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CAMBRIDGE

SCIENCE

FOR THE NSW SYLLABUS STAGES 4&5 Supporting EVERY student to master key knowledge and skills

Michelle Gouveia Emma Bone Evan Roberts Matthew Ditton Victoria Shaw Christopher Humphreys Gemma Dale Kerrie Ardley Eddy de Jong

cambridge.edu.au/nswscience


This new series provides the opportunity for every student to master essential knowledge and skills while providing the right depth of content to ensure students can succeed at high levels

GUIDING STUDENTS TO ACHIEVE THEIR BEST

STUDENTS:

Quick Checks – assess a student’s information retention as they progress through the content while Explore! activities extend capable students.

Students are stepped through the syllabus to ensure they meet the learning outcomes, starting at: Chapter maps – visual representations lay out the content ahead to give students an overview of the topic.

Each of these activity types are available to download Section 9.5 COmParIng dIgeStIVe SyStemS 353 from the Interactive Textbook or the questions can be answered online. Teachers can choose to make the Quick check 9.12 suggested responses available for students. 1 Explain how vultures defend themselves from predators.

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3

Chapter map

2 Contrast a vulture’s stomach acid with a human’s. 3 State who has a shorter digestive tract: carnivores or herbivores.

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Chapter map

1.1

There are many fields of science including: • Chemistry • Biology • Physics • Earth and space sciences

Explore! 9.6

1.2 1.3

Carnivorous plants

1.4 1.5 Often work in a lab

Not all plants rely solely on sunlight and water for their food. Some add meat to their diet to give them a nutrient boost. Most carnivorous plants live in swamps and marshes, where the soil doesn’t have many nutrients, especially nitrogen, and so they rely on breaking down insects to absorb nutrients. Find out about each of the following carnivorous plants and summarise how they catch their prey, the structures they have that allow them to catch their prey, and how they digest their prey. 1 Venus flytrap 2 Sundew 3 Pitcher plant

12.1

1.6

12.2

Scientists

12.3

Matter

Use equipment to collect data Follow the scientific method for investigating and reporting findings

Questioning Predicting Planning investigations

Pure substances

Mixtures (Chapter 13)

Processing data Analysing results Evaluating Communicating results

Elements are substances made up of only one type of atom.

Compounds are substances made up of two or more different atoms joined.

Organising elements Organised as • Metals • Non-metals (including metalloids)

• Molecules • Polymers • Lattice arrangements

The periodic table organises elements from lightest to heaviest.

Structural organisation with other atoms of the same type • Monatomic • Molecules • Lattices

Figure 9.58 A Venus fly trap and an unsuspecting fly

Figure 9.59 A sundew wrapping around an insect

Figure 9.60 A pitcher plant, and its possible prey

herbivores Eucalyptus leaves practical are toxic for humans. Inactivities fact, if you ever tried to eat A wide range of hands-on – some you could find yourself struggling to breathe, losing your balance and feeling very dizzy. Leaves are also made of cellulose, which is not teacher demonstrations, student-designed experiments, easy for humans (or carnivores) to digest and obtain any nutrients from. So it is surprising that eucalyptus leaves are the koala’s primary open-ended investigations and authentic STEM activities source of nutrition. are integrated throughout each chapter to help students Koalas are herbivores, and so they have many adaptations that allow them to obtain relate the topic content to the experiment or activity. the nutrients that they need from eucalyptus

Learning goals – helpful dot points outline what the students will learn in the chapter ahead. 10

Chapter 1

1.2

BEING SCIENTIFIC

leaves. They have a long digestive tract and a very large caecum, around

Working in a laboratory

Learning goals 1 To explain the safety rules. 2 To identify some common equipment.

3.2

exploring the laboratory

DOC

herbivore a consumer (heterotroph) that feeds on plant matter

Section 3.2 EnErgy transFEr, transForm and EFFICIEnCy

111

200 cmfor long and 10 cm wide, where cellin wallsthe can be digested. In Each activity is available download Interactive herbivores, the caecum contains millions of friendly bacteria that are specialised to break down certain plant materials (such as eucalyptus Textbook. leaves).Koalas get most of their water from the leaves they eat, and so

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they do not often need to climb down from the tree they are living in.

Energy transfer, transform and efficiency

Not all scientists work in laboratories, DOC Learning goals of course! Depending on the area of 13.2 can solutes, solvents and solutIons 493 1 To identifySection that energy be passed from one object to another. science, they may work ‘in the field’ 2 To understand that energy can change forms, giving examples. WORKSHEET such as out and about in the natural environment, on land or in the sea, and they can work Objects possess energy, and energy can be changed in organisations like zoos, private companies or for the from one form to another. When energy changes from government. However, all scientists have spent at least one form to another, it obeys the law of conservation some of their time in a ‘lab’. The controlled environment of energy: energy can neither be created nor destroyed. and access to special equipment makes it an ideal place In any process, the amount of energy present at the DOC Learning for conducting experiments. Now that yougoals are studying beginning mustand equal the amount of energy 1 To identify and describe solutes, solvents solutions with relation to present particle theory. science, you will get to participate in many exciting 2 To explain why water is an important at the end.solvent. In everyday life this law always holds. But WORKSHEET scientific experiments in the laboratory. energy is also lost when it is transformed from one form to another form. The process of transforming energy solutions Lab safety basics Figureone 1.7 It is important to wear appropriate personal protective from form to another form is not efficient, there is equipment at all times when working in a lab environment. A solution is if not the answer to a mathematics The laboratory can be a fun and safe place theonly safety always some energy lost. also a type of mixture or that is formedChemicals when glassware. and broken glass can be rules are followed. However, question, it can be abut dangerous place particles of one substance separate and spread out eyes. damaging to your if you do not follow the safetythe rules, or if you misuse Quick 3.5 evenly another substance. This act ofcheck separating • Always wear a lab coat that can protect your Figure 3.19 City lights in Sydney. The law of conservation of the equipment or forget to use safetyinto gear. Throughout is called dissolving. Recall energy means the amount of electrical energy used by each from stains andofyour skin from 1 school uniform State thethat lawthe of conservation energy. your science career in school,and youspreading could get out burned, light is exactly the same as the amount of light energy and givenwords, to harmful Inname your chemicals. own describe how this law applies be exposed to dangerous chemicals or cut yourself on solute is2the thermal energy given out. solution that where one importantthe substance everyday life. • Ifin you are dissolves given gloves by your teacher, wear them at broken equipment. Therefore,asubstance itmixture is extremely is evenly dissolved and the solvent is the in another all times. These will protect your hands from harmful to know some core rules. Energy transfer law of conservation of energy name given to the substance solute substances. Always wash your hands after you have the law that states that the component of a solution Kinetic transfer energy cannot be created it dissolves into. solution is to be extra safe. Sometimes, being dissolved between removedAyour gloves Referring to Figure 1.8, spot the differences or destroyed Energy is the ability of an thereforesafety the name given a and gloves are collectively glasses, labto coats the students who are ignoring solvent the rules (top image) energy transfer Figure 13.4 Tap water is a solution because various trace the component in a solution the movement of energy object to do work, and this a solute dissolved capable of dissolving called personal protective equipment, orthe PPE for short. and those following the rules (bottom image). The classmixture of elements from ground water, plus chlorine and flourine from one place or object another substance to another energy can be transferred added to by make water treatment, evenly in pure water. • Always wear enclosed footwear sure that are dissolved in the top image is making seven dangerous mistakes. in a solvent. from one object to another. nothing can fall onto your feet and hurt you. Suggest what they might be. (The answers are below.) This is known as an energy transfer. • Use a safety mat/heatproof mat whenever you are Try this 13.2 WORKSHEET

13.2

Solutes, solvents and solutions

Chapter content – presented in a clear uncluttered layout with student-friendly language and carefully chosen illustrations, photos and diagrams.

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Students will also find Australian-made video content, interactive widgets, roll-over glossary definitions and Heat transfer more in the Interactive Textbook.

Answers to the spot the difference activity: did you find using a Bunsen burner, to prevent damage to the Particle theory all the lab safety issues? bench and other equipment. Put a sugar cube in a glass of water. Describe what is happening using the terminology youThermal have energy is another type of energy that can be • Always wear safety glasses over your eyes (not on • Always follow your teacher’s instructions. been learning about. What happens in terms of particles? Where are the particles? What are the transferred. Heat is the term given to thermal energy in top of your head) when you are handling chemicals • Never eat or drink in a lab. particles doing? transit. If an object of high temperature is placed next to an object of lower temperature, heat will flow from the object of higher to that of lower temperature. This will continue until the objects are the same temperature. This Solute flow of energy is always from high to low temperature, Figure 3.20 When a golfer hits a golf ball, they transfer kinetic energy from the golf club to the ball, causing the ball to move. never the other way around.

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Chapter 14

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGE

STEM activity

STEM activity: Building a rocket Background information

Suggested materials Define the problem/ identify the need

Rockets are exciting machines that are Research Redesign the problem (as needed) designed by engineers and used to explore space. It is amazing to think that someone has worked out how to get these heavy vehicles into space! Rockets depend on a Communicate the combustion reaction to provide the thrust Engineering Brainstorm/develop design and the process design loop solutions they need to overcome the force of gravity and shoot up into orbit. Combustion is a fast heat-producing (exothermic) reaction Test and evaluate between a fuel and oxygen, in which the Select the prototype fuel is burnt. As you know, during a chemical solution reaction, new compounds are made – in Build/construct this case, these compounds are the rocket’s prototype exhaust. The exhaust coming out from the bottom of the rocket produces a great thrust Figure 14.27 Designing and testing of a model comes before construction of the real thing. or force, and the reaction force to this pushes the rocket upward. In a process known as the engineering design cycle, aerospace engineers design small-scale models to learn from and experiment with. By testing smallscale models, the engineers make sure the rockets will work, without wasting time and money on testing full-size rockets. They can test the thrust and stability and make modifications, in order to design the best rocket they can. Design brief: Design, build, test and evaluate a rocket that will launch in a controlled manner in 10 seconds.

• 35 mm film canister (or anything similar with an internal snapping lid) • an antacid tablet, such as Alka-Seltzer® • water • scissors, sticky tape, marking pens, paper • chopping board, mortar and pestle, knife, spoon • safety glasses

Research and feasibility 1 Research the chemical reaction between antacid tablets and water to produce carbon dioxide and find out the impact of temperature, surface area, mass or other factors on the rate of reaction. List these factors in a table. Factors that affect rate of reaction

Rate of reaction (Increase/ Decrease/No effect)

Temperature

Surface area

Mass

Reaction vessel type

Ideas on how to use this factor in design

2 Research and discuss, in your team, ideas of how to use the film canister and lid as a reaction vessel: good engineers use existing technology and work on improvements, and also completely reinvent the concept sometimes. 3 Research rocket design and the size ratios of the dimensions of the rocket.

Design and sustainability

activity instructions

Figure 14.28 Space launch

In teams, you will take on the role of aerospace engineers for The Super Fast Rocket Company. You have been hired to design, build, test and evaluate a rocket that will launch safely and repeatedly in 10 seconds. There will be two major factors in solving this problem, first the design of the rocket and second the chemical reaction that will provide the thrust for the rocket.

4 Discuss in your group how to make the rocket reaction vessel reusable to reduce waste, and think of methods to limit excess production of carbon dioxide. 5 Sketch multiple possibilities of the rocket design and how the rocket would obtain lift from the reaction vessel, making sure that your rocket is not destroyed through the explosion of the reaction vessel.

BUIldIng a RoCKET

6 Discuss the sustainability of your design, and as a group decide on a model V1.0 to build. 7 As a group, use your knowledge of chemical reactions to decide on a combination of tests you will use to launch the rocket in 10 seconds. You may find that creating a table is a good way to record your tests. You can do this any way you wish. Mass (g) or surface area (cm2) of antacid

Volume Temperature Time to of water (°C) launch (s) (mL)

Create 8 Break into two groups, a build team and a discovery team. The build team will construct the rocket, and the discovery team will need to work on discovering the correct amount of antacid and water in the film canister to obtain a time to launch of 10 seconds. The build team needs to ensure the rocket can launch safely, and sustainably.

Evaluate and modify 9 Discuss the different conditions you investigated and what you found out about the effect of temperature, surface area and mass of the antacid tablets on the rocket launch times. 10 Draw a flow chart to show your original design for a 10-second launch and the modifications that followed, ending with your rocket launching at exactly 10 seconds. Highlight the change/ improvement you made at each step along the way. 11 Consider both your rocket and the other rockets you observed being launched. Identify and describe the characteristics that make one rocket perform better than another. 12 Discuss what challenges you faced while designing and testing your rocket, and how you overcame these challenges.

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Data questions at the end of a chapter – help students apply their understanding, as well as analyse and interpret different graphical representations of data linked to the chapter content. 236

Chapter checklist – success criteria help students keep track of what they have learned. Short example questions are linked to every item.

7.1

Check

I can explain the reasons for classifying living organisms. e.g. Explain why organisms need to be grouped.

7.1

I can group organisms on the basis on their similarities and differences. e.g. Recall some of the issues of classifying based on physical characteristics.

7.1

I can use keys to identify organisms

SCORCHER

e.g. Construct a dichotomous key to identify the dogs A–F below.

A

B

C

D

E

F

7.2

I can explain how biological classification has changed over time. e.g. State who developed the binomial system of classifying living organisms.

7.2

I am able to classify using a hierarchical system. , Class, Order, e.g. Identify the missing words: Kingdom, Genus, Species. I can use scientific convention when naming species. e.g. Explain the term ‘binomial nomenclature’.

7.3

I can distinguish the six kingdoms of living organisms. e.g. Name the kingdoms of living organisms.

7.4

I can identify adaptations of Australian plants and animals. e.g. Name some adaptations of the kangaroo rat that enable it to survive the Australian outback.

7.4

I can distinguish between behavioural, structural and physiological adaptations. e.g. Decide what type of adaptation the ability to sweat is.

What connections come to mind when you think about classification and your everyday life? What new concepts have extended your thinking about classification? What information did you find challenging or confusing?

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Chapter 1

1.3

513

Wind 30.9% Household and commercial solar 15.3% Bioenergy 7.6% Large-scale solar 0.4%

Figure 6.35 Sources of Energy Production 2014 in Australia

Section 4.1

RoCk foRmatIon

143

Remembering 1 Copy and label the parts of the Liebig condenser and other equipment indicated in Figure 13.30.

20 15 10 5

1 2

0 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 Year

Identify the taxonomic group that is under the least threat, using Figure 7.63. There are 828 bird species in Australia. 6% of these species are considered as threatened. Calculate the number of species of birds that are considered as threatened. Calculate the average rate of mammal extinctions per year from 1800–1920, using Figure 7.64. Organise the taxonomic groups in the graph from most threatened to least threatened, using Figure 7.63. Contrast the number of extinct and threatened species in mammals with the number of extinct and threatened species in amphibians in Figure 7.63. Predict the number of extinct Australian mammal species in the year 2020, using Figure 7.64. Infer the two worst decades for Australian mammal extinctions, using Figure 7.64. Justify your answer to Question 7.

BEING SCIENTIFIC

Section 1.3 WhAT do SCIenTISTS do?

What do scientists do?

Remembering 1 Recall the name of the layer on Earth in which rocks are formed and reformed. 2 In Scotland, James Hutton saw igneous rock with millions of years’ worth of sedimentary rock lying on top of it. Outline two observations that Hutton published after seeing this. 3

Figure 13.30 Liebig condenser and other equipment

Substance

Solubility in water

State at room temperature

Boiling temperature (°C)

Sugar

Soluble

Solid

> 110

Soluble

Liquid

Y

Soluble

Liquid

68

Z

Insoluble

Solid

> 800

W

Insoluble

Solid

Applying 7 Make use of what you have learned about weathering to identify one reason why weathering is important to the rock cycle, and one reason why we might want to stop weathering. 8 Imagine that Earth’s core suddenly lost its thermal energy. Apart from the effect this would have on life on Earth, identify which type(s) of rock formation would be affected and

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explain why.

86 Figure 13.31

QUIZ

Identify the most common type of rock on the Earth’s surface.

Understanding 4 Contrast rocks, minerals and crystals. 5 Copy this image of the rock cycle in Figure 4.21 and label the missing processes. Then explain each of the processes. 6 Outline how the different types of rock from the previous question are formed.

Evaluating 6 a Copy and label the diagram shown in Figure 13.31. b Explain what is meant by ‘mobile phase’ and ‘stationary phase’. c Write the colours in order from least to most soluble in the solvent. d Explain why the bottom line should be marked in pencil and not in pen. 7 Substances X, Y, Z, W and sugar were mixed in water. The properties of each substance are listed below.

X

Section 4.1 questions

1 To identify the different types of data that can be collected in an experiment. 2 To state the steps involved in the scientific process. 3 To identify appropriate tools used to gather different types of data.

Science can be thought of as a systematic way of investigating. It involves making observations, asking questions, making WORKSHEET predictions, conducting experiments, collecting and analysing data and forming conclusions. However, one predict to make an estimate about scientist may not be involved in a possible future event or every step of the process. outcome

21

peer-review to read, check, and give an opinion about something that has been written by another scientist or expert working in the same subject area

Do background research You might head to the internet to try to find suggestions to answer your questions. Professional scientists generally use peer-reviewed journal articles to see what other scientists in the past have found out and experiments that have been done. You may find out that plants can die from too much water!

trend pattern in data that shows the general direction/shape of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables

DOC

Applying 4 Explain what happens to particles during the process of evaporation and the process of condensation. Draw pictures of the particles to help in your explanation. Analysing 5 Compare and contrast evaporation and crystallisation.

m

25

Figure 7.64 The cumulative number of extinctions of mammal species in Australia since 1800

Learning goals

Section 13.4 questions

QUIZ

als

s

ds Bir

Not threatened

30

2

Understanding 2 Define the terms ‘distillation’ and ‘evaporation’. 3 Describe the difference between distillation and evaporation.

am M

ns Extinct

Figure 7.63 The conservation status of different taxonomic groups in Australia

Hydro 45.9%

Fossil fuels 86.53%

le

ia

Threatened

Percentage contribution of technology types to renewable generation

Renewables 13.47%

pti

ib Am

Taxonomic groups

Figure 6.34 Sources of Energy Production 2019 in Australia

Annual electricity generation

Re

s

h

te

Fis

bra

Pla

Bioenergy 6%

ph

Percentage of all species (%)

nts

Large-scale solar 9.3%

Working scientifically – a skills chapter in each staged book prepares students for the process of working scientifically to conduct investigations and experiments. A range of practical activities integrated with the chapter content provides students with plenty of opportunities to apply their skills. By establishing their scientific reporting skills in Stages 4 & 5, they will build essential competency for Stage 6.

Section questions can be answered online using a Workspace and students can self-assess their answers against the suggested responses if the teacher has enabled them. seParatIng hoMogeneous MIxtures

Small-scale solar 22.3%

Medium-scale solar 1.3%

Reflections – an activity at the end of a chapter encourages students to reflect on the new ideas they have learned; to make connections to their everyday lives, to wonder how they have been extended in their thinking, and what concepts have challenged them in this process.

When the example questions are satisfactorily assessed in the Interactive Textbook, the checklist can be ticked automatically. The checklist is also available for download.

Section 13.4

Wind 35.4% Hydro 25.7%

Fossil fuels 76%

6 7 8

Section questions – allow students to recall and revise the knowledge gained in the section. Questions are categorised as Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analysing, Evaluating. Digital feature

Renewables 24%

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

,

7.2

1 2 3

Use the following figures to answer the questions below.

3 4 5

Reflections

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CLASSIFICATION

Data questions

rte

You can download this checklist from the Interactive Textbook to complete it.

Chapter 7

Percentage contribution of technology types to renewable generation

ve

Chapter checklist

278 Annual electricity generation

In

277

Chapter review

Success criteria

EARTH RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT

Renewable energy generated 24% of Australia’s electricity in 2019. This is an increase of 2.7% over the previous year. In NSW, only 17% of our electricity was from renewable sources. Wind, at 35%, became Australia’s dominant source of clean energy in 2019, replacing hydro as the greatest source. The large growth and investment in wind and solar energy, as well as drought conditions across much of Australia, have led to the lower generation of electricity from hydro sources. 1 Identify which of the renewable energy sources contributed the most to electricity production in 2014 and in 2019. 2 Determine which energy source decreased between 2014 and 2019. 3 Determine which renewable energy source grew the most between 2014 and 2019. 4 Calculate the total percentage of solar energy generated in 2019 (including small-, medium- and large-scale). 5 Contrast the growth of hydro-energy to wind-energy over the five-year period. 6 Identify the trend in the total renewable energy generated over the five-years. 7 Using the two sets of data, predict the year that Australia could reach 50% renewable energy use. 8 Using the trend in the data, predict the renewable energy source will be the most common in the year 2030. Justify your answer. 9 In 2019, NSW generated about 17% of its electricity needs from renewable energy sources. Which of these sources do you think will generate the most energy for NSW into the future? Justify your answer (think about the geography, population centres and size of NSW).

Cumulative number of extinct mammal species

Chapter 7 CHaPteR RevIeW

Chapter 6

Data questions

Igneous rock

analyse examine something in order to find meaning, what it is made of or a relationship with other things hypothesis a proposed explanation or prediction of an event (e.g. an experiment) based on research and current knowledge

Magma Heat and pressure

observe use senses and tools to notice something significant

Sediments

Metamorphic rock

Heat

and

pres

sure

Sedimentary rock Figure 4.21 The rock cycle

Analysing 9 Examine Figure 4.22 and decide whether it is a mineral or a rock. Justify your answer.

research question a question that can be answered practically through scientific investigation or through research to evaluate a claim

For example, the government might collect some health data about the population and task a scientific organisation with finding a solution to the problem. An epidemiologist (a person who tracks diseases) might come up with a hypothesis about the cause of the problem.

A public health advisor might design a program to test the hypothesis, and a team of health professionals, such as doctors and exercise physiologists, might conduct the experiment; for example, an exercise program. Biomedical research scientists might observe the experiment, collect the data and analyse it, while a pathologist might collect blood samples from the patients and test these. In the end, a nominated person would gather all the findings and publish the results in a scientific journal. Science is a team effort!

The scientific method The process referred to above is known as the scientific method. The scientific method may differ slightly from one area of science to another, but will start with observing the world around you. Here is a basic outline of how the scientific method works.

Determine the steps for how you would separate the mixtures.

1 Observe and ask questions This is something you can do every day! You might notice the cactus on the windowsill is looking unwell. You might ask yourself some questions based on the observation. For example, ‘How much water does a cactus need to survive?’ This would be your research question.

8

Conclusion Finally, you can ask yourself what the data means and use it to answer your original research question. You can also ask yourself if the hypothesis has been supported or not. Your hypothesis about overwatering cacti has been supported.

Hypothesis You then come up with a prediction that can be tested. For example, ‘Cacti (plural for cactus) that are watered five times the recommended amount will not grow well’.

3

Your conclusion may lead you to ask more questions. For professional scientists, if their experiment is published in a journal, this will make the experiment available for other scientists to think about and further the findings through asking even more specific questions. Can you think of what else you might want to find out?

4

Test the hypothesis This involves developing a series of steps that can test the hypothesis and is called the method. You need to formulate a method that is safe, allows the collection of sufficient data and is carried out in such a way that there is no other explanation possible for the outcome except the one you are interested in. You may need to use 10 cactus plants of the same variety, placed on the same windowsill, and continue the experiment for one month. You may find a method that you need to modify to suit your own experiment.

5

7

Evaluation You then evaluate your experiment. You may talk about how reliable your data is and suggest improvements if you found there were any problems.

Figure 1.12 The scientific method

6

Analyse data You then analyse the data that you have gathered to find any trends, patterns or relationships, and then summarise what you have found, including any problems with your data. Three of the overwatered cacti looked pale and shrunken, while all the cacti watered correctly produced small cacti pups.

Processing of data You then record and present the results. For example, you may keep track of how the cacti are doing every day. This can be quantitative or qualitative. You might want to record the colour and shape of the cacti or measure how much the cacti grow each week. The results can be presented in tables and graphs.

Figure 4.22

Evaluating 10 ‘Once igneous rocks are formed, the only physical change they can experience is being broken down into smaller pieces until they are melted again.’ Assess whether you agree with this statement and provide your reasoning.

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A NEW LEVEL OF DIGITAL SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS

THE INTERACTIVE TEXTBOOK POWERED BY CAMBRIDGE EDJIN Powered by Cambridge Edjin, the trusted teaching and learning platform that also powers Cambridge HOTmaths, the online version of the student text delivers a host of interactive features to enhance the teaching and learning experience, and when connected to a class teacher account offers a powerful Learning Management System.

I n t e r a c t i ve f e a t u r e s Pre-tests auto-marked in the Interactive Textbook help students get up to speed on their understanding of prior concepts and prepare for what is ahead. Auto-marked quizzes give students instant feedback on their progress. Videos created in Australia summarise, clarify or extend student knowledge and are indicated by an icon in the print book. Interactive widgets demonstrate a concept and are accompanied by a downloadable question set. Scorcher, our timed, online competition, allows students to check their recall of key concepts and other content, while competing against each other and other schools. Workspaces allow students to enter their own working (including scientific notation) for all questions that are not auto-marked directly into the Interactive Textbook. Answers can be typed, drawn or uploaded on a computer or tablet device. Self-assessment tools allow students to check their answers, self-assess their working using a four-point scale, and use a red flag to alert their teacher if they had trouble with a question.

Downloadable graded worksheets provide additional questions related to the section topic which can be used for homework or in class. Skills worksheets ask students to review scenarios and draw on their working scientifically skills to answer a range of questions. Bookmark folders can be created by students with direct links to content they have marked. Roll-over glossary definitions immediately define key terms. Access to the Offline Textbook, a downloadable version of the student text with note-taking and bookmarking enabled.

The Interactive Textbook is available as a twoyear subscription and is accessed online through Cambridge GO using a unique 16-character code supplied on purchase. The Interactive Textbook is provided with the printed text, or is available for purchase separately as a digital-only option. cambridge.edu.au/go

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TEACHERS:

SUPPORTING DIFFERENTIATION IN THE CLASSROOM

Vital support for teachers to differentiate learning for their students Digital features

Working programs in teaching documents enable teachers to direct levelled questions appropriate to a student’s ability

Auto-marked pre-tests gauge students’ prior knowledge and prepare them for the chapter ahead

Two auto-marked quizzes per chapter offer different levels of difficulty

Graded, downloadable worksheets for additional inclass and at home learning.

Learn more over the page.

Comprehensive coverage of the curriculum All content is directly linked to the curriculum so teachers know just what to cover. Colour coding is used to indicate different types of activities and other pedagogical features.

Digital feature

Digital feature: Curriculum grid documents include clear coding of the syllabus outcomes to show that all content is covered. Teaching programs cover each topic of the syllabus supporting teachers with class preparation.

Wide choice of practical activities Over 50-hands on activities per year level provide teachers with a wide selection of teacher demonstrations, student-designed experiments, and open-ended investigations which are integrated throughout the chapter to enable students to relate the content to the activity or experiment. Working scientifically is also addressed by a range of data questions that allow students to practise analysing and interpreting a variety of graphical representations of data. Authentic STEM activities addressing a real-world problem are provided at the end of each chapter, use readily available materials, and can be completed in 1 or 2 lessons.

Guided onboarding for teachers Clear instructions and immediate access to How-to support resources allow teachers and students to take advantage of the full interactive and online experience from Day 1, Term 1. Schools that adopt Cambridge Science for the NSW Syllabus for whole-class use will receive complimentary access to the Online Teaching Suite with its comprehensive teaching programs, easy class creation, differentiation of tasks and monitoring of progress.

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A NEW LEVEL OF DIGITAL SUPPORT FOR TEACHERS

THE ONLINE TEACHING SUITE POWERED BY CAMBRIDGE EDJIN The Online Teaching Suite combines the Interactive Textbook powered by Cambridge Edjin and its rich digital content with a suite of supplementary resources and a powerful Learning Management System when linked to students using the Interactive Textbook in a class.

Teacher support The Online Test Generator allows teachers to quickly create customised tests from a bank of questions. Teachers can also share their customised tests with others in the school, building a wholeschool assessment bank. All tests can be printed or assigned online for auto-marking, and are suitable for assessment, homework tasks, practice quizzes and trial exams. Teachers also have access to two ready-made, downloadable tests per chapter with accompanying answer sheets. The Task Manager can be used to create a Quick task, a Directed task or a task Template. The Directed task option allows teachers to set an achievement benchmark for measurable activities that directs students on an activity sequence appropriate to their score. The Online Teaching Suite records student scores on quizzes, self-assessment scores and red flags raised by students in all sections, and end-of-chapter review questions. Reports on individual and class progress are available for download.

Access to student Workspace entries allows for efficient and time-saving monitoring of work and provides students with the opportunity to alert teachers to problems with specific questions. Teachers can choose to give students access to the suggested responses for the exercises online and also provide feedback to individuals on specific questions. A host of editable and downloadable resources to save teachers' time. See details over the page.

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EDITABLE & DOWNLOADABLE RESOURCES Practicals Chapter 4: Rocks

Practical 4.3 Chapter 4: Rocks

Graded worksheets

Practical 4.4

Identifying 12 common rocks Aim To practise identifying and finding patterns, by classifying 12 of the most common rocks

found in the Earth’s crust Electrolysis of copper

Aim

Materials

To see how metals can be purified using electricity, and to demonstrate electroplating • hydrochloric acid 0.1 M •

Materials

dropper

of water 2 copper plates to act• asbeaker electrodes

Cambridge Science for the New South Wales Syllabus Stage 4 Chapter 4 Rocks

2 alligator leads

• disposable gloves an old metal fork or spoon

Worksheet 4.1.2 The rock cycle

hand lens

Science understanding

• 0.5 12 Petri copper sulfate solution, M dishes for the hydrochloric acid test

beaker

Answers

3 V DC power supply

Cambridge Science for the New South Wales Syllabus Stage 4 Chapter 4 Rocks

1. Earth is very old. Earth’s surface has been constantly changing throughout its Student name ________________ history.

Cambridge Science for the New South Wales Syllabus Stage 4 Chapter 4 Rocks Worksheet 4.4.1 The mining

2.

1. Place two copper electrodes in a beaker containing a solution of copper sulphate. 2. Connect the electrodes to a battery or low-power direct current supply (make sure it is switched off when you do this) using alligator leads.

1.Complete the following: Some are useful to humans and can be

. Mining is the

process by which minerals and other useful materials are

3. Switch it on and leave it for a while. The cathode will slowly grow, and the anode will become smaller.

from the

4. Switch the power supply off.

earth. Salt, slate, and coal can be used as they . Others 1. Earth is very old. Earth’s surface hasgold, beenmarble constantly changing throughout its are history. need to be processed to make useful such as metals, or building

Part B 5. Replace the copper plate connected to the negative terminal with a fork.

such as cement. The mining process has several stages: , planning and design,

6. Switch the power supply on. Copper will move from the other plate to the fork. When

, mining,

it reaches the fork, it will be deposited on the surface and a thin layer of copper will

and closure.

appear. This is called electroplating.

2. After reading the introduction, develop your own definitions of the following words, then compare them to the dictionary definition. a) Extracted (your definition)

Results Record your observations for each part of the experiment.

Figure 7.61 Twelve common rocks found on the Earth’s crust, in random order

b) Processed (your definition) 3. Radioactive elements release energy that keeps Earth’s core molten. The sun also causes weathering through rain, wind, waves and ice formation.

4. a. Mantle

pumice, quartz, quartzite, sandstone, schist, slate

Part A

process

Science understanding and inquiry skills

Worksheet 4.1.2 The rock cycle

2.

two of each of the following rocks: basalt, chalk, gneiss, granite, limestone, mica,

Procedure

Science understanding

Answers

Cambridge University Press

c) Extracted (dictionary definition)

Teaching programs

b. Crust d) Processed (dictionary definition) c. Crust and Mantle

d. Crust 3. Radioactive elements release energy that keeps Earth’s core molten. The sun 5. Answers will vary. If Earth withoutand radioactive elements, it may have a also causes weathering through rain,formed wind, waves ice formation. solid core with a simplified geology. may be sedimentary a put them 3. To summarise meansThere to take theonly important points fromrocks a textasand 4. a. Mantle result. into a more concise (less wordy) form. Summarise each of the following mining processes to make them much shorter and to include only the most important b. Crust information. a) Exploration Cambridge University Press 2022 1 c. Crust© and Mantle

Cambridge University Press

© Cambridge University Press 2022

© Cambridge University Press 2022

1

1

d. Crust 5. Answers will vary. If Earth formed without radioactive elements, it may have a solid core with a simplified geology. There may only be sedimentary rocks as a result. © Cambridge University Press 2022

Chapter 4: Rocks

1

Section questions

Applying © Cambridge University Press 2022

7. Figure 4.44 shows a basalt columns rock formation at Fingal Head in northern NSW.

1

Use what you have learned about igneous rocks to explain how this formation came to be.

Data questions

Chapter 4: Rocks

Data questions

Chapter 4: Rocks

Iron ore is a key Australian export, and an Australian iron ore deposit commonly contains the minerals

Analysing

hematite, magnetite and pyrite, among others. The iron content of these minerals is presented in

8. Examine the following igneous rocks. Identify which one is intrusive and which is

Table 4.7, and an example of the percentage of mineral components at different depths of an iron ore deposit drill sample is shown in Figure 4.76.

Mineral

Formula

extrusive. Explain your reasoning by first recalling the difference between intrusive Iron content

Chapter 4: Rocks

Colour

and extrusive. Figure 4.44 A set of basalt columns at Fingal Head in NSW

Data questions

Hematite

Fe2O3

70%

red

Magnetite

Fe3O4

72%

black

Iron ore is a key Australian export, and an Australian iron ore deposit commonly contains the minerals

yellow

hematite, magnetite and pyrite, among others. The iron content of these minerals is presented in

Pyrite

FeS2

47%

Table 4.7, and an example of the percentage of mineral components at different depths of an iron ore

Table 4.7 Examples of minerals found in Australian iron ores

deposit drill sample is shown in Figure 4.76.

Mineral

Skills worksheets

Formula

Analysing Iron content

Colour

8. Examine the following igneous rocks. Identify which one is intrusive and which is

Hematite

Fe2O3

70%

red

Magnetite

Fe3O4

72%

black

extrusive. Explain your reasoning by first recalling the difference between intrusive

Pyrite

FeS2

47%

yellow

and extrusive.

Table 4.7 Examples of minerals found in Australian iron ores

Figure 4.45 Which one is intrusive and which is extrusive?

Intrusive igneous rocks are those that solidify beneath the Earth’s surface and they cool more slowly, forming larger crystals. Extrusive igneous rocks break through the surface and cool rapidly, forming smaller crystals. Therefore, the rock on the left (granite) is intrusive, as the crystals can be more easily seen in the grains. The rock on the right (pumice), where the crystals cannot be seen, is extrusive. 9. Analyse and classify the types of fossils shown in Figure 4.46. Figure 4.45 Which one is intrusive and which is extrusive?

Figure 4.76 Mineral content of an iron ore exploration extract, depending on the depth of drilling

1. Identify which mineral described in Table 4.7 presents the highest iron content. With 72%, magnetite has the highest content of iron. 2. Identify the mineral with the highest content in the ore at 400, 1100 and 1800 m.

Hematite is the major mineral at 400. Magnetite is the major mineral at 1100 m.

Cambridge University Press

Figure 4.76 Mineral content of an iron ore exploration extract, depending on the depth of drilling

Pyrite is the major mineral at 1800 m.

© Cambridge University Press 2022

2

Access to

1. Identify which mineral described in Table 4.7 presents the highest iron content. Cambridge University Press

© Cambridge University Press 2022

1

Figure 4.46

a. This is a whole body fossil, where the dead organism is preserved in full.

2. Identify the mineral with the highest content in the ore at 400, 1100 and 1800 m.

© Cambridge University Press 2022

answers for all worksheet questions

b. This is a cast fossil, as the dead material has been replaced by solid rock. c. This is an imprint fossil, as it is flat.

Cambridge University Press

1

Cambridge University Press

© Cambridge University Press 2022

3

Chapter 4: Rocks

Chapter checklist Success criteria 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1

4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4

Review questions

Check

I can recall the names of the three types of rock. e.g. State the three types of rock found on Earth. I can name the different geological layers of Earth. e.g. Illustrate a diagram that shows the different geological layers of Earth. I can describe the rock cycle. e.g. Illustrate a diagram that shows the main processes of the rock cycle. I can distinguish between physical, biological and chemical weathering. e.g. Distinguish between the three types of weathering: physical, chemical and biological. I can describe the following processes: weathering, erosion, deposition, cementation and compaction. e.g. Define deposition. I can discuss the formation of sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks. e.g. Discuss how metamorphic rocks are formed. I can classify rocks by their different features. e.g. Recall some of the characteristics of sedimentary rocks. I can discuss the process of mining. e.g. Summarise the following stages of mining: exploration, planning and design, construction, mining, processing, and closure and rehabilitation.

Chapter 8 Rocks Student name _______________

Chapter 8 Test 1 Multiple-choice questions 1. Identify which of these is not true regarding minerals. A Minerals are the building blocks of rocks. B Minerals can be useful or valuable substances. C Minerals are the dry, solid part of Earth’s surface. D Minerals have a specific chemical structure.

Chapter 8 Rocks

Short-answer questions 1. Select the correct word to label each of the three rock types below, showing the products of the processes in the rock cycle.

2. Earth is composed of many layers. Sequence the layers from the deepest to the Earth’s surface. A outer core → inner core → mantle → crust B central core → outer core → mantle → crust C central core → outer core → crust → mantle D central core → outer core → oceanic crust → continental crust 3. Identify which of these elements does not significantly contribute to the mass of Earth. A iron B oxygen C silicon D hydrogen 4. Recall which type of rock is formed from cooled lava or magma. A metamorphic B igneous C sedimentary D all types 5. Recall the difference between magma and lava. A Magma is molten rock above Earth’s surface and lava is molten rock below Earth’s surface. B Lava is much hotter than magma. C Magma is molten rock below Earth’s surface and lava is molten rock above Earth’s surface. D Lava cools much slower than magma and does not form crystals.

Quick checks

(3 marks) 2. Explain why the centre of Earth is such a high temperature.

6. Identify the conditions that transform sedimentary and igneous rocks into metamorphic rocks. A heat (melting) B cooling C weathering and erosion D heat and pressure

© Cambridge University Press 2022

Chapter tests 1

(3 marks)

Checklists Cambridge University Press

© Cambridge University Press 2022

© Cambridge University Press 2022

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4

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CONTENTS

STAGE 4

STAGE 5

Available August, 2021

Available September, 2021

1. Being scientific

1. Working scientifically

2. Forces

2. Transfer of energy

3. Energy

3. Motion

4. Rocks

4. Electricity

5. Planet Earth

5. Conservation of energy

6. Earth resources and management

6. The universe

7. Classification

7. Our changing Earth

8. Cells

8. Global systems

9. Organ systems

9. Homeostasis

10. Interactions in ecosystems

10. Response and coordination

11. States of matter

11. Ecosystems

12. Elements and compounds

12. Genetics

13. Mixtures

13. Evolution

14. Physical and chemical change

14. Atoms 15. The periodic table 16. Introduction to chemical reactions 17. Rates of chemical reactions

Contents are subject to change prior to publication.

7


AUTHORS

M i ch e l l e G o u v e i a Michelle Gouveia teaches physics, biology, junior science and iSTEM at Knox Grammar, and also has experience teaching maths and art. She is passionate about interdisciplinary learning and helping students connect ideas and concepts from different learning areas. Prior to her teaching career, she studied a Bachelor of Natural Science, majoring in Biochemistry and Psychology, later completing an Honours in Biochemistry and a Masters of Educational Leadership.

E va n R o b e rt s Evan Roberts is a keen biologist and worked in conservation and environmental management prior to teaching. He currently teaches at Ravenswood School for Girls and has previously taught in both public and private schools and is dedicated to instilling his passion for science into his students. He believes that education, just like science, should be dynamic, exciting and forever changing to keep up with the world around us.

Emma Bone Emma Bone thrives on the dynamic and practical nature of science, which led her to a first-class honours degree in Biomedical Science. Her desire to enable students to maximise their potential brought about a career as a science teacher in Australia and in the UK where she was also a chemistry specialist teaching both GCSE and A Level courses.

M a tt h e w D i tto n Matthew Ditton is a science coordinator at Medowie Christian School and has over 20 years of teaching experience in physics, mathematics, sports and general science. He has lead curriculum development in schools and has also been a marker for HSC physics. Prior to teaching he completed a Bachelor of Applied Science, majoring in geology.

K e rri e A r d l e y Kerrie Ardley has taught a variety of junior and senior sciences throughout her teaching career. Currently, she is the Head of Psychology at an independent school. Kerrie enjoys seeing students learn through the connections between theory, practical work and the world around us.

C h ri s t o p h e r H u m p h rey s Christopher Humphreys is currently Head of Mathematics and Physics at a tertiary college for international students. He graduated from Nottingham University in the UK and completed his MSc in Physics at the University of Waikato in New Zealand. He has over thirty years’ experience as a teacher in public and private schools in the UK, New Zealand and Australia.

G e m m a Da l e Gemma Dale is a senior biology teacher at a Brisbane school who has also taught chemistry and physics in the UK. She has a tertiary background in ecology and a Masters of Science in Biodiversity and Conservation. She has worked with the Department of Environment and Heritage in Australia as a bat and gecko ecologist. She has also completed an Education Doctorate (EdD) specialising in scientific literacy.

Eddy de Jong Eddy de Jong has been involved with science and physics education at the secondary and tertiary level for many years and is a successful author of numerous science and physics texts. He is passionate about seeing young minds engaging with science and physics, and aims to instill in students a sense of curiosity whilst developing their critical thinking skills.

V i c to ri a S h a w Victoria Shaw has been committed to sharing her love of science with Year 7–12 students for the past 20 years and previously studied pharmacology. She was Head of Science at an independent school for several years and now volunteers as an assessor for the VCAA and IBE and runs workshops in biology and psychology.

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