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Article 1:

Explain how biological processes may affect one cognitive process


Introduction:

-What is a biological factor? It is a factor that influences the survival or processes of an organism. Ex: studying, Alzheimer, sleep.

-What are cognitive processes? Are the performances of an operation in the brain that affects mental content. Ex: perception, attention, memory


Some biological factors in memory: - Learning means the formation of a memory which is growing new connections or making the connections stronger in existing connections and forming neural networks. - Damage in the brain can affect one type of memory but leave other types of memory complete. - In research, scientist damage parts of the brain, which are called lesions, to see the effects of the damage in memory of animals (humans). - Specific areas of the brain affect certain types of memory


Long-term memory system

Implicit/non-declarative memory

Explicit/declarat ive memory

Semantic memories (memory of facts)

Episodic memories (memory of events)

WHAT

WHEN

Procedural memories (memory of how to do things) HOW

Emotional memories (memory of how emotional states) HOW

-The LTM is divided into two types of memory -The explicit memory (declarative) consists of fact based information that can be consciously retrieved -Focuses on the knowing what


-Explicit memory is divided into two subsystems: semantic memory and episodic memory -Semantic memory is memory for general knowledge -Episodic memory is memory for personal experiences and events -The implicit memory has memories that we are not consciously aware of -divided into procedural and emotional memory -Procedural memory is the non-conscious memory for skills, habits, and activities -Emotional memory is not yet well understood -may be formed via limbic system and may persist when there is brain damage and other memories are destroyed


More‌ -Researchers found out the great role of the hippocampus in explicit memories -Humans case studies reveal that people with lesions in the hippocampus can no longer form new explicit memories but they can form new implicit memories -Evidence that the amygdala has a role when storing emotional memories -This maybe because emotions are used to evaluate experience -Certain memories have emotional significance therefore they may be remembered better


-This may also reveal why people suffering of post-traumatic stress disorder have problems forgetting their emotional memories -Researchers are revealing how the brain regulates emotional expressions -They observed that part of the prefrontal cortex is damages, emotional -memory is very hard to eliminate and hard to control emotional outbursts.


Case Study: -Clive Wearing.

An English musician was struck by a brain infection (herpes encephalitis). It affected his brain parts that were in charge of memory. Thus, he had memory spans of only a few seconds. His new memories were erased instantly because brain was not able to store them. His played a key role trying to help him and in his activities in his daily life.


New information, people and activities were new for him and even though he saw them repeatedly y was totally new for him. He kept a journal that wrote everything to help him but he said each time that he didn’t remembered writing that or feeling that way.


Research Studies: -HM (Milner and Scoville 1957) Aim: Prove the effect of the absence of the hippocampus on memory. (orientation, long term memory, and short term memory) Procedure: (for almost 44 years of study) • Operation and removal of tissues of temporal lobe and hippocampus. • Brain Scans, MRI


• Different types of interviews and cognitive testing to see how he reacted • Observation during those years about his behavior and reactions to different daily life situations. • Findings: Because of HM impossibility to recall new memories, researchers saw how vital on the role of hippocampus on memory and cognitive processes is. Concluding that the hippocampus is a vital structure for the storage of short and long term memories.


Works Cited "â&#x20AC;? -First Year Psychology 2011-2012."-First Year Psychology 2011-2012. Web. 02 May 2012. <http://cranepsych.edublogs.org/>. Crane, John, and Jette, Hannibal. IB Diploma Programme: Psychology Course Companion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.


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