial zone is on the way just in the middle of the town. Despite the fact, that the city is small, you can move quickly, but with problems, which will interfere your movement. The second problem, which appeared in last few years, is a huge overload of the main street Ordzhonikidze. The interesting fact about the road is that it is a highway and a regular city street simultaneously. This road is a high-level danger to the public. Lack of pedestrian crossings, an absence of informative infographics on the crossroads, old bus stops, a large number of gas stations - all this leads to an increased risk of the number of accidents. Air gate of the city â€” the airport, was built in the 70s of the XX century and was planned for a capacity of 100 passengers per hour with the possibility of extension up to 300 passengers per hour, but actually had no regular passenger traffic. Now the airport is used as a military base. Now many people from neighboring towns moved to Kramatorsk and its population is growing. This tendency is opening new possibilities and opportunities to the city, which means that the city has new challenges as well.
Transport challenge Kramatorsk first tram route was built in 1937 to transport workers of plants, later in 1971 the city launched trolleybuses.
The incomplete cover of transport communications in the city causes a lot of inconveniences for the citizens. According to the words of trolley-transport department representative, a new route to connect the old and the new parts of the town is designed.
This summer the department launches two new buses on the routes. It is quite impressive that in peak years, the city had 60 trams and 50 trolleybuses, while now there are only 8 trams and 22 trolleybuses left. In 1937, electric transport was the property of the city and had made Kramatorsk one of the leading cities in the region. Now, because of lack of funding, the city has reduced these numbers. The lack of public electric transport has led to an increase of private buses and cars amount that use gasoline, polluting city air and spoil the environment.
Some citizens are faced with real problems from the threshold of their houses, especially people with disabilities. For them, a movement is a big challenge in this city, because there is no necessary infrastructure, that is why many of them are forced to spend their time at home. However, positive points can be found like ramps for curbs and sound notification at few trolleybuses. In addition, there is only one rehabilitation center for the whole area - “Donbas interregional center for vocational rehabilitation of disabled people”, where people can get an education, driver license, and support in social life. The problem is that the city has absolutely no infrastructure for the cyclists, so they can use only roads with a lot of cars or sidewalks. Bicyclists also mention bad attitude of car drivers. Another problem is that the city lacks parking places, sometimes they are only near supermarkets. Сycling activists developed for the city administration “Concept of bicycle infrastructure”, but it is not interested in this proposition. It should be mentioned that Kramatorsk had a cycle track in Bernadskiy garden almost 100 years ago while now the city doesn’t even have parkings for bicycles.
For the last few years a new tendency of using bicycles has been growing in Kramatorsk. Local bicycle activists claim that the rise began with the start of hostilities.
Behind the scene “Walking around the city you don’t feel the river”, - the local resident shared his feelings with us. The entire industrial zone covers one river side and there is only a small piece of bank available for the citizens in the Bernadskiy garden. Years ago, there used to be even a boating station in this garden.
City backyards are invaded with old soviet teeters for the children that are usually clean and painted, but outdated. Further more there is a problem to find playgrounds for basketball, football or any other kinds of sport. Concerning this, it is amazing that Kramatorsk is so rich in sports talents and citizens do respect physical culture. The problem is that the city doesn’t have enough sports infrastructure to facilitate the physical culture.
CONCLUSIONS We found out that in recent years amount of cars has increased sharply. This led to the range of problems among which are: - The rise of transport accidents probability; - An increase of air contamination. We must admit that infrastructure of the city is in a bad condition and some important pieces are totally absent, like bicycle infrastructure or infrastructure for people with disabilities. Nowadays we perceive Kramatorsk as the new regional center of Donetsk region. This status brings the expectations of the high level of social and infrastructural development, and the city must evolve to correspond to the new status. View of the boating station in the Bernadskiy garden
conclusionS Collage This picture shows all actors of Kramatorsk infrastructure: - ordinary citizens - old citizens - people with disabilities - vehicles - factories ( industry) - residential and public buildings. If you remember the history of development, this city was designed as an ideal city, with wide avenues, green areas for the physical recreation of people, cultural centers for a psychological recreation of people from a hard day at the factory. Factories served as the main city-forming elements and development of transport and the road network has evolved around them. Over the time, the number of public electric transport has been increasing. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, most of â€œideal city machineâ€? had stopped and the city has begun its development without strategic planning. Monitoring of air emissions stopped, the equipment has become outdated and as a consequence, the city environment is in a bad condition now. Due to the lack of financing, the city reduced the number
of public electric transport which reflected in the increase of buses that use petrol. Due to the poor quality of health services, poor environmental conditions number of illnesses and deaths increased. Local government tries to solve some problems, but not systematically, without considering the whole city. These all together, all the problems we had described, has formed the idea of our final image.
Bibliography BOOKS 1. В.И. Крихтенко, Л.И. Гетман Мой родной край – моя земля. Краеведческий очерк, Краматорск, 2005 2. В.И. Крихтенко , Н.А.Шугалий За нас никто планету не спасет. Краеведческий очерк, Краматорск, 2009 3. Решение от 24.09.2008 №21/V – 39, Программа охраны и оздоровления атмосферного воздуха, Краматорск, 2007. 4. Закон Украины про охрану атмосферного воздуха 5. Доклад про состояние загрязнения атмосферного воздуха за 2015, Краматорск, 2016. 6. М .Яцюк, В.Жук, С. Барабаш, Оценка экологического состояния поверхностных водных объектов бассейну Северского Донца, Харьков, 2015 7. В.И. Крихтенко, Л.М. Мельник Краматорск в 50-е годы, Краеведческий очерк, Краматорск, 2012 LINKS 1. http://eco-prom.com.ua/contacts/ 2. http://www.6264.com.ua/ 3. http://hi.dn.ua/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1554:2010-03-03-08-55-24&catid=55: kramatorsk&Itemid=147 4. http://www.kramatorsk.info/view/14606 5. http://old.vp.donetsk.ua/statya.php?vstat=1149 6. http://zi.dn.ua/news/v-kramatorske-vyyasnyali-prichiny-problem-s-serdtsem-u-zhiteley-donbassa_6405/ 7. http://auc.org.ua/ 8. http://www.shukach.com/uk/node/15791 9. http://www.krm.gov.ua/article/view/441
Hidden opportunities of small businesses Kate Kaminska, Oleksiy Moskalenko, Tolik Niemtsov, Julia Porkhun
Fieldtrip: a week of interviews and brainstorming
By conducting a multilayered research of different economic activities in the city: from large heavy machinery manufacturers to the local markets, we identified two leading threads of our research: discovery of hidden opportunities and hidden obstacles of various spheres of local economic life.
Do you get bored by historical facts?
The story is based on the different informational sources from our field trip to the city - interviews with local residents, representatives of the biggest plants and SMEs. During one week in Kramatorsk, we have tried to figure out what are the particular qualities of the economy of this region, and how they differ from the economic features of other regions in Ukraine and beyond. We aimed at finding gaps that need to be filled: either gap for opportunities or hidden obstacles in the city’s economy.
THE Economic development of Kramatorsk: a playful overview Years ago famous trading route has passed through Kramatorsk – called “Milky Way”. Many residents used to trade their goods with passing merchants in this area as a source of the only or an additional income. However, the city grew rapidly from a tiny settlement by a railway station in 1868 into one of the major centers of machinery construction of the empire with a big amount of citizens.
Another way to tell about Kramatorsk economy will be the “Planted plant” fairytale.Let’s imagine, that Gamper, by founding a mechanical plant, brought a seed of the future industry into the fertile ground of the city.
The beginning The construction of Kursk-Kharkov-Azov railway was the biggest incentive for the development of Kramatorsk in the XIX century. Availability of railway has prompted the appearance of the first big-scale construction materials company that was established by Edgar Adelman. The company was focused on manufacturing tiles and refractory bricks for the metallurgical plants. The railway along with the further growth of the industry was a crucial point in the development of the city. Such a developed site has attracted Conrad Gamper, who launched the mechanical plant (SKMP) in 1896. It was a starting point the future of Kramatorsk development as a center of heavy machinery building. Two years later Gamper initiated the construction of the first blast furnace in this region. This year was a founding year of Kuibyshev’s Kramatorsk Metallurgical Plant.
Kramatorsk economy: two courses of action
The seed of the industry in the fertile ground of the city and the region had grown rapidly: there had been an almost perfect weather for approximately first two decades from the time had been planted. Later came the planned econThe economy of Kramatorsk can be divided into two major activities: heavy industrial manufacturing and SMEs (Small and Medium Entreprises). While strong leadership is common for the management of both types of companies, their development paths are different. Large industrial enterprises were created to meet the demands of planned economy and are currently experiencing the pressure of the global market to become more flexible and responsive. Modernization and general market trends require such companies to be less dependent on labor and to narrow down their products range. On the other hand, SMEs were created to meet open market needs and are way more flexible in launching new products, shifting to another market or using new management model. Some of the large industrial enterprises invest in new internal production capacities with a focus on particular products (Fuhrlander ) while the rest of such companies advocate traditional wide product range style, being proud to “produce everything”, that has been typical for the companies of the Soviet planned economy. Both types of large industrial enterprises experience urgent need to reduce staff, modernize production and conquer new markets. At the same time, they have remained to have the strongest impact on the city
omy along with the birth of the USSR - and the utopian idea to make the planted “tree” of the Kramatorsk industry grow as big as possible and produce as many apples as it could possibly produce was pushed by the heavy propaganda. policy and budget as well as employment situation.  In the 2000s, a wind turbine production facility was constructed in Kramatorsk. This is a joint venture between German Fuhrländer AG and its Ukrainian partners. Fuhrländer became the first company in the renewable energy sector to obtain a building permit from the Ukrainian government.
Industry in the city: the diagnosys we have today, The role of the big companies in the city: budget, employment, social life Even though there is a tough situation in the economy of Ukraine in general, the big industrial plants of Kramatorsk
The Soviet leaders quickly understood that the “productive tree” of the region can be profitable for the “common good of the nation”, but, being rapacious by nature, they wanted more and more. The five-year plans, the heavy exploitation of the workers were “the pesticides” of that period. We all know how pesticides work are still the most important actors in the city forming. For example, a big influence on the city council is from NKMZ , and it also deals with the city infrastructure. The part they are involved mostly is within the public transportation and recreational facilities in the city - the city parks, the House of Culture and other places. Some of “soft”, or social infrastructure facilities, - such as kindergartens, that were owned by NKMZ have become the property of the city recently.
you can have a great harvest for the first couple of years, but the quality of land is depleting rapidly. Squeezing the working power and an extensive mental pressure on the workers (while the human resource is the most important in the economic growth), resulted in negative consequences that are visible even mow The big enterprises are the biggest employers with the 45% share of the job market. Although, middle and small businesses are not far from them - with 37% and 18% shares respectively. However, from the analysis of recent tendencies in the city, one can say that SMEs are growing, and the number of their employees too.
Digging into the analysis of the industry in Kramatorsk, we made a conclusion that despite the fact that heavy machinery has always been an important component of the Ukrainian industry, nowadays this branch is in decline. To find out what had happened, we have analyzed, where products of heavy machinery had been sold and how the profitability of this industry had lowered. A number of heavy machines produced had been growing from 1991 till 2008. A significant part of sales has been to Russia, which has made the viability of the industry dependent on political relations between two countries. In 20082009, production volume decreased during a financial crisis and this sector of industry gained the lowest observed values. During those two years, Ukraine produced fewer products than in previous. You can evaluate the scale of the problem: before 2008 Ukraine has never decreased the volume of production. To evaluate the problem in money, we can compare the “Financial result before tax” in 2007 - 5127,5 million UAH and the drop to the 704,6 million UAH in 2008. In 2010 - 2011 export volume increased significantly as well as the “Financial result before tax” which jumped to 15 081,2 million UAH in 2011. Everything has changed for the Ukrainian machine building in 2012. There are several expert’s explanations, why the amount of export has been decreasing each year from that moment: - the recession of the internal market; - Russia has become a member of WTO ; - industry development investments have been cut - war with Russia in 2014 We may now say, that the three main problems of the industry are: - the dependence on the political affairs with its main client Russia - the absence of investments into the technologies and re-equipment, which lead to the poor quality of national products. Now they do not meet the requirements of the world market, that’s why it is impossible to change the sales market; - the war on the territories, where industry is situated. If the machine building industry, which is in decline now, is the core of plants and factories in Kramatorsk, what will 083
The “planted seed” had a complicated lifetime with an influence of destructive conditions. We want you, as a careful reader, to perceive the story of the economic development of happen to the city’s economy? Where will the people work? What is the next phase of the city development?  New Kramatorsk Machninebuilding Plant (NKMP, NKMZ) 1934 - design and production of machines and equipment for mining, steel rolling, metallurgy, production and handling of cast iron, artillery weapon systems.  World Trade Organization.
The role of SMEs, Their current condition, strengths & weaknesses Analyzing the data, we’ve found that despite the big number of small businesses in the city (93% of business sector), they are not so “big” in the number of employees (18% and 37% respectively) and the amount of commodities (goods) they produce for the market. Although, there is an opposite side. From the analysis of a qualitative data we’ve found, we can say that there is an already defined number of weaknesses of the Small and Medium business sector for the recent years - shortage of the skilled employees and the wage level, low percent of in-
Kramatorsk through this simplified “fairy tale” about the lifecycle of the planted tree, in order to feel how certain conditions influenced the reality we live in today. dustry among small and medium businesses, rising prices of energy resources, high rate of interest for loans, unstable national currency, shadow economy, drain of talents and many other. However, Kramatorsk SMEs demonstrate sustainable development by steadily increasing staff and/or increasing efficiency. There is also a growing improvement of local socio-economic life that was mostly in the sphere of activities of large enterprises prior to 2014. Such positive economic records were mentioned by international organizations (UNDP) whose main economic support is being given to SMEs. Combination of the following factors provides Kramatorsk with competitive advantages that will boost local entrepreneurship: - existing railway infrastructure - the proximity of various industrial manufacturers and technical universities - a supportive local government with the desire for change - spacious and green city - cultural and economic integration with surrounding competitive cities (Slovyansk, Druzhkivka etc.) - emphasis on the city as an administrative center of the Donetsk regionn
Even after the replacement of the industry to the Ural, - of the branches and sprouts that were still fruitful, and the impact of the WWII in general, - the tree survived. Probably, the course of tree
types of influence: SMEs versus the industry Top-down influence of the big enterprises on the processes within the city development and “soft” infrastructure is totally opposite to the bottom-up approach of the small business owners. While the big industries are more focused on the inner city processes, it seems that activities organized by a club of entrepreneurs may be an opportunity for opening the city to broader audience. Festivals and other events can be the attractors for the outer world.
Trends in SMEs During our field trip to Kramatorsk, we’ve done a lot of interviews and findings, but we defined two main focuses of our research, as it was mentioned above the hidden opportunities and the hidden obstacles. There is a lot of material about problems and obstacles in the region and in Ukraine in general, but what is missing is the positive perspective for the development, and we are eager to fill this gap.
revitalization has not been performed properly, comparing to the other countries. However, with the independence of Ukraine, it was assumed that the tree would function as it was before.
Entrepreneurs club Developing the scenario of hidden opportunities, this story will reveal the hidden potential of networking and collaboration between people, by illustrating how a community building can help the city. Diving in the metaphors, one can say, that the pervasive worship of labor, developed during the Soviet times, has gone through the process of evolution to the contemporary world in the various forms - possibly, in the rudiments of entrepreneurial spirit. Through the timeline of this evolution, there were more barriers to the development, rather than possibilities. Maybe, that was the factor that defined this shift in generations - when you push an idea too hard, the next generation pushes it back. There is possibility,that a teenager in the family of a plant workers, who are so dedicated to the so-called “labor ideal” and confine family lifestyle to the “work-sleep-work” cycle, raises a rebel spirit: he does not want to be as his parents, to repeat their mistakes, to continue living as oppressed worker. This, probably, raises an aspiration towards controlling things/people around themselves, and not to be controlled by the authorities. The metaphor illustrated in the “Planted Plant” fairytale, extends the subject of the birth of new businesses from the seed (apples) that fell into the ground 085
The fall of the Soviet Union had a huge impact on the industry, the “planted plant” of Kramatorsk. Local authorities, trying to stay in the shadow, were still using all possible instruments to “harvest some apples”. Along with the shortage of industry, a huge unemployment occurred. The that’s how the generations change. The Entrepreneurs club, from our perspective, is quite a good example of collaborative spirit between the actors of the city’s economy and activists, engaged in the social activities. Even more, some members of the club are both holders of a profitable business and active in the life of the city. How has it begun? Here is a bit of a structure of the Entrepreneurs club: the club started 6 years ago and nowadays it has 30 members. It started as an initiative to exchange experiences, help each other with issues within the business field and as an inner circle of informal education of entrepreneurship. The club exists more as a confined structure, - in order to become a member, one needs a recommendation from the three club’s members, as well as to meet other requirements. It has developed a strong connection with a variety of people who are outside of the club. Among the club collaborators, there are city officials as well as students and ordinary citizens. The club’s board has 7 representatives, and the chairperson, chosen by voting once a year. Among the club’s “Constitution” principles are:
roots of the tree are rotting, but the seeds of the fallen apples (caused by the wind of the economic change) started to grow. It is a new possibility - maybe, through the process of inoculation, the new tree species can grow - and the city will become more diverse in its economic possibilities. - development of the city and the community; - maintaining fair competition spirit; - uprightness of the promotion, advertisement, quality of goods and commodities; - dignity and fairness are the main qualities of business relations; - an entrepreneur is the man of his word. Club members are involved in different businesses: IT, autogenous equipment production, restaurants and cafes, catering, building materials sales, jewelry production, florist shops, pharmacies, tourism agencies and so on - in our opinion this creates the multilayered influence of entrepreneurs club. There is almost an equal number of women and men in the club, and the members are mostly middle-aged people. The club maintains strong network relations with other non-governmental organizations in the city - for example, with the women’s club “Pani” they organize comparatively big events in the city. The entrepreneurs club attracted our attention because of their social activity - the number and
the scale of events they organised seemed to be huge for such a “small and depressive”, city as Kramatorsk, as one might think, considering the war and the crisis of recent years. Even more, as they state in the interviews, the shift in their social activities in terms of events happened one or two years ago. Frequently mentioned events were: “The melody of embroidered towel”, “Haivki”, Independence day, “Maslenitsa” and others, including celebrations of traditional holidays, either religious or governmental, as well as set-ups of subotniks (volunteer work days). The first of mentioned above festivals was connected with the big happening - the local artisans created an embroidered towel of a record size - literally, - it was registered in the book of Ukrainian records afterwards. The story about Independence day was really touching: the woman claimed, that it was the most emotive and powerful celebration from the very beginning of actual independence years of Ukraine from the USSR. It was even dangerous to celebrate it openly - but the more and more people were engaging - the safer and more exciting the motion was becoming. “Maslenitsa” happened during our field trip, and we consider it a good example of a social event and fair combination, profitable for small business owners. Actually, almost all of events like this give the good ground for entrepreneurs to promote their businesses as well as a platform of entertainment for ordinary citizens. It can be the point where opportunity emerges - the club, which started mostly as a closed structure for helping each other with business development, transformed into the community network and an event creator quite rapidly. Maybe, it was the influence of the recent years - the Revolution and the war it was precisely mentioned in the talk about Independence day and as overall reasoning of people becoming active: the crisis had a psychological effect on some people - “if you want changes for the better future - you should start/ participate by yourself; under the influence of the war you want to rethink your life with more fulfillment in it”. Maybe, the new active Entrepreneurs club is an interpretation of recently popular in the world trend of “Creative businesses, building networks and communities, etc” which only started to become popular in Ukraine in the past few years, - but the citizens of Kramatorsk definitely have their own vision of networking in entrepreneurship even without knowing what is trending in the rest of the world now. That is, for sure, an opportunity to work with.
Coffee set (A pot and 2 cups) It was the second day of our field trip, and, unexpectedly, we were invited to go on a car tour by a local guy, who showed us Kramatorsk, its main factories and city market before. He proposed to go to Slovyansk to get a quick overlook of the city. Historically significant military actions took place near this city, and it has a totally different mentality, from his point of view. At the end of the city tour and the interview, he proposed to go to the ceramic market in Slovyansk - to buy some souvenirs. The first big surprise was the existence of the ceramic market itself in Slovyansk. The thing is, that there are several well-known places in Ukraine where you can buy ceramics: Sorochintsy Fair, Ivano-Frankivsk, Lviv, the Carpathian Mountains. But Slovyansk... Are you kidding me? A little bit later, we have heard from the locals, that, first of all, there are several different clay deposits near Slovyansk with three different types of clay: fire clay, bentonite clay, clayey materials. The second reason, why people produce ceramic goods - because they have knowledge about production technology from the XIX’s century. There were several big plants in Slovyansk during the Soviet Union period, which produced machines for the ceramic manufactory and ceramic products, raw ceramic mass.
As an example, products of the “Slavic ceramic plant” have been used for the construction of the Soviet industrial “giants”. As we were searching for hidden treasures during our research, we have found a hidden opportunity for the manufacturing of ceramic goods in the word “ceramic” , both mass production and hand-made. On the ceramic market, there was a variety of magnets, pots, cups, plates and even garden sculptures. We asked the old women: - “How much does the coffee pot cost?” - “It costs 40 UAH. But if you take two more cups, the whole set will cost 45 UAH.”, - she answered. 45? Is it possible? You can buy only a cup of coffee in the cafe in Kyiv for this money! So, we bought two different sets and came back to our team. - “Where did you buy it?” - “At the ceramic market in Slovyansk.” - “Ceramic market in Slovyansk? Seriously? A how much does it cost?” - “How much would you give for it?” - “160 UAH for the coffee pot.” - “And with cups?” - “At least 200 UAH.” Our team has become interested, how much our social networks friends would pay for this set? In the evening, a survey was posted to the Facebook. We‘ve got about 30 re-
sults from the Ukrainians and 10-15 results from people, who live abroad. The lowest results were 2,5 times higher than the real one. The best result was 19 times higher than the real price. We’ve decided not to stop just on the survey, but to research if we could find the same sets on the internet. We’ve found same sets at the old.up, on-line shop from Ivano-Frankivsk, etsy.com, and amazon.com All survey results have had higher prices, than products on the market in Slovyansk. During internet research, I’ve reminded my question to the old women on the market. - “Do you use the internet to sell your products?” - “The internet? No. I have no time for it, a lot of work on the market.” Unfortunately, we have no information about the influence of ceramic manufacturing on the economy of Slovyansk, but from the words of local citizens, there are more than 600 households, that are working in the shadow, in small studios around the city. Personal perception of the Slovyansk ceramic production business opportunities I can describe with the quote from our team member: “I will open my business here and will drive a Ferrari’”. But. In order to become successful, the entrepreneurs should change: - Design and diversity of their products. They are mostly outdated and could be attractive not only for our grannies. - Service. The ceramics are packed in the newspaper without any modern packages and labels. - The place. Small dirty market near the train station isn’t a good location for the tourists. - Information about the Slovyansk ceramics. Now the Google shows only pictures about war and nothing about ceramics in the results at all.
The “IT Factory”
(Interview with Serhiy Kondratyuk) Diving into the economy of Kramatorsk, we planned to look into the IT sector too. IT is a promising direction for Ukraine in general and for Kramatorsk in particular because there are a lot of technical graduates of Donbass State Engineering Academy (DSEA) who can change their specialty and become programmers. As a bonus, IT company doesn’t need any special materials (clay, metal, chalk) or infrastructure (plant, machines) - just smart people with technical knowledge, intermediate level of English and notebooks.
We were met by Olga, a strict woman in a costume, who has a position of director’s assistant in the public relations. Cabinet, in which we were waiting for the director, was prepared for the big delegation with the bottled water, cookies and other sweets. A seat for the director was situated at the head of the table. Director came in right after us. It was a man in a costume. IT guy in a costume. Tiny amusement. The feeling, that we were not in the IT company increased, when I saw a small neat silver badge with the company’s logo on his coat floor. - “My name is Serhiy Kondratyuk. Nice to meet you! Do you want some tea or coffee, before we start?” - “Yes. Cappuccino please.” - “Tanya will bring it in two minutes, let’s start.”, - proposed Olga. - How many people QuartSoft employs? - Around 100 people. - When did your company appear? - It was officially created in 2000. - Where did your programmers graduate from? - More than 90% from DSEA, I graduated from this Academy too! - Oh, really? - Yup, in 1996. - But we also have graduated from Kharkiv, Donetsk, Mariupol, Avdeevka. - Excuse me, but do you have a corporate clothing style? - Oh, no! If you talk about a costume, it helps me with my tasks outside of the company. Banks, government structures, official persons, people in the entrepreneurs club, they all treat me better when I’m in a suit. This is the mentality. Serious people wear suits.
The meeting with IT company  had been set up during the preparation phase of the field trip in Kyiv. We had prepared following questions for the research: QuartSoft as the biggest city IT company, does it have an influence on the city? Can Kramatorsk become a part of the Ukrainian Silicon Valley? How many IT companies are based in the city? From our previous experiences we got used to seeing glamorous girls at HR positions and hipster managers of the company during the meetings at the coworking spaces of the IT companies, but the meeting at the QuartSoft looked a little bit different.
When Tanya came in with cappuccino, I could not believe my eyes. She was dressed in a white robe and a cap, she looked like a girl from the Soviet cafeteria! “It is an IT factory...” - I thought.
- Do you have staff turnover in your company? Does your company suffer from it? - Before the war, we were the main place for people to grow and study. Seriously. It was our model of work. DSEA had been sending to us up to 10 graduates each year, they had been studying at our three months course. After the successful graduation, they had been working at our company for 1-2 years and had left the company, moving to another city (Kharkiv, Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk) or just to another company in Kramatorsk. After the war, “the quality” of the students decreased and we rethought this strategy with newbies. The company stopped hiring people just from the university and “the flow” almost disappeared. When in 2011 we had 20-25% of stuff change, in 2015 it was only 3% - Has somebody moved abroad? - It’s such a rare situation... I can remember only 3 people who moved abroad, but our company exists for 17 years! - How do you think, why people don’t do it? As I know, it is a problem even for the IT companies in Dnepropetrovsk specialists leave Ukraine and move to Poland, Germany. - To be honest, I’ve never thought about it, but I have an explanation. Kramatorsk is a “provincial” city. Even moving to another city is a huge step for our people, who don’t travel and don’t have high ambitions. Seems like another country isn’t a dream at all. But it is not bad! I like Kramatorsk, here my relatives live, here is my house. This city is not in a hurry. I hate Kyiv for that (smiling), especially people in the underground. Is it REALLY so important to be earlier for 1-2 minutes on the moving staircase? - How did you manage a situation in the company during the war? - When the military activities had started, one part of the team went to Kyiv, another one - to Dnipropetrovsk. During one month we lost a half of people from those teams. They just found another job with a bigger salary. The company has also one office in Ivano-Frankivsk, which appeared just because of 3 people, who said, that they want to move there when the situation in Kramatorsk became unstable. However, they have a desire to stay with QuartSoft, that’s why it was not against this idea. At the same time, Mr. Serhiy claims that office in Ivano-Frankivsk is inconvenient because they need 1.5 days to get there.
When it came time to people evacuation, we moved them with their families to Cherkassy. - Cherkassy? Unexpected choice. Why there? - I had several logical reasons to choose Cherkassy: It should be a city I could reach in one-day trip maximum. There should be 30 flats for rent at one moment. No hungry IT companies in the city. The city shouldn’t be in a hurry. Cherkassy is even slower than Kramatorsk! (laughs) When we moved, I had an idea: we are living here as if we will stay forever. That’s why we rented office and hired people. We were based in Cherkassy one year. On the 10th of February in 2015, we came back to Kramatorsk. We left the office with 10 people who were hired in Cherkassy. The interview took 3 hours and was interesting until the very last minute. We heard a lot of interesting information about the hiring policy of the company, competition in the IT sphere of Kramatorsk, education of people inside the company, about social activity and volunteer programs that QuartSoft participates in. But the main conclusions are following: - flexibility and mobility of the IT company is a big plus, especially in after the war time; - the company can look a little bit outdated, but it is really important to have a modern system of thinking with common values - in a small city people have a tight connection with the place, where they live, that’s why they are interested in the city development. In conclusion, Kramatorsk, as well as surrounding cities, possesses materials, infrastructure, labor and craftsmanship suitable for successful business development. However, local entrepreneurs lack expertise in international markets, sales, and customer-driven services. Global mindset and foreign language skills also can boost SMEs perspectives in an unprecedented pace. Local entrepreneurs are dedicated to the systematic improvement of the business climate and demonstrate a long-term vision for the economic development of the region. In contrast to industrial giants, SMEs cooperate with each other in various situations and exhibit reactive approach to the market needs. FRANIVANO KIVS K
K RAMA K TORS
Bibliography 1. «New Year celebration in QuartSoft», last modified January 21, 2016, http://blog.quartsoft.com.ua/2016/01/ blog-post.html 2. «Financial results before taxation of industrial activity with distribution to large and medium-sized enterprises in January-September 2015», last modified December 24, 2015, http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua/operativ/operativ2015/ fin/fin_rez/fn_pr_vsm/fn_pr_vsm_u/fn_pr_vs_u_315.htm 3. «From the history of Kramatorsk», http://www.kramatorsk.info/kraeved/m%D1%96sk%D1%96-ta-rayonn%D1%96-organ%D1%96zac%D1%96%D1%97html/v%D1%96euken-uke-rhtml/iz-istorii-goroda-kramatorska. html 4. «History of Kramatorsk», last modified March 29, 2016, https://scontent-waw1-1.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xpt1/v/t1.0-9/11261030_510545569107475_ 6244559951960061337_n. jpg?oh=9f864ffb05639f1caa22e16581926aca&oe=5793730E 5. «Kramatorsk. Cache», last modified November 12, 2012, http://www.shukach.com/uk/node/15791 6. Facebook community «Entrepreneurs club of Kramatorsk», https://www.facebook.com/kpkramatorsk/ photos
KRAMATORSK CASE STUDY
SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
MARCH 31MAY 21.2016
STRATEGIC SPATIAL PLANNING:
TRENDY TERM OR REQUIRED TOOL FOR DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINIAN CITIES? Vladyslav Tyminskyi, Urs Thomann
Over the last decade, Ukraine has seen rising interest in the use of strategy generally and strategic planning in particular as some magic pill or universal elixir which might help heal the negative consequences and cure the risks of volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity that plagues the contemporary world. At a minimum, a strategy has been considered a potential tool for managing the processes provoked by global challenges. In Ukraine, we have seen some attempts to use a ‘trendy’ strategic approach in the field of urban development and spatial planning. ‘Kyiv 2025 Development Strategy’ and ‘Vinnytsia Integrated Urban Transport and Spatial Planning Strategy’ – are two documents which have become wellknown and hotly debated among urban professionals, politicians, and common citizens. However, even a cursory look at the implementation of these strategies immediately reveals the hidden challenges which lay between a well-developed ‘paper strategy’ and one that works in reality. Incorporating foreign best-practices in a post-Soviet context often fails despite the existence of a thoughtful spatial development strategy elaborated by experts. At the core of this failure is the legacy of the decision-making systems and the relationships among key actors in the cities where power structures and systems have not adequately changed. Nevertheless, strategic spatial planning has already shown potential to stimulate and support the first steps towards elaborating a new approach to integrated urban and spatial development. Success stories can be found in the transformation of declining Post-Socialist cities in East Germany (Dessau, Görlitz) as well as in areas of dynamic growth such as in Poland (Lodz, Danzig) or the Baltic countries (Riga, Vilnius). In these cases, strategic spatial planning has replaced the outdated and inefficient planning systems that still dominate in most of the post-Soviet region. The situation becomes far more challenging when we deal with cities such as Kramatorsk which was selected as a case study for CANactions School: STUDIO #2. Kramatorsk remains strongly connected to its Soviet legacy, a legacy which manifests itself in all the aspects of urban life. The city, nevertheless, is trying to shape its contemporary identity,
based on collaboration between the new generation of local stakeholders and pro-active communities. In this context, STUDIO #2 participants developed a variety of possible future scenarios for Kramatorsk instead of just one universal option. Then, working in two separate groups as if from two unique consultancy groups, each team elaborated a spatial development strategy based on their key findings in the city, relevant societal trends and best practices from around the world. One group focused on the social, political and cultural aspects of urban development, which were identified as triggers for change, and this became the core of their strategy. The second group worked with potential economic, infrastructure and environmental factors, which were the primary drivers for an alternative proposal. According to Louis Albrechts, a Professor of the University of Leuven (Belgium), strategic spatial planning is “a publicsector-led socio-spatial process through which a vision, actions and means for implementation are produced that shape and frame what a place is and may become’. In this way, each of the strategies developed by the groups, contains a clear vision, a strategic statement with specified goals to be achieved, spatial guiding principles and implementation policies. For each strategy, different actors and required resources were identified, and a time frame was established for implementation of the overall long-term vision of the future of Kramatorsk. The experience of STUDIO #2 shows that it is unlikely that applying the strategic approach to urban development and planning would solve all the problems impacting cities these days. Thus, strategic spatial planning should not be perceived as either a panacea or as the only proper method for resilient development of contemporary cities. Nevertheless, this approach both emphasizes the importance of identifying shared values and encourages the creation of a consolidated vision as a key step for any community which decides to take active responsibility for their future.
STRA TEGY #1
CULTURE & HERITAGE
INDUSTRY &CULTURE CONNECTIONS Anastasiia Danyliuk, Olena Kozakova, Andriy Kucher, Mykola Vognyk
INTRO In a broader sense, culture was physically produced as a part of industrialisation and urbanisation to support the needs of workers and their families in the more livable environment.
and relocation of production. Under the Russian Empire rule, Donbas became an attractive place for foreign investors, so it was colonised in a short period of time. Between 1868 and 1886 the settlement Kramatorskaya appeared around the railway station and after the emergence of major steelworking industry (1896) it started to grow and develop extensively.
The city itself (primarily the Socgorod) emerged as a totally makeable place around the core element Novokramatorskiy Machinebuilding Plant. From the very beginning development of industry in the heart of the settlement influenced its cultural life and shaped the social processes. During the Soviet times, it became even more visible after the implementation of progressive ideas of the city planning with “rationally” organised industrial, recreational and green zones, sleeping districts and public infrastructure. The phenomenon of Garden City with numerous parks, boulevards, squares with fountains and green sanitary zones inside and outside the plants strikingly contrast with the stereotypical image of the heavily polluted industrial city. In the pre-Soviet history of Kramatorsk, the first wave of industrialisation started due to a common “British” model, when the combination of resources, water, and railway connection determined a perspective sight for profit making
1868 - 1917
The theatre “Era” was built at the working settlement near the Machine-building factory (it still exists on the territory of SKMZ) in 1908. In a few years, the first cinema “Triumph” appeared, this time not only for workers but for the broader auditory. At the same time, recreational areas - Bernatskyi Gardens and the stadium nearby, were founded for the purposes of the city managers. Foreign workers (Germans, Poles, and Czechs) imported the culture of new physical activities - Kramatorsk sports society appeared in 1912 and became well known for its successful football team. People arrived at the city in search for a better life before the WWI started and the October revolution pushed out the foreigners and capitals from Kramatorsk and the whole Donbas region. Some relics of that period, as the protestant kitchen, or the Villa Protce (belonged to the last industrial director of Kramatorsk Metallurgical Society, but nationalised by bolsheviks and turned into police office) still exist, but misused and are hardly recognised as the industrial heritage of that epoch. 100
New plants required fresh culture spots. But, initially, cultural infrastructure was privileged and created only for workers. Even the first theatre was build at the SKMZ plant territory.
industry 1868 - railway station 1887 - Adelman factory 1896 - Gamper & KMS, SKMZ 1912 - Pushka plant CULTURE 1912 - Era theater 1908 - Triumph 1913 - Villa Protce 1912 - Bernadskyi Garden
First Kramatorskaja railway station
1917 - 1941
The second industrialisation wave (1928-1930s) gave another push to the development of the settlement. Constructivist projects in Zhovtnevyi district (the Old City) replaced old wooden barracks and clay houses with modernistic innovative housing. In 1930, first time in Donbas, Kramatorsk applied principles of the centralised city planning. New Social City (Socgorod) emerged on the other bank of the river, near the NKMZ with its progressive green, human-made zones that also became an important manifestation of the working class dominance over nature - socialistic culture of the new epoch that builds giant plants in the middle of steppe and rears the Garden City around. New spacious schools (such as the School №1 (built in 1930) that is still working) and modernistic kindergartens were rising new Soviet working class society out of the yesterdays peasants. These relations between human and nature, human and machines created an image of the well organised technical society, that doesn’t correspond to a widespread framework of badly-educated and dirty industrial workers of Donbas. 102
City kept growing due to the new plant establishment (NKMZ). The amount of people pushed the creation of the new district (Socgorod) on the opposite bank of the river. City became greener due to the implementation of the Garden City concept.
industry 1932 - railway station 1937 - KZTS CULTURE 1920-30’s - Zhovtnevyi District 1930 - Lenin’s Palace of Culture 1930 - Pushkin Park & CULTURE Palace 1935 - Stadium in Bernadskyi Garden 1937 - Central Library
Dramatic club of plant workers. Photo of 1901.
Rotor finishing at NKMZ plant.
1944 - 1991
The WWII interrupted the intensive urbanisation and became a traumatic page in the history of the city. Among the numerous monuments, the majority are dedicated to people who died on the battlefields. After the war, the Soviet ideology and People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) made an enormous intervention to push the society towards the restoration of industry and intensive development in the post-war period. New people from the whole USSR arrived and multiplied the variety of traditions and habits. Old plants were restored and the cog-wheels stirred again with the new power. This afterwar period and Soviet “Snowbreak” became the start of the Golden Age for Kramatorsk, when new sights, such as the glorious Palace of Culture and Technology (1950-1965), emerged to become the powerful symbol of a new life, working in the rhythm of the main heart of the city - NKMZ. Between the everyday routine, work and rest Soviet person had numerous possibilities for engagement in the popular cultural programs, education or activism, even though they were mostly ideologically driven or censored. Underdeveloped functions of leisure and consumption were typical for the USSR industrial cities, so the popular option was to go out of the city borders - to the Sloviansk resort or to Svyatogorsk natural park for a weekend. 104
City obtained Soviet face because of creation of cultural network to serve ideological purposes. The spread of WWII monuments which are also ideologically connotated. The 1960’s are the Golgen age of Kramatorsk.Building of the new palace of culture transports City center to Socgorod. The library is an attempt to create new axis for the city growing, but this idea was unfinished.
industry industrial areas reconstruction CULTURE 1943 - Central Library 1950 - “Rodina” cinema 1950 - 1955 - “Stroitel”, “cementnik” CULTURE Palaces 1961 - Museums (Art, City History) 1965 - NKMZ Palace of Culture 1967 - Jubileyniy Park - Pioneer House - Children Library - New Stadium - Park of attractions - Machine building Academy
NKMZ workers during lunch
A. Galagan, an innovator master
Garden City: panoramic view of the central square and Palace of Culture and Technics NKMZ
1991 - 2016
Finally, the consequence of strong links between cultural and industrial programs produced the image of the city as we can see it now. After the crash of USSR in 1991, no strong political program appeared, so the ideology of private capitalism flourished in its worst sense. The industry fell into the hands of investors while social and cultural infrastructure was given to the inefficient government or closed (seldom privatised, especially by religious organisations that flourished in Kramatorsk). This new era of freedom and possibilities promised a chance for a better non-censured living without restrictions and deficit, but the difficult 1990s provoked a long lasting ressentiment for the Soviet times mixed with the â€œbandits brotherhoodâ€? mentality. Now, when Donbas is covered with military conflict and society is radicalised the problem of interactions becomes central for cultural agenda. 106
cultural and industrial decline because of ideological and economical issues.
industry - industrial decline (partIAL) CULTURE - Cementnik Palace of Culture - Pushkinâ€™s Palace - NKMZ Palace of Culture - Parks - Vilna Hata
Old City pedestrain zone
Railway station nowadays
Inside Furhlander plant
NKMZ Palace of Culture
Ishikawa Fishbone Diagram
The gap between post-Soviet working class mentality, isolated from the world and mythicized - and contemporary pro-democratic paradigm of open (at least on the scale of World Wide Web) society could be bridged only after the history of the city is revised, and diversity of narratives becomes visible. The industrial and socialistic heritage, as well as pro-Russian sentiments, stay both problematic and inspiring and expecting further development. New cultural programs that include the variety and complexity of the post-Soviet society and don’t ignore the inherited traumatic experiences is seen as a core possibility to unify rather than polarise or isolate the society. The ongoing process of decommunisation provides a possibility to deconstruct the ideological symbols while giving a chance to restore the valuable sights with new common ideas that are valuable on the local scale. The socialistic communal past could become a good starting point for exploring the different forms of collective action while new plebiscitary methodology for cultural institutions and physical transformations of public places are urgently needed. That is a “cultural bridge”.
Vision: KRAMATORSK IS a CULTURAL BRIDGE TOWARDS AN INNOVATIVE SOCIETY
SOCIETY & POLITICS
from the red city to THE city of opportunities Mykola Holovko, Kate Karelshtein, Alex Ovsianko
Intro The political situation of the Donbas region changed the zones of influence in it. Thus, the city of Donetsk, the former center of power for the Eastern Ukraine, is in the state of war, and therefore can not perform the functions of the regional center. Institutions of governance moved to the liberated Kramatorsk - an industrial city, where the economy is heavily dependent on the big factories. Like many monofunctional cities, Kramatorsk is experiencing particularly difficult times. This is strongly reflected on the state of society and political governance. There is a big need in the interest and actions of the Kyiv politicians who can provide citizens with moral and financial support. The city needs active energy and rejuvenation. The state and city authorities should facilitate the establishment of volunteer programs in order to allow â€œfresh bloodâ€? to get into Kramatorsk and help modernizing the city..
politics & society structure of Kramatorsk During the Soviet period, the Communist Party has controlled the whole country life. The administrative authority has been the only institution with enough power to design and define the course of country development. The entire system was built on the cult of the collective property, that has happened to be a fiction and a substitution of concepts. All the commodities, produced in the country, have belonged to the State, that has distributed them in small portions between people, making them believe that they have been fed by the great state of the Soviet Union. The citizens have had a great appreciation for the fact that no matter how they have worked, the public administration would have fed, would have dressed and would have provided with the apartments. This has destroyed the motivation for effective work and awareness of personal responsibility for the results and decision-making in the USSR. If one needs to describe the context of industrial cities in Ukraine,
he can definitely use the term of a monofunctional city. Such cities have been designed with the focus on the production in one particular field that provided occupation for the most of the cityâ€™s population. As a consequence, a factory has been the only source of income and energy of the city. The vast majority of the Donetsk-Dnieper economic macro-region cities have a pronounced industrial profile. Their hierarchical structure of production clearly defines the link in the production chain (mining - metallurgy, energy - mechanical engineering), there are serial and parallel communication between industries and production facilities. Historically, these cities have emerged as a result of the development of a production in a particular area, so their specialization is often determined by one or two specializations. Often, these cities have been developed on around the factories installed in the period of industrialization of the USSR. City forming enterprises of Kramatorsk operate in three fields and have a closed production chain. Monofunctional cities with two or three core enterprises are represented not only in Kramatorsk agglomeration but also in Central Luhansk agglomeration, South Luhansk agglomeration, as well as in Severodonetsk and Lisichansk conurbation. The specificity of the Ukrainian cities industrial production has been formed in the mid-twentieth century and has functioned in the economic conditions of the planned economy. A large concentration of industrial enterprises, a significant proportion of the industry created the prerequisites for a deterioration of the socio-economic development when the significant changes in the external and domestic economic environment appeared with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Now it is really visible how the depth of the impact of the crisis has depended on the characteristics of the urban structure of the economy, and on the ability to adapt to the new economic conditions. Why is it so important in the context of urban policy? These economic and historical factors have strongly influenced the political and social situation in which Kramatorsk is today. They all have determined the structure of the city management and the position of the residents. To minimize the negative consequences of war and crisis, and maximize new opportunities for Kramatorsk, one needs to define at least the major driving forces and find out the reasons.
POLITICS AND SOCIETY STRUCTURE OF KRAMATORSK IN THE USSR PERIOD HEAVY INDUSTRY
During the dramatic changes of the recent years, the political behavior of the residents of Kramatorsk forced the political parties to rethink their policies. It is visible, that almost unanimous support for one or another political force during the election campaign reflected more of the success of the political strategies and economic expectations than the political preferences of the electorate. This is quite understandable, as the inhabitants of Kramatorsk realize how much their future depends on the condition and successes of the factories. Thus, factory owners naturally have a strong political influence in the city. This results in that the choice of a candidate or a party is the choice of the side of the plant. Fusion of power and business is typical for the whole Ukraine and not only in the industrial regions. Because of the orientation to a single industry, the economic weakness is felt more acutely. Since the collapse of the USSR, large industrial enterprises have been privatized in Kramatorsk. This also has affected 112
the network of social infrastructure, that had been supported and financed by them. When the funding from factories was cut for various reasons, local government has started providing wages for doctors, teachers, and social workers but with the lowest possible amount. As a consequence, today in Kramatorsk it is difficult to find a job - large enterprises have reduced the demand for labor, and small and medium businesses are still poorly developed. Of course, it is very easy to see only negative side. At the same time, we must understand, that the big industrial company has been working, its products have been sold for the world prices, bringing a lot of profit to its owners. Thus, there is a very reason to conclude that Donbas has fed mostly its oligarchs, including the expense of the national budget. At the same time, a huge potential is hidden in these industrial areas. The main question is how to manage this resource, how to make it effective and developing, reorient it to the new production market, offering work for people and filling the local budget. Nowadays, the city authorities and
POLITICS AND SOCIETY STRUCTURE OF KRAMATORSK NOW - HOW TO SAVE THE CONTROL OVER THE CITY? - HOW TO SOLVE THE FINANCIAL PROBLEMS?
BIG INDUSTRIAL BUSINESS
- HOW TO SAVE THE POWER? - HOW TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE REGIONAL AUTHORITIES? - HOW TO CONTROL THE CITY?
- ACTIVISTS - LOCAL BUSINESSES - NGOs - MEDIA
- HOW TO SUPPORT THE CIVIL SOCIETY? - HOW TO INFLUENCE THE CITY AUTHORITIES? - HOW TO CONTROL THE REGION?
- ABSENCE OF PERSONAL VALUES - UNAWARENESS -ABSENCE OF VISION FOR THE FUTURE - UNEMPLOYMENT - narrow-mindedness - WAR
the factory owners are almost a single unit and the people, who still remember times when the plant has provided them with workplaces, and the state with housing, food, and leisure, are waiting for someone to come and make their lives better now, because that’s how they used to live for several generations. In the Soviet Union, all spheres of human activity, as well as a complete production chain, obeyed a single structure. People were limited in options as most of the decisions were not made by them. Furthermore, the slogans “The Donbass feeds the all Ukraine” and “Noone can put the Donbas on its knees” have formed a solid, paternalistic worldview. This worldview hinders the development of a free system of choice and responsibility for it, while this is a cornerstone of the democratic society and liberal economy. The population is not accustomed to the variety of opinions and modes of behavior and adapts badly to the new conditions. On the other hand, military actions, occupation of Kramatorsk, its release, bombing, changes of the administrative structure
- COMMUNICATION & COOPERATION WITH AUTHORITIES - CITY DEVELOPMENT - SUPPORT & COOPERATION WITH EACH OTHER - HOW TO RAISE CITIZENS’ AWARENESS
(decentralization) has caused positive changes in society: - The formation of the Ukrainian political nation, social cohesion around important issues accelerated significantly; - Strengthening of social bonds that helps to grow social capital; - Formation of new, alternative to official media, informational platforms, that engaged many people, especially young and middle age, which obviously contributes to the formation of the democratic society; - Public danger awareness and the desire to avoid it caused mass volunteer movement, which is the most obvious and vivid manifestation of a civil society. Thus, on the background of the huge economic and political problems, the Donbas tragedy has caused the significant socio-political consequences. The Centre of Statistics indicates that the credibility of the authority representatives has reduced, as the responsibility and willingness of citizens to take independent decisions has increased. 113
HISTORY in maps The political and social systems naturally influence the map and the space of the city. According to the agreement between the boards of joint stock companies, abutting of Donetsk and Azov railroads happened in the location of station Kramatorskaya. So Kramatorskaya became a very significant and strategically important junction station. The railroad with resource base caused the appearance of a building material plant in 1885 near the Kramatorskaya station. It was the first Kramatorsk industrial enterprise, founded by Edgar Adelman. The plant was specialized in the production of lime and plaster. In 1898 it was passed to the new owner and started manufacturing of roofing tiles and refractory bricks for the engineering and metallurgical plants - very popular materials for that time.
These were also years when Swiss entrepreneur Conrad Gamper came to Kramatorsk. He bought a piece of land near the station Kramatorskaya and constructed the new plant - “Starokramatorskiy Mechanical Engineering Plant”. In 1898 he initiated the installation of blast furnace tab at the “V.Fitsner & C.Gamper” factory. This was also the year of “Kuibyshev Kramatorsk Metallurgical Plant” foundation. By constructing the mechanical and then metallurgical plants near the station of Kramatorskaya, Conrad Gamper gave a powerful impetus to the economic development of the little-known settlement that grew up here at the end of the XIX century. He predetermined its great destiny for the decades to come and through the extensive experience, knowledge, and organizational skills of the outstanding engineers, Kramatorskaya turned into the industrial gates of Donbass. The patriarchal Sloboda had ended and the development of the Donetsk region has begun.
PERIOD 1 - Before the USSR. 1st INDUSTRY REVOLUTION. CENTRALIZED GOVERMENT
PETROVKA BELYANSKOYE VESELYI
MARYIEVKA HORODESHINO DMYTRYEVKA
With the revolution and the Bolsheviks seizure of power, the period of industry development by foreigners ended. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that Kramatorskaya was destined to become one of the main centers of the new country industrialization. Sergo Ordzhonikidze, Peopleâ€™s Commissar of Industry of the USSR, decided to build Novokramatorskiy Machine-building Plant (NKMZ) here. The city received an incredible push for development. In 1926, its population was only 12 thousand of people, and by 1940, the number of residents reached almost 100 thousand people. On the Eastern edge of the city, new blocks of houses appeared like mushrooms after rain. It was the beginning of the Socialist city. The controversial 1930s brought trams, plumbing, new clubs, hospitals, schools, colleges, institutes, the largest stadium in the region to Kramatorsk. After the WWII, the long period of recovery began. The 1950s-60s can be characterized by the boom of an industrial, economic and cultural development of the city. Housing construction was performed at the unprecedented pace. The Socgorod was revived from the ruins and ashes. PERIOD 2 - the USSR Times. 2nd INDUSTRY REVOLUTION. CENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT
SUBURBS DEVELOPED AREAS
Directions of development Directions of GroWth
Oktiybrâ€™skiy Noviy Svet
Veseliy Ivanovka Krasnohirka
MEDIUM MIDDlE BUSINESS BUSINESS HEAlTHCARE
EDUCATION BIg INDUSTRY
Distribution of the political parties in the city council
PERIOD 3 - INDEPENDENT UKRAINE. CENTRALIZED GOVERMENT
Distribution of the businesses in the city
Nowadays, with the changes of administration and implementation of the decentralization reform, a time for new community formation has begun. It will have more power and resources, as what will be earned, can be spent at their discretion. Ordinary people will decide whether to pave the road, build a new hospital or repair a school, but not the city officials. This is also a way to raise the responsibility. Communities will be able to manage utilities, set local tax rates and conduct local referendums. Several cities can form a community area. The latter will be less - due to the consolidation. Community area should include no more than 4 districts. The boundaries of the districts will not change. The goal will be reached when the strategic development at the regional level will start, and ineffective waste of money will be stopped.
PERIOD 4 - NEW INDEPENDENT UKRAINE. DECENTRALIZED GOVERMENT
ishikawa fishbone s oL to of aN M t EN EM
«OlD STylE» SOVIET INERTION
Based on the field research of the city, the analytical information (statistical survey data) and using the method of Ishikawa diagrams, our team has identified one of the basic problems of social relationships within the city of Kramatorsk. In our opinion, most of the citizens almost do not use the opportunity to participate in the city management. There are no effective mechanisms of involvement and participation of the citizens in the development of the city. At the same time, our research and interviews indicated the people’s desire to be a part of the city political process.
BUSSINES VS CITy
REgIONAl VS CITy POPUlATION AgEINg
PEOPlE VS PEOPlE CITy VS CITIZENS
uN ic at io N
lOW lEVEl OF SElF RESPONSIBIlITy
STATE VS CITy
Internal strengths Regional center functioning industry Active/Involved people/Groups Natural Resources Intelligence base Citizens identity Internal weaknesses Regional center Brain drain Local transportation system Aging population Absence of strategic planning Low level of self-responsibility Outdated Soviet industry Health infrastructure
Ukrainian data surveys say that despite the decline of confidence in the government, people are way more optimistic than 2 years ago, the level of responsibility for their lives and the environment has increased. Now it’s a good moment for the state to support grass-root initiatives. With an understanding of the financial opportunities for the region, advantages of the decentralization reform and support from the foreign non-governmental organizations, it can be assumed, that despite the proximity of the AntiTerrorist Operation to the city, there are concrete possibilities for its development. The prospect of citizens associations based on the principles of democracy brings new perspectives for Kramatorsk.
RISE OF the POLITICAL SELF-RESPONSIBILITY MIND MIGRATION
EXTERNAL OPPORTUNITIES International organisations Displaced people Regional transport network Decentralisation Reconstruction Development of infrastructure EXTERNAL THREATS War Economical crisis Unstable state government Corruption Absence of the clear state strategy Dependence on the old “colonial“ tiles 118
people DO not PEOPlE AR participate in the PARTICIP decision DECISION-M -making processes
Data analysis of the city political and social structures, research on its history, brought us to the vision that, in our opinion, involves three important trends for the region and influence the entire political situation of Kramatorsk. Among them are decentralization, the war and the fact of Kramatorsk being a regional center. Today Kramatorsk hosts regional administration, which brings additional investments, people, and functions. It is crucially important to initiate the processes that will modify and update the management system of the city in order to use all the benefits of this status.
Local Budget Local Government
35 KM to THE DEMARCATION Line Internally displaced people
october 0f 2014 - announcement of The temporary center of the donetsk region 2014-2015 - National budget infusion
At the same time, it is necessary to do the renovation of existing production equipment, upgrade technological processes, and reorientate industrial businesses to the new global markets. Support to the existing small, local and service businesses should be provided too. And of course, the most difficult and the most important task is to build a new type relationship between the citizens and authorities, create mechanisms for peopleâ€™s active participation in the urban development. Cooperation between all of the stakeholders and inclusion of the ordinary peopleâ€™s interest can help to solve major social and urban issues.
VISION: POWERFUL REGIONAL CENTER of RESPONSIBLE PEOPLE
CULTURE & HERITAGE, SOCIETY & POLITICS
Kramatorsk is a Cultural Bridge towards an Open Society Anastasiia Daniliuk, Olena Kozakova, Andrii Kucher, Mykola Holovko, Kate Karelshtein, Alex Ovsianko, Mykola Vognyk
A Cultural bridge is a metaphor that depicts the need for re-evaluation and update of the Soviet (industrial) heritage of Kramatorsk according to the current issues that the city is actually facing. This is the main goal of the integrated Spatial Planning Strategy with the Culture & Politics focuses. In this case, culture is something that is not only about aesthetics, but also something that corresponds with peopleâ€™s lifestyle, behavior, habits, traditions, social interactions, places where they spend their free time.
The proposed Strategy is aimed at shifting the Kramatorsk development trajectory from an industry-oriented model that regards citizens mostly as working force, towards the city of an open society, based on human values, transparency, trust and knowledge for all. It would provide more freedom for every citizen and create a lifestyle variety, instead of predestined authoritarian top-down planned mode.
Establish the Centre for Culture and Communication
Preserve and Revitalize Zhovtnevyi District in the Old City
Renovate public places for the joyful life
To implement participatory mechanisms that promote responsibility and collective action
City Districts Activation: OSBB 2.0
Suburban Communities Revival
Participatory Budgeting for Kramatorsk
GOAL#1 GOAL#2 GOAL#3 122
To support initiatives that create new cultural programmes in the city
To provide better administrative services for THE local and regional developmenT
Change of Priorities: a Public Center Instead of a Commercial Project
Lifelong Learning for Kramatorsk: Rethinking Schools, Libraries and Universities
New Office for Administration: Transparency, Effectiveness, Accessibility
CHALLENGES DEMOGRAPHIC AGEING POPULATION SHRINKING
BRIDGE = COMMUNICATION If we define culture as a socially learned information that is capable of affecting an individual’s behavior, then the metaphor of a ‘bridge’ is a way how we can achieve the transformation of this behavior in the society of Kramatorsk by means of spatial interventions, institutional changes, and communicative actions. According to a high level of volatility and uncertainty in Ukraine and in the Donbas region particularly, the horizon of planning is rather short and the strategic goals are defined as the most feasible and cost-efficient in the current situation.
INCREASING MILITARY PRESENCE ACTIVIZATION OF COMMUNITY SELF-HELP
groups of recepients AMBITIOUS
COMFORT * OSBB / NGO
* internally displaced people
* young professionals
* children under 12 years
INERT * suburban inhabitants * passive residents
+- ++ -- -+
* local activists * students
* 13-19 years old teenagers
Challenges VS S
#1 To support initiatives that create new cultural programmes in the city
LEGEND: - ZHOVTNEVYI DISTRICT - CULTURE CENTRE FOR CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION - SPRIDING OF INFLUENCE
LEGEND: - ZHOVTNEVYI DISTRICT
- GREEN ZONES
- CULTURE CENTRE FOR CULTURE CENTRE FOR CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION
- INDUSTRIAL AREAS
- Spread SPRIDING INFLUENCE ofOF influence
- BOAT STATION
- HOUSES OF CULTURE - SCHOOLS FOR INTERVENTIONS
- CITY BORDER
In a broader -sense, theZONES cultural program is “what is exGREEN pected to happen”. Kramatorsk physical environment inherited the ideas of- INDUSTRIAL communal property, AREASsocialist values and the “society of new type”. Par excellence, people should be born, receive proper education and find their place at one - BOAT STATION of the factories. Forms and functions of the industrial city CITY BORDERby the plan. After the workwere afore-hand- programmed ing hours, individuals should have cultural leisure, where the loyalty to unifying values and heterogeneous codes are promoted on different levels, depending on cultural infrastructure. Patriotism, collectivism, and other types of social behaviors became the core of the dominant cultural program. A new methodology for cultural institutions, driven by the common interest rather by the Party or state, is a cru-
- HOUSES OF CULTURE - SCHOOLS FOR INTERVENTIONS
cial part of transformation - it gives a real freedom of choice and self-realization. Reliance on the local initiatives should be a guiding principle of achieving this goal. As an example, three types of initiatives could be done: 1) Creation of the new institutions adapting the existing infrastructure and new social drivers (see Center for Culture and Communications); 2) Changing the relations to the history and stereotypes (see The Old City); 3) Refreshing the local spots for active leisure (see Public Places initiative). Interdependence of all proposed initiatives is crucial, as it provokes the change and interacts within the social and physical structure of the city. Visible intensification of city life, cultural engagement for people of all ages, new combinations of lifestyles, values and knowledge should become the main outcomes while already existing mechanisms and local initiatives are ready to act if sufficient political support is provided.
1.1 Establish the Centre for Culture and Communication (CCC) According to our plans, this brand-new institution should be established at the first level (currently empty space) of the museum’s building (The Art Museum and the Museum of History). Such a choice is not accidental as this building is situated in the heart of Kramatorsk. Considering this beneficial location, this institution has all chances to be something like Kramatorsk “agora”, that attempts to break borders between inhabitants. These Soviet-style institutions are one of the reasons of cultural isolation as their attempts to be “self-sufficient, big, influential” doesn’t work for the social interaction. They still remain to be the places where people can attend the concert or somehow entertain themselves but do not bring their own initiatives. Conclusion: these places are not really public because people do not act, only perceive. As a final point, CCC could be the cultural mediator between people, places and institutions. It can be an “advisor” for Kramatorsk cultural life. Museums - the Art Museum and the Museum of History are also prisoners of the past. Tremendous green zones (Pushkin park, Bernatsky garden) as the attractive places for public interaction became abandoned. Lots of Kramatorsk people eager to bring changes, to have new public places, where they can feel free to express their own ideas, propositions or practical useful actions. Creation of the multiplicity of such points (co-workings, creative hubs, alternative libraries, food festivals etc.) is the way to combine different people’s interest, a dialogue of culture, leisure, that can supply and maintain the idea of cultural diversity and tolerance to each other.
The mission of the Centre for Culture and Communication is to be the point for solving urban issues, connecting people and being the tool for citizen’s initiatives (urban mediator). The building itself (where CCC should be placed in the future) is situated in the beneficial location and has two museums as neighbours. This fresh institution could provide two mechanisms of how initiatives could be implemented: EXTERNAL: When ordinary people can go to the CCC and propose their initiatives. INTERNAL: When facilitators or members of the advisory board can bring their propositions for the museums, palaces of culture, libraries using their professional skills, fresh advises for methodology, management, educational or curatorial programme. This institution could help people to switch on themselves as responsible citizens which can be active participants and decision makers for Kramatorsk. Lots of Kramatorsk people are eager to bring changes, to have new public places, where they can feel free to express their own ideas, propositions or practical useful actions. Creation of the multiplicity of such points (co-workings, creative hubs, alternative libraries, food festivals etc.) is the way to combine different people’s interest, the dialogue of culture, leisure, that can supply and maintain the idea of cultural diversity and tolerance to each other.
Building, where the Art Museum and the History Museums are located. Academichna Street, 60.
Proposal of the Art and the History Museums upgrading into the Centre for Culture & Communication (CCC)
NEW EXHIBITIONS SOCIALIST REALISM AS A VALUABLE PHENOMENON OPEN ART LIBRARY CONTEMPORARY ARTISTS
PLACES OF CULTURE
1.2 Preserve and Revitalize Zhovtnevyi District in the Old City The Old City is a historical location of Kramatorsk on the right bank of the Kasennyj Torez river near the railway station. It appeared mostly at the beginning of the XX century and includes the unique Zhovtneviy District â€“ an example of a complex territory that was planned and built in the constructivist traditions. Unfortunately, it is not protected as a historical or architectural heritage, even though the district appears to be a good example of a holistic atmosphere of the 1920s-30s. Its comfortable location, pedestrian street and a small park on its axis give a promising chance for creation of the soft cultural interventions to activate local interest to the generally negative image of the Old city.
This is the heart of the Old City, established at the beginning of the XX century. The district was planned in the communist period to provide industrial workers with the most up to date housing facilities and public infrastructure. This is an aesthetically attractive quarter, with the retained original masterplan and old atmosphere. Some of the buildings should be treated as the constructivist heritage, that was excluded from the official Soviet programme during the Stalinists era. Constructivism as the significant part of the Soviet avant-garde is well known in the world and it still inspires architects and artistic individuals. This quarter is used as the only pedestrian zone in the city and has a strong potential to become an attractive public space of Kramatorsk.
stâ€™s p lurgi
1.3 Renovate public places for THE joyful life Schools and parks with dancing stages are the most acceptable places for the public intervention and leisure. Kramatorsk has a profound dancing culture and child creativity is tangible. It should be definitely maintained. Using existing resources: abandoned dancing stages in the parks which could be renovated (Chugunka in Zhovtnevyi district, stages in Pushkinâ€™s park and Bernatskiy garden) and become important points where people can have fun and enjoy the life or receive new knowledge embodied in the technical or handmade clubs where creativity springs. Talented kids can also be the active participants in order to change the city or make it more interesting for the living.
Public fest â€˜Maslianaâ€™ in front of the NKMZ Palace of Culture 13/03/2016.
Considering the tangible amount of elder people among Kramatorsk population, we can not ignore activities and leisure for them. Interesting propositions were presented by Strelka Institute, touching the issues of post soviet, industrial mono-cities. The case of Kineshma (https://issuu.com/strelkainstitute/docs shrinking_of_industrial_cities_page) perfectly illustrates ageing trend and the most obvious problems of elderly people (poverty, health, bad life conditions, loneliness). A specific feature of Kramatorsk senior inhabitants is an activity and dedication to work. So, our goal includes their needs. Dancing in the parks, sports competitions, plenty of fairs and food festivals, clubs for senior people can fulfil their life and make them more happy and connected.
Mr.Agapiev,93 years old. Former NKMZ worker, painter.
Paintings by Agapiev.
Abandoned dancing stage ‘Chugunka’ in Zhovtnevyi District. Nowadays.
Experimental school designed by Karakis architect
Dancing stage ‘Chugunka’ in Zhovtnevyi District. Revitalisation proposition.
Proposal of the activities inside the school yard
Renovate public places for the joyful life: CASE OF DANCIN
NG & PUBLIC SPACES
The first step is to arrange public discussion, where The City Council, Vilna Hata and representatives of different cultural institutions, active locals will deal with the problem of the cultural life of Kramatorsk and aspects of the Centre for Culture and Communication creating. In this case, as we see, the most influential actors are the mayor and Vilna Hata (VH) as they hold two different and crucially important powers for the changes. The city mayor Andriy Pankov, as a person who is open for the initiatives, can be the main actor in the official circumlocution: to support the return of the 1 level of Museums building to communal property and promote the CCC on the city level; on the other hand, Vilha Hata representatives are interesting as a human resource, whose cultural initiatives are tangible, but not on the large city level.
So, after the CCC will be established, VH could be reorganised as one of its founders to realise its potential in an intensive way, supporting all kind of cultural institutions. These two steps can help to establish the CCC, as a cultural mediator, which can be an initial point to influence other cultural institutions and places where cultural life can happen (Zhovtnevyi district, parks, schools, clubs, palaces of culture).
OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES
EXHIBITION OF CCC
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULAR CLUBS AND WORKSHOPS
PARENTS, TEACHERS, CCC,
THE ABANDONED INDUSTRIAL SITE
#2 To implement participatory mechanisms that promote responsibility and collective action Self-governance has been missing in Kramatorsk for a long time if has ever existed. As a consequence, there is a lack of places for manifestations, meetings or public discussions in the city. The main square, that was originally created for the political demonstrations and massive parades, does not reflect the democratic practices, as well as the city hall, or any other public or administrative place. However, the current situation is quite optimistic for the further development, as the trend towards self-organization and collective action are visible, as well as a suitable political moment to reset the city game has become.
The guiding principle for this goal is the physical transformation of a social capital. This strategic goal is to encourage local communities to align the monopoly of big economic actors and their representatives in the creation of the city environment. By implementing such mechanisms as OSBB development, the role of Urban and Suburban Communities rethinking, provision of the Participatory Budgeting for the sustainable development can satisfy the most important needs of local community and solve its urgent needs. As a result, less administrative process, more diverse and real interest-based decisions and more self-sufficient communities that take responsibility for their living conditions. Further planning and systematic development of the city is highly dependent on the successful achievement of this goal.
2.1 City Districts Activation: OSBB 2.0 The decision-making process is one of the core problems in Kramatorsk. One can see the strong representation of big business in the city hall, inherited from the past times, but almost no mechanisms (except recently created Civic Council at the Mayor Office) for the third sector to participate. This institutional deformation leads to the occupation of the political process by business elites (especially by the NKMZ), while alienating and demotivating the vast majority to take part in the city development. The participatory mechanisms are important to promote individuals and groups to take an active part in social life and take responsibility for the future. Development and promotion of such mechanisms, in reality, should improve the quality of public policies and create awareness among citizens.
public discussions participatory budgeting civic control self-organized communities
In the Soviet past, society has used the single institutions to solve community problems. Nowadays we should use a broader variety of abilities to resolve social issues by each of us. People used to be only recipients, but not actors. Considering current Kramatorsk situation, it is the right time for the people to make a step forward. We propose implementations which can help people to become closer in sharing their thoughts and propositions for the better life making. All of us know â€“ people in small cities, such as Kramatorsk, often somehow know most of their neighbours. Of course, they communicate, they have gatherings (where the repairs noisy dogs and neighbours are discussed) and enthusiasts who keep the yard in the appropriate condition â€“ all these elements are the seeds of OSBB (Housing management by initiatives of inhabitants).
2.2 Suburban Communities Revival But how to improve it and make people’s life more saturated? Kramatorsk has perfect yards. This important resource should be used as a place for communication and leisure. Launching the beautification (with the name like “The most beautiful yard”) conquest will be a perfect opportunity to get to know each other better, to “turn on” the responsibility and initiative. The City Council can support it financially and encourage people to upgrade their yards with open-air cinemas, rinks, zones for picnics etc. Such initiatives can help to ruin borders between people and make a friendly atmosphere. Kramatorsk has a lot of private housing. Most of them are isolated from the city and live their own life, do not have proper infrastructure and still remain in the rural mode. But all of them have opportunities to find brighter future.
Not only inhabitants, but the city council should be interested in the fruitful collaboration to “include“ suburban territories into Kramatorsk life. With the city council’s help, suburban territories should be divided into the nets of cooperation, where, in every for each of them, a moderator should be chosen. Each cooperative also will be provided by the special advisory board (consultant and expert, financial referee), which is for implementation and support. The main function of a moderator – to create Centre of Neighbours Relations using any convenient place for the gathering (house, nearest shop or green zone). All these places can be used as “forums” where neighbours can share their plans and initiatives, thus breaking the isolation in both personal and city scales. The final point of such implementation is to consider suburbs as a valuable part of Kramatorsk with the good conditions of life.
LEGEND: - MULTILEVEL HOUSES (FROM 5 FLOORS)
4 5 km - MULTILEVEL HOUSES (FROM 5 FLOORS)
- MULTILEVEL HOUSES ( FROM 3-5 FLOORS) - PRIVATE HOUSES IN THE CITY BORDER LINE - PRIVATE HOUSES OUT THE CITY BORDER LINE - INDUSTRY
- CITY BORDER LINE - RAILWAY
- MULTILEVEL HOUSES ( FROM 3-5 FLOORS)
LEGEND: LEGEND:- PRIVATE HOUSES IN THE CITY BORDER LINE PRIVATE HOUSES OUT(FROM THE CITY BORDER LINE ---MULTILEVEL HOUSES 55 FLOORS) MULTILEVEL HOUSES (FROM FLOORS) - INDUSTRY -- MULTILEVEL MULTILEVEL HOUSES HOUSES (( FROM FROM 3-5 3-5 FLOORS) FLOORS) - CITY BORDER LINE -- PRIVATE HOUSES IN THE CITY BORDER LINE - PRIVATE RAILWAYHOUSES IN THE CITY BORDER LINE -- PRIVATE PRIVATE HOUSES HOUSES OUT OUT THE THE CITY CITY BORDER BORDER LINE LINE -- INDUSTRY INDUSTRY
inhabitantâ€™s initiatives in the suburban areas
2.3 Participatory Budgeting for Kramatorsk
COMMITTEE To popularise all these initiatives an online platform should be created. Here, people can share their best experiences and propositions, look for support. This platform also can be used for the participatory budgeting (costs from the city budget) â€“ a perfect possibility for every Kramatorsk citizen to get the chance for the:
capital renovation, beautification or launching of a public event
The committee formed by city administration and CCC representatives should be created in order launch the projects. Before the winner gets the grant, his/her project is to be approved or even reworked by Kramatorsk citizens during the special conference.
CITY COUNCIL APPROVES THE NEIGHBOURâ€™S PROGRAM DISCUSSION RESULTS + PRESENTATION MEETING WITH SUBURBAN INHABITANTS + PRESENTATION + BEST PRACTICES SHARING
SEARCH FOR FUNDING
BETWEEN NEIGHBOURS OF
BETWEEN NEIGHBOURS OF
ADVISORY BOARD, ELECTORATE
#3 To provide better administrative services for local and regional development Negative trends that emerged as a result of Russian aggression in Donbas reduced the level of services that any city could provide. However, Kramatorsk, as a temporary administrative centre of Donetsk region could improve its positions with the help of national resources and international support. The ongoing process of reforms such as decentralisation, self-governance reform and other national changes in Ukrainian politics provide a good chance for the creative destruction of ill patterns and implementation of the better ones. Kramatorsk, as a centre of agglomeration, is going to become a strong regional centre not only de-jure, but de facto, and to play a leading role as a driver of modernisation and to provide the most successful practices for the social and cultural life improvement. City develops cooperation both on local (within local communities), regional (primarily between Kramatorsk, Sloviansk, Druzhkivka and Kostyantynivka, but also with Bahmut, Mariupol, Severodonetsk and temporarily occupied territories to broaden the social exchange and promote cooperation behavior instead of confrontation or isolation), national (providing pro-active practices and inviting groups and individuals to visit Kramatorsk, as well as opening of the broader vision of state-level processes inside the city) and international level (by establishing relationships and long-term cooperation). Using this chance to play an important administrative role can create better chances for the self-realization of individuals and provide resources for the improvement of social and cultural infrastructure. From the perspective of future development, the pragmatic realism should be prioritised over traditional growth expectations. The general logic of the goal is to concentrate on feasible, small, but critically important steps and to make support programs produced by the State more efficient. It implies the adaptation of existing system or creation of the new places for the administrative services, reorganisation of the educational system to provide access to modern knowledge. Revision of the core principles of administrative priorities towards public interests should also be provided in a short term perspective.
- WASTELANDE FOR FUTURE INTERVENTIO (PUBLIC SPACE) - INDUSTRY
LEGEND: - WASTELANDE FOR FUTURE INTERVENTION (PUBLIC SPACE) - COLLEDGIES
- SCHOOLS + KINDERGARDEN -LIBRARY 1
- COLLEGES COLLEDGIES 1 2
- SCHOOLS + KINDERGARTENS KINDERGARDEN 146
- INFLUENCE SPRIDING OFSPREAD INFLUENCE - INFLUENCE SPRIDING OFSPREAD INFLUENCE
3.1 Change of Priorities: a Public Centre Instead of a Commercial Project The territory of Kramatorsk is historically fragmented, so the Old City, Socgorod and later districts are barely integrated. The main city centre, where things happen, is situated much closer to the industrial zone, than to the densely populated living areas. Alternative city centre could have appeared upwards to the Dvortsova street, where the Central Library is located now. However, this idea of the Soviet city planners was realised by the modern Donetsk-origin professionals in a very neo-liberal way: due to the documents approved in 2007 (including current General plan), the large zone around the library would have been filled with the high-class residential housing, offices, and commercial centres. New posh skyscrapers between the “sleeping districts” was expected to change the negative trends and satisfy both public and private interests. This vision has represented the false logic of the city planners, as local community was radically against this project, and it was frozen on the design phase. Due to the current situation, when the city is slowly shrinking and resources are limited for the public investments, it is a good chance to make a new plan for this important, but abandoned block around the library. Attracting people to visit this place, by providing new educational, sport and leisure mass activities can revive the Dvortsova street, as well as satisfy the needs of the local residence. Realisation of a low-budget, participatory oriented program of revitalization could also become an important experience for the municipality how to work with two main resources that any city has - land and people. Successful nurturing (by not building) of this area could not only improve health (if sport grounds would appear torough the study of public opinions) or provide better chances for the economical adaptation (through improvement of the library, or creating here a new accommodation for modern Center for Lifelong Learning, where seminars and courses are held for those, whose skills are outdated on the job market), or any other development, that will improve the city.
Even temporal events or public meetings can change the perception of the place while digital instruments can connect local communities with the people from all over the world by projecting video on the wall of the library, holding conferences online, etc. Creation of the supportive environment is the best service that an open city can offer. By providing a better environment at public places we support human development and improve living conditions for the majority of people, instead of serving the minority. It is also important to involve resources of different groups and institutions (already mentioned Center for Culture and Communication can be helpful in mediation) to find the best practices and to adopt them. Even when the first results are less visible than expected, it should not stop the growth of the value of this territory as a new “place of power” that attracts people.
ACTIVITIES AT THE PUBLIC CENTRE
Central library quarter.
Development project of the library district, established in 2007. Source: http://hi.dn.ua/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=28804%3A2012-11-28-08-41-37&catid=55%3Akramatorsk&Itemid=147
CENTRE FOR THE LIFELONG LEARNING
Change of Priorities: Public Centre Instead of Commercial Project
HUMANITY RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
3.2 Lifelong Learning for Kramatorsk: Rethinking Schools, Libraries and Universities Currently, the Kramatorsk educational system, created in the Soviet era, is less and less suitable for its form and function. The whole system needs to be reformed or at least modernised because there is no urgent need to support the proletarian lifestyle anymore. The nickname of the city used to be “The capital of machine building”, so numerous schools, vocational colleges, and even universities were oriented at providing the best staff for the highly specialised industry. Meanwhile, the industry is decreasing while new attractive professions appear, thus fewer students choose engineering and related to it professions, fewer people stay in the city and the chances for the system to adapt to the global changes are also low. Without relevant modernization of the technologies and infrastructure, the demand for such services will produce only unemployment and out-dated knowledge.
On the regional scale, the situation is rather similar. While the neighbouring Kharkiv has historically been a centre of multidisciplinary education and research, Donetsk region has been specialised mostly in the narrow niche of mining, manufacturing and machine building. The market-oriented relations after the “Perestroika“ created a huge demand for the lawyers, economists, and managerial stuff, however, the quality of such specialists was relatively low. High level of applied knowledge and inertion of social changes supported the adaptation of the Donbas State Machine Building Academy (DGMA) to save its niche, as a dominant educational centre in Kramatorsk.
TRENDS IN EDUCATION OF the DONETSK REGION
TRENDS IN EDUCATION of KRAMATORSK
Even though the lag between the demand and supply is growing, university infrastructure is ageing and there is no clear vision for the future. Some new contracts with partners are providing perspective development for a few sectors, but the structural crisis that has been enforced by the radicalization and war can totally destroy the existing developments. The decline in the birth rate, negative migration balance and bad image of the region cut the number of applicants to the regional universities by three times in 2015, while Kramatorsk received only half of its possible students, even though two universities were relocated to the city from Donetsk this year! The opportunity could be seen in the re-orientation of the educational process from the traditional model of schooling to the new formats, including post-graduate retraining, offering the municipal program of courses and development of informal learning, including digital and remote types. Central Library, DGMA, schools and other vacant buildings could perform as service producers spreading knowledge not only for the “traditional” students but also to the current workers, aged people and especially for the internally displaced people, who has left the occupied part of Donbas. Self-organized practices could be provided at the libraries while comprehensive and strategic program should be developed by the local and state authorities to prevent the crisis. On the local scale, restructuration of the school system is already possible. A new pragmatic network which could reorganise at least 10 supportive schools (the most vital and accessible without using the public transport) during the
national modernization programs would provide perceptible improvement. Regional priorities and specialisations on knowledge development could be used as a strong driver for the further city development. 25 thousands of children are already studying in 38 schools and should be provided with better opportunities rather than emigration from the city or country. The program “Kramatorsk - intellectual city”, introduced in 2013, lacks the relevant spatial and resource-based plan for realisation, however, the general logic for the knowledge-oriented development sounds optimistic. In order to survive and thrive, organisations and individuals must be able to adjust, and enhance their knowledge and skills to meet the evolving challenges. To prevent the “brain drain” and to develop a higher cohesion we propose to coordinate local policies and educational processes. City planners should also look forward: what specialists will be needed in future? If we expect, that material production will demand fewer workers because of its modernization or decline then the trend towards “post-industrial” development is obvious. Product design, logistics engineering, business administration and economics, economical information systems, computer sciences and applied computer sciences, rehabilitative care, governance, and e-Governance, as well as traditional humanitarian disciplines, could become important niches for the economy growth if the data-based decision will be made. While the urgent need in languages and legal education of the senior citizens could become a relevant measure of the short perspective that will increase the social structure of the city and region.
Public lecture AT the Kramatorsk Life-long learning centre
3.3 New Office for Administration: Transparency, Effectiveness, Accessibility Local self-government is formed on the basis of private precedents, existing resources, and requirements. Its guiding principle is to improve the quality of life in a broad sense. From specific to general issues by creating and enabling infrastructure, controlling the order and developing plans. Local self-governance also coordinates and balances different interests, as the municipal economy is operating on the basis of its own costs and revenues. Its effectiveness relies on the scope of care and control, providing the opportunity to support the legislative restrictions or support the valuable programs and improvements. However, it is limited in resources, that is why the crucial need of self-governance is to spend less on its operational costs, to be in touch with regional and national programs and the most important - to rely on the active local community. That is why transparency, effectiveness and accessibility (T.E.A.) should be met by the decision makers while transforming the local administration. New physical placing may support it. At the same time, Kramatorsk has been in the role of Donetsk regional administration since 2014. This means that its resources are much bigger, however, they are currently badly organised and diffused over the city. While Kramatorsk hosts the regional authorities it can increase the cooperation between both local and regional administrations as a key instrument for the city development. Both are interested in:
- Aggregation of interests and implementation of the cooperation between state and non-governmental organisations for the provision of modern services. - The introduction and development of the modern knowledge management, optimisation and experience sharing. - Mutual cooperation between other cities. - Creation of physical meetings with public access, including local and regional forums to find partners for the public projects. Both the city and the region are experiencing an acute need for the deployment of local programs for the reconstruction of their social, historical and architectural or town-planning inventory, actualization of the infrastructure to meet the international standards, an attraction of the new potential investments in the future. In fact, the complementarity of the commercial and administrative institutions, their mutual projects where private commercial interests involved with the city or state departments. However, the misuse of power and the potential corruption have created harmful consequences. Thatâ€™s why international experience, especially of the ex-USSR region, should be considered (Georgia, Lithuania, Poland). The Public-Private Partnership can be seen as a mechanism for the encouragement of such transformations, as well as donor support from international institutions.
To cope with the problems posed by the current urban difficulties and the complexities of adjustment to a major societal transformation, the new place for the direct faceto-face contact with bureaucracy could be created. It is both a symbolical and physical change that should allocate the administrative functions and save resources. Nowadays, the inherited system in both institutions is rather outdated, badly informed and coordinated, situated in the Soviet style cabinets is constantly reproducing the Soviet patterns. It is also scattered into the different parts of the city, that creates discomfort for the users and effective coordination. Another important consequence of this decision is the reactivation of the surrounding territories and increasements of social processes on the nearest streets. Already mentioned territory near the Central library could become an example of such place, as well as other suitable sites, for example, the intersection of Oleksy Tyhogo Avenue and the Pivdenna Street. If the status of the regional centre is taken out of the local agenda, then simple reorganisation and optimisation are an option, which aims at unification ”under one roof” of the social services that are scattered throughout the area and provide professional assistance to the residents of the districts. And finally, to use the existing space and personal time in a more effective way.
Analysis of the European experience of the regional development in ex-Socialist countries shows that: 1) Socio-economic development is performed in two directions: regional and sectoral. 2) In countries with high decentralisation, the main priority is given to the regional policy and involves the exclusive right and responsibility of the region for its own development. 3) In countries with a low degree of decentralisation besides public investment programs, the regional policies are developed parallelly. These processes take place with the joint participation of regions in the preparation and subsequent implementation of the delegation of authority to the level of the region. The new EU members (Poland and the Czech Republic) have implemented this approach to regional development. 4) The subject of almost all approaches to the regional development, especially in the areas of the significant economic decline, stagnation, and social distrust - is the training of skills, motivations and behaviours required for the development of the region, through the involvement of all stakeholders (so-called “Top-Down” approach). Another important notion is that the results of decentralisation are seen only in the 5-7 years perspective. In the most cases, decentralisation strengthened the institutional capacity of municipalities; accelerated the pace of socio-economic development in some regions; opened the opportunity for the regional development strategies of cities + decentralisation of power contributes to the formation of the creative class in the towns and cities.
Map of the Donbas region agglomeration
Administrative centre in Kramatorsk
CONCLUSIONS To overcome the cultural and political isolation, as well as to use the chance of being a temporal regional centre, Kramatorsk should follow the short horizon planning strategy, but thinking ahead. Starting from the small, project-based Strategic Interventions (as those, that suggested in Strategic Goal #1) and move to more complex decisions, that provide new models of collaboration between city planners and local groups of interests. In the worst scenario, the city would only improve its basic needs and satisfy the demand for some services and facilities. In the best scenario, it could stop shrinking and reorganise its socio-economic structure and establish sustainable growth in the future. The strategy consists of three goals: First, the creation of the new cultural programs and support of the existing initiatives (such as Vilna Hata) that are pushing the agenda of urban activism is an important step towards trust building that was ruined in the times of decay. The physical consequence of successful implementation would become the revival of public places, that are valuable for the local community and play an important role in the gathering, communication and leisure. New contacts and institutions would become a strong invisible fundament for the collective action. Second, development of local communities and creation of the mechanisms for their engagement would help to solve the core problem of the participation and further decision making. As the main principle of this goal is participation (based on plurality and empowering), city administration should cooperate with existing community groups and NGOs, especially OSBBs, to provide them with a real power and expertise. In short perspective, it would create cohe-
sion and successful cases of cooperation between different groups, and in the long - provide the city with a resilient network of active community centres and renovated social infrastructure around them. Third, improvement of the whole system of public administration and provision of the better services would not only become an effective tool for the city itself but will raise the competitiveness on the regional scale. In the currently vulnerable situation and catastrophic decline in regional development, a stable and upgrading city that is managing the typical problems of deindustrialization in a successful way could attract newcomers and stop the brain drain. Due to the ongoing process of administrative and educational reforms, other structural changes in Ukraine, the active position of local and regional administration can provide sufficient resources and expertise for the implementation of the best practices of governance to become a role model city for Donbas recovery. New constructions are possible in the middle term, however, reorganisation and adaptation of the existing building and sights should be prioritised. Insofar, implementation of this Spatial Planning Strategy should provide a better understanding of the socio-political and cultural production of space, solve some of the most urgent challenges, as well as announce the need for the broader development of new approaches to planning on a regional level. Comprehensive strategy at a regional scale should become the next step after achieving the existing goals. It entails a change of scale and aggregates more complex information: from urban renewal programs to the territorial strategy which comprehends the whole industrial region and constitutes the framework for the different projects, plans and policies under the umbrella of Ministry of Regional Development, including other institutions and stakeholders.
SCIENTISTS, LOCAL POLITICIANS
PLACE: LIFE-LONG LEARNING CENTRE
LEGEND: - CENTRE FOR LONG-LEARNING - CENTRE FOR CULTURE AND COMMUNICATION - INDUSTRY - ZHOVTNEVYI DISTRICT - GREEN ZONE - BOAT STATION - INFORCMENT ENFORCEMENTOF OFCITY THE CITY - CITY BORDER BOTDERLINE LINE - SUBURBAN BORDER LINE - CONECT CONNECTBETWEEN BETWEENZHOVTNEVYI ZHOVTNEVYI DISTRICT AND THE SOCIALIST DISTRICT AND SOCIAL CITY CITY - ACTIVIZATION OF STREETS
SPATIAL CONSEQUENCES: “EYE-LEVEL” VISUALIZATION
Yoga classes at the Chalk Hill
Centre for Culture&Comm
New Office for Administration 162
munication /CCC/ Constructivism of the Zhovtnevyi district
Lifelong Learning for Kramatorsk 163
CASE REFERENCES LONDON One of the most representative cases, which can be useful as an example for the cultural development strategies, is “Shaping places in London through culture”. This strategy is not devoted to the development of the central part but to the outskirts. The focus was on such districts as Peckham, Swiss Cottage, Deptford and another one situated in the Thames Gateway zone. At a first glimpse, all of them may seem as grey and unattractive or even ghettos for immigrants. But this strategy proposed to dive into each of them exploring the valuable potential of each and how this potential can be used not only for the district inhabitants but for the whole city. The key characteristics of the approaches taken are the right mix of leadership and partnership, effective joint policy making, adequate consideration of cultural provision during development, bold and imaginative thinking about the product. For instance, it is worth to show how Peckham district renovation can match up with our case - Zhovthevyi district. Peckham has an interesting and multilayered history, but for a long time perception of this district was as unattractive because of criminal movements and immigrants. On the other hand, this district has very strong artistic movements. This point became one of the crucial to begin the revitalization, which was based on strong participatory mechanism including intention and activities of inhabitants and outer activists. It illustrates good practice in: - commitment to high-quality design by renowned artists and architects; - improvement of cultural infrastructure; - festivals and creative activities to engage local residents and nurture local talent Results: Peckham was named as the top of the 20 most up-and-coming places that encourage a social, cultural and creative mix. Another, crucially important case for our Goal 3 is the creation of the modern library as an educational centre (or using Kramatorsk Central library as a base for the educational centre). Award-winning Peckham Library became the symbol of Peckham’s regeneration. Swiss Cottage is another one of the outskirts district, where the idea of public and private investment usage has created a cultural heart for the North West London to help to unlock the area’s potential. Results: Library with the leisure centre became extremely important and popular (around 55 000 people per month use places for communication, education and variety of cultural and artistic activities.
Peckham Library, London
Source: - https://cdn.fbsbx.com/v/t59.270821/131 45260_1161719220527006_594538032_n.pdf/ shaping_places.pdfoh=275fd324485f2e4bcd0eda29124faf45&oe=5736AB56&dl=1
EINDHOVEN As Kramatorsk, Eindhoven has an industrial past. The long-term strategy of city development had been designed to make a step forward from an industrial focus to the human-oriented city. Due to Kramatorsk situation, this useful experience can be somehow implemented, considering realities of Kramatorsk. Key points of Eindhoven development are an informational exchange, a common use of knowledge by different age groups, power and potential of youngsters. As a result, the engagement of locals in different projects helped to make Eindhoven life comfortable for people and attractive for investors.This crucial human factor, when people gain the freedom to decide, made the city a powerful regional centre. Sources: - http://urbanurban.ru/blog/reflection/295/KeysDonkers-o-tom-kak-Eyndkhoven-stanovitsya-samymkrutym-gorodom-Gollandii - http://pb.platfor.ma/keis-donkers/ - https://www.thersa.org/discover/publications-andarticles/rsa-blogs/2015/05/rebranding-the-city--howeindhoven-uses-heritage-to-shape-the-future/
CLEVELAND Planning of Cleveland during the 1970s concentrated on the immediate problems of the low-income groups in the city that were especially hard hit by the changes in manufacturing, seeing this approach as the logical reaction to severe industrial decline. Besides that, the goal was to strengthen the downtown area, increase service functions and adaptive raise of redevelopment projects.
Dunaújváros Dunaújváros was planned as an ideal industrial city during the country’s period as a socialist republic. Within a time frame of 60 years, starting from the city’s foundation in 1950, the research investigates how this example of a post-socialist city was able to adapt architecturally and spatially to the new affordances brought by the change of political, economic and societal systems. The parallel development of the old village and the new socialist town located next to each other allows direct comparisons between an unplanned and a planned settlement. After a general introduction to the socialist city concept, the history and morphology of Dunaújváros, the study focuses on the development of its centres. Methods of comparative study and space syntax are used for spatial analysis and are compared with empirically collected data on land use. The example of Dunaújváros attempts to approach the major challenges that many post-socialist cities and their centres are facing today due to the shift from a precisely planned to an emergent state of development under new general conditions. Source: - http://joss.bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/journal/index.php/joss/ article/download/157/pdf
To provide better services and effectively react the challenges of the shrinking city, the main principle was set - to provide better chances for those, who stay in the city, rather than to those initiatives that will leave the city anyway, or those which may not appear at all. From one point this approach was implemented by the city officials who supported local social programmes (especially block grants), changed fiscal policies in favour of less secured, controlled city deterioration and manoeuvred to take part in federal programmes, that helped in cutting high-cost expenditures for the city. But on the other hand, the critics argued, that such policy was a sort of charity, rather than effective city management, as it paid less attention to the traditional economy-oriented practices. The short-time strategy was rather successful and achieved the goals without the risk of losing the general perspective. Nowadays Cleveland has overcome its industrial illnesses and stabilised its economy with diversified services. The ongoing Cleveland’s Plan for Transforming Schools should reinvent public education in the city and serve as a model of innovation for the state of Ohio. It is a good case of the strategy where an interrelated set of changes were implemented and provided the sustainable growth after stabilisation of negative socio-economical tendencies. Less ambitious, but fairer. Sources: - Perloff, Harvey S. (1980). Planning the Post-Industrial City. Washington, D.C.: Planners Press (APA), xiv, 327 p. - Cleveland’s Plan for Transforming Schools 20122016: http://www.clevelandmetroschools.org/cms/lib05/ OH01915844/Centricity/domain/4/pdfs/2014/february/ CMSD_Strategic-Implemenation-Plan.pdf
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STRA TEGY #2
ENVIRONMENT & INFRASTRUCTURE
Healthy environment as A basic human value Vladyslav Doroshenko, Olga Gubynskaya, Maria Smirnova
Green Health City Proposal / Peter Ruge Architekten
The city does not use existing resources extensively anymore and does not care about their preservation and quality. On the other hand, citizens start realising the value of healthy environment for them and their descendants. The term “healthy environment” is a huge one, encompassing many different meanings. Dictionaries may speak of an environment as of the sum of all surrounding living conditions. This would mean all physical things, all growing things, all structures, all objects, and all chemicals. There’s also a sharing aspect of this.
People are not only surrounded by their environment but constantly contribute to it with every behaviour, including breathing. A person cannot have a smoke, clean a rug, take out the trash, do the dishes, or drive a car without having some effect on the environment. In that sense, a starting point of achieving a healthy environment is to determine: how to live in total surrounding conditions with minimal impact or improvement of it. Studying the environment helps people to understand which issues may cause the greatest problems.
Historically, Kramatorsk was founded as an industrial city. Since the late XIXth century, the powerful metallurgical and machine-building factories has been producing hundreds of tonnes of products, that were aimed at the development of the country. Not only workers but also the whole environment suffered from the constantly working smoking pipes. Due to the poor technology and lack of the knowledge citizens were not so worried about the dangerous emissions coming because of burning coal into the atmosphere or felling with recycled water into the river and soil. Despite the fact that the city was actively planted by green spaces and parks,for years, the city has been accumulating dangerous emissions and affecting the health of living people.
RESEARCH results: problems of Kramatorsk: High content of hazardous emissions in the air Since 2008, the local factories have participated in the program of modernization of equipment and reduction of emissions. Some factories have created a closed production cycle and has stopped dumping recycled water into the river, has installed treatment filters. But due to the some holes in the legislation and lack of material support part of the plants has not been converted into the new technologies. Despite the decline of the economic conditions of the country, the production has also declined, but it has played no role in the number of harmful substances in the atmosphere.
Among the harmful substances, emitted into the atmosphere by the industrial enterprises and transport are dust, nitrogen and carbon, phenol and formaldehyde, and 45 % of sulphur dioxide. Some substances are in quantities that exceed maximum permissible concentration. Most of them cause irreparable harm to health, allergies, asthma, eczema, lung disease causing. Of course, nothing goes without leaving a trace, and all of the harmful elements that enter the atmosphere because of leaves burning in fall, later fell on earth as a precipitation: rain, snow, hail, poisoning our environment again.
Increased carbon monoxide emissions on the city roads In 2015, a research was of 798 cases was conducted, concerning atmospheric air on the highways of the city, out of
which - in 155 (19,8%) registered cases, the numbers exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations of harmful pollutants. Substances registered were carbon oxide, sulphuric anhydride, inorganic compounds of dust, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide. For 2014 it was only 5.9% of the registered cases of exceeding maximum permissible concentrations. There are three types of public transport in the city: buses Trolleybuses trams Unfortunately, the network of electric transport is poorly developed and does not cover the entire city. As a consequence, due to the lack of electric transport, the rest of the cityâ€™s transport network needs are covered by gasoline-use buses. A large number of this form of transport and irrational routes have a negative impact on the environment too. 173
Kramatorsk in pictures
A collage of all of the participants of the city environment
Lack of ecological public transport Sncreased amount of cars Separated parts of the city
Accumulation of the production wastes Incomplete modernisatioin
MEASUREMENT Gaps in the equipment base Separated activities of the administration departments
Ishikawa diagram of the main challenge
Hazardous substances in the river make it impossible to be used by the citizens
Ban on monitoring
AWARENESS Lack of awarenes (Human factor)
For the last 15 years, the condition of the river does not allow anyone to take water treatments. The shallowing of the river has reached the level at which it not only clogs the factory pumps but also suffocates the animals. Most of water, after its domestic and factory use, returns to the river as waste. The pollution of the Ukrainian rivers by Industrial and municipal effluents led to the fact that the condition of 88% of them is estimated to be either bad or catastrophic.This is especially true for Kramatorsk, where an insufficient area is covered by the sewage networks and many areas donâ€™t have a centralised wastewater disposal. 175
SWOT analysis 47 % of the city are green spaces
European system of fines in the field of ecological policy
Outdated and badly developed infrastructure, that needs big financial injections for the modernization
Development of the existing infrastrucuture on the scale of agglomeration
People (S) + Green city (S) + Agglomeration development (O) = Creating awareness in THE society
Intelligent people (S) + Existing material base of universities (S) + International support (O) = Educated society
Intelligent ppl. (S) + Existing material base of factories (S)+ rising price on energy source (T) + International support (O) = Green industry approach
Vision: Healthy environment as A basic human value
In 2030 we see that Kramatorsk is an irreplaceable part of agglomeration. The city is a model for the regional development. People are educated in the field of environmental sciences: - citizens take care of surrounded environment; - citizens are active and responsible for their city; - the environment is a common knowledge for the people of Kramatorsk.
The city has a low level of emissions: green industry, ecological transport are implemented. City is accessible by all means: - transport , access to nature; - internal transport development; - external transport development.
City important facilitieS:
In the administrative and town-planning aspect Kramatorsk is an agglomeration of settlements, that includes the city itself and the adjacent territories Belenkovskiy, Krasnotorskiy, Shabelkovskiy and Yasnogorovskiy village councils.
The Socgorod district
Kramatorsk city consists of two housing estates. The first array - Old Town, located to the West of the Central Industrial Region and the railroad, which is composed of Oktyabrsky, Ivanovka, Gorodeschino and Marevka villages. The second consists of the residential area - Socgorod, which includes the New World, Krasnotorka and Veseliy settlements. The Old Town and the Sotsgorod housing estates are provided with important city services in the bigger amount, comparing to other village councils.
Universities: - Donbass State Engineering Academy; - Donetsk Medical University named after Gorky (Moved from Donetsk); - Donbas National Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture( Moved from Donetsk; City hall, Houses of Culture, ะกourts: - Kramatorsk City Council; - House of Culture NKMZ; - House of Culture Budivelnyk; - Donetsk Administrative Court of Appeal; - Kramatorsk City Court; Major public facilities, Key museums, Libraries, ะกinemas: - Central Children's Library named after Pushkin; - Central Library; - Rodina Cinema; - The Art Museum of Kramatorsk;
- City History Museum; - Large parks (over 15 ha): - Jubilee Park -100 ha; - Biernacki Garden - 55 ha; - Pushkin Park - 25 ha. Μajor hospitals: - Central city hospital of city Kramatorsk, - Blood transfusion station - Children's Clinic №3 - Clinic №3 - Traumatology - City Health Center - Day hospital №1, №2 etc. - First-aid; - Public markets: - Covered market; - Cooperative market.
THE Old Town district House of Culture: - House of Culture named after Bykov; Transport hub: - Train Station - Regional bus station General hospitals: - Children's Hospital and Polyclinic №2 Public markets: - Starogorodskiy market; - Alexandrovsky market.
Transport hub: - Bus station.
Transport Road hierarchy Taking into account that city planning structure is dissected, it is vital to evaluate the importance of road structures from the point of city connectivity. Among the important arteries are: - Olexy Tihogo Str. (renamed Orgenikidze Đ†tr.) - the main city road, which plays the role of a transport spine, to which all other district-important roads are connected. It also should be mentioned that this is a part of the road of the regional importance Slaviansk - Konstantinovka - Donetsk - Mariupol,which connects Kramatorsk with agglomeration; - Conrad Hampera Str. (renamed Gorkogo str.) + Shkolnaya Str. + Starogorodska Str. (renamed Soyuzna Str.) - transport artery, that connects the Old Town with the Socgorod and at the same time provides access to Dobropole and Alexandrovka city, including suburban, areĐ°s in between; - Kramatorska Str. - connects Krasnatorska and Pchel180
kino village councils and provides external connections to Konstantinovka; - Radgospna Str. + Krova Str. - connects Yasnogorodka village council with the city and is the only road that intersects the industry; - Dnipropetrovska Str. + Titova Str. - provides access for Stankostroy and Belenkoe village councils and also it provides alternative external connection to Slaviansk. There are also roads of inner city importance that provide access to the most populous district of the city - Socgorod, with the population of 94 thousands of people. To conclude, it is obvious that the city structure is split due to its historical development, that is determined by the central placement of the industrial territory. The city as a structure is developed unequally - the most active actors of the city life are in the are of the Socgorod and Old Town districts.
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION A key feature of a sustainable urban area is an access for all citizens to the functions, services, and systems. This requires different mobility systems on the regional, city/ town, areas and neighbourhoods levels, with the integrated transit opportunities between levels. An Integrated Transport System (ITS) includes management and operation of infrastructure for all mobility modes, (pedestrian paths, bicycle lanes, buses and bus lanes, roads and railways, waterways). And its also includes traffic management with safety aspects. Depending on the level and scale of the mobility system, various options can be considered. A hierarchy of mobility modes can be used as a guide to prioritise needs in a particular situation. For example, priority can be given to the pedestrian and bicycle systems at the neighbourhood level, and public transport systems on a city level.  Different forms of traffic must be considered in every urban area. Heavy traffic should be minimized and restricted to the routes and lanes for the pedestrians and cyclists protection. Materials transportation (and particularly hazardous
substances) should be coordinated with both land use and urban functions, to maximise safety and minimise environmental risks. In the 1932 Kramatorsk received the status of the city. After that moment, it started developing like a big industrial center. The history of the tram system in Kramatorsk began in 1937. The building of the new factories started an installation of the new tram stops. In the period of the WWII , the trolleybus connection appeared in the city. But due to the heavy fights, this connection was destroyed. Then, in 1971 trolleybus began functioning again. The main idea of the public transport in Kramatorsk was to transport workers from their homes to the workplaces. Railway transport occupies a special place in the economic complex of Kramatorsk. ‘Railway station Kramatorsk’ — main passenger and freight railway station of the city of Kramatorsk. It is referred to Konstantinovka department of the Donetsk railway.This station is located in the Old town.
Connection Today the city have 7 routes of electrical transport and 31 routes of buses and mini buses. - Socgorod, Damanskiy, Stankostroy, Old town districts are connected with the trolleybuses and minibuses; - Noviy Svet district, through Socgorod to Yasnogorka, are connected with the tram line; - Other districts and the outskirts of the city are connected with mini buses.
The main road, named after Oleksa Tyhyy (renamed Orgenikidze str.) has a big concentration of the public transport which has led to its supersaturation. In 2003, the tram route from Socgorod to the Old town was closed because of the bad conditions of the bridge, that unites two riverbanks of the city. There also exists a possibility of tram route â„–2 closing this year. Quality and amount of the trolleybus system does not correspond to the level and needs of the regional center.
TRANSPORTATION Problems With the development of the city and the expansion of the road networks, the number of private vehicles and new trolleybus routes increased. Private vehicles are the dominant mean of transport in the city and this is likely to continue, in spite of negative impacts due to the CO2 emissions, congestion and air and noise pollution. The quality of the public transport does not match the standards, their lifetime capacity has ended a long time ago. The tram system has fallen into disrepair and has been stuck in the past. The frequency of the transport services in some areas ranges up to 40-60 minutes, while at the same time, active districts, such as Sotsgorod, have the frequency of 5-10 minutes. Due to the decreasing of financial support for the electric transport, the popularity of transport which uses petrol has increased. It has influenced the decline of the quality of the transport infrastructure and the environment. As a positive implication of the lack of order in the public transportation, people started using bicycles more. But as the roads were not designed for the emergence of a new player, they are quite dangerous for the cyclists. 182
resilient economic HUB of the region Kate Kaminska, Tolik Niemtsov, Julia Porkhun
Financial revenue (before tax) of the industry in Kramatorsk
The decline in the field of industry can be measured in different ways - by comparison of data from different years, like amounts of money, produced goods, and a number of people occupied. To overlook how big the monopoly of industry has been in Kramatorsk, we will compare the physical size of the industry now, in addition to the historical analysis. Till 2012, the number of manufactured products of the heavy industry has been increasing. But in 2012, due to several political and economical reasons, the big decline of industry happened. This affected peopleâ€™s life, as manufacturers were the biggest employers in the city and the biggest in an amount of profit - until the recent years their part was around 50%. However, small and medium enterprises are slowly evolving, and in 2014, they had 55% of employment and 57% of the profit from sales. After the recent military events in Kramatorsk, many people have left their hometown and have moved their businesses too. The big industry continues to be the main employer in the city. But the critical situation with factories leads us to the conclusion that the city shouldnâ€™t be so dependent on the one type of production. Business should be diverse and create a resilient system,- if one participant is in a hard situation, the second one becomes more successful, or a new business appears.
Dynamics of workers quantity at NKMZ
In order to show the role of the big industry in the city, we have measured a percentage of the territory, which is occupied by the factories - 14.3% This number we compared to the percentage taken for the industry in the city, situated in the West of Ukraine - Ivano-Frankivsk. There this number is three times lower - 5.5%.
Production volume (overall)
The size of the territory of industry (notional unit), for the cities, similar by size and population
City map with findings
KEY Findings from The 6-days FIELD TRIP As an economic group, we searched not only for numbers and economic indicators but for the main objects, which influence the city economy and the allocation of these objects. During the preparation phase, we had chosen factories, SMEs, and institutes as our main objects for research. The factories and SMEs are the economic pillars of the city and the universities are the basis for the business development and economic growth of the city. The most surprising fact was the location and the size of the factories in Kramatorsk. Several biggest factories are situated right at the center of the city and they take the territory larger than the active part of the city, in which shops, cafes, services, and universities are situated. Cafes caught 186
our attention because a lack of third places and quality of existing ones you can feel even during the short field trip. The highest mark of the cafe at Foursquare was 7.8 (out of 10). Only one mobile coffee shop worked in the whole city. These are two small facts but in combination with the spatial representation they should give you an opportunity to understand what roles belong to the industry and to the business in Kramatorsk.
Ishikawa diagram The case of “unemployed people” was chosen as the main problem. The causes which led to it (or are connected with it) are following: war, employers, education, economic crisis, world trends, historical background. We’ve found that a lot of causes are connected to the problem of narrowly specialized industry and not developed SMEs. You can find these causes
highlighted with the maroon color on the diagram. After that, it became clear, that our strategy should deal with “diversification of business” as this is the most important challenge for our group.
From SWOT to TOWS The analysis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of Kramatorsk from the point of view of the economy, gave us 10 different strategy ideas. After the review, two of them were chosen as the most important and strong ones. The first bias is “Diversification of business”. Kramatorsk can make a shift from the mono-industry to the diverse businesses and services. In this strategy, we combined Strengths with Opportunities. Strengths are the following: S1: Natural resources. There are a lot of deposits of mineral resources on the territory of the Donetsk region. Clay, chalk, metal could be used for a production of goods or semi-products. S2: The empty market will be a good background for any idea testing because there wouldn’t be any competitors, who will fight for customers. S3: Free spaces on the plants and low price for the rent give an opportunity to use these buildings for the business needs. S4: IT specialists, who already are in Kramatorsk, could help in the creative start-ups development, adding knowledge about the new technologies and trends to the business ideas. Let’s add some Opportunities: O1: UNDP and WNISEF provide grants for the small businesses development in the Donetsk region. Business ideas could be implemented even without investors or loans. O2: Displaced people from occupied territory. These peo-
ple are from different cities, with different backgrounds, some of them are entrepreneurs with experience in various businesses. They can bring new business ideas and experiences to Kramatorsk. The second direction for the development - “Allocation of new markets”. The industry is still one of the main actors in the city economy, that’s why it is important to find the new markets after the loss of Russian market. This strategy is an attempt to fight against the Threats with the Strengths of Kramatorsk: T1: The loss of Russian market. The majority of factories has been selling their goods to Russia for ages. That’s why it is a big Threat to lose such customer. T2: Devaluation of the national currency is really painful for the economy of the region as well as for the whole country. The problem can be solved through the increasing export and, as a result, an amount of international currency will increase too. 187
Findings - regional map
Two Strengths can be opposed to the mentioned Threats: S1: Natural resources. The materials in the region have a comparatively low cost, so the selling of the goods made from local materials will help to get a higher added value. S5: The labor force is inexpensive. This fact will help to keep the low price level for the produced goods. It is important to add, that nature abhors a vacuum. Ukraine signed an agreement with EU. It is a new Opportunity and one of the possible markets.
Agglomeration findings In the very first interview of the field trip, it has been mentioned that cityâ€™s authorities have an idea to unite Kramatorsk with the three nearby cities into the bigger one. This led to the idea to research Kramatorsk as a part of the 188
agglomeration, and not just as a separate city. As it can be seen from the maps, not only Kramatorsk, but Slovyansk, Druzhkivka, Kostyantynivka, and Mykolaivka have a large number of factories, plants and mineral deposits. Also, it is important to mention, that city in agglomeration have a possibility to develop a good transport connection. There are automobile roads, railways and even airports in Slovyansk and Kramatorsk. A developed infrastructure is a good opportunity to deliver goods and materials to the different parts of the agglomeration as well as to send the finished products to the customers outside of the Donetsk region.
SMEs vs Big Factories Large factories were the economical basis of Kramatorsk for ages. Several of them are still proud to be â€œthe city-forming enterprisesâ€?. They were the main employers of the city,
the average salary at the plants was high, the biggest part of the small businesses and workers revolved around the factories. But, at the same time, this strategy led to the narrowing of the focus and specialization of the city and even of the whole region, as well as it led to the lack of competition and innovations. And the lack of innovations leads to the decay and destruction. What happens to the city that entirely relies on the same employer and taxpayer in the event of his death? Economic collapse. This is what happened to Kramatorsk. Now, in (post)-industrial Kramatorsk, there is a need for small and
medium business to grow. Why? Firstly, - start-ups, creative and smart self-employment people are the innovators in todayâ€™s economy. Secondly, it is always a good idea to put your eggs into the different baskets. In terms of Kramatorsk, it means to shift from heavy machine production to the manufacturing of goods, development of services for citizens and growth of the IT sector. The multifunctional city, where specific sphere may have a crisis, will be shaken a bit, but stable enough because of a variety of businesses and services on which it can rely.
Vision: Kramatorsk is a resilient economic HUB of the region, based on the diversity and innovations 189
ECONOMICS, ENVIRONMENT & INFRASTRUCTURE
Kate Kaminskaia, Julia Porkhun, Niemtsov Anatolii, Olga Gubynska , Maria Smirnova, Vladyslav Doroshenko
Statement The key pillars of life quality in the city are safe and attractive environment with variety of public spaces, residential arrays, services, job opportunities and their accessibility. Safe and attractive environment is achieved by transparent and ethic relationships between businesses, citizens and nature. Diversification of work and leisure places is ensured by increasing amount and quality of local businesses and elaborated service network. Accesses to hard and soft infrastructure are provided by their reasonable implementation.
Strategy goals #1 Production in Kramatorsk agglomera-
tion is competitive on different levels.
Policy #1 Quality of goods, produced in Kramatorsk is achieved through the knowledge of modern production technology, high-quality design, compliance with Ukrainian and global standards. Policy #2 New local companies and co-operatives appear in the linear progression. Policy #3 Producers of Kramatorsk agglomeration are competitive on the price of goods, using the advantages of the region. Policy #4 Innovations and changes according to trends support the competitiveness of the producers
#2 Business diversity in the city is based on
the existing resources and creates a wide range of job opportunities. This brings the diversity in the cityâ€™s manufacturing focus.
#3 Green approach is an integral part of the industry and daily life of the city
Principle#1 Decrease of the anthropogenic impact on environment and pollution prevention. Principle#2 Improvement of the quality of transport infrastructure. Principle#3 Creation of the educational infrastructure in the field of environmental studies. Policy#1 The program for the reduction of air pollution Policy#2 The program for the improvement of water quality and creation of green network. Policy#3 The program of environmental protection.
#4 Accessability of city centers Principle #1 Transit. Principle #2 Connectivity. Principle #3 Attraction.
Source: Christchurch Blueprint 100 by Woods Bagot, Christchurch, New Zealand
Businnes cooperation for finding new martets
Goal#1: Small and medium producers OF Kramatorsk agglomeration are competitive on different levels
‘‘The phisical size of a region is less important than the potential density of human cooperation and the pride of belonging’’, - Bernard Lietaer
For decades producers from Kramatorsk agglomeration have been selling products to Russia. In most cases, there were no quality requirements to the items as well as there was no competition between producers. The new reality has appeared after the war had started and industrial decline. Now, companies are searching for the new markets for their products, which require higher level of quality, nice packaging, good customer support, upto-date design of the products. Now is the very moment to unite forces to achieve the common goal of businesses for Kramatorsk agglomeration. 192
Produced in Slaviansk
Competitiveness of companies in Kramatorsk is based on the following advantages: - The quality of produced goods. - Tight cooperation of companies, that produce similar goods and cooperate with each other. - Prices of labour, production spaces, and materials. - Innovations and continuing changes according to trends.
The competitiveness leads to the following results: Businesses in Kramatorsk are competitive on the lev194
el of the city and agglomeration. The competition between each other motivates them to provide services of a good quality for citizens, keeping prices on the reasonable level. Cities within the agglomeration are self-reliant in terms of economy but complement each other. There is a developed network of inner import and export of semi-products, raw materials, items and other things between Kramatorsk, Druzhkivka, Kostiantynivka, Slaviansk, Lyman, Sviatohirsk, Chasiv Iar, Oleksiievo-Druzhkivka, Mykolaiivka, Donetske. At agglomeration, Kramatorsk is a role-model of making the city economy effective. Companies in Kramatorsk and agglomeration are now small and flexible. The influence of the big industry on the city and the monopoly (in goods production) has faded away. That allows SMEs to fill the available space and to compete with each other rather than try to push the monopolist with-
out any effect. On the example of ceramic producers from Slovyansk and from Kramatorsk, citizens start to create cooperatives of their own, to improve marketing, sales dynamic and quality of their goods with an innovative approach. Businesses in the city are working on the improvement of the quality of products continuously, as they see the quality of their products as one of the most important factors of being competitive with others at different levels. Goods, produced on the territory of Kramatorsk agglomeration are being sold successfully in the different parts of Ukraine. Producers from Donetsk region are well-known on the national fairs such as Sorochintsy Fair. The Donetsk region has its own fair of national value.
eration have the certification and are exported to Poland, Hungary, Romania, Moldova and Georgia. A lot of manufacturers in Kramatorsk produce new types of items, which are needed for the mass market of Ukraine and several neighbor countries. The quality of clientâ€™s service is really important for the new producers, thatâ€™s why a call center appears in Kramatorsk, that works with several companies simultaneously.
The quality of produced goods is approved by the certification. The goods, that are produced in Kramatorsk agglom-
Policies #1 Quality of goods, produced in Kramatorsk, is achieved through the knowledge of modern production technology, high-quality design, compliance with Ukrainian and global standards From the very beginning quality changes can be supported by the special agencies. The aim of such structures is to show gap between the level of required quality and the quality of existing goods. Main clients, who can change the quality and are interested in new customers finding, are existing SMEs. With the success stories of quality raising and sales increasing because of it, new agencies will appear. The story of the Italian region Emilia-Romagna development shows how this idea can work.
Quality Agency Quality agency is an independent non-governmental organization, which provides consultancy about the quality for small companies. Services of this agency are free for the companies, where less than 20 people work. Specialization of the agency: wood, metal, glass and ceramic manufacture. This organization could be a common project of the city council and foreign grant organization. 5 people are needed for the first team. They could be chosen through the open contest in Ukraine with a help of the contest commission. The contest commission consists of grant organization members, government authorities, heads of NGOs and activists from factories. Candidates could be the following: former engineers from the factories, specialists from the different parts of Ukraine and even graduates from abroad. Tasks for the Quality Agency are following: •• Be an expert in the quality standards (metal, ceramics, wood manufacture, etc) •• Review applications from the firms and cooperatives. •• Make the overview of the chosen firms. •• Write the list of the recommendations to the company, which was observed in two weeks term. These recommendations should be based on the
comparison of the existing products and (inter) national standards. •• Provide consultancy about the implementation of improvements. The list of recommendations could be the basis for the participation in the grant program or government program. For those firms, who will successfully increase the quality of their products, yearly taxes will be returned.
#2 New local companies and co-operatives appear in the linear progression
New companies are supported by: - Government credit programs with low rates; - Programs of small grants from UNPD and WNISEF; - Governmental and non-governmental educational programs. After the successes of the existing manufacturers, a bigger interest in entrepreneurship and self-employmen is expected t in the city. They can use various opportunities to get the knowledge about the entrepreneurship education. From our point of view, the most promising idea is to develop family-based businesses and co-operatives.
Why cooperatives should be started? The idea of cooperatives network creation in the city covers both the goal about the diversity and the goal of competitive businesses. Creating a business network, where people will learn from each other’s experiences, will pursue the rise in the quality of manufactured goods and services. And, as was described above, quality is one of the fundamental pillars of being competitive. In a case of Kramatorsk, there is a lot of potential in the people in terms of new ideas and entrepreneurial spirit, but maybe, there is not enough communication between them to share and develop their ideas. That’s why a rise of communication and networking level in the city and region is an important task. There is enough knowledge and professionals to produce quality goods and provide various services in the region. But to transform this assumptions into reality, they need to be properly connected. “The social (or cooperative or solidarity) economy is made up of organisations that put co-operation, community, diversity, and inclusiveness at the centre of their activities whilst operating professionally in the mainstream market. This is a new enterprise model that closes the gap between two apparently incompatible principles: social responsibility and the demands of the market economy. They enhance social capital by harnessing financial capital to meet local needs and create the development with a human face to balance the predominant current of globalisation.” , - Margrit Kennedy, Bernard A. Lietaer, John Rogers
Principles of cooperative Cooperative should be an open organization: - Each worker, who has applicable skills and is willing to be a part of cooperative can become a member; - There are clear rules, how to become a member of the cooperative; - Cooperative signs an agreement on rights and responsibilities for each member (job offer).
- Defined part of the profit is put each month in the budget of the organization. Education inside of the cooperative: - People continuously improve their knowledge, participate in the training, seminars, courses; - Representatives of the cooperative teach people from the different departments; - The cooperative disseminates knowledge about the privileges of self-employment. Autonomy of cooperatives: - Relations with the government are coordinated by whole cooperative through the democratic voting; - To raise a capital from the outside is a decision of the members of the cooperative. In any case, cooperatives don’t depend on the decisions from the outside. Development of the cooperatives would be beneficial for both: people and cities in the agglomeration.
Why would it be beneficial for the people? - People will share their risks with the community in the cooperative. If it’s scary to open an own business, it is safer to do it with several like-minded people. Potential money loss is way lower. - Possibility to influence the income. People who are highly motivated if their efforts can lead to the better material wealth. - Learning from the shared experience. If there are several people in one cooperative with the similar background, they could teach each other about their previous experience. Sharing about experiences between different producers or even different cooperatives could be even more beneficial.
Why is it important for the region? - Ensuring the implementation of innovations.The probability of small but continuous innovations inside the cooperative is higher than in a classic firm, because of cooperative’s horizontal structure. In other words, each worker, who has an idea on how to improve production line or design of the product, can tell about it at the general meeting, because he has a right to it and members can support his idea by voting. - Inclusiveness of different social groups. According to the principle of openness and based on the social responsibility of the cooperative, this type of organisation accepts
Cooperative is controlled by its members - Each person in cooperative can participate in voting (1 vote = 1 member). Sharing of economic benefits: - Each member contributes capital equally; - Cooperative has a common property; - The profit is divided among members according to their contribution;
Possible location of Quality Agency
people without gender, social, racial, political or religious discrimination; - The usage of expensive services. Such services as market research, marketing, quality control could be too pricey, but if 10 producers of the same goods will share the cost of services, they become affordable. - The growth of competitive business in the region.
How can they operate? It is presumed that several types of cooperatives will appear: - Production cooperatives - Non production cooperative - Non profit cooperative
Non profit cooperative One of the main goals of this cooperative is to improve the quality of goods, which are produced in Kramatorsk agglomeration. Sevices: •• Consultancy about certification •• Analytics for the effectiveness of the factory •• Analysis of technologies used on the production with the involvement of international experts. Recommendations on the new technologies. This cooperative produces yearly/monthly reports, with information about the enterprises growth.
Cooperative bakery Several women started the cooperative, that bakes cakes. Their team consists of 4 professional bakers and one accountant. They agreed to create a cooperative because they had the same amount of money and time, also, they wanted to share the responsibility. They created list of works, they need to do: •• •• •• •• ••
Bake Deliver Promote Take orders Hand over accounting reports
Future plans include: •• Master classes •• Open bakery at the center of the city Principles on which cooperative works: •• All 5 women work on the daily basis in the company. They share duties. The same person takes orders and hands over accounting reports. One of the bakers takes orders from the kitchens and deliver them to the clients. •• Each of them put a certain amount of money in their business. •• Profit is distributed equally •• Each month 20% of profit is added for the scaling and improving business until they open the bakery in the center of the city.
Association of Producers in Kramatorsk agglomeration After the several years of the development of cooperatives and SMEs in Kramatorsk agglomeration entrepreneurs will learn a lot about the strength of cooperation. Producers of ceramic goods, glass, metal construction and wooden furniture will grow their businesses and decide to make an Association of Producers in Kramatorsk agglomeration. There are four different associations on the territory of the agglomeration, of united with each other manufacturers, based on the materials they use for the production.
cooperation with international delivery companies. It is also important to improve the quality of the goods and create the system for a continuous quality check. It will be the function of the Quality Company, which will have the laboratory and will be employed by the company. All materials, which will be used by producers, will be checked as well as produced goods. - To increase sales of the products and make a system of the product assortment update. Sales & Marketing company should find new markets, new clients, provide customer support and analyse trends for the assortment change.
The goals of the association are following: - To build the internet platform. It will be created and supported by the IT company, which will get money from the Association. Through this platform, they will sell their goods and get new partners and investors. The part of the platform will be filled with the information, useful for people who want to become an entrepreneur and for existing producers. Analytical articles, success stories, new Ukrainian laws, list of exhibitions and study programs. - To improve logistics of materials transportation for production and delivery of the goods to the clients worldwide. A Logistics Company will be created to meet this goal. It is the company, that works with the existing companies inside the association. For the small producers, transport logistics can be complicated and costly. Thatâ€™s why Logistics Company packages and deliver goods of the different companies together to the most popular destinations. Also, this company will negotiate discounts and special conditions of
Factory shop in Druzhkivka
#3 Producers in Kramatorsk agglomeration Have competitive priceS, DUE TO THE advantages of the region It is supported by: - Local materials, like wood, chalk, clay, and metal. The biggest part of the materials is mined on the territory of agglomeration. - Qualified unemployed people. After the decline in machine building industry and after the beginning of the military conflict, a lot of people have lost their jobs. Thatâ€™s why it is still possible to hire a qualified professional for an average salary.
#4 Innovations and changes according to the trends support the competitiveness of the producers Innovations and changes are supported by: - Marketing & Sales companies continuously make research for their cooperatives and small businesses. Public reports are published on the Internet platform. - The analytic agency helps producers to define, which goods should be produced next and which are not popular and profitable at all. - Kreator works with small businesses on the design, prototyping and education.
CASE reference The Emilian Model - Profile of a Co-operative Economy Location: Emilia-Romagna, Italy
Challenges In 1970, Emilia-Romagna was near the bottom of Italy’s 20 regions in terms of economic performance. Emilia Romagna is well known as the “red belt” of Italy because of its unbroken succession of communist and social democratic administrations which have governed the region since the second world war. And historically, Bologna had always been a center of political and civil opposition to the authoritarian traditions of the monarchy and the papacy.
Vision The Emilian Model primarily refers to the region’s diverse entrepreneurial structure, and its systems of co-operative relations support among small firms of the local production systems that waork for the global markets. It must be admitted taht small firms, working in the co-operative networks within the industrial districts are the keys to the Emilian economy. An important fact is that the policies of the Region government actively promote co-operative relations among firms.
Policies - Create small service centers for research & development, education & training, marketing & distribution, financing, technology transfer, workplace safety, environmental regulation, and a host of other services that help small and medium sized firms to compete in a global marketplace. Originally developed with the support of the regional government, these service centres concentrate on providing highly targeted business services to small firms in key sectors such as textiles, footwear, ceramics, building, and agricultural machinery. What all these centres have in common is that they replicate the advantages of large corporate structures for the collection and application of global knowledge for the production, while maintaining the strengths which are unique to small enterprise. - Build Manufacturing Networks. Flexible manufacturing networks refer to a set of relationships that link small firms together in cooperative production systems. Typically located in industrial districts, these networks again replicate the strengths of large corporate structures in production systems which maintain the scale, independence, flexibility, innovation, and specialization of small firms.
of Emilia-Romagna are aggressively entrepreneurial with a gift for cultivating and enjoying the fine food, clothing, and material goods that provide them with one of the most enviable standards of living in the world. What has been the most remarkable, however, is the capacity of this North Italian brand of civil social democracy to transform the philosophical and operational character of the industrial firm by merging the values of civil society and community with the industrial requirements of small firm capitalism. Just as importantly, however, the experience of Emilia-Romagna holds fundamental lessons for the future evolution of civil society in industrialized economies..
Relevance to Kramatorsk From our point of view, the situation in Kramatorsk agglomeration is similar to the Italian case, for several reasons. First of all, it’s communist past and a mentality of the region. Second is the industrial experience, which people have. The third similarity is the hard economic situation in the region after the decline of the big industry. We believe, that by using the experience of EmiliaRomagna with some altering to the Ukrainian reality, businesses in Kramatorsk agglomeration could be successful, well known and competitive.
Achieved results Today, the economic performance of Emilia-Romagna is ranked as the first in Italy. The region also is ranked to be the 10th of the European Union’s 122 economic regions, and its unemployment rate is lower in only 7 other European regions. Its income per capita is 30% higher than the national average and 27.6% higher than the EU average. The people
Goal#2: Business diversity in the city is based on THE existing resources and creates a wide range of job opportunities
Intro The condition of industry in Kramatorsk is now very unhealthy in terms of economic sustainability. Most of the big plants are subsidized by the state, and that is the exact opposite of the competitive and diverse city economy. The industry, without the support from the state, would have collapsed years ago. However, it continues to produce non-competitive, low-quality goods (due to the financial crisis, the equipment is far from up-to-date; the workers do not show their full potential due to an outdated education they were given). Maybe, the situation would not be so fatal if the management personnel was innovative, but it is a weakness on the most of the plants, too. The only way for the industry to continue its existence as such a big sector of city’s economy is to have huge orders for production from the state, and this is an impossible scenario - the state does not need such an amount of the product and cannot subsidize unprofitable industry continuously. Diversity in businesses is a leading point for a competitive business environment to develop. On the other hand, competitiveness pushes entrepreneurs to create new ideas and
‘“The problem is, the present model of industrial production is about as sustainable as the Titanic.“ 
implement them in a form of new products or even brandnew business start-ups. It is hard to say which should appear first, and the one concept cannot survive without another. It is for you to decide what was the ‘chicken’ or the ‘egg’ in this magic circle [fairy ring].
WHY Diversification? “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket”
The reason for the diversification strategy proposal for the Kramatorsk businesses is to reduce the risks for the city’s economy. Making a shift from the big industry towards the small and medium enterprises has a lot of advantages: small businesses are flexible, fast in meeting local needs and do not require big capital or other resources for the start. They have lower overhead costs and are fast at the start and at becoming profitable.
Diversity or competitivness what was first?
3 If the monopoly Company in the city decays - city may have almost nothing to rely on
The better way for the cityâ€™s economy IS to be resilient - to have a lot of small and medium enterprises to rely on
Even if some of them could not resist THE economic crisis and disappear, there are still other economical structures for the city to count on
Spatial proposal The position of the industry in Kramatorsk is telling us a lot - it is situated just in the “heart” of the city. In the future, to support the goal of city economy diversification, the spatial organization of the manufacturing and business districts should be re-think. The idea behind proposed zoning is to [re]use the existing recourses of the city in a new way, which would be more suitable for contemporary needs. The first recourse to be reused is the empty buildings along with the vacant territory, suitable for the manufacturing. New functions will gradually appear in the ‘industrial zone’ of the city - offices, small manufacturing enterprises, places for the active rest, coworking places, places for trade and places for leisure. The concept of existing buildings use is based on the efficient and smart use of the resources we already have. Moreover, the city does
not need the new construction due to the fact of population density in the relation to available spaces. In the next decade, until 2025 approximately, the focus of this spatial reorganization will be the center of the city because the population density on the outskirts is not high enough to fulfill the proper functioning of the new places. Later on, the city will develop, spreading the activity not only in the downtown. As a result, the new small manufacturing zones and business districts will appear in other parts of the city..
Policies Considering the fact of industry decline, the idea to diversify the city’s economy should be an immediate response. The city was focused on manufacturing from the very beginning, so the emphasis should be not only on the diversification of service businesses (which are undeveloped in Kramatorsk) but on the diversity creation in the manufac-
turing. The scenario of the strategic goal will be started from â€œsmall stepsâ€? and something familiar for the city, which is the manufacturing. The existing monopolistic manufacture, which, due to its narrow focus, is really inflexible, will evolve into a variety of manufactures with a wide range of goods produced.
Levels of diversification:
For the existing companies which struggle to find new customers on the fastly changing market, innovations should be implemented. Manufactures, which are gaining some profit but need to modernize, need an internal diversification.
- Flexibility; - Novelity; - Diversity; - Resilience; - Feasibility [attainability].
Drivers: - Re-thinked traditional manufacturing; - Small-scale manufacturing with up-to-date design and technology; - Multilayered approach to support the business environment in the city.
- Production diversification the of existing companies within the current range of products; - Adding new types of product lines to the existing companies.
- New businesses creation [Start-ups incubation] City has a apotential to make a shift from the monopolist industry to the the small-scale local manufactures which is run by ordinary citizens, possibly even the former big plant workers. In a region there is a lot of raw materials available, vacant places within the plantsâ€™ territory or in the ordinary buildings, and all of that for the comparatively low price. Moreover, the labor force in the region is inexpensive, and there is a lot of vacant niches on the market. - Workforce diversification
There are new people flows in the city and in the agglomeration, as a result of the internally displaced people coming in. These people are the opportunity to diversify the range of specialists in the city. Guided in the right direction, it is also a possibility to innovate existing and create new businesses.
diversification Steps within the timeline: - Existing manufacturing centers diversification; - Innovations; - Trends analysis. Most of the cityâ€™s manufacturing places can not follow the innovative trends as they appear. The problem is the lack of information about the new trends. To supplement the emersion of the innovations in the manufacturing, an analytical base, focused on research and business analysis 208
will be created. The analytical base will be a combination of an analytical institution (created by a group of concerned people - a cooperative, with grant funding, plus co-funding, plus governmental funding), internet platform (a virtual user-friendly information center, managed by an analytical institution) and an analytical network of experts (local analysts will facilitate the international expertsâ€™ consulting on the enterprises in the region) As a result of strong analytical base existing in the region, the manufacturers and other businesses will be up-todate with new trends and needs of a contemporary society by; - Bringing the diversity in the cityâ€™s manufacturing focus; - Encouraging appearance of the new types of manufacturing places; - Creating combinations of manufacturing places. As it was already stated, businesses diversification is the main goal for the resilient economy creation in the city. The
task of the city should be a good conditions creation for the small manufacturing enterprises to appear and to grow.
help on the first phase of an idea forming into a prototype and, if you have a product to sell, with marketing tools.
The new businesses will appear in the places with a certain kind of infrastructure - soft (social) and/or hard (physical places). For the incubation of new business ideas and successful implementation of start-ups and profitable companies, a network of physical places should be created.
Starting from two places like this, the diversity of city businesses will rise - these physical places will not only perform their feasible functions, but they will build communities and develop networks of active people.
In order to achieve a tactical goal, a combination of places will be created - a “creative office” and an “industrial co-working” . The industrial co-working will be an example of the place where manufacturers can connect, cooperate and create new types of products. The creative office will
In a decade, approximately in 2025-2030, the network of small manufacturers is expected to grow bigger. It will start from the craftsmen and producers joining forces to create co-operatives for the more sophisticated products production, as the needs of the local and global market are very fast to change.
Timeline of Kreator and Konstructor developMENT
Tactical intervention TOR HUB is a tactical project to develop an innovative infrastructure for the small and medium entrepreneurs, who will produce different goods, as a part of the strategy to diversify businesses in Kramatorsk and Donetsk region. The project is based on the idea of creating a several types of work spaces. There, new or existing producers will get a help with the development of their ideas or production of the small consignments of goods using the capacity of the spaces with machinery equipment. In Kramatorsk, there are already many people with technical skills, who can easily make goods with their hands using special tools/machines. The aim of our intervention is to help existing manufacturers to become more innovative and increase their earnings. At the same time, a big challenge is to teach people who used to be workers to become self-efficient producers and open their own business. During 5 years (2016-2021) basic structure of the TOR HUB will be created. TOR NGO will be 210
responsible for the HUB creation and development. TOR HUB basic structure will consist of: - CreaTOR Space; - ConstrucTOR Factory. Actors. Often, just one person is behind the innovative initiatives. A leader should be found in order to unite active people and entrepreneurs around the idea to build a HUB - a physical infrastructure, and to create TOR NGO, as a strong community for the small-scale and diverse manufacturers. This person could be found in the existing Entrepreneurs club, from the recent graduates, it can be also a proactive displaced person. The core of TOR NGO could be: - young people(graduates); - small-scale manufacturers, who make their products in small studios or at home; - people, who applied to UNDP program for small grants to develop their business idea; - representatives from international funds; - A CANactor.
Services Each day marketing consultancy for entrepreneurs is opened. For the new entrepreneurs, this service is free, for the existing businesses it will cost money. Graphic design of printed materials (business cards, packaging, flyers) is an another available service in the KreaTOR space. Furthermore, 3D designers could offer help for those people who want to put something completely new into the production and need a model developed for the equipment.
Spaces Free or low-cost events about entrepreneurship, business models, marketing, graphic design, world trends will take place in the main room of the KreaTOR, which could be used as a co-working during the day. A cafe will be a part of the space. It is an informal place for communication with a chance to buy coffee, tea or a quick snack. UA Shop is a part of the KreaTOR and occupies only one wall, where everybody could buy goods from ukrainian brands. The cafe and the UAShop will be a part of KreaTOR self-funding strategy.
Money KreaTOR space will be opened with money from the grant funding. Crowdfunding campaign and donations from existing entrepreneurs could be an alternative options. KreaTOR will be the first opened part of TOR HUB. Designer, manager, social media marketing specialist and copywriter will work in this space full time. We believe, that preparation and opening will take approximately 1 year.
The KreaTOR is a platform for the people who has an idea to make a business but donâ€™t know where to start and for those entrepreneurs who want to add some innovations into the [post]production process (package design, catalogs, booklets, websites, etc) This space will be situated at the center of the city, near the universities and on the way to crowded and popular places.
KonstrucTOR KonstrucTOR is a [post] factory space for manufacturing. People The main activity of this place will be production. Here, a person with a prototype can make an order for the manufacturing of a certain amount of products, either rent a table at â€œindustrial coworkingâ€? zone to make a test line of products. For low cost, you can rent a place, place + equipment, place + equipment + employ qualified workers to help you. Space KonstrucTOR will capture a space within an old plant and will grow part by part. The idea is to create a multifunctional place for manufacturing, to implement a variety of ideas into solid products. Partly, a range of equipment will be fulfilled from the refurbished machinery of the old plants. It will be supplemented by innovative additions
for the functioning according to the modern standards. The small manufacturing places growth can start from places with most popular materials - wood workshop, metal craft-space, ceramic, etc. The warehouse of produced goods and the storage of materials will be minimized by the reason of a good virtual logistic platform. Services A virtual platform of KonstrucTOR will allow entrepreneurs to employ different kinds of specialists, and through the time, the network of employees will grow. This will be an important possibility for the unemployed and underemployed people of the city. Money KonstrucTOR costs will be based on the cooperative funding.
Scenarios The network of places, which will start from the KreaTOR space and the KonstrucTOR factory aimed to help different kinds of people on different stages of development their business. Scenatios are created to walk you through a couple of possible stories happening in the future “incubator” places, even though all kinds of diffent interactions are possible.
in the world. Friends praised Julia’s talent, but only three of them bought the nice jewelry.
Now, let’s see how all this theory can work in reality when using the KreaTOR space.
Julia doesn’t know how to move her small business further and how to make it successful. But Julia is a persistent and purposeful person, she is opened for the new knowledge, good articles and advice, and she is an active user of the internet and social networks. Once an event “How to promote your handmade goods and make it a good money” appeared in the facebook news feed. [a] KreaTOR - a place in the center of the Kramatorsk was mentioned as a location, and a speaker was a woman from Lviv, well known for her glass decorations production. The lecture was free, just online registration was needed. It was a fate.
Meet Julia, she is a young and creative girl. She lives in Kramatorsk, studies architecture and has started to make jewelry by herself. The jewelry is very special, it’s made from concrete and has no analogies in Ukraine and maybe, even
During the lecture, Julia has heard a lot of inspirational jewelry and has got a big list of internet platforms for the handmade goods selling. Later on, she made a conclusion that she was never interested in the fairs outside of
Kramatorsk, even though it is a good opportunity to sell jewelry. Unexpectedly, Julia has found a lot of craftsmen from her city at one place, specialized in the wooden furniture, lamps from metal, ceramic dishes, painted gingerbread, etc. How various and good-looking are products, made in Kramatorsk! The rest of the evening Julia has spent talking to the craftsmen from Lviv and different producers in the KreaTOR cafe.
goals #1&2 Timeline
As a bonus from the KreaTOR, she has received a certificate for the logo design and printing of trial line of tags with 50% off. It became clear that jewelry made by Julia is really good, - but almost nobody knows about it by now. The problem with marketing and sales is a well-known problem of craftsmen from Kramatorsk as well. When they understood this problem, they connected into the Craft community- a kind of cooperative. They meet in the Kreator for discussions and lectures, and at the same time, they communicate through the Internet. Now, Julia is successfully selling her products on Instagram and facebook. Her products are well known at the fairs in Lviv, Odessa, Kyiv and neighbor Slavic countries. She is studying English, to sell products on the Etsy and Ebay. Almost each week she attends new events, receiving email newsletters. In addition to printed materials Julia has ordered a landing web page for her brand in KreaTOR, UI, web-designers and programmers work there as well. By the way, next week, she will tell her success story for the newbies. Be an entrepreneur. Be like Julia.
Scenario#2 This story is about a young guy and his experience with the KonstrucTOR space. This is Alex. He works as programmer and lives in Kiev. Alex has never produced physical goods, but he has always dreamed about his own furniture studio. His girlfriend, a designer, has helped him to prepare 3d models and design of tables and chairs, but he has no idea where to start a production. He thinks about the work with a factory in Poland, just because his acquaintance works at it. Another idea is to order a prototype of furniture pieces from China, just because you can order everything from China. However, it would be definitely better to produce his furniture in Ukraine. He has read a successful story about a girl from the Zhytomyr , Alina, in the popular online media. She has started the production of cool configurable wooden shelves somewhere in the East of Ukraine. This story was unusual. It was hard to imagine that the Ukrainian plant can be so customer-oriented and technically innovative. Alina has sent the request, filling the on-line form on the site. At the same day manager from the plant has contacted her and explained, that her next step will be - a creation of the prototype of her shelf. One item will cost quite a lot, but if the result will meet her expectations, a line of the shelves will cost less. Alina has paid a preliminary payment for the prototype and received a carefully packed shelf in two weeks. During those two weeks, each time when the order has been changing the status (pending, in work, finished, sent) Alina has received a 214
notification. She has been aware each day where is her order now. Automated accounting system of the order is a big plus as well as a compliance with the deadline. Quality was good enough and Alina has shown the shelf for the several potential customers - shops of wooden furniture and decor in Lviv. She got 5 big orders and signed a contract with “KonstrucTOR” plant, innovative production center in East Ukraine. It seems like nothing special. The same system is working in China for a decade! But it is something totally new for Ukraine. It sounds like work with “KonstrucTOR” will be much more comfortable for Alex: delivery takes less time, labor costs less money, communication is easier and a manager is reachable not only through email but through different chats and mobile phone as well.
Scenario#3 Our both projects, meaning KonstrucTOR space and KreaTOR space can and will cooperate. And here comes Julia again! After a year of successfull concrete jewelry sales, she decides to develop something bigger. Her aim now is to make interior decor products and furniture from concrete. She already has ideas of design and now she has a 3d-modeler, helping her with digitalizing her ideas for productuction. She can invest some money in the production. For that, she needs a space for production, equipment to automate the production and several people to help her. Opportunities for this ambitious plan can be found at the “KonstrucTOR” plant. The people she employs are former plant workers. To produce concrete furniture, you need an experience with
building materials and equipment. The former plant workers, after acknowledging with a new technologies, are just the right people to employ to work with the KonstrucTOR equipment. To make some supplementary details for thefurniture, cushions or coverings, Julia employs several old ladies [b] who are incredibly good at knitting. Lighting fixtures from concrete, as well as vases and bowls will be perfectly complemented with knitted and sewed decorative components. [a] “TOR” in the names of the spaces are associated with an old name of the city’s river - Tor (now - Kazennyi Torets) [b] this is mentioned not as an age and gender discrimination, but to show how the principle of employing people in KonstrucTOR can work with people from different social groups. 215
EXtending SERVICES In a decade, when small and medium businesses in the city will rise in quantity and quality together with the creation of workplaces along this way, it is expected that the quality of life and purchasing power of citizens will raise. The mechanism is simple: a creation of the good business climate in the city will be a push for the new manufacturers (or enterprises in general) to start or to cooperate. After several years, success stories will spread around the city and trigger a lot more SMEs to start and develop. Creation of new workplaces and an increase in household incomes will occur as a result of developed network of SMEs and cooperatives in the city. The economy of the city will be much more resilient and flexible than it was during the times of dependence on one big [shrinking] industry. The decade of prosperous small and medium manufac216
turing businesses in the city and higher purchasing power will also result in a development of service businesses. The raising quality and comparatively low prices will make service and leisure places affordable for the citizens. When the basic needs of people will be satisfied, the result can be fascinating for the city - people will invest money in better education, business will invest money into city development projects, to attract customers and make their production ecologically sufficient. Moreover, the small local businesses that totally fulfill local needs will reduce distances between â€œproduction and consumptionâ€? and home-to-work migration, which is good for citizens and the environment. Kramatorsk will be a role model for the cities in the region, which, in future, will connect into a networking business region, based on diversity and cooperation.
internet platform The internet platform will be an essential part of both goals. It will fulfill the open niche of information lack [or the complexity of representation of this info, or difficulties to find it] about registering your own business, making your product competitive, sales and marketing tools, trends in entrepreneurship, etc. All of the information on the internet platform will be connected with a local context, or will have similarities and relevance to it. Another part of it will be a success stories part and statistic, to show how starting a business can work in the future. The part of this platform to be developed in a couple of years from the beginning is a local crowd-funding for the new start-ups or city improvement projects.
Jackson Appleton Middlesex Urban Revitalization and Development Project Location: Lowell, Massachusetts, United States Time horizon: Several years, 2001 Recipient: Lowell City Council
Challenges In 1825 a work was initiated on the Hamilton Canal which left Swamp Locks Basin and ran parallel to the Lower Pawtucket Canal. The Hamilton Manufacturing Company built its mills on the strip of land between these two canals. For years, the vicinity of the Pawtucket Canal has been a subject of the changing development trends. In the 1940s, Freudenberg Nonwovens located its first textile operations in the U.S. at the site of the former Lowell Machine Shop. Over the decades, the company has expanded and contracted, moving several facilities to the South, but now looking to expand. The redevelopment of Canal Place created over 150 residential condominiums, however, the collapse of the real estate market in the late eighties stalled the final phase. Actual problems of the industrial territory are: - Barriers created by the canals; - Poor traffic circulation, lack of access to the industrial peninsula, inadequate parking; - Blighted and abandoned buildings; - Challenges of adaptive reuse to meet current space demands; - Inappropriate â€œmodernâ€? facades on newer buildings.
Goals - To expand the tax base and create new jobs by providing sites for the commercial and industrial development. - To attract new businesses to the area by creating accessible development sites. - To provide incentives for the existing businesses to grow. - To create a safe, accessible, and aesthetically positive environment. - To remove obsolete, substandard and deteriorated buildings and other environmental conditions which are the factors in spreading blight and deterioration within the area and to adjacent areas. - To enhance the marketability and promote the development of under-utilized land in the area by assembling, re-parceling and subdivision of land. - To provide changes in land use to create a compatible mixture and clear pattern of mixed-use commercial, residential, and industrial activities. - To recognize and define major pedestrian access points to the Area and to provide safe connections to adjacent facilities and land uses.
Steps - To use large part of the Area for construction of public improvements and to assist private economic development; - Adoption of economic incentives throughout the Area; - Completion of public infrastructure improvements for traffic and public safety reasons; - Re-zoning of the Area to facilitate the removal of incompatible land use.
Assets - Redevelopment of the Appleton Mills complex to remove unsafe and unusable structures and create opportunities for the new development. Facilitate industrial expansion by providing structured parking. - New access road to service the Appleton Mills
complex. - Reconstruction of the existing bridges over the Hamilton Canal and Pawtucket Canals. - Clean-up and renovation of the â€œAssetâ€? Buildings, including the boiler house and coal pocket
Relevance to Kramatorsk
Industrial zone in Kramatorsk is large and situated right in the center of the city. The same situation is in Lowell.
- Urban renewal Area Boundary; - Existing land use; - Existing zoning; - Deficient buildings; - Proposed land use; - Proposed zoning.
Jackson Appleton Middlesex Urban Revitalization case is relevant to Kramatorsk not only because of Lowell industrial past but also visually and territorially.
The river flows along the industrial zone in Kramatorsk, while Appleton mills zone is surrounded by two channels. There are different owners of the land of industrial territory in the Kramatorsk, as well as it is in Lowell. The attraction of the businesses to the renewal area is a challenge for both.
Goal#3: Green approach is an integral part of the industry and daily life OF the city Green approach is a way of development, which can be created for the protection of the city, its vital ecosystem, replacement of the scarce resources by using executable sources. In addition, it helps to transform manufacturing and big industry sectors into sustainable development. To achieve this goal government and local administration need to implement special “green” laws in Ukraine, which will support improvement by using recourses effectively and minimizing hazardous emissions, regulating waste management. Education and informational programs for the higher awareness of the city population to take care of emissions reduction and fight for the clear production, sustainable development and integrated nature preservation in the region. Support of the “Green Industry” means promotion of sustainable patterns of production and consumption, i.e. patterns that are resource and energy efficient, low-carbon and low waste, non-polluting and safe, that produce responsibly managed throughout lifecycle products. The “Green Industry” agenda covers the “greening” of industries, under which all industries continuously improve their resource productivity and environmental performance. It also aims to create “green industries”, that deliver environmental goods and services in an industrial manner, including, for example, waste management and recycling services, renewable energy technologies, environmental analytical and advisory services.
GREEN WAY OF DEVELOPMENT Principle#1: anthropogenic impact Decreasement & pollution prevention Kramatorsk is the city with effective management in the field of environmental protection. Industry transforms into “green” with the new modernized equipment. The city uses new measuring instruments that monitors the quality of the environment. In addition, the city uses existing wind resources in the region to shift from coal energy, which heavily pollutes the air, to renewable energy resources. The industry has the opportunity to earn by selling additionally stored electricity, gained from the renewable resources. The “You think all factories have made this modernization? No. Two big factories still pollute the air… Our Ukrainian law in the protection of environment refers to the European standards. But indicators are not European, they exceed the norms. Our law has a system of fines, but due to Anti-Terrorist Operation, a moratorium is imposed on data monitoring. Our laboratory takes data every year and sends it to the sanitary-epidemic station”, - the expert from the laboratory that monitors air state.
Industry can benefit from a higher demand for the wind turbines in the region and the region will benefit substantial air improvement by decreasing energy production from coal. City council takes care that the existing regulations on environmental pollution will be implemented. Waste management is performed at the country level, among city officials and the citizens.
Principle#2: transport infrastructure QUALITY IMPROVEMENT The city controls emissions amount from cars on the Ordzhonikidze Street, vans use bypass road. A comfortable timetable of electric trains between cities is created, for the quick and easy movement of passengers. Creation of “green” infrastructure within agglomeration, to increase the popularity and to support of cycling transport.
Principle#3: Creation of THE educational infrastructure in the field of environmental studies Improvement and unification of access to education in the field of the environment through the development of appropriate infrastructure for the citizens. By increasing the educational level of the workers and creating new experts a level of awareness in the field of environment is raised.
Policies: By 2030, Kramatorsk is a role model for the further development of other Ukrainian cities in Donbas. It is a city with a high quality of life, healthy environment, developed transport infrastructure, good medical care. Due to the decentralization reform, the city is able to dispose of its finances. People are the main priority in the development of the city, that’s why higher social living standards are set through the improvement of soft and hard infrastructure, sports, culture infrastructure, a level of education in the field of the environment. Centralized management of waste makes the streets and parks clean, and recycling allows the city to earn money. Due to the favorable climate in the region, the city obtains electricity using the power of wind and sun. The stored energy is sold to other areas. Kramatorsk is the starting point of the Ukrainian industry transformation into the clean manufacturing without any harm to the environment.
Policy#1 The program for the reduction of air pollution In 1981, Ukraine has become a member of UNEP (United Nations Environment Program). Since that time Ukraine has had to start the process of human impact reduction on the environment. But due to the political and economical situation in the country, this process is not performed properly. Based on the United Nations (UN) and the UNEP programs, the UNIDO (United Nations of Industrial Development Organization) was created to support countries with developing economies. In 2009, Ukraine has become a part of its managing department. Since then, the country has launched the “National Clean Production Program”. The “Clean production” program implements set of measures aimed at reduction of industrial pollution through the efficient energy and natural resources use. The principal criterion of the project evaluation is to obtain explicit and measurable environmental effect. According to the World Economic Forum (WEF), during the last ten years, Ukraine has been stuck in the 70’s and 80’s positions of global competitiveness ranking. One of the factors that seriously limit the competitiveness of both individ-
ual enterprises and the economy as a whole is high energy and resource intensity of production processes in Ukraine. World Energy Council, which produces annual rankings of the sustainability of national energy systems, notes that the high level of consumption and volume of CO2 emissions remains a key threat to the Ukraininan energy security.  With the support of UNIDO, the Ministry of economic development and industry of Ukraine has developed an international project, which has been operating in Ukraine since 2013. It serves the purpose of competitiveness improvement of Ukrainian companies by reducing costs of energy and other resources without decrease of production volumes. In terms of active reforms in the country and the start of the program of decentralization, the city of Kramatorsk has the opportunity to improve its environment and to modernize the industry.
The slogan is simple: “Less pollution is beneficial” but it is possible only under the condition when “the polluter pays”. This principle is becoming increasingly important for the Ukrainian industry. At the governmental level “Strategy of State environmental policy of Ukraine till 2020” should be revised by taking into account the existing political situation. Ukrainian standards in the field of ecology need to be changed to meet the European (ISO 14001:2015 Environment Management Strategy). Regular testing of the factory territories on the amount of wastewater in the river needs to be recovered as well as the amount of air emissions and soil contamination by industrial waste. Sanctions against a source of pollution should be applied in the case of violations in the form of payments of high fines. If contamination occurs regularly, criminal proceedings should be instituted regarding the source of pollution. At the local level the program “improvement of the ecological state of atmospheric air in the city of Kramatorsk until 2015” needs to be revised and a new Program for the reduction of air pollution till 2030” is to be adopted.
International financial program on the transition of industry to the cleaner production really works in Ukraine. An example is the Kramatorsk factory Energomashspetsstal (EMSS). It has taken part in the international project UKR IEE UNIDO/GEF “Introduction of the systems of energy management in Ukraine”, whose goal is the introduction of energy management systems and efficient use of energy in industry. The early stage “Identification and awakening” (from 2016 to 2018), should identify the main sources of pollution now, by using State ecological Inspectorate tests. In the case of maximum permissible concentration excess, factories are obliged to pay fines according to the Ukrainian law and to conduct modernization of the equipment with the introduction of new technologies and energy efficiency
in production. All the data obtained about pollution needs to be systematized and published on the official city website Kramatorskinfo and www.6264.com.ua. It is necessary to increase awareness of the present ecological problems of the city. Only when people will see the results of the tests and who is the main polluter, they will become more active and can start to fight, write petitions against factories that pollute the environment, or to achieve for upgrading. Regular checks should be carried out once a year. Air quality must be checked each day using automatic equipment, which will transmit data to laboratory observers of pollution of atmospheric air and also the data should be published on the city’s website. It is also necessary to classify existing production in the city depending on their production volumes, income level, the number of employees, a level of pollution and the occupied territory. It is necessary for the further development of these industries. To increase the awareness of the citizens it is necessary to organize various events such as “Tree of peace” (planting trees) in parks regularly. Activities like “Ukraine without garbage” and “Subbotnik” (cleaning days) at the public places with the support of local environmental NGOs (Ecology of the industrial area, Vilna Khata, newspaper “Ecology of the industrial land”) and volunteers (local citizens). Master classes for the measurements of emissions into the atmosphere could also be conducted. In the palaces of cultural activities, influential Ukrainian ecologists will be reading lectures about the protection of the environment organized by “ТЕDx Ukraine” platform. Also it is necessary to create a “Public Inspection Service” formed of local citizens with the support from LEAP (Local Environmental Action Plans in Ukraine). That will help to get people to participate in caring for the environment by showing initiative and creating a new civil society. At the same time it aims to reduce corruption between the state inspection service and plants. “Identification” is a part of the first stage (from 2017 to 2018). It is the period of indication of the polluters and creation public discussions between local environmental organizations and local government. The main aim of the discussions is the adoption of measures regarding the sources of pollution and creation of a healthy competition among industries for the financial support for the modernization of its production. Through public discussions it is necessary to develop conditions of participation in this competition, create stages, which will describe its processes. A jury of the public discussions representatives and international experts from foreign financial companies should be formed. The results of public discussions will be published on the official city website and the website of the administration. This is needed to be done to receive feedbacks from the citizens. During the second stage “Forum” in 2018, it is necessary to hold an international conference “Green mind” (which is organized in Kiev since 2012) with the participation of representatives from the UNEP, the UNIDO, the GEF (Global Environmental Found), the NEFCO (Nordic Environment Financial Corporation) and the USAID. The aim of the conference is communication between representatives of international agencies with the heads of the industries of the city and the whole region, as well as familiarizing them with the
global trend of conversion into a green industry, reduction of emissions and effective management in the workplace. Also, the questions concerning the condition of the river in the city and its purification should be discussed on this forum. At the end of the conference, city and agglomeration industry representatives will be offered a program of financial aid: competent audit depending on the classification that was created earlier - this will be announced at the start of the competition. Companies that agree to participate in the competition will temporarily be exempted from the payment of fines. Those who refuse, continue to follow the classical scheme of “pollute - pay high fines“. The factories that agree to take part in the competition are required to provide the jury with data about production, according to the previously accepted classification. In the framework of the NEFCO, employees will be able to get training for improving qualification in the field of environmental protection. It is necessary to share new knowledge in order to raise professionalism among the staff. The factories that are not able to provide courses for their employees will be supported with foreign auditors, to identify the holes in the production system and calculate an effective transition to a cleaner production. In 2019 a preliminary announcement of the first results of the enterprises to reduce emissions and upgrade production is planned. Third stage “Review” in 2020, will be the new meeting of the jury and review of the official results. Representatives of the state ecological inspection and of the laboratory, monitoring the state of atmospheric air will be invited to conduct the inspection of production to the accuracy of the information. Inspection results will be published and presented to the jury. The obtained results will be divided into groups for the
first accrual financial assistance: The group “a” – so-called projects of prudent management, has to be implemented by the end of the Program on their own businesses. The group “b” – includes the list of economic and environmental priority projects cost, which the company may implement at its own expense. The group “c” – list of major project proposals that require external loans. The Ukrainian Energy Efficiency Program (UKEEP) is a credit line developed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) for private Ukrainian enterprises in all sectors of the economy, with the aim of investing in energy efficiency projects and renewable energy. This program can help to carry out the calculation of the business projects for implementation of energy efficient measures in manufacturing, using the support of international organizations. Thanks to the financial support, factories will be able to achieve the results of emission reduction much faster.
Dneprospetsstal, a factory in the city of Zaporozhe – leader in the special purpose steel items production of Ukraine, and has a staff of 6,200 employees. This factory is one of the participants of this program, thanks to which, the factory has purchased special equipment and significantly cut its electricity consumption and air emissions. After identification of leaders and handing out of financial assistance, the factories are obliged to publish reports monthly on the progress of modernization and the transition
Step by step transformation of the industry during 2016-2025
house in the bernardskiy park
to alternative energy sources on their official websites. Those factories which results are not effective will be forced to pay fines, in the amount of half of the official fines for the pollution and then they will be able to continue the competition. Stage “Almost “GREEN” in 2025 will end the competition. The final results are expected to be the significant changes in the state of the atmospheric air. The indicators should be under the norms or to match them. The leaders of the competition will be transformed into the “green industry”, and some will be at the stage of final transformation. Phase from 2025 to 2030 is the stage of final transition to the level of the green industry. The industrial zone will be opened to the public, unnecessary or empty areas will be able to change its functional purpose of enhancing economic attractiveness of the region.
Policy#2 The program of water quality improvement and creation of the green network The provision of public spaces in towns and cities includes landscape planning and creation of healthy ecosystems, which contribute to climate changes. This includes the provision of attractive open space systems in and around a city, the distribution, location of parks and green corridors, the greening of streets and public spaces. It is useful to develop a hierarchy of green areas with links between green courtyards, urban parks, and larger recreational areas. The diversification of production & reduction of industrial zones and the creation of cleaner production is a huge trend in many cities of the world. Kramatorsk was originally created as a “green city” with lots of green space. Green spaces are an important element of any urban environment, which, performs not only aesthetic but also sanitary and hygienic functions, due to their accumulating and insulating abilities. Creation of green zones in the city of Kramatorsk should be considered primarily as 224
a simple and effective tool for combating the adverse factors of anthropogenic impact on the living environment of the population of the city. The creation of the green network refers to the parks unification into a single green ensemble, with developed cycling infrastructure, new pedestrian corridors through the industrial area and the inclusion of the river into the city structure. This requires the development of a program of water purification. Today, there is a number of methods of wastewater reduction and removal. They can be divided into mechanical, chemical, physicochemical, biological and combined. The use of a particular method in each case depends on the nature of the contamination and the degree of harmfulness of impurities. Krivoi Torec, which carries the threat of chemical elements from Konstantinovka flows in the river of Kasennyj Torec that goes through Kramatorsk. Before the program of water cleaning according to the law of Ukraine starts, it is necessary to carry out an inspection to assess the current status of water in the river. After that, the process of water cleaning should be started at the agglomeration level. Only cooperation of all cities to improve the quality of the water, will be successful. The program can be implemented with the support of international organizations, such as the REC (Regional Environmental center), the GEF, the UNDP and the IHP (International Hydrological Program). The program of water quality improvement should occur in parallel with the program of emissions into the air reduction. The transformation of the industry into the clean production will reduce the amount of wastewater discharged into the river, thus reducing the anthropogenic impact. Creation of a natural drainage system with the help of a particular group of plants to absorb dangerous chemical elements in the water and thereby purify it. The process of water treatment is very long and is estimated for the period up to 2030. But the industry is not the only source of pollution of rivers in the region. The second source is people. Therefore, with the support of club entrepreneurs, local environmental organizations, it is necessary to conduct activities dedicated to the protection of water resources. At the moment, there is a reconstruction of the Bernad-
skiy park in Kramatorsk. The Bernadskiy park has appeared in Kramatorsk as the first park with a boat station. This park has served as a recreation place for the workers and their families. Over the time, the number of parks in the city has grown. With the appearance of the Jubilee park, the Bernadskiy past has lost its popularity and came into disrepair. Therefore, a comprehensive rehabilitation of this park will be very symbolic for the city. Local authorities promise to finish the construction by 2017. The program to improve water quality involves the creation of an open promenade along the river with small boat stations. There is an old abandoned house that one can reconstruct and create an educational center for the citizens, where parents and children will be able to obtain the necessary knowledge in the field of environmental protection. Another initiative is the competition for the embankment creation. This competition must be open, consisting of 2 stages. The first stage - competition of ideas among the
students of the architecture faculty of DONASA University for the new embankment, with the support of local authorities and entrepreneurs club of Kramatorsk. The winner of the first stage is to be selected in the open public discussions. As the place of meeting, NKMZ palace of culture and Palace of culture by Leonid Bykov can be used. The second stage is the competition between architecture companies. Companies that want to participate should create their projects of the new embankment, using the work of the winner from the first stage. The winner is determined at the second public discussions. The winner company, in collaboration with the winner of the first stage, creates a work project, and then with money from the budget of the city of Kramatorsk creates the embankment. According to this plan, the embankment can be built until the second half of 2018. The development of new public spaces along the river should be supported by the directors of the major factories: NKMZ, EMSS, Ferroalloy factory. The factories must give permission for the setup at their space. According to the ideas of
policy#3 timeline 226
industry transition to cleaner production, plants’ sites can be opened and people will be able to use the recreational area near the river. The road along the river already exists, so it simplifies the creation of a single embankment for the city. It is also necessary to provide the reconstruction of the old bridges over the river and the creation of the new pedestrian bridges.
The program of environmental protection includes prevention of the further unsustainable use of natural resources and changes in the atmosphere over the city. This program involves the successful improvement of energy efficiency for the residential homes (sustainable architecture), city and agglomeration centralized garbage sorting, and the transition to alternative energy sources.
During the reconstruction of the road which lies along the river, it is necessary to create special soundproof panels, which will protect houses from the noise of passing cars and trains. As there are some places, where the river is near the railway, it is necessary to provide special protective panels there, made of transparent material, to make people’s stay near the embankment safer.
Energy efficiency is an important part of the sustainable development. In terms of architecture, this means all the relevant aspects to be considered when planning, designing and constructing of all types of buildings. The adaptation of buildings to the microclimate, ground conditions and surrounding buildings, traffic systems and green areas is of major importance for the indoor and surrounding environment.
It is necessary to annually provide the measurements of river water quality and publish this material on the official city website.
Appropriate design and choice of materials and technical systems, especially for the heating and cooling, are the key aspects. The aim is to reduce the use of energy that is piped, wired and tracked into a city. Well-designed buildings need less cooling in hot climates and less heating in cold climates. In certain contexts zero-energy, passive energy (most traditional buildings) and even energy generating houses and buildings – so called ‘plus-buildings’ (e.g. solar-generated electricity that feeds back the grid) are possible.
Dams that are on the river, designed to protect the area from floods, need to be reconstructed. Especially The dam of Gabeliya, which is located on the river near Ferroalloy factory, that should meet the modern requirements. The last repair was carried out back in 2005, but because of aging, it can not cope with the task. It is necessary to prevent further destruction of the dam and flooding of the nearby territories.
Policy#3 The program of environmental protection 228
From February 2016 the program “Tepla oselia” has started in Ukraine, aimed at the energy efficiency. Under this program, the state partially compensates the loans taken in the bank for the house modernization. Due to the decentralization reform and the establishment of housing cooperatives, anyone can find a way of their homes upgrading. The first step is to conduct a comprehensive audit for the heat
loss. Then at the meeting of city council and social organizations, a common project for the municipal energy plan should be created, which would divide funds evenly between homes and public buildings. According to the â€œTepla oseliaâ€? program, where residents pay 30% and the state 70% of the funds amount spent on the energy saving measures. The residents of private houses can participate in grant programs for their houses modernization. 
Another step towards sustainable development is the use of alternative energy sources. The sustainable urban development also requires the provision of safe and affordable energy to all inhabitants at any time. Different technical solutions on the city, district, and household levels should be combined to create an efficient and resilient energy system, which increasingly uses renewable energy sources, to mitigate climate change and harmful local environmental impacts. Now the main source of energy for Kramatorsk is a heating power station, which is one of the main sources of CO2 pollution. In order to reduce the load on the heating power station, alternative energy sources should be developed. Since 2013, there has been a program funded by international organizations for the protection of the environment, which supports the development of alternative energy in Ukraine. Now in the Donetsk region in the town of Novoazovsk, a wind power plant works. It consists of 10 wind turbines with the height of 100 meters that supply 40 thousand homes. This year, the Fuhrlander factory intends to install more wind turbines between Belenkoe and the district of Yasnogorka. As Kramatorsk agglomeration possesses the big advantage over the Donetsk region because of strong prevailing winds, the city can get more energy.  The payback period of modern wind turbine takes approximately 5-7 years. The more wind turbines are used in the city, the more it reduces the load on the heating power station and reduces emissions.
Collaboration of environment protection mechanisms
Also, through international programs and government 229
support for the development of alternative energy, residents of private homes can get loans at low-interest rates, for the installation of solar panels on the roofs of their houses. It is also possible to get more energy for Kramatorsk from the sun. This refers to the amount of 175 days of the sunshine, which allows to accumulate energy from the sun and illuminate the city. Solar energy can be developed with the support from “Activ Solar” ( Austrian company, that has created the “Okhotnykovo Solar Park” in Crimea).
of the factories needs to be performed. Performing aforementioned programs by 2030, residents of Kramatorsk will be able to receive electricity from alternative sources, and reduce emissions from the heating power station to zero.
In order to reduce the concentration of CO2 in the air, it is necessary to reduce the performance of the source of these emissions. A city policy towards electric transport development is one of the ways that will reduce the amount of CO2 from the mobile sources. But in order to reduce hazardous impact from the stationary sources, a clear program of performance reduction of the heat power plant is needed. The transition to alternative energy sources will improve the situation. The city may also obtain additional heat from the construction of the waste burning plant or from the industry, by building a special steam line. The heat generated in the production of metal smelting may be routed by special steam lines to the boiler station where the water is heated, which then flows through city pipes. For the realization of this idea, a comprehensive calculation of the generated heat 230
Irradiance map of Ukraine
Sustainable waste management is essential to improve the environment, health and quality of life for the inhabitants and to use waste as a resource for e.g. compost or provision of energy. Efficient and resource-conscious waste management depends on organizational, operational, technical and financial aspects and capacity. The so-called waste hierarchy shows in which order waste should be handled and has been introduced in the waste directive, adopted by the European Union. It encompasses the following steps with formulations inspired by the directive: - Reduce (Minimise) the waste volumes and hazardous waste in production, packaging, distribution, and consumption; - Reuse waste for example by marketing and selling secondhand products; - Waste recycling by using the material from packaging and other products as a source for the production of new products; Recovery of energy from waste in order to replace other nonwaste materials; Deposit and treatment of waste residues in landfills â€“ the last alternative when all other options have been used. Households also need to be aware of what waste is haz-
ardous and have access to the disposal of hazardous waste or recycling facilities provided by local authorities and/or the private sector. Ukrainian law concerning waste defines legal, organizational and economic principles of activities connected with the prevention or reduction of volumes of waste generation, collection, transportation, storage, processing, disposal and removal, decontamination and disposal, as well as a diversion of the negative impact of waste on the environment and human health on the territory of Ukraine. In accordance with the requirements of this act, Kramatorsk being a regional center needs a garbage-burning factory as the existing landfills can not cope with the increased biological waste over the last few years. It is also necessary to provide the factory processing tape, which will be a subject for sorting and recycling. But the garbage needs to be graded before getting to the plant. In order to instill a culture of waste sorting in the citizens, a reward system can be introduced for the sorting of paper, plastic, and glass from biological waste. It must be admitted that previous city initiative to place containers for the separate plastic collection failed. In 2007 plastic containers for the collection of paper, glass, metal and cloth were placed in the city and were popular among 231
residents. However, they have started to be unclaimed due to the brake of special machine, that hasn’t been repaired. Some containers where burned down by vandals. Nowadays the are two containers standing near local NGO “Vilna Hata”. We suppose, that to make people believe in the importance of recycling again, a start from the small scale is needed. One may bring plastic waste to the containers near NGO and get a ticket for public transport for free or get a discount in partner-café “Coffeelaktika”, that is nearby down the street. What is more, you may have a discount on bike rent. The price of trolleybus ticket in Kramatorsk is 1.25 UAH. The average price of 1 kg of plastic waste around Ukraine is 2 UAH. Αs the result, facilitators of the intervention will still have 0.75 UAH from 1 kg to cower transportation cost of plastic to partner organization for its recycling. Ιn the long term perspective, in 2020, plastic waste will
be brought to enterprise “EKOPET”, situated in Slavyansk. This factory produces PET (polyethylene terephthalate) - a polymer with stable mechanical properties, which is now popular on the market. PET is the product that is made from plastic bottles, so this enterprise is a perfect partner for the recycling program. This enterprise was founded by SE “Ukrecoresursy” that, according to the law, has to increase the collection, recycling and disposal of waste as secondary raw materials. Currently active company “ROSTEC” buys and prepares secondary raw materials that its Kramatorsk branch has. The advantage of the company is its own fleet for the transportation. To rise the understanding of the dependence of clean future on alternative energy and not burning coal or gas, a set of steps are to be performed. Awareness of people can appear with the right policy and competent strategy from the local council. Only joint implementation of laws and rules will bring the city of Kramatorsk to success.
CASE References Masterplan of industrial site, Taiyuan, China Location: Taiyuan, China The project is a collaboration between OUTMAN + SANDER, OMA Hong Kong, MIC Milan and YRG. Client: the city of Taiyuan Year: 2014 Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in the North China. It is one of the main manufacturing bases of China. Throughout its long history, Taiyuan had been the capital or provisional capital of many dynasties in China, and since the end of the Imperial Era in 1911, it has become one of the main industrial bases of China. The Taiyuan Industrial Heritage Transformation masterplan (TIHT) is a heritage revitalization project that aims to position Taiyuan in the cultural landscape of contemporary China. TIHT will transform the Fertilizer Plant Complex and other heavy industrial plants on the site into a cultural and creative hub. The project revitalizes the complex of a fertilizer and other heavy industry plants into a cultural and creative industry district.
Taiyuan Heavy Industry Co., Ltd. is a Chinese manufacturer of industrial machinery including products ranging from construction equipment to train wheels. It is one of the biggest producers of heavy machinery in China and competes with CITIC Heavy Industries and China First Heavy Industries. It is well-known for the production of construction equipment with powerful specifications. The company along with partners Sinochem and Synfuels Technology developed a 6,400-ton capacity super heavy lifting gantry with hydraulic hoisting, which has been built to erect refinery vessels in the petrochemical industry.The company also produces an 1800-ton excavator which is claimed to be the worldâ€™s largest machine of such kind. 234
The site, that used to be an industrial zone, can accommodate a new residential complex, university and business. The project shows how successfully the old rails, which are difficult to dismantle, can be decorated. According to the project, a system for water and soil quality change will be created, and new trees will be planted.
the RIVER embankment
most important elements are benches, formed as wooden plateaus floating on top of the stone cascades, emphasizing the relation with the river and minimizing the visual impact on the entity. Another two crucial elements are waste bins invisibly laid in the slope and lights on the bottom of the wooden edges.
Mound park in Ukmerge Terrace of Ukmergė is a design proposal suggesting how to create a cozy and attractive green public space next to the mound park in Ukmergė town. The wooden terrace together with the information center, the sculpture park, and the mound panorama view point create a lively public space system for everyday meetings, events, fun and recreation. Preston, Northen Wales, Great Britain
Collignum and Renovation of Ljubljanica Embankment – Slovenia
Preston, Northen Wales, Great Britain Ukmergė; is a city in Vilnius County, Lithuania Ljubljana,Capital of Slovenia Year: 2007 In 2007 it was decided to design a new river promenade through the city of Ljubljana. The renovation was developed in two directions. Clearing out beautiful Plečnik’s design and upgrading it with new urban furniture. One of the
Mound park in Ukmerge
GOAL#4: ACCESSIBILITY OF CITY CENTERS Kramatorsk is the city with enforced local activity spots of village councils, that led to the intensification of local activity level and as a result to the high quality of living. City structure turns to be coherent with effective transportation system (that also prioritizes electric transport and biking facilities). The transport connection gravitates to the local activity spots and at the same time, local activities and services are starving for transport hubs. All users have the access to the transport infrastructure and services. High-quality transit service connects city community to the rest of the region.
ACCESSIBILITY FORMULA: Principle #1 Transit Principle #2 Connectivity Principle #3 Attraction
Principle#1 Transit: Transport as a moderator of services development Development is likely to be located near the transit. The strict correlation exists in Kramatorsk between the transit lines and where the population is concentrated. This correlation shows that development is prone to be located near the transit amenities. Furthermore, there is a correlation between the location of public transport lines, the density of people and intensity of activities. One needs to look at the most populated and active Socgorod district that has 3 internal trolleybus lines. On the other hand, it is seen that other activity spots are less covered with public transportation net and in general have no other vehicle modes of transport to choose except private minibusses and cars. Provision of good transit opportunities will help to boost ACCESSIBILITY FORMULA
local services activity, that are concentrated in the specific corridors and spots. Furthermore, it opens the opportunity to moderate services development.
Transit Policy: development scenarios Service development can be moderated according to the following scenarios:
Scenario #1 Service providers already exist on the territory and the services themselves are highly developed. Further development is restricted to the building site constraints. Surrounded territory is poorly fulfilled with activity spots. The transport connection is provided with private buses only. Goal: To expand active territory and services spread. Tool: Ensure district connection with the rest of the city by prioritizing trolleybus, bus and bicycle connections.
Building of aforementioned transport lines to the planned spots of services boosts and redirects transport flÎżw from the existing one. Placement of the new activity areas should correlate with existing activity spots to corresponding to the existing preconditions of development.
Scenario #2 Starting point: Service providers already exist on the territory and the services themselves, but are poorly developed. There is a place for the service development. The transport connection is badly provided. Goal: To provoke the boost of existing services in the selected locations. Tool: To connect public transport lines with the existing services and increase the number of their users. Main traffic arteries placement should be regarded. This action plan is aimed at making the city structure more dynamic and flexible. Village councils will be provided with the opportunity of broadening and adaptation of the functions. 239
Road use hierarchy
Connected city structure that makes unanimous accessibility of all services As the city is naturally divided, it is vitally important to form a united structure of districts in an efficient way. Without a doubt, the transportation system is a clue to solve this problem as it ensures everyday mobility of people and goods. Based on the major city existing and planned activity centers structure, the new way of district connection must be prioritized. That will give unanimous access to the important city infrastructure, based in the Socgorod and the Old city and will help to push development of the village councils. The new way must be based on the existing city road structure and be created by rethinking their hierarchy in the city and prioritization of their development. Transportation system development should be based on the transport priority principles. That means giving the priority in connection network development for different participants of the transportation system in the next οrder: pedestrian - bicyclist-public transport (electrιc transport - bus -minibus) - private car. Development of the pedestrian- and cyclist-friendly environment should become one of the guiding transport development principles. Such environment will provoke an increase of walking and cycling among citizens and as a result gradual decrease of car and minibuses use. Such conditions will help to promote a healthy lifestyle, and encourage the development of pedestrian and cyclist-oriented services. All users must have an access to the transport infrastructure and services including people with disabilities.
Connectivity Policy: Ring artery It is proposed to form a ring road that will connect all districts into one solid structure. The route is a compound structure of inner city roads, as the result of investment in their development is more beneficial than the creation of new ring road around the city. It is planed to give a priority to public transport lines on the “Ring artery”. Main trolleybus and bus network connections should be based on the “artery” way. Bus connection is οbserved to be developed in order to reduce minibuses amount and support quick and convenient connectivity of village councils. It is planned to implement two types of buses. Οne bus category is defined as a regular local route with frequent stops.The second are high-speed buses, which have a greater distance between stops, designed for quick connection between the city itself and the villages. Trolleybus is observed as the main type of city public transport and will have the priority in the allocation of road space in order to give an advantage comparing to usual operating conditions. Trolleybus line is going to be expanded gradually in three steps. Phase οne: connection of Socgorod – Belenkoe Stankostroy – Yasnogorka - Damanskii - New World 240
Phase two is aimed to connect Oktyabrsky - Old Town Yasnaya Polyana, provision of Yasnogorodka with inner trolleybus line. Phase three can connect Yasnogorodka with Yasnaya Polyana. Talking about tram connection, we may admit that nowadays it’s poorly used by passengers beacause of the tramroute inconvenience and the extremely low speed of the tram itself. There are two proposed ways of dealing with this issue:
Scenario #1 Implementation of light rail transportation except of existing tram system with the development of its line in borders of the “Ring artery”. According to this scenario realization of the light rail project will be implemented in 3 phases. Phase one will include development of a new light rail line project. On the second phase, it is planned to run a modernization of the track on the selected routes. Finally, new carriages must be purchased. Light rail - the mode of a regular high-speed rail of street urban transport. According to its characteristics light rail is an in-between a classic subway and light rail.
Scenario #2 Tram line demolitiom and creation of bicycle roads and walkways on the vacant place. Ιt is sad that “If people can safely walk to the transit stop and bank, buy groceries, and return library books on their way home from the station, they are more likely to use the transit system.” It is planned to create a high quality non-motorized transport network on the “Ring artery”, that will be beneficial for walking and cycling. Furthermore, pedestrian connections from the spots of activity to the main transport artery must be prioritized in order to encourage people to walk more. In order to achieve this goal, quality pedestrian and cycling connections must be implemented.
quality pedestrian connections Development Having the priority of comfortable, direct, and safe pedestrian links creation, steps should be performed in the following directions: - Transportation stations placed on the “Ring artery” in order to support a walkable station area and promote the use of transit from 800-meters zone; - Bus stops in the 1200 m. zone between the “Artery” and the surrounding activity spots and places of residence; - Green network of the city to encourage people to be closer to the nature. Pedestrian-oriented route has the following qualities; - Routes are continuous and barrier-free; - Routes are safe; - Routes are easily navigable; - Routes are designed for the local climate. Primary and secondary pedestrian routes should be im-
plemented between the spots of activity and the “Ring artery” to provide maximum accesses. Primary pedestrian routes – these routes run directly between the “Ring artery” with highly developed public transportation system and spots of activity, using major pedestrian destinations in the surrounding community. These routes will attract big amount of pedestrians. Services, located on the primary routes will be a part of a coherent system of wider sidewalks, tation access bridges, public amenities, and regional pathways. Secondary pedestrian routes – these routes do not provide a direct link to the “Ring artery” but feed the primary routes. The combination of primary and secondary roads will cover the area around activity points, and as a result will provide access to the “Ring artery” system of transportation. People agree to walk approximately 800 meters., that is a 10-minute walk. Ιn case of a planned activity area, it is within the borders of 800-meters zone from the “artery”, priority will be given to the development of the direct pedestrian connections between those points. On the other hand,there 241
is a situation when activity area is more remote and situated in 1200-meters zone from the “Artery” (20- minute walk). In this case, the priority will be given to the development of the Secondary pedestrian routes, leading to the “additional” bus stops and Primary pedestrian route. In this cross point, the citizens will have an option either to take а bus, that goes to the main artery, or to have a walk to it, using the pedestrian route. Nature always brings vitality to people. That is why having a proper access to the nature facilities is an irreplaceable component of life quality. Green network is the tool of giving this access. The net includes greenways along the city streets, parks, spaces along the river shore and forms connections between them. One of the “Ring artery” functions is to make it easy to reach nature facilities, and this possability is created by the overlap of artery with green network. Jubilee Park, Bernardskiy Garden, Pushkins Park are also included in the net. It is crucial to pay attention that in Kramatorsk, river ιs closed for the public use because of the industry placement. One of the priorities is to open the access to it. Regarding that industry is shrinking and in the time span will be divided into the number of small enterprises, some lands can be allocated for the creation of green corridors (available only for pedestrians and cyclists) across the industry to the river. Embankment will be formed along the river. This actions will make it possible for the ordinary citizens and plants/small enterprises workers to rest near the river.
LOCAL ACTIVITIES SPOT Primary & Secondary pedestrian routes
cycling connectionS DEVELOPMENT
The Center of Transport Strategies
In order to encourage more people to cycle, Kramatorsk needs to focus its efforts on the enhancement of cyclist comfort and safety. There are specific goals to be reached:
Ιn order two move towards integrated public system strategy it is vitally important to form the local governmental institution, responsible for the transport infrastructure development – The Center of Transport Strategies. Centre is planned to work in collaboration with Ministry of Infrastructure and City Administration in the fields of reforms implementation and realization of infrastructural projects.
- Broader bicycle infrastructure; - Utilities for safer cycling; Ways of bicycle path design
The Center is planned to perform the following functions: - Analytical research of cargo traffics in Kramatorsk and other cities of agglomeration; - Systematic dialogue between transport providers, businesses, passengers, cycling activists, car owners, people with disabilities etc.; - Transport strategy development; - Distribution of the financial resources according to the chosen priority and control of their intended use. - Strategy implementation monitoring; The money for the implementation of the strategies will be taken from state and local budgets and also from other sources.
Protection between roadway and bike path
Protection with Road Markings
Reaching aforementioned goals can increase the amount of people cycling and rise their satisfaction with cycling in Kramatorsk. To ensure cyclist safety and comfort, bicycle paths are going to be implemented. It is planned to define the way of bicycle paths development in correspondence to the speed regime of the roads. On the high-speed roads and roads with straight road sections, where speeding may take place, bicycle paths must be bordered constructively with kerbs between the roadway and bike path οr by raising the level of cycle paths over the roadway. On the roads, where speeding is restricted by road twists οr speed limits, bicycle paths are planned to be formed with the help of road markings. Implementation timeline of the bicycle paths project is going to be performed in two steps. The first phase of the project contemplates forming paths with the help of road markings, that will connect districts: - Ivanovka - Oktyabrsky - Old Town-Yasnaya Polyana; - Sotsgorod - Belenkoe. Simultaneously, another paths wil be formed with the help of kerbs or level rise, to connect: - Socgorod - New World; - Belenkoe - Yasnogorodka. Paths along Olexy Tihogo Str. (renamed Ordjonikidze Str.) and through the Jubilee Park will be formed. The second phase is aimed at connecting Yasnaya Polyana and Yasnogorodka districts. Bikeway of the third phase will be along the Kasennyj Torec river.
Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine works with The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), that is aimed to promote pan-European economic integration. Τhis collaboration gives the opportunity for Ukraine in general and for Kramatorsk in particular to use a significant international experience of transport strategies developmet.
Principle #3: Regional Center According to the growing status of Kramatorsk in the regional scale it is anticipated that the ciy is likely to keep the existing functions of the regional center and even to increase them in order to attract human and transport flows of agglomeration.
services OF Regional importance ATTRACTION
It is important to define territories for the future placement of regional importance services. It is proposed to use territories of the historically formed sanitary protection zones, on the axe of Oleksy Tihogo street. Such placement will provide not only good access to the facilities from the directions of Slaviansk , Konstantinovka, Donetsk, Mariupol but also will form a new image of the city. Ιt is important to assure the land parcel use according to its assignment and to minimize the cutting it. At the same time, it is predicted that the increasing educational functions of the city will give a new breath to it.That is why we consider “Center of lifelong education”, that is planned to be formed on the base of Central City library by the Strategy #1 of this book, as a new point of activities and include it in the “Ring artery”. Τhe site is located on the borders of Maria Prymachenko Str. and Uvileina Str. Thus, Maria Primachenko Str. will be included to the “Ring artery” road.
first phase of the trolleybus line project second phase of the trolleybus line project third phase of the trolleybus line project
first phase of the bicycle line project second phase of the bicycle line project third phase of the bicycle line projec along green networkst
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PUBLIC TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT, NORWAY, TRONDHEIM Challenge: South-Trøndelag County, Trondheim Municipality, the Norwegian Directorate of Public Roads and local public transport companies wanted to strengthen the quality of public transport in the region. They have accepted the challenge to give more people the opportunity to take advantage of public transport services, reduce the daily traffic and hence avoid unnecessary congestion and reduce local and global pollution. Together with the public transport company of MindenRavensberg, the municipality of Herford carried out a weak point analysis to gather data about the ineffective time in public transport. The results showed actual ineffective time at various lines and as a consequence, the different operators of the traffic signal systems - the district and city of Herford, the road construction department of North RhineWestphalia and the public transport companies - decided to improve attractiveness and cost efficiency with the implementation of a modern public transport prioritisation system.
- Statistics and evaluation data - 10-year contract for technical operation and maintenance Benefits: based on the real-time positioning of vehicles, the punctuality of buses and trams is increased and the travel time is decreased due to advanced traffic light priority. This makes public transport more attractive to the public, so more people use this service, which in turn has a positive effect on the environment. Traffic companies and the government will also benefit, as they get access to the statistics and evaluation data from the system.
Copenhagen — сycling city Cycling in Copenhagen is – as with most cycling in Denmark – an important mean of transportation and a dominating feature of the cityscape, often noticed by visitors. The city offers a variety of favourable cycling conditions - dense urban proximities, short distances and flat terrain, along with an extensive and well-designed system of cycle tracks. This has earned it a reputation of one of the most (possibly the most) bicycle-friendly city in the world.
Details: public transport priority - operation mode of buses registers at ACTROS traffic signal systems via radio telegram. This information is used by the real-time traffic control software of the traffic controllers: In suburban areas, the buses get full priority. In the city center, where progressive signal systems are in operation, a “soft” prioritisation mode is used. This means that the green phases for buses are triggered between 10 and 15 seconds earlier and last longer than for regular traffic. - Management of 350 buses - Integration of 100 bus-stops - Real-time information (web, warp, inside the buses) - Functionalities for advanced traffic light priority for buses/trams
Cyclists in Copenhagen
Copenhagen Ń ycling infrastructure
The Crosslinx project, Toronto In Toronto, the Crosslinx project - a 19-kilometre light rail line with up to 25 stations that will run along Eglinton Avenue and link bus routes, three subway stations and various GO Transit lines, with an expected opening in late 2020. Crosslinx is the largest transit investment in the history of Toronto, a role-model for the all large Canadian cities and urban areas. Provincial and federal governments seem to realize that public transit and new infrastructures are the keys to growth creation. The Crosslinx project, Toronto
The Crosslinx project, Toronto
Bibliography GOALS #1-2 LINKS “2016 - рік розвитку фермерства та кооперативного руху в Україні” http://obozrevatel.com/ blogs/90426-2016-rik-rozvitku-fermerstva-ta-kooperativnogo-ruhu-v-ukraini.htm http://www.bcca.coop/sites/bcca.coop/files/u2/ER-ProfileofCoop.pdf http://www.krm.gov.ua/article/view/266 The Journal of The National Main Street Center | 2012 https://www.gwu.edu/~iiep/assets/docs/papers/Smith_Rothbaum_IIEPWP2013-6.pdf http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/horizontal-diversification.html#ixzz47XlIS8ty https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cottage_and_small_scale_industries_in_Pakistan People Money: The Promise of Regional Currencies / Margrit Kennedy, Bernard A. Lietaer, John Rogers http://ica.coop/en/whats-co-op/co-operative-identity-values-principles https://c4ss.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/industrialpolicycarson0109.pdf http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/im_diversification_strategies.html Lowell(example of developing industrial district) http://www.lowellma.gov/dpd/planning/Documents/ Urban%20Revitalization%20and%20Development/Jackson%20Appleton%20Middlesex%20%5bJAM%5d%20 Urban%20Revitalization%20Plan.pdf Emilia Romagna(example of cooperative rebirth) https://www.gwu.edu/~iiep/assets/docs/papers/Smith_ Rothbaum_IIEPWP2013-6.pdf Book. Smart about cities Emilia Romagna(example of cooperative rebirth) https://www.gwu.edu/~iiep/assets/docs/papers/Smith_ Rothbaum_IIEPWP2013-6.pdf http://photos.wikimapia.org/p/00/01/06/94/48_big.jpg GOAL #3 LINKS http://uspp.ua/ru/ukrainskie-predpriyatiya-nachnut-vnedryat-resursoeffektivnyie-proizvodstva.html http://www.cci.neocm.com/ukr/tekna.html http://www.ukeep.org/ru/ http://fuhrlander.com.ua/news.html?action=showNews&number=1 http://teplydim.com.ua/ru http://recpc.kpi.ua/ru/?option=com_content&view=article&id=599 Best practicies http://designeast.eu/2012/10/collignum-and-renovation-of-ljubljanica-embankment-slovenia/ http://pu-pa.eu/mound-park-in-ukmerge/ http://oma.eu/projects/taiyuan-industrial-heritage-transformaton https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/masterplan-industrial-heritage-taiyuan-china-andre-houtman GOAL #4 LINKS http://cfts.org.ua http://www.unece.org The city of Calgary. Land use planning & policy “Transit oriented development policy guidelines”. “Cycling Strategy ”June 2011 The city of Calgary. “Transit Oriented Denver” transit oriented development strategic plan,2014.
Anastasiia Danyliuk Kyiv | Philosophy Anastasiia Danyliuk is a Master student in Aesthetics at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv specialized on core issues of modern architecture. Due to these studies, Anastasiia conceived that architecture is not only handsome buildings but a complex system for our life. Such opinion helped her to include architecture in urban research and release her thesis. Also, she is concerned in contemporary art which is also related to urbanism. In this aspect, Anastasiia realized herself as a guide at PinchukArtCentre, made her independent exhibition as an independent curator and worked as an intern at Kyiv Biennale 2015. Vladislav Doroshenko Poltava | Engineer, Architect Vladislav Doroshenko - a student architect, who lives and studies in Poltava. In previous years, learned graphic and digital design, while working at the print house and web studio. He is engaged in cultural activity projects at his hometown.
Olya Gubinskaya Kyiv | Informational technologies in architecture Gubynska Olga - young architect, who is taking master’s degree in KNUCA in the field of buildings’ and structures’ architecture. She is interested in the integration of informational technologies in architecture and in nonfunctional cities’ development. During her work in Greece as a guide, she has been observing urbanistic problems on the example of small Greek cities. Together with the team she was developing the conceptual project of Karabash city (Russian Federation) revitalization, which is considered to be one of the most polluted cities in the world. Olga has a working experience in high-rise construction, she also participated in «73-d student conference» in 2013 and in Cardboard workshop in 2014. Mykola Holovko Krasnoarmiisk | Architecture In 2015 Mykola obtained Bachelor’s degree in Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture. Mykola is a participant of architectural competitions, award winner of Steel Freedom Competition 2014, 2015. He has taken part in CANactions International Workshop “Telychka - A Place to Care”. As a native of Donbas, he has always been concerned about future of postindustrial areas from childhood. Kateryna Kaminskaya Dniprpetrovsk | Computer Sciences Kateryna Kaminska is a project manager at «Yalantis», a mobile development company. She is 26 years old, finished more than 15 projects, traveled to 10 different countries, lived in 7 cities, owns 0 cats. Kate graduated from Scientific Complex “Institute for Applied System Analysis”, NTUU “KPI”, adores statistical data. Favorite things in life: coffee, meat, Android, snowboarding, lindy hop, Kyiv. Kateryna KarelshtEIn Kyiv | City planning Kate is an architect, city planner, she has graduated from Kiev National University of Construction and Architecture, faculty of City planning. She worked at a bureau in Kiev. They designed eco-projects of factories in Russia and Kazakhstan. Afterward, Kateryna started working as a freelance architect. This experience has expanded her professional horizons and gave an opportunity to work on projects of reconstruction, interior design and construction of private buildings. Now, her subject objective is urbanism and development of post-industrials cities and regions. She wants to evolve in this area. 252
Olena Kozakova Kamyanets-Podilsky | Architecture Olena Kozakova is an architect, currently a Ph.D. student. She graduated from the National Academy of Fine arts and Architecture. Olena participated in various scientific conferences and made publications. She is a Polish Erasmus for Ukraine scholarship holder and a member of selfgovernment Ph.D. students’ organization of Gdansk Polytechnic University (PG). She has worked upon the historical-architectural Kyiv city plan. Andriy Kucher Kosmach | Architecture, art and design Andriy Kucher, holds the Masters degree in Architecture, author of scientific articles and fiction stories. I defended my thesis on “The typology of public spaces adjacent to Ukrainian churches” and founded the architectural agency “Kuleshka Architects”. 10 % of agency’s income supports a development of environment and preservation of cultural heritage of Rushir – territory of Kosmach village in Ukrainian Carpathians. Implemented project: Saint Nicholas Church and adjacent of a cemetery in Rushir. Oleksiy Moskalenko Shanghai, Kyiv | International Economics Oleksiy has been engaged in market analytics in Shanghai for the past 5 years. Prior to this, he was a staff member at global Expo 2010 that aimed to exchange visions regarding the future of the cities: “Better city, better life”. Lived and carries cultures of cities from 10 thousand up to 24 million residents. Anatolii Niemtsov Lviv | Architecture Tolik Niemtsov - architect, main fields of activity are parametric design, product design, black&white film photography. He has worked at Unika Architectura&Urbanism, NGO UrbanIdeas and Multi Development. Took part in the organization of workshops, revitalization of public spaces and complex investigation of traditional market function in contemporary city structure. Member of social initiative “Save St. Jura Square”. Olexandr Ovsianko Kyiv | Urban developmennt and municipal engeneering Head of “Rente” construction company with specialization in HoReCa segment and creation of individual living spaces. Among the last works are One Love Espresso Bar, Coffe and, Brow Bar One, Brown. He defended his diploma in Odessa , and then in Kiev with a degree in «Urban Construction and Management» . Additional specialization - «Real estate cost estimation expert» ; «Technical supervision in buildings construction». Guest speaker of the European School of Design (Kyiv). Interests in urbanism - public space, urban sociology, the real estate market development. Julia Porkhun Chernivtsi | Architecture Julia studied architecture in different institutions in three different Ukrainian cities - Chernivtsi, Lviv and Kyiv (currently pursuing the Masters’ program), accumulating the best experiences from every place she spent time in. She worked as an illustrator and a graphic designer, a junior architect, and a landscape architect, CAD specialist with a focus on parametric design, and between the work and studying she participated in a lot of workshops - all of that in order to find a place and activity to give all of her strengths to. Even though all of that gave her a very strong foundation, she always seeks for new knowledge. She is interested in what can we do to go beyond and expand the purpose and the means of architecture and urban planning for bringing the better changes in the environment we live in, or solutions to the current problems which go far beyond creating a nice facade or putting pretty interior or exterior decorations. 253
Maria Smirnova Odessa | Architecture of building and structure Maria Smirnova - a young Ukrainian architect. She graduated from the Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture in 2014, in specialty «Architecture of buildings and structures». Now she works at the architecture & design studio «Ampir» and is engaged in the construction and design of private and multistoried buildings. Mykola Vognick Kyiv | Political science Mykola Vognyk - political scientist (MA), urban policy researcher and activist. Works with public participation and new urban movements. A convinced cyclist.
EDUCATION PROGRAM TEAM
GÜNTHER ARBER Switzerland | Stadt Zürich Günther started his professional life with an apprenticeship and as a mechanic in the machine building industry. During his subsequent university studies in geography, social and economic history and cultural anthropology he focussed on urban topics. After a postgraduate degree in spatial planning at the Swiss Polytechnic University ETH in Zürich he worked for several years as a planner on the regional level. Today he is a head of the sociospatial unit and member of the board of the office for urban development in the mayor’s department in Zürich. 2011 he added a postgraduate degree in Business Administration to his formation.
MARIEKE BERKERS Rotterdam | Marieke Berkers Marieke Berkers is an Architectural Historian (MA) based in the Netherlands. She’s an academic researcher, writer and lecturer. Berkers is a member of the Editorial Board of Blauwe Kamer, magazine Landscape Architecture and Urban Design, and of the Dutch Yearbook Landscape Architecture and Urban Design. As a researcher she cooperated in teams of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam: researching the infrastructural developments of airport region Schiphol, Amsterdam. As a result, the book Megastructure Schiphol was published. In commission of the University of Amsterdam and embedded at Mediamatic she conducted a research project about urban development by means of organic growth. Currently, she’s working on a collection of essays on infrastructure and oil.
MICHAEL GENTILE Finland, Sweden | University of Helsinki Michael Gentile, Ph.D. Urban Geography (Swedish) teaches urban geography and research methods at the University of Helsinki. His main research interests include “post-communist” cities, migration, urban poverty and, most recently, geopolitical identities. Most of his recent publications are related to developments in Ukraine and particularly in the Donbas region.
BOGDAN KAPATSILA Ukraine | CANactions School for Urban Studies Bogdan Kapatsila has an experience in the field of graphic and interior design of various individual and public projects . In his opinion, Urban Studies link private and public activities and he considers a function to be the core of his solutions. Besides his own practice, in 2014 he worked as an architect/ designer at RestoCamp in Ivano-Frankivsk and did an internship at several Ukrainian offices. Since last year, he has become a part of CANactions family, firstly as a student and later as a facilitator and coordinator of the educational process.
MIODRAG KUČ Berlin | The Laboratory of Critical Urbanism (LCU) Miodrag Kuč is an interdisciplinary artist and urban theorist trained as architect / urban planner in various cultural settings. His work explores the role of ephemeral structures in uncertain urban. He is a founder of the studio ParaArtFormations which moves at the intersection of urban studies, performative-planning, artistic interventions and micro politics. Currently, he works as a project coordinator at ZKU - Zentrum für Kunst und Urbanistik (Centre for Art and Urbanistics) Berlin, exploring new ways of knowledge production through the lens of critical urban pedagogy. 256
MARIA KUPRIIAN Ukraine | CANactions School for Urban Studies Mariia Kupriian has written a master’s thesis on renovation and adaptive reuse of cultural heritage property. Since 2014 Mariia has become an active participant and co-founder of an urban platform CityLab (Poltava). Being one of the key platform members she developed a conceptual design of Poltava сadet сorps. Mariia has also been a coordinator and co-organizer of an open workshop “Poltava, the Livable City”. Mariia is actively involved in public and social projects of the city.
ANDRIUS NEMICKAS USA, Ukraine | CANactions School for Urban Studies Andrius is an urban development specialist from the US, who has combined both “bottom-up” and “top-down” strategies to revitalizing communities, creating economic opportunities, and alleviating poverty. In particular, he has focused on the role of entrepreneurship, SME development, economic clusters, and public policy in urban and regional dynamics. Andrius received a dual-degree MBA & MCRP from The University of North Carolina at Chapel hill, one of the world’s leading planning institutions. He has lived in Ukraine since 1999.
Mirjam Niemeyer Germany, Switzerland | heksinkizurich Co-founder, Partner, CEO at helsinkizurich (Helsinki Zürich Office Ltd). Mirjam Niemeyer is a Designer, Researcher & Consultant working in the fields of Architecture, Urban Design and Planning. Research on the drivers and their urban development patterns in the zürcher Oberland. Mirjam is experienced at working in an international context, in the organization and management of teamwork, processes and events.
STEFAN ROSCHI Switzerland | Stadt Zürich Stefan has a profound experience in the social sector: among his educational achievements are Social Work Diploma, Non-Profit-management Post Graduation, master degree in Business Administration, etc. From 1989 he has gained positions in such diverse social work areas as Drug addicts, Shelter for homeless, Integration of Refugees, Projects for Unemployed people for integration, counseling and job-service. Mr. Roschi even took various management positions in the Airline industry in private companies. Currently, he is the head of the Social Center “Ausstellungsstrasse” in Zürich, head of Social Urban Development Department, a member of the Board of Social Service in the City of Zürich.
URS THOMANN Switzerland | CANactions School for Urban Studies Urs is an urban planner, co-founder and curator of CANactions School for Urban Studies. He worked for various planning offices in Switzerland where he was in charge of projects of different scales: from conurbations over city areas and village centers to city blocks and street spaces. He worked as a Consultant to the Research and Project Institute for Moscow City masterplan in order to prepare the ‘Greater Moscow Competition’. Since 2012, Urs has been working in Ukraine, leading projects which are connected with strategic city development and also support culture change and capacity-building of professionals and civil servants. He curated the development of the ‘Integrated Urban Transport and Spatial Planning Strategy’ for Vinnytsia City Administration. 257
VLADYSLAV TYMINSKYI Ukraine | CANactions School for Urban Studies Vladyslav is an architect, researcher and author. Since 2015 he is a director of the education program and a co-curator of STUDIO #2 at CANactions School for Urban Studies (Kyiv, Ukraine). In 2016 Vladyslav was a guest tutor at Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Marseille (ENSA-M, France). In 2015 he graduated from STRELKA Institute for media, Architecture and Design (Moscow, Russia). In 2013 Vladyslav was an executive editor and an author of articles for the book “Urban Studies: Politics and Practices of Urban Renewal” supported by Heinrich Boell Foundation in Ukraine. Since 2012 Vladyslav has worked on his Ph.D. thesis “Principles of Strategic Spatial Planning as an Approach to Post-Soviet Cities’ Development”. Anna Felicia Valdés Sweden | Ustwo With a background in Social Science, an education at Hyper Island and work experience of being a program manager at Hyper Island and now team coach at Ustwo - Anna Felicia’s conviction is that collaboration between people is the way to ultimately create paradigm shift humanity needs to thrive on. Her latest experience at Ustwo has signified the uncompromisable importance of user-centred mindset and process when designing anything for anyone. This perspective is what Anna Felicia strongly believes is the key and she offers to share it with every creative mind.
VIKTOR ZOTOV Ukraine | Zotov&Co Viktor was born in 1963 in Mariupol, Ukraine. In 1986 he graduated from the architectural faculty of Institute of Building and Construction in Kharkiv, Ukraine. In 1986-1989 he worked as an architect in State Institute, Mariupol. In 1989-1992 he won residential block competition, worked as the chief architect at “Yunost” company in Mariupol, created especially for this project. During 1992 - 2003, he had been the founder and chief architect of “Architectural Bureau”, Mariupol. Since 2004 he has been the founder and chief architect of Architectural Bureau “Zotov &Co”, Kyiv. Since 2008, he has been the founder and curator of International Architectural Festival CANactions, Kyiv. From 2015, he has also been the founder of CANactions School for Urban Studies.
This publication has been possible through the very generous support and cooperation of the large and growing network of people sharing an interest in the education process of CANactions School for Urban Studies. First of all, we would like to express our gratitude to the STUDIO #2 tutors , Günther Arber, Marieke Berkers, Miodrag Kuč, Andrius Nemickas, Mirjam Niemeyer, Stefan Roschi and Anna Felicia Valdés, invited experts Michael Gentile and Anna Viazovska, facilitator Bogdan Kapatsila, whose expertise, understanding and patience added considerably to students experience. We would also like to express our thankfulness to the team of “Vilna Khata” and Nikolay Dorohov who provided us with an opportunity to explore their hometown Kramatorsk from the unexpected viewpoints. We are really grateful to the team of “Fuhrländer Wind technology” factory and “NKMZ” plant for the incredible excursions that gave us the invaluable understanding of industry role in the city. We also appreciate the help from the Entrepreneurs Club of Kramatorsk, especially Sergey Kondratyuk - the head of the “QuartSoft” IT company and Volodymyr Sergienko - director of the plant “DONMET”. Additional words of gratitude to Ivan Mukomel, regional coordinator of the UNDP project “Economic and social recovery of Donbass”. A lot of thanks goes to the local NGO “Ecology of industrial region” and Andrey Zuyakov, local newspaper “Ecology of industrial land” and Lina Plyuschakova, Dmitry Yakushev and Svetlana Marhuck for the invaluable assistance and information provided. We are also grateful to Vena Kotlyarova, staff scientist of the Art Museum of Kramatorsk, Natalia Voloshyana, head of The Museum of History of Kramatorsk, Andrii Romanenko, journalist, Natalia Kulinich, Head of the house of culture “Stroitel”. Also, a big thank goes to NKMZ Palace of Culture stuff and to the house of culture named after Leonid Bykov stuff. We very much appreciate support of the Advisory Board members Svitlana Bocharova, Theo Hauben, Iryna Ozymok, Haris Piplas, Martino Tattara, the School founders and directors Urs Thomann, Vladyslav Tyminskyi, Viktor Zotov, Valentyna Zotova and, of course, the whole CANactions team of Serhii Bochkarov, Volodymyr Chepel, Margo Didichenko, Maria Kupriian, Antonina Savchenko, Iuliia Vorobiova without whom this work would not have been possible and whose passion and professionalism helped us along the way. We are also very grateful to STUDIO #1 alumni for being connected! A very special acknowledge goes to Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Gmbh, the Embassy of Switzerland in Ukraine, Goethe Institute, Graham Foundation, Polish Institute in Kyiv, Western NIS Enterprise Fund and “Zotov&Co” Architecture Bureau who provided us with constant support and assistance. We would also like to express our gratitude towards many citizens of Kramatorsk who passionately collaborated with us to complete and develop this research, our families, and friends, for their support and encouragement during this three month. CANactions STUDIO #2 students
Concept: Vladyslav Tyminskyi, Bogdan Kapatsila Editors: Urs Thomann, Vladyslav Tyminskyi, Bogdan Kapatsila, Andrius Nemickas Graphic design: Margo Didichenko, Bogdan Kapatsila This publication was developed on the outcomes of CANactions School for Urban Studies: STUDIO #2 educational program. It is designed for personal, noncommercial use and is considered as a property of CANactions. You must not translate, publish, licence or sell the book and/or its materials without the prior consent of CANactions. You must attribute the book and/or its materials in the manner specified by the editors and authors of the publication. ÂŠ CANactions 2016 260
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