Page 1



AP European History

Other books in McGraw-Hill’s 5 STEPS TO A 5 series include: AP Biology AP Calculus AB AP Chemistry AP English Language AP English Literature AP Microeconomics/Macroeconomics AP Physics B and C AP Psychology AP Spanish Language AP Statistics AP U.S. Government and Politics AP U.S. History AP World History 11 Practice Tests for the AP Exams Writing the AP English Essay




AP European History 2008–2009

Jeffrey Brautigam

MCGRAW-HILL New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

❮ iii

Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-159605-4 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-149808-7. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise. DOI: 10.1036/0071498087


Want to learn more? We hope you enjoy this McGraw-Hill eBook! If you’d like more information about this book, its author, or related books and websites, please click here.

For more information about this title, click here

CONTENTS Preface, xi Acknowledgments, xiii Credits, xv About the Author, xvii Introduction: The Five-Step Program, xix


Set Up Your Study Program, 1 1 What You Need to Know About the AP European History Exam, 3 Background Information, 3 Frequently Asked Questions about the AP European History Exam, 4 2 How to Plan Your Time, 7 Three Approaches to Preparing for AP Exams, 7 Detailed Calendar for Each Plan, 9


Determine Your Test Readiness, 13 3 Diagnostic Exercises, 15 Introduction, 15 The Multiple-Choice Questions, 15 Multiple-Choice Questions Exercise, 17 Answers and Explanations, 18 The Document-Based Question, 19 Document-Based Question Exercise, 20 Suggestions and Possible Outline of a Response to the DBQ Exercise, 21 The Thematic Essay Questions, 22 Thematic Essay Question Exercise, 23 Suggestions and Possible Outline of a Response to the Thematic Essay Questions Exercise, 23


Develop Strategies for Success, 25 4 The Multiple-Choice Questions, 27 Introduction, 27 Passive Knowledge and the Premise, 28 Organizational Keys, 28 The Kinds of Questions, 29 About Guessing, 29 Developing a Strategy, 30 5 The Document-Based Question (DBQ), 33 Introduction, 33 The Quality History Essay, 34 Five Steps to Outlining a Short History Essay, 34 â?Ž v

vi ❯ Contents Characteristics of the DBQ, 36 Applying the Principles of the Quality History Essay to the DBQ, 37 Scoring of the DBQs, 37 6 Thematic Essay Questions, 39 Introduction, 39 Characteristics of the Thematic Essay Questions, 39 Applying the Principles of the Quality History Essay to the Thematic Essay Questions, 40 Scoring of the Thematic Essays, 41


Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High, 43 Unit 1 1450 to the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era, 45 7 Recovery and Expansion, 1300–1600, 47 Introduction, 48 Effects of The Hundred Years War, 48 Disappearance of the Black Death, 48 A Weakened Papacy, 48 The Revival of Monarchy, 49 The Rise of Spain, 50 Exploration and Expansion, 50 The Spanish Empire in the New World, 51 Rapid Review, 52 Chapter Review Questions, 53 Answers and Explanations, 54 8 The Renaissance, 1350–1550, 57 Introduction, 58 Renaissance Italian Society, 58 Renaissance Values, 58 Neoplatonism, 59 The Renaissance Artistic Achievement, 60 The Spread of the Renaissance, 60 Rapid Review, 62 Chapter Review Questions, 63 Answers and Explanations, 64 9 The Reformation, 1500–1600, 67 Introduction, 68 The Need for a Religious Reformation, 68 The Lutheran Revolt, 68 Creation and Spread of the Protestant Movement, 69 The English Reformation, 70 Calvin and Calvinism, 70 Social Dimensions and the Radical Reformation, 71 The Catholic Response, 71 Rapid Review, 73 Chapter Review Questions, 74 Answers and Explanations, 75

Contents ❮

10 The Rise of Sovereignty, 1600–1715, 77 Introduction, 78 Economic Stress and Change, 78 Britain: The Triumph of Constitutionalism, 78 France: Absolutism, 79 Central and Eastern Europe: Compromise, 80 Russia: Tsarist Absolutism, 80 Rapid Review, 82 Chapter Review Questions, 83 Answers and Explanations, 84 11 The Scientific Revolution during the Seventeenth Century, 87 Introduction, 88 The Traditional View of the Cosmos, 88 Alternative Traditions of Knowledge before the Scientific Revolution, 88 Development of New Institutions, 89 The Rise of Copernicanism, 89 Kepler’s Laws, 90 Galileo and the Value of Empirical Knowledge, 91 Cartesian Skepticism and Deductive Reasoning, 91 Newton and Universal Gravitation, 92 Rapid Review, 93 Chapter Review Questions, 94 Answers and Explanations, 95 12 The Enlightenment: A Cultural Movement during the Eighteenth Century, 97 Introduction, 98 New Ideas about Natural Law, Human Nature, and Society, 98 New Political Ideas, 99 The Philosophes and Enlightened Despotism, 100 Salons and Lodges, 101 Skepticism, Religion, and Social Criticism, 101 The Radical Enlightenment, 102 The Other Enlightenment, 103 Rapid Review, 104 Chapter Review Questions, 105 Answers and Explanations, 106 13 Social Transformation and Statebuilding in the Eighteenth Century, 109 Introduction, 110 The Triangle of Trade, 110 Breaking the Traditional Cycle of Population and Productivity, 110 Market-Oriented Agriculture, 111 Rural Manufacturing, 111 Technical Innovations in Agriculture and Manufacturing, 112 Eastern Ambition, 113 War and Diplomacy, 113 Rapid Review, 115 Chapter Review Questions, 116 Answers and Explanations, 117


viii ❯ Contents 14 The French Revolution and the Rise of Napoleon, 1789–1799, 119 Introduction, 120 The Ancien Régime in Crisis, 120 The Moderate Phase of the French Revolution (1789–1791), 121 The Radical Phase of the French Revolution (1791–1794), 122 The Final Phase of the French Revolution: Thermidor and the Rise of Napoleon (1794–1799), 125 Rapid Review, 126 Chapter Review Questions, 127 Answers and Explanations, 128 Unit 1 Summary: 1450 to the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era, 131 Timeline, 131 Key Comparisons, 132 Thematic Change/Continuity, 133 Unit 2 The Napoleonic Era to the Present, 135 15 The Fall of Napoleon and the Post-Napoleonic Era, 1800–1848, 137 Introduction, 138 Post-Revolutionary France and the Napoleonic Code, 138 Napoleon’s Empire, 139 Decline and Fall of Napoleon and His Empire, 140 Restoration, 141 Revolution and Repression, 141 Rapid Review, 144 Chapter Review Questions, 145 Answers and Explanations, 146 16 The Second Industrial Revolution, 1820–1900, 149 Introduction, 150 The Factory System and the Division of Labor, 150 Iron and Steel, 150 New Sources of Power, 151 The Railway Boom, 151 The Reciprocal Nature of Heavy Industry, 152 The Spread of Industrialization, 152 Social Effects, 153 Rapid Review, 154 Chapter Review Questions, 155 Answers and Explanations, 156 17 The Rise of New Ideologies in the Nineteenth Century, 159 Introduction, 160 Conservatism, 160 Liberalism, 160 Romanticism, 161 Nationalism, 162 Anarchism, 162 Utopian Socialism, 163 Scientific Socialism and Communism, 163 Social Darwinism, 164

Contents ❮






Rapid Review, 165 Chapter Review Questions, 166 Answers and Explanations, 167 Nationalism and Statebuilding, 1848–1900, 169 Introduction, 170 The End of Liberal Nationalism, 170 The Unification of Italy, 170 The Unification of Germany, 173 Nationalism in the Hapsburg Empire, 174 Nationalism in France, 174 Nationalism in Russia, 175 Rapid Review, 176 Chapter Review Questions, 177 Answers and Explanations, 178 Mass Politics in Europe and Imperialism in Africa and Asia, 1860–1914, 181 Introduction, 182 Causes of the New Imperialism, 182 The Development of Mass Politics, 182 The Scramble for Africa, 184 Dominance in Asia, 185 Rapid Review, 186 Chapter Review Questions, 187 Answers and Explanations, 188 Politics of the Extreme and World War I, 1870–1918, 191 Introduction, 192 Politics of the Extreme, 192 Causes of World War I, 194 Basic Chronology, 1914–1915, 194 Total War, 195 Basic Chronology, 1916: “The Year of Bloodletting”, 196 Russian Revolution and Withdrawal, 196 Germany’s Disintegration and the Peace Settlement, 196 Rapid Review, 198 Chapter Review Questions, 199 Answers and Explanations, 200 The Interwar Years and World War II, 1918–1945, 203 Introduction, 204 The Interwar Years, 204 The Road to World War II, 208 The Course of the War, 209 Assessment and Aftermath of World War II, 213 Rapid Review, 214 Chapter Review Questions, 215 Answers and Explanations, 216 The Cold War and Beyond, 1945–Present, 219 Introduction, 220 The Cold War, 220 The European Union, 222


x â?Ż Contents The Disintegration of the Iron Curtain and the Soviet Union, 222 Nationalism and Globalization, 225 Rapid Review, 226 Chapter Review Questions, 227 Answers and Explanations, 228

Unit 2 Summary: The Napoleonic Era to the Present, 231 Timeline, 231 Key Comparisons, 232 Thematic Change/Continuity, 233


Build Your Test-Taking Confidence, 235 AP European History Practice Test 1, 243 Answers and Explanations, 258 Suggestions and Outline for the DBQ, 271 Suggestions and Outlines for Answers to the Thematic Essay Questions, 272 AP European History Practice Test 2, 281 Answers and Explanations, 295 Suggestions and Outline for the DBQ, 309 Suggestions and Outlines for Answers to the Thematic Essay Questions, 310 Appendixes, 315 Glossary of Terms, 317 Bibliography, 329 Web sites, 330

5 Steps to a 5 - AP European History, 2008-2009  

AP European History FIVE STEPS TO A Other books in McGraw-Hill’s 5 STEPS TO A 5 series include: AP Biology AP Calculus AB AP Chemistry AP En...