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-What is a biological factor?

It is a factor that influences the survival or processes of an organism. Ex: studying, Alzheimer, sleep.

-What are cognitive processes? Are the performances of an operation in the brain that affects mental content. Ex: perception, attention, memory

Some biological factors in memory:

- Learning means the formation of a memory which is growing new connections or making the connections stronger in existing connections and forming neural networks. - Damage in the brain can affect one type of memory but leave other types of memory complete. - In research, scientist damage parts of the brain, which are called lesions, to see the effects of the damage in memory of animals (humans). - Specific areas of the brain affect certain types of Long-term memory system memory Explicit/declarat ive memory

Semantic memories (memory of facts)

Episodic memories (memory of events)



Implicit/non-declarative memory

Procedural memories (memory of how to do things) HOW

Emotional memories (memory of how emotional states) HOW

-The LTM is divided into two types of memory -The explicit memory (declarative) consists of fact based information that can be consciously retrieved -Focuses on the knowing what -Explicit memory is divided into two subsystems: semantic memory and episodic memory -Semantic memory is memory for general knowledge

-Episodic memory is memory for personal experiences and events -The implicit memory has memories that we are not consciously aware of -divided into procedural and emotional memory -Procedural memory is the non-conscious memory for skills, habits, and activities -Emotional memory is not yet well understood -may be formed via limbic system and may persist when there is brain damage and other memories are destroyed


-Researchers found out the great role of the hippocampus in explicit memories -Humans case studies reveal that people with lesions in the hippocampus can no longer form new explicit memories but they can form new implicit memories -Evidence that the amygdala has a role when storing emotional memories -This maybe because emotions are used to evaluate experience -Certain memories have emotional significance therefore they may be remembered better -This may also reveal why people suffering of post-traumatic stress disorder have problems forgetting their emotional memories

-Researchers are revealing how the brain regulates emotional expressions -They observed that part of the prefrontal cortex is damages, emotional -memory is very hard to eliminate and hard to control emotional outbursts.

Case Study: -Clive Wearing.

An English musician was struck by a brain infection (herpes encephalitis). It affected his brain parts that were in charge of memory. Thus, he had memory spans of only a few seconds. His new memories were erased instantly because brain was not able to store them. His played a key role trying to help him and in his activities in his daily life. New information, people and activities were new for him and even though he saw them repeatedly y was totally new for him.

He kept a journal that wrote everything to help him but he said each time that he didn’t remembered writing that or feeling that way.

Research Studies: -HM (Milner and Scoville 1957) Aim: Prove the effect of the absence of the hippocampus on memory.

(orientation, long term memory, and short term memory) Procedure: (for almost 44 years of study) • Operation and removal of tissues of temporal lobe and hippocampus. • Brain Scans, MRI

• Different types of interviews and cognitive testing to see how he reacted • Observation during those years about his behavior and reactions to different daily life situations.

• Findings: Because of HM impossibility to recall new memories, researchers saw how vital on the role of hippocampus on memory and cognitive processes is. Concluding that the hippocampus is a vital structure for the storage of short and long term memories.

Works Cited "â&#x20AC;? -First Year Psychology 2011-2012."-First Year Psychology 2011-2012. Web. 02 May 2012. <>.

Crane, John, and Jette, Hannibal. IB Diploma Programme: Psychology Course Companion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.

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