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Log Book Week 8 - Openings
 Doors & Windows

Door leaf
 Can be constructed of timber, steel or aluminium. Although they can be constructed of many different materials the structure is still the same for each.

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Aluminium doors & frames
 Most common in office buildings and commercial buildings.
 Aluminium doors can be in either a timber framed wall or an aluminium glazed wall depending on the type of structure. For example a commercial building will most likely an aluminium door fitted into an aluminium glazed wall.

A aluminium door frame hinged to an aluminium wall.


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 A consideration when constructing a window on a building is how it is going to be cleaned. and is it readily able to be cleaned.
 A lintel is commonly used to carry the above loads down into the sides of the window.
 Timber, aluminium or steel can be used to construct the windows and window frames.

A diagram showing the key features of a common window.

Curtain walls
 The exterior facade of the building is completely covered in windows instead of walls. To construct a curtain wall, the window system is hung off the concrete structure of the building.
 Loads must carefully taken around the windows, not through them as glass is brittle and the shape of it makes it easy to crack under compression. A way to avoid the windows taking the load is to construct concrete columns for the load to travel down.

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Curtain walls don’t only give the building an aesthetic effect, it also provides sunlight and heat into the building which a masonry or concrete wall wouldn't do.

 Formers -Any chemical compound that can be melted and cooled into a glass is a former. Eg. Silica sand. 73%.
 Fluxes - help the formers to melt at lower and more practical temperatures. Eg. Soda. 14%.
 Stabiliser - Without a stabiliser the finished glass is water soluble. The stabiliser ensures the glass doesn't dissolve or crumble. Eg. Lime. 9%.


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" " " Glass" " Properties - Glass
 Non-porous(waterproof) material which is perfect for ensuring moisture stays outside the building.
 Approximately 2.7 times denser than water.
 Transmits light but not heat and electricity.
 Hard material. However can be scratched.
 Very fragile. Tempered glass however is not as brittle as float glass(normal glass).
 Low ductility.
 Very low flexibility and plasticity." Doesn't rust or rot.
 Can be recycled. Therefore making it a sustainable product.
 Generally expensive. Must be carefully transported.

" " Glass is a common material used in showering systems as there isn’t many joints to join the glass together. As water is non-porous, this prevents water from leaking from the contained area.

Types & manufacture
 Flat glass - Sheets of clear or tinted float glass, laminated, tempered, wired glass.
 Shaped glass - Glass that has been curved are shaped into a shape for example a block.
 Float glass - The most common way of manufacturing flat glass. It is made by pouring onto molten tin to enable it be as flat as possible.

" " " " " " " " " Float glass" "

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" Clear float glass (annealed glass)
 The cheapest and simplest glass available. 
 Easy to make as there is no further treatment beyond the fabrication of the glass.
 A disadvantage of using this glass is that when it breaks it breaks into very sharp and dangerous pieces. Because of this reason it is best suited for smaller windows.

Laminated glass
 Consists of two layers of glass with a plastic interlayer in between. This improves the safety of the glass because if the window does break, fragments won't go flying everywhere, they will tend to stick to the plastic sheet.

A building with each face constructed out of flat glass and the corners made of shaped glass. This gives the building a more smooth finish instead of the 90 degree angle which would have been made if the building was only made out of flat glass.

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Laminated glass can be considered as a plastic sandwich with glass as the bread. This is shown in the above sketch.

Tempered glass (toughened glass)
 Tempered glass is made by heating annealed glass to a high temperature. The surface of the glass is then rapidly cooled increasing the strength of the glass by 4-5 times. This glass is used as it doesn't shatter like the previously mentioned glasses, it breaks into small, less sharp pieces. It is ideally used when the window required is quite large.

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-Glass channels

Types of glass
 Tinted glass: Used to reduce the amount of light to be transmitted. Eg. Tinted windows in a car.
 Wired glass: Similar to laminated glass however instead of plastic there is wire. Lowcost glass.
 Patterned glass: Made with a rolled glass process. Used in churches.
 Curved glass: Can be all different shapes. Created in moulds to meet specific design requirements. It is quite expensive as each different curve requires a different mould.
 Photovoltaic glass: Glass with integrated solar cells.
 Glass channels: Used in façade systems. 
 Slumped and formed glass: Used aesthetically.
 Glass fibres: Extremely thin strands of glass. Used in telecommunications.

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The process of how float glass is heated to produce a much stronger glass; tempered glass. The light transmission, solar transmittance and colour all remain the


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-Slumped or formed glass

 Glazing is used to regulate temperature in a building. For example to prevent heat loss in winter and heat gain in summer. Double glazing is when two panels of glass are used and triple glazing are when three are used. Glazing also reduces the sound transmittance.

A tripled glazed window.

" " " " " " " Glossary" Window sash: ‘The fixed or moveable framework of a window in which panes of glass are set’ (Ching, 2008).
 Deflection: Refers to the deviation of a material from it’s original position.
 Moment of inertia: The measure of an objects resistance to rotation. Inertia=m.r2 Where m is the mass of the object and r is the distance to the axis of rotation. {1}
 Door furniture: The components connected such as the handles, lock and handles.
 Stress: The amount of force a material can withstand before failing. Stress is equal to the force applied divided by the area. {2}" Shear force: An external force that is acting on an object parallel to the surface that it is on."

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The deflection of a cantilever is shown above. As most cantilevers deflect a bit, it must therefore be built at a slight elevation to allow for this drop. An example of this occurring is the cantilever on the Architectural Building at Melbourne Uni.

Oval Pavilion Drawing"

The above drawing shows the roof and ceiling of the function room. The need for thermal insulation is to keep footballers warm in winter and to escape the heat in summer for the cricketers. Another layer of insulation called acoustic insulation is used to restrain sound from escaping and interrupting nearby residents. Also if construction or roadworks is underway nearby, it decreases the amount of sound that is let into the building. The window (top right-hand corner) is slanted to make the water fall onto the flashing which then goes onto the roof and into the gutters. On the roofing system there are no flat bits because we won’t rain to keep moving not remain stagnant on the roof.

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References:" E-learning:" 
 {2} " 
 Ching, F. (2008) Building Construction Illustrated (4th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (p. 8.22)

Log Book - Week 8  
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