Cambridge Latin Course
Teacher's Manual FIFTH EDITION
32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY10013-2473, USA Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. Information on this title: education.cambridge.org The Cambridge Latin Course is an outcome of work jointly commissioned by the Cambridge School Classics Project and the Schools Council © Schools Council 1970, 1982 (succeeded by the School Curriculum Development Committee © SCDC Publications 1988). © University of Cambridge School Classics Project 2001, 2015 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 1970 Second edition 1982 Third edition 1988 Fourth edition 2001 Fifth edition 2015 Reprinted 2016 Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Data available isbn 978-1-107-63929-4 Cover image, © Roman Baths Museum, Bath; background Marek Novak / © Shutterstock Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.
Contents Preface 4 Scope and sequence
Introduction 7 Linguistic content of Unit 3
Cultural and historical content of Unit 3
Correlation of Unit 3 with the National Latin Exam
Supplementary materials (including audio)
Stage 21: Aquae Sūlis
Stage 22: dēfīxiō
Stage 23: haruspex
Stage 24: fuga
Stage 25: mīlitēs
Stage 26: Agricola
Stage 27: in castrīs
Stage 28: imperium
Stage 29: Rōma
Stage 30: Haterius
Stage 31: in urbe
Stage 32: Euphrosynē
Stage 33: pantomīmus
Stage 34: lībertus
Linguistic synopsis of Unit 3
Appendix A: Diagnostic tests
Appendix B: Select bibliography
It is almost fifty years since the University of Cambridge School Classics Project (CSCP) began to research and develop “materials and techniques which will accelerate and improve pupils’ ability to read classical Latin literature and widen their knowledge of classical civilisation”. This Fifth Edition of the Cambridge Latin Course therefore builds on half a century of experience in researching, trialing, developing, and improving what is now the world’s leading Latin program. The Course was last revised in the late 1990s and the Fourth Edition has served teachers and students well for many years. A new edition will always present authors and editors with opportunities for development and change. On this occasion, following extensive discussion with teachers, we have chosen to: • improve the physical layout of the material, increasing the page size to allow new vocabulary to be glossed alongside, rather than below, the reading passages. This layout has been found to improve students’ reading fluency as it enables them to find glossed vocabulary more quickly and to return to their place in the reading material more easily; • shorten the Course very slightly, primarily by gently trimming the reading passages, but also by occasionally removing a whole story, to take account of a slight reduction in teaching time; • increase female representation within the story line, notably by introducing Lucia, a daughter for Caecilius and Metella. Where appropriate, the cultural material has also been reviewed to reflect recent research on women’s lives in the Roman world; • introduce color into the line drawings. Our aim is to portray more accurately the physical appearance of the Roman world and help students to realize that the ancient world was a world full of color. Teachers who have used previous editions of the Course will note how heavily the Fifth Edition relies on the work done by earlier authors and editors. The previous work of Clarence Greig, Jill Dalladay, Roger Dalladay, Robin Griffin, David Morton, and Pat Story remains very much at the heart of this edition: most of what you will read, both in the student texts and in the teacher manuals, was originally their creation. Colleagues in the USA and Canada, particularly Martha Altieri, Pat Bell, Sarah Bjorkman, Ginny Blasi, Joe Davenport, Stan Farrow, Donna Gerard, William Lee, Clyde Lehmann, and Mark Pearsall have provided many insights, both into the development of the North American Fourth Edition and into the range of educational environments in which it is now used. It has been a source of great pleasure and learning to observe so many diverse and interesting lessons, from as far afield as Seattle, Boston, and San Antonio, and to talk with students and teachers in classrooms across North America. Much of the work of the CSCP team takes place in a small attic in Cambridge, often quietly and usually without notice. It therefore gives me particular pleasure to have the opportunity to thank publicly my many colleagues who have together created this Fifth Edition. Ian Colvin, Martin Dawes, Christine Delaney, Bar Roden, Sukey Sleeper, Hannah Smith, Tony Smith, and Laila Tims have all played important roles in the revision process. Dr Maria Kilby deserves a special note of thanks for her careful research, particularly in the areas of color and female representation, her untiring attention to detail, and her very good humor over many years.
Special thanks are due also to Ben Harris, Classics editor at Cambridge University Press, who has gone far beyond the call of duty to deliver this edition, and whose patience and composure appear to know no limit. Few publishers would take the time to visit classrooms across North America, build real friendships with teachers, and understand their needs and their varying situations. Ben has done us a very great service and we are deeply indebted to him. Finally, we would all like to thank the many teachers and students from around the world whose thoughts, ideas and experiences shape and inspire everything we do. R. W. Griffiths, Director Cambridge School Classics Project
SCOPE AND SEQUENCE Stage Name 21 Aquae Sūlis
Cultural context Aquae Sulis and its baths.
Main language features Perfect passive participle.
Magic, curses, and superstitions.
Perfect active participle. Genitive: partitive and descriptive.
Roman religious beliefs: sacrifices, divination, state religion, romanization.
Summary of participles. Comparison of adverbs.
Travel and communication.
cum (when) + pluperfect and imperfect subjunctive.
The legionary soldier: recruitment, training, work, pay, promotion.
Indirect questions. Conjugation of imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive.
Senior army officers and the career of Agricola.
Purpose clauses. Gerundives of obligation.
The legionary fortress.
Indirect commands. Result clauses.
The evidence for our knowledge of Roman Britain.
Ablative with participle without preposition. Expressions of time. Impersonal verbs.
Origins of Rome. The Forum Romanum, heart of Rome and the empire. Rome and Judea.
Present and imperfect passive. Purpose clauses introduced by quī and ubi.
Roman building techniques.
Perfect passive. Pluperfect passive.
The city of Rome, its splendor and squalor. Patronage: duties of patrons and clients; the salūtātiō. The structure of Roman society.
Ablative absolute. nē in indirect commands and purpose clauses.
Some popular Roman beliefs: Mithraism, astrology, and Stoicism.
Deponent verbs. Gerundives of obligation. Future participles.
pantomīmus Judaism and Christianity. Entertainment: theater, chariot racing, gladiatorial fights, private entertainment.
Future active. Future perfect active.
Present passive infinitive. Future passive.
6 Scope and sequence
Freedmen and freedwomen.
This manual provides guidelines for teaching Stages 21–34 as well as information about the text and illustrations in the student’s textbook. Teachers should still be guided by the aims and principles of the Cambridge Latin Course, and the recommendations for teaching methods, and planning, all of which are set out in the Unit 1 Teacher’s Manual.
Linguistic content of Unit 3 The reading material is based as far as possible on historical characters and situations in two different parts of the Roman empire in the first century AD. Stages 21–28 are set in Britain and Stages 29–34 in Rome. Continuity with Unit 2 is provided by Quintus, Salvius, and Cogidubnus. The increasing complexity of the language makes it easier for the stories to convey subtleties of character, motivation, and atmosphere. There are many opportunities for students to go beyond the story line to examine the writer’s intentions and to evaluate the evidence provided in the cultural material and illustrations. In addition, interest in the dramatic events of the narrative will help maintain the pace of classroom reading. New language features continue to be introduced through model sentences. The students meet several examples of a feature in their reading before it is discussed and analyzed. This experience is an important factor in enabling them to assimilate a concept and to formulate their own rule(s) with the teacher’s help, rather than to receive ready-made explanations. Exercises both consolidate and test student recognition and understanding of a feature within the context of complete sentences. The level of difficulty increases toward the end of individual exercises and as the Course proceeds. The stories also provide material for consolidation and practice of language features. A new feature of Unit 3, Word patterns, helps students to recognize cognates, build Latin vocabulary, and make educated guesses at the English meanings for unknown Latin words. The Language information at the end of the book contains additional review exercises, to be used by the teacher toward the end of the Unit. Supplementary exercises on the language and culture are available on the Cambridge School Classics Project’s website (www.CambridgeLatinCourse.com). Consolidation and review activities should not be tackled all at the same time. Plan to use a review exercise at the start or end of several lessons. As in Units 1 and 2, variety of activity, content, and pace is essential in every lesson.
Cultural and historical content of Unit 3 Stages 21–28 conclude the Roman Britain episode. This began in Stages 13–16 and was interrupted in Stages 17–20 by Quintus’ narrative “flashback” to his stay in Alexandria. Stages 21–23 and part of 24 are set in the Romano-British town of Aquae Sulis, “The Waters of Sulis” (modern Bath). Sulis and her hot spring had been honored by the native Celts before the Romans came. The Romans, however, identified Sulis with their own goddess Minerva, and by the early 80s AD, the time the events of our stories supposedly took place, had built up the holy place into a widely known resort. Visitors came from Britain and elsewhere, visitors like the fictitious legionary soldiers, Modestus and Strythio, who are said in the story to have traveled south, for rest and recreation,
from their fortress at Deva (modern Chester), or, as an inscription indicates, like the Roman diviner-priest Lucius Marcius Memor, who is here imagined as the administrator appointed by the Romans to oversee the sacred spa. Among the many fascinating finds at Aquae Sulis are the dēfīxiōnēs, small thin sheets of pewter, on which angry visitors scratched “magic” words. One of these dēfīxiōnēs mentions Vilbia, who is imagined in our stories as the fickle girlfriend first of a local boy, named Bulbus, and then of the ironically named Modestus. Two themes alternate in Stages 21–28: a “low-life” story modeled after Roman comedy, in which Modestus and Strythio appear, and a “high-life” story of political intrigue involving Salvius, Quintus, Cogidubnus, and, eventually, the provincial governor, Agricola. In Stages 25–27, the narrative moves to the Roman fortress at Deva, which the Romans began building in AD 76–77 on the orders of Frontinus, who preceded Agricola as governor of Britain. The fortress was probably still incomplete when Agricola first came there in AD 79. These Stages examine many aspects of the Roman army. In Stage 28, our narrative returns to the palace at Fishbourne, which by then, after the death of Cogidubnus, has come into the possession of Salvius. Stages 29–34 take the narrative to Rome, describing the topography and physical appearance of the city, the contrast between the lives of rich and poor, social institutions like the patron–client system, different kinds of public and private entertainment, the driving ambition of many Romans for status and prestige, the different ways in which philosophical sects or religions offered alternatives to the official state religion, and intrigue within the imperial household. (In Unit 4, Agricola and Salvius, hero and villain respectively of our Roman Britain stories, will find themselves caught in the tangle of the emperor’s grim suspicions.) The events of Stages 29 and 30 are set in approximately AD 81 (i.e. earlier by two years than the events of AD 83 described in Stage 28) in the first year of Emperor Domitian’s reign. Domitian, although he had hardly loved his brother Titus, attempted to capitalize on Titus’ popularity by dedicating an arch commemorating the fall of Jerusalem. The narrative evokes the building of the arch of Titus, the triumphal procession, and the feelings and fate of seven Jewish captives taken at Masada. The stories, based on the account of Josephus, a Jewish historian, describe the siege and capture of Masada. Stages 31 and 32, set in approximately AD 82, describe the visit of a Greek Stoic philosopher, Euphrosyne, to Rome. Stages 33 and 34 bring us back up to the year AD 83 and the historically attested affair between Domitian’s wife, Domitia, and the pantomime actor, Paris. In our stories it is not Domitian himself who catches his wife in adultery, but his freedman-agent Epaphroditus. A link between Stages 29 and 34 is provided by a wealthy contractor, Haterius, the fictitious son of a freedman of the historical Haterii family, and his house, family, and connections, including his patron, Gaius Salvius Liberalis. In Stages 33–34 Salvius is imagined as returning to Rome, where he connives with Epaphroditus to entrap the lovers into keeping an apparent assignation at the house of Salvius’ client and perhaps dupe, Haterius.
Course design Pace and planning Unit 3 contains 14 Stages. To plan your teaching year, calculate the number of lessons you have in the year by multiplying the number of lessons you have per week by the number of teaching weeks in the year. Be sure to subtract a few lessons for those inevitably lost to other school activities. Once you know the total number of lessons in the year, divide by 14 to calculate the number of lessons you have to teach each Stage. The Stages in Unit 3 are designed to provide enough teaching and learning material for approximately six to eight lessons. Reading The aim of the Cambridge Latin Course is to develop fluency and appreciation in reading Latin in the original. It is therefore important to: • ensure that every lesson contains some reading of Latin; • use the Latin text as the starting point for all work on language, both the introduction of new points and the consolidation of old features; • continue to use reading aloud and comprehension questions in English as the main tools for approaching a story and unraveling complex sentences; • apply the techniques of literary criticism, giving due regard to the sound of the Latin; the writer’s effectiveness and his use of stylistic features to develop plot, character, and atmosphere; • relate the reading material to students’ own interests and to other subjects in the curriculum. Variety in the range of reading material and the approaches used is important, e.g.: a Reuse of earlier material promotes fluency. In relation to a recurring theme (e.g. Salvius’ attitude to different people and situations), reread (or recall) an earlier incident in connection with a new story; or ask students to find in a previous story examples of a language feature about to be developed further, or vocabulary that will recur in the new passage. Returning to an earlier story which students can easily manage is also morale-boosting if they have hit a hard patch; it is an effective way of demonstrating to them that they actually have made progress. b Use easy or less important new material to build student confidence. Let students read it on their own and provide a bank of written or recorded translations so that they have a means of checking. c Encourage a range of responses to a passage to stimulate imagination and versatility, e.g.: sketch, enact, summarize, read in Latin with appropriate expression, translate orally in groups or individually, prepare or translate a passage not seen before; answer comprehension questions; pick out and analyze words which describe character, or action, or atmosphere. d Select significant passages for study in depth to develop literary appreciation. Discuss content and style, examining the language and imagery used, eliciting a range of acceptable translations and discussing the effect of differences in the style of translation.
Discussion is a natural response to any reading material. Even when time is short, it should be used to increase the involvement and appreciation of students. When you are drawing attention to particular points of language or culture, you will be seeking correct answers or acceptable possibilities. Discussing a range of translations is more openended and helps students to become sensitive to nuances in both languages. Topics such as religion, marriage, the use and abuse of power, the place of women —or slaves, or writers—in society, can strongly engage students and enable their Latin to make a contribution to their understanding of citizenship, or religion and ethics. Sometimes spontaneous discussion of last night’s TV news or current films can illuminate Roman culture and literature and reveal insights; at other times it is sufficient to highlight the issues raised in the passage just before the end of the class and leave students to discuss them on their own. Outside the classroom. Encourage students to read around the subject, as reading in English extends their vocabulary, their general fluency, and their linguistic sensitivity. Give them a reading list and ensure that the school library has a good stock of historical novels, attractive books about the themes covered in the course, good translations (especially of Ovid, Virgil, Catullus, Pliny, and Tacitus). If possible, give them access to the Cambridge School Classics Project website, www.cambridgescp.com, which provides further opportunities for study.
Omitting material The amount of reading material is greater than the time available to many groups. Decisions about what to omit should take into account not only linguistic features but also content and literary value, to ensure that reading remains enjoyable and to exploit any connections with other subjects. Where the story line is affected, make sure that students know what has happened, e.g.: summarize it yourself, or let a more-able student read the story and tell the rest, or provide students with a written translation. A suggested list of omissions, indicated by ** in the commentaries, is as follows: Stage 21 Memor rem suscipit II Stage 22 amor omnia vincit I, II, III Stage 23 epistula Cephalī Stage 24 Exercise 2 Stage 25 Modestus perfuga I, II, III Stage 26 tribūnus Exercise 3 Stage 27 in horreō Stage 28 testāmentum Stage 29 Masada II Stage 30 polyspaston II Stage 31 salūtātiō I Stage 32 Euphrosynē revocāta I Stage 33 in aulā Domitiānī II Stage 34 exitium I
Some teachers find it tempting to omit the comic story line in Stages 22 to 27 altogether, but this is not recommended. It provides relief and variety and appeals to many students because of the insight it provides into the Roman sense of humor and informal relationships. If you make up additional material for language practice, you can draw upon the stories which have been omitted from your lessons, e.g. a shortened version for unseen translation. Assessment and feedback are important factors in student motivation and achievement. Detailed advice is given in the Unit 1 Teacher’s Manual. Students should also be encouraged to assess their own progress by keeping a record of completed tasks and activities and grades (marks) achieved. While course design starts from an overview of the Stage, it is important to design each individual lesson with care so that students remain motivated by variety of pace and activity. Teachers should feel free to use their own materials and methods, and select from the following Stage commentaries only those activities and exercises that are suitable for their particular students and circumstances.
Correlation of Unit 3 with the National Latin Exam Many students take the Latin II National Latin Exam (sponsored by the American Classical League and the National Junior Classical League) in early March. Since Latin II students using the Course will normally have reached about Stage 29–30 by March, they will be quite prepared to succeed on the Latin II exam. For further information about the National Latin Exam, back copies, and a syllabus, visit www.nle.org, or write to National Latin Exam, University of Mary Washington, 1301 College Avenue, Fredericksburg, VA 22401.
Supplementary materials (including audio) The Course website (www.CambridgeLatinCourse.com) provides a wide range of material to support the Course, including: • interactive editions of the Latin stories, for use by students when reading individually or in pairs, or to allow the teacher to display the story to the whole class; • audio recordings of the Latin stories; • interactive language manipulation activities; • digital vocabulary drills; • digital dictionaries; • printable study sheets to support the study of the stories, the language features, and the cultural topics; • weblinks to enable further investigation of the cultural topic of each Stage. Latin read aloud correctly is both a medium for expressing meaning and a joy to hear. The system adopted by the Course for its audio materials is the restored pronunciation, and the rules for pronouncing all letters of the Latin alphabet according to this system are summarized in Sidney Allen’s definitive work, Vox Latina (Cambridge University Press, 1989).
Stage commentaries These notes contain suggestions for planning and teaching Stages 21â€“34. Each Stage is prefaced by a summary of the content, which is followed by teaching notes for each section in the Stage. Stories that may be omitted (see p. 10 of this manual) are marked **. Teachers should feel free to adapt the advice given in the notes to suit their circumstances, either by using suggestions made in the Introduction or by substituting their own ideas. For further reading on the cultural context and visual resources, consult the Bibliography (pp. 199â€“202).
12 Stage commentaries
STAGE 21: Aquae Sūlis Cultural context Romano-British town of Aquae Sulis, its baths and temple complex. Story line Spring, AD 83. Fishbourne. Cogidubnus wonders whether to go to Aquae Sulis for a health cure. Salvius advises him to make his will. In Aquae Sulis, Salvius orders Memor to kill Cogidubnus. In turn, Memor orders Cephalus to kill the king. Main language feature • perfect passive participle e.g. faber, ab architectō laudātus, laetissimus erat. Sentence patterns participial phrase + preposition e.g. faber, ab architectō laudātus, laetissimus erat.
v + acc + nom e.g. vexant mē architectus et fabrī. dat + v + (nom) e.g. sibi dīxit lībertus. increasing complexity of elements governed by infinitive e.g. volō tē mihi cōnsilium dare. Word patterns Adverbs ending in -ē formed from 1st and 2nd declension adjectives. Focus of exercises 1 Nominative, accusative, and genitive of nouns, singular and plural. 2 Selection of correct nouns and verbs to form a sentence. 3 1st, 2nd, and 3rd persons singular, present, imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect tenses.
Opening page (p. 1)
Illustration. Saucepan handle showing a worshipper making an offering on a covered altar, rather like a larārium (cf. Unit 1, p. 12), outside a temple by a spring. The scene may represent Bath, as Minerva forms part of the handle decoration. Made of silver, partly gilded, the saucepan would be used for religious ritual. It was probably dedicated by a high-ranking soldier as it is from the Capheaton treasure, Northumberland, found in the eighteenth century (British Museum). A detailed discussion is best left until the cultural material is studied.
Model sentences (pp. 2–4)
Story. The architect supervising the building of the Roman baths punishes an impertinent workman by having him thrown into the Great Bath. New language feature. Perfect passive participles, with ā or ab to cue passive translation. New vocabulary. oppidō, exstruēbant, balneum, minimē (new meaning), īnsolenter, verba, comprehendērunt (new meaning), linguam (new meaning). First reading. The pictures supply strong clues to the meanings. You should discuss cultural details in the pictures while students are construing the captions. Three men are at work. The first (line drawing 2), a sculptor, is making the head for a statue of Sulis Minerva. The second workman (line drawing 3) is putting the coping stones on the wall which the Romans built around the spring itself. The third workman (line drawing 4) is
STAGE 21 13
bringing water in buckets, perhaps to make cement or to wash down newly-laid paving slabs. The main water supply from the spring to the Great Bath was through the conduit shown in line drawings 1, 5, and 6. The architect’s final gibe (line drawing 6), linguam sordidam habēs. melius est tibi aquam sacram bibere, hints at the curative properties of the water. The model sentences introduce the perfect passive participle. Occasional examples have already occurred, but have been treated like adjectives. Now their verbal nature becomes prominent and the examples more numerous. Each participle is preceded by an example of the finite form of its verb; thus laudātus is anticipated by laudāvit, etc. The first three participles are masculine singular nominative; one plural example is introduced near the end. A further aid is provided by expressing the agent, e.g. ab architectō laudātus, which highlights the passive meaning of the participle. Students who are used to reading Latin left to right will thus be led to translating laudātus as simply praised. Consolidation. Many students feel more secure at first if encouraged to use a standard form, e.g. laudātus, praised, having been praised, or after being praised. As soon as students can readily recognize the participle, encourage them to use natural English equivalents. Flexibility in handling the participle is one of the most important skills the learner needs to acquire. Many students often have an intuitive preference for a finite verb. Illustrations. The line drawings illustrate the building of the baths: • Laying paving over the conduit carrying water from the spring into the Great Bath. • Sculptor working on the head of Sulis Minerva. • Setting coping stones on the top of the wall the Romans built around the sacred spring. • Fetching water to make mortar or to wash the new paving.
fōns sacer (p. 5)
Story. Quintus has stayed with Salvius throughout the winter and has continued his friendship with Cogidubnus. At the beginning of spring, Cogidubnus falls seriously ill. He asks Quintus and Salvius if he should make a trip to the healing waters at Bath. Salvius advises him to make his will. First reading. Using the line drawing, ask questions to refresh students’ memories of Fishbourne, where this story is set. Remind them if necessary of the Stage 16 story Quīntus dē sē (Unit 2, p. 67), where Quintus described his flight from Pompeii and his journey to Egypt. fōns sacer provides a transition between Units 2 and 3 and should be reviewed at a good pace. Read it aloud expressively in Latin and elicit the story line from the class by comprehension questions. The passive meaning of the participle continues for the moment to be reinforced by ā or ab with the agent (with one exception: ad aulam arcessītī, line 6). The reinforcement is reduced in subsequent stories by replacing the agent with an adverb or other prepositional phrase; finally, the participle appears on its own. If students translate ā rēge invītātus (line 2) as “by the king’s invitation,” accept this as conveying the sense, but ask for a rephrasing to make sure that the actual structure has been recognized. There are sentences which will lead the students to a more natural English translation; e.g., in fōns sacer, the sentence prope thermās stat templum … ā meīs fabrīs aedificātum (lines 15–16), where the version a temple built by my workmen is more idiomatic than a temple having been built.
14 STAGE 21
Note the introduction of two new linguistic developments: 1 volō tē mihi cōnsilium dare (lines 9–10) and similar sentences, e.g. infinitive with iubeō. As they resemble their English equivalents, there is no need to comment on them. In reading, emphasize volō tē, so that these words are taken together. 2 vir magnae calliditātis (line 17). Students may want to take phrases like this literally at first, but also encourage more idiomatic translations. A language note on the descriptive and partitive genitive appears in Stage 22. Discussion. Select phrases in the story for translation and study. Discuss them in a way that picks up themes from the past and helps the students get involved in the new context, e.g.: 1 aliquid novī audīre semper volēbat (lines 3–4). The importance of stories and conversation as entertainment in the ancient world. 2 multī medicī … morbus (lines 6–7). Refer back to Stage 20, and discuss reasons why the situation in Britain might be worse than in Alexandria, e.g. remoteness, shortage of Greek practitioners. This will pave the way for the study of Bath as a healing center. 3 architectus Rōmānus … aedificātum (lines 14–16). Cogidubnus’ possible role in developing the Roman baths is mentioned on p. 18 of the students’ textbook. 4 ego deam saepe honōrāvī; nunc fortasse dea mē sānāre potest (lines 16–17). This attitude was commonplace in the Roman world. Remind students of Clemens who trusted in his piety to protect him against Eutychus (Stage 18). Motives for worship included the hope of favors in return, especially favors of health and safety. Although you could touch on the theme of religious attitudes here, a fuller discussion might wait until Stage 23. 5 Salvī, tū es vir magnae calliditātis (line 17). What answer would you expect Salvius to give to Cogidubnus’ question, quid facere dēbeō? What answer does he give? Do you think this answer confirms Cogidubnus’ estimate of his character?
Consolidation 1 The first two paragraphs are useful as a basis for revising the perfect and imperfect tenses. When a student is asked to describe a verb, it should also be translated, so that function and meaning are always associated, e.g. What tense is manēbat? What is the best translation? Manipulating the example is another useful device for consolidation, e.g. What would be the Latin for “they were staying”? 2 Ask students to identify the perfect participles in this story: invītātus (line 2), arcessītī (line 6), missus (line 14), and aedificātum (line 16), and discuss the different ways of translating them. Illustration. The line drawing is a visual clue, placing this story in Fishbourne and recalling the three main characters.
Lūcius Marcius Memor (pp. 6–7)
Story. The manager of the baths is sleeping off a hangover. Roused by his freedman, Cephalus, he laments his situation and tells him to dismiss everyone who is waiting to see him. First reading. Read lines 1–20 aloud in Latin, with students following the text. Then assign the parts of narrator, Memor, and Cephalus to individual students and ask them
STAGE 21 15
to reread the story aloud. Check where necessary that the class has understood the “surface” meaning. Individuals or pairs should then draft answers to comprehension questions 1–6 on p. 7. After discussing the answers, repeat the sequence with lines 21– 32. When all the questions have been answered, raise the following topics: 1 the relationship between Memor and his freedman (contrast this with the relationship of Quintus and Clemens); 2 the Roman system of career promotion through patronage, and the difficulty with the way this worked in the provinces. This is a good time to study the cultural material, Aquae Sulis and its baths (pp. 14–19). Consolidation. After a discussion of students’ responses to the questions, and especially if a summer and/or semester has intervened between Unit 2 and this Unit, you might also now review verbs. For example: in line 1, “What tense is erat? Translate it.” in line 5, “Find a verb in the imperfect tense. Translate it.” Do not ask students to affix labels to tenses without also translating them; otherwise, students may start dissociating grammatical terminology from meaning.
Further information Memor is a historical figure, though later than our period (his character as depicted in the story is entirely fictitious); his name and presence at Aquae Sulis are attested by a statue base still standing in the temple precinct discovered in 1965. See illustration on p. 8 of the students’ book and discussion on pp. 17–18 of this manual. The inscription is evidence that Memor was a member of the priestly college of haruspicēs and perhaps involved in the administration of the baths and temple. It is interesting that the temple of Aquae Sulis was sufficiently important to attract a man of his status. However, in the hierarchy of Roman priests, a haruspex ranked lower than a pontifex or an augur, and Memor’s hopes of magnōs honōrēs (line 23) suggest his lower position within the priestly system. More details about haruspicēs, who read the future by inspecting the livers and other organs of animals, will be found in Stage 23. The policy of romanization was practiced systematically by the governor Agricola (if we accept Tacitus’ account, Agricola 21). Memor was part of the process of bringing the two cultures together and of superimposing, to some extent, the Roman upon the Celtic. So the goddess Sulis became Sulis Minerva; tribal leaders began to live in Roman-style villas, do business in newly-built forums and basilicas, wear the toga, and mix socially with the conquerors. The extent of the change is debatable. Maybe twenty or thirty miles from the romanized town of Aquae Sulis, few patterns of Celtic life were changed. Illustration. The furniture, like that on the title page of Stage 14 (Unit 2, p. 23), is based on a sarcophagus relief from Roman Germany.
senātor advenit (p. 8)
Story. Cephalus again tries to rouse Memor, this time to greet a visiting senator. Memor is annoyed until he hears that it is Salvius who is entering the courtyard. He dresses hastily, with Cephalus’ help.
16 STAGE 21
First reading. Take the story in two parts. Read as far as appropinquantem cōnspexī (line 9) in Latin and give students time to explore the text in groups and prepare a detailed translation for sharing with the class. They may need help with the complex sentence in line 7, postquam … effēcī. After going through the translation with the group, pause to discuss the situation. Questions might include: 1 Why is Memor miserable with his job in Britain? Refer back to p. 7 (lines 21–25) if necessary. 2 What does he need to do to get promoted? 3 What do you expect to be the result of a senator arriving at this moment? Having piqued the students’ interest, read the rest of the story to them in Latin and allow them to work it out for themselves in pairs or groups. Discussion. Further discussion could center on: 1 Preparation for a dramatic reading in pairs. Ask students to explore character and motivation by reading with expression, e.g.: ● hunc (line 13). Should Cephalus sound helpful, rude, or sly? Is he enjoying the situation? ● num (line 15). How would you translate this word? What does it show about Memor’s feelings toward Salvius? ● nōn crēdō tibi (lines 15–16). Is this genuine disbelief or surprise? ● quam īnfēlīx sum! (line 21). Would you expect Memor to say this, in view of his ambitions? Why does he regard himself as unlucky? Find a word in line 19 (perterritus) that gives you a clue to his real feelings. 2 The relationship between Memor and Salvius. Memor, as manager of the bath complex, is an important figure at Bath. He is wealthy, attracted to this provincial post by the size and reputation of the baths which appear, on the surface, to offer good prospects for promotion. He is right to look on Salvius as a desirable patron, for Salvius had risen rapidly in his career and was close to the imperial family as a member of the Arval Brotherhood (Unit 2, p. 18). 3 Salvius’ character. Encourage students to start a collection of phrases which other characters use to describe Salvius, and to decide whether they agree with the description, e.g.: vir magnae calliditātis (p. 5, line 17); vir summae auctōritātis (p. 8, lines 21–22). Consolidation. Ask students to reread the story, making a list of all the question words, and learning their meanings. Illustration. Statue base, Aquae Sulis. This was found in 1965 in its original position in the temple precinct where it still stands. The inscription reads: DEAE SVLI To the goddess Sulis L MARCIVS MEMOR L(ucius) Marcius Memor HARVSP Harusp(ex) D D D(ono) D(edit) – gave (this statue) as a gift The carving of the letter forms is good but the sculptor used ligatures extensively; i.e. he conflates two, sometimes three, letters. The inscription tells us that Memor was a member
STAGE 21 17
of the priestly college of haruspicēs (priests who examined the entrails of sacrificial victims). He would have been a member of the equestrian order, less important than Salvius, but a man of substance building a career like Salvius.
About the language: perfect passive participles (pp. 9–10)
New language feature. Perfect passive participle. The aim of the language note is to enable students to: 1 recognize perfect participles in their reading; 2 translate them appropriately; 3 link each participle to the noun it describes. Discussion. Take the class through paragraphs 1–3. Do the first two examples of paragraph 4 orally before asking students to complete the exercise. If necessary, help them with the vocabulary so that they are not distracted from the new feature. Up to this point, use the standard pattern of English suggested in paragraph 3 to help students link the participle to the correct noun. Only after reading paragraph 5 should they be asked for a range of natural English translations of the examples in paragraph 4. If you make up further examples, follow the pattern of the examples in the book by including the agent to aid recognition, e.g. lībertus, ā dominō vituperātus, ē vīllā discessit. Use the participles in the nominative singular or plural only. There is no need to explain the term “passive” at this point. Consolidation. Ask students to identify other perfect participles in the stories they have read, indicating which noun each describes and translating the sentence. Help them to develop versatility by writing up all the acceptable translations produced for one of these examples. Continue to use examples from the text for quick oral practice at the start or end of each lesson during this Stage. Some students find it helpful to learn an example by heart, which can be used as a prompt later if they get stuck, e.g. faber, ab architectō laudātus.
Memor rem suscipit I (pp. 10–11)
Story. Salvius tells Memor that Cogidubnus is coming to take the waters, and orders him to kill the old king. Appalled, Memor offers excuses but Salvius is adamant. First reading. Use comprehension questions to help students appreciate the characters and their motivation, e.g.: Why does Salvius call Memor vir summae prūdentiae (line 3)? tālem rem suscipere velim (line 5). Is this statement true? What problem does Memor have? exspectant … et fabrī (lines 6–7). Why does Memor describe his responsibilities? Is he overwhelmed by everything waiting to be done, or is he trying to impress Salvius? Read Memor’s speech (lines 5–7) aloud. Where does your tone change? Why? What does Memor think Salvius is asking of him when he says Cogidubnus, quī … bibere vult (lines 9–10)? How do you know? When Memor understands Salvius’ plan, what objections does he raise? Why is he reluctant? What arguments does Salvius use to put pressure on Memor?
18 STAGE 21
What do you expect Memor to do in this dilemma? Why? How far does Salvius’ attitude toward Memor differ from his treatment of his inferiors in previous stories? Remind students, if necessary, of the stories in Unit 2: coniūrātiō (p. 6), Bregāns (p. 8), Salvius fundum īnspicit (p. 12), ad aulam (p. 46). How do you now view Salvius’ behavior when the dancing bear turned on Cogidubnus (Stage 16, p. 64)?
Consolidation 1 Ask students to reread the story in pairs, producing a colloquial précis of each speech which they could read aloud or act out to the class. 2 Ask them to pick out all sentences containing examples of the verbs possum, volō, and nōlō to translate. This is a good place to review the present tenses of these irregular verbs, plus sum (p. 282). Use an oral substitution exercise to reinforce the forms “What does vult mean? volunt? nōlunt? nōlumus? nōlō?”, etc. 3 rēs merits further study after the first reading.
** Memor rem suscipit II (p. 11)
Story. Memor asks Cephalus for advice. Cephalus offers him a plan for using a poisoned cup. Memor passes the job to him. First reading. Divide the class into halves, asking each half to look at the speeches of one of the characters. After you have read the story aloud in Latin, invite translations from students in the appropriate half of the class. The students will enjoy the echoes of Part I. Discussion. Possible questions could include: How and when does Memor’s mood change? What was it before the change, and what after? Why is Memor afraid to use poison? Why do you think he trusts Cephalus rather than his slaves? How would he say his final words (line 21)? Do you consider the behavior of Salvius and Memor in these stories true to life? What is your view of the murder plan? Will it work? Continue with class discussion of the attitudes of the characters: Why do you suppose Memor passes the task on to Cephalus? Why is it difficult for Cephalus to refuse? Students usually enjoy speculating about the technical details of the cup used for the poison. You might draw their attention to other mechanical devices like the eagle escaping from under the wax effigy of the Emperor Claudius in Stage 15, or the Emperor Nero’s booby-trapped ship designed to kill his mother, Agrippina (Tacitus Annals XIV. 3–6, Stage 48). Finally, using both parts of this story, you might ask some of your students to do dramatic readings of the parts of Memor, Salvius, and Cephalus. You might involve more students by dividing the parts of Memor and Salvius between two readers each. Before these students read aloud, all the students should discuss key moments in the dialogue and consider how they should be read. For example: Memor, in his first speech in Part I, replies hastily to Salvius’ unspecified request, but pauses before sed quid vīs mē facere?
STAGE 21 19
(line 7) as the possible seriousness of it begins to dawn. In his long speech in the middle, Salvius tries to coax his man, num praemium, ab Imperātōre prōmissum, recūsāre vīs? (lines 26–27). After Salvius’ departure, Memor’s next two speeches are extremely anxious in tone; but in his last two speeches his mood changes quickly, perhaps because he sees an opportunity to pass the buck. Hence his final sarcastic comment, vīta, mī Cephale, est plēna rērum difficilium, which mirrors exactly the tone of Salvius saying these same words in Part I, line 32. If time allows, students, working in pairs, might enjoy writing an English script for Part II using modern slang, murder weapon, etc., appropriate to their choice of milieu: Wild West, mob/gangsters, etc. They can then do dramatic readings of their modernized creative versions entitled “Pass the Buck,” “Murder at High Noon,” or “The Godfather,” etc. Consolidation. After students have read both parts of this story, you might ask them to: 1 pick out the perfect passive participles and the noun each describes; 2 review the use of the dative case with verbs like cōnfīdere. You might write on the board the sentence nūllīs tamen servīs cōnfīdō, lines 17–18, translate it, and then take the class through further examples such as Memor Cephalō cōnfīdit or Quīntus Holcōniō favet.
Word patterns: adjectives and adverbs (p. 12)
Introduction. This is the first of a series of exercises designed to increase students’ word power by encouraging them to notice cognate forms. Guide students through them orally; if students write them out, they should not look up items, or the exercises become pointless. The examples, both old and new, make the point that words not previously met can be interpreted correctly if a cognate form is known. New language feature. Formation of adverbs from 1st and 2nd declension adjectives. Discussion. Read paragraphs 1 and 2 with the class, noting the Latin and English adverbial endings. Then attempt the exercises in paragraphs 3, 4, and 5. Some of the words are new, to make the point that their meaning can be derived from a cognate form. Encourage students to generalize for themselves about the way these adverbs are formed. Consolidation. Use the actions which occurred in familiar stories to practice recognition of adverbs, e.g. Memor listened to Salvius intentē. What does that mean? And what would it mean if the Latin story had said, After sending everyone away, Cephalus ad dominum celerrimē rediit?
Practicing the language (p. 13) In this and other Stages which contain numerous exercises, do not work through all of them consecutively. Provide variety by interspersing them at appropriate times. When orally reviewing students’ answers to the exercises, it is important to ask occasionally the reason for the choice of a given word. Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with a noun in the nominative, accusative, or genitive, singular or plural. Exercise 2. Translate an English sentence into Latin by selecting from the alternative Latin words provided. Work through the given example and example a on the board
20 STAGE 21
with students, and make sure they understand the task before they try it for themselves. Show them how to use the Language information to help themselves, if necessary. The exercise reviews the cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative) and the tenses (perfect, imperfect, and pluperfect). Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with the correct person (1st, 2nd, or 3rd singular) of the verb (present, imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect).
Language information: review Present, imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect tenses (pp. 274–275). Possibly concentrate on persons here. List the endings: -m/ō/ī -s -t -mus etc. on the board in normal or jumbled order and ask students to give the correct English pronoun as you point to different endings. Follow up with the type of substitution exercise recommended for the review of irregular verbs, p. 19 of this manual. Further work on tenses is suggested in Stage 23.
Cultural context material (pp. 14–19)
Content. An account of the natural hot springs, the development of the baths as a healing and tourist center, and the discoveries made by archaeologists. Best studied in connection with Lūcius Marcius Memor (pp. 6–7).
Suggestions for discussion 1 Show views of the interior of the Great Bath at Aquae Sulis and those of the baths at Herculaneum and/or Pompeii. What similarities and differences are there? Which baths most resemble a modern swimming pool? Why? 2 Discuss with the class the idea that the spring was a religious place. What activities and objects would impress upon visitors, when they came to the baths at Aquae Sulis, that they were in a religious setting? Discuss also the range of offerings as seen in the illustration on p. 19. 3 Read in translation Tacitus Agricola 21, and, using the example of Sulis Minerva and the religious complex at Aquae Sulis, explore with students the cultural policy of romanization. Consider modern parallels, e.g. the colonization of Africa in the nineteenth century by various European powers; the “melting pot” policy adopted by the United States toward immigrants from Europe in the latter part of the nineteenth century; the multicultural character of contemporary Canadian society; the impact of western technology on oil-producing countries of the Middle East, Africa, and Central and South America. Further information The plan of the baths on p. 17 shows the complex at its earliest stage. Visitors entered through the doorway at the bottom left and passed through the frigidārium to reach the hall overlooking the sacred spring in which the Stage 22 model sentences are set. The Romans built a reservoir around the spring 6 feet, 7 inches (2 meters) deep to STAGE 21 21
create a settling tank for unwanted sediment and to provide a head of water to feed the baths. Clear water was drawn off the top for the baths. However, a sluice lower in the tank could be opened as necessary to wash out the sediment. The Great Bath, lined with lead sheets, was 72 feet long, 29 feet wide, and 5 feet deep (22 x 9 x 1.5 meters) and was entered by steps along all four sides. Warm water flowed into it through a lead pipe that ran directly from the sacred hot spring. Around the bath ran wide covered walkways, paved with hard limestone. On each of the long sides were three recesses (exedrae), which provided sitting areas well clear of splashing water. The roof was probably about 44 feet (13.5 meters) above the bath and the upper walls must have contained apertures to allow daylight to enter and steam to escape. Much of the temple lies beneath the present Bath Abbey church, but modern techniques have made excavation possible and allowed archaeologists to examine the site. It cannot be definitely dated, but was probably first built in the first century AD with modifications later. Work is still proceeding on reconstructing it. One of the most interesting discoveries is the pediment of the temple, which has been pieced together from fragments. In the center is a face with a mustache in the Celtic style (see illustration in the students’ book, p. 40). Supporting it on either side are winged Victories (not visible in the view in the students’ book) carved in the classical manner. This blend of styles denotes more than a meeting of different artistic traditions; it is a powerful example of religious synthesis. The original identification of the pediment roundel as a Gorgon is now under debate. The figure may suggest a male god of the waters (like Neptune or Oceanus) and/or a sun god with flaming hair. Such a combination would be an appropriate symbol for the hot waters of Bath. See Cunliffe and Davenport for details of the temple precinct. The town was smaller than a typical Roman market town. Although excavations have shown several large private houses as well as taverns, boarding houses, and the homes of ordinary people, the site as a whole was not densely built up during the first century AD. But its mineral waters ensured that Aquae Sulis was widely known and much visited. Regular repairs and modifications to the Great Bath and the evidence of wear on steps and paving stones testify to the constant passage of visitors. So too do the surviving inscriptions, which are mainly of two types: altars erected to the goddess in thanksgiving for a safe journey or in hope of a cure, or tombstones. In addition to Memor, the name of one priest is known, Gaius Calpurnius Receptus. Tourism may have been the chief basis of the town’s economy, but the surrounding countryside was a prosperous agricultural and, to some extent, industrial area, where farmers built many villas, grazed sheep and cattle, and grew barley and wheat. Nearby, others quarried stone and manufactured utensils from pewter, an alloy of tin and lead (both mined not far away), and a cheap alternative to silver. For further details, see Cunliffe, Salway, Wacher, and the web site, romanbaths.co.uk.
Illustrations pp. 14–15 ● The Great Bath, lined with lead sheets, was 72 feet long, 29 feet wide, and 5 feet deep (22 x 9 x 1.5 meters). It stood in the center of an aisled hall 109 feet x 67 feet (33.2 x 20.4 meters). The water runs in directly from the sacred spring at the northwest corner (bottom left of the photograph), and there is a sluice 22 STAGE 21
for draining the bath at the opposite corner. Steam can be seen rising from the water. The stone visible at bottom left was probably the base of an ornamental feature in Roman times. It is not a diving stone, but has become worn by generations of feet from later periods. ● Line drawing of the Great Bath, showing the likely appearance, with a clerestory. The appearance of the columns has been worked out from the original column bases, which can be seen in the photo on p. 17. The photograph also shows how the columns were enlarged later to take the weight of the concrete and brick barrel vault, which replaced the earlier wooden roof. ● Fashionable lady, late first century (note the hairstyle, reminiscent of Metella, Unit 1), from a cemetery at Walcot, near Bath (Bath Museum). Fashionable people came to Bath, even from abroad. ● Plan of the baths, revised in line with latest research. Further buildings, possibly including an apodyterium and grand entrance, completed the suite of baths at bottom left, but their arrangement is unknown. ● Lead pipes, made from a single sheet welded together at the top. Water ran from the spring to the baths through lead pipes. Roman bones show traces of excessive lead, but this problem may have been caused by cooking in lead vessels as well as by lead water pipes. ● Hypocaust from the tepidarium, providing underfloor heating in the Roman style, to supplement the naturally heated mineral water. ● Reconstruction of temple front. Temples in the classical style are rare in Britain, where the distinctive Romano-British style is more common. Note the fluted columns with Corinthian capitals, the pediment with a roundel showing Neptune, a sun god, or a Gorgon’s head, supported by classical winged Victories on either side. ● Model of the temple courtyard (Bath Museum). Sacrifices were conducted on an altar in front of the temple in the courtyard. There were also two small shrines on either side of the temple sets. ● Finds from the sacred spring:
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1 Large pewter jugs. 2 Pewter dish with octagonal flange round the outside. 3 Silver saucepan. The handle shown on p. 1 was attached to a saucepan like this. 4 Bronze saucepan. The decoration was originally filled with enamel. 5 Pewter saucepans. These are inscribed with the words SULI MINERVAE and DSM (DEAE SULI MINERVAE), meaning for (the goddess) Sulis Minerva. Probably used in temple rituals. 6 Bone handle of clasp knife. 7 Vilbia curse tablet in lead alloy (see Stage 22 and pp. 34–35 of this manual). 8 Bronze washer from small military catapult, similar in strength to medieval crossbow. 9 Ivory carving of a pair of breasts, perhaps given to the goddess in gratitude for healing. 10 Earring (shown in close-up, p. 20). 11 Sheet of bronze with cut-out pattern, perhaps part of priest’s ritual dress. 12 Heap of coins. 10,000–20,000 coins were found in the spring, of which four gold coins were valuable; many were silver, and the rest bronze and brass of small denominations. 13 Two pewter bowls and a pewter plate. 14 Tin mask, 13 inches high (33cm), previously attached to wooden backing, used in the temple ritual. 15 Group of gemstones, exquisitely engraved, probably thrown in all together in a bag. 16 Pewter inkpot. ● Three of the gemstones (L to R): 1 Bust of Maenad (female follower of Bacchus, god of wine) made in semiprecious stone called nicolo (gray-black banded agate), length 0.41 inch (10.5mm). 2 Fortuna, holding horn of plenty, poppy head, and rudder, in cornelian, length 0.45 inch (11.5mm). 3 Discus-thrower with palm of victory in a vase, cornelian, 0.47 inch (12mm). p. 20 Gold earring with pear-shape carbuncle (especially cut garnet), originally with two glass beads or jewels suspended from the wires, length 1⅜ inches (3.7cm) (Bath Museum). All Roman gemstones were rounded and polished, rather than facet-cut like modern ones. They could be carved out for use in seal rings.
Suggestions for further activities
1 As a class project, make a large wall plan of the baths for reference during Stages 21– 23. Mark incidents from the stories and add line drawings at the appropriate locations. 2 With data from this Stage, from Cunliffe, Salway, and other sources, write an imaginary diary of a Roman visiting Aquae Sulis. Illustrate your diary with small maps or illustrations.
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3 Write a research paper on the history of spas, or resorts with mineral springs, in Europe. You might consider: Aachen in Germany; Aix-les-Bains in southeastern France; the original Spa in eastern Belgium (all of which were colonized by the Romans); the Shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes, in France, where the sick still come to drink glasses of healing water; or even ancient Thermopylae (modern Loutropolis), in Greece, where Heracles supposedly bathed.
Vocabulary checklist (p. 20) Students are introduced to the fourth principal part of verbs in this Stage. Note that many English words come from the last part of the verbs, e.g. effect, jussive. adiuvō and audiō are often confused by students. An exercise on various forms of these words as well as forms of audeō and adeō may help alleviate some of the confusion. nūllus is a compound of nē + ūllus. nūllus = not + any. If one does not have any, one has none. nōnnūllī means some. nōnnūllī is a compound of nōn + nūllus; if one has not none, then one has some. You may wish to point out that -ti- in the middle of a Latin word often changes to -ciwhen the word comes into English; e.g. pretium gives us precious in English. sapiēns comes from the verb sapiō – taste. Ask students how they think having taste comes to mean being wise.
Phrases for discussion Deo adiuvante ars est celare artem quis ... bene celat amorem? – Ovid stultus nil celat: quod habet sub corde revelat nihil amantibus durum est – St Jerome e pluribus unum ne plus ultra
STAGE 21 25
STAGE 22: dēfīxiō Cultural context Magic, curses, and superstitions. Story line Vilbia, an innkeeper’s daughter, has become infatuated with Modestus, a Roman soldier from the Second Legion on leave in Aquae Sulis, and has rejected her previous boyfriend, Bulbus. Modestus’ friend, Strythio, acts as gobetween. Bulbus convinces his friend, Gutta, to impersonate Vilbia and distract Modestus. Then Bulbus shoves Modestus into the sacred spring from where Modestus begs for mercy and rejects Vilbia. After hearing this, Vilbia is reunited with Bulbus. Main language features • perfect active participle e.g. fūr, thermās ingressus, ad fontem sacrum festīnāvit. • genitive: partitive (genitive of quantity) e.g. iubeō tē plūs vīnī ferre. • genitive: descriptive (genitive of description) e.g. Latrō erat vir magnae dīligentiae.
Sentence patterns accusative/prepositional phrase + participle e.g. fūr, senem cōnspicātus, post columnam sē cēlāvit. increasingly varied position of dative e.g. tibi perīculōsum est Bulbum contemnere. tum fībulam, quam puella alia tibi dederat, Vilbiae trādidī. Word patterns Adverbs ending in -ter formed from 3rd declension adjectives. Focus of exercises 1 Genitive and dative of nouns, singular and plural. 2 Agreement of adjectives, nominative and accusative, singular and plural.
Opening page (p. 21)
Illustration (best studied with amor omnia vincit, p. 27). The Vilbia curse tablet, lead alloy (Bath Museum). In each word the order of the letters is reversed. As in the story in the model sentences, curses were thrown into the sacred spring, as well as prayers and thank-offerings. For detailed information, see pp. 34–35 of this manual.
Model sentences (pp. 22–23)
Story. A thief at the sacred spring watches an old man throw in a gold amulet. Fishing it out, he discovers that it is a curse on thieves. New language feature. Perfect active participles. This term is used rather than “perfect deponent participle” to ensure that students concentrate on the distinction between active and passive participles. Deponent verbs are introduced in Stage 32, and use of the term “deponent” should be postponed until then. New vocabulary. ingressus, cōnspicātus, columnam, precātus, regressus, adeptus. First reading. This short tale has the qualities of a Roman epigram. Read it right through in Latin, and then translate it quickly with the class as a whole, letting the momentum of the story carry them as far as possible before stopping to discuss the language.
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The new feature is readily grasped, since each example is preceded by a finite verb which gives a strong clue to meaning, e.g. (sentence 2) fūr circumspectāvit precedes fūr, senem cōnspicātus. Consolidation. Avoid contrasting the perfect active participle with the perfect passive participle met in Stage 21 until you discuss About the language (p. 26). Concentrate on relating the participle to the main verb, and start by using the standard literal translation, in order to emphasize that the action of the participle precedes the action of the main verb, e.g.: Sentence 1. Having entered the baths, the thief hurried to the sacred spring. Sentence 2. Having caught sight of the old man, the thief hid behind a pillar. Alternative translations (when he had prayed, after praying, etc.) may be introduced once you are sure students have a clear understanding of this relationship, and should be used by the end of this Stage. It is common in English to use the present participle in a past context, and students may translate sentence 2 as Catching sight of the old man, the thief hid behind a pillar. If this happens, you should use concrete, not abstract guidance. So you should ask, “Did the thief catch sight of the old man and hide behind the pillar at the same time? If he caught sight of the old man before he hid, how could we make that clear in English?” At this early stage it is essential to stress that the tense of the participle is perfect. Illustrations. The scene takes place in the hall between the Great Bath and the sacred spring. The windows in the line drawings can still be seen today, a central arched window with square-topped windows on either side. The story lends itself to acting. You will need a narrator, thief, old man, and a sepulchral voice (to utter the words inscribed on the amulet).
Vilbia (p. 24)
Story. While washing up in her father’s bar, Vilbia shows her sister a brooch given to her by Modestus, and raves about his bravery and attractiveness. Rubria cautions her against Roman soldiers and reminds her that her boyfriend, Bulbus, understands magic. Comment. The stories of this Stage provide a view of the life and character of ordinary people in Aquae Sulis. They are seen as lighthearted types. Vilbia and Rubria are the daughters of the local innkeeper. Vilbia has fallen for the fast-talking Modestus, a Roman soldier on leave from Deva. The prototype for Modestus is the braggart warrior Pyrgopolynices in Plautus’ Miles Gloriosus, while his friend, Strythio, is modeled on the parasite Artotrogus in the same play (see Introduction). Bulbus is the local boy whom Vilbia has jilted for the bedazzling soldier. First reading. Aim to build up interest and anticipation by your handling of the first part of the story, and then set students to tackle the rest in small groups. For example: Read the first paragraph in Latin, and translate it with the whole class. Then discuss briefly what is implied about the new characters, e.g. the owner’s daughters doing the washing up, chattering over their boring job, and their overworked and explosive father. Then read lines 5–7 (multa … exiit) in Latin and ask for translations of individual sentences. Invite comment on the likely result of Latro’s intervention. Read the remaining dialogue aloud in Latin, and then ask students to prepare a translation in small groups. Circulate, noting the structures which cause problems. If
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there is time, write the problem words or phrases on the board and go through them with the class as soon as they finish, giving the groups time to correct or improve their versions before they share them with the class. Or store the list as a basis for quick consolidation exercises at the beginning or end of subsequent lessons. Discussion. Dialogue serves not only to reveal character and define relationships, but also to express humor; each speaker builds on, caps, and rebukes what the other has just said, scoring points in the process. Sensitize students to the tone by asking, for example, whether Rubria really sympathizes with her sister’s feelings or is out to make mischief. Be sure to ask, “Why has Vilbia jilted Bulbus for Modestus?” Students should see that she has fallen for Modestus’ bluster (vir maximae virtūtis), physical attractions (quantī erant umerī eius!), and apparent integrity (Modestus probus). Students, however, after looking at the picture of him (p.77), may conclude that Vilbia’s judgment has been influenced by the gift of a beautiful brooch! Older students might want to discuss seriously the relationships of Roman soldiers with British women. They should remember that relations varied with place and time. In the early days of Roman conquest and occupation, some women would deliberately avoid contact with the invaders, while others would willingly or unwillingly become prostitutes. In time, however, civilian vīcī, or settlements, would grow up outside the forts and long-term relationships develop between soldiers and their women friends (who could live nearby). A soldier, however, could not claim a serious relationship as legal marriage until after his discharge. Examples of descriptive genitive phrases continue to appear, beginning with vir magnae dīligentiae sed minimae prūdentiae (line 3). Do not comment on the construction until About the language 2 (p. 31), but encourage varied translations, e.g. a man of great diligence, a hard-working man, a man who worked hard. If the students feel that “heartthrob” (in the glossary) is too old-fashioned as a translation of suspīrium, invite alternative suggestions. Let students know that suspīrium means literally (and onomatopoeically) sigh. Consolidation. Any or all of the scenes in this Stage are suitable for performance. See Suggestions for further activities for this Stage (p. 37). Students might practice their scene until they can represent it as a full production, with audio or video recording. Sound effects would include the rattle of dice, grunts and groans of men fighting, and the splash when Modestus hits the water. Finally, the groups staging scenes from amor omnia vincit might compare the expressiveness of their performances with the professional audio recording.
Modestus (p. 25)
Story. Strythio flatters Modestus about his inimitable achievements in love and war, and his impact on Vilbia. As they approach Latro’s bar, he recounts that he gave Vilbia, as a gift from Modestus, a brooch given him by another girl. First reading. Draw attention to the introduction; then ask students to look back at p. 24 and list all the statements about Modestus: mīles Rōmānus (line 14). eam (fībulam) … dedit (lines 14–15). vir maximae virtūtis (line 18).
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ōlim tria mīlia hostium occīdit (lines 18–19). lēgātum ipsum custōdit (line 19). Herculēs alter est! (line 20). probus (line 22). quantī erant umerī eius! quanta bracchia! (line 24). fortissimus et audācissimus est (line 30). Ask them which of these statements are facts and which are opinions. Whose opinion? Tell them to keep their lists so that you can ask the same question again after reading the passage. Take the scene in two parts, breaking off at “frāter eius,” respondī (line 13). Read the first part aloud and then ask comprehension questions which will help students to explore and appreciate the text, e.g.: 1 dērīdet (line 2). What is Strythio doing? Is that what you expect a friend to do? Read Modestus’ first speech (line 3). Is there a word there which surprises you in a man speaking to a friend? Why does he tell Strythio to stand near him? 2 hercle! quam fortūnātus sum! (line 4). What tone do you think Strythio uses here? What evidence do you have for his attitude? 3 vērum dīcis (line 7). What do these words mean? Do you believe Modestus? In Strythio’s next speech (line 8), is there a word which suggests he is exaggerating? 4 What does he say Vilbia did (line 9)? What did she want to know (line 12)? 5 If you were acting Modestus in this play, what expression would you put on after Strythio says estne Herculēs? (line 12)? 6 How would your expression change after he says minimē (line 12), and then after frāter eius (line 13)? The second part of the story (from tum fībulam, line 13) is straightforward, and students might be asked to explore it individually or in pairs. Strythio, lines 13–14, confirms that Modestus gave Vilbia the brooch as a present, but adds more detail, including the fact, surprising to some students, that Vilbia has not actually met Modestus in person.
Discussion Look back at the lists students made before starting this scene. Which of the statements do the students think are true? End by asking the class: 1 Do you think the soldier’s name suits him? 2 What do you think is going to happen next? Consolidation. Ask the class to look back at the two scenes, Vilbia and Modestus, and pick out examples of the genitive case, writing down the whole phrase containing the genitive, and its meaning. They could be referred to Language information (pp. 262– 263), if necessary. Illustration. Trumpet brooches, from Chorley, Lancashire (British Museum). Named from the shape of the head (nearest the ring), they are a distinctively British style of brooch, a more ornate development of the earlier, plain “safety pin” style. The pins are missing on both brooches. They were always worn in pairs, linked by a chain, as in the photograph, so Modestus’ present must be an odd one, of limited value on its own.
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About the language 1: perfect active participles (p. 26)
New language feature. Perfect active participle. Discussion. It is better to read through paragraph 1 quickly and concentrate initially on the perfect active participle (paragraphs 2–4). Take paragraph 2 with the class, and then go back to the model sentences (pp. 22–23) and ask students to translate them again. Keep to a literal translation of the participle until paragraph 3 has been completed; then remind students of the range of other translations they previously worked out with your help (see p. 27 of this manual).
Consolidation 1 Perfect active participle. Pick out examples of the perfect active participle in the two scenes they have so far read (three examples in Vilbia, two in Modestus), and ask students to identify the noun each one describes and to translate the relevant phrase or sentence. They often find it helpful to compile a list of the perfect active participles they have met so far. 2 Perfect participles, active and passive. In a later lesson, or after the next scene, go back to paragraph 1, which reminds students of the perfect passive participle. The primary aim for students at this stage is to recognize the participles and translate them correctly. Discussion of the meaning of “active” and “passive” is postponed until Stage 29 when the passive tenses of the verb are introduced. Show students how the overall sense of the sentence helps them to translate the participles correctly, e.g. ā Rōmānīs and ā patre guide them to a correct translation of the two examples given in paragraph 1. Reading Latin from left to right will ensure they meet these cues before they come to the participle. It is worth explaining to students that they will find participles more commonly in Latin than in everyday English. The coming stories will give them more experience of participles and they will quickly become adept at recognizing and translating them correctly. If you think they need more practice, they could translate the following examples, which form a continuous story. Modestus, deam Sūlem precātus, ad tabernam festīnāvit. Modestus, cum Strȳthiōne tabernam ingressus, Vilbiam vīdit. Vilbia, Modestum cōnspicāta, suspīrium magnum ēmīsit. “vīnum, puella!” inquit Modestus. Modestus, haec verba locūtus, cōnsēdit. Vilbia, ā Modestō dēlectāta, vīnum effūdit. Strȳthiō vīnum, ā Vilbiā effūsum, Modestō dedit. vīnum adeptus, Modestus colloquium cum Vilbiā habuit dōnumque dedit. Vilbia, in culīnam regressa, Modestum laudāvit. Vilbia dōnum, ā Modestō datum, Rubriae ostendit.
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** amor omnia vincit: scaena prīma (p. 27)
Story. In Latro’s bar, Gutta teases Bulbus for losing money as well as his girl. Bulbus says the money does not matter, but Vilbia does. He has put a curse on Modestus and is joyfully awaiting his death. Seeing Modestus arrive in time to hear this, Gutta slips away. First reading. This scene should be read quickly. Read it through in one sitting, emphasizing the escalation of Bulbus’ bad luck (īnfēlīx, line 3, īnfēlīcior, line 17, and īnfēlīcissimus, line 26). Use discussion to clarify points and enhance appreciation before asking students to translate the scene in pairs.
Discussion 1 Mood. Do you find this scene sad or funny? Give reasons for your opinion. 2 Magic and curses. The tabula Bulbus talks about in lines 22–23 and illustrated on pp. 21 and 34 was found in Bath. Ask students to read pp. 34–35, and examine the large photograph of the Vilbia curse on the opening page (p. 21). Notes are on pp. 34–35 of this manual. 3 Bulbus’ character. Invite students to compare him with Modestus. He is direct in speech (line 5), shrewd about girls, and about soldiers (lines 10–14), genuine in his feelings (line 19), and quick to act (lines 21–25). Consolidation 1 Ask students to find the four perfect participles in this story, to identify the nouns they describe, and translate the sentences which contain them. Students may need help with scrīpta (line 23), since it is not preceded by a related verb or agent. 2 Use shortened sentences containing the 1st and 2nd person verbs to consolidate endings and tenses: īnfēlīx es (line 3), puellam āmīsistī (lines 3–4), Vilbiam monuī (lines 11–12), tabulam in fontem iniēcī (line 22), mortem Modestī exspectō (lines 24–25). Illustrations. The line drawings show Roman dice. They had six faces with the same markings as modern dice. A “Venus” was a double 6 (boxcars), a “dog” was a double 1 (snake eyes). Some students may find Bulbus’ run of bad luck suspicious. This would be a suitable moment to mention the loaded bone die discovered at Vindolanda, which produces a 6 eight times out of ten! Consolidation. During this and the next scene, review verb forms. Begin by asking students to change āmīsistī (line 4) to the form meaning I lost, then to s/he lost. After several drills of this type, ask students to change e.g. āmīsistī to you (sg.) lose, then to you (sg.) were losing. If students cannot do this drill, make the Latin transformations yourself, but ask students for the meanings, e.g. “What did āmīsistī in line 4 mean? What would āmīsī mean?” In either case, remember to vary only person or tense at first, then proceed to vary both simultaneously.
** amor omnia vincit: scaena secunda (p. 28)
Story. Modestus orders Strythio to beat up Bulbus, who defends himself competently until Modestus knocks him out from behind. Vilbia begs Modestus to be merciful and they make a date for later that night. Bulbus overhears and plans revenge.
STAGE 22 31
First reading. As you read this aloud in Latin, use exaggerated expression and pause at key points to help the class enjoy the ironic twists, and the plunges from high-flown language into bathos, e.g.: in magnō perīculō es. Strȳthiō! tē iubeō hanc pestem verberāre (lines 3–5). tū es leō, iste rīdiculus mūs (lines 12–13). victōribus decōrum est victīs parcere (line 15). cūr mē ēlēgistī? … necesse est nōbīs in locō secrētō noctū convenīre (lines 17–19). pater mē sōlam exīre nōn vult. ubi est hic locus? (lines 20–21). ō suspīrium meum! mihi necesse est ad culīnam redīre (lines 27–28). It is worth reading the scene aloud in Latin more than once, while students have the text open. They could be invited to share what they have understood at each reading. Keep things moving. As with any farce, speed and timing are crucial.
Discussion Is Modestus a vir summae virtūtis, as described by Gutta (p. 27, lines 7–8)? Does Vilbia really love Modestus? Why does she try to save Bulbus from further maltreatment? victōribus decōrum est victīs parcere (line 15) is a common Roman sentiment. What does it mean? Ask students to comment on Vilbia’s abrupt change of mind about meeting Modestus secretly, lines 20–21. Can they suggest a good way to express this change when reading aloud pater mē sōlam exīre nōn vult. ubi est hic locus? What do they think is going to happen next? Consolidation 1 Ask the class to look back and list four insults used in this scene. This will help them to appreciate the strength of istum (line 16). 2 Check and consolidate again students’ knowledge of verb endings, using an oral substitution exercise (see p. 19 of this manual). possum and volō are well represented in this story. Illustration. Left to right: Two bone dice from Spain (Tarragona Museum); silver die in shape of little man (British Museum). Other dice of irregular shape (not shown here) include polyhedral dice, and knucklebones.
** amor omnia vincit: scaena tertia (pp. 29–30)
Story. At the sacred spring and in the dark, Bulbus bribes Gutta to pretend to be Vilbia and distract Modestus. Bulbus then surprises Modestus and throws him in the water. Modestus begs for his life and volunteers to reject Vilbia just as she arrives. First reading. Take each section of the scene separately, working quickly through the first (lines 1–13) with the class to establish the situation. Divide the class into groups and ask them to prepare the next section (lines 14–24). Ask one group to translate, with individuals taking the different parts, and then ask the rest of the class to comment on the translation. Use the same method for the remaining sections, giving each group a turn. Keep up the pace by restricting the time for each section or by introducing a
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competitive element: “Which group can produce the first correct translation?”
Discussion questions What makes the play funny? Answers may include: farcical situations, fast-moving plot, cheeky dialogue, comic characters. How does Bulbus overcome Gutta’s reluctance to put on a woman’s dress? Do Bulbus and Modestus really love Vilbia? How do you know? Bulbus claims, line 29, that he could now easily kill Modestus and Modestus does not seem to doubt it. Why? At the beginning of this Stage (p. 24, line 16), Rubria asks “quālis est hic mīles? estne homō mendāx et ignāvus?” What is your view? When Vilbia hears Modestus readily give her up, Vilbiam nōn amō (line 31), how does she react? What does Bulbus say to calm her fury? From where does Bulbus get his line: victōribus … parcere (line 36)? What effect does it have on the audience? Consolidation. Ask all students to make a written translation of lines 1–13. As you go over it, practice some of the language features, e.g.: Imperatives, starting with tacē, indue, stā (lines 11–12) and negative commands, nōlī mē interficere (line 30), nōlī lacrimāre (line 39). Relative clauses based on pallium quod sēcum tulit (line 2) and Modestum quem brevī exspectō (line 6). All examples of the dative case. Notice that now, in accordance with normal Latin usage, the position of the dative case in a sentence is more varied than previously. Illustration. The sacred spring seen from above the windows shown in the model sentences.
About the language 2: more about the genitive (p. 31)
New language feature. Partitive and descriptive genitives. Note that these technical terms are not used in the explanations given to students. Discussion. Work through the paragraphs as set out. It may be advisable to take paragraphs 1–3 in one lesson, revisit them in a later lesson, and then move on to paragraphs 4–5. Consolidation. The examples in paragraphs 3 and 5 are useful for students to memorize. Use them for oral practice at the beginning or end of several lessons throughout the next few Stages. Ask students to find further examples of descriptive phrases in the play just read, and say whether they believe them. This is a way of ensuring that they understand, as well as translate, what they read, e.g.: vir maximae virtūtis (Modestus, p. 24, line 18). virum summae virtūtis (Modestus, p. 25, lines 4–5). vir magnae dīligentiae sed minimae prūdentiae (Latro, p. 24, line 3). In a later lesson, work could be done on examples from Stage 21. It is advisable to consolidate the two types of genitive separately.
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Page 6: nimium vīnī (line 8), plūs vīnī (line 11), rem huius modī (line 15), vir magnae dignitātis (line 17). Page 8: aliquid novī (line 6), vir summae auctōritātis (lines 21–22). Pages 10–11: vir summae prūdentiae (line 3), vir octōgintā annōrum (line 12), vir summae calliditātis (line 22). Students who have met the partitive in French, e.g. trop de vin, assez d’argent, should make comparisons with Latin.
Word patterns: more adjectives and adverbs (p. 32)
New language feature. Formation of adverbs from 3rd declension adjectives. Discussion. Read paragraph 1, which consolidates the adverbs formed from 1st and 2nd declension adjectives (see p. 12), and, after reading paragraph 2, do the exercises in paragraphs 3 and 4. Paragraph 5 could be completed as a review exercise in a later lesson. Consolidation. For extra practice, write up short sentences about familiar characters and situations. Ask students to translate them and identify the adjectives and adverbs. morbus Cogidubnum graviter afflīxit. Memor rem difficilem suscipere nōlēbat. Bulbus īnfēlīcissimus erat. amīcī thermās tacitē intrāvērunt.
Practicing the language (p. 33)
Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with a noun in the genitive or dative case. Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with an adjective in the nominative or accusative, singular or plural. If students are asked to state the number and case of the noun-andadjective pair, as they have recently been doing with participles, this reinforces their understanding of agreement in the context of both adjective and participle.
Cultural context material (pp. 34–35)
Content. Examples of curse tablets, and how and why they were used. This section and the Vilbia curse (opening page) are best read and discussed in connection with the play, amor vincit omnia (pp. 27–30).
Suggestions for discussion 1 Have a discussion with the class about superstitious rhymes or practices that are still common today among younger children, often passed down from one generation to the next, e.g. not walking on the cracks in the sidewalk. Discuss how these may have originated and why they are so persistent. To what extent do people really believe them? 2 What does the use of dēfīxiōnēs suggest about the popular conception of the gods? Curse tablets provide more evidence of the way Romans tried to bargain with the gods. In Stage 21 there were gifts thrown into the sacred spring as thank-offerings for cures, or as a way of persuading the goddess to favor the donor. In Unit 2, a similar attitude was seen during Barbillus’ illness, and in Clemens’ response to the 34 STAGE 22
protection racket. Explore with the class possible reasons for the widespread belief in dēfīxiōnēs and similar magico-religious practices. Possible reasons may include personal cowardice or helplessness; lack of confidence in the public system of justice; lack of scientific understanding of the natural world, which resulted in the tendency to believe in irrational forces. 3 Nowadays people feel great injustice when they suffer burglary, a disabling accident, or a betrayal. What methods do they use to alleviate their own feelings or to punish the people who have caused the wrong? Do you think the modern or the Roman way gives a greater sense of satisfaction?
Further information The curse tablet on which the stories of this Stage are based was found at Bath and reads as follows: [I]VQ IHIM MAIBLIV TIVALO [V]NI CIS TAVQIL (OD)[O]MOC AVQA [A]LLE ATVM IVQ MAE TIVA [RO]V IS ANNIVLEV SVEREPV SXE SVNAIREV SVNIREV ES SILATSVG(V)A SVNAITI MOC SVNAINIMSVTAC [A]LLINAMREG ANIVOI (R.I.B. 154 – R.I.B. is an invaluable collection of inscriptions from Roman Britain.) When the order of the letters is reversed, this inscription emerges as: QVI MIHI VILBIAM INVOLAVIT SIC LIQUAT1 COMO(DO)2 AQVA ELLA3 MVTA QUI EAM VORAVIT SI VELVINNA EXSVPEREVS VERIANVS SEVERINVS A(V)GVSTALIS COMITIANVS CATVSMINIANVS GERMANILLA IOVINA (1 = liquescat, 2 = quo modo, 3 = illa) The text and its interpretation are uncertain in parts. A translation of the version given above reads: May he who has stolen Vilbia from me dissolve like water. May she who has devoured her be struck dumb, whether it be Velvinna or Exsupereus or Verianus, etc. The number of possible candidates to be cursed implies more about Vilbia than about those who caused her lover’s angry jealousy. See Cunliffe and Davenport. A large collection of dēfīxiōnēs in the form of lead scrolls was discovered in 1890, some miles north of Bath, on the site of a small temple of Mercury, which probably also served as a local market. It seems likely that the curses were drawn up by the temple clerk at the request of the local people, mainly farmers, who were perhaps hedging their bets in a legal case against a neighbor. If so, it was a fairly public way of damning one’s enemy and suggests the importance of ensuring that he got to know about it. Clearly such curses were more than a conventional ritual. Many a Roman or Celt must have believed in the efficacy of the divine agent and feared the god’s power; even if he did not, he would have been disturbed, even frightened, by the knowledge that someone hated him enough to damn him publicly.
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Here are some other dēfīxiōnēs which have been discovered in Britain: A TRETIA(M) MARIA(M) DEFICO ET ILLEVS VITA(M) ET ME(N)TEM ET MEMORIAM [E]T IOCINE RA PULMONES INTERMIX TA … SCI1 NO(N) POSSITT LOQVI (QVAE) SICRETA SI(N)T … (R.I.B. 7) (1 = SIC) I curse Tretia Maria, her life, her mind, memory, liver, and lungs mixed up together. Thus may she be unable to speak what is hidden … B DONATVR DEO IOVI OPTIMO MAXIMO VT EXIGAT PER MENTEM PER MEMORIAM PER INTVS PER INTESTINVM PER COR [P]ER MEDVLLAS PER VENAS … SI MASCEL SI FEMINA QVI(SQ)VIS INVOLAVIT DENARIOS CANI DIGNI VT IN CORPORE SVO IN BREVI TEMP[OR]E PARIAT DONATVR DEO DECIMA PARS (Journal of Roman Studies 53 (1963), 122–124) This tablet is given to Jupiter Optimus Maximus with the prayer that he may smite through the mind, memory, inward parts, guts, heart, marrow, veins whatever person, man or woman, who has stolen the money of Canus Dignus. Let him quickly restore the money in person. A tenth of the money is offered to the god. C Among the dēfīxiōnēs found in the hot spring at Bath was an engagingly comprehensive “insurance policy” directed against an unknown enemy: utrum vir, utrum mulier, utrum puer, utrum puella, utrum servus, utrum līber. Moreover, to ensure that the magic had the best chance of working, someone wrote the whole inscription backward. D At Lydney, north of Bath, there was an important temple of the god Nodens, a Celtic god of hunting, who was worshipped also for his healing powers. dēfīxiōnēs were found there too, including one by a certain Sylvianus who had had a ring stolen from him. Sylvianus promised to pay the god half its value if it were recovered, and cursed the suspected thief: “Among those who are called Senecianus, do not allow health until he brings the ring to the temple of Nodens.” E Even thefts of items less valuable than a gold ring were subjects of tablets, as this one from the sacred spring at Aquae Sulis indicates: “Docilianus, son of Brucerus, to the most holy goddess Sulis. I curse him who has stolen my hooded cloak, whether man or woman, whether slave or free, that [the goddess Sulis] inflict death upon and not allow him sleep or children now or in the future, until he has brought my hooded cloak to the temple of her divinity.”
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For further information on curses and superstition see Cunliffe and Davenport; Paoli; Pliny Natural History (NH) XXVIII. 25–29.
Illustrations p. 34 The Vilbia curse is the basis for the stories in this Stage. A recent theory suggests that the name does not refer to a girl but to a brooch (fībula). The name Vilbia is not found elsewhere. If it were a girl, all the suspects listed in the curse might be expected to be males. An alternative interpretation is that a slave had been stolen. For further information, see above (pp. 34–35). p. 35 Line drawing of a demon in a boat, from a tomb at Hadrumetum (modern Sousse) in Tunisia, third century AD. He may be a representation of Charon, the ferryman who carried the souls of the dead over the river Styx. The figure holds an urn and a torch, symbols of death. The text on the left reads: CVIGEV, CENSEV, CINBEV, PERFLEV, DIARVNCO, DIASTA, BESCV, BEREBESCV, ARVRARA, BAGAGRA; on the demon’s breast, ARITMO, ARAITTO; on the boat, NOCTIVAGVS, TIBERIS, OCEANVS. (See Paoli, pp. 285–286.) Some have suggested that the names on the boat are those of the horses being cursed. The text on the reverse of this plaque (see Dudley, p. 215) reads: ADIVRO TE DEMON QVICVMQVE ES ET DEMANDO TIBI EX ANC DIE EX AC ORA EX OC MOMENTO VT EQVOS PRASINI ET ALBI CRVCIES ET AGITATORES CLARVM ET FELICEM ET PRIMVLVM ET ROMANVM OCIDAS COLLIDAS NEQVE SPIRITVM ILLIS LERUNQVAS1: ADIVRO TE PER EVM QVI TE RESOLVIT TEMPORIBVS DEVM PELAGI CVM AERIVM IAW LASDAW … (1 = RELINQVAS) I charge you, demon, whoever you are, and demand of you, from this day, from this hour, from this minute, that you torture the horses of the Greens and the Whites, and that you kill and crash their drivers, Clarus and Felix and Primulus and Romanus, and leave them without life. I charge you by the god of the sea, who set you free at the right time, and by the god of the air ... p. 36 Rolled lead curse, 2¼ inches (5.75 cm). Many curses were found rolled in this way, though not the Vilbia curse.
Suggestions for further activities
1 Act out the plays in Latin and/or English (prepared by you in groups). The students may be encouraged to make video recordings of their reenactments. 2 Examine the first part of the Vilbia curse tablet on the board, transcribe the letters, and work out a translation. 3 Examine dēfīxiōnēs on the board (teacher could use dēfīxiōnēs (A) and/or (B) above; these were not originally written backward), work out the meaning, and write a fictitious short story about the curse, perpetrator, victim, and outcome.
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4 Write out rhymes and formulae which you yourselves, when younger, used to avert danger. Compare Roman (and Greek) superstitious practices with universal ones. For universal practices, you may begin with a reference book, containing a bibliography, like Frazer The Golden Bough (2009); for Roman and Greek practices, J. Ferguson Greek and Roman Religion (pp. 118–139).
Vocabulary checklist (p. 36)
Abstract nouns ending in -or tend to be masculine, e.g. amor. You may also wish to point out that abstract nouns ending in -tia are feminine, e.g. prūdentia, and that 3rd declension nouns ending in -tūs are all feminine, e.g. virtūs. The suffix -tia (e.g. prūdentia) usually comes into English as “-ce” (e.g. prudence). ēligō is a compound of ē + legō, choose or pick. legō can also mean read. You may wish to point out other compounds of legō which do not have the meaning read. fundō gives us the word found, i.e. to melt metal and pour into a mold, as well as fusion. A foundry is a workshop for casting metal. In addition to ingressus, there are many compound words in Latin ending in -gressus. This family is a good one for a derivative tree or similar word study. quō modō can be written as one word. Ask students to suggest what the two parts literally mean (in what way). Phrases for discussion nullis amor est sanabilis herbis – Ovid Iuppiter in caelis, Caesar regit omnia terris ut incepit fidelis sic permanet – motto of Ontario quod verum, tutum via trita, via tuta facta, non verba rident stolidi verba Latina – Ovid semel emissum volat irreparabile verbum – Horace verba dat omnis amor – Ovid verba movent, exempla trahunt verba volant, scripta manent verbum sat sapienti crescit in adversis virtus – Lucan ipsa quidem pretium virtus sibi – Claudian patientia rara virtus virtus mille scuta virtute et armis – motto of Mississippi virtute, non verbis stultum est timere quod vitare non potes – Publilius Syrus
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STAGE 23: haruspex Cultural context Roman religion and romanization. Story line Cephalus offers Cogidubnus a cup which has poisoned contents. Because Quintus has seen a similar cup in Egypt, he stops the king from drinking. Dumnorix forces Cephalus to drink the cup’s contents. Cephalus dies. A slave of Cephalus delivers a letter to Cogidubnus which reveals Memor’s complicity. Cogidubnus attempts to dismiss Memor from his position at the baths. Salvius intervenes and puts Cogidubnus under house arrest.
Main language features • consolidation of participles: present active, perfect passive, perfect active e.g. prope thermās erat templum, ā fabrīs Rōmānīs aedificātum. duo sacerdōtēs, agnam nigram dūcentēs, ad āram prōcessērunt. haec verba locūtus, ad Cogidubnum sē vertit. • comparison of adverbs e.g. tūtius est tibi vērum scīre. Helena suāvissimē cantāre potest. Sentence pattern v + nom + acc e.g. scrīpsit Cephalus epistulam. Word patterns Nouns ending in -or. Focus of exercises 1 1st, 2nd, and 3rd person plural, present, imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect tenses. 2 Perfect participles, active and passive.
Opening page (p. 37)
Illustration. Relief showing haruspex (left, in toga) inspecting entrails of bull (Paris, Louvre). The victimārius (center) is removing the entrails, with a second victimārius ready to assist (behind). To the right stands the popa, who has killed the beast, with his ax and bucket. The person on the far right at the back may be awaiting the reading of the omens. Originally in Trajan’s Forum, the relief represents the reading of the omens for a campaign on which Trajan was sending Hadrian. A detailed discussion is best left until the cultural material is studied.
in thermīs I (p. 38)
Story. Cogidubnus and his entourage attend a sacrifice in front of the temple at Bath. The omens are unfavorable but Memor falsifies them, promising the king a cure, and leads him to the changing room. First reading. Use questions to ensure that the class remembers the main points of the story in Stage 21: Cogidubnus has fallen ill and plans a visit to the healing waters of Bath with Salvius and Quintus. On their arrival, Salvius orders Memor, the haruspex, to arrange the murder of Cogidubnus, a task which Memor promptly passes to Cephalus, his freedman.
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Set the scene by discussing the illustration on p. 42 (altar is off at left). Take the story in two parts. Read in Latin as far as “quid vidēs?” (line 10). Then use comprehension questions to help students explore the text, e.g.: What does the writer say about the temple? Where does the ceremony take place? Who else is present with Cogidubnus? What kind of ceremony is it? Why do you suppose the priests lead in a female animal (line 7)? (A female animal was sacrificed to a female deity.) What state of mind does Memor seem to be in? Suggest reasons for this. After checking that students have understood the story so far, read the rest briskly, inviting translation from volunteers. Discussion. Ask students to study the cultural information about Roman religion (pp. 49– 50), including the illustrations, before returning to the story and the following questions: 1 Cogidubnus. What did Cogidubnus hope to gain by his sacrifice? Was this reasonable? How would Cogidubnus have acted if Memor had announced what the priest actually found? 2 The role of the haruspex. What was Memor’s official role at the ceremony? Which figure in the illustration on p. 37 has the same role? How did haruspices know how to interpret the liver (see the model liver used as a training tool, p. 50)? Why did Memor contradict the priest? Why did the priest yield to him? There was a college of sixty haruspices at Rome. Haruspices were active at Nîmes and Bath, and probably at other religious centers. Many Romans believed that the future cast a shadow before itself which could be recognized by the use of correct religious techniques. 3 Memor’s behavior. Why was Memor so frightened when he saw the omens? Did he think the goddess was warning Cogidubnus? Was it his guilty conscience? Was he prone to panic? Consolidation. Discuss with students the order of rēgem … custōdiēbat (lines 3–4) and tum rēgem … Memor ... dūxit (line 20), and give them similar examples, e.g.: āram omnēs aspiciēbant. agnam sacerdōs sacrificāvit. iecur agnae sacerdōs īnspexit. nōnne mortem hoc significat? Illustrations. Memor examining the entrails of a lamb on the altar in the temple precinct at Bath. The picture of Memor is based on one of the figures from a second-century relief of haruspices (Paris, Louvre). The altar platform (14 feet x 18 feet/4.3 x 5.5 meters) survives and three corners of the altar, carved with gods and goddesses, were found in situ (see photograph on p. 39). Memor’s statue base can be seen at upper far left. The altar also appears in the photograph of Memor’s inscription on p. 8.
in thermīs II (pp. 39–40)
Story. After bathing, Cogidubnus approaches the sacred spring. When Cephalus offers him the cup, Quintus intervenes, recognizing the type of cup from his time in Egypt. Cephalus is forced to drink the poison himself.
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First reading. Make sure that a good pace is maintained throughout this story. One approach is to take the story in two parts, breaking off at rēx pōculum ad labra sustulit (lines 16–17) to create suspense. An alternative is to take it straight through with the class: read a group of sentences aloud, allow students a minute or two to study the text, and then ask brief questions, e.g.: Which part of the baths did Cogidubnus and his party enter first (lines 1–2)? When did Quintus come in? What did he do? What did he say (lines 2–5)? What did the slaves begin to do? Why do you think this was difficult (lines 6–9)? What did the king do when he got out of the bath (lines 10–11)? Where did everyone then go (line 11)? Why was Cephalus trembling? Where was he? What was he doing (lines 12–13)? What did Cephalus say to the king? Did he have a special reason for describing the water as amāra (lines 14–15)? When Cephalus offered the cup, what did the king do (lines 16–17)? What did Quintus do? What did he say about the cup? How did he know this (lines 18–21)? What was Cephalus’ reaction (lines 22–23)? maxima pars … immōta (lines 28–29). Why do you think most of the spectators behaved like this? Who snatched the cup next? How did he plan to find out if it contained poison (lines 29–33)? How did Cephalus try to save himself? How did the king react (lines 34–35)? What did the chiefs do (lines 35–36)? What happened to Cephalus (lines 36–38)?
Discussion questions 1 A Roman’s view of the baths and temple. What was Quintus’ reaction to the Great Bath (lines 3–5)? What would be familiar to him in the buildings and ceremonies, and what would appear strange? Refer to pp. 14–18 and the photograph on p. 40, if necessary. This is a good place to study the rest of the cultural material (pp. 50–53). 2 Cogidubnus’ court. Who were with the king throughout this episode (p. 38 lines 2–4, p. 39 lines 1, 7–9, 11, p. 40 lines 27–28, 35–36)? Why did the king have these people attending him? Did they make it easier or harder for the king to act? Why did the king stand immōtus (line 35)? 3 The fate of Cephalus. Do you think his end was just? What conclusions do you think Cogidubnus will draw from it? Consolidation. It is worth picking out the examples of magnus (p. 39, line 6), maior (line 4), maximus (lines 2, 7). Ask students what Quintus would have meant if he had said (lines 4–5): hae thermae minōrēs/meliōrēs/peiōrēs sunt quam thermae Pompēiānae. hae thermae minimae/optimae/pessimae sunt. Refer to the chart on p. 266 if necessary. Illustration. Gorgon’s head from pediment of temple of Sulis Minerva at Bath (Bath Museum). The gorgon is an emblem of the goddess Minerva but this one is untypical. STAGE 23 41
Possibly the Celtic Sulis was male. The sculpture is a fine example of a mixture of classical Roman and stylized British art. The moustache, shape of the eyes, and stylization of the hair is Celtic. The location and overall design is classical, with a circular shield bordered by oak leaves and the gorgon’s head as the central ornament.
About the language 1: more about participles (p. 41)
New language feature. This language note draws together what has been learned about the three participles, and draws attention to the singular and plural forms. Postpone discussion of gender until participles are revisited in Stage 25. Discussion. Move through the explanatory paragraphs quickly and focus on the examples in paragraph 4. Perhaps work through a–d with the class before asking them to tackle e–h on their own or in pairs. Make sure that they always translate before they attempt to analyze, reminding them to check that their translation accords with their findings about present/perfect, singular/plural, etc. Consolidation. Have short practice sessions at the beginning or end of lessons over the next few weeks. The examples in paragraph 4 can be repeated or similar ones concocted, e.g.: mīlitēs, tabernam ingressī, vīnum postulāvērunt. Modestus fībulam, ab aliā puellā datam, Vilbiae trādidit. ancillae, ā dominō laudātae, dīligenter labōrābant. A source of further examples is in thermīs I and II (pp. 38–40). The following sentences summarize the story line. After translation, ask students to underline the noun-andparticiple pairs, or annotate as singular or plural. prīncipēs, cum rēge ingressī, prō templō sedēbant. sacerdōtēs, victimam dūcentēs, ad āram prōcessērunt. Memor, prope āram stāns, ōmina īnspexit. rēx prīncipēsque, Memorem secūtī, thermās intrāvērunt. rēx, ē balneō ēgressus, vestīmenta induit. Cephalus prope fontem stābat, pōculum tenēns. spectātōrēs, hoc cōnspicātī, stābant immōtī. prīncipēs lībertum resistentem prēnsāvērunt. Cephalus, ā prīncipibus coāctus, venēnum hausit. Cephalus, vehementer tremēns, mortuus prōcubuit.
epistula Cephalī (p. 42)
Story. After Cephalus’ death, his slave hands the king a letter from Cephalus in which he gives his version of events and accuses Memor. First reading. For ease of handling, take the passage in two parts, reading as far as homō ingeniī prāvī (line 11) to start with, and repeating Cogidubnus est homō ingeniī prāvī when you read the second part. In the first half, Cephalus’ account is a selective version of what students have already read. The students should be able to tackle it in pairs or small groups, but be prepared to give help with the change of subject at invītus Memorī pāruī (lines 4–5). The students may begin to notice differences between Cephalus’ account and the complete narrative
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they read in Memor rem suscipit (pp. 10–11). Encourage them to collect discrepancies to share in discussion afterwards. Note the sentence ubi tū … arcessīvit where the participial phrase remedium quaerēns “branches” out of the subordinate clause. If this (or any other longer sentence) causes difficulty, ask comprehension questions, e.g. “Why did Cogidubnus come to the baths? What happened then?” In the second half, let students continue to explore the passage for themselves, checking their understanding afterwards with a series of questions, e.g.: Why, according to Cephalus, did he refuse to do what Memor told him (line 13)? Why did Memor think Cephalus ought to carry out his commands (line 16)? Why, according to Cephalus, did he finally give in (lines 19–20)? Which word does he use to describe his feelings as he carries out Memor’s instructions (line 21)? What are the two things he allegedly hopes to achieve by writing this letter (lines 23–25)? How do you think Cogidubnus will react to the letter?
Discussion 1 Follow the reading with a choice of activity. Ask students: Either to act as detectives and draw up a list of the discrepancies between Cephalus’ account and the events described in Memor rem suscipit (pp. 10–11). Or to imagine themselves as Memor, and write his own account for the king in answer to Cephalus’ accusations. 2 Guide students to understand how the style of writing conveys Cephalus’ anxiety, e.g. the breathless, staccato sentences in lines 3–5, the reiteration of rēx Cogidubne (line 18), the repetition of diū and tandem (lines 18–20). Consolidation. Students could find examples of: the participle; descriptive phrases which use the genitive case; the present and perfect tenses in lines 3–8. Pay special attention to 1st and 2nd persons and devise oral substitution exercises. Illustration. A more complete reconstruction of the temple than that shown on p. 18. Both are conjectural, since only fragments remain. The columns at the front were probably freestanding, as shown. The fragments in the Bath Museum are hollowed out at the back, but this was probably done in the eighteenth century.
About the language 2: comparison of adverbs (pp. 43–44)
New language feature. Recognition of the comparative adverb. Irregular comparison of adverbs. Discussion. Students have seen in Stages 21 and 22 how adverbs are formed from 1st and 2nd declension adjectives and from 3rd declension adjectives. Students have also seen how regular and irregular adjectives are compared. In this note, students are formally introduced to the comparative adverb and the irregular comparison of certain adverbs. Students often have more difficulty distinguishing between nominative singular masculine forms of 1st and 2nd declension adjectives and the comparative adverb, e.g. tūtus and tūtius, tardus and tardius, than they do between forms of 3rd declension adjectives and the comparative adverb, e.g. fidēlis and fidēlius. Try to guide students
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by asking comprehension questions and emphasizing context when these forms arise in the readings.
Word patterns: verbs and nouns (p. 45)
New language feature. Nouns ending in -or from a verbal root. Discussion. Work through paragraphs 1–3 orally; ask the class to write down the answers to paragraphs 4 and 5, giving them time to consult the Vocabulary.
Britannia perdomita (pp. 46–47)
Story. Cogidubnus comes with troops to arrest Memor for plotting his murder. Salvius reprimands him for taking such action against a Roman official and orders him to his palace, adding that Domitian has sent instructions for the kingdom to be put under imperial control. Cogidubnus denounces Roman injustice and treachery. First reading. The play and its accompanying questions divide neatly into three parts: Lines 1–11, questions 1–4. Salvius and Memor show alarm at the approach of Cogidubnus and his band of armed men. Lines 12–24, questions 5–8. Cogidubnus accuses Memor of plotting to kill him. Lines 25–42, questions 9–15. Salvius intervenes to condemn Cogidubnus and deprive him of his kingdom. Take each part in turn, reading aloud in a lively and dramatic manner and varying the techniques of establishing the “surface” meaning. The last part is the most difficult, because it introduces new content and the language is sometimes abstract and rhetorical. The comprehension questions are best used for consolidation and reflection after the meaning of each part has been established. They can be discussed by pairs in class or set for individual written work. Give credit for any sensible answer. Discussion. Several of the comprehension questions seek to establish the relative positions of power of Cogidubnus and Salvius, and to show how their actions were the outcome of assumptions and calculations. There is a range of further issues which can be explored if time allows. Groups of students could take different characters and answer the following questions about them: 1 Cogidubnus’ situation. Cogidubnus is helpless in the hands of such ruthless political operators as Memor and Salvius. Until it is brutally pointed out, he fails to grasp that he no longer enjoys any standing with the government in Rome. The years of loyalty count for nothing now. a) Why did Cogidubnus appear with his royal insignia and a troop of armed men (lines 3–5)? Possible comments: • He brought the armed men to remove Memor from his job. • It may have been his best chance of dealing with the threat to his life. • It certainly made an impact on Memor, and on Salvius (lines 7–9), but was it a miscalculation? b) Why might Cogidubnus be aggrieved at Salvius’ remark numquam … apertē ostendis (lines 30–31)? Possible comments: • He assumed that the Roman establishment would support him. • He expected gratitude for the role he played in helping Vespasian during Claudius’ invasion of AD 43 (Unit 2, p. 69), for the honor he still showed to
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Claudius (Unit 2, p. 48), and for the hospitality he offered Salvius and Quintus. The historical evidence supports this view. There is a statement about him in the Agricola, written in AD 97–98 by the Roman historian Tacitus: “He remained absolutely loyal right up to our own time.” 2 Salvius’ position. In this scene we see Salvius as a smart operator, turning the situation to his own advantage. a) How does Salvius’ reaction to Cogidubnus change throughout this scene? • At the outset he is described as anxius (line 1). • He assumes Cogidubnus has come to seek revenge (line 7). • He appeals for solidarity to Memor, tibi necesse est … barbarus (lines 8–9). • He waits for Cogidubnus to lay out his cards before challenging him (line 25). • His attack is sudden and sustained, and demolishes Cogidubnus (lines 28–35). b) Why did Salvius conspire to bring down Cogidubnus? There are a number of possible motives: • The Emperor Domitian has sent Salvius the instruction (there is no historical evidence for this, but it is known that Domitian was financing an elaborate program of public works which he hoped would win him popularity and needed to replenish the imperial treasury). • Salvius sees it as a necessary part of his work for the emperor in Britain (Unit 2, p. 18). • Salvius is trying to enrich himself, a common practice among Roman officials during their foreign postings. • Salvius is acting on his own initiative to please the emperor and advance his career (cf. Lucius Marcius Memor, p. 7, lines 23–24). 3 Memor’s attitude. Memor is on his own territory in the baths, but this does not make him any more confident. He has failed to deliver the outcome demanded by Salvius, so his chances of promotion are seriously impaired. He has reason to expect that he is the one Cogidubnus has come to find, and he expects an attack in revenge. What do you think Memor felt when Salvius asked for his help (line 8)? Would he feel relieved that there was something he could do for Salvius to reestablish himself? Or would his confidence be further undermined by the fact that at that moment Salvius appeared as nervous as he was himself? 4 The outcome. How would you expect the Roman establishment to deal with Cogidubnus after this confrontation? How did they treat Boudica (Unit 2, p. 57)? Will Cogidubnus’ fall make a difference to the lives of the ordinary people in southern Britain? 5 Style of writing. How does the writer seek to convey emotion, or to arouse emotion in the reader? Examples for discussion might include: • What emotion does Memor show in line 6? • Which is the strongest word in the sentence nōs enim Rōmānī … barbarus (lines 8–9)? How do you know? • Cogidubnus twice uses the adjective ista (lines 18 and 38). What does it tell you about his feelings about the objects it is used to describe? • Which word is used in lines 28–29 to show Salvius’ scorn for Cogidubnus?
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Why does the writer use short, staccato phrases in Cogidubnus’ last speech (lines 36–39)? What do you think the writer wants you to feel at the end of line 41? Which words has he chosen to try to achieve this?
Consolidation 1 Ask students to write an eloquent translation of the two speeches (lines 28–41). 2 The passage contains several participles and neuter nouns which can be used for language practice. Illustration. A bronze as of Antoninus Pius, AD 154–155, depicting a sad Britannia sitting on a pile of rocks. Possibly minted to celebrate the building of the Antonine Wall after the rebellion of the Brigantes in AD 154. The inscription reads BRITANNIA C. The C is all that remains of COS IIII, which dates the coin to the emperor’s fourth consulship.
Practicing the language (p. 48)
Exercise 1. Complete the sentence with the correct person (1st, 2nd, 3rd plural) of the verb (present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect). This exercise could be used to assess students’ understanding of verb forms (see review section below). Exercise 2. Complete the sentence with the appropriate perfect participle according to sense. Teacher and students should go through the list together first, translating and stating whether the participle is active or passive.
Language information: review All tenses of the verb (pp. 274–275). It is important to ensure that students have a sure grasp of the indicative before the subjunctive is introduced in Stage 24. Oral practice of verbs in the stories just read provides, as usual, a way of revising forms of the verb, e.g.: Imagine the first paragraph of in thermīs I as a stage direction, and change all its verbs into the present tense, using the chart on p. 274 if necessary. Frequently ask for a translation. Look at the last paragraph of epistula Cephalī and turn all the verbs into the 3rd person singular.
Cultural context material (pp. 49–53)
Content. An account of religious practices, including sacrifices and divination, and the beliefs on which these were based, leads to a consideration of the state religion. This covers the official list of gods, the priestly colleges responsible for their worship, and how the Romans often conflated foreign gods with their own and developed the worship of “Rome and the emperor” as a unifying factor throughout the Roman empire. Review pp. 49–50 after reading in thermīs I and pp. 50–53 after in thermīs II.
Suggestions for discussion 1 Compare ancient mystery cults, like Isiacism or Mithraism, with modern religious sects, like Hare Krishna or the Unification Church, both of which offer personal enlightenment and salvation to their followers; the importance of ritual in both ancient 46 STAGE 23
and modern religious practices, e.g. in Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, etc.; and the links between religion and state both then and now. 2 Consider why the Romans placed so much trust in divination. Ask students to list the different means of Roman divination which they have so far heard about. 3 Remind students of the larārium in Caecilius’ house and discuss reasons why he had the scenes of the AD 62 or 63 earthquake carved on it. Then expand the point to include votive offerings which took many different forms, e.g. altars erected in fulfillment of a vow, usually with the words or initial letters of vōtum solvit libēns meritō rightly and willingly he kept his promise as the last line of the inscription; or objects like an oar, clothing, or jewelry hung up on a temple wall by the worshipper. 4 Some students may enjoy the lighthearted view of divination in Asterix and the Soothsayer, a widely available comic book, in English, Latin, and other languages.
Further information The haruspicēs belonged to a priestly collēgium, a college or association, which dated from the Etruscan dominance at Rome. Their name means literally “those who look at entrails” and, like the augurs, they practiced a discipline which purported to reveal the future. Their collēgium at Rome consisted of sixty members. We also know that they were active at religious centers in the provinces, e.g. at Nemausus (Nîmes) in southern France and at Aquae Sulis (Bath) in England. The respect popularly accorded to diviners and soothsayers reflects how the Romans viewed the future. They believed that the future cast a shadow in front of itself which could be recognized through correctly applied techniques; in this way, they could take precautions to avoid misfortune or at least mitigate its consequences. This belief in magical foreseeability was widespread and by no means confined to the illiterate. Closely linked with it was a sense of the fickleness of fortune. A person could be a ruler one day and a slave the next. Hence the importance of recognizing the shadow of tomorrow’s danger and avoiding it as far as possible. Some of the educated, however, were skeptical and tended to make fun of soothsayers; nevertheless, in varying degrees, the Romans found comfort or guidance in the words of those who read the stars, watched the flight of birds, or scrutinized the markings on the entrails of slaughtered animals. When discussing with students the official religion of Rome, stress its ritualistic character and public purposes. A more personal experience was available from other sources: firstly, the continuation in rural communities of the old rituals which bound the individual to his family, his land, and its guardian spirits; and, secondly, mystery religions and new cults from Greece and the Middle East which expressly addressed the individual. These offered purification, communion with the deity, personal significance, and existence after death. The worship of Mithras, a Persian cult widespread in the Roman army, was one of these faiths; another which enjoyed much popularity during the first three centuries AD was Isis worship. From Greece came the orgiastic rites of Dionysus and the mysteries of Demeter. Evidence of these faiths, existing in parallel with the state religion, is to be seen at many places, for example the temple of Isis at Pompeii and the temples of Mithras at Temple Court in London and at Carrawburgh on Hadrian’s Wall. By the first century AD, the Roman world had developed many different religious practices, and the official attitude was one of tolerance, except where, as in the case of STAGE 23 47
Christianity, the religion was felt to be politically subversive. This diversity is comparable to the variety of religions in modern multiethnic societies.
Illustrations p. 49 ● Memor examining the entrails. See note on p. 40 of this Manual. ● Suovetaurīlia (threefold sacrifice of bull, sheep, and pig) from the time of the Julio-Claudians (Paris, Louvre). The sacrificing priest (right), toga drawn over head, is sprinkling incense onto the altar. The attendant at the right is holding an incense-box with the lid open. The popa with an ax is at left. All are garlanded; the ox is decorated with a patterned ribbon. p. 50 ● Reconstructed shrine, with original pipe-clay statuette of Venus imported from Gaul (Chester, Grosvenor Museum). ● Bronze liver from Piacenza, late second or early first century BC. This bronze model was possibly used as a teaching aid by haruspicēs when interpreting the omens. It has forty different areas, most inscribed in antique Latin with names of gods who have influence in that particular sphere. The two halves relate to the sun and moon. ● Haruspex examining bull (see p. 37 and the note on p. 39 above). p. 51 ● A priest’s ritual headdress (British Museum). Several examples have been found in Roman Britain, each one distinctive. ● Detail of relief of sacrificial scene, time of Hadrian (Paris, Louvre). Two garlanded victimāriī, naked to the waist, lead a bull decorated with ribbons around its neck and an ornament between its horns. A musician plays the double flute. p. 52 ● Bust of the Chief Vestal Virgin (Virgo Vestalis Maxima), second century AD (Museo Nazionale Romano, Terme Di Diocleziano). ● Head of Sulis Minerva in bronze, gilded (Bath Museum). Found in 1727. Rivet holes at the top suggest that she originally wore a helmet. This may have been the cult statue from the temple. The realism is characteristic of Roman portraiture. ● Sculpture of mother-goddesses, carved from schist (Bath Museum). The mother-goddess is normally shown in triplicate to demonstrate her power. The name used at Bath, Suleviae, shows their connection with Sulis. Note how the stylized folded arms form a symmetrical pattern. ● Local gods were often shown in pairs, as here, where the local goddess Nemetona is associated with Loucetius, who is identified with Mars (Bath Museum). Typical of the Celtic style are the deep grooves for folds of fabric. p. 53 ● Line drawing of thin silver plaque dedicated to Mars-Alator, a conflation of the local god of hunting with Mars, the Roman god of war. Beneath the little shrine depicted in the middle is an inscription: D. MARTI. ALATORI To the god Mars Alator DVM. CENSORINVS Dumnonius Censorinus GEMELLI. FIL son of Gemellus paid his V.S.L.M1 vow gladly because it was deserved (1= VOTVM SOLVIT LIBENS MERITO)
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● Detail of full-length marble statue of Emperor Augustus, Rome (Museo Nazionale Romano, Palazzo Massimo). This portrayal of the emperor, with his toga over his head as he undertakes some priestly duty, is a carefully thoughtout piece of propaganda. The cult of Rome and the emperor started under Augustus. p. 54 Bronze statuette of worshipper (Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology). Contrast the stylized features (hair, folds of the cloak, face) with the lifelike Augustus (p. 53).
Suggestions for further activities
1 Make a collection of any pictures of gods and goddesses in Roman Britain which you can find in your textbook, other books, or on the Internet. Wherever possible, note the symbol which shows the god’s particular task or responsibilities (e.g. Mars, the god of war, depicted with weapons), or how the artist showed how powerful she was (e.g. Celtic mother-goddess shown threefold). In the case of Celtic gods, try to identify the parallel Roman deity. 2 Research the Roman practices of divination. There were three types. Diviners could interpret the appearance and significance of exta (entrails), mōnstra (prodigies), and fulgūra (lightning). Collect and catalog these. References can be found in translations of Livy History of Rome; Suetonius Lives of the Caesars; Pliny NH (especially XXVIII. 25–29).
Vocabulary checklist (p. 54)
iaciō, the root of dēiciō and iniciō and the frequentative form iactō, is introduced on this list. You may wish to discuss other compounds of iaciō and derivatives at this time. immōtus is an example of the negative in- prefix. Students have seen numquam meaning never in a previous Stage. Remind them that numquam is a compound of nē + umquam = not ever, which gives us never. scio does not have a macron over the -o.
Phrases for discussion mihi cura futuri alea iacta est – attributed by Suetonius to Julius Caesar verus amor nullum novit habere modum – Propertius
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STAGE 24: fuga Cultural context Travel and communication in the Roman world.
Story line Salvius imprisons Cogidubnus and the chiefs of the Regnenses. Dumnorix escapes and sets out with Quintus to seek help from Agricola, governor of Britain. Belimicus and a detachment of cavalry are sent in pursuit. Dumnorix is killed, but Quintus escapes. Modestus and Strythio also make for the north.
Sentence pattern extended prepositional phrase + participle e.g. Dumnorix tamen, ē manibus mīlitum ēlāpsus, per viās oppidī noctū prōcessit.
Main language features • cum (when) + pluperfect subjunctive e.g. cum ad pontem vēnissent, equus trānsīre nōluit.
cum (when) + imperfect subjunctive e.g. cum Salvius rem sēcum cōgitāret, Belimicus subitō rediit.
Word patterns Antonyms. Focus of exercises 1 Agreement of adjectives, accusative and dative. 2 Oblique cases of is, ea, id.
Opening page (p. 56)
Illustration. Detail from a late-third-century mosaic, Althiburos (Tunis, Bardo Museum). Two huntsmen in the Tunisian hills, wearing tunics, the right-hand figure with a riding crop, cloak, and puttees (strips round legs commonly worn by huntsmen to protect legs when riding through bushes). Presumably Quintus and Dumnorix would have been more warmly dressed for the British climate. The Romans did not have stirrups, and usually rode bareback, though there were saddles with projections at the four corners to hold the rider in place.
in itinere (p. 56)
Story. Riding from Bath to Chester, Modestus and Strythio come to a river with a rickety bridge. Strythio and the horse cross safely but the bridge collapses under the weight of Modestus. New language feature. cum with the pluperfect subjunctive meaning when or after. First reading. Begin with a brief discussion of the line drawing on p. 56. Students will often argue about which character is Modestus. Some are surprised when they learn that the unglamorous figure is Modestus. You may wish to discuss why girls such as Vilbia found Modestus so attractive. This may lead to the observation that beauty is in the eye of the beholder. The two soldiers are not traveling in uniform. However, the pugiō, gladius, bedrolls, and mess kit/cooking pot are visible on the back of the horse. You may also wish to point out that the Romans did not have stirrups, a fact which limited the efficacy of mounted troops in battle. Take the story briskly, breaking it down into sections. Preface each section with a reading in Latin.
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Lines 1–3. Ask comprehension questions, then elicit a translation. Do not comment on cum or the form of the verb at this stage, but use your questions to ensure a correct translation. Lines 4–9. If students translated cum with the subjunctive readily in the first section, ask them to explore the passage in pairs and prepare an oral translation. Lines 10–end. Volunteers offer translations. Help may be needed with the order of mediīs ex undīs (line 12). Ask the class to reread the story for homework and make a written translation of lines 6–13, before discussing the language in detail. Discussion. In discussion, aim simply to enable students to recognize cum with the subjunctive and translate it correctly, leaving terminology until About the language (p. 60). Let them help you make a list on the board of all the verbs which have a new form, and ask for their meanings, insisting on had come, had crossed etc., and drawing attention to the familiar -t and -nt endings for singular and plural forms of the 3rd person. Then ask them to identify, and give the meaning of, another word which occurs in all the sentences containing the new form of the verb, so that you end up with the four Latin examples side by side with their English translations, e.g. cum vēnissent – when they had come. Only if a student asks, distinguish between cum + noun and cum + verb at this stage. Do this by reminding them to look at the whole sentence, and give them some familiar examples, e.g.: rēx cum Quīntō ambulābat. cum Modestus dēscendisset, equus trānsiit. If students ask why a verb which means had done something does not have the familiar pluperfect form (-erat, -erant), say “Good question. It’s caused by something we’ve just noticed. What was it?” Confirm that the presence of cum is the cause of the new form, and ask them to look out for more examples. Consolidation. At the end or start of a lesson, take a few moments to practice orally the examples you listed, perhaps getting students to turn singulars into plurals and vice versa. The picture on p. 57 and the cultural information (pp. 66–67) could be reviewed at this point. Illustration. Roman road at Wheeldale Moor, North Yorkshire, probably built late first century AD when the Romans took over the territory of the Brigantes. Its destination is still unknown. It is known as Wade’s Causeway. In local legend, Wade was a giant who was said to have built the road by throwing stones at his wife. The agger is more or less standard for a Roman secondary road, possibly slightly wider (roads in Britain vary from place to place). The layer of irregular stones was probably the footing for the road, upon which layers of finer materials were placed. The final surface, or metaling, was of flat stones (see the diagram and photographs on p. 66). Only the footing and curbstones have survived. The rough tracks on either side of the road are modern.
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Quīntus cōnsilium capit (pp. 58–59)
Story. When Salvius’ soldiers imprison Cogidubnus and his chieftains, Dumnorix escapes to ask Quintus for help. Planning to lay the matter before Agricola, the governor of Britain, they make their escape. First reading. The tone of this story varies greatly from in itinere. The comic interlude is over. The story could be handled in two parts: lines 1–16 with comprehension questions 1–6, and lines 17 to the end with questions 7–10. Read each section aloud in Latin twice before students attempt the questions in pairs.
Discussion topics 1 Dumnorix’ character. Does Dumnorix behave in the present story in the way you would expect from what you know of him? Students may be able to recall the following information: A chief of the Regnenses, Cogidubnus’ tribe, he steered the boat which beat Belimicus and the Cantici at the funeral games (Unit 2, pp. 51–52). Later his taunts roused Belimicus to provoke the bear; he tried to save Cogidubnus by hurling himself at the bear (Unit 2, pp. 62–64). At Bath, he seized the poisoned cup prepared for Cogidubnus and made Cephalus drink it (Unit 3, p. 40). Students may offer a variety of assessments of Dumnorix, e.g. “loyal,” “forceful,” “brave,” “impulsive,” “violent.” 2 Personal and political motivation a Why should Dumnorix trust Quintus? Why should he think it was Salvius who tried to kill Cogidubnus (lines 9–11)? b Why has Salvius imprisoned Cogidubnus? (Refer to p. 46 if necessary.) What do you think he intends to do with him? c Why should Quintus wish to protect the king instead of supporting his fellow Roman, Salvius? Why should he expect an appeal to Agricola to be effective? Is he aware of the Emperor’s involvement? 3 The title. What is the meaning of the title? Does it give a good idea of what the story is about? 4 The plot. Get students to pick out sentences which give clues to what will happen next, e.g.: nēmō quidem perfidior est quam iste Salvius quī Cogidubnum interficere nūper temptāvit (lines 9–11). tū anteā eum servāvistī. nōnne iterum servāre potes? (lines 15–16). Agricola sōlus Salviō obstāre potest, quod summam potestātem in Britanniā habet (lines 23–24).
Ask how they think the story will develop, but don’t tell them.
Consolidation 1 Participles. Ask students to pick out the participles in lines 1–12, stating whether they are present, perfect passive, or perfect active, and identifying the nouns to which they refer: missī (line 4), ēlāpsus (line 5), ingressus (line 7), comprehēnsus (line 12).
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2 Dative case. Pick out sentences containing nouns in the dative and ask students to translate them. List the nouns on the board, and refer them to the noun chart (pp. 262–263), asking for the nominative form: Rōmānīs (line 9), rēgī (line 20), Salviō (line 23), Quīntō et Dumnorigī (line 29). The same thing could be done with the pronouns, tibi (line 8) and cui (line 27), referring to pp. 270 and 273. This would also be a good time to review verbs taking the dative and to compile a list. 3 Summary of story. A useful exercise for able students, best deferred until you are leading up to the next story, is to ask them to make an independent, written translation of a summary compiled from selected sentences, e.g.: Salvius mīlitēs iussit rēgem prīncipēsque Rēgnēnsium comprehendere et in carcere retinēre. Dumnorix, ē manibus mīlitum noctū ēlāpsus, Quīntum quaesīvit. “adiuvā Cogidubnum,” inquit. “nōlī rēgem, amīcum tuum, dēserere.” Quīntus respondit: “rēgī auxilium ferre possumus. nōbīs festīnandum est ad ultimās partēs Britanniae, ubi Agricola bellum gerit.” illī, ē vīllā ēlāpsī, equōs cōnscendērunt et ad Agricolam abiērunt. At the start of the next lesson, a student could give the summary in English. Illustration. Street scene featuring colonnade and roof tiles. A picture of an antefix, of the type used to fill in the semicircular ends, is on p. 89.
About the language 1: cum and the pluperfect subjunctive (p. 60)
New language feature. The aim of the note is: to summarize what students have learned so far about this feature; to introduce the term subjunctive; to make sure that they can accurately translate clauses containing cum and verbs with -isset/-issent, before the introduction of cum and the imperfect subjunctive in the next story. Discussion. Guide students through paragraphs 1–2, give them an opportunity to explore paragraph 3 on their own before going through it, and encourage them to make their own observations about the verb endings in paragraph 4. Repeat, if necessary, that the translation of the pluperfect subjunctive is the same as the “ordinary” pluperfect and that the new form is used with cum. Avoid reference to the use of the subjunctive in English and other languages. Students may ask “Why have a subjunctive?” or “What does the subjunctive mean if dormīvisset is translated the same as dormīverat?” Try to avoid long detailed grammatical explanations. At this point limit explanations to the idea that some subordinate conjunctions like cum may require the subjunctive, which gently indicates to the reader that the information provided is slightly less important than the information in the main clause. The tense indicator for the pluperfect indicative is -era- and the tense indicator for the pluperfect subjunctive is -isse-. Consolidation. Pick out for translation the three examples of cum and pluperfect subjunctive in the story on p. 58. Use oral practice, making up cum clauses with familiar verbs, to ensure that students recognize both 3rd person forms of the pluperfect subjunctive.
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Salvius cōnsilium cognōscit (pp. 61–62)
First reading. As the dialogue in this story is more straightforward than the narrative, the following method is suggested: work through the narrative passages with the whole class (read in Latin and ask for answers to simple comprehension questions or translation of specific phrases or sentences); then pause to let students explore the speeches on their own. Do not draw attention to cum and the imperfect subjunctive, but use comprehension questions which prompt the correct tense, e.g. the first question below. An alternative is to break the story down into three sections, each ending at a point of suspense. Use different techniques for the first reading of each section and then ask questions such as those below. Students could be divided into three groups, each being allocated a set of questions to answer for homework. The search: postrīdiē … exspectābat (lines 1–14). 1 What were Quintus and Dumnorix doing at the start of the story? 2 tum Quīntum quaesīvit (lines 4–5). Why was he unsuccessful? 3 Why do you think Salvius wanted to find Quintus? 4 What English word(s) would convey the full impact of iste (line 7)? 5 dūc mīlitēs (line 9). What is surprising about this command? 6 quaere servōs (line 10). What was the point of this? 7 Why was Salvius anxius (line 13) while he was waiting? 8 Do you think Belimicus was a good choice for Salvius to put in charge of the search party? The interrogation: cum Salvius … Britanniae discessit (lines 14–26). 1 What was Salvius doing when Belimicus returned? 2 Why was Belimicus exsultāns (line 15)? 3 vix quicquam dīcere poterat (lines 18–19). Why was this? 4 What is the difference in meaning between nescio (line 18) and nihil scio (line 19)? 5 Which sentence would you choose as a caption for the picture on p. 61? 6 What information did Salvius and Belimicus extract from the slave? 7 susurrāns (line 24). Why do you think the slave speaks like this? 8 What use will they make of this information? The pursuit: Salvius “hercle!” inquit (lines 27 … end). 1 What conclusion did Salvius reach from the information the slave gave? 2 Whom did Salvius blame (lines 27–28)? Which Latin phrase tells you this? Translate it. From what you know, was Salvius right in this assumption? 3 What two reasons did Salvius give for thinking Quintus had no chance of success (lines 28–30)? 4 What orders did he give Belimicus? 5 What happened to the slave? 6 Why do you think Salvius wrote to Agricola? 7 What happened when Belimicus caught up with Quintus and Dumnorix? 8 What gave Quintus the chance to escape?
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Discussion topics 1 The position of slaves. In Roman law, slaves were regarded as property, not as people. Evidence from a slave was acceptable in court only if it was given under torture. Brutality toward slaves was routine (see Unit 2, Stage 13, pp. 5–8, 12), although many slaves were kindly treated. 2 Belimicus’ role. Belimicus shows an obsessive hatred of Dumnorix, no doubt because of his success in the boat race (Unit 2, Stage 15, p. 52) and perhaps because, as chief of the Cantici, he hopes to supplant the Regnenses in the affections of the Romans. It is remarkable for Salvius to put him in charge of a Roman cavalry troop, and send him to arrest Quintus, a Roman citizen, his own house guest and relation by marriage, particularly in view of his mistrust of, and contempt for, the Britons (Unit 2, Stage 13, p. 12, lines 33–34). 3 The plot. Quintus, motivated by traditional Roman honor, wants Agricola to reinstate loyal old Cogidubnus as the emperor’s representative in the south. Salvius’ radically different objective is to institute modern systems for exploiting the resources of Britain for the Roman government. He worries about possible failure, not about whether it is right. Which man do you think has the better chance of success? Why? Explore the significance of Salvius’ statement (lines 29–30): ego maiōrem auctōritātem habeō quam ille. The concept of auctōritās, which underpinned Roman society, subsumes influence, status, expertise, and the right to command. Only a man of importance could oblige Roman troops to accept the command of a Briton. This reinforces the gradually emerging picture of Salvius as a ruthless man of power. Who is ille (line 30)? The word could be applicable to Agricola as well as Quintus. Agricola has nominally more auctōritās than Salvius, but if Salvius has orders from Domitian, he will prove to be more powerful than Agricola. Make sure that at the end of this Stage students are left with a strong impression of the conflict driving the plot, as it will not recur until Stage 26. Consolidation. Ask pairs of students to note down what Salvius is likely to write in his letter to Agricola. They could use the following points in the story: iste Dumnorix ē manibus meīs effūgit (line 7). neque Dumnorigī neque Quīntō crēdō (lines 8–9). ad Agricolam iērunt (line 27). (Quīntus), ā Dumnorige incitātus, mihi obstāre temptat (lines 27–28). (Quīntus) homō magnae stultitiae est (lines 28–29). Illustration Aerial view of Watling Street West, entering the Church Stretton gap, looking south. Watling Street West ran south from Wroxeter (Viroconium), and, with connecting roads, linked the fortresses of Chester (Deva), Gloucester (Glevum), and Caerleon (Isca). See the map, p. 139.
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About the language 2: cum and the imperfect subjunctive (p. 63)
New language feature. Starting from familiar examples with the pluperfect subjunctive, this note introduces the imperfect subjunctive with cum meaning when. The purpose is to ensure that students recognize and translate it correctly. The translation while for cum is acceptable and may guide students to the correct rendering of the imperfect. Discussion. Read paragraph 1 and revisit the four examples of cum and pluperfect subjunctive on pp. 61–62: cum … cognōvisset (lines 3–4). cum … audīvisset (line 20). cum … potuisset (line 5). cum … dīxisset (line 31). Having reinforced When … had …, work through paragraph 2 with the class, emphasizing were sleeping and was serving, forms already associated with the imperfect tense. Then let them translate the examples in paragraph 3 in pairs. As you go over them, help them to draw their own conclusions from paragraph 4 about how to recognize the imperfect subjunctive. Consolidation. Ask students to find and translate the three examples of cum and the imperfect subjunctive on pp. 61–62: cum … contenderent (lines 1–2), cum … cōgitāret (line 14), cum … īnspicerent (lines 39–40). Give them oral practice with familiar verbs.
Word patterns: antonyms (p. 64)
New language feature. The way in which the addition of a prefix (in-, dis-, ne-) can reverse the meaning of a word. Suitable at any point in this Stage. Discussion. Let students do the examples on their own before discussing them and their English derivatives.
Practicing the language (p. 65)
Exercise 1. Complete the sentences by selecting the accusative or dative case of the adjective. ** Exercise 2. Substitute the correct form of is, ea, id for the noun in boldface. The pronoun was introduced in Stage 20. This exercise is intended to reinforce students’ ability to recognize the pronoun’s forms; all but the exceptionally confident should be encouraged to use the chart (p. 272, paragraph 4).
Language information: review
1 If students have an insecure grasp of the personal pronouns and the forms mēcum, tēcum, etc., get them to look again at p. 270 and then give them an oral test, with books closed. 2 Follow up the exercise on is, ea, id (p. 65) with a review of hic and ille (p. 271). 3 Study the notes on the principal parts of verbs, paragraphs 3 and 4, p. 293, and work through the examples in paragraph 5 (p. 294). Then put up on the board some verb forms from the checklist for students to translate. 4 Nouns of the fourth and fifth declension have occurred in the stories, usually in cases whose endings are identical with those of other declensions, e.g. manus, manum, genua, diēs (plural). Study the chart on p. 262. Students will be pleased to learn that there are relatively few fourth and fifth declension nouns and that there are no more declensions to learn.
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Cultural context material (pp. 66–69)
Content. The routing and structure of roads; travelers, inns, and sea travel. This section relates well to in itinere (p. 56) and Salvius cōnsilium cognōscit (pp. 61–62), but can be used anywhere in this Stage.
Suggestions for discussion 1 Why did people travel in the ancient world? How do the reasons compare with reasons for traveling today? Many wealthy inhabitants of Rome (then as now) moved out during the summer to country villas or the coast. Travel could also be undertaken in search of health. Thus Pliny sent his ill ex-slave Zosimus first to Egypt, then to Forum Iulii, or modern Fréjus on the French Riviera (Letters V.19). Consider also the religious pilgrimages made, in modern times, to Lourdes and other holy places. 2 Consider with the class the various ways in which a relatively efficient road and maritime system could affect life in the provinces, using concrete examples wherever possible; for example, economic influence (luxury pottery made in southern Gaul was transported and sold across western Europe; glass vessels, made in Alexandria, Antioch, and the Rhine region, were sold in Gaul and Britain; wine, oil, and garum were exported from Campania in large quantities; the palace at Fishbourne clearly used imported materials and craftsmen); political and military influence (governors, other administrators, and troops could reach their provinces quickly, keep the emperor informed by the cursus pūblicus, and put his policies into action without delay, cf. Pliny Letters X.18 and 96–97); religious influence (see Acts of the Apostles, e.g. 14, 17, 18.1–11, 19.21–27, and 27–28 for St Paul’s journey from Caesarea to Rome); private communication and travel. (There was no public postal service for private mail. The usual procedure was to send a slave or to wait until a friend or friend’s slave was going in the right direction, cf. St Paul’s letters, e.g. 2 Timothy 4.9–13. Urgent letters could be sent at some expense by special courier, cf. Pliny Letters III.17; VII.12.) Further information The Roman road system took its official starting point from the mīliārium aureum, or golden milestone, probably in the form of a polygonal column set up by Augustus in the Forum Rōmānum. Milestones were located at the side of the road every Roman mile (about 4,800 feet/1,500 meters). They showed the distance from the starting point of a road as well as the names of the consuls or emperor under whom the road was built or repaired. There were often seats for pedestrians beside the milestones. The main roads (viae pūblicae, viae mīlitārēs) were constructed, owned, and maintained by the state. Commissioners (cūrātōrēs viārum) appointed by the emperor were responsible for the network of main roads; smaller roads were provided and controlled by local magistrates, with local landowners contributing to the cost of maintenance. There were also some private roads. There is a possibility that Vespasian and Titus had a plan of Rome drawn and displayed. Septimius Severus had a marble plan of the empire put into the temple of Peace (Anderson, The Historical Topography of the Imperial Fora (1984 OP), pp. 113–117).
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Our knowledge of the road system comes from various sources: 1 The archaeological remains of the roads themselves, including milestones and other monuments inscribed with distances and directions. This evidence provides a fairly complete picture of the methods of construction used. 2 Aerial photography, which has greatly increased our knowledge of the network where there are no physical remains on the surface. There are also three documentary sources for roads: 1 The Antonine Itinerary, compiled at the end of the second century AD, which gives details of the towns and stopping places and the distances between them along most of the main roads and some minor ones all over the empire. 2 The Peutinger Table, a medieval copy, 21 feet (6 meters) long and 12 inches (30 centimeters) high, from Vienna, of an ancient road map drawn in diagram form and covering the whole empire. It maps all of the known Roman military roads from Britain to the Euphrates, from the Rhine to Africa, India and Arabia included. Six different colors indicate rivers, mountains, lakes, and seas. Different symbols indicate such items as cisterns, lighthouses, taverns, barrack fortresses, temples, and harbors. (The Peutinger Table does not resemble a “map” so much as a “TripTik.”) 3 The Jerusalem Itinerary of the fourth century AD which shows the route from Bordeaux to Jerusalem via Arles, Milan, Istanbul, and Antioch. The important roads were about 24 feet (7 meters) wide and lesser ones 15 feet (4.5 meters) wide, i.e. wide enough for two wagons to pass. For illustrations of a grōma, the surveying tool used in roadbuilding, see model sentences 1 and 3, Stage 10, Unit 1 (pp. 132–133). In good conditions, a traveler might cover 20 miles (32 kilometers) a day on foot, 25–30 miles (40–50 kilometers) by carriage, perhaps a little more by mule. Roman roadbuilding was not equaled until the nineteenth century when J. L. Macadam devised a road surface of small cut stones (tarmacadam = tarmac). The information about unsavory inns and innkeepers comes from Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) IV, 4957; Horace Satires I.5.4; Pliny NH IX.154, where other details may be found of interest; for example Pliny adds that bedbugs are especially bad in summer and are often found in one’s hair! Sea travel was often quicker and easier, especially in the Mediterranean, than the lengthy overland routes, and for that reason was frequently preferred, the seasons and weather permitting. Merchant shipping was controlled by corporations of shipowners (nāviculāriī marīnī) who were responsible to superintendents appointed by the emperor. Much of their business was concerned with keeping Rome supplied with grain; they were well paid by the state for their services. Inland waterways were also important parts of the system. Again we find corporations of merchants and barge owners in control, making extensive connections across the empire from one waterway to another, like the Rhine, Moselle, and Danube rivers. For further information see Vitruvius De architectura; Balsdon Life (pp. 224– 243 for travel in the Roman world illustrated by numerous anecdotes); Chevalier Roman Roads (1975) (roadbuilding); Casson Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World (2000) and Casson Travel; Paoli (pp. 228–331 for description of vehicles).
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Illustrations p. 66 ● Detail of rubble and curbstones of Roman road, Wheeldale Moor. ● Appian Way at Minturnae, Italy. The surface area of large flat stones still survives. ● Line drawing of cross section of Roman road. The Latin phrase for building a road was viam munīre. Whether built above the level of the surrounding country or in a cut below it, a Roman road was, in fact, a solid wall. p. 67 The draft animals used by the Romans were mules, donkeys, horses, and oxen. Horses were the fastest, but only oxen could pull very heavy loads. There exists such a great variety of wheeled vehicles, both for freight and for passengers, that we are not able to attach, with any certainty, the correct name to each representation. ● Relief of a light carriage pulled by two horses. Note the milestone in the background (R. Dalladay). ● Drawing of tomb relief (Avignon Museum), showing the slow imperial post. Heavy four-wheeled coach, with two passengers inside, drawn by a pair of mules. They wear horse cloths secured by straps, and choking collars with projecting ornaments to which the driver’s reins are attached. The traces run from the collar to the front of the coach. On top of the coach is the driver, brandishing his whip, and a public official, whose status is indicated by the staff of office held up by his attendant, sitting back to back with him. Distinguish the slow imperial post from the express version described on p. 68. ● Drawing of relief (Vatican Museum) showing simple farm cart with flat base and upright poles on solid wooden wheels. The farmer walks at the side, goading the oxen whose yoke is just visible on top of their shoulders. On the cart, probably roped in, is the complete skin of an ox, commonly used for bulk transport of wine. p. 68 Drawing of relief from Aesernia, Italy. Mule with simple cloth or saddle, led by a traveler wearing a hooded traveling cloak. p. 69 ● Mosaic of a cargo ship leaving a harbor, early third century AD (Antiquarium Communale, Rome). The Romans built many harbors using hydraulic cement that set underwater, and constructing causeways, breakwaters, docks, and lighthouses. Cargo ships used sails, as too much space would be needed for a crew to man the oars. Details to note: the structural use of the arch in the causeway or jetty, the use of a broad square sail on a single mast in the ship. The small rowboat was possibly for the pilot’s use; he would need it for his return to the port once he had guided the ship out of the harbor. ● Relief of tugboat. Note the absence of a sail, the use of oars, and the large steering paddle in the stern. p. 70 A Roman milestone (Photo Scala, Florence). Roads were marked every Roman mile (1,000 paces) by cylindrical milestones. For further information, see above, p. 57.
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Suggestions for further activities
1 Obtain copies of the Peutinger Table (reproduced in Cunliffe Rome and her Empire (1978 OP); in part on the cover of McEvedy; in part in Drinkwater and Drummond The World of the Romans (1993)) and trace your way around the empire with it. You may consult a conventional wall map while working with the table. 2 Calculate approximate distances and journey times over various routes, using different means of transport. Begin by looking at examples in Lewis and Reinhold II, pp. 148 and 198–207. For example, with the cursus pūblicus, an average of about 50 miles (80 km) a day could be maintained. How long might it have taken for Modestus and Strythio to ride from Aquae Sulis to Deva; for a letter from Salvius to go from Aquae Sulis to Deva using the cursus pūblicus; for a message from Agricola at Deva to have reached the Emperor Domitian in Rome? 3 Using the notes you made in your study of Salvius cōnsilium cognōscit (p. 61), imagine you are Salvius and write a letter to Agricola, the governor, describing recent events from your point of view. Persuade him that your actions are justified, and that anything he hears from Quintus is unreliable.
Vocabulary checklist (p. 70)
auctōritās comes from auctor, which in turn comes from the verb augeō – increase or make large. flūmen is related to the verb fluere – to flow. humī is the locative case of humus. A derivative is humility. patefaciō is a compound of pateō – lie open – and faciō – make. patefaciō, then, literally means make something open, i.e. reveal it.
Phrase for discussion pontifex maximus
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STAGE 25: mīlitēs Cultural context The legionary soldier: recruitment, training, work, pay, promotion. The auxiliaries. Story line A Briton found in the camp is imprisoned. Modestus and Strythio are set to guard the prison, but through a series of comic misunderstandings, they let prisoners escape, and run away in fear of punishment. Main language features • indirect questions e.g. mīles iuvenem iterum rogāvit quis esset. • conjugation of imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive, all persons e.g. ego et Modestus, cum in Āfricā mīlitārēmus, tōtam prōvinciam custōdiēbāmus.
Sentence pattern variation of word order in sentences containing infinitive e.g. iuvenis dīcere nōlēbat quid prope horreum faceret. centuriō mīlitem iussit eum ad carcerem dūcere. vōs ambōs carcerem custōdīre iussit. coēgērunt mē portās omnium cellārum aperīre. Word patterns Nouns denoting males and females. Focus of exercises 1 cum (when) with imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive. 2 Participles, nominative and accusative cases. 3 Selection of correct nouns and verbs to form a sentence.
Opening page (p. 71)
Illustration. Detail from relief, base of Column of Antoninus Pius, showing the parade at his deification after death in AD 161 (Rome, Vatican Museum). Legionaries with helmets, breastplates with overlapping metal plates, military boots and breeches, and spears. Officer (left) with molded breastplate and military cloak. Standard bearer (right) with bearskin, carrying signum with metal disks, encircled by wreaths, possibly indicating campaigns fought. Beards became acceptable under the bearded Hadrian, AD 117–138.
Model sentences, Dēvae (pp. 72–73)
Story. In the legionary camp at Deva, a soldier finds a Briton lurking near a granary and arrests him. Faced with prison, the Briton reveals that he is the son of the chief of the Deceangli (from northeast Wales). New language feature. Indirect questions with imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive. New vocabulary. legiōnis, castra, ignōtum, explōrātor. First reading. The model sentences establish the setting for the next two Stages in the camp of the Second Legion, which occupied Deva from about AD 76 to 87. Read the first sentence mīles … ambulābat and look through the line drawings to identify the features of the fortress. Help students to interpret the title as At Chester (accusative case appeared on p. 56). There is no need to explain the locative case, unless students ask. Work through the model sentences with the class, reading each section in Latin in its entirety before eliciting a translation, using the pictures as clues.
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Write on the board in one column some examples of direct questions, and beside them in the second column the same questions in indirect form, e.g.: “quis es?” mīles rogāvit quis esset. “quid prope horreum facis?” iuvenis dīcere nōlēbat quid faceret. Invite translation and comment, e.g. on the right the absence of speech marks and question marks, and the addition of the verbs rogāvit/dīcere nōlēbat. Encourage students to work out that the questions on the left are as they were spoken (the dialogue form), while the sentences on the right are referring to the questions on the left (the narrative form). Often the question “Why no speech marks/question marks?” provokes useful comment in the students’ own words. Consolidation. Write up some easy indirect questions, e.g.: nesciēbat quis hoc dīxisset. rogāvimus cūr īrātus esset. cognōvērunt ubi iuvenis habitāret. Once students have translated them correctly, ask them to give you in English the words actually spoken by the questioner. Set translation of some or all of the model sentences for homework. Illustrations. Note the turf-and-timber rampart, later replaced by stone, the wooden gate (see p. 119) and granary (see p. 107), and barrack blocks in background. The soldier (sentences 1–2) wears standard uniform. The centurion (sentences 3–4) has transverse plume, breastplate of scale armor, military cloak, and staff of office. For the colors worn by the soldiers in Unit 3, we have largely followed the colors adopted by the Ermine Street Guard (pp. 85–86). In fact Sumner’s (Roman Military Dress, The History Press, 2009) presentation of evidence shows that tunics could be red, white, and even green, that the sagum could be yellow-brown, red, or white, and that the crests of helmets could be red, white, or yellow, or black, or brown. Scholars have speculated that color may have been an indication of rank, or that white was worn by soldiers in peaceful situations and red in battle conditions. Further information. The Deceangli inhabited the northeastern part of what is now Wales, westward from where Chester is located. In AD 49 their territory was plundered by Ostorius Scapula, then governor of Britain, in part with the aim, quite possibly, of gaining control over the mining of lead and silver. In c. AD 76–77, the fortress at Deva was built to hold the boundary of Britain against the Deceangli and Ordovices tribespeople and to provide a base for further conquests in northern Britain.
Strȳthiō (p. 74)
Story. Strythio, startled by an order to report to the camp prison, objects that he has done nothing wrong. Ordered to guard the prisoners, especially the British prince, with Modestus, he assumes the responsibility with boastful nonchalance. First reading. Students enjoy reading about Strythio and Modestus, so take this and the remaining stories in the Stage at a pace that will not lose the humor. The absurdity of Strythio’s claims of bravery, and then of his order to the optiō, is clear. Strythio’s first lines on Modestus make it obvious that Modestus has not changed his ways since the Vilbia incident. Expressive reading on the part of the teacher will help keep the pace moving.
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Discussion 1 From the evidence of this story, was a soldier who had the rank of optiō above or below a centurion? 2 Discuss the shifts in mood and tone in the dialogue. For example, the officer starts with a neutral summons (line 3), responds to Strythio’s disregard with sarcasm (line 6), invokes his senior officer (line 7), becomes sharp and explicit (line 10), seriously annoyed (line 14), incredulous (line 19), sarcastic again (line 21), and finally authoritarian (lines 21–22). Strythio’s utterances can be analyzed in a similar way. 3 Why did the Romans not kill Vercobrix? (This would have risked an uprising by the Deceangli and their allies; instead they detained him because he could be useful as a hostage in negotiating with his tribe.) 4 From what you know about Modestus and Strythio, how well do you expect them to carry out their duties? Consolidation 1 The first line of the stage directions gives a good example of participial agreement: Strȳthiōnem … regressum. After students have read the story, write the phrase on the board and ask: “Who has returned, the optiō or Strythio? How does the Latin show this?” Then consider suitable translations, including one with a relative clause, i.e. “He sees Strythio, who has now returned to the fortress.” 2 Discuss the sentences or clauses which start with the accusative case: Strȳthiōnem (line 1); Modestum (line 4); deōs, nūllum (line 12); rem (line 16); dīligentiam (line 21). Illustration. Legionary helmet (found in the river Thames) and shield boss from Eighth Legion (found in the river Tyne) (British Museum). In the first century AD the legionary helmet was bronze or iron with a brow-ridge protecting the nose and eyes and a smaller flap protecting the neck. The sides of the face were protected by cheekpieces.
Modestus custōs (p. 75)
Story. On their prison rounds, Modestus makes excuses for avoiding Vercobrix, but finally enters the cell to find him asleep. Routed by a spider landing on his nose, he attributes his pallor to hunger and runs off to find food, leaving Strythio on guard. First reading. The Modestus in this story is the man who urged Strythio to attack Bulbus so that Modestus could hit him from behind. But having a spider run over one’s face in the dark is punishment enough for most of us. Again, pace is important. The first paragraph consists of long and complex sentences. After reading it aloud in Latin, give students time to explore it in pairs before going through it. Lines 7–14 Allocate the characters of Strythio and Modestus to the two halves of the class, or to student pairs. Ask them, as you read the story in Latin once or twice, to follow their half of the dialogue, and then volunteer a dramatic translation. Lines 15–25 Volunteers may like to act out the narrative, while the teacher continues to read and prompt where necessary. Encourage the rest of the class to help.
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Lines 26–end Revert to the method used for lines 7–14. If there is time, the whole story can be acted out. vīsne (line 33) sometimes still confuses students. Remind them of the present tense of volō.
Discussion topics 1 The comedy hinges on Modestus as incertus (line 6). Ask students to suggest all the thoughts that are flashing through his mind, and to demonstrate his stance. 2 Comic duos. The comedy is more likely to come across if students work on their own at this scene. Some students may be helped by comparisons with modern double acts. In the last story, Strythio was the comic; in this story, he is the straight guy, vir summae patientiae (line 15). 3 Irony. Why is the story entitled Modestus custōs? Would a better title be Modestus incertus? Consolidation 1 The participles (lines 21–23) are useful for practice. Ask students to translate the sentences containing them, to say whether they are present, perfect active, or perfect passive, and to identify the nouns they are describing. 2 Practicing the language, exercise 1 (p. 80), provides consolidation of this story.
About the language 1: indirect questions (p. 76)
New language feature. By the end of this Stage, students should be able to translate indirect questions correctly, and identify the verb as imperfect or pluperfect. Discussion. Encourage students to read paragraphs 1–3 on their own and raise any questions. If you detect any uncertainty, revisit the model sentences. Ask them to make a written translation of the examples in paragraph 4. Consolidation. From the story on p. 75, pick out the four indirect questions: in quā … esset (lines 3–4), ubi ... iacēret (line 5), cūr … clāmāret (line 25), quid accidisset (line 30). In each case, ask for a translation of the whole sentence, and then the words (in English) of the direct question.
** Modestus perfuga I (p. 77)
Story. Modestus returns to the prison and, finding the doors open and the prisoners gone, decides to run away for fear of punishment. First reading. Read the story aloud in Latin as dramatically as possible. Some students will understand most of it at first reading. Check understanding by asking comprehension questions, e.g.: Why was Modestus upset when he reached the prison? What did he say about Strythio? What did he find inside the prison? What conclusion did he draw? What two difficult choices faced him? What did he decide to do? Omit the process of translation (this will encourage self-reliance), but ask students if they have any queries. Point up the ending by stressing that desertion was a serious offence (not, however, always punishable by death). Does Modestus have a good defense for his action?
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If students have difficulty with mihi fugiendum est (Part I, line 13), return to the examples nōbīs festīnandum est or nōbīs effugiendum est which were encountered in Stage 24 (p. 58, lines 22 and 25) and use those models to show who has to do what. A language note on the gerundive appears in Stage 26.
** Modestus perfuga II (p. 78)
Story. Hearing cries from Vercobrix’ cell, Modestus slams the door. He is concerned by Strythio’s absence and, spotting a blood-stained dagger, concludes that he has been killed by Vercobrix and vows revenge.
First reading Lines 1–11 Read aloud in Latin and let students study the text for themselves. Check their understanding with a few comprehension questions. Lines 12–end Ask the class to close their books. Read each sentence in Latin with appropriate expression; then pause at the end of the sentence to allow volunteers to offer a translation. Repeat the Latin or give help with vocabulary where necessary. Discussion. Read lines 12 to the end again, making sure that students appreciate the variety of exaggerated emotions and the scope for ham acting, e.g. the “tragic” discovery of the blood-stained dagger and the conclusion drawn from it; the “pathos” of Modestus’ feelings for Strythio; his “heroic” decision to avenge his dead friend.
** Modestus perfuga III (p. 78)
Story. Modestus bursts into Vercobrix’ cell and starts to beat the occupant who turns out to be Strythio. He had been tricked by the prisoners into opening the prison doors and so, in fear of punishment, both friends flee. First reading. Let students explore this in pairs, dividing the parts between them, and preparing a lively Latin reading of their own.
Discussion 1 Make a list of English adjectives to describe Modestus’ behavior in this Stage, giving an example to support each adjective. 2 What do students think will happen next? (They will have to wait until Stage 27 to find out.) Consolidation 1 Examples of indirect questions, if needed for practice, can be found in Modestus perfuga I: quō … fūgissent (lines 10–11), cūr… abesset (line 11). Modestus perfuga II: quid … accidisset (lines 10–11). Modestus perfuga III contains several interrogatives: nōnne (line 3), num, cūr (line 6), ubi (line 7), quid (line 10). 2 Have students find instances in the Latin where it is clear that Modestus: • always tends to blame someone else; • expects constant help from a friend; • is emotional and impulsive. STAGE 25 65
3 Invite the class, with their books closed, to listen to the audio or to your own expressive reading. Alternatively, volunteers might read the passage aloud after discussing tone and points of emphasis.
About the language 2: more about the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive (p. 79)
New language feature. All persons of the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive. Discussion. Read through paragraphs 1 and 2 with the class, and ask them to work out the examples in paragraph 3 on their own. As you go over these, write up the subjunctive verbs used, and make them the basis of an oral substitution exercise. Consolidation. Ask students to study the chart on p. 278. “How do you distinguish imperfect from pluperfect?” should elicit sensible replies, e.g. “The imperfect is like the infinitive; the pluperfect starts like the ordinary pluperfect but then has -issem.” “Is the same true of irregular verbs (p. 284)?” should receive a positive and relieved response.
Word patterns: male and female (p. 80)
New language feature. Endings indicating the gender of a person or animal. Discussion. Let students read this on their own and share observations.
Practicing the language (pp. 80–81)
Exercise 1. Based on Modestus custōs (p. 75). Complete the sentences with the correct cum clauses, chosen from a pool. Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with the correct participles from a pool. The teacher should go through the participles with the class before they attempt the exercise. If students have trouble with this exercise, it will show not only that they are uncertain as to the precise meaning of the participles, but also that they have not mastered the idea of the participle, an adjective, agreeing with another word in the sentence. If this is the case, go back to the stories and find examples of participle and noun agreement. Exercise 3. Translate the English sentences into Latin by selecting from the alternative Latin words provided. Ask the class to explain their choice.
Language information: review
1 Adjectives (pp. 264–265). A review of these early in the Stage will form a good basis for the review of participles. 2 The irregular verbs eō, ferō, and capiō (pp. 282–283). Study the chart in paragraph 1 before working through the examples in paragraph 3, which will also help to remind students of sum, possum, and volō. Then study the chart in paragraph 4 and elicit from students that the endings of the perfect and pluperfect tenses of all these verbs are regular.
Cultural context material (pp. 82–87)
Content. The information about a Roman soldier covers recruitment, training, everyday duties, and promotion prospects, as well as the terms of his retirement. It can be reviewed at any point within the Stage.
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Suggestions for discussion 1 Discuss with the class the self-sufficiency of the Roman legion and the very high proportion of fighting troops to support troops; compare this with the corresponding proportion (1:8) in British and American armies in World War II; invite students to comment on this difference (e.g. the greater need for specialized support skills as military technology becomes more complicated). 2 Discuss the part played by the legions and auxiliary units in preserving the frontiers of the empire (most of them were stationed in the frontier provinces) and in maintaining or changing the central power in Rome, i.e. the emperor. At the death of one emperor, the next claimant, especially if the successor had not been identified in advance, relied upon the support of the military to press his claims. For example, in AD 68–69, the Roman senate helplessly recognized, in turn, four emperors supported by legions in little more than twelve months. For colorful details you might read aloud selections from Books 1–3 in the Penguin translation of Tacitus Histories; and for background, consult Jones Handbook (pp. 2–13).
Further information The life and work of the Roman soldier often stimulates considerable interest. Its postponement until now is an advantage (a) because you may treat it with the detail needed to bring it to life, and (b) because the characters of Modestus and Strythio give the students a personal attachment. Any time money is mentioned, students want to know equivalents in dollars. A lecture on inflation and buying power does not seem to satisfy them. In the first century BC, an annual income from a small farm was 2,500 denarii, and a tunic in Pompeii cost 3.75 denarii. In Domitian’s time a soldier’s annual pay was 300 denarii. One denarius, therefore, is roughly equivalent to a soldier’s daily wage. For further information see this manual (pp. 137–138); Balsdon Life; Carcopino Daily Life in Ancient Rome (1991); and Duncan-Jones The Economy of the Roman Empire (1982). Students sometimes ask why there were not a hundred men in a “century,” since the term is obviously connected with centum. Originally there were, but with natural fluctuation the term lost its strict numerical significance and just denoted one of the sixty divisions of the legion, each commanded by a centurion. In the beginning of the empire, this had been standardized to about eighty men. The change in the first cohort from six centuries of eighty men (= 480) to five centuries of 160 (= 800) took place in the 80s AD. The quotation about recruitment on pp. 82–83 is taken from Vegetius I.7. He also says: “In choosing or rejecting recruits, it is important to find out what trade they have been following. Fishermen, bird catchers, sweet-makers, weavers, and all those who do the kind of jobs that women normally do should be kept away from the army.” A soldier was generally stationed in a large legionary fortress somewhere near the frontiers of the empire in places such as Deva (Chester), Eboracum (York), Bonna (Bonn), and Vindobona (Vienna) which were key points in the Roman defenses against the barbarians. To supplement the information contained in this and the next two Stages, see Appendix B. A selection of military inscriptions, RIB, is the definitive collection of military inscriptions for Roman Britain.
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Illustrations p. 82 Scene from relief on Trajan’s Column, showing auxiliary soldiers and legionary soldiers (Trajan’s Forum, Rome). The outer surface of the honorary column of Trajan (AD 98–117) was carved with a continuous spiral frieze depicting a string of scenes from Trajan’s two campaigns against the Dacians. The spiral relief illustrates, in amazingly accurate detail, almost every aspect of Roman army life. The scene reproduced here shows soldiers engaged in building a permanent, rather than a marching, camp or fort, as indicated by the use of stone blocks and tiled roofs. The soldiers fortified the camp by surrounding it with a ditch and a rampart (which was created from the soil from the ditch). The timber crossframing, bottom center, is the top of one of the gates. (See also illustrations in the students’ book (pp. 72 and 119).) Auxiliary soldiers (such as those on the left) were not trained craftsmen, so did not do much building. Instead of the heavy armor and weapons of the legionaries, the auxiliaries used the weapons they were accustomed to in their own countries. Often, as here, they wore short tunics and close-fitting trousers. p. 83 Line drawing showing three members of the Roman army. On the left is a centuriō, holding his vine-staff of office. In the center is a mīles with his shield, sword, and javelin. On the right is an aquilifer, wearing a bearskin and holding the eagle, the standard of the entire legion. p. 84 ● Detail from relief on Trajan’s Column, Rome. The legionary soldiers, marching with weapons and armor, carry their food supply, cooking utensils, bedrolls, and wine or water flask on poles over their left shoulders. ● Another detail from Trajan’s Column. Here a legionary soldier harvests wheat, probably spelt, with a sickle. The protein value of ancient wheat was about twice that of most modern cereals. Trajan’s Column often depicts Roman legionary soldiers engaged in creative and peaceful activities, whereas fighting is regularly carried out by the more expendable auxiliary troops. p. 85 The Ermine Street Guard, a British reenactment group, seen here at Wroxeter. p. 86 Centurion in dress uniform, his decorations indicating campaigns fought. p. 87 Simplified diagram. For information about the legatus and the tribunes, see p. 100. The praefectus castrorum was responsible for the management of a fortress, and building and engineering works. He would assume command if the legatus and senior tribune were away. The number of military standards varied at different periods. A papyrus of AD 117 (PSI 911 D63), quoted in G. L. Watson, The Roman Soldier (p. 51), says that at that period there was one signifer per century. For each signifer there was a trumpeter and tesserarius. Le Bohec, in The Imperial Roman Army, quotes Arrian in counting one trumpeter per century in the first cohort, and one per maniple (of two centuries) in the other cohorts. This suggests that there is more than one each of these officers in each cohort (not as in diagram p. 87). p. 88 A Roman soldier’s dagger and sheath, first century AD, both of iron (British Museum), found at Hod Hill, Dorset. Inspection of sheath shows inlaid decoration of chevrons and other motifs in brass and yellow enamel. Worn on soldier’s belt on opposite side from sword (see pp. 72–73 and 86).
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Suggestions for further activities
1 In groups of three to five students, research (for sources see Appendix B) and report on one of the following topics by producing a display properly illustrated with maps, plans, diagrams, etc.: • The main items of protective clothing worn by a Roman legionary soldier. • The legion on the march and what it did at the end of the day’s march. • The arrangement of a legion on the battlefield. • Rewards, decorations, and punishments in the Roman army. • The deployment of the Roman army, either over the whole empire or in Britain. This can be studied with maps showing the location of fortresses, smaller forts, and frontier defenses. • Hadrian’s Wall: its construction, purposes, manning, and something of the events which affected it. Include the civilian population which lived close to the forts (remember, however, that Hadrian’s frontier was not constructed until the second century). • The auxilia: how they differed from the legions (different citizen status, more emphasis on cavalry, different style of forts, different tasks, links with the legions). • The māchina: what various items of siege equipment were used by the Romans and how each was deployed in attacking an enemy stronghold. • The Vindolanda tablets. For additional topics, see Stages 26 and 27, Suggestions for further activities (pp. 79 and 89). 2 You are a new recruit to the Roman army. Write a letter home describing your experiences in the first few days. Or, You have been responsible for training a new batch of recruits. Make a report to your superior officer of their progress in various tasks during their first few days. 3 Produce a recruitment leaflet for the Roman army. Or, Write an “alternative” guide to the Roman army.
Vocabulary checklist (p. 88) accidō is a compound of cadere to fall and is not related to caedere and its compounds meaning to cut. cōgō is a compound of cum/co + agō. Literally then, when you compel someone, you drive that person with yourself. explicō is a compound of ex + plicāre – to fold. explicāre means to unfold, thence to explain. nōmen is related to the verb nōscō. A name is that by which one is known. rūrsus is a contraction of revorsus, i.e. reversus meaning turned back. Phrases for discussion militat omnis amans et habet sua castra Cupido – Ovid bene qui latuit bene vixit – Ovid latet anguis in herba – Virgil sera … tacitis poena venit pedibus – Tibullus
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STAGE 26: Agricola Cultural context Senior army officers and the career of Agricola. Story line At Chester, Agricola hears Salvius’ accusations against Cogidubnus and orders military action. Quintus arrives and, recommended by the military tribune Rufus (lost son of Barbillus), is able to disprove Salvius’ lies. As Salvius and Agricola confront each other, Cogidubnus’ death is announced. Main language features • purpose clauses e.g. Agricola ad tribūnal prōcessit ut pauca dīceret. • gerundives of obligation e.g. tibi statim cum duābus cohortibus proficīscendum est.
Sentence patterns postponement of subordinating conjunction e.g. haec cum audīvisset, Agricola respondit. more complex examples of “stringing” and “nesting” e.g. mīlitēs, cum hoc audīvissent, maximē gaudēbant quod Agricolam dīligēbant. sollicitus erat quod in epistulā, quam ad Agricolam mīserat, multa falsa scrīpserat. Word patterns Verbs and abstract -or nouns. Focus of exercises 1 Accusative, genitive, and dative of nouns. 2 Personal endings of imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive. 3 Sense and form of nouns and verbs.
Opening page (p. 89)
Illustration. Terracotta antefix with name and charging boar emblem of the Twentieth Legion (British Museum). The Twentieth Legion was stationed at Deva after AD 87. Roman soldiers were trained in many crafts, including building. They quarried or made their own materials. Tiles, when made in the regimental workshops, were often stamped with the legion’s name and badge. Antefixes were end-tiles that covered the open ends of the semicircular roof tiles.
adventus Agricolae (p. 90)
Story. The commanding officer of the Second Legion, Gaius Julius Silanus, prepares for the arrival of Agricola by ordering a thorough cleanup of the camp. The soldiers greet the general with enthusiasm and he praises their zeal and efficiency. New language feature. Purpose clauses, introduced from the third paragraph onwards. First reading. The first two paragraphs set the scene in the legionary camp at Chester where the Second Legion was based. Read them aloud in Latin and elicit the meaning by comprehension questions. The students may need help with ignārī adventūs Agricolae (line 7) and Agricolam dīligēbant (line 10). After reading the rest of the passage in Latin, ask comprehension questions which enable students to translate the new purpose clauses correctly. In English, why often provokes the response because. To avoid confusion with causal clauses, follow your English question directly with the Latin purpose clause from which students will derive the answer, e.g.:
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Why did Silanus put the soldiers in long rows? ut Agricolam salūtārent. Why did the soldiers fall silent? ut Agricolam audīrent. This is more likely to provoke answers like: “To greet Agricola” or “In order to hear Agricola.” Ignore any incorrect answers which you may hear murmured. When you get a correct answer, repeat the whole sentence in English, using several acceptable variations, e.g. “Yes, Agricola went to the platform to say a few words, or in order to say a few words.” The aim of the first reading is simply to enable students to translate the new feature correctly. A range of acceptable translations will take them a long way to understanding the meaning.
Discussion topics 1 Agricola, governor of the province, is greeted by the troops with a spontaneous show of enthusiasm. He is portrayed as a successful general and a popular leader. Discuss the illustrations and the cultural material (p. 91 and pp. 100–103), then relate the information to the story, e.g.: a Why do you think Agricola is so popular with his troops? Possible reasons include: their respect for his experience and professionalism; his victories in Britain and the steady advance of the frontier; his good discipline; his appreciation of his men’s efforts. b How well do you think Salvius and Agricola will get on? c What do you imagine Agricola’s attitude to Cogidubnus might be (p. 102)? 2 The army on parade. Pick out the different officers in the drawing (p. 90). Consolidation. Reproduce the five examples from the passage in simplified form, e.g.: Silānus mīlitēs īnstrūxit ut Agricolam salūtārent (lines 11–12). Agricola prōcessit ut pauca dīceret (line 16). omnēs tacuērunt ut Agricolam audīrent (lines 16–17). Agricola per ōrdinēs prōcessit ut mīlitēs īnspiceret (line 21). Agricola prīncipia intrāvit ut colloquium cum Silānō habēret (line 22). Once they see the examples together, students readily identify the new feature as ut and the subjunctive and, with a little guidance, can explain that (in the last sentence) a talk with Silanus was Agricola’s purpose in entering the headquarters. Ask students to copy these sentences, add translations, and underline the purpose clauses in the Latin and English. There are only two examples of purpose clauses in the next story (lines 7–8 and 30–31). If you feel the class need more examples, make some up using the situations in the passage just read, e.g.: Silānus mīlitēs convocāvit ut adventum Agricolae nūntiāret. mīlitēs strēnuē labōrāvērunt ut castra purgārent. centuriōnēs mīlitēs in ōrdinēs īnstrūxērunt ut eōs īnspicerent. mīlitēs vehementer clāmāvērunt ut studium ostenderent.
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Illustrations p. 90 The army on parade wears full uniform, including helmets. On the tribunal outside the headquarters building, Silanus stands behind Agricola who is seated on a camp stool. Visible in front: centurions with transverse plumes, the aquilifer with the eagle of the legion, one signifer. p. 91 ● Lead water pipe bearing Agricola’s name (Grosvenor Museum, Chester). The inscription on the water pipe can be translated: “In the ninth consulship of the Emperor Vespasian and the seventh of Titus, when Gnaeus Iulius Agricola was governor of the imperial province [i.e. lēgātus Augustī prōpraetor].” ● Line drawing of reconstruction of fragments of an inscription from the forum at Verulamium. Students may be surprised that so much of an inscription can be reconstructed with a fair degree of certainty when so little has actually survived. In this case, the “GRIC” at the bottom establishes that the inscription is about Agricola, and his official titles and the standard formulae are known from other sources. Since the conclusion has not survived, the purpose of the inscription has never been established. The version here may be translated: “The Emperor Titus Caesar Vespasian Augustus, son of the deified Vespasian, Pontifex Maximus, holding tribunician power for the ninth time, saluted as Imperator fifteen times, Consul for the seventh time, Consul-designate for the eighth time, Censor, Father of the Fatherland, and Caesar Domitian, son of the deified Vespasian, Consul for the sixth time, Consul-designate for the seventh time, Patron of the Youth, Priest of all the priestly Colleges, Gnaeus Iulius Agricola being Governor of the Imperial Province ….”
in prīncipiīs (pp. 92–93)
Story. On hearing Salvius’ report, Agricola orders immediate military action against Cogidubnus, but becomes suspicious when Belimicus overstates the case against him. In the nick of time, Quintus arrives, proclaiming Cogidubnus’ innocence. Comment. At this pivotal point in the Course, the focus begins to shift toward imperial politics. Salvius was sent to Britain by the Emperor Titus around AD 80 (Unit 2, p. 18). The incidents in Unit 3 are set in AD 83. Salvius’ plot against Cogidubnus, which has already featured prominently in earlier stories, receives a further gloss in this Stage, and will contribute significantly to the denouement in Unit 4. First reading. Ensure that students have studied pp. 100–103 before they begin to read this story so that they are in a position to appreciate the power struggle in terms which go beyond personal motivation and character. Work through the story with the class, eliciting the answers to the comprehension questions as you go. Take the story in two parts: Lines 1–22 as far as parāre, questions 1–7. Your Latin reading should convey the slyness of Salvius (sibilants in lines 2–5), and the anger and decisiveness of Agricola (short, abrupt phrases). Lines 22–42, questions 8–15. Enhance the dramatic impact by making Belimicus’ Latin rather uncouth, and Quintus’ words breathless. When you read the longer sentences, try to aid understanding by indicating clause boundaries and, perhaps, by using a few gestures, e.g. ecce Belimicus … corrumpere temptābat (lines 24–25).
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Note the increasing complexity of sentences: “Nesting” of one clause or participial phrase within another subordinate clause, e.g. sollicitus erat quod in epistulā, quam ad Agricolam mīserat, multa falsa scrīpserat (lines 3–4). “Stringing” together of subordinate clauses or participial phrases, e.g. cognōscere voluit quot essent armātī, num Britannī cīvēs Rōmānōs interfēcissent, quās urbēs dēlēvissent (lines 33–35). If students have problems, tackle the sentences with comprehension questions. Only after extensive discussion of the text should you ask the class to undertake written work on the story, e.g.: a translation of lines 1–9 or 32–42, or the answers to the questions on p. 93. Discussion. When taking the class through the comprehension questions, stimulate discussion by probing further. Question 1. What made Salvius change his mind (see p. 62, lines 34–35) and come north to see Agricola in person? Question 2. sollicitus. For the first time we see Salvius at a disadvantage. He is conscious that the case he has to present is based on fabrication. A man making his way in the world, he is facing his social and political superior, someone born into the senatorial class who has already held the consulship and established himself as a successful general. His role in Britain is officially subordinate to Agricola’s (Unit 2, p. 18), concerned with law and administration. Moreover, he is not on his own ground in the fortress at Chester, where Agricola has his headquarters. Question 5. After a period of silence, Agricola bursts out in an angry speech. Note the use of repetition (quanta and īnsānīvit, lines 11–13) and contrast (numquam … semper, lines 13–15). Why was Agricola so passionate in his denunciation of Cogidubnus? Can you summarize his speech in one sentence? Question 6. Why did Agricola fall for Salvius’ story? Remember that Salvius holds an official position of some authority, and that Agricola had personal experience of Boudica’s rebellion in AD 60–61. Question 10. Did Salvius make the right decision in bringing Belimicus with him? Question 11. What kind of a general does Agricola appear to be in this story? Question 15. haec locūtus (line 42). Quintus’ opening words, cīvis … sum (line 39), were a way of establishing his credentials. Why was that necessary? Why does he go on to give all three names? What do you think Agricola will do now? Consolidation. Whatever method is used, make sure students are aware of the craftsmanship of the narrative. The anxiety of Salvius lessens as his confidence increases when it appears Agricola has believed him. Salvius seems to have changed his mind since we last saw him. In Salvius cōnsilium cognōscit (Stage 24) he wrote a letter to Agricola and there was no hint he intended actually to travel to see him. Ask students to pick out Latin words in the first paragraph as evidence of his anxiety, and the description of him in the second paragraph which confirms this (e.g. festīnāvit, commemorāvit). Explore the presentation of Agricola. He is Salvius’ superior. He has already held the consulship; Salvius has not yet reached that office. Agricola is of senatorial rank by birth; Salvius has had to work for it. Such nuances of social difference would not escape the notice of either of these two powerful men.
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Agricola is a military man and reacts to the story of betrayal quickly and decisively. Too quickly and too decisively, perhaps, but as an administrator he would not take for granted the loyalty of a client king. He would recall his own experience of Boudica’s revolt, AD 60–61, when as a young tribūnus mīlitum he witnessed the grim realities of insurrection. With Belimicus’ story there is a lessening of tension as it becomes clear these charges are absurd. (Note the echoes of Belimicus’ two unfortunate experiences in Unit 2.) Agricola does not even answer him, but questions Salvius. Have students note how the name of Quintus is delayed. We are led up to this, first by the noise off-stage, then by the bedraggled man, then by the citizen, and only then by the name. Even if the questions have been done for homework, some are worth class discussion. Questions like the latter part of 11 which probe the behavior of a character are important both in themselves and as a preparation for the time when students read Latin literature. Some sentences are quite complex grammatically: the “stringing” and “nesting” examples given above. To help students handle these expansions and the greater sentence length created by them, you should sometimes use very emphatic phrasing when reading aloud, sometimes ask questions directed at various bits of the sentence before students translate it, and, in due course, use the Longer sentences in the Language information (p. 291). On id quod (two examples), see p. 273 in the students’ book. If students are at home with the term “antecedent,” introduced in the Unit 2 Language information section (p. 167), get them to compare, e.g., id quod Salvius dīxit with verba quae Salvius dīxit and hence to see that just as verba is the antecedent of quae, so id is the antecedent of quod.
About the language 1: purpose clauses (p. 94) New language feature. ut with subjunctive to express a purpose. Discussion. The purpose of this note is to confirm what students have already worked out. Do not oblige them to use the translation formula in paragraph 1 if they have already found a satisfactory formula of their own. Use paragraphs 1 and 3 to demonstrate a range of possible English translations, and then work through the examples in paragraph 2. Consolidation. Ask students to identify and translate the two purpose clauses on p. 92 (lines 8 and 30–31). If necessary, make up more examples based on the story, e.g.: Salvius ad castra vēnerat ut colloquium cum Agricolā habēret. Agricola diū tacuit ut hās rēs cōgitāret. Agricola multa rogāvit ut vērum cognōsceret. Agricola Silānum duās cohortēs dūcere iussit ut Rēgnēnsēs opprimeret.
** tribūnus (p. 95)
Story. Agricola orders Quintus to receive medical attention and to be questioned by Rufus, a military tribune. Salvius launches into a violent attack on Quintus. Rufus returns to report that Quintus is a very trustworthy young man, vouched for by his own father, from whom he has brought a letter. Agricola sees Quintus privately.
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First reading. Read the passage in Latin and help students to explore it with comprehension questions, e.g.: What did Agricola order the guards to do? What is the name of the military tribune? How does Agricola compliment him? What order did Agricola give him (lines 5–6)? valdē commōtus. Why is Salvius described like this? Make a detailed list of the accusations Salvius made about Quintus (lines 8–16). What does Agricola say in response (line 18)? How does Rufus describe Quintus? How does he know (lines 20–23)? patrem meum (lines 20–21). Rufus’ father is not named, but who was he? What two things are we told about the interview Agricola then had with Quintus (lines 24–26)? What mood is Salvius in at the end of the scene?
Discussion 1 What would be Rufus’ responsibilities as a military tribune? What can you recall of his family and early life (Unit 2, pp. 138–139; p. 141, lines 14–21)? Did his behavior in Unit 2 match Agricola’s description of him as prūdentissimus? 2 How much of Salvius’ account is true? 3 sī haec fēcit, eī moriendum est. What do these words show about Agricola’s opinion of Salvius’ account? Consolidation. Ask students to prepare an expressive Latin reading of Salvius’ speech (lines 8–16), either individually or in pairs. Illustration p. 96 Reconstruction of a corner of the fortress at Deva in its earlier turf-and-timber period. Note the patrol on duty on the walls, smoke from the ovens beneath them, and the barrack blocks nearby.
About the language 2: gerundives (p. 96)
New language feature. Gerundives expressing obligation. Discussion. Ask the class to read through paragraphs 1 and 2, and translate the examples in paragraph 3. Let discussion and further explanation occur as you go over their translations. Focus on parallels with necesse est, rather than literal translations, e.g. It is for us needing to be run. Consolidation. Ask them to translate the gerundives on p. 92 (lines 19–20) and p. 95 (line 18). There will be more examples in the next Stage. It may be useful for students to learn a model, such as mihi fugiendum est, with which to compare other gerundives of obligation they will meet.
contentiō (p. 97)
Story. Agricola accuses Salvius of treachery, ordering him to ask Cogidubnus’ pardon and explain his behavior to Domitian. As Salvius retorts that the emperor wants money rather than empty victories, a messenger interrupts to announce Cogidubnus’ death.
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First reading. Read the story right through in Latin, stressing important and accessible sentences. Then compile a brief summary from what students have understood of your reading, e.g. Agricola ordered silence. He accused Salvius. He said Cogidubnus was innocent and Salvius was the traitor. Salvius replied angrily, “You are blind. You are an obstacle to the emperor.” Someone says Cogidubnus is dead. Then ask half the class to translate Agricola’s speech, and half Salvius’, before going over them. They may need help with: quī (line 2). This is the first instance of a connecting relative, best translated as He …. rēs ipsa (line 7) hanc tantam perfidiam (lines 7–8) id quod (line 14) nōn sōlum … obstās (lines 19–20).
Discussion 1 Which word indicates Agricola’s mood? What is the cause: the deception, or is he angry with himself? 2 Why does Salvius start speaking the moment he enters the room? 3 Does Agricola’s attack put Salvius on the defensive? What is the tone of his reply? 4 Can you sum up the speeches of the two men in one line each? Who wins the power struggle? In discussing this question, help students to interpret the scene as more than a simple battle between right and wrong. It is a power struggle between two strong men, both quick-witted and ambitious. Agricola. Sent to govern Britain in AD 78 by the soldier-emperor Vespasian. His priorities are to establish peace and Roman government on Rome’s frontier. He shows the confidence of a long-established and successful man, popular with the army. Salvius. Sent out as a lawyer and administrator, he is motivated by the need of Domitian, the new emperor, for money. He has the urgency of a man building a political career for himself and knows how to manipulate the law for his own ends. He launches a strong counterattack on Agricola, mocking him for being out of touch. Salvius and Agricola are not wholly dissimilar. The ruthlessness of Salvius finds an echo in Agricola. Salvius’ contempt for provincials is reflected, if only briefly, in Agricola’s numquam nōs oportet barbarīs crēdere (in prīncipiīs, lines 13–14). There is, finally, the irony of the positions adopted by the two men. For it is the soldier who speaks for the integrity of law, while the iūridicus argues the claims of expediency. The situation is left open. Salvius is rebuffed for the moment, but he has not necessarily lost his credit with the emperor. Raise again the possibility that Salvius is lying about the emperor’s intentions. If he is, he is playing a very dangerous game.
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Consolidation 1 Ask students to write a translation of the speech they did not work on before. If both speeches could be put side by side, their balance would be apparent. Students could pick out phrases and clauses which echo each other, and others which are clearly ignored. 2 id quod (line 14). Gather other examples of this feature, e.g.: id quod dīcis absurdum est (p. 46, line 15) ea quae … scrīpserat (p. 92, lines 8–9) id quod mihi patefēcistī … possum (p. 92, lines 11–12) id quod Salvius … vērum est (p. 92, line 27) Reinforce the natural English translation by the single word what instead of the literal meaning (that which …, those things which …).
Word patterns (p. 98)
New language feature. Relationship between cognate nouns and verbs. Discussion. Let students work on this by themselves, simply picking up their queries. Students should note that these abstract -or nouns, like their concrete cousins in Stage 23, are masculine.
Practicing the language (p. 99)
Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the noun in the correct case (accusative, genitive, dative). Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with the correct person of the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive. The exercise contains cum clauses, indirect questions, and purpose clauses. You may want to ask students why a subjunctive is used in each sentence. ** Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with the correct Latin word, selecting by sense and morphology.
Language information: review
1 Study the section on Word order (p. 290). Draw attention to the special effects that can be achieved in both Latin and English by varying the usual word order, e.g.: dēcidit pōns, dēcidit Modestus (p. 56, line 12). Down fell the bridge, down fell Modestus Further examples of phrases with the preposition sandwiched between adjective and noun are: p. 61, line 12; p. 62, lines 40–41; p. 74, line 7; p. 75, line 27; p. 95, line 5. 2 There are several examples of ipse (p. 271) in this Stage, e.g.: Salvius ipse paulō prius ad castra advēnerat (p. 92, line 1). (Quīntus) mē ipsum accūsāvit (p. 95, line 15). praetereā Imperātōrī ipsī rem explicāre dēbēs (p. 97, line 11). 3 Review of quī (p. 273) can conveniently follow that of ipse. Give particular attention to the genitive and dative singular, comparing them with the same cases of the other pronouns. Paragraph 2 on the connecting relative could be discussed in Stage 28 where there are more examples.
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Cultural context material (pp. 100–103)
Content. This information about the senior officers in the Roman army, and Agricola in particular, is best taken with adventus Agricolae (p. 90).
Suggestions for discussion 1 Discuss the mixture of professional soldiers and “amateur” commanders. Point to the value of having an army led by a man whose experience was not restricted to the military, but might also have included legal and political experience. Also mention that a lēgātus legiōnis would not be totally inexperienced since he would have served previously as a tribūnus (and men like Agricola took their military tribuneship very seriously); that the senior centurions played a crucial role in assisting and advising the commander; that the lēgātus would already have demonstrated ability to lead and organize in the civilian offices he had held. 2 You might read to the class from the Penguin translation of Tacitus’ Agricola: Chapter 21 on romanization, and Chapters 33–34 with Agricola’s speech to his troops at Mons Graupius. Possible topics to discuss: • Roman attitude to romanization; • Roman historiography: technique of reporting speeches; problems of bias and subjectivity; • the cursus honōrum. Further information The senior officers. For additional material, consult Appendix B. Agricola, governor of Britain. When studying Agricola’s career, you may wish to add a selection of the following details. During AD 77 Agricola was a cōnsul suffectus. Because, at this time, the duration of the consulship might have been as short as two months, we do not know when during the year AD 77 Agricola was consul. This has given rise to uncertainty about the date of his arrival in Britain as governor. There are reasons for assuming that he traveled to the province in the summer of AD 78. That this province should have been assigned to him was not surprising in view of his experience and knowledge of it. What was unusual was that he should have been permitted to govern it for seven years. On arrival Agricola dealt with the Ordovices, who had ambushed a regiment of cavalry in northern Wales and annexed the island now called Anglesey, just off the northwestern coast. His readiness to act so late in the campaigning season and so soon after arrival (Tacitus Agricola 18) may indicate his familiarity with the province. In AD 79, he began the campaigns which took Roman forces to the far north of Britain. The line of advance chosen by Agricola was probably along the western route, going north through Chester. As each tribe was defeated, it was offered “pardon and peace,” and its area was penetrated by roads and guarded by forts. A road was built between the Tyne and Solway estuaries (between, roughly, the modern cities of Newcastle upon Tyne and Carlisle), the shortest and most easily defensible line across the island. Within fifty years, this road marked the line of Hadrian’s Wall and became the northern frontier of the empire. Each summer, Agricola campaigned further northward until he reached the southern part of what is now Scotland. During the winter, when the marching and fighting were brought to a stop, he worked at his policy of romanization.
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Tacitus perhaps exaggerated Agricola’s virtues. He was, after all, writing to praise and to vindicate a man who was also his father-in-law. But the evidence of archaeology appears to confirm Tacitus’ claims. Tacitus also ascribed to Agricola many good personal qualities and superior administrative ability. He seems to have been a man of simple tastes and careful judgment, honest and well-disposed to the native peoples. The rapid expansion of urban life in Britain in the second century may have owed as much to his civil policies as to his military successes. The battle of Mons Graupius (perhaps in the present-day Grampian region of Scotland) in AD 84 broke the final resistance of the far-northern tribes led by Calgacus. It also brought Agricola’s public life to a climax and end. Recalled by Domitian, he was awarded a statue and a citation, but was not called on again to lead Roman armies. When the governorship of Asia fell vacant, Agricola excused himself. Shortly afterward, in AD 93, he died of an illness which Tacitus hinted might have been the work of a poisoner.
Illustrations p. 100 Bronze statuette, second century AD, from Earith, Cambridgeshire (British Museum). Mars, god of war, originally holding spear and shield. p. 101 ● Antefix. See note on p. 70 of this manual. ● Reconstruction of a Scottish war trumpet from Deskford, Aberdeenshire (Edinburgh, National Museums of Scotland). Sound emerged at the boar’s mouth (left). p. 102 Chew Green, one of a series of camps started by Agricola along Dere Street (see map on p. 139), north of Corbridge. The photograph shows the most elaborately fortified camp, with three concentric ramparts. p. 103 Relief of a Roman cavalryman (without stirrups or saddle, and wearing crested helmet, cloak, breastplate, and dagger) in triumph over some Caledonians (Edinburgh, National Museums of Scotland). This distance slab, recording construction work carried out by the Second Legion in 143–145 AD, was found in the Antonine Wall, a later Roman frontier in Scotland. p. 104 Pipe-clay statuette of old man, apparently a teacher, with scroll, seated and reading (Colchester Castle Museum). From a grave of AD 50–65. Possibly a child’s toy.
Suggestions for further activities In groups of three to five students, research (for sources, see Appendix B) and report on one of the following topics by producing a display illustrated with plans, diagrams, drawings, etc.: (a) the main phases of the occupation of Britain from AD 43 to the arrival of Agricola; (b) Agricola as a military commander. For additional topics, see Stages 25 and 27, Suggestions for further activities (pp. 69 and 89).
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Vocabulary checklist (p. 104)
auferre may be worth discussion: show its origin as abferō, abtulī, etc. and let students appreciate, by experiment, the greater ease of pronouncing auferō, abstulī. It is important that students see such variations as having logical reasons. lēgātus is derived from lēgāre – to ordain or appoint, and is not related to legere and its compounds colligere and ēligere. praebeō is a combination of prae + habēre. When one provides, one has something before it is needed.
Phrases for discussion ante bellum si vis pacem, para bellum multa docet fames bona fide Fidei Defensor (one of the titles of the British monarch) fides Punica fronti nulla fides – Juvenal quot capita, tot sententiae quot homines, tot sententiae – Terence ultima Thule
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STAGE 27: in castrīs Cultural context The legionary fortress. Story line Modestus and Strythio have been hiding in the granary at Deva for two days. Boredom and hunger force Modestus to send Strythio out for food, wine, dice, friends, and a dancing girl. Vercobrix and a small band of men creep into the camp to burn the grain supply and in the process bump into Modestus. His tunic catches fire, his shouts rouse the camp, and the Britons are caught. The camp commander rewards Modestus by putting him in charge of the jail! Main language features • indirect commands e.g. mīlitibus imperāvit ut Modestum et Stryˉthiōnem caperent. • result clauses e.g. tertiō diē Modestus tam miser erat ut rem diūtius ferre nōn posset.
Sentence pattern dat + nom + acc + v e.g. hominibus miserrimīs cibus spem semper affert. Word patterns -tūdō nouns formed from adjectives. Focus of exercises 1 Nominative and accusative cases of participles. 2 Singular and plural forms of the noun, nominative and accusative. 3 Case endings of nouns, nominative, genitive, dative, accusative.
Opening page (p. 105)
Illustration. Diorama (by Graham Sumner) of the fortress at Deva, situated on a river allowing provisioning and communication by sea. Between the Welsh mountains (top), and the hills of Derbyshire and the Pennines, it controlled the western route to the north and acted as a supply depot for the region. Note the standard layout, with principia in center and roads leading to the four gates (cf. plan p. 115). Outside the walls: amphitheater and civil settlement with temples (bottom); bathhouse with white barrelvaulted roof towards river (top); tombs on road leading north (far right). Agricola’s fortress was rebuilt in stone by the Twentieth Legion in the early 90s AD. Initially select one or two salient features for comment, returning to the diorama again when the cultural material has been read.
Model sentences (p. 106)
New language feature. Indirect commands. In each model sentence, a direct command precedes a short passage in which the command is reported.
New vocabulary. imperābat First reading. Ask the class to look at picture 1 and tell you who is speaking. Invite a student to read the direct speech in Latin, and then read the narrative yourself. Repeat this sequence with sentences 2 and 3. STAGE 27 81
There are strong signals in the drawings, and in the layout of the direct speech and narrative. Students should have no difficulty in translating ut and the subjunctive as to … in association with monēbat, imperābat, and incitābat. Discussion. When you ask students what is happening in the three sets of sentences, they are likely to say that someone is telling or asking someone else to do something. This is a good starting point, e.g.: Modestus was telling Strythio to escape to the granary. As with indirect questions, asking about punctuation may be a useful lead-in (see p. 62 of this manual). Consolidation. Ask students to write out a translation of the sentences. These relate to the coming stories and can be useful in consolidating them. Illustrations. In picture 1 Modestus is standing outside the jail and pointing toward the granary, which is the setting for the following stories. In picture 3 compare the informality of the Britons and their modest armor with the Roman soldiers in picture 2.
** in horreō (p. 107)
Story. Modestus and Strythio crawl through a gap in the wall into the granary where they hide for two days. Then Modestus accepts Strythio’s offer to find food, demanding as well some friends, wine, a lantern, and a dancing girl. First reading. Keep up the pace during this straightforward story. It is sufficient to read the Latin and check understanding with simple comprehension questions as you go. Students could be asked to read the dialogue, which presents few problems. When Modestus and Strythio left the prison, where did they flee? How were they able to get into the granary? What made the centurion very angry? What order did he give his soldiers? Where did they search? With what success? What was Modestus’ state of mind by the third day? How do his words (lines 9–12) show his despair? frūmentum … cōnsūmere nōn possum. Why not? What did Strythio offer to do? Why? nōbīs cēnandum est. Translate these words of Modestus. What orders did he give to Strythio? How successful was Strythio in carrying them out?
Consolidation 1 Ask for a translation of sentences that may not have been fully grasped, e.g. optima est saltātrīcum; mihi saltātrīcēs semper sōlācium afferunt (lines 23–24). 2 Use this and the following story to build up students’ understanding of the fortress. Questions may be used to discuss the setting and to introduce a wider study of the legionary fortress, including books in Appendix B, if you wish. ● The design of the horreum. Information is provided in the cultural context material.
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● coquus. Although the eight men of each contubernium would draw daily rations and prepare their own food, probably over a charcoal fire in front of their living quarters, each legionary fortress would also be equipped with ovens and kitchens for baking bread and cooking food which the small fires could not cope with. ● vīcus. Information is in the cultural context material. Notice the buildup of clauses of indirect command at the end of the passage. Make sure that students read them with confidence before going on to the next topic. Illustration. Reconstruction of a granary at the Lunt Fort in Coventry (Coventry Museums, Coventry). For further information, see note on Stage 25 line drawings above (p. 62) (students’ book pp. 72–73). Granaries at this time were of wood. They were raised above the ground to protect the grain from damp and rodents.
About the language 1: indirect commands (pp. 108–109)
New language feature. ut with subjunctive to express indirect commands. Discussion. Ask students to read paragraphs 1–3 and translate the examples in paragraph 4. Encourage them to use the natural English form “to go back,” etc. Can students reconstruct in English the original direct command in examples e–h? Only if someone queries the word “usually” (end of paragraph 2), explain that after the verb iubēre indirect commands are expressed as they are in English, e.g. eum iubē cēnam splendidam coquere et hūc portāre (p. 107, lines 18–19); or tribūnus (Stage 26): tē iubeō hunc hominem summā cum cūrā interrogāre (p. 95, lines 5–6). The negative conjunction nē is postponed until Stage 31. Consolidation. Pick out the seven examples of indirect command met so far (three in model sentences, four in in horreō). Ask students to translate them, and then to give in English the actual words spoken. You may wish to lead a discussion on sē and eum. Write the sentence, senex nōs ōrābat ut sibi parcerēmus (4d), on the board. Have it translated and write the translation beneath. Then change sibi to eī and ask for a translation. The two translations may well be identical. Ask for explanations of the difference in meaning of the two sentences. An efficient way to do this is to ask students for the original words of the speaker.
Modestus prōmōtus I (pp. 109–110)
Story. The Britons, led by Vercobrix, plan to set fire to the granary; they crawl inside through the hole. Modestus mistakes them for his friends and calls for light. Once the torches are lit, he sees the Britons and flees in panic. First reading. Take the story in three parts, reading in Latin first, and pausing each time at a point of suspense. Lines 1–12. Guide students through the translation. Ask them to explain the context of: cum … quaereret (line 1). Britannī ā Vercobrige ductī (lines 1–2). ubi sita essent (line 6). reditum Strȳthiōnis exspectāns (line 9).
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Lines 13–20. Work through lines 13–15 with the class, and then let them complete the passage individually or in pairs. Give help if necessary, but do not check their understanding in detail. Lines 21–29. Let students finish the story on their own. As with the other Modestus and Strythio stories, make sure the pace keeps the humor alive. Discussion. Ask students to find the two indirect commands ut … oppugnārent (line 3) and ut … incenderent (line 26), and give you the actual words spoken. Remind them that they are looking for someone persuading or telling someone to do something, so that they are not led astray by the purpose clauses and new result clauses in the story. You can save time by saying that one of the examples is on p. 109 and the other on p. 110. If necessary, revisit the model sentences and the formula they worked out for themselves. Ask for a translation of cēnandum ac bibendum est (line 20) and mihi statim effugiendum est (line 29), and see if students can remember the name of this feature. If necessary, go back to the analogy of necesse est. Consolidation. If longer sentences have been causing problems, the following method of analyzing their structure may be helpful, e.g.: cum Strȳthiō … appropinquābant (lines 1–2). Write up the main clause and then add participial phrases and subordinate clauses, preferably in different colors, asking for translation as you go: decem Britannī castrīs cautē appropinquābant. decem Britannī, ā Vercobrige ductī, castrīs cautē appropinquābant. cum Strȳthiō cēnam et amīcōs quaereret, decem Britannī, ā Vercobrige ductī, castrīs cautē appropinquābant. Similarly, Vercobrix, cum … incenderent (lines 25–26) can be built up as follows: Vercobrix Britannīs imperāvit. Vercobrix, cum Modestum audīvisset, Britannīs imperāvit. Vercobrix, cum Modestum lucernam rogantem audīvisset, Britannīs imperāvit. Vercobrix, cum Modestum lucernam rogantem audīvisset, Britannīs imperāvit ut facēs incenderent. Phrases or subordinate clauses nesting within other subordinate clauses, e.g. lucernam rogantem, often cause difficulty and students need practice in recognizing these components and the way in which they relate to one another.
Modestus prōmōtus II (pp. 110–111)
Story. Modestus flees as his tunic catches fire, and meets his friends bearing a lantern and an amphora of wine. Quenching the flames with the wine, he blocks the Britons’ escape with the amphora. They are captured and Modestus is promoted. First reading. Read the story aloud, stopping for questions and/or translation, e.g.: What are the Britons trying to do to Modestus and what happens to him? ululāvit (line 4) is a wonderfully expressive word. Make sure the students remember what it means.
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A number of things happen very quickly. What does Modestus shout and then do? What two events does simulac (line 5) signal? Why does Strythio say “īnsānit Modestus!” (line 8)? What use does Modestus then make of the amphora? Who responds to Modestus’ shouts? Modestus’ claim in line 12 should be translated because it is vintage Modestus. What happens to the Britons? And what happens to Modestus? The commas at the beginnings and ends of participial phrases are now being phased out. If students are reading aloud, you should observe whether they identify these boundaries. Students will appreciate the double irony of the ending. Modestus does not get the reward he thinks is appropriate, and the commander, likewise, is giving a reward which, far from being appropriate, will probably cause future chaos in the prison.
Discussion 1 What devices does the writer use to make Modestus a comic figure? Use examples from all the stories about Modestus. Possibilities: situation, Modestus’ language, characterization of Modestus and the others who act as foils. 2 Modestus is modeled on a character in a popular Roman comedy by Plautus, called The Boastful Soldier. What does this fact suggest about the Romans’ sense of humor? Are there any modern parallels? Consolidation 1 Ask students to translate Rōmānī … laudāvit (lines 19–21), taking care with extractōs and arcessītum. Elicit which noun each participle describes, and collect all acceptable translations. If there is a problem, ask comprehension questions, e.g. “Who were dragged out? Then what did the Romans do to them?” Notice also that the participial phrase is being expanded in new ways. In Stage 26, in prīncipiīs, we had a dative case depending on the participle, hīs verbīs diffīsus (p. 92, line 32). Now there is ē manibus Britannōrum ēlāpsus (line 5). (In Stage 28, an important further change will appear when an ablative noun is attached without preposition, e.g. morbō gravī afflīctus.) 2 Revise the cases of nouns by picking out a noun in each of lines 1–15 and asking for its case. Occasionally ask for its meaning and the reason why a particular case is used. 3 A number of technical terms have appeared in the stories set in the camp. As vocabulary review combined with review of the plot line (who remembers where the word came up?), you might check that students clearly grasp the following words (all of which are explained in the cultural context material): horrea (Modestus prōmōtus I, line 5); prīncipia (Stage 26, p. 92); lēgātus (Modestus prōmōtus II, line 20). Agricola was lēgātus of the Twentieth Legion in Britain, AD 70–73. Distinguish the lēgātus legiōnis, however, from the lēgātus Augustī prō praetōre, who was the military governor of the whole province, as was Agricola, AD 78–84.
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About the language 2: result clauses (p. 112)
New language feature. The subjunctive after ut to express result. Discussion. Read through paragraph 1 with the class, and then present the result clauses which they have already met in Modestus prōmōtus I: (Modestus) adeō ēsuriēbat ut dē vītā paene dēspērāret (line 8). Britannī … erant tam attonitī ut immōtī stārent (lines 13–14). As they translate these, it is likely that they will comment for themselves on the signal words which precede the result clause. If so, ask them to translate the examples in paragraph 2, paying special attention to the signal words. They will find that paragraph 3 confirms what they have already discovered for themselves. Some students may need to translate the examples in paragraph 2, discuss paragraph 3 and return to the examples, as instructed. It is helpful for all students to have a list of the common signal words and examples of their use in result clauses. Consolidation. Ask them to pick out and translate the three result clauses in Modestus prōmōtus II: tantī erant … complērent (line 13). tantus erat … superārent (lines 18–19). adeō gaudēbat … posset (lines 24–25). As oral work, start an English sentence for the class to complete with a result clause, e.g. “The students were so intelligent that … .” After one or two examples omit “that” and note whether students supply it.
Word patterns: adjectives and nouns (p. 113)
New language feature. Cognate adjectives (and some verbs) and nouns ending in -tūdō (or -dō). Discussion. Introduce this page in the last few minutes of a lesson, asking the students to see what they can do at home, and following through in the next lesson. Students should note the gender of -tūdō nouns (feminine).
Practicing the language (p. 114)
Exercise 1. Identify participles and the nouns they describe, and translate. Students could also be asked occasionally to give the case, number, and gender of the noun-andparticiple pair. Exercise 2. Change highlighted nouns (and some verbs) from singular to plural, and translate. Use the noun chart (pp. 262–263) as necessary. If it is set for homework, ask ahead of time what cases are used. It would also help to point out that some words are neuter and will need extra attention. Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with the missing case ending of a noun. This is a demanding exercise and is more suitable as oral work in class than as a homework assignment. Not only is it quite long, but students will benefit from help in manipulating the case endings.
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Language information: review
1 Now that students have learnt all the main uses of the subjunctive in subordinate clauses, this would be a good time to study the summary (pp. 288–289) and to set some of the examples to be done as a written homework. If the forms of the subjunctive are causing problems, refer students to the chart on p. 278. 2 Extend the work on longer sentences in Modestus prōmōtus I (p. 109) with the section on Longer sentences (p. 291). Assess how well students are managing the examples in paragraph 2. If there are problems, first extract the sense by comprehension questions and then analyze the sentences as on p. 84 of this manual. 3 The ablative will be reviewed in the next Stage, so check that students have a firm grasp of the other cases. Exercises 2 and 3 above will help here, as will work on the stories (see above on Modestus prōmōtus II).
Cultural context material (pp. 115–119)
Content. The information about the legionary fortress is based on Chester, where the stories take place. The streets of modern Chester still follow to some extent the grid pattern of the Roman fortress, and the foundations of many buildings have been excavated in the cellars of shops. The town walls are based, for part of their circuit, on those of the Roman fortress.
Suggestions for discussion 1 Discuss with the students the activities connected with the major structures of the fortress. Re-create life within the fortress. For example, the ground plan of a barracks block becomes more interesting when one thinks about the eight men who lived, ate, and slept in each pair of cells with its colonnaded porch outside where they would cook and talk and keep up their equipment. What did they wear when offduty? What did they cook? Did they take turns cooking? Did they eat with their fingers? What might they have talked about while eating? (You will not be able to find definitive answers to all these questions!) 2 The military material in this Stage provides students with an opportunity to draw conclusions from the evidence, whether during discussion while the stories are being read or in the course of the activities outlined under Suggestions for further activities, Stages 25–27. For example: a) Why could a soldier, perhaps just transferred from Novaesium (Neuss) in Germany, find his way around the fortress at Deva without difficulty? b) At the time of these stories, a century contained eighty men. What do you think its original number was? c) Why did the Romans put ovens at the edge of the fortress and not, for example, in the middle of the barracks blocks? d) Why did the Romans locate the prīncipia toward the center of the fortress instead of just inside the main gate? e) Why did the Romans dig a ditch, or fossa, around the fortress wall? For further information, see Appendix B.
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Further information Supplement the general information about legionary fortresses in the students’ book with some of the following details: 1 The site of the fortress at Deva was well chosen. It was near a tidal river and so could be provisioned by sea to function as a storage depot for military units in the area. It also stood between the mountains of north Wales, the hills of Derbyshire, and the northern Pennine mountain range. Perhaps most importantly, it controlled the western military route to the north. 2 The Second Legion was withdrawn from Britain for service in Domitian’s campaigns in Dacia (roughly modern Romania), about AD 87. Its place at Deva was taken by the Twentieth Legion, which had been pulled back from Scotland when Agricola’s strategy of conquering the whole island was abandoned by Domitian. 3 To begin with, the fortress had a turf-and-timber rampart and buildings constructed mainly of wood, as the drawings show, but in the second century it was rebuilt in stone. The later medieval city of Chester grew up directly over the fortress and made it impossible for the site to be excavated as a whole. Therefore, though the general layout has been identified, many details remain obscure. However, as most legionary fortresses were built to the same pattern, our knowledge can be supplemented by evidence from other sites, e.g. Neuss in Germany (see Webster pp. 183–187). The plan of a legionary fortress in the students’ book, p. 115, is based on Deva/Chester, with some details added from the “standard” pattern where they have not been definitely identified in Chester. Illustrations p. 116 ● Model of principia (Grosvenor Museum, Chester). Ask students to identify the basilica (top), with the legionary shrine jutting out behind. ● Model of a pair of barracks blocks (Grosvenor Museum, Chester). ● Line drawing of an aquilifer. During the empire, each legionary eagle standard (aquila) was made of gold. The aquila, which was almost a cult symbol to its legion, was kept in the sacellum and never left camp unless the whole legion was on the move. p. 117 A stone-built granary at Housesteads near Hadrian’s Wall. Note the stone piers used to elevate the floor. p. 118 ● Painting by G. Sumner, based on painted plaster found at the site (Grosvenor Museum, Chester). Even in wooden buildings, walls were plastered and decorated. A servant (left) brings the centurion’s helmet with transverse plume. On the table are food and drink (center), scrolls and writing tablets (right). ● Detail of amphitheater and temples from model (p. 105). ● Remains of amphitheater, showing one of the entrances. p. 119 ● A reconstruction of a wooden gate at the Lunt Fort, Coventry. ● A reconstruction of a stone gate from Arbeia Fort, South Shields, England. p. 120 Detail of spiral relief from Trajan’s Column showing the eagle of the legion and two of the standards of the centuries (Trajan’s Forum, Rome). Part of the shaft supporting the eagle has been lost. The aquilifer holding the eagle and the signifer on the right are both wearing the lionskin of the praetorian guard. For further information, see above, pp. 61 and 88 (students’ book, pp. 71 and 116). 88 STAGE 27
Suggestions for further activities
1 Look again at the diorama, p. 105. How many features of the fortress can you identify? Can you name any of the buildings outside the walls? 2 What impression would a fortress like Chester make on a Briton seeing it for the first time? What differences and similarities would s/he find between Chester and a British hill fort? 3 In groups of three to five students, research (for sources, see Appendix B) and report on one of the following topics by producing a display properly illustrated with plans, diagrams, drawings, etc.: (a) the history and design of a legionary fortress, e.g. Lincoln, York, Chester, Caerleon; (b) the network of military roads which were developed soon after occupation began. Why were certain routes chosen? Did they follow high or low ground? How were they surveyed and built? What traffic, apart from the military, used them? How were the roads protected? For additional topics, see Stages 25 and 26, Suggestions for further activities (pp. 69 and 79).
Vocabulary checklist (p. 120)
If students ask whether there is a difference in meaning between ardēre and incendere, refer them to the second meaning for each word in the Vocabulary checklist. comes is a combination of cum + eō, īre. Literally, a comes is one who goes with you. īnsidiae comes from the verb īnsidēre – to sit on. When one prepares an ambush, one literally sits around and waits for the victim to come into the trap. manus meaning band of men has appeared in stories before this Stage. praeceps is a combination of prae + caput. If you are going headlong, you are literally going head first into a place or situation. sub may take either the ablative or accusative case. In Unit 3, it is seen only with the ablative case.
Phrases for discussion culpam poena premit comes – Horace dum feles dormit, mus gaudet et exsilit antro gaudeamus igitur struit insidias lacrimis cum femina plorat – Dionysius Cato quae nocent, docent non sum qualis eram – Horace qualis pater, talis filius qualis vir, talis oratio
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STAGE 28: imperium Cultural context The evidence for our knowledge of Roman Britain. Story line Salvius inherits the palace at Fishbourne and, helped by Belimicus, extorts money from the Britons. When Belimicus demands the kingship, Salvius entertains him to dinner and poisons him. Main language features • ablative without a preposition with participle e.g. servī, clāmōribus territī, fūgērunt. • expressions of time e.g. decimō diē, iterum profectus, pecūniās opēsque ā Britannīs extorquēre incēpit. ibi novem diēs manēbat ut rēs Cogidubnī administrāret. • impersonal verbs e.g. mē oportet epistulam blandam eī mittere.
Sentence patterns participle with ablative without a preposition more complex cui/quibus clauses e.g. servus, cui Salvius hoc imperāvit, statim exiit. more complex examples of “branching” e.g. tam laetus erat ille, ubi verba Salviī audīvit, ut garum cōnsūmeret, ignārus perīculī mortis. Word patterns Nouns ending in -ia formed from adjectives. Focus of exercises 1 Personal endings of imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive. 2 Ablative with perfect passive participle.
Opening page (p. 121)
Illustration. Gold medallion glorifying Caesar Constantius Chlorus, AD 300 (photo by TopFoto). Constantius Chlorus enters Londinium on horseback. In the foreground is the river Thames; on the right stands one of the tower gates of the city.
Model sentences, ultiō Rōmāna (pp. 122–124)
Story. When a British farmer refuses to hand over his money, Salvius sends Roman troops to punish him. Hoping for a reward, Belimicus helps the soldiers, who kill the farmer, wound his son, enslave his women, and burn his house. New language feature. The ablative case, previously used only in prepositional phrases or (more recently) in expressions of time, is now introduced in another of its important contexts: with a perfect passive participle, e.g. gladiō centuriōnis vulnerātus. The forms themselves of the ablative are familiar already, but students should explore and practice the English equivalents of the new usage. Emphasize the long ā of the 1st declension ablative singular every time you read it aloud. New vocabulary. armātī (new meaning), adductus, catēnīs, ventō, auctae, īrā. First reading. To establish the context, read the introductory paragraph and ask volunteers to translate. Then read through all the model sentences so that students gain an impression of the story, following the pictures as well as the Latin.
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Returning to sentence 1, read it in Latin and ask: What type of Romans are in the picture? (to elicit a translation of mīlitēs) How were they armed? (to elicit “with swords and spears”) What did they do? (to elicit a translation of the main clause) Repeat this pattern with sentences 2–8. Encourage students to read Latin left to right by asking questions on the Latin words in the order in which they appear in the sentence. Students should explore sentence 9 in pairs before you go over it. In sentence 6, pecūniā complētam may cause difficulty. If students say “complete with money,” remind them of viās complēbant, they filled the streets. With this and other instances of elusive vocabulary, encourage students to seek clues in the pictures and make full use of the context before resorting to the Vocabulary. Discussion. Ask students to make a written translation of the sentences. After going over their translations, write up two participial phrases with translations, e.g.: fīlius agricolae, fūste armātus, … the farmer’s son, armed with a club, … flammae, ventō auctae, … the flames, increased by the wind, … Pick out other examples from the model sentences, and build up a list until students are confident in recognizing and translating the phrases. A pattern will be apparent, but there is no need for extensive grammatical discussion at this point.
Further discussion 1 Roman rule. Do students think Agricola would have acted in the same way as Salvius? What would be the effect of Salvius’ actions on the Britons round Fishbourne (sentence 9)? 2 Style. Invite comment on the effect the writer is trying to achieve in sentence 9. The buildup of horror through repetition and the escalation of outrages is made all the stronger by the economy of words and the final position of the participles. Consolidation. Oral practice, with books open or closed, could follow in the next lesson, e.g.: The shepherds saw the house, flammīs cōnsūmptam. What does this mean? Illustrations. For further illustrations of a reconstructed Celtic farmhouse with its thatched roof and wattle-and-daub walls, see students’ book, Unit 2 (pp. 39–40). Note that (2) the centurion wears his sword on his left because he does not have a shield on that side but (4) the legionary soldiers wear their swords on the right.
** testāmentum (p. 125)
Story. Cogidubnus’ will, which turns out to be a forgery. Let students discover this for themselves. First reading. This passage takes the form of a Roman will and is important for understanding the stories which follow. Each bequest is prefaced by the formula, dō lēgō, followed immediately by the name of the beneficiary and then the details of the gift. Draw students’ attention to the careful drafting and standard phraseology which typify a formal document, and invite comparison with similar pieces of writing in English. For the most part, the language is simple, and you may guide students to its content by appropriate comprehension questions, e.g. “What legacy does so-and-so receive?”
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Cogidubnus begins by nominating the emperor as his heir, as was usual. A Roman takeover after his death is inevitable and he accepts it. If, however, the opening of this will was predictable, the substance of what follows is certainly not. Encourage comment. Student suggestions may range from senile dementia on the part of Cogidubnus to “When did he write this?” to “Salvius tampered with it.” Postpone any definite answer until the end of the next story. The will concludes with the standard formula, dolus malus ab hōc testāmentō abestō! Students will appreciate the irony.
Discussion If students ask about the use of the abbreviations C. and Cn. for Gāius and Gnaeus, point out that this is a convention, surviving from the time when the sounds of “c” and “g” were represented by the same symbol. Discussion questions over the whole could include: Suggest reasons why Cogidubnus should name the emperor as his heir in spite of the humiliation he has suffered. Would you expect him to have bequeathed more to Agricola? What conclusions may be drawn from the amiable references to Salvius and legacies allotted to him? Recall the history of the silver tripods. (They were originally a gift from Quintus to Cogidubnus, Unit 2, pp. 34–35; Salvius accused Quintus of stealing them, Unit 3, p. 95.) The will provides for the transfer of legacies from Dumnorix to Salvius, if Dumnorix dies before Cogidubnus. Notice the “coincidence” that in the one clause where this provision is made, the first legatee (Dumnorix) has in fact died. What does this suggest? Cogidubnus thanks Belimicus for saving his life in the incident with the bear (Unit 2, p. 64, and also referred to by Belimicus in Stage 26, p. 92). Was this true? Why should Cogidubnus ask that gemmās meās, paterās aureās, omnia arma quae ad bellum vēnātiōnemque comparāvī (lines 26–28) be buried with him? What beliefs about the afterlife does this suggest? How do these instructions for burial compare with conventional Roman burial practices? (The Romans practiced cremation and usually only one or two objects of personal worth were burned or buried with the ashes. Students may see this as another suspicious detail and suspect that Salvius will keep all the precious objects, forget to bury them, or dig them up later!) Consolidation 1 Longer sentences. Analyze the sentence: L. Marcius Memor … excēpit (lines 17–18): L. Marcius Memor benignē mē excēpit. L. Marcius Memor, ubi aeger ad thermās vēnī, benignē mē excēpit. L. Marcius Memor, ubi aeger ad thermās vēnī, ut auxilium ā deā Sūle peterem, benignē mē excēpit. 2 Ablative. Write up the examples of participles with the ablative and ask students to translate: ego, Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus … morbō gravī afflīctus (lines 1–2). hoc testāmentum, manū meā scrīptum ānulōque meō signātum (lines 29–30). Illustration. Students have met this drawing of Fishbourne before (Unit 2, pp. 46–47). Why is the portrait of Salvius superimposed on it? 92 STAGE 28
in aulā Salviī (pp. 126–127)
Story. Returning from Chester to occupy Cogidubnus’ palace, Salvius extorts money from the Britons with the help of Belimicus. Belimicus conspires with some chieftains to become king of the Regnenses. Outraged by his plotting, Salvius plans to poison him. First reading. Take the story in two parts: lines 1–14 with questions 1–7, and lines 15–29 with questions 8–12. After your Latin reading, you could ask students to explore questions 1–7 in pairs, and then work on questions 8–12 individually.
Discussion ut rēs Cogidubnī administrāret (line 3). What do you think this involved Salvius in doing? prīncipēs, avāritiā et metū corruptī (line 5). What does this tell you about the chieftains? What does it tell you about Salvius? Belimicus…coniūrāre coepit (lines 7–10). What do you think Belimicus expected to happen? Is this behavior in line with what you know of him? sed quō modō … Salvius (line 17). Why was Salvius hesitant about using poison? hunc homunculum (line 19). Can you find an English expression which improves on the literal translation of these words? How would you read them in Latin? Consolidation 1 Connecting relatives. Pick out the two examples: (Belimicus) … cum paucīs prīncipibus coniūrāre coepit. quī, tamen, … rem Salviō rettulērunt (lines 9–11). Salvius igitur Belimicum ad aulam … invītāvit. quī … ad aulam nōnā hōrā vēnit (lines 26–28). Establish that quī refers to prīncipibus and Belimicum and elicit the translations “They” and “He.” Follow up later with work on p. 273, paragraph 2. 2 Participles with the ablative. Check that students can translate the following phrases accurately: prīncipēs, avāritiā et metū corruptī (line 5), (Belimicus) hāc spē adductus (line 9), Salvius, audāciā Belimicī incēnsus (line 12), venēnum cibō mixtum (line 20), Salvius, cōnsiliō amīcī dēlectātus (line 22), quī, epistulā mendācī dēceptus (lines 26–27).
About the language 1: more on the ablative case (p. 128)
New language features. Participle and ablative without a preposition, and the use of the ablative to mean by or with. Discussion. The translation of the ablative in paragraph 2 is different each time. In calling for translation of the sentences in paragraph 3, welcome alternative translations, e.g. in 1: “astonished by the audacity of Belimicus” or “astonished at Belimicus’ audacity” for audāciā Belimicī attonitus. At some point students may ask about the difference between, e.g., pugiōne vulnerātus (ablative of means/instrument) and ā Belimicō vulnerātus (ablative with ā or ab to express the agent). Give the students some examples of each and ask them to suggest the situation in which ā or ab is used in Latin.
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cēna Salviī (p. 129)
Story. Dining with Salvius, Belimicus recounts the services he has rendered and demands, as a fair reward, Cogidubnus’ kingdom. Salvius reveals that he has already paid Belimicus by giving him 500 gold pieces in the will which he wrote himself. First reading. Take the story in two parts, breaking at iam tibi parāvī (line 12). After your Latin reading, ask students to explore the text in small groups with some guiding questions, e.g.: How is Belimicus received and treated when he comes to the palace? What makes Salvius angry (line 10)? Why do you think he hides his anger? What does Belimicus think Salvius means by praemium meritum? What does Salvius actually mean? Pool the answers and build them into a summary. Note the purpose clause (line 8). Take the class briskly through the rest of the story with comprehension questions, keeping the tension rising, e.g.: cūr nihil cōnsūmis? (line 12). What might this tell you about Belimicus’ reactions when Salvius said he had already prepared a praemium meritum? How did Salvius describe the sauce he was offering? Has the sauce been poisoned? How can we tell from line 15? What did Salvius ask Belimicus (lines 17–18)? Why do you think he did this? What was Belimicus’ reply (lines 19–20)? Do you think Salvius expected it? What did Salvius tell him about the aureī? Why do you think he did this? illud testāmentum est falsum. Why does Salvius feel safe in making this confession? How does he expect Belimicus to react?
Discussion 1 Dramatic irony. Belimicus thinks he is about to achieve his ambition. We know, and Salvius knows, what he wants to attain, and what actually lies in store for him. 2 Plot. How will Salvius’ plan work? 3 Character contrast. Salvius, the clever and sophisticated politician, cunningly draws Belimicus out and toys with him. Belimicus, an obsessed, self-serving bully, succumbs to the flattering attentions and lavish hospitality. 4 The will. Reconsider this in the light of Salvius’ confession. Why did Salvius include a legacy for Agricola? Would it have aroused suspicion if he had omitted him? Was he dumping an unwanted object on him? Consolidation 1 Divide the class into pairs and ask each pair to translate the speeches, one taking those of Salvius, the other those of Belimicus. Ask volunteer pairs to give a dramatic reading of the dialogue. 2 The first paragraph gives an opportunity to revise the two common adverb endings -ē and -ter. Note also cōmiter (line 11). Refer to the Word patterns on pp. 12 and 32, if further review is needed. Illustration. Line drawing of Salvius entertaining Belimicus in his triclinium. The illustration reminds the students of some features of Roman life imported into Britain: wall paintings, mosaics, dining customs, etc. 94 STAGE 28
About the language 2: expressions of time (p. 130)
New language feature. Expressions of time: the accusative case to indicate how long; the ablative case to indicate when. Discussion. Read paragraphs 1–2 with the class, and let them try paragraph 3 in pairs or individually. Consolidation. Select examples from recent stories, e.g.: p. 107, lines 6–7; p. 109, line 10; p. 126, lines 3–4 and 28; p. 129, lines 6–7. Ask students to translate them as a written exercise. Illustration. Clay vessel from Chester (Grosvenor Museum, Chester). The vessel had been used to transport garum, a very popular fish sauce, from Spain. It still has its clay lid. The intense flavor of the sauce would have hidden any taste of poison.
Belimicus rēx (p. 131)
Story. Salvius promises Belimicus a kingdom larger than Cogidubnus’, and plies him with poisoned sauce. As the implications slowly dawn, Belimicus threatens Salvius with exposure. Too late. His death gives Salvius unchallenged power. First reading. Read the first sentences and then ask what was said and done at the end of the previous story to make Belimicus attonitus, and read in Latin as far as imperium Rōmānum (line 15). This section is dense. According to the ability of the group, work through it with them, or allow them to explore it in small groups. Help may be needed with: num … spērāvistī (line 4), ut dīxistī (line 5), servus, cui … imperāvit (line 8) and the long sentence, tam laetus … mortis (lines 10–11). As you review the students’ interpretations, discuss situation and characters as well as language, e.g.: Why was Salvius rīdēns (line 2)? Which of his statements (lines 3–7) are true and which false? Did the speech (lines 3–7) have the effect on Belimicus that Salvius intended? After reading lines 16–34 in Latin dramatically, invite the class to volunteer translations as you or students read aloud again. Let the plot unfold briskly.
Discussion 1 What aspects of Belimicus’ character was Salvius exploiting? Help students to find (anywhere in the Stage) Latin phrases which explain Belimicus’ motivation, e.g.: spē praemiī adductus (model sentence 5), rēx … cupiēbat (p. 126, lines 8–9), verbīs … blandīs resistere nōn potest (p. 126, lines 24–5), Belimicus … audācter dīcere coepit (p. 129, lines 3–4). 2 How does Salvius’ behavior in this scene compare with his behavior during his interview with Agricola (p. 97)? 3 Do you think Belimicus deserved his fate? Is that the reason why Salvius killed him? 4 Which word in line 34 is meant sarcastically? The balance of the last sentence with the repetition of sīc ends this part of the narrative with a flourish. Consolidation 1 Collect all the participial phrases and encourage a range of translations, e.g.: servi corpus Belimicī ē triclīniō extractum (line 31) could be The slaves dragged Belimicus’ body out of the dining room and … or When they had dragged … . STAGE 28 95
Accusative participial phrases like this are more difficult than nominative ones and need more practice. Explain that the participle, being verbal, is generally placed at the end of its phrase. 2 Analyze the long sentence tam laetus … mortis (lines 10–11): tam laetus erat ille. tam laetus erat ille ut garum cōnsūmeret. tam laetus erat ille, ubi verba Salviī audīvit, ut garum cōnsūmeret. tam laetus erat ille, ubi verba Salviī audīvit, ut garum cōnsūmeret, ignārus perīculī mortis.
About the language 3: impersonal verbs (p. 132)
New language feature. Impersonal verbs. Discussion. Students will remember placet from Stage 11 (anything to do with Grumio tends to stick). Variations in the translations of sentences in paragraph 4 should be encouraged.
Word patterns: adjectives and nouns (p. 133)
New language feature. Cognate adjectives and nouns ending in -ia. Discussion. This can fill a spare moment at any point in the Stage. Invite the students to work through it on their own before eliciting their observations. They may like to note that the names of many countries end in -ia, e.g. Britannia, Ītalia, Graecia.
Practicing the language (p. 134)
Exercise 1. Add the correct personal ending to imperfect and pluperfect subjunctives to complete sentences. The exercise can also be used to revise subjunctive clauses (“Why is the subjunctive being used?”). Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with the correct noun in the ablative case from a selection.
Cultural context material (pp. 135–141)
Content. The kinds of evidence for life in Roman Britain, and what can be learned from them, including: literary sources (Caesar and Tacitus); archaeological sites (levels and finds); and inscriptions.
Suggestions for discussion 1 “How do we know?” Because students are now coming to the end of the sequence on Roman Britain, you might review various themes, emphasizing the interrelationship of the different kinds of evidence, i.e. literary, archaeological, and epigraphical. The first step may consist simply of recalling material from the stories. If, for example, slavery in Roman Britain is being reviewed, begin by asking the class what they remember of the treatment of the slaves they have encountered: e.g. Salvius’ harsh treatment of the workers on his farm (Stage 13); the somewhat easier life of domestics in his villa (Stage 14); the torture of the slave after the flight of Quintus and Dumnorix (Stage 24). This prepares the way for the questions: “How do we know that slaves were treated like this? What evidence supports the stories?” Cite information from 96 STAGE 28
the cultural context sections here. Remind students of the photo (Stage 13) of a slave chain, found in Britain, designed to fasten several slaves together by their necks. Help build up the picture of the literary evidence by quoting from Varro’s De Re Rustica and Columella. Help students review other topics such as: ● The Roman invasion of Britain (Unit 2). Evidence: Caesar Gallic War IV. 20–36; V. 8–23 (read to the class the Penguin translation (pp. 119–140)); Dio Cassius Roman History LX. 19–23; Tacitus Agricola 13. ● Cogidubnus and the Palace at Fishbourne (Unit 2, Stages 15 and 16). Evidence: Tacitus Agricola 14 (Penguin translation (pp. 64–65)); archaeological excavation at Fishbourne and the Chichester inscription. The drawing on p. 137 is a stylized diagram of the stratification at Fishbourne. It shows how layers can provide evidence for the occupation of a site. ● The Roman baths and temple at Aquae Sulis (Stage 21). Evidence: Solinus, a third-century AD geographer who wrote descriptions of well-known places in the empire (Collectanea rerum memorabilium 22.10); archaeological evidence including inscriptions, Roman coins, and dēfīxiōnēs found in the spring; and the Roman architecture of the baths and temple. ● The military presence, for example, at Deva (Stages 25–27). Evidence: the remains of the fortress; military inscriptions, especially on tombstones (see the section reprinted from RIB by Collingwood and Wright The Roman Inscriptions of Britain Voll I: Inscriptions on Stone (1965); also Webster A Short Guide to the Roman Inscriptions (1970 OP)); items of military equipment. Useful sources of evidence, in addition to those cited above, are given in Appendix B. 2 Take the class through the inscriptional material in this Stage, to make sure they understand the explanations given there about reading military tombstones, then guide students through the inscriptions on pp. 140–141. Inscriptions p. 141 top, the expanded version reads: D(IS) M(ANIBUS) CAECILIUS AVIT US EMER(ITA) AUG(USTA) OPTIO LEG(IONIS) XX V(ALERIAE) V(ICTRICIS) ST(I)P(ENDIORUM) XV VIX(IT) AN(NOS) XXXIIII H(ERES) F(ACIENDUM) C(URAVIT) (RIB 492) To the spirits of the departed. Caecilius Avitus of Emerita Augusta, optiō of the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix, of fifteen years’ service, lived thirty-four years. His heir had this set up. Emerita Augusta was a colonia in Lusitania, now Mérida in Spain. The Twentieth Legion received the second “V” (Victrix) in its name in acknowledgment of its victories during Boudica’s revolt, AD 61. Caecilius holds in his left hand a square tablet case; in his right, a long staff (the optio’s badge of office).
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Inscriptions p. 141 bottom, the expanded version reads: C(AIUS) LOVESIUS PAPIR(IA TRIB) CADARUS EMERITA MIL(ES) LEG(IONIS) XX V(ALERIAE) V(ICTRICIS) AN(NORUM) XXV STIP(ENDIORUM) IIX FRONTINIUS AQUILO H(ERES) F(ACIENDUM) C(URAVIT) (RIB 501) Gaius Lovesius Cadarus of the Papirian voting-tribe, from Emerita, soldier of the Twentieth Legion Valeria Victrix, aged twenty-five, of eight years’ service. Frontinius Aquilo, his heir, had this set up. Lovesius is a Spanish name. Emerita = Emerita Augusta, or Mérida.
Illustrations p. 135 ● Detail of statue of Julius Caesar (Naples, Archaeological Museum). ● Penguin book cover, showing relief from a sarcophagus depicting the submission of a barbarian to a Roman troop, second century AD (Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome). p. 136 ● Both photographs show work in progress by Museum of London Archaeology. Ask students “Why do archaeologists take photographs at every stage of a dig?” (To elicit that excavation of lower levels entails destruction of upper levels.) The wicker basket in the lower photograph is one of thousands of items which have been preserved by the waterlogged conditions resulting from the presence of a stream, now underground. p. 137 ● Line diagram illustrating the stratification at Fishbourne. The layers show evidence for the occupation of the site. ● Northamptonshire Archaeology rescue excavation in the Nene valley produced the first evidence for vine cultivation in Roman Britain (layout of trenches, pollen grains, etc.). Trench as first identified (left); after further study, showing postholes and area for planting down the center (right). p. 138 ● Denarius of Vespasian (Whitby Museum). ● Fragment of a molded pottery bowl , late second century AD (Whitby Museum). Vast quantities of this very popular but expensive red Samian ware were imported into Britain from factories in Gaul. ● Calleva, 1909 plan, with north at top. As the site was not occupied in later periods, it provides the clearest evidence today of the layout of a Roman town. Get students to identify the following: amphitheater outside town; defensive ditch outside walls on left; grid pattern of streets; forum in center. The big building at bottom surrounding an open space is a mānsiō (official inn). Long-term excavation, Reading University. p. 139 Map of Roman Britain. The peaceful consolidation in the southeast is clearly illustrated by the preponderance of roads, towns, and villas, compared with the north and west, where legionary fortresses indicate continuing military activity. Key to Roman names and modern-day equivalents: Calleva = Silchester Camulodunum = Colchester Corinium = Cirencester 98 STAGE 28
Corstopitum = Corbridge Deva = Chester Eboracum = York Glevum = Gloucester Isca (Wales) = Caerleon Lindum = Lincoln Londinium = London Luguvalium = Carlisle Mona = Anglesey Noviomagus = Chichester Pinnata Castra = Inchtuthil Verulamium = St Albans Viroconium = Wroxeter p. 141 ● Painted re-creation of tombstone of Caecilius Avitus, optiō (Grosvenor Museum, Chester). The wax tablet case held in the man’s left hand symbolized his will, which may have mentioned the provision of a tombstone as a condition of inheritance. ● Line drawing of tombstone. p. 142 Painted cast of an altar put up by an optio (Grosvenor Museum, Chester). Altars were often put up by army officers. Note the red lettering, and the hollow on top for offerings of wine or food. The Latin reads: GENIO SANCTO CENTVRIAE AELIVS CLAVDIANVS OPTIO VOTVM SOLVIT.
Suggestions for further activities
1 In small groups examine further examples of funerary inscriptions, civilian as well as military, as supplied by your teacher. Work out as many details as possible about each person. (If time allows, younger students might enjoy re-creating large facsimiles on posterboard, Latin on one side, English on the other. Or the class together might collaborate in making a booklet of selected inscriptions with expansions, translations, and explanations where necessary. There is unfortunately no simple guide to Roman epigraphy for young students. But older students may consult Gordon Illustrated Introduction to Roman Epigraphy (1983); he provides a full introduction to sources and technical details of Latin inscriptions, excellent plates of selected inscriptions, and accompanying commentary. See especially Pl. 32, No. 50, “Dedication of Arch to the Deified Titus.” See also Keppie Understanding Roman Inscriptions.) 2 As it will be helpful later, review what Salvius has done in Stages 21–28. What is his position now in relation to Agricola, the Britons, and Domitian?
Vocabulary checklist (p. 142)
mandāre is a combination of manus + dare. Literally, a mandate is something given to another’s hands, i.e. entrusted to another.
Phrases for discussion mens sana in corpore sano dies irae in vino, in ira, in puero semper est veritas maximum remedium irae mora est – Seneca spem reduxit – motto of New Brunswick STAGE 28 99
STAGE 29: Rōma Cultural context Origins of Rome; the Roman Forum, heart of Rome and the empire. The dedication of the arch of Titus, commemorating the conquest of Judea. Story line Haterius, a wealthy contractor, and his workmen complete the arch of Titus, and the Jewish prisoners lament their fate. The mother of one of the prisoners, Simon, tells her son about the Roman sack of Jerusalem, the Jews’ last stand at Masada, and his father’s death in the mass suicide there. At the dedication of the arch the next day, Simon seizes the sacrificial knife and kills his family and himself. Main language features • present passive indicative, all persons e.g. mōns nōtissimus Capitōlium appellātur. • imperfect passive indicative, all persons e.g. amōre līberōrum afficiēbar. • purpose clauses introduced by quī and ubi e.g. Salvius locum quaerēbat ubi cōnspicuus esset.
Sentence patterns abl + v e.g. dux hostium rūpem castellīs multīs circumvēnit. chiastic word order/chiasmus e.g. subitō trīstēs fēminārum duārum clāmōrēs audīvit. increased complexity of subordinate clauses: “nesting” and combination of “nesting” and “stringing” e.g. hic igitur fabrīs, quamquam omnīnō fessī erant, identidem imperāvit nē labōre dēsisterent. Word patterns Compound verbs with dē-, ex-, and re-. Focus of exercises 1 Imperfect subjunctive. 2 Agreement of present participles. 3 Selection of correct Latin words to translate an English sentence.
Opening page (p. 143)
Illustration. This model, made for Mussolini, shows Rome in the time of Constantine, fourth century AD, with a population of a million (Museo della Civiltà Romana, Rome). Ask students for their first impressions of the city. They may comment on its unplanned layout, its position on the Tiber, and prominent buildings like the Colosseum and the Circus. As preparation for the model sentences, identify the Capitol, surmounted by the temple of Jupiter, and the Forum Romanum below. The annotated drawing on p. 187 will prove useful in pinpointing these sites on the model. This is probably sufficient by way of introduction to this Stage which concentrates on the Forum Romanum. Additional information on the city as a whole is given in the cultural context section of Stage 31 and in the notes on the plan on p. 187 (see p. 133 of this manual).
Model sentences (pp. 144–145)
Story. A description of the Forum Romanum (notes on line drawings, below). New language feature. The passive, so far met only in the perfect participle, now appears in its finite form. Examples are restricted to the 3rd person singular and plural of the
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present indicative. New vocabulary. Apart from the names, the following words are new: appellātur, summō (new meaning), lectīcīs, ignis, Virginibus, extrēmō. First reading. Build up a cumulative picture of the Forum by reading all the sentences through in Latin slowly enough for students to register each line drawing before you move on. Then elicit the correct translation by comprehension questions formulated in the passive, e.g. What is in the middle of Rome? What is it called? Who is worshipped in the temple? What is the Forum filled with? What is heard there? etc. In discussing the drawing, focus initially on the features described in the sentences and do not go into details unless students ask. (See notes below.) Discussion. Ask students to write a translation of the model sentences, working in pairs. As you go over these, invite comment on the form of the Latin, and confirm that the -ur ending indicates a new form of the verb. Encourage students to translate, using English passives for the time being, e.g. is called, is worshipped, are greeted, are carried, etc. As usual, students will be guided toward more flexibility in translation after some experience. Concentrate on developing confidence in recognition and translation. English does not use the passive form as frequently, or as naturally, as Latin. In the course of language development, children begin to generate passive forms only at about thirteen years of age. Unless students themselves recognize the new verb-ending as passive, postpone terminology and explanation until About the language (p. 149). Consolidation. At the beginning or end of subsequent lessons, write up for translation simple sentences in the passive form, based on the model sentences, e.g.: negōtium in forō agitur. pompae per forum dūcuntur. ōrātiōnēs in forō audiuntur. templum ā Virginibus Vestālibus cūrātur. captīvī in carcere custōdiuntur. or on the stories which follow, e.g.: marmoris massae ad summum arcum tolluntur. victimae ad sacrificium dūcuntur. Line drawings. The drawings are reconstructions of today’s ruins and depict Rome in the fourth century; they include some developments which took place after the time of the story. 1 Capitol overlooking Forum. On hilltop, temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno, and Minerva, center of traditional Roman state religion. Next level, the Tarpeian rock, place of execution (left); tabulārium, the state record office (right). At Forum level, temple of Saturn, containing treasury (left); temple of Vespasian and Titus, probably unfinished at the time of the story (center); temple of Concord (right). In the foreground: Basilica lulia, containing several law courts (left); Rostra (center). The row of honorific columns in front of the Basilica lulia is fourth century. 2 Close-up of Capitol and Forum, showing a person of status being carried in a litter by eight bearers. 3 Sacrificial procession, with trumpeters leading the way, priest with head covered, carrying an ax, and ox garlanded for the sacrifice.
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4 Temple of Vesta, containing the hearth fire of Rome which must never be allowed to go out. Smoke rises from the sacred fire which stands in the center of the temple instead of the more usual statue. At an annual ceremony on March 1st, the flames were extinguished and then relit by concentrating the rays of the sun through a glass vessel of water. 5 The Rostra, platform for political speeches, adorned along the front with the beaks (rōstra) of ships captured in war at the battle of Antium in 338 BC. 6 The prison. Situated north of the Rostra (see plan, p. 160), it was on two levels. Cells on the upper level, of which only one now remains, housed criminals and suspects; on the lower level was the death cell (see photograph, p. 162 bottom, and note, p. 116 of this manual). Follow up this initial discussion by reading the cultural material, pp. 160–162. Aim at consolidating the information in the model sentences and at giving students a clear picture of the layout of the Forum. For example, provide them with an enlarged copy of the plan on p. 160 and ask them to annotate it with brief descriptions of the buildings they met in the model sentences. Students may be interested to see how much (or how little) remains of these buildings today in the photograph on pp. 160–161. There will be further opportunities to return to the cultural context later in the Stage.
nox I (p. 146)
Story. A moonlit night in Rome finds rich men banqueting, poor men writing begging letters to their patrons or plotting crimes, and workmen desperately trying to complete the arch of Titus which is to be dedicated the next day. First reading. The model sentences have given a taste of Rome by day; this passage presents Rome by night. Handle it briskly in a single lesson, so that the atmosphere of city life is firmly established, and the scene is set for nox II. Start with an expressive Latin reading of the first paragraph, giving students a few moments to translate it in pairs, before you go over it. In discussing nūlla erat quiēs, nūllum silentium, compare the lack of peace and quiet in Rome with nighttime in any familiar big city, and ask what would be disturbing the peace. Encourage students to think about the nightlife of the wealthy, and the darkness as cover for desperation or criminal activities. Then read the next two paragraphs aloud in Latin. On the board create two columns headed magnīs in domibus and in altīs īnsulīs, and invite the class to explore the two paragraphs and suggest the points to be listed under each heading. Translation of the paragraphs could be set for homework. Going over the translations just before you read nox II will help students to recapture the nighttime atmosphere. Lines 13–23 are challenging, with imperfect actives and passives, new vocabulary, and a difficult last sentence. One approach is to direct students’ attention to the drawing on p. 147 and ask “What signs are there in the picture that the arch is unfinished?” Elicit the points made in the Illustration note on p. 105 of this manual, linking discussion with relevant words in the glossary. Then use comprehension questions to elicit the meaning, e.g.: Why was a great noise heard near the forum? Where was the huge crane? What three tasks were the workmen engaged in?
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Why were they all working so hard? What was the Emperor Domitian planning to do the next day? What had he felt about his brother while Titus was alive? Why had he decided to honor him now? Whose favor did he want to win? What had been their attitude to Titus? Translate these lines orally and follow up by a written translation of lines 19 (nam Imperātor)–23.
Discussion 1 Domitian’s position. Vespasian, Domitian’s father, was commander of the Second Legion which invaded the southwest of Britain in AD 43. He was entrusted by Nero with the task of quelling the Jewish revolt, and when he left Judea for Rome to become emperor, his elder son, Titus, took over. Titus completed the defeat of the Jews, and succeeded his father as emperor in AD 79. When Domitian succeeded Titus in AD 81, he put up the arch to gain credibility with the people by associating himself with his father’s and brother’s success and popularity. 2 Style. Use questions to draw attention to stylistic features, e.g.: In paragraph 2, which words does the writer use to convey a sense of luxury? In paragraph 3, which words suggest poverty? In lines 16–18, what is the effect of aliī … aliī … aliī? In lines 20–21, which two words emphasize the change which had affected Domitian’s attitude to his brother? Consolidation Practice passive forms to develop confidence in recognition and translation, using simplified sentences from the story. It is helpful at this early stage to include the agent of the action, e.g.: cēnae splendidae ā dīvitibus cōnsūmēbantur. cibus ā servīs offerēbātur. vīnum ab ancillīs fundēbātur. carmina ā citharoedīs cantābantur. magnus strepitus ā fabrīs tollēbātur. arcus magnificus ā fabrīs exstruēbātur. Review the forms of the 4th declension by building up from paragraph 4 the pattern of the noun arcus: arcus (nom.) line 13, arcuī (dat.) line 14, arcum (acc.) line 15, arcū (abl.) line 16, arcūs (gen.) and arcum (acc.) line 17, arcum (acc.) lines 18 and 19. Study the declension on p. 262 and point out the difficult -ūs ending. Give practice with the following examples: manūs puerī erant sordidae. sacerdōs manūs ad caelum sustulit. captīvus ad genua mīlitis sē iēcit. supplex in genibus prō ārā manet. cīvēs sonitūs audīvērunt. gemmae ē manū fūris dēcidērunt. STAGE 29 103
Further information The events of Stage 29 occur in approximately AD 81, the year of the consulship of the Flavius Silva who had captured the Jewish stronghold of Masada in AD 73. It was also the year in which Domitian became emperor after his brother Titus’ brief rule, AD 79–81. Among Domitian’s first actions was building and dedicating an arch to Titus’ memory. This, together with his other building schemes, was partly intended (as our story suggests) to attract to himself some of the popularity which both his brother Titus and father Vespasian had enjoyed. Although Haterius, the contractor, is a fictitious character, the Haterii, with whom we have associated him, were an ancient Roman family who had once possessed senatorial rank. They are thought to have built the magnificent tomb illustrated in the next Stage. We have made Salvius Haterius’ patrōnus in our stories. Salvius’ involvement with the construction project would predate his term of duty in Britain.
nox II (pp. 146–147)
Story. Under pressure from Salvius, Haterius drives his workmen to finish the arch before dawn. As silence falls, the cries of two women prisoners are heard. First reading. Read lines 1–12 in Latin and help students to explore the meaning with questions, e.g.: Who was Q. Haterius Latronianus? What was he doing at the building site? How can you tell that he was anxious? What was Salvius doing there? Why was he anxious? How did he show his anxiety? What did the foreman try to do? What did he say? What examples does he give to indicate that the arch is on the very verge of completion? How does he give emphasis to his message? If students have difficulty with the complex sentence hic … dēsisterent (lines 5–7), it may be helpful to clarify its structure as follows: hic igitur fabrīs identidem imperāvit. hic igitur fabrīs identidem imperāvit nē labōre dēsisterent. hic igitur fabrīs, quamquam omnīnō fessī erant, identidem imperāvit nē labōre dēsisterent. Lines 13–18 are straightforward enough for students to read on their own. The words of the lamentation (line 18), especially Deus, should be highlighted in preparation for the next story (see p. 106 of this manual). The lament is based on Psalm 22.1. It is adapted from the Vulgate translation, which reads: Deus, Deus meus, quārē mē dērelīquistī? (from Nova Vulgata). Should students be interested, you might also remind them that Jesus spoke similarly, in e.g. Matthew 27.46, when he was hanging on the cross. In lines 15–16, students may be tempted to translate trīstēs with fēminārum, a not entirely infelicitous error. You may wish to comment on trīstēs fēminārum duārum clāmōrēs as an example of chiastic word order. (The name comes from the Χ–Greek letter chi–formed if you write the first two words on one line, the next two beneath them, and draw lines joining the two adjective-noun pairs.) The two women are surrounded verbally by their sad shouts, and the two adjectives both serve double duty, describing one noun
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grammatically but another noun by word order. This stylistic feature, available only in inflected languages, is commonly used by Roman authors, and students may be interested in noting it here. Discussion topics 1 Salvius’ presence in Rome. What are the implications of Salvius’ presence in Rome as an adviser to Domitian? What does it suggest about his boast to Agricola (p. 97) that he, rather than the general, knew the emperor’s wishes? Was he acting under orders in plotting the murder of Cogidubnus (pp. 10–11), in taking over Cogidubnus’ palace and extorting money from the Britons (p. 126), and in murdering Belimicus (p. 131)? It is known that the historical Salvius was in Rome on September 30th, AD 81, in the early days of Domitian’s principate, but the stories about him in Units 2 and 3 are fictitious. His career and relationship with the emperors are described in Unit 2 (p. 18). 2 Roman time. The Romans divided every stretch of daylight and every stretch of darkness into twelve hours. Except at the equinox, daylight and nighttime hours were of different lengths. Dawn broke at the first hour. Consolidation. Ask students to write out a translation of Glitus’ speech (lines 9–12). Use the instances of arcus for oral practice. Illustration. The crane, partly shown on the left raising a stone block, will feature in the next Stage. On top of the arch the triumphal quadrīga (four-horse chariot) is only partly in place, and the winged Victory, playing a trumpet, still awaits her opposite number. Workmen holding torches provide light for others working on different parts of the arch. For the inscription, see p. 113 of this manual.
The origins of Rome (p. 148) Remind students that most Romans, by the time of our stories, viewed the Romulus and Remus story as legend, not fact. Romulus and Remus were twin sons of Rhea Silvia, a Vestal Virgin, and Mars. At their birth their uncle ordered them thrown into the flooding Tiber. They drifted ashore, where a she-wolf tended and suckled them until they were found by the shepherd, Faustulus. He and his wife raised the twins as their own. You might want to read to the class a translation of Livy I.3.10 ff. Illustrations • Archaic cinerary urn, c. ninth century BC (Antiquarium of the Forum, Rome). Numerous hut-shape urns like this one have been found in the cremation tombs excavated in the area which later developed into the Forum Romanum. Dating from the tenth to the eighth centuries BC, they portray, in a stylized fashion, the rounded huts typical of the early pastoral peoples of this region (the Latins, the Sabines, and the Etruscans). Archaeologists have discovered the archaic substructures of such huts on the Palatine. • Relief found in France depicting Romulus and Remus and the she-wolf (Avenches, Musée Romain). The cave in the background is perhaps the Lupercal, thought of as the wolf ’s den. It cannot be traced today but the Romans located it beneath the southwest corner of the Palatine.
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About the language 1: active and passive voice (p. 149)
New language feature. 3rd person singular and plural, present and imperfect passive indicative. Discussion. Ask students to compare the passive examples in paragraph 2 with the active examples in paragraph 1, and to comment not only on the verbs but also on the sentences as wholes. The question “Is the meaning changed?” will often provoke valid comment, e.g. “It’s a different point of view,” “It’s describing the same action in a different way.” Ask students where they recall meeting previously the terms “active” and “passive.” (Answer: In Stages 21–22, of perfect participles.) But here finite passive forms are restricted, presenting only one spelling novelty: the addition of -ur to the active forms already learned. Nevertheless, do not be disconcerted if some students need more time and practice before they can consistently disentangle the various passive forms. The passive is one example of how, as the linguistic features we meet become more sophisticated, the simple rules of Unit 1, say, may no longer apply. If students have always understood that a noun in the nominative case does the action of the verb, they will now have to accept that the rule applies only to active verbs. However, most students quite readily adapt to adding the new concept that the “subject” of a passive verb doesn’t do anything: he or she is passive. Consolidation. By presenting both the present and imperfect tenses here, we are hoping to lessen the tendency of some students to associate “passive” with “past.” Watch for such problems and, if they arise, concentrate consolidation examples on the present tense until the passive concept becomes more familiar. Students may have been taught to avoid the use of the passive voice in English. It is considered weak and clumsy compared to the active. In Latin, however, the two voices were considered equally vigorous. The passive merely indicated a different focus. The term “voice” in the title of this note may be unfamiliar to students. “Voice,” like the term “mood” for indicative and subjunctive, is a grammatical label which teachers may or may not choose to use.
Masada I (pp. 150–151)
Story. The Jewish woman tells Simon, her eldest son, about Titus’ sack of Jerusalem, the Jews’ resistance to the Romans, and their final stand at Masada under Eleazar. First reading. Read lines 1–11 aloud in Latin and then ask students to translate in pairs. As you go through their translation in class, check that they have given full weight to the range of tenses in this passage. Read lines 12–19 in Latin, and follow with questions, e.g.: What two questions did Simon ask? What did he beg his mother to do? sed tantus … dīcere posset (lines 14–15). Why could Simon’s mother not speak? What do you think was the cause of her grief? Why had she not previously told her children about their father’s death? Why is she no longer afraid to tell the story? Take lines 20–38 together so that the class appreciate the escalation and remorselessness of the Roman attack, and finish with a sense of climax and expectation. Refer the class to the photographs on pp. 150, 164, and 165, which illustrate the seemingly impregnable
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rock of Masada and the Roman siege works. Possible questions to use as you translate or to serve as a summary afterwards: How long did the Jews rebel against the Romans (line 20)? What terrible events occurred in the sack of Jerusalem (lines 22–25)? How many Jews survived? What did they do (lines 26–28)? How old was Simon at the time (lines 28–29)? Look at the photograph on p. 150. Which Latin words describe it (lines 30–31)? In which three ways did the Roman commander take action against the Jews (lines 32–36)? Was he confident of success or not? Give a reason for your answer.
Discussion topics 1 Jewish tradition. Ask students to recall the words of the Jewish lament (p. 147, line 18). These words occur on several occasions in the Old Testament, and were used by Jesus on the cross. Lamentation plays a traditional role in Jewish culture (cf. the famous chorus from Verdi’s opera, Nabucco). The Temple in Jerusalem was, and still is, of central importance to the Jewish faith. After Titus’ sack of Jerusalem, all that was left was one wall of the foundation platform, which became known as the Wailing Wall, the holiest place in the world for Jews. The Dome of the Rock is a Muslim mosque built on top of this platform and is, after Mecca and Medina, the holiest place in the world for Muslims. This conjunction is one source of modern Jewish–Arab dispute. In line 24 note that ipsum is used to emphasize the speaker’s veneration of the holy place, and her horror at the sacrilege perpetrated by the Romans. The sack of Jerusalem was a byword in the ancient world for dreadful devastation. Students should be able to cite modern parallels such as Dresden and Hiroshima. 2 Compare the woman’s view of Titus (line 21) with that of the Roman people (p. 146, line 22). Consolidation Elicit individual translations of lines 1–11. If students are still having difficulty with the long sentence ūnā cum … temptābat (lines 5–6), use comprehension questions or build up the sentence gradually as suggested on p. 104 of this manual. Ask the class to identify the different ways in which the subjunctive is used in lines 12–19. If necessary, refer to p. 288. This is a useful passage for reviewing the ablative case. Ask students in pairs to note down all the examples of the ablative case they can find in lines 20–38, and how they would translate duce Eleazārō (line 27); illō tempore (line 29); mūnītiōnibus (line 31); castellīs multīs (line 33); iussū (line 33); ignī (line 36; do not labor this unfamiliar form). Compare translations, drawing up a list of all acceptable variants to consolidate the range of meanings. Help students to identify the 4th declension nouns in this story, translate them in context, and identify the case: anus septuāgintā annōrum (line 4), nātū maximus (line 6), prope lacum (line 30), iussū Silvae (line 33). Illustration. Masada from the west showing the Roman assault ramp. The site chosen for the ramp was on the west side where the distance between the base and summit was the shortest. The earth ramp was kept in place by wooden scaffolding, whose tips can still be STAGE 29 107
seen today, protruding from the white earth. The name Masada comes from the Hebrew Metsuda, or stronghold. The family of Herod sought refuge here during the civil war in Jerusalem. When Herod became king of Judea, he built massive fortifications, palaces, and storehouses, designed to protect him and his court in case of a protracted siege.
** Masada II (p. 151)
Story. Simon hears how most Jews, including his father, committed mass suicide rather than submit to the Romans, while his mother and grandmother hid underground with the children. He is inspired by his father’s example. First reading. Help the class with lines 1–6 and let them attempt the rest on their own. Check their understanding with comprehension questions.
Discussion 1 ego ipse mortem … accipiō, servitūtem spernō (lines 5–6). How does Eleazar emphasize the stark choice facing the Jews? 2 Did Simon’s mother achieve anything by saving her children from the suicide pact? 3 Which words show most clearly Simon’s opinion of what happened on Masada? 4 At the fall of Masada ten years ago, Simon was not quite five (Masada I, line 29). At fifteen he is now a young man. What do you think will happen? Consolidation Ask the class to translate Eleazar’s speech into an English version which will convey the charged atmosphere. Some students may be prepared to read their own versions aloud dramatically. Masada I and II contain examples of the pronouns ego, tū, nōs, vōs, and sē. Divide the class into two and set half to find the pronouns in Masada I (lines 10–38) and the other half to find those in Masada II. Tell them to be prepared to translate the sentence containing the pronoun and to state its case. With students’ help build up tables on the board or reproduce the complete tables and note the cases found in the stories. There are further opportunities for pronoun practice on p. 270. At this point read Rome and Judea (p. 163) so that students can set what they have just read in its wider context and be prepared for the next passage describing the dedication of the arch of Titus.
About the language 2: more about the passive voice (p. 152)
New language feature. The present and imperfect passive indicative in all persons. Discussion. By now students will have seen at least one example for each of the personal passive endings. The 2nd persons, singular and plural, are likely to cause most difficulty, partly because they are the furthest removed from their active equivalents and partly because they occur less frequently in our narratives. However, as students become more comfortable with the concept of passive voice, even these rarer forms will pose less of a challenge. Consolidation. Since 1st and 2nd person forms will occur less frequently in our stories, supplementary exercises, written or oral, are the best means by which to consolidate
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understanding. Manipulation by the teacher of a single sentence, e.g. cūrīs inānibus dēciperis, changing the verb to e.g. dēcipior, dēcipimur, dēcipiminī and then to the imperfect tense equivalents is the kind of drill which will prove most useful.
arcus Titī I (p. 153)
Story. Salvius and Haterius are among the crowd which gathers next morning to watch the procession of musicians, sacrificial bulls, Jewish treasure, Jewish prisoners, emperor, consuls, and statue of Titus. First reading. This is an opportunity to let the class attempt a Latin passage unaided. Allocate “The scene at the arch” (lines 1–14) to half the class, and “The procession” (lines 15–30) to the other half, and ask students to draw or list all the components of their scene. Some may like to prepare a broadcast commentary. Then let each group give descriptions of the scene to the other. Discussion. Read lines 1–14 aloud and examine the content in more depth by asking questions, e.g.: Where do senators sit (lines 6–7)? Which phrase suggests that many senators were insincere in their enthusiasm to witness the ceremony? What was in Salvius’ mind as he chose his seat? How do the arrangements made for equites differ from those for senators (lines 9–10)? What does this tell you about their social status? What arrangements are being made to secure the approval of the gods (lines 12–14)? If necessary, remind students of the information about religious ritual in Stage 23. Repeat the process with lines 15–30, e.g.: Why was the Jewish treasure put on display (lines 18–21)? Which elements of it can you recognize in the photograph of the carving? What was the Roman attitude to prisoners? Are there modern parallels? How is the status of the emperor emphasized? Why was it suitable for Lucius Flavius Silva to be with the emperor on this occasion?
Consolidation Pick out examples of 5th declension nouns, identify their cases in context, and then put them up in case order. Add further examples from pp. 150–151. diēs festus (p. 153, line 2), nūlla spēs (p. 151, line 4); effigiem Titī (p. 153, line 29), cum … rem cōnfēcissent (p. 151, line 9); eō diē (p. 153, line 3), spē favōris (p. 153, line 7); in rēbus adversīs (p. 150, line 8). Review the declension (p. 262), pointing out that all cases of diēs (except the nominative singular) have affinities with corresponding cases in other declensions, and give students more practice with examples in sentences, e.g.: tandem diēs festus adest! diem festum Rōmānī celebrant. illō diē omnēs ad arcum convēnērunt. captīvī omnem spem āmīserant. multōs diēs captīvī in carcere mānsērunt. STAGE 29 109
rem dīram māter timēbat. spē favōris multī senātōrēs aderant. Simōn in rēbus adversīs fortitūdinem praestitit. Remind students of 4th declension nouns: ad arcum (line 1), iussū (line 4), prō arcū (line 12), serēnō vultū (lines 23–24), currū magnificō (line 27), magistrātūs nōbilissimī (line 29). Give oral practice with passive verbs, e.g. by following up pompa dūcēbātur (lines 4–5) with pompae dūcēbantur and pompa dūcitur and so on. This would be a good time to trace the processional route through the Forum to the arch of Titus, with the help of the plan and illustrations on pp. 160–162 and the information about the Via Sacra on p. 162. Illustration. Detail of carving inside the arch. The Jewish treasure from the Temple in Jerusalem is shown being carried in Titus’ triumph, which had taken place after the sack of Jerusalem. The items visible are (from left to right): a placard naming the object being carried nearby; the menorah (the sacred candlestick with seven branches), supported at shoulder level on poles; another placard; the golden table from the Temple, with the next placard to the right, and the silver trumpets in front. On the right is a triumphal arch through which the procession is passing.
arcus Titī II (pp. 154–155)
Story. After congratulating Salvius and sending thanks to Haterius, Domitian dedicates the arch. Simon seizes the sacrificial knife and kills his family and himself. First reading. Divide the story into manageable sections with titles, e.g.: The arrival. ad arcum … ageret (lines 1–5), questions 1–5. The ceremony. inde ad āram … aguntur (lines 5–9), questions 6–8. The interruption. subitō … pedem rettulit (lines 10–13), questions 9–12. Simon’s defiance. nōn Imperātōrem … trānsfīxit (lines 13–22), questions 13–15. Read each section in Latin twice. Between the two readings, ask students to study the questions for that section; remind them to find clues to the meaning in the questions. After the second reading, give them time to study the Latin and answer the questions. If you move around as they work at their answers, you will be able to identify anything that is causing difficulty and either help immediately or plan further practice at a later time. The class may need considerable help with question 15.
Discussion topics 1 The arch. Do you agree with Domitian’s admiration of the workmanship of the arch (illustrations pp. 153, 159, and 162)? How do we know that it celebrated a victory over the Jews? What is depicted in the carving? How would a Jew regard the carving? What was Domitian’s motive in setting up the arch? Why do you think he had it placed at the entrance to the ancient Forum Romanum (see illustration p. 162), rather than in one of the more modern fora? 2 Simon’s behavior. Can you understand why Simon did what he did? Do you think he was right? (Note: the details about the fate of the Jewish prisoners in this Stage are fictitious.) Would people act like this today?
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Consolidation 1 Pick out participial phrases and ask the class to identify who is described by the participle and which case is used: ē currū ēgressus (line 1), admīrātiōne affectus (line 3), ad sē arcessītum (line 4), ad āram prōgressus (line 5), haec locūtus (line 7), occāsiōnem nactus (line 11), audāciā eius attonitī (lines 12–13), pavōre commōtus (line 13), in manū tenēns (line 14), haec locūtus (line 18), mātrem … amplexus (lines 18–19), haudquāquam resistentēs (line 20), populum … dētestātus (line 21). Note in particular how students cope with the examples where the participle and the noun in agreement occur in different sentences. Further practice of present participles is provided by exercise 2, p. 158. 2 The ceremony is not, properly speaking, a triumph, but has features in common with one. Ask students to suggest modern parallels. Use their suggestions to illustrate the several different aspects of the occasion: national (e.g. Fourth of July or Canada Day); religious (e.g. Hanukkah, Christmas, Diwali, Easter, Passover, or Ramadan); and victory celebration (e.g. the return of a World Series winning team or of Olympic winners to their home city).
About the language 3: more about purpose clauses (p. 156)
New language feature. Purpose clauses introduced by the relative pronoun and conjunctions other than ut. The examples given are introduced by quī and ubi. Discussion. Help students to recognize that the old man in example 1, and the woman in example 2, both acted with an intention, or purpose; the sentences do not indicate whether the intention was actually carried out. The subjunctive form of the verb is used to show this. Compare the sentence in paragraph 2 with: fēmina servum mīsit quī cibum ēmit. We use several different English expressions to express purpose. Generate as many different ways as possible of translating the examples in paragraph 3. Consolidation. See if students can identify those sentences on pp. 153 and 154 which express intention or purpose (either with ut or some other introductory word). Half the class could take p. 153 and half p. 154. The sentences are: inter eōs … esset (p. 153, lines 7–9). aderant … īnspicerent (p. 153, lines 13–14). Domitiānus … faceret … salūtāvit (p. 154, lines 1–2). inde … sacrificāret (p. 154, lines 5–6). Do not draw attention to nē … perīrētis (p. 150, lines 16–17), unless a student recognizes it as a purpose. If this happens, confirm that it is an intention to prevent other people from doing something, and ask them to look out for more examples in the coming stories. Practice recognition of the subjunctive by setting sentences in pairs for translation, basing them on paragraph 3, e.g.: sacerdōs haruspicem arcessīvit quī victimam īnspexit. sacerdōs haruspicem arcessīvit quī victimam īnspiceret. Haterius quīnque fabrōs ēlēgit quī figūrās in arcū sculperent. Haterius quīnque fabrōs ēlēgit quī figūrās in arcū sculpsērunt. Ask students what part of the verb appears when the personal endings are subtracted from the imperfect subjunctive (see p. 278). This may be a suitable moment at which to do exercise 1, p. 158.
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Illustration. Statue of Titus (British Museum). Do you think he shows any family likeness to Domitian (p. 258)? When Titus’ father, Vespasian, left Judea to become emperor, Titus successfully completed the Jewish War by taking Jerusalem. Thereafter he and Vespasian were virtually corulers of the empire. On Vespasian’s death, Titus was automatically declared prīnceps and enjoyed universal affection during his brief reign (June AD 79 to September AD 81).
Word patterns: compound verbs 1 (p. 157)
New language feature. Verbs formed with the prefixes dē-, ex-, and re-. Discussion. Ask students to work through the page for homework and go over their work in a subsequent lesson. The study of English derivatives in paragraph 5 may be extended by using examples from paragraphs 1–3.
Practicing the language (pp. 158–159)
Exercise 1. Complete the sentences with the imperfect subjunctive by adding the appropriate personal endings to the given infinitives. Less-able students may need help with this exercise. Exercise 2. Complete the sentences by selecting the correct participle from the alternatives provided. Exercise 3. Translate English sentences into Latin by selecting from the alternative Latin words provided. Explain your choice. Illustration. The arch of Titus today (note figures at left for scale). Ask students to compare this photograph with the line drawing on p. 168 and to identify what is missing. Note the decorative features: two winged Victories filling in the triangular spaces immediately above the curve of the arch, and a triumphal procession in the shade of the overhang just above them. The inscription reads as follows (brackets represent explanatory additions): SENATVS The senate POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS and the Roman people (give this arch) DIVO TITO DIVI VESPASIANI F(ILIO) to the Divine Titus, Divine Vespasian’s son, VESPASIANO AVGVSTO Vespasian Augustus DIVUS (divine) is the title given to a dead emperor who has been deified.
Cultural context material (pp. 160–165) There are three topics in the cultural material of this Stage: • the Roman Forum (best introduced with the model sentences and studied in more detail at appropriate points in the Stage); • the arch of Titus (see nox I and II, pp. 146–147, and arcus Titī I and II, pp. 153– 155); other public monuments and buildings; • the conquest of Judea by the Romans, which forms the background to the story told to Simon in Masada I and II, pp. 150–151.
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Further information The Roman Forum The students’ book indicates the location and functions of some of the major buildings of the Forum Rōmānum; it also suggests something of the Forum’s atmosphere and associations with Rome’s history. Students should relate the reading material to the plan which accompanies it and refer, where appropriate, to the pictures and model sentences at the beginning of the Stage. You can find further descriptions and illustrations in various guide and picture books purchased on site and in Dudley; Richardson A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome (1992); or Paoli (pp. 5–12), who is particularly lively and informative. Plautus Curculio, 470 ff., contains a vigorous and mildly bawdy description of the Forum and its occupants in the second century BC, when it was also a marketplace. Additional notes on some of the features of the Roman Forum: Capitoline hill: The spiritual and emotional center of Rome. By telling or asking the students to retell any of the associated legends, e.g. Tarpeia and the Tarpeian rock (Livy I.11), or the geese which warned of the Gallic invaders (Livy V.47), you might well illustrate the point that at the time of our stories, the Capitol was already a revered repository of religious and historical traditions stretching back over several centuries. On the summit was the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus or Iuppiter Optimus Maximus, the focus of the state religion; compare its dominant position with that of the temple of Jupiter in the Forum at Pompeii. The temple on the Capitoline was burned down during the civil war in AD 69; Tacitus (Histories III.72) conveys very forcibly the emotional shock caused by this event. Its replacement too was burned down in AD 80 and was being replaced still again at the time of the Stage 29 stories. The effectiveness of the Capitol as a symbol of Roman power and permanence was readily exploited by poets like Virgil (Aeneid IX.448–49) and Horace (Odes III.30.7–9). Basilica Iulia: The site of the Centumviral Court, specializing in inheritance cases, where the lawyer Pliny the Younger was frequently active. Rostra: The place where, occasionally, the heads of proscription victims were displayed, e.g. the head and hands of Cicero: ita relatum caput ad Antonium iussuque eius inter duas manus in rostris positum (Seneca Rhetor Suasoriae VI.17; see also Plutarch Cicero 49). Arch of Titus: Covered with triumphal inscriptions and reliefs, including representation of the procession celebrating the defeat of Jerusalem. A relief on the underside of the vault represents an eagle carrying Titus’ soul to heaven. The inscription reads SENATVS / POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS / DIVO TITO DIVI VESPASIANI F(ILIO) / VESPASIANO AVGVSTO: “The senate and people of Rome (dedicated this arch) to the deified Titus Vespasian Augustus, son of the deified Vespasian.” The elaborate bronze statue on the top which showed Vespasian and Titus in a four-horse chariot no longer exists. Titus died September 13th AD 81, but we are uncertain about the date of the dedication of the arch of Titus. Users are reminded that the historicity of the stories in the Cambridge Latin Course must be balanced against the need to produce engaging stories with a smooth narrative arc.
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The Arch of Titus Digital Restoration Project at Yeshiva University has used UV-VIS spectrometry to determine that the Menorah on the arch was colored with yellow or gold pigment, but analysis of the coloration of the rest of the arch is yet to be done. Temple of Vesta: Vesta was the Roman goddess of the hearth and of the fire on the hearth. Her state worship was in a relatively small round building whose circular plan reproduced the shape of the ancient Roman hut. It was burned down on several occasions and the building on the site today dates from the Severan period (end of the second century AD). Inside the temple was a sacred room which housed, among other things, the statue of Pallas Athena, supposedly carried off by Aeneas from Troy. This temple contained no image of Vesta but had a fire, symbolic of the eternal power of Rome, which was never allowed to go out. The sacred fire was tended and the service of Vesta maintained by a body of virgin priestesses, the Vestal Virgins, the only Roman female religious community. They lived together in a house (ātrium Vestae) southeast of the temple of Julius Caesar under the northwest side of the Palatine. There were normally six Vestals and they served for thirty years, during which time they had to remain virgins. They were regarded with great reverence and had many privileges, including freedom from their fathers’ authority, the escort of a lictor, and a place of honor at public games. Death was the penalty for injuring their person. During the Republic an unchaste Vestal was buried alive, a practice enforced also by the Emperor Domitian. After thirty years a priestess might leave the service of Vesta and marry. carcer: This was the oldest prison in Rome (Juvenal Satires III.312) and can still be visited on the eastern slope of the Capitoline hill to the right of the ascent from the Forum. The prison consists of an oblong upper room and a smaller underground circular dungeon with access originally only through a hole in the ceiling. The structure of the prison reveals its antiquity – it was built before the arch was used in Roman architecture. During each triumph, in the course of the procession up to the Capitol, the victorious general paused near the prison until word was brought to him that some of his principal captives had been put to death. In the Middle Ages the prison came to be called the Mamertine Prison after a statue of Mars which stood nearby. It was in the lower vault of the dread prison that enemies of Rome died of starvation or were executed by strangulation. Some of the more famous prisoners were Jugurtha, Vercingetorix, Lentulus, and other accomplices in the Catilinarian conspiracy, and Tiberius’ fallen favorite, Sejanus (Tacitus Histories III.74, 85; Sallust Catilina 55; Suetonius Tiberius 61, and Vitellius 17). According to the tradition of the Roman Catholic Church, St Peter and St Paul were imprisoned here in the time of Nero. Today the prison is a chapel, S. Pietro in Carcere. You might mention other Forum sites with historical or legendary associations. The Shrine of Venus Cloacina (so called because it stood close to the point where the Cloaca Maxima passes beneath the Forum) is located in front of the Basilica Aemilia, where according to tradition Verginius killed his daughter Verginia to save her virginity (Livy III.48). By the Basilica Aemilia stands the podium of the temple of Julius Caesar, which was built to honor the deified Caesar on the spot where his body was cremated in 44 BC (Suetonius Caesar 84.3–4). The three columns just to the south of the temple of Julius
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Caesar are the remains of the temple of Castor and Pollux, built to commemorate the victory which the Romans, with the help of the heavenly Gemini, Castor and Pollux, won over the Latin peoples at Lake Regillus (Livy II.19–20). There is an excellent map of the Forum with accompanying gazetteer in Cunliffe Rome and her Empire (1978, OP; pp. 124– 125). Rome and Judea The story of the last days of Masada which is told on pp. 150–151 is based on the account given by the historian, Josephus. He claimed to have talked to the two women who had hidden underground with their children and who subsequently surrendered to the Roman soldiers. In 1963–1965 the site of Masada was excavated by a team of archaeologists led by Yigael Yadin. Remains of five Roman camps encircling Masada and a huge ramp to the top of the fortified hill verify those details of Josephus’ account. One other find was a group of eleven small pottery fragments, each bearing a single name. One has “ben Ya”ir” written on it and this may refer to Eleazar. However, there is no firm evidence to connect the fragments to the lots that, according to Josephus, were drawn by the Jewish defenders. More recent excavations and the scarcity of human remains have raised some doubts about other aspects of Josephus’ account. See Ben-Yehuda et al., Appendix B. After the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, Titus returned to Rome with prisoners and the Temple treasure to celebrate a triumph with his father. According to Josephus (VII.157), Vespasian built a temple of Peace in which he housed the Jewish treasures, except for the Law and the drapes which he put in his palace. Titus succeeded Vespasian as emperor in AD 79, but died less than three years later. To commemorate his brother’s victory over the Jews, Domitian dedicated a triumphal arch in the Forum some time after his death. The story about the procession is fictitious, but it is possible that the Temple treasures, which are shown on the arch, were again paraded through the streets of Rome. After the extravagances of Nero, the great fire, and a disastrous civil war, Vespasian gained a throne with a financial deficit. One theory (see Feldman, L. “Financing the Colosseum” Biblical Archaeology Review (2001) 18–31) suggests that the Flavians may have paid for their lavish building programs, including the costly amphitheater, with some of the plunder from the Temple at Jerusalem. However, Josephus never hinted at this, and it is known that the treasure or some parts of it remained in Rome until the city was sacked by the Vandals in the fifth century. The treasures were taken then to North Africa, later to Constantinople, and finally to a church in Jerusalem where they remained until the seventh century. What happened to them after that remains a mystery. (Notes to Penguin edition translation of Josephus (p. 456). See Appendix B.)
Illustrations pp. 160–161 ● Three views of the Roman Forum. Plan and photograph are both seen from the Palatine; the reconstruction looks toward the Palatine, from point 7 on the plan. In the photograph, the group of columns at the top left belongs to the temples of Saturn and Vespasian. Center left is the corner of the Basilica Iulia. Nearer stand the base and three columns of the temple of Castor and Pollux. To the right of that temple are the white marble remains of the temple of Vesta (lower right) with the foundations of the temple of Julius Caesar just behind. A white archway STAGE 29 115
leads into the Basilica Aemilia. The roofed building is the curia, near the arch of Severus (built after the time of our stories). The brick senate-house (8) had a marble portico in front but above the line of vision was, like so many Roman buildings, coated in stucco to imitate marble. The lower part of the darker stone building (top left of photograph) is what remains of the Tabularium, the public record office. The imperial fora are underneath and beyond the trees (top right). p. 162 ● The Sacred Way, paved with hard volcanic stone, winding up to the arch of Titus which is here seen from the Forum, the opposite direction from earlier illustrations. The inscription on this side is modern, recording those who reconstructed the arch in 1822, using travertine stone to distinguish it from the original work in Pentelic marble. ● A reconstructed fragment of the temple of Vesta (a circular temple which housed the sacred flame and was symbolic of the eternal power of Rome), with the house of the Vestal Virgins in the background. They held a privileged position in Roman society, enjoying, for instance, front seats at the games, but any infringement of their virginity was punishable by being immured alive. There were six vestals, selected at the age of 6–10 from noble families, who served for thirty years and were then free to return to private life, even to marry, although few were willing to sacrifice their status for the subordinate role of a Roman wife. ● Inside the prison. This circular Etruscan water cistern, with a hole in the roof for lowering a bucket, became the Roman death cell, and was described by the Roman historian, Sallust, writing in 40 BC, as “repugnant and fearsome from neglect, darkness and stench.” It was the place where convicted enemies of the state were strangled, if they were not publicly thrown off the Tarpeian rock. It is now a Christian chapel because it was the place of imprisonment of Saints Peter and Paul. p. 163 ● Remains of a synagogue on the rock of Masada. Built as palace stables by Herod the Great, it was later turned into a synagogue for 250 people by the addition of tiers of benches. ● Baths at Masada, with floor raised over hypocaust, and flues in walls, showing that the Jewish palace enjoyed the luxuries of the Roman world. ● Pottery shard with the name ben Ya”ir (son of Ya”ir), Masada. Eleven potshards were found near the warehouses beside the great bath house. Each one bears a name written in ink. p. 164 ● Masada, showing the snake path on the left or eastern side. In ancient times this was the only access to Masada. The tortuous climb of 200 feet (60 meters) takes about fifty minutes. ● The view from Masada looking down at the camp which was Silva’s headquarters. One of a ring of eight, it has the typical shape of a Roman camp. Note the curving protective barrier at the entrance, and the inner camp. p. 165 The rock of Masada seen from the north. Between Masada and the Dead Sea lie desert badlands. The summit of Masada is a flat plateau, shaped like a ship’s deck. It measures almost 2,000 feet (610 meters) from north to south. The entire plateau was surrounded by a fortified wall built on the edge of a sheer drop. Masada was designed to withstand a lengthy siege. Many cisterns and caves were cut into the
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cliff sides and plastered to prevent water seep. Overlooking the eastern cliff (on the left in the photo), Herod’s engineers constructed a large complex of elongated rectangular storehouses, each of which housed a certain basic commodity: stores of tin and other metals, wine, oil, flour, dates, nuts, olives, salt, and dried fruit. Note Herod’s Western Palace on the right. Near there can be seen the top of the Roman ramp. p. 166 A coin (much enlarged), minted by Emperor Vespasian, to celebrate Titus’ victory at Jerusalem (Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge). Judea, personified as a conquered woman, sits with covered and bowed head. The inscription reads iudaea capta s(enatus) c(onsulto) (Judea captured. [Issued] by decree of the senate.)
Suggestions for further activities
1 You are a Roman citizen at the dedication of the arch of Titus, standing next to an Egyptian visitor, who had experience of riots against the Jews in Alexandria. Explain what is going on and what it means. 2 You are a Jewish general. You led resistance against the Romans. When your city fell, part way through the war, Titus treated you well and you now live in Rome as a friend of the imperial family. Although you are still a Jew by faith, you have changed your name from Joseph ben Matthias to Flavius Josephus. You plan to write a book about the Jewish War. Draw up a summary for your book, using the information on pp. 163–165 to explain: • why the Jews rebelled, • what the Roman army did when Jerusalem fell, • what you felt when you were captured, • how you found out about the end of the war at Masada, and • your feelings about your own change of fortune and about the dedication of the arch. When you have finished your summary, read Josephus’ story of his capture in The Jewish War trans. G. Williamson (Penguin Classics, pp. 220–222). 3 Make an annotated plan of the Forum and include it in a portfolio of work (to be developed during Stages 30 and 31) about buildings in Rome in the first century AD. Make notes about materials and methods of construction, where the buildings stood in the city, what they were used for, and what effect they might have had on the citizens. Students will find The Ancient City by Peter Connolly and Hazel Dodge very helpful. 4 Working in groups of four to five, choose and research a building or monument in the Roman Forum. Present to the class your findings, including at least one visual representation. Be prepared to locate and attach your visual on a mural which, as each group presents, will build up a “tourist map” of the Roman Forum.
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Vocabulary checklist (p. 166)
mālō is a combination of magis + volō. If one wants something more, then one prefers it. ōdī is a defective verb. It exists only in the perfect tenses, yet is translated as present. Something which is perfect has been thoroughly done (per + facere).
Phrases for discussion Senatus Populusque Romanus salus populi suprema lex esto – motto of Missouri
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STAGE 30: Haterius Cultural context Roman building techniques. Story line While Salvius enjoys the emperor’s approval, Haterius feels betrayed because he has not received a reward promised by Salvius. Prompted by his wife, Vitellia, Haterius escorts Salvius to his building site and takes him up in his crane for a view of Rome. Salvius, terrified but cunning still, sells Haterius a plot of land for a prestigious tomb. Dazzled by the vision of a grand and enduring memorial, Haterius fails to pursue the question of the priesthood.
Sentence pattern continued use of complex sentence structure e.g. volō ad summōs honōrēs pervenīre, sīcut illī Hateriī quī abhinc multōs annōs cōnsulēs factī sunt. tum fabrīs imperāvit ut fūnēs, quī ad tignum adligātī erant, summīs vīribus traherent. Word patterns Nouns ending in -tās and related adjectives. Focus of exercises 1 Present and imperfect active and passive. 2 Agreement of perfect passive participles. 3 Pluperfect subjunctive.
Main language features • perfect passive indicative, all persons e.g. heri arcus meus dēdicātus est. • pluperfect passive indicative, all persons e.g. ibi stābat ingēns polyspaston quod ā fabrīs parātum erat.
Opening page (p. 167)
Illustration. Carving from the monument of the Haterii, a very elaborate tomb three miles outside Rome on the Via Labicana (Vatican Museum). An example of popular art, ornate and elaborate in detail, with characteristic out-of-scale figures, in contrast with the restrained elegance and stylized realism of official monuments. The carving shows a mausoleum being built with the aid of a crane and, crammed in above, the lying-in-state of a dead person, with a bent old woman sacrificing before a flaming altar. The mausoleum is decorated with portraits of some of the people to be buried inside. The crane (explained on p. 179) was probably worked by an experienced gang of free workmen, since it required steady and skilled operation. The mausoleum is shown completed, and men have climbed the steps running up the jib of the crane and attached a spray of greenery to symbolize the end of building work (Jean-Pierre Adam in Roman Building). Visible are: two men on the ground holding ropes to brake the crane; lifting ropes, which go down behind the wheel, so that any load is out of sight; vegetation being tied on with a reef knot; the ropes to the pulleys which are supporting guys for the crane, to rock it back and forth, not for lifting. Tombs often show a door ajar into the next world (bottom right). Behind the balustrade (bottom left) is a dome-shaped altar like that pictured on a saucepan handle in Bath (p. 1).
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The tomb of the Haterii also shows carvings of the Colosseum, the arch of Titus and another triumphal arch. This, with the carving of the crane, suggests that at least one of the Haterii was a builder and involved in the construction of prestigious monuments. The Haterius of our stories is imagined as this builder, but the details of the narrative are fictitious.
Illustration (p. 168) An impressionistic drawing of the completed arch showing the interior. Note the coffered ceiling and the carving in the center, which shows Titus being borne to heaven on the back of an eagle; the carvings of the triumphal procession (see p. 153) inside the archway; the figures which probably stood on the top of the completed arch; and the view of buildings beyond the arch, looking toward the Forum. The drawing sets the scene for the model sentences and for the first story, dignitās, from which the caption (bottom of p. 168) is taken.
Model sentences (p. 169)
Story. After the dedication, crowds gather to admire the arch of Titus. Haterius looks forward to the reward promised him by Salvius but, as time passes, begins to worry that he has been deceived. New language feature. Perfect passive indicative, 3rd person singular (masculine and neuter), with one 1st person example. 3rd person plural forms are introduced in the following story. First reading. After a lively Latin reading, the model sentences are easy to understand in the light of the Stage 29 stories and Salvius’ character. Discussion. Producing a correct translation of the new forms is more challenging. Use temporal adverbs heri, nūper, adhūc (“What happened yesterday?” etc.) to guide students to a correct translation (was dedicated … was promised … was praised … has been sent, have been deceived). Do not comment on the verb forms unless students query the translation of est by a past tense. If they do, confirm that it is acceptable to translate dēdicātus est by was dedicated, and missum est by has been sent. If they probe further, use the explanation given in About the language 1, below (p. 123). Normally, you should postpone linguistic comment until the students have met a few more examples of perfect passives in a related context. Consolidation. Use these sentences to link the events of Stages 29 and 30. Haterius is at first euphoric at the praise heaped on his arch, then uneasy at the nonappearance of the promised reward. By the start of the first story in Stage 30, he begins to realize that Salvius has deceived him, and he becomes furiously bitter. Students are likely to make extremely appropriate comments about Haterius’ last sentence. Return to check the translation of the model sentences in several ways (writing, oral work, with books open, with books closed, etc.) as you proceed with reading the rest of the Stage.
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dignitās (pp. 170–171)
Story. Haterius’ wife, Vitellia, discovers that he is furious because Salvius has not delivered the promised priesthood, a key to social advancement. She suggests taking Salvius up in the crane to impress him and jog his memory. First reading. This is a challenging story, and needs careful handling if it is not to stall. One approach is to steer the class through the dialogue as quickly as possible, ensuring that they understand the argument before they tackle the questions. Take the passage in three parts: Situations of Salvius and Haterius, lines 1–13. Your Latin reading will demonstrate the contrasting atmospheres. Divide the class into pairs and ask one student in each pair to study the first paragraph and the other the second. Establish by easy oral comprehension questions the feelings of the general public, Salvius and Haterius before setting the class to write down the answers to questions 1–7 on p. 171. Haterius’ grievance, lines 14–43. Steer the class through the dialogue briskly, but ensure that they understand the abstract theme. Each pair of speeches by Vitellia and Haterius make convenient sense units, i.e. lines 14–21, 22–26, 27–33, 34–43. Read each pair aloud, then establish the salient points by your own questions. Students will probably need help with the idea that Haterius is not content with amassing more wealth but is concerned only with social advancement and increased personal prestige. They may suggest modern parallels, in either the adult or the adolescent world, for sources and symbols of status. Probe for the implications of Vitellia’s speech (lines 37–41): “Who is of higher social standing, Vitellia or Haterius? What impression do you have of Vitellia’s personality?” Although the Vitellia in our stories is imagined, there is historical evidence that Salvius’ wife, Rufilla, was connected with the family of the Vitellii. See Unit 2 p. 19, and Unit 2 Teacher’s Manual p. 17. Vitellia’s plan, lines 44–48. Students may find the last two sentences difficult linguistically, but the sense is straightforward. After this preliminary treatment of the dialogue, students could attempt questions 8–15 for homework. nōbilissimā gente depending on nātam (line 36) represents a further extension of ablative usages, normally not a problem. Another small development is the use of the present participle in the genitive without an accompanying noun (grātulantium, line 7). As a parallel, you might refer to the sentence victōribus decōrum est victīs parcere from the stories in Stage 22 (p. 28, line 15 and p. 30, line 36), where the perfect participle was used substantively. There will be sporadic examples of this usage in coming stories. Keep grātulantium on hand as an example should students have problems.
Discussion topics 1 Why should Salvius be so pleased that the emperor praised Haterius (line 6)? 2 Why is it that Salvius, rather than Haterius, appears to have got what he wanted from the building of the arch? 3 How is Haterius’ mood in this story similar to that of Memor (p. 7), before Salvius arrives in Bath? How did Salvius treat Memor? Who gained more from the relationship? What is Haterius’ long-term ambition? Why does he have more influence over Salvius than Memor did? STAGE 30 121
Note: Haterius is a fictional character, suggested by the tomb of the Haterii. A rich and successful building contractor, he has improved his position by marrying a high-born wife whose sister is married to an up-and-coming political figure. Yet he is still disadvantaged by his modest origins in a minor branch of the Haterii, hence his desire for a priesthood. His cultivation of Salvius and his work on the arch have brought him the personal notice of the emperor, but not the permanent advancement he desires. 4 What does the title mean? To whom does it refer? Were Salvius and Haterius seeking different things, or were they both seeking the same thing? 5 What picture are we given of Vitellia? How does she compare with her sister, Rufilla? Note that she is more than a sympathetic wife. She is fully aware of the advantages that Haterius has gained by marrying into her aristocratic family. Her plan (lines 44–48) is not only novel and clever but also shows psychological insight: by getting Haterius to do something practical with his beloved crane, she gets him out of his frustration and anger.
Consolidation Ask students to prepare a brief passage for reading aloud in Latin, giving them a choice of atmospheric description (paragraphs 1 or 2), or characterization (Haterius or Vitellia). Encourage them to ask for help if they are not sure of the meaning, and make a note of any difficulties for subsequent work. This passage contains several irregular verbs: posset (line 10), possum (line 21), (in) tulit (line 22), es (line 27), esse (line 40), volō (line 39), nōlī (line 44). Ask students for the meaning of the example in the text and then, with the help of pp. 282–284, change one element of the verb at a time and ask for a translation of the form substituted, e.g. es means you are. What would be the meaning of sumus? erāmus? erimus? etc. After several short sessions of oral practice, students could revise the forms of these verbs for homework, concentrating on tense discrimination rather than the easier person discrimination. With textbooks open at p. 266, consolidate comparatives and superlatives by using the examples in this passage: plūrimī (line 3), nōtissimus (line 27), magnās (line 29), maximās (line 32), amplissima (line 34), dītissimus, nōbilissimā (line 35), optimum (line 44), maius, mīrābilius (line 46). For example, ask students: Which word would Vitellia have used if she had said “You are a very rich contractor”? Which words in the story mean “great, greater, greatest”? How would you translate optimum (line 44)? Which words on p. 266 mean “good” and “better”? In connection with the neuter forms in line 46, ask students to give you the English for examples which are already familiar to them, e.g. melius est tibi testāmentum facere (p.5); melius est tibi hunc senātōrem vidēre (p. 8); melius est mihi ad culīnam īre (p. 75). Now turn to the chart on p. 267 that sets out the declension of longior and longissimus, and look in particular at the neuter forms of longior. The comparison made in paragraph 4 with 3rd declension neuter nouns such as tempus may help to
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persuade students that the -ius ending is not a complete aberration. Follow up this session with further practice based on pp. 266–267. Students may need help with the examples in paragraph 5, p. 267. Check that students are recognizing and translating accurately examples of the perfect and pluperfect active before they study the forms and meanings of the passives.
About the language 1: perfect passive tense (p. 172)
New language feature. The perfect passive tense is introduced by comparison with the perfect active. Students have so far met examples of the 3rd person singular and plural, and two examples of the 1st person; this note explains and completes the tense. Discussion. Read through paragraph 1 with the class. Point out that, like the perfect active tense, the perfect passive has alternative English translations, and the context of a story will indicate which one to use. Ask the class to study the complete tense in paragraph 2. They should be able to tell you the two parts that make up the tense before reading the explanation in paragraph 3. If they query the use of the present tense of esse, explain that it is the perfect participle that affects the translation. It may be helpful to give the literal translation of portātus sum I am (in a state of) having been carried, i.e. I have been carried. The examples in paragraph 4, which are all masculine singular or plural, give students an opportunity to concentrate on the singular and plural forms. Ask for both translations of the verb. In handling paragraph 5, about gender agreement between verb and subject, it may be helpful to return to the verbs in model sentences 1 and 2 (dēdicātus est, prōmissum est, laudātus est, missum est, dēceptus sum), noticing how the participle agrees with arcus, praemium and ego. Consolidation. Ask students to pick out as many examples as possible of the perfect passive tense from p. 170 and ask for the appropriate translation: arcus … dēdicātus est (line 1); Salvius … gaudiō affectus est (line 5); vōcēs audītae sunt (lines 7–8); amīcī admissī sunt (line 8); ego … dēceptus sum (lines 23–24); praemium ... prōmissum est (line 25); arcus ... laudātus est (line 28); nihil … factum est (lines 46–47). In each case, ask students whether the participle is singular or plural.
polyspaston I (p. 173)
Story. Haterius takes Salvius to see the crane, and offers him a view over the city. With the workmen looking on, Salvius cannot refuse, but keeps his eyes shut tight as the crane is hoisted. First reading. Read the story in Latin, a paragraph at a time, checking students’ understanding with questions as you go, e.g.: When did Haterius take Salvius to his yard? What was his purpose? What was the foreman doing? When he saw the boss approaching, how did his behavior change? (lines 2–4) tōta ārea … erat (line 5). What does this sentence mean? Which word means noise? In which case is it? Three things were going on in the yard. What were they (lines 5–7)?
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Where did Haterius take Salvius to see the crane? How had it been prepared by the workmen? (lines 9–10) What did Haterius say his crane could offer Salvius (lines 12–14)? What made Salvius go pale? Why did he hide his fear? (lines 15–16) How were Haterius and Salvius raised to the sky? What did Salvius do while this was happening? (lines 18–20) The pluperfect passive is introduced in this passage. A language note follows. Students may translate it as a perfect tense, e.g. “was prepared” for parātum erat (line 10). Do not dismiss this out of hand as wrong, since English usage here is more flexible than Latin. Encourage students to rephrase more literally. Postpone discussion until after students have met the final example of a pluperfect passive (datus erat, Part II, line 22, which demands more obviously than the other examples an English pluperfect translation). Then, when students have completed the story, ask them to reexamine examples like parātum erat. If a student translates this as “was prepared,” ask “Do you mean “was being prepared”? If not, how could we make that clear in English?” Discussion. What do you think Vitellia expected to happen, when she suggested Haterius should show Salvius his crane? Do you think Haterius is in a strong position to secure the priesthood, now that he and Salvius are up in the air? Consolidation. If students have had difficulty with the long sentence sed … cōnsēdit (lines 15–17), the method of analysis suggested on p. 104 of this manual may be helpful. Set a written translation of lines 5–12: tōta ārea … polyspaston? Ask students to find one example each of: • purpose clause: ut … ostentāret (lines 1–2); • present participle: appropinquantem (line 3), labōrantium (line 5), dissimulāns (line 16); • perfect passive participle: occupātōs (line 8), fīxam (line 15), dēfīxōs (line 16), cōnfectus, clausīs (line 20); • indirect command: imperāvit ut … traherent (lines 18–19). Have these translated in the context of the complete sentence. strepitū … plēna (line 5) is a further extension of ablative usages. Note the absence of an agreeing noun or pronoun in the case of labōrantium (line 5) and cf. grātulantium in line 7 of dignitās. Pick out nouns from the text and ask students for their meaning and case. In particular make sure that the forms of the ablatives are recognized in preparation for the introduction of the ablative absolute in the next Stage. Spend a few minutes every lesson on this activity to develop confidence in recognition and analysis. If it seems necessary, develop further work from selected examples drawn from pp. 262–263 and 285.
** polyspaston II (p. 174)
Story. Exclaiming at the view, Salvius spots the new arch and recalls the emperor’s delight, provoking Haterius to demand the promised priesthood. Making the excuse that Domitian has not yet made up his mind, Salvius fobs him off with a burial plot. First reading. If you have already conducted a virtual tour of the city, the students will readily share Salvius’ excitement at what he sees. If you have not, this would be a good occasion for a visual supplement (website, videos, or textbook illustrations) of the story.
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Explore the passage through a lively Latin reading and comprehension questions. Let the subject matter determine the sections into which you divide the passage, e.g.: The view. Salvius … fulget! (lines 1–4). How does Salvius show his feelings when he opens his eyes? What can he see? Why does the arch stand out (lines 3–4)? The reward. Imperātor … exspectō (lines 4–12). What two things happened when the emperor saw the arch (lines 4–6)? What does Haterius say pleases him greatly (lines 7–8)? sed (line 8). What does this word suggest he is going to say next? Translate praemium … accēpī (lines 8–9). If you were reading this sentence aloud, which word(s) would you emphasize? What does Salvius say about the priesthood (lines 10–12)? Do you believe him? Why? The burial plot. aliquid … trādere possum (lines 12–20). aliquid … possum (line 12). What does intereā mean? Why is it an important word in the sentence? What does Salvius own (line 13)? Where is it situated (lines 13–14)? What does Salvius suggest to Haterius (lines 14–15)? Why does he mention the Metelli and the Scipiones? How does Haterius feel when he hears the offer (line 16)? Would you expect him to be quite so pleased at having to buy his reward? What does he envisage building on the plot of land (lines 17–19)? For whom? How will it be decorated? In what way will this satisfy his need for status (lines 19–20)? Why does this speech put Haterius in a weak bargaining position? The deal. prō agellō … contentus (lines 20–29). What sum does Haterius offer (line 21)? Why does Salvius smile (line 22)? Would he let Haterius see him smile? What comment does he make about the sum (line 23)? Why might this be true? What reason does Salvius give for doing Haterius a favor (lines 23–24)? What is the sum finally agreed (line 24)? What order did Haterius give to the workmen (line 27)? Which of the phrases, alter spē … pecūniā contentus (lines 28–29), applies to Haterius and which to Salvius? As the last part of the story contains some complex sentences, it is suggested that students should go over it before embarking on the questions for discussion. They could work in pairs on lines 10–29, one student translating Salvius’ speeches, the other Haterius’ speeches and the stage direction at the end.
Discussion Status. Which would you prefer, spēs immortālitātis or praesēns pecūnia? Is Haterius being reasonable in wanting his name remembered long after his death? Did he achieve this ambition (cf. illustrations pp. 167 and 175)? STAGE 30 125
Comedy. How would you describe the character of the story polyspaston (pp. 173– 174)? What elements in the story give you this impression, e.g. the depiction of Salvius, Haterius and even Glitus, the dialogue, the situation?
Illustration p. 175 Detail of two of the figures depicted on the Tomb of the Haterii (Gregorian Profane Museum, Vatican) (p. 167). The snake (left-hand portrait), sometimes kept as a pet in the ancient world, often appeared on lararia to represent the benevolent spirit of the dead. It symbolizes immortality because in shedding its skin it appears to be reincarnated. It is also associated with gods of healing and still forms part of medical symbolism. The heavily waved styling of the woman’s hair was in vogue among the middle classes, c. AD 100.
About the language 2: pluperfect passive tense (p. 175)
New language feature. The pluperfect passive is introduced by comparison with the pluperfect active, which was introduced in Stage 16. Discussion. Start by picking out on p. 173 those sentences describing the crane which contain the pluperfect passive, for translation and discussion with students: ibi stābat ingēns polyspaston quod ā fabrīs parātum erat (lines 9–10). in tignō polyspastī sēdēs fīxa erat (line 10). tum fabrīs imperāvit ut fūnēs, quī ad tignum adligātī erant, summīs vīribus traherent (lines 17–19). Elicit by questions the following points: Haterius and Salvius went into the yard (in the past). The workmen had prepared the crane before Haterius and Salvius entered the yard, and so the sentences describe a crane which had been prepared … a seat had been fixed … ropes which had been tied to the beam. Help students with an analysis as follows: “parātum means ‘having been prepared’ and erat means ‘was,’ so parātum erat means ‘was (in a state of) having been prepared,’ i.e. ‘had been prepared.’ ” Then study p. 175, paragraphs 1 and 2. Note that the second part of the tense is the imperfect of esse and compare it with the ending of the pluperfect active. Put up the perfect passive portātus sum, so that students can comment on the formation of the two tenses. In introducing paragraph 3, remind students that pluperfect verbs usually occur in conjunction with other past tenses (as in the story) where they are easier to recognize. These examples are isolated and short to enable them to focus on the new form and learn it. Consolidation. Using familiar vocabulary, provide examples for practicing the perfect and pluperfect passive, e.g.: arcus, in quō figūrae sculptae erant, ante lūcem perfectus est. quamquam arcus ab omnibus laudātus erat, nūllum praemium Hateriō datum est. Vitellia, quod īrā marītī affecta erat, cōnsilium cēpit. Salviō polyspaston dēmōnstrātum est. polyspaston ā fabrīs parātum erat. sēdēs in tignō fīxa erat; fūnēs ad tignum adligātī erant.
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Salvius et Haterius igitur fūnibus ad caelum sublātī sunt. Salvius, quod magnopere timōre affectus erat, Hateriō dōnum prōmīsit. ambō ad terram ā fabrīs dēmissī sunt. These sentences could be set for a written homework and kept for future reference. Review these sentences, asking students to state whether the participle is singular or plural and the reason. If you have not done so before, this would be a good moment to discuss the gender of the participle. Continue in the coming stories to draw attention to passive forms of the perfect and pluperfect, and elicit a range of translations. There are more examples on p. 277.
Word patterns: adjectives and nouns (p. 176)
New language feature. Abstract nouns ending in -tās, formed from adjectives. Discussion. Ask students to study the examples in pairs and discuss their conclusions. Illustration. Detail from mosaic showing a Roman builder surrounded by the symbols of his trade. Many of our modern hand-tools have been inherited almost unchanged from those used by Roman craftsmen (Bardo Museum, Tunis).
Practicing the language (p. 177)
Exercise 1. Translate the sentences and state whether the verb is present or imperfect, active or passive. Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the participle. Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with the pluperfect subjunctive by generating the most suitable personal ending. (You may receive a range of less obvious answers which should nevertheless be credited as long as students translate them correctly, e.g. (b) spectāvissēmus; (c) īnspexissent; (e) vīdissem.)
Cultural context material (pp. 178–181)
Content. This section describes Roman building techniques, and explains how the invention of concrete made construction quicker, cheaper, and more versatile.
Suggestions for discussion The following questions could also serve as headings for notes. What would have been the roles of the contractor, architect, and subcontractors in building the arch of Titus? What different kinds of workmen were needed? What tools were available to Roman workmen? How did they differ from modern tools? (Very little except that there were no power tools. See the illustrations on pp. 176 and 180.) Why did you need a skilled crew to erect and work a crane? Explain the difference between cement and concrete. How did the Romans conceal the concrete core of their buildings?
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Further information There is a wealth of reference material available on Roman buildings and engineering (see Appendix B), much of which is suitable for use by students. Where possible, students should study and report on building methods and materials of a particular building or structure; e.g. the interior of the Flavian amphitheater or the Pont du Gard will illustrate spectacularly how the principle of the arch was exploited by the Romans. See Tacitus Annals XV.38 for a description of the fire of AD 64. See Juvenal Satires III.193 ff. for his description of the houses of the poor. Illustrations p. 178 A series of wooden “profiles,” made by a carpenter, with planks fixed across them, support the arch until the keystone makes it self-supporting. The architect designed the arch with a stone projection to support the wooden frame in order to avoid the use of scaffolding. p. 179 Detail from photo on p. 167. This particular crane is a very heavy-duty machine. The carving is very fine and detailed. Note, for example, the reef knot the workmen are tying; the pulleys on the heavy stay ropes; the men walking inside the treadmill, turning the “cage”; one man walking the spokes to help maintain balance. p. 180 Roman trowel from Verulamium, Britain (Verulamium Museum, St Albans). It was discovered encased upside-down in concrete where it had been left by mistake. The wooden handle has rotted away leaving the spike and metal collar (left). p. 181 ● Winter baths, Thuburbo Maius, Tunisia (top left). ● Flavian amphitheater (top and bottom right). It was begun in AD 72 under Vespasian, inaugurated by Emperor Titus in AD 80, and completed by Emperor Domitian. The amphitheater consisted of four floors. The first three were built with arches and decorated with half-columns of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders respectively. The top floor had rectangular windows instead of arches. On each of the first three levels there were eighty passageways. The external part of the amphitheater and much of the interior was built in travertine stone. The blocks were held together with pins of iron and other metals. Inside, now visible beneath the arena, are the walls and vaults of the cells which housed men and animals which were raised by elevators and appeared in the arena through trap doors. Until the eighteenth century, the structure was extensively robbed of its metal and building stone. This amphitheater, the largest of all Roman amphitheaters, is a marvel of design. The load-bearing structure is made of hewn stone blocks of travertine connected by tufa and brick masonry, while the vaults between one wall and the next are cast in concrete. The first three stories of the outer ring have arches that supported one another, distributing the weight of the building on the foundations in a perfectly balanced way. ● Oculus of the Pantheon (bottom left). The Pantheon was built by Agrippa between 27 and 25 BC and restored by Domitian after the fire of AD 80. The present-day building is a Hadrianic reconstruction. The oculus, or skylighthole, in the center of the Pantheon dome is nearly 30 feet (9 meters) across and is the dome’s only source of light. The brickwork ring around it acts as the keystone for the vault. The concrete of the dome is in horizontal layers containing different material; e.g. volcanic rock, which is comparatively light, 128 STAGE 30
was used toward the top. The minimum thickness is 5 feet (1.5 meters). The square coffers (recesses), which also helped lighten the load of the dome, were originally enriched with stucco moldings, painted and gilded. A bronze flower occupied the center of each coffer. The Pantheon is the best-preserved Roman building and one of the greatest achievements in world architecture. p. 182 Stamp-in seal from a Roman brick (British Museum). From the mid-first century, seals were used on certain roof tiles and bricks. The seals contained information regarding the clay quarry, the factory, and the manufacturer’s name or the name of the supervisory consuls. The seals are therefore of great importance in dating all the parts of a building, whether original or the result of successive restorations. The inscription reads: IMP ANTONINO II E(T) BALBIN COS D(E) P(RAEDIIS) Q(VINTI) S(ERVILII) P(VDENTIS) D(OLIARE) O(PVS) ARABI SER(VI). This indicates that the slave (SER) potter Arabus (ARABI) made the brick on the estates of Quintus Servilius Pudens during the second consulship of Antoninus Pius with Balbinus as colleague. The archaeologist cut out the stamp and threw away the rest of the brick.
Suggestions for further activities
1 Imagine yourself as a member of Haterius’ building crew and write a first-person account of the construction of the arch of Titus, including the final efforts to get it finished on time. Use the information in the stories and cultural context material of Stages 29 and 30 and any other reference material available to you. 2 With the help of reference material, research particular building techniques (e.g. arch or dome) or buildings (e.g. Pantheon) and present your findings in the form of a diagram, computer program, or model. (If the academic program does not allow time to build models, students may do them in vacations and exhibit them during foreignlanguage field days or enter them in such competitions as Junior Classical League Conventions or Ontario Student Classics Conferences.) 3 Working in groups of two or three, choose and research a building or monument in ancient Rome. Present your findings to the class using visuals, skits, or other forms of capture technique, and some type of summary or reinforcement at the conclusion (e.g. a quiz, a matching exercise, etc.).
Vocabulary checklist (p. 182)
quārē is a combination of quā + rē; literally it means “by what thing.”
Phrases for discussion neminem pecunia divitem fecit – Seneca divitiae pariunt curas iniuria non excusat iniuriam finis coronat opus hoc opus, hic labor est – Virgil magnum opus opus superabat materiam – Ovid nihil novi sub sole – Ecclesiastes STAGE 30 129
STAGE 31: in urbe Cultural context The city of Rome, its splendor and squalor. Patronage and Roman society: duties of patrons and clients; the salūtātiō.
Story line Euphrosyne, a Greek female philosopher, sent for by Haterius’ lifestyle adviser, arrives in Rome and travels from the Tiber through the Subura. She witnesses the salūtātiō at Haterius’ house. The herald rebuffs the efforts of Euphrosyne and her slave to gain admittance and the slave is assaulted. Euphrosyne counsels patience.
Sentence pattern increased variety in word order in sentences using passive voice e.g. ā crepidāriīs calceī reficiēbantur.
Main language features • ablative absolute e.g. sōle occidente, saccāriī ā tabernā ēbriī discessērunt, omnī pecūniā cōnsūmptā.
nē in indirect commands and purpose clauses e.g. servum iussit festīnāre nē domum Hateriī tardius pervenīrent.
Word patterns Compound verbs with ab-, circum-, and in-. Focus of exercises 1 Perfect and pluperfect passive. 2 Singular and plural forms of nouns. 3 Selection of correct verb, noun, or participle by sense.
Opening page (p. 183)
Illustration. Docker transporting amphora from merchant ship (right) to riverboat (left) for transport to Rome (detail from mosaic in Square of the Corporations, Ostia). Cargo from large seagoing ships had to be offloaded at Ostia onto smaller vessels for the trip up the river Tiber to Rome. Note the mast (left) which was used for attaching towing ropes, and the fact that the docker is going across a plank laid between the ship and the boat. A more complete picture of a riverboat can be seen on p. 196.
Model sentences (pp. 184–185)
Story. A typical day on the Roman waterfront. A ship berths, dockers unload its cargo of grain onto the quayside, the captain pays them off, and they make for the nearest bar. As night falls, they leave the bar the worse for wear, all money spent. New vocabulary. illūcēscēbat, saccāriī, expōnere, magister (new meaning), distribuit, occidere. First reading. First clarify what the line drawings are showing, so that students approach the Latin with a correct idea of the story line, e.g.: Sentence 1. What time of day is it? Sentence 2. Where are we? Sentence 3. What has arrived? What are the sailors on the right doing? Sentence 4. What is happening in this picture? Sentence 5. What is the captain doing? Sentence 6. Where are the men going? Sentence 7. What time of day is it now?
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Sentence 8. What are the men doing here? What has happened to the contents of the bag in drawing 5? Read sentences 1 and 2 in Latin and ask for a translation, and repeat the process for each subsequent sentence. Understanding usually comes easily as each ablative absolute follows a complete sentence describing the same occurrence, e.g. diē illūcēscente follows diēs illūcēscēbat. Students often suggest a range of translations for the ablative absolute (After the grain was unloaded …, Once …, Since …, Because …, etc.), and all correct translations should be accepted. Discussion. At second reading, put up one or two examples of the ablative absolute and, beside them, all the acceptable translations which are offered. Invite comments and encourage students to recognize that the phrases 1 are in the ablative case; 2 are a “shorthand” in Latin, which needs to be extended in English with words that make sense of the sentence, e.g. while, when, after, since, etc. Then ask students to translate the remaining examples. If necessary, use clues in the drawings to establish the correct relationship between the two parts of the sentence, e.g. “When did the captain pay the dockers?” “When did the dockers leave the bar?” If students have difficulty in translating the present participle, e.g. in sentence 8, ask them if the sun has already set or is still doing so, and elicit the translation was setting. Recognition of the present participle and a literal translation of the phrase, with the sun setting, may also help. Illustrations. Schematic drawings showing the Tiber dockside at Rome, with a warehouse behind and, in 5–8, a bar.
adventus (p. 186)
Story. Arriving by ship from Greece, an attractive girl with a letter for Haterius makes her way through Rome in the early morning.
First reading Paragraphs 1–3: Set the scene by discussing the illustration of the quayside scene (see note below), comparing it with the photographs on pp. 195–196. Ask for the meaning of the title adventus and then read the first paragraph aloud in Latin, pausing after each phrase to ask a question or to request a translation so that students quickly gather a significant amount of meaning during the initial reading. At the end of the paragraph, ask a question that makes students summarize or reflect on the paragraph as a whole, e.g. “What would strike you about Rome so early in the day?” Continue with paragraphs 2 and 3 in the same way. After paragraph 2 bring the new characters to life by asking students for their impressions of the drawing on p. 188. Speculate on the contents of the letter to Haterius. At the end of paragraph 3 ask: “What was the girl’s first reaction to the Subura? What was going on there to account for this? What impression do you have of the girl in lines 16–19?” Students could then make individual translations for discussion in the next lesson, choosing paragraphs 1–2, or paragraph 3. STAGE 31 131
Paragraph 4: Read in Latin with expression, and then ask students to work out a translation in pairs. Encourage them to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words before looking them up, and underline those they do look up. As you move round helping the pairs, you will be able to make a note of common words they did not recall, for later vocabulary practice.
Discussion 1 Read The city of Rome (pp. 195–198) and trace Euphrosyne’s route on the plan (p. 196). The questions on p. 137 of this manual may be used as a basis for discussion and as headings for notes. 2 Return to adventus and ask students to find words used by the writer to convey: the life of the poor: pauperēs … traherent (lines 13–14), mendīcī … postulantēs (lines 14–15), aliī … dēnsa (lines 21–23); the noise of the city: clāmōribus hominum (line 11), mendīcī … postulantēs (lines 14–15), fabrī clāmāre coepērunt (lines 15–16), verbīs scurrīlibus appellāvērunt (lines 16–17); the difficulty of movement: tanta … prōcēderet (lines 11–12), dīvitēs … lectīcīs vehēbantur (line 14), mendīcī … circumveniēbant (lines 14–15), multī … contendēbant (line 20), eīs … dēnsa (lines 22–23), hūc illūc … obstābant (lines 25–26). 3 Compare this daytime scene with the picture of Rome at night (nox I, p. 146), making two lists of contrasting activities, perhaps subdivided into those of rich and poor. 4 Which aspects of the scene would you find in a great city today and which only in ancient Rome? Consolidation Ask for a translation of the imperfect passives (expōnēbātur, line 3; dūcēbantur, line 4; portābantur, line 8; vehēbantur, line 14) and the pluperfect passive (importātī erant, line 4) and use them as a basis for oral practice, keeping the person and voice constant, but varying the tense, e.g. “If portābantur means they were being carried, what does portātī sunt mean?” Put up for translation and discussion examples of the ablative case with the verb: multitūdine clāmōribusque … obstupefacta est (lines 10–11); dīvitēs … lectīcīs vehēbantur (line 14); puellam verbīs scurrīlibus appellāvērunt (lines 16–17). Illustrations p. 186 ● A seagoing boat unloading at Tiber Island (called by the Romans īnsula inter duōs pontēs), with the Pons Fabricius (dates from 62 BC) in the background. Note the temple of Aesculapius, god of healing (no trace survives, but it was probably on the site of the church of St Bartholomew at the downstream end); and the downstream end of the island carved in the first century BC in the shape of the prow of a ship. The carving and the temple commemorate a miraculous event. After a plague the Romans sent to Epidaurus for the statue of Aesculapius. As the ship with the statue approached the island, a huge serpent was seen to leave it and swim to the island. The serpent was taken to be an incarnation of the god himself and the island thus became the site of the temple and the carving. 132 STAGE 31
p.187 ● Plan taken from the model (p. 143). The city grew up at the point where the Tiber Island at the bend of the river (far left) made crossing easiest. The Seven Hills, though not obvious from this viewpoint, influenced the disposition of the city, e.g.: a the Palatine hill (overlooking the Circus in one direction, the Forum in the other) contained the imperial palace and government buildings of architectural splendor; b the Esquiline and the other airy hilltops (bottom and far right) were occupied by the homes of the rich; c the poor were crowded into the notorious area of the Subura (top center left) and the low, swampy ground between the hills. See also the plan on p. 196.
** salūtātiō I (pp. 188–189)
Story. Arriving at Haterius’ house, the girl and her slave watch the herald handling the throng of morning callers. First reading. To help students appreciate this story, study Patronage and Roman society (pp. 199–201) in conjunction with it. The story can, if necessary, be broken down into four parts: First impressions, lines 1–6: questions 1–4; The herald, lines 6–11: questions 5–8; The fortunate, lines 12–23: questions 9–12; The unfortunate, lines 24–29: questions 13–14. Question 15 asks students to identify instances of the patronage system at work. It could be extended to general review of the cultural context. Read the passage in Latin before asking students to attempt the questions.
Discussion This is a good place to explain the use of nē in indirect commands and purpose clauses. Put up the example in the story: clientēs, nē sportulam āmitterent, dēnāriōs rapere temptāvērunt (lines 26–27) and ask students to translate and identify the purpose clause. Follow this up with the previous example of an indirect command: hic … fabrīs … imperāvit nē labōre dēsisterent (nox II, p. 146, lines 5–7) and, if there is time, with two further examples: dē morte patris … nārrāre nōlēbam nē vōs quoque perīrētis (p. 150, lines 16–17) servum iussit festīnāre nē domum Hateriī tardius pervenīrent (p. 186, lines 18–19) Then turn to About the language 2, p. 194. See p. 136 of this manual. Consolidation. To draw attention to the ablative absolutes, ask students to find the Latin for: with their eyes fixed on the door (line 2), with her slave standing at her side (line 3), when the door suddenly opened (line 7), after seeing the herald (line 9), when everyone was silent (line 12), after hearing their names (line 17), their eyes fixed on the herald’s face (line 18), after saying these words (line 26).
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Collect expressions of time: prīmā hōrā (line 1), illā hōrā (line 5), nōnā hōrā (line 22), tertiā hōrā (line 25), and remind the class of this use of the ablative. Ask them for the approximate modern equivalents of the Roman hours (see p. 105 of this manual). Balsdon, Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome, pp. 16–18 gives an interesting detailed account. Ask students to look at the sentences containing sē (lines 10 and 27), and suās (line 13) and suīs (line 17), and work out who is being referred to in each case. Illustration. Line drawing of Euphrosyne and the clients outside Haterius’ house. Note the balconies and large homes typical of the wealthy Esquiline area and the typical heavy, strong door reinforced by ironwork. The houses of some important families in Pompeii had permanent benches for their clients built beside the front door right on the sidewalk. Perhaps the same was true in Rome, but Haterius provides no such luxury.
salūtātiō II (p. 190)
Story. The herald shuts the door, refusing admission to any more visitors that day. The slave knocks and introduces his mistress as a philosopher summoned from Greece by Eryllus, Haterius’ lifestyle adviser. The herald derides Eryllus and knocks the slave down. First reading. Take the story in two parts, breaking at line 12. Read each section dramatically in Latin and ask students to tell you what they have gleaned from the reading. Then read it aloud again and ask them to explore the section in pairs. They may need help with lines 1–3, especially the dative praecōnī regressō; lines 14–16 and 24–25. You could put a mixture of hints on the board, e.g.: lines 1–3. Who returned? Who spoke to whom? lines 14–16. Eryllus epistulam ad Chrȳsogonum scrīpsit. Eryllus Chrȳsogonum rogāvit ut philosopham mitteret. lines 24–25. nōlī dēspērāre! dēbēmus necesse est nōbīs crās revenīre. Divide the class into groups of four and ask them to give a dramatized reading in Latin or English. You need a narrator, slave, herald, and Euphrosyne.
Discussion 1 Why did Euphrosyne come to Rome? 2 Why did the herald refuse to admit her? 3 What did the herald think of Eryllus? What was Eryllus’ job? (Note: the Emperor Nero had an arbiter ēlegantiae whose job was to keep abreast of fashion and advise his master.) How do people learn about fashion and taste these days? 4 How often does the herald use the word “order” or “command”? How do you think the herald got away with this behavior to Roman citizens? Where might Haterius himself be at this time of the salūtātiō? 5 What do you think of the various pieces of advice Euphrosyne gives to her slave after he is thrown in the mud?
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Note on Euphrosyne: She is a fictional character, based on a historical figure mentioned in the following inscription which was found in Rome (Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 7783): EVPHROSYNE PIA Good Euphrosyne (Greek name means Joy) DOCTA NOVEM MVSIS learned in the nine muses PHILOSOPHA a philosopher V(IXIT) A(NNIS) XX. lived 20 years.
Consolidation Pick out the following sentences containing a dative and ask the class to translate them: servō puella imperāvit (line 2), praecōnī regressō servus … inquit (lines 3–4). Augment these, if necessary, with examples from salūtātiō I, e.g. cēdite aliīs (line 22), cēdite architectō C. Rabīriō Maximō (line 23), cēterīs nūntiāvit praecō (line 24). See the noun charts on pp. 262–263 to review the forms and p. 285 for the uses of the dative. Further examples of the dative with a participle, placed first in the sentence (like praecōnī regressō), are given on pp. 286–287, paragraph 5. Find a few minutes to review the imperative based on abī (line 5) and nōlī vexāre (line 24); and of the gerundive with redeundum vōbīs est (line 11) and nōbīs ... reveniendum est (line 25). The use of the gerundive with transitive verbs will be introduced in the next Stage. A translation of admittitur (line 5) and missa est (line 8) could lead to oral practice by substituting different endings and tenses, e.g. “What would admittēbātur mean? And admittēbantur? Give two translations of missī sunt. How would you translate admissī erātis?” etc. This might be a good moment to consolidate the number and gender of the participle by studying paragraphs 7 and 8, p. 277. Illustration. Note the ring on the door for attaching the guard dog.
About the language 1: ablative absolute (pp. 191–192) New language feature. This section focuses initially on examples of the ablative absolute containing perfect passive participles, before presenting examples with present and perfect active participles. Discussion. Take the note at one sitting, for coherence and simplicity. In paragraph 3, encourage students to produce first a literal translation and then a variety of translations for each ablative absolute, e.g. (3d) Their leader being killed …, When their leader was killed …, Since their leader was killed …, After the killing of their leader …. Encourage flexibility between active and passive, e.g. (3b) Having lost her money …. If students enquire about the term “absolute,” explain that the Latin means “detached” or “untied.” Demonstrate, perhaps with the sentences in paragraph 3, that each sentence makes sense without the ablative absolute, which is unconnected (i.e. not tied in) to the structure of the rest of the sentence. It does no harm to point out that the absolute phrase is not confined to Latin but occasionally occurs in English, e.g. 3f which could be translated The door shut, the clients, etc.
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Word patterns (p. 192)
New language feature. Compound verbs formed with the prefixes ab-, circum-, and in-. Discussion. Ask students to work through the section on their own and go through it later. Draw attention to the variation in ab- (au- or ā-) and elicit an explanation by getting students to say abferre and auferre to one another and to comment on the ease or difficulty of the pronunciation. Repeat with inmittere/immittere and inrumpere/ irrumpere. Also refer to the common Latin device of stating the preposition and repeating it in the prefix of the verb, as in 3b. Further practice with compound verbs using other prefixes could include: discēdere (go away) dīmittere percurrere (run through) perrumpere convocāre (call together) convenīre, compōnere trānsmittere (send across) trānsīre, trānscurrere prōpōnere (put forward) prōcēdere, prōcurrere, prōferre Those students who have now grasped the principle underlying formation of compound verbs should be given encouragement and a warning: although the meaning of an unfamiliar compound verb can often be deduced from knowledge of its compound parts, emphasize that such knowledge should be used as a clue rather than an infallible guide, since the meaning of the compound parts, particularly the preposition, is likely to vary when used in compounds. Illustrate the latter point with, e.g., āmittere and invenīre.
Practicing the language (p. 193)
Exercise 1. Complete the sentences by selecting the correct form of the perfect or pluperfect passive verb. Exercise 2. Change highlighted nouns from singular to plural. Exercise 3. Complete the sentences with the correct Latin word, selecting by sense and morphology.
About the language 2: nē (p. 194)
New language feature. nē + subjunctive in indirect commands and purpose clauses. Discussion. This note may be studied after salūtātiō I (see p. 133 of this manual). Take paragraphs 1 and 2 together, letting students work out a couple of the examples for themselves before you check them, then repeat the process with paragraph 3.
Cultural context material (pp. 195–201)
Content. The section on the city of Rome is best taken with adventus, p. 186, and that on the daily duties of patrons and clients with salūtātiō I, pp. 188–189.
The city of Rome The area and population of Rome in the first century AD are matters of controversy among scholars. The figures in the students’ book depend on a disputable assumption that the city’s population spilled only slightly beyond the area of 7¾ square miles (20 square km) demarcated by the tollposts. Even if this assumption is mistaken, the point that Rome’s population density was very high is not significantly affected. 136 STAGE 31
Suggestions for discussion 1 The class might consider some of the reasons why expansion could not relieve the massive overcrowding in first-century Rome. If īnsulae were allowed to rise very high, they would suddenly collapse or catch fire; Augustus fixed the limit at 70 feet (21 meters). The city could not be enlarged outward with large suburban residential areas (a prominent feature of modern cities) because there was no form of rapid transportation. 2 Relate the places mentioned in the students’ book not only to the map on p. 196, but also, whenever possible, to photos, reconstructions, and overlays (see Appendix B), or to digital illustrations. 3 The more students associate each place with its function, the more vividly they will imagine it. Ask them: If you were a first-century Roman, where would you go: • to give thanks after recovering from a fever? (Temple of Aesculapius on Tiber Island) • for a cheap haircut? (Subura) • for a summer’s evening stroll away from the crowds? (Campus Martius) • to watch a chariot race? (Circus Maximus) • to hear an open-air political speech? (Rostra in Forum) 4 Discuss the ways in which the lives of the rich in first-century Rome differed from those of the poor, drawing on both the stories and the cultural context material, supplemented by any additional information the students possess or deductions they can make. Areas of difference might include: food (banquets of the rich in nox (Stage 29) – meager meals obtained by the poor with sportula); housing (mansions and palaces of the rich – īnsulae of the poor); water (the rich have water piped in – the poor use public fountains); summer residence (the rich, like Haterius, escape to vīllae – the poor stay behind in the hot, unhealthy city). This would easily tie in with a reading in translation of parts of Juvenal Satires III. Patronage and Roman society The story salūtātiō reflects the commonest type of Roman patronage, the distribution of the sportula, on behalf of a wealthy patron, to his dependent clients. The cultural context material provides further information about this and other types of patronage, which operated across the whole spectrum of Roman society. Two other important sections of Roman society, women and freedmen, have already been discussed in Unit 1 and will be dealt with again in Stages 38 and 34, respectively. Students often ask what would be the modern equivalents of sums of money like those mentioned in the text; but the difference between ancient and modern conditions makes comparison impossible. It is useless to compare, for example, the cost of a bushel of wheat in the first century with its cost in the twenty-first, or the earnings of a Roman legionary with those of his modern counterpart, because such equations depend on unproven assumptions about the economic context such as that the average first-century Roman spent on wheat the same proportion of his total personal expenditure as does the average twenty-first-century American or Canadian. Useful comparisons can, however, be made within the first-century context. A client collecting his sportula on 100 days of the year would receive 625 sesterces (abbreviated “HS.”) each year from this source. (Four sesterces STAGE 31 137
equal one denarius.) A laborer’s daily wage is often estimated, by a rather hazardous inference from Matthew 20.2, at 4 HS., in which case a laborer working 200 days out of a year would earn 800 HS. in that time. When we look at the upper end of the scale, the figures in the ancient evidence are usually capital sums; for purposes of comparison with the less well-off, they need to be converted into income. If (following Carcopino, p. 79) we assume an interest rate of 5 percent, the 400,000 HS. which constituted the property qualification of an eques would earn 20,000 HS. a year–an income evidently regarded as modest but comfortable by Juvenal in Satires IX.139–141 and XIV.332–326. The senatorial capital of 1 million HS. would earn 50,000 HS. a year; Pliny, who described himself, truthfully or otherwise, as “not rich,” had capital of about 20 million HS. (income from interest: 1 million HS. a year), and his rival Regulus had three times as much. At the high extreme were exceptional persons like Seneca (400 million HS.). For further details, see Balsdon Life, p. 354; Carcopino, pp. 79–81. From all these figures, a picture emerges of a dramatic disparity between rich and poor in Roman society. The students might discuss these inequalities and the role of the patron–client system in reducing them; they might compare the role of taxation and government assistance as present-day methods of reducing inequalities. The exact qualifications for membership of the ōrdō senātōrius and the ōrdō equester were extremely complicated, and the account in the students’ book deliberately omits some of the complexities. If students ask about the difference between ōrdō senātōrius and the senate, it should be enough to say that a member of the senatorial class was not entitled to sit in the senate unless and until he had reached the office of quaestor. An account of the cursus honōrum containing more information on this and other aspects of the senatorial career appears in Unit 4. The reference about senators not being in trade is Livy XXI.63 3–4.
Suggestions for discussion 1 Students may be able to identify some modern patrons like sponsors of the arts; donors to political causes, to hospitals, or to schools; or modern clients like reporters who build networks of contacts in high places. 2 Use source material (see list below) for interpretation and discussion. Encourage students to notice connections between the different topics they study. Here, for instance, link Maecenas’ gift of the Sabine farm to earlier discussion of the vīllae owned by the rich. Compare the patron–client relationship to the Roman view of the relationship between gods and men, described in Stage 23. Finally, compare patronage with another important Roman institution, amīcitia. Patronage flows from higher social status to lower; amīcitia exists between social equals. A tactful patrōnus might blur this distinction by referring to the recipients of his patronage as his amīcī. Relevant source material: Stories and cultural material in students’ book (e.g. Quintus and Clemens and the purchase of the shop in Alexandria, Stage 18) Horace Satires I.6.54–64 (introduction to Maecenas; cf. Letters I.16.1–16 for the Sabine farm) Pliny Letters II.9 (candidacy of Sextus Erucius) Pliny Letters IV.1 (donation of temple to Tifernum) Pliny Letters IV.13 (contribution to schoolmaster’s salary at Comum) 138 STAGE 31
Pliny Letters VI.23 (Cremutius Ruso to speak with Pliny in court) Martial Epigrams VI.88 (punishment for not addressing patron as domine) Juvenal Satires V.24–155; Pliny Letters II.6; Martial Epigrams I.20, III.60 (graded dinner parties), XII.26, II.57, IV.68 (sportula and cost of a dinner); Tacitus Annals XV.23.5 (the danger of being refused admission to the emperor). 3 Help students attempt an assessment of the uses and abuses of the patronage system. Divide the board into two columns, “pro” and “con,” and invite the class to contribute their views, supported as far as possible by examples taken from the stories and cultural material. Arguments in favor might include: support for the humbler citizen in the law courts, protection against economic disaster in an era when the state did not make welfare payments, and financial help for the needs of the community, as provided by Pliny for Comum. The arguments against might be: hypocrisy, advancement by personal influence, lack of incentive to get ahead by one’s own efforts, the patron’s exploitation of his clients. On occasion, the patron could bully a client into criminal or immoral activities by withholding invaluable protection if he or she refused. In its less pleasant aspects, the patron–client system foreshadowed the infamous political machines of American cities, other urban “rackets” and secret “hit” gangs. The analysis above might lead to a comparison between Roman and modern systems of social security. For example, “Do people today depend on rich neighbors as clients did on their patrons? What are the ways in which the community, state/ province, or federal government today helps people in need? Which kinds of needs are the responsibility of our boards/departments of health, education, or social welfare? Do you think that, especially in a large city, there are advantages in knowing by name a few persons to whom one can go for advice and help?” 4 Encourage students to think of ways in which patronage might enable people to move up the pyramid. Pliny’s gift to Romatius Firmus (Letters I.19), enabling him to become an eques, provides one example; the bestowal of the honorary lātus clāvus by the emperor provides another. Among equestrians who refused promotion were Maecenas and Atticus in the first century BC, and the men mentioned in Pliny Letters I.14, III.2. Invite the class to suggest reasons for such refusals. These could include a wish to avoid the risks and toils of a political career at the higher level, a preference for being a prominent eques rather than an undistinguished senator, or a wish to pursue an active commercial career, from which senators were barred by law and social convention. 5 Discuss the immense need for porters in Rome, especially in view of the restrictions on wheeled traffic (p. 198). Students might suggest examples, like dockworkers, luggagecarriers, aquāriī, and sedan-chair carriers. They might also recall some of the massive building projects mentioned earlier (Stage 30, p. 180). This could lead to discussion of the role of the emperor as a provider of employment (cf. Suetonius Vespasian and analysis of this passage in Brunt, “Free labour and public works at Rome” Journal of Roman Studies 70 (1980) 81–100, and Finley The Ancient Economy (1999, p. 75).
Illustrations p. 194 ● Wharf, second century AD, on the bank of the Tiber. Originally three tiers of barrel-vaulted warehouses ran along the riverside (R. Dalladay).
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● Monte Testaccio, Rome. This hill, over 215,000 square feet (20,000 square meters) at its base, was constructed behind some warehouses entirely from Spanish and North African oil amphorae, which were imported in vast quantities. It was not just a tip but was carefully arranged and maintained, with raised terraces, retaining walls, and cart tracks up the sides. The amphorae were carried up whole by donkeys, smashed on the spot (see handle at center left of photograph) to accommodate the largest possible number, and sprinkled with powdered lime to neutralize the stench of rancid oil. The deliberate smashing suggests that oil amphorae could not be reused like wine amphorae. p. 195 The Tiber looking north, with the Tiber Island in the center. The building on the island is a hospital dating to 1548, continuing the association with medicine already present in Roman times with the temple of Aesculapius. In the foreground is the sole surviving span of the Aemilian Bridge, now known as Ponte Rotto (Broken Bridge). Small arches, like the one visible in the left-hand pier, were designed to reduce the pressure of the water against the bridge when the Tiber was in full spate (R. Dalladay). p. 196 ● Painting from Ostia (Vatican Museums). A river boat with two steering oars (left), mast toward front (the usual position for boats towed by animals), and saccarii coming up the gangplank. A figure named Arascantus (center) stands by the slave pouring corn from a sack labeled rēs (goods, stuff). ● Line diagram of the center of Rome. The map has been deliberately simplified to show only the main features mentioned in the text. Remind students that the whole area was filled with many buildings of every kind. Great public buildings stood side by side with private dwellings (often high buildings sometimes built around internal courtyards), stores, and artisans’ workshops. The whole area was crowded and the narrow streets were teeming with life. ● Relief of shop scene (Ostia Museum). Poultry hang from a beam. In cages below are live chickens, rabbits, or hares. On the counter above are monkeys (to keep the children amused), vegetables in flat baskets, and a tall basket with holes, possibly for snails (one, barely visible, is escaping, top left of basket). A customer at left is holding a duck or chicken. ● Relief of blacksmith’s shop from Blacksmith’s Tomb, first or second century AD (Archaeological Museum, Aquileia). Note (left) the slave or freedman working at the furnace with bellows and (right) the smith working at his anvil. The hearth is raised on a platform of stone or brick, the fire is covered by a hood, raised into a pediment, to control the draught. The epitaph states that this smith kept a number of slaves and freedmen and freedwomen. p. 197 Trajan’s markets, part of the development around Trajan’s Forum, possibly started by Domitian. These shops, with doors framed in travertine (a light-yellow porous rock) for status, are much grander than anything in the Subura, with its tortuous, narrow roads, and timber buildings which were unhealthy and unsafe. The photograph (left) gives the effect of a multistory Rome (the upper three floors on the right are later, though the rest is original). p. 198 ● Remains of aqueduct in Rome.
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● Section of the arcade of the aqueduct of Claudius as it approaches Rome from the southeast. As the city developed and the population increased, it became necessary to provide a greater quantity of water than that afforded by springs, wells, and the Tiber. By the first century AD, there were nine aqueducts carrying water to the city. The Aqua Claudia was constructed by Caligula and Claudius (AD 38 to 52) and had two channels with the Aqua Anio Novus on top of the Aqua Claudia. It was 46 miles (74 km) long with about 9 miles (14 km) raised on arches. It brought water from mountain springs (located near Agosta) into Rome, ending at the Palatine. p. 201 ● The cūria (senate-house), as reconstructed by Diocletian (third century AD). Tradition dates the cūria back to the third king of Rome. It was destroyed and reconstructed many times. Its bronze doors are now the main doors of the Basilica of St John-in-Lateran. The cūria is rectangular in shape and its walls were covered with marble slabs to a certain height; above the marble were three niches on each side, decorated with alabaster columns. In front of the entrance there would have been an altar on which the senators made sacrifices when entering the hall. Its survival is due to its conversion into the church of Sant’ Adriano. ● Black-and-white mosaic from the Hall of the Mensores (headquarters of the guild of grain measurers at Ostia). The grain is being brought in sacks (far left) and measured in a bucket-shaped container, a modius. The mēnsor, the measurer, is the figure holding a measuring stick in his right hand. p. 202 Bocca della Verità (Mouth of Truth), stone manhole cover, probably from the Cloaca Maxima. This now is in the portico wall of the church of S. Maria in Cosmedin. From medieval times on, it was used as a trial for truth. Tourists today still thrust their arms into the mouth. The legend has it that, if they are lying, the mouth will bite their hand off.
Suggestions for further activities
1 Puzzle: A soldier earned 300 denarii (1,200 sesterces) a year. How many days would you have to attend your patron’s salutatio to earn as much? Would you be better off as a soldier, or as Haterius’ client? This activity could follow the reading of salūtātiō I, pp. 188–189. Note: A client who attended the salutatio and collected the sportula on 192 days out of the 365 could get as much as the soldier earned over the 365 days. But the sportula could not be depended on. A client might turn up at the salutatio day after day and receive no sportula at all, if his patron (or his patron’s slaves, as in the story on p. 189) were so inclined. 2 Using the pictures in this Stage as your starting point, compile a Visitor’s Guide to Domitian’s Rome, with paragraphs on: Arriving by sea; Where to find a good night’s sleep; The baths, water, and sanitation; In a medical emergency; Leisure activities; The riverside; Shopping; The heart of the city. A useful book is A Visitor’s Guide to Ancient Rome by L. Sims (2000). (The teacher could help students to compile a list of useful Latin phrases for tourists, including some on the topics above, but also on asking directions, eating out, making friends, etc.)
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3 The topics of city life which students might research and present are vast, though dependent on the time available. See Appendix B, especially Carcopino, pp. 13–64; Cowell Everyday Life in Ancient Rome (1975 OP), pp. 13–34; Dilke; Meiggs, pp. 234– 251 (an important description of īnsulae); Paoli, pp. 1–53; and Finley The Ancient Economy (1999) (especially pp. 35–61, on class and status); Balsdon Life, pp. 17–55; Duncan-Jones The Economy of the Roman Empire (1982) (prices in Italy, pp. 120– 155). Older students could research the theme of city life using as source material translations of the relevant literary evidence: • police and fire patrols (Justinian Digest I.xii.1, xv.3; Lewis and Reinhold II. 26–28) • Augustus’ building program (Suetonius Augustus 28.3–30.2; Lewis and Reinhold II.67–69) • aqueducts (Frontinus The Water Supply of Rome II.98–129; Lewis and Reinhold II.69–72) • dimensions of city (Pliny NH III.v.66–67; Lewis and Reinhold II.222) • utilities and services (Strabo Geography V.iii.8; Lewis and Reinhold II.223– 224) • the Great Fire (Tacitus Annals XV.38–44; Lewis and Reinhold II.224–227) • baths (Lucian The Bath 4–8; Seneca Moral Epistles LVI.1–2; Lewis and Reinhold II.227–228) • life in Rome (Juvenal Satires III; Lewis and Reinhold II.239–242).
Vocabulary checklist (p. 234)
Focus attention on the paradigm of īdem, pronoun is, ea, id + dem (an indeclinable suffix). The historical connection with superbus and the last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud), provides a chance to add to students’ background knowledge.
Phrases for discussion ante meridiem (a.m.) ora et labora – St Benedict dum spiro, spero in Deo speramus – motto of Brown University speramus in Deo parcere subiectis et debellare superbos – Virgil superbus et avarus numquam quiescunt ex tempore fugit irreparabile tempus lusisti satis, edisti satis atque bibisti: tempus abire tibi est – Horace o tempora! o mores! – Cicero pro tempore tempus fugit multa sub vultu odia, multa sub osculo latent saepe tacens vocem verbaque vultus habet – Ovid
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STAGE 32 Euphrosynē Cultural context Some popular Roman beliefs: Mithraism, astrology, and Stoicism.
Story line Eryllus informs Haterius that he has invited Euphrosyne as entertainment for his birthday banquet. When the herald admits sending her away, he is dispatched to fetch her. She returns to speak at the banquet, but her lecture causes a riot.
Sentence pattern increased incidence of postponement of subordinating conjunction e.g. hospitēs, cum vīdissent quid coquus parāvisset, eius artem vehementer laudāvērunt.
Main language features • deponent verbs e.g. hōc cōnsiliō captō, ad flūmen Tiberim ut nāvem cōnscenderet profecta est. • gerundive of obligation: transitive verbs e.g. illa nōbīs dīligenter audienda est.
future active participle e.g. Euphrosynēn in nāvem cōnscēnsūram cōnspicit.
Word patterns Fourth declension nouns from verbs. Focus of exercises 1 Agreement of adjectives. 2 Changing direct to indirect commands.
Opening page (p. 203)
Illustration. Mummy portrait of woman of Greek appearance from Hawara, Roman Egypt, mid-second century (Manchester Museum). Encaustic on panel. Many such portraits were discovered in the cemeteries of Roman Egypt. Note that, as usual, the Roman portraiture is individualized and personal. The woman, hair neatly waved back from a center part, wears pearl earrings and a necklace of green stones. Whether Euphrosyne would have worn jewelry is questionable; virtually all Roman women did.
Model sentences (pp. 204–205)
Story. Denied admission to Haterius’ house and refusing to bribe the herald, Euphrosyne decides to return to Greece. The same day, Haterius’ birthday, Eryllus comes to report to his master. New language feature. Deponent verbs, here restricted to the perfect tense. Students have met perfect active participles since Stage 22, but will encounter the term “deponent” for the first time in About the language 1. First reading. Get the class to recall the events in salūtātiō II, p. 190, perhaps by reminding them of some of the phrases, including the reference to Eryllus. Then give a Latin reading of each model sentence in turn, and invite translation. All the deponents have already been met in participial form and so, with glossing and line drawings, translation is straightforward. Discussion. Why did Euphrosyne fail to gain admission to Haterius’ house? What do you think will happen as a result of Eryllus’ arrival?
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Postpone discussion of the new feature until About the language on p. 208, unless students volunteer comments or ask questions. Concentrate on correct translation. Consolidation. For homework, ask students to write a translation of some or all of the model sentences. Subsequently, oral practice of phrases incorporating the deponent verbs provides useful consolidation.
Illustrations In line drawing 3, Euphrosyne and her slave walk down a narrow city street on their way to the river port of Rome (in the background). Note the balcony of the second story which protrudes out over the street. Drawing 4, with its fountain, full-size tree, and bench, illustrates the well-appointed interior courtyard garden of the domus urbāna.
** Euphrosynē revocāta I (p. 206)
Story. Eryllus tells Haterius about the plans for his birthday dinner; the entertainment, in the form of an attractive, female philosopher, will make him a leader of fashion. When Haterius asks where the girl is, Eryllus suspects that the herald may have refused her admission. First reading. Introduce this passage with a lively Latin reading, followed by questions to draw out the meaning and significance, e.g.: How did Eryllus address Haterius (lines 1–2)? omnia … parāta sunt (line 3) … nihil neglēctum est (lines 6–7). What do these two sentences mean? Make a list of the actions that have been carried out by Eryllus. What does Haterius notice has been missed out? hominēs … optimus quisque (lines 10–12). Which words in this passage do you think Eryllus emphasizes? Find an appropriate English rendering of eiusmodī, urbānīs and nunc. Read the speech in Latin and English with suitable facial expression. Was the speech effective in persuading Haterius? at domine … missa est (lines 15–18). What has Eryllus obtained? What three “selling points” does he list for Haterius? optimē fēcistī, Erylle (lines 19–20). Why was Haterius so pleased with Eryllus? What question does Haterius ask (line 21)? anxius (line 22). Why is Eryllus right to feel anxious? What does he fear has happened? Does this story agree with your prediction of what would happen?
Discussion 1 What kind of celebration did Haterius plan for his birthday? What do you think he hoped to gain? 2 Why does Eryllus plan to introduce a philosopher? What is Haterius’ general view of philosophers? 3 Discuss the contrast in character and style between the smooth, efficient and sophisticated slave and his wealthy but uncultivated master. Consolidation. Ask students to reread the story in pairs and prepare a Latin reading.
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Euphrosynē revocāta II (pp. 206–207)
Story. The herald admits what he has done and is sent to fetch Euphrosyne who is already boarding the ship for Athens. With difficulty he persuades her to return with him. First reading. Read the first three lines in Latin and ask volunteers to translate. Divide the class into groups of three, to share out the parts of the herald, Haterius and Euphrosyne within the group. Ask them to listen with care to your Latin reading of the rest of the story, and then to work out the meaning of the passage for themselves, tackling the narrative passages together. Go over the story by asking for volunteers to translate the various parts and narrative. Invite the rest of the class to comment on the translations and to correct them, if necessary. Discussion. Why did the herald go to such lengths to persuade Euphrosyne to return? Had he been wrong in thinking that his master had no interest in philosophy (p. 190, lines 10–11)? Why did Euphrosyne give in to him? Was this an appropriate decision for a philosopher? Consolidation. Ask students to find the ablative absolutes, reminding them that they are looking for participial phrases in the ablative case that can be omitted without changing the sense of the sentence: nōmine audītō (line 15), effūsīs lacrimīs (line 22). These examples, with different endings, provide an opportunity, if needed, to revisit the different ablative endings provided on pp. 262–263. This is a good place to consolidate the pronoun is. Pick out the following examples: num stultus eam abēgistī? (lines 3–4). (praecō) … magnā vōce eam appellāvit (lines 14–15). (Euphrosynē), precibus lacrimīsque eius commōta, domum Hateriī regressa est (lines 23–24). Ask students for a translation of the sentences and the cases of the pronoun; enter them on a grid on the board and see if students can supply further forms before turning to the chart on p. 272. Note the explanation of the adjectival use of is (p. 272) and discuss the literal meaning of hominēs eiusmodī (Euphrosynē revocāta I, p. 206, line 10). Compare the forms of is with those of īdem (p. 272) and do the exercise in paragraph 5. Elicit the rule that īdem = is + dem and ask students to spot and account for the exceptions: “Say eumdem and eundem to your neighbor and explain the form eundem.” As preparation for About the language 1 (pp. 208–209), pick out the deponent verbs and ask students to translate them: praecō ingressus est (line 1), loqueris (line 6), philosopha … profecta est (lines 8–9), regressa est (line 24). Note whether students deal confidently with the examples where there is no expressed nominative.
cēna Hateriī (pp. 207–208)
Story. Haterius’ many guests, including a consul, are delighted with the lavish and ingenious food, and the vintage wine. To a fanfare of trumpets, Euphrosyne is led in, introduced, and asked to perform.
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First reading. The section on Roman society (pp. 199–201) will help in preparation for this story. Take the story at a good pace, using Latin reading and easy comprehension questions to cover the ground quickly, and to help with the meaning of the imperfect and pluperfect deponent verbs, which appear here for the first time. The story can be divided into three parts and the following questions may then be used to ensure that students understand the meaning of a sentence as a whole and the force of various details: The guests, lines 1–9 What time of day was the ninth hour? What were Haterius’ friends and clients doing at this time (lines 1–2)? Which two Latin phrases in line 3 describe the change that had occurred in the lives of the freedmen’s sons? What effect does the writer achieve by putting the phrases next to each other? Why were senators among Haterius’ guests (lines 4–5)? Who was reclining next to Haterius (lines 6–7)? What kind of man was he? In what ways was Haterius trying to impress him (lines 7–9)? Do you think he was likely to succeed? The banquet, lines 10–19 While this was going on, what were the two Ethiopians doing (lines 10–11)? Who had followed them? What was his job? (lines 11–13) aprō perītē sectō … pīpiantēs (lines 13–14). What details in this sentence are illustrated in the drawing above? Why is the sound of the word pīpiantēs particularly appropriate? What was the effect of the cook’s prowess on the guests? on Haterius? What was Haterius’ next act? (lines 14–17) What announcement did the steward make (lines 18–19)? What is the significance of the word Hateriānum? What do you think of the description on the label vīnum centum annōrum? What do these phrases tell us about Haterius? The entry of Euphrosyne, lines 20–32 digitīs concrepuit (line 21). Why did Haterius do this? How did Haterius make Euphrosyne’s entrance impressive (lines 21–23)? Can you think of any modern equivalents? What was the effect of her appearance on the guests (line 24)? Pick out the two present participles in lines 25–27, and translate them. What do they tell us about Haterius’ attitude to Euphrosyne? Which word in Haterius’ final speech (lines 31–32) do you consider the most hypocritical?
Discussion 1 How would you describe Haterius’ dinner party? Is it funny, pathetic, vulgar, incredible? Quote examples from the passage to support your view. (Some details of the dinner are taken from Petronius, Cena Trimalchionis). 2 Look back at the chart of Roman society (p. 200). Where would you place Haterius? From which sections of society do his guests come? (clientēs, line 1, suggests that some might have been plebeians.) 146 STAGE 32
Consolidation 1 Set students to write a translation of lines 1–13 (nōnā … secāret). 2 Ask students to pick out the subjunctives and explain why they are used: celebrārent (line 2), secāret (line 13), vīdissent (line 14), parāvisset (line 15), īnferrent (line 17), cōnsīderet (line 26). This activity could be supported by further work from pp. 288– 289. 3 Practice translating ablative absolutes: aprō sectō (line 13), amphorīs inlātīs (line 17), hospitibus … bibentibus (line 20), signō datō (line 21). 4 This story contains several examples of the genitive case. Ask for translations of: fīliī lībertōrum (line 3), favōrem Hateriī (line 5), vir summae auctōritātis (lines 6–7), spē favōris (line 7), amphorās vīnī Falernī (line 16), vīnum centum annōrum (lines 18–19), aliquid philosophiae (lines 31–32). Review the forms and uses of the genitive on pp. 262–263 and 285 respectively, if necessary. 5 It is worth spending a few minutes on reviewing ferō, using ferēbant (line 11), īnferrent and inlātīs (line 17) as the way into discussion. The verb is best explained as an amalgam of different verbs, like “go/gone,” “wend/went” in English. The verb forms are set out on pp. 282–284; students have already met some of the compounds on p. 192. Illustration. Line drawing of the “entertainment” at Haterius’ birthday party. The drawing illustrates an episode based on a banquet described by Petronius.
About the language 1: deponent verbs (pp. 208–209)
New language feature. Present, imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect tenses of deponent verbs, all persons.
Discussion All the examples in paragraph 1 have appeared in the stories, and all readily lend themselves only to a translation of the deponent verb as active voice. If students have not already worked out what is “different” about deponent verbs (they “look” passive but they “mean” active), this is the occasion to solicit that information from the examples. The note at the end of this paragraph explains the etymology of “deponent” in grammatical terms. If necessary, help students with the final examples in paragraph 2, which have no supporting context. Encourage them to refer to paragraph 1 if they are hesitant about the tense. Paragraph 3 makes the point that students have already been meeting deponent verbs in their perfect participial form. The distinction between perfect active and perfect passive participles, familiar since Stages 21 and 22, is restated in the context of deponent and regular verbs. Students should translate the examples in paragraph 4. Elicit from them the observation that there is nothing about the form of a perfect participle which indicates whether it is active or passive; what matters is whether the verb is deponent or not. They will probably ask how you can tell if a verb in a dictionary or vocabulary list is deponent. Refer them to the list of verbs in the Vocabulary checklist for Stage 34 and have them notice that the 1st principal part ends in -r. Reassure students by stressing that there are only a few deponent verbs in Latin, that they have met most of the common ones already, and that the context of the sentence is usually helpful. STAGE 32 147
Illustration. The Getty Villa was constructed in the early 1970s by J. Paul Getty. Because much of the Villa dei Papiri, on which it is modeled, remains unexcavated, many of the architectural and landscaping details are based on other houses in Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabiae.
philosophia (pp. 210–211)
Story. Euphrosyne tells a story of a poor man who is patient in adversity because he is a Stoic. It fails to convince the diners. The consul tries to kiss her and a fight ensues. She leaves, deploring the gluttony and lust of the rulers of the world. First reading. Take the story in sections, varying the method so that pace and momentum are sustained, e.g.: Only the mad work, lines 1–7. Read this in Latin with expression, merely asking the class to tell you what picture they have of the poor man, what Apollonius said, and what kind of man he was. A criticism of Haterius? lines 8–12. After your reading, ask the class to translate this section in pairs and go over it. Moderation versus extravagance, lines 12–21. Invite volunteers to tell you in English what Euphrosyne said about the poor man in lines 13–14. Use leading questions to ensure the class has understood the sense of the rest of this section, especially the force of the gerundives in lines 16–17, e.g. “How did Balbus describe the poor man? What ought not to happen?” Stoicism in adversity, lines 21–31. After your reading, ask students to make a list of all the misfortunes that beset the poor man (lines 22–25). What kind of death did he have? What is Euphrosyne’s comment? Is it surprising? An excitement greater than philosophy, lines 32–43. A dramatic reading should be enough to convey the meaning of this passage. If necessary, draw up a list of the actions which occur in lines 39–43. Parthian shot, lines 44–48. A lively reading should suffice, but ask the class to unpick Euphrosyne’s final words. Discussion. Questions might include: 1 Why are the guests obstupefactī by what Euphrosyne says in lines 9–10? Do you think her words were deliberately aimed at Haterius? 2 ille pauper … fēlīx erat (lines 28–29). Which two words contrast sharply with each other? Where else does Euphrosyne use a paradox (line 46)? 3 What did Euphrosyne as a Stoic believe the aim of life should be? What did her Stoic beliefs lead her to believe was the best sort of society? Is Euphrosyne’s view of life rather naïve, as her simple story might suggest? What impression of her do you gain from her final comment (line 46)? 4 For what qualities does Euphrosyne praise the poor man in her story? Do you agree with her? 5 What does Haterius try to do during the fight? With what success? What had been his intentions in holding the party? Do you think he has achieved them? Ask the class to read the section on Roman beliefs (pp. 215–219), then divide them into small discussion groups of three or four and allocate one of the questions on p. 211 to
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each group. Draw together their conclusions in a full class discussion. Students should be encouraged to supply reasons and evidence for their views. 1 The following points may be made: a Haterius’ guests were not interested in philosophy. They had come to enjoy an extravagant meal and have a good time. b The guests could not understand how a poor man who had lost his family, farm, and freedom could still be content. c Euphrosyne was naïve; she had no knowledge of the guests and did not realize they would not be interested in the life of a poor man which was so different from their own. d Her way of telling the story did not stimulate her audience except as a basis for some crude remarks. 2 The point that Euphrosyne was trying to make was that the poor man was content because he did not rely on the material world or other human beings, but had a clear conscience and the knowledge that he had done his best all his life. Euphrosyne is choosing a very extreme case to make the point that inner contentment does not depend on external circumstances. Although one may object to the example, her remark is not a stupid one. 3 Euphrosyne attended a dinner whose guests included a consul and wealthy men, examples of Romans who were the masters of the world. However, they had no control over themselves as they were slaves to gluttony, drunkenness, and lust. This is shown by their behavior at the lavish banquet provided by Haterius and their treatment of Euphrosyne as a sexual object.
Consolidation 1 Set half the class to write a translation of the story which Euphrosyne told (lines 2–5, 13–14, 22–29); and half to translate the scene of the riot: sed priusquam … cōnābātur (lines 32–43). As you review the written work with the whole class, ask students to give the meanings of the deponent verbs: adlocūta est (line 1), cōnābātur (line 14), passus est (line 22), patiēbātur (line 26), mortuus est (lines 27–28), passus est (line 31), cōnābātur (line 43), adlocūta est (line 45), profecta est (line 48). Ask them to identify who performed the action, and, in the case of the perfect tenses, how this affects the form of the verb. 2 Put up examples of phrases containing 4th declension nouns: plausū audītō (lines 19–20), multōs cāsūs (line 22), tot cāsūs (line 31), vultū serēnō (line 44). Get students to work out the case and number. (This activity could lead on immediately to further work on 4th declension nouns in Word patterns, p. 68.) Repeat this process with 5th declension nouns: spē favōris (line 9), rē vērā (lines 10 and 28– 29), rēs adversās (line 26). 3 Select from the following list any pronouns in need of review and discuss them in context: sibi (line 4), eī (line 9), ille, nōbīs (line 16), huic (line 19), haec (lines 21, 36 and 39), ipse (line 24), ille (line 28), eum (line 30), eī (line 32), eam (line 38).
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About the language 2: more about gerundives (p. 211)
New language feature. The gerundive, which has previously occurred in the impersonal form, is now introduced in agreement with nouns. Focus on the sentence pattern, rather than on the gerundive alone. Discussion. The transition from paragraph 1 to paragraph 2 is quite small, and students have met several examples of the new feature in philosophia (pp. 210–211). Ask students to complete the examples in paragraph 3 on their own so that you can check their understanding. The gerundive forms of the four conjugations are given on p. 279. Discuss the use of English in “referendum,” “agenda,” “Amanda,” etc. Consolidation. Find all the sentences containing a gerundive in philosophia and translate them.
Word patterns: verbs and nouns (p. 212)
New language feature. Fourth declension nouns associated with verbs. Let students tackle paragraphs 1–3 on their own. Consolidation. Put up some phrases for translation, e.g. metū mortis, cursus honōrum, rīsū ēbriō, mōtū nāvis, spē cōnsēnsūs, lūctum magnum. Supply a context for the more difficult phrases and refer students to the chart on p. 262, if necessary.
Practicing the language (pp. 212–213)
Exercise 1. Complete the sentence by working out the correct form of a given adjective. Elicit the point that adjectives agree with their nouns in case, number, and gender, but do not necessarily have the same ending. Extend this exercise by reviewing adjectives, pp. 264–265, and doing the exercises on p. 265. Exercise 2. Pairs of sentences: (1) Translate a direct command; (2) Complete the indirect command generated from it with the correct form of the imperfect subjunctive, referring to p. 278 if necessary.
About the language 3: future participles (p. 214)
New language feature. Future participles. Discussion. Read paragraph 1 with students and then let them attempt the examples in pairs or individually. Encourage a wide range of translations, e.g. I am about to give you …, going to give you …, intending to give you …, etc. In studying paragraph 3 elicit the information that the future participle is formed like the past participle with -ūr- inserted, and that it is active in meaning. The derivation of English “future” from futūrus may help some students. Consolidation. Collect examples from previous reading for students to translate: nōs omnēs crās moritūrī sumus (p. 150, lines 18–19). Imperātor Domitiānus eō diē arcum dēdicātūrus erat (p. 153, lines 3–4). Haterius praemium ā Salviō acceptūrus erat (p. 153, line 11). Euphrosynēn in nāvem cōnscēnsūram cōnspexit (p. 206, Euphrosynē revocāta II, line 14). These could be modified to give further practice if necessary.
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Cultural context material (pp. 215–219) Content. This section is best taken with philosophia (pp. 210–211).
Suggestions for discussion Possible questions and ideas for discussion include: 1 What systems of belief might Romans follow beside the state religion? 2 What do you know of their attitude to astrologers (recall Stages 19 and 20)? 3 Why did Mithraism become popular in the army? 4 What other religions came to Rome from the East (recall Stage 19 for Isis)? 5 Explore the reasons why the separation of church and state is so important to some people nowadays but does not seem to have been so to the Romans. 6 The Romans turned to new religions and philosophies to answer questions about life, e.g. What are justice, truth, love? What is a good society? Can people answer these questions any better today? 7 Consider similarities between Roman attitudes toward religion and those current today. Compare, for instance, Native American religion and the increasing care for the environment shown by some members of society with Roman attitudes. By reading Ovid and/or Scullard, students would come up with a wide variety of agricultural festivals. 8 What do you think were the principles which guided Haterius and Salvius in the way they lived their lives? Are there people like them today? 9 Do we have people like Euphrosyne today talking about serious questions for a public audience? 10 If your students have knowledge of Homer, Virgil, or Ovid, you might lead a class discussion comparing the presentation of the gods by these authors. You might even extend the discussion to include English literature. Examples in English which use figures from religion in a work of literature are rare (e.g. medieval mystery plays and Milton’s Paradise Lost). Students might ponder why this is so. Further information The concept of the division of church and state would really not have been comprehensible to most Romans. State functions began and ended with some kind of religious observance and might well have taken place in a building or place consecrated to the gods (e.g. when Pompey erected his theater in Rome, he constructed the temple of Venus at the top of the seats). Stambaugh shows the interweaving of civic and religious life, especially in pp. 213–224. He writes on p. 221: “If the temples made urban space sacred, so the calendar made time sacred.” Encourage students to see that Roman religion was much wider than simply the transplanting of the Greek anthropomorphic ideas onto Rome and their use in the socalled “state religion.” Roman religion started in the country, with a reverence for rural practices. Traditions kept this memory alive, for instance, in the honoring of Terminus (Livy I.55), or Venus Cloacina (Venus of the Drainage Ditch or Purifier). Suetonius (Domitian 5) and Eutropius (VII.23.5), respectively, mention Domitian’s restoration of the Capitol and of the temple of Isis. Livy describes the Bacchanalia and scandals in 186 BC in XXXIX.8–18. Information on Mithras is readily available in Cumont or Turcan and the Oxford Classical Dictionary. STAGE 32 151
Stoicism appealed to a number of well-known Romans, including Cato, Brutus, and to some extent Cicero. The Stoic senators Helvidius Priscus and Thrasea Paetus had opposed Nero (Tacitus Annals XIII.49; XIV.12, 48–49; XV.20–21; XVI.21–35) and had suffered for it. In the time of Domitian, Junius Rusticus had written eulogies of these men (Suetonius Domitian 10) and had also been executed. Domitian went on to expel all philosophers from the city, including Epictetus. Epictetus continued teaching in Epirus, and the historian Arrian collected his lectures and compiled a summary of them, the Enchiridion or Handbook. The quotes in the students’ book are from sections V and XVII of the Enchiridion. For a sense of the multiplicity and variety of festivals celebrated by the Romans, the best source is Ovid’s Fasti. See also Rives. Two practices not mentioned in the text were those of the lectisternium (“a feast of the gods … in which the images of the gods lying on pillows were placed in the streets, and food of all kinds set before them” – Lewis and Short) and the supplicātiō (time set aside for “public prayer or supplication … in consequence of certain (fortunate or unfortunate) public events” – Lewis and Short). These would be more examples of worship of the gods as a visible part of city life.
Illustrations p. 216 ● Temple of Mithras which was in an apartment block (insula), and is now under the church of S. Clemente, Rome. Mithraism featured high moral conduct; had many ritualistic practices, including the consecration of bread and drink; and was connected with Babylonian astrology. ● Line drawing of Mithraic ritual, based on the reconstruction of the Mithraeum in the Newcastle Museum of Antiquities, England. In a cavelike building, the initiates recline on benches flanking the aisle. p. 217 ● Detail of the Farnese Atlas, Hellenistic marble statue (Naples, Archaeological Museum). In this sculpture of Atlas carrying the globe, the various signs of the zodiac are delineated. The constellation Aries (the Ram) can be seen toward the left, across three narrow parallel lines that mark the path of the sun across the heavens. ● Planisphere (a two-dimensional representation of the heavens), with the figures representing the seasons, from the Villa San Marco, Stabiae (Antiquarium, Stabiae). p. 219 ● Line drawing of Euphrosyne. See also photo on p. 203 of students’ book. ● Detail of Chrysippos (c. 280–207 BC) (British Museum) who devoted his life to writing about Stoicism. Although his philosophy later became identified with orthodox Stoicism, during his life even his fellow Stoics complained about his arrogance. p. 220 Relief of Mithras slaying the bull (Museum of London). To the left and right stand minor deities, Cautes and Cautopates: one with torch raised, the other with torch pointing down. The symbolism of the scene is disputed, but it may have represented the struggle between the forces of good and evil, light and darkness, death and rebirth in nature. There seems to have been a strong connection with astrology, hence the signs of the zodiac in the border. Students may enjoy identifying them. 152 STAGE 32
According to tradition, Mithras killed the mystic bull from whose blood life flows through the entire universe. Followers believed that, by slaying the sacred bull, the god created life. Part of the ritual of Mithraism may have been baptism by blood.
Suggestions for further activities
1 Imagine that you are Euphrosyne and have returned to Chrysogonus in Athens. Describe to him your impressions of Rome. (Encourage students to include things that might have impressed Euphrosyne favorably as well as unfavorably, and refer to Stages 29–31 as well as 32 for material.) 2 Write a continuation of Euphrosyne’s lecture, keeping to her original theme that virtue matters more than pleasure or riches, but using a story or argument which would have a better chance of persuading Haterius and his friends than Euphrosyne’s “poor man” story. If you wish, start from the idea of a “rich man” story, as Euphrosyne intended when she was interrupted. 3 In teams, compare and contrast churches/synagogues/other religious buildings today and their services with temples and ceremonies in Rome. (Individuals from different backgrounds would all contribute. A comparison of the different types of architecture used would be instructive.) 4 Research the physical representation of specific gods/goddesses in a variety of places throughout the empire. 5 Explore the narrative of St Paul’s journeys in Acts of the Apostles for references to Roman law, government, and religion. In chapter 18, for example, the governor of Achaea, Seneca’s brother Gallio, refuses to get involved in a Jewish–Christian dispute; in chapter 19, the silversmiths who sell souvenir models of the great temple of Diana at Ephesus protest vigorously against Paul’s preaching; and in chapter 22, Paul lays claim to Roman citizenship, somewhat to the amazement of the Roman officer in charge who has obtained his own citizenship only through bribery; in chapter 24, Paul appears before Antonius Felix, brother of Claudius’ freedman, Pallas, who is mentioned in Stage 34 of the students’ book; and in chapter 25, Paul appeals as a Roman citizen to Caesar against a sentence of flogging. Also, in chapter 10, Cornelius, a Roman centurion stationed at Caesarea, sympathizes with Judaism and invites Peter to his house (cf. the possible connection with Judaism of the Emperor Domitian’s cousin, T. Flavius Clemens, mentioned in Stage 33). 6 Read, in translation, and report on the Enchiridion of Epictetus. (If students show further interest in Stoicism, they might read selections from Marcus Aurelius’ Meditations. By the way, the ideas of Epictetus are used by one of the characters in Tom Wolfe’s novel, A Man in Full.) 7 Write a short report on any of the following words or topics: anthropomorphism, nūmen, lectisternium, supplicātiō, templum (actually a sacred space rather than a building), augur, pontifex maximus, Frātrēs Arvālēs (Salvius was one), fēriae, rituals of sacrifice, etc. (The teacher can determine how many of these to include for any one student.)
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Vocabulary checklist (p. 220)
Discuss the way in which aequus, level, came to mean both calm and right, fair. quīdam is the pronoun quī + the indeclinable suffix -dam. Knowledge of the forms of quī should enable the student to recognize most forms of quīdam.
Phrases for discussion crudelis est in re adversa obiurgatio – Publilius Syrus curia pauperibus clausa est – Ovid panis, radix, vinum cena pauperum
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STAGE 33 pantomīmus Cultural context Entertainment. Story line The performance by the pantomīmus, Paris, at Haterius’ and Vitellia’s house is interrupted by Tychicus, proclaiming Christ and Judgment Day. When Paris performs for the empress, the emperor’s freedman tries to arrest him for misconduct with her, but the attempt is foiled. Main language features • future active indicative (all persons) e.g. Imperātor ipse victōrī praemium dabit. • future indicative of sum (all persons) e.g. nūlla erit fuga. • future perfect active indicative (all persons) e.g. nisi vitiīs tuīs dēstiteris, poenās dabis.
Sentence pattern continued use of complex sentence structure e.g. Domitia contrā, quae quamquam perterrita erat in lectō manēbat vultū compositō, Olympō imperāvit ut aliquōs versūs recitāret. Word patterns Diminutives. Focus of exercises 1 Ablative absolute. 2 Conversion of sentences from active to passive form.
Opening page (p. 221)
Illustration. Wall painting from Herculaneum (Naples, Archaeological Museum). An actor in his dressing room, wearing the costume of a king in tragedy: long white robe with sleeves, golden band round his chest, purple mantle over his knees. He holds a scepter and his disheveled hair suggests that he has just taken off his mask which is now resting in a shrine (right). Paris could well have looked like this, but the mask of a pantomimus did not have an open mouth as he spoke no words. Note that the pantomimus was a serious performer in an elevated form of drama comparable to classical ballet.
Model sentences (pp. 222–223)
Story. The heralds announce the entertainments that will take place the following day in the theater, the circus, and the amphitheater. New language feature. Future active. New vocabulary. Apart from the names, the following words are new: pantomīmus, tībiīs, cantāre (new meaning), duodecim, aurīgae. First reading. Give a dramatic reading of the three announcements or get three good readers to do so. Ask them to emphasize crās in each set of sentences. This is usually sufficient for students to identify that the events described are to happen in the future. If not, use comprehension questions to lead students to a translation, e.g.: Who are the three men shown in the illustrations? What are they announcing? When will these shows take place? Translate their speeches.
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Discussion. Rely on crās to guide students to a correct translation of the verb, accepting any appropriate English version, e.g. “… will perform a play,” “… is going to perform a play,” etc. If students comment, confirm that the verbs are future. Otherwise postpone discussion until About the language 1 (p. 229). Consolidation. Divide the class into three and set each group to write out a translation of one of the groups of sentences; then go through the sentences orally. Illustrations. Discuss the line drawings in detail, eliciting as much factual information about the three forms of public entertainment as possible, e.g. 1 Theater. An impressionistic representation showing raised stage, typical architectural scaenae frōns, semicircular orchestra where senators sat, and the ceiling over the stage area only, to act as a sounding board. The figures represent Paris and Myropnous, who appear in the stories of this Stage. Pantomime had a musical accompaniment provided by singers who sang the words of the story. 2 Circus Maximus, seen from the emperor’s box which was opposite the finishing line. The emperor has a palm branch which he will award as a prize to the winner. Note the spina with the three metae (turning posts) and the lap counters in the shape of eggs. Three laps have been completed, four remain, and slaves stand by with ladders to remove the eggs. One of the four chariots has crashed. Reins can be seen tied behind the waist of the nearest charioteer. 3 Flavian amphitheater (Colosseum). Gladiatorial fight between retiarii and secūtōrēs. The latter, like the murmillones in Stage 8, were often matched against retiarii. A dead body is being hauled off (left). Follow up these discussions by studying the model of central Rome (p. 143) which shows the position of the Colosseum and Circus Maximus and two theaters: Pompey’s theater at top left, and the theater of Marcellus on the left, near the Tiber. Then read Roman entertainment (pp. 233–237). The section on the theater gives the context for the stories in this Stage.
Tychicus (pp. 223–224)
Story. In Haterius’ garden Vitellia’s friends idolize Paris and rhapsodize over his performance, but are interrupted by a Christian, Tychicus. He chides them for worshipping anyone but the one true God and proclaims the doctrines of Christianity as he is thrown out. First reading. The story can be broken down into sections for students to explore individually or in small groups, e.g.: Paris mimes the death of Dido, lines 1–8. Read the section aloud in Latin, and explain the story of Dido. Then ask students to write a translation in small groups. Compare and discuss their translations. The interruption, lines 9–15. Read in Latin and ask comprehension questions, e.g.: While Paris stood up to acknowledge the applause, what happened (lines 9–10)? What did the man look like (lines 9–10)? What did the audience do (lines 11–12)? paucī eum agnōvērunt (line 12). What did they know about him? What effect did the interruption have on Paris (lines 13–14)? Why was he at a loss (lines 14–15)?
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The declaration, lines 16–22. Put the following questions on the board or duplicate them in advance so that they act as clues to students about what to look for. What did Tychicus criticize the audience for doing (lines 16–17)? What reason did he give (lines 17–18)? What did the spectators do (line 20)? What question did some of them ask (lines 20–21)? Why did others summon the slaves (lines 21–22)? The statement of belief, lines 23–28. Read Tychicus’ speech expressively once or twice. It may be familiar to some students from the Christian Creed; if so, ask them for the wording in the Creed. The prophecy, lines 29–39. After the Latin reading, ask the group to describe what was happening to Tychicus while he made this speech. Help them to start translating the prophecy (which has echoes of 1 Thessalonians 4. 16–17), laying emphasis on mox to highlight the future, and then set them to complete it in pairs, before going over it. The reaction, lines 40–43. Work through the last paragraph with the class, encouraging them to comment on the way Tychicus was treated and the varied responses of different groups of people.
Discussion 1 The death of Dido. Dido, Queen of Carthage, killed herself as her lover Aeneas sailed away to fulfill his destiny of founding Rome. This scene (Aeneid Book IV, 642–92) was famous in the Roman world. Translations are available, yet it is impossible to convey adequately the resonances, the pathos of the poetry, the tragedy of love lost, and, for a Roman, the cost of the founding of Rome. Perhaps most effective is to play the beginning of Dido’s famous lament “When I am laid in earth” from Purcell’s opera, Dido and Aeneas (written to be performed by London schoolgirls in 1689). 2 Historical authenticity. Tychicus is fictional but his patron, Titus Flavius Clemens (see Stage 38) is historical. He was a cousin of Domitian who was put to death for “atheism,” which probably refers to Judaism, possibly Christianity. 3 Christianity. After reading the story and studying p. 225, use questions to help students to understand the events and background of the story, e.g.: a What Christian beliefs and practices are described? (Early Christians proclaimed the peace and love of Christ, but also predicted in an urgent and prophetic style the imminent end of the world, and the judgment which would follow.) b How were Christian beliefs about life after death different from Roman ones (recall details of Unit 1, Stage 7)? c Why were Christians unpopular at this time? (Reasons include: they refused to worship the Roman gods as well as their own, or combine their god with Roman gods, thus inviting the wrath of the gods on the whole community; their meetings were regarded as suspicious by the authorities, fearing political subversion. Even companies of firemen were banned from assembling under Trajan;
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since Christians and Jews clashed frequently at this time, they were seen as a threat to civil peace; phrases from Christian services were misinterpreted, e.g. “This is my body, take, eat …” “Love one another”). d Why were Christians often confused with Jews? What is the difference? e Whose message do you think would be the more comforting to the poor and wretched, Euphrosyne’s (p. 210, lines 2–29) or Tychicus’? f If students ask about the official acceptance of Christianity, key events and emperors are: Edict of Toleration 311; Constantine (324–337), the first Roman emperor to worship Christ along with the Roman state gods; Theodosius (379–395), the emperor who made Christianity the state religion.
Consolidation 1 Set students to reread the story for homework, listing any queries for explanation in the next lesson. 2 Ask them to explain the force of ipse (line 13) and ipsī (line 43). 3 Different groups could be asked to find, translate in context, and explain to the rest of the class examples of: a The forms and uses of subjunctives, e.g. ut … exciperet (line 8), ut stāret (line 14), quis esset et quid vellet (lines 11–12), quid factūrus esset (line 15), utrum … faceret an īnsānīret (lines 20–21), quī … ēicerent (lines 21–22), cum prōnūntiāvisset (line 40). Note that priusquam … ageret (line 9) is the first example of priusquam with the subjunctive. Save discussion and consolidation until more examples have been encountered. b Phrases with the ablative case, e.g. admīrātiōne (line 6), statūrā brevī vultūque sevērō (lines 9–10), magnā vōce (line 10), nōmine (line 13), and ablative absolutes: oculīs … conversīs (line 11), fābulā interruptā (line 13), signō datō (line 29), magnō … comitante (lines 33–34). For further practice use exercise 1, p. 231. c Participial phrases. In addition to the ablative absolutes in b above, this story affords good practice with participles in other cases, e.g. morientis (line 5), affectī (line 6), prōgressus (line 10), suffīxus (line 26), clāmantem (line 31), missae (line 38). Further practice is provided on pp. 286–287. d Perfect passives and deponents: factus est (lines 23–24), pollicitus est (line 25), mortuus est, positus est (line 26), vīsus est (line 27). This is a good opportunity to remind students that context usually distinguishes passives from deponents. Illustrations p. 224 ● The Chi-Rho symbol was often used in early Christian art. It consists of the two letters (Ch and R) which begin the Greek word, Christos (the anointed), which became associated with Jesus at an early stage. p. 225 ● A fourth-century statue of a seated Christ teaching (Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome). No physical description of Christ is given in the Gospels; the sculptor borrowed conventions associated with gods of other mystery religions prevalent at the time. 158 STAGE 33
● Centerpiece of large mosaic pavement, Hinton St Mary, Dorset, made by fourth-century Dorchester craftsmen (British Museum). It shows Christ’s head with the Chi-Rho symbol and two pomegranates, symbols of immortality. Curiously, it is the only known portrait of Christ on a sidewalk to be walked on, though it is common to put pagan gods on sidewalks. The same sidewalk also depicts a pagan story (which however may have been interpreted in a Christian way as a story of good and evil).
in aulā Domitiānī I (pp. 226–227)
Story. As Paris performs for the empress, she is warned that Epaphroditus is arriving with soldiers. Paris escapes onto the roof, his pipe player hides behind a tapestry, and Domitia pretends to be listening to a recitation by her slave. First reading. Take a few moments to look at the line drawing of the atrium in Domitian’s palace. Can students identify the room? What are its distinguishing features? The story and questions may be tackled in the following way: Lines 1–13 with questions 1–7. Take orally with the class and give help, if necessary, with three sentences: in scaenā … agēbat (lines 1–2), nūllī … habēbat (lines 4–6), and subitō … ingressus est (lines 9–10). Lines 14–29 with questions 8 and 9. Explain that you will read these lines aloud twice. Between your readings students should study questions 8 and 9, which will help their understanding by focusing attention on particular sentences. Give them time to study the lines and write down their answers. Lines 30–35 with questions 10 and 11. Follow the same procedure suggested for lines 14–29. Question 12. This could be discussed orally in class and followed up by a dramatized reading of the dialogue (lines 15–29) to bring Paris’ personality to life.
Discussion 1 Why would the story of the love of Mars and Venus be an exciting drama for Paris to perform to the empress? Of what would his performance consist? What was the role of Myropnous? 2 Why was the freedman Epaphroditus so powerful? How did he show his power in the treatment of the emperor’s wife? Who would help him carry out the activities described in lines 24–26? Note: Paris was the stage name of the most celebrated pantomimus of his day, who seems to have come from Egypt and was a favorite in the imperial household. His affair with the empress is mentioned in Suetonius’ Life of Domitian. Domitia, daughter of Nero’s most successful general, Cnaeus Domitius Corbulo, married Domitian in AD 79, and was given the title Augusta when he became emperor in AD 81. Epaphroditus was a freedman who became the secretary in charge of petitions, first of Nero and later of Domitian. He was one of a group of powerful imperial freedmen who were in charge of important departments of state. Myropnous is based upon a tombstone relief of the late second century AD (see p. 247). STAGE 33 159
Consolidation 1 If the long final sentence (lines 33–35) has caused problems, it may need unpacking with comprehension questions (cf. p. 291) or the form of analysis suggested on p. 84 of this manual. 2 The passive verbs (lines 24–26) offer an opportunity for practice. The class could be asked the meaning of īnspiciēbantur, īnspecta sunt, etc. This is a good time to undertake exercise 2 (p. 231). Illustration. Line drawing of Paris escaping from an opulent imperial atrium with impluvium and compluvium.
** in aulā Domitiānī II (p. 228)
Story. Epaphroditus sends for ladders to search the roof. Myropnous distracts him and stuns him with the curtain pole. As the soldiers carry him out unconscious, Myropnous puts a coin in his mouth and Paris declaims a mock epitaph. First reading. Take the story as a whole and maintain the pace so that the excitement and the humor come across. After a Latin reading, help students with comprehension questions, e.g.: What was happening when Epaphroditus entered? What question did he put to the empress (lines 3–4)? Is there anything that surprises you in the way he spoke to her? How did Domitia reply (lines 5–6)? With which word did she give herself away? How did Epaphroditus encourage the soldiers to redouble their efforts (line 11)? Why did Domitia go pale at Epaphroditus’ words in line 12? What plan did Myropnous initiate in lines 14–15? What was the tone of Epaphroditus’ words in lines 17–18? What did he expect to happen next? Which two words (line 20) indicate that Myropnous kept his cool? What did he do and what happened to Epaphroditus (lines 21–23)? How did Myropnous show his feelings (lines 23–24)? Where were the soldiers while this was happening? What did Domitia tell them to do (lines 26–27)? What did Myropnous put into Epaphroditus’ mouth (line 28)? Why? (A coin was the fare for Charon, the ferryman, who conveyed the souls of the dead across the river Styx to the underworld; see p. 35.) What is the meaning of hīc iacet (line 30)? What is the tone of this speech? Which words give it this tone? Who has won in this encounter? What do you think will happen now?
Discussion 1 What characters has Paris portrayed in this Stage? What personalities and situations were involved? What emotions did he evoke in his audience? Are there similar performers today? 2 Which point in the story do you think is the moment of greatest suspense? How is this achieved? 160 STAGE 33
Consolidation 1 Ask students to produce individual translations of lines 19–31. 2 Pick out the following examples of relative clauses from the story: quem impudēns tū amās (lines 3–4), quī per tapēte prōspiciēbat (lines 13–14), quae sē iam ex pavōre recēperat (line 25). Ask students to find the antecedent and explain the number and gender of the relative. Students could also be asked to comment on the examples of the connecting relative: quae cum audīvisset Domitia palluit (line 13), quibus dictīs, Epaphrodītus … sē praecipitāvit (lines 19–20). Follow up this exercise now or later by studying p. 273, which draws together the uses of the relative pronoun. After introducing paragraph 3, let students attempt the examples in pairs or individually before you review them together.
About the language 1: future tense (p. 229)
New language feature. The future tense in the four conjugations and sum. Discussion. Start by picking out a few familiar examples for translation (see the consolidation section below), putting the verbs up on the board with their English translation. A particularly useful sentence to start with, since it puts present and future in close proximity, is deinde … rēgnābit (p. 224, lines 27–28). By now students will probably tell you that the new verbs are in the future tense, and they should have no problems identifying the personal endings. Read paragraph 1 and then look at the structure of the future tense in paragraphs 2 and 3. Compare the examples on the board with the forms in the paradigms. Note the unwelcome fact that the 1st and 2nd conjugations have different future forms from the 3rd and 4th conjugations, but do not at this stage complicate the issue by bringing up the similarities between the present tense of doceō and the future of trahō. Then get students to work independently on examples a–e in paragraph 4 and go over them. Be prepared to accept any appropriate English translation. For homework set students to learn to recognize the future forms of the four conjugations. In a subsequent lesson, start with f–g in paragraph 4 as an oral review. Then study the future tense of sum in paragraph 5. This might be a good time to contrast it with the present and imperfect tenses of sum (see p. 282) and do a substitution exercise of the type suggested on p. 122 of this manual. Consolidation. Set students to pick out and translate examples of the future tense in stories they have read, e.g.: p. 224 rēgnābit (line 28), iūdicābit (line 34), erimus (line 36), poenās dabis, erit (line 37), dēvorābunt (line 39). p. 226 intrābit (line 13), poenās … dabis, iubēbit (line 19), nōn capiet (line 28), abībō (29). p. 228 poenās dabitis (line 11), illum capiam (line 18).
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Word patterns: diminutives (p. 230)
New language feature. Diminutive nouns. Discussion. Let students tackle this section independently or in pairs, checking their answers with another student or pair, and simply bringing you any queries. Consolidation. Check that students’ questions have been clarified, and take any future opportunity to help them recognize the diminutive and its different uses: • a factual description, e.g. agellus a little field. English examples might include, in addition to those in paragraph 4, statuette, rivulet, novella, gosling; students will no doubt supply more; • a scornful comment, e.g. mē nōn capiet iste homunculus (Paris about Epaphroditus, p. 226, lines 28–29), quid dīcēbās, homuncule? (Modestus to Bulbus, p. 28, line 2); like English, You horrible little man or the little woman. • an endearment, e.g. ō libelle meus (Martial sending his book of poems into the public domain), like English baby, d(e)arling, etc. The class might discuss libellus, in particular the development in its meaning from “little book” to “document” and so “petition”; hence ā libellīs “(secretary) in charge of petitions,” the official title of Epaphroditus. You might set out the connection between libellus and the English word “libel.” The examples in paragraph 4 show how English derivatives may have meanings which have traveled some way from the Latin original.
Practicing the language (p. 231)
Exercise 1. Complete the sentence by selecting the correct participle for the ablative absolute. Encourage variety in translation. This is a good exercise to use in consolidating Tychicus (pp. 223–224). Exercise 2. In each pair of sentences, translate the first sentence and complete the second with the correct passive form of the verb to convey the same idea. The examples are in the present and imperfect tenses, and provide useful further practice after in aulā Domitiānī I (p. 226). This is a good point to review the passive forms, basing exercises on the types given on pp. 276–277.
About the language 2: future perfect tense (p. 232)
New language feature. Future perfect tense. Discussion. Study paragraphs 1 and 2 with the class, and then work through the examples in paragraph 4, referring to the paradigm in paragraph 3 as necessary. In discussion of the examples given, help students observe that the future perfect tense always occurs here in combination with a future tense. It may be helpful to get the class to study the chart on p. 275 to establish how the new tense relates to the perfect and pluperfect. Ask the class to make up a rule, which works in all four conjugations, for forming the future perfect. They will be cheered to learn that they have now met all the six tenses. Consolidation. It is less important to manipulate the conjugation than to give students practice in recognizing and translating examples of the future perfect tense in the
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context of a sentence. Guide the class towards examples already met in the stories, ask them to identify the future perfect and translate the sentence in which it occurs, e.g.: p. 224 vīxerimus, crēdiderimus (line 35), dēstiteris (line 37). p. 226 invēnerit (line 19). p. 228 effūgerit (line 11). In subsequent lessons, create short sentences for translation, using the future perfect and the future with sī, e.g.: sī ad urbem advēnerō, amīcum meum vīsitābō. sī mihi pecūniam reddideris, dōnum fīliō meō emam. mīlitēs, sī aulam dīligenter īnspexerint, Paridem invenient. sī lībertum adiūveris, tūtus eris.
Cultural context material (pp. 233–237)
Content. This section is best studied with the model sentences. It reviews the three main forms of public entertainment in Rome: the theater (introduced in Unit 1, Stage 5); chariot racing; the amphitheater (described in detail in Unit 1, Stage 8). The last paragraph sets the context for the stories in this Stage by describing forms of private entertainment available to the wealthy.
Suggestions for discussion Ask students to read the text and study the pictures for themselves. Then lead into discussion by asking them questions about the pictures and exploring them further with the help of the notes on the illustrations below, e.g.: What can you learn about chariot racing from the pictures on pp. 232 and 237? The pantomime actor in the top picture on p. 233 is holding three masks and has three different props. What characters do you think he is going to play? Why are the mouths of the masks closed? (See also the note on the opening page, p. 155 of this manual.) How do you know that the seated figure in the picture on p. 221 represents a king? How do you know that the figure at the top of p. 235 is a “Thracian”? How many kinds of gladiators can you recall from Stage 8, and what were their characteristics? Why do you suppose the senate chose to mint coins like the one on p. 238? How much of the Colosseum survives today? (See pp. 181 and 234.) What entertainments do you think Domitia and Salvius might offer at their dinner parties? Further information The best secondary source for information on entertainment, and the most entertainingly written, is Balsdon’s Life and Leisure. He cautions more than once about assuming that all business stopped on the days of the fēriae, saying (p. 248) that “the impression that every citizen of Rome spent every day of the public games at the races or even watching gladiators, is a very wrong impression indeed.” For one thing, not everyone could fit in the Circus Maximus, not to mention the Flavian amphitheater. At all periods, more people watched chariot racing more frequently than they did gladiators. STAGE 33 163
Students need to know the difference between the fēriae (established festivals honoring particular divinities) and the lūdī (occasional triumphal games which later became annual events). Both were religious in origin, as were the gladiatorial mūnera. In the empire the numbers of fēriae increased as a way of honoring emperors. These were periodically altered, and then limited by Marcus Aurelius to 135 days. Balsdon points out that gladiatorial fighting played no part in the public games of the Republic (since they were given by particular individuals for one occasion) and only a small part under the empire (p. 248). We tend to remember the excesses: Titus marking the opening of the Flavian amphitheater in AD 80 with 100 days of gladiatorial fighting, and Trajan marking the conquest of Dacia with 117 days of shows in AD 108 and 109. Augustus had given eight gladiatorial shows in the course of his reign. In the empire, gladiatorial games were given by the emperor, by members of the imperial family, and by certain magistrates (Balsdon, p. 293). Official gladiatorial games were performed in December. By the fourth century, these lasted ten days (p. 264). As the mūnera had originally been given by private individuals, women had sat with men to watch them. However, from Augustus onward, women may have sat separately. Ovid describes the Circus as a good place to pick up a date (Ars Amatoria I.136 ff.) and to visit with a girlfriend (Am. III.2). In the theaters and in the Flavian amphitheater, women sat at the top of the seating area, just below the poor (Balsdon, p. 259). The lūdī scaenicī began with a parade after a sacrifice at a temple. Exuviae (tokens of the gods, e.g. thunderbolt or eagle for Jupiter; shield or helmet for Mars) were placed on chairs and carried to the theater so that the gods could enjoy the performance (Stambaugh, pp. 230–231, and Taylor, “The Sellisternium and the Theatrical Pompa,” Classical Philology 30 (1935) 122–130). Cicero (Letters to his Friends VII.1) mentions Pompey’s use of 600 mules in a revival of Accius’ Clytemnestra. Paris, the pantomime actor, and his affair with Domitia are in Suetonius’ Domitian (3). The orchestra accompanying him varied from small to huge; instruments included the double pipes (as played by Myropnous in the stories), lyre, trumpets, and scabella (wooden clappers operated with the foot). According to Lucian, who wrote in the Antonine period and is our chief source on pantomīmī, the dancer was required to know the whole of Homer, Hesiod, and the Greek tragedies (De Saltatione 61). Lucian defends the art vigorously against criticisms of immorality and bad taste: “It exercises the body and sharpens the wits; it delights and instructs the spectator with stories from the past, charming his eye and ears with pipes and cymbals and graceful movement; it improves the moral character, too, by filling the audience with indignation at the deeds of the villain and pity for the sufferings of the victim” (De Saltatione 72). The degree of detail expected of a pantomīmus’ gestures, and the way in which strict conventions controlled his performance, are well illustrated by the anecdote of the unfortunate pantomīmus who muddled the two sets of gestures for “Cronus devouring his children” and “Thyestes devouring his children” (Lucian De Saltatione 80)! Mimes (performed at the Floralia festival) made a different and coarser appeal. Balsdon gives an amusing list of titles and topics: melodramatic situations involving money, adultery, punishment, the gods, political satire, and, later, the Christian religion. Pithy aphorisms from the mimes were popular, many ascribed to Publilius Syrus, a writer
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from the time of Julius Caesar. In these very popular performances, actors did not wear masks, women appeared as actors (Bieber The History of the Greek and Roman Theater (1980 OP); p. 159), and gestures were lively. In the time of Vespasian, a dog had the chief role in one story (Plutarch Moralia 973E). Balsdon gives a full and entertaining account of chariot racing (pp. 314–324), with a rich supply of anecdotes from which you can select a few for retelling. For a dēfīxiō cursing charioteers and horses, see above, Stage 22, p. 37. Pliny was not a keen spectator of the races (Letters IX.6). This letter might strike a chord with some students or be found stuffy by others. The questions on the chariot racing reliefs on p. 237 are examples of the kinds that you can ask about many of the pictures. Remind students that such visual evidence is an important part of our knowledge of the Roman world. Encourage them to pick out details, like the reins tied tightly around the charioteer’s body, and connect them with other information they have. The conical pillars mark the turning point (mēta) at the end of the central platform (spīna) and were about 15½ feet (4.7 meters) high so that the charioteers could gauge their distance from the turn. The egg-shaped pinnacles on top are not the eggs that marked the number of laps remaining, but part of the pillars. Chariot racing was enormously popular elsewhere in the empire, too, especially in Constantinople. Excavations at Antioch have revealed tiny rolled-up lead dēfīxiōnēs found in the drains under the central barrier of the hippodrome. The inscriptions curse the opposing faction and were placed in drains because spirits of people who met a violent death were thought to hover about graves or underground water courses. These curse tablets were being used well into the Christian period (Tassel, “Antioch revealed,” Harvard Magazine (Nov–Dec, 2000) 51–56, 115). Cicero reports on Pompey’s use of elephants in the letter cited above. Caesar’s use of elephants is mentioned in Pliny (NH VIII.22), Suetonius (Julius 39), and Dio Cassius (Roman History XLIII.22–23). The best description of a triumphal parade in the Republic is in Plutarch’s Life of Aemilius Paullus (32–34). The Josephus reference in the students’ book is to The Jewish War VII.119–157.
Illustrations p. 232 ● Opus sectile panel from a mid-fourth-century wall decoration in the basilica of Junius Bassus, Rome (Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome), showing possibly the emperor wearing the triumphal toga of purple and gold, leading the procession at the start of the chariot games in a two-horse chariot. The four factions are visible, sporting their colors (left to right): reds, blues, greens, and whites. Domitian was obsessive about chariot racing and later established two factions of his own, purple and gold. The riders here are possibly waving palm branches. p. 233 ● Fourth-century ivory from Trier, showing pantomimus with the masks and props of three characters: crown representing king; sword representing warrior; lyre, perhaps representing Orpheus (Berlin). ● As on p. 221 (explained on p. 155 of this manual). p. 234 ● Colosseum looking along the wider axis of the oval from the gladiator’s entrance, showing the floor of the arena (modern restoration) and public
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marble seating rising in tiers. The underground works below the main arena include animal cages, manually operated pulleys for raising them, ramps for scenery, etc. The Roman building was further complicated by later uses; see The Ancient City by Peter Connolly and Hazel Dodge. ● Circus Maximus, with people (left) giving sense of scale. In the center is the spīna at the ends of which were the mētae (turning posts). On top of the spina were egg-shaped or dolphin-shaped lap counters: the eggs were removed, and the bronze dolphins dived at the end of each lap. See bottom drawing, p. 222, top picture, p. 237, and the notes on p. 156 of this manual, and below. p. 235 ● Relief from a memorial in Chieti, showing the distinctive helmet of a “Thracian” gladiator. p. 236 ● Statue of acrobat (British Museum), African by his hair and features, undertaking a daring trick in which some Egyptian acrobats specialized. p. 237 ● Terracotta relief, first century AD (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna), showing a scene near the meta (turning point consisting of three obelisks) in the Circus. The chariot may have taken the turn too fast. It is the last lap, as can be seen by the fact that all seven dolphins have been turned into the diving position. The statue on top of a column, and the pavilion with battlements, are ornamental features on the spina (see photograph, p. 234). These small decorated plaques may have been sold as souvenirs. ● Terracotta relief , first century AD (British Museum), showing a charioteer, reins tied round his waist, driving a four-horse chariot and approaching the meta. The obelisks were about 5 m high so that charioteers could see the meta above the clutter on the spina, and gauge their distance from the turn. Having rounded the meta is a single charioteer on horseback, probably a hortātor (rather like a coach cheering on his protégé) rather than a competitor. The inscription on both plaques reads ANNIAE ARESCUSA and may indicate that they come from the workshop of Annia, and the place of origin. p. 238 ● A brass sestertius minted by the senate to celebrate the opening of the Colosseum. Note how the arches are filled: the top story has shields, the next two have statues, and the ground floor has entrances. Over the central (emperor’s) entrance is a four-horse chariot. To the left is the Meta Sudans (sweating turning post), an ornamental fountain famous as a landmark, which survived into the twentieth century when Mussolini demolished it to make way for his Processional Way. The object on the right has not been identified.
Suggestions for further activities
1 Create a radio or television commentary for a visit to the races. 2 Read a translation of Ovid’s day at the races, Amores III.2. from Ovid in Love trans. Guy Lee, or Ovid, The Love Poems trans. A.D. Melville. 3 Find out some of the symbols used as cryptograms and passwords by the early Christians when they were forced by persecution to go underground, e.g. the ChiRho sign (pp. 224–225); the cross, shameful as a gallows in the Roman world, but
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commandeered by Christians as a symbol for Christ; the fish, used because the Greek word for fish, ICHTHUS, is made up of the initial letters of the phrase “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior”; the word-square: P R O T A S A O P E R A A T T E N E T E A R E P O R S A T O R PATERNOSTER O S A T E R For further information about the word-square, see The Oxford Guide to Word Games by A.J. Augarde, pp. 35–37. 4 Find out what you can about the experience of Christians in the Roman world. An accessible piece of evidence is the narrative of the experience of Paul, a Jew with Roman citizenship, in the Acts of the Apostles: the Roman governor refuses to get involved in a Jewish–Christian dispute (chapter 18); the local souvenir sellers in Ephesus protest vigorously against his preaching (chapter 19); Paul claims the privileges of Roman citizenship, to the surprise of the Roman officer who has gained his own citizenship through bribery (chapter 22); Paul appeals as a Roman citizen to Caesar (chapter 25).
Vocabulary checklist: phrases for discussion (p. 238) ars longa, vita brevis contra bonos mores ipsa scientia potestas est – Francis Bacon patriae potestas
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STAGE 34 lībertus Cultural context Freedmen and freedwomen. Story line Epaphroditus bribes Salvius to entrap Domitia and Paris, luring them to Haterius’ house by separate messages. When they are ambushed there together, Myropnous sets a fire as a diversionary tactic. In trying to escape, Paris falls to his death. Domitia is arrested lamenting over his body. Salvius is promised a consulship for his efforts. Domitia is exiled. Myropnous vows revenge. Main language features • present passive infinitive (including deponent) e.g. tum Chionē iussit lectīcam parārī et servōs arcessī. • future passive indicative (including deponent), all persons e.g. īnsidiae parābuntur; ambō capientur et pūnientur.
Sentence pattern increased complexity in compound sentences e.g. quōs cum vīdissent, quamquam Domitia omnīnō dē salūte dēspērābat, Paris in hōc discrīmine audācissimum atque callidissimum sē praestitit. intereā Domitia, quae per postīcum nūllō vidente ēgressa erat, prope vīllam manēbat dum Paris ad sē venīret. Word patterns Nouns ending -tiō formed from verbs. Focus of exercises 1 Future active. 2 Selection of correct Latin words to translate an English sentence. 3 Perfect and pluperfect passive.
Opening page (p. 239)
Illustration. Start by asking students to study this page and tell you who they think will play an important role in this Stage. Having established that it is Epaphroditus and that he is also the lībertus of the title, ask what they remember about him from the previous Stage. Can they identify the kneeling figure wearing the conical cap? Some may remember from a relief in Unit 1, Stage 6 (p. 69), that he represents a newly freed slave, expressing his gratitude and sense of obligation to his ex-master. (The relief is reproduced in this Stage, p. 253.) This illustration makes the point that freedmen like Epaphroditus might gain positions of considerable power, but they owed them to their ex-masters, to whom they still had obligations. See Suggestions for discussion below. Before embarking on the first story, read the brief biography of Epaphroditus on p. 241 and explain the meaning of the inscription (see note on p. 169 of this manual).
ultiō Epaphrodītī (p. 240)
Story. With the approval of the emperor, Epaphroditus seeks revenge on Paris and Domitia. Finding it impossible to act openly, he bribes Salvius to set a trap for them.
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New language feature. The future passive, 3rd person singular and plural. First reading. Read lines 1–7 in Latin and elicit the meaning with comprehension questions, e.g.: What did Epaphroditus want to do, and why (lines 1–2)? What did the emperor urge Epaphroditus to do, and why (lines 2–4)? What was so difficult about this order for Epaphroditus (lines 4–6)? What did he do about it (lines 6–7)? Read the rest of the passage dramatically and ask students to translate it in pairs, raising any questions with you. Such is the momentum of the story, and the familiarity of the 3rd person passive endings, that students usually translate the new future passive verbs without difficulty.
Discussion 1 Epaphroditus. Why was he so powerful? Note: The power he wields as a freedman may seem surprising, but several imperial freedmen gained positions of influence at court because of their closeness to the emperor. Linked to the emperor by gratitude and loyalty, they personally depended on him and were often regarded as more reliable and trustworthy than powerful senators who might be in control of an army and be potential rivals. Their power increased under Claudius and his successors when they were given important official positions, dealing, for example, with petitions (like Epaphroditus) or judicial inquiries. See also Anicetus in Stage 48. 2 Salvius. Is Salvius’ relationship with Epaphroditus better evidence of his closeness to the emperor than his statements on p. 174, where he tells Haterius he had consulted the emperor about his reward, and on p. 97, where he declares he is better placed than Agricola to know the emperor’s wishes about Cogidubnus? 3 When Salvius says ēmovēbitur, what does he really mean? This would be a good opportunity to discuss English euphemisms, e.g. “taken out,” “taken care of.” Consolidation 1 Ask students in pairs to read dramatically the conversation between Epaphroditus and Salvius (lines 8–19). 2 Have them find all examples of ego and tū and tabulate them on the board. Can they complete the tables? Do they remember the plurals? What do mēcum, tēcum, etc. mean? Refer to p. 270, if necessary. 3 Draw attention to the active infinitives, difficile erat accūsāre (lines 4–6); pūnīre cupit (line 9), in preparation for the introduction of the present passive infinitive in the next story. Review the infinitive forms of the four conjugations. Illustration. Part of an honorary inscription to Epaphroditus (Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome), referring to the fact that Epaphroditus had honors granted him for his part in exposing the conspiracy of Piso under Nero. It reads: (A)VG . L . EPAPHRODIT(O . APPARITORI . CAE)SARVM . VIATORI . TRIBVNIC(IO . …………HASTIS . P)VRIS . CORONIS . AVREIS . DONA(TO) To Augustus’ freedman Epaphroditus, attendant of the Caesars, assistant to the tribunes. … presented with pure spears and golden crowns.
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Epaphroditus was a common slave name and there were several imperial freedmen of that name. This inscription, however, was found in the area of the gardens owned by “our” Epaphroditus, on the Esquiline, and therefore is more likely to refer to him than to someone else (Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae 9505). Note that Augustī lībertus can refer to a freedman of any emperor. hastae pūrae were headless spears, which, like corōnae aureae, were given for valor in war. No doubt these honors were bitterly resented by Epaphroditus’ enemies.
īnsidiae I (pp. 242–243)
Story. Receiving a letter from Vitellia to say that she is ill, Domitia sets out on a foul night to visit her friend. The unoccupied house, brilliantly lit, with a banquet spread, leaves Domitia puzzled and her slave girl alarmed. First reading. This is a useful passage for practice in independent work, and you could take students’ answers in for assessment. Explain that you will read lines 1–11 through in Latin at least twice. Between your readings they should study questions 1–6, which in themselves help understanding by focusing attention on particular sentences. Remind them that the form of the questions, and the marks allotted, give clues to what is expected in their answers. Questions 7–15 are more testing. With bright students repeat the same method as you used for the first half of the story, while with other students discussion in class should precede the request for written answers.
Discussion 1 Domitia’s behavior. How would you describe Domitia’s response to her friend’s letter? What did she find at the house that might have put her on her guard? How would you describe her behavior: was she brave, or did she feel invulnerable as empress, or was she relying on the slaves outside the door, or was she too concerned about her friend to be afraid? 2 Salvius’ plot. Where do you think he has gained his knowledge of Domitia’s character and likely behavior? Do you think his wife would have helped him to make use of her sister’s house? What can you remember about her (last seen in Stage 14 entertaining Quintus, having removed the best furniture from Salvius’ study in Britain to adorn the bedroom of the visitor)? 3 Atmosphere. How would you describe the atmosphere of this passage? Identify the words which create this effect. Does the title contribute to the effect? What English title would you give to the story? If you were filming or recording this story, what sound effects would you use? 4 Roman house. Put up a floorplan of a townhouse or ask students to sketch one (see Unit 1, p. 11) so that they can envisage the events in the stories on pp. 242–245. Consolidation 1 Set individual students or pairs to prepare about five lines each to translate. Make sure the whole story is covered. Discuss their translations in story order. 2 Ask students to pick out the nouns or pronouns described by the following participles, and explain the cases used: missam (line 3), ēgressa (line 6), vecta (line 9), apertam (line 12), ingredientibus (line 14), vīsīs (line 20). Discuss literal and idiomatic translations of the last two. 170 STAGE 34
īnsidiae II (pp. 243–244)
Story. Vitellia’s bedroom is dark and Domitia sends her maid for a lamp. When she does not return and the bedroom is found empty, Domitia is panic-stricken. Encountering Paris as she runs through the atrium, she realizes a trap has been set for them; they must escape while they can. First reading. Read the story at one sitting, but use a variety of techniques to add to students’ suspense and appreciation. For instance, handle lines 1–9 in a manner which conveys the mounting tension leading up to Domitia’s realization of the plot in falsa erat epistula! 1 Read in Latin itaque … ferret (lines 1–4), leaving Domitia in the dark while you ask the class to tell you what has happened. 2 Then read in silentiō … nōn rediit (lines 4–6). By stopping here you emphasize Domitia’s total isolation in the dark house. Ask volunteers to translate. Give credit for the translation which best conveys the atmosphere. 3 tandem … vacuum erat (lines 6–7). Contrast Domitia’s impetuosity with the sudden threat presented by the word vacuum. Students will be eager to say what has happened. Check that they understand morae impatiēns. 4 In reading tum dēmum … epistula (lines 7–9), build up the sense of mounting danger and the horrifying realization contained in the last words. Elicit the meaning with questions. After reading the remainder of the story, let students work out the meaning in pairs. Some may need help with priusquam … accideret (line 11) and īnsidiae … parātae sunt (line 15).
Discussion 1 The empress sets out with a team of litter bearers and her maid. Ask students to identify the stages by which she becomes increasingly isolated: servīs … relictīs (Part I, line 13), Chionēn ... remīsit (Part II, line 4), vacuum erat (Part II, line 7). 2 What do you think is the climax of the story? 3 dum redīret (line 5). This is the first occurrence of dum with the subjunctive. Students are quite likely to say “She waited until the slave girl returned.” Do not comment, but let them go on to the next sentence “But she did not return” and then invite amendments to the original sentence. “What was she waiting for?” will help if students have difficulty. Point out the contrast between the indicative, used for facts, and the subjunctive often used for “not-quite-facts,” and then go on to explain the subjunctive in priusquam … accideret (line 11). A previous example of priusquam with the subjunctive occurred in Tychicus, p. 223, line 9, and there are further examples of dum and priusquam on p. 289. Consolidation Students might enjoy telling this story as Domitia, reproducing what she did and felt in the empty house. Others (if there is time) might like to present the scene with creepy musical and other sound effects at appropriate moments.
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** exitium I (p. 244)
Story. Myropnous warns Paris and Domitia of the praetorian guard’s approach. While they flee to the back gate, he blocks the front door with furniture and, setting fire to it, turns to follow them. First reading. Keep a good pace by reading the story through in Latin and eliciting the meaning by comprehension questions as you go, without formal translation. This is especially helpful with the more complex sentences: Domitia … contendit (lines 1–2); quō factō … coepit (lines 11–13).
Discussion 1 Who were the praetorian guard? Does it surprise you that Epaphroditus was able to command the emperor’s bodyguard? 2 What effect is achieved by breaking the sentences into short phrases? What features of language create this effect (e.g. ablative absolutes, participial phrases, neque reiterated, etc.)? 3 Do you expect Domitia, Paris, and Myropnous to escape? Note: About the language 1 follows well here. See pp. 173–174 of this manual for teaching suggestions. Consolidation 1 Check that students recognize the form and meaning of imperatives: prohibē (line 8) and prohibitions: nōlī dēspērāre (line 7) and give further practice if necessary. 2 Pick out the examples of present participles: dīcente (line 1), haesitantēs (line 15), pulsantium (line 19), flagrante (line 21) and ask students for idiomatic translations in context, together with the case, number, and gender.
exitium II (pp. 244–245)
Story. Finding two soldiers guarding the back gate, Paris lures them inside so that Domitia can escape. Trapped in the garden, he makes for the roof but loses his footing. Hearing him crash, Domitia returns and is arrested lamenting over his dead body. First reading. Recall the events of exitium I by putting up some short key sentences and asking for translation and comment. Take exitium II in three parts, reading each section aloud in Latin and exploring it with comprehension questions, some with the class as a whole, some with students working in pairs or groups: Escape attempt, lines 1–12. What discovery did Paris and Domitia make at the back gate (lines 1–2)? How did Domitia react to this (lines 2–3)? How did Paris behave (lines 3–4)? Why did Paris dart out before dashing back into the garden (lines 4–6)? What did the soldiers shout? How did he confuse the soldiers? Why did he mock them (lines 9–10)? Fate of Paris, lines 13–22. What noise did Paris hear (lines 13–14)? What made him realize the extent of his danger (line 15)?
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Where did Paris leap from? Where to? Would you expect Paris to have a good chance of making the leap? (lines 18–20) What went wrong (lines 21–22)? Fate of Domitia, lines 23–31. What had Domitia done while Paris was distracting the soldiers? Why had she not run away? (lines 23–24) Why did she return to the garden (lines 24–27)? What caused her to give herself away (lines 27–29)? How did the tribune complete his mission (lines 30–31)?
Discussion 1 Why was Paris so popular? How would you describe his character? Can you think of anyone comparable in the modern world of entertainment? 2 What will probably happen to Domitia? Can students remember details of Salvius’ promise to Epaphroditus (p. 240, line 16)? Note: Domitian’s suspicions about Paris and Domitia, Paris’ death in AD 83, and a divorce between Domitian and Domitia are recorded by the historians Suetonius and Dio Cassius. The details in this Stage are fictitious. Subsequently, after the divorce, Domitian took his niece Julia as his mistress. Domitia was restored in AD 84, and both she and Julia lived with him. When Domitian was murdered in AD 96, Domitia may have known about the plot to kill him. Consolidation Divide students into groups of three or four, and allocate to each group one section of the story to translate and explore, listing some features of language to find and explain, e.g.: Lines 1–12: superlative adjective, verb in the subjunctive, ablative absolute. Lines 13–22: present participle, verb in subjunctive, deponent verb. Lines 23–31: deponent verb, verb in the subjunctive, ablative absolute. Ask the groups to share their work, and clear up any difficulties. Then focus on the longer sentences (lines 2–4, 4–6, 23–24, 26–27, 27–28), asking comprehension questions similar to those on p. 291, which provide an opportunity for further practice. Some sentences lend themselves to the type of analysis suggested on p. 84 of this manual. Illustration. Paris is posing behind the statue in order to hide from the praetorian guard. Ask students to pick out the Latin sentence that best describes the picture.
About the language 1: present passive infinitive (p. 246)
New language feature. The present passive infinitive, and the present infinitive of deponent verbs. Discussion. Read paragraphs 1–3 with the class, and set them to translate the examples in paragraph 4. In going over their work, ask “What seems to be the usual difference between the present active infinitive and the present passive infinitive?” If necessary, draw attention to the 3rd conjugation by asking them which passive infinitive differs from the other three.
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Introduce paragraph 5 by asking students to translate a familiar sentence, e.g.: difficile est eīs per viās prōgredī (p. 242, line 10) Domitia ad aulam … regredī cōnstituit (p. 243, line 10) After completing paragraph 5, ask students to demonstrate from the examples how the deponent infinitive is like a passive infinitive (“it ends in -ī”), and then how it is like an active infinitive (“it means ‘to ….’ not ‘to be …-ed’).
Consolidation Ask students to identify and translate in context the five passive and deponent infinitives on p. 244, exitium I: vidērī (line 4), ingredī (line 9), ēlābī (line 10), effringī (line 16), sequī (line 21). Make sure that students can recognize deponent verbs in the Vocabulary by studying p. 294, paragraphs 6–8.
honōrēs (p. 247)
Story. Congratulating Salvius, Epaphroditus describes Domitia’s fate, the plans for public celebrations, and the emperor’s promise to give Salvius a consulship. Overhearing this, Myropnous realizes Salvius’ part in Paris’ death and breaks his pipes, swearing not to play again until Salvius is dead. First reading. Introduce the story by picking out with the class and putting on the board all the promises that were made by Epaphroditus and Salvius in ultiō Epaphrodītī (p. 240): praemium tibi dabitur (line 10). ego tibi tōtam rem administrābō (line 12). īnsidiae parābuntur; Domitia et Paris … ēlicientur; ambō capientur et pūnientur (lines 13–14). Domitia accūsābitur; damnābitur; fortasse relēgābitur (line 16). (Paris) ēmovēbitur (line 19). Ask students to cross off the promises which they know have so far been fulfilled. Read lines 1–19 of honōrēs in Latin and ask students what they have understood from your reading. Then set them to translate the passage in pairs and find out if the list of promises has now been completely fulfilled. Be prepared to help them with the initial dative in line 1, and see how well they cope with the change of tenses in Epaphroditus’ speech. The mood of lines 20–26 is quite different. Explore it with comprehension questions and then work out with the group the most powerful translation of the first and last sentences, noting in particular the word order of lines 20–21.
Discussion 1 Why do you think there were to be public celebrations? 2 What reward did Epaphroditus expect? What privileges would he gain by this (see pp. 256–257)? Would it make him popular with noble-born senators? 3 What reward was Salvius promised? Who told him? Is there anything odd in this? (Salvius held the consulship some time before AD 86.) 4 What do you think is the likelihood of Myropnous being able to take vengeance on Salvius? 5 Do you think the title for this Stage is appropriate? 174 STAGE 34
Consolidation 1 Ask for an oral translation of lines 7–9 (puerī … offerent), making sure that students recognize the future active. Then ask them to do exercise 1 in Practicing the language. 2 Ask for a written translation of Epaphroditus’ speech as an introduction to completing About the language 2. Illustrations p. 247 Late-second-century tombstone in Florence. The figure is shown with double pipes. The inscription in Greek reads: THEOIS K To the gods and …… MYROPNOUI NANO Myropnous dwarf CHORAULE player for a chorus of singers and dancers p. 248 ● Note Domitia’s hairstyle which was fashionable in the Flavian period (Paris, Louvre). ● This bronze sestertius (reverse) was likely struck to celebrate the birth of Domitia’s son who died in infancy (British Museum). The inscription reads DIVI CAESAR MATRI SC (meaning To the mother of the divine Caesar by the senate’s command), and Domitia is shown holding out her hand toward a child.
About the language 2: future passive tense (p. 249)
New language feature. Future passive, all persons. Discussion. This is a straightforward note which also offers the opportunity to reinforce the characteristics of deponent verbs. Take it in two parts, paragraphs 1–4 and 5–6, with consolidation after each part. Consolidation. After completing paragraphs 1–4, turn back to p. 240 and have students identify verbs in the future tense in lines 7–19 and say whether they are active or passive. Similarly, after paragraph 4, ask students to pick out the future tenses on p. 247, lines 1–19, and say whether they are active, passive or deponent.
Word patterns: verbs and nouns (p. 250)
New language feature. Nouns in -tiō formed from 1st conjugation verbs. Discussion. Let students work through this independently or in groups and share their observations.
Illustrations • The consular symbols, drawings based on Roman coins. The fasces, a bundle of rods tied with a red leather strap, was carried before a senior magistrate by a lictor. A consul had twelve lictors. The ax in each bundle was carried only outside Rome. The folding ivory sella cūrūlis was the chair of office on which a senior magistrate sat when conducting official business. • Small bronze statuette of a wreathed lictor holding the fasces (British Museum).
Practicing the language (pp. 251–252)
Exercise 1. Complete the sentences by selecting the correct person of the future active. Exercise 2. Translate English sentences into Latin with words chosen from a selection. Exercise 3. Translate active sentences and convert to passive form.
STAGE 34 175
Cultural context material (pp. 253–257) Content This section extends the information about freedmen (including the manumission ceremony) given in Unit 1, Stage 6, and incorporates some tomb inscriptions and a section on imperial freedmen. Suggestions for discussion The following questions could be used for clarification or discussion, or as a guide for students to make their own notes: 1 How would you define a freedman? 2 Why might a master choose to free a slave? (see also Stage 6: financial reasons, slave too old or infirm to work, slave freed at master’s death, slave could buy freedom, freedom given as the result of a special act like saving the master’s life, etc.) 3 What privileges were open to a Roman freedman? 4 What constraints limited a Roman freedman? 5 What were the obligations of (a) the ex-master and (b) the ex-slave to each other? 6 What led to some freedmen (usually not those who had been unskilled workers) becoming wealthy and successful? 7 Why did some freedmen prefer to stay with their masters? 8 What was special about lībertī Augustī? What powers and privileges did they have? How were they viewed by Roman senators?
Further information Use a selection from the following material with students, elicit some points in discussion, present others, and choose students or student groups to research and report on other points. Do not overwhelm the class with detail. 1 Definition of freedman. Remind students of the difference between a freeborn man (ingenuus) and a freedman (lībertus). Both are free (līberī), but the ingenuus has always been so, whereas the lībertus has previously been a slave. Slaves who were freed “informally” (e.g. by being invited to recline with the master at dinner) or who were under the age of thirty, while having some of the same rights as citizens, were not cives Romani but Latini Juniani. Dediticii, who had done something criminal as slaves but had later been freed, had even lower status than Latini Juniani. 2 Legal status of freedmen. The legal status granted to ex-slaves was noticeably more generous in ancient Rome than in other slave-owning societies like classical Athens or the American South in the nineteenth century, since the freedman of a Roman citizen became a Roman citizen himself. Although an ex-slave’s citizen rights were subject to the limitations described in the students’ book, the limitations were relatively few, and his children were wholly exempt from them. 3 Obligations to ex-master. The technical term for the work performed by a freedman for his ex-master was operae; the number of days on which operae were to be performed was normally specified at the time of manumission. Strictly speaking, the operae of a freedman had to be of the same kind as he had performed while a slave and were performed only for the ex-master; operae came to mean not only 176 STAGE 34
“work” but “workers” (often “hired workers,” hence the meaning “hired thugs” which students met in Stage 18). A proposal that ex-masters should have the power to reenslave undutiful freedmen was strongly supported in the senate but rejected by Nero (Tacitus Annals XIII.26–27). Inscriptional evidence of the relationship between ex-master and ex-slave. You should work together with your students when interpreting the inscriptions in the students’ book. The translations are as follows: a) In memory of Titus Flavius Homerus, a generous ex-master, Titus Flavius Hyacinthus (erected this tomb). CIL VI 18109 b) Publius Varius Ampelus and Varia Ennuchis made (this tomb) for themselves and for their patron, Varia Servanda, daughter of Publius. (Tomb 87, Ostia Antiqua) c) In memory of Julius Vitalis, a well-deserving freedman, his ex-master (erected this tomb). CIL VI 20731 d) Titus Flavius Eumolpus and Flavia Quinta built (this tomb) for themselves, their freedmen and freedwomen, and their descendants. CIL VI 18052 e) Titus Flavius Cerialis erected (this tomb) in memory of Flavia Philaenis, his freedwoman and wife who served him well. CIL VI 18017 Opportunities for freedmen. It has been said that freedmen were “probably the most intelligent class of the community” (Buckland and McNair Roman Law and Common Law (1994), p. 186). Crook, p. 50, points out that this generalization underestimates the range which the class covered, but he adds: “nevertheless, the freedmen class certainly did include many people of high intelligence, literacy, energy, and ambition.” Perhaps the freedmen who came off least well at manumission were those whose “assets” in the labor market had declined with the years, e.g. those who had originally been purchased for their biceps or pretty face. Some freedmen’s sons achieved high status. These include Horace, the brutal praetor Larcius Macedo (Pliny Letters III.14), and Pertinax (emperor in AD 193). Prejudice against freedmen. Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Roman Antiquities IX.24.4– 8, quoted in Lewis and Reinhold II.53) is angry and abusive about freedmen; Persius (Satires V.78 ff., quoted by Crook Law and Life of Rome (1984), p. 50) is sour and sarcastic. Primary sources mentioning “graded dinner parties” (see below) indicate the readiness of some masters to humiliate their freedmen. Horace, Satires I.6, defends himself vigorously against those who sneered at him for being a freedman’s son. Imperial freedmen. These followed the normal rule of taking their ex-master’s praenōmen and nōmen on manumission. Thus Epaphroditus, on being manumitted by Nero, would be known in full as Tiberius Claudius Neronis Augusti libertus, Epaphroditus. A simplified version of this name and title is used in the students’ book. The more power was concentrated in the hands of the emperor, the greater became the influence of the emperor’s personal entourage. Augustus had used his slaves and freedmen as secretaries and clerks; Claudius went further by developing a “civil service,” in which the various departments were headed by freedmen. In addition to the secretaries mentioned in the students’ book, there were also secretaries ā cognitiōnibus (responsible for administration of judicial inquiries) and ā studiīs (libraries and literary services). The power of such men reached its peak
STAGE 34 177
under Claudius and Nero. Pliny’s indignant letters about Pallas are Letters VII.29 and VIII.6. The senatorial debate about the grant of ōrnāmenta praetōria to Pallas is described by Tacitus Annals XII.53. Crook, p. 63, points out that the great fortunes of men like Pallas and Narcissus were subject to the rule that on a freedman’s death a proportion of his property reverted to his ex-master (in this case, the emperor). Imperial freedmen are often at the center of dramatic episodes in first-century Roman history. For example, the freedman Narcissus was sent to put an end to the mutiny of the army at Boulogne on the eve of the invasion of Britain in AD 43. According to Dio Cassius Roman History LX.19, the soldiers’ rebelliousness dissolved into mirth at the sight of an ex-slave giving orders from the general’s tribunal; they greeted him with shouts of “io Saturnalia!” (a reference to the festival at which slaves dressed up in their master’s clothes). For the roles played by Claudius’ freedmen at and after the death of Messalina, see notes above on ultiō Epaphrodītī, p. 240. Tacitus, Annals XIV.3–8, gives a vivid picture of the part played by the freedman Anicetus in the murder of Agrippina (see Stage 48). A less dramatic, but remarkably long career was enjoyed by an imperial freedman (name unknown; his son was called Claudius Etruscus), born in Smyrna about AD 3, who served continuously (except for a brief period of exile in his old age) under ten successive emperors, from Tiberius to Domitian, and died in AD 92 (Statius Silvae III.3). For graded dinner parties, see Juvenal Satires V.24–155; Pliny Letters II.6; Martial Epigrams I.20, III.60. For further information see Appendix B, especially Boren, Law and Life of Rome (1984) (pp. 50–55), and Duff Freedmen in the Early Roman Empire (1958 OP).
Illustrations p. 253 ● Relief (Musée Royale de Mariemont). A magistrate is touching the kneeling slave with a rod. A slave already freed (left) is shaking hands with a fourth person, probably his master. The kneeling figure is a slave bowing to his master after receiving his freedom. Both slaves are wearing the pilleus, showing that they have been freed. p. 256 ● Courtyard in the private quarters of Domitian’s palace, surrounded by twostory buildings. For the location of the palace see pp. 143 and 187. p. 257 ● Hall of the Augustales. The shrine in the recess on the right would have held a statue, and there are two statue bases at the foot of the pillars, all for statues of members of the imperial family, used as a focus for worship. The wall paintings feature Hercules, legendary founder of Herculaneum. Evidence for ceremonial dinners is found in inscriptions. ● Inscription from a tomb outside the Nuceria Gate, Pompeii, put up by Publius Vesonius, freedman, during his lifetime for himself and his patroness, wife of his former master. The photograph shows the left-hand column, and part of the central column, of three columns. It reads: P VESONIVS L(IBERTVS) VESONIAE PHILEROS [AVGVSTALIS] PATRONAE VIVOS MONVMENT(VM) FECIT SIBI ET [SVIS]
178 STAGE 34
P(ublius) Vesonius Phileros, Caius’ freedman, [Augustalis], while still alive made this monument for himself and [his family] and his patroness Vesonia. The letter before L (line 1) is an alternative form of C. VIVOS is an alternative form of VIVVS. The words in square brackets were obviously squashed in later, suggesting that Vesonius became an Augustalis and gained his own household after the inscription was completed. p. 258 ● Obverse of aureus of Domitian (private collection). Inscription: IMP(ERATOR) CAES(AR) DOMIT(IANVS) AVG(VSTVS) GERM (ANICVS) P(ONTIFEX) M(AXIMVS) TR(IBVNICIA) P(OTESTAS) VI, meaning: Emperor Caesar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus, High Priest, holder of Tribunician Power six times.
Suggestions for further activities
1 Devise a funerary monument for Clemens, set up by his ex-master Quintus, with an inscription based on the formulae used in those on pp. 254–255. 2 Prepare for Test 5. Suggestions for students: a From each Stage in the Unit choose one story to reread carefully, asking for help with any sentences or phrases you find difficult; b Read through the model sentences, and the About the language sections; select some of the examples to translate and ask for help with any difficulties; c Look over any work you have done on the cultural context, noting carefully the comments and advice you have received.
Vocabulary checklist (p. 258) In the second part of this checklist, a number of common deponent verbs are gathered together. Ask students to translate the three forms given for a particular verb, e.g. cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum; then pick out for translation some examples from the forms given in the list, e.g. sequī, hortātus sum, profectus sum, adipīscor; finally, drill variations on them, e.g. sequēbantur, hortātī erant, profectī estis, adipīscimur.
Phrases for discussion quem di diligunt, adulescens moritur – Plautus vincam aut moriar non sequitur
STAGE 34 179
Language information About the language (pp. 262–292) This section provides a reference and reviews for students. It collects and organizes various grammatical features such as the cases of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives; comparisons of adjectives and adverbs; and various forms of the verb. It also amplifies many features of syntax and sentence structure from the students’ readings. The exercises in these notes may be used for oral or written work at whatever point in Unit 3 you believe students can most usefully, confidently, and successfully complete them. Before using or assigning any exercise, check to make sure that it does not include features yet to be explained in formal language notes, e.g. passive or deponent verbs, future tense, etc. In addition, the notes and exercises are suitable for review at the end or the beginning of a year of Latin study. They are more effective in developing comprehension skills than memorization of isolated paradigm charts.
p. 259 Writing materials from Roman London (British Museum), including (clockwise from top left) pottery inkwell belonging to Iucundus (the N D I underneath is obscure), two pieces of wax tablet (see Unit 2, p. 31), bronze pen, two metal stili, and possible metal brush handle.
Vocabulary (pp. 293–323) This section is a cumulated vocabulary for the entire Unit. It includes only words that appear in Unit 3. The format and content are explained in notes on pp. 293–294 of the students’ textbook.
180 Language information
Linguistic synopsis of Unit 3 This synopsis follows the same plan and is designed for the same purposes as the Unit 1 linguistic synopsis described on p. 99 of the Unit 1 Teacher’s Manual. When reading a Stage with a class, teachers are strongly advised to concentrate on the features dealt with in that Stage’s language note(s), rather than attempting discussion and analysis of the other linguistic features listed here. LI = Language information. Place of language note etc.
Stage Linguistic feature 21
perfect passive participle prepositional phrase and participle (e.g. ā lībertō excitātus) partitive genitive descriptive genitive adverbs (met from Stage 2) VERB + ACCUSATIVE + NOMINATIVE word order iubeō/volō + infinitive
21, 23, LI 21, LI 22 22 21, 23 LI
perfect active participle (nominative) partitive genitive (from Stage 21) descriptive genitive (from Stage 21) clauses with cui (one example) increasingly varied position of dative
22, 23, LI 22, LI 22, LI LI
23 comparison of adverbs 23, LI genū LI VERB + NOMINATIVE + ACCUSATIVE word order LI īdem LI “branching” of participial/subordinate clauses out of another subordinate clause (ubi tū ad hās thermās advēnistī, remedium quaerēns, Memor mē ad vīllam suam arcessīvit) 24
cum clauses 3rd person singular and plural pluperfect subjunctive 3rd person singular and plural imperfect subjunctive neuter gerundive of obligation ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION + NOUN word order
indirect question 25, LI 1st and 2nd persons singular and plural, imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive 25, LI perfect active participle (accusative) LI clauses with cuius LI variation of word order in sentences containing infinitive
purpose clause neuter gerundive of obligation (from Stage 24)
24, LI 24, LI 24, LI 26 LI
26, LI 26
Linguistic synopsis of Unit 3 181
expressions of time num + indirect question id quod, ea quae dative + participle (e.g. hīs verbīs diffīsus)
27 indirect command result clauses extended prepositional phrase + participle (e.g. ē manibus Britannōrum ēlāpsus) DATIVE + NOMINATIVE + ACCUSATIVE word order examples of more complex sentences, including “nesting,” “branching,” and “stringing” 28
27, LI 27, LI
ablative + participle (e.g. morbō afflīctus) 28 expressions of time (from Stage 26) 28 impersonal verbs 28 connecting relative (one in Stage 26) LI
29 present and imperfect passive (all persons) 29, LI 29, LI purpose clauses with quī and ubi 31, LI purpose clauses and indirect command with nē ABLATIVE + VERB (e.g. flammīs cōnsūmēbātur) adjectival is and pronominal hic LI dum + present indicative 30
perfect and pluperfect passive (all persons) 30, LI genitive of present participle used substantivally (e.g. sonitum pulsantium) further ablative usages (e.g. uxōrem nōbilissimā gente nātam, ārea strepitū plēna)
ablative absolute purpose clause and indirect command with nē (from Stage 29) dative noun + participle at beginning of sentence
31, LI 31, LI LI
deponent verbs gerundive of obligation with transitive verbs future participle (met from Stage 26) double indirect question with necne
32, LI 32, LI 32, LI
future and future perfect active (all persons) future of sum (all persons) priusquam + subjunctive ablative of description conditional clauses (indicative)
33, LI 33, LI LI LI
present passive infinitive (including deponent) future passive (including deponent) (all persons) dum + subjunctive
34, LI 34, LI LI
182 Linguistic synopsis of Unit 3
The following terms are used in Unit 3. Numerals indicate the Stage in which each term is first used. LI = Language information section. Term Stage perfect passive participle 21 adverbs 21 perfect active participle 22 subjunctive 24 indicative 24 direct and indirect question 25 purpose clause 26 gerundive 26 direct and indirect command 27 result clause 27 impersonal verb 28 active 29* passive 29* compound verb 29 ablative absolute 31 deponent 32 future 33* future perfect 33 diminutive 33 present active infinitive 34 present passive infinitive 34 connecting relative LI *The terms “active,” “passive,” and “future” have been used earlier (in Stages 22, 21, and 32 respectively) in connection with participles.
Linguistic synopsis of Unit 3 183
Appendix A: Diagnostic tests For notes on the purpose of the diagnostic tests, and suggestions for their use, see the Unit 1 Teacher’s Manual, p. 102. The words in boldface are either new to students or have occurred infrequently in the reading material. Before students embark on Parts II and III, remind them of the story so far. A few new words with obvious meanings are not printed in boldface.
Test 1 This test should be given after the class has finished Stage 22. If time allows, you may give the entire test in one sitting. Otherwise it can be divided into two or three separate parts, preferably on consecutive days. amōrēs Modestī
I: Introduction This should be translated orally and informally with the class, so that students become familiar with the situation and context of the story. This will probably not take more than 10 minutes. Modestus, ubi Aquās Sūlis vīsitābat, multās puellās amāvit, sed celeriter dēseruit. Scapha, fīlia mercātōris, prīma eum dēlectāvit. Modestus eī rosās dedit quās ex hortō Memoris abstulerat. “volō tē hoc dōnum accipere,” inquit, “quod puellam pulchriōrem quam tē numquam vīdī. sine tē vīvere nōn possum.” 5 “ō Modeste,” respondit Scapha ērubēscēns, “ego quoque, tē cōnspicāta, statim amāvī. volō dōnum parvum tibi dare, quod vir magnae benignitātis es.” ubi haec verba dīxit, gemmam pretiōsam Modestō dedit. II: Written translation If this is done in a separate period from Part I, briefly recapitulate the story so far. Part II should take 20–30 minutes. postrīdiē Ampelīsca, ōrnātrīx perīta, ad fontem sacrum prōcēdēbat. Modestus, eam secūtus, post columnam sē cēlāvit. Ampelīsca, deam precāta, postquam nōnnūllōs sēstertiōs in aquam iniēcit, ā fonte sacrō abībat. Modestus eī obstitit. “ego tē nōn nōvī,” inquit, “sed volō tē hoc dōnum accipere, quod 5 puellam pulchriōrem quam tē numquam vīdī. sine tē vīvere nōn possum.” haec verba locūtus, gemmam, quam ā Scaphā accēperat, eī dedit. Ampelīsca, maximē attonita, prīmō dōnum accipere nōlēbat, sed, ā Modestō identidem rogāta, cōnsēnsit. 10 tum Modestus “necesse est nōbīs,” inquit, “iterum convenīre. multa alia dōna dare tibi volō.” “ō Modeste!” exclāmāvit Ampelīsca. “quam līberālis es! ego quoque tibi aliquid dare volō.” et ānulum argenteum, quem in digitō habēbat, eī trādidit. 15 184 Appendix A: Diagnostic tests
III: Comprehension test This passage, with its comprehension questions, should take 20–30 minutes. If it is done in a separate period, briefly recapitulate the story so far. post paucōs diēs, Modestus ē thermīs ēgressus, aliam puellam prope templum stantem cōnspexit. ubi eī appropinquāvit, “hercle,” inquit, “nōnne tu es dea ipsa?” “minimē,” respondit puella, “ego sum Scintilla.” “et quid in hōc oppidō agis, Scintilla?” rogāvit Modestus. 5 “ostreās in forō vēndō,” respondit Scintilla. Modestus “quam fēlīcēs sunt illae ostreae,” inquit, “quod manūs tuae eās tetigērunt.” tum ānulum argenteum, quem ab Ampelīscā accēperat, Scintillae 10 dedit. “volō tē hoc dōnum accipere,” inquit, “quod puellam pulchriōrem quam tē numquam vīdī. sine tē nōn vīvere possum.” Scintilla ānulum acceptum intentē spectāvit. subitō Modestum vehementer verberāre coepit. 15 “parce! parce!” clāmāvit Modestus. “cūr tū mē, quī tibi ānulum dedī, pulsās?” Scintilla īrāta respondit “tē pulsō, quod ānulum agnōscō. Ampelīsca, soror mea, mīlitī Rōmānō, quī amōrem aeternum prōmīsit, hunc ānulum dedit. tū es 20 mīles iste. nunc igitur Ampelīscam, ā tē dēceptam, vindicāre volō.” Modestus, ā Scintillā ita verberātus, quam celerrimē effūgit. Questions 1 Where had Modestus been? Where did he see the girl? 2 “nōnne tū es dea ipsa?” (line 3) Why do you think Modestus said this? Which goddess is Modestus referring to? 3 What did the girl tell Modestus about herself (lines 4–6)? 4 Why did Modestus say the oysters were fortunate? 5 ānulum argenteum (line 10). How did Modestus come to have the ring? 6 Which two Latin words in line 12 refer to the ring? 7 Why was Modestus surprised by the girl’s reaction to the ring (lines 14–15)? 8 What did the girl know about the ring (lines 19–20)? 9 nunc … volō (line 21). Which Latin word in this sentence describes how Ampelisca has been treated? 10 quam celerrimē effūgit (line 22). What do these words tell us about Modestus’ character? Think of one thing and give a reason. Answers The answers are as follows. Give credit for any sensible answer. 1 In the baths; near the temple. 2 Modestus wanted to flatter the girl or similar. Sulis/Minerva
Appendix A: Diagnostic tests 185
3 Her name was Scintilla; she sold oysters (in the forum). Accept direct speech. 4 Scintilla’s hands had touched them. Accept passive if sense is complete. 5 He had received it from Ampelisca or similar. 6 hoc dōnum. 7 She (suddenly) started to beat him (violently). 8 Her sister, Ampelisca, had given it to a Roman soldier. 9 dēceptam. 10 He was a coward, because he was frightened of Scintilla./He was prudent because running away was the best way out of a difficult situation. Teachers may like to note how students are coping with the following features in particular: neuter plurals: haec verba (I, 9; II, 8); multa alia dōna (II, 11–12). participial phrases: (i) perfect passive: Ampelīsca … ā Modestō identidem rogāta (II, 9–10); Ampelīscam, ā tē dēceptam (III, 21); (ii) perfect active: Ampelīsca, deam precāta (II, 2–3); haec verba locūtus (II, 8). volō: with accusative and present infinitive volō tē … accipere (I, 4; II, 5), as contrasted with examples with present infinitive alone volō … dare (I, 7); multa … dare volō (II, 11–12); vindicāre volō (III, 21). relative clauses containing oblique cases of the relative pronoun: quās … abstulerat (I, 3); quam … accēperat (II, 8); quem … habēbat (II, 15); quem … accēperat (III, 10). complex sentences: Ampelīsca … abībat (II, 2–4); haec … dedit (II, 8); Ampelīsca … cōnsēnsit (II, 9–10). position of dative: the test contains many examples of the dative (particularly eī) in a variety of positions within the sentence; check that students can recognize their forms and functions.
186 Appendix A: Diagnostic tests
Test 2 This test should be worked after the class has finished Stage 26. Follow the same procedure as for Test 1. Agricola Calēdoniōs vincit
I: Introduction: for oral translation Agricola, cum Britanniam quīnque annōs administrāvisset, contrā Calēdoniōs bellum gerere cōnstituit. nāvēs igitur ēmīsit ut portūs barbarōrum explōrārent. ipse in Calēdoniam cum magnīs cōpiīs prōcessit. Calēdoniī, ubi nāvēs Rōmānōrum vīdērunt, valdē commōtī, sē ad bellum parāvērunt. Agricola, cum barbarīs appropinquāret, cōpiās suās in trēs partēs dīvīsit. barbarī, hoc cōnspicātī, in nōnam legiōnem, quae erat pars invalidissima, noctū impetum facere cōnstituērunt. castra ingressī, cum custōdēs interfēcissent, mīlitēs dormientēs oppugnāvērunt. Agricola, postquam ab explōrātōribus cognōvit quid accidisset, ad castra cum novīs cōpiīs statim contendit. pugna erat ātrōx. tandem barbarī, magnā cum difficultāte superātī, in silvās et palūdēs effūgērunt.
II: Written translation Before this is undertaken, review the military vocabulary of Part I and make sure everyone is clear about the story so far. post illam pugnam Rōmānī in ultimās partēs Calēdoniae contendēbant. Calēdoniī, cum uxōrēs līberōsque in loca tūta dūxissent, magnās cōpiās collēgērunt. ad montem Graupium prōgressī, sē ad pugnam parāvērunt. tum Calgācus, prīnceps Calēdoniōrum, quī erat vir summae virtūtis, haec verba dīxit: 5 “ō Calēdoniī, hodiē nōs prō lībertāte patriae pugnāmus; nam istī Rōmānī omnēs aliōs Britannōs iam superāvērunt. Rōmānī, quī numquam contentī sunt, omnēs hominēs vincere cupiunt; ad omnēs partēs orbis terrārum legiōnēs dūcunt; ab omnibus gentibus pecūniam rapiunt; fēminās līberōsque in servitūtem trahunt. necesse 10 est aut Rōmānōs expellere aut prō lībertāte pugnantēs perīre.” III: Comprehension test Calēdoniī, cum verba Calgācī audīvissent, magnō cum clāmōre pugnam poposcērunt. Agricola, quamquam Rōmānī quoque pugnāre valdē cupiēbant, pauca dīcere cōnstituit: “vōs, mīlitēs Rōmānī, multōs labōrēs passī, tandem in ultimās partēs Calēdoniae pervēnistis. vōs saepe, cum per silvās montēsque mēcum longa itinera facerētis, fīnem labōrum vidēre nōn poterātis. saepe dubitābātis num dī Rōmānīs favērent. hodiē tamen tōta Britannia est nostra. barbarōs vincite et in mare iacite!”
Appendix A: Diagnostic tests 187
haec locūtus Agricola mīlitēs impetum facere iussit. ipse ex equō dēscendit ut ante vexilla cum mīlitibus stāret. Rōmānī, cum hoc vīdissent, hostēs fortissimē petīvērunt et fugere coēgērunt. tum equitēs, ab Agricolā iussī, multōs barbarōs fugientēs interfēcērunt. paucī ex illā pugnā superfuērunt; aliī domōs suās dēlēvērunt; aliī uxōrēs līberōsque necāvērunt, quod nōlēbant eōs esse servōs Rōmānōrum. postrīdiē Rōmānī nūllōs barbarōs invenīre poterant nisi mortuōs.
Questions 1 How did the Caledonii react to Calgacus’ speech (lines 1–2)? 2 What were the feelings of the Roman troops before Agricola spoke to them (line 3)? 3 What particular hardships did Agricola say his troops often suffered (lines 6–7)? 4 According to Agricola, what doubt had his men had (line 8)? 5 In the last sentence of his speech, what did Agricola urge his men to do? 6 What did Agricola do to encourage his men (lines 10–11)? 7 What was the result of his encouragement? 8 What task did the equites perform at the end of the battle (line 13)? 9 Why do you think they were given this task? 10 What did the Caledonian survivors do after the battle (lines 14–15)? 11 necāvērunt (line 15). Why did they do this? 12 Which word is given special emphasis in the last sentence? What effect do you think the writer wants to achieve? Answers The answers are as follows. Give credit for any sensible answer. 1 The Caledonii with a loud shout/shouting loudly demanded (to go into) battle. 2 The Roman troops very much wanted to fight. 3 They made long marches/journeys through forests and mountains. 4 They doubted whether the gods favored them/the Romans. 5 Conquer the barbarians and throw them into the sea. 6 He got off his horse and stood with his soldiers in front of the standards. 7 The Romans attacked the enemy very bravely and forced them to flee. 8 They killed many barbarians as they fled or similar. 9 The equites were the cavalry, which was the most effective force to send in pursuit of fugitives. 10 Some destroyed their homes, others killed their wives and children. 11 They did not want them to be slaves of the Romans. 12 mortuōs. The writer wants to keep readers in suspense until the end of the sentence to learn the fate of the barbarians/to stress the complete annihilation of the barbarians by leaving the word “dead” until the end.
188 Appendix A: Diagnostic tests
Students may find the military content and the rhetorical style of the speeches in this passage more demanding than the straightforward narrative and dialogue of previous tests. Check that their grasp of morphology, syntax, and basic vocabulary is firm enough to overcome any problems. The following features have been recently introduced in the Course: adjective + preposition + noun word order: magnā cum difficultāte (I, 13); magnō cum clāmōre (III, 1). cum with imperfect subjunctive: cum … appropinquāret (I, 7); cum … facerētis (III, 6–7). cum with pluperfect subjunctive: cum … interfēcissent (I, 10); cum … dūxissent (II, 2–3); cum … vīdissent (III, 11–12). indirect question: Agricola … accidisset (I, 11); saepe … favērent (III, 8). purpose clause: nāvēs … explōrārent (I, 2–3); ipse … stāret (III, 10–11). Teachers could check on students’ ability to handle the numerous participial phrases in the passage and analyze whether they can distinguish correctly between the different cases, tenses, and voices of the participles.
Test 3 This test should be worked after the class has finished Stage 28. Follow the same procedure as for Test 1. Modestus aegrōtat
I: Introduction: for oral translation ōlim Modestus et Strȳthiō cēnābant. cibus tamen, quem coquus parāverat, pessimus erat. subitō Modestus, coquum vehementer dētestātus, cibum humī dēiēcit. “iste coquus,” inquit, “est venēficus. cibum pessimum nōbīs semper parat.” “cibum meliōrem comparāre nōn possumus,” inquit Strȳthiō. “nam nūllam pecūniam habēmus. melius est perīre quam miserē vīvere.” Modestus, homō summae calliditātis, cum haec verba audīvisset, cōnsilium cēpit. Strȳthiōnem iussit amīcōs quaerere et haec nūntiāre, “Modestus, amīcus noster cārissimus, graviter aegrōtat. cum eum vīsitārem, tam sollicitus erat ut dē testāmentō cōgitāret. ille tamen, quamquam morbus gravissimus est, aliquid cōnsūmere et bibere vult. nōs igitur eī cibum vīnumque ferre dēbēmus.”
Appendix A: Diagnostic tests 189
II: Written translation Strȳthiō, ā Modestō missus, amīcōs quaesīvit ut verba Modestī eīs nūntiāret. cum Aulum et Pūblicum et Nigrīnam invēnisset, tōtam rem nārrāvit. Aulus, hīs verbīs dēceptus, sibi dīxit, “volō Modestum mihi aliquid lēgāre. mihi necesse est Modestō dōnum splendidum dare.” itaque Aulus, amphoram vīnī optimī adeptus, ad cubiculum Modestī laetus contendit. Nigrīna et Pūblicus tamen trīstissimī erant. Nigrīna Modestō magnum piscem coquere cōnstituit. Pūblicus ad forum cucurrit ut pānem et ōva comparāret. amīcī, ubi cubiculō, in quō Modestus iacēbat, appropinquābant, gemitūs lacrimāsque audīvērunt. Strȳthiō, ē cubiculō ēgressus, “morbus Modestī ingravēscit,” inquit. “vōbīs melius est mihi dōna dare et discēdere.” cum amīcī discessissent sollicitī, Modestus et Strȳthiō rīdentēs magnificē cēnāvērunt. post cēnam Modestus tam ēbrius erat ut multās hōrās dormīret. postrīdiē amīcī ad cubiculum rediērunt ut cognōscerent quid accidisset. Strȳthiō, reditūs amīcōrum ignārus, per castra ambulābat. amīcī, in cubiculum ingressī, Modestum immōtum in lectō iacentem vīdērunt. III: Comprehension test “ēheu! mortuus est Modestus,” inquit Nigrīna. lacrimīs sē dedit. Aulus, nihil locūtus, testāmentum Modestī quaerēbat. “amīcum fortissimum āmīsimus,” inquit Pūblicus. “nōbīs decōrum est eum fūnere splendidō honorāre.” Pūblicus statim ēgressus libitīnāriō imperāvit ut ad cubiculum festīnāret. mox advēnērunt libitīnārius et quattuor servī, lectum ferentēs. tam gravis erat Modestus ut difficile esset servīs eum in lectō pōnere. tandem servī Modestum in lectō positum magnā cum difficultāte in umerōs sustulērunt. libitīnārius ē cubiculō prīmus prōcessit. post eum servī lectum ferēbant. postrēmō exiērunt amīcī, lacrimantēs. Strȳthiō, ad cubiculum tandem regressus, in libitīnārium violenter incurrit. quī attonitus in servōs incidit. servī lectum tenēre nōn poterant. magnō cum fragōre humī dēcidit lectus. magnus clāmor erat. omnēs Strȳthiōnem vituperābant. subitō vōcem raucam audīvērunt: “nōlīte clāmāre!” omnēs, cum sē vertissent, Modestum ē lectō surgentem vīdērunt. Nigrīna perterrita “umbra est Modestī,” inquit. “nōbīs fugiendum est.” fūgērunt omnēs praeter Strȳthiōnem. quī tamen adeō attonitus erat ut stāret immōtus. tandem Modestum rogāvit num mortuus esset. “minimē,” respondit Modestus. “morbum, nōn mortem simulāvī. 190 Appendix A: Diagnostic tests
nunc tamen morbum nōn simulō; quod nimium vīnī bibī, rē vērā aeger sum.” lectum: lectus here = bier (couch for carrying a corpse)
Questions 1 “mortuus est Modestus” (line 1). When Nigrina said this, what does the behavior of a Nigrina herself, b Aulus and c Publicus show about each of their feelings (lines 1–4)? 2 Who summoned the undertaker? 3 Whom did the undertaker bring with him? 4 What was the first problem they had (lines 7–8)? 5 What was their second problem (lines 9–10)? 6 In what part of the funeral procession was the body of Modestus carried (lines 10– 11)? 7 Strȳthiō … in libitīnārium violenter incurrit (lines 12–13). What happened to the undertaker after this? 8 How did this affect the slaves? What happened to the bier? 9 What did the vōx rauca say? 10 When everyone turned round, what unexpected sight did they see (line 17)? 11 Why was Nigrina terrified? 12 What did everyone except Strythio do? 13 Why did Strythio not do the same thing? 14 In lines 21–22, who asked the question? 15 From the last paragraph do you conclude that the speaker is now a dead b pretending to be dead c pretending to be well d ill e pretending to be ill Answers The answers are as follows. Give credit for any sensible answer. 1 a Nigrina was sad. She says ēheu/is in tears. b Aulus is not sorry that Modestus is dead. He begins to look for Modestus’ will, in the hope that he has been left a legacy. c Publicus feels admiration for Modestus’ bravery./He wishes to honor him with a splendid funeral. 2 Publicus. 3 Four slaves. 4 Modestus was so heavy that it was difficult to place him on the bier. 5 The slaves found it (very) difficult to raise Modestus/the bier on to their shoulders. 6 The middle/behind the undertaker or similar. 7 The undertaker fell on to the slaves. Appendix A: Diagnostic tests 191
8 The slaves could not hold the bier. It fell to the ground (with a great crash). 9 “Don’t shout!” 10 Modestus rising from the bier. 11 She thought she was seeing Modestus’ ghost. 12 They fled. 13 He was so astonished that he could not move/stood stock still. 14 Strythio. 15 d ill. Teachers may like to note how students are coping with the following features in particular: vocabulary: most of the vocabulary in this passage should be familiar and several “obvious” words have not been glossed although they have not occurred in the checklists so far. See whether students can connect miserē (I, 7) with the familiar miser; calliditās (I, 8) with callidus; incurrit (III, 13) with currō. extended phrases: amphoram vīnī optimī adeptus (II, 7); reditūs amīcōrum ignārus (II, 19). participial phrase containing ablative: hīs verbīs dēceptus (II, 4). result clauses: tam … cōgitāret (I, 11); post cēnam … dormīret (II, 16–17); tam gravis … pōnere (III, 7-8); quī … stāret immōtus (III, 20–21). indirect question: postrīdiē … accidisset (II, 18–19). connecting relatives: quī … incidit (III, 13); quī … erat (III, 20–21). one subordinate clause nesting inside another: amīcī … audīvērunt (II, 11–12). one subordinate clause branching out of another: postrīdiē … accidisset (II, 18-19).
Test 4 This test should be given after the class has finished Stage 31. senex
I: Written translation Teachers may like to set the scene for this story by referring to the picture on p. 143. in Viā Sacrā prope amphitheātrum Flāvium stābat senex pauperrimus. vultus eius pallidus erat, tunica sordida, pedēs nūdī. parvam cistam manū tenēbat in quā pauca sulphurāta posita erant. 192 Appendix A: Diagnostic tests
“sulphurāta! sulphurāta!” exclāmāvit vōce raucā. ingēns Rōmānōrum multitūdō eum praeterībat: senātōrēs, multīs comitantibus clientibus, ad cūriam contendēbant ut ōrātiōnem Imperātōris audīrent; ōrātōrēs ad basilicam, sacerdōtēs ad templa ībant; fēminae dīvitēs ad vīllās lectīcīs vehēbantur; mercātōrēs per viam prōcēdentēs ab amīcīs salūtābantur; servī, ingentēs sarcinās portantēs, ā dominīs incitābantur. omnēs, negōtiō occupātī, clāmōrēs senis neglegēbant. tandem sōle occidente senex ad flūmen īre cōnstituit ut locum quaereret ubi dormīret. cum Subūram trānsīret, subitō iuvenis ēbrius, ē tabernā cum duōbus servīs ēgressus, eī obstitit. iuvenis “sceleste!” inquit. “nōlī iuvenem nōbilem impedīre.” tum servīs imperāvit ut senem verberārent. senex, ā servīs verberātus, humī dēcidit exanimātus.
II: Comprehension test senex tandem sē recēpit. cum sulphurāta humī dispersa quaereret, crumēnam, quae ā iuvene omissa erat, cōnspexit. crumēna dēnāriīs plēna erat. senex magnō gaudiō affectus est. tabernam ingressus caupōnem iussit cēnam splendidam parāre. senex, cēnā cōnsūmptā, ad flūmen prōgressus prope pontem Fabricium cōnsēdit. dēnāriōs ē crumēnā extractōs identidem laetissimus numerābat. dēnique, cum crumēnam summā cūrā cēlāvisset nē fūrēs eam invenīrent, obdormīvit. quamquam fessus erat, nōn sēcūrus dormiēbat. nam in somnīs sē vidēbat in basilicā stantem; ab illō iuvene fūrtī accūsābātur; tum convictus et ad mortem damnātus, ad carcerem trahēbātur; subitō ē somnō excitātus est, vehementer tremēns. adeō perterritus erat ut pecūniam, quam nūper comparāverat, abicere cōnstitueret. itaque ad flūmen prōgressus, crumēnā in aquam abiectā, “multō melius est,” inquit, “pauper esse et sēcūrus dormīre quam dīves esse et poenās timēre.” diē illūcēscente, ad Viam Sacram regressus, “sulphurāta! sulphurāta!” exclāmāvit. multī cīvēs eum praeterībant; aliī clāmōrēs eius neglegēbant; aliī eum vituperābant; nūllī sulphurāta ēmērunt. ille autem vītam miserrimam sēcūrus agēbat. sulphurāta, n. pl. matches crumēnam: crumēna purse
Questions 1 What did the old man catch sight of? How did it come to be there? 2 Why was the old man particularly pleased? 3 tabernam … parāre (lines 3–4). What did he do as a result of his good fortune? 4 cēnā cōnsūmptā (line 5). What did the old man do after this? Appendix A: Diagnostic tests 193
5 identidem … numerābat (lines 6–7). Suggest a reason why the old man did this. 6 What did he do immediately before he fell asleep? Why? 7 nam … stantem (lines 9–10). What did the old man see himself doing in his dream? 8 How was the young man involved? 9 tum … trahēbātur (lines 10–11). What happened to the old man in the next part of the dream? 10 Write down two Latin words that describe the effect of the dream on the old man. What did he decide to do? 11 What reason did he give for his action? 12 Where did he go at daybreak? Why? 13 Which was the only group of passers-by to make any response to him (lines 19– 20)? 14 Which word in the last sentence sums up the old man’s state of mind? 15 Do you think the old man made the right decision? Give a reason.
Answers The answers are as follows. Give credit for any sensible answer. 1 A purse. It had been dropped by the young man./The young man had dropped it. 2 The purse was full of denarii. 3 He entered an inn and ordered the innkeeper to prepare a splendid dinner. 4 He went to the river and sat down near the Fabrician bridge. 5 He could not believe his luck./It gave him great pleasure to do this or similar. 6 He hid the purse with the utmost care/very carefully. So that thieves should not find it. 7 Standing in a basilica/law court. 8 He was accusing the old man of theft./The old man was being accused of theft by him. 9 After being convicted and condemned to death, he was being dragged to the prison. 10 Either vehementer tremēns or tremēns and perterritus. He decided to throw away the money. 11 It was much better to be poor and to sleep free from care than to be rich and fear punishment. 12 To the Sacred Way; to sell his matches. 13 Those who cursed him. 14 sēcūrus. 15 Yes: A good conscience is better than guilt/constant worry./He might have been murdered for his money, etc. No: The young man deserved to lose his money./The old man should have disregarded his dream./He was entitled to the money as compensation for the young man’s assault on him, etc. Teachers may like to note how students are coping with the following features in particular: 194 Appendix A: Diagnostic tests
ablative with adjective: negōtiō occupātī (I, 10); crumēna dēnāriīs plēna. ablative with verbs: manū tenēbat (I, 3); exclāmāvit vōce raucā (I, 4); lectīcīs vehēbantur (I, 8); summā cūrā cēlāvisset (II, 7–8). ablative absolute: multīs comitantibus clientibus (I, 5v6); sōle occidente (I, 12); cēnā cōnsūmptā (II, 5); crumēnā in aquam abiectā (II, 14). 3rd person singular and plural imperfect passive: fēminae … vehēbantur (I, 8); mercātōrēs … salūtābantur (I, 8–9); servī … incitābantur (I, 9–10); trahēbātur (II, 11). 3rd person singular perfect passive: excitātus est (II, 12). 3rd person singular and plural pluperfect passive: sulphurāta posita erant (I, 3); quae … omissa erat (II, 2). nē with subjunctive: nē … invenīrent (II, 8). ubi with subjunctive: ubi dormīret (I, 13). nōlī with infinitive: nōlī … impedīre (I, 15). omission of first of two verbs: ōrātōrēs … ībant (I, 7–8). “branching”: tandem … dormīret (I, 12–13); dēnique … obdormīvit (II, 7–8). “nesting”: adeō … cōnstitueret (II, 12–13).
Test 5 This test should be given after the class has finished Stage 34. Follow the same procedure as for Test 1. Agathyrsus et Cordus
I: Introduction; for oral translation erat prope amphitheātrum Flāvium īnsula altissima, quam aedificāverat lībertus dīves, Agathyrsus nōmine. in hāc īnsulā erant conclāvia spatiōsa et splendida ubi Agathyrsus ipse habitābat: Appendix A: Diagnostic tests 195
parietēs marmore ōrnātī erant; ubīque stābant statuae pretiōsae quae ex Graeciā importātae erant. in aliīs īnsulae partibus habitābant hominēs multō pauperiōrēs quam Agathyrsus. pauperrimus omnium erat poēta, Cordus nōmine, quī in cēnāculō sordidō sub tēctō sitō habitābat. tam pauper erat ut nihil habēret nisi lectum parvum paucōsque librōs. vīta eius erat difficillima: quotiēns pluerat, aqua in cēnāculum penetrābat. eum versūs scrībentem vīcīnī clāmōribus vexābant. eō absente, mūrēs librōs dēvorābant.
II: Written translation ōlim Cordus, in cēnāculō iacēns, versūs scrībere cōnābātur. subitō magnus strepitus in īnsulā ortus est. ille, quī clāmōrēs vīcīnōrum audīre solēbat, strepitum neglēxit quod intentē scrībēbat. mox tamen maiōre strepitū audītō, ad fenestram iit; prōspiciēns spectāculum terribile vīdit: tōta īnsula flammīs cōnsūmēbātur. vīcīnī, ex īnsulīs proximīs ēgressī, in viam conveniēbant. quī, simulac Cordum cōnspicātī sunt, “fuge, Corde! fuge!” exclāmāvērunt. “moritūrus es! nisi statim dēscenderis, flammae tē dēvorābunt.” quibus clāmōribus audītīs, Cordus quam celerrimē dēscendit. tōta īnsula fūmō iam complēbātur. tam dēnsus erat fūmus ut nihil vidērī posset. Cordus, quamquam vix spīrāre poterat, in viam effūgit, ubi ingēns turba convēnerat. mediā in turbā, Agathyrsus, vultū sevērō, imperābat servīs ut flammās exstinguerent. aliī, iussīs neglēctīs, pavōre commōtī per viās fugiēbant; aliī immōtī stābant, incertī quid facerent; aliī ad proximās īnsulās currēbant ut aquam peterent; nulla tamen aqua comparārī poterat. mox tōta īnsula flammīs cōnsūmpta est. III: Comprehension test amīcī Agathyrsī, cum audīvissent quid accidisset, ad eum contendērunt. omnēs spē favōris dōna magnifica eī dedērunt. paucīs diēbus, Agathyrsus tot statuās, pictūrās, mēnsās, lectōs accēpit ut plūra habēret quam anteā. mox in eō locō ubi īnsula sita erat domum novam splendidamque aedificārī iussit. dōna, quae ab amīcīs data erant, per conclāvia disposuit. Cordus tamen, librīs lectōque incēnsīs, nūllam pecūniam habēbat neque ūlla dōna adeptus est. cum quondam per urbem miserrimus errāret, servō Agathyrsī occurrit. “nōnne dē Agathyrsī scelere audīvistī?” inquit servus. “ipse īnsulam cōnsultō incendit ut domum magnificam eōdem in locō sibi aedificāret. tot dōna accēpit ut tōtam domum splendidē ōrnāre posset. ēheu! fortūna scelestīs favet.” quibus rēbus audītīs Cordus magnā īrā commōtus, “nōnne Agathyrsus pūniendus est?” inquit. “ego ipse tōtam rem versibus meīs nārrābō; nēmō ab eō iterum dēcipiētur.” 196 Appendix A: Diagnostic tests
itaque versūs dē scelere scrīptōs in omnibus partibus urbis recitāvit. scelere iam patefactō, tam īrātī erant amīcī Agathyrsī ut ipsī domum novam noctū incenderent.
Questions 1 What did Agathyrsus’ friends do when they heard the news (lines 1-2)? 2 Which two words in the second sentence suggest their motive? Translate them. 3 dōna magnifica (line 2). What did these consist of? 4 What order did Agathyrsus give about the site where the block of flats had stood (lines 4–5)? 5 How did he furnish his house? 6 What possessions did Cordus lose in the fire (line 7)? 7 Why could he not replace them? 8 How did Cordus come to meet Agathyrsus’ slave? 9 What crime was Agathyrsus guilty of? 10 fortūna scelestīs favet (line 13). Who, in particular, was the slave thinking of? Why was this a suitable thing to say at this point? 11 What was Cordus’ reaction to the slave’s information (line 14)? 12 “nōnne Agathyrsus pūniendus est?” (line 15). How did Cordus propose to punish Agathyrsus? What did he say the result would be? 13 versūs dē scelere scrīptōs (line 17). How did people get to know about these? 14 Who were angry? What action did they take? (lines 18–19) 15 Why do you think Agathyrsus was not content with his previous luxury flat? Give one reason. Answers The answers are as follows. Give credit for any sensible answer. 1 They hurried to him. 2 spē favōris. In the hope of (gaining) favor or similar. 3 statues, pictures, tables, couches/beds. 4 He gave orders that a new and splendid house should be built there. 5 With the presents his friends had given. 6 His books and bed. 7 He had no money and he did not get any presents. 8 He met him when he was (very unhappily) wandering through the city (one day). 9 Arson. 10 Agathyrsus. He had benefitted from his crime, while innocent people like Cordus had suffered./ Agathyrsus had built his new mansion./He had furnished it with presents from his friends. 11 He was very angry. 12 He said he himself would tell the whole story in his verse. No one would be deceived by him (Agathyrsus) again. Appendix A: Diagnostic tests 197
3 Cordus recited the lines/verse (he had written about the crime) in all parts of the city. 1 14 The friends of Agathyrsus. They burnt his new house by night. 15 Agathyrsus may have disliked rowdy/poor neighbors/bad condition of insula/fire hazard/he may have wanted more space, a different, more fashionable arrangement of rooms, etc. Teachers may like to note how students are coping with the following features in particular: verbs: imperfect tense of deponents: cōnābātur (II, 1). perfect tense of deponents: ortus est (II, 2); cōnspicātī sunt (II, 6–7); adeptus est (III, 8). imperfect passive: cōnsūmēbātur (II, 5); complēbātur (II, 11). perfect passive: cōnsūmpta est (II, 17). pluperfect passive: ōrnātī erant (I, 4); importātae erant (I, 5); data erant (III, 5–6). present infinitive passive: vidērī (II, 11); comparārī (II, 17); aedificārī (III, 5). future and future perfect active: dēvorābunt (II, 9); nārrābō (III, 16); dēscenderis (II, 9). future passive: dēcipiētur (III, 16). ablative absolute: eō absente (I, 11); maiōre strepitū audītō (II, 4); quibus clāmōribus audītīs (II, 10); iussīs neglēctīs (II, 14); librīs lectōque incēnsīs (III, 7); scelere iam patefactō (III, 18). connecting relative: quī … exclāmāvērunt (II, 6–8); quibus clāmōribus audītīs (II, 10). accusative + nominative + verb: eum … vexābant (I, 10–11).
198 Appendix A: Diagnostic tests
Appendix B: Select bibliography A few books are out of print (OP) but are included in case teachers already possess them or can obtain secondhand copies.
General Balsdon, J. Life and Leisure in Ancient Rome (Phoenix, 2002) Boren, H. Roman Society: A Social, Economic and Cultural History (Heath and Company, 1992) Carcopino, J. Daily Life in Ancient Rome (Penguin, 1991) Casson, L. Travel in the Ancient World (Johns Hopkins University Press, new edn, 1999) Freeman, C. Egypt, Greece and Rome – Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean (Oxford University Press, 2004) Garnsey, P. & Saller, R. The Roman Empire: economy, society and culture (Bristol Classical Press, 1987) Grant, M. The World of Rome (NAL/Penguin, 1987) Keppie, L. Understanding Roman Inscriptions (Routledge, 1991) Lewis, N. & Reinhold, M. Roman Civilization: A Sourcebook. I: The Republic and II: The Empire (Columbia University Press, 1990) Massey, M. & Mooreland, P. Slavery in Ancient Rome (Inside the Ancient World series) (Bristol Classical Press, 2002) Mellor, R. The Historians of Ancient Rome: An Anthology of the Major Writings (Routledge Sourcebooks for the Ancient World) (Routledge, 2012) Paoli, U. E. Rome, its People, Life and Customs (Bristol Classical Press, 1996) Taylor, D. Roman Society (Inside the Ancient World series) (Bristol Classical Press, 1998) Tingay, G. & Badcock, J. These Were the Romans (Dufour, 1995) Roman Britain Cunliffe, B. Roman Bath Discovered (Tempus, 2000) Cunliffe, B. & Davenport, P. The Temple of Sulis Minerva at Bath, Vol. I: The Site; Vol. 2: The Finds from the Sacred Spring (Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, 1985 and 1988) Davenport, P. “Aquae Sulis, the Origins and Development of a Roman Town” Bath History Journal Vol. VIII (2000) 7–26 De La Bédoyère, G. Roman Britain: A New History (Thames & Hudson, 2014) Hanson, W. S. Agricola and the Conquest of the North (Barnes & Noble, 1987) Mason, D. J. P. Roman Chester: Fortress at the Edge of the World (The History Press, 2012) Millett, M. English Heritage Book of Roman Britain (Batsford, 1995) Ordnance Survey Map of Roman Britain (Ordnance Survey, 2011) Appendix B: Select bibliography 199
Todd, M. Roman Britain 55 BC – AD 400 (Blackwell, new edn, 1999) Tyers, P. Roman Pottery in Britain (Routledge, 1996) Wacher, J. The Towns of Roman Britain (Routledge, 1997)
Roman army Birley, R. Vindolanda: Everyday Life on Rome’s Northern Frontier (Amberley Publishing, 2009) Breeze, D. Roman Forts in Britain (Shire Publications, 2008) Breeze, D. J. & Dobson, B. Hadrian’s Wall (Penguin, 1999) Campbell, B. The Roman Army 31 BC – AD 337: A Sourcebook (Routledge, 1994) Connolly, P. The Roman Army (Macdonald, 1984) Embleton, R. Hadrian’s Wall in the days of the Romans (Frank Graham, 1974) Le Bohec, Y. The Imperial Roman Army (Hippocrene Books, 1994) Warry, J. Warfare in the Classical World (University of Oklahoma Press, 1995) Webster, G. The Roman Imperial Army (University of Oklahoma Press, 1998) Wilkes, J. The Roman Army (Cambridge University Press, 1973) Life in the city of Rome Barton, I. M., ed. Roman Public Buildings (Liverpool University Press, 1995) Beacham, R. Spectacle Entertainments of Early Imperial Rome (Yale University Press, 2011) Beacham, R.C. The Roman Theatre and its Audience (Harvard University Press, 1996) Claridge, A. Rome: An Archaeological Guide (Oxford University Press, 2010) Claridge, A. & Holleran, C. A Companion to the City of Rome (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013) Connolly, P. & Dodge, H. Ancient City: Life in Classical Athens and Rome (Oxford University Press, 2000) Dudley, D. R. Urbs Roma (Phaidon, 1967) (OP) Erdkamp, P., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Rome (Cambridge University Press, 2013) Robinson, O. F. Ancient Rome: City Planning and Administration (Routledge, 1994) Stambaugh, J. The Ancient Roman City (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988) Engineering and architecture Adam, J-P. Roman Building: Materials and Techniques (Routledge, 1999) Hamey, L. & Hamey, J. The Roman Engineers (Cambridge University Press, 1981) Hodges, H. W. M. Artifacts (Bristol Classical Press, 2003) Landels, J. Engineering in the Ancient World (University of California Press, 2000) Macauley, D. City: A Story of Roman Planning and Construction (Houghton Mifflin, 1983)
200 Appendix B: Select bibliography
Macdonald, W. L. The Architecture of the Roman Empire (Yale University Press, 1988) McKay, A. G. Houses, Villas and Palaces in the Roman World (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998) Wheeler, M. Roman Art and Architecture (Thames and Hudson, pbk, 1964)
Women in ancient Rome D’Ambra, E. Roman Women (Cambridge University Press, 2007) Dixon, S. Reading Roman Women (Bristol Classical Press, 2001) Fantham, E. et al. Women in the Classical World: Image and Text (Oxford University Press, 1995) Hallett, J. Fathers and Daughters in Roman Society (Princeton University Press, 1984) James, S. L. & Dillon, S. A Companion to Women in the Ancient World (WileyBlackwell, 2012) Lefkowitz, M. & Fant, M. Women’s Life in Greece and Rome: A Source Book in Translation (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005) Religion, magic, and philosophy Beard, M., North, N., & Price, S. Religions of Rome Volume 1: A History and Volume 2: A Sourcebook (Cambridge University Press, 1998) Graf, F. Magic in the Ancient World. Trans. F. Philip (Harvard University Press, 1999) Hopkins, K. A World full of Gods: The Strange Triumph of Christianity (Plume, 2001) Luck, G. Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1985) Rives, J. Religion in the Roman Empire (Wiley-Blackwell, 2006) Sandbach, F. The Stoics (Hackett, 1994) Turcan, R. The Cults of the Roman Empire. Trans. A. Nevill (Blackwell, 1996) Judea Ben-Yehuda, N., Zias, J., & Meshel, Z. “Questioning Masada” Biblical Archaeology Review (Nov/Dec, 1998) 30–53 Hadas-Lebel, M. Flavius Josephus: Eyewitness to Rome’s First Century Conquest (Macmillan, 1993) Pearlman, M. The Zealots of Masada – Story of a Dig (Palphot, 2004) Primary sources Josephus The Jewish War. Trans. G. Williamson and M. Smallwood (Penguin, 1981) Kay, N. Martial Book XI: A Commentary (Duckworth, 1985) Lee, G. (trans.) Ovid in Love (John Murray, 2000) Martial Selected Epigrams. Trans. R. Humphries (Indiana University Press, 1963) Ovid The Love Poems. Trans. A. D. Melville (Oxford World Classics, 1998) Tacitus Agricola and Germania. Trans. H. B. Mattingly & S. A. Hanford (Penguin, 2000) Appendix B: Select bibliography 201
Tacitus Selections from Tacitus, Histories I–III, ed. P. Jones (Cambridge University Press, 1975) and Handbook (Cambridge University Press, 1975) Tacitus Selections from Tacitus: Agricola and Handbook, ed. D. Soulsby (Cambridge University Press, 1982)
Reference works Collins Gem Latin Dictionary (Collins, 1996) Hornblower, S. and Spawforth, A., eds The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Oxford University Press, 2012) Lewis, C. T. & Short, C. A Latin Dictionary (Oxford University Press, 1956) McEvedy, C. The New Penguin Atlas of Ancient History (Penguin, 2003) Morwood, J. Pocket Oxford Latin Dictionary (Oxford University Press, 2005) Scarre, C. Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome (Penguin, 1995) Talbert, R. J. A., ed. Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World (Princeton University Press, 2000) Historical novels Davis, L. The Course of Honor (St Martin’s Griffin, 2009) Davis, L. The Silver Pigs (Minotaur Books, 2011) Gann, E. Masada (Jove, 1981) (OP) Graves, R. I, Claudius and Claudius the God (Vintage, 1989) Hambly, B. Search the Seven Hills: The Quirinal Affair (Open Road Media, 2011) Harris, R. Imperium (Gallery Books, 2007) Ray, M. The Ides of April (Bethlehem Books, 1999) Roberts, J. The King’s Gambit (SPQR series) (Minotaur Books, 1990) Sapir, R. The Far Arena (Open Road Media, 2015) Saylor, S. Roman Blood (Minotaur Books, 2008)
202 Appendix B: Select bibliography