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SKILLS IN GEOGRAPHY THIRD EDITION Still the most effective student resource available for mastering the k ey geography skills in Year s 7–10.

NEW EDITION FOR 2021 AND BEYOND

Grant Kleeman

cambridge.edu.au/geogskills


Skills in Geography Third Edition continues to offer the most up-to-date, student-focused, skills-based resource available for the study of geography.

INTRODUCING AND DEVELOPING THE TOOLS NEEDED TO SUCCEED

STUDENTS:

Most up-to-date resource available

Exceptional activity questions accompany each map

This comprehensively updated new edition offers fresh and relevant local and international opportunities for mastering fundamental geography skills. More than 25% of the maps are new, including a section covering Iceland for the first time.

Written by a highly experienced author, and aligned to the skills and themes of the Australian Curriculum, each map is accompanied by interesting and varied activities to engage students.

Students have access to the most up-to-date statistics and data available as well as a range of new topical activities.

Activities in each section graduate from addressing basic skills to the more challenging, catering for different abilities in the classroom and across year levels.

Addressing the significant geographical impact of recent topical issues

6.3 Skaftafell topographic map extract

The new edition addresses the significant geographical impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global inequalities and the global cruise industry. It also looks at the 2019 Whakaari / White Island eruption, the 2019/20 Currowan bushfire, and traditional fire management practices.

ACTIVITIES

Population Pyramid Iceland (2021)

Age

Male

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One of the biggest blazes of the Australian Black Summer Bushfires was the Currowan fire on the South Coast of NSW. The fire started at Currowan (less than an hour by car to the northeast of Narooma) on 26 November 2019. Over the next 74 days, it blackened almost 500,000 hectares of forest and grassland, destroyed 312 homes and damaged another 173. Three people died. The Currowan fire was one of the biggest in recorded Australian history. The fire was ignited by a lightning strike somewhere in the rugged terrain of the Currowan State Forest. Fanned by a westnorth-westerly, the fire spread rapidly. A decade of dry conditions, and two years of intense drought, had sapped moisture from the land and greatly increased the amount of fuel available to burn. Trees, stressed by drought, had dropped large amounts of leaves. A combination of strong winds, low humidity, dry soil and high temperatures pushed the Currowan fire from its point of ignition northwards to the Southern Highlands in less than six weeks. On the worst days, the fire advanced 12-15kms. It also, spread to the east and southeast as the wind direction changed. A week after the fire had begun, it started to attack coastal towns. Evacuation centres opened in Ulladulla and Batemans Bay, at that time considered to be relatively safe. The region’s distinctive escarpment and its hilly terrain, combined with strong winds, made the fires behave unpredictably. Spot fires, often many kilometres ahead of the fire front, made the situation even more hazardous. Those living in coastal communities prepared for ember attacks and watched the sky go black in the afternoon. Bushfiregenerated storms added to the sense of doom. The storms were generated when columns of heat rose with smoke, and once they punched through 15-16km high,

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What is the area reference of the small settlement of Hofgardar?

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Name the type of biophysical feature found in AR 3775.

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Name the land cover found in AR 3575.

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Name the river flowing from the Stigárjökull Glacier.

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In what general direction does the river flow?

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What is the general direction of Breiöamerkurfjall (AR 3775) from the highest point of the Öræfajökull glacial ice cap (AR 3574)?

0

10 In what general direction is Fjallsjökull Glacier flowing in AR 3774? 0

Figure 6.3b Iceland’s population period, 2021

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11 What is the bearing of Snaebreið (AR 3574) from the summit if Staoarfjall (GR 3672)? 12 What is the straight-line distance between the spot height at Snaebreið (AR 3574) from the summit if Staoarfjall (GR 3672)?

15 What is the approximate area of Breiðamerkurfjall that is not covered by ice?

Halifax Halifax (population 316,700) is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. The city has played a key role in maritime history. It was from Halifax that the steamer Mackay-Bennett set sail with a minister, an undertaker and a cargo of ice, coffins and canvas bags to recover the bodies of those lost in the sinking of the Titanic in 1912. The ship and spent five days carrying out its grim task. Her crew was able to recover 306 bodies, 116 of which had to be buried at sea. Only 59 of the recovered bodies were shipped out from Halifax by train to their families. The remaining victims were buried in three Halifax cemeteries. The sinking of the Titanic resulted in 1,496 lost lives. Halifax would also be the last sight of Canada

16 What is the difference in elevation of Snaebreið (AR 3574) and Staoarfjall (GR 367723)? 17 Construct the cross-section from Point A to Point B. Use a vertical scale of 1cm=200m. 18 Calculate the vertical exaggeration of the cross-section you constructed in Activity 17. 19 What is the gradient of the slope in the cross-section that you constructed in Activity 17? 20 Class discussion. Speculate why the east flowing glaciers extend to a lower altitude than those flowing to the west and south-west.

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What is the scale of the map extract?

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What is the contour interval used on the map extract?

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Study Figure 1. Name the features numbered 1–6 on the photograph.

CONTOUR INTERVAL 20 METRES

22 Study Figure 6.3c Write a report describing the climate experienced in Reykjavik.

ACTIVITIES

23 Construct an annotated photo sketch of either Figure 6.3d or 6.3e. Label key elements of the landscape.

In what direction was the camera facing when the photograph was taken? Identify the feature of the biophysical environment located at: a GR 407877 b GR 422899 c GR 391885 d GR 422885

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Identify the feature of the constructed environment located at: a GR 429883 b GR 418880 Oval c GR 413890 Bridge d GR 401914 Kianga Farm

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What is the area reference of Kianga Lake?

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Name the type of biophysical feature found in AR 4286. Name the type of land use found in AR 4188.

10 Name the type of vegetation found in AR 41291. 11 On what waterway is the Narooma located? How might such a feature be formed?

13 What is the direction of Kianga Point (AR 8289) from Lavender Point (AR 4088)?

1

What is the scale of the map extract?

2

What is the contour interval used on the map extract?

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Describe the site of Halifax. Halifax is located on an of land in Halifax Harbour.

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Study Figure 1. Name the features numbered 1–6.

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Identify the feature of the biophysical environment located at: a GR 556433 b GR 543381 c GR 499463 d GR 478417

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Identify the feature of the constructed environment located at: a GR 430428 b GR 515479 c GR 571414 d GR 546473

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What is the area reference of Russell Lake?

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Name the type of biophysical feature found in AR 5840.

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Name the type of land use found in AR 5851.

10 Name the type of vegetation found in AR 5338.

14 In what direction is Kianga Creek flowing in AR 3891?

11 On what waterway separates Halifax from the urban areas of Melville Cove, Jollimore and Boulder wood?

15 What is the bearing of Shell Point (AR 4087) from Bar Rock Lookout (AR 4288)?

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12 Study Figure 3. Locate the Halifax Citadel using grid references.

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16 What is the bearing of the lighthouse/ Beacon (GR 424889) from Kianga Point (AR 4289)?

13 Study Figure 2. In what direction was the camera facing when the photograph was taken? 14 What is the direction of Dartmouth from McNabs Island? 15 In what direction is Bridge Rum flowing in Ars 5337 and 5437? 16 What is the bearing of Ives Point navigation light (AR 5741) from the navigation light at Horse Shoe (GR 5738)? 17 What is the straight-line distance between the northern ends of the Murray Mackay and Angus L Macdonald bridges?

Figure 7.8b Oblique aerial photograph of Halifax’s CBD

18 What is the length of the Murray Mackay and Angus L Macdonald bridges? 19 What is the aspect of the Halifax waterfront? 20 What is the height of the small hill at GR 545397? 21 What is the elevation of the surface of Purcells Lake (AR 5439)? 22 Describe the landscape of area surrounding Halifax and its suburbs. 23 Identify, using area references, the evidence that Halifax is a major railway centre. 24 What locational factors make Halifax a suitable site for a harbour? 25 Investigate the history of the Halifax Citadel. Why was this site selected?

Figure 7.8c Oblique aerial photograph of Halifax’s Citadel. Fortifications have been located on Citadel Hill since the city was founded by the English in 1749

Figure 6.3c Reykjavík climate graph

17 What is the approximate length of Bar Beach (AR 4289)?

Figure 6.3e Kviárjökull Glacier

18 What is the general aspect of the slope on which the park has been developed in AR 4189?

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19 What is the approximate area of Kianga (AR 4190)?

many troops, headed for the battlefields of Europe in World Wars I and II, would ever see. It would also be the first sight of their new homeland thousands of immigrants would see as they arrived in Canada to start a new life. Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada, with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary’s University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, and the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, fishing, mining, forestry, and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the surrounding area.

Figure 7.8a Google Earth Image of Halifax

21 Study Figure 6.3b. State the number of people under the age of 15 living in Iceland. What percentage of the population does this represent?

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12 What waterway flows into Kianga Lake at GR 413911?

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SKIllS In GeOGRaPHY

Section_6_Iceland.indd 158

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20 What is the density of buildings in AR 4087? 21 What is the height of the hill at GR 403919?

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22 What is the elevation of the surface of small lake at GR 432864?

SKILLS IN GEOGRAPHY

Section_7_NA.indd 176

23 Explain why the Currowan fire developed into such a devastating bushfire.

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24 Explain what ‘cultural burning’ is. How does it reduce the likelihood of extreme fire events?

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­3­ NArOOmA (NsW) tOPOGrAPHiC mAP ExtrACt 04/06/21 10:32 PM

Expanded unit on digital technologies in geography

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sKills iN GEOGrAPHY

Section_3_Australia.indd 84

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7.8 Halifax, Canada, topographic map extract

14 What is the aspect of the slope in AR 3476?

Figure 6.3d Fjallsjökull Glacier and Fjallsárlón lake

90 When completing these activities, refer to the legend on page ##:

3 they formed a thunderhead that produced lightning storms. Once the system collapsed, it sent the wind in a 360-degree direction, making fires behave erratically on the ground and throwing spot fires kilometres ahead of the fire front. As conditions worsened, authorities ordered the mass exodus of holidaymakers from the South Coast. The Princes Highway was soon clogged with traffic. The congestion lasted for hours. After 74 days, rainfall finally extinguished the Currowan blaze. Cultural burning In the months after the Black Summer fires, attention turned to how the Australian environment could be managed better so that such catastrophic events are avoided in the futures, especially as the world’s climate warms. Many fire experts argued that there is much we can learn from how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples managed the land over the many thousands of years they have lived here. They have used culturally prescribed land-management practices – including fire – to care for Country. This is called ‘cultural burning’, and the knowledge of how to practise it has been passed down from generation to generation, with the elders of the group instructing the young. Cultural burning involves the use of ‘cool’ or low-intensity fire to reduce the risk of extreme fire events that result in the burning of whole trees and forest canopies. Protecting the canopy is an important aim of cultural burning because it supports many of the resources important to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples – insects, birds’ nests and shade. The loss of the canopy fundamentally alters the surrounding ecosystem – sunlight breaks through and dries out the soil. Cultural burning also serves other purposes, such as keeping waterways clear and protecting sacred parts of the landscape.

Identify the feature of the constructed environment located at: a GR 356702 b GR 346710

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ACTIVITIES

Black Summer Bushfires (2019–20)

3

13 What is the length of the airfield in AR 3570?

Figure 3.3b Firefighters at the Currowan fire

Narooma to be derived from the Aboriginal word meaning ‘clear blue waters’. The town has a population of just over 3,000 people.

Identify the feature of the biophysical environment located at: a GR 347744 b GR 385744 c GR 363724

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Narooma is a popular tourist destination on the far south coast of New South Wales. The name Narooma is believed

10k

Female

Population

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Figure 3.3a Oblique aerial photograph of Narooma, NSW, Australia

100+ 95–99 90–94 85–89 80–84 75–79 70–74 65–69 60–64 55–59 50–54 45–49 40–44 35–39 30–34 25–29 20–24 15–19 10–14 5–9 0–4

Narooma topographic map extract (latitude 36°13’S, longitude 150°07' E) 38

Describe the nature of the landscape shown on the Skaftafell Topographic Map Extract.

2

Figure 6.3a Reykjavík, Iceland’s capital in winter

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3.3 Narooma (NSW) topographic map extract

1

Section_3_Australia.indd 85

A more effective tool for learning skills than a textbook or atlas With a unique large A3 format, topographic map extracts can be displayed in high-quality, making it perfect for practising topographic map reading skills. This allows for a more diverse range of questions and activities to be included than a regular textbook can provide.

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04/06/21 10:32 PM

The expanded unit explores the latest technology used in the field including Google maps, drones, GPS, and satellitemounted sensors.

Video sources with QR code integration QR code integration in the print textbook allows students to gain instant access to video sources that are accompanied by relevant activity questions.

04/06/21 9:49 PM


SUPPORTING THE DELIVERY OF SYLLABUS REQUIREMENTS

TEACHERS:

Questions and activities in worksheet format

New maps for a fresh look at topographic mapping skills

All questions and activities in the print book are available in worksheet format for teachers to use in the classroom or as homework.

With 25% new maps, teachers can now work with and provide their students (who may have been using this text across a number of year levels) with fresh content to apply their geographical skills. Skaftafell topographic map extract 33 78

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Answers to all activities are also available for download from Cambridge GO. Access is included with the Print Textbook.

Halifax topographic map extract

38 78

Accompanying contemporary geography projects

Bowen Island topographic map extract longitude 123°19´W) Halifax topographic map extract (Lat. 44°(Snug 52´ N;Cove: Longlatitude 63° 42´49°23´N, W) 77

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Downloadable projects in Word format are available for teachers, providing fresh ideas for the classroom.

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Skills in Geography capability project Changing Places •

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SKILLS IN GEOGRAPHY CAPABILITY PROJECT Assessment task: Marketing strategy to boost tourism

ASSESSMENT RUBRIC

acquires and processes geographical information by selecting and using geographical tools for inquiry

72

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analyses the effect of interactions and connections between people, places and environments

Word limit: 300–500 words

communicates geographical information to a range of audiences using a variety of strategies

Understanding tourist patterns

0–1

2

3

4

5

Not all questions

All questions have

Most questions

Nearly all

All questions have

have been

been attempted,

have been

questions have

been accurately

completed.

but there are

accurately

been accurately

and fully

many inaccuracies

completed,

completed,

completed,

in interpreting the

showing a fair

showing a good

showing a good

graphs.

understanding of

understanding of

understanding of

Tourism contributes 3.2% of our Gross Domestic Product and employs 5% of the Australian

graph

graph

graph

workforce. In 2018 more than 9 million international visitors came to Australia and spent

interpretation.

interpretation.

interpretation.

Assessment task: Marketing strategy to boost tourism

71

Source: 2.42 Global tourism (page 49) 39

40

33

34

35

36

37

38

70

38

39

­63 SKaftafell tOPOGRaPHIc MaP extRact

As part of the marketing team of Tourism Australia it is your task to understand the research

159 37

04/06/21 4:58 PM

Skaftafell topographic map extract

Understanding

Not all questions

All questions have

Most questions

Nearly all

All questions have

tourist patterns

have been

been attempted,

have been

questions have

been accurately

completed.

but there are

accurately

been accurately

and fully

many inaccuracies

completed,

completed,

completed,

in interpreting the

showing a fair

showing a good

showing a good

about who comes to Australia and why they come. You will use this information to prepare a

38 Section_6_Iceland.indd 159

more than $40 billion.

web page aimed at attracting international visitors to an Australian site of your choice:

graphs.

37

1. Use the information on page 50 to understand the broad patterns of tourism in Australia. 48

49

50

51

52

76

54

55

56

58

81

7.8 HALIfAx, cANAdA, tOPOGRAPHIc mAP ExtRAct Section_7_NA.indd 167

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04/06/21 9:49 PM

• •

Which three countries provide most of Australia’s international tourists? Most international tourists arrive in the eastern states of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. How many arrived in these three states in total in 2019? What

Explicitly aligned to the syllabus Skills in Geography Third Edition comprehensively addresses the requirements of the Geography Inquiry and Skills strand of the Australian Curriculum and its state variants.

Curriculum grids are available for teachers for the Australian Curriculum and also state-based curricula for VIC, NSW and WA.

Easy to use for any teacher Activities have been specifically written to engage students with the maps in the book. Each unit is designed to be easily completed in one lesson, making this a great resource even for teachers who may be new to or lacking confidence in teaching Geography skills.

interpretation.

interpretation.

Not all questions

All questions have

Most questions

Nearly all

All questions have

have been

been attempted,

have been

questions have

been accurately

completed.

but there are

accurately

been accurately

and fully

many inaccuracies

completed,

completed,

completed,

in interpreting the

showing a fair

showing a good

showing a good

graphs.

case? 2. Prepare a bar graph (page 24) to represent the following information from the Tourism Australia 2020 report (on the next page) about what attracts international visitors to Australia. Show the information from most to least to clearly show the pattern: 1

© Cambridge University Press

Section 2: Key themes in Geography has been specifically aligned to cover each of the syllabus topics and supports skills using an integrated approach.

understanding of graph

interpretation.

tourist patterns

When do most international tourists arrive in Australia? Why do you think this is the

© Cambridge University Press

understanding of graph

Understanding

percentage of international visitors to Australia does this represent? •

understanding of graph

4

understanding of

understanding of

understanding of

graph

graph

graph

interpretation.

interpretation.

interpretation.


CONTENTS

Section 5: United Kingdom 5.1 United Kingdom 5.2 King’s Lyn topographic map extract 5.3 Dartmouth topographic map extract 5.4 West Cumbria topographic map extract 5.5 Ennerdale Water topographic map extract 5.6 Fort William topographic map extract 5.7 Loch a Cairn topographic map extract 5.8 Enard Bay topographic map extract

Section 1: Key Skills in Geography 1.1 Maps 1.2 Scale 1.3 Locating places 1.4 Direction, bearing and quadrants 1.5 Relief 1.6 Digital technologies in geography 1.7 Interpreting topographic maps 1.8 Photographs 1.9 Field sketches, line drawings and sketch maps 1.10 Climate graphs and weather maps 1.11 Graphs 1.12 Specialist maps Section 2: Key Themes in Geography 2.1. Landscapes and landforms 2.2 Place and liveability 2.3 Water and the world 2.4 Interconnections 2.5 Sustainable biomes

5.9 Langholm topographic map extract Section 6: Iceland 6.1 Iceland 6.2 Mýradfalsjökull topographic map extract 6.3 Skaftafell topographic map extract 6.4 Langjökull topographic map extract 6.5 Okjökull (Ok glacier) topographic map extract Section 7: North America 7.1 North America 7.2 Vancouver, Canada, topographic map extract 7.3 Bowen Island, Canada, topographic map extract 7.4 Nanaimo, Canada, topographic map extract 7.5 Whistler, Canada, topographic map extract 7.6 Banff, Canada, topographic map extract 7.7 Niagara Falls, Canada and the United States, topographic map extract 7.8 Halifax, Canada, topographic map extract 7.9 Canadian Map Legends Glossary

2.6 Changing places 2.7 Environmental change and management 2.8 Human wellbeing Section 3: Australia 3.1 Australia

Contents are subject to change prior to publication.

3.2 Canberra (ACT) topographic map extract 3.3 Narooma (NSW) topographic map extract 3.4 Kosciuszko (NSW) topographic map extract 3.5 Camden Haven (NSW) topographic map extract 3.6 Jindabyne (NSW) topographic map extract 3.7 Wallis Lake (NSW) topographic map extract 3.8 South West Rocks (NSW) topographic map extract 3.9 Coffs Harbour (NSW) topographic map extract 3.10 Anglesea (VIC) topographic map extract

AUTHOR

3.11 Lake Pedder (TAS) topographic map extract 3.12 Cradle Mountain (TAS) topographic map extract 3.13 Coles Bay (TAS) topographic map extract 3.14 Port Arthur (TAS) topographic map extracts 3.15 Encounter (SA) topographic map extract 3.16 Goolwa (SA) topographic map extract 3.17 Albany (WA) topographic map extract 3.18 Daintree (QLD) topographic map extract 3.19 Noosa (QLD) topographic map extract 3.20 Cairns (QLD) topographic map extract 3.21 Uluru (NT) topographic map extract 3.22 Gallipoli (Turkey) topographic map extract Section 4: New Zealand 4.1 New Zealand 4.2 Russell topographic map extract 4.3 Lake Tekapo topographic map extract 4.4 Lake Coleridge topographic map extract 4.5 Queenstown topographic map extract 4.6 Milford Sound / Piopiotahi topographic map extract 4.7 Fox Glacier / Te Moeka o Tuawe topographic map extract 4.8 Mt Ruapehu topographic map extract 4.9 Christchurch topographic map extract 4.10 Whakaari / White Island topographic map extract

Grant Kleeman Dr Grant Kleeman is one of Australia’s leading geography educators. He is an experienced teacher educator, geography teacher, award winning author, curriculum writer and examiner. Grant has been closely involved in the development of the Australian Curriculum: Geography (7–10) and Senior Secondary Geography Curriculum. He has also been active in professional associations for more than 30 years and is currently a director and immediate past Chairperson of the Australian Geography Teachers Association (AGTA). In 2007, the Geographical Society of NSW and the GTA NSW awarded Grant the McDonald Holmes Medal for his ‘Distinguished contribution to Geographical Education in Australia’. Grant is a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and the GTA NSW.


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