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we. K g (m¤§vb) Gg. K g (e¨e¯’vcbv)

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mnKvix Aa¨vcK

K¨vgweªqvb cvewj‡Kkb cU-2, ¸jkvb mv‡K©j-2, XvKv KZ©„K cÖKvwkZ †dvb: 9881355, 01720557170/80/90


K¨vgweªqvb cvewj‡KkÝ cøU-2, ¸jkvb, XvKv KZ…©K cÖKvwkZ|

[cÖKvkK KZ©„K me©¯^Z¡ msiwÿZ] cÖ_g cÖKvk: 1 RyjvB, 2013

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†jLK‡`i K_v RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© KZ…©K cÖYxZ æRvZxq wkÿvµg-2012Ó Abymv‡i GKv`k-Øv`k †kªwYi

mvwPweK we`¨v I Awdm e¨e¯’vcbv-cÖ_g cÎ eBwU Avjøvn Zvqvjvi A‡kl ing‡Z iPbv KvR mgvß n‡q‡Q| wek¦e¨vcx e¨emvq wkÿv cÖmvi Ges mvwPweK we`¨v I Awdm e¨e¯’vcbv wel‡qi cÖwZ mvaviY QvÎQvÎx‡`i µgea©gvb AvMÖn Ges †SuvK †ewk n‡e GUvB ¯^vfvweK| wKš‘ GKwU bZzb welq wn‡m‡e evRv‡i mvwPweK we`¨vi Dci mwVK aviYv I gvbm¤§Z eB-Gi Afve _vKvq G Kv‡R nvZ †`qvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Abyfe Kwi| eBwU‡Z cÖwZwU wel‡qi Dci ¯^”Q aviYv †`qvi Rb¨ AZ¨šÍ mnR, mij I mvejxj fvlvq †jLvi †Póv Kiv n‡q‡Q| QvÎ-QvÎxiv G eB †_‡K DcK…Z n‡jB kªg mv_©K g‡b Kie| eBwUi gvb mg„×Ki‡Y AwfÁ we‡klÁMY we‡klfv‡e wb‡`©kbv I civgk© w`‡q Avgv‡`i‡K K…ZÁZv cv‡k Ave× K‡i‡Qb| ZvQvov eBwU iPbvq †hme †`kx-we‡`kx eB Gi mn‡hvwMZv †bqv n‡q‡Q †mme weÁ †jLK‡`i Kv‡QI Acwi‡kva¨ FY ¯^xKvi KiwQ| mv‡_ mv‡_ G eB iPbvq †hmKj m¤§vwbZ Aa¨vcKgÛwj, †mœnfvRb QvÎQvÎx I ïfvKv•ÿxMY Drmvn-DÏxcbv hywM‡q‡Qb Zv‡`i Kv‡QI K…ZÁ| mg‡qi ¯^íZvi Kvi‡Y eBwU‡Z fyjÎæwU _vKv wewPÎ wKQz bq| ZvB Gi gv‡bvbœq‡b †h‡Kv‡bv civgk© mv`‡i M„nxZ n‡e| K¨vgweªqvb cvewj‡KÝ cy¯ÍKwU cÖKv‡ki `vwqZ¡fvi †bIqvq Avgiv Zv‡`i wbKU K…ZÁZv cÖKvk KiwQ| GQvovI cy¯ÍKwU cÖbq‡b hviv cÖZ¨ÿ I c‡ivÿfv‡e mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZv I Drmvn cÖ`vb K‡ib Zv‡`i mK‡ji cÖwZ Avgiv ab¨ev` I K…ZÁZv cÖKvk KiwQ| cy¯ÍKwU cÖKvwkZ nIqvq AveviI gnvb m„wóKZ©vi wbKU ïKwiqv Ávcb KiwQ| cy¯ÍKwU †`‡ki mKj m¤§vwbZ wkÿK I wkÿv_x©‡`i wbKU wb‡e`b KiwQ| ab¨ev`v‡šÍ †jLKe„›`

†jLKe„‡›`i bvg I †gvevBj b¤^i bvg

 Avãym mvjvg  †gvt Rvnv½xi †nv‡mb nvIjv`vi  †gvt knx`yj Bmjvg

†gvevBj b¤^i

01823055239 01717172015 01715654811


DrmM© kÖ‡×q evev-gv‡K


wm‡jevm

mvwPweK we`¨v I Awdm e¨e¯’vcbv (cÖ_g cÎ) mvwPweK we`¨v ZË¡xqe¨envwiKc~Y©gvb =

60 40 100 ÔKÕ-wefvM: mvwPweK we`¨v I mwP‡ei Kg©cÖYvwj-40

(weKímn 6wU cÖkœ _vK‡e 3wUi DËi wjL‡Z n‡e|) (weKímn 8wU cÖkœ _vK‡e 4wUi DËi wjL‡Z n‡e|)

gvb 83 = 24 gvb 44 = 16 †gvU = 40

cÖ_g Aa¨vq: mvwPweK we`¨v cwiwPwZ: mvwPweK we`¨v, µgweeZ©‡bi BwZnvm, mvwPweK we`¨vi AvIZv, D‡Ïk¨I ¸iæZ¡, mvwPweK we`¨vi `k©b, mvwPweK we`¨vi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z Kg©‡ÿÎmg~n, evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM, †ckv wnmv‡e mvwPweK we`¨v, DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM| wØZxq Aa¨vq: K. mwPe ImwP‡ei Kg©cÖbvwj: mwP‡ei msÁv, mwP‡ei, †hvM¨Zv I ¸Yvewj, mwP‡ei Kvh©ewj, Av`~wbK we‡k¦ mwP‡ei ¸iæZ¡, mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨| wØZxq Aa¨vq: L. wewfbœ cÖKvi mwPe: mwP‡ei cÖKvi‡f`, GKvšÍ mwP‡ei msÁv, †hvM¨Zv I ¸bvewj, mwP‡ei Kvh©ewj, `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨| †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei msÁv, wb‡qvM c×wZ, †hvM¨Zv I ¸Yvewj, Kvh©vewj, `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨, AvBbMZ gh©v`v, AwaKvi, ÿgZv I `vq, AcmviY| Z…Zxq Aa¨vq: †Kv¤úvwb AvBb I †Kv¤úvwb mfv: †Kv¤úvwbi msÁv,†Kv¤úvwbi †kªwYwefvM, †Kv¤úvwbi cÖe_©K ev D‡`¨v³v, D‡`¨v³vi c¨Kv †f`, ¸bvewj I Kvh©vewj, †Kv¤úwbi MVb, †Kv¤úvwbi wbeÜb, Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ, ¯§viKwjwc I cwi‡gj bqgvewji welqm¯‘ I aviv, mfv, mfvi G‡RÐv ev Av‡jvP¨ m~wP, †Kv¤úvwb mfv, mfvi cÖKvi †f`, †Kvivg,Kvh„weeiYx| PZz_© Aa¨vq: †hvMv‡hvM: †hvMv‡hvM, e¨emvq †hvMv‡hvM, †hvMv‡hv‡Mi D‡Ï&k¨, ¸iæZ¡, c×wZ, gva¨g, Dcv`vb, cÖKvi‡f`, AvbyôvwbKI AbvbyôvwbK †hvM‡hvM, wjwLZ †hvMv‡hvM I †gŠwLK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨, WvK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi, mvaviY wPwV, †iwRw÷ªK…Z wPwV, wegvK…Z wPwV, cv‡m©j, eyK‡cv÷, †cv÷ †KvW, †cv÷vj AW„vi, gvwb AW©vi, B.Gg.Gm, wR.B.wc, Kzwiqvi mvwem| cÂg Aa¨vq: cÎ †hvMv‡hvM: cÎ Kx? c‡Îi cÖKvi‡f`, evwbwRªK cÎ, evwbwS¨K c‡Îi •ewkó¨, ¸iæZ¡, wewfbœ Ask, wewfbœ ÷vBj, evwbwR¨K c‡Îi cÖKvi‡f`, digv‡qk cÎ,Bbf‡qm cÎ, cÖPvi cÎ, cwiPqcÎ, Z_¨vbmÜvb cÎ, ZvMv`v cÎ, ÿwZc~iY cÎ, `vew I wggvsmv cÎ, GKwU wPwVi Rxeb Pµ, e¨w³MZ cÎ I evwbwR¨K c‡Îi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨, wW.I †jUvi, wR.I †jUvi| lô Aa¨vq: PvKwi msµbvZ cÎ: PvKwii `iL¯Í Avnev‡bi Avek¨Kxq welqmg~n I bgybv, PvKwii Av‡e`b c‡Îi we‡eP¨ welq, Av‡e`b c‡Îi bgybvcÖ¯ÍZ, Rxeb e„ËvbvZ †jLvi wbqg, mvÿvrKvi cÎ iPbvi AZ¨vekKxq welq, •ewkó¨ I bgybv, wb‡qvMc‡Îi welqe¯Í, wb‡qvMc‡Îi bgybv, †hvM`vb cÎ, †hvM`vbc‡Îi †gŠwjK welq I bgybv, KviY `k©v‡bv cÎ, Ae¨nwZ cÎ|


ÔLÕ-wefvM: mvwPweK we`¨vq Z_¨ I cÖhyw³i e¨envi-gvb: 20 (weKímn 2wU cÖkœ _vK‡e 1wUi DËi wjL‡Z n‡e|)

gvb 81 = 08

(weKímn 6wU cÖkœ _vK‡e 3wUi DËi wjL‡Z n‡e|)

gvb 43 = 12 †gvU= 20 mßg Aa¨vq: Kw¤úDUv‡ii BwZnvm nvW©Iq¨vi I mdUIq¨vi: Kw¤úDUvi Kx? Kw¤úDUv‡ii e¨envi, Kw¤úDUv‡ii †kªwYwefvM, Kw¤úDUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi Kx? wm‡÷g BDwbU, gwbUi, wK-†evW©, gvDm, wcÖ›Uvi, ¯‹¨vbvi, mdUIq¨vi Kx? mdUIq¨v‡ii ¸iæZ¡, Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g Kx? Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi ¸iæZ¡ I cÖKvi‡f`, nvWIq¨vi I mdUIqv‡ii g‡a¨ cv_©K¨| Aóg Aa¨vq: IqvW© cÖ‡mwms: Wgy‡›U •Zwi, m¤úv`b, cwieZ©b, msiÿY, wcÖwfD I gy`ªY, WKz‡g›U di‡gwUs, evsjv IqvW© cÖ‡mwms, †cR †mUAvc, gvwR©b, †mUAvc| †Uwej •Zwi, ROW, Column, BbmvU© I wWwjU, †Uwej di‡gwUs, G¨vjvBb‡g›U, †cR bv¤^vi, †nWvi I dzUvi, evbvb cixÿY| beg Aa¨vq: †¯cÖWkxU: †¯cÖWkxU Kx? ROW, Column, Cell, †gbyevi, IqvK©eyK, IqvK©kxU, †nWvidzUvi, wcÖ›U| †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y, fvM I kZvsk Gi digyjv| wewfbœ cÖKv‡ii dvsk‡bi (SUM, AVERAGE, MIN, MAX, IF) e¨envi| IqvK©kxU di‡gwUs (bv¤^vi, Kv‡iwÝ, ZvwiL), MÖvd •Zwi| gvwmK †eZb wej •Zwi, cixÿvi djvdj •Zwi, gRywi wbY©q, Kwgkb wbY©q|

e¨envwiK I †gŠwLK: 40 b¤^i `kg Aa¨vq: e¨envwiK: G¨wcø‡Kkb I Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g: Kw¤úDUvi Pvjy Kiv, †W¯‹Uc †_‡K G¨vwcø‡Kkb †cÖvMÖvg Pvjy Kiv, †W¯‹Uc †_‡K †dvìvi I dvBj •Zwi Kiv Ges gy‡Q †djv| wmivB‡Kj web †_‡K cybiæ×vi Kiv, evsjv UvBc Kiv, evsjv hy³vÿi •Zwii wbqg, Aÿi †QvU-eo Kiv, gvwR©b web¨vm, evg-Wvb I mgweb¨vm| mviwc •Zwii c×wZ, kxlPviY, cv`PviY, KvU, Kwc, wWwjU, †c÷, †cR †mUAvc, gvwR©b †mUAvc, †ccvi mvBR wVK Kiv, Row Column e„w× Kiv I gy‡Q †djv| †gBj gvR© Gi e¨envi| GKv`k Zg Aa¨vq: e¨envwiK: †¯úªWkxU: †¯úªWkwU cwiwPwZ, IqvK©kxU cwiwPwZ, G‡·j w¯Œ‡bi wewfbœ As‡ki cwiwPwZ, †iuv, Kjvg ms‡hvM Kiv I gy‡Q †djv| dgy©jvi mvnv‡h¨ †eZb wej •Zwi, cixÿvi djvdj •Zwi, gRywi wbY©q, Kwgkb wbY©q| 1| †h †Kvb IqvW© cÖ‡mmi e¨envi K‡i GKwU cÎ iPbv Kiv 2| cixÿ‡Ki wb‡`©k Abyhvqx cixÿY m¤úbœ Kiv: †hgb: K. AvÛvijvBb, †evì, BUvwjK L. wewfbœ cÖKvi d‡›Ui e¨envi, Rxeb e„ËvšÍ •Zwi Kiv: 3| IqvK©kx‡U †eZb wej, cixÿvi djvdj, Bbf‡qm •Zwi Kiv: 4| †gŠwLK cixÿv: 5| e¨envwiK LvZv:

b¤^i = 10

b¤^i = 10 b¤^i = 10 b¤^i = 05 b¤^i = 05 me©‡gvU = 40


m~PxcÎ Aa¨vq 1.

weeiY mvwPweK we`¨v cwiwPwZ

c„ôv bs 01  19

INTRODUCTION TO SECRETARIAL SCIENCE

2.

K. mwPe I mwP‡ei Kg©cÖYvwj

K. 20  27

SECRETARY & SECRETARY’S WORK PROCEDURE

L. wewfbœ cÖKvi mwPe DIFFERENT TYPES OF SECRETARY

3.

†Kv¤úvwb AvBb I †Kv¤úvwb mfv

L. 28  48 49  77

COMPANY LAW & COMPANY MEETING

4.

†hvMv‡hvM

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COMMUNICATION

5.

cÎ †hvMv‡hvM

112  142

COMMUNICATION LETTER

6.

PvKwi msµvšÍ cÎ

143  157

JOB RELATED LETTER

7.

Kw¤úDUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

158  193

HISTORY OF COMPUTER, HARDWARE & SOFTWARE

8.

IqvW© cÖ‡mwms

194  204

WORD PROCESSING

9

†¯cÖWwkU

205220

SPREADSHEET

10.

Gwcø‡Kkb I Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g (e¨envwiK)

221228

APPLICATION & OPERATING SYSTEM (PRACTICAL)

11.

†¯cÖWwkU (e¨envwiK) SPREADSHEET

229235


cÖ_g Aa¨vq

mvwPweK we`¨v cwiwPwZ INTRODUCTION TO SECRETARIAL SCIENCE

G Aa¨v‡q mvwPweK we`¨v m¤ú‡K© wkÿv_x©‡`i GKwU ¯^Zš¿ aviYv †`qvi †Póv Kiv n‡q‡Q| mvwPweK we`¨vi BwZnvm, cwiwa Ges ¸iæZ¡ Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q hv‡Z eZ©gvb †cÖÿvc‡U GKRb wkÿv_x© mn‡RB mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv m¤ú‡K© Dcjw× Ki‡Z cv‡i| cvkvcvwk evsjv‡`k I DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM, fwel¨r Kg©cš
v Kx n‡e ZvI Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q Ges evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨v‡K †ckvwn‡m‡e cÖvwZôvwbK iƒc w`‡Z f~wgKv ivL‡e|

G Aa¨v‡q hv Av‡Q1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

mvwPweK we`¨v mvwPweK we`¨v µgweeZ©‡bi BwZnvm mvwPweK we`¨v AvIZv/ cwiwa mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi D‡Ïk¨ mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi ¸iæZ¡ mvwPweK we`¨vi `k©b mvwPweK we`¨vi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z Kg©‡ÿÎmg~n

1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13

evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM †ckv wn‡m‡e mvwPweK we`¨v DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨v wk¶v e¨e¯
v evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨v wk¶v e¨e¯
v mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi KviYmg~n


2

mvwPweK we`¨v

1.1 mvwPweK we`¨v (Secretarial Science) Bs‡iwR æSecretarial Science” Gi evsjv cwifvlv n‡jv mvwPweK we`¨v| Secretarial Gi g~j kã n‡jv Secretary ev mwPe| Secretary kãwU j¨vwUb kã ‘Secretarius’ n‡Z G‡m‡Q| ZrKvjxb j¨vwUb kã ‘Secretarius’ kã Øviv Ggb GKRb e¨w³‡K eySv‡bv n‡Zv whwb GKRb †Mvcb cÎ wewbgqKvix wek¦ ¯Í c`¯
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we`¨v= we‡klvwqZ Ávb

mvwPweK we`¨v n‡jv GK ai‡bi we‡klvwqZ Ávb- hv w`‡q mwPeMY cÖwZôv‡bi hveZxq Kvh©vewj weÁvbm¤§Zfv‡e m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cv‡ib| DrcwËMZ w`K †_‡K mvwPweK we`¨v‡K wb‡gœv³fv‡e cªKvk Kiv hvq: Scribe

Secretarius

Secrecy

Secret

Secretary

Secretarial

Secretarial Science

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 wek¦¯Í Kg©Pvwi ev Kg©KZ©v| Z‡e- Secretarius kã Øviv GKRb †Mvcbxq cÎ wewbgqKvix Kg©Pvwi‡K eySv‡bv n‡Zv| D‡jøwLZ Av‡jvPbvq welqwU m¤ú‡K© †h aviYv cvIqv hvq Zv n‡jv: (K) GwU ZvwË¡K I e¨envwiK wkÿvi GKwU mgwš^Z iƒc; (L) msKxY© A‡_© welqwU †Mvcbxq Kvh© m¤úv`‡bi wb‡`©wkKv we‡kl; (M) eZ©gv‡b GwU •`bw›`b Awdm cwiPvjbvmn mKj mvwPweK Kv‡Ri mv‡_ RwoZ| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †h we`¨v Aa¨qb I e¨envi K‡i RwUj Kvh© e¨e¯
vq mwPe Zvi †hvM¨Zv ev ¸Yvewj w`‡q weÁvbm¤§Z c×wZ‡Z `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i ZvB n‡jv mvwPweK we`¨v| mvwPweK we`¨v GKRb mwPe‡K Zvi Kvh©vewj cÖYqb, myôzfv‡e Awdm cwiPvjbv Ges cÖvwZôvwbK mdjZv AR©‡b mnvqZv K‡i|


mvwPweK we`¨v cwiwPwZ

3

1.2 mvwPweK we`¨vi µgweeZ©‡bi BwZnvm (Basis and Development of Secretarial Science) AvR‡Ki hy‡M mvwPweK we`¨v‡K Avgiv †hfv‡e mycÖwZwôZ/mymsMwVZ we`¨v wn‡m‡e †c‡qwQ Zv Ggwb‡Z eZ©gvb ch©v‡q Av‡mwb| Gi †cQ‡b i‡q‡Q `xN© GK BwZnvm| AvR‡Ki `ywbqvq mwPe wn‡m‡e †h cwifvlvwU eûj e¨eüZ n‡”Q Zv g~jZ Bs‡iwR Secretary Gi evsjv Abyev`| Avi G mwP‡ei Kvh©µg fvlvi mv‡_ m¤ú„³| KviY ï×fvlv e¨envi K‡i cÎ †hvMv‡hvM, bw_KiY, m~wPKiY, kU©n¨vÛ, UvBcwjLb, Af¨šÍixY I evwn¨K †hvMv‡hvM Awdm cwiPvjbv BZ¨vw` mwP‡ei Kvh©µ‡gi AšÍfy©³| gvby‡li e¨w³MZ ev Awd‡mi Kvh©µg e„w×i mv‡_ mv‡_ cÖ‡qvRb nq mwP‡ei| ZvB GKRb mwPe mvwPweK we`¨v c~Y©v½ ev AvswkKfv‡e wk‡L Zvi Kvh©µg `ÿZvi mv‡_ cwiPvjbv K‡i Avm‡Q| G `xN©c_ cwiµgvq mvwPweK we`¨vi DrcwË I µgweKvk‡K Av‡jvPbvi myweav‡_© fvlvi BwZnv‡mi mv‡_ wgj †i‡L wb‡gœv³ Pvifv‡M fvM Kiv n‡jv : 1| cÖvPxb hyM (wLªóc~e© 63-1200 mvj); 2| ga¨hyM (1201-1800 mvj); 3| AvaywbK hyM (1801-2012 mvj); 4| fwel¨r Kvj (2013 mvj †_‡K)| 1| cÖvPxb hyM (wLªóc~e© 63-1200 mvj): mvwPweK we`¨vi mvwPweK (Secretarial) kãwU j¨vwUb kã Secretarius n‡Z G‡m‡Q| G Secretarius kã Øviv †Mvcb cÎ wewbgqKvix wek¦¯Í c`¯
 Kg©Pvwi‡K eySv‡bv n‡Zv| BwZnvm ch©v‡jvPbv Ki‡j †`Lv hvq, cÖvPxbKv‡j †ivg mgªvUMY ivR¨ cwiPvjbv I Zv‡`i e¨w³MZ Kv‡R mn‡hvwMZv Kivi Rb¨ GKRb mwPe wb‡qvM Ki‡Zb| wZwb ivRv‡K me wel‡q civgk© w`‡Zb Ges ivR¨ cwiPvjbvq ¸iæZ¡c~Y© `vwqZ¡ ev f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Zv GmKj mwPe| GQvov wLªóc~e© 63 mv‡j cÖvPxb wU‡iv †iv‡gv bvgK GK e¨w³ K¨v‡Uv bvgK GK cwÐZ e¨w³i e³…Zv wjwce× Kivi Rb¨ GKwU c×wZ Avwe®‥vi K‡ib| GwU‡K kU©n¨v‡Ûi me©cÖ_g Avwe®‥vi wn‡m‡e aiv nq| †ivgvb ¯‥z‡j ivRb¨eM©‡K G c×wZ wkÿv †`qv n‡Zv| wU‡ivi Avwe®‥„Z G c×wZ eû kZvwã a‡i cÖPwjZ wQj| GQvovI cÖvPxbKv‡j c„w_exi wewfbœ ¯
v‡b gvbyl Zv‡`i g‡bi fve cÖKv‡ki Rb¨ wewfbœ iK‡gi mvs‡KwZK wP‡ýi mvnv‡h¨ †jLvi †Póv K‡i‡Q| 2| ga¨hyM (1201-1800 mvj): gvbyl e¨emvq-evwYR¨ cÖmv‡ii mv‡_ mv‡_ nv‡Z wj‡L mwP‡ei Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvi cwie‡Z© Avwe®‥…Z n‡q‡Q mvwPweK we`¨vi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ask UvBc‡gwkb| Bsj¨v‡Ûi ivwb G¨v‡bi ivRZ¡Kv‡j †nbwi wgj bvgK GKRb cÖ‡K․kjx 1714 mv‡j UvBcivBUvi Avwe®‥vi K‡ib| 1588 mv‡j wUgw_ eªvBU bvgK GKRb weªwUk †jLK me© cÖ_g kU©n¨v‡Ûi eB cÖKvk K‡ib| GwU eªvBU c×wZ bv‡gB cÖwmw× jvf K‡i| 1602 mv‡j Rb BDwjm AÿiwfwËK GKwU c×wZi D™¢veb K‡ib| Zuvi G c×wZ wQj jyß Aÿi ev ¯^ieY© weewR©Z| 1630 mv‡j Ugvm †kjUb AÿiwfwËK c×wZ‡Z GKwU eB †j‡Lb| 1757 mv‡j W. Rb evBib kU©n¨v‡Ûi GKwU RbwcÖq eB cÖKvk K‡ib|


4

mvwPweK we`¨v

3| AvaywbK hyM (1801-2012): 1837 mv‡j m¨vi AvBR¨vK wcUg¨vb mvwPweK we`¨vi Ask wn‡m‡e kU©n¨v‡Ûi GKwU eB †j‡Lb| Zvi D™¢vweZ c×wZ wQj weÁvbm¤§Z c×wZ| GwU wcUg¨vb kU©n¨vÛ bv‡g cwiwPZ| 1888 mv‡j wcUg¨vb c×wZi Dci M‡elYv Pvwj‡q Rb ievU© †MÖM Av‡gwiKvq kU©n¨v‡Ûi AZ¨šÍ mnR, mij I weÁvbm¤§Z GKwU c×wZ D™¢veb K‡i mviv we‡k¦ GK PvÂj¨ m„wó K‡ib| Gici mviv we‡k¦ kU©n¨vÛ me©Rb ¯^xK…Z, weKwkZ mgv`„Z n‡q‡Q| G c×wZ‡Z k‡ãi D”Pvi‡Yi Dci wfwË K‡i kU©n¨vÛ †jLv nq | Z‡e 1843 mv‡j Pvj©m Avegvi evi Ges 1864 mv‡j nKvi wmUvi UvBcivBUv‡ii ms¯‥vi K‡ib| cieZx©‡Z Av‡gwiKv‡Z UvBcivBUv‡ii Dci M‡elYv K‡i 1868 mv‡j wK‡÷vdvi j¨v_g †mvjm AvaywbK UvBcivBUv‡ii ms¯‥vi K‡ib| Zv‡K UvBcivBUv‡ii RbK ejv nq| wZwb UvBc‡gwk‡bi 52Zg ms¯‥viK| Kv‡ji weeZ©‡b c„w_exi cÖvq me wel‡qB AvaywbKZvi †Quvqv †j‡M‡Q| wVK Ggwbfv‡e mvwPweK we`¨v welqwU e¨vcK cwigvwR©Z n‡q GKwU AvaywbK I me©Rb MÖnY‡hvM¨ wel‡q iƒcvšÍwiZ n‡q‡Q| we‡k¦i Ab¨vb¨ †`‡ki g‡Zv `ÿ mwPe •Zwii Rb¨ ZrKvjxb cvwK¯Ívb miKvi 1967 mv‡j 16wU †Rjvq 16wU miKvwi Kgvwk©qvj Bbw÷wUDU ¯
vcb K‡i mvwPweK we`¨v wkÿv e¨e¯
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v K‡i| 1972 mv‡j AcwUgv gywbi bv‡g evsjv UvBc‡gwkb Avwe®‥…Z nq| Awdm cwiPvjbvq mvwPweK we`¨v GKvšÍ cÖ‡qvRb weavq ZrKvjxb miKvi 1983 mv‡j †`‡ki mvaviY K‡jRmg~‡n kU©n¨vÛ I UvBcwjLb welqwU Pvjy K‡ib| 1987 mv‡j Ave`yj gvbœvb miKvi eûfvlx muvUwjwc bv‡g GKwU eB cÖKvk K‡ib| 1995 mv‡j KvwiMwi wkÿv †ev‡W©i GBP.Gm.wm e¨emvq e¨e¯
vcbv wefv‡M mvwPweK we`¨v welqwU AšÍf©y³ K‡ib| 1995 mv‡j miKvi D”P gva¨wgK †kªwYi welqmg~n cwi‡kvab I cwigvR©‡bi GK Kg©m~wP nv‡Z †bb| †mLv‡b mv‡eK kU©n¨vÛ I UvBcwjL‡bi wm‡jevm cwieZ©b K‡i mvwPweK we`¨v I Awdm e¨e¯
vcbv bv‡g AvaywbK hy‡Mvc‡hvMx welq wn‡m‡e 1998 mv‡j D”P gva¨wgK ch©v‡q Pvjy K‡ib| 2002 mvj †_‡K RvZxq wek¦we`¨vjq we.Kg Abvm© fwZ©i †ÿ‡Î mvwPweK we`¨v welq‡K GjvBW ev mg‡MvÎxq welq wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…wZ `vb K‡i‡Q| eZ©gv‡b mvwPweK we`¨v w`‡bi ci w`b AvaywbKZi n‡q mK‡ji wbKU MÖnY‡hvM¨| 4| fwel¨rKvj (2013 mvj †_‡K): mgq, Avwe®‥vi, e¨¯ÍZv, weÁv‡bi RqhvÎv mewKQz wgwj‡q AvMvwg‡Z mvwPweK we`¨v wel‡q e¨vcK cwieZ©b I cwigvR©b n‡q GKwU AZ¨vaywbK wel‡q iƒcvšÍwiZ n‡e| mvwPweK we`¨vq ms‡hvRb n‡e AZ¨vaywbK Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU, B-†gBj, B-Kgvm©, wfwWI, †dvb, wfwWI Kbdv‡iwÝs, f‡qm †gBj, †dvb e¨vswKs, GwUGg e¨vswKs, Kw¤úDUvivBR dvBwjs, Kw¤úDUvivBR wnmveiÿY, Kw¤úDUvivBR Awdm g¨v‡bR‡g›U, †gvevBj †dvb mnRjf¨ n‡e Ges e¨envi n‡e eûgvwÎK| nq‡Zv kU©n¨v‡Û Dictation †bqvi cwie‡Z© GKRb mwPe wfwWI †gvevBj †dv‡bi gva¨‡g Zvi e‡mi me Dictation †iKW© K‡i wb‡eb| GK AZ¨vaywbK †gvevBj †dvb ev enb‡hvM¨ j¨vcUc Kw¤úDUv‡ii gva¨‡g wUwf †`Lv, Mvb ïbv, wfwWI †iKwW©s, wfwWI Kbdv‡iwÝs, B›Uvi‡bU, B-†gBj, †dvb e¨vswKs BZ¨vw` Kiv hv‡e| Avm‡j gvbyl n‡q co‡e AZ¨vaywbK †gvevBj †dvb ev wgwb j¨vcUc Kw¤úDUvi wbf©i|


mvwPweK we`¨v cwiwPwZ

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cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, e¨emvq-evwYR¨ m¤cÖmvi‡Yi mv‡_ mv‡_ Awd‡mi msL¨v e„w× cvq| cÖwZwU Awd‡m GKRb mwP‡ei cÖ‡qvRbxqZv †`Lv †`q| Avi `ÿ mwPe m„wói cÖqv‡m mvwPweK we`¨vi µgweKvk w`‡bi ci w`b e„w× cv‡”Q| gvwK©b hy³iv‡óªi GK Rwi‡c †`Lv hvq, cÖwkÿY cÖvß, `ÿ Ges `vwqZ¡kxj mwP‡ei Pvwn`v AvMvwg c‡bi eQ‡i 60% e„w× cv‡e|

1.3 mvwPweK we`¨vi AvIZv/ cwiwa (Scope of Secretarial Science) eZ©gvb we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨vi AvIZv/ cwiwa AZ¨šÍ e¨vcK| †h‡Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi `vßwiK hveZxq Kvh©vewj mvwPweK we`¨vi AšÍf©y³| cÖwZôvb MVb †_‡K Avi¤¢ K‡i †kl ch©šÍ myôy wbqš¿Y I `ÿ cwiPvjbvi †ÿ‡Î †hvMv‡hvM cÖwµqv GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wbqvgK| wb‡gœ mvwPweK we`¨vi AvIZv Q‡Ki gva¨‡g †`Lv‡bv n‡jv: mvwPweK we`¨vi AvIZv

mvaviY wk¶v

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 gvZ…fvlv  Avš—R©vwZK fvlv  wewea fvlv

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bw_KiY I m~wPKiY

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 PvKzwi wewa  mvaviY AvBb  †Kv¤úvwb AvBb  evwYwR¨K I wkí AvBb  KviLvbv AvBb  kªg AvBb  AvqKi AvBb

wb‡gœ mvwPweK we`¨vi AvIZv/ cwiwa m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1| mvaviY wkÿv: mvaviY wkÿv e¨e¯
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2| fvlvMZ wkÿv: mvwPweK we`¨vi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ask n‡”Q fvlv wkÿv| mvwPweK we`¨v‡K eyS‡Z n‡j fvlvÁvb _vKv `iKvi| mwPe‡K •`bw›`b wewfbœ ai‡bi cÎ cÖwZ‡e`b cÖ¯‧Z Ki‡Z nq e‡j Avgv‡`i †`‡k gvZ…fvlv wn‡m‡e evsjv Ges wek¦vq‡bi hy‡M e¨emvq evwYR¨ myôyfv‡e cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ AvšÍR©vwZK fvlv wn‡m‡e Bs‡iwR fvlv fv‡jvfv‡e Rvb‡Z nq| evsjv, Bs‡iwR QvovI cÖ ‡qvR‡b Aviwe, D`©y, Rvcvwb BZ¨vw` fvlv m¤^‡Ü Ávb AR©b Ki‡Z nq| Kv‡RB fvlvMZ Ávb mvwPweK we`¨vi AvIZvfy³| 3| KvwiMwi wkÿv: †h wkÿv e¨envwiK A_©vr nv‡Z-Kj‡g wkÿv †`qv nq Zv‡K KvwiMwi wkÿv e‡j| g~jZ nv‡Z Kj‡g wkLv‡bv e¨envwiK wkÿv‡K KvwiMwi wkÿv e‡j| KvwiMwi wkÿv mvwPweK we`¨vi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Dcv`vb| wb‡gœ mvwPweK we`¨vi AvIZv wn‡m‡e KvwiMwi wkÿvq D‡jøL‡hvM¨ K‡qKwU wel‡qi mswÿß eY©bv †`qv n‡jv: (K) Kw¤úDUvi: AvaywbKKv‡j mvwPweK we`¨v I Awdm e¨e¯
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6| bw_KiY I m~wPKiY: cÖ‡Z¨K Awd‡m Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`vb msµvšÍ mKj KvR bw_Ki‡Yi gva¨‡g msiÿY Kiv nq| Avevi cÖ‡qvR‡bi mgq bw_fy³ KvMRcÎ Lyu‡R †ei Ki‡Z m~wPKi‡Yi cÖ‡qvRb nq| ZvB mwP‡ei bw_KiY I m~wPKi‡Yi Ávb _vKv Riæwi| 7| cÎ †hvMv‡hvM: c‡Îi gva¨‡g Awd‡mi mwPe wewfbœ †hvMv‡hvM cÖwµqv m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡K| ZvB c‡Îi ÷vBj, Ask, cÎ UvBc I cÎ wewbgq BZ¨vw` welq mvwPweK we`¨vi AvIZvfy³| eZ©gvb hyM‡K †hvMv‡hv‡Mi hyM e‡j| ZvB mdj †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ Gme wewfbœ gva¨g m¤ú‡K© Ávb _vKv Avek¨K e‡j GwUI mvwPweK we`¨vi GKwU cÖavb we‡eP¨ welq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, AvaywbK DbœZ hvwš¿K †hvMv‡hvM I KvwiMwi hy‡M mvwPweK we`¨vi AvIZv AZ¨šÍ e¨vcK| w`b w`b mvwPweK we`¨vi cwimi I e¨vwß †e‡oB Pj‡Q| Kv‡RB mvwPweK we`¨vi myôy I mwVK cÖ‡qv‡Mi gva¨‡g Awdm e¨e¯
vcbvi ¯^vfvweK Kvh©µg Ae¨vnZ I mPj ivL‡Z n‡e|

1.4 mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi D‡Ïk¨ (Objectives of Secretarial Science) AvaywbK cÖwZ‡hvwMZvg~jK we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨v GKwU ev¯Íe cÖ‡qvRbxq Ges e¨envwiK welq wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡”Q| cÖwZwU Awdm cwiPvjbv Ki‡ZB mwPe wb‡qvM Ki‡Z nq Ges G mwPe‡`i‡K eûgyLx Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z nq| cÖwZôv‡bi MVb †_‡K ïiæ K‡i Gi mdjZv AR©b ch©šÍ cÖwZwU av‡c av‡c i‡q‡Q mvwPweK we`¨vi mywPwšÍZ w`K wb‡`©kbv| GKwesk kZvwãi P¨v‡jÄ †gvKv‡ejvq wU‡K _vK‡Z n‡j cÖwZôvb¸‡jvi Rb¨ `iKvi •eÁvwbK c×wZi e¨envi| G Kvw•ÿZ mdjZvi Rb¨ mvwPweK we`¨v ev¯Íem¤§Z f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| GKRb fv‡jv mwPe •Zwi Ki‡Z mvwPweK we`¨vi weKí †bB| mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi gva¨‡g Zvi hveZxq Kvh©vewj AZ¨šÍ `ÿZvi mv‡_ m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cv‡i| cÖwZwU Awdm Av`vj‡Z eZ©gv‡b mwPe i‡q‡Q| ZvB mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi eûwea D‡Ïk¨ i‡q‡Q| wb‡gœ mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi D‡Ïk¨ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv : 1. †eKvi mgm¨vi mgvavb: AvR Avgv‡`i †`‡k wkwÿZ Rbkw³i GKwU wecyj Ask †eKvi‡Z¡i Awfkv‡c `»| G wkwÿZ †eKvi Rbkw³ mvwPweK we`¨v Aa¨qb K‡i wewfbœ cÖwZôv‡b Zv‡`i PvKzwii my‡hvM m„wó K‡i wb‡Z cv‡i| ZvQvov mvwPweK we`¨v A`ÿ Rbkw³‡K KvwiMwi cÖwkÿY w`‡q `ÿ Rbkw³‡Z cwiYZ K‡i| 2. †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbv: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi GKRb ¸iæZ¡c~Y© e¨w³Z¡| †Kv¤úvwbi mwPe mvwPweK Áv‡b `ÿ n‡j †Kv¤úvwbi `vßwiK Kvh©vewj mn‡RB cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z cv‡i| `ÿZvi mv‡_ †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbv Kiv mevi GKvšÍ B”Qv| mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbvq Ávb AR©b Kiv| 3. Awdm †gwkb cwiPvjbv: mvwPweK we`¨vi Ávb jvf K‡i GKRb mwPe Zvi Awd‡m e¨eüZ wewfbœ †gwkbvwi †hgb- Kw¤úDUvi, †Uwj‡dvb, †U‡j·, d¨v·, B›UviKg, d‡UvKwcqvi, UvBcivBUvi, Wyw cø‡KwUs †gwkb BZ¨vw` my›`ifv‡e SuywKnxbfv‡e cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z cv‡i| `ÿfv‡e Awdm cwiPvjbvi cÖavb nvwZqvi n‡jv Kw¤úDUvi| Zv mvwPweK we`¨vi gva¨‡g wkÿvjvf Kiv hvq|


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4. myôz †hvMv‡hvM: mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi Ab¨Zg D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv †hvMv‡hv‡Mi mwVK wbqg Kvbyb Rvbv| cÖwZôv‡bi †Kvb Kv‡Ri Rb¨ †Kvb †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g DËg Ges Kxfv‡e AZ¨šÍ ¯^í e¨q Ges Aí mg‡q AwaK `ÿZvi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM ¯
vcb Kiv hvq Zv mvwPweK we`¨v cvV K‡iB Rvbv m¤¢e| mvwPweK we`¨v cÖwZôv‡bi Af¨šÍixY I evwn¨K †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
v wbqš¿‡Yi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© nvwZqvi| 5. mfvi Kvh©vewj: mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi gva¨‡g mwPe AwZ mn‡R wb‡qvM, wb‡`©k, cÖwZôv‡bi mfv Avnevb, mfv cwiPvjbv, Av‡jvP¨m~wP I Kvh©weeiYx •Zwi Ki‡Z cv‡i| †h‡Kv‡bv e¨w³ mvwPweK we`¨vq cvi`k©x n‡j GKwU mfv Avnevb †_‡K ïiæ K‡i mfvi mgvwß ch©šÍ hveZxq Kvh©vewj mwVKfv‡e m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cv‡i| 6. MwZkxjZv e„w×: MwZkxjZv n‡jv mgq Ges cwiw¯
wZi mv‡_ Zvj wg‡j Pjv| mvwPweK we`¨v bZzb †K․kj Ges cÖhyw³ e¨env‡ii cÿcvwZ| d‡j cÖwZôv‡bi `vßwiK Kv‡R GmKj †K․kj I cÖhyw³ e¨envi K‡i cÖwZôv‡bi MwZkxjZv e„w× Kiv hvq| 7. •e‡`wkK gy`vª : mvwPweK we`¨v KvwiMwi cÖwkÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g GK`j `ÿ Rbkw³ m„wó K‡i hv we‡`‡k ißvwb K‡i wecyj cwigvY •e‡`wkK gy`vª AR©b Kiv hvq| 8. `ÿ mwPe •Zwi Kiv: mwPe GKwU cÖwZôv‡bi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© c`| mwP‡ei Ab¨Zg GKwU KvR n‡jv cÖwZôv‡bi cÖavb‡K wewfbœ mg‡q wewfbœ cÖKvi cÖkvmwbK Kv‡R civgk© cÖ`vb Kiv| †Kv¤úvwb mwVKfv‡e cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ `ÿ mwP‡ei †Kv‡bv weKí †bB| ZvB mvwPweK we`¨v cvV K‡i `ÿ mwPe •Zwi n‡Z cv‡i| 9. †MvcbxqZv: mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi Ab¨Zg D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv wb‡qvMKZ©vi hveZxq Kv‡Ri †MvcbxqZv iÿv Kiv| mwPe‡K Awd‡mi wewfbœ welqvw` A‡bK mgq †Mvcb ivL‡Z nq| mvwPweK we`¨vi Ggb wKQy †K․kj Av‡Q hv e¨envi K‡i cÖwZôv‡bi KvRK‡g© †MvcbxqZv iÿv Kiv hvq| 10. bw_KiY: bw_KiY Qvov Awdm Av`vjZ G‡Kev‡i APj| ZvB mvwPweK we`¨vi GKwU Aa¨vq Av‡Q hv mwPe‡K bw_KiY m¤ú‡K© Ávb w`‡q _v‡K| Awd‡mi wewfbœ KvMRcÎ, `wjj-`¯Ív‡eR bw_KiY Ki‡Z nq| GKRb mwPe/K¬vK© hw` mwVKfv‡e bw_KiY Ki‡Z bv cv‡ib Zvn‡j cieZ©x‡Z cÖ‡qvR‡bi mgq cÖ‡qvRbxq dvBjwU Luy‡R cvIqv hv‡e bv| 11. cÖkvmwbK mnvqZv: mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi gva¨‡g GKRb mwPe Zvi wb‡qvMKZ©v‡K cÖkvmwbK wewfbœ Kv‡R mnvqZv Ki‡Z cv‡i| mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi gva¨‡g cÖkvmwbK KvR m¤ú‡K© `ÿZv AR©b K‡i cÖkvmb‡K mnvqZv K‡i| 12. Kw¤úDUvi cwiPvjbv: `ÿfv‡e Awdm cwiPvjbvi Ab¨Zg evnb Kw¤úDUvi cwiPvjbvq `ÿZv AR©‡b mvwPweK we`¨v Ab¨Zg mnvqK| Kw¤úDUvi eZ©gv‡b Awdm-Av`vj‡Z e¨vcKfv‡e cÖPwjZ| 13. Awdm cwiPvjbv: `ÿfv‡e Awdm cwiPvjbv mK‡ji GKvšÍ Kvg¨| mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv Awdm cwiPvjbvq Ávb AR©b Kiv| `ÿZvi mv‡_ Awdm cwiPvjbv Kiv mevi GKvšÍ B”Qv| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi A‡bK D‡Ïk¨ Av‡Q hv eZ©gv‡bi Awdm-Av`vj‡Z e¨vcKfv‡e cÖPwjZ| mvwPweK we`¨v cÖwZôv‡bi mvwe©K Kv‡R MwZkxjZv Avbvi gva¨‡g mybvg e„w× K‡i| ZvB mvwPweK we`¨vi wkÿv e¨e¯
v w`b w`b †e‡oB P‡j‡Q|


mvwPweK we`¨v cwiwPwZ

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1.5 mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi ¸iæZ¡ (Importance to Learn Secretarial Science) eZ©gvb hyM weÁv‡bi hyM| AvaywbK cÖwZ‡hvwMZvg~jK we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨v GKwU ev¯Íe cÖ‡qvRbxq Ges e¨envwiK welq wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡”Q| cÖwZwU Awdm cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z mwPe wb‡qvM Ki‡Z nq| Awdm e¨e¯
vcbvq AwfÁ mwP‡ei h‡_ó Pvwn`v i‡q‡Q| mvwPweK we`¨vi Ávb jvf K‡i GKRb mwPe Zvi Awd‡mi Kvh©vewj my›`i Ges weÁvbm¤§Zfv‡e cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z mg_© nq| ev¯Íe Rxe‡bi wewfbœ †ÿ‡Î mvwPweK we`¨vi ¸iæZ¡ I f~wgKv KZUzKz Zv wb‡P Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. †eKvi mgm¨vi mgvavb: Avgv‡`i †`‡ki wecyj GKwU wkwÿZ Rbkw³ †eKvi‡Z¡i Awfkv‡c Awfkß| G wkwÿZ †eKvi Rbkw³ mvwPweK we`¨v Aa¨qb K‡i wewfbœ cÖwZôv‡b Zv‡`i PvKzwii my‡hvM m„wó K‡i wb‡Z cv‡i| 2. `ÿ e¨e¯’vcbv: mvwPweK we`¨vi eûgyLx e¨envwiK wkÿv Awdm Kg©KZ©v I Kg©x‡K `ÿ I AwfÁ K‡i †Zv‡j| `ÿZv I AwfÁZvi mgš^‡q KvR Pj‡Z _vK‡j Awdm e¨e¯
vcbvq `ÿZv Av‡m| 3. e¨q n«vm: mvwPweK we`¨vi eûgyLx KvwiMwi Ávb AR©‡bi gva¨‡g ¯^í msL¨K †jvK AwaK msL¨K †jv‡Ki KvR Ki‡Z mÿg nq| AwaK msL¨K †jv‡Ki ¯
‡j ¯^í msL¨K †jvK wb‡qvM Ki‡j †eZb Kg w`‡Z nq, Awd‡mi ¯
vb I AvmevecÎ Kg jv‡M| ZvB Awd‡mi mvwe©K e¨e¯
vcbvi e¨q n«vm cvq| 4. DbœZ †hvMv‡hvM: e¨e¯
vcbvi †ÿ‡Î †hvMv‡hvM GKwU †g․wjK cÖwµqv| mvwPweK we`¨vi eûgyLx e¨envwiK Ávb AR©‡bi gva¨‡g ¯^í Li‡Pi Øviv Aí mg‡qi g‡a¨ c„w_exi †h‡Kv‡bv ¯
v‡bi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM ¯
vcb Kiv hvq| DbœZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ AZ¨vaywbK h‡š¿i e¨envi Acwinvh©| mvwPweK we`¨vi KvwiMwi Ávb AR©‡bi gva¨‡g Hme AZ¨vaywbK h‡š¿i mwVK e¨envi Kiv hvq| 5. gvbe m¤ú‡`i Kvg¨ e¨envi: mvwPweK we`¨vi eûgyLx KvwiMwi wkÿvi gva¨‡g A`ÿ kªwgK‡`i `ÿ K‡i M‡o †Zvjv nq| ZvB gvbe m¤ú‡`i cwic~Y© I Kvg¨ e¨envi wbwðZ Kivi Rb¨ mvwPweK we`¨vi ¸iæZ¡ Acwimxg| 6. †MvcbxqZv iÿv: mwPe‡K Awd‡mi wewfbœ welqvw` A‡bK mgq †Mvcb ivL‡Z nq| mvwPweK we`¨vi Ggb wKQy †K․kj Av‡Q hv e¨envi K‡i cÖwZôv‡bi KvRK‡g© †MvcbxqZv iÿv Kiv hvq| 7. AvaywbK cÖhyw³i e¨envi: AvaywbK cÖhyw³ e¨env‡i mvwPweK we`¨vi Rywo †bB| cÖwZôv‡b Kxfv‡e bZzb bZzb cÖhyw³ I †K․kj e¨envi Kiv hvq Zv mvwPweK we`¨v cvV †_‡K Rvbv hvq| 8. bw_cÎ msiÿY: mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi gva¨‡g bw_cÎ msiÿY welqK Ávb AR©b Kiv hvq| cÖvq cÖwZwU Awd‡m bw_KiY I m~wPKiY Kvh© m¤úbœ Ki‡Z nq| mvwPweK we`¨v wel‡q cvV¨m~wPwfwËK bw_KiY I m~wPKiY welq _vKvq wkÿv_©x‡`i‡K G wel‡q Ávb †`qv mnR nq| 9. mvsevw`KZvq: mvwPweK we`¨vi ¸iæZ¡cyY© Ask kU©n¨vÛ e¨envi K‡i †Kv‡bviƒc hvwš¿K mvnvh¨ e¨wZ‡i‡K AwZ mn‡RB msev` msMÖn Ki‡Z mÿg nb| 10. †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbv: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi GKRb ¸iæZ¡c~Y© e¨w³Z¡| †Kv¤úvwbi mwPe mvwPweK we`¨vi Áv‡b `ÿ n‡j †Kv¤úvwbi `vßwiK Kvh©vewj mn‡RB cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z cv‡i|


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11. cÖkvmwbK mnvqZv: mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi gva¨‡g GKRb mwPe Zvi wb‡qvMKZ©v‡K cÖkvmwbK wewfbœ Kv‡R mnvqZv Ki‡Z cv‡i| mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi gva¨‡g cÖkvmwbK KvR m¤ú‡K© `ÿZv AR©b K‡i cÖkvmb‡K mnvqZv K‡i| 12. Kw¤úDUvi cwiPvjbv: `ÿfv‡e Awdm cwiPvjbvi Ab¨Zg evnb Kw¤úDUvi cwiPvjbvq `ÿZv AR©b| hv mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi gva¨‡g AR©b Kiv m¤¢e nq| 13. Awdm cwiPvjbv: `ÿfv‡e Awdm cwiPvjbv mK‡ji GKvšÍ Kvg¨| mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv Awdm cwiPvjbvq Ávb AR©b Kiv| `ÿZvi mv‡_ Awdm cwiPvjbv Kiv mevi GKvšÍ B”Qv| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi MyiæZ¡ Acwimxg| mvwPweK we`¨v cÖwZôv‡bi mvwe©K Kv‡R MwZkxjZv Avbvi gva¨‡g mybvg e„w× K‡i|

1.6 mvwPweK we`¨vi `k©b (Concept of Secretarial Science) mvwPweK we`¨v Ggb GK ai‡bi we‡klvwqZ welq hvi Ávb AR©b K‡i mwPeMY cÖwZôv‡bi hveZxq Kvh©vewj weÁvbm¤§Zfv‡e m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cv‡i| Aci w`‡K mwPe Ggb GKRb e¨w³ whwb †Kv‡bv Awdm ev cÖwZôv‡bi `vßwiK I mvwPweK Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b I wbqš¿Y K‡ib| eZ©gvb hy‡M cÖwZôv‡bi AvKvi-AvqZb I Kvh©vewj e„w× cvIqvi Kvi‡Y wbe©vnxiv GKKfv‡e Kvh© m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cv‡ib bv, hvi †cÖÿvc‡U me© cÖKvi e¨emvwqK, mvgvwRK, ivR‣bwZK, ivóxq GgbwK AvšÍR©vwZK ms¯
vmg~‡n mwPe‡`i e¨vcK Dcw¯
wZ jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| mwPe e¨ZxZ eZ©gv‡b †Kv‡bv cÖwZôvb cwiPvjbv Kiv AKíbxq e¨vcvi| ZvQvov Av‡iv GKwU welq A¯^xKvi Kivi Dcvq bvB †h-cÖ‡Z¨K wkÿv_©x‡KB GKv‡WwgK Rxeb †kl K‡i †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ RwoZ n‡Z nq| †h †ckv‡ZB †m †hvM`vb KiæK Zv‡K wKQz `vßwiK I mvwPweK KvR Ki‡Z nq| ZvB ejv hvq, Kvh©‡ÿ‡Î cÖwZwU e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi Kv‡Ri GKwU Ask mvwPweK we`¨vi mv‡_ RwoZ| myZivs GKwU ¯^Zš¿ welq wn‡m‡e mvwPweK we`¨vi `k©b n‡jv cÖwZwU Kv‡Ri mvwPweK Ask‡K evQvBKiY, msMwVZKiY, mvwPweK Kv‡R wb‡qvwRZ mwPe‡`i Kv‡Ri ¸YMZgvb I `ÿZv e„w× K‡i `vßwiK Kv‡Ri MwZkxjZv AR©‡bi †Póv Kiv| mvwPweK we`¨vi `k©b wb‡gœv³fv‡e Dc¯
vcb Kiv hvq: 1. mvwPweK KvR evQvB I msMwVZKiY: GKwU Awdm ev cÖwZôv‡b AmsL Kvhv©ewj m¤úvw`Z nq| Gi g‡a¨ †hme KvR †Uwe‡j e‡m KvMR-Kj‡gi gva¨‡g m¤úv`b Kiv nq Zvi meB mvwPweK Kvh©vewj| mvwPweK we`¨v Awd‡mi Ab¨vb¨ KvR †_‡K Gme KvR‡K evQvB K‡i GK‡Î msMwVZ Ki‡Z Pvq| 2. e¨e¯’vcKxq KvR wPwýZKiY: miKvwi Ges we‡kl wKQz †ÿÎ Qvov mwPe ga¨ ev gvV chv©‡qi GKRb Kg©KZv©| wZwb kxl© e¨e¯
vcbv KZ©„K Avw`ó n‡q Kgx©i Øviv KvR Kwi‡q †bb| ZvB mwPe Zvi mvwPexq Ávb Øviv cÖwZôv‡bi e¨e¯
vcKxq KvR wPwýZ K‡ib Ges wb‡R‡K †mfv‡e cÖ¯‧Z K‡ib| 3. mwPe‡`i `ÿZv e„w×KiY: mwPexq Kv‡Ri mv‡_ RwoZ mwPe‡`i †ckMZ `ÿZv e„w×Ki‡Y cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvhv©ewj I w`K wb‡`©kbv cÖ`v‡bi h‡_vchy³ e¨e¯
v Kiv|


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4. cÖkvmwbK Kv‡R MwZkxjZv e„w×: mvwPweK KvR cÖkvmwbK Kv‡Ri GKwU Awe‡”Q`¨ Ask| mvwPexq KvR Qvov cÖkvmb cwiPvjbv Kiv m¤¢e bq| ZvB †h cÖwZôv‡bi mvwPexq Kvhv©ewj hZ `ÿ nq †m cÖwZôv‡bi cÖkvmbI ZZ MwZkxj nq| 5. cÖvwZôvwbK †ckv: mvwPweK KvR `vßwiK Kv‡Ri GKwU Awe‡”Q`¨ Ask ZvB `vßwiK Kv‡Ri ¯^v‡_©B mvwPweK we`¨v‡K cÖvwZôvwbK †ckv wn‡m‡e cÖwZwôZ Kiv Riæwi| myZivs D‡jøwLZ welq †_‡K ejv hvq, mvwPweK we`¨v GKwU ¯^Zš¿ †ckv Ges Gi g~j `k©b n‡jv mvwPweK Kv‡Ri we‡klvqb Kiv I Ab¨vb¨ KvR †_‡K G‡K Avjv`v K‡i cÖwZôv‡bi mvwe©K MwZkxjZv e„w×i e¨e¯
v Kiv|

1.7 mvwPweK we`¨vi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z Kg©‡ÿÎmg~n (Direct Relation of Working Resource with Secretarial Science) evsjv‡`‡ki kZKiv 65% †jvK Aÿi Áv‡b wkwÿZ, evwKiv wbiÿi| G 65% †jv‡Ki g‡a¨ Avevi kZKiv 3035% wkÿv_x© `wi`ªZvi Kvi‡Y ¯‥z‡ji MwÐ AwZµg K‡i K‡j‡R †h‡Z cv‡i bv| Avevi hviv Kó K‡i K‡j‡R ev evwYwR¨K gnvwe`¨vj‡q fwZ© nq Zvi g‡a¨ kZKiv 70 †_‡K 75% wkÿv_x© GBPGmwm I wW‡cøvgv-Bb Kgvm© wWwMÖ AR©b K‡i Kg© Rxe‡b cÖ‡ek K‡i| Gme wkÿv_x© g~jZ †hme †ÿ‡Î PvKzwi jv‡f mvg_© nq Zv wbgœiƒc: 1. Awdm mnKvwi (Office assistance): Awd‡mi •`bw›`b Kvh© cwiPvjbv, wPwVcÎ †jLv I wewj eÈb Kiv dvBj cÎ cÖ¯‧Z I msiÿY Kiv, wnmve msiÿY BZ¨vw` Kvh©vewj Awdm e¨e¯
vcbv Aa¨q‡bi gva¨‡g AwZ mn‡R m¤úv`b Kiv hvq| 2. gy`vª ÿwiK (Typist): miKvwi, †emiKvwi, Gb.wR.Imn mKj ai‡bi Awd‡m gy`vª ÿwiK c` i‡q‡Q| mvwPweK we`¨vi Ávb AR©‡bi gva¨‡g UvBcwjLb G cvi`kx© n‡q AwZ mn‡R gy`vª ÿwiK wn‡m‡e PvKzwi cvIqv hvq| 3. Kw¤úDUvi Acv‡iUi (Computer operator): AvRKvj cÖvq mKj Awd‡mB Kw¤úDUv‡ii e¨envi jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| Awd‡mi Kv‡R e¨eüZ mKj ai‡bi wPwVcÎ, wewfbœ ai‡bi †bvwUm, weÁvcb WKz‡g›Umg~n Kw¤úDUv‡ii gva¨‡g m¤úv`b Kiv nq| ZvB mvwPweK we`¨vi Ávb AR©‡bi gva¨‡g †h †KD AwZ mn‡R Kw¤úDUvi Acv‡iUi wn‡m‡e PvKzwi wb‡q wb‡Ri Kg©ms¯
v‡bi e¨e¯
v Ki‡Z cv‡i| 4. muvUgy`vª ÿwiK (Steno-typest): gy`vª ÿwi‡Ki PvB‡Z GK ¯Íi Dc‡ii Kg©vPvwi‡K muvUgy`vª ÿwiK e‡j| muvUgy`vª ÿwi‡Ki KvR n‡jv wb‡qvMKZ©vi wbKU †_‡K Dictation (kÖæZwjwc) wb‡q Zv UvBc ev Kw¤úDUv‡ii gva¨‡g wj‡L wb‡qvMKZ©vi †hvMv‡hvM msµvšÍ Kv‡R mn‡hvwMZv Kiv| 5. muvUwjwcKvi (Stenographer): gy`vª ÿwi‡Ki †P‡q c` gh©v`vq GK¯Íi Dc‡ii Kg©Pvwi‡K muvUgy`ÿ ª wiK e‡j| muvUwjwcKvi AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© GKRb e¨w³| whwb wb‡qvMKZ©vi mKj Awdwmqvj Kv‡Ri mvnvh¨Kvix Ges †Mvcbxq I ¯úk©KvZi wel‡qi iÿK wn‡m‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i _v‡K| muvUwjwc, UvBcwjLb I Kw¤úDUvi cwiPvjbvq `ÿ e¨w³ G Kv‡Ri Rb¨ Dchy³|


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mvwPweK we`¨v

6. e¨w³MZ Kg©KZv© (Personal officer-P.O): evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii gš¿Yvj‡qi Af¨šÍ‡i Kg©iZ muvUwjwcKviK‡`i‡K e¨w³MZ Kg©KZv© e‡j| c` gh©v`vq Giv 1g †kÖwYi Kg©KZ©vi mgvb| wmwbqi mnKvwi mwPe †_‡K hyM¥-mwPe c` gh©v`vi e¨w³M‡Yi mnKvwi wn‡m‡e e¨w³MZ Kg©KZ©v KvR K‡i _v‡Kb| miKvwi mwPe †_‡K hyM¥-mwPe c` gh©v`vi e¨w³M‡Yi mnKvwi wn‡m‡e e¨w³MZ Kg©KZ©v KvR K‡i _v‡Kb| miKvwi evwYwR¨K gnvwe`¨vjq ev bUªvgm †_‡K `yeQi †gqvw` wW‡cøvgv-Bb Kgvm© wWwMÖ AR©b K‡i G c‡` PvKzwi cvIqv hvq| e¨w³MZ Kg©KZ©vi c`wU AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| 7. GKvšÍ mwPe (Private secretary): wewfbœ †Kv¤úvwb, †emiKvwi Awdm ev mgv‡Ri wewkó e¨w³‡`i Kv‡R mn‡hvwMZv Kivi Rb¨ †h e¨w³ wb‡qvwRZ _v‡K Zv‡K GKvšÍ mwPe e‡j| mvwPweK we`¨vi Ávb _vK‡j AMÖvwaKvi wfwˇZ G KvR cvIqv hvq| 8. †Kv¤úvwb mwPe (Company secretary): GQvov H.S.C ev wW‡cøvgv wWwMÖ AR©‡bi ci Kg©Rxe‡b cÖ‡ek bv K‡i D”P wkÿv AR©b K‡i (wW‡cøvgv-Bb PvUvW© †mK‡iUvwiR) †Kv¤úvwb mwPe wn‡m‡e AMªvwaKvi wfwˇZ wb‡qvM †c‡Z cv‡i| D‡jøL¨ †h, Av‡gwiKv, Rvcvb I Bsj¨vÛmn DbœZ we‡k¦ G c‡` `ÿ †jv‡Ki h‡_ó Pvwn`v i‡q‡Q| 9. wkÿKZv (Teaching profession): H.S.C (mvwPweK we`¨v wb‡q) Ges Diploma cvm K‡i wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K e¨e¯
vcbv wel‡q (†ÿÎ we‡k‡l wnmve weÁvb, wdb¨vÝ I gv‡K©wUs welq) Abvm© I gv÷vm© wWwMÖ AR©b K‡i K‡j‡R mvwPweK we`¨v I Awdm e¨e¯
vcbv wel‡qi wkÿK wn‡m‡e wb‡qvM jvf Kiv hvq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, mvwPweK we`¨v wel‡qi Ávb AR©‡bi gva¨‡g cÖZ¨ÿfv‡e D‡jøwLZ †ÿ‡Îmg~‡n PvKzwi jvf Kiv m¤¢eci nq| ZvB ejv hvq mvwPweK we`¨v GKwU AvaywbK welq hvi Ávb Øviv AwZ mnR I `ÿZvi mv‡_ Awdm cwiPvjbv Kiv hvq|

1.8 evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM (Write Down the Application of Secretarial Science in Bangladesh) eZ©gvbKv‡j e¨emvq-evwYR¨ Z_v wewfbœ cÖwZôv‡b mvwPweK we`¨vi e¨envi e¨vcKfv‡e e„w× †c‡q‡Q| mnR Ges ¯^íZg mg‡q e¨vcK †hvMv‡hvM, weÁwß, †bvwUk, Kvh©weeiYx, cÖwZ‡e`b cÖf„wZ mswÿß A_P m¤ú~Y© I my›`ifv‡e cÖ¯‧Z I cÖKvk ev mieiv‡ni hveZxq wbqgvewj mvwPweK we`¨vi gva¨‡g AR©b Kiv hvq| wb‡gœ evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: K. cvV¨m~wP‡Z cÖ‡qvM 1. miKvwi Bbw÷wUDU: miKvwi Kgvwk©qvj Bbw÷wUD‡Ui cvV¨m~wP‡Z 1967 mvj †_‡K mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 2. †emiKvwi Kgvwk©qvj Bbw÷wUDU: †emiKvwi Kgvwk©qvj Bbw÷wUD‡Ui wW‡cøvgv-Bb-Kgv‡m©i cvV¨m~wP‡Z G wel‡qi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 3. D”P gva¨wgK †kªwY: D”P gva¨wgK †kªwYi cvV¨m~wP‡Z G wel‡qi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q|


mvwPweK we`¨v cwiwPwZ

13

4. GBP.Gm.wm e¨emvq e¨e¯’vcbv: GBP.Gm.wm e¨emvq e¨e¯
vcbvi cvV¨m~wP‡Z G wel‡qi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 5. wek¦we`¨vj‡qi cvV¨m~wP: wek¦we`¨vj‡qi we.we.Gm cvm/m¤§v‡bi cvV¨m~wP‡Z †m‡µUvwi‡qj †cÖKwUm bv‡g G wel‡qi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 6. Abvm© †Kvm©: GW‡fbwU÷ cÖvB‡fU wek¦we`¨vj‡qi mvwPweK we`¨vi Ask Awdm e¨e¯
vcbvq Abvm©-gv÷vm© †Kvm© i‡q‡Q| L. cÖwkÿY †Kv‡m© cÖ‡qvM 1. hye Dbœqb Awa`ßi: hye Dbœqb Awa`߇ii cÖwkÿY †Kv‡m© mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 2. gwnjv welqK Awa`ßi: gwnjv welqK Awa`߇ii cÖwkÿY †Kv‡m© mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 3. IqvB.Gg.wm.G Ges IqvB.WweøD.wm.G: IqvB.Gg.wm.G Ges IqvB.WweøD.wm.G †Z cÖwkÿY †Kv‡m© G wel‡qi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 4. †jvK cÖkvmb cÖwkÿY †K›`ª: †jvK cÖkvmb cÖwkÿY †K‡›`ªi cÖwkÿY †Kv‡m© G wel‡qi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 5. evsjv‡`k Bbw÷wUDU g¨v‡bRg¨v›U: evsjv‡`k Bbw÷wUDU g¨v‡bRg¨v›U-Gi cÖwkÿY †Kv‡m© G wel‡qi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 6. Bbw÷wUDU Ae PvU©vW© †m‡µUvwiR: Bbw÷wUDU Ae PvU©vW© †m‡µUvwiR, XvKvq G wel‡qi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 7. †fv‡Kkbvj †Uªwbs Bbw÷wUDU: †fv‡Kkbvj †Uªwbs Bbw÷wUD‡U G wel‡qi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 8. miKvi Aby‡gvw`Z cÖwkÿY †K›`ª: miKvi Aby‡gvw`Z wewfbœ cÖwkÿY †K‡›`ª mvwPweK we`¨vi Dci †Kvm© Kiv‡bv nq| 9. RvZxq wkÿv e¨e¯’vcbv GKv‡Wwg (bv‡qg): RvZxq wkÿv e¨e¯
vcbv GKv‡Wwg (bv‡qg)-Gi cÖwkÿY †Kv‡m© mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| M. Awd‡m cÖ‡qvM: 1. miKvwi Awdm: miKvwi Awd‡m wewfbœ cÖKv‡ii mwPeMY Awdm cwiPvjbvq mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM K‡i _v‡Kb| 2. †emiKvwi Awdm: †emiKvwi Awd‡mi †m‡µUvwi Awdm cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ mvwPweK we`¨v cÖ‡qvM K‡i _v‡K| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨vi wkÿv I cÖwkÿY e„w×i mv‡_ mv‡_ Gi cÖ‡qvMI evo‡Q| Z‡e mvwPweK we`¨v GLbI †ckv wn‡m‡e iƒcvšÍwiZ nqwb| fwel¨‡Z evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨v nq‡Zv †ckv wn‡m‡e iƒcvšÍwiZ n‡j GwUi cÖ‡qvMI A‡bK †e‡o hv‡e|

1.9 †ckv wn‡m‡e mvwPweK we`¨v (Secretarial Science as a Profession) †ckv (Profession): †Kv‡bv e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb kvixwiK ev gvbwmK kÖg Øviv Kvh© m¤úv`b K‡i RxweKv wbe©vn Ki‡j Zv‡K †ckv e‡j| †hgb-Wv³vi, cÖ‡K․kjx, DwKj, K…lK, Kvgvi-Kzgvi e¨emvqx, K…wlwe`, †L‡jvqvo BZ¨vw`| A_©vr, gvbyl hv K‡i Zvi †g․wjK Pvwn`v c~iY K‡i ZvB n‡”Q †m gvby‡li †ckv| †ckv wn‡m‡e †Kv‡bv wKQz‡K MÖnY Ki‡j Aek¨B †m †ckvi wKQz wbqg-bxwZ †g‡b Pj‡Z nq| Av`k© †ckv wn‡m‡e mwPe AvR wek¦e¨vcx mgv`„Z|


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mvwPweK we`¨v

†ckv wn‡m‡e mvwPweK we`¨vi cwiwPwZ jvf K‡i wejv‡Zi wkí wecø‡ei mgq †_‡K (1750-1850)| Aek¨ Gi Av‡MI cÖvPxb †ivg Ges e¨vewjqb mf¨Zvq ivóxªq ¯úk© KvZi I †Mvcbxq KvR Kivi Rb¨ †jvK wb‡qvwRZ _vKZ hv‡`i‡K Scribe” ¯…vBev ejv n‡Zv| Z‡e e¨vcK cÖPjb ïiæ nq h‡š¿i gva¨‡g Drcv`b ïiæ n‡j ev gvwjKvbv †_‡K e¨e¯
vcbv Avjv`v n‡j| gvwjKcÿ Zv‡`i ¯^v_©iÿvi Rb¨ †ckv`vi mwPe wb‡qvM K‡i AMÖMwZ mgybœZ †i‡L‡Q| Dbwesk kZvwã †_‡K mwP‡ei K`i GZB †e‡o‡Q †h, G †ckvq †ckv`vix wWwMÖ AR©‡bi Rb¨ c„w_exi wewfbœ †`‡k miKvwi I †emiKvwi ch©v‡q wewfbœ cÖwZôvb M‡o D‡V‡Q| †hgb- w` Bbw÷wUDU Ae PvU©vW© †m‡µUvwiR hy³ivR¨, Oregon state University of U.S.A. Bbw÷wUDU Ae cvi‡mvb¨vj g¨v‡bR‡g›U, Bbw÷wUDU Ae PvU©vW© †m‡µUvwiR evsjv‡`k, miKvwi evwYwR¨K gnvwe`¨vjq, †fv‡Kkbvj †Uªwbs †m›Uvi, bUªvgm BZ¨vw` cÖwZôv‡bi bvg we‡klfv‡e D‡jøL Kiv hvq| mvwPweK we`¨vi `ywU ¯Íi we`¨gvb| GKwU mvaviY ¯Íi Ges Ab¨wU we‡kl D”P ¯Íi| mvaviY ¯Í‡i D”P gva¨wgK ev Diploma wWwMÖ MÖnY K‡i †Kv‡bv Awdm ev cÖwZôv‡bi †hvMv‡hvM I Z_¨ cÖ¯‧ZKvix, Z‡_¨i msiÿK Ges cÖwZwôZ e¨¯Í e¨w³‡`i GKvšÍ mnKvwi wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i _v‡K| Avi we‡kl ev D”P ¯Í‡i D”P wkÿv MÖn‡Yi mv‡_ mv‡_ ICMA Ges PvU©vW© †m‡µUvwiR †_‡K mb` cÖvß n‡q ivóªxqmn †Kv¤úvwb mwPe wewfbœ ms¯
vi mwPe wn‡m‡e Dc‡`óvg~jK KvR, wbe©vnx wn‡m‡e KvR, e¨e¯
vcKxq KvR, cÖwZwbwa, mgš^q I ms‡hvMKvix BZ¨vw` `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i _v‡Kb| ivóªxq mwPe I †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K †bvwUk cÖ`vb, †kqvi mvwU©wd‡KU, `wjj `¯Ív‡eR, •`bw›`b Kvh© ZvwjKv BZ¨vw`‡Z eva¨Zvg~jK ¯^vÿi cÖ`vb Ki‡Z nq| eZ©gv‡b cÖPwjZ wewfbœ ai‡bi mwPeMY mvwPweK we`¨vi wewfbœ kvLv ev Ask †_‡K cÖvß Ávb AR©b K‡i Zv‡`i Dci Awc©Z `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i _v‡Kb| weavq eZ©gv‡b mvwPweK we`¨v GKwU Av`k© †ckv wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…wZ jvf K‡i‡Q|

1.10 DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM (Write Down the Application of Secretarial Science in Developed Countries)

DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM w`‡bi ci w`b µgvš^‡q e„w× cv‡”Q| mvwPweK we`¨v wkÿv, cÖwkÿY I M‡elYvi mv‡_ mv‡_ Gi cÖ‡qvMI e¨vcK nv‡i †e‡o Pj‡Q| KviY DbœZ we‡k¦ wewfbœ Awd‡m mwP‡ei Pvwn`v Lye †ewk| DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨vq we‡klvwqZ bv n‡j †Kv‡bv Awd‡m mwPe wn‡m‡e wbhy³ Kiv nq bv| wb‡gœ DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM eY©bv Kiv n‡jv: K. cvV¨m~wP‡Z cÖ‡qvM: 1. K‡jR ch©vq: DbœZ we‡k¦ K‡jR ch©v‡q mvwPweK we`¨v ev †m‡µUvwi‡qj mvBÝ cvV¨m~wP‡Z AšÍf©y³ i‡q‡Q| 2. wek¦we`¨vj‡q cÖ‡qvM: DbœZ we‡k¦i wek¦we`¨vj‡q mvwPweK we`¨v cvV¨m~wP‡Z i‡q‡Q| †hgb- gvwK©b hy³iv‡óªi Oregon State University-†Z Secretarial Science cvV¨m~wP‡Z AšÍfy©³ i‡q‡Q| 3. wkÿv e„wË: we‡k¦i Ab¨Zg DbœZ †`k Rvcvb miKv‡ii gbeyKvMvKz‡kv wkÿv e„wËi gva¨‡g mvwPweK we`¨v wkÿvi e¨e¯
v i‡q‡Q|


mvwPweK we`¨v cwiwPwZ

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L. cÖwkÿY †K›`ª: 1. Bbw÷wUDU: we‡k¦i DbœZ †`kmg~n †hgb-Bsj¨v‡Ûi Bbw÷wUDU Ae PvU©vW© †m‡µUvwiR-G mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 2. miKvwi cÖwkÿY †K›`ª: miKvwi cÖwkÿY †K‡›`ª Kg©ms¯
vb Ges `ÿ mwPe •Zwi Kivi Rb¨ mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 3. †emiKvwi cÖwkÿY †K›`ª: †emiKvwi mvwPweK cÖwkÿY †K‡›`ª mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| M. Awd‡m cÖ‡qv‡M: 1. miKvwi Awdm: DbœZ we‡k¦i cÖwZwU Awd‡mB mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 2. †emiKvwi Awdm: DbœZ we‡k¦i †emiKvwi Awdm ev ms¯
vq mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| N. DbœZ cÖhyw³‡Z cÖ‡qvM: Kv‡ji weeZ©‡b DbœZ †`k¸‡jv‡Z Ab¨vb¨ wel‡qi g‡Zv mvwPweK we`¨vq DbœZ cÖhyw³ mswgkªY K‡i Zv‡`i KvR A‡bK mnR K‡i wb‡q‡Q| †hgb- UvBc‡gwk‡bi cwie‡Z© ¯
vb †c‡q‡Q AZ¨vaywbK j¨vcUc Kw¤úDUvi, Wv‡K wPwV †cÖi‡Yi cwie‡Z© ¯
vb †c‡q‡Q B-†gBj, kU©n¨v‡Û wWK‡Uk‡bi Rb¨ e¨envi Ki‡Q wgwb †iKW©vi BZ¨vw`| Gfv‡e cÖwZwU mvwPweK Kv‡R DbœZ cÖhyw³‡Z mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM K‡i Zv‡`i KvR Lye mnR K‡i Zzj‡Q| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM AZ¨šÍ e¨vcK| d‡j DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨v †ckv wn‡m‡e iƒcvšÍwiZ n‡q‡Q|

1.11 DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨v wkÿv e¨e¯’v (Educationa Sysetem of Secretarial Science in Developed Countries)

Awdm cwiPvjbvq mvwPweK we`¨v GKwU ev¯Íe I weÁvbm¤§Z welq nIqvq c„w_exi wewfbœ †`‡k mvwPweK we`¨v eZ©gv‡b †ek RbwcÖqZv AR©b K‡i‡Q| we‡kl K‡i wk‡ívbœZ †`k¸‡jv‡Z mvwPweK we`¨v eû c~e© †_‡KB e¨eüZ n‡q Avm‡Q| KviY DbœZ we‡k¦i †jvK‡`i aviYv GKv‡WwgK Rxeb †kl K‡i cÖ‡Z¨K wkÿv_x©‡K †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bvfv‡e †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ RwoZ n‡Z nq| ZvB H mKj †`‡ki ¯‥zj, K‡jR Ges wek¦we`¨vjq¸‡jv‡Z mvwPweK we`¨v cvV¨m~wPi AšÍf©y³ Kiv n‡q‡Q| mvwPweK we`¨vi DˇivËi DbœwZi Rb¨ wewfbœ cÖwZôv‡b Gi Dci M‡elYv Kiv nq| wek¦we`¨vjq¸‡jv‡Z Avjv`v welq †Lvjvi gva¨‡g we‡klvwqZ Ávb `vb Kiv nq| mvwe©Kfv‡e DbœZ we‡k¦i wkÿv e¨e¯
vi †hme †ÿ‡Î welqwU Aa¨q‡bi my‡hvM i‡q‡Q Zv wbgœiƒc: 1. mvwe©K wkÿvq : DbœZ we‡k¦ mevi Rb¨ mvaviY wkÿv eva¨Zvg~jK| ZvQvov DbœZ we‡k¦ †jvK‡`i aviYv, cÖ‡Z¨K wkÿv_x©‡KB GKv‡WwgK Rxeb †kl K‡i †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ RwoZ n‡Z nq| ZvB me©¯Í‡i mvaviY wkÿv e¨e¯
vq Aí we¯Íi mvwPweK we`¨v wkLv‡bv nq| 2. D”P wkÿvq : DbœZ we‡k¦ mwP‡ei h‡_ó Pvwn`v _vKvq †mme †`‡k mvwPweK we`¨vi Dci D”P wkÿvi e¨e¯
v ivLv n‡q‡Q| wewfbœ cÖwZôvb †_‡K mvwPweK we`¨vi we‡klvwqZ wWwMÖ jvf K‡i mwPeMY `ÿZvi mv‡_ Awdm Kvh© cwiPvjbv K‡i _v‡Kb| †hgb - Av‡gwiKvi Origon State University- †Z Secretarial Science Gi Rb¨ Avjv`v wefvM i‡q‡Q|


16

mvwPweK we`¨v

3. e¨emvq cÖkvmb wkÿv : Modern world is a world of business G `k©‡bi Dci wfwË K‡i DbœZ wek¦ e¨emvq cÖkvmb (Business Administration) wkÿvi Dci h‡_ó ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc K‡i‡Q| DbœZ we‡k¦i mKj †`‡kB ZvB M‡o D‡V‡Q e¨emvq cÖkvmb cÖwZôvb| Gme cÖwZôv‡b wkÿv_x©‡`i‡K e¨emvq cÖkvm‡bi Ask wn‡m‡e mvwPweK we`¨v wkÿv †`qv nq| 4. wkÿv e¨e¯’v †kªwYKiY : DbœZ we‡k¦ eva¨Zvg~jK cÖv_wgK wkÿv AR©b Kivi ci wkÿv_x©‡`i †gav, gbbkxjZv, m„wókxjZv I †SvuK Abyhvqx wewfbœ †kªwYi we‡klvwqZ wkÿvi w`‡K wb‡q hvIqv nq| d‡j wkÿv_x©‡`i GKwU Ask mvwPweK Ges KvwiMwi wkÿvq P‡j Av‡m| hv‡`i‡K we‡klfv‡e mvwPweK I KvwiMwi Áv‡b `ÿ K‡i †Zvjv nq| 5. M‡elYv : DbœZ we‡k¦ wewfbœ cÖwZôvb ev wek¦we`¨vj‡q mvwPweK we`¨vi Dci D”PZi M‡elYvi my‡hvM i‡q‡Q| 6. cÖwkÿY †K›`ª : DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨vi Dci cÖwkÿY cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ wewfbœ cÖKv‡ii cÖwkÿY †K›`ª i‡q‡Q †hLv‡b mvwPweK we`¨vi Dci wW‡cøvgv wWwMÖ †`qv nq| wewfbœ cÖwZôv‡b Kg©iZ A‡bK Kg©KZ©v G mKj cÖwZôvb †_‡K mvwPweK we`¨vi Dci wW‡cøvgv mvwU©wd‡KU wb‡q _v‡Kb| 7. gbeyKvMvKz‡kv ¯‹jvikxc : Rvcvb miKvi gbeyKvMvKz‡kv ¯‥jvikxc cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g evsjv‡`kmn we‡k¦i wewfbœ †`‡ki wkÿv_©x‡`i‡K mvwPweK we`¨vi Dci D”PZi wWwMÖ cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K| 8. w` Bbw÷wUDU Ae PvU©vW© †m‡µUvwiR hy³ivR¨ : hy³iv‡R¨ `ÿ mwPe M‡o †Zvjvi Rb¨ w` Bbw÷wUDU Ae PvU©vW© †m‡µUvwiR hy³ivR¨ bv‡g GKwU cÖwZôvb M‡o †Zvjv n‡q‡Q| †m †`‡k †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb‡Z mwPe wn‡m‡e wb‡qvM †c‡Z n‡j Zv‡K Aek¨B G cÖwZôvb †_‡K wWwMÖ AR©b Ki‡Z n‡e| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨v wkÿv e¨e¯
v †ek we¯Í…Z| ZvB mvwPweK we`¨v †mLv‡b †ckv wn‡m‡e iƒcvšÍwiZ n‡q‡Q|

1.12 evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨v wkÿv e¨e¯’v (The Educational Method of Secretarial Science in Bangladesh) Kg©gyLx welq wn‡m‡e mvwPweK we`¨v GKwU AwZ cÖ‡qvRbxq welq| Awd‡mi Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvq G welqwU LyeB mvnvh¨Kvix| d‡j evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨vi wkÿv e¨e¯
v w`‡bi ci w`b we¯Ívi jvf Ki‡Q| wb‡gœ evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨vi wkÿv e¨e¯
v Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. miKvwi Kgvwk©qvj Bbw÷wUDU: 1967 mvj †_‡K evsjv‡`‡ki 16wU †Rjvq 16wU miKvwi Kgvwk©qvj Bbw÷wUD‡U wW‡cøvgv-Bb-Kgv‡m© mvwPweK we`¨v †Kvm©wU Pvjy n‡q eZ©gvb mgq ch©šÍ cÖPwjZ i‡q‡Q| 2. †emiKvwi Kgvwk©qvj Bbw÷wUDU: †emiKvwi Kgvwk©qvj Bbw÷wUD‡Ui wW‡cøvgv-Bb-Kgv‡m©i cvV¨m~wP‡Z G wel‡qi cÖ‡qvM i‡q‡Q| 3. †fv‡Kkbvj Bbw÷wUDU: †`‡ki cÖvq Aa© kZvwaK †fv‡Kkbvj Bbw÷wUD‡U wewfbœ †gqv‡` KvwiMwi I mvwPweK wel‡q cÖwkÿY †`qv n‡q _v‡K|


mvwPweK we`¨v cwiwPwZ

17

4. mœvZK I m¤§vb †Kvm©: evsjv‡`‡ki D”PZi wkÿv we‡kl K‡i mœvZK I m¤§vb †kªwY‡Z mvwPweK we`¨v cwic~Y©fv‡e wkÿv †`qv bv n‡jI wewfbœ †gqvw` †Kv‡m© LwÐZ AvKv‡i wkÿv †`qvi e¨e¯
v Av‡Q| 5. Bbw÷wUDU Ae PvU©vW© †m‡µUvwiR: mvwPweK we`¨vi we‡klvwqZ mwPe cvIqvi Rb¨ cÖwZwôZ n‡q‡Q Bbw÷wUDU Ae PvU©vW© †m‡µUvwiR| D”PZi wkÿv AR©b Kivi ci G cÖwZôvb †_‡K cÖwkÿY MÖnY Ki‡j wewfbœ †Kv¤úvwb Ges eo eo cÖwZôv‡b mwPe c‡` PvKzwi cvIqv hvq| 6. D”P gva¨wgK †kªwY: mgMÖ evsjv‡`‡ki D”P gva¨wgK ch©v‡qi wewfbœ K‡j‡R 1995 mv‡j G Kvh©µg nv‡Z wb‡q 1998 mvj †_‡K mvwPweK we`¨v wkÿv e¨e¯
v Pvjy nq| G welqwU QvÎ-QvÎx‡`i cÖej Pvwn`v wb‡q eZ©gv‡bI K‡jR ch©v‡q cÖPwjZ i‡q‡Q| 7. e¨emvq e¨e¯’vcbv: evsjv‡`k KvwiMwi †ev‡W©i Aax‡b GBP.Gm.wm e¨emvq e¨e¯
vcbv 1995 mvj †_‡K †m‡µUvwiqvj mvBÝ ev mvwPweK we`¨vi wkÿv e¨e¯
v i‡q‡Q| 8. miKvwi cÖwkÿY †K›`ª: miKvwi wewfbœ cÖwkÿY †K‡›`ª mvwPweK we`¨vi wkÿv e¨e¯
v i‡q‡Q| G mKj Dbœqb †K‡›`ª cÖwkÿY wb‡q wkwÿZ †eKv‡ii Kg©ms¯
v‡bi my‡hvM n‡q _v‡K| gwnjv welqK Awa`ßi, hye Dbœqb Awa`߇i G ai‡bi cÖwkÿY e¨e¯
v Pvjy i‡q‡Q| 9. †emiKvwi cÖwkÿY †K›`ª: miKvwi Aby‡gv`b wb‡q cÖwZwôZ †emiKvwi A‡bK cÖwkÿY †K‡›`ª mvwPweK we`¨vi wkÿv e¨e¯
v i‡q‡Q| G mKj cÖwkÿY †K‡›`ª 3 gvm, 6 gvm, 1 ermi †gqvw` mvwPweK we`¨vi †Kvm© Pvjy i‡q‡Q| 10. RvZxq wkÿv e¨e¯’vcbv GKv‡Wwg (bv‡qg): evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨vi wkÿK‡`i cÖwkÿ‡Yi Rb¨ RvZxq wkÿv e¨e¯
vcbv GKv‡Wwg (bv‡qg)-G cÖwkÿ‡Yi e¨e¯
v i‡q‡Q| bv‡q‡gi G cÖwkÿY e¨e¯
vi d‡j wkÿKMY Zuv‡`i `ÿZv I †hvM¨Zv e„wׇZ mnvqK n‡e| m‡e©vcwi ejv hvq, myôz I my›`ifv‡e Awdm cwiPvjbvq mnvqZvi Kvi‡Y mvwPweK we`¨v wkÿv GKvšÍ Avek¨K| G R‡b¨ evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨vi wkÿv e¨e¯
v w`‡bi ci w`b †e‡o Pj‡Q|

1.13 mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi KviYmg~n (The Reason to Learn Secretarial Science) AvaywbK •eÁvwbK hy‡M wkÿvwfwËK c×wZ me©Î cÖ‡qv‡Mi d‡j mKj Ae¯
vi ch©vq‡K K‡i‡Q DbœZ I ev¯Íem¤§Z| K…wl, wkí, e¨emv-evwYR¨ me ai‡bi Awdm e¨e¯
vcbvq myk„•Lj mvwPweK Kvh©µg cª‡qvM Kiv GKvšÍ cÖ‡qvRb| GRb¨ mwPe‡K mvwPweK we`¨vq cvi`k©x I AwfÁ n‡Z n‡e| mvwPweK we`¨vq AwfÁ I cvi`k©x nIqvi wbwg‡Ë mwPe‡K mvwPweK we`¨v DËgiƒ‡c cvV Ki‡Z n‡e| wb‡gœ mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi KviY D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv: 1. bvbvwea cÎ: •`bw›`b Awd‡m wewfbœcÎ wjLb, †cÖiY I MÖnY, weÁwß, †bvwUm, cÖwZ‡e`b, dvBj cÖ¯‧Z I msiÿY BZ¨vw` m¤úvw`Z nq| D³ Kvh©vewj myk„•Ljfv‡e cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ mwPe‡K mvwPweK we`¨vq h‡_ó Áv‡bi AwaKvix n‡Z nq| 2. cÖ¯‘Z I msiÿY: mwPe‡K wb‡qvMKZ©vi wPwVcÎ cÖ¯‧Z Ki‡Z nq| cθ‡jv h_vmg‡q †cÖiY Ki‡Z nq| hveZxq wel‡qi †iKW© cÖ¯‧Z I msiÿ‡Yi Rb¨ mwPe‡K ch©vß Áv‡bi AwaKvix n‡Z nq|


18

mvwPweK we`¨v

3. wewfbœ hš¿: Awdm e¨e¯
 v cbvq wewfbœ Kvh© ¯^ v fvweK MwZ‡Z cwiPvjbv Kivi Rb¨ KwZcq AZ¨vay w bK h‡š¿ i e¨envi Riæwi n‡q c‡o| UvBc ivBUvi, Kw¤úDUvi, †Uwj‡dvb, †U‡j·, d‡UvKwcqvi Wy w cø ‡ KwUs †gwkb BZ¨vw` wjLb m¤ú‡K© e¨vcK aviYv I cÖ ‡ qvRbxq Ávb GKRb mwP‡ei _vKv Avek¨K| 4. hš¿ e¨envi: Awd‡m e¨eüZ wewfbœ hš¿ e¨env‡ii †hvM¨Zv GKRb mwP‡ei _vKv cÖ‡qvRb| kU©n¨vÛ I UvBc wjLb Ges Kw¤úDUvi e¨env‡ii †hvM¨Zv _vK‡Z nq| m‡e©vcwi mvwPweK we`¨v welq cv‡Vi gva¨‡gB Awd‡m e¨eüZ wewfbœ hš¿ cwiPvjbvq †hvM¨Zv I `ÿZv Avbv m¤¢e| 5. PvKzwii ms¯’vb: mvwPweK we`¨v mgv‡Ri †eKvi †jvK¸‡jv‡K KvwiMwi wkÿv cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g PvKzwii my‡hvM m„wó K‡i| ïay PvKzwii ms¯
vbB bq A`ÿ kªwgK‡`i KvwiMwi wkÿvi gva¨‡g AviI `ÿ I Kg©V K‡i †Zv‡j| d‡j †eKvi †jv‡Kiv mgv‡Ri †evSv bv n‡q m¤ú‡` cwiYZ nq| 6. mvsevw`KZvi †ÿ‡Î: mvsevw`KZv †ckvi †ÿ‡ÎI mvwPweK we`¨vi ÁvbvR©b Kiv GKvšÍ Acwinvh©| we‡klZ mvsevw`KZvi †ÿ‡Î mvwPweK we`¨vi Awe‡”Q`¨ Ask kU©n¨vÛ Rvbv LyeB cÖ‡qvRb| kU©n¨vÛ mvsevw`K‡`i wewfbœ †ÿ‡Î `ªæZ msev` msMÖ‡n I †Mvcb ivL‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i _v‡K| 7. mfv cwiPvjbvq: cÖwZwU cÖwZôv‡bB wewfbœ cÖKvi mfvi Av‡qvRb Ki‡Z nq| mvwPweK we`¨vi gva¨‡g GKRb mwPe mfvi wbqgvewj m¤^‡Ü ÁvbvR©b K‡i myôzfv‡e mfvi hveZxq Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cv‡i| 8. `ÿ e¨e¯’vcbv: mvwPweK we`¨v m¤ú‡K© mg¨K Ávb _vK‡j GKRb e¨e¯
vcK AZ¨šÍ `ÿZvi mv‡_ e¨e¯
vcbv Kvh© cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z mÿg nq| 9. gvbe m¤ú‡`i c~Y© e¨envi: gvbe m¤ú‡`i cwic~Y© e¨env‡ii †ÿ‡Î mvwPweK we`¨vi f~wgKv Acwinvh©| GKRb Kg©x G we`¨v AvqË K‡i cÖwZôv‡bi Af¨šÍixY Ges evwn¨K Kvh©vewj ¯^í mg‡q ¯^í cwikª‡g AwaK `ÿZvi mv‡_ m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cv‡i| 10. bw_cÎ msiÿY: mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi gva¨‡g GKRb mwPe Awd‡mi hveZxq bw_cÎ, wPwVcÎ, `wjj `¯Ív‡eR, ¸iæZ¡c~Y© KvMRcÎ, m~wP BZ¨vw`i h_vh_ msiÿY Ki‡Z cv‡ib| 11. cÖkvmwbK mnvqZv: mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi gva¨‡g GKRb mwPe Zvi wb‡qvMKZ©v‡K cÖkvmwbK wewfbœ Kv‡R mnvqZv Ki‡Z cv‡i| mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi gva¨‡g cÖkvmwbK KvR m¤ú‡K© `ÿZv AR©b K‡i cÖkvmb‡K mnvqZv K‡i| 12. Kw¤úDUvi cwiPvjbv: `ÿfv‡e Awdm cwiPvjbvi Ab¨Zg evnb Kw¤úDUvi cwiPvjbvq `ÿZv AR©‡b mvwPweK we`¨v Ab¨Zg mnvqK| Kw¤úDUvi eZ©gv‡b Awdm-Av`vj‡Z e¨vcKfv‡e cÖPwjZ| 13. Awdm cwiPvjbv: `ÿfv‡e Awdm cwiPvjbv mK‡ji GKvšÍ Kvg¨| mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv Awdm cwiPvjbvq Ávb AR©b Kiv| `ÿZvi mv‡_ Awdm cwiPvjbv Kiv mevi GKvšÍ B”Qv| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi gva¨‡g wewfbœ ai‡bi msiÿ‡Yi Ávb AR©b Kiv hvq| Avevi Awd‡m e¨eüZ wewfbœ hš¿ m¤ú‡K© aviYv jvf Ges wewfbœ e¨env‡ii †hvM¨Zv AR©b Kiv m¤¢e nq|


mvwPweK we`¨v cwiwPwZ

cÖkvœ ewj 1|

mvwPweK we`¨v Kv‡K e‡j?

2|

mvwPweK we`¨vi µgweeZ©‡bi BwZnvm Av‡jvPbv Ki|

3|

mvwPweK we`¨vi AvIZv/ cwiwa Av‡jvPbv Ki|

4|

mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi D‡Ïk¨ eY©bv Ki|

5|

mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi ¸iæZ¡ eY©bv Ki|

6|

mvwPweK we`¨vi `k©b Av‡jvPbv Ki|

7|

mvwPweK we`¨vi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z Kg©‡ÿÎmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki|

8|

evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM m¤ú‡K© †jL|

9|

†ckv wn‡m‡e mvwPweK we`¨v eY©bv Ki|

10| DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨vi cÖ‡qvM m¤ú‡K© †jL| 11| DbœZ we‡k¦ mvwPweK we`¨v wkÿv e¨e¯
v m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Ki| 12| evsjv‡`‡k mvwPweK we`¨v wkÿv e¨e¯
v m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Ki| 13| mvwPweK we`¨v cv‡Vi KviYmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki|

19


wØZxq Aa¨vq

K. mwPe I mwP‡ei Kg©cÖYvwj SECRETARY AND SECRETARY’S WORK PROCEDURES

G Aa¨vq cvV †k‡l GKRb wkÿv_x© mwP‡ei m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cvi‡e| we‡kl K‡i GKRb mwP‡ei ¸Yvewj Kvh©vewj ¸iæZ¡ I `vwqZ¡ KZ©e¨ m¤ú‡K© we¯ÍvwiZ Ávb AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Gi gva¨‡g GKRb wkÿv_x© Zvi Kg©Rxe‡b mwPexq Kvh©vewji gy‡LvgywL n‡q h_vh_fv‡e Zv Kvh©m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Aa¨v‡qi G As‡k hv Av‡Q2.1

mwPe

2.2

mwP‡ei †hvM¨Zv I ¸Yvewj

2.3

mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj

2.4

AvaywbK we‡k¦ mwP‡ei ¸i‚Z¡

2.5

mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨


mvwPweK we`¨v

21

2.1 mwPe (Secretary) Bs‡iwR Secretary” k‡ãi evsjv A_© n‡jv mwPe| Secretary kãwU j¨vwUb kã Secretarius” n‡Z D™¢ ~ Z n‡q‡Q| hvi AvwfavwbK A_© wek¦ ¯ Í D‛P c`¯’ Kg© P vwi| Avevi A‡b‡Ki g‡Z, Secretary” kãwU Secret” kã n‡Z DrcwË n‡q‡Q| hvi A_© †Mvcb| GLv‡b Secretary k‡ãi DrcwËi `y w U BwZnvmB hw` Avgiv mwVK a‡i †bB Zvn‡j Secretary ev mwPe A_© `u v ovq †Kv‡bv msMVb ev ms¯’ v q †Mvcbxq KvMRcÎ cÖ Y qb I iÿYv‡eÿY Ges †Mvcbxq Kvh© v ewj cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ wb‡qvwRZ GKRb wek¦ ¯ Í Kg© P vwi| DrcwËMZ w`K †_‡K welqwU wb‡gœv³fv‡e cÖKvk Kiv hvq: Scribe

Secretarius

Secrecy

Secret

Secretary

mvaviY A‡_©, mwPe n‡jv Ggb GKRb e¨w³ whwb Ab¨ †Kv‡bv e¨w³i †Mvcbxq hveZxq Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡Kb| e¨vcK A‡_©, †h e¨w³‡K †Kv‡bv ¸iæZ¡c~Y© e¨w³Z¡, cÖwZôvb, mwgwZ/ms¯’v ev †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwbi c‡ÿ †Mvcbxq I ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wPwVcÎ iPbv I wewjKiY, mfv-mwgwZ Avnevb I cwiPvjbv, `wjjcÎ msiÿY Ges cÖkvmwbK Dc‡`óv wn‡m‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb Kivi Rb¨ wb‡qvM †`qv nq wZwbB mwPe| wb‡gœ mwP‡ei K‡qKwU RbwcÖq msÁv cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jv :  S.K. Dutta-Gi g‡Z, ÒmwPe Ggb GKRb e¨w³ whwb Ab¨ †Kv‡bv e¨w³, K¬ve, e¨emvq msMVb ev miKvwi ms¯’vi cÿ †_‡K wbhy³ n‡q hveZxq wPwVcÎ Av`vb-cÖ`vb, bw_cÎvw` msiÿY Ges Ab¨vb¨ me© cÖKvi Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡Kb|Ó  P.H. Collin-Gi g‡Z, Secretary means the keepers of secret any work.”  DBwjqvg †MÖMvi-Gi g‡Z, Ò†Kv‡bv e¨w³ hLb mvwPweK welqe¯‘ m¤ú‡K© Ávb AR©b K‡i †Kv‡bv cÖwZôvb †`Lvïbv K‡i ZLb Zv‡K mwPe e‡j|Ó  †P¤^vm© Awfav‡bi gZvbymv‡i, ÒA‡b¨i ev mwgwZ A_ev †Kv¤úvwb cÖf„wZi cÿ n‡q whwb †jLv‡jwL A_ev Ab¨vb¨ Kvh© m¤úv`b K‡ib Zv‡K mwPe e‡j|Ó  Gregg Shorthand-eB‡Z ejv n‡q‡Q, ÒThe keeper of the secrets of the boss and of the business is called secretaryÓ. DcwiD³ msÁvi †cÖwÿ‡Z mwPe m¤ú‡K© ejv hvq: K) mwPe GKRb †eZbfy³ Kg©Pvwi| L) whwb mKj †Mvcbxq I •`bw›`b Awdm Kv‡Ri Z`viKKvix| M) †ÿÎwe‡kl wZwb Dc‡`óv I wbe©vnx wn‡m‡e wb‡qvMKZ©vi mvnvh¨KvixI e‡U|


mwPe I mwP‡ei Kg©cÖYvwj

22

cwi‡k‡l ejv hvh, mwPe GKRb †eZb‡fvMx Kg©Pvwi wn‡m‡e †Kv‡bv e¨w³, cÖwZôvb, msMVb ev ms¯’vi mvwPweK, cÖkvmwbK I civgk©g~jK wewfbœ Kvh©vewj AZ¨šÍ wek¦¯ÍZv I †hvM¨Zvi mv‡_ mym¤úbœ K‡i _v‡Kb| mwPe GKRb D‛P wkwÿZ, wek¦¯Í I D‛P c`¯’ Kg©Pvwi|

2.2 mwP‡ei †hvM¨Zv I ¸Yvewj (Qualities of a Good Secretary) GKRb mwP‡ei KwZcq we‡kl ¸Yvewj _vK‡j Zvi wbR¯^ †ckvq mdjZv jvf Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges mv‡_ mv‡_ wb‡qvMKZ©v ev gvwjKI Zv‡`i jÿ¨ I D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡b mg_© nq| Awdm my›`ifv‡e cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ GKRb mwPe‡K wewfbœ cÖKvi ¸Yvewji AwaKvix n‡Z nq| wb‡gœ GKRb DËg mwP‡ei ¸Yvewj Q‡Ki gva¨‡g †`Lv‡bv n‡jv :

mwP‡ei ¸Yvewj

mvaviY ¸Yvewj

we‡kl ¸Yvewj

e¨w³MZ ¸Yvewj

1| DËg mvaviY wk¶v 2| gvZ…fvlvi Ávb 3| Bs‡iwR fvlvi Ávb 4| mvaviY Ávb

1| †ckvMZ Ávb 2| AvBb msµvš— Ávb 3| cÖkvmwbK Ávb 4| mvsMVwbK Ávb

1| AvKl©Yxq e¨w³Z¡ 2| AvZ¥wek¦vmx 3| cwikªgx 4| Zx¶è ¯§„wZkw³

K) mvaviY ¸Yvewj: GKRb mwPe‡K Aek¨B wb‡gœv³ GKv‡WwgK ¸Yvewji AwaKvix nIqv `iKvi| 1. DËg mvaviY wkÿv: †Kv‡bv e¨w³‡K mwPe n‡Z n‡j Zv‡K †`‡k cÖ P wjZ mvaviY wkÿv e¨e¯’ v q DËgfv‡e wkÿv AR© b Ki‡Z n‡e| GKRb fv‡jv mwPe‡K Aek¨B D‛P mvwU© w d‡KUavix nIqv DwPZ| 2. gvZ…fvlvi Ávb: GKRb mwPe‡K wewfbœ cÖKvi wPwVcÎ Av`vb-cÖ`vb, cÖwZ‡e`b cÖ¯‘Z GgbwK wewfbœ mfv-†mwgbv‡i Av‡jvPbv †ck Ki‡Z nq| GRb¨ mwPe‡K Zvi wbR¯^ gvZ…fvlvi Dci AMva Ávb ivL‡Z nq| 3. Bs‡iwR fvlv Ávb: GKRb mwPe‡K wPwVcÎ cÖ¯‘Z I Av`vb-cÖ`vb, wi‡cv‡U©i Lmov •Zwi I mswÿßKiY, Av‡jvP¨ m~wP I †iRy‡jkb •Zwi Ki‡Z nq| Gme `ÿZvi mv‡_ wZwbB Ki‡Z cv‡ib hvi Bs‡iwR‡Z fv‡jv `ÿZv i‡q‡Q| 4. mvaviY Ávb: GKRb mwPe‡K wewfbœ `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z nq| Awdm cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ mvaviY Ávb GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq| mwPe‡K Aek¨B ch©vß mvaviY Áv‡b mg„× _vK‡Z nq| wbqwgZ Aa¨qb I PP©vi gva¨‡g mvaviY Ávb e„w× cvq|


mvwPweK we`¨v

23

L) we‡kl ¸Yvewj: mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ m¤úv`bv‡_© wb‡gœv³ we‡kl ¸Yvewji AwaKvix n‡Z n‡e: 1. †ckvMZ Ávb: mvwPweK we`¨v evsjv‡`‡k †ckv wn‡m‡e cÖwZwôZ bv n‡jI mwPe‡`i GwU‡K †ckv wn‡m‡eB MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e Ges wbR †ckvi Dci `ÿZvi AwaKvix n‡Z n‡e| mvwPweK we`¨vi Ávb AR©b Qvov †Kv‡bv µ‡gB †ckvMZ `ÿZv AR©b Kiv m¤¢e bq| 2. AvBb msµvšÍ Ávb: mwPe‡K AvBbMZ wewfbœ wel‡q wb‡qvMKZ©v‡K civgk© w`‡Z nq| ZvB mwPe‡K cÖPwjZ mvaviY AvBb, evwYwR¨K AvBb Ges GKRb †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K Aek¨B †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b `ÿ n‡Z nq| 3. cÖkvmwbK Ávb: mwPe‡K †h‡nZz cÖkvmwbK KvRB †ewk Ki‡Z nq| ZvB GKRb mwPe‡K cÖkvm‡bi wewfbœ w`K m¤ú‡K© Ávb ivL‡Z nq| 4. mvsMVwbK Ávb: mwPe‡K Zvi Awdm h_vh_fv‡e msMVb I cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z nq| GRb¨ GKRb mwPe‡K Aek¨B Awdm msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbvi Dci we¯Íi Áv‡bi AwaKvix n‡Z nq| D`vniY¯^iƒc ejv hvq, bw_KiY, m~wPKiY, ÷vwds m¤ú‡K© mwPe‡K ¯^‛Q aviYv ivL‡Z nq| M) e¨w³MZ ¸Yvewj: GKRb mv_©K I mdj mwPe‡K Aek¨B wb‡gœv³ e¨w³MZ ¸Yvewji AwaKvix n‡Z n‡e: 1. AvKl©Yxq e¨w³Z¡: GKRb mdj mwP‡ei ¸Yvewji me‡P‡q eo Dcv`vb n‡jv Zvi AvKl©Yxq e¨w³Z¡| KviY mwPe‡K cvewjK wi‡jkb Awdmv‡ii g‡Zv memgq Rbmvavi‡Yi mv‡_ RwoZ n‡Z nq| Zvi AvKl©Yxq e¨w³‡Z¡i Kvi‡YB Ab¨iv Zvi Dci mš‘ó _v‡K| 2. AvZ¥wek¦vmx: GKRb mdj †m‡µUvwii Rb¨ AvZ¥wek¦vm GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Dcv`vb wn‡m‡e MY¨ nq| hw` mwP‡ei g‡a¨ G ¸YwU bv _v‡K Zvn‡j wZwb †h‡Kv‡bv mgm¨v Ges D™¢~Z cwiw¯’wZ k³fv‡e †gvKv‡ejv Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| 3. cwikªgx: GKRb mwPe‡K wewfbœ ai‡bi Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq e‡j mwPe‡K h‡_ó cwikªgx n‡Z nq| 4. Zxÿè ¯§„wZkw³: GKRb mwPe‡K cÖwZwbqZ wewfbœ ai‡bi Kv‡Ri mv‡_ hy³ _vK‡Z nq| ZvB Zv‡K Zxÿè ¯§„wZ kw³m¤úbœ n‡Z nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, mwP‡ei mv_©K fv‡e Kg© m¤úv`‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ wewfbœ †hvM¨Zv I ¸Yvewj _vKv Acwinvh©| Zv‡K wkÿvMZ I e¨w³MZ ¸Yvewji cvkvcvwk AvbyMZ¨ civqY, wek¦ ¯ Í , cwikªgx BZ¨vw` ¸‡YiI AwaKvix n‡Z n‡e| d‡j wZwb cÖvwZôvwbK D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡ b mdj n‡eb Ges wbR¯^ †ckvq Dbœw Z jv‡f mÿg n‡eb|

2.3 GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj (Functions of Privet Scretary) mwPe‡K •`bw›`b A‡bK ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq| mvaviYZ cÖwZôvb A_ev e¨w³i cÖK…wZ/aib Abyhvqx mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj wba©vwiZ n‡q _v‡K| cÖwZôv‡bi cÖK…wZ Abyhvqx wewfbœ ai‡bi mwP‡ei c` m„wó n‡q‡Q| mwPe‡`i wKQy mvaviY Kvh©vewj i‡q‡Q hv me ai‡bi mwP‡ei Ki‡Z nq| mwP‡ei KvR g~jZ wZbwU †gŠwjK welq‡K wb‡q m¤úvw`Z nq|


24

mwPe I mwP‡ei Kg©cÖYvwj

wb‡P mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv : K) gyL¨ Kg©KZ©v wn‡m‡e Kvh©vewj: AwaKvsk Awd‡m mwPe‡K GKRb wbe©vnx wn‡m‡e KvR Ki‡Z nq| G Ae¯’vq Zv‡K wb‡gœv³ KvR¸‡jv m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq: 1. •`bw›`b Kvh©vewj: mwPe‡K Awd‡mi •`bw›`b Kvh© m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq| Zv‡K Awd‡mi wewfbœ Kvh© myPviæfv‡e ev¯Íevq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ mnvqZv Ki‡Z nq Ges wb‡qvwRZ _vK‡Z nq| 2. Z`viwK: mwPe‡K Awd‡mi wewfbœ Kv‡Ri myôz Z`viwK Ki‡Z nq| Awdm-Kg©x‡`i KvR h_vh_fv‡e m¤úvw`Z n‡‛Q wKbv Zv Z`viwK Kiv mwP‡ei GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© KvR| L) iæwUb Kvh©vewj: mwPe‡K iæwUbwfwËK wb‡gœv³ Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq: 1. wPwVcÎ Av`vb-cÖ`vb: wPwVcÎ cÖ¯‘‡Zi KvR Ges h_v¯’v‡b †cÖi‡Yi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z nq| evB‡i †_‡K AvMZ wPwVcÎ MÖnY I MšÍ‡e¨ cvVv‡Z nq| 2. wnmve msiÿY: mwPe‡K Awd‡mi •`bw›`b Li‡Pi †iKW© msiÿY Ki‡Z nq| Zv‡K Awd‡mi gvwmK I evrmwiK Li‡Pi †gvU LiP weeiYx cÖ¯‘Z Ki‡Z nq| Gme LiP‡K AvBbvbyM KZ©„c‡ÿi Aby‡gv`b wb‡q msiÿ‡Yi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z nq| 3. Af¨_©bv: mwPe‡K cÖwZôv‡bi c‡ÿ Af¨_©bv welqK KvR m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq| Af¨_©bvi `vwq‡Z¡ wb‡qvwRZ Kg©x‡`i‡K civgk© I w`K-wb‡`©kbv w`‡Z nq| Awd‡m Af¨_©bv Kg©x bv _vK‡j mwPe‡K Af¨_©bv welqK hveZxq Kvh©vewj myPviæiƒ‡c ev¯Íevq‡bi c`‡ÿc wb‡Z nq| M) Dc‡`óvg~jK Kvh©vewj: mwP‡ei Kvh©vewji g‡a¨ Dc‡`óvg~jK Kvh©vewj Ab¨Zg| wb‡P mwP‡ei Dc‡`óvg~jK ev civgk©g~jK Kvh©vewj Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. mfvmsµvšÍ KvR: mwPe cÖwZôv‡bi mKj mfv msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡Kb| Zv‡K wewfbœ mfvi cÖ¯‘wZg~jK KvR, Av‡jvP¨m~wP cÖYqb, Kvh©weeiYx cÖ¯‘Z I msiÿY BZ¨vw` KvR Ki‡Z nq| 2. bxwZ wba©viK: mwPe‡K cÖwZôv‡bi bxwZ wba©vi‡Y eûwea KvR Ki‡Z nq| KZ©„cÿ cÖwZôv‡bi cwiKíbv cÖYqb †_‡K ïiæ K‡i myôz ev¯Íevq‡b Kx Kx bxwZ cÖeZ©b I ev¯Íevqb Kiv Acwinvh© G e¨vcv‡i mwP‡ei KvQ †_‡K civgk© †bq| mwP‡ei civgk©µ‡g cÖwZôv‡bi bxwZ wba©viY I ev¯Íevqb nq| 3. AvBbvbyM KvR: mwPe‡K cÖwZôv‡bi AvBbvbyM w`KwUi cÖwZ we‡klfv‡e jÿ¨ ivL‡Z nq| cÖwZôv‡bi Kvh©cÖYvwj †`‡ki cÖPwjZ †Kv¤úvwb AvBb, wkí AvBb, kªg AvBb, gRywi AvBb BZ¨vw` AvBb †gvZv‡eK cwiPvwjZ n‡‛Q wKbv Zv ch©‡eÿY I Z`viwK Ki‡Z nq| N) m¤úK© welqK Kvh©vewj: e„nr cÖwZôv‡bi EaŸ©Zb KZ©„cÿ‡K m¤úK© welqK mvÿvrKvi Abyôvb I AvMZ AwZw_‡`i wb‡q w`‡bi AwaKvsk mgq e¨¯Í _vK‡Z nq| mwPe‡K GKRb Rbms‡hvM Kg©KZ©v wn‡m‡e D‡jøwLZ Kvh© ev¯Íevq‡b GwM‡q Avm‡Z nq| m¤úK© welqK Kvh©vewji Rb¨ wb‡gœv³ KvR¸‡jv m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq| 1. Af¨šÍixY m¤úK©: Kg©x‡`i wewfbœ b¨vh¨ `vwe KZ©„c‡ÿi Kv‡Q †ck Ki‡Z nq| mwPe Kg©x‡`i Pvwn`v I `vwe `vIqv wj‡L †bvU K‡i h_vmg‡q e¨e¯’vcK‡K AewnZ K‡i _v‡Kb| Pvwn`v ev `vwe-`vIqvi wel‡q e¨e¯’vcbvq `„wófw½ ev wm×všÍ Kx †m m¤ú‡K© mwPe‡K cybivq Kg©x‡`i AewnZ Ki‡Z nq|


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2. evB‡ii cÿ I e¨e¯’vcbv m¤úK©: evB‡ii wewfbœ e¨w³ ev cÿ Zv‡`i wewfbœ welq EaŸ©Zb wbe©vnxi mv‡_ Avjvc Kivi R‡b¨ Awd‡m G‡m _v‡Kb| hw` EaŸ©Zb wbe©vnx Hme e¨w³MY‡K wb‡q †ewk mgq e¨q K‡ib Zvn‡j cÖwZôv‡bi wbqwgZ Kv‡R e¨vNvZ N‡U| ZvB KZ©„c‡ÿi c‡ÿ mwPe‡K AvMZ e¨w³‡`i mgm¨v AewnZ n‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq c`‡ÿc wb‡Z nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, Dc‡i ewY©Z wewfbœ Kvh©vewj GKRb mdj mwPe‡K cvjb Ki‡Z nq| cÖwZôv‡bi aib Abyhvqx mwPe wb‡R ev Zvi wbe©vnxi cÿ n‡q AviI wewfbœ ai‡bi Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡Kb|

2.4 AvaywbK we‡k¦ mwP‡ei ¸iæZ¡ (Iportance of a Secretary in Modern World) eZ©gv‡b cÖwZwU cÖwZôv‡b mwPe GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© ¯’vb `Lj K‡i Av‡Q| ZvB AvaywbK Kvievi e¨e¯’vcbv I cwiPvjbvq Zvi f~wgKv Acwimxg| †h‡Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡b mwP‡ei Dci cÖwZôv‡bi †mŠ›`h©Zv A‡bKLvwb wbf©i K‡i| e¨emvq-evwY‡R¨i DbœwZ I cÖwZ‡hvwMZv e„w×i mv‡_ mv‡_ Gi wbqgZvwš¿K Kvh©c×wZi ¸iæZ¡I h‡_ó e„w× †c‡q‡Q| AvaywbK cÖwZ‡hvwMZvg~jK RM‡Z `ÿ I †ckv`vix mwP‡ei ¸iæZ¡ h‡_ó e„w× †c‡q†Q| mwPe GKvav‡i GKRb cÖkvmK, GKRb Kg©KZ©v ev GKRb Kg©Pvwi wn‡m‡e Zvi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Kg© m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡Kb| wb‡gœ AvaywbK e¨emvq RM‡Z mwP‡ei ¸iæZ¡ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. civgk©`vZv: mwPe cÖwZôv‡bi GKRb `vwqZ¡kxj Kg©Pvwi wn‡m‡e wewfbœ mgq wewfbœ wel‡q e¨e¯’vcbv‡K civgk© cÖ`vb K‡i cÖwZôv‡bi DbœwZ‡Z h‡_ó mnvqZv K‡i _v‡Kb| GKRb mwP‡ei †Kv¤úvwb AvBb, wkí AvBb, wegv AvBb I Awd‡mi wewfbœ welq m¤ú‡K© Ávb _v‡K e‡j wZwb wewfbœ mgq wewfbœ mgm¨vi †gvKv‡ejv Kivi Rb¨ cÖwZôvb KZ©„cÿ‡K civgk© cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡Kb| 2. cÖwZwbwa: mwPe cÖwZôv‡bi GKRb ¸iæZ¡c~Y© I `vwqZ¡kxj e¨w³| cÖwZwU e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡b mwPe cÖwZôv‡bi gvwj‡Ki Abycw¯’wZ‡Z ev gvwj‡Ki wb‡`©‡k cÖwZwbwa wn‡m‡e hveZxq KvR K‡i _v‡Kb| GQvovI gvwj‡Ki wb‡`©‡k wewfbœ mfvq cÖwZwbwa wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ae`vb iv‡L| 3. ms‡hvM I mgš^qKvix: cÖwZôv‡bi D‛P chv©‡qi mv‡_ wbgœ¯Í‡ii ms‡hvM iÿv Kivi Rb¨ GKRb mwPe ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡ib| cÖwZôv‡bi gvwjK cÖwZôv‡bi me Kg©KZ©v-Kg©Pvwii †LuvR-Lei ivL‡Z cv‡ib bv| GKRb mwPe cÖwZôv‡bi Top to bottom †`Lvïbv K‡i cÖvwZôvwbK Kv‡h© mgš^q mvab K‡i _v‡K| 4. bw_KiY: mwPe cÖwZôv‡bi hveZxq `wjj cÎ I g~j¨evb †iKW©cÎ msiÿY K‡i _v‡Kb| wZwb cÖwZôv‡bi hveZxq ¸iæZ¡c~Y© `wjj, cÖ‡qvRbxq KvMR, wPwVcÎ BZ¨vw` Ggbfv‡e mvwR‡q bw_KiY K‡i iv‡Lb †hb cÖ‡qvR‡bi mgq Lye `ªæZ Luy‡R †ei Kiv hvq| 5. †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vcbKvix: AvaywbK e¨emvq RM‡Z †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ mwP‡ei ¸iæZ¡ Acwimxg| GKRb mwPe Kviev‡ii wjwLZ I †gŠwLK, AvbyôvwbK I AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _v‡K| cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ evwn‡ii e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vcbKvix wn‡m‡e mwPe I ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡ib| 6. Pzw³ m¤úv`b: mwPe cÖwZôv‡bi cÖav‡bi wb‡`©‡k cÖwZô‡bi c‡ÿ hveZxq Pzw³cÎ cÖ¯‘Z Ges Zv‡Z ¯^vÿi cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K|


26

mwPe I mwP‡ei Kg©cÖYvwj

7. `wjj cÖYqbKvix: mwPe cÖwZôv‡bi c‡ÿ wewfbœ cÖKvi `wjj cÎ cÖYqb K‡i _v‡Kb| 8. cwiKíbv cÖYqb: †Kv‡bv Awd‡mi wbev©nxMY bxwZ wba©viY I cwiKíbv cÖYqb I ev¯Íevq‡b mwP‡ei mvnvh¨ Qvov Ki‡Z cv‡i bv ZvB cÖwZôv‡bi Kvh© m¤úv`‡bi bxwZ wba©vib I cwiKíbv cÖYq‡Y wbe©vnx KZ…©cÿ‡K mvnvh¨ Kiv mwP‡ei Ab¨Zg ¸iæZ¡c~Y© KvR| 9. `wjj msiÿY: mwPe bw_KiY c×wZ e¨envi K‡i cÖwZôv‡bi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© `wjj cÎ msiÿY K‡i _v‡Kb| 10. msMVK: GKRb `ÿ msMVK wn‡m‡e mwPe cÖwZôv‡b ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| 11. AvBb welqK Dc‡`óv: mwPe we‡kl K‡i †Kv¤úvwb mwPe cÖwZôv‡bi wewfbœ AvBbMZ wel‡q Dc‡`k cÖ`vb K‡ib| 12. Awd‡mi wbe©vnx wn‡m‡e KvR: mwPe Awd‡mi wbe©vnx wn‡m‡e hveZxq wPwV MÖnY, DËi cÖ`vb, wnmveiÿY Aat¯Íb Kg©KZ©v I Kg©Pvwi wbqš¿Y K‡i _v‡K| myZivs G K_v ejv hvq, e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi Awd‡mi mwPe LyeB ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †jLvi mv‡_ Kj‡gi †h m¤úK©, cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ mwP‡ei †m m¤úK© | AvaywbK RM‡Z mwPe‡K ev` w`‡q †Kv‡bv wKQy wPšÍv Kiv hvq bv| GRb¨ mwPe‡K A‡bK cÖwZôv‡bi Pÿz, KY© I gw¯Í‡¯‹i mv‡_ Zzjbv Kiv nq| gvwK©b hy³ivóª miKv‡ii M‡elYvq †`Lv hvq, cÖwkÿYcÖvß, `ÿ Ges `vwqZ¡kxj mwP‡ei Pvwn`v AvMvwg c‡bi eQ‡i lvU¸Y e„w× cv‡e|

2.5 mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ (Duties and Rsponsibilities of Scretary) mwPe †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi GKRb AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© e¨w³Z¡| Zvi `vwqZ¡ n‡‛Q wb‡qvMKZ©vi hveZxq †Mvcb Kvh© †`Lvïbv Kiv Ges wb‡qvMKZ©v KZ©„K Zv‡K †`qv ÿgZv I KZ©„‡Z¡i myôz I AvBbvbyM e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi ¯^v_© msiÿY Kiv| mwPe `vwqZ¡evb I KZ©e¨civqY n‡j cÖwZôv‡bi Kv‡R MwZkxjZv e„w× cvq| wb‡gœ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv : 1. mvaviY Awdm Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b: mwP‡ei GKwU eo `vwqZ¡ n‡jv cÖwZ w`‡bi Awdm Kvh©vewj h_vh_fv‡e m¤úv`‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv Ges Awd‡m msNwUZ me Kvh©vewj Z`viK Kiv| 2. Af¨_©bv: Awd‡mi •`bw›`b Kv‡h©i GKwU wbqwgZ KvR n‡jv Af¨_©bv| cÖwZôvb †QvU n‡j mwPe‡K wb‡R G `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z nq| 3. †MvcbxqZv iÿv: †MvcbxqZv iÿv Kiv mwP‡ei Avw` g~j `vwqZ¡| cÖwZôv‡bi `wjj cÎ, bw_cÎ, KvMRcÎ, Avq-e¨q, jvf-†jvKmvb, µq-weµq BZ¨vw` wel‡q †MvcbxqZv iÿv Kiv Acwinvh©| 4. cÎMÖnY I wewjKiY: cÖwZôv‡bi bv‡g evB‡i †_‡K Avmv cÎ MÖnY, M„nxZ c‡Îi h_vh_ e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ges evB‡ii wewfbœ cÖwZôv‡b cÎ cÖ`vb Kivi `vwqZ¡I mwP‡ei| 5. bw_KiY I m~wPKiY: cÖwZôv‡bi `wjjcÎ, KvMRcÎ, wPwVcÎ BZ¨vw`i wbivc` msiÿY cÖ‡qvRb nq| mwPe‡K Gme bw_ msiÿ‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ bw_Ki‡Yi c×wZ Abyhvqx `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z nq Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq bw_wU mn‡R Lyu‡R cvIqvi j‡ÿ¨ m~wPKi‡Yi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z nq|


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6. •`bw›`b Kv‡Ri ZvwjKv •Zwi: wbe©vnxmn Awd‡mi Ab¨vb¨ Kg©KZ©v I Kg©Pvwi Kx Kx KvR Ki‡e Zvi ZvwjKv cÖYqb KivI mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡| 7. †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v: †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ A‡bK| GKRb mwPe cÖwZwbqZ Zvi cÖwZôv‡bi EaŸ©Zb I evwn‡ii wewfbœ c‡ÿi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM iÿvi `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡ib| 8. hš¿cvwZ iÿYv‡eÿY: mKj cÖwZôv‡bi Awd‡m hš¿cvwZ e¨eüZ nq| Gme hš¿cvwZ mwVKfv‡e e¨eüZ n‡‛Q wKbv, Zv Z`viwKi cÖ‡qvRb nq| Avevi, hš¿cvwZi Kvh©ÿgZv Ae¨vnZ ivL‡Z Kvh©Ki msiÿY I iÿYv‡eÿ‡Yi e¨e¯’v wb‡Z nq| 9. dvBj PjvPj †iwR÷vi: Awd‡m iæwUb Kv‡Ri GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq n‡jv dvBj IqvK©| myôz dvBj IqvK© ev¯Íevq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ Awd‡m ÒdvBj PjvPj †iwR÷viÓ ivLv nq| 10. mfv msµvšÍ: cÖwZôv‡bi wewfbœ Kvh©‡ÿ‡Î mvaviY mfv, wewae× mfv, Riæwi mfv BZ¨vw` AbywôZ nq| mwPe‡K Gme mfvi ¯’vb wba©viY, †bvwUk cÖ`vb, Av‡jvP¨ m~wP cÖYqb I Kvh© weeiYx cÖ¯‘Z BZ¨vw` Kv‡Ri `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z nq| 11. Z_¨ msMÖn: wb‡qvMKZ©v ev wb‡qvMKvix cÖwZôv‡bi Awd‡m Kvh© m¤úv`‡b cÖ‡qvRb n‡e Ggb mKj Z_¨ msMÖn Kiv mwP‡ei Ab¨Zg `vwqZ¡| 12. Z_¨ mieivn: Awd‡mi mKj Kg©KZ©v ev Kg©Pvwi, cÖwZôv‡bi Af¨šÍixY Ges evwn¨K mK‡ji cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ mieivn KivI mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡| 13. Z_¨ msiÿY: Z_¨ msMÖ‡ni c‡i Zv mwVKfv‡e msiÿY KivI mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡| Z_¨ h_vh_ msiÿY bv Ki‡j cÖ‡qvR‡bi mgq GwU Luy‡R †c‡Z h‡_ó Sv‡gjv nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, cÖwZôv‡bi cÖavb Kg©KZv© ev wb‡qvMKZ©v Dcw¯’wZ ev Abycw¯’wZ‡Z GKRb mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ Acwimxg| ev¯Íe‡ÿ‡Î e¨w³ Z_v cÖwZôv‡b mwPe GKRb Acwinvh© e¨w³ wn‡m‡e cwiMwYZ n‡q‡Qb| Aa¨v‡qi G As‡k GKRb wkÿv_x© wewfbœ cÖKvi mwPe m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cvi‡e Ges wewfbœ cÖKvi mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj, `vwqZ¡ KZ©e¨, ¸Yvewj wb‡qvM cÖwµqv, AvBbMZ c`gh©v`v AwaKvi ÿgZv Ges AcmiY m¤ú‡K© we¯ÍvwiZ hvb‡e|


L. wewfbœ cÖKvi mwPe DIFFERENT TYPES OF SECRETARY

G Aa¨v‡qi wkÿv_©xiv mwPe, †Kv¤úvwb mwPe, GKvšÍ mwPe Av‡iv wewfbœ cÖKvi mwPe m¤ú‡K© we¯ÍvwiZ Rvb‡Z cvi‡e|

wkLbdj:     

mwPe m¤ú‡K© aviYv GKvšÍ mwPe †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wb‡qvM Kvh©vewj I ¸Yvewj †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨

Aa¨v‡qi G As‡k hv Av‡Q2.6 wewfbœ cÖKvi mwPe 2.7 GKvšÍ mwPe 2.8 GKvšÍ mwP‡ei †hvM¨Zv I ¸Yvewj 2.9 GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj 2.10 GKvšÍ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ 2.11 †Kv¤úvwb mwPe 2.12 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wb‡qvM cÖwµqv 2.13 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei †hvM¨Zv I ¸Yvewj 2.14 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj

2.15 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wbqwgZ Kvh©vewj 2.16 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wbeÜb-c~e© Kvh©vewj 2.17 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wbeÜb-DËi Kvh©vewj 2.18 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ 2.19 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei AvBbMZ c`gh©v`v 2.20 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei AwaKvi I ¶gZv 2.21 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei `vq 2.22 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei AcmviY


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2.6 wewfbœ cÖKvi mwPe (Describe the Types of Secretary) AvaywbK we¯Í…Z RwUj I SzuwKc~Y© we‡k¦ wkí, e¨emvq-evwYR¨ Ges mvgvwRK cÖwZôvbmg~‡n mwP‡ei ¸iæZ¡ I cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Ab¯^xKvh©| cÖwZôvb Ges e¨w³i Kvh©µ‡g wewfbœZvi Rb¨ mwPe wewfbœ ai‡bi n‡q _v‡K| wb‡gœ mwP‡ei cÖKvi‡f` Q‡Ki gva¨‡g †`qv n‡jv:

mwP‡ei cÖKvi‡f` GKvš— mwPe

†Kv¤úvwb mwPe

K)e¨w³MZ mnKvwi L) e¨w³MZ mwPe M) mnKvwi GKvš— mwPe N) gyL¨ mwPe

ms¯’vi mwPe

gš¿Yvj‡qi mwPe

K)¯^vqËkvwmZ ms¯’vi mwPe L) Avš—R©vwZK ms¯’vi mwPe

K) cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb mwPe L) cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb mwPe|

K) mnKvwi mwPe L) wmwbqi mnKvwi mwPe M) Dc-mwPe N) hyM¥ mwPe O) AwZwi³ mwPe P) mwPe|

wewea mwPe K) Awdm mwPe L) mgevq mwPe M) K¬v‡ei mwPe N) ivR‣bwZK `‡ji mwPe O) `~Zvevm mwPe P) kªwgK ms‡Ni mwPe Q) †Rjv cwil` mwPe R) wk¶v cÖwZôv‡bi mwPe S) BD wc mwPe

1| GKvšÍ mwPe: mgvR I iv‡óªi wewfbœ †ÿ‡Îi e¨¯Í e¨w³i wek¦¯Í mnKvwi‡`i‡K GKvšÍ mwPe e‡j| wb‡qvMKZ©vi GKvšÍ mvwbœ‡a¨ KvR K‡ib e‡j Gai‡bi mwPe‡K GKvšÍ mwPe e‡j| mgv‡Ri D”Pc`¯’ e¨w³eM© †hgb- gš¿x, cÖkvmb, AvBbRxex, Wv³vi, cÖL¨vZ MvqK, bvqK, wkÿKMY GKvšÍ mwPe wb‡qvM K‡i _v‡Kb| GKvšÍ mwPe wewfbœ ai‡bi nq hv wbgœiƒc: (K) e¨w³MZ mnKvwi, (L) e¨w³MZ mwPe, (M) mnKvwi GKvšÍ mwPe, (N) gyL¨ mwPe 2| †Kv¤úvwb mwPe: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe Gi Bs‡iwR n‡jv Company Secretary”| †Kv¤úvwb n‡jv GKwU cÖwZôvb| KwZcq D‡`¨v³v hLb e¨emv‡qi D‡Ï‡k¨ †h․_fv‡e gyjab wewb‡qvM K‡i Pzw³wfwËK AvBbm¤§Z Kvievi MVb K‡i Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abyhvqx wbw`©ó †hvM¨Zvm¤úbœ †h e¨w³ †Kv¤úvwbi hveZxq mwPexq Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡b wb‡qvwRZ _v‡Kb Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwb mwPe e‡j| †Kv¤úvwb mwPe `yai‡bi nq hv wbgœiƒc: (K) cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb mwPe I (L) cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb mwPe| 3| ms¯’vi mwPe: ms¯’vi mvwe©K Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡b wb‡qvwRZ mwPe‡K ms¯’vi mwPe e‡j| Gai‡bi mwPeMY wbgœiƒc: (K) ¯^vqËkvwmZ ms¯’vi mwPe; (L) AvšÍR©vwZK ms¯’vi mwPe 4| gš¿Yvj‡qi mwPe: miKv‡ii cÖkvmb hš¿ KwZcq gš¿Yvjq ev `߇i wef³| cÖ‡Z¨K gš¿Yvjq ev `߇ii Kg©KZ©v m‡e©v”P wbe©vnx cÖavb wn‡m‡e whwb KvR K‡ib Zv‡K gš¿Yvj‡qi mwPe e‡j| gš¿Yvj‡q †hme mwPe Kg©iZ Av‡Qb Zv wbgœiƒc: (K) mnKvwi mwPe, (L) wmwbqi mnKvwi mwPe, (M) Dc-mwPe, (N) hyM¥ mwPe, (O) AwZwi³ mwPe, (P) mwPe|


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wewfbœ cÖKvi mwPe

5| wewea mwPe: GKvšÍ mwPe, †Kv¤úvwb mwPe, ms¯’vi mwPe I gš¿Yvj‡qi mwPe QvovI wewfbœ cÖwZôv‡bi mvwe©K Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡b wb‡qvwRZ mwPe‡K wewea mwPe e‡j| G ai‡bi mwPeMY wbgœiƒc: K) Awdm mwPe: Awd‡mi •`bw›`b Kvh©vewj myôyfv‡e m¤úv`‡bi Rb¨ †h mwPe wb‡qvM †`qv nq Zuv‡K Awdm mwPe e‡j| L) mgevq mwPe: mgevq mwgwZi •`bw›`b Kvh©vewj myôz I mwVKfv‡e cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ m`m¨‡`i ga¨ n‡Z hv‡K wb‡qvM Kiv nq Zv‡K mgevq mwPe e‡j| M) K¬v‡ei mwPe: wewfbœ msN ev K¬ve †hgb µxov mwgwZ, †jLK mwgwZ, e¨emvq mwgwZ BZ¨vw`i Kvh©vewj cwiPvjbv, wbqš¿Y I cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ †h mwPe wbhy³ _v‡Kb Zv‡K K¬v‡ei mwPe e‡j| N) ivR‣bwZK `‡ji mwPe: ivR‣bwZK `‡ji •`bw›`b Kvh© cwiPvjbv, bxwZ I Kg©m~wP ev¯Íevqb Kivi Rb¨ †h mwPe wbhy³ Kiv nq Zv‡K ivR‣bwZK `‡ji mwPe e‡j| O) `~Zvevm mwPe: •e‡`wkK wgkb ev `~Zvev‡mi `vwq‡Z¡ wb‡qvwRZ ivóª`~Z‡K mvnvh¨ Kivi Rb¨ †h mwPe wb‡qvM Kiv nq Zv‡K `~Zvevm mwPe e‡j| P) kªwgK ms‡Ni mwPe: mvaviYZ kªwgK‡`i ¯^v_© msiÿYKvix wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ wewfbœ msMVb, †UªW BDwbqb BZ¨vw`i Kvh©vw` cwiPvjbv I wbqš¿Y Kivi Rb¨ †h mwPe wb‡qvM Kiv nq Zv‡K kªwgK ms‡Ni mwPe e‡j| Q) †Rjv cwil` mwPe: †Rjv cwil‡`i hveZxq Kvh©vewj cwiPvjbv I wbhš¿‡Yi Rb¨ †h miKvwi Kg©KZ©v wb‡qvM Kiv nq Zv‡K †Rjv cwil` mwPe e‡j| R) wkÿv cÖwZôv‡bi mwPe: evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ †emiKvwi ¯‥zj I K‡j‡Ri cwiPvjbv cwil` i‡q‡Q| D³ cwil‡` †h mwPe _v‡K Zv‡K wkÿv cÖwZôv‡bi mwPe e‡j| mvaviYZ ¯‥z‡ji cÖavb wkÿK Ges K‡j‡Ri Aa¨ÿ ÿgZve‡j G mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i _v‡Kb| S) BD wc mwPe: BDwbqb cwil‡` miKvwi wb‡qvMK…Z †h mwPe _v‡K Zv‡K BD wc mwPe e‡j| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, eZ©gv‡b wewfbœ cÖwZôv‡b wewfbœ cÖKvi Kvh© m¤úv`‡bi Rb¨ bvbv cÖKvi mwPe wb‡qvM Kiv n‡q _v‡K| Z‡e me mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ GK bq| cÖwZôvb ev Awdm ev gvwj‡Ki Kv‡Ri aib Abyhvqx mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ wba©vwiZ n‡q _v‡K|

2.7 GKvšÍ mwPe (Private Secretary) we‡k¦ hZ ai‡bi mwP‡ei wePiY jÿ¨ Kiv hvq, GKvšÍ mwPe Zv‡`i g‡a¨ me‡P‡q ¸iæZ¡c~Y©- whwb wb‡qvMKZ©vi GKvšÍ mvwbœ‡a¨ †_‡K KvR K‡ib| mgv‡Ri cÖwZwôZ I AZ¨šÍ Kg©e¨¯Í e¨w³eM© Zv‡`i Kv‡Ri †evSv wKQyUv jvNe Kivi Rb¨ Ges mgq euvPvevi Rb¨ wb‡Ri KvR¸‡jv GKRb wb‡qvwRZ †eZbfy³ Kg©Pvwii Dci b¨¯Í K‡ib| hvi Dci Giƒc `vwqZ¡ b¨¯Í Kiv nq Zv‡K GKvšÍ wek¦¯Í I Av¯’vfvRb n‡Z nq| mvaviY A‡_©, †Kv‡bv e¨w³ Zvi e¨w³MZ Kv‡R mnvqZv Kivi Rb¨ hv‡K wbhy³ K‡ib Zv‡K GKvšÍ mwPe e‡j| e¨vcK A‡_©, iv‡óªi gš¿x A_ev EaŸ©Zb Kg©KZ©v KZ©„K Awdm msµvšÍ e¨w³MZ KvR m¤úv`‡bi Rb¨ †h mwPe wbhy³ K‡ib Zv‡K e¨w³MZ mwPe e‡j|


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wb‡gœ GKvšÍ mwP‡ei K‡qKwU RbwcÖq msÁv cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jv :  B.N. Tandon-Gi g‡Z, ÒD”Pc`¯’ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© e¨w³eM© ev miKvwi Kg©KZ©v KZ©„K mvaviYZ GKRb e¨w³MZ mwPe wb‡qvMcÖvß n‡q _v‡K|Ó  J.P. Bose-Gi g‡Z, Ò†Kv‡bv e¨w³ Zvi e¨w³MZ mnvqZvi Rb¨ †h mwPe wb‡qvM K‡i Zv‡K GKvšÍ mwPe e‡j|Ó  The Oxford English Dictionary-†Z ejv n‡q‡Q, Òiv‡óªi gš¿x A_ev EaŸ©Zb Kg©KZ©v KZ©„K Awdm msµvšÍ e¨w³MZ Kv‡Ri Rb¨ †h mwPe wbhy³ Kiv nq Zv‡K e¨w³MZ mwPe e‡j|Ó  Prof. S.K. Dutta Gi g‡Z, ÒmwPe Ggb GKRb e¨w³ hv‡K †Kv‡bv e¨w³i GKvšÍ e¨w³MZ welqvewj †`Lvïbv Kivi Rb¨ wb‡qvM †`qv nq|Ó D‡jøwLZ msÁvi †cÖwÿ‡Z GKvšÍ mwPe n‡jv : (K) GKRb †hvM¨ I wek¦¯Í Kg©Pvwi; (L) wb‡qvMKZ©vi Av‡`‡k me©`v KvR K‡ib; (M) wZwb •ah©¨kxj I AvbyMZ¨kxj mnKvwi; (N) hveZxq e¨w³MZ I †Mvcbxq Kv‡Ri Z`viKKvix| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, wb‡qvMKZ©vi AZ¨šÍ mwbœK‡U †_‡K KvR Ki‡Z nq e‡j G ai‡bi mwPe‡K GKvšÍ mwPe e‡j| GKvšÍ mwPe‡K wb‡qvMKZ©vi iæwP, Af¨vm, cQ›`, AcQ›`, B”Qv I Awb”Qv Abyhvqx KvR Ki‡Z nq|

2.8 GKvšÍ mwP‡ei †hvM¨Zv I ¸Yvewj (Qualities of Private Secretary) GKRb GKvšÍ mwPe Zvi wb‡qvMKZ©vi c‡ÿ me KvR K‡i _v‡Kb| †mRb¨ Zuv‡K A‡bK ¸Yvewji AwaKvix n‡Z nq| wb‡gœ GKvšÍ mwP‡ei ¸Yvewji eY©bv †`qv n‡jv: 1. wkÿvMZ †hvM¨Zv: GKvšÍ mwPe‡K D”P wkÿvq wkwÿZ nIqv cÖ‡qvRb| G D”P wkÿvi cvkvcvwk †m‡µUvwi‡qj mv‡qÝ †Kvm© m¤úbœ KivI GKvšÍ cÖ‡qvRb| 2. fvlv Ávb: fvlv ÁvbI GKvšÍ mwP‡ei GKwU Acwinvh© ¸Yvewj| evsjv, Bs‡iwRmn Ab¨vb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq fvlv Rvbv Ges ¯^v”Q‡›`¨ wPwV †jLvi aviYv _vK‡Z n‡e| 3. †hvMv‡hvM: GKvšÍ mwP‡ei e¨emvq †hvMv‡hvM m¤^‡Ü aviYv _vK‡Z n‡e| KviY †hvMv‡hvMB n‡”Q AvaywbK Awdm cwiPvjbvi Ab¨Zg †K․kj| 4. kU©n¨vÛ: GKvšÍ mwP‡ei evsjv I Bs‡iwR kU©n¨vÛ Rvbv _vK‡Z n‡e| G kU©n¨vÛ Rvbvi Kvi‡Y `ªæZ wjL‡b Zvi ¸Yvewji ewntcÖKvk N‡U| 5. UvBc wjLb: GKRb GKvšÍ mwP‡ei UvBc wjL‡bi ¸Yvewj _vK‡Z nq| KviY AvRKvj mvaviYZ Awdwmqvj †h‡Kv‡bv wPwVcÎ nv‡Z †jLv nq bv| 6. Kw¤úDUvi: Kw¤úDUvi m¤ú‡K© aviYv _vKv GKRb GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Acwinvh© ¸Yvewj| KviY Kw¤úDUvi e¨env‡ii d‡j GKvšÍ mwP‡ei KvR‡K A‡bK mnR, wbuLyZ I wbfy©j K‡i| 7. Avw_©K welqK aviYv: GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Aek¨B Avw_©K ¸Yvewj _vK‡Z n‡e|


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8. mvaviY Ávb: GKRb GKvšÍ mPwe‡K mvaviY Ávb m¤ú‡K© aviYv _vK‡Z n‡e| 9. †MvcbxqZv: Secretary kãwUi DrcwË Secret †_‡K| Secret A_© †Mvcb ev †Mvcbxq| myZivs GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Ab¨Zg ¸Yvewj n‡jv wZwb wb‡qvMKZ©vi c‡ÿ wewfbœ †Mvcbxq welq‡K †Mvcb iv‡Lb| 10. Awdm e¨e¯’vcbvq Ávb: GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Awdm cwiPvjbvi Ávb _vKv AZ¨vek¨K| †Kbbv GKwU Awdm Kxfv‡e my›`i I mvejxjfv‡e cwiPvjbv Kiv hv‡e Zv Awdm e¨e¯’vcbv wel‡q mwbœ‡ewkZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| 11. AwfÁZv: AwfÁZvi Rywo †bB| †h‡Kv‡bv Kv‡R AwfÁZv‡K AwZwi³ †hvM¨Zv wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv nq| myZivs GKvšÍ mwPe‡K Z`ªæc AwfÁZvm¤úbœ nIqv cÖ‡qvRb| 12. wbqgvbyewZ©Zv: wbqgvbyewZ©Zv meviB cÖ‡qvRb| we‡kl K‡i, GKvšÍ mwPe‡K wbqgvbyewZ©Zvi ¸Yvewjm¤úbœ nIqv DwPZ| 13. Awdm †gwkb Ávb: GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Awd‡m wewfbœ ai‡bi hš¿cvwZ †hgb- †U‡j·, d¨v·, d‡UvKwcqvi BZ¨vw` _v‡K| GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Gme †gwkb cwiPvjbvi ¸Yvewj _vK‡Z n‡e| 14. mfvmsµvšÍ Ávb: Awd‡m wewfbœ cÖ‡qvR‡b A‡bK mfv AbywôZ nq| GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Gme mfv m¤úwK©Z wewfbœ ai‡bi aviYv _vKv GKvšÍ cÖ‡qvRb| 15. AvbyMZ¨: GKvšÍ mwP‡ei AvbyM‡Z¨i ¸Yvewj _vK‡Z n‡e| me mgq GKRb GKvšÍ mwPe‡K Zvi wbe©vnxi wbKU AvbyMZ¨kxj _vK‡Z nq| 16. mgqvbyewZ©Zv: GKvšÍ mwP‡ei mgqvbyewZ©Zvi ¸Yvewj _vK‡Z n‡e| 17. bw_KiY Ávb: dvBwjs ev bw_KiY GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq| Awdm cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ GwU GKvšÍ Acwinvh©| GKRb GKvšÍ mwPe‡K Zvi Awdm cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ bw_KiY Ávb _vKv LyeB cÖ‡qvRb| 18. gb¯ÍvwË¡K Ávb: GKvšÍ mwPe‡K gb¯ÍvwË¡K Áv‡bi AwaKvix n‡Z n‡e| †Kbbv GKvšÍ mwPe‡K me mgq Zvi wb‡qvMKZ©vi cQ›`, AcQ›`, B”Qv-Awb”Qv, iæwP, gb †gRvR BZ¨vw` we‡ePbv K‡i Kvh©µg Pvjv‡Z nq| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbvi †cÖwÿ‡Z ejv hvq, GKvšÍ mwPe‡K eûwea ¸Yvewji AwaKvix n‡Z nq| KviY †h GKvšÍ mwP‡ei ¸Yvewj †ewk †m Zvi wb‡qvMKZ©vi KvR ZZ †ewk my›`i Ges myPviæiƒ‡c m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

2.9 GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj Functions of Private Secretary mwP‡ei cÖ K vi‡f‡`i g‡a¨ GKvšÍ mwPe Ab¨Zg| GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Kvh© v ewj mvaviYZ Zvi wb‡qvMKZ© v i Dci wbf© i K‡i | †hgb- GKRb gš¿ x i GKvšÍ mwPe Ges GKRb bvq‡Ki GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Kvh© v ewji g‡a¨ cv_© K ¨ i‡q‡Q| †h‡Kv‡bv Awdm ev cÖ w Zôv‡bi GKvšÍ mwP‡ei A‡bK Kvh© v ewj i‡q‡Q| J. P. Bose-Gi g‡Z, ÒGKvšÍ mwP‡ei Kvh© v ewj wbf© i K‡i Zvi PvKz w ii ai‡bi Dci|Ó


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wb‡gœ GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. mvaviY Kvh©vewj: GKvšÍ mwPe‡K mvaviYZ Zvi wb‡qvMKZ©vi Rb¨ wKQz KvR cÖwZwbqZ Ki‡Z nq| G¸‡jvi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q wPwVcÎ Av`vb-cÖ`vb, bw_KiY I m~wPKiY, †Uwj‡dvb wiwmf, Avc¨vqb, Af¨_©bv, mvÿvr BZ¨vw`| 2. kÖæwZ wjLb: GKvšÍ mwPe Zvi wb‡qvMKZ©vi hveZxq ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq kÖæwZ wjL‡bi gva¨‡g Lye `ªæZ wj‡L c‡i Abyev` K‡i _v‡Kb| 3. Kw¤úDUvi: Awd‡mi hveZxq KvR weÁvbm¤§Zfv‡e m¤úv`b Kivi Rb¨ Kw¤úDUvi e¨envi KivI GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Ab¨Zg KvR| 4. UvBcwjLb: GKRb GKvšÍ mwPe‡K Zvi Awd‡mi Rb¨ UvBcwjL‡bi KvRI Ki‡Z nq| †m Rb¨ Kw¤úDUv‡ii cvkvcvwk UvBc wjLb m¤^‡ÜI GKvšÍ mwP‡ei aviYv _vK‡Z nq| 5. mfvi Kvh©weeiYx: GKvšÍ mwPe‡K Zvi wb‡qvMKZ©vi mfvi Kvh©weeiYx •Zwi Ki‡Z nq| 6. †MvcbxqZv iÿv: cÖwZôvb cÖavb ev gvwj‡Ki hveZxq †Mvcbxq KvR cÖ‡qvRb‡ev‡a †Mvcb †i‡L m¤úv`b KivI GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Ab¨Zg KvR| 7. Z_¨ msMÖn: GKvšÍ mwPe‡K fwel¨‡Zi D‡Ï‡k¨ wewfbœ Drm †_‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ msMÖn Ki‡Z nq| 8. Z_¨ msiÿY I weZiY: wewfbœ Drm †_‡K msM„nxZ Z_¨ h_vh_fv‡e msiÿY I cÖ‡qvRb‡ev‡a weZiY KivI GKvšÍ mwP‡ei KvR| 9. mvaviY Ávb: mvaviY Ávb GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq| G m¤^‡Ü Ávb _vKv GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Lye cÖ‡qvRbxq| mvaviY Ávb •`bw›`b PP©vq e„w× †c‡q _v‡K| 10. mvgvwRK Kvh©vewj: gvbyl mvgvwRK Rxe| Avgiv G mgv‡Ri evB‡i †h‡q †Kv‡bv KvR mwVKfv‡e Ki‡Z cvi‡ev bv| myZivs GKvšÍ mwPe‡K mvgvwRK Kvh©vewjI Ki‡Z nq| 11. wnmveiÿY: Awdm cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ GKvšÍ mwPe‡K wewfbœ ai‡bi LiP ev e¨qwbe©vn Ki‡Z nq| Gme LiP h_vh_ wbq‡g wnmveiÿY Ki‡Z nq| 12. Rbms‡hvM Kvh©vewj: GKvšÍ mwPe‡K me mgq Zvi Awd‡mi Af¨šÍixY I ewnivMZ Rbms‡hvM Kvh©vewj Ki‡Z nq| 13. wbqwgZ Kvh©vewj: cÖwZwU Awd‡mi g‡Zv GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Awd‡m wKQz Kvh©vewj i‡q‡Q hv cÖwZwbqZ ev wbqwgZ m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq| wbqwgZ Kvh©vewji Rb¨ GKvšÍ mwPe GKwU iæwUb cÖYqb K‡i wb‡j me‡P‡q fv‡jv nq| 14. cvwievwiK Kvh©vewj: GKvšÍ mwPe Zvi wb‡qvMKZ©vi Ab¨vb¨ Kv‡Ri cvkvcvwk cvwievwiK Kvh©vewji e¨vcv‡iI mnvqZv K‡ib| 15. cÖwZwbwaZ¡g~jK Kvh©vewj: cÖwZôv‡bi cÖavb ev wb‡qvMKZ©vi Abycw¯’wZ‡Z GKvšÍ mwPe Zvi wb‡qvMKZ©vi c‡ÿ cÖwZwbwaZ¡g~jK Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b K‡ib| 16. B-†gBj †cÖiY: GKvšÍ mwPe Awd‡mi cÖ‡qvR‡b wewfbœ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wPwV ev Z_¨ cÖ¯‘Z K‡i Zv B-†gB‡ji gva¨‡g wewfbœ ¯’v‡b †cÖiY K‡ib| 17. wewea Kvh©vewj: GKvšÍ mwP‡ei KvR eûgyLx| myZivs Dc‡i D‡jøwLZ Kvh©vewj QvovI GKRb GKvšÍ mwPe civgk© cÖ`vb, mdim½x nIqv BZ¨vw` KvR K‡i _v‡Kb|


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m‡e©vcwi ejv hvq, GKRb GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj mvaviYZ wbf©i K‡i Zvi wb‡qvMKZ©v ev cÖwZôv‡bi Kv‡Ri •ewk‡ó¨i Dci| G cÖm‡½ cÖ‡dmi Gm.†K `Ë e‡jb, ÒThe functions of a private secretary are difficult to summaries for they are varied and these depend upon the nature of the activity of his employer.Ó A_©vr GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj wba©viY Kiv KwVb, GUv wewfbœ iKg n‡q _v‡K Ges GUv wbf©i K‡i wb‡qvMKZ©vi Kv‡Ri ai‡bi Dci|

2.10 GKvšÍ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ (Duties of Private Secretary) GKvšÍ mwPe cÖwZôv‡bi cÖavb wbe©vnxi eZ©gv‡b Ges AeZ©gv‡b AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i _v‡Kb| wb‡gœ GKvšÍ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. h_v mg‡q Awd‡m Dcw¯’wZ: GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Ab¨Zg `vwqZ¡ n‡jv h_vmg‡q Awd‡m Dcw¯’Z nIqv| wZwb h_vmg‡q Dcw¯’Z n‡q Zvi Aat¯Íb Ab¨vb¨ Kg©Pvwii nvwRiv Z`viwK K‡i †`L‡eb| 2. Awdm †gwkb msiÿY: GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Awd‡m wewfbœ ai‡bi †gwkb _v‡K| †hgb- UvBc‡gwkb, Kw¤úDUvi, d¨v· BZ¨vw`| Gme †gwkb¸‡jv `xN©¯’vqx I wbLuyZ e¨env‡ii Rb¨ msiÿY KivI GKvšÍ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡| 3. wb‡qvMKZ©vi mvgMÖx msiÿY: wb‡qvMKZ©vi Awd‡m Zvui wbR¯^ e¨env‡ii Kjg, Wv‡qwi, LvZv, †cwÝj, K¨v‡jÛvi, K¨vjKz‡jUi BZ¨vw` mvgMÖx h_vh_ msiÿY Kiv GKvšÍ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡| 4. wPwVcÎ: Awd‡m •`bw›`b wPwVcÎ MÖnY Ges cvV K‡i wb‡qvMKZ©vi mv‡_ civgk© K‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v MÖnY KivI GKvšÍ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡| 5. kÖæZwjLb: wb‡qvMKZ©vi cÖ‡qvRb †gvZv‡eK kÖæwZwjLb Ges Abyev` KivI mwP‡ei `vwq‡Z¡i g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg| 6. UvBc: Awd‡mi cÖ‡qvR‡b hveZxq welq UvBc KivI GKvšÍ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡| †mRb¨ GKvšÍ mwP‡ei evsjv Ges Bs‡iwR UvBc Rvbv _vK‡Z nq| 7. Kw¤úDUvi: GKvšÍ mwPe‡K Kw¤úDUvi cwiPvjbvq `ÿZv _vK‡Z nq| Kw¤úDUvi e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g GKvšÍ mwPe Zvi KvR‡K A‡bK `ªæZ Ges wbf©yjfv‡e mgvav Ki‡Z cv‡ib| 8. e¨vswKs Kvh©µg: wb‡qvMKZ©vi cÖ‡qvR‡b e¨vs‡K UvKv Rgv Ges e¨vsK †_‡K UvKv DVv‡bv Ges †÷U‡g›U †bqv BZ¨vw`I GKvšÍ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡| 9. †Uwj‡dvb wiwmf I DËi cÖ`vb: GKvšÍ mwPe evB‡i †_‡K AvMZ †Uwj‡dvb wiwmf Ki‡eb Ges DËi cÖ`vb Ki‡eb| cÖ‡qvRb‡ev‡a wcGweG·-Gi gva¨‡g †dv‡bi jvBb ¯’vbvšÍi Ki‡eb| 10. mvÿvr: ewnivMZ †jv‡Ki mvÿvrKvi MÖnY Kiv Ges cÖ‡qvRb‡ev‡a wb‡qvMKZ©vi mv‡_ Zv‡`i‡K mvÿvr Kivi e¨e¯’v Kiv GKvšÍ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡| 11. •`bw›`b LiP: Awdm cwiPvjbv, Avc¨vqb, gwbnvwi, WvK LiP, hvZvqvZmn wewfbœ Lv‡Z •`bw›`b wKQz wKQz A_© e¨q nq| Gme A‡_©i ms¯’vb Ges e¨‡qi h_vh_ wnmveiÿYI GKvšÍ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡| 12. Kv‡Ri ZvwjKv: GKvšÍ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ n‡jv Zvi hveZxq Kvh©vewj myôzfv‡e m¤úv`b Kivi Rb¨ ¸iæZ¡ Abyhvqx Kv‡Ri GKwU ZvwjKv •Zwi Kiv| 13. fwel¨r Kg©m~wP: GKvšÍ mwPe Zvi KvR‡K iæwUb gvwdK Pvwj‡q †bqvi Rb¨ fwel¨r Kg©m~wP wba©viY KivI Zvi `vwqZ¡|


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14. Awd‡m Ae¯’vb: GKRb GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Ab¨Zg ¸iæZ¡c~Y© `vwqZ¡ n‡jv Awd‡mi wba©vwiZ mgq ch©šÍ Awd‡m Ae¯’vb Kiv| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbvi †cÖwÿ‡Z ejv hvq †h, GKvšÍ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ Zvi KvR Ges wb‡qvMKZ©vi aib Abyhvqx wba©vwiZ n‡q _v‡K| †mB Rb¨ cÖL¨vZ †jLK J. P. Bose e‡jb, Duties of private secretary vary according to his source of employment.”

2.11 †Kv¤úvwb mwPe (Company Secretary) Bs‡iwR Company Secretary Gi evsjv kã n‡jv †Kv¤úvwb mwPe| †Kv¤úvwb n‡jv GKwU cÖwZôvb| KwZcq D‡`¨v³v hLb e¨emv‡qi D‡Ï‡k¨ †h․_fv‡e g~jab wewb‡qvM K‡i Pzw³wfwËK 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abymv‡i Kvievi MVb K‡i Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| Avi †h e¨w³ Kg©KZ©v wn‡m‡e AvBbm¤§Z wb‡qvM †c‡q †Kv¤úvwbi `wjjcÎ †iKW©cÎ cÖYqb I msiÿY, mfv Avnevb I cwiPvjbv, Av‡jvP¨m~wP cÖYqb I Kvh©weeiYx cÖ¯‘Z, mgš^q I †hvMv‡hvM, cÖkvmwbK BZ¨vw` Kvh© m¤úbœ K‡i _v‡K Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwb mwPe e‡j| mwPe‡`i g‡a¨ †Kv¤úvwb mwPe Ab¨Zg| †Kv¤úvwb mwPe m¤ú‡K© my¯úó aviYv cvIqvi D‡Ï‡k¨ †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wewae× wb‡qvM I `vwqZ¡ Av‡jvPbv nIqv `iKvi| 1913 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K GKRb Kg©KZ©v ejv n‡q‡Q| `ÿ †Kv¤úvwb mwPe wb‡qvM Kivi Rb¨ evsjv‡`‡k 1997 mv‡j Bbw÷wUDU Ae †Kv¤úvwb †m‡µUvwiR ¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q|  1974 mv‡ji fviZxq †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b †Kv¤úvwb mwPe m¤ú‡K© ejv n‡q‡Q, Òwba©vwiZ †hvM¨Zvm¤úbœ †h e¨w³ G AvB‡bi Aax‡b wbhy³ n‡q mvwPweK Kvh© I Ab¨vb¨ Dc‡`óvg~jK ev cÖkvmb msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj cvjb K‡i _v‡K Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwb mwPe e‡j|Ó  fviZxq †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(45) aviv 1988 mv‡j ms‡kvabx w`‡q †Kv¤úvwb mwPe m¤^‡Ü ejv n‡q‡Q, ÒmwPe n‡jb fviZxq Bbw÷wUDU Ae †Kv¤úvwb †m‡µUvwii GKRb m`m¨, whwb wba©vwiZ †hvM¨Zvm¤úbœ n‡q G AvB‡bi Aax‡b wbhy³ n‡q mwPexq Kvh©vewj I Ab¨vb¨ Dc‡`óvg~jK ev cÖkvmb msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b K‡i Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwb mwPe e‡j|Ó  1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b mwP‡ei 2(1) avivq mwPe m¤ú‡K© ejv n‡q‡Q, ÒmwPe ej‡Z G AvB‡bi Aax‡b mwP‡ei KZ©e¨ Ges Ab¨ †Kv‡bv wbe©vnx ev cÖkvmwbK `vwqZ¡ cvj‡bi Rb¨ wbhy³ Ges wba©vwiZ †hvM¨Zvm¤úbœ †Kv‡bv GK e¨w³‡K eySvq|Ó cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K †Kv¤úvwbi mvwe© K Kvh© µ g‡K cÖ v wZôvwbK I c×wZMZfv‡e ev¯Í e vq‡b e¨e¯’ v cbvi cÖ w Zwbwa wn‡m‡e KvR Ki‡Z nq| †Kv¤úvwb mwPe me mgq GKRb D”P ÿgZvm¤úbœ e¨w³Z¡ | wZwb c`vwaKvi e‡j cwiPvjbv cwil‡`i mfvq Dcw¯’ Z †_‡K wewfbœ f v‡e mfvi Kv‡R mn‡hvwMZv K‡ib|


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2.12 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wb‡qvM c×wZ (Appoinment of Company Secretry) mvaviYZ †Kv¤úvwb Zvi `vßwiK Kvh©vewj cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ GKRb mwPe wb‡qvM K‡i _v‡K| cÖPwjZ †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b mwPe wb‡qv‡Mi mywbw`©ó †Kv‡bv weavb †bB| Z‡e mvaviYZ wbgœwjwLZfv‡e †Kv¤úvwb mwPe wb‡qvM K‡i _v‡K: 1. cÖeZ©‡Ki Øviv wb‡qvM: †Kv¤úvwbi cÖeZ©K ev D‡`¨v³viv cÖ_gZ †Kv¤úvwb‡Z GKRb mwPe wb‡qvM K‡i _v‡Kb| †Kv¤úvwb msNwewa‡Z cÖ_g mwP‡ei bvgI A‡bK mgq D‡jøL Kiv nq| †Kv¤úvwbi cÖ_g mfvq hw` Gai‡bi mwP‡ei bvg Aby‡gv`b Kiv bv nq Zvn‡j mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi weiæ‡× †Kv‡bv AvBbMZ e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| 2. cwiPvjK cl©` Øviv wb‡qvM: †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjK cl©` †Kv¤úvwb wbewÜZ nevi ci Zv‡`i cÖ_g mfvq †hvM¨ e¨w³‡K mwPe wn‡m‡e wb‡qvM w`‡Z cv‡i| mwPe‡K wb‡qv‡Mi mgq †h k‡Z© wb‡qvM †`qv n‡e, Zv cwiPvjK‡`i mfvq wjwLZ nq Ges Gi GKwU Abywjwc mwPe‡K cÖ`vb Ki‡Z nq| 3. cwiPvjK‡`i ga¨ n‡Z mwPe wb‡qvM: cwiPvjK cl©` A‡bK mgq cwiPvjK‡K mwPe wn‡m‡e wb‡qvM w`‡q _v‡Kb| G‡ÿ‡Î mwPe GKRb †Kv¤úvwbi Kg©Pvwi wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡e| 4. mb`cÖvß mwPe wb‡qvM: †Kv¤úvwbi Rb¨ eZ©gv‡b A‡bK †ÿ‡Î †ckv`vwi mwPe Pzw³wfwËK wb‡qvM Kiv nq| evsjv‡`‡kI Bbw÷wUDU Ae PvU©vW© †m‡µUvwiR cÖwZôv n‡q‡Q| G Bbw÷wUDU †_‡K cvm K‡i mb`cÖvß mwPeI wewfbœ †Kv¤úvwb‡Z wb‡qvMcÖvß n‡q _v‡K| Pzw³ Abyhvqx Gme †ckv`vi mwPe †Kv¤úvwb‡Z c~Y©Kvjxb ev LÐKvjxb wb‡qvMcÖvß n‡jI GKB †Kv¤úvwbi †Kv‡bv Z_¨ Ab¨ †Kv¤úvwb‡K mieivn Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †Kv¤úvwbi mdjZv Ges e¨_©Zv wbf©i K‡i GKRb †hvM¨ I `ÿ †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei Dci| DcwiD³ weavb¸‡jv AbymiY K‡i †Kv¤úvwb‡Z mwPe wb‡qvM Kiv n‡j †hvM¨ I `ÿ †Kv¤úvwb mwPe cvIqv hv‡e|

2.13 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei †hvM¨Zv I ¸Yvewj (Qualification / Qualities of Company Secretary) †Kv¤úvwb mwPe GKRb ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Kg©KZ©v weavq Zvi KvR AZ¨šÍ we¯Í…Z I RwUj| mwPe GKvav‡i †Kv¤úvwbi gyL¨ cÖkvmwbK Kg©KZv©, cÖwZwbwa, mgš^qKvix I Dc‡`óv| mwPe‡K GZme MyiæZ¡c~Y© KvR Ki‡Z nq e‡j Zvi KZK¸‡jv †hvM¨Zv _vKv GKvšÍ Avek¨K| Dchy³fv‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z n‡j †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K wb‡gœ ewY©Z †hvM¨Zv I ¸Yvewji AwaKvix n‡Z nq: K. mvaviY ¸Yvewj (General qualities) L. †ckvMZ †hvM¨Zv (Professional qualifications) M. e¨w³MZ ¸Yvewj (Personal qualities)

mvaviY ¸Yvewj I †hvM¨Zv: 1. mvaviY ev RwUj me wel‡qB ey‡S-ï‡b me w`K we‡ePbv K‡i h‡_v‡cvhy³ wm×všÍ †bqvi g‡Zv gvbwmK w¯’iZv I Ávb _vKv Avek¨K|


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2. †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjK‡`i wb‡`©k Abymv‡i mwPe‡K m`v-me©`vB wewfbœ e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi wbKU cÖ‡qvRbxq wPwV wjL‡Z nq| ZvB mwP‡ei evsjv I Bs‡iwR Dfq fvlvq h‡_ó eyrcwË _vKv Acwinvh©| wewfbœ †`‡ki mv‡_ wPwVcÎ †jb‡`b Ki‡Z n‡j Bs‡iwR QvovI Ab¨vb¨ we‡`wk fvlv Rvbv _vK‡jI Zv AwZwi³ †hvM¨Zv e‡j we‡ewPZ nq| 3. †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbvi mv‡_ m¤úK©hy³ †Kv¤úvwbi wewfbœ welq m¤ú‡K© mwP‡ei mvaviY Ávb _vK‡j †m Ávb mwP‡ei •`bw›`b Kvh© cwiPvjbvq mnvqK nq| 4. mwPexq KZ©e¨ cvjbKv‡j mwPe‡K wewfbœR‡bi ms¯ú‡k© Avm‡Z nq Ges wewea cÖKvi mgm¨vi m¤§yLxb n‡Z nq| GRb¨ wb‡Ri cÖwZôv‡bi ¯^v‡_©B mwPe‡K RvZxq I AvšÍ©RvwZK wel‡q Ávb ivL‡Z nq| †ckvMZ ¸Yvewj I †hvM¨Zv: 5. †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K A‡bK RwUj mgm¨vi †gvKv‡ejv QvovI cwiPvjKgÐjxi Dc‡`óv wn‡m‡e KvR Ki‡Z nq e‡j Zvi D”P wWwMÖ _vK‡Z n‡e| AvBb wel‡q D”P wWwMÖ _vK‡j Zv mwP‡ei Rb¨ nq †mvbvq †mvnvMv| 6. mwPe †h †Kv¤úvwb‡Z KvR K‡ib †mB †Kv¤úvwbi KvwiMwi I evwYwR¨K w`Kmg~‡ni e¨vcv‡i Zv‡K cwi®‥vi aviYv AR©b Ki‡Z n‡e| †ckv m¤úwK©Z Ávb _vKv mwP‡ei Rb¨ Acwinvh©| 7. GZبZxZ mwPe‡K wkí AvBb, evwYwR¨K AvBb, AvqKi AvBb, e¨vswKs AvBb, wegv AvBb Ges miKvi KZ…©K †NvwlZ Ab¨vb¨ e¨emv-evwYR¨ m¤úwK©Z AvBb m¤ú‡K© Ávb ivL‡Z n‡e| 8. †Kv¤úvwbi wn‡mecÎ msiÿY I ev‡RU cÖYq‡bi Kjv-†K․k‡ji mv‡_ Zvi cwiPq _vK‡Z n‡e| wnmv‡ei eB eySvi Rb¨ Zvi G Ávb Avek¨K| 9. Awdm msMVb, mwP‡ei Kvh©c×wZ Ges bw_e×KiY, m~wPKiY BZ¨vw` wel‡q ev¯Íe Ávb _vK‡Z n‡e| 10. mwPe‡K A‡bK mgq cwiPvjK cl©‡`i †Mvcbxq wPwVcÎ ev cÖwZ‡e`b UvBc Ki‡Z nq wKsev †Kv‡bv Riæwi e¨vcv‡i kÖæZwjLb MÖnY Ki‡Z nq| GRb¨ mwP‡ei UvBwcs I kU©n¨v‡Ûi Ávb _vKv Avek¨K|

e¨w³MZ ¸Yvewj: 11. mwPe‡K m`v-e¨¯Í Rxeb KvUv‡Z nq e‡j Zv‡K n‡Z n‡e my¯^v‡¯’¨i AwaKvix| myVvg ¯^v¯’¨wewkó e¨w³i g‡a¨ •ah©, mvnm I AvZ¥wek¦vm mn‡RB Rb¥jvf Ki‡Z cv‡i| 12. e¨¯Í Rxeb gv‡bB cwikÖgx Rxeb| ZvB mwP‡ei cwikÖg Kivi g‡Zv gvbwmKZv I Af¨vm _vK‡Z n‡e| 13. †gvnbxq e¨w³i mn‡RB gvby‡li gb Rq Ki‡Z cv‡i| mwPe hw` †gvnbxq e¨w³‡Z¡i AvaKvix nb, Zvn‡j Zvi c‡ÿ mK‡ji gb Rq K‡i Pjv m¤¢e n‡e| 14. `ÿZvi mv‡_ `vwqZ¡ m¤úbœ Ki‡Z n‡j mwPe‡K Zx²Zv, wePÿY I myPZzi n‡Z n‡e| 15. m‡e©vcwi †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei g‡a¨ b¨vqcivqYZv, k„•Lj Ávb, `vwqZ¡‡eva, eyw×gËv, wÿcÖZv AvZ¥wek¦vm, wePÿYZv, mn‡hvwMZv g‡bvfve, wbi‡cÿZv, AgvwqK e¨envi BZ¨vw` ¸Y _vKv evÂbxq|


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2.14 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj (Function of Company Secretary) †Kv¤úvwbi Awdm I mfv msµvšÍ †hvMv‡hvM, cwiPvjbv BZ¨vw` ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Kvh©vewj †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K m¤úbœ Ki‡Z nq| Z‡e †Kv¤úvwbi cÖK…wZ I AvKvi‡f‡` Zvi Kvh©Kjvc cwiewZ©Z nq| Zv m‡Ë¡I GKRb †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K cÖavbZ †h Kvh©¸‡jv m¤úbœ Ki‡Z nq †m¸‡jv wbgœiƒc: K) wbeÜb-c~e© Kvh©vewj: A‡bK mgq cÖeZ©KMY †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi ciciB GKRb mwPe wb‡qvM K‡i _v‡Kb| G †ÿ‡Î mwPe‡K †Kv¤úvwb wbeÜb msµvšÍ hveZxq c`‡ÿc MÖnY Ki‡Z nq| wbe܇bi c~‡e© Zvi Kvh©vewj wbgœiƒc : 1. cÖeZ©K‡`i mfv Avnevb, Av‡jvP¨m~wP •Zwi I mfv cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z nq| 2. mfvi Kvh©weeiYx cÖ¯‘Z I msiÿY Ki‡Z nq| 3. mfvi wm×všÍ †gvZv‡eK c`‡ÿc MÖnY Ki‡Z nq| 4. †Kv¤úvwbi ¯§viKwjwc I cwi‡gj wbqgvewj cÖ¯‘Z bv n‡q _vK‡j Zv cÖ¯‘Z Ki‡Z nq| 5. †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi j‡ÿ¨ wbe܇Ki Awdm n‡Z wbeÜb-Av‡e`bcÎ msMÖn Ki‡Z nq| 6. cÖ‡qvRbvbyhvqx hveZxq KvMRcÎ cÖ¯‘Z Ges hveZxq kZ© c~iY mv‡c‡ÿ †m¸‡jvmn wbeÜb Av‡e`bcÎ h_vh_fv‡e c~iY K‡i wbe܇Ki Kv‡Q Rgv w`‡Z nq| 7. †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇Ki wbKU n‡Z wbeÜbcÎ msMÖn Ki‡Z nq| L) wbeÜb-DËi Kvh©vewj: wbeÜbcÎ cÖvwßi ci cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi mwPe‡K weeiYcÎ ev weKí weeiYcÎ cÖYqb Ki‡Z nq Ges wbe܇Ki Kv‡Q Rgv`vb mv‡c‡ÿ Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ msMÖn Ki‡Z nq| †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZ cvevi ci mwPe ZvrÿwYKfv‡e wbgœwjwLZ Kvh©vw` m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡Kb| 1. cwiPvjKgÐwji mfv Avnevb K‡i GKRb mfvcwZ wbe©vPb I `vwqZ¡kxj Kg©KZ©v wb‡qv‡Mi cÖ¯Íve MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ c`‡ÿc MÖnY K‡ib| 2. †Kv¤úvwb AvBb g‡Z, wba©vwiZ mg‡qi g‡a¨ wewae× mfv Avnevb Ges mfv cwiPvjbvq mvnvh¨ K‡ib m‡e©vcwi mfvi Kvh©weeiYx wjwce× K‡ib| 3. wewae× mfvi Kvh©weeiYxi Kwc †kqvigvwjK‡`i cÖ`vb K‡ib Ges Kwc wbe܇Ki wbKU †ck K‡ib| 4. GQvov †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b ewY©Z wbeÜb-DËi Ab¨vb¨ Kvh©vewjI mwPe m¤úv`b K‡ib| M. wbqwgZ Kvh©vewj: mwP‡ei wbqwgZ Kvh©vewji g‡a¨ †kqvi‡nvìvi msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj, cwiPvjK‡`i Kvh©vewj, mfv msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj, e¨e¯’vcbv I cÖkvmb msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj, ms‡hvM iÿvKvix wn‡m‡e Kvh©vewj, wbe©vnx wn‡m‡e Kvh©vewj, mwP‡ei wewae× Kvh©vewj Ab¨Zg| wb‡gœ Gme Kvh©vewj D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv : 1. †kqvi‡nvìvi msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj:  †kqvi Av‡e`bcÎ weZiY I A_©m‡gZ Zv MÖnY|  †kqvi Zje Ges Zjwe A_© Av`vq|  †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i wewfbœ cÖKvi weÁwß I KvMRcÎ cÖvwßi e¨e¯’v Kiv|  †kqvi mvwU©wd‡KU cÖ¯‘Z Ges Zv cÖ`v‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv|  †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i mfv Avnevb, Kvh©weeiYx cÖ¯‘Z I Zv cÖ`v‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv|


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2. cwiPvjK‡`i Kvh©vewj:  cwiPvjbv cwil‡`i mfv Avnevb|  mfvi Kvh©weeiYx cÖ¯‘ZKiY I cwiPvjK‡`i g‡a¨ Zv weZiY|  cwiPvjbv cwil‡`i mfvq M„nxZ wm×všÍ ev¯Íevq‡bi c`‡ÿc MÖnY Kiv|  cwiPvjbv cwil‡`i wewae× mfv QvovI wbqwgZ evwl©K I Ab¨vb¨ mfv Avnevb|  evwl©K wnmve, cÖ‡qvRbxq cÖwZ‡e`b cÖ¯‘Z, msiÿY I Zv weZi‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv| 3. mfv msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj:  †Kv¤úvwbi wewfbœ cÖKvi mfv mgqg‡Zv Abyôv‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv|  mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wP •Zwi I †bvwUk cÖ`vb Kiv|  mfvq Dcw¯’Z cwiPvjK I †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i ¯^vÿi MÖnY Kiv|  mfvi Kvh©weeiYx cÖ¯‘Z, Aby‡gv`b Kiv‡bv, mswkøó‡`i g‡a¨ weZiY Kiv|  mfvq M„nxZ wm×všÍ Abyhvqx cieZx© c`‡ÿc MÖnY Kiv| 4. e¨e¯’vcbv I cÖkvmb msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj:  †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbv cwil` I e¨e¯’vcbv‡K cÖkvmb KvVv‡gv wbqš¿‡Y civgk© †`qv|  cwiPvjbv cwil` I e¨e¯’vcbv‡K cwiKíbv cÖYqb I wbqš¿‡Y mnvqZv Kiv|  Z…Zxq c‡ÿi mv‡_ Pzw³ m¤úv`‡b cÖwZwbwaZ¡KiY|  †Kv¤úvwbi mxj‡gvni I cÖ‡qvRbxq `wjjcÎ msiÿY Kiv|  wnmvemn Ab¨vb¨ LvZvcÎ cÖ¯‘Z, msiÿY, wbixÿY I mswkøó‡`i g‡a¨ weZi‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv| 5. ms‡hvM iÿvKvix wn‡m‡e Kvh©vewj:  †Kv¤úvwbi gyLcvÎ wn‡m‡e mwPe kªwgK-Kgx©, †kqvi‡nvìvi, †µwWUi I mswkøó Ab¨‡`i mv‡_ ms‡hvM iÿv Kiv|  cwiPvj‡Ki cÿ n‡q kªwgK-Kg©Pvwi‡`i mv‡_ ms‡hvM iÿv Kiv|  †Kv¤úvwbi cÿ n‡q cvIbv`vi, †`bv`vi I RbM‡Yi mv‡_ ms‡hvM iÿv Kiv|  e¨e¯’vcbvi Av‡`k, wb‡`©k I Aby‡iva wbgœ¯Íi ch©šÍ cÖKvk I cÖPv‡ii e¨e¯’v Kiv|  kªwgK Kg©Pvwi‡`i Av‡eM, Abyf~wZ, `vwe BZ¨vw` †Kv¤úvwbi e¨e¯’vcbv I cÖkvmb‡K AewnZ Kiv| 6. wbe©vnx wn‡m‡e Kvh©vewj:  wewfbœ wel‡q †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©vewj Z`viwK Kiv|  †Kv¤úvwbi wewfbœ wefv‡Mi Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡b mnvqZv Kiv|  Ab¨vb¨ Kg©KZ©v‡`i e¨e¯’vcbv I cÖkvm‡bi †ÿ‡Î mnvqZv Kiv|  e¨e¯’vcbv msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj h_v: cwiKíbv cÖYqb, bxwZ wba©viY, msMVb, †bZ…Z¡ I wbqš¿‡Yi †ÿ‡Î mnvqZv Kiv|  kªwgK-Kg©Pvwi‡`i wb‡qvM, e`wj, c‡`vbœwZ BZ¨vw`i e¨e¯’v Kiv|  Awd‡m AvaywbK hš¿cvwZi ms¯’vb I wbqš¿‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv|


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7. wewae× Kvh©vewj:  †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi aviv¸‡jv cvjb K‡i †Kv¤úvwb MVb|  †Kv¤úvwbi wewae× mfv Avnevb, Av‡jvP¨m~wP •Zwi, weÁwß cÖ`vb, wewae× cÖwZ‡e`b •Zwi Ges †Kv¤úvwbi wbe܇Ki wbKU Zv †cÖiY|  wewfbœ `wj‡j cÖ‡qvRbxq ÷¨v¤ú jvMv‡bv|  †Kv¤úvwbi AvqKi wiUvb© cÖYqb, †cÖiY I AvqKi cÖ`vb Kiv|  miKvwi AvBb cvjb|  †Kv¤úvwb AvBb g‡Z Gi wmj e¨envi Kiv| GQvovI †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K Av‡iv wewfbœ mg‡q wewfbœ Kvh©vewj cvjb Ges †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbv cwil` KZ©„K Zv‡K †`q Ab¨vb¨ Kvh©vewjI m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq|

2.15| †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wbqwgZ Kvh©vewj (Routine functions of the company secretary) †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K KZK¸‡jv iæwUb gvwdK KvR Ki‡Z nq| G KvR¸‡jv‡K •`bw›`b ev •bwgwËK ev wbqwgZ Kvh©vewj e‡j| wbqwgZ Kvh©vewj cÖm‡½ J.P Bose e‡jb, æOnce all the preliminary functions are over, a company has to carry out its regular functions as a going concern.” wb‡P †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wbqwgZ Kvh©vewj eY©bv †`Iqv n‡jv: 1| †kqvi †nvìvi msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj: (K) †kqvi Av‡e`bcÎ weZiY I A_© m‡gZ Zv MÖnY Ki‡Z nq| (L) †kqvi Zje Ges Zjex A_© Av`vq Ki‡Z nq| (M) †kqvi mvwU©wd‡KU cÖ¯‘Z Ges Zv cÖ`vb Ki‡Z nq| (N) †kqvi †nvìvi‡`i Rb¨ wewfbœ cÖKvi weÁwß I KvMRcÎ cÖvwßi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z| 2| cwiPvjK‡`i mv‡_ Kvh©vewj: (K) cwiPvjbv Kvh© cwil‡`i mfv AvnŸvb| (L) mfvi Kvh©weeiYx cÖ¯‘ZKiY, msiÿY I cwiPvjK‡`i g‡a¨ Zv weZiY| (M) cwiPvjbv cwil‡`i mfvq M„nxZ wm×všÍ ev¯Íevq‡bi c`‡ÿc MÖnY Kiv| (N) cwiPvjbv cwil‡`i wewae× mfv QvovI wbqwgZ evwl©K I Ab¨vb¨ mfv AvnŸvb| (O) evwl©K wnmve, cÖ‡qvRbxq cÖwZ‡e`b cÖ¯‘Z, msiÿY I Zv weZi‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv| 3| mfv msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj: (K) †Kv¤úvwbi wewfbœ cÖKvi mfv mgqgZ Abyôv‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv| (L) mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wP •Zwi I †bvwUk cÖ`vb Kiv| (M) mfvq Dcw¯’Z cwiPvjK I †kqvi †nvìvi‡`i ¯^vÿi MÖnY Kiv| (N) mfvi Kvh©weeiYx cÖ¯‘Z Aby‡gv`b Kiv‡bv, ms‡ÿcKiY I weZiY Kiv| (O) mfvq M„nxZ wm×všÍ Abyhvqx cieZ©x c`‡ÿc MÖnY Kiv|


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4| e¨e¯’vcbv I cÖkvmb msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj: (K) †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbv cwil` I e¨e¯’vcbv‡K cÖkvmb KvVv‡gv wbqš¿‡Y civgk© †`qv| (L) cwiPvjbv cwil` I e¨e¯’vcbv‡K cwiKíbv cÖYqb I wbqš¿‡Y mnvqZv Kiv| (M) Z…Zxq c‡ÿi mv‡_ Pzw³ m¤úv`‡b cÖwZwbwaZ¡KiY| (N) †Kv¤úvwbi mxj‡gvni I cÖ‡qvRbxq `wjjcÎ msiÿY Kiv| (O) wnmvemn Ab¨vb¨ LvZvcÎ cÖ¯‘Z, msiÿY, wbixÿY I mswkøó‡`i g‡a¨ weZi‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv| 5| ms‡hvM iÿvKvix wn‡m‡e mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj: (K) †Kv¤úvwbi gyLcvÎ wn‡m‡e mwPe kªwgK-Kg©x, †kqvi †nvìvi, †µwWUi I mswkøó Ab¨‡`i mv‡_ ms‡hvM iÿv K‡i| (L) cwiPvj‡Ki cÿ n‡q kªwgK-Kg©Pvix‡`i mv‡_ ms‡hvM iÿv K‡ib| (M) †Kv¤úvwbi cÿ n‡q cvIbv`vi, †`bv`vi I RbM‡Yi mv‡_ ms‡hvM iÿv K‡ib| (N) e¨e¯’vcbvi Av‡`k, wb‡`©k I Aby‡iva †Kv¤úvwbi wbæ¯Íi ch©šÍ cÖKvk I cÖPv‡ii e¨e¯’v K‡ib| (O) kªwgK Kg©Pvix‡`i Av‡eM, Abyf~wZ, `vwe BZ¨vw` †Kv¤úvwbi e¨e¯’vcbv I cÖkvmb‡K AewnZ K‡ib| 6| wbe©vnx wn‡m‡e mwP‡ei KvR: (K) wewfbœ wel‡q †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©vewj Z`viK Kiv| (L) †Kv¤úvwbi wewfbœ wefv‡Mi Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡b mnvqZv Kiv| (M) Ab¨vb¨ Kg©KZ©v‡`i e¨e¯’vcbv I cÖkvm‡bi †ÿ‡Î mnvqZv Kiv| (N) e¨e¯’vcbv msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj h_v: cwiKíbv cÖYqb, bxwZ wba©viY, msMVb, †bZ…Z¡ I wbqš¿‡Yi †ÿ‡Î mnvqZv Kiv| (O) kªwgK Kg©Pvix‡`i wb‡qvM, e`wj, c‡`vbœwZ BZ¨vw`i e¨e¯’v Kiv| (P) Awd‡m AvaywbK hš¿cvwZi ms¯’vb I wbqš¿‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv| 7| wewae× Kvh©vewj: (K) †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi aviv¸‡jv cvjb K‡i †Kv¤úvwb MVb Kiv| (L) †Kv¤úvwbi wewae× mfv AvnŸvb, Av‡jvP¨m~wP ‣Zwi, weÁwß cÖ`vb, wewae× cÖwZ‡e`b •Zwi Ges †Kv¤úvwbi wbe܇Ki wbKU Zv †cÖiY| (M) wewfbœ `wj‡j cÖ‡qvRbxq ÷¨v¤ú jvMv‡bv| (N) †Kv¤úvwbi AvqKi wiUvb© cÖYqb, †cÖiY I AvqKi cÖ`vb Kiv| (O) miKvwi AvBb cvjb| (P) †Kv¤úvwb AvBb g‡Z Gi wmj e¨envi Kiv| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, Dch©y³ wewfbœ cÖavb Kvh©vewj QvovI cwiPvjK cl©` I Kg©Pvixe„‡›`i g‡a¨ Ges †Kv¤úvwb I RbM‡Yi g‡a¨ mgš^qKvix wn‡m‡e mve©ÿwYK ms‡hvM mvab K‡i _v‡Kb| Kvh© m¤úv`‡b KLbI ev wbe©vnx Kg©KZ©v wn‡m‡e we‡kl f~wgKv cvjb K‡ib|


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2.16| †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wbeÜb-c~e© Kvh©vewj (Functions before the registration of the company by company secretary.)

mvaviYfv‡e †Kv¤úvwb MVb Kivi ci mwPe wb‡qvM Kiv nq| wKš‘ †Kv¤úvwbi cÖeZ©KMY A‡bK mgq Zv‡`i ev¯Íe AwfÁZv bv _vKvi Kvi‡Y †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi AvbyôvwbKZvi Rb¨ A¯’vqxfv‡e mwPe wb‡qvM K‡i _v‡Kb| †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ wbeÜb nIqvi c~e© ch©šÍ AvBbm¤§Zfv‡e †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj‡K wbeÜbc~e© Kvh©vewj e‡j| †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi c~‡e© mwPe‡K wbæwjwLZ Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq: 1| mfv Avnevb: †Kv¤úvwb cÖwZôvq wbw`©ó D‡`¨v³v ev gvwjK cÿ _v‡K| D‡`¨v³v‡`i‡K wb‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq mfv AvnŸv‡bi e¨e¯’v †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K Ki‡Z nq| 2| Av‡jvP¨m~wP cÖYqb: †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi c~e© ch©šÍ wewfbœ mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wP †Kv¤úvwb mwPe cÖYqb K‡i _v‡Kb| †Kvb mfvq Kx Kx Av‡jvPbv n‡Z cv‡i Zv Abyaveb K‡i Av‡jvP¨m~wP cÖYqb Ki‡Z nq| 3| mfv cwiKíbv: †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi c~‡e© wewfbœ mfv AbywôZ n‡q _v‡K| Hme mfvi cwiPvjbv Kvh© †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K cy‡ivcywi fv‡e Ki‡Z nq| 4| Kvh©weeiYx: †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi c~‡e© AbywôZ mfvi Kvh©weeiYx †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K wjL‡Z nq| AbywôZ mfvi wewfbœ wm×všÍmg~n ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨ Zuv‡K D‡`¨vM MÖnY Ki‡Z nq| 5| wbeÜb Awdm: †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi Rb¨ Gi wbeÜb Kiv‡bv eva¨Zvg~jK| †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv¤úvwb wbeÜb Awdm †_‡K ÒwbeÜb Av‡e`b cÎÓ msMÖn K‡i Zv c~iY Kivi cÖ‡qvRbxq c`‡ÿc MÖnY K‡i _v‡Kb| 6| Rgv`vb: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe wbeÜb Av‡e`b c‡Î †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi hveZxq kZ© c~iY mv‡c‡ÿ KvR K‡i _v‡Kb| wZwb D‡`¨v³v‡`i mB I wmj‡gvni Gi KvR †k‡l Awd‡m Rgv †`qvi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡Kb| 7| ¯§viKwjwc: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv¤úvwb ¯§viKwjwc cÖYq‡bi Kvh©Ki e¨e¯’v MÖnY K‡i _v‡Kb| G KvRwU †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi c~‡e© Kiv‡Z nq| 8| cwi‡gj wbqgvewj: †Kv¤úvwb †iwRwóªi Av‡iKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq n‡jv cwi‡gj wbqgvewj| †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi cwi‡gj wbqgvewj MV‡bi hveZxq Kvh© m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡Kb| 9| wbeÜbcÎ msMÖn: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe wbe܇bi hveZxq Kvh©µg †k‡l wbeÜb Awdm †_‡K wbeÜbcÎ msMÖn K‡i _v‡Kb| wbeÜb cÎ msMÖ‡ni c‡i †Kv¤úvwb Zvi Kvh©µg ïiæ Ki‡Z cv‡i| 10| Ab¨vb¨: Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ wbeÜb jv‡fi c~‡e© †Kv¤úvwbi c‡ÿ †Kv¤úvwbi cÖK…wZ Abyhvqx Ab¨vb¨ we‡kl we‡kl kZ© c~iY Ki‡Z nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi miKvwi wewfbœ wd, U¨v· BZ¨vw` Av`v‡qi e¨e¯’ v †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K Ki‡Z nq|

2.17| †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wbeÜb-DËi Kvh©vewj (Functions after the registration of the company by company secretary.)

†Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi cÖv_wgK QvocÎ ÒwbeÜb cÎÓ cÖvwßi ci ci †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K Riæwi wfwˇZ Acwinvh© Kvh© m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq| Hme KvR‡K †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wbeÜb-DËi Kvh©vewj e‡j|


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wb‡P †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wbeÜb-DËi Kvh©vewji eY©bv Kiv n‡jv: 1| mfv AnŸvb: wbeÜb cÎ cÖvwßi ci ci †Kv¤úvwb mwPe cwiPvjKe„‡›`i mfv AvnŸv‡bi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡Kb| wZwb mfv Abyôvb I cwiPvjbvi j‡ÿ¨ mfvcwZ wbe©vP‡bi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡Kb| 2| weeiY cÎ: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi weeiY cÎ h_v¯’v‡b cÖPv‡ii e¨e¯’v MÖnY K‡i _v‡K| G‡ÿ‡Î weKí weeiY cÎ cÖPvi Kiv hvq| 3| AbygwZ cÎ `vwLj: AbygwZ cÎ msMÖn Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨ weeiY cÎ A_ev weKí cÎ P~ovšÍfv‡e cÖYqb K‡i wbeÜb Awd‡m `vwLj Ki‡Z nq| †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K D³ KvR wbf©yjfv‡e m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq| 4| AbygwZ cÎ: †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ wbeÜb jv‡fi c‡i KvR Kivi AbygwZ cÎ msMÖn Ki‡Z nq| †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi c‡ÿ AbygwZ cÎ msMÖn K‡i _v‡Kb| 5| wewae× mfv: Zuv‡K †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi c‡i wba©vwiZ mg‡qi g‡a¨ wewae× mfv AvnŸvb Ki‡Z nq| †Kv¤úvwb mwPe wewae× mfv AvnŸv‡bi Av‡qvRb K‡i _v‡Kb| 6| Kvh©weeiYx: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe wewae× mfvi Kvh©weeiYx cÖ¯‘Z K‡i _v‡Kb| wZwb cwiPvjK cwil‡`i ¯^c‡ÿ wewae× mfv cwiPvjbvi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡Kb| 7| cwiPvjbv: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe wbeÜb-DËi wewfbœ mfv AvnŸvbKvix wn‡m‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡ib| wZwb cwiPvjK cwil‡`i ¯^c‡ÿ wewae× mfv cwiPvjbvi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡Kb| 8| †kqvi †nvìvi: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe wewae× mfvi Abywjwc †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi †nvìvi‡`i cÖ`vb Kivi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡Kb| wZwb wewae× mfvi Av‡iKwU Abywjwc wbeÜb Awd‡mi wbeÜK‡Ki Kv‡Q Rgv ‡`b| 9| Ab¨vb¨: wbeÜb †k‡l Ges KvR Kivi AbygwZ cÎ jv‡fi c~‡e© cÖ‡qvRbxq we‡kl †Kv‡bv AvbyôvwbKZvi KvR _vK‡j †Kv¤úvwb mwPe Zv K‡i _v‡Kb| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †Kv¤úvwb wbeÜb jv‡fi ci cÖwZwU †Kv¤úvwb‡K KvR ïiæ Kivi j‡ÿ¨ Riæwi wfwˇZ eva¨Zvg~jK AvbyôvwbKZv m¤úbœ Ki‡Z nq| GgZve¯’vq †Kv¤úvwb mwPe Riæwi wfwˇZ D‡jøwLZ Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡Kb|

2.18

†Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ (Duties & Responsibility of Company Secretary)

†Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi GKRb AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© e¨w³Z¡| Zvi `vwqZ¡ n‡”Q wb‡qvMKZ©vi hveZxq †Mvcb Kvh© †`Lvïbv Kiv Ges wb‡qvMKZ©v KZ©„K Zv‡K †`qv ÿgZv I KZ©„‡Z¡i myôz I AvBbvbyM e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi ¯^v_© msiÿY Kiv| mwPe `vwqZ¡evb I KZ©e¨ civqb n‡j cÖwZôv‡bi Kv‡R MwZkxjZv e„w× cvq| wb‡gœ †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv : 1. mvaviY Awdm Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b: mwP‡ei GKwU eo `vwqZ¡ n‡jv cÖwZ w`‡bi Awdm Kvh©vewj h_vh_fv‡e m¤úv`‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv Ges Awd‡m msNwUZ me Kvh©vewj Z`viK Kiv|


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2. Af¨_©bv: Awd‡mi •`bw›`b Kv‡h© GKwU wbqwgZ KvR n‡jv Af¨_©bv| cÖwZôvb †QvU n‡j mwPe‡K wb‡R G `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z nq| 3. †MvcbxqZv iÿv: †MvcbxqZv iÿv Kiv mwP‡ei Avw` g~j `vwqZ¡| cÖwZôv‡bi `wjj cÎ, bw_cÎ, KvMRcÎ, Avq-e¨q, jvf-†jvKmvb, µq-weµq BZ¨vw` wel‡q †MvcbxqZv iÿv Kiv Acwinvh©| 4. cÎMÖnY I wewjKiY: cÖwZôv‡bi bv‡g evwni †_‡K Avmv cÎ MÖnY, M„nxZ c‡Îi h_vh_ e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ges evwn‡ii wewfbœ cÖwZôv‡b cÎ cÖ`vb Kivi `vwqZ¡I mwP‡ei| 5. bw_KiY I m~wPKiY: cÖwZôv‡bi `wjjcÎ, KvMRcÎ, wPwVcÎ BZ¨vw`i wbivc` msiÿY cÖ‡qvRb nq| mwPe‡K Gme bw_ msiÿ‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ bw_Ki‡Yi c×wZ Abyhvqx `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z nq Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq bw_wU mn‡R Lyu‡R cvIqvi j‡ÿ¨ m~wPKi‡Yi e¨e¯’v wb‡Z nq| 6. •`bw›`b Kv‡Ri ZvwjKv •Zwi: wbe©vnxmn Awd‡mi Ab¨vb¨ Kg©KZ©v I Kg©Pvwi Kx Kx KvR Ki‡e Zvi ZvwjKv cÖYqb KivI mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡| 7. †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v: †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vq mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ A‡bK| cÖwZôv‡bi wewfbœ Awd‡mi mv‡_ mve©ÿwYK †g․wLK †hvMv‡hvM iÿv Ki‡Z nq| Zv‡K cÖZ¨n wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi D‡Ï‡k¨ cÎ, weÁwß, weÁvcb, †bvwUk BZ¨vw` Kvh© m¤úv`‡b `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z nq| 8. hš¿cvwZ iÿYv‡eÿY: mKj cÖwZôv‡bi Awd‡m hš¿cvwZ e¨eüZ nq| Gme hš¿cvwZ mwVKfv‡e e¨eüZ n‡”Q wKbv, Zv Z`viwKi cÖ‡qvRb nq| Avevi, hš¿cvwZi Kvh©ÿgZv Ae¨vnZ ivL‡Z Kvh©Ki msiÿY I iÿYv‡eÿ‡Yi e¨e¯’v wb‡Z nq| 9. dvBj PjvPj †iwR÷vi: Awd‡m iæwUb Kv‡Ri GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq n‡jv dvBj IqvK©| myôz dvBj IqvK© ev¯Íevq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ Awd‡m ÒdvBj PjvPj †iwR÷viÓ ivLv nq| 10. mfv msµvšÍ: cÖwZôv‡bi wewfbœ Kvh©‡ÿ‡Î mvaviY mfv, wewae× mfv, Riæwi mfv BZ¨vw` AbywôZ nq| mwPe‡K Gme mfvi ¯’vb, wba©viY †bvwUk cÖ`vb, Av‡jvP¨ m~wP cÖYqb BZ¨vw` Kv‡Ri `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, cÖwZôv‡bi cÖavb gvwjK ev wb‡qvMKZ©vi Dcw¯’wZ ev Abycw¯’wZ‡Z GKRb mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ Acwimxg| ev¯Íe‡ÿ‡Î e¨w³ Z_v cÖwZôv‡b †Kv¤úvwb mwPe GKRb Acwinvh© e¨w³ wn‡m‡e cwiMwYZ n‡q‡Qb|

2.19 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei AvBbMZ c`gh©v`v (Legal Position of Company Secretary) †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei AvBbMZ gh©v`v †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b mywbw`©ó K‡i D‡jøL Kiv nqwb| Z‡e wewfbœ gvgjvi iv‡q †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei AvBbMZ gh©v`v m¤ú‡K© wbgœwjwLZ wm×v‡šÍ DcbxZ nIqv hvq: 1. ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Kg©Pvwi: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi GKRb ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Kg©Pvwi| †m †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjK cl©‡`i wbqš¿‡Y †_‡K Zv‡`i wb‡`©k Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwbi hveZxq Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡K| cÖ‡qvR‡b mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjK‡`i‡K civgk© w`‡Z cv‡i| weL¨vZ gvgjv Barnett, Hoars and Co. Vs South London Tramsways Co. (1987) iv‡q ejv n‡q‡Q, mwPe GKRb mvaviY Kg©Pvwi| Zv‡K hv Ki‡Z ejv nq, Zv‡K ZvB Ki‡Z nq|


mvwPweK we`¨v

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2. Kg©KZ©v: †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(11) avivq mwPe‡K †Kv¤úvwbi GKRb Kg©KZ©v wn‡m‡e D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q| myZivs †Kv¤úvwb‡Z mwPe GKRb ¸iæZ¡c~Y© D”P c`¯’ Kg©KZ©v| Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwbi Awd‡mi hveZxq KvR wbR `vwq‡Z¡ m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq Ges †Kv‡bv fyj n‡j wZwb wb‡RB `vqx _v‡Kb| 3. †Kv¤úvwbi cÖwZwbwa: †Kv¤úvwbi mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi GKRb cÖwZwbwa wn‡m‡eI `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i _v‡K| cwiPvjK cl©‡`i AbygwZ mv‡c‡ÿ mwPe cÖwZwbwa wn‡m‡e †Kv¤úvwbi c‡ÿ Pzw³‡Z ¯^vÿi Ki‡Z cv‡ib| 4. Awdm cÖkvmK: †Kv¤úvwbi mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi Awd‡mi cÖkvm‡Ki c`gh©v`v †fvM K‡i _v‡K| myôzfv‡e Awd‡mi hveZxq Kvh©vewj †hgb-mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wP, Kvh©weeiYx, wPwV †cÖiY, bw_KiY BZ¨vw` KvR m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡K| A_©vr GK K_vq ejv hvq, †Kv¤úvwbi mwPe †Kv¤úvwb Awd‡mi cÖavb wbe©vnx| 5. †Kv¤úvwbi Dc‡`óv: †Kv¤úvwbi mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi wewfbœ Kvh©µ‡g cwiPvjK‡`i‡K civgk© w`‡q _v‡K| mwPe †h‡nZz †Kv¤úvwb Awd‡mi hveZxq welq AeMZ _v‡K ZvB Zvi civgk© LyeB ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| 6. mgš^qKvix: mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi mgš^qKvix wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| †Kv¤úvwbi †iwR÷vW© Awd‡mi wewfbœ Kg©KZ©v, Kg©Pvwi, cwiPvjK, wewfbœ wefvM BZ¨vw` mevi g‡a¨ me©`v mgš^q mvab K‡i mwPe GKRb mgš^qKvix wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| 7. ms‡hvMKvix Kg©KZ©v: †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjK cl©` Ges Kg©KZ©v I Kg©Pvwii g‡a¨ ms‡hvM iÿv K‡i mwPe Kg©KZ©v, Kg©Pvwi, cwiPvjK, wewfbœ wefvM BZ¨vw` mevi g‡a¨ me©`v mgš^q mvab K‡i mwPe GKRb ms‡hvMKvix wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b mwP‡ei AvBbMZ gh©v`vi ¯úó e¨vL¨v bv _vK‡jI GKRb †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi Lye ¸iæZ¡c~Y© c‡`i AwaKvix|

2.20 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei AwaKvi I ÿgZv (Describe the Right and Power of a Secretary) †Kv¤úvwbi Dci mwP‡ei AwaKvi Kx ev wZwb Kx Kx ÿgZvi AwaKvix n‡eb Zv mvaviYZ wbf©i K‡i †Kv¤úvwbi mv‡_ m¤úvw`Z mwP‡ei Pzw³ Ges cÖPwjZ AvBb-Kvby‡bi Dci| Aek¨B Pzw³‡Z AwaKvi I ÿgZvi K_v D‡jøL _v‡K| wb‡gœ †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei AwaKvi I ÿgZv Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. Kvh©vewj wbqš¿Y: mwP‡ei `߇i wZwbB cÖavb e¨w³Z¡ e‡j Zvi Aaxb¯’ me wefvM wbqš¿Y Kiv, Zv‡`i‡K h_vh_ wb‡`©kbv †`qv Ges Zv‡`i Kvh©vewj cwi`k©b Kiv mwP‡ei AwaKv‡ii AšÍf©y³| mwPe Zuvi Kvh©vj‡qi Aaxb¯’ me Kg©KZ©v I Kg©Pvwi‡`i wbqš¿Y K‡i _v‡Kb| 2. Kg©Pvwi wb‡qvM: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe Zvi Awd‡m cÖ‡qvRbxq Kg©Pvwi wb‡qvM Ki‡Z cv‡ib| 3. Pzw³: mwPe Awdm cÖkvmK wn‡m‡e †Kv¤úvwbi c‡ÿ wewfbœ Pzw³‡Z ¯^vÿi K‡ib| mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi c‡ÿ wewfbœ `wjjc‡Î ¯^vÿi Ki‡Z cv‡ib| 4. ÿwZc~iY: AvBb ewnf©~Zfv‡e mwPe PvKzwiPz¨Z n‡j Aek¨B Pzw³ Abyhvqx ÿwZc~iY `vwe Ki‡Z cv‡ib|


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5 evwl©K weeiYx‡Z ¯^vÿi: mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi evwl©K weeiYxmn mfvi Kvh©weeiYx‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi c‡ÿ ¯^vÿi Kivi ÿgZv iv‡Lb| 6 .bw_KiY: mfvi Kvh©weeiYx, wPwV, ¸iæZ¡c~Y© dvBj, Pzw³cÎ BZ¨vw` bw_KiY Kivi AwaKviI mwP‡ei Av‡Q| 7. mfvi Kvh©weeiYx cÖ¯‘Z I weÁwß cÖ`vb: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv¤úvwb mfvi Kvh©weeiYx cÖ¯‘Z I weÁwß cÖ`vb Kivi ÿgZv iv‡Lb| 8. cÖksmvcÎ: mwPe †Kv¤úvwb‡Z Zvi Aax‡b Kg©iZ Kg©KZ©v ev Kg©Pvwi‡`i‡K †Kv¤úvwbi c‡ÿ cÖ‡qvRb‡ev‡a cÖksmvcÎ cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cv‡ib| 9. †eZb: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe c~Y©Kvjxb Kg©KZ©v wn‡m‡e †Kv¤úvwb KZ©„K wb‡qvM Abyhvqx †eZb MÖn‡Yi c~Y© AwaKvi iv‡Lb| 10. hvbevnb fvov: mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi cÖ‡qvR‡b hvbevnb fvov Kivi AwaKvi iv‡Lb| 11. Acmvi‡Yi weÁwß: Pzw³ Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K wbw`©ó mgqv‡šÍ AcmviY Ki‡Z n‡j hyw³m½Z mg‡qi g‡a¨ mwPe H Acmvi‡Yi weÁwß cvevi AwaKvix| 12. †kqvi mb` wewj: mwPe †Kv¤úvwb KZ©„K ÿgZvcÖvß n‡q †kqvi †nvìvi‡`i g‡a¨ •ea †kqvi mb` wewj K‡i _v‡Kb| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b mwP‡ei AvBbMZ gh©v`vi cwic~Y© e¨vL¨v bv _vK‡jI †Kv¤úvwb mwPe Lye ¸iæZ¡c~Y© c‡`i AwaKvix H †Kv¤úvwbi Rb¨| ZvB †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi mv‡_ Pzw³ Abyhvqx Zvi AwaKvi I ÿgZv ev¯Íevqb Ki‡e|

2.21 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei `vq (Liabilities of a Company Secretary) †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi GKRb ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Kg©KZ©v| †Kv¤úvwbi bvbvwea Kv‡Ri mv‡_ mwPe RwoZ| †Kv¤úvwbi DbœwZi wcQ‡b Zuvi f~wgKv me‡P‡q †ewk| ZvB mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ A‡bK †ewk| †Kv¤úvwbi Kv‡Ri Dci wbf©i K‡i mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ Kx ai‡bi n‡e A_©vr eo †Kv¤úvwbi mwPe ïay Awdm Kvh©B m¤úv`b K‡ib bv, wZwb cwiPvjK gÐwji Dc‡`óv wn‡m‡eI `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i _v‡Kb| †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei `vqmg~n‡K `yfv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| †hgb- 1| wewae× `vq I 2| Pzw³e× `vq

1| wewae× `vq: †Kv¤úvwb mwPe‡K †Kv¤úvwbi mv‡_ †Kv¤úvwb AvBb, AvqKi AvBb Z_v miKvi KZ…©K RvwiK…Z AvBbmg~n cvjb Ki‡Z nq| Gme AvB‡bi evwn‡i KvR Ki‡j †Kv¤úvwb hw` Zvi Rb¨ ÿwZMÖ¯Í nq Z‡e mg¯Í `vq†`bv mwPe‡K enb Ki‡Z n‡e|


mvwPweK we`¨v

47

wewae× `vqmg~n wbgœiƒc: 1| mKj `wjjcÎ h_v mg‡q cÖ¯‘Z Ki‡Z n‡e| 2| mKj `wjj cÎ msiÿY Ki‡Z n‡e| 3| wbw`©ó mg‡q †Kv¤úvwbi `wjjcÎ wbeÜb Kiv| 4| wVK mg‡q mfv Avnevb I †bvwUk cÖ`vb Kiv| 5| webv AbygwZ‡Z †kqvi/wW‡eÂvi weµq bv Kiv| 6| webv AbygwZ‡Z Pzw³ m¤úv`b bv Kiv| 7| webv AbygwZ‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi bv‡g FY MÖnY bv Kiv| 8| mfvi Kvh©weeiYx I wm×všÍmg~n wjwce× Ki‡Z nq| 9| †kqvi †nvìvi‡`i mfv Avnevb I gybvdv cÖ`vb Kiv| 10| †kqvi Zj‡ei A_© MÖnY Ges †kqvi mvwU©wd‡KU cÖ`vb| 11| mfvi †bvwUk h_v mg‡q †`qv| 12| h_v mg‡q †kqvi weµ‡qi weeiYcÎ cÖKvk Kiv Ges h_v wbq‡g †kqvi cÖ`vb| 2| Pyw³e× `vq: †Kv¤úvwb‡Z wb‡qvMKv‡j mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi mv‡_ †hme k‡Z© m¤§Z n‡q wb‡qvMcÖvß nb †m¸‡jv myôzfv‡e m¤úv`b KivB †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei Pzw³e× `vq wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ| Pzw³e× `vqmg~n wbgœiƒc: 1| PvKzix msµvšÍ hveZxq `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ cvjb| 2| ÿgZvi Ace¨envi bv Kiv| 3| PvKzix wewa †g‡b Pjv| 4| Awc©Z `vwqZ¡ wbôvi mv‡_ cvjb Kiv| 5| cwiPvjbv cwil‡`i Av‡`k cvjb Kiv| 6| †Kv¤úvwbi cÖ‡qvRbxq `wjj cÎ msiÿY Ges Zv †Mvcb ivLv| 7| †Kv¤úvwbi bxwZ g~jab †Mvcb Kiv| 8| †Kv¤úvwbi AvBb I †`‡ki AvB‡bi evB‡i †Kv‡bv KvR bv Kiv| 9| Awdm msµvšÍ mKj `vwqZ¡ cvjb Kiv| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, mwPe‡K †Kv¤cvwbi Pÿz, KY© I gw¯Í¯‥ ejv nq| †Kv‡bv mwPe hw` Gme †Lvjv †i‡L KvR K‡ib Z‡e Zvi †hme wel‡q `vqe× Av‡Q †m Zv mn‡R eyS‡Z cv‡i|


48

wewfbœ cÖKvi mwPe

2.22 †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei AcmviY ( Dismissal of Company Secretary) mwPe †Kv¤úvwbi GKRb Kg©Pvwi Ges wZwb GKwU wbw`©ó †gqv‡`i Rb¨ wbhy³ n‡q _v‡K| Pzw³ †gvZv‡eK mvaviYZ †Kv‡bv mywbw`©ó Awf‡hvM Qvov †gqv‡`i c~‡e© mwPe‡K AcmviY ev Kg©PzZ¨ Kiv hvq bv| Awf‡hv‡Mi wfwˇZ Pzw³ Abyhvqx c~e© weÁwßi gva¨‡g mwPe‡K AcmviY ev Kg©Pz¨Z Kiv hvq| †h mKj AvB‡bi weavb e‡j gvwjK Zvi Kg©Pvwi‡K AcmviY ev Kg©Pz¨Z Ki‡Z cv‡i, †Kv¤úvwbI Z`ªæc AvB‡bi weavb e‡j mwPe‡K AcmviY ev Kg©Pz¨Z Ki‡Z cv‡i| GKRb †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei weiæ‡× wbgœwjwLZ Awf‡hvM _vK‡j PvKzix n‡Z Zv‡K AcmviY ev Kg©Pz¨Z Kiv hvq: 1. B”QvK…Z fv‡e gvwj‡Ki Av‡`‡ki Aeva¨ n‡j| 2. A‡hvM¨Zv, `ye©¨envi ev •bwZKfv‡e Lvivc KvR Ki‡j| 3. †Mvcb gybvdv AR©b ev Nym MÖnY Ki‡j| 4. kvixwiK I gvbwmK w`K w`‡q ¯’vqxfv‡e Aÿg n‡j| 5. †Kv¤úvwbi Aemvqb NU‡j Ab¨vb¨ Kg©Pvwi‡`i b¨vq mwP‡eiI Kg©Pz¨wZ N‡U| D‡jøL¨ †h, wbw`©ó mg‡qi Rb¨ mwPe wbhy³ n‡j Ges D³ mgq DËxY© nIqvi c~‡e©B hw` †Kv¤úvwbi eva¨Zvg~jK Aemvqb N‡U Zvn‡j mwPe Pzw³ f‡½i Awf‡hvM Zz‡j ÿwZc~i‡Yi `vwe K‡i †Kv¤úvwbi weiæ‡× gvgjv `v‡qi Ki‡Z cv‡i|

cÖkœvewj 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| 10| 11| 12| 13| 14| 15| 16| 17| 18| 19| 20| 21| 22|

mwPe Kv‡K e‡j? mwP‡ei †hvM¨Zv I ¸Yvewj eY©bv Ki| mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj eY©bv Ki| AvaywbK we‡k¦ mwP‡ei ¸iæZ¡ Av‡jvPbv Ki| mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ eY©bv Ki| wewfbœ cÖKvi mwP‡ei eY©bv `vI| GKvšÍ mwPe Kv‡K e‡j? GKvšÍ mwP‡ei †hvM¨Zv I ¸Yvewj eY©bv Ki| GKvšÍ mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj Av‡jvPbv Ki| GKvšÍ mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ eY©bv Ki| †Kv¤úvwb mwPe Kv‡K e‡j? †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wb‡qvM cÖwµqv eY©bv Ki| †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei †hvM¨Zv I ¸Yvewj eY©bv Ki| †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei Kvh©vewj Av‡jvPbv Ki| †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wbqwgZ Kvh©vewj †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wbeÜb-c~e© Kvh©vewj †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei wbeÜb-DËi Kvh©vewj †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ eY©bv Ki| †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei AvBbMZ c`gh©v`v Av‡jvPbv Ki| †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei AwaKvi I ÿgZv eY©bv Ki| †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei `vq m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Ki| †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei AcmviY Av‡jvPbv Ki|


Z…Zxq Aa¨vq

†Kv¤úvwb AvBb I †Kv¤úvwb mfv COMPANY LAW & COMPANY MEETING

G Aa¨v‡q GKRb wkÿv_x© GKwU †Kv¤úvwbi MVb cÖwµqv, †kÖwYwefvM, †Kv¤úvwb wbeÜb cÖwµqv, †Kv¤úvwbi msÁv, mfv cwiPvjbvmn GZ`msµvšÍ Avbylvw½K welqvewj we¯ÍvwiZ AewnZ n‡Z cvi‡e|

G Aa¨v‡q hv Av‡Q3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10

†Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi msÁv †Kv¤úvwbi †kÖwYwefvM †Kv¤úvwbi cªeZ©K ev D‡`¨v³v †Kv¤úvwbi D‡`¨v³vi cÖKvi‡f` D‡`¨v³vi ¸Yvewj D‡`¨v³vi Kvh©vewj †Kv¤úvwb MVb cÖYvwj wbeÜbcÎ Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ msN-¯§viK/¯§viKwjwc ev cwi‡gjeÜ

3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19

¯§viKwjwci aviv cwi‡gj wbqgvewj cwi‡gj wbqgvewji welqe¯‘ I aviv mfv mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wP †Kv¤úvwb mfv †Kv¤cvwb mfvi †kªwYwefvM †Kvivg mfvi Kvh©weeiYx


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3.1 †Kv¤úvwbi msÁv (Definition of Company) eZ©gv‡b e¨vcK cÖPwjZ, RbwcÖq I e„nr cwim‡i Kvh©Kix e¨emvq msMVb n‡jv †Kv¤úvwb msMVb| mvaviY A‡_©, K‡qKRb e¨w³ †¯^‛Qvq gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ †h․_fv‡e g~jab wewb‡qvM K‡i †`‡ki cÖPwjZ AvB‡bi AvIZvq †Kv‡bv e¨emvq msMVb MVb Ki‡j Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwb msMVb e‡j| evsjv‡`‡k Gai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb †Kv¤úvwb AvBb-1994Ó Abymv‡i MwVZ, cwiPvwjZ I wbqwš¿Z n‡q _v‡K| †Kv¤úvwb wbR bv‡gi mxj‡gvn‡ii wPišÍb Aw¯Í‡Z¡i I K…wÎg e¨w³¯^Ë¡vi AwaKvix n‡q _v‡K| ZvB ejv hvq †h, †Kv¤úvwb n‡jv AvBb m„ó K…wÎg e¨w³¯^Z¡v wewkó, wPišÍb Aw¯ÍZ¡ m¤úbœ mxwgZ `vq wewkó Ggb GKwU ms¯’v ev cÖwZôvb †hLv‡b wKQy †jvK gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ †h․_fv‡e g~jab wewb‡qvM K‡i| wb‡P †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi K‡qKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© msÁv D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv:  1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(1) (N) aviv Abyhvqx Ò†Kv¤úvwb ej‡Z G AvB‡bi Awa‡b MwVZ I wbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwb ev †Kv‡bv we`¨gvb †Kv¤úvwb‡K eySvq|Ó (æCompany means a company formed and registered under this Act of any existing.”)  1956 mv‡ji fviZxq †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 566 avivq ejv n‡q‡Q Ò†Kv¤úvwb n‡jv KwZcq e¨w³i Ggb GKwU †h․_ ms¯’v, †hLv‡b Zviv wbw`©ó D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡bi wbwg‡Ë †h․_fv‡e A_© A_ev A_©g~‡j¨i wbiƒcY‡hvM¨ m¤ú` wewb‡qvM K‡i _v‡K|Ó  Professor M. H. Bukhari-Gi g‡Z, Ògybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ KwZcq e¨w³ mw¤§wjZfv‡e AvBbm¤§Z Dcv‡q †h e¨emvq K‡i, Zv‡K †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwb e‡j|Ó (æA company may be an association of persons association together for the purpose of carrying on a lawful business with a view of profit.”)  Lord Jhon Marshall-Gi g‡Z, Ò†Kv¤úvwb n‡‛Q Ggb GKwU K…wÎg e¨w³¯^Z¡v hv A`„k¨, ¯úk©vZxZ, A_P AvB‡bi gva¨‡g wU‡K _v‡K|Ó (æA company is an artificial being, invisible intangible and existing only in contemplation of law.”)  L.H. Haney- e‡jb, Ò†Kv¤úvwb AvBb m„ó Ggb GKwU K…wÎg e¨w³¯^Z¡v hvi Avjv`vfv‡e GKwU mvaviY wmj I wPišÍb Aw¯ÍZ¡ i‡q‡Q|Ó (æA company is an artificial person created by law, having a separate legal entity, with a perpetual succession and a common seal.”)  Justice James- wjL‡Qb, ÒGKwU mvaviY D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡bi j‡ÿ¨ KwZcq e¨w³ Øviv MwVZ ms¯’v‡K †Kv¤úvwb e‡j|Ó (æCompany means an association of persons united for a common object.”) DcwiD³ msÁv¸‡jv we‡kølY Ki‡j †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi wb‡gœv³ •ewkó¨mg~n cwijwÿZ nq: K. †Kv¤úvwb n‡‛Q AvBb Øviv m„ó K…wÎg e¨w³¯^Z¡vi cÖwZôvb; L. Giƒc e¨emv‡qi c„_K I ¯^vaxb ¯^Z¡v _v‡K; M. Giƒc ¯^Z¡vi Kvi‡Y cÖwZôvb wbR¯^ bvg, mxj‡gvni Øviv cwiwPZ I cwiPvwjZ nq; N. Giƒc msMV‡bi g~jab msM„nxZ nq †kqvi weµ‡qi gva¨‡g; O. †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi gvwjK‡`i `vq †kqvig~j¨ Øviv mxgve× _v‡K; P. cwiPvjK gÐjxi wm×všÍµ‡g Av`vqK…Z g~ja‡bi Dci kZKiv nv‡i jf¨vsk †NvlYv I eÈb Kiv nq|


†Kv¤úvwb AvBb I †Kv¤úvwb mfv

51

cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, †Kv¤úvwb msMVb ev †Kv¤úvwb n‡jv AvBb m„ ó K… w Îg e¨w³ ¯^ Z ¡ v i AwaKvix Ggb GK ai‡bi Avay w bK I cÖ P wjZ e¨emvq msMVb ev A`„ k ¨, A¯úk© bxq A_P wPišÍ b Aw¯Í ‡ Z¡ i AwaKvix ev wbR¯^ bvg mxj †gvni Øviv cwiwPZ I cwiPvwjZ nq| Giv †¯^ ‛ Qvq †h․_fv‡e †kqvi µ‡qi gva¨‡g g~ j ab wewb‡qvM K‡i Ges wewb‡qvMK… Z g~ j a‡bi Dci gy b vdv †Nvlbv I eÈb K‡i|

3.2 †Kv¤úvwbi †kÖwYwefvM (Types of Company) GKw`‡K e¨emvq RM‡Z µgweeZ©b Ges DˇivËi DbœwZ Ab¨w`‡K GKgvwjKvbv I Askx`vwi msMV‡bi mvsMVwbK mxgve×Zv, hvi djkÖæwZ‡Z bZzb msMVb KvVv‡gvi cÖ‡qvRb Abyf~Z nq; Rb¥ †bq bZzb e¨emvq msMVb †h․_g~jabx †Kv¤úvwb| cieZx©‡Z e¨emvq RM‡Z hZB DbœwZi †Quvqv †j‡M‡Q ZZB †Kv¤úvwbi MwZ cÖK…wZ‡ZI cwieZ©b m~wPZ n‡q‡Q|

†Kv¤úvwb mb`cÖvß †Kv¤úvwb

mswewae× †Kv¤úvwb

wbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwb

Amxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb

AwbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwb

mmxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb

cÖwZkÖ‚wZ Øviv mmxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb

Ab¨vb¨ †Kv¤úvwb we`¨gvb †Kv¤úvwb we‡`kx †Kv¤úvwb Ae¨emvqx ms¯’v we‡kl †Kv¤úvwb

†kqvi g~j¨ Øviv mmxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb

cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb

miKvwi †Kv¤úvwb †emiKvix †Kv¤úvwb wPÎ: †Kv¤úvwb mwP‡ei †kªwYwefvM

cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb

†nvwìs †Kv¤úvwb mvewmwWqvwi †Kv¤úvwb


52

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1. mb`cÖvß †Kv¤úvwb (Chartered Company): 1844 mv‡i Bsj¨v‡Û c„w_exi me©cÖ_g †Kv¤úvwb AvBb cvm nq| Zvi c~‡e© H †`‡ki ZrKvjxb ivRv ev ivwb‡`i we‡kl digvb ev mb` e‡j †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ nZ| GB mKj †Kv¤úvwbB mb`cÖvß †Kv¤úvwb bv‡g L¨vZ| Bó BwÛqv †Kv¤úvwb (1600 L„t), PvU©vW e¨vsK Ae Bsj¨vÛ (1694 L„t) BZ¨vw` Gai‡bi †Kv¤úvwbi D`vniY| Bsj¨v‡Û †Kv¤úvwb AvBb cÖYxZ nIqvi ci Giƒc ivRKxq mb‡` MwVZ †Kv¤úvwb cÖwZôvi my‡hvM iwnZ Kiv nq| 2. mswewae× †Kv¤úvwb (Statutory Company): †`‡ki AvBb cÖYqbKvix ms¯’v †hgb;-AvBbmfv ev msm` A_ev ivóªcwZi we‡kl AvBb e‡j m„ó I wbqwš¿Z bv n‡q cvmK…Z ev envjK…Z we‡kl AvB‡bi Øviv cwiPvwjZ I wbqwš¿Z nq| †`‡ki RvZxq ¸iæZ¡c~Y© A_©‣bwZK ev RbKj¨vYg~jK Kvh© m¤úv`‡bi j‡ÿ¨ Giƒc †Kv¤úvwb MVb Kiv nq| evsjv‡`k e¨vsK, evsjv‡`k wegvb, we.Avi.wU.wm, Iqvmv BZ¨vw` Avgv‡`i †`‡k G ai‡bi cÖwZôv‡bi D`vniY| 3. wbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwb (Registered Company): †h mKj †Kv¤úvwb evsjv‡`‡k cÖPwjZ 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abyhvqx MwVZ I wbewÜZ nq Zv‡K wbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| †Kv¤úvwb ej‡Z mvaviYZ Gai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb‡KB eySv‡bv n‡q _v‡K| `v‡qi wfwˇZ †h․_g~jabx †Kv¤úvwb‡K `yfv‡M fvM Kiv hvq: K. Amxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb; I L. mmxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb| wb‡gœ G‡`i m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: K. Amxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb (Unlimited Company): †h wbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i `vq Amxg ev mxgvnxb nq A_©vr †Kv¤úvwbi `v‡qi Rb¨ Zv‡`i e¨w³MZ `vq †`Dwjqv nIqvi c~e© ch©š Í envj _v‡K H †Kv¤úvwb‡K Amxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 5 (M) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q| ev¯Íec‡ÿ Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi mv‡_ Giƒc †Kv¤úvwbi wgj jÿ¨ Kiv †M‡jI `v‡qi w`K Qvov Ab¨w`‡K †Zgb wgj †bB| GwU Ab¨vb¨ †Kv¤úvwbi b¨vq wPišÍb Aw¯ÍZ¡m¤úbœ, K…wÎg e¨w³mËvi AwaKvix cÖwZôvb| Gai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb Avgv‡`i †`‡k †`Lv hvq bv| L. mmxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb (Limited Company): †h †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i `vq mxgve× Zv‡K mmxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| Giƒc †Kv¤úvwb wb‡gœv³ `yai‡bi n‡Z cv‡i| i. cÖwZkÖæwZ Øviv mmxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb (Company limited by Guarantee): †Kv¤úvwbi msN¯§viK I msNwewai kZ© Abyhvqx †kqvi µ‡qi mgq hw` †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi‡nvìviiv Zv‡`i µqK…Z †kqvi g~‡j¨i wecix‡Z GKwU wbw`©ó cwigvY `vq en‡Yi cÖwZkÖæwZ cÖ`vb K‡i Z‡e Zv‡K cÖwZkÖæwZ Øviv mmxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 5 (L) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q †h, hw` Ggb kZ© _v‡K †h, †kqvi‡nvìviMY µqK…Z †kqvi g~‡j¨i 5 ¸Y cwigvY `vq enb Ki‡e, Z‡e GKRb 100 UvKv g~‡j¨i †kqviMÖnxZv cieZx©‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi `v‡qi Rb¨ m‡e©v‛P 500 UvKv ch©š Í `vq en‡bi eva¨ _vK‡e| A_©vr cÖ‡qvR‡b Zv‡K 400 UvKv AwZwi³ w`‡Z n‡Z cv‡i|


†Kv¤úvwb AvBb I †Kv¤úvwb mfv

53

ii. †kqvi g~j¨ Øviv `vq mxgve× †Kv¤úvwb (Company limited by Share): †h †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i `vq Zv‡`i µxZ †kqv‡ii Avw¼K g~j¨ Øviv mxgve× _v‡K Zv‡K †kqvi g~j¨ Øviv `vq mxgve× †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 5 (K) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q †h, †Kv‡bv Ae¯’v‡ZB GB †kqvi‡nvìvi‡K Zvi µxZ †kqv‡ii Avw¼Z g~‡j¨i AwZwi³ A‡_©i Rb¨ `vqx Kiv hvq bv| aiv hvK; K 10 UvKv Avw¼K g~‡j¨i 100wU †kqvi µq Ki‡Q| †m‡ÿ‡Î Zvi `v‡qi cwigvY n‡e (100  10) = 1,000 UvKv| hw` Ggb nq †h, cÖwZwU 10 UvKvi †kqv‡i G ch©š Í 8 UvKv Av`vq Kiv n‡q‡Q †m‡ÿ‡Î K-Gi `v‡qi cwigvY †kqv‡ii Avw¼K g~j¨ 1,000 UvKv ch©šÍ envj _vK‡e| A_©vr AcÖ`Ë 200 UvKv Zvi wbKU n‡Z cÖ‡qvR‡b Zje Kiv hv‡e| eZ©gvbKv‡j ïay Avgv‡`i †`‡kB bq, c„w_exi cÖwZwU †`‡kB Gai‡bi †Kv¤úvwbi msL¨vB me©vwaK I Zv AwaK RbwcÖq| Gai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb wb‡gœv³ `yai‡bi n‡Z cv‡i: A) cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb (Private Ltd. Company): 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(1-U) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q †h, cÖvB‡fU †Kv¤úvwb ej‡Z Ggb †Kv¤úvwb †evSvq hv Zvi msNwewa (A/A) Abymv‡iK) †kqvi n¯ÍvšÍ‡ii AwaKvi hw` _v‡K, †m‡ÿ‡Î evav-wb‡la Av‡ivc K‡i; L) †Kv‡bv †kqvi ev FYcÎ, hw` _v‡K, Zv µ‡qi Rb¨ Rbmvavi‡Yi cÖwZ 50 G mxgve× iv‡L| M) †Kv¤úvwbi PvKwi‡Z wb‡qvwRZ Kg©Pvix Qvov Gi m`m¨ msL¨v 50 G mxgve× iv‡L| kZ© _v‡K †h, hw` `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¨w³ †h․_fv‡e †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwbi GK ev GKvwaK †kqv‡ii AwaKvix nq †m‡ÿ‡Î Zviv AÎ msÁv Abymv‡i GKRb m`m¨ wn‡m‡e cwiMwYZ n‡e| mvaviYZ cwiwPZ ev †PbvRvbv eÜz-evÜe ev AvZ¥xq¯^R‡bi cvi¯úwiK D‡`¨v‡M Gai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ n‡q _v‡K| hv Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi KwZcq myweav AR©‡bi cvkvcvwk †Kv¤úvwbi wewfbœ myweav we‡klZ K…wÎg e¨w³¯^Z¡v, mxwgZ `vq BZ¨vw` myweav †fvM K‡i| Av) cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb (Public limited Company): 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(1-T) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q †h, cvewjK †Kv¤úvwb ej‡Z GB AvBb ev GB cÖeZ©‡bi c~‡e© ejer †Kv‡bv AvB‡bi Aax‡b wbMwgZ (incroporated) Ggb †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb‡K eySv‡e hv cÖvB‡fU †Kv¤úvwb bq| GB †Kv¤úvwbi m`m¨ msL¨v me©wbgœ mvZRb Ges m‡e©v‛P m`m¨ msL¨v, †Kv¤úvwbi msN¯§vi‡K ewY©Z †kqv‡ii msL¨v Øviv mxgve× _v‡K| Giƒc †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi Aev‡a n¯ÍvšÍ‡hvM¨ Ges †Kv¤úvwb †kqvi I FYcÎ weµ‡qi Rb¨ RbM‡Yi wbKU Avnevb Rvbv‡bv hvq| K…wÎg e¨w³¯^Z¡vi AwaKvix Gme †Kv¤úvwb e„n`vqZb cÖK…wZi Ges †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi h_vh_ Abymvix| gvwjKvbv I wbqš¿‡Yi wfwˇZ cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb‡K wb‡gœv³ wewfbœ fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq: K) miKvwi †Kv¤úvwb (Government Company): †h mmxg `vqm¤úbœ cvewjK †Kv¤úvwbi Kgc‡ÿ 51% †kqv‡ii gvwjKvbv miKv‡ii nv‡Z _v‡K †mB †Kv¤úvwb‡K miKvwi †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| A_©vr RbMY GB †Kv¤úvwbi †gvU †kqv‡ii 49% Gi †ewki gvwjK nq bv| d‡j †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjbv I e¨e¯’vcbvi KZ…©Z¡ miKv‡ii nv‡Z _v‡K| GB †Kv¤úvwb †`‡ki cÖPwjZ †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi Aax‡b wbewÜZ I cwiPvwjZ nq|


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L) †emiKvwi †Kv¤úvwb (Non Govt, Company): †h mmxg `vq wewkó cvewjK †Kv¤úvwbi gvwjKvbv, cwiPvjbv I wbqš¿‡bi fvi m¤ú~Y© ev †ewki fvMB Rbmvavi‡Yi nv‡Z _v‡K Zv‡K †emiKvwi †Kv¤úvwb ejv nq| miKvwi †Kv¤úvwb e¨ZxZ mKj cÖvB‡fU I cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb‡K †emiKvwi †Kv¤úvwb ejv hvq| M) †nvwìs ev wbqš¿YKvix †Kv¤úvwb (Holding Company): evsjv‡`‡k envj 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(5) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q †h, GB AvB‡bi D‡Ïk¨ c~iYK‡í †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb Aci †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwbi wbqš¿YKvix (Holding) †Kv¤úvwb e‡j MY¨ n‡e, hw` Ges †KejgvÎ hw`, Aci †Kv¤úvwbwU Gi Aaxb¯’ nq| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(2) avivq mvewmwWqvwi †Kv¤úvwb kZ©vewj eY©bvi †ÿ‡Î †nvwìs †Kv¤úvwb m¤ú‡K© †h wPÎ cvIqv hvq Zv n‡jv, hw` †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb Aci †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb ev †Kv¤úvwbmg~‡ni †gvU †kqv‡ii 50% Gi AwZwi³ †kqv‡ii gvwjK nq ev †gvU †fvU`vb ÿgZvi 50 fv‡Mi AwZwi³ †fvU cÖ`vb Kivi ÿgZvi AwaKvix nq A_ev msL¨vMwiô cwiPvjK wb‡qvM cÖZ¨ÿ ev c‡ivÿfv‡e ÿgZv cÖvß nq Z‡e H †Kv¤úvwb‡K †nvwìs †Kv¤úvwb ejv hv‡e| g~jZ †nvwìs †Kv¤úvwbi Øviv Zvi Aaxb¯’ †Kv¤úvwb¸wj wbqwš¿Z I cwiPvwjZ nq| d‡j Dfq †Kv¤úvwb Avjv`v c„_K mËvi AwaKvix n‡jI GwU GK ai‡bi Kvievwi †Rv‡Ui m„wó K‡i| N) mvewmwWqvwi †Kv¤úvwb ev Aaxb¯’ †Kv¤úvwb (Subsidiary Company): 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(2) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q †h, GB AvB‡bi D‡Ïk¨ c~iYK‡í, †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb Aci GKwU †Kv¤úvwbi Aaxb¯’ †Kv¤úvwb e‡j MY¨ n‡e, hw` cÖ_‡gv³ †Kv¤úvwb Ggb GKwU †Kv¤úvwb nq †hi. Zvi cwiPvjK cl©‡`i MVb wbqš¿Y K‡i D³ Aci †Kv¤úvwb; A_ev ii. Zv GKwU we`¨gvb †Kv¤úvwb wn‡m‡e, GB AvBb ejer nIqvi c~‡e© Giƒc AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi Bmy¨ K‡i _v‡K hvi aviKMY BKz¨BwU †kqv‡ii aviKM‡Yi b¨vq †Kv¤úvwbi mKj e¨vcv‡i †fvUvwaKvi cÖ‡qv‡Mi AwaKvix Ges Zvi †gvU †fvU `vb ÿgZvi A‡a©‡Ki †ewk cÖ‡qvM I wbqš¿Y K‡i D³ Aci †Kv¤úvwb; A_ev iii. Zv `dv ÔLÕ†Z ewY©Z ai‡bi Aaxb¯’ †Kv¤úvwb bq wKš‘ Zvi BKz¨BwU †kqvi g~ja‡bi bvwgK g~‡j¨i A‡a©‡Ki †ewk aviY K‡i D³ Aci †Kv¤úvwb; A_ev iv. Zv Giƒc GKwU Z…Zxq †Kv¤úvwbi Aaxb¯’, hv D³ †Kv¤úvwbi Aaxb¯’ †Kv¤úvwb| 4. AwbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwb (Un-registered Company): 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 371 aviv Abyhvqx, ÔAwbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwbÕ ej‡Z GB AvBb cÖeZ©‡bi c~‡e© ejer †Kv¤úvwb msµvšÍ †Kv‡bv AvB‡bi Aax‡b MwVZ †Kv¤úvwb A_ev GB AvB‡bi Aax‡b wbeÜxK…Z †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb AšÍfz©³ n‡e bv, Z‡e mv‡Zi AwaK msL¨K m`m¨ mgš^‡h MwVZ †Kv‡bv Askx`vwi e¨emvq ev mwgwZ ev †Kv¤úvwb AwbeÜxK…Z †Kv¤úvwb e‡j MY¨ n‡e, hw` Zv GB AvB‡bi Aax‡b wbeÜxK…Z bv n‡q _v‡K| cÖK…Zc‡ÿ †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi weavb Abyhvqx Giƒc †Kv¤úvwb‡K †Kv¤úvwb wn‡m‡e MY¨ Kiv nq bv| Z‡e †Kv¤úvwb ¸Uv‡bv †ÿ‡Î mxwgZ ch©v‡q Zv †Kv¤úvwb wn‡m‡e MY¨ n‡q _v‡K|


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5. Ab¨vb¨ †Kv¤úvwb (Other Companies): Dc‡iv³ †Kv¤úvwb QvovI AvBb Abyhvqx Av‡iv wKQz †Kv¤úvwb jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| wb‡gœ Zv Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: K) we`¨gvb †Kv¤úvwb (Existing Company): 1994 mv‡j †Kv¤úvwb AvBb cvm nIqvi c~‡e©Kvi †Kv‡bv AvBb Øviv MwVZ I wbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwb‡K we`¨gvb †Kv¤úvwb ejv nq| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(1-X) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q †h, Ôwe`¨gvb †Kv¤úvwbÕ ej‡Z GB AvBb cÖeZ©‡bi c~‡e© †h †Kv‡bv mg‡q ejer †Kv¤úvwb msµvšÍ †Kv‡bv AvB‡bi Aax‡b MwVZ I wbeÜxK…Z Ggb †Kv¤úvwb‡K eySv‡e; hv D³ AvBb cÖeZ©‡bi c‡iI we`¨gvb| L) we‡`kx †Kv¤úvwb (Foreign Company): †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 378 avivi weavb Abyhvqx wb‡gœv³ `yÕai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb we‡`kx †Kv¤úvwb e‡j MY¨ n‡e: A) evsjv‡`‡ki evB‡i wbqwgZ †h †Kv¤úvwb G AvBb cÖewZ©Z nIqvi ci evsjv‡`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i e¨emv¯’j ev Kg©¯’j cÖwZôv K‡i; Ges Av) evsjv‡`‡ki evB‡i wbqwgZ †h †Kv¤úvwb G AvBb cÖewZ©Z nIqvi c~‡e© evsjv‡`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i e¨emv¯’j ev Kg©¯’j cÖwZôv K‡i‡Q Ges G AvBb cÖewZ©Z nIqvi mg‡qI Zv cÖwZwôZ wQj| Giƒc †Kv¤úvwb‡K evsjv‡`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡ii e¨emv¯’j cÖwZôvi wÎk w`‡bi g‡a¨ †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇Ki wbKU †Kv¤úvwb msµvšÍ wewfbœ Z_¨ cÖ`vbc~e©K cybivq †`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i wbe܇bi Rb¨ Av‡e`b Ki‡Z nq| †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 379-387 aviv Abyhvqx Avgv‡`i †`‡k Giƒc †Kv¤úvwb msµvšÍ me©wea welq wbqš¿Y Kiv n‡q _v‡K| M) Ae¨emvqx ms¯’v (Non-trading Association): †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 28(1) aviv Abymv‡i, miKv‡ii mš‘wó †gvZv‡eK hw` cÖgvwYZ nq †h, mxgve× †Kv¤úvwbiƒ‡c MwVZ nIqvi †hvM¨ †Kv‡bv mwgwZ ev ms¯’v hvi D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv evwYR¨, Kjv, weÁvb, ag© A_ev `vZe¨ cÖwZôv‡bi DbœwZmvab Ges ms¯’vi Avq ev gybvdv GB D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡bi wbwg‡ËB e¨eüZ nq I Gi m`m¨iv †Kv‡bv jf¨vsk MÖnY K‡i bv, †m‡ÿ‡Î miKvi Zvi GKRb mwPe KZ…©K ¯^vÿwiZ jvB‡mÝ Øviv wb‡`©k w`‡Z cv‡ib †h, mxgve× K_vwU †hvM bv K‡i D³ †Kv¤úvwb‡K mxgve× `vq wewkó cÖwZôvb wn‡m‡e wbewÜZ Kiv †nvK| Giƒc wbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwb‡K Ae¨emvqx ms¯’v e‡j| GwUI ¯^vaxbmZ¡v wewkó GK ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb wn‡m‡e MY¨ nq| N) we‡kl †Kv¤úvwb (Special Company): †h mKj †Kv¤úvwb, †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi Aax‡b wbewÜZ n‡jI Ab¨ †Kv‡bv we‡kl AvBb Øviv ¯’vwcZ, cwiPvwjZ I wbqwš¿Z nq Zv‡K we‡kl †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| Aek¨ †h mKj †ÿ‡Î H we‡kl AvB‡bi avivi mv‡_ †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi avivi mvgÄm¨ _v‡K †m‡ÿ‡Î †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi aviv¸wjI H †Kv¤úvwbi AvBb Abyhvqx Zv wbewÜZ nq Ges we‡kl †Kv¤úvwb wn‡m‡e MY¨ nq| evsjv‡`‡ki e¨vswKs cÖwZôvbmg~n e¨vsK †Kv¤úvwb AvBb-1991 Øviv cwiPvwjZ n‡jI Zv we‡kl †Kv¤úvwb wn‡m‡e MY¨|


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3.3 †Kv¤úvwbi cÖeZ©K ev D‡`¨v³v †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b cÖeZ©K ej‡Z mvaviYZ †mB e¨w³ ev e¨w³eM©‡K eySvq hviv †Kv¤úvwb cÖeZ©b ev MVb K‡ib| Avi cÖeZ©b ej‡Z H mKj cÖwµqvmg~n‡K eySvq hvi Øviv GKwU †Kv¤úvwb‡K wbeÜb I Pvjy Kiv nq A_v©r K…wÎg e¨w³ wn‡m‡e Aw¯ÍZ¡ cÖ`v‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ e¨emvq cÖwZôvb wn‡m‡e G‡K Avw_©K w`K n‡Z mycÖwZwôZ Kiv nq| †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b cÖeZ©‡Ki †Kv‡bv msÁv †`qv nq wb| Z‡e wewfbœ gvgjvi ivq `vbKv‡j wePvicwZMY G‡K wewfbœfv‡e msÁvwqZ K‡i‡Qb| wb‡gœ K‡qKwU msÁv D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv: 1. Whaley Bridge Printing Co. Vs. Green (1880) bvgK gvgjvi iv‡q wePvicwZ Brown L.J e‡jb, ÒcÖeZ©K kãwU AvBbMZ †Kv‡bv kã bq, eis GwU GKwU e¨emvqMZ kã GK‡hv‡M e¨emvq RM‡Z Ggb KZK¸wj cwiwPZ e¨emvwqK Kvh©Kjv‡ci mgwó‡K eySvq hvi Øviv GKwU †Kv¤úvwb‡K Aw¯ÍZ¡ `vb Kiv nq|Ó 2. Twycross Vs. Grant (1877) bvgK gvgjvq wePvicwZ e‡jb, cÖeZ©K Ggb GK e¨w³ whwb †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi `vwqZ¡ MÖnY K‡ib Ges G‡K Pvjy cÖwZôvb wn‡m‡e cÖwZwôZ K‡ib| 3. cvgvi (Palmer) cÖeZ©‡Ki msÁv w`‡Z wM‡q e‡jb, †h e¨w³ †Kv¤úvwbi my‡hvM-myweav, gybvdv AR©‡bi m¤¢vebv BZ¨vw` welq wPšÍv K‡i GKwU mywbw`©ó cwiKíbv cÖ¯‘Z K‡ib, cÖ¯ÍvweZ †Kv¤úvwbi msN¯§viK, msNwewa Ges Ab¨vb¨ `wjj cÎvw` cÖYqbc~e©K wbe܇bi Rb¨ wbe܇Ki wbKU Av‡e`b cÎ `vwLj K‡ib, cÖv_wgK e¨q enb K‡ib, wbeÜbc~e© Pzw³mg~‡ni kZ©vewj wba©viY K‡ib, cÖ_g cwiPvjK wbe©vPb K‡ib, cÖ‡qvR‡b weeiYcÎ cÖYqb I cÖPvi K‡ib Ges g~jab msMÖn BZ¨vw` Kvh©Ki K‡i _v‡Kb Zv‡K cÖeZ©K ejv nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †h e¨w³ ev e¨w³eM© †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi cwiKíbv K‡ib Ges D³ cwiKíbv iƒcvq‡bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq mKj Kvh© e¨e¯’v MÖnY K‡ib, †Kv¤úvwb wbeÜbc~e©K Gi Aw¯ÍZ¡ Avbqb K‡ib Ges e¨emvh cÖwZôvb wn‡m‡e Avw_©Kfv‡e G‡K cÖwZwôZ K‡ib Zv‡K ev Zv‡`i‡K cÖeZ©K ejv nq|

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wb‡gœ wk‡ív‡`¨v³vi †kÖwYwefvM¸‡jv wek`fv‡e e¨vL¨v Kiv nj: K. KvwiMwi `ÿZvm¤úbœ D‡`¨v³v (Technical Skilled Entrepreneur): D‡`¨v³vMY KvwiMwi g‡bvfvem¤úbœ n‡q _v‡K| Zviv wb‡R‡K GKRb ev¯ÍegyLx wk‡ív‡`¨v³v wn‡m‡e g‡b K‡i| Giv mvaviYZ ¯^í Rbms‡hv‡M-wjß I KwirKg©v| G ai‡bi wk‡ív‡`¨v³viv AcwieZ©bxq Drcv`b †K․kj, cY¨ wgkÖY Ges evRvi wb‡q GKwU Abgbxq cÖwZôvb M‡o Zzj‡Z Drmvnx nq| Zviv mvaviYZ eo ai‡bi †Kv‡bv wkí cÖwZôvb cQ›` K‡i bv| L. my‡hvM-mÜvbx D‡`¨v³v (Opportunistic Entrepreneur): my‡hvM-mÜvbx wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡`i cÖPzi AwfÁZv Ges cªvwZôvwbK wkÿvq wkwÿZ n‡Z nq| wb‡R‡K GKRb e¨e¯’vcK wn‡m‡e g‡b K‡i| my‡hvM-mÜvbx D‡`¨v³viv mvgvwRK m‡PZbZv Ges fvj ms‡hvMx wn‡m‡e KvR Kivi ÿgZv iv‡L| Zviv we`¨gvb ivR‣bwZK Ae¯’v, A_©‣bwZK Ae¯’v I mvgvwRK cwi‡ek wPšÍvfvebv K‡i wb‡Ri mvg_©¨ Abymv‡i Drcv`‡b AvMÖnx nq| wk‡ív‡`¨v³viv mvg_©¨‡K wek¦vm K‡i bgbxq n‡q KvR K‡i| Zviv eyS‡Z cv‡i KLb †Kv‡bv ai‡bi wkí M‡o Zzj‡j e¨emvq jvfRbK n‡e| M. D™¢vebx ÿgZvm¤úbœ D‡`¨v³v (Innovative Entrepreneur): hviv wk‡ív‡`¨vM welq Aa¨qb K‡i e¨emvq Avi¤¢ K‡i Zviv PZzw`©‡K A_©‣bwZK my‡hvM-myweav Abyaveb, my‡hvM¸‡jv‡K A_©enfv‡e e¨envi Kivq Ges wewfbœ m~Î †_‡K cÖvß Z_¨mg~‡ni we‡køl‡Y AZ¨šÍ `ÿ| wk‡ív‡`¨v³vMY bZzb †K․k‡j bZzb cY¨ D™¢ve‡bi my‡hvM Lyu‡R| Gme D‡`¨v³vMY bZzb †K․kj, bZzb c‡Y¨i evRvi m„wó, e¨e¯’vcbvi bZzb †K․kj D™¢veb K‡i| Zviv we`¨gvb mvgvwRK I A_©‣bwZK cwi‡e‡k KvR Kivi R‡b¨ wb‡R‡`i mvg_©¨‡K wek¦vm K‡i| N) AbyKiYwcÖq D‡`¨v³v (Imitative Entrepreneur): wk‡ív‡`¨v³viv AbyKiYwcÖq| Gme D‡`¨v³v A‡b¨i Øviv Avwe®‥…Z, D™¢vweZ Ges cÖ‡qvMK…Z cÖhyw³ I Kjv‡K․kj AbyKiY K‡i wb‡Ri Kv‡R mvdj¨ AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i| D`vniY¯^iƒc ejv hvq-XvKvi †KivbxMÄ _vbvi wRbwRivi wk‡ív‡`¨v³iv we‡`kx cY¨ AbyKiY K‡i ûeû H cY¨ Drcv`b K‡i _v‡K| G mKj D‡`¨v³v‡`i AbyKiYwcÖq D‡`¨v³v ej‡Z cvwi| G‡`i cÖavb jÿ¨ A‡b¨i D™¢vebg~jK KvR AbyKiY K‡i Drcv`‡bi cÖe„w× mvab Ges A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡bi MwZkxjZv Avbqb| gvwjKvbv‡f‡` wk‡ív‡`¨vM‡K Avevi `yfv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| †hgb: 1. miKvwi D‡`¨vM Ges 2. †emiKvwi D‡`¨vM| wb‡gœ G¸‡jv Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. miKvwi D‡`¨vM (Govt. Entrepreneurship): mvaviYZ †h mKj †`‡k •e‡`wkK gy`vª i Afve Ges e¨w³MZ ch©v‡q wk‡ív‡`¨v³vi ¯^íZv i‡q‡Q †h mKj †`‡k AeKvVv‡gvMZ my‡hvM-myweavmn wkívq‡b iv‡óªi AskMÖnY cÖ‡qvRb| A_©vr †h mKj wkí ¯’vc‡b eo ai‡bi g~jab I AZ¨vaywbK cÖhyw³ cÖ‡qvRb †mme miKvwi wk‡ív‡`¨vM cÖ‡qvRb| 2. †emiKvwi D‡`¨vM (Public Entrepreneurship): †emiKvwi D‡`¨v‡M †h mKj wkí cÖwZôvb M‡o D‡V G¸‡jv mvaviYZ AvKv‡i †QvU nq| e¨w³MZ ch©v‡q we`¨gvb mvgvwRK I A_©‣bwZK cwi‡e‡k KvR Kivi R‡b¨ wb‡R‡`i mvg_©¨ Abymv‡i wkí M‡o †Zv‡j| G mg¯Í wk‡ív‡`¨v³viv AZ¨šÍ `~i`„wóm¤úbœ n‡q _v‡K| Zviv e¨emv‡qi jÿ¨ AR©‡bi R‡b¨ bvbv ai‡bi Kjv‡K․kj Aej¤^b K‡i| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, miKvwi Ges †emiKvwi D‡`¨v‡Mi cvkvcvwk wewfbœ ai‡bi wk‡ív‡`¨v³v wkí ¯’vcb K‡i A_©‣bwZK Dbœqb ¸iƒZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Q| Z‡e eZ©gvb gy³evRvi A_©bxwZ Abymi‡Yi cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Z e¨w³gvwjKvbvq wkí ¯’vcb‡K wkíbxwZ‡Z AMÖvwaKvi †`Iqv n‡q‡Q|


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3.5 †Kv¤úvwbi D‡`¨v³vi ¸Yvewj (Functions of Entrepreneurship/Entrepreeneur) evsjv‡`‡ki gZ GKwU Dbœqbkxj †`‡k A_©‣bwZK Dbœqb‡K Z¡ivwš^Z Kivi Rb¨ wk‡ív‡`¨v³vi ¸iæZ¡ Acwimxg| evsjv‡`k GKwU Dbœqkxj †`k| DbœZ Ges Dbœqbkxj †`‡ki •ewkó¨MZ e¨vcK cv_©K¨ weivRgvb| •ewkó¨MZ cv_©‡K¨i Kvi‡Y `y †`‡ki wk‡ív‡`¨v³vi Kvh©vewj‡Z e¨vcK cv_©K¨ cwijwÿZ nq| Dbœqbkxj †`‡k gvÜvZvi Avg‡j wkí ¯’vc‡bi cwie‡Z© weÁvbm¤§Z c×wZMZ wk‡ív‡`¨v‡Mi bZzbZi Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡bi cÖ‡qvRb cwijwÿZ n‡q‡Q| DbœZ †`‡ki •ewkó¨ nj weÁvbwfwËK Pvlvev`, weÁvbwfwËK wkí ¯’vcb, KywUiwk‡íi ¯’v‡b e„n`vqZb wkí ¯’vcb K‡i †eKvi mgm¨v `~i Kiv, gv_vwcQz Avq evov‡bv, Drcvw`Z cY¨ we‡`‡k ißvwb K‡i •e‡`wkK Avq e„w× Kiv| Aciw`‡K Dbœqbkxj †`‡ki •ewkó¨ nj K…wli Dci wbf©iZv, ÿz`ª I KzwUi wkí‡K cÖvavb¨ †`qv, •e‡`wkK mvnv‡h¨i Dci wbf©ikxjZv, Av‡qi ¯^íZv, wewb‡qvM Kg, `vZv †`‡ki Dci wbf©ikxjZv| `vZv †`k †h A_© mvnvh¨ K‡i, Zv ZvivB wbqš¿Y K‡i| AZGe, H A_© Øviv †`‡ki cÖhyw³MZ †Kv‡bv Dbœqb Kiv m¤¢e nq bv| eZ©gvb we‡k¦ weÁvb I cÖhyw³i AMÖMwZ e¨vcKfv‡e mvwaZ n‡‛Q| we‡kl K‡i wkí †ÿ‡Î DbœZ cÖhyw³i e¨envi e¨vcK nv‡i e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Dbœqkxj †`‡k GK ai‡bi cÖhyw³i e¨envi ïiæ Ki‡ZB cÖhyw³i D™¢veb| d‡j Dbœqbkxj †`‡ki Dbœqb cÖwµqv RwUj iƒc aviY Ki‡Q| AZGe, evsjv‡`‡ki gZ GKwU Dbœqbkxj †`‡ki wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡`i Av‡iv MwZkxj f~wgKv ivLv GKvšÍ Acwinvh©| `vZv †`k¸‡jvi wbKU †_‡K cÖvß A_© wb‡R‡`i wbqš¿‡Y †i‡L cwiKwíZ cÖK‡í †jb‡`b K‡i MwZkxj A_©‣bwZK Dbœqb †eMevb Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| wb‡gœ evsjv‡`‡ki gZ GKwU Dbœqbkxj †`‡ki wk‡ív‡`¨v³vi Kvh©vewj Av‡jvPbv Kiv nj: 1. Drcv`bkxjZv e„w×: Dbœqbkxj †`‡k wk‡ív‡`¨v³vi cÖv_wgK KvR n‡jv Drcv`bkxjZv e„w× Kiv| wk‡ív‡`¨v³viv Drcv`‡bi DcKiYmg~‡ni mgš^q NwU‡q bZzb ai‡bi cY¨ I †mev Drcv`b K‡i| D‡`¨v³viv bZzb ai‡bi cY¨ Avwe®‥vi, Kv‡Ri bZzb ai‡bi m„wó, Drcv`b e„wׇZ †h mKj evav m„wó n‡Z cv‡i Zvi †gvKv‡ejv K‡i| Drcv`b e„w×i e‡›`ve¯Í Kiv nq| 2. bZzb DcKiY Avwe®‹vi: D‡`¨v³vMY Drcv`‡bi bZzb c×wZi m~Pbv, bZzb Avwe®‥vi evRvi mÜvb, bZzb †K․kj, cÖPvi Awfhvb, cwiPvjbvi †ÿ‡Î bZzb †K․kj wPwýZ Kiv, A_©vqb BZ¨vw` †ÿ‡Î bZzb DcKi‡Yi m„wó K‡i| 3. bZzb my‡hvM-myweav m„wó: evsjv‡`‡k ch©vß cwigvY cÖvK…wZK m¤ú` i‡q‡Q| G cÖvK…wZK m¤ú` Kv‡R jvwM‡q †`‡ki Dbœq‡bi R‡b¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq m¤ú` m„wó Kiv Ges Zvi myôz e¨envi Kiv nq| wk‡ív‡`¨v³vMY G mg¯Í m¤ú` Kv‡R jvMv‡bvi R‡b¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq f~wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K| 4. mvsMVwbK Kvh©vewj: Dbœqbkxj †`‡k wk‡ív‡`¨v³vMY Drcv`‡bi DcKiYmg~n Kv‡R jvwM‡q cY¨ I †mev Drcv`b K‡i _v‡K| Drcv`b Kvh© m¤úbœ Kivi R‡b¨ `iKvi bZzb ai‡bi Drcv`b, bZzb ai‡bi Avwe®‥vi Ges Zv m„wó Kvh©µg mg‡qi evav AwZµg K‡i mdjKvg nIqv| 5. g~jab KvVv‡gv MVb: Dbœqbkxj †`‡ki wk‡ív‡`¨v³vMY Drcv`‡bi DcKiYmg~n Kv‡R jvwM‡q cY¨ I †mev Drcv`b K‡i _v‡K| Drcv`b Kvh© m¤úbœ Kivi R‡b¨ `iKvi bZzb ai‡bi Drcv`b, bZzb ai‡bi Avwe®‥vi Ges Zv m„wó Kvh©µg mg‡qi evav AwZµg K‡i mdjKvg nIqv|


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6. wewb‡qvM cÖKí wba©viY: wk‡ív‡`¨v³v Zvi Kvh©vewji gva¨‡g Dchy³ wewb‡qvM cÖKí wba©viY K‡i cÖvß m¤ú‡`i m‡e©v‛P e¨envi Ges cÖK‡íi Rb¨ `ÿ e¨e¯’vcbv Kvh©vewj wbwðZ K‡i _v‡K| 7. cÖhyw³ n¯ÍvšÍi: †h †Kv‡bv †`‡ki wkívq‡b cÖhyw³ AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K| cÖv‡P¨i †`k¸‡jv‡Z cÖhyw³i h‡_ó Dbœqb N‡U‡Q| Dbœqbkxj wek¦ wkívq‡bi MwZ Z¡ivwš^Z Kivi R‡b¨ Drcv`b cÖwµqvq DbœZ cÖhyw³ e¨envi‡K cÖvavb¨ w`‡q‡Q| Dbœq bkxj †`‡ki gZ evsjv‡`k‡KI cÖhyw³i e¨envi Z¡ivwš^Z Kivi j‡ÿ¨ Drcv`b cÖwµqvq DbœZ cÖhyw³i e¨envi `ªæZMwZ‡Z GwM‡q †bqvi R‡b¨ wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡K e¨vcK f~wgKv ivL‡Z n‡e| 8. cÖhyw³i Dchy³Zv hvPvB: GKwU †`‡ki R‡b¨ GKwU mywbw`©ó cÖhyw³i Dchy³Zv hvPvB AZ¨šÍ Dc‡hvMx| wk‡ív‡`¨v³vMY †`‡ki µq ÿgZv hvPvB, evRv‡ii AvKvi I wkíbxwZ we‡kølY K‡i cÖhyw³i e¨envi wbwðZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| cÖhyw³i Avg`vwbKvix †`‡ki wk‡ív‡`¨v³vMY Zv‡`i D™¢vebx kw³ I AwfÁZvi Øviv Dchy³ wbe©vPb Ki‡Z mÿg nq| †`‡ki Av_©-mvgvwRK Ae¯’v wPšÍv K‡i Zviv †`kxq cÖhyw³i DbœwZ mvab Ki‡Z cv‡i| 9. Av_©-mvgvwRK Ae¯’vi Dbœqb: Dbœqbkxj we‡k¦i cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ n‡‛Q mgMÖ †`ke¨vcx wk‡ívbœqb wbwðZ Kiv| Avi G Dbœqb ZLbB m¤¢e hLb AbybœZ GjvKvi KviLvbv ¯’vcb K‡i †`ke¨vcx wk‡ívbœqb wbwðZ Kiv| Avi G Dbœqb ZLbB m¤¢e hLb AbybœZ GjvKvq KviLvbv ¯’vcb K‡i †`ke¨vcx wkí wecøe NUv‡bv hv‡e| 10. ev¯Í‡e cÖ‡qvM: Dbœqbkxj we‡k¦ G RvZxq D™¢vebx Kvh©vewj A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b mnvqK f~wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K| Dbœqbkxj †`k¸‡jv‡Z A‡bK wk‡ív‡`¨v³v D™¢vebx Kv‡R wb‡qvwRZ †_‡K †`‡ki Dbœq‡b mvnvh¨ K‡i Avm‡Q| 11. A_©‣bwZK I mvgvwRK `vq-`vwqZ¡: wk‡ív‡`¨v³vMY †`‡ki GKRb mvaviY bvMwiK wn‡m‡e ¯’wei wkíKviLvbv‡K mPj Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges bZzb wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡K bZzb K‡i wkíKviLvbv ¯’vc‡b DrmvwnZ K‡i Zzj‡Z cv‡i| 12. AwfÁZv‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡bv: A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ Dbœqbkxj †`k¸‡jv‡Z AwfÁ I `ÿ e¨w³‡`i AwR©Z AwfÁZv‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡bvi R‡b¨ e¨e¯’v MÖnY K‡i| Aciw`‡K AbwfÁ‡`i Ab¨ †`k †_‡K wkÿv MÖn‡Yi e¨e¯’v GKgvÎ D‡`¨v³vivB m¤úbœ Ki‡Z cv‡i| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, GKwU Dbœq bkxj †`‡k wk‡ív‡`¨v³vi Kvh©v ewj cÖ w ZwbqZ cÖ‡ qvRb| wk‡ív‡`¨v³viv Ggb GK ai‡bi e¨w³‡Z¡ i AwaKvix nq †h, Zviv j‡ÿ¨ †c․Qvi R‡b¨ mKj cÖK vi evav AwZµg K‡i g~j j‡ÿ¨ †c․‡Q| A_©vr Dbœq bkxj †`k¸‡jvi m`v cwieZ© b kxj mvgvwRK Ae¯’vq wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡`i f~w gKv e¨vcKfv‡e e„w × cv‡‛Q|


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3.6 †Kv¤úvwbi D‡`¨v³vi Kvhv©ewj †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b cÖ e Z© K ej‡Z mvaviYZ †mB e¨w³ ev e¨w³eM© ‡ K e y S vq hviv †Kv¤úvwb cÖ e Z© b ev MVb K‡ib| Avi cÖ e Z© b ej‡Z H mKj cÖ w µqvmg~ n ‡K ey S vq hvi Øviv GKwU †Kv¤úvwb‡K wbeÜb I Pvjy Kiv nq| Òcvgvi (Palmer)Ó cÖ e Z© K m¤^ ‡ Ü Zvi msÁv cÖ ` vbKv‡j cÖ e Z© ‡ Ki †h KvR ev KZ© ‡ e¨i D‡jø L K‡i‡Qb Zv wb‡gœ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi cwiKíbv cÖYqb: †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi cÖv_wgK c`‡ÿc wn‡m‡e cÖeZ©Kiv †Kv¤úvwbi m¤¢vebv chv©‡jvPbv, Z_¨ msMÖn I we‡kølY, cwiPvjbv msµvšÍ welqvewj we‡ePbv Ges ev¯Í‡evc‡hvMx cwiKíbv iPbv K‡i †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi ïf myPbv K‡i _v‡Kb| 2. msN¯§viK cÖYqb: †Kv¤úvwbi g~j welq m¤^‡Ü wm×všÍ MÖnYc~e©K †Kv¤úvwbi cÖavb `wjj ev msweavbmsN¯§viK cÖYqb Kiv cÖeZ©‡Ki Av‡iKwU ¸iƒZ¡c~Y© `vwqZ¡| 3. msNwewa iPbv: †Kv¤úvwbi Af¨šÍixY cwiPvjbv msµvšÍ wbqg-bxwZ GB `wj‡j cÖeZ©KMY AšÍfz©³ K‡ib| fwel¨‡Z †Kv¤úvwb hv‡Z myôyfv‡e cwiPvwjZ n‡Z cv‡i Zvi Rb¨ mKj welqvewj wePvi we‡ePbv K‡i G‡Z wjwce× Kiv nq| 4. †Kv¤úvwb wbeÜb: msN¯§viK I msNwewa cÖYq‡Yi ci †Kv¤úvwb cÖeZ©KM‡Yi KvR n‡jv †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kiv| GRb¨ wbe܇Ki Awdm n‡Z Av‡e`b c‡Îi dig msMÖn, c~iY, `wjj cÎvw` mwbœ‡ewkZKiY I cÖ‡qvRbxq ÷v¤ú, wdmn Av‡e`b c‡Îi dig wbe܇Ki wbKU Rgv`vb I wbeÜbcÎ msMÖn BZ¨vw` KvR Ki‡Z nq| 5. cÖ_g cwiPvjK wbev©Pb: †Kv¤úvwbi cÖ_g cwiPvjK wbev©Pb, Zv‡`i bvg-wVKvbv m¤^wjZ ZvwjKv cÖYqb, cÖ_g cwiPvjK wn‡m‡e Ô`vwqZ¡ cvj‡b m¤§Z Av‡QbÕ G g‡g© m¤§wZcÎ MÖnY cÖeZ©KM‡Yi Av‡iKwU ¸iƒZ¡c~Y© KvR| 6. b~¨bZg g~jab msMÖn: †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi cÖv_wgK e¨q wbev©‡ni cvkvcvwk †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡i †h A‡_©i cÖ‡qvRb nq Zv msMÖ‡ni Rb¨ cwiPvjK‡`i wbKU n‡Z †hvM¨Zvm~PK †kqv‡ii A_© msMÖn Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq b~¨bZg g~jab cÖeZ©KMY‡KB msMÖn Ki‡Z nq| 7. weeiYcÎ •Zwi: †Kv¤úvwbi cÖ‡qvRbxq g~jab msMÖ‡ni D‡Ï‡k¨ mKj Z_¨ D‡jøLc~e©K weeiYcÎ •Zwi Kiv Ab¨_vq wb‡R‡`i ga¨ n‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq g~jab msMÖn m¤¢e n‡j weeiYc‡Îi weKí wee„wZ cÖYqb KivI cÖeZ©‡Ki KvR| 8. Kvhv©i‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ msMÖn: cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi KvR ïiƒ Kivi Rb¨ wbe܇Ki wbKU n‡Z Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ msMÖn KivI cÖeZ©KM‡Yi Ab¨Zg KvR| GRb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq `wjj cÎvw` wbe܇Ki wbKU Rgv w`‡Z nq| 9. g~jab ms¯’vb: †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©aviv myôzfv‡e cwiPvjbvi wbwg‡Ë cÖ‡qvRbxq g~jab msMÖn KivI cÖeZ©‡Ki KvR| GRb¨ weeiYc‡Îi gva¨‡g RbMY‡K †kqvi I FYcÎ µ‡q DØy× Kiv, g~jab msMÖn Kiv I †kqvi wewj BZ¨vw` KvR Ki‡Z nq| G Qvov wbeÜbc~e© Pzw³ m¤úv`b, m`m¨ msMÖn, †kqvi weµ‡qi Rb¨ Ae‡jLK ev `vq MÖvnK wbev©Pb BZ¨vw` bvbvwea Kvh©I cÖeZ©KMY m¤úv`b K‡ib|


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3.7 †Kv¤úvwbi MVb cÖYvjx (Formation Procedure of Company) †Kv¤úvwb msMVb n‡jv AvBbm„ó e¨emvq cÖwZôvb hv †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi wba©vwiZ cš’vq MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ nq| cvewjK I cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb Dfq "†Kv¤úvwb AvBb 1994Ó Abymv‡i MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ nq| †Kv¤úvwb MV‡b wewfbœ ch©v‡q KZK¸‡jv mywbw`©ó c`‡ÿc ev c×wZ AbymiY Kiv n‡q _v‡K| wb‡gœ G AvBb Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi c`‡ÿc/c×wZ eY©bv Kiv n‡jv : 1. D‡`¨vM MÖnY (Taking initiative) : GKvwaK e¨w³ †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi j‡ÿ¨ me©cÖ_g D‡`¨vMx nb| †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi Rb¨ cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î Kgc‡ÿ 7 Rb Ges cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î Kgc‡ÿ 2 Rb D‡`¨v³vi cÖ‡qvRb nq| e¨emv‡qi m¤¢vebv, mvdj¨ BZ¨vw` wel‡q wPšÍvfvebv K‡i Zviv †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi cÖv_wgK c`‡ÿc MÖnY K‡ib| 1g avc D‡`¨vM MÖnY 2q avc

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2. cwiKíbv cÖYqb (Making a plan): D‡`¨vM MÖnY †k‡l D‡`¨v³vMY †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi j‡ÿ¨ GKwU MÖnY‡hvM¨ cwiKíbv cÖYqb K‡ib| †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi cÖv_wgK g~jab, m¤¢ve¨ cÖv_wgK LiPvw`, kªg Kg©Pvixi msL¨v, †kqv‡ii msL¨v, †kqv‡ii g~j¨, m¤¢ve¨ gybvdv BZ¨vw` wel‡q cwiKíbv ‣Zwi Kiv nq| 3. cÖ‡qvRbxq `wjjcÎ cÖYqb (Preparing essential documents): cwiKíbv •Zwii ci D‡`¨v³vMY †Kv¤úvwbi Rb¨ wb‡gœ DwjøwLZ ¸iƒZ¡c~Y© `wjjcÎmg~n cÖYqb K‡i: i. ¯§viKwjwc/msN¯§viK ev cwi‡gjeÜ (Memorandum of Association): GwU †Kv¤úvwbi g~j `wjj ev mb`| G `wj‡j †Kv¤úvwbi bvg, †Kv¤úvwbi wbewÜZ Awd‡mi wVKvbv, †Kv¤úvwbi g~j jÿ¨mg~n, †kqvi, g~ja‡bi cwigvY, †kqv‡ii AvswKK g~j¨mn g~ja‡bi wefw³ Ges GwU cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW bv-wK cvewjK wjwg‡UW Zv D‡jøL Kiv Avek¨K| ii. msNwewa ev cwi‡gj wbqgvewj (Articles of association): GwU †Kv¤úvwbi wØZxq ¸iæZ¡c~Y© `wjj| G‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi Af¨šÍixY wbqš¿Y m¤úwK©Z wewa-weavb A_©vr †Kv¤úvwb wKfv‡e cwiPvwjZ n‡e Zv D‡jøL _v‡K| Aek¨ cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b ewY©Z Zdwmj-1†K †Kv¤úvwbi cwi‡gj wbqgvewj wn‡m‡e MÖnY Kiv hvq| †m‡ÿ‡Î `wjj ‣Zwii cÖ‡qvRb nq bv|


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4. cÖ‡qvRbxq KvMRcÎ msMÖn (Collecting essential documents): G ch©v‡q D‡`¨v³vMY wbe܇Ki Awdm †_‡K wba©vwiZ wd cÖ`vbc~e©K †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi wbwgË cÖ‡qvRbxq dig I KvMRcÎ msMÖn K‡ib| 5. wbe܇bi D‡`¨vM MÖnY (Step for registration): †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi Rb¨ G ch©v‡q wewfbœ dig¸‡jv h_vh_fv‡e c~iY Kivi ci D‡`¨v³viv †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq c`‡ÿc MÖnY K‡ib| Av‡e`bc‡Îi mv‡_ wb‡gœv³ `wjj¸‡jv wbe܇Ki wbKU Rgv w`‡Z nqÑ i. cwi‡gjeÜ ev msN¯§vi‡Ki Abywjwc| cwi‡gje‡Ü cÖvB‡fU †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î Kgc‡ÿ 2 R‡bi Ges cvewjK †Kv¤úvwbi ‡ÿ‡Î 7 R‡bi ¯^vÿi _vKv Avek¨K| ii. cwi‡gj wbqgvewji Abywjwc| G‡ZI c~‡e©v³ wbq‡g D‡`¨v³v‡`i ¯^vÿi _vK‡Z nq| Z‡e †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b ewY©Z (Zdwmj-1 MÖnY Kiv n‡j †m‡ÿ‡Î GB g‡g© GKwU †NvlYvcÎ| D‡`¨v³vMY‡K `vwLj Ki‡Z nq| iii. †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi wewa-weavb cvjb Kiv n‡q‡Q- G g‡g© GKwU †NvlYvcÎ †Kv‡bv DwKj, AvqKi Dc‡`óv ev PvUvW© Øviv cÖZ¨qb K‡i wb‡Z nq [aviv 25(2)]| iv. †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjK nevi Rb¨ m¤§wZ cÖ`vbKvix e¨w³M‡Yi bvg, wVKvbv I †ckv [aviv 92(2)]| v. cwiPvjK wn‡m‡e KvR Ki‡Z m¤§Z Av‡Qb G g‡g© wbR ¯^vÿihy³ †NvlYvcÎ [aviv 92(1K)]| vi. cwiPvjK wn‡m‡e †Kv¤úvwbi wbKU †_‡K †hvM¨Zvm~PK †kqvi µ‡q m¤§Z Av‡Qb G g‡g© GKwU wjwLZ Pzw³cÎ [aviv 92(1-L)]| 6. wbeÜbcÎ msMÖn (Collection of the certificate of incorporation): cÖ‡qvRbxq `wjjcÎvw` wbe܇Ki wbKU `vwLj Kivi ci wZwb hw` G g‡g© mš‘ó nb †h, †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi weavbmg~n h_vh_fv‡e cvjb Kiv n‡q‡Q, Zvn‡j wZwb †Kv¤úvwb wbeÜbcÎ cÖ`vb K‡ib| wbeÜbcÎ cvIqvi ci cªvB‡fU †Kv¤úvwb e¨emvq Avi¤¢ Ki‡Z cv‡i; wKš‘ cvewjK †Kv¤úvwb Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ bv cvIqv ch©šÍ e¨emvq Avi¤¢ Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| 7. Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ msMÖn (Collection of certificate of commencenment): G c`‡ÿcwU ïaygvÎ cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi Rb¨ cÖ‡hvR¨| G ch©v‡q †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjKMY g~jab msMÖ‡ni j‡ÿ¨ †Kv¤úvwbi weeiYcÎ •Zwi K‡i RbMY‡K †kqvi µ‡qi Avgš¿Y Rvbvb| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 150 avivi eY©bv Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwb‡K Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ msMÖ‡ni D‡Ï‡k¨ wb‡gœv³ `wjj¸‡jv cybivq mshy³ Ki‡Z nq| i. b~¨bZg g~jab msM„nxZ n‡q‡Q Ges cÖ‡Z¨K cwiPvjK Zvi µxZ †kqv‡ii g~j¨ cÖ`vb K‡i‡Qb GB g‡g© †NvlYvcÎ [aviv-150 (1)] ii. cwiPvjK‡`i wb‡R‡`i ga¨ n‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq g~jab msMÖn Kiv m¤¢e n‡j †m‡ ÿ‡Î †Kv¤úvwb Rbmvavi‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ weeiYcÎ cÖPvi bv K‡i _vK‡j weeiYc‡Îi cwie‡Z© weKí weeiwYi Kwc [aviv 150(1-N)]|


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Dc‡i ewY©Z kZ©vewj c~iY mv‡c‡ÿ `wjjcÎ †`‡Lï‡b wbeÜK hw` mš‘ó nb Z‡e wZwb †Kv¤úvwbi bv‡g ÔKvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎÕ Bmy¨ K‡ib| AZtci cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb e¨emvq ïiƒ Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges G cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g †h․_g~jabx †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ n‡q _v‡K| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, Dc‡i DwjøwLZ c`‡ÿc/ ch©vq¸‡jv AZ¨šÍ mZK©Zvi mv‡_ AwZµg Kivi ci GKwU †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ n‡q _v‡K|

3.8 wbeÜbcÎ (Registration Certificate) wbe܇bi cÖwZkã n‡jv ZvwjKvfy³KiY| †Kv¤úvwb wbeÜK †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb‡K Zvi wbeÜb eB‡Z ZvwjKvfy³Ki‡Yi ci welqwU H †Kv¤úvwb‡K cÎ Øviv Rvwb‡q †`b| H cÎwUB wbeÜbcÎ bv‡g cwiwPZ| G m¤ú‡K© L.R. Chowdhury e‡jb, æCerificate of incorporation is the conclusive evidence of the company authority to commence business.” †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi Rb¨ wbw`©ó wd mn KwZcq `wjjcÎ wbe܇Ki wbKU Rgv w`‡Z nq| `wjjmg~n wbgœiƒcÑ i. †Kv¤úvwb‡K ZvwjKvfy³ Kivi ZvwiL ; ii. wbe܇Ki Kvh©vj‡qi cwiwPwZ ; iii. wbeÜb b¤^i ; iv. †Kv‡bv ZvwiL n‡Z wbeÜb Kvh©Ki n‡e ; v. wbe܇Ki Kvh©vjq Ges wbe܇Ki wbR¯^ wmj ; vi. wbe܇Ki ¯^vÿi ; vii. wbw`©ó mg‡qi Rb¨ wbeÜb Kiv n‡j Zvi D‡jøL ; viii. wba©vwiZ dv‡g©i Rb¨ Kiv n‡j Zvi D‡jøL ; ix. miKvwi ÷¨v¤ú ; x. kZ©mv‡cÿ wbeÜb n‡j, †m k‡Z© ; BZ¨vw`| DwjøwLZ KvMRcÎ I wba©vwiZ wd cvIqvi ci wbeÜK †Kv¤úvwbi bvg †iwR÷v‡i ZvwjKvfy³ K‡ib Ges GKwU cÎ/`wjj †Kv¤úvwb‡K cÖ`vb K‡ib| D³ c·K wbeÜbcÎ e‡j| wbeÜbcÎ cvIqvi ci †Kv¤úvwb Zvi AvBbMZ Aw¯ÍZ¡ jvf K‡i| wb‡æ †Kv¤úvwbi wbeÜbc‡Îi GKwU bgybv †`qv n‡jv: Bs 57/wb/2004 MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKvi †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇Ki Kvh©vjq gwZwSj ev/G, XvKv-1000 ZvwiL : ........................ wbeÜb cÎ ....... ’X’ .......... †Kv¤úvwb wjt †K †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abyhvqx A`¨ .......................ZvwiL n‡Z †kqvi Øviv mxgve× †Kv¤úvwb wn‡m‡e ZvwjKvfy³ Kiv n‡jv| ¯^vÿi wmj wbeÜK wPÎ : wbeÜb cÎ


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wbeÜbcÎ cvIqvi ci cÖvB‡fU †Kv¤úvwb KvR kyiæ Ki‡Z cvi‡jI cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb‡K Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZ msMÖn Ki‡Z nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, wbeÜb cÎ n‡jv †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi cÖgvY ev `wjj| †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi ci wbeÜb KZ©„cÿ †Kv¤úvwb‡K D³ `wjj ev mvwU©wd‡KU cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K|

3.9 Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÖÎ (Certificate of Commencement) cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb‡K wbeÜbcÎ cvIqvi ci cÖ‡qvRbxq `wjj cÎmn †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇Ki wbKU Kvh©viv‡¤¢i AbygwZ †P‡q Av‡e`b Ki‡Z nq| Av‡e`‡b 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwbi AvB‡bi 50 avivi wbqg mwVKfv‡e cvwjZ n‡j wbeÜK †Kv¤úvwb‡K Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZ w`‡q GKLvbv cÎ cÖ`vb K‡ib, hv Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ bv‡g cwiwPZ|  G m¤ú‡K© L.R Chowdhury-e‡jb, ÒKvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ n‡jv ‡h․_g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbi wbeÜK KZ©„K Bmy¨K…Z GKwU `wjj hv cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb‡K Zvi Kvh©µg ïiæ Kivi AbygwZ cÖ`vb K‡i|Ó (æCertificate of commencement issued by the registrar of joint stock companies permitting a public limited company to commence its business.”) Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZc‡Î †hme welq D‡jøL _v‡K Zv n‡jv: i. wbeÜb Awd‡mi bvg I wVKvbv ; ii. Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ Bmy¨i ZvwiL ; iii. Kvh©vi‡¤¢i ZvwiL ; iv. cÎ b¤^i ; v. Awdm mxj ; vi. wbe܇Ki bvg I c`wemn wmj I ¯^vÿi ; vii. †Kv‡bv kZ© hy³ _vK‡j Zvi weeiY BZ¨vw`| wb‡gœ Kvh©viv‡¤¢i AbgwZc‡Îi GKwU wPÎ †`Iqv n‡jv: cÎ bs-A/07/2004

MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKvi †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇Ki Kvh©vjq gwZwSj ev/G, XvKv-1000

ZvwiL : .....................

Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 103 aviv Abyhvqx ‘Y’ †Kv¤úvwb wjwg‡UW‡K Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZ †`qv †Mj| hv..............ZvwiL n‡Z Kvh©Ki n‡e| ¯^vÿi wmj wbeÜK wPÎ : Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ|


†Kv¤úvwb AvBb I †Kv¤úvwb mfv

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Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ cÖvwßi ci cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb Zvi Kvh©µg ïiæ Ki‡Z cv‡i| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, Kvh© Avi‡¤¢i AbygwZ cvIqvi ci cvewjK wjt †Kv¤úvwb AvbyôvwbKfv‡e KvR ïiæ Ki‡Z cv‡i| myZivs ejv hvq, †Kv¤úvwbi wbeÜK KvR ïiæ Kivi AbygwZ w`‡q †Kv¤úvwb‡K †h cÎ cÖ`vb K‡i Zv‡K Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ e‡j|

3.10 msN-¯§viK/¯§viKwjwc ev cwi‡gjeÜ (Memorandum of Association) GKwU ¯^vaxb I mve©‡f․g †`‡ki g‡ZvB †Kv¤úvwbi GKwU msweavb _v‡K, G‡K msN¯§viK ev ¯§viKwjwc e‡j| ¯§viKwjwc †Kv¤úvwbi cÖavb `wjj G‡K †Kv¤úvwbi MVbZš¿I ejv hvq| †Kv¤úvwbi bvg, wVKvbv, D‡Ïk¨, `vq, g~jab, Kvh©mxgv, ÿgZvi cwimi cÖf„wZ G‡Z ewY©Z _v‡K| Gi evB‡i †Kv¤úvwb †Kv‡bv KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| wb‡gœ msN-¯§vi‡Ki K‡qKwU RbwcÖq msÁv D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv: 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b msN-¯§vi‡Ki †Kv‡bv my¯úó msÁv †`qv nqwb| Z‡e †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(1) (K) avivq G m¤ú‡K© ejv n‡q‡Q| †Kv¤úvwb AvBb-1994 Gi 2(1) (K) aviv g‡Z, ÒmsN-¯§viKÕ (Memorandum of association) ej‡Z G AvB‡bi weavbvbymv‡i cÖYxZ †Kv¤úvwbi g~j msN-¯§viK ev cieZ©x‡Z Gi ms‡kvwaZ iƒc‡K †evSv‡e|Ó (Memorandum means the memorandum of association of a company as orginally framed or as altered in persuance of this Act.-Companies Act. 1994, Sec. 2(1)”) Lord Cairns-e‡jb, ÒmsN-¯§viK n‡jv †Kv¤úvwbi mb`, hv †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi e‡j MwVZ †Kv¤úvwbi ÿgZvi mxgv wba©viY K‡i|Ó (æThe memorandum of Association of a company is its charter and defines the limitations of the powers of the company established under this act.”) Charles Worth- Gi g‡Z, ÒmsN-¯§viK n‡‛Q wbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwbi mb`, hv †Kv¤úvwbi ÿgZv‡K msÁvwqZ K‡i|Ó L.J. Brown-e‡jb, ÒmsN-¯§vi‡K †Kv¤úvwb Hme †g․wjK welqvewj wjwce× _v‡K hvi wfwˇZ †Kv¤úvwb wbw`©ófv‡e wbewÜZ Kiv hvq| Gme kZ© mgfv‡e cvIbv`vi, ewnivMZ RbMY Ges †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i ¯^v‡_© wjwce× Kiv nq|Ó (ÒThe memorandum contains the fundamental conditions upon which alone the company is allowed to be incorporated. They are condition introduced for the benefit of the creditors and the outside public, as well as of the shareholders.”) Egyptian Salt and Soda Co. Ltd. Vs. Port Said Salt Association Ltd. gvgjvi iv‡q ejv n‡q‡Q †h, ÒmsN-¯§viK Ggb GKwU `wjj hv †Kv¤úvwbi msweavb‡K cÖKvk K‡i| Avi †mRb¨ mwZ¨Kvi A‡_© GUvB †Kv¤úvwbi g~j wfwË, hvi Ici †Kv¤úvwbi KvVv‡gv `Ðvqgvb| GUv †Kv¤úvwbi mv‡_ evB‡ii RM‡Zi m¤úK© Ges †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©cwiwa mwVKfv‡e wba©viY K‡i|Ó (ÒMemorandum was defined as a document which sets out the constitution of a company and as such it is really the foundation on which the structure of the company is based. It defines its relation with the outside world and the scope of its activities.”)


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DcwiD³ msÁv¸‡jv we‡kølY Ki‡j †h aviYv cvIqv hvq, Zvn‡jvÑ K. msN¯§viK †Kv¤úvwbi g~L¨ `wjj; L. G‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi bvg wVKvbv, g~jab I ÿgZvi mxgv D‡jøL _v‡K; M. Gi gva¨‡g Z…Zxq c‡ÿi mv‡_ m¤úK© wba©vwiZ nq; N. msN¯§viK DwjøwLZ D‡Ï‡k¨i evB‡i †Kv¤úvwb †Kv‡bv KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i bv; O. msN¯§viK Qvov †Kv¤úvwb miKvwi AbygwZ cvq bv; BZ¨vw`| wb‡æ msN¯§vi‡Ki GKwU bgybv †`Iqv Ñ †Kv¤úvwb AvBb 1994 Abyhvqx cÖYxZ †kqvi Øviv mxgve× ÔKÕ †Kv¤úvwbi msN¯§viK 1| †Kv¤úvwbi bvg :-----------------------------------------------------------------------------2| cÖavb Kvh©vjq :-----------------------------------------------------------------------------3| D‡Ïk¨

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cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †Kv¤úvwbi gyL¨ `wjj wn‡m‡e msN¯§viK cÖ¯‘Z I wbe܇Ki wbKU `vwLj eva¨Zvg~jK| msN¯§viK Qvov †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ n‡Z cv‡i bv|


†Kv¤úvwb AvBb I †Kv¤úvwb mfv

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3.11 ¯§viKwjwci welqe¯‘ ev avivmg~n (Contents of Memorandum of Association) †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 6 avivq †kqvi Øviv mxgve× †Kv¤úvwbi 7 avivq cÖwZkÖæwZ Øviv mxgve× †Kv¤úvwbi Ges 8 avivq Amxgv`vq †Kv¤úvwbi ¯§viKwjwci welqe¯Íy m¤ú‡K© ejv n‡q‡Q| wb‡æ GKwU ¯§viKwjwci avivmg~n D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv:

¯§viKwjwci welqe¯‘y/avivmg~n

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

bvgaviv Ae¯’vb I wVKvbvaviv D‡Ïk¨ aviv `vq aviv g~jab aviv m¤§wZ aviv

wPÎ: ¯§viKwjwci welqe¯Íy|

1. bvg aviv (Name Clause): †Kv¤úvwbi bvg Ges bv‡gi †k‡l cvewjK †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î Ôwjwg‡UWÕ Ges cÖvB‡fU †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î ÔcÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UWÕ G k㸇jv †hvM Ki‡Z n‡e| †Kv¤úvwbi †h‡Kv‡bv bvg ivLv †h‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e bvg MÖn‡Yi †ÿ‡Î AÎ AvB‡bi 11 avivq ewY©Z wb‡gœv³ wewawb‡la †g‡b Pj‡Z nq: i. GKwU we`¨gvb †Kv¤úvwb BZtc~‡e© †h bv‡g wbewÜZ n‡q D³ bv‡gB envj Av‡Q A_ev †h bv‡gi mv‡_ cÖ¯ÍvweZ bv‡gi Ggb mv`„k¨ _v‡K †h, D³ mv`„‡k¨i d‡j cÖZviYv Kiv m¤¢e; ii. miKvwi †M‡R‡U cÖÁvc‡bi Øviv Abwf‡cÖZ e‡j †NvlYv K‡i‡Q; Ggb †Kv‡bv bvg miKv‡ii wjwLZ c~e©vbygwZ e¨wZ‡i‡K MÖnY Kiv hv‡e bv| iii. RvwZmsN ev RvwZmsN KZ©„K MwVZ Gi †Kv‡bv mnvqK ms¯’v A_ev wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’vi bvg ev Hme bv‡gi kã ms‡ÿc msewjZ †Kv‡bv bvg, RvwZmsN ev Gi mnvqK ms¯’vi †ÿ‡Î RvwZms‡Ni †m‡µUvwi †Rbv‡ij Ges wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ms¯’vi ‡ÿ‡Î Gi WvB‡i±i †Rbv‡i‡ji wjwLZ c~e© AbygwZ e¨ZxZ e¨envi Kiv hv‡e bv| 2. Ae¯’vb I wVKvbv aviv (Situation and Address Clause): †Kv¤úvwbi wbewÜZ Kvh©vjq †h A‡j Aew¯’Z _vK‡e †m ¯’v‡bi bvg| Gi mv‡_ †Kv¤úvwb †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv GjvKvq Gi Kvh©vewj we¯Í„Z Ki‡e ZvI ewY©Z _vK‡e| 3. D‡Ïk¨ aviv (Objective Clause): †Kv¤úvwb wK ai‡bi e¨emv‡q wjß _vK‡e Zv G avivq we¯Í…Zfv‡e wjwce× _vK‡e| G D‡Ï‡k¨i evB‡i †Kv‡bv e¨emvq Kiv hvq bv| G aviv GKw`‡K †Kv¤úvwbi ÿgZv‡K msÁvwqZ K‡i Ges Ab¨w`‡K †Kv¤úvwb cÖ`Ë ÿgZv‡K mxgve× K‡i| D³ avivq †Kv¤úvwbi m¤¢ve¨ †ÿÎmg~‡ni eY©bv _v‡K Ges fwel¨‡Z cÖ‡qvRb n‡j Kx Kx e¨emvq Ki‡Z cvi‡e ZvI wek`fv‡e ewY©Z _v‡K|


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4. `vq aviv (Liability Clause): †Kv¤úvwbi m`m¨‡`i `vq Zv‡`i µqK…Z †kqv‡ii AvswKK g~j¨ (Face value) Øviv mxgve× _v‡K| †kqv‡ii Acwi‡kvwaZ g~‡j¨i Rb¨ †Kej †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i‡K `vqx Kiv hv‡e Ges †kqv‡ii g~j¨ m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c cwi‡kva Ki‡j Zviv m¤ú~Y© `vqgy³ n‡eb| 5. g~jab aviv (Capital Clause): cÖ¯ÍvweZ †gvU g~ja‡bi cwigvY Ges g~jab KZK¸‡jv Ges Kx cÖKv‡ii †kqv‡i wef³ _vK‡e Zv G avivq D‡jøL _v‡K| †Kv¤úvwbi G g~jab‡K wbewÜZ ev Aby‡gvw`Z g~jab ejv nq| Gi AwZwi³ g~jab †Kv¤úvwb msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| 6. m¤§wZ aviv (Consent Clause): ¯^viKwjwci †kl As‡k cÖ‡Z¨K m`m¨ Zuvi bv‡gi wecix‡Z KZK¸‡jv †kqvi µq Ki‡eb Zvi m¤§wZ aviv m¤ú‡K© wbgœiƒc weavb ewY©Z n‡q‡Q: i. msN ¯§vi‡K ¯^vÿi cÖ`vbKvix cÖ‡Z¨K m`m¨‡K Kgc‡ÿ GKwU †kqvi µq Ki‡Z n‡e| [aviv 6 (L)] ii. cÖ‡Z¨K ¯^vÿiKvix m`m¨‡K Zvi bv‡gi wecix‡Z µqK…Z †kqv‡ii cwigvY D‡jøL Ki‡Z n‡e| [aviv 6(M)] iii. cÖ‡Z¨K ¯^vÿiKvix m`m¨ AšÍZc‡ÿ `yRb ¯^vÿxi Dcw¯’wZ‡Z ¯§viKwjwc‡Z ¯^vÿi cÖ`vb Ki‡eb Ges D³ ¯^vÿi mvÿx KZ©„K mZ¨vwqZ n‡Z n‡e| [aviv 9(M)] cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq DcwiD³ avivmg~‡ni ewY©Z mKj ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb‡K me©`v AbymiY Ki‡Z nq| Gi †Kv‡bv GKwU kZ© cwieZ©‡bi †ÿ‡Î Aby‡gv`b I we‡kl wm×všÍ MÖnY I †ÿÎ we‡k‡l Av`vjZ I miKv‡ii Aby‡gv`b MÖnY Ki‡Z nq|

3.12 †Kv¤úvwbi msNwewa/ cwi‡gj wbqgvewj (Articles of Association of the Company) †Kv¤úvwb MVbKvjxb mg‡q †h KqwU `wjj †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇Ki Kv‡Q Rgv w`‡Z nq Zb¥‡a¨ msNwewa ev cwi‡gj wbqgvewj Ab¨Zg| msNwewa †Kv¤úvwbi wØZxq ¸iƒZ¡c~Y© `wjj| G‡Z †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbv msµvšÍ hveZxq wbqgKvbyb wjwce× _v‡K, GwU msN¯§vi‡Ki Av‡jv‡K •Zwi Kiv nq| †h `wj‡ji g‡a¨ †Kv¤úvwbi •`bw›`b Af¨šÍixY cwiPvjbv msµvšÍ LyuwUbvwU I wbqgbxwZ myewY©Z _v‡K, Zv‡K msNwewa ev cwi‡gj wbqgvewj e‡j|  1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2-1(c) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q, ÒmsNwewa ej‡Z Zdwmj-1 G ewY©Z hZUzKz †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î cÖ‡hvR¨ nq ZZUzKzB †evSv‡e|Ó  1956 mv‡ji fviZxq †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(2) avivq ejv Av‡Q, ÒmsNwewa ej‡Z Ggb wbqg-Kvbyb‡K †evSvq hv G AvBb Øviv MwVZ Ges c~e©eZ©x AvBb cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ cwiewZ©Z nq|Ó  Lord Brobene-Gi g‡Z, ÒmsNwewa †Kv¤úvwbi Af¨šÍixY wbqgvewj| AvwU©‡K‡j †Kv¤úvwbi Af¨šÍixY e¨e¯’vcbvi w`K-wb‡`©kbv _v‡K|Ó (Articles are the internal laws of a company. Articles devise ways for the internal management of the company.”)  M.C. Shukla-Gi g‡Z, ÒmsNwewa n‡jv Ggb wewa ev wbqgvewj hv †Kv¤úvwbi Af¨šÍixY e¨e¯’vcbv I welqvewji w`K wb‡`©kbv †`q|Ó (The Articles of Association are the regulations or by-laws which govern the internal management and conduct of the affairs of the company.”)


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msÁv¸‡jvi Av‡jv‡K ejv hvq: K. msNwewa †Kv¤úvwbi e¨emvq cwiPvjbv msµvšÍ `wjj; L. G‡Z †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbvi mKj wbqg AšÍf©y³ _v‡K; M. GwU msN¯§viK cÖ`Ë ÿgZvi g‡a¨ †_‡K wbqg wba©viY K‡i; N. msNwewa‡Z D‡jøL †bB Ggb †Kv‡bv KvR Ki‡Z n‡j, †Kv¤úvwbi Zv cÖ_‡g wewa‡Z AšÍf©y³ K‡i wb‡Z nq; BZ¨vw`| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, msNwewa †Kv¤úvwbi Af¨šÍixY cwiPvjbvi wbqgvbxwZi `wjj| cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î GwU cÖ¯‘Z eva¨Zvg~jK|

3.13 cwi‡gj wbqgvewji welqe¯‘ I aviv (Contents of Articles of Association) cwi‡gj wbqgvewj n‡jv †Kv¤úvwbi wØZxq Ab¨Zg ¸iƒZ¡c~Y© `wjj, hvi g‡a¨ †Kv¤úvwbi Af¨šÍixY Kvh©Kjvc cwiPvjbv msµvšÍ hveZxq welqvw` wjwce× _v‡K| ¯§viKwjwci Aax‡b GB `wjj †Kv¤úvwbi Af¨šÍixY wµqv Kjv‡ci w`K`k©b wn‡m‡e f~wgKv iv‡L, †Kv¤úvwbi cwi‡gj wbqgvewj‡Z †hme welq AšÍf³ ©y nIqv DwPZ †m¸‡jv wbgœiƒc :1. cÖwZôv‡bi bvg: †Kv¤úvwbi bvg Ges bv‡gi †k‡l wjwg‡UW ev mxwgZ ms‡ÿ‡c wjt kãwU emv‡Z n‡e| 2. †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjK msµvšÍ wbqgvewj: i. cwiPvjK msL¨v; ii. cwiPvjK, e¨e¯’vc‡Ki bvg, wVKvbv, †ckv I Ab¨vb¨ weeiYx; iii. cÖ_g cwiPvjK‡`i bvg, wVKvbv I †ckv; iv. e¨e¯’vcK I cwiPvjK‡`i `vq-`vwqZ¡ AwaKvi I KZ©e¨; v. cwiPvjK‡`i †hvM¨Zvm~PK †kqvi I g~j¨; vi. cwiPvjK‡`i cvwikªwgK; vii. cwiPvjK‡`i Aemi MÖnY, `vwqZ¡ Ae¨vnwZ BZ¨vw` msµvšÍ wbqgvewj| 3. †Kv¤úvwbi mwPe I e¨e¯’vcK wb‡qvM c×wZ| 4. wnmveiÿK I wnmve wbixÿK wb‡qvM c×wZ| 5. Ab¨vb¨ Kg©KZ©v wb‡qvM c×wZ: i. g¨v‡bwRs G‡R›U, ii. mwjwmUvi, iii. `vjvj, iv. Ae‡jL‡Ki bvg, v. †ckv| 6. g~jab msµvšÍ wbqgvewj: i. Aby‡gvw`Z g~ja‡bi cwigvY; ii. g~ja‡bi †kªwYwefvM I cwigvY; iii. b~¨bZg g~ja‡bi cwigvY; iv. g~ja‡bi cwieZ©b ev n«vmÑe„w×i wbqg|


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7. †kqvi msµvšÍ wbqgvewj: i. †gvU †kqv‡ii msL¨v I †kªwYwefvM; ii. cÖwZ †kqv‡ii g~j¨; iii. †kqvi µ‡qi Rb¨ Rb mvaviY‡K Avnev‡bi wbqg; iv. †kqvi n¯ÍvšÍi msµvšÍ wbqgvewj; v. †kqvi weµ‡qi Kwgkb I `vjvwj; vi. †kqvi g~j¨ cwi‡kv‡ai wbqgvewj; vii. †kqvi weµq c×wZ; viii. †kqvi ev‡RqvßKiY c×wZ I kZ©vewj; ix. †kqvi n¯ÍvšÍi msµvšÍ wbqgvewj; x. †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i cvi¯úwiK m¤úK© I AwaKvi; xi. wewfbœ †kªwYi †kqvigvwjK‡`i `vq-`vwqZ¡, ÿgZv I AwaKvi| 8. †Kv¤úvwbi FY msµvšÍ wbqgvewj: i. †Kv¤úvwbi FY MÖnY msµvšÍ wbqgvewj| ii. †Kv¤úvwbi FY MÖnY ÿgZvi weeiY| iii. FY MÖnY c×wZ| 9. †Kv¤úvwbi mfv msµvšÍ wbqgvewj: i. †Kv¤úvwbi mfv Avnevb I mfv cwiPvjbv c×wZ| ii. mfvi †fvU MÖnY c×wZ| iii. wewfbœ mfvi †Kvivg msµvšÍ wbqg| iv. mvaviY mfv I we‡kl mfv Abyôv‡bi wbqgvewj| 10 †Kv¤úvwbi jf¨vsk msµvšÍ wbqgvewj: i. jf¨vsk †NvlYvi c×wZ| ii. jf¨vsk‡K g~ja‡b iƒcvšÍwiZ Kivi wbqgvewj| 11. †Kv¤úvwbi e¨vs‡Ki wnmve msµvšÍ wbqgvewj| 12. †Kv¤úvwbi FY MÖn‡Yi c×wZ I wbqgvewj| 13. †Kv¤úvwbi wmj‡gvni msµvšÍ wbqgvewj| i. Gi msiÿY I ii. e¨envi wewa| 14. †Kv¤úvwbi we‡jvc mvab c×wZ| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, †Kv‡bv cvewjK wjt †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î DcwiD³ mKj welqvw` cwi‡gj wbqgvewj‡Z AšÍf©y³ Kiv n‡jI cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î mKj welq Acwinvh© nq bv| Z_vwc, †h‡nZy cwi‡gj wbqgvewj welhe¯Íyi my¯úó eY©bv cÖ`vb K‡i †mRb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq mKj welq Gi AšÍfy©³ nIqv DwPZ|


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3.14 mfv (Meeting) mfv †hvMv‡hv‡Mi GKwU gva¨g| mvaviYfv‡e mfv n‡‛Q †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Ggb GKwU gva¨g hvi Øviv A‡bK gvbyl mvgbvmvgwb GKwÎZ n‡q †Kv‡bv wel‡q Av‡jvPbv K‡i| Ab¨fv‡e ejv hvq, AvBbvbyM †Kv‡bv wel‡q ¯^v_© mswkøó KwZcq e¨w³ hLb wbw`©ó †Kv‡bv Kvi‡Y Avjvc Av‡jvPbv Ges wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ GK‡Î wgwjZ n‡q _v‡Kb ZLb Zv‡K mfv ejv nq| mfv mvaviYZ wewfbœ ai‡bi n‡q _v‡K| †hgb-†Kv¤úvwb mfv, ivR‣bwZK mfv, ag©xq mfv, cvwievwiK •eVK, BZ¨vw`| MYZvwš¿K cš’vq ev e¨e¯’vq mfv‡K GKwU Acwinvh© A½ wn‡m‡e g~j¨vqb Kiv nq| †QvU eo cÖwZwU cÖwZôv‡b wewfbœ ai‡bi mgm¨v †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i| Gme mgm¨vw` m¤^‡Ü Av‡jvPbvi Rb¨ mswkøó cÖwZôv‡bi gvwjK Kg©KZ©v Kg©Pvix, †kqvi †nvìviMY mfvq GKwÎZ nq Ges P‚ovšÍ wm×všÍ MÖnY K‡ib| AvaywbK mgv‡Ri bvix cyiæl, wkwÿZ, AwkwÿZ me iK‡gi †jvKB †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bvfv‡e mfv-m‡¤§j‡bi mv‡_ RwoZ| KviY mfv-m‡¤§jb mgm¨v mgvav‡bi DrK…ó cš’v wn‡m‡e we‡kl f‚wgKv cvjb K‡i| Z‡e Awdm e¨e¯’vcbvq mfv ej‡Z mvaviYZ †Kv¤úvwbi mfv‡KB cÖvavb¨ w`‡q _v‡K| G mfv Avnevb Kivi c~‡e© m`m¨‡`i‡K Av‡jvP¨m~wPmn AewnZ Ki‡Z nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, ¯^v_© mswkøó e¨w³eM© hLb †Kv‡bv mgm¨v ev AvBbvbyM wel‡q Avjvc Av‡jvPbv Ges P‚ovšÍ wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó mg‡q wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b GK‡Î wgwjZ nq ZLb Zv‡K mfv ejv nq| G ai‡bi mfvq wewfbœ welq Av‡jvwPZ n‡Z cv‡i|

3.15 mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wP (Agenda of Meeting) Bs‡iwR Agenda k‡ãi evsjv cÖwZkã n‡jv Av‡jvP¨m~wP ev Kvh©m~wP| Agendum k‡ãi eûePb n‡jv Agenda hvi A_© n‡‛Q hv Ki‡Z n‡e| Aci w`‡K Agenda k‡ãi GKePb n‡‛Q Agendum hvi A_© KiYxq welq| myZivs GKwU wbw`©ó mfvq †hme welq wb‡q Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡e Zvi myk„“Lj aviv weeiYx‡K mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wP e‡j| A_©vr mfvq †hme welq m¤úv`b Kiv n‡e Zvi AwMÖg bKkv ev weeiYx-B n‡jv Av‡jvP¨m~wP| Av‡jvP¨m~wP‡Z †hme welq †jLv _v‡K wbw`©ó mg‡q AbywôZ mfvi m`m¨MY Gme wel‡qi Dci Av‡jvPbv K‡i _v‡Kb| mfvq Dcw¯’Z m`m¨MY hv‡Z wbw`©ó Av‡jvwPZ wel‡qi Dci Zvi wbR¯^ gZvgZ ivL‡Z cv‡i Zvi c~e© cÖ¯‘wZi Rb¨ AwMÖgfv‡e Av‡jvP¨m~wP cÖ¯‘Z Ki‡Z nq Ges m`m¨‡`i wbKU †cÖiY Kiv nq| c~e© †_‡K GwU cÖ¯‘wZi D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv wbqgZvwš¿Kfv‡e mfv cwiPvjbv Kiv; ¸iƒZ¡c~Y© welq hv‡Z ev` bv c‡o; mfvi Av‡jvPbv mswÿß Kiv; m`m¨‡`i‡K mfvi Av‡jvPbvi welqe¯‘ m¤^‡Ü aviYv `vb Kiv BZ¨vw`| wb‡gœ mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wPi K‡qKwU RbwcÖq msÁv cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jv  B.N.Tandon-Gi g‡Z, Òmfvq Av‡jvwPZ n‡e Ggb Kg©m~wPB n‡jv Av‡jvP¨m~wP|Ó (The term ‘Agenda’ means the program of business to be transacted in a meeting.)


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 R.S.N. Pillai-Gi g‡Z, Òmfvq hv Av‡jvwPZ n‡e †m mKj welqmg~n wjwLZfv‡e Dc¯’vcb Kiv‡K mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wP e‡j|Ó (The agenda of a meeting is written in form of items to be discussed at a meeting.)  Aa¨vcK Gg. G gvbœvb-Gi g‡Z, Ò†Kv‡bv mfv ev Awa‡ek‡b †hme wel‡q Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡e Zvi myk„“Lj ZvwjKv cÖYqb Kiv nq Zv‡K mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wP e‡j|Ó Av‡jvP¨m~wP m¤ú‡K© ZvB ejv hvq: (K) GwU wbw`©ó wel‡qi mswÿß ZvwjKv; (L) GwU mfv Abyôv‡bi c~‡e© cÖ¯‘Z Kiv nq; (M) GwU †bvwU‡ki gva¨‡g m`m¨‡`i wbKU †cÖiY Ki‡Z nq; Ges (N) Gi gva¨‡g m`m¨MY mfv m¤ú‡K© c~e© cÖ¯‘wZ wb‡Z cv‡i|

wewae× mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wPi bgybv wgmevn †UªwWs †Kvs wj: wegvb e›`i moK, wm‡jU ZvwiL: GwcÖj 10, 2011 AvMvgx 24 GwcÖj, iweevi mKvj 10-00 NwUKvq †Kv¤úvwbi cÖavb Kvh©vj‡q AbywôZ n‡e| wewae× mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wP wbgœiƒc: 1) mwPe KZ©„K mfvi †bvwUk cvV| 2) wewae× cÖwZ‡e`b cvV| 3) wewae× cÖwZ‡e`‡bi Dci mvaviY Av‡jvPbv| 4) wewae× cÖwZ‡e`‡bi e¨vcv‡i Kv‡iv cÖkœ Av‡Q wK bv mfvcwZ KZ©„K †m m¤^‡Ü wRÁvmv Ges mfvcwZ KZ©„K †Kv¤úvwbi fwel¨Z cwiKíbv I Kvh©µg m¤ú‡K© msw¶ß fvlY| 5) wewae× cÖwZ‡e`b Aby‡gv`b| 6) †Kv¤úvwbi MVb m¤ú‡K© †Kv‡bv cÖkœ _vK‡j Zv Av‡jvPbv| 7) wewea| m¤§vwbZ †kqvi‡nvìviMY‡K h_vmg‡q D³ mfvq Dcw¯’Z _vKvi Rb¨ Aby‡iva Kiv hv‡‛Q| cwiPvjK cl©‡`i Av‡`kµ‡g (Avãyi iwk`) mwPe

Dc‡ii Av‡jvPbv n‡Z ejv hvq †h, †Kv¤úvwb ev mwgwZi mwPe mfvcwZi mv‡_ Av‡jvPbv K‡i mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wP •Zwi K‡ib| mvaviYZ mwPe `yai‡bi Av‡jvP¨m~wP cÖ¯‘Z K‡ib| GKwU mfvcwZi e¨env‡ii Rb¨ Ges Av‡iKwU m`m¨‡`i wbKU cvVv‡bvi Rb¨| mfvcwZi Rb¨ Av‡jvP¨m~wP •Zwi Kiv nq mvaviYZ GKwU †Lvjv KvM‡R Ges evg cvk¦© eivei gvwR©b †i‡L| G gvwR©‡b mfvcwZi Av‡jvP¨ wel‡qi wm×všÍ msµvšÍ UxKv ev †bvU K‡i iv‡Lb| Av‡jvP¨m~wP‡Z mfvi ¯’vb, mgq I ZvwiL D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq| †h‡Kv‡bv mfvi Rb¨ GwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© `wjj wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nq|


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3.16 †Kv¤úvwb mfv (Company meeting) mvaviYfv‡e KwZcq e¨w³ ¯^v_© mswkøó †Kv‡bv wel‡q Av‡jvPbvi Rb¨ GK‡Î wgwjZ n‡j Zv‡K mfv e‡j| wKš‘ †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi Øviv m„ó GKwU cÖwZôvb| ZvB †Kv¤úvwbi mv‡_ ¯^v_©mswkøó e¨w³MY †Kv¤úvwbi mvwe©K wel‡q Avjvc Av‡jvPbv Ges wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abyhvqx ev cÖPwjZ weavb †gvZv‡eK †h mfv Avnevb K‡i _v‡K Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwb mfv e‡j| †Kv¤úvwbi ¯^v_© mswkøó e¨w³MY n‡jb †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi †nvìvi, cwiPvjKgÐjx, FY`vZv BZ¨vw` e¨w³‡`i eySvq| myZivs ejv hvq, †Kv¤úvwbi m`m¨ ev cwiPvjKMY cÖPwjZ †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwbi ¯^v_© mswkøó †Kv‡bv wel‡q Av‡jvPbvi Rb¨ wgwjZ n‡j Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwb mfv e‡j| wb‡gœ †Kv¤úvwb mfvi K‡qKwU RbwcÖq msÁv cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jv:  M.C Shukla-Gi g‡Z, Òmfv ej‡Z KwZcq e¨w³i mgv‡ek‡K eySvq hv c~e© weÁwßi gva¨‡g †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbvi wbqgvewj •Zwi K‡i|Ó (A meeting may be defined as a gathering of some persons by previous notice for transacting some lawful business by passing resolutions.)  J.C. Denyer-Gi g‡Z, Òmswkøó mK‡ji (†kqvi †nvìvi/cwiPvjK/FY`vZv) †h․_ ¯^v_© iÿv‡_© AvBb Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwbi Kvievi msµvšÍ wel‡q AbywôZ mfv‡K †Kv¤úvwb mfv e‡j|Ó  [Company meeting means an organized assembly of persons (shareholders/ directors/ creditors) according to law for transaction of business of common interest.]  Prof. M.A. Mannan-Gi g‡Z, Ò†Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwbi m`m¨ ev cwiPvjKMY †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi weavb wKsev cÖPwjZ cÖ_v Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©vewji mv‡_ mswkøó †h‡Kv‡bv wel‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq wm×všÍ MÖnY Kivi Rb¨ †h mfvq wgwjZ nq Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwb mfv e‡j|Ó Dch©y³ msÁv¸‡jv n‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi mfv m¤ú‡K© wbgœwjwLZ aviYv cvIqv hvq GwU Øviv †kqvi‡nvìvi I cwiPvjK‡`i GKwÎZ nIqv‡K eySvq;  mfvq †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbvi wbqg cÖYqb Kiv nq;  wbw`©ó mg‡qi c~‡e© †bvwUk w`‡q mfv Abyôvb Ki‡Z nq;  G‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi wewfbœ Z_¨ Av`vb cÖ`vb Kiv nq; Ges  †Kv¤úvwbi AvBb AbymiY K‡i mfv Avnevb I Abyôvb BZ¨vw` Kvh© m¤úbœ Ki‡Z nq| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 85(1)K aviv †gvZv‡eK Kgc‡ÿ †P․Ï (14) w`b c~‡e© wjwLZ †bvwUk w`‡q †Kv¤úvwbi evwl©K mvaviY mfv Avnevb Kiv hv‡e| Z‡e evwl©K mvaviY mfv Qvov Ab¨ †Kv‡bv mvaviY mfv wKsev †Kv‡bv we‡kl wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ GKzk (21) w`‡bi wjwLZ †bvwUk w`‡q mfv Avnevb Kiv hv‡e|


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†Kv¤úvwbi mfv wewfbœ Kvi‡Y n‡Z cv‡i| †hgb cwiPvjK ev gvwjK ev cvIbv`vi‡`i ¯^v_© iÿvi Rb¨;  AvB‡bi weavb †g‡b Pjvi Rb¨;  e¨emvq msµvšÍ †Kv‡bv e¨vcv‡i wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi Rb¨;  G mfv c~‡e© wba©vwiZ mgq, ZvwiL I ¯’v‡b AbywôZ nq; Ges  †Kv‡bv we‡kl NUbv A_ev †Kv¤úvwb msµvšÍ wewbg‡qi Rb¨ G mfv Avnevb Kiv nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwbi Kvievi msµvšÍ wel‡q wewfbœ mg‡q AbywôZ m`m¨ ev cwiPvjK ev cvIbv`vi‡`i mfv‡K †Kv¤úvwb mfv ejv nq| cÖwZwU †Kv¤úvwbi Rb¨ mfv AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© weavq †Kv¤úvwb mwPe AZ¨šÍ `ÿZv I wbqgZvwš¿Kfv‡e †Kv¤úvwb mfvi Av‡qvRb K‡i _v‡K|

3.17 †Kv¤cvwb mfvi cÖKvi‡f` (The Type of Company Meeting) †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abyhvqx †hgb †h․_g~jabx Kvievi MwVZ nq †Zgwb †Kv¤úvwbi wbw`©ó AvBb Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwbi mfv Avnevb Ki‡Z nq| GKwU †Kv¤úvwb MVb †_‡K ïiƒ K‡i †Kv¤úvwbi Aemvqb ch©šÍ wewfbœ wel‡q wewfbœ ai‡bi mfv AbywôZ n‡Z †`Lv hvq| †Kv¤úvwb mfvi †kªwY wefvM wb‡gœ †`Lv‡bv n‡jv:

K| cwiPvjK‡`i mfv: †Kv¤úvwb AvBb g‡Z †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjK‡`i mgš^‡q ev cwiPvjKMY GKwÎZ n‡q †h mfv AbywôZ n‡q _v‡K Zv‡K cwiPvjK‡`i mfv e‡j| Giƒc mfv `ycÖKvi hv wbgœiƒc: 1. KwgwU mfv: †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó we‡kl KvR ev †Kv‡bv mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Rb¨ ev we‡kl †Kv‡bv NUbv m¤ú‡K© AbymÜvb K‡i wi‡cvU© †ck Kivi Rb¨ cwiPvjKgÐjxi KwZcq m`m¨ wb‡q GKwU ¯’vqx ev A¯’vqx KwgwU MVb Kiv nq| D³ KwgwUi m`m¨MY A‡jvPbvi Rb¨ ev wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ GKwÎZ n‡q mfv Avnevb Kiv n‡j Zv‡K KwgwU mfv e‡j| 2. cl©` mfv: †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjK‡`i †h․_fv‡e cl©` ev †evW© bv‡g AwfwnZ Kiv nq| cwiPvjK‡`i wb‡q G cl©` MwVZ nq e‡j G‡K cwiPvjK cl©` bv‡gI AwfwnZ Kiv n‡q _v‡K| †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjKMY evwl©K mvaviY mfvq †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi †nvìviMY KZ©„K wbe©vwPZ n‡q _v‡Kb| cwiPvjK cl©` †Kv¤úvwbi •`bw›`b Kvh©vewj cwiPvjbv ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv mgm¨v mgvavbK‡í bxwZ wba©vi‡Yi Rb¨ c`‡ÿc MÖnY Ki‡Z gv‡S gv‡S Awa‡ek‡b wgwjZ nb| G‡K cwiPvjK cl©‡`i mfv ev cl©` mfv e‡j| mvaviYZ cwiPvjK cl©‡`i mfv c×wZ mswkøó †Kv¤úvwbi cwi‡gj wbqgvewj‡Z ejv _v‡K| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 95 aviv Abyhvqx, cÖwZ wZb gv‡m GKevi Ges erm‡i Kgc‡ÿ Pvievi cl©` mfv Abyôvb Avek¨K|


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L| †kqvi †nvìvi‡`i mfv: †kqvi‡nvìviMY mgwóMZfv‡e †Kv¤úvwbi m‡e©v‛P KZ©„cÿ| d‡j †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi gvwjKMY †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó wel‡q Av‡jvPbvi Rb¨ GKwÎZ n‡j Zv‡K †kqvi †nvìvi‡`i mfv e‡j| wbqgvbyhvqx cÖwZ eQi †hgb G mfv Abyôvb Ki‡Z nq †Zgwb Gi evB‡iI bvbvb cÖ‡qvR‡b Gai‡bi mfv Abyôv‡bi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o wb‡gœ †kqvi †nvìvi‡`i wewfbœ mfv m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. wewae× mfv: cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb‡Z Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ cvIqvi ci AvBbvbyhvqx wbw`©ó mg‡qi g‡a¨ †kqvi †nvìvi‡`i †Kv¤úvwbi wewfbœ welq m¤ú‡K© m`m¨‡`i/†kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i AeMwZi Rb¨ e¨a¨Zvg~jKfv‡e †h mfv Avnevb Kiv nq Zv‡K wewae× mfv e‡j| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 83 (1) aviv Abyhvqx, †Kv¤úvwbi e¨emvq Kvh©vi‡¤¢i ZvwiL n‡Z GK gvm (30 w`b) ci Ges m‡e©v‛P Qq gv‡mi (180 w`‡bi) g‡a¨ Giƒc mfv Abyôvb Ki‡Z nq| G mfv Abyôv‡bi †ÿ‡Î Kgc‡ÿ mfvi 21 w`b c~‡e© †bvwU‡ki gva¨‡g m`m¨‡`i AeMZ Ki‡Z nq| G mfv †Kv¤úvwbi RxeÏkvq GKeviB AbywôZ n‡q _v‡K| 2. evwl©K mfv: cÖ‡Z¨K †Kv¤úvwb‡K wbe܇bi ci AvVv‡iv (18) gv‡mi g‡a¨ †h mfv Avnevb Ki‡Z nq Zv‡K cÖ_g evwl©K mvaviY mfv e‡j| Gici cÖwZ eQi GKevi evwl©K mvaviY mfv Abyôv‡bi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z nq| Z‡e 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 81 (1) avivi weavb Abyhvqx `ywU mvaviY mfvi ga¨eZ©x ch©v‡q c‡b‡iv (15) gv‡mi †ewk weiwZ _vKv AvBbm¤§Z bq| cvewjK, cÖvB‡fUmn mKj ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb‡KB cÖwZ eQi G mfv Abyôv‡bi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z nq| mfv Abyôv‡bi GKzk (21) w`b c~‡e© †Kv‡Uk‡bi gva¨‡g mswkøó cÿ‡K Rvbv‡Z nq| 3. mvaviY mfv: `ywU evwl©K mvaviY mfvi ga¨eZ©x †h‡Kv‡bv mg‡q †Kv‡bv Riƒwi I ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq Av‡jvPbv I wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ †h mvaviY mfv AbywôZ nq Zv‡K we‡kl ev AwZwi³ mvaviY mfv e‡j| G‡K Riƒwi mvaviY mfvI ejv n‡q _v‡K| wewae× mfv Ges evwl©K mvaviY mfv Qvov Ab¨vb¨ me mfvB Gi AšÍf©y³| G mfv mvaviYZ cwiPvjKe„›` Avnevb K‡ib Z‡e we‡kl †ÿ‡Î AvBbvbyhvqx †kqvi †nvìviMYI Avnevb Ki‡Z cv‡ib| M| we‡kl mfv: †Kv¤úvwb‡Z †kqvi †nvìviM‡Yi evwl©K mvaviY mfv Ges cwiPvjK cl©‡`i mfvB gyL¨| Z‡e we‡kl cÖ‡qvR‡b †Kv¤úvwb‡Z we‡kl ai‡bi †kqvi‡nvìviM‡Yi mfv I cvIbv`vi‡`i mfv AbywôZ n‡Z cv‡i| wb‡gœ Giƒc we‡kl mfv m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. †kªwYmfv: †Kv¤úvwb‡Z wewfbœ ai‡bi †kqvi _v‡K †hgb: mvaviY †kqvi, AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi BZ¨vw`| †kqv‡ii †kªwYwefv‡Mi wfwˇZ †kqvi gvwjK‡`i mvaviY †kqvi‡nvìvi, AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi‡nvìvi BZ¨vw` bv‡g AwfwnZ Kiv nq| Kv‡RB †Kv‡bv we‡kl †kªwYi †kqvi gvwjK‡`i ¯^v‡_© mfv Avnÿvb Kiv n‡j Zv‡K †kªwYmfv e‡j| mKj †kqvi gvwjK G mfvq Dcw¯’Z _vK‡Z cv‡i bv| †KejgvÎ mswkøó †kªwYi †kqvi‡nvìviMYB Giƒc mfvq Dcw¯’Z _v‡K| †Kv¤úvwbi cwi‡gj wbqgvewj/msNwewa Abyhvqx G mfv AbywôZ n‡Z nq| G mfv mvaviYZ †Kv¤úvwbi we‡kl †kªwYi †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i AwaKvi Ges my‡hvM myweav cÖwZôvi Rb¨ ev GK †kªwY †_‡K Ab¨ †kªwY‡Z iƒcvšÍ‡ii Rb¨ A_ev †Kv¤úvwbi wewamg~‡ni ZviZg¨ mvab msµvšÍ wel‡q we‡kl †kqvi gvwjK‡`i m¤§wZ Av`v‡qi Rb¨ AbywôZ n‡q _v‡K|


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2. cvIbv`vi‡`i mfv: cvIbv`vi‡`i mfv cwiPvjKMY KZ©„K A_ev Zv‡`i Øviv wbhy³ AvBb we‡klÁ Øviv WvKv nq| Z‡e Giƒc mfv Av`vj‡Zi wb‡`©kµ‡gI Avnevb Kiv hvq| †Kv¤cvwbi we‡jvc mva‡bi mgq ev †Kv¤cvwb GKÎxKiY, cybM©VY ev cybwe©b¨v‡mi mgq cvIbv`vi‡`i mv‡_ Av‡cvl Kiv ev Zv‡`i m¤§wZ Av`v‡qi Rb¨ †h mfv AbywôZ nq Zv‡K cvIbv`vi‡`i mfv e‡j| G mfvq †gvU cvIbv`vi‡`i Kgc‡ÿ 3/4 fv‡Mi Dcw¯’wZ‡Z wm×všÍ MÖnY Ki‡Z nq| Avw_©K Amyweav †_‡K cwiÎvY cvevi Rb¨ ev †Kv‡bv Av‡cvl wggvsmvq cvIbv`vi‡`i Aby‡gv`b MÖnYB G mfvi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©vewj myôzfv‡e cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ Gi ¯^v_© mswkøó wewfbœ cÿ Zv‡`i cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx Ges AvBbvbyMfv‡e wewfbœ cÖKvi mfv Avnevb K‡i _v‡Kb| Z‡e cª‡Z¨KwU mfvi D‡Ïk¨, wbqgbxwZ wfbœ|

3.18 †Kvivg (Corram) †Kvivg n‡‛Q Ggb msL¨K m`m¨‡`i Dcw¯’wZ, hviv Dcw¯’Z n‡j mfvi mfvcwZ mfvwU cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| wKš‘ D³ wbw`©ó cwigvY m`m¨ hw` Dcw¯’Z bv nb, Zvn‡j mfvi mfvcwZ mfv ïiƒ Ki‡Z cv‡ib bv| G Ae¯’v‡K †Kvivg msKU e‡j| †hgb- evsjv‡`‡k RvZxq msm‡`i Avmb msL¨v 350 Ges msm‡`i Awa‡ek‡b me©wbgœ 60 Rb m`m¨ Dcw¯’Z bv n‡j ¯úxKvi Awa‡ekb kiƒ Ki‡Z cv‡ib bv| D‡jøL¨ †h, wbw`©ó cwigvY m`m¨ Dcw¯’Z n‡j ¯úxKvi Awa‡ekb kyiƒ Kivi ci hw` †Kv‡bv m`m¨ P‡j hvb Zvn‡j Awa‡ek‡b †Kv‡bv e¨vNvZ N‡U bv| †Kv‡bv mfvq hw` †Kvivg msKU Ae¯’vq cwiPvwjZ n‡q hw` †Kv‡bv wm×všÍ M„nxZ nq Zvn‡j Zv MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡e bv Ges mfvwU A‣ea e‡j MY¨ n‡e|

3.19 mfvi Kvh©weeiYx (Minutes of Meeting) †Kv¤úvwbi mfv msµvšÍ wewfbœ ai‡bi KvMRcÎ e¨eüZ n‡Z †`Lv hvq| Zvi g‡a¨ †hme cÖvgvY¨ `wjj wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nq mfvi Kvh©weeiYx Zv‡`i g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg| Bs‡iwR Minutes k‡ãi evsjv cÖwZkã n‡jv Kvh©weeiYx A_©vr Kv‡Ri mvi mswÿß avivweeiYx‡K mfvi Kvh©weeiYx e‡j| GKwU wbw`©ó mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wP Abyhvqx †hme wel‡q Av‡jvPbv Kiv nq Ges Zvici mK‡ji gZvgZ mv‡c‡ÿ wewfbœ ai‡bi †hme wm×všÍ MÖnY Kiv nq Zvi mvims‡ÿc weeiYx‡K mfvi Kvh©weeiYx e‡j| †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î †Kv¤úvwb mwPe †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i mfv, cwiPvjK‡`i mfv Ges †Kv¤úvwbi AvBbvbyhvqx Ab¨ †h‡Kv‡bv mfvq Dcw¯’Z †_‡K Av‡jvP¨m~wP Abyhvqx M„nxZ wm×všÍmg~n wjwce×KiY Ges fwel¨Z cÖ‡qvR‡b †h‡Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi M„nxZ cÖ¯Íve ev wm×všÍmg~n‡K msiÿ‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ cÖ¯‘ZK…Z mswÿß weeiYx‡KB Kvh©weeiYx e‡j| wb‡gœ mfvi Kvh©weeiYxi K‡qKwU RbwcÖq msÁv cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jv:  B.N. Tandon-Gi g‡Z, Ò†h‡Kv‡bv mfvi Kvh©avivi Awdwmqvj †iKW©mg~n‡K H mfvi Kvh©weeiYx e‡j|Ó  J.P.Bose-Gi g‡Z, ÒKvh©weeiYx n‡jv mfvq M„nxZ †Kv‡bv mwVK I mswÿß cÖvwZôvwbK †iKW©|Ó (The minutes are accurate but condensed official records of what have taken place at a meeting.)  S.K. Dutta-Gi g‡Z, Òmfvi Kvh©weeiYx n‡jv mfvi Kvh©µg I M„nxZ wm×v‡šÍi cÖvwZôvwbK †iKW©mg~n|Ó (The minutes of a meeting may be defined as the official record of the proceeding of the meeting and the decisions arrive of the meeting.)


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R.S.N. Pillai-Gi g‡Z, ÒMinutes are the official records of business transacted at a meeting.Ó

mfvi Kvh©weeiYx m¤ú‡K© ZvB ejv hvq Kvh©weeiYx fwel¨Z cÖ‡qvR‡b m~Î wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i|  G‡Z Kvh© avivi mswÿß weeiY wjwce× Kiv nq|  mfvq Av‡jvwPZ mKj welq we¯ÍvwiZfv‡e †jLv nq bv|  G‡Z M„nxZ wm×všÍ ms‡ÿ‡c †jLv nq|  GwU mfv PjvKvjxb mg‡q cÖ¯‘Z Kiv nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, †Kv¤úvwb mfvq †hme wel‡q Av‡jvPbv Kiv nq Ges Av‡jvPbvi wfwˇZ †hme wm×všÍ M„nxZ nq Zvi GKwU mswÿß I Awdwmqvj †iKW©‡K Kvh©weeiYx e‡j| GK mfvi Kvh©weeiYx cieZ©x mfvq m`m¨MY KZ©„K Aby‡gv`b Kiv‡Z nq| Kvh©weeiYx‡K mfvi Kvh©vewj I wm×všÍmg~‡ni ¯’vqx `wjj wn‡m‡e AvL¨vwqZ Kiv nq|

cÖkœvejx 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| 10| 11| 12| 13| 14| 15| 16| 17| 18| 19|

†Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi msÁv `vI| †Kv¤úvwbi †kÖwYwefvM Av‡jvPbv Ki| †Kv¤úvwbi cªeZ©K ev D‡`¨v³v Kv‡K e‡j? †Kv¤úvwbi D‡`¨v³vi cÖKvi‡f` Av‡jvPbv Ki| D‡`¨v³vi ¸Yvewj Av‡jvPbv Ki| D‡`¨v³vi Kvhv©ewj Av‡jvPbv Ki| †Kv¤úvwb MVb cÖYvjx Av‡jvPbv Ki| wbeÜbcÎ Kv‡K e‡j? Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ Kv‡K e‡j? msN-¯§viK/¯§viKwjwc ev cwi‡gjeÜ Kx? ¯§viKwjwci aviv Av‡jvPbv Ki| cwi‡gj wbqgvewj Kx? cwi‡gj wbqgvewji welqe¯‘ I aviv Av‡jvPbv Ki| mfv Kx? mfvi Av‡jvP¨m~wP Kx? †Kv¤úvwb mfv Kv‡K e‡j? †Kv¤cvwb mfvi †kªwYwefvM Av‡jvPbv Ki| †Kvivg ej‡Z wK eyS? mfvi Kvh©weeiYx Kv‡K e‡j?


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Z_¨ cÖ h y w ³i hy ‡ M e¨e¯
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wkLbdj:  †hvMv‡hv‡Mi mKj gva¨g e¨envi Ki‡Z cvi‡e|  †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wewfbœ c×wZ cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|  gvwb AW©vi m¤^‡Ü Rvb‡Z cvi‡e|  cv‡m©j, eyK †cv÷, Kzwiqvi mvwf©m- G m¤^‡Ü nv‡Z Kj‡g wkÿv wb‡Z cvi‡e|

G Aa¨v‡q hv Av‡Q4.1. †hvMv‡hvM 4.2. e¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hvM 4.3. †hvMv‡hv‡Mi ¸iæZ¡ I D‡Ïk¨ 4.4. †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wewfbœ c×wZ 4.5. †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨gmg~n 4.6. †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Dcv`vbmg~n 4.7. †hvMv‡hv‡Mi cÖKvi‡f` 4.8. AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM 4.9. AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM 4.10. AvbyôvwbK I AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ 4.11. wjwLZ I †g․wLK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ 4.12. WvK †hvMv‡hvM 4.13. mvaviY wPwV

4.14. †iwRw÷ªK…Z wPwV 4.15. wegvK…Z cÎ I cÎ wegv Kivi wbqgvewj 4.16. cv‡m©j I cv‡m©j Kivi wbqgvewj 4.17. eyK †cv÷ 4.18. †cv÷ †Kv‡Wi ¸iæZ¡ 4.19. †cv÷ †KvW c×wZ 4.20. †cv÷vj AW©vi I Gi wbqgvewj 4.21. gvwb AW©vi I gvwb AW©v‡ii wbqgvewj 4.22. gvwb AW©v‡ii ¸iæZ¡ 4.23. B.Gg.Gm 4.24. wR.B.wc 4.25. Kzwiqvi mvwf©m I Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi wbqgvewj 4.26. Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi ¸iæZ¡ 4.27. Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi RbwcÖqZvi KviY


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4.1 †hvMv‡hvM (Communication) †hvMv‡hvM kãwUi Bs‡iwR ÔCommunicationÕ (KwgDwb‡Kkb)| GwU j¨vwUb kã ÔCommunisÕ n‡Z G‡m‡Q- hvi A_© Common ev mvaviY| †hvMv‡hvM kãwU wfbœ wfbœ A‡_© e¨envi Kiv nq| †hgb- GKRb B‡jKwUªK¨vj Ges B‡jKUªwb· BwÄwbqv‡ii wbKU †hvMv‡hvM n‡‪Q g~jZ jvBU, cvLv, †iwWI, †Uwjwfkb, †Uwj‡dvb BZ¨vw`| Ab¨w`‡K GKRb wmwfj BwÄwbqv‡ii wbKU †hvMv‡hvM n‡‪Q †ijc_, moK c_ BZ¨vw`| wKš‧ GKRb e¨e¯
vc‡Ki wbKU †hvMv‡hvM GKUz wfbœ A‡_© e¨eüZ nq| e¨e¯
vc‡Ki wbKU †hvMv‡hvM n‡‪Q Aat¯Íb‡`i mv‡_ g‡Zi Av`vb-cÖ`vb, wb‡`©kbv I wm×všÍ AewnZKiY BZ¨vw`| Z‡e †hvMv‡hv‡Mi A_© wewfbœ †jv‡Ki Kv‡Q wewfbœ iKg n‡jI Gi GKwU mvaviY A_© Av‡Q| Zvn‡jv GK ev GKvwaK e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi g‡a¨ ms‡hvM ¯
vcb Kiv| mvaviYZ †hvMv‡hvM ej‡Z Z_¨ ev c‡Îi Av`vb-cÖ`vb‡K eySvq| G Av`vb-cÖ`vb hLb cvi¯úwiK †evSvcovi m„wó K‡i ev e¨w³K jÿ¨ AwR©Z nq ZLbB †hvMv‡hvM mdj nq, ZvB †hvMv‡hvM ïaygvÎ Z_¨, fve ev e³e¨ Zz‡j aivi g‡a¨ mxgve× bq; Acicÿ hv‡Z Zv eyS‡Z cv‡i Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq cÖZz¨Ëi w`‡Z cv‡i ZvI †hvMv‡hv‡Mi AvIZvfy³ welq| GLv‡b Z‡_¨i †cÖiK, wbw`©ó Z_¨, Z‡_¨i cÖvcK Ges cÖZz¨Ëi Dcv`vb¸‡jv GKwU cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g Pjgvb _v‡K| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi mv‡_ wZbwU Dcv`vb RwoZ; h_v: wbw`©ó Z_¨, Z‡_¨i †cÖiK, Z‡_¨i cÖvcK| mvaviY A‡_©, †h cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK msL¨K e¨w³ ev `j ev cÖwZôvb wb‡R‡`i Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`vb K‡i Zv‡K †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| e¨vcK A‡_©, `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK c‡ÿi g‡a¨ †g․wLK ev wjwLZfv‡e ev AvKvi-Bw½‡Z †Kv‡bv Z_¨ ev fv‡ei Av`vb-cÖ`vb cÖwµqv‡K †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| wb‡gœ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi K‡qKwU RbwcÖq msÁv cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jv:  Elliot Jaques-Gi g‡Z, ÒcÖZ¨ÿ ev c‡ivÿfv‡e mÁv‡b ev AÁv‡b †Kv‡bv Abyf~wZ, g‡bvfve, Avkv, GK¯
vb n‡Z Ab¨¯
v‡b ev GK †jv‡Ki wbKU n‡Z Ab¨ †jv‡Ki wbKU Av`vb-cÖ`vb Kivi cš
vB n‡jv †hvMv‡hvM|Ó (Communication is the sum of total of directly and indirectly, consciously and unconsciously transmitted feelings, attitudes and wishes.)  Newman-Gi g‡Z, Ò†h‡Kv‡bv ¯
v‡b †h‡Kv‡bv mg‡q GKvwaK e¨w³i g‡a¨ fvev‡eM, Z_¨ Ges gZvgZ wewbg‡qi †K․kj‡K †hvMv‡hvM e‡j|Ó  R.S. Davas-Gi g‡Z, ÒmsMV‡bi e¨w³‡`i AšÍtcÖwZwµqvi dj hv Zv‡`i g‡a¨ cvi¯úwiK m‡gvSZvq Kvh©Ki n‡q _v‡K ZvB †hvMv‡hvM|Ó  Murphy and Peck-Gi g‡Z, ÒCommunication is two way process of exchanging ideas or information between human beings.Ó  B.N. Tandon-Gi g‡Z, ÒCommunication means to converse with some person.Ó


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msÁvMZ •ewkó¨: (K) G‡Z GKvwaK cÿ _v‡K; (L) GKcÿ Z_¨ †cÖiY K‡i, Ab¨-cÿ Z_¨ MÖnY K‡i; (M) fv‡ei Av`vb cÖ`vb N‡U, mywbw`©ó Z_¨ _vK‡e; Ges (N) wbw`©ó gva¨g e¨eüZ nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¨w³ ev `‡ji g‡a¨ fve, Abyf~wZ, Z_¨, gZvgZ BZ¨vw` wewbg‡qi cÖwµqv‡K †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| †hvMv‡hvM †g․wLK, wjwLZ, AvKvi-Bw½Z, gy‡Li fvefw½ GgbwK bxieZv cvj‡bi gva‡g ¯
vcb Kiv hvq| GQvov †`Lv mvÿv‡Zi gva¨‡g, †UwjMÖvg, †Uwj‡dvb, d¨v·, †U‡j·, wPwVcÎ, B›Uvi‡bU, msev`cÎ, msev` BZ¨vw` gva¨‡gI †hvMv‡hvM Kiv hvq|

4.2 e¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hvM (Business communication) e¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hvM mvgwMÖK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi GKwU Ask| †hvMv‡hvM Qvov gvbyl †hgb Pj‡Z cv‡i bv †Zgwb e¨emvq Kvh©µg †hvMv‡hvM Qvov m¤¢e bq| ZvB e¨emvwqK RM‡Z •`bw›`b †hme †hvMv‡hvM msNwUZ nq Zv‡K e¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| e¨emvwqK wewfbœ Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Kivi Rb¨ wewfbœ cÿ; †hgb- †µZv-we‡µZv, Kg©x, mn‡hvMx e¨emvqx, FY`vZv, miKvi BZ¨vw`i mv‡_ cÖwZwbqZ †hvMv‡hvM iÿv Ki‡Z nq| myZivs `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK c‡ÿi g‡a¨ e¨emvq-evwYR¨ msµvšÍ Z_¨vw`i Av`vb-cÖ`vb‡K e¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| Drcv`b, eÈb I G‡`i mnvqK mKj KvRB e¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi AšÍf©y³| wb‡gœ e¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi K‡qKwU RbwcÖq msÁv cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jv: 

Prof. W.H. Meaning-Gi g‡Z, ÒThe exchange of ideas, news and views in connection with business among the related parties is called business communication.Ó (e¨emv‡qi mv‡_ mswkøó wewfbœ `‡ji g‡a¨ aviYv, msev` I `k©b BZ¨vw` wewbgq Kiv‡K e¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j|)

Brenman-Gi g‡Z, ÒBusiness communication is the expression, channeling, receiving and interchanging of ideas in commerce and industry.” (e¨emvwqK hveZxq gZvgZ, Z_¨ I fve wewbg‡qi cÖPwjZ cš
vB n‡jv e¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hvM|)

Aa¨vcK Merrihue-Gi g‡Z, Òe¨emvq-evwYR¨ msµvšÍ †cÖi‡Ki †h†Kv‡bv AvPiY ev cÖvc‡Ki wbKU n‡Z Kvw‫‫‬ÿZ cÖZz¨Ëi cvIqv m¤¢e nq Zv‡K e¨emvq †hvMv‡hvM e‡j|Ó

Prof. G.R. Terry-Gi g‡Z, Òe¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hvM n‡jv e¨e¯
vcbvi Kvh©vewj‡K myôzfv‡e cwiPvjbvi jyweªK¨v›U|Ó

Prof. J. Hust-Gi g‡Z, Òmyôzfv‡e Kvievi cwiPvjbv I msMV‡bi wbwg‡Ë `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¨w³i g‡a¨ †h †hvMv‡hvM msNwUZ nq Zv‡K e¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| Ó


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msÁvMZ •ewkó¨: (K) GwU g~j †hvMv‡hv‡Mi GKwU Ask; (L) GwU e¨emvq evwYR¨ †Kw›`ªK; (M) G †hvMv‡hvM cÖwZôv‡bi Af¨šÍ‡i Ges evB‡ii wewfbœ c‡ÿi g‡a¨ n‡Z cv‡i; (N) GLv‡b jvf-†jvKmv‡bi welq RwoZ _v‡K; (O) GwU Kvievwi jÿ¨ I D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡b e¨eüZ nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, e¨emvq-evwYR¨ msµvšÍ †h‡Kv‡bv wel‡q cÖwZôv‡bi †fZ‡i I evB‡ii wewfbœ c‡ÿi g‡a¨ cvi¯úwiK †h †hvMv‡hvM cÖwZwôZ nq Zv‡K e¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j|

4.3 †hvMv‡hv‡Mi ¸iæZ¡ I D‡Ïk¨ (The importance of communication) gvbyl mvgvwRK Rxe; Avi Communication is the mutual interchange of ideas any effective means. †mRb¨ gvbyl Rb¥MÖnY Kivi ciB †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Dci wbf©ikxj n‡q c‡o| GUv Ggb GK ai‡bi cÖwµqv hv mve©ÿwYKfv‡e Rxeb‡K mPj iv‡L| e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi †ÿ‡Î G welqwU AviI †ewk cÖ‡hvR¨| myôz I kw³kvjx †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
v Qvov †Kv‡bv msMVbB e¨e¯
vcbv KvR mym¤úbœ Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| GRb¨ cÖwZôv‡bi e¨e¯
vcbvi Kvh©vewj myôz I my›`ifv‡e m¤úv`‡bi Rb¨ †hvMv‡hvM ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| wb‡gœ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi ¸iæZ¡ / cÖ‡qvRbxqZv / f~wgKv Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. Z_¨ wewbgq: Z_¨ ev msev` Av`vb-cÖ`vb †hvMv‡hv‡Mi cÖ_g I cÖavb KvR| e¨emvq cÖwZôvb •`bw›`b Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡b cÖwZôv‡b wewfbœ Kg©xi g‡a¨ Ges evB‡ii wewfbœ c‡ÿi mv‡_ Z_¨ wewbgq K‡i _v‡K| G Z_¨ msMÖn Ges Av`vb-cÖ`v‡b †hvMv‡hvM gyL¨ f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| 2. bxwZ/cwjwm cÖYqb: cÖ‡Z¨K cÖwZôv‡bi GKUv bxwZ _v‡K hv Øviv cÖwZôvb wbR¯^Zv ev ¯^KxqZvi wfwË ¯
vcb K‡i| Avi G bxwZ cÖYq‡b †hme Z‡_¨i cÖ‡qvRb nq Zv †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g msMÖn Kiv nq| 3. jÿ¨ I D‡Ïk¨ AR©b: cÖwZôv‡bi jÿ¨ AR©bB e¨e¯
vcbvi gyL¨ D‡Ïk¨| e¨w³ †_‡K mgvR, mgvR †_‡K cÖwZôvb I ivóª Gi cÖ‡Z¨KwU ch©v‡q wbR¯^ jÿ¨ _v‡K| Avi G jÿ¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi f~wgKv Ab¯^xKvh©| 4. cwiKíbv cÖYqb I ev¯Íevqb: Kv‡Ri AwMÖg wPšÍvi wjwLZ cÖKvk‡K cwiKíbv e‡j| e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi cwiKíbv cÖYq‡bi Rb¨ e¨e¯
vcbv‡K wewfbœ Drm †_‡K Z_¨ msMÖn Ki‡Z nq| Avi †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
vi gva¨‡g Giƒc Kvh© m¤¢e| M„nxZ cwiKíbvi mwVK Ges djcÖm~ ev¯Íevqb Kivi Rb¨ †hvMv‡hvM we‡kl mnvqZv cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K| 5. `ªæZ wm×všÍ MÖnY: cÖwZôv‡bi •`bw›`b Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡b bvbv Kvi‡Y `ªæZ wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| ZvB myôz †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g wewfbœ Drm †_‡K `ªæZ Z_¨vw` msMÖn K‡i mwVK wm×všÍ MÖnY Kiv hvq| ZvB wm×všÍ MÖn‡YI †hvMv‡hv‡Mi ¸iæZ¡ Kg bq| 6. wb‡`©kbv: KvR ïiæ Kivi Av‡`k cÖ`vb‡K wb‡`©kbv e‡j| †K, KLb, Kx KvR Ki‡e Zv †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g mn‡R wb‡`©k cÖ`vb Kiv hvq| myZivs ejv hvq, wb‡`©kbvi †ÿ‡Î †hvMv‡hvM LyeB ¸iæZ¡c~Y©|


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7. mgš^q mvab: cÖvwZôvwbK Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡b gvbyl QvovI bvbv ai‡bi Agvbexq Dcv`vb e¨eüZ nq| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g Gme Dcv`v‡bi g‡a¨ mwVK I mnR mgš^q mvab Kiv hvq| 8. Kvh©mš‘wó: cÖwZôv‡bi wbe©vnx I Kg©Pvwi‡`i Kvh©mš‧wó weav‡b †hvMv‡hvM Acwinvh© Dcv`vb| KviY D‪P ch©v‡qi mv‡_ hw` wbgœc`¯
 Kg©KZ©v I Kg©Pvwi‡`i wewfbœ wel‡q Z_¨ I fve wewbgq nq Zvn‡j mK‡ji g‡a¨ cvi¯úwiK wek¦vm I m¤ú‡K©i Dbœqb N‡U| hv cÖwZôv‡b Kvh©mš‧wó weav‡b mnvqK nq| 9. cvi¯úwiK m¤ú‡K©i Dbœqb: cÖwZôv‡bi †fZ‡i I evB‡ii wewfbœ e¨w³ ev c‡ÿi mv‡_ †m․nv`©c~Y© m¤úK© eRvq ivLvi †ÿ‡Î †hvMv‡hvM GKvšÍ Acwinvh©| ZvB Af¨šÍixY Ges evwn¨K m¤úK© DbœqbK‡í †hvMv‡hvM AZxe ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| 10. `ÿZv I g‡bvej Dbœqb: e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡b wewfbœ ch©v‡qi Kg©x‡`i `ÿZv I g‡bvej e„w×i †ÿ‡Î †hvMv‡hvM ¸iæZ¡c~Y© I Kvh©Ki †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Afv‡e Kg©x‡`i g‡a¨ A¯úóZv, fyj aviYv I fyj eySveywSi m„wó nq| G‡Z Kg©x‡`i `ÿZv I g‡bvej n«vm cvq| cÖZ¨ÿ Ges c‡ivÿ Kvh©Ki †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
vi gva¨‡g cÖwZôv‡b Kg©iZ Kg©x‡`i `ÿZv I g‡bvej Dbœqb m¤¢e nq| d‡j cÖwZôv‡b mgš^q I wbqš¿Y e¨e¯
v Kvh©Kix nq| 11. AvšÍR©vwZK m¤úK©: e¨emvq cwiPvjbvq cÖwZwbqZ we‡`‡ki mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM iÿv Ki‡Z nq| KviY we‡`k †_‡K KuvPvgvj I hš¿cvwZ msMÖn Ki‡Z nq Ges Drcvw`Z `ªe¨ we‡`‡k ißvwb Kivi cÖ‡qvRb nq| myZivs AvšÍR©vwZK evwY‡R¨i †ÿ‡Î †hvMv‡hv‡Mi ¸iæZ¡ Acwimxg| 12. m‡PZbZv m„wó: †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Avi GKwU D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv Kg©x‡`i gv‡S m‡PZbZv m„wó Kiv| cÖwZôv‡b wb‡qvwRZ Kg©Pvwi I wbe©vnx‡`i `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb K‡i †Zvjvi Rb¨ †hvMv‡hvM Acwinvh©| 13. cÖPv‡i mnvqZv: †hvMv‡hvM cY¨ I †mevi weÁvcb I cÖPviYv e„wׇZ Ae`vb iv‡L| wewfbœ cÖPvi gva¨‡g †hgb- †iwWI, wUwf, Le‡ii KvMR BZ¨vw` wjwLZ I †g․wLK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi d‡j c‡Y¨i cÖPvi I cÖmvi N‡U| Gfv‡e c‡Y¨i evRvi m¤cÖmvwiZ nq hv cÖwZôv‡bi Rb¨ BwZevPK f~wgKv ivL‡Z mÿg nq| 14. mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ cvjb: mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ cvj‡bI †hvMv‡hvM we‡kl f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| AvaywbK e¨emvq cÖwZôvb gybvdv AR©‡bi cvkvcvwk mgvR †mevg~jK Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡bi Dci ¸iæZ¡ †`q| ZvB mgv‡Ri Pvwn`v m¤ú‡K© Rvbv Ges mgv‡Ri cÖwZ †mevg~jK Kvh© m¤úv`‡b †hvMv‡hvM e¨emvqx‡`i mnvqZv cÖ`vb K‡i| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †hvMv‡hvM Qvov eZ©gvb wek¦ m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c APj| Kvh©Ki †hvMv‡hvM Qvov e¨emvq cÖwZôvb cwiPvjbv eZ©gvbKv‡j †Kv‡bvfv‡eB m¤¢e bq| cÖwZôv‡bi †fZ‡i I evB‡ii bvbv c‡ÿi mv‡_ m¤úK© cÖwZôv I myôy e¨e¯
vcbv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvq `ÿ e¨emvqxMY eZ©gvbKv‡j †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Dci me©vwaK ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc K‡i _v‡Kb| G †hvMv‡hvM †KejgvÎ e¨emvq RM‡ZB bq e¨w³MZ, mvgvwRK, cvwievwiK †ÿ‡ÎB ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K|

4.4 †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wewfbœ c×wZ (The Methods of Communication) †hvMv‡hvM c×wZ mivmwi fvlvi mv‡_ m¤ú„³ | fvlv Qvov †hvMv‡hvM nq bv| †hvMv‡hv‡M †h c×wZB e¨envi Kiv †nvK bv †Kb G‡Z fvlvi mvnvh¨ wb‡Z nq| Kv‡RB †hvMv‡hv‡Mi c×wZ Av‡jvPbvi c~‡e© fvlv m¤ú‡K© Rvbv `iKvi|


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fvlvi msÁv: gvby‡li wPšÍvaviv Ges fvev‡e‡Mi cÖKvk I Av`vb-cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ †hme ms‡KZ e¨envi Kiv nq, †mme ms‡KZ e¨env‡ii c×wZ‡K fvlv e‡j| fvlv †g․wLK wKsev wjwLZ Dfq cÖKv‡ii n‡Z cv‡i| k‡ãi Dci wfwË K‡i fve cÖKv‡ki c×wZ‡K †g․wLK fvlv e‡j| Acic‡ÿ nvwm, fvefw½ Kvh©vewj, wbieZv, Qwe, PvU© g‡Wj, MÖvd, A_ev Ab¨vb¨ mvs‡KwZK wPý Øviv ev MvwYwZK wPý Øviv A‡g․wLK fvlv cÖKvk Kiv nq| Avevi †g․wLK fvlv evPwbK I wjwLZ Dfq cÖKv‡ii n‡Z cv‡i| cÖK…Zc‡ÿ e¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hv‡M A‡g․wLK fvlvi †P‡q †g․wLK fvlv eûj cwigv‡Y e¨envi Kiv nq| fvlvi Dci wfwË K‡i †hvMv‡hv‡Mi c×wZ‡K mvaviYZ wbgœwjwLZ fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| 1. †gŠwLK †hvMv‡hvM: msev` †cÖiK hLb †Kv‡bv msev`, Z_¨, gZvgZ, fve, Abyf~wZ †g․wLK fvlvq msev` cÖvc‡Ki Kv‡Q Dc¯
vcb K‡i ZLb Zv‡K †g․wLK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| A_©vr gy‡L gy‡L K_vi gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM ¯
vcb Kiv nq Zv‡K †g․wLK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| †g․wLK ev evPwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †K․kj¸‡jv n‡jv K‡_vcK_b, `yivjvcbx, mvÿvrKvi, e³…Zv, `jMZ Av‡jvPbv BZ¨vw`| 2. wjwLZ †hvMv‡hvM: msev` cÖvcK hLb †Kv‡bv Z_¨, msev`, fve, gZvgZ ev Abyf~wZ †g․wLKfv‡e cÖKvk bv K‡i wjwLZfv‡e cÖvc‡Ki Kv‡Q Dc¯
vcb K‡i ZLb Zv‡K wjwLZ †hvMv‡hvM ejv nq| GwU GK ai‡bi †K․kj| wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡M e¨eüZ †K․kjmg~n n‡jv: wPwVcÎ, ey‡jwUb, mvßvwnK, cvwÿK, gvwmK cwÎKv, `wjj `¯Ív‡eR, wi‡cvU©, †UÛvi, weÁvcb, weÁwß BZ¨vw`| 3. `„k¨gvb †hvMv‡hvM: †h †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
vq †KejgvÎ Qwe, wPÎ, gvbwPÎ I bKkvi gva¨‡gB †hvMv‡hvM ¯
vcb Kiv nq Zv‡K `„k¨gvb †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| A_©vr †PvL Øviv †`Lv hvq Ggb †hvMv‡hvM‡K `„k¨gvb †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| G †hvMv‡hvM AwkwÿZ †jvK‡`i Rb¨ AwaK Kvh©Ki nq| †hgb- bvgvR N‡ii †hvMv‡hvM AwkwÿZ †jvK‡`i Rb¨ Kvh©Ki nq| ZvQvov bvgvR N‡ii jvjevwZ, bvgvR co‡Z wb‡la msewjZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi cÖK…ó D`vniY| 4. kªeY‡hvM¨ †hvMv‡hvM: †h e¨e¯
vq †hvMv‡hvM iÿvKvix †hvMv‡hvM MÖnxZvi Kv‡b Kv‡b kã †cu․‡Q †`q Ges †hvMv‡hvM MÖnxZv Zvi h_vh_ cÖZz¨Ëi cÖ`vb K‡i Zv‡K kªeY‡hvM¨ †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| †hgbAwd‡mi Kwjs‡ej Giƒc †hvMv‡hv‡Mi D`vniY| 5. kªeY-`k©b †hvMv‡hvM: `„k¨gvb I kªeY‡hvM¨ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi mswgkª‡Y †h †hvMv‡hvM m„wó nq Zv‡K kªeY`k©b †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| G c×wZ‡Z `„k¨gvb Ges kªeY‡hvM¨ Df‡qi mgš^q N‡U e‡j GwU AwaKZi DbœZ I Kvh©Ki c×wZ wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ| GQvov G c×wZ‡Z Dfq c×wZi †`vl-ÎæwU¸‡jv cwinvi Kiv m¤¢e nq| †hgb- wm‡bgv, †Uwjwfkb, wfwWI BZ¨vw` G †hvMv‡hv‡Mi D`vniY| 6. AvKvi-Bw½Z †hvMv‡hvM: AvKvi-Bw½Z, A½fw½ BZ¨vw`i Øviv hLb †Kv‡bv †hvMv‡hvM Kvh© m¤úv`b Kiv nq, ZLb Zv‡K AvKv‡i-Bw½‡Z †hvMv‡hvM ejv nq| †hgb- iv¯Ívq UªvwdK cywjk hvbevnb wbqš¿‡Y G †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _v‡K| GQvov wgU wgU K‡i ZvKv‡bv-Zvgvkv I AšÍi½Zvi cÖKvk, `yAvOyj V (wf) Gi g‡Zv †`Lv‡bv weR‡qi cÖZxK, nvZ evwo‡q †`qv, Af¨_©bv Rvbv‡bv BZ¨vw` G cÖKvi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi D`vniY|


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7. wbie †hvMv‡hvM: wbieZv cvjb K‡i ev wbw®…q Ae¯
vq †_‡K †h †hvMv‡hvM m¤úv`b Kiv nq Zv‡K wbie †hvMv‡hvM ejv nq| wbieZvI †hvMv‡hv‡Mi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© gva¨g wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…wZ jvf K‡i‡Q| bxieZv cÖK…Ztc‡ÿ BwZevPK I †bwZevPK Dfq g‡bvfveB cÖKvk Ki‡Z cv‡i| 8. Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM: Kvh© m¤úv`bI †hvMv‡hvM c×wZi Ab¨Zg gva¨g ev †K․kj wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…wZ jvf K‡i| †hgb- Awdm e¨e¯
vcK ev mycvifvBRvi wewfbœ Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g `„óvšÍ ¯
vcb K‡iI Kg©Pvwi‡`i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM ¯
vcb Ki‡Z cv‡i| KviY GKRb wbe©vnx Zvi `„óvšÍg~jK Kvh© mevi mvg‡b Dc¯
vcb K‡i †hvMv‡hvM iÿv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| G‡Z Aaxb¯Í Kg©PvixMY H wbe©vnxi `„óvšÍ AbymiY K‡i KZ©e¨ civqb n‡Z cv‡i| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †Kv‡bv e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb‡K Awfó j‡ÿ¨ †cu․Qvi Rb¨ wewfbœ e¨w³ ev wefv‡Mi g‡a¨ †hvMv‡hvM iÿv Ki‡Z nq| G †hvMv‡hv‡Mi A‡bK c×wZ i‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨ †g․wLK I wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi e¨enviB me©vwaK Ges G‡ÿ‡Î djveZ©b cÖwµqvi AbymiYI mnR| Z‡e †Kv‡bv e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb GK ev GKvwaK c×wZ e¨envi K‡i Zvi jÿ¨ ev¯Íevqb Ki‡Z cv‡i| AZGe ¯
vb, Kvj, cv·f‡` DwjøwLZ c×wZ¸‡jv e¨eüZ n‡Z †`Lv hvq|

4.5 †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨gmg~n (The media of communication) †hvMv‡hvM bvgK Dcv`vbwU gvbe Rxe‡bi cÖwZwU ¯Í‡ii mv‡_ IZ‡cÖvZfv‡e RwoZ| gvbyl mvgvwRKfv‡e Rxebhvcb Ki‡Z Ac‡ii mv‡_ m¤úK© iPbv K‡i Avm‡Q| e¨w³MZ, mvgvwRK, ivR‣bwZK, cÖvwZôvwbK Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b Ki‡Z Leffingwell & Robinson Gi g‡Zv cÖL¨vZ †jLKMY Zv‡`i MÖš
mg~‡n †hme gva¨‡gi K_v e‡j‡Qb †m¸‡jv wbgœiƒc: 1. e¨w³MZ cÎ: †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wewfbœ gva¨‡gi g‡a¨ eûj e¨eüZ I cÖPwjZ GKwU gva¨g n‡jv e¨w³MZ cÎ| †Kv‡bv e¨w³ Zvi g‡bvfve c‡Îi gva¨‡g wj‡L Ac‡ii mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡j Zv‡K e¨w³MZ cÎ e‡j| 2. evwYwR¨K cÎ: e¨emvq msµvšÍ wewfbœ Z_¨ Rvbvi Rb¨ GK e¨emvqx Aci e¨emvqxi wbKU cÎ wjL‡j Zv‡K evwYwR¨K cÎ e‡j| 3. †Uwj‡dvb: `~ieZ©x ¯
v‡b Aew¯
Z Aci e¨w³i mv‡_ K_v ejvi hš¿‡K †Uwj‡dvb e‡j| e¨emv-evwY‡R¨i RM‡Z me‡P‡q mnR I ¸iæZ¡c~Y© †hvMv‡hvM gva¨g n‡jv †Uwj‡dvb| 4. †gvevBj: GwU Zviwenxb GKwU hš¿we‡kl hvi Øviv AwZ mn‡R `~‡i †Kv‡bv e¨w³i mv‡_ K_v ejv hvq| GwU †hvMv‡hv‡Mi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© GKwU gva¨g| 5. d¨v·: msev` I Z_¨ QvovI Awd‡mi cÖ‡qvR‡b A‡bK mgq Qwe I wewfbœ ai‡bi WKz‡g›Um cvVv‡Z nq| G‡ÿ‡Î d¨v· Lye ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| 6. B›Uvi‡bU: GK Kw¤úDUvi †_‡K Ab¨ Kw¤úDUv‡ii mv‡_ Lye mn‡R I Aí Li‡P B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g B-†gBj †cÖiY Kiv hvq| eZ©gv‡b B›Uvi‡b‡Ui e¨vcK e¨envi †hvMv‡hvM‡K K‡i‡Qb mnR I `ª æZZi| 7. B›UviKg: e„nr I MÖæc †Kv¤úvwbmg~‡ni wewfbœ wefv‡Mi g‡a¨ Af¨šÍixY †hvMv‡hv‡M B›UviK‡g e¨vcK e¨envi n‡q _v‡K| B›UviK‡gi gva¨‡g Lye `ªæZ †hvMv‡hvM Kiv hvq|


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8. weÁvcb: weÁvcb n‡jv Ggb GKwU gva¨g hvi gva¨‡g Drcv`bKvix Zvi Drcvw`Z cY¨ msµvšÍ mKj LeivLei †µZv‡K Rvbv‡Z mÿg nq| Drcv`bKvix I †µZvi g‡a¨ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨g wn‡m‡e weÁvcb e¨eüZ nq| 9. WvKwefvM: WvKwefvM †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Ab¨Zg gva¨g| WvKwefvM wPwVcÎ wewjKiYmn Ab¨vb¨ wewfbœ ai‡bi Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡bi gva¨‡g †`k-we‡`‡ki gvby‡li g‡a¨ †mZzeÜb wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| 10. Kzwiqvi: Kzwiqvi n‡jv `ªæZZg †emiKvwi WvK gva¨g| GwU eZ©gv‡b eûj cÖPwjZ GKwU gva¨g| 11. msev`cÎ: †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Av‡iKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© gva¨‡gi bvg n‡jv msev`cÎ| msev`cÎ AZxZ, eZ©gvb I fwel¨‡Zi mv‡_ gyn~‡Z©i g‡a¨ gvbyl‡K cwiPq Kwi‡q †`q| msev`cÎ •`wbK, mvßvwnK, gvwmK BZ¨vw` ai‡bi n‡Z cv‡i| 12. †eZvi: †eZvi n‡jv †hvMv‡hv‡Mi eûj e¨eüZ cÖPwjZ MYgva¨g| Gi gva¨‡g AwZ `ª æZ A_P bvggvÎ e¨‡q mgMÖ `ywbqvi Lei Rvbv hvq| 13. Kw¤úDUvi: Kw¤úDUvi n‡jv †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨gmg~‡ni ivRv| Kw¤úDUvi Ggb GKwU hš¿ we‡kl hvi gva¨‡g AwZ `ªæZ c„w_exi †h‡Kv‡bv †`‡ki mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM Kiv hvq| 14. †bvwUk: †bvwU‡ki gva¨‡g miKvwi, Avav-miKvwi I GbwRI e„nr cÖwZôvb¸‡jv Kg©iZ Kg©x‡`i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _v‡K| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, eZ©gvb Rxeb I RMZ GLb Avi †Kv‡bv MwÐi g‡a¨ mxgve× bq| weÁv‡bi bZyb bZzb Avwe®‥v‡ii d‡j †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨g wn‡m‡e D™¢vweZ n‡q‡Q bvbv me c×wZi| A_©vr †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨g n‡jv cÖMwZkxj|

4.6 †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Dcv`vbmg~n †hvMv‡hvM bvgK Dcv`vbwU gvbe Rxe‡bi cÖwZwU ¯Í‡ii mv‡_ IZ‡cÖvZfv‡e RwoZ| †hvMv‡hvM c×wZ mivmwi fvlvi mv‡_ m¤ú„³| fvlv Qvov †hvMv‡hvM nq bv| †hvMv‡hv‡M †h c×wZB e¨envi Kiv †nvK bv †Kb G‡Z fvlvi mvnvh¨ wb‡Z nq| gvbyl mvgvwRKfv‡e Rxebhvcb Ki‡Z Ac‡ii mv‡_ m¤úK© iPbv K‡i Avm‡Q| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Dcv`vbmg~n wbgœiƒc: 1| Z‡_¨i Drm: Z‡_¨i Drm e¨ZxZ †hvMv‡hvM msNwUZ n‡Z cv‡i bv| †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z n‡j †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bv Drm †_‡K Z‡_¨i ev msev‡`i m„wó n‡ZB n‡e| †mB Drm †Kv‡bv e¨w³ ev NUbv ev Ab¨ †h‡Kv‡bv wKQz n‡Z cv‡i| Z‡_¨i DrmB n‡jv †hvMv‡hvM cÖwµqvi me©cÖ_g Dcv`vb| 2| †cÖiK: A‡b¨i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM ¯
vcbKvix e¨w³‡K †cÖiK ejv nq| Zv‡K †hvMv‡hvMKvix bv‡gI AwfwnZ Kiv nq| msev` †cÖiK Z‡_¨i Drm †_‡K aviYv AvniY K‡ib| g~jZ- Zv‡K wfwË K‡iB †hvMv‡hvM cÖwµqvi m~ÎcvZ| 3| Gb‡KvwWs ev †cÖiY‡hvM¨ K‡i mvRv‡bv: ch©vß Gb‡KvwWs cÖwµqv Qvov †hvMv‡hvM Avcb MwZc‡_ GwM‡q †h‡Z cv‡i bv| Gb‡KvwWs kãwUi A_© n‡jv †cÖi‡Ki gvbwmK aviYv ev AvBwWqv‡K †cÖiY‡hvM¨ K‡i mvRv‡bv| †h‡Kv‡bv ai‡bi †hvMv‡hv‡MB Gb‡KvwWs Acwinvh©| 4| Z_¨ ev msev`: †cÖiK cÖvc‡Ki wbKU †h aviYv wjwLZ ev †g․wLKfv‡e cÖKvk K‡ib Zv‡K Z_¨ ejv nq| †hvMv‡hvM cÖwµqvq Z_¨B g~j welq-†Kbbv Z_¨‡K †K›`ª K‡iB †hvMv‡hvM cÖwµqvi mewKQz AvewZ©Z nq| Z‡_¨i welqe¯‧ †cÖiK I cÖvc‡Ki cvi¯úwiK m¤ú‡K©i Dci wbf©ikxj|


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P¨v‡bj: msev` †cÖi‡Ki mv‡_ cÖvc‡Ki †h gva¨‡gi mvnv‡h¨ †hvMv‡hvM mvwaZ nq †mB gva¨gwU‡K ejv nq P¨v‡bj| †hvMv‡hvM P¨v‡bj eû cÖKv‡ii n‡Z cv‡i| †hvMv‡hvMKvix Zvi B‪Qv myweav Abymv‡i †h‡Kv‡bv P¨v‡bj e¨envi Ki‡Z cv‡ib| †Uwj‡dvb, wPwV, †UwjMÖvd, msev`cÎ, †iwWI, †Uwjwfkb BZ¨vw`| cÖvcK: whwb msev`-†cÖi‡Ki wbKU †_‡K msev` MÖnY K‡ib Zv‡K msev`cÖvcK ejv nq| wZwb †hvMv‡hvM MÖwnZv bv‡gI cwiwPZ| †hvMv‡hvMKvix KvD‡K bv KvD‡K D‡Ïk¨ K‡i msev` †cÖiY K‡ib| hv‡K D‡Ïk¨ K‡i msev` cvVv‡bv nq wZwb hw` Zv MÖnY K‡ib ZLb wZwb cÖvcK wn‡m‡e cwiMwbZ nb| wW‡KvwWs: wW‡KvwWs kãwUi gv‡b n‡jv cÖvß Z_¨‡K MÖnY‡hvM¨ K‡i mvRv‡bv| P¨v‡b‡ji gva¨‡g cÖvc‡Ki wbKU msev` †cu․Qv‡bvi ci wZwb wb‡Ri a¨vb-aviYv Abyhvqx cÖvß msev` MÖnY‡hvM¨ K‡i mvwR‡q †bb| djveZ©b: djveZ©b n‡jv cÖvcK KZ©„K msev` †cÖi‡Ki wbKU †cÖwiZ Zvi cÖwZwµqv| msev` cÖvwßi ci cÖvcK †mB msev` we‡kølY K‡ib Ges D³ msev‡`i e¨vcv‡i Zvi †h g‡bvfve Zv wZwb msev` †cÖi‡Ki wbKU †cÖiY K‡ib| Zvi G cÖZz¨Ëi‡K ejv nq djveZ©b| Kvh©Ki †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ djveZ©b LyeB cÖ‡qvRbxq|

cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, Kvh©Ki †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Dcv`vb LyeB cÖ‡qvRbxq| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Dcv`vb Qvov †hvMv‡hvM Kiv m¤¢e bv| Z‡_¨i Drm e¨ZxZ †hvMv‡hvM msNwUZ n‡Z cv‡i bv| Z‡_¨i Drm †hvMv‡hvM GKwU Dcv`vb|

4.7 †hvMv‡hv‡Mi cÖKvi‡f` (The types of communication) Kv‡Ri mv‡_ Kg©xi Ges Kg©xi mv‡_ msMV‡bi GKUv cÖZ¨ÿ m¤úK© we`¨gvb| G m¤úK© †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g mPj ivLv m¤¢e| GKwU cÖwZôv‡b wewfbœ †kªwYi eû †jvK KvR K‡i Ges wewfbœ wefvM _v‡K| ZvB †hvMv‡hvMI wewfbœ ai‡bi n‡q _v‡K| †hvMv‡hvM Qvov GKwU cÖwZôvb †Kv‡bvfv‡eB Pj‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvB cÖwZôv‡bi AvK…wZ, Kv‡Ri cÖK…wZ, kªwgK Kg©Pvwii msL¨v BZ¨vw` wel‡qi Dci wfwË K‡i e¨e¯
vcbv wekvi`MY †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wewfbœ g‡Wj D™¢veb K‡i‡Qb|

wb‡gœ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi aib‡K wewfbœ `„wó‡KvY †_‡K Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: K. DrcwËMZ A‡_© †hvMv‡hvM: we‡klÁMY DrcwËi `„wó‡KvY n‡Z †hvMv‡hvM‡K wZbfv‡e fvM K‡i‡Qb| †hgb1. GKgyLx †hvMv‡hvM: †Kv‡bv e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb hLb wb‡Ri cÖ‡qvR‡b Ab¨ †Kv‡bv e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM K‡i ZLb Zv‡K GKgyLx †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| †hgb- weÁvcb, wUwf, †eZvi, msev`cÎ BZ¨vw` G ai‡bi †hvMv‡hvM| 2. wØgyLx †hvMv‡hvM: †hvMv‡hvM cÖwµqvi wØgyLx †hvMv‡hvM me‡P‡q ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| wØgyLx †hvMv‡hvM n‡jv msev` †cÖiK msev` cÖvc‡Ki wbKU Z_¨ †cÖiY K‡i Ges msev` cÖvcK Zvi cÖwZwµqv cÖK…Z †cÖi‡Ki wbKU cvVvq| †hgb- gy‡LvgywL Av‡jvPbv, †dv‡b Av‡jvPbv BZ¨vw`| 3. eûgyLx †hvMv‡hvM: †Kv‡bv mywbw`©ó welq wb‡q ev Z_¨ ev DcvË wb‡q cÖwZôv‡bi wewfbœ Kg©KZ©v-Kg©Pvwi A_ev mgv‡Ri wewfbœ ¯Í‡ii gvbyl †hvMv‡hvM ¯
vcb K‡i Zv‡K eûgyLx †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| †hgb- mfv, †mwgbvi BZ¨vw`|


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L. Z_¨ cÖev‡ni `„wó‡Z cÖKvi‡f`: Z_¨ cÖev‡ni `„wó‡KvY n‡Z †hvMv‡hvM †gvUvgywU cuvP cÖKvi| h_v: 1. mgvšÍivj †hvMv‡hvM: cÖwZôv‡bi wewfbœ cÖKvi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ GwU Ab¨Zg| wewfbœ wefv‡Mi mg/GKB gh©v`vm¤úbœ wewfbœ e¨w³i g‡a¨ fve ev Z‡_¨i Av`vb-cÖ`vb n‡j Zv‡K mgvšÍivj †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| †hgb-µq wefvM, weµq, Drcv`b wefv‡Mi e¨e¯
vcK‡`i g‡a¨ †hvMv‡hvM n‡j Zv n‡e mgvšÍivj †hvMv‡hvM| cÖwZôv‡bi wewfbœ wefv‡Mi g‡a¨ mgš^q mvab, Kv‡Ri ¯^vfvweK MwZ cÖevn eRvq Ges cvi¯úwiK †m․nv`©¨ e„w× Kivi Rb¨ mgvšÍivj †hvMv‡hvM Kiv n‡q _v‡K| 2. Dj¤^ †hvMv‡hvM: mvsMVwbK KvVv‡gv wewfbœ c`gh©v`vi n‡j G‡ÿ‡Î wewfbœ e¨w³i g‡a¨ Z_¨ ev fv‡ei †h Av`vb cÖ`vb nq ZvB Dj¤^ †hvMv‡hvM| EaŸ©Mvgx I wbgœMvgx †hvMv‡hvM‡K GK‡Î jw¤^K †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| i) DaŸ©Mvgx †hvMv‡hvM: msMV‡bi wbgœ¯Í‡ii Kg©xiv hLb D‪P¯Í‡ii Kg©KZ©vi wbKU Zv‡`i civgk© Afve, Awf‡hvM ev wewfbœ wel‡q Z_¨ wewbgq K‡i Zv‡K EaŸ©Mvgx †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| ii) wbgœMvgx †hvMv‡hvM: GwU EaŸ©Mvgx †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wecixZ| G †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g cÖwZôv‡bi D‪P ch©vq †_‡K µgvš^‡q ga¨eZ©x ch©vq AwZµg K‡i cÖwZôv‡bi wbgœZg av‡c †cu․‡Q| EaŸ©Zbiv Giƒc †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g Aat¯Íb‡`i wbKU Av‡`k wb‡`©k †cÖiY K‡i e‡j G‡K wb‡`©kg~jK †hvMv‡hvM bv‡g AwfwnZ Kiv nq| 3. †KŠwYK †hvMv‡hvM: we‡kl Riæwi cwiw¯
wZ‡Z cÖvwZôvwbK Kg©ZrciZvi ¯^vfvweK Ae¯
v eRvq ivLvi Rb¨ Gai‡bi †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z nq| GQvov wewfbœ ai‡bi ¯úk©KvZi ev †Mvcbxq Z_¨ Rvbvi Rb¨ mvaviYZ G ai‡bi †hvMv‡hvM Kiv nq| †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó wefv‡Mi e¨e¯
vc‡Ki mv‡_ Ab¨ wefv‡Mi mnKvix e¨e¯
vcK ev mycvifvBRv‡ii mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM cÖwZwôZ n‡j Zv‡K †K․wYK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| M. mvsMVwbK cwi‡ekwfwËK cÖKvi‡f`: mvsMVwbK cwi‡e‡ki Dci wfwË K‡i †hvMv‡hvM‡K `yfv‡e fvM Kiv hvq hv wbgœiƒc: 1. Af¨šÍixY †hvMv‡hvM: cÖwZôv‡bi Af¨šÍ‡i A_©vr GKB cÖwZôv‡b Kg©iZ wewfbœ wefv‡Mi mKj ¯Í‡ii Kg©KZ©v-Kg©Pvwi‡`i g‡a¨ Z_¨ I fve wewbg‡qi Rb¨ †h †hvMv‡hvM Kiv nq Zv‡K Af¨šÍixY †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| G †hvMv‡hvM wbgœMvgx, DaŸ©Mvgx, mgvšÍivj I †K․wYK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g msNwUZ n‡Z cv‡i| cÖwZôv‡bi Af¨šÍixY Kg©Kv‡Ði ¯^vfvweK MwZ cÖevn eRvq ivLvi Rb¨ G †hvMv‡hvM Acwinvh©| 2. evwn¨K †hvMv‡hvM: cÖwZôv‡bi evwn¨K cwi‡ekMZ wewfbœ wel‡qi mv‡_ cÖwZôv‡bi GKUv MwZkxj fvimvg¨ eRvq ivL‡Z nq| GRb¨ evwn¨K wewfbœ c‡ÿi †hgb- cvIbv`vi, †`bv`vi, mieivnKvix, ga¨¯
ZvKvix, c„ô‡cvlK, MÖvnK, e¨vsKvi, wegv †Kv¤úvwb, †kqvi †nvìvi, miKvwi wewfbœ wefvM cÖf„wZi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM ¯
vcb Ki‡Z nq| Giƒc †hvMv‡hvM‡K evwn¨K †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| N. AvbyôvwbKZvwfwËK †hvMv‡hvM: cÖwZôv‡bi cÖwZwôZ wbqg-Kvbyb I P¨v‡bj wfwˇZ †hvMv‡hvM `ycÖKvi| h_v: 1. AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM: cÖwZôv‡bi mywbw`©ó wbqgbxwZ, wbqgKvbyb AbymiY K‡i Ges cÖwZwôZ P¨v‡b‡ji gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM Kiv n‡j Zv‡K AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g wba©vwiZ D‡Ïk¨, bxwZ I wewfbœ Kg©m~wP ev¯Íevqb Kiv nq| †hgb- K‡_vcK_b, mvÿvrKvi, wb‡`©kvewj, wi‡cvU©, †g‡gv‡iÛvg, ey‡jwUb, `~ivjvcbx BZ¨vw`|


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2. AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM: cÖwZôv‡bi AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM‡K I Kg©ZrciZv‡K †eMevb Kivi Rb¨ wba©vwiZ wbqgbxwZ AbymiY bv K‡i wewfbœ mg‡q wewfbœ ¯Í‡ii Kg©KZ©v I Kg©Pvix‡`i g‡a¨ †hvMv‡hvM Kiv n‡j Zv‡K AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| †hgb- Kg©Pvix‡`i gv‡S we‡bv`b †K›`ª, K¬ve, Pv Pµ ev Ab¨ †Kv_vI Awdm msµvšÍ †hme Avjvc Av‡jvPbv nq †m¸‡jv AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM bv‡g cwiwPZ| Gai‡bi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvMKvix‡`i g‡a¨ AvšÍwiKZv M‡o D‡V| Giƒc †hvMv‡hvM‡K Abyôvb ewR©Z †hvMv‡hvM bv‡gI AwfwnZ Kiv nq| O. Kvh©wfwËK †hvMv‡hvM: cÖwZôv‡b m¤úvw`Z Kvh©vewji wfwˇZ †hvMv‡hvM‡K wb‡gœv³ Pvi fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| 1. mvsMVwbK †hvMv‡hvM: GKwU cÖwZôvb ev msMVb cÖwZôv ev GK`j wewÿß Kg©x‡`i mymsMwVZ Kivi Rb¨ msNwUZ †hvMv‡hvM n‡jv mvsMVwbK †hvMv‡hvM| AvBbMZ `wjjcÎ, ¯§viKwjwc, cwi‡gj wbqgvewj KvVv‡gvMZ wPÎ, cwiwgZ Kv‡h©i wb‡`©kvewj I wewfbœ Kbdv‡iÝ BZ¨vw` Kvh© m¤úv`‡b G †hvMv‡hvM cÖeZ©b Kiv nq| Gi d‡j cÖwZôvb Rb¥jvf K‡i, bxwZ I D‡Ïk¨ wba©viY K‡i Ges Kvh©vewj wbqwš¿Z nq| 2. •bwgwËK †hvMv‡hvM: •`bw›`b Kvh©vewj, cwiPvjbv Kv‡j Z_¨vw`i wewbgq Kiv n‡j Zv‡K •bwgwËK ev iæwUb †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| •`bw›`b Kvh©vewj †hgb- Z_¨ msMÖn, we‡kølY, msiÿY, bw_cÎ cÖ¯‧Z, wPwVcÎ †jLv, wb‡`©k †`qv, †Uwj‡dvb Kiv, gRy` gvj msiÿY Kiv, Gme Kv‡Ri Z_¨vw`i ¯^Ztù~Z©fv‡e msNwUZ nq Ges wbw`©ó c×wZ‡Z i~cvšÍwiZ Kiv hvq| 3. we‡kl wefvMxq †hvMv‡hvM: e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi wewfbœ wefvM, h_v: wnmve wefvM, msMÖn wefvM, cÖ‡K․kj wefvM, weµq wefvM, Drcv`b wefvM, wPwVcÎ, cÖwZ‡e`b, †Uwj‡dvb BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g ci¯úi †hvMv‡hvM K‡i ZLb Zv‡K we‡kl wefvMxq †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| G †hvMv‡hvM wewfbœ wefv‡Mi g‡a¨ †m․Rb¨Zv ev AvšÍwiKZv e„w× K‡i| 4. Dbœqbg~jK †hvMv‡hvM: e¨emv‡qi Dbœqb mvab, mybvg cÖwZôv, cÖe„w× AR©b, †mevi gvb Dbœqb, MYms‡hvM Dbœq‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ †h †hvMv‡hvM Kiv nq Zv‡K Dbœqbg~jK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| Gme †hvMv‡hvM Af¨šÍixY I evwn¨K, AvbyôvwbK I AbvbyôvwbK n‡Z cv‡i| G †hvMv‡hvM mvaviYZ Drmvng~jK wPwVcÎ, †Kv¤úvwbi msev`cÎ, weÁvcb, cÖPviYv BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g Kiv nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †kªwYwefvM QvovI †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Av‡iv wKQz c¨vUvb© cÖPwjZ Av‡Q| †hgb¯^vfvweK Ae¯
vq †hvMv‡hvM, Riæwi Ae¯
vq †hvMv‡hvM, RvZxq †hvMv‡hvM, MY‡hvMv‡hvM, B‡jKUªwb· I bbB‡jKUªwb· wgwWqvwfwËK †hvMv‡hvM BZ¨vw`| G¸‡jv †hvMv‡hv‡Mi c¨vUvb© bv‡gI cwiwPZ| GKB †hvMv‡hvM wewfbœ wfwˇZ wewfbœ †kªwYfy³ n‡Z cv‡i| ZvB cÖ‡qvRbxqZv, cvwicvwk©¦KZv Ges †hvMv‡hvM cÖK„wZi cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Z wewfbœ cÖKvi n‡jI Dc‡i DwjøwLZ †hvMv‡hvM¸‡jvB mPivPi e¨eüZ n‡Z †`Lv hvq|


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4.8 AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM (Formal communication) Kvievi cÖwZôv‡bi mvwe©K jÿ¨ I D‡Ïk¨ wewfbœ ai‡bi nq| ZvB Gme jÿ¨ I D‡Ïk¨ ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨ wewfbœ ai‡bi †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z nq| wewfbœ ai‡bi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi g‡a¨ AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM Ab¨Zg| mvaviY A‡_©: cÖwZôv‡bi jÿ¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ Gi Af¨šÍ‡ii wewfbœ Kg©KZ©v-Kg©Pvwi wbqgbxwZ AbymiY K‡i †h †hvMv‡hvM K‡i Zv‡K AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| e¨vcK A‡_©: cÖwZôvb KZ…©K M„nxZ wbqg-Kvbyb I ixwZ-bxwZ AbymiY K‡i †h †hvMv‡hvM cÖwZôv Kiv nq Zv‡K AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| †KD †KD G‡K wbqgZvwš¿K †hvMv‡hvM e‡jI AwfwnZ K‡i _v‡Kb| wb‡gœ AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi K‡qKwU RbwcÖq msÁv cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jv:  S.P. Arora-Gi g‡Z, ÒFormal communication is the transmission of direction or information in the formal organisational structure.Ó  David H. Holt-Gi g‡Z, ÒAvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM n‡‪Q GK ai‡bi wi‡cvwU©s m¤úK©, hv e¨e¯
vcbv KvVv‡gv Øviv wba©vwiZ Ges hv‡Z Z_¨ †cÖiY wb‡`©wkZ nq|Ó  G.R Terry-Gi g‡Z, ÒAvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM wbqgZvwš¿K msMV‡bi Av‡`‡ki k„‫‫‬Lj AbymiY K‡i|Ó (Formal communication follows the chain of command of the formal organisation.)  Bovee I Zvi mn‡hvMx‡`i g‡Z, ÒAvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM Z‡_¨i Ggb cÖevn, hv msMV‡bi wbqgZvwš¿K KvVv‡gv n‡Z m„ó Ó| AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM Af¨šÍixY I evwn¨K Dfq cÖKv‡ii n‡Z cv‡i| Af¨šÍixY AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM wbgœMvgx, EaŸ©Mvgx ev mgvšÍivj †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g cÖwZwôZ nq| Gi mvnv‡h¨ e¨e¯
vcbv KZ©„c ÿ M„nxZ cwiPvjbv I cÖwZôv‡bi D‡Ïk¨vewj Ges †m¸‡jv ev¯Íevq‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxq Av‡`k-wb‡`©k Kg©x‡`i AeMZ Kivb| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, cÖwZôv‡bi Awfó jÿ¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ Gi Af¨šÍ‡ii wewfbœ Kg©KZ©v, Kg©Pvwi Ges evB‡ii mswkøó cÿ¸‡jvi mv‡_ Aby‡gvw`Z wbqgKvbyb I ixwZbxwZ AbymiY K‡i †h †hvMv‡hvM Kiv nq ZvB AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM|

4.9 AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM (Informal communication) cÖwZôv‡bi †h Z_¨ wewbgq Kvh©µg Awdwmqvj Aby‡gvw`Z bq Zv‡K AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| A_©vr cÖvwZôvwbK wbqg-bxwZ AbymiY bv K‡i `ywU c‡ÿi g‡a¨ Z_¨ wewbgq n‡j Zv‡K AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM cÖwZôvi Rb¨ cÖwZôvb KZ©„K cÖewZ©Z e¨w³ †h‡Kv‡bv mg‡q Zvi Kvw‫‫‬ÿZ e¨w³i mv‡_ Avjvc-Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g fv‡ei Av`vb-cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cv‡i| Giƒc †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î AvbyôvwbKZvi cwie‡Z© ¯^Ztù~Z©Zv cÖvavb¨ cvq| ZvB †`Lv hvq, cÖvZtågYKv‡j, Lvevi †Uwe‡j, †Ljvi gvV, K¬v‡e wKsev †Kv‡bv Abyôv‡b GK‡Î Ae¯
v‡bi mgq mswkøó †jvKRb Zv‡`i cÖwZôvb m¤úwK©Z bvbvwea wel‡q AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM K‡i _v‡K|


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wb‡gœ AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi K‡qKwU RbwcÖq msÁv cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jv:  S.P. Arora-Gi g‡Z, ÒAbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM n‡jv AvbyôvwbK wbqg Qvov Kv‡iv mv‡_ msev` Av`vb cÖ`vb Kiv|Ó (Informal communication can be defined as the transmission of messages between members of a group on the basis of informal relations.)  C.B. Memoria-Gi g‡Z, ÒInformal communication grow out of the social interactions among people who work together.Ó  David H. Holt-Gi g‡Z, ÒmvgvwRK I eÜzZ¡c~Y© m¤ú‡K©i Kvi‡Y e¨w³MZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wfwˇZ Aby‡gvw`Z †hvMv‡hvM‡KB AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j|Ó  Stoner I Zvi mn‡hvMx‡`i g‡Z, ÒmsMV‡b AvbyôvwbK ixwZbxwZi evwn‡i †h †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
v M‡o D‡V ZvB n‡jv AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvMÓ| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, cÖwZôv‡bi mvwe©K jÿ¨ I D‡Ïk¨ ev¯Íevq‡bi Z_v wb‡R‡`i Dci Awc©Z Kvh©vewj mn‡R m¤úv`‡bi myweav‡_© Kg©iZ e¨w³MY ¯^Ztù~Z©fv‡e wbqgbxwZ Qvov †h †hvMv‡hvM ¯
vcb K‡i Zv‡K AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j|

4.10 AvbyôvwbK I AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ (The Difference Between Formal and Informal Communication) AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM: cÖwZôvb KZ…©K M„nxZ wbqg-Kvbyb I ixwZ-bxwZ AbymiY K‡i †h †hvMv‡hvM cÖwZôv Kiv nq Zv‡K AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| †KD †KD G‡K wbqgZvwš¿K †hvMv‡hvM e‡jI AwfwnZ K‡i _v‡Kb| AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM: cÖwZôv‡bi wbqgbxwZ AbymiY bv K‡i `yc‡ÿi g‡a¨ †h †hvMv‡hvM nq Zv‡K AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| wb‡gœ AvbyôvwbK I AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨¸‡jv †`Lv‡bv n‡jv: cv_©K¨ AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM 1. msÁv cÖwZôv‡bi wbqgbxwZ AbymiY K‡i †h cÖvwZôvwbK wbqgbxwZ Qvov GKRb Ab¨ R‡bi †hvMv‡hvM Kiv nq Zv‡K AvbyôvwbK mv‡_ †h †hvMv‡hvM K‡i Zv‡K AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| 2. welq cÖwZôv‡bi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welqvw` †hgb- bxwZ, A‡cÿvK…Z Kg ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wel‡q AbvbyôvwbK Kg©m~wP, wm×všÍ BZ¨vw` welq AewnZ †hvMv‡hvM Kiv nq| Kiv‡bvi Rb¨ AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM Kiv nq| 3. fyjÎæwU G †hvMv‡hvM h‡_ó mZK©Zv Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq AwbqgZvwš¿K c×wZ‡Z Z_¨ cwi‡ekb Kiv AvbyôvwbKZv mnKv‡i cÖwZôv Kiv nq e‡j nq e‡j G‡Z fyjÎæwUi m¤¢vebv †ewk _v‡K| G‡Z fyjÎæwUi m¤¢vebv Kg _v‡K| 4. AvPiY Giƒc †hvMv‡hv‡M D‪Pc`¯
 Kg©xi AvPiY G †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g Z_¨ wewbgq Kg©x‡`i KZ©…Z¡g~jK Ges cÖfyZg¡ ~jK nq| g‡a¨ †m․Rb¨g~jK AvPi‡Yi m„wó n‡q _v‡K|


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cv_©K¨ AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM 5. AvšÍwiKZv G †hvMv‡hv‡M e¨w³MZ ü`¨Zv ev AvšÍwiKZv Rb¥v‡bvi my‡hvM Kg| 6. LiP I mgq cÖwZôvb KZ…K © cÖewZ©Z AvbyôvwbKZv †g‡b †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z nq weavq LiP I mgq †ewk nq| 7. bgbxqZv G †hvMv‡hv‡M wbqgKvbyb †g‡b Pj‡Z nq weavq Kg bgbxq| BPQv Ki‡jB GUv cwieZ©b Kiv hvq bv| 8. Av‡eM G †hvMv‡hv‡M e¨w³MZ Av‡eM cÖKv‡ki †Zgb †Kv‡bv my‡hvM _v‡K bv|

AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM G †hvMv‡hvM e¨w³MZ ch©v‡qi ü`¨Zv ev AvšÍwiKZv cÖwZôvi mnvqK| GwU ¯^Ztù~Zf © v‡e m„ó e‡j ¯^í mg‡q Ges ¯^í e¨‡q m¤úv`b Kiv m¤¢e|

9. eva¨evaKZv cÖwZôv‡bi mKj Kg©x‡KB AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM eva¨Zvg~jK AbymiY Ki‡Z nq|

AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡M eva¨Zvg~jKfv‡e †Kv‡bv wKQy AbymiY Ki‡Z nq bv|

10. Acwinvh©Zv cÖwZôv‡bi KZK¸‡jv wel‡qi †ÿ‡Î AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM Acwinvh©| †hgbcwiKíbv cÖYqb|

AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡M eva¨Zvg~jK/ Acwinvh© †Kv‡bv welq †bB|

11. m~Î

AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g †cÖwiZ Z‡_¨i ¯
vqx †iKW© ivLv hvq e‡j GwU fwel¨‡Z m~Î wnmv‡e e¨envi Kiv hvq|

G †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †Kv‡bv ¯
vqx †iKW© _v‡K bv| GRb¨ cieZ©x mg‡q GwU m~Î wn‡m‡e e¨envi Kivi cÖkBœ D‡V bv|

12.Z‡_¨i weK…wZ

G‡ÿ‡Î wbw`©ó wbqg gvbv nq Ges Z_¨ wjwLZ _v‡K e‡j Z‡_¨i weK…wZ N‡U bv|

G‡ÿ‡Î Z_¨ †g․wLKfv‡e wewbgq nq e‡j weK…wZi m¤¢vebv _v‡K|

13. msiÿY

AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi welqe¯‧ wjwLZ nq weavq Zv msiÿY Kiv hvq|

GwU AwjwLZ/†g․wLK c×wZi †hvMv‡hvM weavq Gi Z_¨ msiÿY Kiv m¤¢e nq bv|

14. ¯^xK…wZ

AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM mvsMVwbK KvVv‡gvi g‡a¨B msNwUZ nq e‡j Gi ¯^xK…wZ Av‡Q|

mvsMVwbK KvVv‡gvi evB‡i G †hvMv‡hvM msNwUZ nq e‡j Gi ¯^xK…wZ †bB|

G‡ÿ‡Î wbqgbxwZ †g‡b Pjvi Avek¨KZv †bB weavq GwU Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e †ewk bgbxq| G †hvMv‡hv‡M e¨w³MZ Av‡eM cÖKvk cvq|

cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, AvbyôvwbK I AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi g‡a¨ wewfbœ wel‡q h‡_ó cv_©K¨ i‡q‡Q| Z‡e AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM‡K AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi cwic~iK wn‡m‡e e¨envi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| ïaygvÎ AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g mvsMVwbK jÿ¨ AR©b me©‡ÿ‡Î m¤¢e bq| GRb¨ AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi DciI ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc Ki‡Z nq| G‡Z cÖwZôv‡bi †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
v DbœZ Ges cÖwZôv‡bi jÿ¨ AR©b mnRZi nq|


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4.11 wjwLZ †hvMv‡hvM I †gŠwLK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ (The Difference between Written & Oral Communication) wjwLZ †hvMv‡hvM: †Kv‡bv msev`, Z_¨, g‡bvfve, gZvgZ, Abyf~wZ hLb KvM‡R-Kj‡g wjwLZfv‡e cÖKvk Kiv nq Zv‡K wjwLZ †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| †gŠwLK †hvMv‡hvM: †Kv‡bv msev`, Z_¨, g‡bvfve, gZvgZ, Abyf~wZ hLb mivmwi A_ev †eZvi, †Uwj‡dvb, †Uwjwfkb BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g `yc‡ÿi g‡a¨ Av`vb-cÖ`vb nq Zv‡K †g․wLK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| wb‡gœ wjwLZ I †gŠwLK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †`Lv‡bv n‡jv: cv_©‡K¨i welq 1| Z_¨ cwi‡ekb

wjwLZ †hvMv‡hvM wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡M fvlvi gva¨‡g KvM‡R Kj‡g wjwLZfv‡e Z_¨ cwi‡ekb Kiv nq| 2| gva¨g wPwVcÎ, cÖwZ‡e`b, †g‡gv‡iÛvg BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g wjwLZ †hvMv‡hvM Kiv nq| 3| e¨q wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡M KvMR, Kvwj, Kjg, UvBcivBUvi, Kw¤úDUvi e¨eüZ nq e‡j e¨q †ewk nq| 4| ¯
vqx †iKW© wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Z_¨ ¯
vqx †iKW© wn‡m‡e msiÿY Kiv hvq| 5| A¯^xKvi wjwLZ †hvMv‡hvM A¯^xKvi Kiv hvq bv| 6| ¸iæZ¡ wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi ¸iæZ¡ †ewk| 7| cÖwZwµqv wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡M MÖvn‡Ki ZvrÿwYK cÖwZwµqv Rvbv hvq bv| 8| wbf©i‡hvM¨Zv Z_¨ msiÿ‡Yi myweavi Rb¨ Gi wbf©i‡hvM¨Zv †ewk| 9| †MvcbxqZv wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡M †MvcbxqZv _v‡K| 10| m¤úK© wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î evZ©v †cÖiK Ges MÖvn‡Ki g‡a¨ c‡ivÿ m¤úK© cÖwZwôZ nq| 11| weK…wZ Z_¨vw` wjwLZ _v‡K e‡j wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡M Z‡_¨i weK…wZ NUvi m¤¢vebv _v‡K bv| 12| AvBbvbyM g~j¨ wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi welqe¯‧ Av`vj‡Z cÖgvY Kiv mnR|

†gŠwLK †hvMv‡hvM †g․wLK †hvMv‡hv‡M cvi¯úwiK Avjvc Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g Z_¨ cwi‡ekb Kiv nq| K_vevZ©v, Avjvc-Av‡jvPbv , †Uwj‡dvb I e³„Zvi gva¨‡g †g․wLK †hvMv‡hvM msNwUZ nq| †g․wLK †hvMv‡hv‡M wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †P‡q Kg e¨q nq| †g․wLK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †Kv‡bv ¯
vqx †iKW© _v‡K bv| †g․wLK †hvMv‡hvM A¯^xKvi Kivi my‡hvM _v‡K| †g․wLK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi ¸iæZ¡ Kg| †g․wLK †hvMv‡hv‡M ZvrÿwYKfv‡e MÖvn‡Ki cÖwZwµqv Rvbv hvq| Z_¨ msiÿ‡Yi Amyweavi Rb¨ Gi wbf©i‡hvM¨Zv Kg| †g․wLK †hvMv‡hv‡M †MvcbxqZv _v‡K bv| †g․wLK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î evZ©v †cÖiK Ges MÖvn‡Ki g‡a¨ cªZ¨ÿ m¤úK© cÖwZwôZ nq| Z_¨vw` wjwLZ _v‡K bv e‡j †g․wLK †hvMv‡hv‡M Z‡_¨i weK…wZ NU‡Z cv‡i| †g․wLK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi welqe¯‧ Av`vj‡Z cÖgvY Kiv KwVb|


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cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, wjwLZ I †g․wLK Dfq cÖKvi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi e¨vcK cÖPjb i‡q‡Q| Z‡e G‡`i e¨envi †K․kj I Dc‡hvwMZvi `„wó‡KvY †_‡K DwjøwLZ cv_©K¨¸‡jv cwijwÿZ n‡jI Giv G‡K Ac‡ii cwic~iK wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ n‡q _v‡K|

4.12 WvK †hvMv‡hvM (Postal Communication) Z_¨ cÖhyw³i hy‡M †hvMv‡hvM GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wewfbœ gva¨‡gi g‡a¨ WvK †hvMv‡hvM Ab¨Zg| c„w_exi mKj †`‡kB WvK †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
v Pvjy Av‡Q| e¨emvq-evwY‡R¨i cÖmv‡ii mv‡_ mv‡_ wPwVcÎ, cv‡m©j, gvwb AW©vi BZ¨vw` AwZ mn‡R Aí Li‡P †`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i A_ev evB‡i †h‡Kv‡bv ¯
v‡b Wv‡Ki gva¨‡g Av`vbcÖ`v‡bi cÖeYZv µgk evo‡Q| mvaviY A‡_©: †h‡Kv‡bv msev`, Z_¨ ev wPwVcÎ KvM‡R wjwce× K‡i WvK wefv‡Mi gva¨‡g Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi †K․kj‡K WvK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| e¨vcK A‡_©: wPwVcÎ, cv‡m©j, gvwb AW©vi ev Ab¨vb¨ Z_¨vw` KvM‡R wj‡L wKsev wbw`©ó di‡gi gva¨‡g Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`v‡bi c×wZ‡K WvK †hvMv‡hvM e‡j| WvK †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
v‡K ev¯ÍegyLx I MwZkxj Kivi j‡ÿ¨ myôy I mwVK bxwZgvjv Abym„Z nIqv cÖ‡qvRb| GK mg‡q ïaygvÎ wPwV Gi AvIZvfy³ n‡jI eZ©gv‡b Gi cwiwa †e‡o‡Q| wb‡gœ K‡qKRb gbxlxi gZvgZ Zz‡j aiv n‡jv:  J. P. Bose-Gi g‡Z, ÒGKwU Awd‡mi `ÿZv ev mybvg wbf©i K‡i H Awd‡mi WvK MÖnY I weZi‡Yi Dci|Ó  S. P. Arora-Gi g‡Z, ÒWvK n‡jv wjwLZ †hvMv‡hvM hv †cv÷ Awd‡mi evZ©vevnK KZ©©„K mieivn Kiv nq|Ó  Y. P. Verma-Gi g‡Z, ÒThe post office is perhaps the most important and useful institution in the present civilized countries of the worldÓ. DcwiD³ msÁvi Av‡jv‡K K‡qKwU •ewkó¨ Zz‡j aiv n‡jv: K. wbw`©ó WvK gvï‡ji gva¨‡g wPwVcÎ †cÖiY Kiv hvq; L. Kg Li‡P wPwVcÎ ev gvwb AW©vi †cÖiY Kiv hvq; Ges M. †`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i ev we‡`‡k wewfbœ †mev Av`vb-cÖ`vb Kiv hvq| WvK †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
vq evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM †hme KvR K‡i _v‡K †m¸‡jv n‡jv mvaviY wPwV, †iwRw÷ªK…Z wPwV, wegv cÎ, †cv÷ KvW©, †cv÷ †KvW, eyK †cv÷, gvwb AW©vi, cv‡m©j, Riæwi WvK mvwf©m, †cv÷vj AW©vi, wbðqZvhy³ `ªæZ WvK BZ¨vw`| Dch©y³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, WvK e¨e¯
vi mv‡_ †`‡ki me©¯Í‡ii RbMY RwoZ| hvi Rb¨ WvKN‡ii wbqgvewj m¤ú‡K© AewnZ _vKv cÖwZwU bvMwi‡Ki KZ©e¨| WvK †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
v m¤ú‡K© mg¨K Ávb `v‡bi Rb¨ evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM Ô†cv÷ Awdm MvBWÕ bvgK GKwU cyw¯ÍKv cÖKvk K‡i‡Q| G cyw¯ÍKvq WvKNi msµvšÍ mKj ÁvZe¨ welq wjwce× Av‡Q|


94

†hvMv‡hvM

4.13 mvaviY wPwV (Ordinary Letter) mvaviYfv‡e 2.00 (`yB) UvKv g~j¨ gv‡bi †cv÷Kv‡W© wj‡L A_ev 3.00 (wZb) UvKv g~j¨ gv‡bi Lvg e¨envi K‡i hLb †cÖiK Zvi g‡bvfve wj‡L cÖvc‡Ki wbKU †cÖiY K‡i ZLb Zv‡K mvaviY wPwV e‡j| †cv÷ Awdm n‡Z mvaviY 1.50 g~‡j¨i †cv÷KvW© A_ev 3.00 (wZb) UvKv g~‡j¨i Lvg e¨envi K‡i †h wPwV †jLv nq Zv‡K mvaviY wPwV e‡j| wPwV †cv÷Kv‡W©I †jLv hvq, Avevi Avjv`v KvM‡R wj‡L Lv‡gi wfZi K‡i cvVv‡bv hvq| †cv÷KvW© I Lvg `yB-B †cv÷ Awd‡m wKb‡Z cvIqv hvq| eZ©gv‡b GKLvwb †cv÷Kv‡W©i `vg 1.50 UvKv Avi GKLvbv Lv‡gi `vg 3 UvKv †Kn B‪Qv Ki‡j wb‡Ri cQ›`gZ Kv‡W© ev Lv‡g wPwV wjL‡Z cv‡i, wKš‧ †m‡ÿ‡Î Zv‡K 1 UvKv ev 2 UvKv `v‡gi WvKwUwKU µq K‡i G‡Z jvwM‡q w`‡Z nq| G QvovI †cv÷ Awd‡m G¨v‡ivMÖvgI wKb‡Z cvIqv hvq| G¨v‡ivMÖvg wfbœ KvM‡Ri nq bv| GwU cÖ‡qvRbxq WvKgvïjmn †jLvi KvMR _v‡K| †Kv‡bv wPwV hw` webv wUwK‡U A_ev Kg gvï‡ji wUwKU jvwM‡q Wv‡K cvVv‡bv nq; Z‡e wPwVi cÖvc‡Ki wbKU n‡Z NvUwZi wظY A_© Av`vq Kiv nq| wPwVi cÖvcK‡K hw` wVKvbvq cvIqv bv hvq, Z‡e wPwV Avevi cvVv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i| cÖvcK‡K G‡Kev‡iB bv cvIqv †M‡j †cÖi‡Ki wbKU wPwV †diZ Av‡m| wVKvbv cwieZ©b K‡i bZzb wVKvbvq cvVv‡Z A_ev †cÖi‡Ki wbKU †diZ cvVvevi Rb¨ AwZwi³ †Kv‡bv WvKgvïj jv‡M bv| hw` †cÖi‡Ki wVKvbv H wPwV‡Z D‡jøL bv _v‡K, A_ev D‡jøL _vK‡jI D³ wVKvbvq hw` †cÖi‡Ki bv cvIqv hvq| Z‡e †mB wPwV WvKwefv‡Mi wiUvb© †jUvi Awd‡m (Return Letter Office) Mw‪QZ _v‡K| Dc‡ii Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, mvaviY wPwV mKj †cÖiK Kg Li‡P cvVv‡Z cv‡i| ZvB †ewki fvM gvbyl mvaviY wPwV wj‡L _v‡K|

4.14 †iwRw÷ªK…Z cÎ (Registered Letter and the Rules of Registration of a Letter) †Kv‡bv c‡Îi wk‡ivbvg †cv÷ Awd‡mi LvZvq ZvwiL I b¤^imn wjwce× Kiv‡K †iwRw÷ªK…Z cÎ e‡j| cÎ hv‡Z nvwi‡q bv hvq A_ev bó bv nq Ges GwU hv‡Z cÖvc‡Ki wbKU wbwðZfv‡e †cu․‡Q †mB D‡Ï‡k¨B GwU †iwRw÷ª Kiv nq| mvaviY WvK mvwf©‡mi gva¨‡g cÎ cvVv‡j A‡bK mgq cÖvcK cÎ nv‡Z cvq bv| bvbv Kvi‡Y cÎ nviv‡Z cv‡i ev webó n‡Z cv‡i| G Ae¯
v †_‡K cwiÎvY †c‡Z c‡Îi †cÖiK c‡Îi mvaviY gvï‡ji AwZwi³ 4.00 (Pvi) UvKv cÖ`vb K‡i wPwVi wk‡ivbvg WvK wefv‡Mi iwÿZ wbw`©ó eB G †cÖiK I cÖvc‡Ki bvg-wVKvbv wj‡L †h we‡kl e¨e¯
vq cÎ †cÖiY K‡i ZvB n‡jv †iwRw÷ªK…Z cÎ| mvaviY A‡_©: †Kv‡bv c‡Îi wk‡ivbvg †cv÷ Awd‡mi LvZvq ZvwiL I b¤^imn wjwce× Kiv‡K †iwRw÷ªK…Z cÎ e‡j| e¨vcK A‡_©: †h we‡kl e¨e¯
vq AwZwi³ 4.00 (Pvi) UvKv wdm cÖ`vb K‡i wPwVi wk‡ivbvg †cv÷ Awd‡mi Qvcv‡bv LvZvq ZvwiL I b¤^imn †cÖiK I cÖvc‡Ki bvg, wVKvbv ¯úó K‡i †jLv nq Zv‡K †iwRw÷ªK„Z cÎ e‡j|  R.S.N. Pillai-Gi g‡Z, ÒAll the incoming letters have to be entered in a register called letter received soon or letter received registered.Ó Dch©y³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, cÖvc‡Ki wbKU wbwðZfv‡e wPwV hv‡Z †cu․‡Q †mB D‡Ï‡k¨B †iwRw÷ª Kiv nq| cÎ cÖvc‡Ki wbKU †cu․Q‡j cÖvwß ¯^xKvig~jK ¯^vÿi wb‡q Zvi cÖgvY †cÖi‡Ki wbKU †diZ cvVv‡bv nq| WvK wefv‡Mi fvlvq G‡K ÔG¨vKb‡jR‡g›U †jUviÕ ev cÖvwß ¯^xKvi dig e‡j|


mvwPweK we`¨v

4.15

95

wegvK…Z cÎ I cÎ wegv Kivi wbqgvewj (Insured Letter and the Rules of Insured Letter)

wbivcËv wbwðZ Kivi Rb¨ cÎ †iwRw÷ª Kivi ci wegvK…Z Kiv nq| †cÖiK KZ…©K †cÖwiZ wPwVcÎ, `wjj`¯Ív‡eR, g~j¨evb I †Mvcbxq KvMRcÎ Ges WKz‡g›Um mvgMÖxi wbivcËvmn cÖvc‡Ki wbKU wbwðZ †cu․Qv‡bvi Rb¨ cÎ wegv Kiv nq| mvaviY A‡_©: †Kv‡bv c·K †iwRw÷ª Kivi ci wbivcËv wbwðZ Kivi Rb¨ Zvi wegv Kiv‡K wegvK…Z cÎ e‡j| e¨vcK A‡_©: M„nxZ c‡Îi wbðqZv cÖ`vb K‡i WvK wefvM hLb c‡Îi †iwRw÷ª QvovI wegv Ki‡Z AwZwi³ gvïj MÖnY K‡i ZLb Zv‡K wegvK…Z cÎ e‡j| cÎ wegv Kivi ci WvK wefvM †cÖiK‡K GKwU iwk` cª`vb K‡i| wegvK…Z cÎ nvwi‡q †M‡j, bó n‡j †Kv‡bv cÖKvi ÿwZ n‡j †cÖiK mswkó †cv÷ Awd‡m Awf‡hvM Ki‡j D³ Awdm †m‡ÿ‡Î †cÖiK‡K ÿwZc~iY w`‡Z eva¨ _v‡K| cÎ wegv Kivi wbqgvewj: 1. mxj Mvjv: cÎ Lv‡gi g‡a¨ cÖ‡ek Kwi‡q gyL AuvVv w`‡q eÜ K‡i Zv mxj Mvjv Ki‡Z nq| 2. Lv‡gi e¨envi: cÎ wegv Kivi Rb¨ WvKN‡i Avjv`v Lvg cvIqv hvq| wbw`©ó G Lvg e¨envi K‡i A_ev evwn‡ii fvj Lvg e¨envi K‡i cÎ wegv Ki‡Z nq| 3. bvg I wVKvbv: wegvc‡Îi G ch©v‡q Lv‡gi Dc‡ii evg Ges Wv‡bi wbw`©ó RvqMvq †cÖiK Ges cÖvc‡Ki bvg I wVKvbv ¯úó K‡i wjL‡Z nq| 4. †iwRw÷ªKiY: cÎ wegvK…Z Ki‡Z n‡j cÖ_‡g †iwRw÷ª Ki‡Z n‡e| c‡i wegvK…Z Ki‡Z n‡e| 5. wegvK…Z D‡jøL: c‡Îi Dci KZ UvKvi wegv Kiv n‡q‡Q Zv msL¨vq Ges K_vq ¯úó K‡i wjL‡Z n‡e| 6. ÿwZc~iY: cÎ nvwi‡q †M‡j WvK wefvM cÎwU hZ UvKvi wegv Kiv n‡q‡Q wVK ZZ UvKv cÖ`vb K‡ib| 7. m‡e©v”P wegv: m‡e©v‪P 5,000.00 UvKv ch©šÍ wegv Kiv hvq| 8. wd: 300.00 UvKv ch©šÍ wegvi Rb¨ 5.00 (cuvP) UvKv WvKgvïj w`‡Z nq| 300.00 UvKvi E‡aŸ© cÖwZ 100.00 UvKv ev Zvi fMœvs‡ki Rb¨ 2.00 UvKv nv‡i WvKgvïj w`‡Z nq| 9. iwk`: mvaviY †iwRw÷ª Kivi g‡Zv wegvK…Z c‡ÎI iwk` †`qv nq| Z‡e wegvK…Z K_vwU †jLv _vK‡Z n‡e| 10. †ÿÎ: eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡ki me©Î QvovI we‡k¦i 51wU †`‡ki mv‡_ wegvK…Z cÎ cvVv‡bv hvq| Dch©y³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, cÎ WvK‡hv‡M †cÖi‡Yi †ÿ‡Î wegvK…Z cÎ me‡P‡q †ewk wbðqZv cÖ`vb K‡i| †mRb¨ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© †Kv‡bv cÎ cvVv‡j †iwRw÷ª K‡i wegvK…Z K‡i cvVv‡bvB me‡P‡q DËg| evsjv‡`k WvK wefv‡Mi gva¨‡g cÎ wegv Ki‡Z n‡j DwjøwLZ wbqgvewj AbymiY Ki‡Z nq|


96

†hvMv‡hvM

4.16 cv‡m©j I cv‡m©j Kivi wbqgvewj (Parcel and the Rules of Parcel) cv‡m©j (Parcel) Bs‡iwR kã| hvi A_© n‡jv LÐ ev †gvoK| WvK wefv‡Mi gva¨‡g wPwVc‡Îi cvkvcvwk Ab¨vb¨ gvjvgvj †gvoKxKi‡Yi gva¨‡g †cÖi‡Yi †h c×wZ Zv-B n‡jv cv‡m©j| cv‡m©‡ji gva¨‡g †h‡Kv‡bv •ea cY¨`ªe¨ AwZ mn‡R †cÖiK cÖvc‡Ki Kv‡Q †cu․Qv‡Z cv‡i| mvaviY A‡_©: †Kv‡bv wRwbm fv‡jvfv‡e †eu‡a wmjMvjv K‡i WvK gvidZ cvVv‡j ev †cÖiY Ki‡j Zv‡K cv‡m©j e‡j| e¨vcK A‡_©: Kg Li‡Pi wewbg‡q †h †KD Zvi •ea cY¨ `ªe¨ WvK wefv‡Mi mywbw`©ó wbqgbxwZ AbymiY K‡i GK ¯
vb n‡Z Ab¨ ¯
v‡b wbw`©ó cÖvc‡Ki wbKU †c․u‡Q †`qvi cÖPwjZ c×wZB n‡jv cv‡m©j| cv‡m©‡ji gva¨‡g †h‡Kv‡bv cY¨ mvgMÖx †`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i A_ev we‡k¦i wewfbœ ¯
v‡b cvVv‡bv hvq| WvK wefv‡MiB GwU GKwU Ab¨Zg †mev| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K K‡qKwU •ewkó¨ Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡jv: 1) GwU WvK wefv‡Mi GKwU †mev; 2) Gi gva¨‡g Kg Li‡P cY¨ †cÖiY Kiv hvq; 3) Gi gva¨‡g ïay •ea cY¨ †cÖiY Kiv hvq; Ges 4) wbw`©ó e¨w³ ev cÖvcK Qvov cY¨`ªe¨ n¯ÍvšÍi Kiv nq bv| Dchy©³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, Kg Li‡P WvK wefv‡Mi gva¨‡g †h‡Kv‡bv •ea gvjvgvj †gvoKxKiY K‡i mywbw`©ó ¯
v‡b wbw`©ó cÖvc‡Ki Kv‡Q cY¨ ev †mev mvgMÖx †cÖiY KivB n‡jv cv‡m©j| cv‡m©j Kivi wbqgvewj: my›`ifv‡e †Kv‡bv cY¨ mvgMÖx cv‡m©j K‡i cvVv‡bv n‡j Zv cÖZ¨vwkZ ¯
v‡b h‡Zœi mv‡_ †cu․‡Q hvq| cv‡m©j Gi †ÿ‡Î wKQy wbqg ixwZ AbymiY Kiv n‡q _v‡K| hv wbgœiƒc: 1. †gvoKxKiY: cY¨ `ªe¨ mvgMÖxwU AuvUmvuU K‡i †eu‡a c¨v‡KU ev †gvoKxKiY Ki‡Z nq| †gvoKxKiY Ggbfv‡e Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z cY¨mvgMÖxwU GK¯
vb n‡Z Ab¨¯
v‡b ¯
vbvšÍ‡ii mgq bó ev ÿwZ bv nq| 2. wmjMvjvKiY: cv‡m©j Kivi Rb¨ •Zwi c¨v‡KUwU fv‡jvfv‡e wmjMvjv Ki‡Z n‡e| 3. wVKvbv wjLb: c¨v‡K‡Ui Dc‡i my¯úó K‡i †cÖiK Ges cÖvc‡Ki c~Y© wVKvbv wjL‡Z n‡e| 4. •`N©¨: cv‡m©jK…Z c¨v‡KUwUi •`N©¨ 30 †m.wg Gi †ewk n‡Z cvi‡e bv †mw`‡K jÿ¨ ivL‡Z n‡e| 5. IRb: cv‡m©jwUi IRb 11.5 †KwRi †ewk †hb bv nq †mw`‡K †Lqvj ivL‡Z n‡e| 6. mvaviY cv‡m©j: cv‡m©jwU †cÖi‡Yi †ÿ‡Î jÿ¨ ivL‡Z n‡e mvaviY Wv‡K †cÖiY Ki‡ev wK-bv| mvaviY Wv‡Ki †ÿ‡Î 5 †KwR IRb ch©šÍ †cÖiY Kiv hvq| 7. †iwRw÷ª cv‡m©j: hw` IRb †ewk nq A_©vr 5 †KwRi D‡aŸ© ev 11.5 †KwRi wb‡P nq Zvn‡j Aek¨B †iwRw÷ª Ki‡Z n‡e| 8. WvKgvïj: mvaviY cv‡m©j 500 MÖvg ev Zvi fMœvs‡ki Rb¨ †`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i 10 UvKv nv‡i WvK gvïj Ges †iwRw÷ª cv‡m©‡ji †ÿ‡Î AwZwi³ 4 UvKv wd Rgv w`‡Z nq| 9. wegvK…Z cv‡m©j: cv‡m©jwU †iwRw÷ª Kivi ci wegvI Kiv hvq| †m‡ÿ‡Î 300 UvKv ch©šÍ 5/- UvKv Ges 300 UvKvi E‡aŸ© cÖwZ 100 UvKv Ges fMœvs‡ki Rb¨ 2/- UvKv nv‡i WvK gvïj w`‡Z nq| m‡e©v‪P 500 UvKv cv‡m©j Kiv hvq| 10. cÖvwß ¯^xKvi: cv‡m©jwU †iwRw÷ª Kivi ci 2/- UvKvi wU‡KU jvwM‡q cÖvwß ¯^xKvi Kiv hvq|


mvwPweK we`¨v

97

Dch~©³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, WvK wefv‡Mi wewfbœ cÖPwjZ wbqgbxwZ AbymiY K‡i AwZmn‡R GK¯
vb †_‡K Ab¨¯
v‡b †QvULvU I g~j¨evb mvgMÖx †cÖiY Kiv hvq|

4.17 eyK †cv÷ evsjv‡`‡k WvK wefvM GKwU †mevg~jK cÖwZôvb| RbM‡Yi Rb¨ WvK wefvM ¯^íg~‡j¨ A‡bK †mevg~jK Kvh©µg m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡K| eyK †cv÷ G †mevg~jK Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg| eyK †cv÷ ej‡Z †KejgvÎ eB-B WvK‡hv‡M †cÖiY eySvq bv| Le‡ii KvMR, mKj cÖKvi cÖKvkbx, Qvcv‡bv Mv‡bi eB, KvMR, Qwe, `wjj BZ¨vw` me wKQyB eyK †cv÷ Kiv hvq| †h e¨e¯
vq WvK wefv‡Mi gva¨‡g cÖKvkbv I wcÖ‡›UW mvgMÖx wbw`©ó gvï‡ji wewbg‡q †cÖiY Kiv hvq Zv‡K eyK †cv÷ e‡j| G e¨e¯
vq Book Post Ki‡Z Lv‡gi Dci Book Post ¯úó K‡i wjL‡Z nq| evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM KZ©„K cÖPwjZ eyK †cv‡÷i †mev MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡j wb‡¤œv³ wbqgvewj AbymiY Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| 1. •`N©¨: eyK †cv‡÷i c¨v‡K‡Ui •`N©¨ 60 †mw›UwgUvi, cÖ¯
 30 †mw›UwgUvi Ges D‪PZv 30 †mw›UwgUv‡ii †ewk n‡Z cvi‡e bv| 2. c¨v‡KU: eyK †cv÷ c¨v‡KU Kivi mgq jÿ ivL‡Z n‡e †h GwU‡K Kfvi w`‡q m¤ú~Y© †gvov‡bv hv‡e bv| KviY GwU cixÿv Kiv nq| 3. wVKvbv: mvaviY eyK †cv‡÷ cÖvc‡Ki bvg _vK‡jI P‡j wKš‧ †iwRw÷ªK…Z eyK †cv‡÷ Aek¨B †cÖiK, cÖvcK Ges †iwR÷ªvW© K_vwU wj‡L w`‡Z nq| 4. WvKgvïj: cÖwZwU eyK †cv‡÷i cÖ_g 50 MÖvg A_ev GwUi fMœvs‡ki Rb¨ 1.00 UvKv WvK gvïj w`‡Z nq| 50 MÖv‡gi D‡aŸ© cÖwZwU 25 MÖvg Ges GwUi fMœvs‡ki Rb¨ 0.25 UvKv nv‡i WvK gvïj w`‡Z nq| 5. †iwRw÷ªK…Z: AwaK wbðqZvi Rb¨ wba©vwiZ nv‡i WvK gvïj cÖ`vb K‡i eyK †cv÷ †iwRw÷ªK…Z Kiv hvq| 6| eyK †cv÷ D‡jøL: eyK †cv÷ c¨v‡KU Kivi mgq c¨v‡K‡Ui Dci eyK †cv÷ K_vwU D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq| 7. eyK †cv‡÷ †cÖwiZ `ªe¨: mvaviYZ eB, LvZv, †ccvi, g¨vMvwRb, `wjjcÎ, `vIqvZ cÎ, KvW©, Qwe, PvU©, bKkv, gvbwPÎ BZ¨vw` KzK †cv‡÷i gva¨‡g WvK †hv‡M †cÖiY Kiv hvq| 8. wPwV †cÖiY: eyK †cv‡÷i g‡a¨ †Kv‡bv e¨w³MZ cÎ †cÖiY Ki‡j GwU mvaviY c‡Îi nv‡i WvK gvïj avh© Kiv nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, eyK †cv‡÷ WvK gvïj Lye Kg| miKvi QvÎ, wkÿK, cvVK mn mK‡ji myweav‡_© G ¯^í g~‡j¨ †mev cÖ`v‡bi e¨e¯
v K‡i‡Qb| d‡j mvaviY gvbyl Gi Øviv we‡klfv‡e DcK…Z nq|

4.18 †cv÷ †Kv‡Wi ¸iæZ¡ (Importance of Post Code) WvK †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
vq †cv÷ †KvW b¤^i cÖPjb GKwU AvaywbK c`‡ÿc| G e¨e¯
vi gva¨‡g †`‡ki f~ fvM‡K ÿz`ª ÿz`ª A‡j fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| Gi d‡j WvKwefvM KZ…©K M„nxZ mvgMÖx mswkøó Kvh©vjq †_‡K mivmwi MšÍ‡e¨ cvVv‡bv m¤¢e nq| d‡j mgq, kªg I e¨q-n«vm cvq| †m hvB †nvK Post Code cÖPj‡b †hme myweav cvIqv hvq Zv wbgœiƒc 1. evQvBKiY: WvK wefv‡Mi GKwU Awd‡m GKB mg‡q wewfbœ ai‡bi wPwUcÎ I WKz‡g›U cvIqv hvq hv †`‡ki Avbv‡P-Kvbv‡P GgbwK we‡`‡ki wewfbœ A‡j †cÖiY Kiv nq| G‡ÿ‡Î WvK Kg©xMY A‡ji bvg bv †`‡L wbw`©ó †KvW b¤^i Abyhvqx AwZ ZvovZvwo M„nxZ mKj wPwVcÎ evQvB Ki‡Z cv‡i|


†hvMv‡hvM

98

2. fyj-ÎywU n«vm: A‡bK mgq GKB bvghy³ GKvwaK ¯
v‡bi wPwVcÎ cvIqv hvq| ZvQvov †cÖiK KZ…©K AmveavbZvekZ bvg-wVKvbv wjL‡Z fyj n‡j Zv MšÍ‡e¨ cvVv‡Z WvK wefv‡Mi A‡bK mgm¨v nq| Ggb Kx KL‡bv KL‡bv fy‡j GKB bv‡gi Ab¨ ¯
v‡b wPwV cÎ P‡j hvq| wKš‧ †KvW b¤^i cÖPj‡bi d‡j Gme fyj AwZ mn‡R ms‡kvab Kiv hvq| 3. `ªæZ †cÖiY: †KvW b¤^i cÖPj‡bi d‡j `ªæZ MwZ‡Z wPwVcÎ MšÍ‡e¨ †cÖiY Kiv hvq| †KvW b¤^i e¨env‡i GKB ¯
v‡bi bv‡gi Rb¨ †h mgm¨v nq Zv AwZ mn‡R mgvavb K‡i `ªæZ M„nxZ mvgMÖx †cÖi‡Ki nv‡Z †cu․‡Q †`qv hvq| 4. RwUjZv n«vm: G e¨e¯
vi gva¨‡g †cÖiK, †cÖwiZ mvgMÖx, wPwVcÎ †cÖi‡Yi c×wZMZ RwUjZvmn bvbvwea Amyweav Lye mn‡R `~i Kiv hvq| 5. WvK Kg©x‡`i mnvqZv: WvK wefv‡Mi cÖavb Kvh©vjq †_‡K cÖZ¨šÍ A‡j Aew¯
Z ÿz`ª kvLv Kvh©vjq ch©šÍ GKwU wPwV ev M„nxZ gvjvgvj †cu․‡Q w`‡Z WvK Kg©x‡`i wewfbœ ch©v‡q wewfbœ ai‡bi KvR Ki‡Z nq| †KvW b¤^i e¨env‡ii d‡j Kg©xMY AwZ mn‡R wbw`©ó †KvW b¤^i Abyhvqx mvgMÖx wefvRb K‡i ZrÿYvr Z_vq Zv †cu․Qv‡bvi e¨e¯
v K‡i| 6. ¯Íi ev ch©vq mswÿßKiY: †KvW b¤^i e¨envi bv Ki‡j GKwU wPwV cÖavb Kvh©vjq, AvÂwjK Kvh©vjq Ges †Rjv I _vbv Ny‡i mve †cv÷ Awdm n‡q cÖvc‡Ki nv‡Z †cu․‡Q| wKš‧ †KvW b¤^i e¨env‡i wPwVcÎ mivmwi †KvW b¤^i hy³ ¯
vb †_‡K MšÍ‡e¨ †cu․‡Q| hvi d‡j WvK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi ¯Íi K‡g hvq| 7. SuywK n«vm: mvaviYfv‡e GKwU wPwV †cÖiK †_‡K cÖvc‡Ki nv‡Z †cu․Qv‡Z wewfbœ ¯Íi AwZµg Ki‡Z nq| d‡j cÖvK…wZKmn Ab¨vb¨ bvbv SuywKi m¤¢vebv _v‡K| †KvW b¤^i e¨env‡i `ªæZ wPwV Av`vb-cÖ`vb nq e‡j wewfbœ ai‡bi SuywK n«vm cvq| 8. AvšÍR©vwZK c×wZ: †KvW b¤^i AvšÍR©vwZK c×wZ‡Z e¨eüZ n‡q _v‡K| d‡j Af¨šÍixY WvK †hvMv‡hvM‡K AvšÍR©vwZK WvK e¨e¯
vi mv‡_ m¤ú„³ Kiv m¤¢e n‡q‡Q| AvšÍR©vwZK c×wZi mv‡_ m¤ú„³Zvi d‡j evsjv‡`k WvK wefv‡M h‡_ó MwZ mÂvwiZ n‡q‡Q| †KvW b¤^i cÖPjb WvK wefv‡Mi Rb¨ GKwU gvBjdjK, GKwU AvaywbK c`‡ÿc hvi †cÖwÿ‡Z WvK wefv‡Mi mvwe©K Kvh©vewj h‡_ó DbœZ n‡q‡Q|

4.19 †cv÷ †KvW c×wZ evsjv‡`k WvK wefv‡M †`‡ki †f․‡MvwjK Ae¯
vb, RbemwZi MVb, wPwVcÎ I gvjgv‡ji wewfbœ Drm, WvK †hvMv‡hv‡M we`¨gvb e¨e¯
v c×wZ BZ¨vw`i Ici wbf©i K‡i †cv÷ †KvW b¤^i Pvjy Kiv n‡q‡Q| wb‡gœ evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM cÖewZ©Z †cv÷ †KvW c×wZ eY©bv Kiv n‡jv: 1. AÂjwfwËK †cv÷ †KvW e¨e¯’vi cÖeZ©b: evsjv‡`‡k XvKv, PÆMÖvg, ivRkvnx I Lyjbv- G 4wU ivR¯^ wefv‡M †gvU 64wU †Rjv i‡q‡Q| dwi`cyi †Rjv‡K Lyjbv GjvKvi Aaxb we‡ePbvc~e©K 4wU ivR¯^ wefvM‡K 4wU wiwRq‡b wef³ K‡i †cv÷ †KvW e¨e¯
vi cÖeZ©b Kiv n‡q‡Q| 4wU wiwRq‡b †cv÷ †KvW n‡jv wbgœiƒc: XvKv 1000  2999, PÆMÖvg 3000  4999, ivRkvnx 5000  6999, Lyjbv 7000  9999|


mvwPweK we`¨v

99

2. †g‡UªvcwjUb †nW Awdm: †g‡ÆvcwjUb †nW Awdm¸‡jv‡K 4 msL¨vwewkó GKK †KvW †`qv n‡q‡Q| D³ †nW Awdm¸‡jv n‡jv wbgœiƒc: (K) XvKv wR.wc.I (1000) Ges XvKv m`i †nW Awdm (1100)| (L) PÆMÖvg wR.wc.I (4000) Ges PÆMÖvg e›`i †nW Awdm (4100)| (M) ivRkvnx wR.wc.I (6000) Ges †Nvovgviv †nW Awdm (6100)| (N) Lyjbv wR.wc.I (9000) Ges Lyjbv wmwU †nW Awdm (9100)| 3. †g‡UªvcwjUb kni: †g‡UªvcwjUb GjvKvi wR.wc.I Ges Ab¨vb¨ †nW Awdm Qvov wewjKvix †cv÷ Awd‡mi Rb¨ 4wU msL¨vi cÖ_g `ywU msL¨v w`‡q wb‡`©k Kiv nq| 4wU msL¨vi †kl 2wU msL¨v w`‡q wbw`©ó wewjKvix †cv÷ Awdm‡K wb‡`©k Kiv n‡q _v‡K| 4. †Rjvq WvK `߇ii cÖavb WvKNi: cÖwZwU †Rjvi m`i `߇ii cÖavb WvKN‡ii Rb¨ evgw`‡K 2wU msL¨v Ges Wvbw`‡K 2wU Ni Ô00Õ (k~b¨) ivLv nq| Giƒc XvKv †Rv‡bi †g‡UªvcwjUb kni †_‡K ïiæ K‡i †b·Kvbv †Rjvq, PÆMÖvg wiwRq‡b mybvgMÄ †Rjv n‡Z kyiæ K‡i K·evRvi †Rjvq, ivRkvnx wiwRq‡b cÂMo †Rjv †_‡K kyiæ K‡i wmivRMÄ †Rjvq Ges Lyjbv †_‡K kyiæ K‡i mvZÿxiv †Rjvq †kl nq| 5. †Rjv WvKNi: cÖ‡Z¨K †Rjvi Rb¨ 100 †cv÷ †KvW e¨envi Kiv nq| †Rjv m`i _vbvi cÖavb WvKNi‡K cÖ_g †KvW b¤^i †`qv nq| †Rjvi mKj wewjKvix _vbv †cv÷ Awdm, mve Awdm ev AwefvMxq mve Awd‡mi cÖavb WvKN‡ii 4wU msL¨vi cÖ_g 2wU msL¨vi Abyiƒc ivLv nq| G‡Z †cv÷ †Kv‡Wi cÖ_g 2wU msL¨v †`L‡jB wewjKvix †cv÷ Awdm †KvWwU †Kv‡bv †Rjvi AšÍM©Z Zv ZvrÿwYKfv‡e ey‡S hvq| †cv÷ †Kv‡Wi †k‡li 2wU msL¨v wbw`©ó wewjKvix †cv÷ Awdm‡K eySvq| 6. _vbv WvKNi: cÖwZwU †Rjvi AšÍM©Z _vbv WvKNi¸‡jv‡K 4wU †KvW msL¨vi †kl 2wU †KvW msL¨v w`‡q wb‡`©k Kiv n‡q‡Q| †kl 2wU msL¨v 10, 20, 30 BZ¨vw` nIqvq Ges †kl †KvW b¤^i Ô0Õ k~b¨ nIqvq GUv _vbv WvKNi‡K wb‡`©k K‡i| A_©vr evg w`K †_‡K 3q msL¨v D³ _vbvi mKj wewjKvix mve Awdm ev AwefvMxq mve Awdm‡K eySvq Ges †k‡li msL¨vwU D³ _vbv wbw`©ó wewjKvix WvKNi‡K eySvq| 7. WvKN‡ii msL¨v: 5bs c‡q‡›U †Rjv WvKN‡ii eY©bvbyhvqx hw` †Kv‡bv †Rjvq _vbvi msL¨v 9-Gi AwaK _v‡K Zvn‡j _vbvi Rb¨ eivÏK…Z msL¨v 10, 20, 30 BZ¨vw`i cwie‡Z© 16, 26, 36 BZ¨vw` AwZwi³ msL¨v †bqv n‡q‡Q| Avevi †Kv‡bv _vbvq mve Awdm ev AwefvMxq mve Awd‡mi msL¨v 10-Gi AwaK n‡j (PÆMÖvg I †bvqvLvjx †Rjvi Rb¨ cÖ‡hvR¨) 10, 20, 30 BZ¨vw` msL¨v ev` w`‡q cÖ‡qvRb‡ev‡a cieZ©x msL¨v †`qv nq| 8. AwewjKvix WvKNi: †hme AwewjKvix mve Awdm A_ev AwewjKvix AwefvMxq mve Awdm i‡q‡Q Zviv Awd‡mi †Kv‡bv wPwVcÎ ev gvjvgvj wewj K‡i bv| GRb¨ G‡`i †Kv‡bv †cv÷ †KvW †`qv nqwb| mvaviYZ eªv Awd‡mi WvK mve Awd‡mi gva¨‡g Av`vb-cÖ`vb n‡q _v‡K| GRb¨ eªv AwdmMy‡jv †h mve Awd‡mi AšÍf©y³ Zviv †m mve Awd‡mi †cv÷ †KvW e¨envi K‡i _v‡K| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbvq aviYv Kiv hvq †h, evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM †cv÷ †KvW- Gi e¨vcv‡i mywbw`©ó bxwZgvjv cÖYqb K‡i‡Q| myôz evQvB, `ªæZZvi mv‡_ †cÖiY, wbw`©ó wewjKvix WvKN‡i †cu․Qv‡bv BZ¨vw`i Rb¨ †cv÷ †KvW- Gi e¨envi AZ¨šÍ Kvh©Kix| ZvB cÖwZwU bvMwiK‡K †cv÷ †Kv‡Wi aviYv †bqv Ges Gi myôz cÖ‡qvM Kiv Acwinvh©|


†hvMv‡hvM

100

†cv÷ †KvW: evsjv‡`‡k WvK wefv‡Mi BwZnvm A‡bK cyivZb| WvK wefv‡Mi gva¨‡g †cÖwiZ wPwVcÎ wbw`©ó RvqMvq `ªyZ †cu․‡Q w`‡Z evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM me©c_g 1987 mv‡j †cv÷ †KvW cÖ_vi cÖPjb K‡i| G e¨e¯
vq WvK PjvP‡ji wbw`©ó c×wZ, †cv÷ †KvW e¨envi Ki
b mvwe©K †hvMv‡hvM, RbmsL¨vi NbZ¡, †f․‡MvwjK Ae¯
vb BZ¨vw` Avcbvi WvK `ª
Z †c․‡Q hv‡e 5 8 0 0 we‡ePbv K‡i †cv÷ †KvW b¤^i cÖ`vb Kiv nq| evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ AÂj‡f‡` †Rjv kni Ges wmwU K‡c©v‡ikb A‡ji Rb¨ wfbœ wfbœ msL¨vZ¥K †h wbw`©ó b¤^i cÖ`vb Kiv n‡q‡Q Zv‡K †cv÷ †KvW e‡j| †hgb- XvKv wRwcI AÂj 1000, e¸ov-5800| †cv÷ †KvW b¤^i Abyhvqx †`‡ki wewfbœ WvK AÂj‡K msL¨vi wfwˇZ fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| WvK wefvM wPwV cÎ, gvjvgvj, WKz‡g›Um mvgMÖx cvIqvi ci †m¸‡jv wbw`©ó †cv÷ †KvW b¤^i Abyhvqx wefvRb K‡i `ªæZ MšÍe¨ ¯
v‡b †cu․‡Q †`qvi e¨e¯
v K‡i _v‡K| evsjv‡`‡k wewfbœ †Rjvi †cv÷ Awd‡mi †KvW bv¤^vi mg~n: †Rjvi bvg

†cv÷ †KvW

XvKv †Rjv wRwcI

1000

m`i †nW Awdm

1100

†Rjvi bvg 23. PÆ. wRwcI e›`i †nW Awdm

†cv÷ †KvW

†Rjvi bvg

†cv÷ †KvW

4000

43. wmivRMÄ †Rjv

6700-99

4100

44. Kzwóqv †Rjv

7000-99

†g‡UªvcwjUb GjvKv

1200-99

†g‡Uªv. GjvKv

4200-99

45. †g‡nicyi †Rjv

7100-99

†g‡Uªv. Ab¨vb¨ GjvKv

1300-99

†g‡Uªv. Ab¨vb¨ GjvKv

4300-99

46. PzqvWv½v †Rjv

7200-99

2. bvivqYMÄ †Rjv

1400-99

24. LvMovQwo †Rjv

4400-99

47. wSbvB`n †Rjv

7300-99

3. gywÝMÄ †Rjv

1500-99

25. iv½vgvwU †Rjv

4500-99

48. h‡kvi †Rjv

7400-99

4. biwms`x †Rjv

1600-99

26. ev›`ieb †Rjv

4600-99

49. bovBj †Rjv

7500-99

5. MvRxcyi †Rjv

1700-99

27. K·evRvi †Rjv

4700-99

50. gv¸iv †Rjv

7600-99

6. gvwbKMÄ †Rjv

1800-99

28. cÂMo †Rjv

5000-99

51. ivRevo †Rjv

7700-99

7. Uv½vBj †Rjv

1900-99

29. VvKziMuvI †Rjv

5100-99

52. dwi`cyi †Rjv

7800-99

8. Rvgvjcyi †Rjv

2000-99

30. w`bvRcyi †Rjv

5200-99

53. gv`vwicyi †Rjv

7900-99

9. †kicyi †Rjv

2100-99

31. wbjdvgvix †Rjv

5300-99

54. kixqZcyi †Rjv

8000-99

10. gqgbwmsn †Rjv

2200-99

32. iscyi †Rjv

5400-99

55. †MvcvjMÄ †Rjv

8100-99

11. wK‡kviMÄ †Rjv

2300-99

33. jvjgwbi. †Rjv

5500-99

56. ewikvj †Rjv

8200-99

12. †b·Kvbv †Rjv

2400-99

34. KzwoMÖvg †Rjv

5600-99

57. †fvjv †Rjv

8300-99

13. mybvgMÄ †Rjv

3000-99

35. MvBevÜv †Rjv

5700-99

58. SvjKvwV †Rjv

7400-99

14. wm‡jU †Rjv

3100-99

36. e¸ov †Rjv

5800-99

59. wc‡ivRcyi †Rjv

8500-99


mvwPweK we`¨v

101

15. †g․jfx. †Rjv

3200-99

37. RqcyinvU †Rjv

5900-99

60. cUzqvLvjx †Rjv

8600-99

16. nweMÄ †Rjv

3300-99

38. ivRkvnx wRwcI

6000

61. ei¸bv †Rjv

8700-99

17. we.evwoqv †Rjv

3400-99

ivRkvnx †nW Awdm

6100

62. Lyjbv wRwcI

9000

18. Kzwgjøv †Rjv

3500-99

wmwU I Ab¨vb¨ Ask

6200-99

wmwU †nW Awdm

9100-99

19. Puv`cyi †Rjv

3600-99

39. PvcvB. †Rjv

6300-99

Lyjbv Aewkó Ask

9200-99

20. jÿxcyi †Rjv

3700-99

40. bv‡Uvi †Rjv

6400-99

63. ev‡MinvU †Rjv

9300-99

21. †bvqvLvjx †Rjv

3800-99

41. bIMuv †Rjv

6500-99

64. mvZÿxiv †Rjv

9400-99

22. †dbx †Rjv

3900-99

42. cvebv †Rjv

6600-99

4.20 †cv÷vj AW©vi I †cv÷vj AW©vi Kivi wbqgvewj (Postal Order and the Rules of Postal Order) Bs‡iwR Postal k‡ãi A_© WvKwefvMxq Ges Order A_© Av‡`k, A_©vr WvK e¨e¯
vq A‡_©i Av‡`kbvgv n‡jv †cv÷vj AW©vi| eZ©gvb mf¨RMZ m¤ú~Y© A‡_©i Dci wbf©ikxj| ZvB wek¦e¨vcx A‡_©i mnR ¯
vbvšÍi Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM A‡_©i weKí wn‡m‡e †cv÷vj AW©vi e¨envi cÖPjb K‡i‡Q| mvaviY A‡_©, Aí cwigvY A_© weKí wn‡m‡e mn‡R ¯
vbvšÍi I me©Rb M„nxZ WvK wefvM KZ©„K cÖPwjZ wbw`©ó dig hv UvKvi weKí wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ n‡q _v‡K|

wPÎ: †cv÷vj AW©vi


†hvMv‡hvM

102

Y.P. Verma-Gi g‡Z, æThe postal order is a kind of order given by a branch of the post office to pay a definite sum of money to the person mentioned in the order by any branch of the post office.” cÖKvi‡f`: evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM me©wbgœ 50 cqmv †_‡K m‡e©v‪P 50.00 (cÂvk) UvKv ch©š Í g~‡j¨i 8 ai‡bi †cv÷vj AW©vi Gi cÖPjb K‡i‡Q| †hgb- 50 cqmv, 1.00 (GK) UvKv, 2.00 (`yB) UvKv, 4.00 (Pvi) UvKv, 5.00 (cuvP) UvKv, 8.00 (AvU) UvKv, 10.00 (`k) UvKv, 50.00 (cÂvk) UvKv g~j¨gv‡bi †cv÷vj AW©vi| cÖvcK ev Zvi cÖwZwbwa †cv÷ Awdm †Lvjv / _vKvKvjxb mg‡q Zv fv½v‡Z cv‡i| e¨envi: miKvwi I †emiKvwi wewfbœ ch©v‡qi wb‡qvM, †QvU-Lv‡Uv †UÛvi, weÁvcb, weÁwß, †UwjKg, M¨vm I Iqvmvi †mev wb‡Z `iLv‡¯Íi mv‡_ bM` A_© QvovI wbw`©ó g~‡j¨i †cv÷vj AW©vi e¨env‡ii cÖPjb †`Lv hvq| †cv÷vj AW©v‡ii wbqgvewj: 1. Ask: †cv÷vj AW©v‡ii `ywU Ask _v‡K| cÖ_g Ask †µZvi wb‡Ri Kv‡Q ivL‡Z nq Ges wØZxq Ask †Kv‡bv cÖvc‡Ki bv‡g cÖ`vb Kiv nq| 2. µq-weµq: †cv÷ Awdm †_‡K †cv÷vj AW©vi †Kbv Ges fv½v‡bv hvq| 3. fv½v‡bv: cÖvcK ev Zvi cÖwZwbwa †cv÷vj AW©vi fv½v‡Z cv‡i| 4. †gqv`: †cv÷vj AW©vi †h gv‡m µq Kiv nq †m gv‡mi †kl ZvwiL †_‡K 6 gv‡mi g‡a¨ fv½v‡j †Kv‡bv wd jv‡M bv| 5. WvKgvïj: µqK…Z gv‡mi 6 gvm †_‡K 1 eQi ch©šÍ mg‡q †cv÷vj AW©vi fv½v‡Z cÖwZ †cv÷vj AW©v‡ii Rb¨ 20 cqmv g~‡j¨i ÷¨v¤ú jvMv‡Z n‡e Avi 1 eQ‡ii †ewk mgq AwZµg n‡j GwU fv½v‡Z WvK wefv‡Mi gnv-cwiPvj‡Ki AbygwZi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| WvKgvïj wcQ‡b jvwM‡q w`‡Z nq| 6. ev‡Rqvß: †cv÷vj AW©vi †Kbvi ci 12 gv‡mi g‡a¨ bv fv½v‡j ev‡Rqvß n‡q hvq| Z‡e gnvcwiPvjK B‪Qv Ki‡j welqwU cybivq we‡ePbv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| 7. ¯’vbvšÍi: GwU mn‡R ¯
vbvšÍi Kiv hvq| 8. MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv: †cv÷vj AW©v‡ii MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv mve©Rbxb| 9. fvswZ cwinvi: fvswZ cwinv‡ii Rb¨ †cv÷vj AW©v‡i ÷¨v¤ú jvwM‡q UvKvq cwiYZ K‡i †bqv hvq| Dchy©³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, A_© n¯ÍvšÍ‡ii weKí gva¨g wn‡m‡e †cv÷vj AW©v‡ii e¨envi me©Î Pj‡Q| mn‡R †cv÷vj AW©vi fv½v‡bv hvq e‡j wewfbœ cÖwZôvb †cv÷vj AW©vi e¨env‡ii wb‡`©k w`‡q _v‡K| G QvovI †cv÷vj AW©v‡i ivóªxq M¨vivw›U _v‡K| WvK wefv‡Mi †cv÷vj AW©vi cÖPj‡bi gva¨‡g Rbmvavi‡Yi bM` UvKv cwien‡bi SuywK A‡bKUv n«vm Ki‡Z mÿg n‡q‡Q|


mvwPweK we`¨v

103

4.21 gvwb AW©vi I gvwb AW©v‡ii wbqgvewj (Money Order and the Rules of Money Order) Bs‡iwR Money k‡ãi A_© n‡jv UvKv Avi Order k‡ãi A_© n‡jv Av‡`k| •`bw›`b wewfbœ Kvh© m¤úv`‡b gvbyl GK¯
vb †_‡K Ab¨¯
v‡b A_© ¯
vbvšÍi K‡i _v‡K| Rbmvavi‡Yi A_© GK¯
vb †_‡K Ab¨¯
v‡b ¯
vbvšÍi Ki‡Z e¨vs‡Ki cvkvcvwk WvK wefvM †h cš
vq †cÖi‡Ki A_© cÖvc‡Ki nv‡Z †cu․‡Q †`q Zv‡K gvwb AW©vi e‡j| wbw`©ó cwigvY wdm cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g †h †KD WvK wefv‡Mi †mev MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| G e¨e¯
vq †`k I we‡`‡ki †h‡Kv‡bv RvqMvq m‡e©v‪P 5,000.00 (cuvP nvRvi) UvKv ch©šÍ †cÖiY Kiv hvq| mvaviY A‡_©: †cv÷ Awd‡mi gva¨‡g †Kv‡bv e¨w³ hw` †Kv‡bv cÖvc‡Ki A_© †cÖiY K‡i Z‡e Zv‡K gvwb AW©vi e‡j| e¨vcK A‡_©: WvK wefv‡Mi †h e¨e¯
vi gva¨‡g †cÖi‡Ki A_© myk„‫‫‬Lj I AvBbm¤§Zfv‡e cÖvc‡Ki wbKU †cÖiY Kiv nq Zv‡K Money Order ev A_© ¯
vbvšÍ‡ii Av‡`kbvgv e‡j| RMZ AwZ `ªæZ cwiewZ©Z n‡‪Q| d‡j MÖvn‡Ki iæwP, Af¨vm, cQ›` I cÖ‡qvRb cwiewZ©Z n‡‪Q `ªæZ †_‡K `ªæZZi| Avi G cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ Zvj wgwj‡q Pj‡Z WvK wefvM mvaviY gvwb AW©v‡ii cvkvcvwk †UwjMÖvwdK gvwb AW©vi (T.M.O) Ges AwZ m¤cÖwZ M¨vivw›UW G·‡cÖm †cv÷ (G.E.P.) bv‡g `ywU `ªæZ gvwb AW©vi c×wZ Pvjy K‡i‡Q hvi Øviv MÖvnK GKwU wbw`©ó gvï‡ji wewbg‡q wbw`©ó mg‡qi g‡a¨ mywbw`©ó cÖvc‡Ki Kv‡Q A_© cvVv‡Z cv‡i| mvaviYfv‡e gvwb AW©vi Ki‡Z †cv÷ Awdm †_‡K 50 cqmv Øviv Money Order dig msMÖn K‡i Zv h_vh_fv‡e c~iY K‡i wbw`©ó wdm cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g A_© cvVv‡bv nq| gvwb AW©v‡ii wbqgvewj: A_© †cÖi‡Y me©vwaK ¸iæZ¡c~Y© gva¨g n‡jv gvwb AW©vi e¨e¯
v| gvwb AW©vi Kivi Rb¨ KZK¸‡jv wbqg †g‡b Pj‡Z nq| wb‡gœ gvwb AW©vi e¨e¯
vi wewfbœ c×wZ/cÖwµqvi eY©bv †`qv n‡jv: 1. dig msMÖn: WvKNi †_‡K cÖ_‡g 50 cqmv Øviv ÔMoney OrderÕ dig msMÖn Ki‡Z nq| 2. A‡_©i cwigvY: gvwb AW©v‡ii gva¨‡g me©wbgœ 10.00 (`k) UvKv †_‡K m‡e©v‪P 5,000 (cuvP nvRvi) UvKv ch©šÍ †cÖiY Kiv hvq| 3. Kwgkb: gvwb AW©vi Ki‡Z cÖ_g 10.00 (`k) UvKvq 50 cqmv Ges cieZ©x 10.00 (`k) UvKv ev Zvi fMœvs‡ki Rb¨ ch©vqµ‡g 25 cqmv Kwgkb w`‡Z nq| 4. iwk`: gvwb AW©vi Kivi ci †cv÷ Awdm †cÖiK‡K ¯^vÿi I mxjhy³ GKwU iwk` cÖ`vb K‡i †hLv‡b ms‡ÿ‡c †cÖiK I cÖvc‡Ki bvg wVKvbv †jLv _v‡K| 5. †diZ: mywbw`©ó cÖvcK Luy‡R bv †c‡j gvwb AW©vi †cÖi‡Ki wbKU wd‡i Av‡m | 6. †cÖi‡Ki e³e¨: di‡gi wb‡P mvgvb¨ duvKv Ask _v‡K †hLv‡b cÖvc‡Ki D‡Ï‡k¨ †cÖiK wKQy wjL‡Z cv‡i| 7. T.M.O c×wZ: `ªæZ A_© †cÖi‡Y WvK wefvM T.M.O ev †UwjMÖvwdK gvwb AW©vi c×wZ cÖPjb K‡i‡Q| 8. G.E.P. c×wZ: †cÖwiZ A‡_©i cwic~Y© wbivcËv I wbðqZv cÖ`v‡b WvK wefvM me©‡kl †h c×wZi cÖPjb K‡i Zv n‡jv G.E.P.


104

†hvMv‡hvM

9. AvIZv: gvwb AW©vi †`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i †h‡Kv‡bv ¯
v‡b Ges we‡`‡k evsjv‡`‡k WvK wefvM KZ©„K †hvMv‡hvMK…Z hy³ivR¨, hy³ivóª, Rvg©vwb, Rvcvb, wm½vcyi, Kz‡qZ, gvj‡qwkqv I myB‡Wb cÖf„wZ †`‡k UvKv cqmv †cÖiY Kiv hvq| Dc‡ii Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, †`‡ki mvaviY RbMY gvwb AW©vi e¨e¯
vi mv‡_ m¤ú„³| evsjv‡`k WvK wefv‡Mi gvwb AW©vi dig c~iY I e¨env‡ii RwUjZv, WvK mvwf©‡mi wbgœgvb BZ¨vw`i Kvi‡Y eZ©gv‡b gvbyl gvwb AW©vi Ki‡Z A‡bKUv Abxnv cÖKvk K‡i| miKvi G e¨vcv‡i mg‡qvc‡hvMx I Z¡wiZ wm×všÍ MÖnY Ki‡j me©‡kªwYi gvby‡li G mvwf©‡mi cÖwZ Avevi Av¯
v wd‡i Avm‡e|

4.22 gvwb AW©v‡ii ¸iæZ¡ Bs‡iwR Money k‡ãi A_© n‡jv gy`vª Ges Order k‡ãi A_© Av‡`k ev Av‡`k Kiv| Awdm e¨e¯
vcbvq Z_v WvK †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
vcbvq Money Order kãØq w`‡q UvKv-cqmv †cÖi‡Yi myk„‫‫‬Lj I AvBbm¤§Z ivóªxq e¨e¯
v‡K eySv‡bv n‡q _v‡K| G e¨e¯
vi gva¨‡g RbMY Zv‡`i †cÖwiZ A_© wewfbœ ¯
v‡b †cÖiY K‡i _v‡Kb| ¸iæZ¡: WvK mvwf©m e¨e¯
vcbvq gvwb AW©vi GKwU HwZnvwmK e¨e¯
v| wb‡gœ D³ e¨e¯
vi ¸iæZ¡ ev myweavmg~n eY©bv Kiv n‡jv: 1. A_© †cÖiY: gvwb AW©v‡ii gva¨‡g †h‡Kv‡bv e¨w³ †`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i †h‡Kv‡bv ¯
v‡b A_© †cÖiY Ki‡Z cv‡i| d‡j `~‡i Ae¯
vbiZ AvcbRb, cvIbv`vi ev †h‡Kv‡bv e¨w³‡K mn‡R Gi gva¨‡g A_© †cÖiY Kiv hvq| 2. wbivc‡` †cÖiY: gvwb AW©v‡ii gva¨‡g UvKv-cqmv cvVv‡bv me©vwaK wbivc`| †Kbbv, G‡ÿ‡Î ivóªxq M¨vivw›U _v‡K| †cÖwiZ A‡_©i ÿwZ n‡j ev nvwi‡q †M‡j †cv÷ Awdm KZ©„cÿ Zv †diZ w`‡Z eva¨ _v‡K| 3. SuywK n«vm: gvwb AW©v‡ii gva¨‡g UvKv cvVv‡bv n‡j †cÖi‡Ki †Kv‡bv SzuwK _v‡K bv| A_P me©ÎB mivmwi A_© †cÖiY †cÖi‡Ki Rb¨ AZ¨šÍ SzuwKc~Y©| 4. Kj¨vYg~jK e¨e¯’v: gvwb AW©v‡ii gva¨‡g †cÖiK Zvi myweavg‡Zv †h‡Kv‡bv mgq †h‡Kv‡bv ¯
v‡b A_© cvVv‡Z cv‡i| cÖ‡qvR‡bi mgq A_© cvVv‡bvi my‡hvM m„wó WvK mvwf©‡mi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© I Kj¨vYg~jK e¨e¯
v| 5. Kg LiP: WvK e¨e¯
vq A_© †cÖi‡Y Li‡Pi cwigvY GKvšÍB Kg| †cÖiK Zvi cv‡ki WvKN‡i gvwb AW©vi dig c~iY K‡i †`‡ki †h‡Kv‡bv ¯
v‡b Kg Li‡P A_© †cÖiY Ki‡Z cv‡i| 6. e³e¨ Dc¯’vc‡bi my‡hvM: †cÖiK Zvi †cÖwiZ UvKv gvwb AW©v‡ii gva¨‡g cvVv‡bvi cvkvcvwk cÖ‡qvRbxq e³e¨ cÖKv‡ki my‡hvM †c‡q _v‡Kb| G‡ÿ‡Î di‡gi Dc‡i †jLvi Rb¨ wba©vwiZ dvuKv †¯úm _v‡K| 7. Kj¨vYg~jK e¨e¯’v: WvK †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
vi RbwcÖq I ¸iæZ¡c~Y© mvwf©m n‡jv gvwb AW©vi mvwf©m| Avgv‡`i †`‡k GLbI G e¨e¯
vi gva¨‡g AwaK gvby‡li A_© Ab¨Î †cÖwiZ n‡q _v‡K| AZGe gvwb AW©vi mvwf©m Avcvgi RbM‡Yi Rb¨ GKwU Kj¨vYKi e¨e¯
v|


mvwPweK we`¨v

105

gvwb AW©v‡ii gva¨‡g A_© †cÖi‡Yi cÖwµqv: A_© †cÖi‡Y me©vwaK ¸iæZ¡c~Y© gva¨g n‡jv gvwb AW©vi e¨e¯
v| wb‡gœ gvwb AW©vi e¨e¯
vi wewfbœ cÖwµqv eY©bv Kiv n‡jv: 1. dig msMÖn: WvKN‡i gvwb AW©vi dig Qvcv‡bv _v‡K| gvwb AW©vi e¨e¯
vq UvKv-cqmv cvVv‡bvi j‡ÿ¨ wba©vwiZ dig e¨envi Ki‡Z nq| Giƒc dig msMÖ‡ni Rb¨ cÖwZUv .50 UvKv nv‡i wd †`qvi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| 2. k~b¨¯’vb c~iY: gvwb AW©v‡ii wba©vwiZ di‡g k~b¨¯
vb _v‡K| A_© †cÖiYKvix‡K wba©vwiZ di‡gi ïb¨¯
v‡b wewfbœ Z_¨ mwVKfv‡e c~iY Ki‡Z nq| 3. m‡e©v”P UvKvi cwigvY: gvwb AW©v‡ii gva¨‡g wbgœZg 10.00 UvKv ch©šÍ cvVv‡bv hvq| ivóªxq WvK mvwf©m cÖewZ©Z wbqgvbymv‡i m‡e©v‪P 5,000.00 UvKv ch©šÍ gvwb AW©v‡ii e¨e¯
vq cvVv‡bv m¤¢e| 4. Kwgkb msµvšÍ wbqg: 10 UvKv ch©šÍ gvwb AW©v‡ii Rb¨ 0.50 UvKv Kwgkb jv‡M| 10.00 UvKvi E‡aŸ© cÖwZ 10.00 UvKv ev Zvi fMœvs‡ki Rb¨ 0.25 UvKv nv‡i †cÖiK‡K Kwgkb w`‡Z nq| 5. iwm`: †h †cv÷ Awd‡mi gva¨‡g UvKv cqmv †cÖiY Kiv nq H †cv÷ Awdm KZ©„K wjwLZ GKwU iwm` †cÖiK‡K †`qv nq| iwm‡`i Ic‡i cÖvc‡Ki bvg I wVKvbv Ges UvKvi cwigvY †jLv _v‡K| 6. wU.Gg.I: `ªæZ UvKv-cqmv †cÖiK‡`i DwjøwLZ wVKvbvq †cu․Qv‡bvi Rb¨ bZzb e¨e¯
v Pvjy n‡q‡Q| GwU n‡jv TMO gva¨‡g gvwb AW©vi c×wZ cÖPjb K‡i‡Q| AwZwi³ Kwgkb †`qvi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| evsjv‡`k WvK mvwf©m eZ©gv‡b wU Gg I mvwf©m Pvjy K‡i‡Q|

4.23 Riæwi WvK mvwf©m (B.Gg.Gm) (Express Mail Service) B.Gg.Gm: wek¦vqb I Z_¨ cÖhyw³i cÖfv‡e Avgv‡`i Pvicv‡ki mewKQyi AwZ `ªæZ cwieZ©b NU‡Q| d‡j gvby‡li B‪Qvkw³, Pvwn`v I cÖ‡qvR‡biI `ªæZ cwieZ©b n‡‪Q| Pvicv‡ki G cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ Lvc †L‡q Pj‡Z evsjv‡`k WvK wefvMI Zv‡`i Kvh©µ‡gi Avg~j cwieZ©b Ki‡Q, hvi Ab¨Zg `„k¨gvb cÖgvY n‡‪Q Riæwi WvK mvwf©m (B.Gg.Gm.) c×wZi cÖPjb| Riæwi WvK mvwf©m‡K Bs‡iwR‡Z Express Mail Service ev ms‡ÿ‡c (E.M.S.) ejv nq| G e¨e¯
v cÖeZ©‡bi d‡j AvšÍR©vwZK WvK wefv‡Mi mv‡_ evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM Zvjwgwj‡q Pj‡Z mÿg n‡q‡Q| G e¨e¯
vq evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM me©cÖ_g 1984 mv‡j Riæwi WvK mvwf©m (B.Gg.Gm.) c×wZ Pvjy K‡i| msÁv: †h e¨e¯
vq 1984 mvj †_‡K A`¨vewa we‡k¦i †gvU 52wU †`‡ki mv‡_ AZ¨šÍ mvd‡j¨i mv‡_ wPwVcÎ, `wjj `¯Ív‡eRmn wewfbœ WKz‡g›Um& Ges †Kv‡bv iKg wewa wb‡la Av‡ivwcZ bv n‡j m‡e©v‪P 20 †KwR ch©š Í wewfbœ gvjvgvj mvgMªx †cÖiY K‡i Avm‡Q Zv‡K Riæwi WvK mvwf©m (B.Gg.Gm.) e‡j| 1984 mv‡j evsjv‡`k I hy³iv‡R¨i g‡a¨ Riæwi WvK mvwf©m (B.Gg.Gm.) me©cÖ_g Pvjy nq| 1998 mvj ch©š Í G mvwf©m †e‡o 45wU †`‡ki g‡a¨ cwiPvwjZ nq| 1999 mv‡j evsjv‡`k AviI 7wU †`‡ki m‡½ AvšÍR©vwZK Riæwi WvK mvwf©m (B.Gg.Gm.) Pvjy K‡i‡Q| G 7wU †`k wb‡q evsjv‡`‡ki m‡½ Riæwi WvK mvwf©‡mi (B.Gg.Gm.) msL¨v †e‡o 52wU †`‡k `uvov‡jv| Gme †`‡k wPwVcÎ, e¨emvwqK `wjjcÎ Ges Ab¨ c‡ÿi †Kv‡bv wewa-wb‡la Av‡ivc bv Kiv mv‡c‡ÿ m‡e©v‪P 20 †KwR ch©šÍ mvgMÖx `ªæZ cvVv‡bv hvq|


†hvMv‡hvM

106

evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM Riæwi WvK mvwf©m (B.Gg.Gm.) Kvh©µg myôzfv‡e cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ wefvMxq kni Ges †Rjv knimg~‡n c„_K †mj MVb K‡i‡Q| G e¨e¯
vi me‡P‡q eo myweav n‡jv Gi gva¨‡g AwZ Aí Li‡P †emiKvwi Kzwiqvi mvwf©mmg~‡ni (1/4) Ask Li‡P, gvÎ 3 w`‡bi g‡a¨ we‡`‡k M„ wnZ mvgMÖx evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM AZ¨šÍ mvd‡j¨i mv‡_ †cu․‡Q †`q| †f․‡MvwjK Ae¯
vb I `~i‡Z¡i ZviZg¨‡f‡` wPwVcÎ 190.00 (GKkZ beŸB) UvKv †_‡K 580.00 (cuvPkZ Avwk) UvKv gvky‡j †cÖiY Kiv hvq| gvjvgvj mvgMÖx 20 †KwR ch©šÍ †cÖiY Ki‡Z m‡e©v‪P 3,000.00 (wZb nvRvi) UvKv ch©šÍ e¨q n‡q _v‡K| Dchy©³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, Riæwi WvK mvwf©m (B.Gg.Gm.) c×wZ cÖPj‡bi gva¨‡g evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM ¯^í mgq I ¯^í e¨‡q wbivc` I wek¦¯ÍZvi mv‡_ wPwVcÎ I cY¨mvgMÖx †cÖiY K‡i AvšÍR©vwZK WvK mvwf©‡mi mv‡_ cwiwPZ n‡Z Ges cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq wU‡K _vK‡Z mÿg n‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`k WvK wefv‡Mi Rb¨ GwU GKwU hyMvšÍKvix c`‡ÿc|

4.24 wR.B.wc. Kx? wR.B.wc. Kivi wbqgvewj wR.B.wc.: evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM Zvi †mev Kvh©µg †`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i †eMevb I †Rvi`vi Ki‡Z Z_v †emiKvwi cwiev‡ii mv‡_ cvjøv w`‡q Rbmvavi‡Yi Pvwn`v c~iY Ki‡Z wPwVcÎvw` cvVv‡bvi `ªæZ †h c×wZi cÖPjb K‡i‡Q Zv-B n‡jv Guaranteed Express Post ev ms‡ÿ‡c (G.E.P.)| evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM bZzb G c×wZ me©cÖ_g 1984 mv‡ji 19 †deª æqvwi‡Z Pvjy K‡ib| cÖ_g Ae¯
vq G Kvh©µg ïaygvÎ 4wU wefvMxq kn‡i mxwgZ _vK‡jI cieZ©x‡Z wm‡jU I h‡kv‡i Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvi gva¨‡g wPwVcÎ I †cÖwiZ mvgMÖx m‡e©v‪P 24 NÈvi g‡a¨ †cu․‡Q †`qvi e¨e¯
v K‡i| eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡k hZ¸‡jv c×wZ (Af¨šÍ‡i) cÖPwjZ Av‡Q Zvi g‡a¨ wR.B.wc. bvgK G c×wZwU me‡P‡q `ªæZZg| evsjv‡`‡ki 64wU †Rjvi †h‡Kv‡bv kn‡i gvÎ 10.00 (`k) UvKvi wewbg‡q 24 N›Uvi g‡a¨ M„wnZ wPwVcÎ †cu․‡Q †`qvi wbðqZv w`‡‪Q evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM| XvKv-1000

mKj †Rjvi cÖavb WvKNi

XvKv-1000

M¨vivw›UW G·‡cªm †cv÷ (wR.B.wc.) Kivi wbqgvewj: 1. `ªæZ †cÖiY I wewjKiY: wR.B.wc. e¨e¯
vi gva¨‡g M„wnZ wPwVcÎ `ªæZ †cÖiY I wewjKi‡Yi Rb¨ wfbœ eywKs †mj e¨e¯
v Pvjy Kiv n‡q‡Q| 2. †cv÷ Awd‡m †cÖiY: 24 NÈvq cÎ †cÖiY Ki‡Z n‡e G D‡Ïk¨ AR©b Ki‡Z †Kv‡bv †cv÷ Awd‡m cÎ Avmv gvÎ Zv †cÖiY I wewjKi‡Yi e¨e¯
v Kiv nq| 3. we‡kl WvK wcqb: wR.B.wc. Kvh©µg myôz my›`i mvejxjfv‡e cwiPvjbvi myweav‡_© we‡kl WvK wcqb wb‡qvM Kiv nq hvi KvR n‡jv ïaygvÎ wR.B.wc. msµvšÍ wPwVcÎvw` `ªæZ †cÖiY I wewjKi‡Yi e¨e¯
v Kiv| 4. IRb: m‡e©v‪P 2 †KwR ch©šÍ IR‡bi wPwVcÎ ev Ab¨vb¨ mvgMÖx G e¨e¯
vq †cÖiY Kiv hvq| 5. WvKgvïj: cÖ_g 100 MÖvg A_ev Zvi wb‡Pi †h‡Kv‡bv fMœvs‡ki Rb¨ 10.00 (`k) UvKv WvK gvïj w`‡Z nq|


mvwPweK we`¨v

107

6. AwZwi³ WvKgvïj: cÖ_g 100 MÖvg A_ev Zvi wb‡Pi †h‡Kv‡bv fMœvs‡ki Rb¨ 10.00 (`k) UvKv WvKgvïj w`‡Z nq| cieZ©x 100 Mvg ev Zvi wb‡Pi †h‡Kv‡bv fMœvs‡ki Rb¨ 2.00 (`yB) UvKv nv‡i WvKgvïj w`‡Z nq| 7. cwigvY: me©vwaK 2 †KwR ch©šÍ IR‡bi wPwVcÎvw` G mvwf©‡mi gva¨‡g cvVv‡bv hvq| 8. ÿwZc~iY: cÖvK…wZK KviY ev †cv÷ Awd‡mi ÿgZv ewnf~©Z KviY Qvov Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Kvi‡Y wR.B.wc. `ªe¨vw` nvwi‡q †M‡j †cÖiK‡K Dchy³ cÖgvY mv‡c‡ÿ 100.00 (GKkZ) UvKv ÿwZc~iY †`qvi e¨e¯
v Av‡Q| 9. Kvh©µ‡gi AvIZv: ïaygvÎ wefvM I †Rjv knimg~‡ni (wmwU K‡c©v‡ikb) g‡a¨ wR.B.wc. c×wZ‡Z M„wnZ mvgMÖx wewj Kiv nq| Dchy©³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, evsjv‡`‡ki WvK wefv‡Mi mvwf©m¸‡jvi g‡a¨ wR.B.wc. GKwU ¯^íe¨qx Lye fv‡jv mvwf©m| G c×wZ‡Z WvK wefvM GKB kn‡i ev GK kni †_‡K Ab¨ kn‡i gvÎ 10.00 (`k) UvKvi wewbg‡q 24 NÈvi g‡a¨ †h‡Kv‡bv wPwVcÎ cÖvc‡Ki Kv‡Q †cu․‡Q †`qvi wbðqZv w`‡q _v‡K|

4.25 Kzwiqvi mvwf©m I Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi wbqgvewj (Courier service and the rules of courier service) Kzwiqvi mvwf©m: Bs‡iwR kã ÔCourierÕ Gi A_© n‡jv `~Z ev msev`evnK| Avi ÔServiceÕ ej‡Z msev` Av`vb-cÖ`v‡bi evnK wn‡m‡e †mev cÖ`vbKvix cÖwZôvb‡K eySvq| DrcwË: 1967 mv‡j gvwK©b hy³iv‡óª DHL bvgK GKwU Kzwiqvi mvwf©m hvÎv ïiæ K‡i| K¨vwj‡dvwb©qvi 3 eÜz Adrin Dalsey, Larry Hilbolm I Robert Lay wg‡j `ªæZ msev` I Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ DHL bvgK Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Pvjy K‡ib| wZb eÜzi bv‡gi Av`¨ÿi (Dalsey †_‡K D, Hilbolm †_‡K H, Lay †_‡K L) wb‡q MwVZ DHL bvgK KzwiqviwU wQj c„w_exi cÖ_g Kzwiqvi| µgweKvk: 1967 mv‡j hy³iv‡óª Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Pvjy nIqvi c‡i 1969 mv‡j Gwkqvq Gi Kvh©µg ïiæ nq| m‡e©v‪P 24 NÈvi g‡a¨ wPwV Ges 72 NÈvi g‡a¨ †h‡Kv‡bv gvjvgvj cÖvc‡Ki wbKU †cu․Qv‡Z Kzwiqvi mvwf©m cÖwZkÖæwZe×| eZ©gv‡b Avgv‡`i †`‡k †QvU I eo wgwj‡q cÖvq 60/70 wU Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Av‡Q| e¨vcK A‡_©, cÖPwjZ evnK AvBb †g‡b miKvwi WvK wefv‡Mi cvkvcvwk †emiKvwi †h gva¨g wek¦¯ÍZv I `ªæZZvi mv‡_ †cÖwiZ mvgMÖx cÖvc‡Ki wbKU †cu․‡Q †`q Zv‡K Kzwiqvi mvwf©m e‡j| Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi Kvh©µg myôzfv‡e m¤úv`‡b Zv‡`i i‡q‡Q myk„‫‫‬Lj wKQy bxwZgvjv| hv evnK AvBb Øviv wbqwš¿Z I miKvi KZ©„K Aby‡gvw`Z| Dch~³ y Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, miKvwi WvK mvwf©‡mi cvkvcvwk Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Zvi AbymiYxq bxwZ¸‡jv AbymiY K‡i `ªæZZv I wek¦¯ÍZvi mv‡_ †mev cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g w`‡bi ci w`b RbM‡Yi Av¯
v AR©b Ki‡Z mÿg n‡‪Q|


108

†hvMv‡hvM

Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi wbqgvewj: 1. wbwl×: Bb‡fjv‡ci †fZ‡i K¨vk UvKv, †PK, Dcnvi †PK, cÖvBReÛ ivLv wbwl×| 2. AeMZ Kiv: †cÖiK †cÖwiZ gvjvgv‡ji Z_¨ †Kv¤úvwb‡K AewnZ Ki‡eb| †cÖiK KbmvBb‡g›U m¤úwK©Z fyj ev Am¤ú~Y© Z_¨ cwi‡ekb Ki‡j AvBbZ `vqx _vK‡eb| 3. ¯^vfvweK `yN©Ubvi ÿwZ: gvjvgvj cwienbKv‡j AcÖZ ¨vwkZ †h‡Kv‡bv `yN©Ubvi Kvi‡Y ÿwZ mvwaZ n‡j †Kv¤úvwb `vqx _vK‡e bv| GRb¨ †cÖw iZ gvjvgv‡ji †cÖiK ev cÖvcK‡K ÿwZc~iY w`‡Z †Kv¤úvwb eva¨ bq| 4. `vq-`vwqZ¡: †cÖiK †cÖwiZ c‡Îi Af¨šÍ‡i Z_¨ ev msev` A_ev †cÖwiZ gvjvgv‡ji Z_¨ msµvšÍ mZ¨Zv †Kv¤úvwbi Kv‡Q cÖKvk Ki‡eb| wjwLZ Z‡_¨i AvBbMZ `vq-`vwqZ¡ †cÖiK enb Ki‡eb| 5. AvcwË: cÖvcK A_ev •ea †Kv‡bv cÖwZwbwa KbmvBb‡g›U ev WKz‡g›U MÖnY Kivi c‡i ÿwZmsµvšÍ †Kv‡bv Awf‡hvM MÖnY Kiv nq bv| WKz‡g‡›Ui e¨vcv‡i AvcwË _vK‡j MÖn‡Yi c~‡e©B Rvbv‡Z nq| 6. †hvMv‡hvM: M„nxZ cÎ, `ªe¨vw` `ªæZ I wbwe©‡Nœ †cÖi‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ †Kv¤úvwbi †h‡Kv‡bv †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
vi gva¨‡g MÖnY Kivi GLwZqvi i‡q‡Q| G‡ÿ‡Î †cÖi‡Ki †Kv‡bv civgk© ev mycvwik MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡e bv| 7. kZ©vewj: †Kv¤úvwb Zvi wbqg-Kvbyb ev kZ©vewji ms‡hvRb, we‡qvRb, ms¯‥iY BZ¨vw` Kivi ÿgZv msiÿY K‡ib| 8. ÿgZv: †cÖwiZ †Kv‡bv `ªe¨ ev gvjvgvj, e¨w³, cwienb, m¤ú` BZ¨vw`i ÿwZ Kivi †Kv‡bv Avk¼v _vK‡j Kzwiqvi mvwf©m KZ©„cÿ ewY©Z `ªe¨ ev gvjvgvj †h‡Kv‡bv mg‡q cwiZ¨vM ev bó Kivi ÿgZv iv‡Lb| 9. cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM: cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM, eb¨v, mvB‡K¬vb, AwMœKvÐ, wgwQj-wgwUs BZ¨vw` `y‡h©v‡Mi Kvi‡Y M„nxZ cÎ ev gvjvgv‡ji ÿwZ n‡j †Kv¤úvwb `vqx _vK‡e bv| 10. cixÿv: †cÖwiZ gvjvgvj MÖn‡Yi mg‡q A_ev cÖ`v‡bi mg‡q AvswkK ev m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c cixÿv K‡i †`Lvi ÿgZv †Kv¤úvwb msiÿY K‡ib| 11. `vwe: eywKs †`qvi ZvwiL n‡Z wÎk (30) w`‡bi g‡a¨ Aek¨B M„nxZ gvjvgvj cÖvcK‡K wb‡Z n‡e| Ab¨_vq wÎk (30) w`‡bi ci †cÖiK ev cÖvcK gvjvgvj AvBbZ `vwe Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| 12. BÝy¨‡iÝ: †cÖiK Zvi †cÖwiZ gvjvgv‡ji BÝy‡iÝ Ki‡Z cv‡ib| BÝy¨‡iÝ e¨qfvi †cÖiK‡K enb Ki‡Z n‡e| 13. cÖvwß ¯^xKvi iwm`: eywKs ZvwiL †_‡K `yB (2) gvm ch©šÍ Kzwiqvi Awdm cÖvwß ¯^xKvi iwm` msiÿY K‡i _v‡Kb| D³ mg‡qi g‡a¨ †cÖiK‡K D³ iwm` msMÖn Ki‡Z n‡e| 14. ÿwZc~iY c×wZ: †Kv¤úvwbi `vwq‡Z¡i Ae‡njvi Kvi‡Y M„nxZ gvjvgvj webó ev ÿwZMÖ¯Í n‡q‡Q cÖgvwYZ n‡j †Kv¤úvwb wb‡gœv³ nv‡i ÿwZc~iY w`‡e: (K) 1 †KwR ch©šÍ IR‡bi gvjvgv‡ji Rb¨ m‡e©v‪P 300 UvKv ÿwZc~iY †`qv nq| (L) 1 †KwR IR‡bi †ewk n‡j cÖ_g GK †KwRi Rb¨ 300 UvKv Ges cieZ©x cÖwZ †KwRi Rb¨ 100 UvKv nv‡i ÿwZc~iY †`qv nq| (M) ÿwZMÖ¯Í gvjvgv‡ji kZKiv 80 fvM †Kv¤úvwb KZ©„K †NvwlZ g~j¨ Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwb ÿwZc~iY w`‡q _v‡K| Dchy©³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi †mev MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ Dch©y³ wbqgvewj ev kZ©vw` †cÖiK‡K ev MÖvnK‡K †g‡b Pj‡Z nq| `ªæZZv I wek¦¯ÍZvi Rb¨ Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi Kvh©µg wek¦e¨vcx †e‡oB Pj‡Q| Avgv‡`i †`‡kI gvjvgvj †cÖi‡Y ivóªxq WvK wefv‡Mi cvkvcvwk Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Zv‡`i `vwqZ¡ h_vh_fv‡e cvjb Ki‡Q|


mvwPweK we`¨v

109

4.26 Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi ¸iæZ¡ (The importance of courier service) Bs‡iwR kã ÔCourierÕ Gi evsjv kvwãK A_© n‡jv `~Z ev msev`evnK| miKvwi WvK wefv‡Mi cvkvcvwk †emiKvwi ch©v‡q M‡o DVv Gme Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Aí mg‡qi g‡a¨ Zvi `ÿZv wek¦¯ÍZv, mZZv I `ªæZZvmn bvbvw`K w`‡q mgv‡Ri me©‡ÿ‡Îi gvby‡li `„wó AvKl©Y Ki‡Z mÿg n‡q‡Q| mvaviYZ †hme Kvi‡Y Kzwiqvi bvgK †emiKvwi WvK wefv‡Mi DrcwË I we¯Í…wZ N‡U‡Q Zv wbgœiƒc: 1. `ªæZZv: WvK †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
vq `ªæZ gvjvgvj, wPwVcÎ wba©vwiZ MšÍ‡e¨ †cÖiY GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq| ivóªxq WvK mvwf©‡mi Zzjbvq Kzwiqvi mvwf©m M„nxZ wPwVcÎ ev gvjvgvj `ªæZ MšÍe¨¯
‡j †cu․Qvq| 2. `ÿZv: Kzwiqvi mvwf©m WvK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î h‡_ó `ÿZv AR©b K‡i‡Q| Zviv 24 NÈvi g‡a¨ wPwVcÎ, cv‡m©j, eyK †cv÷, †PK BZ¨vw` wba©vwiZ ¯
v‡b †cu․Qv‡bvi †Póv K‡i _v‡K| wbivcËv: cÎ I gvjvgvj †cÖi‡Y †emiKvwi Kzwiqvi mvwf©m AZ¨šÍ wbivcËvi mv‡_ `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i _v‡K| wPwVcÎ ev gvjvgvj †cÖi‡Y AcÖZ¨vwkZ wKQy NU‡j cÖvcK‡K ÿwZc~iY †`qviI M¨vivw›U †`q| 3. wek¦¯ÍZv: Kzwiqvi mvwf©m cÖwZôvb¸‡jvi g‡a¨ cÖwZ‡hvwMZv _vKvq Zviv †cÖi‡Ki wek¦¯ÍZv AR©‡bi me©vwaK cÖ‡Póv Pvjvq| WvK mvwf©m e¨e¯
vq cÖwZôvb‡K wU‡K _vK‡Z n‡j wek¦¯ÍZvi †Kv‡bv weKí †bB| 4. †MvcbxqZv: cÖ‡Z¨K cÖvcK Zvi †cÖwiZ wPwVcÎ ev gvjvgv‡ji †MvcbxqZvi wbðqZv cÖZ¨vkv K‡i| Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Zv‡`i wb‡R‡`i ¯^v‡_© †cÖi‡Ki wPwVcÎ ev gvjvgv‡ji †MvcbxqZv eRvq ivL‡Z m‡Pó nq| 5. `vwqZ¡‡eva: Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Kvh©µg miKvwi kZ©mv‡c‡ÿ I Aby‡gv`bµ‡g cwiPvwjZ nIqvq Zviv †eAvBwb ev wbwl× gvjvgvj †cÖi‡Y mZK© _v‡K| 6. wbðqZv: †cÖiK me mgq Zvi †cÖwiZ mvgMÖxi wbw`©ó MšÍ‡e¨ †cu․‡Q †`qvi wbðqZv Pvq| Avi Kzwiqvi mvwf©mI 100% wbðqZvq M„nxZ mKj wPwVcÎ I gvjvgvj †cu․‡Q w`‡q _v‡K| 7. Kg gvïj: Zzjbvg~jK A‡bK Kg gvï‡j Kzwiqvi mvwf©m cY¨ ev WKz‡g›U †cÖiY K‡i _v‡K| hv gvbyl‡K G †mev MÖn‡Y AvMÖnx K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| 8. wegv myweav: Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi gva¨‡g †cÖwiZ gvjvgv‡ji wegv Kiv hvq| d‡j †cÖiK Zvi SuywKi gvÎv n«vmKiYv‡_© Gi Øvi¯
 nq| 9. ÿwZc~iY: †Kv‡bv cY¨ nvwi‡q †M‡j ev bó n‡j Dchy³ cÖgvY mv‡c‡ÿ mswkøó Kzwiqvi mvwf©m cÖwZôvbwU Zvi ÿwZc~iY cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K| 10. †nvg mvwf©m: Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡m †nvg †Wwjfvwi LyeB `ÿZvi mv‡_ cwiPvwjZ nq| 11. mvwe©K myweav: †gvUvgywUfv‡e Sv‡gjvgy³ Ges `ywðšÍvgy³ GKwU c×wZ wn‡m‡e Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Zvi ¯
vb K‡i wb‡q‡Q| Dchy©³ Av‡jvPbvi †k‡l ejv hvq, WvK wefv‡Mi cvkvcvwk wbZ¨ bZzb AvBwWqvi cÖ‡qvM K‡i bvbvwea my‡hv‡Mi mwbœ‡ekKi‡Yi gva¨‡g Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Zvi ¸iæZ¡‡K ¯
vwqZ¡ w`‡q‡Q|


110

4.27

†hvMv‡hvM

Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi RbwcÖqZvi KviY¸‡jv (The causes of popularity in courier service)

Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi RbwcÖqZv w`‡bi ci w`b †e‡oB P‡j‡Q| c„w_ex‡Z me©cÖ_g Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Pvjy nq 1967 mv‡j| Gi e¨vcKZv e„w×i mv‡_ mv‡_ evsjv‡`‡k Gi Avwef©ve N‡U 1979 mv‡j| eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡k †`wkwe‡`wk A‡bK Kzwiqvi mvwf©m i‡q‡Q| ch©vqµ‡g cÖwZ‡hvwMZvi gva¨‡g Zv‡`i †mev Ges cwiwa e¨vcKfv‡e e„w× †c‡q‡Q| Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi RbwcªqZvi A‡bK KviY i‡q‡Q| wb‡gœ Zv eY©bv Kiv n‡jv: 1. `ªæZZv: Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Lye `ªæZZvi mv‡_ Zv‡`i WKz‡g›U GK¯
vb †_‡K Ab¨¯
v‡b †cÖiY K‡i RbwcÖqZv AR©b K‡i _v‡K| 2. kvLv: Kzwiqvi mvwf©m RbM‡Yi wbKU Z…Yg~j ch©v‡q Zv‡`i cY¨ ev WKz‡g›U †cu․uQv‡bvi Rb¨ K‡qK nvRvi kvLv ¯
vcb K‡i‡Q| 3. †mev: Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi RbwcÖqZvi Ab¨Zg KviY n‡jv †mev cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g RbM‡Yi Av¯
v AR©b Kiv| 4. cÖwZ‡hvwMZv: eZ©gv‡b Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi msL¨v A‡bK¸‡jv nIqvq cÖwZ‡hvwMZvi gva¨‡g †mev evwo‡q RbwcÖqZv AR©b Kiv Ges AwaK gybvdv AR©b KivB Zv‡`i jÿ¨| 5. gvïj: Kzwiqvi mvwf©m A‡bK †ÿ‡Î Kg gvï‡ji A‡bK cY¨ ev WKz‡g›U †cÖiY K‡i _v‡K; †hb RbMY WvK wefv‡Mi Zzjbvq Kzwiqv‡i cY¨ ev WKz‡g›U †ewk cvVvq| 6. ÿwZc~iY: †Kv‡bv Kvi‡Y cY¨ nvwi‡q †M‡j ev bó n‡j Dchy³ cÖgvY mv‡c‡ÿ ÿwZc~iY cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K| 7. cÖvwß ¯^xKvi: Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡m cY¨ ev WKz‡g›U †cÖiY Ki‡j cÖvc‡Ki wbKU †Kv‡bv AwZwi³ A_© cÖ`vb QvovB †cÖi‡Ki wbKU cÖvwß ¯^xKvi w¯øc †cu․‡Q †`q| 8. †nvg mvwf©m: Kzwiqvi mvwf©m cÖ‡qvR‡b evmv †_‡K Zv‡`i WKz‡g›Um MÖnY K‡i _v‡K| 9. cY¨ †Wwjfvwi: we‡kl Kzwiqvi mvwf©m 24 NÈv ev e‡Üi w`bI cY¨ †Wwjfvwi K‡i _v‡K| 10. AvaywbK cÖhyw³: Kzwiqvi mvwf©m RbwcÖqZv AR©‡bi Ab¨Zg KviY n‡jv cY¨ ev WKz‡g›U cwien‡b Zviv we‡k¦i me©vaywbK cÖhyw³ e¨envi K‡i _v‡K| †hgb- `ªæZ cY¨ Avbv-†bqvi Rb¨ Zviv A‡bK †ÿ‡Î wbR¯^ wegvbI e¨envi K‡i _v‡K| 11. wek¦¯ÍZv: Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi RbwcÖqZvi Ab¨Zg KviY Gi wek¦¯ÍZv| †h‡Kv‡bv cY¨ ev WKz‡g›U AZ¨šÍ wek¦¯ÍZvi mv‡_ cÖvc‡Ki wbKU †cu․‡Q †`qvB Zv‡`i KvR| 12. †MvcbxqZv: cY¨ ev WKz‡g‡›Ui m¤ú~Y© †MvcbxqZv eRvq †i‡L cÖvc‡Ki wbKU †cu ․‡Q †`qv Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Kg©x‡`i KvR| 13. cY¨ MÖnY: Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Zv‡`i nvRvi nvRvi kvLvi gva¨‡g mvaviYZ cÖvq mܨv 7Uv ch©š Í cY¨ ev WKz‡g‡›Ui eywKs MÖnY K‡i _v‡K| Aciw`‡K WvK wefvM wR.B.wc. mܨv 7Uv ch©šÍ cY¨ MÖnY K‡i bv| Dchy©³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, miKvwi WvK wefv‡Mi cvkvcvwk Kzwiqvi mvwf©m Zv‡`i ¯^KxqZv eRvq †i‡L MÖvn‡Ki my‡hvM-myweav we‡ePbv K‡i †m Abyhvqx bvbv cÖKvi c`‡ÿc MÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g Gi Kvh©µg w`‡bi ci w`b evwo‡q Zzj‡Q| Avi Gme Kvi‡Y Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi RbwcÖqZv †Kej †e‡oB Pj‡Q|


mvwPweK we`¨v

cÖkœvewj 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

†hvMv‡hvM Kv‡K e‡j? e¨emvwqK †hvMv‡hvM Kv‡K e‡j? †hvMv‡hv‡Mi ¸iæZ¡ I D‡Ïk¨ Av‡jvPbv Ki| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wewfbœ c×wZ Av‡jvPbv Ki| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨gmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Dcv`vbmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi cÖKvi‡f` Av‡jvPbv Ki| AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM Kv‡K e‡j? AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM Kv‡K e‡j? AvbyôvwbK I AbvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †jL| wjwLZ I †g․wLK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †jL| WvK †hvMv‡hvM Kv‡K e‡j? mvaviY wPwV wK? †iwRw÷ªK…Z wPwV Kv‡K e‡j? wegvK…Z cÎ I cÎ wegv Kivi wbqgvewj Av‡jvPbv Ki| cv‡m©j I cv‡m©j Kivi wbqgvewj eY©bv Ki| eyK †cv÷ Kx? †cv÷ †Kv‡Wi ¸iæZ¡ eY©bv Ki| †cv÷ †KvW c×wZmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| †cv÷vj AW©vi I Gi wbqgvewj eY©bv Ki| gvwb AW©vi I gvwb AW©v‡ii wbqgvewj Av‡jvPbv Ki| gvwb AW©v‡ii ¸iæZ¡ eY©bv Ki|

23. B.Gg.Gm (Express Mail Service) Kx? 24. 25. 26. 27.

wR.B.wc (Guaranteed Express Post) Kx? Kzwiqvi mvwf©m I Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi wbqgvewj Av‡jvPbv Ki| Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi ¸iæZ¡ eY©bv Ki| Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi RbwcÖqZvi KviY¸‡jv Av‡jvPbv Ki|

111


cÂg Aa¨vq

cÎ †hvMv‡hvM COMMUNICATION LETTER

AvaywbK cÖhyw³i hy‡Mi Awdm-Av`vjZ I e¨emv-evwY‡R¨i †ÿ‡Î wewfbœ ai‡bi cÎ iPbv Ki‡Z nq| G mg¯Í cÎ mg‡Ü aviYv †`qv n‡q‡Q G Aa¨v‡qi g‡a¨|

wkLbdj:  mKj cÖKvi cÎ

 wPwVi Rxeb Pµ

 Pvjvb cÎ

 cwiPq cÎ

 gxgvsmv cÎ

 digv‡qk cÎ

 cÖPvi cÎ

G Aa¨v‡q hv Av‡Q5.1 cÎ 5.2 c‡Îi cÖKvi‡f` 5.3 evwYwR¨KcÎ 5.4 evwYwR¨K c‡Îi •ewkó¨ 5.5 evwYwR¨K c‡Îi MyiæZ¡ 5.6 wP‡Îi gva¨‡g evwYwR¨K c‡Îi wewfbœ Ask 5.7 evwYwR¨K c‡Îi wewfbœ As‡ki eY©bv 5.8 evwYwR¨K c‡Îi ÷vBj 5.9 evwYwR¨K c‡Îi cÖKvi‡f` 5.10 digv‡qk cÎ 5.11 digv‡qk c‡Îi Avewk¨K welq 5.12 digv‡qkc‡Îi bgybv 5.13 Pvjvb cÎ (Invoice Letter) 5.14 cÖPvi cÎ 5.15 cÖPvi c‡Îi D‡Ïk¨ 5.16 cÖPvi c‡Îi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv

5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.31 5.32

Av`k© cÖPvi c‡Îi MyY ev •ewkó¨ cÖPvi cÎ iPbvi we‡eP¨ welqmg~n cÖPvi c‡Îi bgybv cwiPq cÎ cwiPq c‡Îi we‡eP¨ welqmg~n cwiPq c‡Îi bgybv Z_¨vbymÜvb cÎ Z_¨vbymÜvb c‡Îi bgybv ZvMv`v cÎ ZvMv`v cÎ †jLvi †hme welq we‡ePbv Kiv DwPZ ÿwZc~iY `vwe gxgvsmv cÎ GKwU wPwVi RxebPµ evwYwR¨K cÎ I e¨w³MZ c‡Îi cv_©K¨ wW. I. †jUvi wR. I. †jUvi


mvwPweK we`¨v

113

5.1 cÎ (Letter) ÔcÎÕ k‡ãi AvwfavwbK A_© ÔwPýÕ ev Ô¯§viKÕ| wKš‘ e¨envwiK A‡_© e¨w³MZ LeivLei Ges •elwqK KvR K‡g©i Rb¨ wjwLZ weeiYxB cÎ| `~‡i Ae¯’vbiZ AvZ¥xq-¯^Rb I eÜzevÜe‡`i mv‡_ ky‡f”Qv wewbgq I Ab¨vb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq msev`mg~n wjwLZfv‡e hvi gva¨‡g Av`vb-cÖ`vb Kiv nq Zv‡K cÎ e‡j| `~ieZ©x ¯’v‡b Ae¯’vbiZ AvZ¥xq cwiR‡bi mv‡_ fv‡ei Av`vb-cÖ`vb KivB cÎ-wjL‡bi g~j D‡Ïk¨| GQvov e¨emv‡q wfbœ wfbœ Kv‡Ri Rb¨ wfbœ wfbœ †jv‡Ki mv‡_ gZ-wewbgq Ki‡Z nq| myZivs Avgv‡`i mvsmvwiK I e¨envwiK Rxe‡b c‡Îi f~wgKv LyeB ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| cÎ-wjL‡bi we‡kl wbqg i‡q‡Q| G wbqg AbymiY K‡iB cÎ wjL‡Z nq| G‡jv‡g‡jvfv‡e K_vi ci K_v mvRv‡jB cÎ nq bv| cÎ e¨envi myôz I m½Zfv‡e Ki‡Z n‡j Zv my›`i, my-wjwLZ, gvwR©Z, wbqg gvwdK I cÖKvkÿg nIqv `iKvi| †mRb¨ Avgv‡`i †KvgjgwZ wkÿv_©x‡`i c‡Îi wjLb c×wZ m¤ú‡K© myôz Ávb _vKv `iKvi|

cÎ wjLvi wbqg 1| c‡Îi fvlv mnR, mij I †evaMg¨ n‡Z n‡e| 2| welqe¯‘i mv‡_ wgj †i‡L h_vm¤¢e ms‡ÿ‡c cÎ wjL‡Z n‡e| 3| welq‡f‡` c‡Îi Aby‡”Q`My‡jv cvi¯úwiK wgj Ges cÖavb K_v wePvi K‡i mvRv‡Z n‡e| 4| cÎ `xN© ev‡K¨ n‡j fyj _vKvi m¤¢vebv _v‡K ZvB mswÿß ev‡K¨ cÎ wjL‡Z n‡e| 5| c‡Î GKB K_v evi evi †jLv AbywPZ| 6| welq‡f‡` Av‡eM-D”Qv‡m gvÎvÁvb _vK‡Z n‡e| 7| c‡Îi g‡a¨ `uvwo, Kgv BZ¨vw` hwZ wP‡ýi mwVK cÖ‡qvM _vK‡Z n‡e| 8| evbvb hv‡Z ky× nq Ges k‡ãi AccÖ‡qvM bv N‡U †mw`‡K †Lqvj ivL‡Z n‡e| 9| cÎ †jLvq cwi”QbœZv I myiæwPi cwiPq w`‡Z n‡e| 10| ¯’vb-Kvj-cv·f‡` c‡Îi fvlv I iPbvi fw½ Ges welqe¯‘ mwbœ‡e‡ki w`‡K g‡bv‡hvM w`‡Z n‡e| 11| c‡Îi fvlv hv‡Z GKB _v‡K, A_©vr mvay I PwjZ ixwZ hv‡Z bv wg‡k hvq, †mw`‡K †Lqvj ivL‡Z n‡e|

5.2 c‡Îi cÖKvi‡f`

e¨w³MZ cÎ

eo‡`i Kv‡Q

mgeqmx‡`i Kv‡Q

e¨envwiK cÎ

†QvU‡`i Kv‡Q

Av‡e`b cÎ

wbgš¿Y Awfb›`b cÎ cÎ

Pzw³ Awf‡hvM wb‡`©k cÎ cÎ cÎ

AW©vi cÎ


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cÎ mvaviYZ mvZ cÖKvi1| e¨w³MZcÎ: gv-evev, fvB-†evb ev AvZ¥xq-¯^R‡bi Kv‡Q e¨w³MZ LeivLei cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ wjwLZ c·KB e¨w³MZ cÎ e‡j| 2| Av‡e`bcÎ: we`¨vjq ev Awd‡m Kg©KZ©v‡`i wbKU wewfbœ wel‡q Av‡e`b Rvwb‡q †h cÎ wjwLZ nq Zv‡KB Av‡e`bcÎ e‡j| 3| wbgš¿YcÎ: we‡q, wgjv`, c~Rv BZ¨vw`‡Z `vIqvZ w`‡Z †h cÎ wjLv nq Zv‡K wbgš¿YcÎ e‡j| 4| e¨emvwqKcÎ: GK e¨emvqx Ab¨ e¨emvqxi wbKU ev †Kv‡bv e¨w³ e¨emvqxi wbKU e¨emv msµvšÍ †h cÎ †j‡L, Zv‡KB e¨emvwqK cÎ e‡j| 5| cwÎKvq cÖKv‡ki Rb¨ wjwLZcÎ: GjvKvi wewfbœ mgm¨v wb‡q cwÎKvq cÖKv‡ki Rb¨ †h cÎ †jLv nq, Zv‡K cwÎKvq cÖKv‡ki Rb¨ wjwLZcÎ e‡j| 6| `wjj I Pzw³cÎ: †h mKj c‡Îi gva¨‡g wewfbœ Pzw³ m¤úvw`Z nq, †mMy‡jv‡K Pzw³cÎ e‡j| 7| Awfb›`bcÎ: wkÿK I Kg©KZ©v‡`i AvMgb I we`vq Dcj‡ÿ †h cÎ iwPZ nq Zv‡K Awfb›`bcÎ e‡j|

5.3 evwYwR¨K cÎ (Commercial Letter) †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î wewfbœ cÖPwjZ I mnRjf¨ gva¨g Av‡Q, Zvi g‡a¨ cÎ †hvMv‡hvM Ab¨Zg| Avi cÎ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ask n‡jv evwYwR¨K cÎ| mvaviY A‡_©: `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi g‡a¨ e¨emvwqK †jb‡`b m¤ú‡K© †h cÎ Av`vb-cÖ`vb Kiv nq Zv‡K evwYwR¨K cÎ e‡j| e¨vcK A‡_©: evwYwR¨K †jb‡`‡bi m~Pbv, m¤cÖmviY I wb®úwËi D‡Ï‡k¨ `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi g‡a¨ wewfbœ Z_¨vewj †h c‡Îi gva¨‡g wewbgq Kiv nq Zv‡K evwYwR¨K cÎ e‡j| wb‡æ evwYwR¨K c‡Îi K‡qKwU RbwcÖq msÁv cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jv:  Prof. J.H. Hanson-Gi g‡Z, Òe¨emvq msµvšÍ wel‡q e¨emvqx‡`i g‡a¨ ci¯úi †h cÎ-wewbgq nq Zv‡K evwYwR¨K cÎ e‡j|Ó  Prof. W.J. Weston-Gi g‡Z, ÒwjwLZfv‡e Kviev‡ii †jb‡`b cwiPvjbvi c×wZ‡K evwYwR¨K cÎ e‡j|Ó  Prof. Rahmen-Gi g‡Z, ÒevwYwR¨K ev e¨emv‡qi ¯^v‡_© wjwLZ c·K evwYwR¨K cÎ e‡j|Ó  W. Gg.G. gvbœvb-Gi g‡Z, Òe¨emvqxiv Zv‡`i ¯^v_©-mswkøó welq D‡jøL K‡i wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ †h cÎ wewbgq K‡i Zv‡K evwYwR¨K cÎ e‡j|Ó  Aa¨vcK †UBbUi-Gi g‡Z, ÒevwYwR¨K wel‡q iwPZ mKj ai‡bi wPwVc·K evwYwR¨K cÎ ejv nq|Ó msÁvMZ •ewkó¨: K) c‡Î evwYwR¨K ¯^v_© _vK‡Z n‡e| L) GwU `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK c‡ÿi g‡a¨ Av`vb-cÖ`vb n‡Z n‡e| M) G‡Z e¨emvwqK evZ©v †cÖiY/ MÖnY Ki‡Z nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †h c‡Î †Kej Kvievwi ev e¨emvwqK D‡Ï‡k¨i D‡jøL _v‡K Ges e¨emvqx‡`i ¯^v_©mswkøó welq wb‡q ci¯ú‡ii g‡a¨ Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`vb Kiv nq, Zv‡K evwYwR¨K cÎ e‡j| G †hvMv‡hvM Af¨šÍixY I AvšÍR©vwZK evwY‡R¨ Ges miKvwi I †emiKvwi cÖwZôv‡bi g‡a¨ msNwUZ n‡Z cv‡i|


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5.4 evwYwR¨K c‡Îi •ewkó¨ (Essential Features of an Ideal Business Letter) evwYwR¨K cÎ AvaywbK evwYwR¨K we‡k¦ †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vcb I Z_¨vw` wewbg‡qi AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© gva¨g| G‡K mwVKfv‡e iPbv Kiv bv n‡j e¨emvwqK D‡Ïk¨ ev¯ÍevwqZ Kiv m¤¢e nq bv| evwYwR¨K c‡Îi wewfbœ Ask, welq web¨vm Ges ¸iæ‡Z¡i w`K w`‡q GwU Ab¨ mKj cÎ n‡Z ¯^Zš¿ •ewk‡ó¨i AwaKvix| GUv Avcb •ewk‡ó¨ D¾¡j| e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi c‡ÿ Gi~c cÎ bxie `~‡Zi f~wgKv cvjb K‡i weavq G‡K h‡_ó ¸YMZ •ewkó¨gwÐZ K‡i Kvh©Kifv‡e iPbvi Rb¨ A‡bK welq we‡ePbv Kiv `iKvi| wb‡gœ GKwU DËg evwYwR¨K c‡Îi •ewkó¨ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. mywbw`©ó D‡Ïk¨: evwYwR¨K c‡Îi gva¨‡g cÎ †cÖiK GKB D‡Ïk¨ dywU‡q †Zvjvi †Póv K‡ib| A_©vr evwYwR¨K cÎ GKwU D‡Ïk¨ wb‡q iwPZ nq| AcÖvmw½K †Kv‡bv wKQzi AeZviYv bv K‡i Ggbfv‡e evwYwR¨K cÎ iPbv Ki‡Z n‡e, hv‡Z c‡Îi D‡Ïk¨ my¯úó n‡q I‡V| 2. wbw`©ó KvVv‡gv: AvaywbKKv‡j evwYwR¨K cÎ †jLvi mvZwU KvVv‡gv cÖPwjZ Av‡Q| GKwU evwYwR¨K c·K Av`k© evwYwR¨K cÎ Ki‡Z n‡j Zv Ae¨k¨B GKwU wbw`ó KvVv‡gv AbymiY K‡i iPbv Ki‡Z n‡e| 3. mycwiKíbv: DrK…ó evwYwR¨K c‡Îi Ab¨Zg cÖavb •ewkó¨ ev ¸Y n‡jv mycwiKwíZ Dcv‡q myôzfv‡e cÎ iPbv Kiv| Gi d‡j AZ¨šÍ `ªæZ Ges AwaK mš‘wói mv‡_ cÎ iPbv Kiv m¤¢e nq| evwYwR¨K cÎ cwiKíbvi we‡eP¨ welqmg~n n‡”Q: K) c‡Îi mKj Z_¨ I Dcv˸‡jv‡K msMÖn K‡i ¸iæZ¡ Abyhvqx µgvbymv‡i mvRv‡bv| L) D‡Ïk¨ wba©viY, welqe¯‘ wbw`©óKiY| M) DËg wjLb c×wZ I Dc¯’vcbv cÖwµqv w¯’i Kiv| N) c‡Îi KvVv‡gv Abyhvqx welq web¨vm I iƒc‡iLv cÖYqb| O) cÖ‡qvR‡b GKvwaKevi Lmov •Zwi Kiv BZ¨vw`| 4. mnR, ¯úó I mswÿß: evwYwR¨K cÎ iPbvi mgq mnR-mij fvlv e¨envi K‡i my¯úó I mswÿßfv‡e iPbv Ki‡Z nq| †Kbbv `xN©cÎ cvV Kiv e¨emvqx‡`i c‡ÿ mg‡qi Afv‡e m¤¢e nq bv| Kv‡RB AcwiwPZ I `y‡e©va¨ kãvewj cwinvic~e©K mnR I ¯úó K‡i evwYwR¨K cÎ cvV‡Ki wbKU Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z nq| 5. m¤ú~Y©Zv: GKwU DËg evwYwR¨K c‡Îi e³e¨ m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z n‡e| †Kbbv c‡Îi e³e¨ AvswkK ev Am¤ú~Y© n‡j cvV‡Ki g‡b weåvwšÍ m„wó K‡i-hv cÎ-iPbvi D‡Ïk¨‡K e¨vnZ K‡i| GRb¨ cÎ †jLvi c~‡e© cª‡qvRbxq Z_¨ I welq c~‡e©B †RvMvo K‡i wb‡Z n‡e| 6. cÖvmw½KZv: evwYwR¨K c‡Î AcÖmvw½K †Kv‡bv wKQz †jLv †gv‡UB DwPZ bq; KviY AcÖmvw½K welq g~j e³e¨‡K w¯’wgZ K‡i Ges Dc‡hvwMZv Kgvq| G Rb¨ cÎ-iPbvi mgq wbw`©ó D‡Ïk¨‡K mvg‡b †i‡L Dc¯’vcb Kiv cÖ‡qvRb|


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7. mgqvbyMZv: evwYwR¨K cÎ •Zwii D‡Ïk¨ ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨ GwU GKwU we‡kl •ewkó¨| wbw`ó mg‡qi g‡a¨ cvV‡Ki wbKU cÎ cwi‡ekb Kiv bv n‡j Gi Kvh©KvwiZv _v‡K bv| Kv‡RB mwVK mg‡q cÎ cwi‡ek‡bi Rb¨ †cÖiK‡K mZK© _vK‡Z nq| 8. wbi‡cÿZv: Av`k© evwYwR¨K c‡Îi Av‡iKwU •ewkó¨ n‡jv wec‡ÿ I cÿcvZnxb `„wófw½i cÖwZdjb| Kv‡iv wec‡ÿ †Kv‡bv e³e¨ _vK‡jI Zv‡K mivmwi `vqx Kiv hv‡e bv| evwYwR¨K c‡Î me©`vB †jL‡Ki wbi‡cÿZvi g‡bvfve cÖKvk cv‡e- hv‡Z K‡i D³ cÎ cvVK cÖvc‡Ki wbKU AwaK MÖnY‡hvM¨ nq| 9. †mŠRb¨‡eva: c‡Î †m․R‡b¨i cÖKvk †c‡j Zv‡Z cvV‡Ki g‡b m¤§vb I mnvbyf~wZi m„wó nq| GRb¨ evwYwR¨K cÎ iPbvq gvwR©Z fvlv, webq, f`ªZv, bgªZv I m¤§vb cÖ`k©b Ki‡Z n‡e| G‡ÿ‡Î cÎ †jLK‡K kª×vc~Y© m‡¤^vab, we`vq fvlY Ges gvwR©Z e³‡e¨i gva¨‡g cÎ iPbv Ki‡Z nq| K_vq Av‡Q, †m․Rb¨ cÖ`k©‡b jvf Qvov ÿwZ †bB| 10. AvšÍwiKZv: evwYwR¨K c‡Îi Ab¨Zg •ewkó¨ n‡”Q cÖwZwnsmvi ewntcÖKvk bv N‡U eis AvšÍwiKZv cÖKvk cv‡e| GRb¨ Av`k© evwYwR¨K c‡Îi cÖ_g n‡Z †kl ch©šÍ †jL‡Ki AvšÍwiKZvi ewntcÖKvk _vK‡Z nq| †jL‡Ki cÖwZ cvV‡Ki kª×v I fv‡jvevmvi Rb¥ n‡j D‡Ïk¨ AR©b mnR nq| 11. ÎæwUgy³Zv: cÎ iPbvi Av‡iKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© •ewkó¨ n‡”Q Z_¨ I e³e¨ ÎæwUgy³ Ae¯’vq Dc¯’vcb Kiv| †Kbbv evwYwR¨K c‡Î fyj _vK‡j cvV‡Ki g‡b †jLK m¤ú‡K© Lvivc aviYv Rb¥v‡Z cv‡i| †mRb¨ evwYwR¨K c‡Î ï× fvlv A_©vr evbvb, e¨vKiY, MVbixwZ BZ¨vw` wjwce× Ki‡Z nq-hv‡Z cÎ †jLK ev cÖwZôv‡bi fveg~wZ© e„w× cvq| 12. welqeš‘i mgZv: cÖ‡Z¨KwU evwYwR¨K c‡Îi welqe¯‘i g‡a¨ mgZv _vKv `iKvi| GKB evwYwR¨K c‡Î GKvwaK wel‡qi mswgkÖY bv _vKvB fv‡jv| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, evwYwR¨K c‡Îi Dchy©³ •ewkó¨ Qvov Av‡iv A‡bK •ewkó¨ Av‡Q, hv GKwU evwYwR¨K c·K Av`k© K‡i †Zv‡j| †hgb- AwZK_b eR©b, avivevwnK evK¨ web¨vm, weivg wPý c×wZ, my›`i Dc¯’vcbv, cwi®‥vi cwi”QbœZv, cÖ‡ivPbv BZ¨vw`| evwYwR¨K cÎ iPbv Kivi mgq hv‡Z GwU my›`i ev mwVK nq †mw`‡K jÿ¨ ivL‡jB GwU GKwU Av`k© evwYwR¨K cÎ e‡j MY¨ n‡e|

5.5 evwYwR¨K c‡Îi ¸iæZ¡ (Importance of Business Letter) AvaywbK e¨emvq-evwYR¨ †hvMv‡hvM Qvov m¤cv`b m¤¢e bq| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î evwYwR¨K cÎ GKwU Ab¨Zg cÖavb nvwZqvi| Gi gva¨‡g Af¨šÍixY I •e‡`wkK evwYR¨ m¤úvw`Z nq| e¨emvq-evwYR¨ Kvh©Ki Kivi Rb¨ wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨g wn‡m‡e evwYwR¨K cÎ me©Rb¯^xK…Z| G‡K AvaywbK e¨emvwqK hy‡M Rxebxkw³ wn‡m‡eI we‡ePbv Kiv nq| GQvov wewfbœ c‡ÿi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vcb I †jb‡`b wb®úwˇZ evwYwR¨K cÎ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| wb‡gœ evwYwR¨K c‡Îi ¸iæZ¡ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †kªô gva¨g: e¨emvq †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ cÖPwjZ hZ¸‡jv gva¨g Av‡Q †m¸‡jvi myweav Ges mxgve×Zv ch©v‡jvPbv Ki‡j †`Lv hvq, evwYwR¨K cÎ me‡P‡q DËg I †kªô wjwLZ gva¨g| AZxZKvj †_‡K evwYwR¨K Kvh©µg G c‡Îi gva¨‡g msNwUZ n‡q Avm‡Q Ges eZ©gv‡bI Gi ¸iæZ¡ Acwimxg| 2. Av‡jvPbvi ¯^xK…wZ: evwYwR¨K cÎ `yc‡ÿi g‡a¨ AbywôZ e¨emvwqK Avjvc-Av‡jvPbvi GKwU wjwLZ ¯^xK…wZ cÎ| †Kbbv †g․wLK Av‡jvPbv KL‡bv KL‡bv Kvh©Kix nq bv|


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3. AvBbMZ ¯^xK…wZ: evwYwR¨K cÎ wjwLZ †hvMv‡hvM weavq GwU Av`vj‡Z MÖnY‡hvM¨ `wjj wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nq| ZvB `yc‡ÿi g‡a¨ †Kv‡bv Ø›Ø †`Lv w`‡j Zv wbim‡b evwYwR¨K cÎ GKwU wjwLZ `wjj wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| weavq evwYwR¨K cÎ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| 4. e¨q Kg: AvRKvj e¨emvwqK cÖwZ‡hvwMZvi hy‡M mKj cÖPvi gva¨gB e¨qeûj| wjwLZ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi hZ¸‡jv gva¨g Av‡Q Zvi g‡a¨ cÎ †hvMv‡hv†MB GKgvÎ e¨q wbqš¿Y Kiv hvq| †Kbbv G gva¨‡g Aí e¨‡q e¨vcK AvKv‡i evwYwR¨K cÎ †cÖi‡Yi gva¨‡g e¨emvwqK Z_¨ cÖPvi Kiv m¤¢e n‡q _v‡K| 5. †MvcbxqZv iÿv: c‡Îi gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM msNwUZ n‡j cÎ †cÖiK I cÎ cÖvc‡Ki †MvcbxqZv iÿv cvq| e¨w³K †hvMv‡hv‡M wewfbœ Z‡_¨i †MvcbxqZv duvm nevi m¤¢vebv _v‡K| G Kvi‡YB Z_¨vbymÜvb c‡Îi e¨vcK e¨envi n‡q _v‡K| 6. mve©Rbxb cÖ‡ekvwaKvi: gvbyl B”Qv Ki‡jB me RvqMvq cÖ‡ek Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvQvov we‡`‡k hvIqvi Rb¨ cvm‡cvU©, wfmvmn wewfbœ ai‡bi AvbyôvwbKZv cvjb Ki‡Z nq| A_P evwYwR¨K cÎ †`k-we‡`‡k †h‡Kv‡bv RvqMvq Abvqv‡m cÖ‡ek Ki‡Z cv‡i| evwYwR¨K c‡Îi Mv‡q K‡qK UvKvi ÷¨v¤ú jvwM‡q w`‡jB †hLv‡b B”Qv †mLv‡b cÖ‡ek Kiv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i| 7. e¨w³K Dcw¯’wZ: e¨emvwqK †ÿ‡Î e¨w³i Dcw¯’wZ mxwgZ Kivi Rb¨ evwYwR¨K cÎ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| KviY e¨emvq m¤cÖmvi‡Yi mv‡_ cÖwZôv‡bi Kg©xMY e¨w³MZfv‡e Dcw¯’Z n‡q †hvMv‡hvM Kiv m¤¢e bq| G‡ÿ‡Î evwYwR¨K cÎB e¨w³i Dcw¯’wZ Kwg‡q w`‡q‡Q| 8. RvZxq A_©bxwZ‡Z Ae`vb: evwYwR¨K cÎ WvK wefv‡Mi gva¨‡g cvVv‡bv nq A_ev Kzwiqvi mvwf©‡mi gva¨‡g cvVv‡bv nq e‡j G¸‡jvi m¤cÖmviY nq| d‡j A‡bK †jv‡Ki Kg©ms¯’vb nq| Gi d‡j Zv‡`i Avq e„w× cvq Ges RxebhvÎvi gvb DbœZ nq Ges mvwe©Kfv‡e RvZxq A_©bxwZ‡Z evwYwR¨K cÎ Ae`vb ivL‡Z mnvqZv K‡i| 9. c‡Y¨i evRvi m„wó: evwYwR¨K c‡Îi gva¨‡g Aí Li‡P e¨emvwqK Z_¨ cÖ`vb Kiv m¤¢e| ZvB GKwU Drcv`bKvix cÖwZôvb Zv‡`i bZzb c‡Y¨i evRvi m„wó‡Z evwYwR¨K cÎ e¨envi K‡i| †Kbbv Gi gva¨‡g `ªe¨ I †mevi Ae¯’v, ¸Yv¸Y, g~j¨ BZ¨vw` Rb‡Mvôx‡K AewnZ K‡i Pvwn`v m„wó Kiv m¤¢eci nq| 10. weµq Pzw³i gva¨g: Pzw³ AvBb Abyhvqx, Pzw³ Aek¨B wjwLZ n‡Z n‡e| evwYwR¨K c‡Îi gva¨‡g †h‡nZz A‡bK weµq Pzw³ m¤úvw`Z nq, ZvB G‡ÿ‡Î evwYwR¨K c·K GK GKwU Pzw³i wjwLZ `wjj wn‡m‡e wPwýZ Kiv hvq| 11. mgš^q mvab: cÖvwZôvwbK Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡b gvbyl QvovI bvbv ai‡bi gvbexq Dcv`vb I Agvbexq Dcv`v‡bi g‡a¨ mwVK I mnR mgš^q mvab Kiv hvq| 12. `ªyZ wm×všÍ MÖnY: ‣`bw›`b Kvh©vewj m¤úv`‡b bvbv Kvi‡Y `ªyZ wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| †hvMv‡hv‡Mi gva¨‡g cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ msMÖn K‡i e¨e¯’vcbv KZ©„cÿ `ªyZ wm×všÍ MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i|


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cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, Kvievwi RM‡Z e¨emvwqK m¤úK© m„wó Ges GKwU cÖwZôvb Ab¨ GKwU cÖwZôv‡bi †hvMv‡hvM iÿvq evwYwR¨K c‡Îi †Kv‡bv weKí †bB| †mRb¨ evwYwR¨K c·K GKwU evwYwR¨K `wjj wn‡m‡e AvL¨vwqZ Kiv hvq| evwYwR¨K cÎB n‡jv e¨emv‡qi `~Z|

5.6 wP‡Îi gva¨‡g evwYwR¨K c‡Îi wewfbœ Ask (The chart of the various parts of a business letter) GKwU evwYwR¨K wPwVi cÖavb PviwU Ask _v‡K| hvi g‡a¨ Avevi 15wU Ask Av‡Q| G AskMy‡jvi g‡a¨ wKQz AZ¨vek¨Kxq Ask Av‡Q| †h¸‡jv evwYwR¨K wPwV iPbvq nvZ w`‡jB `iKvi nq| Avevi †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv Ask Av‡Q †Zgb Riæwi bq| ïaygvÎ cÖ‡qvRb mv‡c‡ÿB †m¸‡jv e¨eüZ nq| wb‡gœ evwYwR¨K c‡Îi wewfbœ Ask GKwU KvíwbK wP‡Îi gva¨‡g †`Lv‡bv n‡jv: wk‡ivbvg

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5.7 evwYwR¨K c‡Îi wewfbœ Ask eY©bv (Discuss the various parts of a business letter.) GKwU evwYwR¨K wPwVi cÖavb PviwU Ask _v‡K| hvi g‡a¨ Avevi 15wU Ask Av‡Q| G Ask¸‡jvi g‡a¨ wKQz AZ¨vek¨Kxq Ask Av‡Q| †h¸‡jv evwYwR¨K wPwV iPbvq nvZ w`‡jB `iKvi nq| Avevi †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv Ask Av‡Q †Zgb Riæwi bq| ïaygvÎ cÖ‡qvRb mv‡c‡ÿB †m¸‡jv e¨eüZ nq| wb‡gœ evwYwR¨K wPwVi wewfbœ As‡ki eY©bv †`qv n‡jv: 1) wk‡ivbvg (Heading): evwYwR¨K c‡Îi G‡Kev‡i Dc‡i c‡Îi ÷vBj Abyhvqx ev‡g/A_ev gvSLv‡b Aew¯’Z Ask‡K wk‡ivbvg e‡j| G As‡k cÖwZôv‡bi bvg, wVKvbv, †Uwj‡dvb b¤^i, d¨v· b¤^i, B-†gBj I I‡qe mvBU Ges ZvwiL _v‡K| GQvov ¯§viK b¤^i I ZvwiL G As‡k _v‡K| Z‡e ¯§iY ivL‡Z n‡e cÖwZôv‡bi Qvcv‡bv c¨v‡W wPwV †jLv n‡j †KejgvÎ wPwV iPbvi ZvwiL emv‡Z n‡e| wk‡ivbvg‡K Avevi wZb fv‡M wef³ Kiv hvq: K) c‡Îi wk‡ivbvg (The letter head): c‡Îi †h As‡k †jLK ev †cÖ i ‡Ki bvg, wVKvbv, †Uwj‡dvb, d¨v· b¤^ i wjwce× _v‡K , Zv‡K c‡Îi wk‡ivbvg e‡j| Bs‡iwR c‡Îi wk‡ivbv‡gi cÖ _ g jvBbwU Capital letter G gy ` ª Y Ki‡Z nq| GUv evwYwR¨K c‡Îi AZ¨vek¨Kxq Ask| wb‡P c‡Îi wk‡ivbv‡gi GKwU KvRx cÖKvkbx D`vniY †`qv n‡jv: 38, evsjv evRvi (2q Zjv), XvKv- 1100 †dvb: 7121059 L) Zvwi‡Li mvwi (Date line): c‡Îi Ab¨Zg ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ask n‡jv cÎ †jLvi ZvwiL| cÎ wk‡ivbv‡gi wb‡P ZvwiL wjL‡Z nq| ZvwiL c‡Îi Wvb cv‡k¦© ev evg cv‡k¦© wjL‡Z nq| ZvwiLwenxb c‡Îi †Kv‡bv ¸iæZ¡ †bB| c‡Î ZvwiL wbgœwjwLZ fv‡e wjL‡Z nq| Ryb 15, 2009 15 Ryb, 2009 M) ¯§viK b¤^i (Memo No): wk‡ivbv‡gi G As‡k cÖvcK‡K ¯§iY K‡i †`qvi Rb¨ Zvi †cÖwiZ c‡Îi ¯§viK b¤^i D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq| wb‡P GKwU D`vniY †`qv n‡jv: ¯§viK bs- mv. we. / 05 / 2009 2) cÖvi¤¢ (Opening): GwU evwYwR¨K c‡Îi wØZxq avc| hv‡K cÎ †jLv n‡”Q A_©vr cÖvc‡Ki bvg, WvK-†hvMv‡hv‡Mi c~Y© wVKvbv G As‡k †jLv nq| GLv‡b cÎ cÖvc‡Ki bvg ev c`we, wVKvbv, `„wó AvKl©Y mvwi Ges cÖviw¤¢K m¤¢vlY wb‡q G Ask MwVZ|


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wb‡gœ Gi wewfbœ Ask eY©bv Kiv n‡jv: K) Af¨šÍixY wVKvbv (Inside Address): cÎ cÖvc‡Ki wVKvbv‡K Af¨šÍixY wVKvbv e‡j| GwU evwYwR¨K c‡Îi Ab¨Zg cÖavb Ask| evwYwR¨K c‡Îi G AskwU cÎ gy`ª‡Yi †h‡Kv‡bv ÷vB‡j c‡Îi wVK evg cv‡k¦© wjL‡Z nq| †hgb: g¨v‡bRvi, mvBdzj †UªWvm©, 50, wUKvUzwj, XvKv| L) `„wó AvK©lY mvwi (Attention Line): cÖvcK e„nr †Kv‡bv cÖwZôvb n‡j †h wefvM ev Kgx© cÎ wb‡q KvR Ki‡eb Zvi bvg D‡jøL K‡i †`Iqv nq| evwYwR¨K I Awdwmqvj wPwVi Zwor e¨e¯’v MÖn‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ Af¨šÍixY wVKvbvi GK jvBb wb‡P `„wó AvKl©Y mvwi wjLv nq| †hgb: `„wó AvKl©Y: wg‡mm iægvbv cvifxb, ms¯’vcb wefvM M) cÖviw¤¢K m¤¢vlY (Salutation): evwYwR¨K c‡Îi Ab¨Zg AvK©lYxq GKwU Ask n‡jv cÖviw¤¢K m¤¢vlY ev Awfev`b| GwU c‡Îi evg cv‡k¦© `„wó AvK©lY mvwii GK jvBb wb‡P GKwUgvÎ jvB‡b _v‡K| hw` `„wó AvKl©Y mvwi bv _v‡K Z‡e Af¨šÍixY wVKvbvi GK jvBb wb‡P GwU wjL‡Z nq| evsjv c‡Î: Rbve / Rbvev / gnvkq / g‡nv`q Ges Bs‡iwR c‡Î: Sir / Dear sir / Dear madam BZ¨vw` kã e¨envi nq| 3) g~j e³e¨/ Mf©vsk (Body): g~j e³e¨ ev Mf©vsk‡K evwYwR¨K c‡Îi ürwcÛ e‡j| G As‡k †cÖiK c‡Îi D‡Ïk¨ cÖvcK‡K we¯ÍvwiZfv‡e Rvwb‡q _v‡K| G Ask‡K K‡qKwU Aby‡”Q‡` wef³ K‡i Dc¯’vcb Kiv nq| evwYwR¨K c‡Îi g~j e³e¨ h_vm¤¢e mswÿß, mnR, mij, ¯úó, †m․Rb¨g~jK I cÖvmw½K nIqv evÃbxq| wb‡P Mf©vs‡ki wewfbœ As‡ki eY©bv †`qv n‡jv: K) welq wk‡ivbvg (Subject Heading): GwU c‡Îi g~j e³‡e¨i mvi-ms‡ÿc| welq wk‡ivbvg c‡oB welqe¯‘ m¤ú‡K© mg¨K aviYv cvIqv hvq| G As‡k cÎ †cÖiK g~j e³e¨‡K gvÎ GKwU ev‡K¨ wj‡L _v‡Kb| evsjv c‡Î GwUi wb‡P `vM w`‡q wPwýZ Kiv nq Ges Bs‡iwR c‡Î GwU Capital letter-G †jLv nq| †hgbgvjvgvj weµq cÖms‡M| (ABOUT SELLING GOODS) L) c‡Îi welq web¨vm (Subject Layout): G As‡k †cÖiK Zuvi D‡Ïk¨ wewfbœ Aby‡”Q‡` Dc¯’vcb K‡i _v‡Kb| c‡Îi ÷vBj Abyhvqx GUv c‡Îi evg cv‡k¦© ev cuvP †¯úm c‡i †jLv nq|


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4) mgvß (Closing): GwU evwYwR¨K c‡Îi †kl Ask| G As‡k †cÖiK †hme welq¸‡jv wjwce× K‡ib Zv wb‡P eY©bv Kiv n‡jv: K) mgvwß m¤¢vlY (Complementary Closing): g~j e³e¨ †jLvi ci `¯ÍLZ †`qvi Av‡M †cÖi‡Ki we`vq †bqvi cÖwµqv‡K m¤¢vlY e‡j| G As‡k Acwinvh© Ges c‡Îi ÷vBj Abyhvqx c‡Îi evg ev Wvb cv‡k¦© †jLv nq| †hgb-evsjv c‡Î: Avcbvi wek¦¯Í, Avcbvi GKvšÍ AbyMZ, Avcbvi GKvšÍ wek¦¯Í Ges Bs‡iwR c‡Î: Yours truly, Sincerly yours, etc. L) ¯^vÿi (Signature): wb‡P cÎ †cÖiK Zvi ¯^vÿi K‡ib| GwU c‡Îi Ab¨Zg ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ask| †Kbbv ¯^vÿi Qvov GKwU cÎ g~j¨nxb| GUv cÖvc‡Ki Kv‡Q cÖgvY ev `wjj wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| Ab¨w`‡K GwU RvwjqvwZ †iva Kivi nvwZqvi¯^iƒc| M) †cÖi‡Ki bvg I c`we (Sender’s Name & Designation): GwU evwYwR¨K c‡Îi Acwinvh© Ask| ¯^vÿ‡ii wb‡P †cÖiK Zvi bvg Ges c`we D‡jøL K‡i _v‡Kb| †hgb: (Avãyj Kwig) †Rbv‡ij g¨v‡bRvi N) kbv³KiY wPý (Identification): G As‡k cÎ gy`ªYKvix ev †jL‡Ki mswÿß bvg †jLv nq| †hgb- Avãyi iwdK n‡j (Avt it)| Md. Karim n‡j (M.K) BZ¨vw` wjL‡Z nq| GwU evwYwR¨K c‡Îi Rb¨ Lye Riæwi Ask bq| O) mshyw³ (Enclose): evwYwR¨K c‡Îi mv‡_ A‡bK mgq wewfbœ cÖvgvY¨ `wjj-cÎvw`i ms‡hvRb Ki‡Z n‡Z cv‡i| hv‡K evwYwR¨K cwifvlvq mshyw³ e‡j| †hgb: weÁwß, PvjvbcÎ, Pzw³bvgv, e¨vsK WªvdU, iwk` BZ¨vw`| A‡bK mgq mshy³ Gme KvMRcÎ nvwi‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| ZvB mshy³ welq¸‡jvi GKwU ZvwjKv wb‡Pi w`‡K D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq| †hgbmshyw³: 1. Pzw³bvgvi d‡UvKwc| 2. 5000 UvKvi e¨vsK WªvdU †mvbvwj e¨vsK, gwZwSj kvLv| P) Abywjwc (Photocopy): A‡bK mgq cÖvcK Qvov Ab¨ †Kv‡bv e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb‡K c‡Îi welqe¯‘ m¤^‡Ü ÁvZ Kivi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| ZLb c‡Îi Abywjwc ev d‡UvKwc e¨envi Kiv nq| ZvB cÖvcK Qvov Ab¨ †Kv‡bv e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb‡K Abywjwc cvVv‡bv nq Zv‡`i bvg I wVKvbv G As‡k D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq| †hgb1. bRiæj Bmjvg, mnKvix Aa¨vcK, XvKv Kgvm© K‡jR| 2. evwYR¨ gš¿Yvjq, evsjv‡`k mwPevjq, XvKv-1000|


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cybð (Postscript): Mf©vs‡k D‡jøL Kiv nqwb A_P c‡Î D‡jøL Kiv Riæwi Ggb †Kv‡bv e³e¨ G As‡k wjL‡Z nq| mvaviYZ c‡Îi †Kv‡bv e³e¨‡K †ewk ¸iæZ¡ A_ev cybivq ¯§iY ev ev` c‡o hvIqv Ask D‡jøL Kivi Rb¨ GwU e¨eüZ nq| AwZwi³ e³e¨ wj‡L †`qvi GB †iIqvR‡K cybð e‡j| †hgbcybð: c‡Y¨i 10% g~j¨ AwMÖg w`‡Z n‡e, AbyMÖnc~e©K c‡Îi cÖvw߯^xKvi Ki‡eb BZ¨vw`|

5.8 evwYwR¨K cÎ wjLb c×wZ/ evwYwR¨K c‡Îi wewfbœ ÷vBj (Various Styles of Commercial Letter) GKwU evwYwR¨K c‡Îi wewfbœ Ask i‡q‡Q| G Ask¸‡jv Avevi c‡Îi Dc‡i-wb‡P, Wv‡b-ev‡g wewfbœ RvqMvq Qwo‡q-wQwU‡q _v‡K| c‡Îi G Ask¸‡jv‡K mwVK I Kvh©Ki Dc¯’vc‡bi gva¨‡g my›`i K‡i cvV‡Ki g‡bv‡hvM AvKl©‡Yi Rb¨ †h cÖPwjZ I ¯^xK…Z KvVv‡gv i‡q‡Q Zv‡`i‡K cÎ wjLb c×wZ e‡j| evwYwR¨K c‡Îi †m․›`h© I AvKl©YxqZv wbf©i K‡i Gi mwVK KvVv‡gvi Dci| evwYwR¨K c‡Îi G KvVv‡gv web¨v‡mi Rb¨ 7wU c×wZ cÖPwjZ Av‡Q| cÎ †jLK‡K Gi †h‡Kv‡bv GKwU c×wZ evQvB K‡i wb‡q cÎ iPbv Ki‡Z nq| wb‡æ evwYwR¨K c‡Îi 7wU c×wZi eY©bv Kiv n‡jv: 1| m¤ú~Y© cvk©¦ mgvb c×wZ (Full blocked style): AvRKvj G c×wZ‡Z evwYwR¨K cÎ iPbv Kivi e¨vcK cÖPjb jÿ¨ Kiv hv‡”Q| B‡Zvg‡a¨ G c×wZi Ab¨vb¨ c×wZi †P‡q RbwcÖq c×wZ wn‡m‡e cwiwPwZ jvf K‡i‡Q| G c×wZ‡Z cÎ UvBc Kiv ev †jLv Lye mnR Ges †Zgb †Kv‡bv Sv‡gjv †bB| msÁv: †h c×wZ‡Z wPwVi mKj Ask A_©vr wPwVi †QvU-eo cÖwZwU jvBb evg gvwR©b †_‡K ïiæ Kiv nq Zv‡K m¤ú~Y© cvk¦© mgvb c×wZ e‡j| D‡jøL¨ wPwVi wk‡ivbvg hw` KvM‡R Dc‡i †K›`ª¯’KiY K‡i Qvcv‡bv _v‡K Z‡e wk‡ivbvg e¨ZxZ evwK mKj Ask evg gvwR©b †_‡K ïiæ Ki‡Z nq| myweav: m¤ú~Y© cvk¦©mgvb c×wZ‡Z wPwVi mKj Ask evg gvwR©b †_‡K ïiæ nq e‡j Sv‡gjv Kg Ges `ªæZ UvBc Kiv hvq| m¤ú~Y© cvk¦© mgvb c×wZ Av‡gwiKvq AwaKZi e¨eüZ nIqvq GB ÷vBj/ c×wZ‡K A‡b‡K Av‡gwiKvb ÷vBj/c×wZ e‡j| Amyweav: m¤ú~Y© cvk¦© mgvb c×wZ‡Z wPwVi evg cv‡k¦© †jLv nq †ewk Ges Wvb cv‡k¦© †ewk duvKv _vKvq wPwVi †m․›`h© I AvKl©Y K‡g hvq| 2| cvk¦© mgvb c×wZ (Blocked Style): cvk¦© mgvb c×wZ GKwU RbwcÖq Ges eûj e¨eüZ c×wZ| me c×wZiB wKQy bv wKQy myweav-Amyweav i‡q‡Q| Avevi †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv c×wZ‡Z †ewk kã UvBc Kiv hvq| msÁv: †h c×wZ‡Z wPwVi wk‡ivbvg Dc‡i gvSLv‡b ; ZvwiL, we`vq fvlY, ¯^v ÿi, ¯^vÿiKvixi cwiPq Wvb gvwR©‡b Ges c‡Îi Ab¨vb¨ Ask evg gvwR©‡b Aew¯’Z _v‡K Zv‡K cvk¦© mgvb c×wZ e‡j|


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myweav: 1. c‡Îi wewfbœ Ask c‡Îi PZzw`©‡K gyw`ªZ nIqvq eo cÎ gy`ªY Kiv hvq| 2. G c×wZ‡Z c‡Îi ¯^vfvweK †m․›`h© eRvq _v‡K Ges AvK©lY e„w× cvq| Amyweav: 1. G c×wZ‡Z cÎ UvBc Ki‡Z mgq †ewk jv‡M| 2. c‡Îi Aby‡”Q`¸‡jv eyS‡Z Amyweav nq| 3. gy`‡ª Yi MwZ wKQzUv Kg nq| 3| Aa©-cvk¦© mgvb c×wZ (Semi Blocked Style): evwYwR¨K cÎ UvBc Kivi c×wZi g‡a¨ Aa© cvk¦© mgvb c×wZ Ab¨Zg| evwYwR¨K cÎ UvB‡ci †ÿ‡Î G c×wZ †ewk e¨eüZ nq| msÁv: †h c×wZ‡Z wPwVi wk‡ivbvg Dc‡i gvSLv‡b ; ZvwiL, we`vq fvlY, ¯^vÿi, ¯^vÿiKvixi cwiPq Wvb gvwR©‡b; c‡Îi Ab¨vb¨ Ask evg gvwR©‡b Aew¯’Z _v‡K Ges g~j e³‡e¨i cÖwZwU Aby‡”Q‡`i cÖ_g jvBb evg gvwR©b †_‡K cuvP (5) †¯úm c‡i Ges Ab¨vb¨ jvBb evg gvwR©b †_‡K UvBc Kiv nq Zv‡K Aa© cvk¦© mgvb c×wZ e‡j| myweav: 1. Dc‡i, ev‡g I Wv‡b c‡Îi Ask¸‡jv Ae¯’vb Kivq c‡Îi fvimvg¨ dz‡U I‡V| 2. G‡Z Aby‡”Q` mn‡R wPwýZ Kiv hvq| 3. G c×wZ‡Z c‡Îi ¯^vfvweK †m․›`h© I AvKl©Y eRvq _v‡K| 4. Gi e¨envi w`b w`b e„w× cv‡”Q| Amyweav: 1. G c×wZ‡Z Full blocked style I Blocked style Gi †P‡q Zzjbvg~jK mgq †ewk jv‡M| 2. g~j e³‡e¨i cÖwZwU Aby‡”Q‡`i cÖ_g jvB‡b †¯úm MYbvi Kvi‡Y evowZ Sv‡gjv †cvnv‡Z nq| 3. G c×wZ‡Z gy`‡ª Yi MwZ wKQzUv n«vm cvq| m¤úK©: g~j e³e¨ Qvov Semi blocked style Ges Blocked style GKB| 4| †PŠKv cvk¦© mgvb c×wZ (Square Blocked Style): G c×wZ‡Z c‡Îi Pvi‡Kv‡Y c‡Îi †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bv Ask Ggbfv‡e mvRv‡bv nq hv‡Z †P․‡KvY AvKvi aviY K‡i| ZvB G c×wZ‡Z c‡Îi KvVv‡gv‡Z †ek fvimvg¨ cwijwÿZ nq Ges cÎwU †`L‡ZI †ek my›`i †`Lvq| GRb¨ G c×wZ‡K GKwU fvimvg¨ c×wZI ejv hvq| msÁv: †h c×wZ‡Z wk‡ivbvg Dc‡i I gvSLv‡b †K›`ª¯’KiY K‡i †jLv nq, ZvwiL Ges cÎ cÖ¯‘ZKvixi mswÿß bvg (Bwbwmqvj) c‡Îi Wvb gvwR©‡b †kl nq Ges c‡Îi evwK Ab¨vb¨ Ask Full blocked style Gi g‡Zv ev‡g gy`Yª Kiv nq Zv‡K †P․Kv cvk¦© mgvb c×wZ (Square blocked style) e‡j| Z‡e D‡jøL¨ †h, ZvwiL Aek¨B Avf¨šÍixY wVKvbvi Dc‡ii jvBb eivei Wv‡b Ges cÎ cÖ¯‘ZKvixi mswÿß bvg, we`vq Awfev`b (bvg I c`we) eivei Wv‡b GKB jvB‡b wjL‡Z nq| D‡jøwLZ c×wZ‡Z wewfbœ Ask UvBc Kivq evwYwR¨K cÎ Pvi‡KvYwewkó †Uwej g‡b nq|


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†PŠKv cvk¦© mgvb c×wZi •ewkó¨: 1. G c×wZ‡Z c‡Îi wk‡ivbvg †m›Uvwis K‡i UvBc Ki‡Z nq; 2. ZvwiL me©Wv‡b Ggbfv‡e UvBc K‡Z nq †hb Zvwi‡Li †kl eY©wU WvbcÖv‡šÍ hvq; 3. mgvwß m¤¢vlY I †jL‡Ki cwiwPwZ evgcÖv‡šÍ wbqgvbyhvqx UvBc Ki‡Z nq| 5| LuvRKvUv c×wZ (Indented style): wk‡ivbvg, cÖvi¤¢ I mgvwßi cÖwZwU Ask c¨viv K‡i †jLv nq Ges wk‡ivbvg, Af¨šÍixY wVKvbvi cÖwZwU jvBb Ges we`vq fvlY, `¯ÍLZ, †cÖi‡Ki bvg I c`we UvBc Kivi mgq Dc‡ii jvBb †_‡K cuvP (5) wU †¯úm Lvwj †i‡L Wvb w`‡K wb‡Pi jvBb UvBc Ki‡Z nq| c‡Îi wewfbœ Ask A‡bKUv wmuwoi gZ †`Lv hvq| c‡Îi evwK Ask¸‡jv evg ev Wvb gvwR©‡b UvBc Ki‡Z nq| ïaygvÎ g~j e³e¨ †mwg eøKW ÷vB‡ji g‡Zv Aby‡”Q‡`i cÖ_g jvBb cuvP (5)wU †¯úm w`‡q wjL‡Z nq| LuvRKvUv c×wZi •ewkó¨: 1| wk‡ivbvg, cÖvi¤¢ I mgvwßi cÖwZwU jvBb ci ci cuvP †¯úm ev` w`‡q UvBc Ki‡Z nq; 2| G c×wZ‡Z eÜbxq hwZ wPý c×wZ ev †K¬vR cvsPz‡qkb ÷vBj e¨eüZ nq; 3| G c×wZ me‡P‡q Kg RbwcÖq; G c×wZwU †ek RwUj I mgq mv‡cÿ, ZvB gy`‡ª Y MwZ n«vm cvq| GRb¨ GwUi e¨envi nq bv ej‡jB P‡j| ZvB GwU me‡P‡q Kg RbwcÖq c×wZ| 6| SzjšÍ LuvRKvUv c×wZ (Hanging indented style): G c×wZ cvVK‡K mn‡R AvK…ó K‡i| G c×wZ‡Z †h bgybv i‡q‡Q Zv Ab¨vb¨ c×wZ‡Z †bB| G c×wZ LuvRKvUv c×wZi Abyiƒc| ïaygvÎ g~j e³e¨ †jLvi †ÿ‡Î cv_©K¨ cwijwÿZ nq| G c×wZ‡Z cÖwZwU Aby‡”Q‡`i cÖ_g jvBb c‡Îi evg gvwR©b †_‡K wjL‡Z nq Ges cieZx© jvBb¸‡jv 5wU †¯úm duvKv †i‡L Wvb w`‡K †jLv nq| GRb¨ G c×wZ‡K Semi blocked style-Gi wecixZ c×wZ ejv nq| 7| †gŠwjK/ mnRZi c×wZ (Simplified style): G c×wZwU NOMA (†bvgv) c×wZ wn‡m‡eI cwiwPZ| †Kbbv G c×wZ hy³iv‡óªi National Office Management Association KZ©…K D™¢vweZ n‡q‡Q| Gi cÖavb •ewkó¨ n‡jv G‡Z cÖviw¤¢K m¤¢vlY I mgvwß m¤¢vlY _v‡K bv| Z‡e welq wk‡ivbvg AZ¨vek¨K| welq wk‡ivbv‡gi Dci I wb‡P wZbwU †¯úm w`‡Z nq| evsjv c‡Î welq mvwii wb‡P `vM w`‡Z nq Ges Bs‡iwR c‡Î Capital Letter-G UvBc Ki‡Z nq| GQvov c‡Îi evwK Ask¸‡jv Full blocked Style Gi g‡Zv|


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†gŠwjK c×wZi •ewkó¨: 1| G c×wZ m¤ú~Y© cvk¦© mgvb c×wZi g‡ZvB; 2| G c×wZ‡Z m¤¢vlY I †m․Rb¨g~jK Awfev`b _v‡K bv| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, cÎ gy`‡ª Y mvZwU c×wZ _vK‡jI Dc‡ii Av‡jvPbv n‡Z ejv hvq, Full blocked, Blocked and Semi blocked Style †ewk e¨eüZ nq| Gi g‡a¨ Avevi Semi blocked style me©vwaK RbwcÖq| evwK c×wZ¸‡jv †hgb- Square blocked, Indented, Hanging indented, Simplified style gy`Yª Kiv RwUj nIqvq G‡`i e¨envi mxwgZ|

5.9 evwYwR¨K c‡Îi cÖavb kvLv ev cÖKvi‡f` (Classification of Commercial Letter ) cÎvjvc Qvov AvaywbK hy‡Mi evwYR¨ cÖvq APj| mwZ¨Kvi A‡_© e¨emvwqK m¤ú‡K©i wfwË •Zwi K‡i evwYwR¨K cÎ| AvaywbK hy‡Mi e¨emv-evwY‡R¨i †ÿÎ bvbv w`K w`‡q cÖmvwiZ e‡j †mw`K¸‡jv mvgvj w`‡Z wfbœ wfbœ Kv‡Ri Rb¨ wfbœ wfbœ cÎ iPbv Ki‡Z nq| wb‡gœ evwYwR¨K c‡Îi wewfbœ kvLv wP‡Î cÖ`k©b K‡i eY©bv Kiv nq| evwYwR¨K cÎ Z_¨g~jK •bwgwËK cÎ AbymÜvb cÎ, †Kv‡Ukb cÎ, digv‡qk cÎ, g~j¨ cwi‡kva cÎ

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mybvg welqK Awfb›`b, ab¨ev` ÁvcK, mnvbyf~wZ ÁvcK, mvš—¡bv cÖ`vb

cÖPvi cÎ, Kg©x welqK, cÖwZwbwa msµvš—, ågY msµvš— cÎ wPÎ: evwYwR¨K cÎ|

1. Z_¨g~jK cÎ (Information letters): evwYwR¨K c‡Îi †h kvLv Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`vb msµvšÍ welq wb‡q †jLv nq, Zv‡K Z_¨g~jK cÎ e‡j| AbymÜvb I cÖZz¨Ëi, †Kv‡Ukb ev `i D‡jøL, `icÎ I cÖvwß ¯^xKvi D‡Ïk¨ †jLv nq| 2. weµq msµvšÍ cÎ (Sales letter): weµq msµvšÍ welqvewj wb‡q wjwLZ c·K weµq cÎ e‡j| G c‡Îi gva¨‡g cÎ cÖvcK‡K cY¨ µ‡qi cÖwZ cÖ‡ivwPZ Kiv nq| G Rb¨ G c‡Î fvlv e¨envi Kiv nq AZ¨šÍ mZK©fv‡e| 3. mgm¨vg~jK cÎ (Problem letters): †Kv‡bv cwiw¯’wZ‡Z cÎ †cÖiK I cÖvc‡Ki g‡a¨ ؇›`i m„wó n‡j Zvi cÖwZdjb NUv‡bvi Rb¨ †h cÎ †jLv nq Zv‡K mgm¨vg~jK cÎ e‡j| AbvKvw•ÿZ Z_¨ Rvbv‡bv, Aby‡iva ev digv‡qk cÖZ¨vL¨vb, `vwe cÖZ¨vL¨vb BZ¨vw` mgm¨vg~jK c‡Îi D`vniY|


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4. mybvg welqK cÎ (Goodwill letters): AwaKvsk c‡Îi •ØZ D‡Ïk¨ _v‡K| wbw`©ó †jb‡`b m¤ú~Y© Kiv Ges mybvg M‡o †Zvjv| cÖ‡Z¨K c‡ÎB mybvg iÿv ev e„w×i cÖ‡Póv Kiv DwPZ| G QvovI cÖwZôv‡bi mybvg m„wó I Zv e„w×i Rb¨ GK ai‡bi cÎ iPbv Kiv nq| G RvZxq c‡Î wewfbœ cÿ‡K Zv‡`i Kv‡Ri Rb¨ ab¨ev` †`qv nq| †hgb- MÖvnK‡K cÖ_g digv‡q‡ki Rb¨ ab¨ev` Ávcb, cyiv‡bv MÖvn‡Ki cÖwZ †ewk digv‡qk cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ K…ZÁZv cÖKvk, †Kv‡bv RwUj KvR m¤úv`‡bi Rb¨ Kg©Pvwi‡K Awfb›`b Ávcb BZ¨vw` AšÍf©y³| mvaviYZ DwjøwLZ kvLv-cÖkvLvq AvaywbK evwYwR¨K c·K wefvRb Kiv hvq| hv‡`i c`PviYvq evwY‡R¨i RMr nq cÖmvwiZ I gyLwiZ|

5.10 digv‡qk cÎ (Orders Letter) `ªe¨-msµvšÍ AbymÜvb c‡Îi DËi cvIqvi ci mieivnKvix ev we‡µZv KZ…©K DwjøwLZ kZ©vw` MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡j c‡Y¨i Rb¨ digv‡qkcÎ †`qv nq| A‡bK mgq †Kv‡Ukb (quotation) wb‡R‡`i ¯^v‡_©i AbyK~‡j n‡j †µZv Zv MÖnY K‡i Ges †Kv‡Ukb †cÖiK‡K Zvi ¯^xK…wZi K_v cÎ gvidZ Rvwb‡q †`q| G RvZxq c·K Ô¯^xK…wZ cÎÕ (Letter of Acceptance) e‡j| †Kv‡Ukb MÖnY Kivi ciB †µZv gv‡ji digv‡qk Order cvVvq| AwaKvsk †ÿ‡Î ¯^xK…wZcÎB digv‡qk cÎÕ wnmv‡e KvR K‡i; Avjv`v digv‡qk cÎ cvVv‡bvi cÖ‡qvRb nq bv| Z‡e c„_K digv‡qk cÎ cvVv‡bvB DËg| digv‡qk cÎ †µZv I we‡µZvi g‡a¨ Pzw³c‡Îi mvwgj| Dfq cÿB GB Pzw³ Abyhvqx KvR Ki‡Z AvBbZ I bxwZMZfv‡e eva¨| ZvB digv‡qk cÎ gymvwe`v Kivi mgq h‡_ó mveavbZv Aej¤^b Kiv Avek¨K| myZivs ejv †h‡Z cv‡i †h, digv‡qk cÎ n‡”Q †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó `v‡g †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó gv‡bi cY¨ mvgMÖx µ‡qi Rb¨ Av‡`k ev Pzw³bvgv| AvB‡bi `„wó‡Z digv‡qk Pzw³i gh©v`v cvq; A_©vr †µZvi digv‡qk cÎ we‡µZvi wbKU MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡j †µZv †m Abyhvqx KvR Ki‡Z eva¨ _v‡K|

5.11 digv‡qk c‡Îi Avewk¨K welqmg~n (Contents of Order) digv‡qk cÎ wjLvi mgq wb‡gœv³ welqmg~‡ni cÖwZ jÿ ivLv Avek¨K: 1. digv‡qkK…Z `ª‡e¨i eY©bv: digv‡qk c‡Î AW©viK…Z c‡Y¨i c~Y© weeiY _vKv DwPr| c‡Y¨i bvg, cÖKvi, is, AvK…wZ, MyYvMyY, msL¨v ev cwigvY cÖf„wZ wek`fv‡e eY©bv Ki‡Z nq hv‡Z fyj eySveywSi AeKvk bv _v‡K| 2. `ª‡e¨i gyj¨: digv‡qk c‡Î `ª‡e¨i cÖK…Z g~j¨ D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq| †Kv‡Uk‡b g~‡j¨i D‡jøL _vK‡jI digv‡qk c‡Î Zv Avevi D‡jøL Kiv DwPZ| †Kv‡bv 3. mieiv‡ni mgq: †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó Zvwi‡Li g‡a¨ gvj mieivn Kivi cÖ‡qvRb n‡j c‡Î Zv Rvwb‡q w`‡Z nq| Z‡e digv‡qk c‡Î Giƒc mg‡qi D‡jøL bv _vK‡j GKUv hyw³msMZ mg‡qi g‡a¨ gvj mieivn Kiv DwPZ| 4. cwienb: †µZvi wbKU Kxfv‡e gvj †cu․Qv‡Z n‡e †m m¤ú‡K© my¯úó Bw½Z _vKv cÖ‡qvRb| gvj †ijc_, Rjc_ wKsev wegvb c‡_ cvVv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i Z‡e †mUv †µZvi B”Qvbyhvqx n‡e| †µZv G e¨vcv‡i bxie _vK‡j we‡µZv myweavRbK †h †Kv‡bv Dcvq Aej¤^b Ki‡Z cv‡i| †µZvi cQ›`gZ c×wZ‡Z gvj bv cvVv‡j †Kv‡bv cÖKvi ÿq-ÿwZi Rb¨ we‡µZv‡K `vqx n‡Z n‡e|


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5. g~j¨ cwi‡kva c×wZ: gv‡ji g~j¨ bM‡`, av‡i A_ev WªvdU wKsev wej gvidZ cwi‡kva Kiv hvq| †µZv Kxfv‡e Zv cwi‡kva Ki‡Z Pvq Zv digv‡qk c‡Î D‡jøL Kiv DwPZ| A‡bK mgq, we‡µZv †Kv‡Uk‡b cwi‡kva cÖYvwji e¨vcv‡i Avfvm w`‡q _v‡K| Giƒc †ÿ‡Î †mfv‡eB g~j¨ cwi‡kva Ki‡Z n‡e| †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv cÖwZôvb f.o.b. MšÍe¨¯’vbÕ c×wZ‡Z cY¨ weµq K‡i; A_©vr c‡Y¨i g~‡j¨i mv‡_ cwienb LiP AšÍf©y³ _v‡K| Avevi †Kn †Kn f.o.b. shipping point Òc×wZ‡Z gvj mieivn K‡i| G‡ÿ‡Î cwienb LiP †µZv‡K enb Ki‡Z nq| wKš‘ cY¨ †cÖiK cwienb ms¯’v‡K fvov AwMÖg w`‡q †`q Ges mgcwigvY UvKv Pvjv‡bi A‡¼i mv‡_ †hvM K‡i †`q| cY¨`ªe¨ Òc.o.d c×wZ‡ZI †µZvi wbKU cvVv‡bv hvq| G‡ÿ‡Î cwienb ms¯’v (†cv÷ Awdm, †ijI‡q †Kv¤úvwb, RvnvR †Kv¤úvwb, UªvK ev wegvb ms¯’v BZ¨vw`) cwienb LiP gvj Qvov‡bvi Av‡MB †µZvi wbKU n‡Z Av`vq K‡i †bq| gvj †cÖi‡Yi Gme c×wZ m¤ú‡K© digv‡qk c‡Î my¯úó wb‡`©k _vKv DwPZ| 6. `ªe¨ MÖnY-¯’vb: †h wVKvbvq digv‡qkKvix cY¨`ªe¨ MÖnY Ki‡Z B”QzK Zvi h_vh_ D‡jøL _vK‡Z n‡e| 7. wewea kZ©: gv‡ji e¨vcv‡i Ab¨ †Kv‡bv cÖKvi kZ© _vK‡j ZvI D‡jøL Kiv DwPZ|

5.12 AW©vi ev digv‡q‡ki bgybv 1| †mjvB †gwk‡bi AW©vi Order for Sewing Machine `wR© mnPi evwMPv MuvI, Kzwgjøv| jvj †gvnb eªv`vm©, 20 RyjvB, 1996 37, †ZRMuvI, XvKv| g‡nv`q, 10B RyjvB Zvwi‡Li Avcbv‡`i me©‡kl g~j¨ ZvwjKv msewjZ cÎwUi Rb¨ A‡kl ab¨ev`| D³ ZvwjKv †gvZv‡eK Avgiv `ªe¨vw`i digv‡qk w`w”Q| Avkv Kwi, G¸‡jv h_vmg‡q mieivn Ki‡Z hZœevb n‡eb| †gwk‡bi bvg wm½vi wm½vi mvMi mvMi DRvjv

AvKvi eo (cv PvwjZ) nvZ †gwkb cv-PvwjZ n¯Í PvwjZ cv-PvwjZ

cwigvY 10

g~j¨ (cÖwZwU) 4200.00

5 10 10 10 45

3500.00 2650.00 2450.00 2600.00

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†gwkb¸‡jvi Rb¨ Aek¨B `yÕeQ‡ii M¨vivw›U w`‡Z n‡e| gvj¸‡jv fv‡jvfv‡e c¨vwKs K‡i †ijI‡q gvidZ cvVv‡eb|

5.13 Pvjvb cÎ (Invoice Letter) GKwU cÖwZôv‡bi cÖwZwU †jb‡`‡bi mg_©‡b Aek¨B wKQz bv wKQz `wjjcÎ _vK‡Z nq| †hgb- Pvjvb, wej, K¨vk‡g‡gv BZ¨vw`| †jb‡`‡bi Aby‡gv`b I wjwce×Ki‡Y Gme `wjjcÎ e¨eüZ nq| G¸‡jv‡K cÖgvYcÎ e‡j| gvj µq I weµ‡qi GKwU cÖvgvY¨ `wjj n‡jv Pvjvb| Gi Dci wfwË K‡iB µqewn I weµqewn †jLv nq| av‡i gvj µq Kiv n‡j we‡µZv †µZv‡K mieivnK…Z c‡Y¨i mv‡_ we¯ÍvwiZ weeiY msewjZ GKwU wej, cÎ ev †bvU cvwV‡q _v‡K GB c·K Pvjvb e‡j| cvBj I jvimb Gi g‡Z, ÒPvjvb n‡jv wewµZ c‡Y¨i ZvwjKvi GKwU `wjj, hv‡Z g~j¨ LwiÏv‡ii bvg Ges weµ‡qi kZ© D‡jøL _v‡K|Ó nvig¨vbmb Ges Ab¨vb¨‡`i g‡Z, ÒPvjvb n‡jv gvj ev c‡Y¨i we‡µZv KZ©„K †µZvi Dci cÖ¯‘ZK„Z weµq m¤ú‡K© we¯ÍvwiZ weeiY msewjZ GKwU `wjj|Ó myZivs Pvjvb n‡jv gvj ev cY¨ µq-weµ‡qi GKwU ¸iyZ¡c~Y© `wjj| Bnv µwgK b¤^ihy³ nq| G‡Z wewµZ c‡Y¨i cwigvY, `i, †gvU g~j¨, weµ‡qi kZ© I wkc‡g‡›Ui msL¨v BZ¨vw` D‡jøL _v‡K| we‡µZvi w`K n‡Z G `wjj‡K weµ‡qi Pvjvb ejv n‡q _v‡K| Pvjv‡bi GKwU bgybv cÖ`Ë n‡jv: Pvjvb iƒcvwj cvewj‡KkÝ 250, evsjvevRvi, XvKv| Pvjvb b¤^i ................................................. †µZvi bvg ................................................ wVKvbv ................................................. kZ©: 25 w`‡bi g‡a¨ cwi‡kva Ki‡j 5% bM` evUªv| µwgK bs gv‡ji weeiY cwigvY 1 AvqKi eB 100 Iqvjx Djøvn 2 e¨vswKs eB 100 KvRx dviyKx †gvU -------ev` Kvievwi evUªv 10% K_vq: bq nvRvi UvKv gvÎ| fzjÎywU ms‡kvab‡hvM¨ ZvwiL: 12 GwcÖj, 2013

`i 60

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40

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10,000 1,000 9,000


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5.14 cÖPvi cÎ (Circular Letter) mvaviYZ cÖPvi Kv‡h© e¨eüZ c·K cÖPvi cÎ e‡j| AvaywbK cÖPv‡ii GKwU Kvh©Ki I DËg gva¨g wn‡m‡e cÖPvi cÎ GK MyiæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| GUv GKwU AZ¨šÍ RbwcÖq Ges m¯Ív cÖPvi gva¨g, hv AwaKvsk e¨emvqx e¨envi K‡i _v‡K| cÖPvic‡Îi gva¨‡g AwZ mn‡R, Kg LiPvq Ges Kvh©Kifv‡e e¨w³MZ, mvgvwRK ev evwYwR¨K †h †Kv‡bv wel‡qi LeivLei A_ev Z_¨ †µZv mvaviY Z_v mswkøó c‡ÿi wbKU †cu․Qv‡q †`qv hvq| AZGe- †h c‡Îi gva¨‡g †Kv‡bv evwYwR¨K msev` ev Z_¨ †µZv mvaviY ev RbM‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ cÖPvi Kiv hvq, Zv‡K cÖPvi cÎ ev †NvlYv cÎ e‡j| cÖPvi cÎ miKvwi I †emiKvwi †h †Kv‡bv cÖwZôvb ev e¨w³ cÖPvi Ki‡Z cv‡i| Gi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ cÖPvi| A_©vr cÖPv‡ii welqwU AwaK msL¨K e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb‡K Rvwb‡q †`qv Gi cÖavb jÿ¨| cÖPvi c‡Îi msÁv w`‡Z wM‡q Prof. W.J. Weston e‡jb, æA circular letter is one which is meant to be read by a number of correspondents. It is of the nature of an advertisement and is usually a business announcement or an attempt to advance business.”

Dc‡ii Av‡jvPbv n‡Z †`Lv hvq †h, cÖPvi cÎ cÖPviK Ges cÖPv‡ii welqe¯‘ Abyhvqx cÖavbZ `yB cÖKvi, h_v(K) evwYwR¨K cÖPvi cÎ, Ges (L) A-evwYwR¨K cÖPvi cÎ| evwYwR¨K welqvw` Qvov Ab¨ mKj wel‡q wjwLZ cÖPvi cÎMy‡jv‡K AevwYwR¨K cÖPvi cÎ wn‡m‡e MY¨ Kiv nq| †hgb- Ae¨emvqx cÖwZôvbmg~‡ni weÁvcb ev cÖPvi cÎmg~n GB cÖKvi c‡Îi AšÍM©Z| Ab¨w`‡K evwYwR¨K welqvw` ev LeivLei cÖPv‡ii D‡Ï‡k¨ wjwLZ mKj cÖPvi c·K evwYwR¨K cÖPvicÎ e‡j| evwYwR¨K cÖPvicÎ cÖPv‡ii GKwU DËg gva¨g| Gi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv c‡Y¨i evRvi m„wó Kiv| evwYwR¨K cÖwZôvbMy‡jv m¤¢ve¨ †µZv‡`i‡K Zv‡`i cY¨-`ªe¨ µ‡qi Rb¨ cÖfvweZ Kievi D‡Ï‡k¨ †h cÎ cÖPvi K‡i Zv‡K evwYwR¨K cÖPvi cÎ e‡j| Z‡e cÖPvi cÎ ej‡Z cÖavbZ evwYwR¨K cÖPvic·KB eySvq|

5.15 cÖPvi c‡Îi D‡Ïk¨ (Objects of Circular Letter) cÖPvi c‡Îi D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv m¤¢ve¨ MÖvnK, AbyMÖvnK I †µZv mvaviY‡K e¨emvq-evwYR¨ msµvšÍ wel‡q LeivLei Rvwb‡q †`qv| Gi KviY ev D‡Ïk¨My‡jv‡K Avgiv cÖavbZ `yB fv‡M fvM Ki‡Z cvwi, h_v: (K) e¨emvwqK msev` ev Z_¨ cÖPvi, †hgb:1. bZzb e¨emvq Avi¤¢ 2. cyivZb e¨emv‡qi m¤cÖmviY 3. bZzb kvLv †Lvjv 4. Kviev‡ii bvg cwieZ©b 5. Kviev‡ii ¯’vb cwieZ©b


130

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6. Askx`vi MÖnY ev ev` †`qv 7. Pzw³ m¤úv`b ev evwZj 8. K‡qKwU Kviev‡ii GKÎxKiY 9. Kvievi eÜ †NvlYv 10. Kg©Pvwi wb‡qvM ev AcmviY 11. g~j¨n«vm ev e„w× BZ¨vw`| (L) c‡Y¨i Pvwn`v e„w× I weµ‡qi D‡Ïk¨, †hgb:1. cY¨ evRviRvZKiY 2. c‡Y¨i MyYvMyY cÖPvi 3. bZzb cY¨ Drcv`b ev Avg`vwb 4. c‡Y¨i gvb Dbœqb 5. †mev I my‡hvM-myweav cÖ`vb, BZ¨vw`|

5.16 cÖPvi c‡Îi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv AvaywbK RwUj Drcv`b I eÈb e¨e¯’vcbvi cÖavb •ewkó¨ n‡jv Zxeª cÖwZ‡hvwMZv| GB Zxeª cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq wU‡K †_‡K wb‡Ri e¨emvq Kvh© cwiPvjbvi cÖavbZg nvwZqvi n‡jv DËg cÖPvi| Avi ZvB DËg I Kvh©Ki cÖPvi gva¨g wn‡m‡e cÖPvicÖ‡Îi ¸iæZ¡ evwo‡q ejvi cÖ‡qvRb bvB| †jvK gvidZ cY¨ ev e¨emv‡qi cÖPvi AZ¨šÍ e¨qmv‡cÿ| c„_K c„_Kfv‡e cÎ wj‡LI cY¨ cÖPvi Kiv m¤¢e bq| †Kbbv GUvI h‡_ó e¨q Ges kªgmv‡cÿ| Kg LiPvq cÎ-cwÎKvq weÁvcb w`‡q cÖPvi Kiv hvq mZ¨ wKš‘ AwaKvsk †jvK cwÎKv c‡o bv| G‡ÿ‡Î cÖPvi cÎ cÖPvi gva¨g wn‡m‡e AZ¨šÍ Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| AwaKš‘ cÖPvic‡Îi e¨q AZ¨šÍ Kg| G‡Z mgq I kª‡gi AcPq Kg nq e‡i AvaywbK cÖPvi gva¨g wn‡m‡e AwaK e¨eüZ Ges RbwcÖq| R‣bK weÁvcb we‡kl‡Ái g‡Z, æA circular letter is an effective means of creating interest among a large number of people.” †gvUK_v GKwU AvKl©Yxq cÖPvi cÎ evRv‡i c‡Y¨i Pvwn`v e„w× I msev` cÖPv‡i e¨vcK f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| GUv Qvcv‡bv, UvBc Kiv ev mvB‡K¬v÷vBjI n‡Z cv‡i|

5.17 Av`k© cÖPvic‡Îi MyY ev •ewkó¨ †h D‡Ï‡k¨B cÖPvi cÎ iPbv Kiv †nvK bv †Kb, GKwU Av`k© cÖPvi c‡Î wb‡gœi MyY ev •ewkó¨My‡ jv Aek¨B _vK‡e: 1. AvKl©YxqZv (Attractiveness): cÖPvi cÎ Ggb AvKl©Yxq I wkíMy‡Y MyYvwbœZ K‡i iPbv Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z cÖ_g `k©‡bB GUv cvV‡Ki g‡bv‡hvM AvKl©Y Ki‡Z cv‡i| G‡K cÖPvic‡Îi MYgb¯ÍZ¡ wbcyYZvI ejv nq| 2. wjLb c×wZ (Art of Writing): cÖPvic‡Îi wjLb c×wZ cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx mvaviY ev we‡klZ¡g~jK n‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e cÖ‡ivPbvg~jK c×wZ‡ZB AwaKvsk cÖPvi cÎ †jLv nq|


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3. mswÿßZv (Brevity): cÖPvi cÎ mswÿß nIqv evÃbxq| 4. mvejxj fvlvi e¨envi (Use of Smooth Language): cÖPvi c‡Îi fvlv n‡e AZ¨šÍ mnR-mij I ¯úó| 5. Av¯’v AR©b (To Create Confidence): cÖPvi c‡Îi Avi GKwU cÖavb •ewkó¨ n‡jv Gi e³‡e¨i cÖwZ RbM‡Yi ev cvV‡Ki Av¯’v AR©b Kiv| 6. cÖfve we¯Ívi (To Influence): cÖPvi cÎ Ggb AvKl©Yxqfv‡e Dc¯’vwcZ n‡e hv‡Z Gi evK-PvZzh© mn‡RB cvV‡Ki gb‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i wm×všÍ MÖn‡Y eva¨ Ki‡Z cv‡i| 7. e¨vcK cÖPvi (Wide Circulation): e¨vcK cÖPv‡ii g‡a¨B cÖPvi c‡Îi we‡klZ¡ i‡q‡Q| 8. †mŠRb¨‡eva (Courtesy): cÖPvi cÎ Aek¨B gvwR©Z I iæwPm¤úbœfv‡e wjL‡Z n‡e| jÿ¨ ivL‡Z n‡e, †Kv‡bv Ae¯’v‡ZB †hb cÖ‡Îi †Kv_vI `vw¤¢KZv ev AnwgKvi cÖKvk bv N‡U| GUv cvV‡Ki g‡b AvNvZ w`‡Z cv‡i| 9. cvi¯úwiK ¯^v_© (Mutual Interest): cÖPvi cÎ †Kv‡bv Ae¯’v‡ZB GKZidv ¯^v_©wmw×i Rb¨ iwPZ nIqv DwPZ bq| GUv Aek¨B cvi¯úvwiK ¯^v_©wmw×i Rb¨ iwPZ n‡e| cvV‡Ki my‡hvM-myweavi K_v cÖPvi c‡Î †ewk _vK‡e| 10. mve©RbxbZv (University): cÖPvi c‡Îi Ab¨Zg MyY n‡jv Gi mveR©bxb cÖPvi I cÖKvk ÿgZv|

5.18 cÖPvicÎ iPbvi we‡eP¨ welqmg~n cÖPvi-cÎ wjLvi mgq wb‡gœi welqMy‡jv we‡ePbv Ki‡Z nq: 1. cÖPv‡ii Rb¨ AvKl©Yxq wk‡ivbv‡gi e¨envi| 2. AvKl©Yxq Ges RbwcÖq kã, kãMy”Q I cÖeP‡bi e¨envi| 3. e³e¨ welq m¤^‡Ü ¯úó eY©bv| 4. mnR, mij Ges mvejxj fvlv I iPbv-ixwZi e¨envi| 5. c‡Y¨i MyYvMyY, g~j¨, cÖvwß ¯’vb BZ¨vw` wel‡q Z_¨wfwËK eY©bv| 6. cÖ‡qvR‡b eo nv‡Zi Aÿi, iwOb Qvcv ev we‡kl e³‡e¨i wb‡P †gvUv `vM (Underlining) w`‡Z n‡e| 7. cÖPvi c‡Î wg_¨v ev Abvek¨K e³e¨ †`qv wVK bq| 8. webqc~Y© cÖviw¤¢K ev m‡¤^vab I weavq fvlY| 9. cÖPvi‡Ki wbR nv‡Z wjLv `¯ÍLZ A_ev `¯ÍL‡Zi cÖwZiƒc (Facsimile, Block Signature) w`‡Z n‡e| †gvUK_v, cÖPvi cÎ Aek¨B MVbZvwš¿Kfv‡e ¯^qsm¤ú~Y© K‡i iPbv Ki‡Z n‡e, hv‡Z cvVK GUv cvV K‡i Z`vbyhvqx KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i|


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5.19 cÖPvi c‡Îi bgybv †Zvgvi e¨emv‡qi wVKvbv cwieZ©‡bi Lei Rvwb‡q GKwU cÖPvicÎ iPbv Ki|

ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ ÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑÑ

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†dvbt 235233

wW‡m¤^i, 2011 ¯’vb cwieZ©b

wcÖq myax, Avgiv AZ¨šÍ Avb‡›`i mv‡_ Avgv‡`i wcÖq MÖvnK, AbyMÖvnK I kyfvbya¨vqxM‡Yi AeMwZi Rb¨ Rvbvw”Q †h, Avcbv‡`i mn‡hvwMZvq AÎ cÖwZôv‡bi e¨emv‡q AvkvZxZfv‡e cÖmvwiZ n‡q‡Q| d‡j Avgiv Avi 73, jvjgvwUqv wVKvbvq KvR Ki‡Z cviwQ bv| GQvov jvjgvwUqv kn‡ii GK †Kv‡Y Aew¯’Z nIqvq Avcbv‡`iI h‡_ó Amyweav nw”Qj| ZvB Avgiv wm×všÍ MÖnY K‡iwQ †h, AvMvwg 1jv Rvbyqvwi, 2012 n‡Z wbgœ wVKvbvq Avgv‡`i e¨emvq ¯’vbvšÍi Kie| 38, evsjvevRvi, XvKv- 1100 evsjvevRv‡ii †`vKvbwU †`‡ki mePvB‡Z eo cy¯ÍK †K‡›`ª Aew¯’Z nIqvq Avcbv‡`i we‡kl myweav n‡e e‡j Avgv‡`i wek¦vm| AZGe D³ ZvwiL n‡Z AbyMÖnc~e©K Avgv‡`i byZb wVKvbvq †hvMv‡hvM Kivi Rb¨ g~j¨evb MÖvnK I AbyMÖvnK‡`i‡K Aby‡iva KiwQ| ab¨ev`v‡šÍAvcbv‡`i ky‡f”QvcÖv_©x AvjvDwÏb e¨e¯’vcK

5. 20 cwiPq cÎ †h c‡Îi gva¨‡g GKRb e¨w³‡K Ab¨ GKRb e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ cwiPq Kwi‡q †`qv nq Zv‡K cwiPq cÎ e‡j| GB ai‡bi cÎ †Kv‡bv PvKwi cÖv_©x‡K e¨emvq Kv‡h© ågYiZ e¨w³‡K †`qv nq| Gi D‡Ïk¨ cÎevnK‡K cÎ cÖvc‡Ki mv‡_ cwiwPZ Kwi‡q †`qv|

5.21 cwiPq c‡Îi we‡eP¨ welq 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

hv‡K cwiPq Kwi‡q †`qv nq Zvi bvg I wVKvbv| cÎ evn‡Ki cwiwPwZ| cwiPq Kiv‡bvi D‡Ïk¨| cÖ‡qvRbxq mvnv‡h¨i Aby‡iva| fwel¨‡Z mn‡hvwMZvi Avk¦vm|


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5.22 cwiPq c‡Îi bgybv 1. GK e¨emvqx KZ…©K Ab¨ e¨emvqx‡K †`qvi cwiPq cÎ| †gmvm© Avwgb GÐ mÝ (cvBKvwi I LyPiv e¨emvqx) Bmjvgcyi, XvKv-1100| e¨e¯’vcK, †gmvm© nvwjg eªv`vm©, Av›`iwKjøv, PÆMÖvg-4000|

†dvb: 256763 †Kej: Avmv ZvwiL 5B †g, 1991

wcÖq Rbve, Avgiv XvKvi weL¨vZ cvBKvwi Kvco we‡µZv BDmyd Ki‡cv‡ik‡bi e¨e¯’vcK Rbve mvwKe †jvnvbx‡K Avcbv‡`i mv‡_ cwiPq Kwi‡q w`‡Z †c‡i Avb›`‡eva KiwQ| Rbve †jvnvbx PÆMÖv‡g Zv‡`i e¨emvq m¤cÖmvi‡Yi Rb¨ Z_¨ msMÖ‡ni Kv‡R hv‡”Qb| wZwb B‡Zvc~‡e© PÆMÖvg hvbwb| Avcbviv Avgv‡`i AwZ cyivZb e¨emvqx eÜz| AZGe, Rbve †jvnvbx‡K Avcbv‡`i wbKU cvVvjvg| Avkv Kwi, PÆMÖv‡gi Ab¨vb¨ weL¨vZ e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ Zv‡K cwiPq Kwi‡q †`‡eb| Zv‡K †h †Kv‡bv cÖKvi mvnvh¨ Ki‡j cÖKvivšÍ‡i Zv Avgv‡`i‡KB Kiv n‡e| fwel¨‡Z Avcbv‡`i‡K Abyiƒc mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡Z cvi‡j Avgiv ab¨ n‡ev| ab¨ev`v‡šÍAvcbvi wek¦¯Í, †gvt Avwgi †nv‡mb|

5.23 Z_¨vbymÜvb cÎ (Letter of Enquiry) PvKwicÖv_©xi †hvM¨Zv wKsev AcwiwPZ bZzb g‡°j ev LwiÏv‡ii e¨emvwqK mybvg, Avw_©K m”QjZv BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z †P‡q Z…Zxq c‡ÿi wbKU †h cÎ †jLv nq Zv‡K Z_¨vbymÜvb cÎ e‡j| eZ©gvb hy‡M e¨emvq evwY‡R¨i †ewki fvM µq-weµqB av‡i P‡j| we‡kl K‡i •e‡`wkK evwY‡R¨i kZKiv cÖvq GKkZfvMB av‡i (Credit) n‡q _v‡K| cY¨ `ª‡e¨i †µZv AcwiwPZ n‡j Ges Zvi Avw_©K m”QjZv m¤ú‡K© Rvbv bv _vK‡j av‡i gvj weµq Kiv LyeB SuywKc~Y©| ZvB gvj weµ‡qi Av‡M we‡µZv bZzb LwiÏv‡ii Avw_©K m”QjZv m¤ú‡K© AewnZ nIqvi Rb¨ Ab¨ e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ (hvi mv‡_ D³ LwiÏv‡ii e¨emvwqK †jb‡`b Av‡Q) †hvMv‡hvM K‡i| †h c‡Îi gva¨‡g Giƒc †hvMv‡hvM Kiv nq, Zv‡K Z_¨vbymÜvb cÎ e‡j| Z_¨vbymÜvb cÎ PvKwi cÖv_©xi †hvM¨Zv, mZZv ev LwiÏv‡ii †hvM¨Zv m¤úwK©Z A_ev e¨emvq msµvšÍ n‡Z cv‡i| Z…Zxq †Kv‡bv e¨emvqx ev e¨vs‡Ki wbKU n‡Z Z_¨vw` AbymÜvb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i wKsev e¨w³MZfv‡eI AbymÜvb Kiv hvq| cÖavbZ av‡i gvb Lwi‡` AvMÖnx e¨emvqx KZ…©K DwjøwLZ Ab¨ †Kv‡bv e¨emvqx eÜzi wbKU †_‡K †ewkifvM Z_¨vw` Rvbvi †Póv Kiv nq| KviY G‡Z LwiÏv‡ii e¨emvwqK mZZv I mybvg m¤ú‡K© wbf©i‡hvM¨ Z_¨ cvIqvi m¤¢vebv _v‡K|


134

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Dc‡ii Av‡jvPbv †_‡K Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB †h, Z_¨vbymÜvb cÎ wZb cÖKv‡ii n‡Z cv‡i: (K) e¨w³MZ †hvM¨Zv AbymÜvb cÎ, (L) MÖvn‡Ki Avw_©K †hvM¨Zv AbymÜvb cÎ Ges (M) `ªe¨ msµvšÍ Z_¨vbymÜvb cÎ|

5.24 Z_¨vbymÜvb c‡Îi bgybv 1| †Zvgvi cÖwZôv‡bi GKRb cÖv³b Kg©Pvwi Aci GKwU cÖwZôv‡b PvKwii Rb¨ Av‡e`b Ki‡Qb Ges Zvi m¤^‡Ü we¯ÍvwiZ Rvbvi Rb¨ †Zvgvi cÖwZôv‡bi bvg D‡jøL K‡i‡Qb| Z`byhvqx †Zvgvi cÖwZôvb Aci cÖwZôvbwUi wbKU †_‡K GKwU AbymÜvb cÎ †c‡q‡Q| Kg©cÖv_©xi AbyK~‡j gZvgZ cÖ`vbc~e©K D³ AbymÜvb c‡Îi GKwU Reve iPbv Ki| mv‡jnxb GÐ †Kvs wmivRMÄ, cvebv Kg©va¨ÿ nxivwSj cÖvB‡fU wjt m`i †ivW, e¸ov|

RyjvB 15, 1992

welqt Be&‡b kv‡qL m¤úwK©Z Z_¨vewj| Rbve, Avcbv‡`i 10/07/90 Zvwi‡L cÎwUi Rb¨ ab¨ev`| Avcbviv D³ c‡Î Avgv‡`i cÖv³b wefvMxq g¨v‡bRvi Rbve Be‡b kv‡qL m¤^‡Ü KwZcq Z_¨ Rvb‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| Avgiv AZ¨šÍ Avb‡›`i mv‡_ Rbve kv‡qK m¤úwK©Z wb‡gœv³ Z_¨vewj Avcbv‡`i m¤§y‡L Zz‡j aiwQ| 1. Rbve kv‡qL cÖvq AvU eQi hveZ Avgv‡`i Drcv`b wefv‡Mi g¨v‡bRvi wQ‡jb| 2. Zvi GB `xN© AvU eQ‡ii Kg©- •bcyY¨, mZZv, Kg©-wbôv, AKcUZv I AgvwqK AvPiY mevB‡K gy» K‡i‡Q| 3. Avgiv KLbI Zvi PvwiwÎK `„pZvq GZUzKz KgwZ †`wLwb| 4. Zvi †hvM¨Zv I wek¦¯ÍZv m¤ú‡K© Avgiv wbtmwÜ»wP‡Ë ej‡Z cvwi †h, wZwb †h †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi Rb¨ GKwU AZzjbxq m¤ú`¯^iƒc| 5. kªwgK-Kg©x cwiPjbvq Zvi ÿgZv we‡klfv‡e cÖksmv‡hvM¨| 6. wZwb KLbI Avgv‡`i cÖwZôv‡bi ¯^v_©-we‡ivax Kv‡R wjß nbwb eis cÖwZôv‡bi DbœwZK‡í wZwb wQ‡jb AvZ¥wb‡ew`Z| m¤cÖwZ Avgv‡`i cÖwZôv‡bi cY¨mvgMÖx evRv‡i Zxeª cÖwZ‡hvwMZvi m¤§yLxb nIqvq Ges GKB mv‡_ KuvPvgv‡ji Zxeª msKU †`Lv †`qvq Avgiv Drcv`b n«vm K‡i w`‡Z eva¨ n‡qwQ| GgZve¯’vq Rbve kv‡q‡Li c‡`vbœwZ cÖvc¨ nIqv m‡Ë¡I Avgiv Zv‡K c‡`vbœwZ w`‡Z cvwiwb| ZvB wZwb Avgv‡`i GLvbKvi PvKwi †Q‡o w`‡q‡Qb| Zv‡K nvwi‡q Avgiv LyeB gg©vnZ n‡jI Avgiv me©všÍKi‡Y Zvi myLx D¾¡j Rxeb Kvgbv Kwi| Avcbv‡`i‡K AveviI ab¨ev` Rvbvw”Q| Avcbvi wek¦¯Í †gvt Avey Zv‡ni g¨v‡bRvi


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5.25 ZvMv`v cÎ (Dunning Letter) eZ©gvb hy‡M av‡i gvj µq-weµq Kiv GKwU ixwZ n‡q `uvwo‡q‡Q| avi Qvov AvaywbK evwYwR¨K hy‡M e¨emvq GK cÖKvi APj ej‡jB P‡j| A_P G av‡ii UvKv Av`vq Kiv A‡bK mgq gnv gykwK‡ji e¨vcvi n‡q `uvovq| cÖvc¨ UvKv Av`v‡qi Rb¨ evi evi ZvMv`v w`‡Z nq| †h c‡Îi gva¨‡g ZvMv`v †`qv nq †mB c·KB ZvMv`v cÎ ejv nq| mvaviYZt ZvMv`v cÎ Pvi cÖKvi nq| A_©vr cÖ_g c‡Î †`bv`vi †Kv‡bv mvov bv w`‡j Zv‡K ¯§iY Kwi‡q Avevi wØZxq cÎ †`qv nq| wØZxq c‡Îi †Kv‡bv DËi bv cvIqv †M‡j AvB‡bi Avkªq †bqvi ûgwK †`wL‡q Z…Zxq cÎ †`qv nq| G‡ZI †`bv`v‡ii †Kv‡bv †ev‡av`q bv n‡j AvB‡bi Avkªq †bqv n‡q‡Q G g‡g© PZz_© I †kl cÎ †`qv nq| myZivs †`Lv hv‡”Q †h, cÖvc¨ UvKv Av`v‡qi Rb¨ †`bv`vi‡K cÖ_‡g cvIbvi K_v ¯§iY Kwi‡q w`‡q I c‡i cÖvc¨ UvKv bv cvIqv †M‡j AvB‡bi ûgwK †`wL‡q cvIbv`vi KZ…©K †`bv`vi‡K wjwLZ cθ‡jv‡K ZvMv`v cÎ (Dunning Letter) ejv nq| cvIbv Av`vq cÎ I ZvMv`v c‡Îi g‡a¨ we‡kl †Kv‡bv cv_©K¨ †bB| mvaviYZ cvIbv Av`vq Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨ we‡µZv †µZv‡K cvIbv cwi‡kv‡ai Rb¨ Aby‡iva K‡i cÖ_‡g †h cÎ †j‡Lb ZvB cvIbv Av`vq cÎ| Avi, cÖ_g Aby‡iv‡ai c‡iI †µZv cvIbv cwi‡kva bv Ki‡j cieZ©x ch©v‡q †µZv‡K evi evi †h ZvMv`v cθ‡jv †jLv nq †m¸‡jvB ZvMv`v cÎ bv‡g cwiwPZ|

5.26 ZvMv`v cÎ wjLvi mgq †hme welq we‡ePbv Kiv DwPZ e¨emv-evwY‡R¨ wjß e¨w³‡`i Anin wewfbœ ai‡bi wewfbœ Pwi‡Îi wewfbœ gvb-gh©v`v m¤úbœ I wewfbœ g‡bve„wËi †jv‡Ki mv‡_ †jb‡`b Ki‡Z nq| ZvB cvIbv UvKv Av`vq Kivi mgq h‡_ó mveavbZvi mv‡_ GMy‡Z nq| Av`vq cÎ ev ZvMv`v cÎ †jLvi mgq cÎ †jLK‡K †Lqvj ivL‡Z n‡e †h, cvIbv Av`vqB Zvi g~j D‡Ïk¨ †µZvi mv‡_ weev‡` Rov‡bv bq| GKwU Kvh©Kix ev mdj Av`vq cÎ GKw`‡K †hgb cvIbv UvKv Av`vq K‡i †Zgwb Ab¨w`‡K MÖvnK‡KI mš‘ó †i‡L Zv AvbyK~j¨ I c„ô‡cvlKZv AÿzYœ iv‡L| GKwU mdj ev ZvMv`v cÎ cÖYq‡bi mgq wb‡gœv³ welqmg~n we‡ePbv Kiv DwPZ| 1. MÖvn‡Ki gvb-gh©v`v we‡ePbvq †i‡L Z`byhvqx fvlv Pqb K‡i cÎ †jLv evÃbxq| A‡bK MÖvnK Ae¯’vcbœ wKsev DËig PwiÎ m¤úbœ nIqv m‡Ë¡I we‡kl †Kv‡bv Kvi‡Y Avw_©K msK‡U wbcwZZ n‡q cvIbv cwi‡kv‡a AcviM n‡q c‡ob| Ggb ai‡bi MÖvnK‡K f`ªfv‡e cÎ wj‡L h_vm¤¢e ZvovZvwo cvIbv cwi‡kv‡ai Rb¨ Aby‡iva Kiv DwPZ| Z‡e hviv cÖK…wZMZfv‡eB m`vme©`v cvIbv cwi‡kv‡a Mwogwm K‡i Zv‡`i‡K f`ªZvwgwkªZ wKQzUv kvwYZ fvlvq cÎ †jLv †h‡Z cv‡i| 2. MÖvnK †h ai‡biB †nvK bv †Kb, KLbI c‡Î Ggb fvlv e¨envi Kiv DwPZ bq hv‡Z Zvi Ans‡ev‡a (ego) AvNvZ jvM‡Z cv‡i| G‡Z cÎ-†cÖi‡Ki e`bvg nIqviB m¤¢vebv _v‡K| 3. KwVb fvlv e¨envi Ki‡jB †h cÎ †jLvi D‡Ïk¨ mdj n‡e GgbwU g‡b Kivi †Kv‡bv KviY †bB| A‡bK mgq †m․Rb¨g~jK gvwR©Z fvlvI †`bv`v‡ii g‡b †iLvcvZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| ZvB ZvMv`v c‡Îi fvlv myiæwPm¤úbœ I gvwR©Z nIqv Avek¨K|


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4. cvIbv Av`vq cÎ ev ZvMv`v c‡Î cvIbv`v‡ii e³‡e¨ †Kv‡bviƒc ب_©KZv _vKv DwPZ bq| c‡Îi e³e¨ n‡e my¯úó| 5. AZ¨šÍ KzkjZvi mv‡_ cÖ‡qvRb‡ev‡a cÖksmv evK¨ e¨envi K‡i mycwiKwíZ Dcv‡q ZvMv`v cÎ wjL‡Z n‡e| 6. AvcÖvY †Póv Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z ¯^vfvweK cš’vq cvIbv Av`vq Kiv hvq| wKš‘ †Kv‡bvfv‡eB †`bv cwi‡kv‡a †µZv‡K cÖ‡ivwPZ Ki‡Z bv cvi‡j me©‡kl cš’v wn‡m‡e c‡Îi fvlvq K‡VviZv Avbqb K‡i AvB‡bi agK w`‡Z n‡e| ¯^vfvweK Ae¯’vq AvB‡bi agK w`‡q ZvMv`v cÎ †jLv DwPZ bq| 7. c‡Îi fvlvq KLbI KcUZvi Avkªq †bqv DwPZ bq| G‡Z cÎ †cÖi‡Ki e¨w³Z¡ Le© nevi AvksKv _v‡K, hv e¨emv‡qi mybv‡gi Dci cÖwZK~j cÖfve we¯Ívi Ki‡Z cv‡i|

5.27 ÿwZc~iY `vwe (The Claims) 1. Awf‡hvM c‡Î A‡bK mgq ÿwZc~iY `vwe Kiv nq| Avevi c„_K c‡ÎI †µZv ÿwZc~iY `vwe Ki‡Z cv‡i| AZGe, †h c‡Î †µZv-we‡µZv ev cwienb KZ…©c‡ÿi wbKU ÿwZc~iY `vwe K‡i, Zv‡K ÿwZc~iY `vwe cÎ e‡j| A‡b‡K G‡K `vwecÎI e‡j| GUv AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cÎ| ZvB we‡kl hZœmnKv‡i GB cÎwU iPbv Ki‡Z nq| †Kbbv Gi Dci `vwe c~iY wbf©i K‡i| †µZv gvj ev UvKvi As‡K ÿwZc~iY `vwe K‡i| ZvB `vwei c‡ÿ h‡_ó cÖgvY I hyw³ _vK‡e| 2. Kvi wbKU ÿwZc~iY `vwe Ki‡Z n‡e 3. Pzw³ Abyhvqx we‡µZv Zvi wbR `vwq‡Z¡ gvj mieivn K‡i| AZGe Zvi MvdjwZ ev ÎæwUi Rb¨ †µZv ÿwZMÖ¯Í n‡j we‡µZv‡KB ÿwZc~iY w`‡Z n‡e| ZvB †µZv Zvi wbKU `vwe †ck Ki‡e| 4. Avevi cwienb KZ…©cÿ A_©vr †ijI‡q, w÷gvi, wegvb ev moK cwienb KZ…©cÿ cY¨ cwien‡bi `vwqZ¡ MÖnY K‡i| AZGe cwienb KZ…©cÿ‡KB †mBRb¨ ÿwZc~iY w`‡Z n‡e| ZvB G‡ÿ‡Î cwienb KZ…©c‡ÿi wbKU ÿwZc~i‡Yi `vwe †ck Ki‡Z n‡e|

5.28 gxgvsmv cÎ (Letter of Adjustment) Awf‡hvM ev ÿwZc~iY `vwec‡Îi Dˇi we‡µZv ev cwienb KZ…©cÿ cÖwZKv‡ii Dcvq wba©viY K‡i ev Dc‡`k †P‡q †h cÎ wj‡L _v‡K Zv‡K gxgvsmv cÎ e‡j| GUv Awf‡hvM I `vwec‡Îi me©‡kl ch©vq| Gi d‡j Awf‡hv‡Mi Aemvb n‡q m¤ú‡K©i DbœwZ N‡U| gxgvsmv c‡Î `vwe c~i‡Yi Avk¦vm, fyjµwU ¯^xKvi ev Ab¨ †h †Kv‡bv cÖKv‡i mgm¨v mgvav‡bi cÖ¯Íve _vK‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e GB c‡Îi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv fyj-ÎæwUi mgvavb K‡i m¤úK© ¯^vfvweK Kiv| ZvB Awf‡hv‡Mi DËi h‡_ó AvšÍwiKZvi mv‡_ ZvovZvwo w`‡Z n‡e| gxgvsmv cÎ iPbvi we‡eP¨ welqmg~n: 1. Awf‡hvM `vwe c‡Îi cÖvwß ¯^xKvi| 2. fyj-ÎæwUi Rb¨ AvšÍwiK `ytL cÖKvk|


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3. fyj-ÎæwUi h_vh_ KviY e¨vL¨v| 4. `vwqZ¡ ¯^xKvi ev A¯^xKvi| 5. fyj ms‡kva‡b mivmwi cÖ¯Íve cÖ`vb ev Awf‡hvMKvixi cÖ¯Íve ûeû MÖnY ev mvgvb¨ i`e`j K‡i MÖn‡Yi AvMÖn| 6. fwel¨‡Z Abyiƒc fyj-ÎæwU NU‡e bv e‡j `„p Avk¦vm cÖ`vb| 7. AZ¨šÍ gvwR©Z I mnvbyf~wZc~Y© fvlv e¨envi| 8. Awf‡hv‡Mi KviY Rvbvevi Rb¨ ab¨vev` Ávcb Ges fwel¨r mn‡hvwMZvi Avk¦vm|

5.29 GKwU wPwVi Rxeb Pµ (The life cycle of a letter) gvbyl Rb¥MÖn‡Yi ci †_‡K g„Zy¨ ch©šÍ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Dci wbf©ikxj| cÖ‡qvRb n‡jB gvbyl Zvi AvcbRb‡K ¯§iY K‡i| GRb¨ `~‡ii †jv‡Ki mv‡_ wb‡Ri Abyf‚wZ wewbgq Kivi Rb¨ Avgiv †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wewfbœ gva¨g¸‡jvi g‡a¨ wPwVi Avkªq wb‡q _vwK| wPwV n‡jv †mB gva¨g hvi mvnv‡h¨ Ac‡ii gy‡LvgywL bv †_‡KI K_v ejv hvq| ZvB Avgiv e¨w³MZ I e¨emvwqK bvbv cÖ‡qvR‡b cÖwZwbqZ AmsL¨ wPwV wj‡L _vwK| GKwU wPwV Ro c`v_© n‡qI Rx‡ei b¨vq gvby‡li cÖwZwbwaZ¡ K‡i e‡j GiI GKwU Rxeb i‡q‡Q| hv PµvKv‡i AvewZ©Z| GKwU wPwV †jLvi Rb¨ KviY D™¢ve‡bi ci †_‡K ïiæ K‡i Aci c‡ÿi wbKU Zv †cÖiY I c‡Îi D‡Ïk¨ AR©b ch©š Í wPwVi Rxeb wewfbœ ch©vq AwZµg K‡i| G‡KB wPwVi Rxeb Pµ e‡j| wb‡æ Gi GKwU wPwVi Rxeb Pµ †iLvwP‡Îi gva¨‡g Zz‡j aiv n‡jv| mywbw`©ó KviY→ cwiKíbv MÖnY → †cÖiK→ DcKiY msMÖn → c×wZ → Lmov cÖYqb c‡Îi bw_KiY  cÖZz¨Ëi  cÖvcK  gva¨g cÎ P‚ovšÍKiY wPÎ: wPwVi Rxeb Pµ wPwVi Rxeb Pµ wb‡æ †iLvwP‡Î ewY©Z GKwU wPwVi Rxeb P‡µi wewfbœ ch©vq Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. mywbw`©ó KviY: gvbyl Zvi g‡bvfve Ac‡ii wbKU cÖKvk Ki‡Z wewfbœ gva¨g e¨envi K‡i _v‡K| DrK…ó gva¨g wn‡m‡e Z_¨, fve ev msev` wewbgq Ki‡Z hLb †m wPwV‡K †e‡Q †bq, ZLbB g~jZ GKwU wPwVi exR A¼zwiZ nq| A_©vr wbw`©ó Kv‡iv nvZ a‡i wPwVi c_ Pjv ïiæ nq| †hgb- gvjvgv‡ji cÖ‡qvRb n‡jB digv‡qk cÎ cÖYq‡bi cÖ‡qvRb †eva K‡ib| 2. cwiKíbv MÖnY: †hvMv‡hvMKvix Zvi cÖ‡qvRb c~i‡Yi Rb¨ G ch©v‡q cÎ †jLvi cwiKíbv MÖnY K‡ib| G‡ÿ‡Î Kvi Kv‡Q, †K, KLb, wKfv‡e cÎwU †jLv n‡e Zv wVK Kiv nq| 3. †cÖiK: †h․_ cwievi ev †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡bi cÿ †_‡K wPwV †jLvi cÖ‡qvRb †eva Ki‡j †K cÎ iPbv Ki‡e Zv w¯’i K‡i wPwV †jLvi `vwqZ¡ †`qv nq| hv‡K G `vwqZ¡ †`qv nq Zv‡K c‡Îi †cÖiK e‡j| Avi `vwqZ¡cÖvß n‡q †cÖiK wPwV †jLvi KvR ïiæ K‡i _v‡K|


138

cÎ †hvMv‡hvM

4. DcKiY msMÖn: G ch©v‡qi wbw`©ó †cÖiK wPwV †jLvi KvR ïiæ Kivi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq DcKiYvw` msMÖn K‡i _v‡Kb| †hgb- KvMR, Kjg, Kvwj, c¨vW, Lvg BZ¨vw` msMÖ‡ni cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z nq| cÖwZôvwbK wPwVcÎ mvaviYZ UvB‡ci gva¨‡g ev Kw¤cDUv‡ii gva¨‡g †jLv n‡q _v‡K| 5. c×wZ: e¨w³MZ wPwVcÎ g‡bi gvaywi wgwk‡q G‡ÿ‡Î †jLv hvq| wKš‘ e¨emvwqK ev cÖvwZôvwbK cÎ wjL‡Z wbw`©ó c×wZ ev ÷vBj AbymiY Ki‡Z nq| G‡ÿ‡Î cÎ †jLvi mvZwU (7) wU ÷vBj cÖPwjZ

6. 7.

8.

9.

10.

_vK‡jI †ewki fvM cÖwZôvb mvaviYZ Full Blocked, Blocked, Semi Blocked c×wZ‡Z wPwVcÎ iPbv K‡i _v‡K| Lmov cÖYqb: cwiKíbv gvwdK cÎ †jLvi Rb¨ G ch©v‡q c‡Îi Lmov cÖYxZ nq| A‡bK mgq wbe©vnxi e¨w³MZ mnKvwi ev Awdm mnKvwi G ai‡bi Lmov cÖ¯‘Z K‡ib| cÎ P‚ovšÍKiY: Lmov cÖ¯‘‡Zi ci cÖ¯‘ZKvix‡K cÎwU NmvgvRv K‡i Zv †_‡K cÎwU‡K P‚ovšÍ iƒc †`qv nq A_ev c‡Îi Lmov cÖ¯‘‡Zi ci cÖ¯‘ZKvix cÎwUi fyjÎæwU _vK‡j Zv ms‡kvab K‡i P‚ovšÍ iƒc †`b| AZtci Zv my›`i n¯Ívÿ‡i wj‡L ev UvBc K‡i cÎ †cÖiK G‡Z ¯^vÿi †`b| Awdwmqvj c‡Îi G ch©v‡q c‡Îi b¤^i D‡jøL Kiv nq| gva¨g: eZ©gvb hy‡M wPwV cvVvevi wewfbœ gva¨g i‡q‡Q| †hgb- evnK gvidZ, WvK wefvM, Kzwiqvi mvwf©m, d¨v·, Av‡iv AZ¨vaywbK wewfbœ `ªæZ gva¨g| G ch©v‡q †cÖiK c‡Îi ¸iæZ¡, mgq I LiP we‡ePbv K‡i wbw`©ó gva¨g wbe©vPb K‡i _v‡K| cÖvcK: wPwVi Rxeb P‡µi G ch©v‡q †cÖwiZ wPwV wbw`©ó gva¨g Øviv mywbw`©ó cÖvc‡Ki wbKU †cu․‡Q _v‡K| Awdwmqvj cÎ cÖvc‡Ki Awd‡m †M‡j Awd‡m cÎ MÖnY †iwR÷ªv‡i Zv wjwce× Kiv nq Ges wewjKiY †iwR÷v‡ii gva¨‡g Zv cÖvc‡Ki wbKU Dc¯’vwcZ nq| cÖvcK wPwV cvevi ci †cÖwiZ Z_¨ m¤ú‡K© wb‡Ri g‡bvfve Rvbv‡Z Pvq| cÖZz¨Ëi: cÖvcK cÎ cvevi ci Zv c‡o AeMZ nq Ges wPwVi e³‡e¨i †cÖÿvc‡U KiYxq wba©viY K‡i| G ch©v‡q cÖvc‡Ki KZ©e¨ n‡jv cÖvß wPwVi Reve †`qv Ab¨_vq cÎ gvwdK Kvh© m¤úv`b Kiv| Giƒc KvR cÖZz¨Ëi wn‡m‡eI MY¨ n‡Z cv‡i|

11. c‡Îi bw_KiY: GKwU wPwV wewfbœ ai‡bi Z‡_¨i bxie mvÿx| ZvB †h‡Kv‡bv mg‡q Gi cÖ‡qvRb n‡Z cv‡i weavq Zv h_vh_fv‡e msiÿ‡Yi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| ZvB c‡Îi bw_KiY Kiv nq hv‡Z cÖ‡qvR‡bi mgq mn‡R Luy‡R cvIqv hvq| Z‡e GKvšÍ cÖ‡qvRb bv n‡j G wPwV dvB‡ji g‡a¨ Ave× †_‡K GK mgq Zvi Dc‡hvwMZv nvivq| ZvB ejv hvq, wPwVi Rxeb P‡µi †kl av‡c Zv msiÿY Kiv nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, gvbyl †hgb Rb¥ MÖn‡Yi ci •kke, •K‡kvi, †h․eb, e„× BZ¨vw` ch©v‡q †cwi‡q †k‡l g„Zz¨eiY K‡i †Zgwb GKwU wPwVi Rxeb Pjvi c_ ïiæ n‡q Dc‡i D‡jøwLZ wewfbœ ch©vq ev ¯Íi Ny‡i msiÿY/bw_KiY bvgK me©‡kl ¯Í‡i †cu․Qv‡j Zvi Rxebvemvb n‡q _v‡K|


mvwPweK we`¨v

139

5.30 evwYwR¨K cÎ I e¨w³MZ c‡Îi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ (Difference between Private & Commercial Letters) evwYwR¨K cÎ: `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi g‡a¨ Kvievwi †jb‡`b m¤ú‡K© †h cÎ Av`vb-cÖ`vb Kiv nq, Zv‡K evwYwR¨K cÎ e‡j| e¨w³MZ cÎ: wbZvšÍ e¨w³MZ ev cvwievwiK D‡Ï‡k¨ hLb `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¨w³i g‡a¨ fve, Z_¨, msev` †h c‡Îi gva¨‡g Av`vb-cÖ`vb Kiv nq, Zv‡K e¨w³MZ cÎ e‡j| wb‡gœ evwYwR¨K cÎ I e¨w³MZ c‡Îi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †`Lv‡bv n‡jv: evwYwR¨K cÎ cv_©‡K¨i e¨w³MZ cÎ welq G cÎ e¯‘wfwËK ev Ae¨w³K I 1. cÖK…wZ G cÎ e¨w³‡Kw›`ªK I e¨w³evPK nq| mve©Rbxb nq| G c‡Îi D‡Ïk¨ e¨emvwqK Z_¨ Av`vb 2. D‡Ïk¨ cÖ`vb Kiv|

G c‡Îi D‡Ïk¨ e¨w³MZ ev cvwievwiK Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`vb Kiv|

GwU GKwU AvbyôvwbK cÎ| ZvB Av‡eM 3. Abyf~wZ Abyf~wZi †Kv‡bv ¯’vb GLv‡b †bB|

G cÎ AbvbyôvwbK ZvB GwU A‡bKUv Av‡eM I Abyf~wZwbf©i|

G c‡Îi welqe¯‘ cÖvmswMK|

4. cÖvmw½KZv G c‡Îi welqe¯‘ cÖvmw½K I AcÖvmw½K n‡Z cv‡i|

Gi AvqZb mxgve×|

5. AvqZb

Gi AvqZb †QvU-eo DfqB n‡Z cv‡i A_©vr mxgvnxb|

G cÎ mvaviYZ 7 c×wZ‡Z †jLv n‡q _v‡K|

7. c×wZ

G c‡Îi †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó c×wZ †bB|

fwel¨r cÖ‡qvR‡b G c‡Îi Abywjwc 8. Abywjwc e¨w³MZ c‡Îi Abywjwc msiÿ‡Yi cÖ‡qvRb nq ivL‡Z nq| bv| G c‡Î wk‡ivbvg _vKv eva¨Zvg~jK|

9. wk‡ivbvg

e¨w³MZ c‡Îi †Kv‡bv wk‡ivbvg _v‡K bv|

G c‡Îi g~j e³‡e¨i fvlv mnR, mij, 10. fvlv my¯úó I mvejxj n‡q _v‡K|

G c‡Î evK¨ AjsKvi I Kvwe¨K fvlv e¨envi, Kiv nq|

G c‡Îi cÖviw¤¢K Awfev`b I mgvwß 11. m‡¤^vab m¤¢vlY †`qv Avek¨K|

G c‡Î G¸‡jvi †Zgb eva¨evaKZv †bB|

evwYwR¨K c‡Î wewfbœ KvMR cÎ mshy³ Kiv nq|

12. mshyw³

G c‡Î †Kv‡bv KvMR-cÎ mshy³ Kiv Ave¨k¨K bq|

G cÎ mvaviYZ UvBc Kiv nq|

13. Aÿi

G cÎ mvaviYZ nv‡Z †jLv nq|

cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, evwYwR¨K cÎ I e¨w³MZ c‡Îi g‡a¨ •ewkó¨mn cv_©K¨ i‡q‡Q| Z‡e GK K_vq ejv hvq, evwYwR¨K c‡Îi †ÿÎ n‡jv we¯Í…Z Ges e¨w³MZ c‡Îi †ÿÎ n‡jv ÿz`|ª


140

cÎ †hvMv‡hvM

5.31 wW. I. †jUvi †Wwg Awdwmqvj wPwV‡K †mwg Awdwmqvj (Avav-`vßwiK) wPwVI ejv hvq| G ai‡bi wPwV‡Z Mf©vsk/ mviMf© I g~j e³e¨ AvswkKfv‡e `vßwiK wPwVc‡Îi g‡Zv nq| cvi¯úwiK Z_¨/ gZvgZ Av`vb-cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ G ai‡bi wPwV †jLv nq| wW. I. †jUv‡i welq D‡jøL Kiv nq bv| hLb AvbyôvwbK †hvMv‡hvM h‡_ó bq †m‡ÿ‡Î ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wel‡q `„wó AvKl©Y Kivi Rb¨ G cÎ †jLv nq| wW. I. †jUvi mvaviYZ mg c` gh©v`vi Kg©KZ©v‡`i gv‡S Av`vb-cÖ`vb nq| wKš‘ we‡kl †ÿ‡Î G ai‡bi wPwV wKQzUv DuPz ev wbPz c`gh©v`vi Kg©KZ©v‡`i mv‡_I Kiv nq| wW. I. †jUv‡ii Avewk¨K welqmg~n: 1. †Kv‡bv †idv‡iÝ dvBj _vK‡e bv 2. cÖvc‡Ki cÖ_g bvg e¨envi Kiv n‡e, †hgb: wcÖq, K 3. †k‡l †cÖi‡Ki cÖ_g bvg _vK‡e, †hgb: wcÖq, Q 4. hw` ejv bv _v‡K Zvn‡j cÖZz¨Ëi cÖ‡qvRb bvB|

wW. I. †jUv‡ii bgybv bvg: c`we:

Rbve..........................

wW.I. bs†Uwj‡dvb bs: MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKvi wefv‡Mi bvg: RvqMvi bvg:

ZvwiL: Avgiv......................... cÖK‡íi Rb¨ GKwU bgybv cÖ¯Íve KiwQ| G e¨vcv‡i GKwU •ZwiK…Z cÖwZwjwc mwbœ‡ewkZ Kiv n‡jv| hZ`ªæZ m¤¢e Avcbvi gZvgZ †c‡j K…ZÁ _vKe| G e¨vcv‡i ÁvZ Kiv hv‡”Q †h, Avgiv me wefv‡M GKwU Lmov weZiY Kivi wPšÍv cwiKíbv K‡iwQ Zv‡`i mywPwšÍZ gZvg‡Zi Rb¨| wb‡e`K bvg: c`we: wefv‡Mi bvg: wVKvbv:

....................


mvwPweK we`¨v

141

5.32 wR. I. †jUvi miKvi †`k I Rbmvavi‡Yi ¯^v‡_© †h cÖÁvcb Rvwi K‡i _v‡K, Zv‡K wR.I. †jUvi e‡j| †hgb- miKvi †NvlYv Ki‡jv †h, †`‡k AvBb k„s•Ljv AebwZi Kvi‡Y 2iv gvP© 2012 Bs †_‡K ciewZ© wb‡`©k bv †`Iqv ch©š Í XvKv kn‡i †Kvb mgv‡ek, wgwQj Kiv hv‡e bv| wb‡`©kµ‡g wW.Gg.wc|

wR. I. †jUv‡ii bgybv MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKvi evwYR¨ gš¿bvjq GdwUG-5 kvLv

www.mincom.gov.bd bs-evg / GdwUG-5 / Bwm †i¸‡jkbBBD / n¨vwÛµvdUm / 2/ (11) 2008 (Ask)/550 welq: BD‡ivwcqvb BDwbqb KZ…©K cÖewZ©Z wRGmwm Gi bZzb iæjm Ae AwiwRb cÖm‡½| m~Î: iDe / Kw¤úDUvi 306/2010/165, ZvwiL: 10/12/2010| Dchy³ welq I m~‡Îi †cÖwÿ‡Z 01 Rvbyqvwi 2011 ZvwiL †_‡K Kvh©µg EU Revised Rules of Origin Gi wbqgvewj mswkøó mKj‡K AewnZ KiYmn G wel‡q GSP Form-A Bmy¨ Kivi cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvh©µg MÖnY Kivi Rb¨ wb‡`©kbvµ‡g Aby‡iva Kiv n‡jv| ¯^vÿwiZ (†gv: kvnveywÏb cv‡Uvqvix) Dc-mwPe †dvb: 7167578 fvBm †Pqvig¨vb ißvwb Dbœqb ey¨‡iv 1, KvIivb evRvi XvKv| bs-iDe / e¯¿/wewea/Kw¤úDUvi / 306/2010/ 172 (9) Abywjwc : 1. mfvcwZ, wewRGgB, 23/1, cvš’c_ wjsK †ivW, KvIivb evRvi, XvKv| 2. †bvwUk †evW©, ißvwb Dbœqb ey¨‡iv, XvKv|

ZvwiL: 22-12-2010


142

cÎ †hvMv‡hvM

cÖkœvewj 1| cÎ wK? 2| c‡Îi cÖKvi‡f` Av‡jvPbv Ki? 3| evwYwR¨K cÎ Kv‡K e‡j? 4| evwYwR¨K c‡Îi •ewkó¨mg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki? 5| evwYwR¨K c‡Îi MyiæZ¡ Av‡jvPbv Ki? 6| wP‡Îi gva¨‡g evwYwR¨K c‡Îi wewfbœ Ask †`LvI| 7| evwYwR¨K c‡Îi wewfbœ As‡ki eY©bv `vI| 8| evwYwR¨K c‡Îi ÷vBj ev c×wZ KqwU I Kx Kx eY©bv Ki? 9| evwYwR¨K c‡Îi cÖKvi‡f` Av‡jvPbv Ki| 10| digv‡qk cÎ Kv‡K e‡j? 11| digv‡qk c‡Îi Avewk¨K welq D‡jøL Ki| 12| digv‡qk c‡Îi bgybv wjL 13| Pvjvb cÎ (Invoice Letter) Kv‡K e‡j? 14| cÖPvi cÎ Kv‡K e‡j? 15| cÖPvi c‡Îi D‡Ïk¨ eY©bv Ki| 16| cÖPvi c‡Îi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv eY©bv Ki| 17| Av`k© cÖPvi c‡Îi MyY ev •ewkó¨mg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| 18| cÖPvi cÎ iPbvi we‡eP¨ welqmg~n wjL| 19| cÖPvi c‡Îi bgybv †`LvI| 20| cwiPq cÎ Kv‡K e‡j? 21| cwiPq c‡Îi we‡eP¨ welqmg~n wjL 22| cwiPq c‡Îi bgybv †`LvI| 23| Z_¨vbymÜvb cÎ Kv‡K e‡j? 24| Z_¨vbymÜvb c‡Îi bgybv †`LvI| 25| ZvMv`v cÎ Kv‡K e‡j? 26| ZvMv`v cÎ †jLvi †hme welq we‡ePbv Kiv DwPZ? 27 | ÿwZc~iY `vwe wK? 28| gxgvsmv cÎ wK? 29| GKwU wPwVi Rxeb Pµ ej‡Z wK †evS? 30| evwYwR¨K cÎ I e¨w³MZ c‡Îi cv_©K¨ †`LvI| 31| wW. I. †jUvi wK? 32| wR. I. †jUvi?


lô Aa¨vq

PvKwi msµvšÍ cÎ JOB RELATED LETTER

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G Aa¨v‡q hv Av‡Q6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11

Av‡e`b cÎ AvnŸvb PvKwii `iLv¯Í AvnŸev‡bi Avek¨Kxq welqmg~n Av‡e`b c‡Îi bgybv PvKwii Av‡e`bc‡Îi we‡eP¨ welq Av‡e`bc‡Îi bgybv cÖ¯‘Z Rxeb-e„ËvšÍ †jLvi wbqg mvÿvrKvi cÎ mvÿvrKvi cÎ iPbvi AZ¨vek¨Kxq welqmg~n mvÿvrKvi c‡Îi •ewkó¨ mvÿvrKvi c‡Îi bgybv wb‡qvM cÎ

6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18

wb‡qvM c‡Îi welqe¯‘ wb‡qvM c‡Îi bgybv †hvM`vb cÎ †hvM`vb c‡Îi †gŠwjK welqmg~n †hvM`vb c‡Îi bgybv KviY `k©v‡bv cÎ KviY `k©v‡bv cÎ iPbvi mgq we‡eP¨ welqmgyn 6.19 KviY `k©v‡bv †bvwU‡mi bgybv 6.20 PvKwi n‡Z Ae¨vnwZ cÎ 6.21 PvKwi n‡Z Ae¨vnwZ c‡Îi bgybv


144

mvwPweK we`¨v

6.1 Av‡e`b cÎ AvnŸvb wewfbœ cÖwZôvb wewfbœ Dcv‡q Kg©Pvwi-Kg©KZ©v wb‡qv‡Mi Rb¨ `iLv¯Í AvnŸvb K‡i _v‡K| †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv cÖwZôvb Zv‡`i wbR¯^ †bvwUk †ev‡W© weÁwß UvswM‡q †`q, Avevi †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv cÖwZôvb msev`c‡Î weÁwßi gva¨‡g PvKwii Rb¨ `iLv¯Í AvnŸvb K‡i _v‡K| Z‡e msev`c‡Î weÁwß cÖPvi K‡i `iLv¯Í AvnŸv‡bi ixwZ AwaKvsk cÖwZôv‡bB cÖPwjZ| PvKwii Rb¨ `iLv¯Í AvnŸv‡bi Rb¨ wb‡¤œv³ welq¸‡jv Rvbv cÖ‡qvRb: 1| c‡`i bvg 2| c‡`i msL¨v 3| c`wU ¯’vqx ev A¯’vqx 4| wKiƒc †hvM¨Zv cÖ‡qvRb 5| AwfÁZvi cÖK…wZ 6| †eZ‡bi †¯‹j 7| d‡Uvi `iKvi n‡j Zvi msL¨v 8| `iLv¯Í Rgv †`qvi †kl ZvwiL 9| †h wVKvbvq `iLv¯Í Rgv w`‡Z n‡e Zvi c~Y©v½ weeiY 10| `iLv¯Í nv‡Z wj‡L w`‡Z n‡e bv-wK wba©vwiZ di‡g Ki‡Z n‡e †m m¤úwK©Z Z_¨ 11| PvKwi wbw`©ó †gqv‡`i Rb¨ wK-bv 12| Rvgvb‡Zi `iKvi n‡j Zvi weeiY 13| Ab¨vb¨ Avbymw½K Z_¨vewj

6.2 PvKwii `iLv¯Í Avnev‡bi Avek¨Kxq welqmg~n: PvKzwi cÖv_©x‡K wbgœwjwLZ Z_¨My‡jvi cÖwZ `„wó †`qv DwPZ| Z_¨¸‡jv n‡jv: (1) AvKl©Yxq Dc¯’vcbv, (2) mnR mij fvlv, (3) e¨vcK A_©‡evaK, (4) RbwcÖq kã, (5) e³‡e¨i ¯úóZv (6) mswÿßZv, (7) cvV‡Ki `„wó AvKl©Y (8) †KŠZ~nj m„wói ÿgZv, (9) gvby‡li e¨w³MZ I mvgvwRK `ÿZv, (10) cvVK cÖPviK I Df‡qi ¯^v_© iÿvi ÿgZv, (11) e¨vcK cÖPvi ÿgZv, (12) †mŠRb¨g~jK I MYZvwš¿K g‡bvfv‡ei cÖKvk, BZ¨vw`| mvaviY weÁwß I †NvlYv cθ‡jv we‡kl KvD‡K m‡¤^vab K‡i †jLv nq bv|

6.3 PvKwii `iLv¯Í Avnev‡bi bgybv MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKvi †Rjv cÖkvm‡Ki Kvh©vjq, †MvcvjMÄ (ms¯’vcb kvLv) ¯§viK bst 05.30.3500.014.11.005.13-227(100) 28 •PÎ 1819 11 GwcÖj 2013


PvKwi msµvš— cÎ

145

wb‡qvM weÁwß f~wg gš¿Yvjq, kvLv-2(gvV cÖkvmb) Gi 25/3/2013 Zvwi‡Li 31.00.0000.046.11.127.12-209 bs Qvoc‡Îi cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Z †MvcvjMÄ †Rjv cÖkvm‡Ki Kvh©vj‡qi ivR¯^ cÖkvm‡bi wbgœewY©Z k~b¨c`mg~n c~i‡Yi Rb¨ RvZxq †eZb †¯‹j 2009 Abyhvqx A¯’vqx wfwˇZ †jvK wb‡qv‡Mi Rb¨ †MvcvjMÄ †Rjvi ¯’vqx evwm›`v‡`i wbKU n‡Z ¯^n‡¯Í wjwLZ I ¯^vÿwiZ `iLv¯Í Avnevb Kivhv‡”Q: µ: bs c‡`i bvg †eZb †¯‹j c‡`i msL¨v wkÿvMZ †hvM¨Zv I Ab¨vb¨ †hvM¨Zv 01 Awdm mnKvix Kvg- 4700-2657-655- 02(`yB)wU †Kv‡bv ¯^xK…Z †evW© †_‡K D”P Kw¤úDUvi Acv‡iUi Bwe-29011-9745 gva¨wgK ev mggv‡bi cvm I Kw¤úDUv‡i evsjvq 20 I Bs‡iwR‡Z 20 k‡ãi MwZ m¤úbœ n‡Z n‡e| 02 mvwU©wd‡KU †ckKvi 4700-265 7-655- 01(GK)wU †Kv‡bv ¯^xK…Z †evW© †_‡K D”P gva¨wgK ev mggv‡bi cvm| Bwe-29011-9745 03 04 05

bvwRi Kvg K¨vwmqvi 4700-265 7-655- 04(Pvi)wU Bwe-29011-9745 mvwU©wd‡KU mnKvix 4700-265 7-655- 01(GK)wU Bwe-29011-9745 †µwWU †PwKs Kvg 4700-265 7-655- 01(GK)wU mvqivZ mnKvix Bwe-29011-9745

†Kv‡bv ¯^xK…Z †evW© †_‡K D”P gva¨wgK ev mggv‡bi cvm| †Kv‡bv ¯^xK…Z †evW© †_‡K D”P gva¨wgK ev mggv‡bi cvm| †Kv‡bv ¯^xK…Z †evW© †_‡K D”P gva¨wgK ev mggv‡bi cvm|

kZ©vewj t 1|

cÖv_©x‡K Aek¨B evsjv‡`‡ki bvMwiK I †MvcvjMÄ †Rjvi ¯’vqx evwm›`v n‡Z n‡e|

2|

Av‡e`bc‡Î (K) cÖv_©xi bvg (L) wcZv/¯^vgxi bvg (M) gvZvi bvg (N) ¯’vqx wVKvbv (O) eZ©gvb wVKvbv (P) RvZxqZv (Q) ag© (R) Rb¥ ZvwiL (S) 09/05/2013 Zvwi‡L eqm (T) •eevwnK Ae¯’v (U) wkÿvMZ †hvM¨Zvi weeiY wb‡gœv³ Q‡K cÖ`vb Ki‡Z n‡e| cixÿvi bvg

wkÿv cÖwZôv‡bi bvg

†evW©/ wek¦we`¨vj‡qi bvg

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DËxY© nIqvi mb

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6.4 Av‡e`b c‡Îi we‡eP¨ welqmg~n PvKwii Rb¨ Av‡e`b cÎ †jLv GKwU RwUj KvR| Av‡e`bc‡Îi gva¨‡g Av‡e`bKvixi `ÿZv I †hvM¨Zvi weeiY wb‡qvMKZ©vi wbKU cwi‡ekb Kiv nq| GB cÎ †jLvi Kjv-†KŠk‡ji ga¨ w`‡q I Av‡e`bKvixi `ÿZv wb‡qvMKZ©vi wbKU my¯úó n‡q D‡V| myw jwLZ Av‡e`bcÎ wbtm‡›`‡n wb‡qvMKvixi mnvbyf~wZ I `„wó AvKl©Y K‡i|


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DËg Av‡e`bcÎ iPbvi Rb¨ wbgœwjwLZ welqmg~n AbymiY Kiv DwPZ: 1. msev‡`i Drm: Av‡e`bKvix‡K Kg©Lvwji msev‡`i Drm m¤ú‡K© eY©bv w`‡Z n‡e| A_©vr wZwb †Kv‡bv Drm n‡Z Kg©Lvwji msev` †c‡q‡Qb Zv D‡jL Ki‡Z n‡e| †Kv‡bv msev`c‡Îi weÁvcb cv‡V Kg©Lvwji msev` †c‡q _vK‡j D³ msev`c‡Îi bvg I weÁvcb cÖKv‡ki ZvwiL D‡jøL Ki‡Z n‡e| 2. c` cÖv_©bv: msev‡`i Drm D‡jøL Kivi ciB Av‡e`bKvix wb‡R‡K mswkó c‡`i cÖv_©xiƒ‡c cÖPvi Ki‡eb| 3. †hvM¨Zvi weeiY: Av‡e`bKvix Zvi wkÿvMZ †hvM¨Zvi weeiY cÖ`vb Ki‡eb| †hvM¨Zvi weeiY w`‡Z wM‡q Zv‡K AZ¨šÍ mZK©Zv Aej¤^b Ki‡Z n‡e, †hb Zv AvZ¥cÖksmvi g‡Zv bv kybvq| 4. Avbymw½K †hvM¨Zv I `ÿZvi weeiY: Av‡e`Kvixi †Kv‡bv we‡kl `ÿZv I AvMÖn _vK‡j Zv Zv‡K Zvi Av‡e`bc‡Î D‡jøL Ki‡Z n‡e| 5. Ab¨vb¨ Z_¨ cÖ`vb: Av‡e`bKvix‡K Av‡e`bc‡Î Zvi RvZxqZv, wVKvbv BZ¨vw` cwi®‹viiƒ‡c D‡jøL Ki‡Z n‡e| 6. AwfÁZvi weeiY: Av‡e`bKvixi PvKwii c~e© AwfÁZv _vK‡j Zv Zv‡K wek`fv‡e eY©bv Ki‡Z n‡e| PvKwi _vKv m‡Ë¡I wK Kvi‡Y wZwb PvKwii Rb¨ Av‡e`b Ki‡Qb Zv Av‡e`bc‡Î my¯úófv‡e D‡jøL Ki‡Z n‡e| Dciš‘ Zv‡K Zvi eZ©gvb wb‡qvMKZ©vi bvg D‡jøL Ki‡Z n‡e| 7. wb‡qvMKZ©vi gva¨‡g Av‡e`b: †Kv‡bv cÖwZôv‡b Kg©iZ Av‡e`Kvix‡K Zvi eZ©gvb wb‡qvMKZ©v A_ev em (Boss)-Gi gva¨‡g Av‡e`b †ck Ki‡Z n‡e| 8. eqm, ¯^v¯’¨ BZ¨vw`: Av‡e`bKvix‡K Av‡e`bc‡Î Zvi eqm, ¯^v¯’¨, KZ©e¨civqYZv, mgqwbôv BZ¨vw` msev` cÖ`vb Ki‡Z n‡e| 9. †eZb D‡jøL: A‡bK mgq wb‡qvMKZ©v weÁvc‡b Av‡e`bKvixi MÖnY‡hvM¨ me©wbgœ †eZb D‡jøL Kivi wb‡`©k †`b| Giƒc †ÿ‡Î m¤¢e n‡j Av‡e`Kvix Av‡e`b c‡Î Zvi MÖnY‡hvM¨ †eZ‡bi cwigvY D‡jøL Ki‡eb| Z‡e Av‡e`bKvix †eZb wba©vi‡Yi fvi wb‡qvMKZ©vi we‡ePbvi Dci †Q‡o w`‡q GB cÖm½ Gwo‡q †h‡Z cv‡ib| 10. Kg©iZ Av‡e`bKvixi PvKwi Qvovi KviY D‡jøL: Av‡e`Kvix eZ©gv‡b †Kv‡bv PvKwi‡Z wb‡qvwRZ _vK‡j Zv‡K Av‡e`bc‡Î PvKwi Qvovi KviY D‡jøL Ki‡Z n‡e| 11. m~Î D‡jøL: A‡bK mgq weÁvcb`vZvi Pvwn`v Abyhvqx Av‡e`bc‡Î Av‡e`bKvix‡K Zvi cwiwPZ GKRb ev `yBRb e¨w³i bvg wVKvbv D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq, hvi ev hv‡`i wbKU wb‡qvMKZ©v cÖ‡qvRb‡ev‡a Av‡e`bKvix m¤ú‡K© †h †Kv‡bv msev` wb‡Z cv‡ib| 12. †µvo cÎvw` t Av‡e`bKvix‡K c‡Î Zvi wkÿvMZ †hvM¨Zvi mvwU©wd‡KUmg~‡ni mZ¨vwqZ Abywjwc, cÖksmv cÎvw` Ges Qwe mshy³ K‡i w`‡Z nq, Ges Zv Av‡e`b c‡Î D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq | Dciš‘, Av‡e`cÎ iPbvq Av‡e`bKvix‡K c‡Îi gvb m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb _vK‡Z n‡e| Av‡e`b msµvšÍ cÖ‡Z¨KwU msev` c„_K c„_K Aby‡”Q‡` wjwce× Ki‡Z n‡e, c‡Î Av‡e`bKvixi webq I †mŠRb¨‡eva dz‡U DV‡e, GUv fyj-ÎæwU gy³ n‡Z n‡e Ges wba©vwiZ Avw½K ev KvVv‡gv Abymv‡i iwPZ n‡Z n‡e|


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6.5 Av‡e`b c‡Îi bgybv mvaviY e¨e¯’vcK RbZv e¨vsK, cÖavb Kvh©vjq, gwZwSj evwYwR¨K GjvKv XvKv-1000|

25 gvP©, 2007

welq: wkÿvbwem wnmv‡e kvLv e¨e¯’vcK c‡` wb‡qv‡Mi Av‡e`b| Rbve, MZ 12B gvP©, 2009 Zvwi‡Li, Ô•`wbK evsjvÕ cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ weÁwß Abyhvqx Rvb‡Z cvijvg †h, RbZv e¨vsK fwel¨‡Z kvLv e¨e¯’vcK wn‡m‡e wb‡qv‡Mi Rb¨ wKQz msL¨K Drmvnx I m¤¢vebvgq mœvZK hyeK‡K wkÿvbwem wn‡m‡e wbe©vwPZ Ki‡Z gb¯’ K‡i‡Qb| Avwg D³ c`¸‡jvi GKwU‡Z wbe©vwPZ nevi Rb¨ we‡klfv‡e AvMÖnx| D³ c‡`i †hvM¨Zv we‡ePbvi Rb¨ wb‡gœ Avgvi hveZxq Z_¨vewj I weeiYx †ck Kijvgt 1. bvg t KvRx †gvt Ave`yj gwZb 2. wcZvi bvg t KvRx †gvt wmivR Djøv 3. Rb¥ ZvwiL t 1jv Ryb 1959, ¯’vb: Pi‡gvnbv, jÿxcyi| 4. RvZxqZv t Rb¥MZfv‡e evsjv‡`kx| 5. wVKvbv t (K) eZ©gvb: B-5/2, jvjgvwUqv, XvKv-1207| (L) ¯’vqx : MÖvg+WvKNit ivLvwjqv, Dc‡Rjvt ivqcyi, †Rjvt jÿxcyi| 6. fvlvÁvb t evsjv I Bs‡iwR wjL‡Z, co‡Z I ej‡Z cvwi Ges Aviwe co‡Z cvwi| 7. mL t e³…Zv Kiv, weZK©, dzUej †Ljv, eB cov, cÖeÜ iPbv BZ¨vw`| 8. wkÿvMZ †hvM¨Zvi weeiYt cixÿvi bvg †evW©/ wek¦we`¨vj‡qi bvg cv‡mi mb cÖvß wefvM/ †kªwY gšÍe¨ gva¨wgK (evwYR¨) Kzwgjøv †evW© 1974 cÖ_g wefvM wnmve weÁvb 85% b¤^i D”P gva¨wgK (evwYR¨) Kzwgjøv †evW© 1976 cÖ_g wefvM we.Kg. (m¤§vb) e¨e¯’vcbv XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq 1980 cÖ_g †kªwY 5g ¯’vb 9. we‡kl cÖwkÿY t XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi evwYR¨ Abyl‡`i Wxb W. †gvt nvwee Djøvni Aax‡b Ôevsjv‡`‡k e¨vsK e¨e¯’vi `ÿZv wePviÕ bvgK cÖK‡í `xN© (6) gvm wkÿvbwem wn‡m‡e KvR K‡iwQ| 10. Rxe‡bi jÿ¨ t e¨vswKs †ckvq wb‡R‡K cÖwZwôZ Kiv| 11. Z_¨vbymÜvb m~Î t (1) W. †gvt nvwee Djøvn, Wxb, evwYR¨ Abyl`, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv| (2) Rbve †gvt †gv¯ÍvwdRyi ingvb, evwYR¨ e¨vsK, XvKv-1207| Avwg Avkv Kwi, Dc‡iv³ Z_¨¸‡jv mnvbyf~wZi mv‡_ wePvi-we‡ePbv‡šÍ Avcbvi e¨vs‡Ki GKRb wkÿvbwem wn‡m‡e wb‡qvM K‡i e¨vswKs †ÿ‡Î Avgv‡K cÖwZwôZ I †hvM¨Zv cÖgv‡Y mvnvh¨ Ki‡eb|


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Avcbvi wek¦¯—, KvRx †gvt Ave`yj gwZb

6.6 Rxeb-e„ËvšÍ †jLvi wbqg 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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cÖvß wefvM/ †kªwY

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wØZxq wefvM

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wØZxq wefvM

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XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq 1980 wØZxq †kªwY 59% b¤^i evsjv‡`k e¨e¯’vcbv Dbœqb †K‡›`ª bq gv‡mi KviLvbv I Kg©x e¨e¯’vcbvi Dci cÖwkÿY MÖnY KiwQ| 8. eZ©gv‡b Kg©iZ cÖwZôv‡bi bvgt Avwg 1981 mvj n‡Z nvwg` Ki‡cv‡ik‡b mnKvix e¨e¯’vcK wn‡m‡e KvR K‡iwQ| 9. Ab¨Î PvKwi †LuvRvi KviYt mxwgZ myweavi Kvi‡Y Avgvi eZ©gvb wb‡qvMKZ©v Avgv‡K Dchy³ c‡` DbœxZ Ki‡Z cvi‡Qb bv| ZvB Avwg Ab¨Î PvKwii †LuvR KiwQ| 10. AwfÁZv t mnKvix e¨e¯’vcK wn‡m‡e 9 erm‡ii AwfÁZv| 11. cÖvw_©Z †eZb t Av‡jvPbv mv‡cÿ| eZ©gv‡b AvevwmK I hvZvqvZ fvov ev‡` 4,500/- UvKv †eZb cvw”Q| 12. fvlv Ávb t evsjv, Bs‡iwR I D`y© ej‡Z, wjL‡Z I co‡Z cvwi| Aviwe ej‡Z I co‡Z cvwi| 13. cwiPq m~Î t (K) Rbve gbmyi Avn‡g` †Pqvig¨vb, nvwg` Ki‡cv‡ikb, 25, Avmv` †MBU, XvKv-1207| (L) Rbve jwZdzi ingvb, cÖavb e¨e¯’vcK, AvKei MÖæc Ae BÐvw÷ªR, †ZRMuvI, XvKv-1215| 14. wVKvbv t (K) eZ©gvb: 38, evsjvevRvi, XvKv-1100 (L) ¯’vqx : 155 Avmv`MÄ, PÆMÖvg-4000| ¯^vÿi†Zvdv¾j †nv‡mb


150

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6.7 mvÿvrKvi cÎ (Interview Letter) PvKwii c` †P‡q `iLv¯Í Kivi ci PvKwi`vZv PvKwi cÖv_©x‡K P~ovšÍfv‡e wbe©vwPZ Kivi Av‡M wbe©vPwb cixÿvi Rb¨ A_ev PvKwii kZ©vw` m¤^‡Ü Avjvc-Av‡jvPbvi Rb¨ Av‡e`bKvix‡K †`Lv Ki‡Z e‡j †h cÎ wj‡L _v‡K Zv‡K mvÿrKvi cÎ e‡j| mvÿvrKvi c‡Î PvKwi`vZv PvKwi cÖv_©x‡K wbw`©ó Zvwi‡L Ges wba©vwiZ mg‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq KvMR cÎ wb‡q †`Lv Ki‡Z Aby‡iva K‡i| PvKwi`vZv mKj Av‡e`Kvix‡K A_ev wbe©vwPZ K‡qKRb‡K ev GKRb‡KI mvÿvrKv‡ii Rb¨ WvK‡Z cv‡i|

6.8 mvÿvrKvi cÎ iPbvi AZ¨vek¨Kxq welqmg~n K. Av‡e`bKvixi eZ©gvb wVKvbv D‡jøL Ki‡Z n‡e| c‡Îi Af¨šÍ‡i I Lv‡gi Dc‡i cÖvc‡Ki wVKvbv GKB iKg nIqv DwPZ| L. cÎ †cÖi‡Yi ZvwiL cwi®‹vi K‡i wjL‡Z n‡e| M. mvÿvrKv‡ii w`b-ZvwiL I mgq my¯úófv‡e D‡jøL Ki‡Z n‡e| ZvwiL †jLvi ci Zvwi‡Li mvg‡b eª¨v‡K‡U w`‡bi bvg D‡jøL Ki‡j fv‡jv nq| †hgb: 20†k RyjvB 1985 (†mvgevi) A_ev 20†k RyjvB, 1985 †ivR †mvgevi| N. †h ¯’v‡b mvÿvrKvi AbywôZ n‡e †mB ¯’v‡bi wVKvbv we¯ÍvwiZfv‡e †jLv evÃbxq| bZzb cvov-Muv n‡Z kn‡i bZzb AvMZ PvKwi cÖv_©xi c‡ÿ wVKvbv Luy‡R †ei Kiv gyw®‹j n‡q co‡Z cv‡i| O. Av‡e`bKvixi wkÿvMZ I Ab¨vb¨ †hvM¨Zvi mg_©‡b g~j mvwU©wd‡KU cÖ`k©b Ki‡Z n‡e wK-bv, †Kv‡bviƒc KvMRcÎ ev d‡Uv Rgv w`‡Z n‡e wK-bv mvÿvrKvi c‡Î cwi®‹vifv‡e †jLv DwPZ| P. Av‡e`bKvix‡K mvÿvrKv‡i nvwRi nIqvi Rb¨ wU.G. ev wW.G. †`qv n‡e wK-bv ZvÕ c‡Î D‡jøL Kiv DwPZ| [Avgv‡`i †`‡ki †cv÷vj e¨e¯’v †Zgb `ÿ bq e‡j Ges MÖvgv‡j †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v AbybœZ e‡j mvÿvrKvi cÎ Kgc‡ÿ 15/20 w`b Av‡M cvwV‡q †`qv DwPZ|]

6.9 mvÿvrKvi c‡Îi •ewkó¨ 1. fvlv: mvÿvrKvi c‡Îi fvlv mnR‡eva¨ n‡e| cÖvc‡Ki c‡ÿ eyS‡Z Amyweav n‡e ev n‡Z cv‡i Ggb †Kv‡bv †UKwbK¨vj kã ev evK¨ mvÿvrKvi c‡Î e¨envi Kiv DwPZ bq| 2. D‡Ïk¨: mvÿvrKvi cÎ Bmy¨ Kivi D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q †Kv‡bv wba©vwiZ w`‡b I mg‡q Av‡e`bKvix‡K wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b mvÿvr Kivi Rb¨ Aby‡iva Rvbv‡bv| Av‡e`bKvixi †hvM¨Zv hvPvB Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨B g~jZ mvÿvrKvi MÖn‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv n‡q _v‡K| 3. cÖ_g †hvMv‡hvM: mvÿvrKvi c‡Îi gva¨‡g PvKwi cÖv_©xi mv‡_ PvKwi`vZv cÖwZôv‡bi cÖ_g †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vwcZ nq| 4. cÖvwZôvwbK wb‡`©k: PvKwii Av‡e`bKvix mvÿvrKvi c‡Îi gva¨‡g PvKwi`vZv cÖwZôv‡bi wbKU n‡Z KwZcq cÖvwZôvwbK wb‡`©k jvf K‡ib| PvKwi †c‡Z PvB‡j Zv‡K Aek¨B G wb‡`©k¸‡jv cvjb Ki‡Z nq| 5. cÖv_wgK aviYv: mvÿvrKvi c‡Îi fvlv, Dc¯’vcbv f½x Ges Avbymw½K Ab¨vb¨ welq n‡ZB PvKwicÖv_©x Zvi fwel¨r cÖwZôvb m¤ú‡K© cÖv_wgK aviYv jvf Ki‡Z cv‡i|


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6.10 mvÿvrKvi c‡Îi bgybv evsjv‡`k K…wl e¨vs‡K M‡elYv Awdmvi c‡` Av‡e`‡bi †cÖwÿ‡Z mvÿvrKvi cÎ| evsjv‡`k K…wl e¨vsK cÖavb Kvh©vjq gwZwSj evwYwR¨K GjvKv, XvKv| 15B RyjvB, 2008 nvivab PµeZ©x MÖvg: KvkxbMi, †cv: KvkxbMi, wRjv: Kzwgjøv| welq: M‡elYv Awdmvi c‡`i Rb¨ mvÿvrKvi| Rbve/gnvkq, Avcbvi 1jv †g, 2008 m‡bi Av‡e`b c‡Îi cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Z Avcbv‡K Rvbv‡bv hv‡”Q †h, AvMvwg 10B AvM÷, 2008 ZvwiL †ivR kwbevi mKvj 10Uvq evsjv‡`k K…wl e¨vsK fe‡bi PZz_© Zjvq wbgœ ¯^vÿiKvixi Awdm K‡ÿ M‡elYv Awdmvi c‡`i Rb¨ Av‡e`bKvix‡`i mvÿvrKvi MÖnY Kiv n‡e| Avcbv‡K D³ Zvwi‡L h_vmg‡q Dcw¯’Z nevi Rb¨ Aby‡iva Kiv hv‡”Q| mvÿvrKv‡ii mgq Avcbv‡K mvwU©wd‡KU I gvK©wm‡Ui g~j Kwcmg~n †`Lv‡Z n‡e| D‡jøL¨ †h, mvÿvrKv‡ii Rb¨ †Kv‡bv cÖKvi fvZv †`qv n‡e bv| ab¨ev`v‡šÍAvcbvi wek¦¯Í Dc-gnve¨e¯’vcK cÖkvmb wefvM

6.11 wb‡qvM cÎ PvKwi cÖv_©x‡K PvKwi‡Z †hvM`vb Kivi cÖ¯Íve w`‡q wb‡qvMKvix †h cÎ †j‡L Zv‡K wb‡qvM cÎ e‡j| A_©vr PvKwi cÖv_©x‡K wjwLZfv‡e PvKwi‡Z †hvM`v‡bi cÖ¯Íve‡KB wb‡qvM cÎ e‡j| GUv PvKwicÖv_©xi cÖ¯Íve cÖ`v‡bi ci PvKwi`vZvi cÖ¯Íve MÖnY‡K eySvq| ZvB G‡K PvKwi`vZv I PvKwi cÖv_©xi g‡a¨ ci¯úi Pzw³ wn‡m‡e MY¨ Kiv nq| wb‡qvM cÎ PvKwii Pzw³i P~ovšÍ `wjj| †Kbbv gvwjK I Kg©Pvwi‡`i g‡a¨ kªg µq-weµ‡qi D‡Ï‡k¨ ci¯úi Avjvc-Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g GB Pzw³i kZ©vewj wba©viY Kiv nq| ZvB AZ¨šÍ mveavbZvi mv‡_ PvKwii hveZxq kZ©vewj wb‡qvM c‡Î D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq|


152

mvwPweK we`¨v

6.12 wb‡qvM c‡Îi welqe¯‘ wb‡qvM cÎ †h‡nZz GKwU Pzw³| myZivs wb‡qvM c‡Î wb‡gœi welqe¯‘¸‡jv _vK‡e: 1. †h c‡` wb‡qvM Kiv n‡e Zvi bvg| 2. †gvU †eZb, †eZb †¯‹j, evrmwiK e„w× Ges Ab¨vb¨ fvZv BZ¨vw` m¤^‡Ü my ¯úó eY©bv| 3. PvKwiwU ¯’vqx A_ev A¯’vqx| A_©vr c`wUi cÖK…wZ| 4. PvKwii †gqv`Kvj Ges GZ` msµvšÍ e¨vL¨v-we‡kølY| 5. RvgvbZ w`‡Z n‡j Zvi cÖK…wZ I cwigvY| 6. Kv‡R †hvM`v‡bi ZvwiL| 7. c`wUi `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨| 8. Kv‡Ri cÖK…wZ BZ¨vw`| GQvov Avi †Kv‡bv kZ© _vK‡j ZviI D‡jøL wb‡qvM c‡Î _vK‡Z n‡e| †Kbbv AvBbm¤§Z `wjj wn‡m‡e Av`vj‡Z wb‡qvM cÎ Abyhvqx wm×všÍ MÖnY Kiv nq|

6.13 wb‡qvM c‡Îi bgybv GKwU miKvix wb‡qvM c‡Îi bgybv (KvíwbK)| gva¨wgK I D”P wkÿv cwi`ßi wkÿvfeb, XvKv-1000| 15B gvP©, 2008 m~Î bs 91 (wb‡qvM) evsjv‡`k cvewjK mvwf©m Kwgk‡bi mycvwik Abyhvqx Rbve †gvt Aveyj Kvjvg †PŠayix‡K A¯’vqx wfwˇZ XvKv K‡j‡Ri e¨e¯’vcbv wefv‡Mi cÖfvlK wn‡m‡e wbhy³ Kiv n‡jv| cybiv‡`k bv †`qv ch©šÍ GB Av‡`k ejer _vK‡e|

¯§viK bs 91/2 (wb‡qvM)

¯^vÿignvcwiPvjK ZvwiLt XvKv 15B gvP© 2008

Abywjwc †cÖiY: 1. Rbve †gvt Aveyj Kvjvg †PŠayix 50, KjvevMvb, XvKv| 2. Aa¨ÿ XvKv K‡jR, XvKv| 3. gnvwnmveiÿK (wkÿv), XvKv| 4. ZË¡veavqK, miKvwi †cÖm, †ZRMuvI cieZ©x †M‡R‡U cÖKv‡ki Rb¨| 5. MvW© dvBj| ¯^vÿiDc-cwiPvjK


PvKwi msµvš— cÎ

153

6.14 †hvM`vb cÎ wb‡qvMc‡Îi †cÖwÿ‡Z PvKwicÖv_©x KZ…©K kZ©vewj MÖnY mv‡c‡ÿ Kv‡R †hvM`v‡bi msev` †h c‡Îi gva¨‡g PvKwi`vZv‡K AewnZ Kiv‡bv nq ZvB †hvM`vb cÎ| PvKwi Av‡e`bKvix wb‡qvMcÎ nv‡Z †c‡q Gi hveZxq kZ©vewj we‡ePbv K‡i †`Lvi ci hw` Zvi wbKU MÖnY‡hvM¨ g‡b nq Z‡eB †m PvKwi‡Z †hvM`v‡bi wm×všÍ K‡i _v‡K| PvKwi‡Z †hvM`v‡bi †ÿ‡Î †m Zvi wb‡qvM KZ…©cÿ‡K wjwLZfv‡e welqwU AewnZ K‡i| Giƒc AewnZ Kivi Rb¨ wjwLZ c·KB †hvM`vb cÎ ejv nq| wb‡qvM cÎ †cÖi‡Yi gva¨‡g PvKwi`vZv †h cÖ¯Íve †`q, Kv‡R †hvM`v‡bi ev †hvM`vb cÎ `vwL‡ji gva¨‡g Av‡e`bKvix †m cÖ¯Ív‡e m¤§wZ Ávcb K‡i| Giƒcfv‡e cÖ¯Íve Ges cÖ¯Ív‡e m¤§wZ Ávc‡bi gva¨‡g `yÕc‡ÿi g‡a¨ Pzw³ m¤úvw`Z nq| †hvM`vb cÎ `vwL‡ji gva¨‡g PvKwi`vZv Ges PvKwi cÖv_©xi g‡a¨ AvBbMZ m¤úK© cÖwZwôZ n‡q _v‡K|

6.15 †hvM`vb c‡Îi †gŠwjK welq PvKwi‡Z †hvM`v‡bi mgq wjwLZ †hvM`vb cÎ iPbvi mgq wbgœwjwLZ welq¸‡jv jÿ¨ ivL‡Z nq: 1. cÖwZôv‡bi bvg: wb‡qvMKvix cÖwZôv‡bi bvg I wVKvbv †hvM`vb c‡Îi wk‡ivbv‡gB D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq| Z`ycwi †h e¨w³i wbKU Kv‡R †hvM`v‡bi Rb¨ wb‡`©k †`qv n‡q‡Q Zvi c`wei D‡jøL Avek¨K| 2. wb‡qvMc‡Îi m~Î: †h wb‡qvMc‡Îi wfwˇZ PvKwicÖv_©x Kv‡R †hvM`vb Ki‡Qb Zvi m~Î b¤^i I ZvwiL D‡jøL Kiv Avek¨K| 3. c‡`i bvg: cÖwZôv‡bi †Kv‡bv c‡` †hvM`vb Kiv n‡”Q ZviI D‡jøL cÖ‡qvRb| 4. †hvM`v‡bi B”Qv: †hvM`vb c‡Î Aek¨B PvKwi‡Z †hvM †`evi B”Qv e¨³ Ki‡Z n‡e| 5. ZvwiL I mgq: PvKwi‡Z †hvM`v‡bi ZvwiL I mgq D‡jøL AZ¨šÍ Riæwi| 6. ¯^vÿi: †hvM`vb c‡Î Aek¨B Av‡e`bKvixi ¯^vÿi _vK‡e|

6.16 †hvM`vb c‡Îi bgybv evsjv‡`k e¨vs‡K mnKvix cwiPvjK wn‡m‡e †hvM`vb cÎ| gnve¨e¯’vcK, cv‡m©vbvj wefvM, evsjv‡`k e¨vsK, cÖavb Kvh©vjq, XvKv| welq: Kv‡R †hvM`vb cÎ| Rbve, Avcbvi weMZ 22 Ryb, 2009 Zvwi‡L wcwW (wc.Gm.1) 22/G-85/321bs wb‡qvM c‡Îi †cÖwÿ‡Z Avwg Avcbvi e¨vs‡K mnKvix cwiPvjK c‡` †hvM`vb KiwQ| Avgvi Kv‡R †hvM`v‡bi ZvwiL n‡”Q AvR 28 Ryb, 2009, mKvj 9Uv| AbyMÖnc~e©K Avgvi Kv‡R †hvM`vb cÎwU MÖnY Ki‡j evwaZ n‡ev| Avcbvi wek¦¯Í, ¯^vÿi ZvwiL: (kvnbvR cvifxb) 28 Ryb, 1986 Rwgi gyÝx †jb, gqgbwmsn|


154

mvwPweK we`¨v

6.17 KviY `k©v‡bv cÎ cÖwZôv‡b Kg©Kv‡j fyjÎæwUi m¤¢vebv _vKvUv wewPÎ bq| †`vl-My‡Yi mgvnv‡iB gvbyl| Avi Kg©Rxexiv mgv‡RiB GKwU Ask n‡j Zv‡`i c‡ÿI fyj-åvwšÍ nIqv ¯^vfvweK| Kg©Rxe‡b KvR Kg©, †jb-†`b Kivi mgq AvPviAvPi‡Y fyjÎæwU n‡Z cv‡i| mg‡qi KvR mg‡q bv Kiv, Bbdi‡gk‡b M¨vc _vKvi Kvi‡Y fyj eySv-eywSi m„wó nq| G mg¯Í fyj-ÎæwUi wbimbK‡í †h cÎ †ck Kiv nq Zv‡K KviY `k©v‡bv cÎ e‡j| G c‡Îi wecix‡Z Awfhy³ e¨w³ Zvi hyw³ ev Reve Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z cv‡i| d‡j †h †Kv‡bv mgm¨vi ev fyj †evSv-eywSi myôz mgvavb Kiv m¤¢e|

6.18 KviY `k©v‡bv cÎ iPbvi we‡eP¨ welqmgyn: KviY `k©v‡bv cÎ iPbv Kivi mgq wb‡gœv³ welq¸‡jvi cÖwZ mZK© `„wó ivLv DwPZt 1. AbvµgYvZ¥K fvlv: KviY `k©v‡bv c‡Îi fvlv AvµgYvZ¥K nIqv DwPZ bq| †Kbbv B”Qv K‡i Acicÿ fyj K‡iwb| ZvB †mvRv I my›`i fvlvq ÿwZi e¨vcviUv Aci cÿ‡K eywS‡q ejv DwPZ| Acic‡ÿi fy‡ji `iæb wb‡Ri nq‡Zv A‡bK ÿwZ n‡Z cv‡i| ZeyI f`ª fvlv e¨envi K‡iB KviY `k©v‡bv cÎ iPbv Kiv evÃbxq| G‡Z DcKvi nIqvi m¤¢vebvB †ewk _v‡K| 2. ÿwZi cwigvY: c‡Î cÖvc‡Ki fy‡ji `iæb †cÖi‡Ki Kx cwigvY ÿwZ n‡q‡Q Zvi m¤ú~Y© weeiY _vKv DwPZ| G cÖm‡½ †cÖi‡Ki Amyweavi K_vI D‡jøL Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| ÿwZi cwigvY eY©bv Kivi mgq ïay UvKvi K_v D‡jøL Ki‡jB P‡j bv| mv‡_ mv‡_ †Kv‡bv cÖKvi `ªe¨ wKiƒc m¤¢ve¨ Kvi‡Y `viæY ÿwZ n‡q‡Q, ZvI D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq| cÖ_‡g ÿwZMÖ¯Í `ª‡e¨i cwigvY eY©bv K‡i c‡i `ªe¨ Abycv‡Z (itemwise) g~‡j¨i eY©bv Kiv DwPZ| 3. Awf‡hvM gvayh©: Awf‡hvM cÎ Ggbfv‡e †jLv DwPZ bq hv‡Z cÖvcK eyS‡Z cv‡i †h, Zv‡K ÿgv cÖv_©bvi Rb¨ Avnevb Rvbv‡bv n‡q‡Q| Ggbfv‡e cÎ gymvwe`v Kiv DwPZ hv‡Z cÖvc‡Ki g‡b Kivi KviY _v‡K †h, cÎ †cÖiK A‡bK Amyweavi m¤§yLxb n‡q MZ¨šÍi bv †`‡L Awf‡hvM Ki‡Z eva¨ n‡q‡Qb| Giƒc cÎ AwaK dj`vqK nq Ges cÎ †jLvi D‡Ïk¨I mvdj¨gwÐZ nq| 4. cÖwZKvi: f`ªZvi mv‡_ cÖwZKv‡ii D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq| f`ªfv‡e cÖwZKv‡ii `vwe Ki‡j Ges cÖvcK Zv‡Z KY©cvZ bv Ki‡j cieZ©x ch©v‡q Aek¨ ÿwZcyiY †P‡q bgªZv gvLv‡bv wKQzUv Kov fvlv e¨envi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| cÖwZwôZ cÖwZôvbmg~n mvaviYZt wb‡R‡`i mybvg AUzU ivLvi Rb¨ wb‡R‡`i Mi‡RB ZvovZvwo Awf‡hv‡Mi cÖwZiÿv K‡i _v‡K| 5. `y‡f©v‡Mi eY©bv: cÖvc‡Ki cÖZz¨Ëi ev cÖwZKg© Zivwš^Z Kivi Rb¨ Zvi fy‡ji `iæb cÎ †jLK‡K †h Amyweav I `y‡f©v‡Mi wkKvi n‡Z n‡q‡Q Zv h_vh_fv‡e D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq| wbK…ógv‡bi gvj cvVv‡bvi `iæb A_ev fv‡jv c¨vwKs bv Kivq PjvPjKv‡j gvj webó nIqvi `iæb wKsev GK iKg gv‡ji ¯’‡j Ab¨ cÖKvi gvj †cÖiY Kivi `iæb A‡bK †ÿ‡Î digv‡qkKvix‡K wb‡Ri MÖvnK‡`i Kv‡QI wei³‡eva Ki‡Z nq| 6. †µva I wfwËnxbZv cwinvi: c‡Î weiw³ ev ivM cÖKvk bv K‡i eis mZ¨ NUbv eY©bv Kiv DwPZ| Awf‡hvM †hb AwZiwÄZ bv nq †mw`‡K †Lqvj ivL‡Z n‡e| †cÖiK B”Qv K‡i fyj K‡i‡Q wKsev RvwjqvwZ K‡i‡Q Giƒc †`vlviƒc Kiv f`ªR‡bvwPZ bq| ÿwZi cwigvY †ewk n‡j mvaviYZ we‡µZv ev †cÖiK Zv Z`šÍ Ki‡Z cv‡ib| ZvB NUbvi wfwËnxbZv me©`vB cwiZ¨vR¨|


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7. m¤ú~Y©Zv: cÎ ¯^qs¯ú~Y© nIqv DwPZ| Kxfv‡e `vwei cÖwZKvi Kiv hvq †m wel‡q ب_©KZvi AeKvk bv †i‡L cwi®‹vi Bw½Z _vKv evÃbxq| Kxfv‡e ÿwZc~iY Ki‡j †µZv mš‘ó n‡e Zv wZwb Awf‡hvM c‡Î cwi®‹vi K‡i D‡jøL Ki‡Z cv‡ib| wZwb hw` g~j¨ †diZ Pv‡nb Zv D‡jøL Ki‡eb| 8. fwel¨‡Zi e¨vcv‡i m‡PZbZv: cÖ‡Îi †k‡l fwel¨‡Z hv‡Z Giƒc NUbvi m„wó bq nq †m e¨vcv‡i cÎ cÖvcK‡K mZK©Zvg~jK e¨e¯’v MÖn‡Yi Aby‡iva Rvbv‡bv †h‡Z cv‡i| Awf‡hvM c‡Îi DËiI mywe‡ePbvi mv‡_ gymvwe`v Kiv DwPZ| cÖ_‡g Awf‡hvM cÎwU c‡o NUbvi ev¯ÍeZv wbiƒc‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ h_vh_ Z`šÍ K‡i †m Abyhvqx DËi wjL‡Z nq| Awf‡hvM webv hvPvB-G D‡o †d‡j †`qv DwPZ bq, wKsev A‡b¨i Kuv‡aI Pvcv‡bv DwPZ bq| Awf‡hvM c‡Î D‡jøwLZ NUbvi Rb¨ AvšÍwiK `ytL cÖKvk K‡i Ges Gi my¯úó e¨vL¨v w`‡q fwel¨‡Z Giƒc fy‡ji cybive„wË NU‡e bv e‡j wbðqZv †`qv DwPZ| NUbvi ¸iæZ¡ Abymv‡i ÿwZ c~i‡Yi `vwe †g‡b †bqvI eyw×gv‡bi KvR| G‡Z m¤ú‡K© dvUj aivi m¤¢vebv _v‡K bv|

6.19 KviY `k©v‡bv †bvwU‡mi bgybv Ck¦i`x ißvbx cÖwµqvKiY GjvKv Ck¦i`x Bwc‡RW †gwW‡Kj †m›Uvi Uªvw÷ †evW© cvK&wk, cvebv| m~Î bs- 03.381.018.00.00.001.2012-

ZvwiLt 11-03-2013

welq t KviY `k©v‡bv †bvwUk| †h‡nZz, Avcwb Rbve, †gvt Avgvb Djøvn, Gg Gj Gm Gm, Ck¦i`x Bwc‡RW, †gwW‡Kj †m›Uvi, cvK&wk, cvebv MZ 05-12-2012 ZvwiL n‡Z A`¨vewa Kg©¯’‡j Abycw¯’Z Av‡Q Ges Dc‡iv³ m~‡Î ewY©Z c‡Îi Av‡jv‡K webv AbygwZ‡Z `xN©w`b Kg©¯’‡j Abycw¯’wZi Kvi‡Y †Kb Avcbvi weiæ‡× AvBbvbyM kvw¯Íg~jK e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kiv n‡e bv Zv KviY `k©v‡bvi Rb¨ ejv n‡jv| Avcbvi Abycw¯’wZi Kvi‡Y `vßwiK Kvh©µg Pigfv‡e wewNœZ n‡”Q| †h‡nZz, Avcbvi Gai‡bi `vßwiK k„sLjv ewnf©~Z Kg©KvÐ, `vßwiK Kv‡R Ae‡njv Am`vPi‡Yi mvwgj hv †ecRv Kg©Pvwi PvKzix cÖweavbgvjv 1990 Abyhvqx kvw¯Í‡hvM¨ Aciva; †m‡nZz, D‡jøwLZ `vßwiK k„sLjv ewnf©~Z Kvg©Kv‡Ði Rb¨ †Kb Avcbvi weiæ‡× kvw¯Íg~jK e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kiv n‡e bv Zv AÎ weÁwß cÖKv‡ki cieZ©x 10 (`k) w`‡bi g‡a¨ Avcbv‡K KviY `k©v‡bvi Rb¨ wb‡`©k cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jv| †K Gg Avnmvb Djøvn e¨e¯’vcK (KtAt I wktmt) I m`m¨ mwPe Ck¦i`x Bwc‡RW †gwW‡Kj †m›Uvi Uªvw÷ †evW© ¯’vqx wVKvbv: Avgvb Djøvn, wcZv- †gvt iæûj Avwgb, MÖvg- iNybv_cyi, †cvt- aveox, _vbv-KvDLvwj, †Rjv-wc‡ivRcyi| eZ©gvb wVKvbv: Avgvb Djøvn, wcZv- †gvt iæûj Avwgb, MÖvg- •KeZ©Lvjx, †cvt- D`qKvwV, _vbv I †Rjv-wc‡ivRcyi|


156

mvwPweK we`¨v

6.20 PvKwi n‡Z Ae¨vnwZ cÎ PvKwiiZ cÖv_©x Zvi e¨w³MZ I cvwievwiK KviY †`wL‡q PvKwi †_‡K Ae¨vnwZ †P‡q Av‡e`b Ki‡Z cv‡i KZ©…c‡ÿi Kv‡Q| †h cÎ KZ…©c‡ÿi Kv‡Q Ae¨vnwZi Rb¨ K‡i †mwU‡K PvKwii Ae¨vnwZ cÎ e‡j| wewfbœ Kvi‡Y PvKwi †_‡K Ae¨vnwZ wb‡Z cv‡i, my‡hvM-myweavi Afv‡e, cÖ‡gvk‡bi Kvi‡Y gvwjK c‡ÿi mv‡_ weiæ‡× Kvi‡Y, Ab¨ cÖwZôv‡b AviI fv‡jv PvKwi cvIqvi Kvi‡Y, Kg©iZ cÖv_©x PvKwi †_‡K †m”Qvq Ae¨vnwZ w`‡Z cv‡i| KZ©„c‡ÿi Kv‡Q Ae¨vnwZ †P‡q †h cÎ †j‡L ZvB PvKwii Ae¨vnwZ cÎ|

6.21 PvKwi n‡Z Ae¨vnwZ c‡Îi bgybv 15 RyjvB 2012 eivei, gnve¨e¯’vcK evsjv‡`k K…wl e¨vsK, cÖavb Kvh©vjq gwZwSj evwYwR¨K GjvKv, XvKv| welq: M‡elYv Awdmvi c` Ae¨vnwZ cÖm‡½| Rbve, webxZ wb‡e`b GB †h, Avwg Avcbvi e¨vs‡K 01 -02-2006 Bs ZvwiL n‡Z Avcbvi e¨vs‡K M‡elYv Awdmvi c‡` Kg© i Z AvwQ| eZ© g v‡b Avgvi kvixwiK Amy ¯ ’ Z vi Rb¨ PvKwi n‡Z Ae¨vnwZ Pvw”Q| AZGe, Rbv‡ei wbKU Avgvi AvKzj Av‡e`b, Avgvi kvixwiK Amy¯’Zvi K_v we‡ePbv K‡i Avwg hv‡Z PvKwi n‡Z Ae¨vnwZ †c‡Z cvwi Zvi my-e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z gwR© nb| Avcbvi wek¦¯Í

nvivab PµeZ©x M‡elYv Awdmvi evsjv‡`k K…wl e¨vsK cÖavb Kvh©vjq, gwZwSj evwYwR¨K GjvKv, XvKv|


PvKwi msµvš— cÎ

cÖkœvewj 1.

Av‡e`b cÎ AvnŸvb ej‡Z Kx eyS?

2.

Av‡e`b cÎ iPbvi wbqgvewj I we‡eP¨ welqmg~n wjL?

3.

Av‡e`b c‡Îi bgybv †`LvI|

4.

Rxeb-e„ËvšÍ †jLvi wbqg|

5.

mvÿvrKvi cÎ Kx?

6.

mvÿvrKvi cÎ iPbvi AZ¨vek¨Kxq welqmg~n wjL|

7.

mvÿvrKvi c‡Îi •ewkó¨ Av‡jvPbv Ki|

8.

mvÿvrKvi c‡Îi bgybv †`LvI|

9.

wb‡qvM cÎ Kx?

10. wb‡qvM c‡Îi welqe¯‘ Av‡jvPbv Ki| 11. wb‡qvM I †hvM`vb c‡Îi bgybv †`LvI| 12. †hvM`vb cÎ Kx? 13. †hvM`vb c‡Îi †gŠwjK welqmg~n †jL| 14. †hvM`vb c‡Îi bgybv †`LvI| 15. KviY `k©v‡bv cÎ Kx? 16. KviY `k©v‡bv cÎ iPbvi mgq we‡eP¨ welqmg~n †jL| 17. KviY `k©v‡bv †bvwU‡ki bgybv †`LvI| 18. PvKwi n‡Z Ae¨vnwZ cÎ ej‡Z Kx eyS? 19. PvKwi n‡Z Ae¨vnwZ c‡Îi bgybv †`LvI|

157


mßg Aa¨vq

Kw¤úDUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi HISTORY OF COMPUTER, HARDWARE & SOFTWARE

wkLbdj: G Aa¨v‡qi wkÿv_©xiv wkL‡Z cvi‡e Kw¤úDUv‡ii BwZnvm  Kx-†evW©  gvDm  gwbUi  wcÖ›Uvi  ¯‥¨vbvi  nvW©Iq¨vi I  md&UIq¨vi m¤^‡Ü

G Aa¨v‡q hv Av‡Q7.1. Kw¤úDUvi 7.2. Kw¤úDUv‡ii RbK 7.3. Kw¤úDUv‡ii e¨envi ev cÖ‡qvM 7.4. Kw¤úDUv†ii †kªwYwefvM 7.5. Kw¤úDUv‡ii msw¶ß BwZnvm 7.6. nvW©Iq¨vi 7.7 wm‡÷g BDwbU 7.8. gwbUi 7.9. Kx-†evW©

7.10. gvDm 7.11. wcÖ›Uvi 7.12. ¯‥¨vbvi 7.13. md&UIq¨vi 7.14. md&UIq¨v‡ii ¸iæZ¡ 7.15. Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g 7.16. Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi ¸iæZ¡ 7.17. Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi cÖKvi‡f` 7.18. Kw¤úDUv‡ii nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨v‡ii cv_©K¨


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7.1 Kw¤úDUvi Kw¤úDUvi (Computer) GKwU Bs‡iwR kã| wMÖK kã Compute †_‡K Computer kãwUi DrcwË| Kw¤úDUvi kãwUi AvwfavwbK A_© n‡”Q ÒMYbvKvixÓ ev ÒwnmveKvixÓ hš¿| Kw¤úDUvi Ggb GKwU †cÖvMªvg wbqwš¿Z B‡jKUªwb· wWfvBm ev hš¿ hv gvby‡li †`qv cÖ`Ë †WUv I wb‡`©‡ki wfwˇZ AwZ `ªæZ MwZ‡Z Kvh© m¤úv`b K‡i wbfy©j djvdj ev AvDUcyU cÖKvk K‡i| Kw¤úDUvi †hvM, we‡qvM, MyY, fvM BZ¨vw` MvwYwZK Kvh©vewj Ges mv‡_ mv‡_ hyw³ I wm×všÍg~jK Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cv‡i| A·‡dvW© wWKkbvwii g‡Z æComputer is an electronic device wPÎ: Kw¤úDUvi for storing, analysing and producing information for making decision and calculation or controlling machine. Kw¤úDUvi B‡jKUªwbK †K․k‡ji GK we¯§qKi Ae`vb| AvR‡Ki wek¦ Kw¤úDUvi Qvov KíbvI Kiv hvq bv| Computer kãwU wMÖK kã n‡Z G‡m‡Q| Kw¤úDUvi w`‡q g~jZ MvwYwZK, hyw³ I wm×všÍg~jK KvR Kiv hvq| GUv Ggb GKwU hš¿ hv gvby‡li †`qv †WUvi wfwˇZ AwZ `ªæZ mwVKfv‡e †Kv‡bv Kvh© m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cv‡i| Ges Dnvi wbf©yj djvdj cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cv‡i| gvby‡li Kv‡Ri MwZ I wbf©ikxjZvi Zzjbvq Kw¤úDUv‡ii Kv‡Ri MwZ I wbf©ikxjZvi ÿgZv A‡bK DbœZ| gvby‡li †`qv wb‡`©k Abyhvqx Kw¤úDUvi‡K hZUzKz eyw× ev ÿgZv w`‡q •Zwi Ki‡e GwU wVK ZZUzKz ÿgZv Kv‡R jvMv‡Z cvi‡e| Kw¤úDUvi Zvi †ggwi‡Z Kx cwigvY †WUv a‡i ivL‡Z cvi‡e, Zv wbf©i K‡i gvbyl Zvi †ggwi‡K Kxfv‡e •Zwi K‡i‡Q Zvi Dci| Kw¤úDUv‡ii Af¨šÍ‡i i‡q‡Q AmsL¨ ÿz`ª B‡jUªwbK eZ©bx| Kw¤úDUv‡ii wecyj ÿgZv‡K e¨env‡ii Rb¨ G‡K mwVKfv‡e Kv‡Ri wb‡`©k w`‡Z nq| GB mKj wb‡`©k‡K ejv nq †cÖvMÖvg| Kw¤úDUvi †cÖvMÖvg Abyhvqx KvR K‡i A_©c~Y© djvdj †`q| eZ©gvb hy‡M Kw¤úDUv‡ii eûgyLx e¨env‡ii d‡j Gi msÁv A‡bK e¨vcKZv jvf K‡i‡Q| mxwgZ msÁv Øviv G‡K MwÐe× Kiv hvq bv| AvaywbK †WUvi Dci wb‡`©k g‡Zv KvR K‡i wb‡R †_‡KB GK ev GKvwaK RwUj mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cv‡i| G‡ÿ‡Î Zv‡K evi evi wb‡`©k †`qvi cÖ‡qvRb nq bv|

7.2 Kw¤úDUv‡ii RbK Pvj©m e¨v‡eR‡K Kw¤úDUv‡ii RbK ejv nq (Charles Babbage)| Pvj©m e¨v‡eR wQ‡jb Bs‡iR MwYZwe`, `vk©wbK, Avwe®‥viK Ges cÖ‡K․kjx whwb cÖ_g †cÖvMÖv‡gej Kw¤úDUv‡ii aviYv †`b| 1822 mv‡j Pvj©m e¨v‡eR jMvwi`gmn MvwYwZK wnmve-wbKvm AwaK mnR I DbœZ Kivi Rb¨ wWfv‡iÝ BwÄb bv‡g GKwU hš¿ Avwe®‥vi K‡ib| wKš‧ cÖhyw³ mgm¨vi Kvi‡Y Zv †ewk`~i G‡Mvqwb| `xN© cÖvq GK hyM c‡i 1833 mv‡j e¯¿wk‡í e¨env‡ii Rb¨ ÒA¨vbvwjwUK¨vj BwÄbÓ (Analytical engine) bv‡g GKwU hš¿ •Zwi K‡ib| hvi `ywU Ask Av‡Q- ÒwgjÓ (Mill) Ges Ò†÷viÓ wPÎ: Pvj©m e¨v‡eR (Store) | AvaywbK Kw¤úDUv‡ii cwifvlvq ÒwgjÓ I Ò†÷viÓ-†K h_vµ‡g †K›`ªxq cÖwµqvKiY Ask ev wm.wc.BD I †g‡gvwii m‡•M Zzjbv Kiv hvq| me©cÖ_g Kw¤úDUv‡ii Giƒc aviYv Ges cwiKíbvi Rb¨ Pvj©m e¨v‡eR‡K Kw¤úDUv‡ii RbK ejv nq|


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Kw¤DUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

7.3 Kw¤úDUv‡ii e¨envi ev cÖ‡qvM (The Using or Application of Computer) AvaywbK we‡k¦ Kw¤úDUv‡ii ¸iæZ¡ Acwimxg| AvaywbK mf¨Zv I Kw¤úDUvi‡K Avjv`vfv‡e wPšÍv Kiv hvq bv| †hme we‡kl‡Z¡i Rb¨ Kw¤úDUvi AvaywbK mf¨Zvq ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Q Zvn‡jv Kw¤úDUv‡ii wbfy©j Kg©m¤úv`b, `ªæZMwZ, †g‡gvwi, ¯^qswµq Kg©ÿgZv, mnbkxjZv BZ¨vw`| hvi djkÖæwZ‡Z Kg mg‡q A‡bK †ewk KvR K‡i mg‡qvwPZ djvdj jvf m¤¢e n‡”Q| eZ©gv‡b •`bw›`b Rxeb †_‡K ïiæ K‡i mvgvwRK, ivóªxq wKsev agx©q Rxe‡bi cÖwZwU †ÿ‡ÎB Kw¤úDUvi GZ e¨vcKfv‡e e¨eüZ n‡”Q †h, Zv fvlvq cÖKvk Kiv KwVb| ej‡Z †M‡j Kw¤úDUvi e¨envi Kiv hvq bv Ggb †Kv‡bv †ÿÎ ev KvR cvIqv gykwKj| Kw¤úDUv‡ii GB e¨vcK e¨envi‡K wbgœwjwLZ K‡qKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© †ÿ‡Î fvM Kiv hvq| h_v- K) †WUv cÖ‡mwms; L) K‡›Uªvj; M) wWRvBb I †W‡fjc‡g›U; N) †WUv KwgDwb‡Kkb; O) gvwëwgwWqv BZ¨vw`| K)

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6. wPwKrmv weÁvb: wPwKrmv weÁv‡bi mKj †ÿ‡ÎB Kw¤úDUv‡ii e¨vcK e¨envi jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| eZ©gvb hy‡M †ivM wbY©q, Acv‡ikb, †ivMxi hZœ I ch©‡eÿY BZ¨vw` KvR Kw¤úDUvi Qvov wPšÍvB Kiv hvq bv| wewfbœ †iv‡Mi jÿY I †iv‡M AvµvšÍ e¨w³i i³, g~Î, Kd BZ¨vw`i wewfbœ Dcv`v‡bi ZviZg¨ m¤^‡Ü me †WUv Kw¤úDUv‡i ivLv nq| Avevi me †ivMxi me jÿY I i³, g~Î BZ¨vw` cixÿvi dj Kw¤úDUv‡i BbcyU Kiv nq| Kw¤úDUvi Gme †WUvi Zzjbv K‡i m¤¢ve¨ †ivM e‡j †`q| L) K‡›Uªvj: Kw¤úDUvi wewfbœ ai‡bi Mechanical device and process control Ki‡Z cv‡i| d¨v±wi‡Z †iveU‡K wb‡`©k †`qv ev eo eo kn‡ii hvbRU wbim‡b Trafic control Kiv BZ¨vw` KvRI Kw¤úDUvi w`‡q UvBc Kiv hvq| wb‡P Process control-Gi wKQy D`vniY †`qv n‡jv: 1. wkí‡ÿ‡Î cÖ‡mm K‡›Uªvj: ivmvqwbK KviLvbv, B¯úvZ cø¨v›U, Zvc we`y¨r †K›`ª BZ¨vw` wewfbœ ai‡bi wkí‡ÿ‡Î Kw¤úDUv‡ii mvnv‡h¨ cÖ‡mm K‡›Uªvj Kiv nq| wkí‡K‡›`ª wKQyÿY ci ci wewfbœ wRwb‡mi Pvc, DËvc BZ¨vw` gvcvi cÖ‡qvRb nq hv‡Z †evSv hvq me c×wZ wVKgZ KvR Ki‡Q wKbv| Kw¤úDUv‡ii mvnv‡h¨ `yfv‡e cÖ‡mm K‡›Uªvj Kiv hvq| h_v: gy³ jyc cÖ‡mm K‡›Uªvj I eÜ jyc cÖ‡mm K‡›Uªvj| gy³ jyc cÖ‡mm K‡›Uªvj Kw¤úDUvi me hš¿cvwZ cvV (hv‡Z Pvc, DËvc BZ¨vw` †evSv hvq) mwVK Av‡Q wKbv Zv cixÿv K‡i, hw` gvb ¯^vfvweK bv _v‡K Z‡e fvicÖvß e¨w³‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq KvR Ki‡Z ms‡KZ †`q| Avi eÜ jyc cÖ‡mm K‡›Uªvj Kw¤úDUvi wb‡RB cÖ‡qvRbxq ms‡kva‡bi e¨e¯
v K‡i| A_©vr G n‡jv ¯^qswµq (Automatic) e¨e¯
v| G‡Z Drcv`b ev‡o, `yN©Ubvi m¤¢vebvI K‡g| 2. Drcv`b K‡›Uªvj: Kw¤úDUvi Drcv`b I Drcvw`Z c‡Y¨i gvb wbqš¿Y Ki‡Z cv‡i| Kw¤úDUvi Drcv`‡bi nv‡ii cÖwZ jÿ¨ †i‡L I †Kv‡bv Kvi‡Y Zv K‡g †M‡j Avevi hv‡Z ¯^vfvweK nq †mB e¨e¯
v K‡i| †Kv‡bv Kvi‡Y Drcvw`Z c‡Y¨i gvb mwVK bv n‡j Zv wb‡`©k Ki‡Z cv‡i| Kw¤úDUvi cwiPvwjZ wbDg¨vwi‡Kj K‡›Uªvj hš¿ Øviv hš¿cvwZi bvbv m~² BDwbU •Zwi nq| 3. we`y¨r Drcv`b †K›`ª: m¯Ívq we`y¨r Drcv`‡bi bZzb bZzb cÖhyw³ D™¢ve‡bi Rb¨ Zvc we`y¨r, Rjwe`y¨r I cigvYy we`y¨r †K‡›`ªi MVb I cwiPvjbv w`b w`b RwUj †_‡K RwUjZi n‡”Q| we`y¨r †K‡›`ªi eqjvi, UvievBb, myBPwMqvi BZ¨vw` fv‡jvfv‡e cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ bvbv wel‡qi cÖPzi m~² cwigvc cÖ‡qvRb| Gme hš¿cvwZi cvV cÖwZwbqZ cvëvq| myZivs Kw¤úDUv‡ii mvnv‡h¨ me hš¿cvwZi cvV cÖwZwbqZ msMÖn I cÖ‡mm K‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯
v †bqv nq| we`y¨r †K‡›`ª †jvW K‡›Uªv‡ji (Load Control) Rb¨I Kw¤úDUvi e¨eüZ nq| M)

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2. Kw¤úDUvi GB‡WW wWRvBb: Kw¤úDUvi MÖvwd· Øviv hš¿cvwZ, †gvUiMvwo, RvnvR, wegvb, gnvKvkhvb cÖf„wZ B‡jKUªwbK mvwK©U, †mZz, Nievwo BZ¨vw`i wWRvBb •Zwi Kiv hvq| Gi myweav n‡jv Aí mg‡qi g‡a¨ GKB wRwb‡mi A‡bK¸‡jv wWRvBb •Zwi K‡i Zv‡`i myweav-Amyweav Zzjbv K‡i †`qv hvq| GB Qwe¸‡jv‡K wewfbœ †KvY (Angel) ev cvwicvwk¦©K `„wó‡KvY †_‡KI †`Lv hvq, GQvov Qwe¸‡jv‡K B‡”QgZ eo K‡i †h‡Kv‡bv m~² BDwb‡U LyuwU‡q †`LvI m¤¢e| Gfv‡e we‡kølY K‡i mwVK wm×v‡šÍ †cu․Qv mnRZi nq| N) †WUv KwgDwb‡Kkb: †WUv KwgDwb‡Kkb ev Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`v‡bi †ÿ‡Î Kw¤úDUvi •ecøweK cwieZ©b G‡b‡Q| Kw¤úDUv‡ii Kj¨v‡Y B›Uvi‡bU, B-†gBj, B-Kgvm©, BZ¨vw`i ev¯Íevqb m¤¢e n‡q‡Q| ZvQvov m¨v‡UjvBU KwgDwb‡Kkb, †UwjKwgDwb‡Kkb, Iq¨vi‡jm KwgDwb‡Kkbmn wewfbœ ai‡bi KwgDwb‡Kkb e¨e¯
vq Kw¤úDUv‡ii e¨vcK e¨envi cwijwÿZ n‡”Q| wb‡gœ †WUv KwgDwb‡Kk‡bi mywbw`©ó wKQy D`vniY †`qv n‡jv: 1. B›Uvi‡bU: Z‡_¨i gnvmvMi n‡jv B›Uvi‡bU hv Kw¤úDUvi cÖhyw³i dmj| Kw¤úDUvi Avi B›Uvi‡bU Kv‡bKk‡bi d‡j †MvUv wek¦‡K nv‡Zi gy‡Vvq cvIqv hvq| cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx †h †Kv‡bv Z_¨ B›Uvi‡bU †_‡K AvniY Kiv m¤¢e| eZ©gv‡b DbœZ we‡k¦ B›Uvi‡bU Qvov e¨emv-evwYR¨ KíbvI Kiv hvq bv| 2. B-†gBj: B‡jKUªwbK †gB‡ji mvnv‡h¨ we‡k¦i †h †Kv‡bv ¯
vb †_‡K G‡K A‡b¨i m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM Kiv hvq A_©vr `~‡ii †Kv‡bv Kw¤úDUvi †_‡K †WUv ev msev` AvniY Kiv hvq ev Zvi Kv‡Q Lei cvVv‡bv hvq| 3. B-Kgvm©: Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`vb e¨e¯
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gvwëwgwWqv : 1. we‡bv`b: †Ljvayjvi Kv‡R Kw¤úDUv‡ii e¨envi mK‡ji Kv‡QB wcÖq| Kw¤úDUv‡ii mvnv‡h¨ wewfbœ ai‡bi wkÿvg~jK we‡bv`b QvovI wfwWI †Mg, `vev BZ¨vw` †Ljv hvq| fvP©yq¨vj wi‡qwjwUi Kj¨v‡Y Kw¤úDUvi †Mg‡mi RM‡Z A‡bK wKQy‡ZB ev¯ÍeZvi †Qvuqv cvIqv hvq| ZvQvov Qwe †`Lv, Mvb †kvbv, †Uwjwfkb †`Lv BZ¨vw` Kv‡RI Kw¤úDUv‡ii Rywo †bB| 2. cÖKvkbvq: cÖKvkbv wk‡íI Kw¤úDUv‡ii †Quvqv †j‡M‡Q| GLb ïaygvÎ KvM‡RB eB-cÎ wcÖ›U nq bv B‡jKUªwbK wgwWqv‡ZI cÖKvwkZ nq| gvwëwgwWqvi Kj¨v‡Y wmwW‡Z eB-cÎ, wewfbœ ai‡bi GbmvB‡K¬vwcwWqv, Rvb©vj, g¨vMvwRb BZ¨vw` cÖKvwkZ nq| B‡jKUªwbK cvewjwks‡q ev wmwW‡Z eY©, kã, Qwe I wfwWIi mswgkªY K‡i PgrKvifv‡e †h †Kv‡bv welq Dc¯
vcbv Ki‡j RxešÍ nq| 3. wkÿv‡ÿ‡Î: gvwëwgwWqvi cÖ‡qvM wkÿv‡ÿ‡ÎI wecøe G‡b‡Q| wkï †_‡K ïiæ K‡i cÖvß eq¯‥ ch©šÍ †h †Kv‡bv eq‡mi gvby‡li Rb¨ gvwëwgwWqvq wewfbœ ai‡bi wmwW cÖKvwkZ nq| G mKj wmwW †_‡K †h †KD mn‡RB †Kv‡bv welq m¤ú‡K© Ávb jvf Ki‡Z cv‡i| Kw¤úDUvi A¨vwmm‡UW jviwbs wKsev Kw¤úDUvi A¨vwmm‡UW BÝUªvKkb BZ¨vw` wkÿv e¨e¯
v‡K A‡bK DbœZ K‡i‡Q| GQvov cixÿvi djvdj •Zwi, ÷z‡W›U Bbdi‡gkb wm‡÷gmn wewfbœ †ÿ‡Î Kw¤úDUvi e¨vcKfv‡e e¨eüZ n‡”Q| Dch©y³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, Kw¤úDUvi GKwU AZ¨šÍ cÖ‡qvRbxq hš¿| evsjv‡`‡k/DbœZ we‡k¦ cÖvq cÖwZwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© †ÿ‡ÎB Kw¤úDUvi cÖ‡qvM n‡”Q| Kw¤úDUv‡ii e¨envi A`~i fwel¨‡Z e¨vcK †_‡K e¨vcKZi n‡e e‡j Avgiv Avkvev`x|

7.4 Kw¤úDUv‡ii †kªwYwefvM eZ©gvb we‡k¦ e¨eüZ Kw¤úDUvi¸‡jv‡K wewfbœ fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| †hgb- cÖ‡qvM †ÿ‡Îi Dci wfwË K‡i, Kv‡Ri aib I cÖwµqvi wfwˇZ Ges AvKvi-AvK…wZ I ÿgZv BZ¨vw`i Dci wfwË K‡i| wb‡gœ Kw¤úDUv‡ii †kªwYwefvM wP‡Îi gva¨‡g †`Lv‡bv n‡jv Ges mswÿß eY©bv †`qv n‡jv|

Kw¤úDUvi Kv‡Ri aib I cÖK…wZi wfwˇZ Kw¤úDUvi

cÖ‡qvM †¶‡Î Kw¤úDUvi

mvaviY Kw¤úDUvi

we‡kl Kw¤úDUvi

A¨vbvjM Kw¤úDUvi

mycvi Kw¤úDUvi

wWwRUvj Kw¤úDUvi

†gBb‡d«g Kw¤úDUvi

wPÎ: Kw¤úDUv‡ii †kªwYwefvM

nvBweªW Kw¤úDUvi

wgwb Kw¤úDUvi

gvB‡µv Kw¤úDUvi


Kw¤DUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

164

cÖ‡qvM †ÿ‡Îi Dci wfwË K‡i Kw¤úDUvi¸‡jv‡K `yB fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v1. we‡kl Kw¤úDUvi I 2. mvaviY Kw¤úDUvi 1. we‡kl Kw¤úDUvi: †h mg¯Í Kw¤úDUvi we‡kl ai‡bi KvR ev mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Rb¨ e¨envi Kiv nq Zv‡K we‡kl Kw¤úDUvi e‡j| D`vniY: A¨vbvjM Ges nvBweªW Kw¤úDUvi GKwU mywbw`©ó Kv‡Ri Rb¨ •Zwi I e¨eüZ nq| 2. mvaviY Kw¤úDUvi: †h mg¯Í Kw¤úDUvi Øviv me ai‡bi KvR Kiv hvq †m mg¯Í Kw¤úDUvi‡K mvaviY Kw¤úDUvi e‡j| D`vniY: gvB‡µvKw¤úDUvi MVb I wµqvbxwZ Abymv‡i Kw¤úDUvi‡K wZbfv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_vK) A¨vbvjM Kw¤úDUvi (Analog Computer) L) wWwRUvj Kw¤úDUvi (Digital Computer) M) nvBweªW Kw¤úDUvi (Hybrid Computer) K) A¨vbvjM Kw¤úDUvi (Analog Computer): e¯‧i ¸YMZ ev Ae¯
vbMZ †f․Z cwieZ©‡bi Dci wbf©i K‡i †h Kw¤úDUvi •Zwi Kiv nq Zv‡K Analog Kw¤úDUvi e‡j| Analog kãwU wMÖK kã Analogous †_‡K G‡m‡Q hvi AvwfavwbK A_© Zzjbv Kiv ev mv`„k¨| wb‡gœ eøK WvqvMÖv‡gi gva¨‡g A¨vbvjM Kw¤úDUv‡ii Kvh©vewj †`Lv‡bv n‡jvInput

Central Processing Unit wPÎ: A¨vbvjM Kw¤úDUv‡ii Kv‡Ri cÖwµqv|

Output

A¨vbvjM Kw¤úDUv‡ii ¸iæZ¡c~Y© •ewkó¨vewj wbgœiƒc: 1. A¨vbvjM Kw¤úDUvi cwieZ©bkxj •e`y¨wZK wmMb¨vj Øviv cwiPvwjZ hv ch©vqµwgKfv‡e IVvbvgv K‡i| 2. A¨vbvjM Kw¤úDUvi cÖwµqvRvZ djvdj‡K mvaviYZ KuvUvi mvnv‡h¨ A_ev MÖv‡di mvnv‡h¨ Qwe Gu‡K cÖKvk K‡i| 3. A¨vbvjM Kw¤úDUv‡ii m~²Zv cÖvq 0.1%| 4. A¨vbvjM Kw¤úDUv‡i LiP †ewk| 5. mvaviYZ we‡kl †Kv‡bv Kv‡Ri Rb¨ e¨envi Kiv nq| 6. A¨vbvjM Kw¤úDUvi GKwU cwigvcK e¨e¯
v hv c`v_© weÁv‡bi bxwZ‡Z KvR K‡i| D`vniY: Pvj©m e¨v‡e‡Ri A¨vbvwjwUK¨vj BwÄb, wWdv‡iÝ BwÄb| e¨envi: †gvUiMvwoi w¯ú‡WvwgUvi, KuvUvIqvjv Nwo, Acv‡ikb A¨vgwcødvqvi BZ¨vw`| L) wWwRUvj Kw¤úDUvi (Digital Computer): †h Kw¤úDUvi wWwRUvj c×wZi (evBbvwi msL¨v 0 Ges 1) Dci wfwË K‡i KvR K‡i Zv‡K wWwRUvj Kw¤úDUvi e‡j| Digital Computer Gi Digital K_vwU Digit kã †_‡K G‡m‡Q hvi A_© A¼| Input

Central Processing unit

Output


mvwPweK we`¨v

165

wWwRUvj Kw¤úDUv‡ii ¸iæZ¡c~Y© •ewkó¨mg~n n‡jv1. wWwRUvj Kw¤úDUvi wWwRUvj wmMb¨vj (evBbvwi 0 I 1) ev we`y¨r cÖevn Pvjy ev eÜ K‡i me ai‡bi Kv‡Ri cÖwµqv m¤úbœ K‡i| 2. wWwRUvj Kw¤úDUvi cÖwµqvRvZ djvdj‡K mivmwi gwbU‡i ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv AvDUcyU wWfvB‡m cÖ`k©b K‡i| 3. me ai‡bi Kv‡Ri Rb¨ e¨eüZ nq| 4. GwUi m~²Zv 100%| 5. wWwRUvj Kw¤úDUv‡i LiP †ewk| 6. wWwRUvj Kw¤úDUvi MwY‡Zi wbq‡g KvR K‡i| D`vniY t Pentium I, II, III, IV, cvgUc, †bvUeyK, j¨vcUc BZ¨vw` | e¨envi t Awdm Av`vjZ, e¨vsK, wegv, e¨emv cÖwZôvb, wkÿv cÖwZôvb, M‡elYvMvi, †Ljvayjv, we‡bv`b BZ¨vw` wewfbœ †ÿ‡Î| M) nvBweªW Kw¤úDUvi (Hybrid Computer): A¨vbvjM I wWwRUvj Kw¤úDUv‡ii Kvh©bxwZi mgš^‡q †h Kw¤úDUvi •Zwi Kiv nq Zv‡K nvBweªW Kw¤úDUvi e‡j| nvBweªW (Hybrid) k‡ãi A_© n‡jv msKi ev mgš^q| eøK wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ Kw¤úDUv‡ii MVb †`Lv‡bv n‡jvCentral Processing Unit

Input

output

Analog to Digital convarator

A¨vbvjM Kw¤úDUvi

+

wWwRUvj Kw¤úDUvi

=

nvBweªW Kw¤úDUvi

•ewkó¨: 1. nvBweªW Kw¤úDUv‡ii BbcyU A¨vbvjM cÖK…wZi Ges AvDUcyU wWwRUvj c×wZi| 2. we‡kl we‡kl †ÿ‡Î e¨envi Kiv hvq| 3. Zzjbvg~jK `vg †ewk| 4. MVb RwUj cÖK…wZi| D`vniY: ECG †gwkb, MRI- †gwkb, AvaywbK ivWvi, †mvbvi (SONAR) BZ¨vw`| e¨envi: wPwKrmv weÁvb, †ÿcYv¯¿, AvenvIqv, b‡fvhvb BZ¨vw`| AvKvi I AvK…wZi wePv‡i Kw¤úDUvi‡K 4 fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_vwWwRUvj Kw¤úDUvi

gvB‡µv Kw¤úDUvi

wgwb Kw¤úDUvi

†gBb‡d«g Kw¤úDUvi

mycvi Kw¤úDUvi


166

Kw¤DUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

K) gvB‡µv Kw¤úDUvi (Micro Computer): †h Kw¤úDUvi wgwb Kw¤úDUv‡ii †P‡q †QvU Ges hvi g‡a¨ †K›`ªxq cÖwµqvKiY Ask wnmv‡e gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmi we`¨gvb Zv‡K gvB‡µvKw¤úDUvi e‡j| gvB‡µv k‡ãi A_© ÿz`|ª ÿz`vª K…wZi gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmi w`‡q •Zwi e‡jB G‡K gvB‡µvKw¤úDUvi ejv nq| G ai‡bi Kw¤úDUv‡i mvaviYZ GKwU gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmi, CPU, ROM, RAM I I/O B›Uvi‡dm wPc Øviv MwVZ| 1975 mv‡j Zwor cÖ‡K․kjx GBP. GWIqvW© ievU©m (H. Edward Roberts) KZ…©K wWRvBbK…Z Altair-880 †K cÖ_g gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmiwfwËK Kw¤úDUvi ev gvB‡µv Kw¤úDUvi wn‡m‡e MY¨ Kiv nq| H. Edward Roberts †K gvB‡µv Kw¤úDUv‡ii RbK ejv nq| h_vt †W¯‥Uc, j¨vcUc, †bvUeyK, cvgUc BZ¨vw`| gvB‡µv Kw¤úDUv‡ii •ewkó¨: 1. mvaviYZ GK e¨w³ GKwU Kw¤úDUvi e¨envi K‡i| 2. gvB‡µv cÖ‡mmi¸‡jv A‡bK †ewk MwZ I `ÿZvm¤úbœ| 3. G ai‡bi Kw¤úDUvi `v‡g m¯Ív| 4. mn‡R enb‡hvM¨| 5. AvKv‡i †QvU| D`vniY t IBM PC, IBM 80286 BZ¨vw`| gvB‡µv Kw¤úDUv‡ii e¨envi t wkÿv cÖwZôvb, Awdm-Av`vjZ, M„n¯
vjxi KvR, †Ljvayjv Ges wPË we‡bv`bmn Ab¨vb¨ e¨w³MZ Kv‡R gvB‡µv Kw¤úDUvi e¨vcKfv‡e e¨eüZ nq| L) wgwb Kw¤úDUvi (Mini Computer): †h Kw¤úDUvi gvB‡µv Kw¤úDUv‡ii †P‡q eo Ges †gBb‡d«g Kw¤úDUv‡ii †P‡q †QvU Zv‡K wgwb Kw¤úDUvi e‡j| G ai‡bi Kw¤úDUv‡i cÖwµqvKi‡Yi Rb¨ e¨eüZ wm. wc. BD †Z mvaviYZ GKK †evW©wewkó mvwK©U ev eZ©bx e¨envi Kiv nq| wgwb Kw¤úDUv‡ii •ewkó¨: 1. gvB‡µvi Zzjbvq wgwb Kw¤úDUvi A‡bK †ewk ÿgZvm¤úbœ| 2. G‡ÿ‡Î GKvwaK BbcyU/AvDUcyU hš¿ e¨eüZ n‡q _v‡K| 3. Uviwgbv‡ji mvnv‡h¨ cÖvq Aa©kZvwaK e¨enviKvix GKm‡½ wgwb Kw¤úDUv‡i KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i| 4. wgwb Kw¤úDUvi LAN (Local Area Network) Gi mvf©vi wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| D`vniY t IBM S/34, IBM S/36, Nova BZ¨vw`| wgwb Kw¤úDUv‡ii e¨envi: wgwb Kw¤úDUvi wkí-evwYR¨, •eÁvwbK I cªhyw³MZ M‡elYvq, e¨vsK-wegv I eo e¨emvwq cÖwZôv‡b e¨envi Kiv nq| M) †gBb‡d«g Kw¤úDUvi (Mainframe Computer) †h Kw¤úDUviwU wgwb I gvB‡µv Kw¤úDUv‡ii †P‡q eo Ges mycvi Kw¤úDUv‡ii †P‡q †QvU wKš‧ ¯^í mg‡q AwaK KvR Ki‡Z mÿg Zv‡K †gBb †d«g Kw¤úDUvi e‡j| G Kw¤úDUv‡ii GKvwaK gvB‡µvc&ª‡mmi mshy³ n‡q c&ª‡mwms KvR m¤úbœ& K‡i| evsjv‡`‡k me©cÖ_g 1964 mv‡j cigvYy kw³ Kwgkb IBM -1620 g‡W‡ji †gBb‡d«g Kw¤úDUvi ¯
vcb K‡i| wPÎ: †gBb‡d«g Kw¤úDUvi


mvwPweK we`¨v

167

†gBb‡d«g Kw¤úDUv‡ii ‣ewkó¨: 1. †gBb‡d«g Kw¤úDUvi wgwb Kw¤úDUv‡ii †P‡q A‡bK †ewk ÿgZvm¤úbœ| 2. †gBb‡d«g Kw¤úDUvi A‡bK RwUj KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i| 3. †gBb‡d«g Kw¤úDUv‡i me ai‡bi †cwi‡divj e¨e¯
v, me iKg nvB †j‡fj fvlv I me ai‡bi md&UIq¨vi e¨eüZ nq| 4. G¸‡jv I/O e¨e¯
vq cÖwZ †m‡K‡Û K‡qK jÿ evBU †WUv Av`vb-cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cv‡i| 5. G‡`i †WUv mÂq ÿgZv Lye †ewk| D`vniY: IBM 4300, IBM -1620 UNIVAC 1100 BZ¨vw`| e¨envi: AwZ e„nr wkí-evwYR¨ cÖwZôvb, RwUj •eÁvwbK M‡elYv I D”P¯Í‡ii cÖhyw³MZ we‡køl‡Y e¨envi Kiv nq| N) mycvi Kw¤úDUvi (Super Computer): †h Kw¤úDUvi AvKvi-AvK…wZi w`K †_‡K Ab¨vb¨ Kw¤úDUv‡ii †P‡q AZ¨waK eo Ges kw³kvjx I `ª æZMwZ m¤úbœ Zv‡K mycvi Kw¤úDUvi e‡j| mycvi Kw¤úDUvi n‡”Q me‡P‡q kw³kvjx, e¨qeûj I `ªæZMwZm¤úbœ Kw¤úDUvi| G‡`i MvwYwZK cÖwµqv m¤úbœ Ki‡Z me‡P‡q Kg mgq jv‡M| Av‡gwiKvi Ô†K wimvP©Õ I Rvcv‡bi ÔwnUvwPÕ †Kv¤úvwb mycvi Kw¤úDUvi •Zwi K‡i| fviZ ÔcigÕ bv‡g GKwU mycvi Kw¤úDUvi wb‡RivB •Zwi K‡i e¨envi Ki‡Q| mycvi Kw¤úDUv‡ii •ewkó¨: 1. K…wÎg eyw×gËv| 2. AcwUK¨vj dvBev‡ii e¨envi| 3. Av‡jv‡Ki †e‡M Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`vb| 4. m‡e©v”P Z_¨ aviY ÿgZvi AwaKvix| 5. VLSI cÖhyw³ e¨envi K‡i gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmi •ewkó¨ B‡jKUªwbK mvwK©‡Ui e¨envi| D`vniYt ETA-02P, Super SXII, Cyber-205, Cray-1 BZ¨vw`| e¨envit AvenvIqvi c~e©vfvm, gnvKvkhvb Pvjbv, cÖwZiÿv, M‡elYv, Av‡Mœqv¯¿ wWRvBb, cigvYy Pzjøxi I mycvi‡mvwbK wegv‡bi Wvbvi wWRvBb •Zwi, wmgy‡jkb I g‡Wwjs BZ¨vw`i Rb¨ e¨envi Kiv nq|

7.5 Kw¤úDUv‡ii mswÿß BwZnvm cÖv‣MwZnvwmK Kvj †_‡KB gvbyl Z_¨ msiÿY I Z_¨ e¨e¯
vcbvi Dbœqb Ges wnmveKv‡h©i hvwš¿KxKi‡Yi cÖ‡Póv Pvwj‡q Avm‡Q| gvbe mf¨Zvq hLb e¨emv-evwYR ïiæ nq, ZLb cÖ‡qvRb c‡o msL¨v e¨e¯
vi, msL¨v m~wPZ Kivi c×wZ D™¢ve‡bi| †mB m‡½ `iKvi nq wnmveKv‡h©i Ges Z_¨ msiÿY gva¨‡gi| kZvwãi ci kZvwã gvbyl wnmveiÿY I e¨emvwqK †jb‡`‡bi Rb¨ bywo, wSbyK, nv‡Zi A½ywj, `woi wMU BZ¨vw` e¨envi K‡i‡Q| ÒK¨vjKzjvmÓ (Calculus) kãwU Gm‡Q j¨vwUb fvlv †_‡K hvi A_© n‡”Q bywo| wKš‧ gvbyl †_‡g _v‡Kwb bywo wb‡q| cÖ‡qvRb Ges Avwe®‥v‡ii mnRvZ cÖe„wËi Kvi‡Y mf¨Zvi cÖwZwU ch©v‡qB gvbyl c~e©eZ©x wnmve e¨e¯
vi DrKl© mva‡bi †Póv Pvwj‡q‡Q| nvRvi eQi a‡i gvby‡li µgvMZ M‡elYv I D™¢vebx kw³i DˇivËi Dbœq‡bi dmj n‡”Q AvaywbK Kw¤úDUvi|


168

Kw¤DUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

me©cÖ_g gvbe mf¨Zv wn‡m‡e cwiwPwZ my‡gwiq mf¨Zvi (wLªóc~e© 4000 †_‡K 1200) ivRKxq m¤ú` I ivR‡¯^i wnmve wjwce× Kivi Rb¨ Kv`vgvwUi djK (Clay Tablet) e¨envi Kiv n‡Zv| AvaywbK hy‡Mi Kw¤úDUvi cwifvlvq GKB Kvh©wewa‡K †WUv e¨e¯
vcbvi (Data Management) m‡½ Zzjbv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| me‡P‡q cyiv‡bv †h wnmvehš¿wUi K_v Avgiv Rvwb †mwU n‡”Q A¨vevKvm (Abacus)| A¨vevKvm n‡”Q AvovAvwofv‡e †QvÆ †MvjK ev cyuwZ jvMv‡bv Pvi‡KvYv Kv‡Vi GKwU KvVv‡gv| GLbKvi Kw¤úDUv‡ii g‡Zv A¨vevKvmI msL¨v ms‡KZ ev †KvW wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv K‡i-KvVv‡gv‡Z Zv‡ii Ae¯
vb I Zv‡i cyuwZi Dcw¯
wZ ms‡KZ wbiƒcY K‡i| GwUi cÖPjb †Kv_vq ev KLb ïiæ nq, Zv mwVKfv‡e Rvbv hvqwb| Z‡e wLªóªc~e© 3000 mv‡j e¨vwej‡b GwU Avwe®‥vi Kiv nq e‡j aviYv Kiv nq| cieZx©‡Z A¨vevKvm Pxb, Rvcvb I cÖv‡P¨i Ab¨vb¨ †`‡k Qwo‡q c‡o| wMÖK I †ivgvbivI A¨vevKvm e¨envi KiZ e‡j Rvbv hvq| A¨vevKvm w`‡q mvaviY †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y, fvM QvovI eM©, eM©g~j wbiƒcY Kiv †hZ| cÖ¯‧i hy‡M AvaywbK Bsj¨v‡Ûi m¨vwjmevwi mgZjf~wg‡Z (Salisbury Plains) wekvjvKvi GKvwaK cv_‡ii ¯Í¤¢ ¯
vcb Kiv n‡qwQj hv‡K Ò‡÷vb‡nÄÓ (Stonehenge) ejv nq| aviYv Kiv nq †h, G¸‡jv AvaywbK Kw¤úDUv‡ii g‡ZvB P›`ªMÖnY I m~h©MÖn‡Yi fwel¨revYx Kivi Rb¨ e¨eüZ n‡Zv| wLªóc~e© 2500 Gi w`‡K wMÖ‡mi BivUmw_‡bm Gi Pvjwb (Sieve of Eratosthenes) bv‡g cwiwPwZ| wMÖK, †ivgvb I wgmixqiv A¨vevKvm e¨envi Ki‡jI Zuv‡`i wnmve c×wZ‡Z k~b¨‡K m~Pbv Kivi †Kv‡bv wPý wQj bv| fviZe‡l© me© cÖ _ g k~ b ¨‡K GKwU wPý cÖ `vb K‡i wnmve c×wZi AšÍ f© y³ Kiv nq| G mgq `kwfwËK wnmve cÖYvwj‡Z AsK¸‡jv‡K ¯
vwbK gvb †`qv nq| 825 mv‡j Aviexq MwYZwekvi` Avj †Lvqvh©wg (Al Khwarizmi) fviZxq wnmve c×wZi Dci GKwU eB †j‡Lb| †¯ú‡b GB cy¯Í‡Ki Abyev` nIqvi ci 1100 mv‡ji w`‡K GB wnmve c×wZ BD‡iv‡c †cu․Qvq| GLv‡b D‡jøL‡hvM¨ †h, Kw¤úDUvi cwifvlvq eûj e¨eüZ ÒGjMwi`gÓ (Algorithm) kãwU G‡m‡Q Avj †Lvqvh©wgi bvg †_‡K| `kwfwËK `kwgK msL¨v c×wZi cÖPjb ïiæ n‡jI Gi gva¨‡g ¸Y ev fvM Kiv †ek KwVb wQj| ¯‥wUk MwYZwekvi` Rb †bwcqvi (John Napier) 1614 mv‡j jMvwi`g (Logarithm) Gi D™¢veb K‡ib| GB Avwe®‥vi ¸Y, fvM, eM©, eM©g~j, Nbg~j wbiƒc‡Yi KvR‡K A‡bK mnR‡eva¨ K‡i †`q| cieZx© K‡qK kZvwã a‡i GB c×wZ MwYZwe`¨v, †b․Pvjbwe`¨v, †R¨vwZwe©`¨v BZ¨vw` kv‡¯¿i DbœwZ mva‡b weivU Ae`vb iv‡L| jMvwi`gwfwËK wnmveKv‡h©i Rb¨ †bwcqvi †h msL¨v wPwýZ `и‡jv e¨envi K‡iwQ‡jb †m¸‡jv Ò†bwcqvi Aw¯
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vcZ¨ Rb fb wbDg¨vb (John Von Neumann) bvgK GKRb nv‡½ixq Av‡gwiKvb MwYZwe‡`i cÖ¯Íve Abyhvqx Kiv n‡qwQj| Rb fb wbDg¨v‡bi cÖ¯Íve¸‡jv wQj wbgœiƒcK. Kw¤úDUvi h‡š¿i Rb¨ evBbvwi msL¨v c×wZ e¨envi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i Ges L. Kw¤úDUvi h‡š¿i Af¨šÍ‡iB †WUv I wbe©vn ms‡KZ gIRyZ Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| Rb fb wbDg¨v‡bi GB aviYvwU msiwÿZ †cÖvMÖvg (Stored Program) bv‡g L¨vZ| Zvui G aviYvi Dci wfwË K‡iB BDGm Avwg© (EDVAC) •Zwi K‡ib| Rb fb wbDg¨vb cÖ¯ÍvweZ GB ¯
vcZ¨ AvRI AvaywbK Kw¤úDUv‡i e¨envi Kiv nq| hv ÒRb fb wbDg¨vb ¯
vcZ¨Ó bv‡g cwiwPZ| GKvi‡YB Rb fb wbDg¨vb‡K AvaywbK Kw¤úDUv‡ii RbK ejv nq|


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nvf©vW© Kw¤úD‡Ukb †m›Uv‡i 1945 mv‡j GKwU •ewPΨgq NUbv N‡U| Harvard Mark II Kw¤úDUv‡ii GKwU mwµq Avw` g‡Wj nVvr K‡iB wbw¯…q n‡q hvq| Kw¤úD‡Ukb †m›Uv‡i `vwqZ¡ cvjbiZ gvwK©b †b․evwnbxi †jdU¨v‡b›Um (cieZx© GWwgivj wn‡m‡e Aemi MÖnY K‡ib) †MÖm gv‡i ncvi (Grace Murry Hopper) Gi KviY AbymÜvb K‡i †`L‡Z cvb †h, GKwU wi‡j mvwK©‡Ui wedjZv Kw¤úDUviwUg †_‡g hvIqvi Rb¨ `vqx| Avi wi‡ji e¨_©Zvi Drm n‡”Q GKwU g„Z cZ½| Kw¤úDUv‡ii nvW©Iq¨vi ev md&UIq¨v‡ii ÎæwU ev ÒevMÓ (Bug) Lyu‡R †ei Kivi cÖwµqv eySv‡Z Avgiv †h ÒwWevMÓ (Debug) kãwU (AvÿwiK A_© n‡”Q cZ½gy³ Kiv) e¨envi Kwi, Zvi m~ÎcvZ K‡ib ncvi| 1945 mv‡j AviI GKwU D‡jøL‡hvM¨ NUbv n‡”Q Bsj¨v‡Ûi g¨vb‡P÷vi BDwbfv©wU‡Z Manchester Mark I Kw¤úDUvi wbg©vY| f¨vKzqvg wUD‡ei cÖhyw³‡Z wbwg©Z I Kw¤úDUviwU‡K me©cÖ_g mwµq msiwÿZ †cÖvMÖvg wbe©vnKvix wWwRUvj Kw¤úDUvi ejv nq| 1949 mv‡j †KgweªR BDwbf©vwmwUi Aa¨vcK gwim DBKm (Maurice Wilkes)- Gi ZË¡veav‡b wbwg©Z nq EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator)| Gw`‡K ENIAC I EDVAC Gi D™¢veK gkjx I BKvU© 1946 mv‡j gvwK©b Av`gïgvwi ey¨‡iv‡K jÿ¨ †i‡L Gw`‡K ENIAC I EDVAC-Gi D™¢veK gkjx I BKvU© 1946 mv‡j gvwK©b Av`gïgvwi ey¨‡iv‡K jÿ¨ †i‡L UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer)-Gi KvR ïiæ K‡ib hvi wbg©vY m¤úbœ nq 1951 mv‡j| Remington bvgK †Kv¤úvwbi Rb¨ wbwg©Z UNIVAC n‡”Q evwYwR¨K wfwˇZ •Zwi me©cÖ_g B‡jKUªwbK Kw¤úDUvi| cvuP nvRvi f¨vKzqvg wUD‡ei mgš^‡q wbwg©Z UNIVAC cÖwZ †m‡K‡Û 8330 evi †hvM I 555 evi ¸YKvh© Ki‡Z mÿg wQj| G mgB Kw¤úDUvi RM‡Z cÖ‡ek K‡i AvB. we. Gg| AvB. we. Gg 1952 mv‡j 701 ev Defence Calculator bv‡gi GKwU Kw¤úDUvi evRv‡i Dc¯
vcb K‡i| Gi c‡ii eQi †ei nq IBM 650 hv evRv‡i e¨vcK RbwcÖqZv jvf K‡i| 1955 mv‡ji w`‡K AvB. we. Gg Kw¤úDUvi¸‡jvi evwYwR¨K mvdj¨ UNIVAC- †K AwZµg K‡i hvq Ges AvB. we. Gg Kw¤úDUvi RM‡Zi A`g¨ kw³ wn‡m‡e wb‡R‡K cÖwZwôZ K‡i| GB `k‡KB †ek K‡qKwU D”P ch©v‡qi Kw¤úDUvi fvlv †hgb diUªvb (FORTRAN) I †Kvej (COBOL) Gi cÖeZ©b nq | B‡jKUªwb‡·i DbœwZi m‡½ Kw¤úDUv‡ii cÖeZ©b IZ‡cÖvZfv‡e RwoZ| lvU `kK †_‡K ïiæ nq f¨vKzqvg wUD‡ei cwie‡Z© UªvbwR÷‡ii e¨envi| UªvbwR÷‡ii Avwe®‥vi nq 1947 mv‡j †ej j¨v‡ev‡iUwi‡Z| GB Avwe®‥vi Kw¤úDUvi weeZ©b cÖwµqvq •ecøweK cwieZ©b Av‡b| UªvbwR÷i e¨envi Kivi d‡j Kw¤úDUv‡ii AvKvi, `vg, we`y¨r LiP bvUKxqfv‡e K‡g †h‡Z ïiæ K‡i| g¨vmPz‡mUm BÝwUwUDU Ad †UK‡bvjwR (MIT) †_‡K me©cÖ_g UªvbwR÷iwfwËK Kw¤úDUvi †ei nq| Gi bvg wQj TX-O (Transistor Experimental Computer) AvB. we. Gg. 1964 mv‡j IBM 360 bvgK Kw¤úDUvi Dc¯
vcb K‡i| G Kw¤úDUviwU †gBb‡d«g Kw¤úDUv‡ii RM‡Z bZzb ÷¨vÛv‡W©i m~Pbv K‡i| wWwRUvj BKzBc‡g›U K‡c©v‡ikb ev W¨vK (DEC: Digital Equipment Corporation) 1965 mv‡j Dc¯
vcb K‡i PDP-8 bvgK UªvbwR÷i wfwËK cÖ_g wgwbKw¤úDUvi|


174

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Gici ïiæ nq UªvbwR÷i I ZworeZ©bxq Ab¨vb¨ Askmg~n‡K Aa©cwievnx †Kv‡bv c`v‡_©i GKwU UzKivi (Chip of Semiconductin Material) gv‡S A½xf~ZKi‡Yi cÖ‡Póv hv GKxf~Z eZ©bx ev Bw›U‡MÖ‡UW mvwK©U ev wPc (Chip)-Gi Rb¥ †`q| 1958 mv‡j †U·vm BÝUyª‡g‡›U R¨vK wKjwe (Jack Kilby) I †dqvPvB‡ìi ievU© b‡qm(Robert Noyce) cÖvq GKB mg‡q Bw›U‡MÖ‡UW mvwK©‡Ui cÖ_g Avw`iƒ‡ci ev¯Íevqb K‡ib| 1968 mv‡j ev‡ivm (Burroughs) †Kv¤úvwb Bw›U‡MÖ‡UW mvwK©UwfwËK cÖ_g Kw¤úDUvi Gi B2500 I B3500-Gi Dc¯
vcb K‡i| Bw›U‡MÖ‡UW mvwK©U cÖhyw³i DˇivËi DbœwZi m‡½ µgk Kw¤úDUv‡ii m¤ú~Y© †K›`ªxq cÖwµqvKiY Ask‡K GKwUgvÎ wP‡ci gv‡S ev¯Íevqb m¤¢e nq| GB wPc‡K gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmi (Microporcessor) ejv nq| gvB‡µvcÖ‡mm‡ii m‡½ ïiæ GK bZzb cÖR‡b¥i Kw¤úDUvi hv‡K gvB‡µvKw¤úDUvi bvgKiY Kiv nq| gvB‡µvcÖ‡mm‡ii cÖ_g Avwefv©e N‡U 1971 mv‡j| 1971 mv‡j Dr. Ted Hoff Kw¤úDUv‡ii †K›`ªxq cÖwµqvKiY Ask ev cÖ‡mm‡ii mKj Dcv`vb‡K GKwU gvÎ wmwjKb wP‡ci g‡a¨ GKxf~Z K‡ib hv B‡›Uj-4004 bv‡g cwiwPZ nq| 2300 wU UªvcwR÷‡ii mgš^‡q wbwg©Z GB gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmiwUi Kg©ÿgZv 18000 f¨vKzqvg wUD‡ei Øviv ev¯ÍevwqZ ENIAC- Gi mgZyj¨ wQj| GB gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmiwU cÖwZ †m‡KÛ 60,000 Bb÷ªvKkb m¤úbœ Ki‡Z mÿg wQj| B‡›Uj-4004 B wQj evwYwR¨Kfv‡e cÖvß we‡k¦i cÖ_g gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmi| cÖ_g gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmiwU wKš‧ KLbI Kw¤úDUv‡i e¨eüZ nqwb, GwUi e¨envi †W·Uc K¨vjKz‡jU‡ii gv‡SB mxgve× wQj| GwU Aek¨ cvBIwbqvi gnvKvkhv‡b e¨envi Kiv n‡qwQj| 1975 mv‡ji Rvbyqvwi gv‡m Popular Electronic g¨vMvwR‡b gvB‡µv BÝUyª‡g‡›Ukb GÛ †UwjwgwUª wm‡÷‡gi (MITS: Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry System) D™¢vweZ Altair Computer Kit- Gi Dci GZwU cÖ”Q` Kvwnbx cÖKvwkZ nq| Zwor cÖ‡K․kjx GBP. GWIqvW© ievU©m (H. Edward Roberts) KZ©„K wWRvBbK…Z Altair-880 †K cÖ_g gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmiwfwËK Kw¤úDUvi ev gvB‡µvKw¤úDUvi wn‡m‡e MY¨ Kiv nq| GRb¨ GBP. GWIqvW© ievU©m‡K gvB‡µvKw¤úDUv‡ii RbK ejv nq| GB wK‡U (Kit) B‡›U‡ji 8080 gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmi I 256 evB‡Ui †g‡gvwi e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b D‡jøL¨ †h, Altair 880 bvgK GB Kw¤úDUv‡ii †Kv‡bv Kx-‡evW© ev gwbUi wQj bv| gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmi I cÖ‡qvRbxq mvwK©Umn GwU GKwU avZe ev· Qvov wKQz bq| GB ev‡·i m¤§yL c¨v‡b‡ji myBP¸‡jv e¨envi K‡i 8080 A¨v‡m¤^wj fvlvq †cÖvMÖvg Ki‡Z n‡Zv| †cÖvMÖvg †_‡K cÖvß djvdj‡K AveviI m¤§yL c¨v‡b‡ji wbqb evj‡ei gva¨‡g cÖ`k©b Kiv n‡Zv| Altair 880-†K hw`I Z`vbxšÍb †m․wLb Kw¤úDUvi e¨enviKvix‡`i D‡Ïk¨ K‡i Qvov n‡qwQj, GwU Kw¤úDUvi evRv‡i wekvj cÖfve †d‡j| GwU evRv‡i †ei nevi ciciB †ek wKQz mdUIq¨vi †Kv¤úvwbi Rb¥ nq| Digital Research -Gi M¨vwi wKjWvj (Gary Kildall) G mgq 8080 gvB‡µvcÖ‡mm‡ii Rb¨ CP/M (Control Program for Microprocessors) Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g †ei K‡ib| 1975 mv‡ji †deªæqvwi gv‡m nvf©vW© BDwbf©vwmwUi QvÎ wej †MBUm (Bill Gates) I Zvui Nwbô eÜz IqvwksUb †÷Bb BDwbf©vwmwUi cj A¨v‡jb (Paul Allen) MITS -Gi Rb¨ BASIC wj‡Lb| cj A¨v‡bj BDwbf©vwmwU mgvß K‡i MITS -G †hvM`vb Ki‡jI wej †MBUm nvf©vW© cwiZ¨vM K‡i m¤ú~Y©fv‡e Kw¤úDUvi RM‡Z cÖ‡ek K‡ib| G eQ‡ii †klv‡a© wej †MBUm I cj A¨v‡jb Zuv‡`i gv‡Si evwYwR¨K •gw·K Microsoft bv‡g A¨vL¨vwqZ K‡ib| GB †QvU †Kv¤úvwbwUB GLbKvi Kw¤úDUvi RM‡Zi me‡P‡q ÿgZvkxj wn‡m‡e cwiMwYZ gvB‡µvmdU (Microsoft)|


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1976 mv‡j w÷f hem (Steve Jobs) I w÷‡db DhwbqvK (Stephen Wozniak) wg‡j Apple I Kw¤úDUvi •Zwi K‡ib Ges cieZx© eQi A¨vcj Kw¤úDUvi (Apple Computer) †Kv¤úvwbi cÖwZôv K‡ib| Gi cieZx© eQi †ei nq Apple II hv gvB‡µvKw¤úDUvi RM‡Z bZzb gvcKvwVi m~Pbv K‡i| Kw¤úDUvi evRv‡ii e¨vcKZv K_v wPšÍvi K‡i Avwk `k‡Ki ïiæ‡Z AvB. we. Gg. GKK e¨enviKvixi Kv‡Ri Rb¨ Kw¤úDUvi •Zwii wm×všÍ †bq Ges Acron QÙ bv‡g GKwU †Mvcb cÖ‡R± ïiæ K‡i| GB Kw¤úDUv‡ii Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g wn‡m‡e gvB‡µvmd&U -Gi PC-DOS e¨env‡ii wm×všÍ MÖnY Kiv nq| GLv‡b D‡jøL¨ †h, gvB‡µvmd&U wKš‧ cy‡ivcywifv‡e GB Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷gwU •Zwi K‡iwb| wej †MBUm IqvwksU‡bi wmqvU&j kn‡ii GKwU †QvU nvW©Iq¨vi †Kv¤úvwb †_‡K QD-DOS(Quick and Dirty-DOS) bv‡g GKwU Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g wK‡b †bb Ges GwU‡K AvB. we. Gg. Gi cÖ¯ÍvweZ gvB‡µvcÖ‡mm‡ii cÖ‡qvRb Abymv‡i cwieZ©b K‡i PC-DOS bvgKiY K‡i| Gici 1981 mv‡ji 12B AvM÷ AvB.we.Gg. †_‡K †ei nq PC bvgK Kw¤úDUvi hv Kw¤úDUvi RM‡Z hyMvšÍKvix cwieZ©b Av‡b|

7.6 nvW©Iq¨vi (Hardware) Kw¤úDUv‡ii evwn¨K AeKvVv‡gv ev evwn¨K AvK…wZ m¤úbœ mKj hš¿, hš¿vsk, wWfvBm mg~n‡K nvW©Iq¨vi e‡j| Bw›U‡MÖ‡UW mvwK©U, gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmi, gv`vi †evW© cÖf„wZ hš¿cvwZ wb‡q myôzfv‡e m¤úv`b I mnvqZv Kivi Rb¨ i‡q‡Q Ab¨vb¨ wWfvBmmg~n| †hgb- wW¯‥, wW¯‥ WªvBf, Kx‡evW©, gvDm, gwbUi, wcÖ›Uvi BZ¨vw` hš¿cvwZ| D‡jøwLZ mKj hš¿cvwZi mgš^‡qB MwVZ nq Kw¤úDUv‡ii nvW©Iq¨vi| nvW©Iq¨vi n‡”Q Kw¤úDUv‡ii evwn¨K KvVv‡gv hv Avgiv ¯úk© Ki‡Z cvwi| Kw¤úDUv‡ii nvW©Iq¨vi‡K cÖv_wgKfv‡e wZbfv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v: BbcyU (Input) hš¿cvwZ:

Kx-†evW©, gvDm, Rqw÷K, wW¯‥, ¯‥¨vbvi, KvW© wiWvi, wWwRUvj K¨v‡giv, gvB‡µv‡dvb BZ¨vw`|

wm‡÷g BDwbU (System Unit) ev wmwcBD ev gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmi, i¨vg, nvW©wW¯‥, †d¬vwc wW¯‥, cÖ‡mwms BDwbU (Processing Unit ): gv`vi‡evW©, cvIqvi mvcøvB, wfwRG/GwRwc KvW©, †bUIqvK© KvW©, mvDÛ KvW©, wmwWig WªvBf, Kb‡mvj BZ¨vw`| AvDUcyU (Output) hš¿cvwZ:

gwbUi, wcÖ›Uvi, †cøvUvi, gvB‡µvwdj¥, wW¯‥, w¯úKvi BZ¨vw`|

7.7 wm‡÷g BDwbU Kw¤úDUv‡ii †h Ask †WUv cÖwµqvKi‡Yi KvR K‡i Zv‡K †m›Uªvj cÖ‡mwms BDwbU ev wmwcBD e‡j| wmwcBD Kw¤úDUv‡ii Ògw¯Í¯‥Ó ev Ò†eªBb¯^iƒcÓ| Kw¤úDUv‡ii KvR Kivi MwZ Ges ÿgZv wmwcBD Gi Dci wbf©ikxj|


176

Kw¤DUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

wmwcBDi wKQz KvR wb‡gœ †`qv n‡jv1. Kw¤úDUv‡ii mKj As‡ki wbqš¿Y I mgq wba©viY ms‡KZ (Timing & control signals) cÖ`vb Kiv| 2. †g‡gvwi/I BbcyU/AvDUcyU wWfvB‡mi g‡a¨ †WUvi Av`vb-cÖ`vb Kiv (Transferring data) 3. †g‡gvwi †_‡K †WUv I BÝUªvKkb †bqv (Fetching instructions & data) 4. BÝUªvKkb wW‡KvW Kiv (Decode) 5. MvwYwZK I hyw³g~jK KvR ev wm×všÍg~jK KvR Kiv (Arithmetic & logical operatons) 6. Kw¤úDUv‡ii †g‡gvwi‡Z msiwÿZ †cÖvMÖvg wbe©vn Kiv (Stored program execution) I 7. BbcyU I AvDUcyU Ask¸‡jvi mv‡_ mgš^q mvab BZ¨vw`| †m›Uªvj cÖ‡mwms BDwbU ev wmwcBD Gi msMVb †m›Uªvj cÖ‡mwms BDwbU ev wmwcBD wbgœwjwLZ wZbwU cÖavb Ask wb‡q MwVZ| h_v1. †iwR÷vimg~n (Register Set) 2. MvwYwZK hyw³ Ask (Arithmetic & Logic Unit-ALU) 3. wbqš¿Y Ask (Control Unit) A¨vwi_g¨vwUK GÛ jwRK BDwbU ev MvwYwZK hyw³ Ask (Arithmetic Logic Unit-ALU) A¨vwi_g¨vwUK GÛ jwRK BDwbU Kw¤úDUv‡ii MvwYwZK I hyw³g~jK KvR ev wm×všÍg~jK KvR K‡i| GwU Kw¤úDUv‡ii Bb÷ªvKkb¸‡jv wbe©vn (Execution) Kivi Rb¨ gvB‡µv Acv‡ikb¸‡jv (Micro Operation) cvjb K‡i| K‡›Uªvj BDwbU ev wbqš¿Y Ask (Control Unit) K‡›Uªvj BDwbU wmwcBDi †iwR÷vimg~n Ges MvwYwZK hyw³ As‡ki g‡a¨ †WUvi Av`vb-cÖ`vb Z`viwK K‡i Ges MvwYwZK Ask wK KvR Ki‡e Zvi Bb÷ªvKkb cÖ`vb K‡i| ZvQvov Kw¤úDUv‡ii mKj As‡ki wbqš¿Y I mgq wba©viY ms‡KZ cÖ`vb K‡i| †iwR÷vi †mUt cÖwµqvKi‡Yi mgq A¯
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7.8 gwbUi gwbUi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© AvDUcyU wWfvBm| GwU n‡”Q Z_¨ cÖ`k©‡bi GKwU gva¨g hv wfwWI K‡›Uªvjvi KvW© ev GWvÞvi †_‡K cÖvß ms‡KZ‡K h_vh_ iƒcvšÍ‡ii ci wbR¯^ ¯…xb ev c`©vq †`Lvq| cÖPwjZ mKj gwbUi‡K cÖ`wk©Z is‡qi Dci wfwË K‡i wZb fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v1| iwOb (Color) gwbUi: c`©vq mKj iO dz‡U D‡V| 2| GKiOv ev g‡bvµg (Monochrome) gwbUi: Kv‡jv c`©vq mv`v ev Ab¨ i‡Oi Aÿi dz‡U D‡V|


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3| †MÖ †¯‹j (Grey scale) gwbUi: c`©vq mKj is mv`v-Kv‡jv‡Z dz‡U D‡V| Avevi cÖhyw³i Dci wfwË K‡i gwbUi‡K cÖavb `ywU fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v1| K¨v‡_vW iwk¥ wUDe (Cathode Ray Tube-CRT) gwbUi I 2| d¬¨vU c¨v‡bj (Flat Panel) gwbUi| K¨v‡_vW iwk¥ wUDe (Cathode Ray Tube-CRT) gwbUi K¨v‡_vW iwk¥ wUDe iwOb gwbU‡ii c`©vi wfZ‡ii wc‡V jvj, meyR I Avmgvwb GB wZbwU †g․wjK e‡Y©i dmdi bvgK cÖwZcÖf ivmvqwbK c`v‡_©i AmsL¨ `vbv _v‡K| GB wZb e‡Y©i wZbwU dmdi `vbv wg‡j GKwU we›`yÎqx (Dot triad) MVb K‡i| c`©vi Af¨šÍi fvM Giƒc ARmª dmdi we›`yÎqx Øviv Av”Qvw`Z _v‡K| cÖwZcÖf c`v‡_©i ag© n‡jv †Kv‡bv Zwor PvR© ev B‡jKUªb Gi Dci G‡m co‡j GwU wKQzÿ‡Yi Rb¨ Av‡jv wewKiY K‡i| iwOb gwbU‡ii K¨v‡_vW iwk¥ wUD‡e cÖwZwU †g․wjK e‡Y©i Rb¨ GKwU K‡i m‡e©v‡gvU wZbwU B‡jKUªb wb‡ÿcK ev B‡jKUªb Mvb (Electron Gun) _v‡K| mv`v-Kv‡jv gwbU‡ii †ÿ‡Î Aek¨ GKwU gvÎ B‡jKUªb Mvb _v‡K| G‡ÿ‡Î dmdi `vbv¸‡jv me GKB i‡Oi nq| gwbUi hLb wµqvkxj nq, ZLb wfwWI K‡›Uªvjvi KvW© ev GWvÞi †_‡K cÖvß wmMbvj Abyhvqx B‡jKUªb Mvb¸‡jv Aweivgfv‡e iwk¥ wbM©Z Ki‡Z ïiæ K‡i| wZbwU B‡jKUªb Mv‡bi cÖwZwU GKwU wbw`©ó e‡Y©i iwk¥ wb‡ÿc K‡i| K¨v‡_vW iwk¥ wUD‡ei Af¨šÍi¯
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v K‡i| G‡ÿ‡Î g¨vM‡bwUK BqK K‡qj MvBW wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| B‡jKUªb iwk¥ AvNvZ nvbvi ci dmdi `vbv¸‡jv Av‡jvwKZ nq Ges c`©vq Qwe wn‡m‡e cwiù~wUZ nq| jvj, meyR I Avmgvwb (Blue) GB wZb i‡Oi wewfbœ Abycv‡Zi wgkª‡Y iwOb gwbU‡i Ab¨ me iO Drcbœ nq| AvKv‡i A‡cÿvK…Z eo Ges we`y¨r LiP †ewk nIqvi Kvi‡Y GB K¨v‡_vW iwk¥ wUDe gwbU‡ii e¨envi w`b w`b K‡g hv‡”Q| d¬¨vU c¨v‡bj (Flat Panel) gwbUi d¬¨vU c¨v‡bj gwbUi K‡qK ai‡bi †`Lv hvq| Z‡e G‡`i g‡a¨ GjwmwW (Liquid Crystal Display-LCD) cÖhwy ³ †ewk RbwcÖq| eZ©gv‡b †W¯‥Uc †_‡K ïiæ K‡i †bvUeyK Kw¤úDUv‡ii gwbUi¸‡jv‡Z K¨v‡_vW iwk¥ wUD‡ei cwie‡Z© GjwmwW (Liquid Crystal Display- LCD) cÖhyw³ e¨envi Kiv nq| K¨v‡_vW iwk¥ wUDe gwbUi †ek RvqMv `Lj K‡i Ges G‡Z cÖPzi •e`y¨wZK kw³ LiP nq| d¬¨vU c¨v‡bj gwbUi G w`K †_‡K myweavRbK| GjwmwW gwbU‡i we‡kl ai‡bi Zij wµ÷vj e¨envi Kiv nq hv ¯^vfvweK Ae¯
vq ¯^”Q| hLb B‡jKwUªwmwUi gva¨‡g GB Zij wµ÷vj PvwR©Z nq ZLb Zv‡Z Qwe dz‡U D‡V| K¨vjKz‡jUi wKsev wWwRUvj Nwo‡Z GjwmwW wWm‡cø †`Lv hvq| GjwmwW (LCD) cÖhyw³ cÖavbZ `yB cÖKvi| h_v Active Matrix LCD hv eZ©gv‡b  Dual-scan LCD bv‡g cwiwPZ I  Passive Matrix LCD hv eZ©gv‡b Thin Film Transistor (TFT) bv‡g cwiwPZ| gwbU‡ii c`©vq †Kv‡bv Qwe, †jLv ev †U·U cÖ`k©‡bi Rb¨ Kw¤úDUvi GKwU B›Uvi‡dm e¨envi K‡i hv‡K wfwWI K‡›Uªvjvi ejv nq|


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Kw¤DUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

7.9 Kx-†evW© Kx-†evW© mvaviYZ me Avjdv‡gwiK eY© (A-Z, a-z, 0-9, $ =. -%,/BZ¨vw`) I we‡kl K‡qKwU K‡›Uªvj ms‡K‡Zi (†hgb Ctrl, Esc, Tab, BZ¨vw`) Kx _v‡K| Kx-†evW©‡K Kb‡mvjI (Console) e‡j| †Kv‡bv Pvwe wUc‡j †mB eY© gwbU‡ii c`©vq dz‡U I‡V I †mBm‡½ †mB e‡Y©i †KvW CPU †ZI P‡j hvq| Kx-†evW© GKwU axiMwZi BbcyU e¨e¯
v| Kx-†ev‡W©i cÖ‡Z¨K Pvwe Avm‡j GKwU •e`y¨wZK m~BP, Gi m‡½ GKwU Gb‡KvWvi hy³ _v‡K| Pvwei myBP wewfbœ ai‡bi n‡Z cv‡i| †hgb- ms¯úk© (Contact) myBP, nj- G‡d± (Hall effect) myBP BZ¨vw`| Kx-†ev‡W©i †Kv‡bv Pvwe wUc‡j Gb‡Kv‡Wi †mB e‡Y©i ASCII BZ¨vw` †Kv‡bv †Kv‡W©i wWwRUvj •e`y¨wZK ms‡KZ (0 ev 1) Drcbœ K‡i| d‡j GKwU BbcyU †iwR÷v‡i †mB e‡Y©i †KvW †jLv n‡q hvq| Zvici cÖ‡mmi †iwR÷v‡i P‡j hvq Ges BbcyU †iwR÷v‡ii †jLv gy‡Q hvq| myZivs Avevi †Kv‡bv Pvwe wUc‡j †mB e‡Y©i †KvW BbcyU †iwR÷v‡i D‡V hvq| Kx-†ev‡W©i Pvwe fyj †Ucv n‡j Dchy³ Pvwe wU‡c CPU I gwbU‡ii †jLv gy‡Q Avevi bZzb K‡i †jLv hvq| myZivs c`©vi †jLv †`‡L †h †Kv‡bv fyjÎæwU mn‡RB ms‡kvab Kiv hvq| Kx†ev‡W©i mvnv‡h¨ †jLv †cÖvMÖvg †Kv‡bv †M․Y ¯§„wZ e¨e¯
v Øviv mÂq K‡i ivLv hvq| ¯‹¨vb †KvW Kx-†ev‡W© cÖ‡Z¨KwU Kx GKwU Abb¨ †KvW Av‡Q hv‡K ¯‥¨vb †KvW ejv nq| GB †KvW Kx †ev‡W©i bKkvi Dci wbf©i K‡i bv| GKB Aÿi GKvwaK Kx‡Z cwi`„ó n‡jI cÖ‡Z¨KwU Kxi ¯‥¨vb †KvW wKšÍy wfbœ| †hgb- Wvb I evg Shift Kx `y‡Uvi ¯‥¨vb †KvW Avjv`v| Kx-†evW© wKfv‡e KvR K‡i? Kw¤úDUvi Kx- †ev‡W©i m‡½ AbyµwgK ev wmwiqvj B›Uvi‡d‡mi gva¨‡g †hvMv‡hvM K‡i| Kw¤úDUv‡ii GKwU AbyµwgK †cvU© G D‡Ï‡k¨ e¨envi Kiv nq| Kx- †ev‡W©i m‡½ Kw¤úDUvi‡K mshy³ Kivi Rb¨ mvaviYZ cvuP ev Qq wc‡bi DIN ms‡hvRb e¨envi Kiv nq| GB ms‡hvR‡Ki gva¨‡g AvU weU cÖ‡¯
i †WUv AbyµwgKfv‡e wewbgq Kiv nq| AvU we‡Ui †WUvi ïiæ‡K mvBb weU, AvU weU †WUvi cwi‡k‡l c¨vwiwU weU I mgvwß m~wPZKvix GKwU we‡kl weU ms‡hvRb Kiv nq| Kx-†ev‡W©i Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Kivi Rb¨ †hgb Kx-†ev‡W© Af¨šÍ‡i gvB‡µvcÖ‡mmi _v‡K, †Zgwb Kw¤úDUv‡ii Af¨šÍ‡i Kx-†evW© msµvšÍ Kvh©µ‡gi ZË¡veav‡bi Rb¨ ÒKx-†evW© K‡›UªvjviÓ wPc _v‡K| Kx-†ev‡W© †Kv‡bv GKwU Kx Pvc †`evi gyn~‡Z©i gv‡SB mswkøó AÿiwU gwbU‡ii c`©vq cÖZxqgvb nq| hw`I GUv Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q ZvrÿwYK g‡b nq, Z‡e Kx-†evW© Ges Kw¤úDUvi‡K GB GKwU Aÿi cÖ`k©‡bi R‡b¨ bvbvwea Kvh© m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq|


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wP‡Î Kw¤úDUvi I Kx-†evW© mw¤§wjZ Kvh©cÖYvjxi GKwU bgybv †`qv n‡q‡Q| †Kv‡bv GKwU Aÿ‡ii m‡½ mswkøó Kx Pvc †`qvi mgq †_‡K gwbU‡ii c`©vq AÿiwU cwi`„ó nIqv ch©šÍ wK N‡U Zvi cÖwZ av‡ci ch©vbyµwgK eY©bv wb‡P †`qv n‡q‡Q| 1. Kx-†ev‡W©i Af¨šÍi¯
 wPc cÖ_‡g †Kv‡bv Kx-wU Pvc †`qv n‡q‡Q Zv wba©viY K‡i| 2. Kx-†ev‡W©i K‡›Uªvjvi wPc Gici Kxi m‡½ RwoZ Kx-†KvWwU Kx-†evW© evdv‡i (Keyboard buffer) msiÿY K‡i Ges GKB m‡½ Kx‡evW© K¨vej w`‡q Kx-†KvWwU Kw¤úDUvi‡K cvVvq| 3. Kx-†evW© K‡›Uªvjvi Kx‡ev‡W©i Rb¨ wba©vwiZ BbcyU gyL (I/0 port) w`‡q Kx-†evW©wU c‡o Ges Kx‡ev‡W©i bKkvi Dci wfwË K‡i Kx-†KvW‡K ¯‥¨vb †Kv‡W iƒcvšÍwiZ K‡i| 4. Kx-†evW© K‡›Uªvjvi Gici 9 bs ev‡qvm& B‡›Uiv‡Þi gva¨‡g Kw¤úDUvi‡K GKwU ¯‥¨vb †Kv‡Wi Dcw¯
wZi K_v AeMZ Kivq| ev‡qvm& G ch©vq _v‡K mg¯Í wbqš¿Y MÖnY K‡i| 5. Kx-†ev‡W©i B‡›UivÞ n¨vÛjvi ¯‥¨vb †KvWwU c‡o Ges †Kv‡bv& KxwU Pvc †`qv ev †Q‡o †`qv n‡q‡Q Zv wba©viY K‡i| AZci wb‡Pi ZvwjKvq ewY©Z KvR¸‡jvi GKwU K‡i  hw` ¯‥¨vb †Kv‡bvwU †Kv‡bv K‡›Uªvj Aÿ‡ii nq, Z‡e B‡›UivÞ n¨vÛ‡ji H K‡›Uªvj Aÿ‡ii wba©vwiZ KvRwU mgvcb K‡i|  hw` GwU wm‡÷g Kx¸‡jvi (Shift, Alt, Ctrl, Caps Lock, Num Lock, Scroll Lock) g‡a¨ GKwU nq, Z‡e wm‡÷g KxwUi Ae¯
v †g‡gvwii GKwU c~e©wba©vwiZ ¯
v‡bi msiÿY K‡i| GKB mgq GB Kx¸‡jvi m‡½ mswkøó ms‡KZI nvjbvMv` (Refresh) Kiv nq|  hw` Pause Kx ev Ctrl-Num Lock Kx nq, Z‡e Kw¤úDUvi mg¯Í Kvh©µg ¯
vwMZ †i‡L bZzb Kx AvNv‡Zi R‡b¨ A‡cÿv ïiæ K‡i|  hw` Ctrl-Alt-Delete Kx¸‡jv GKB m‡½ Pvc †`qv nq, Z‡e Kw¤úDUvi bZzb K‡i eyU K‡i| hw` CtrlBreak Kx nq, Z‡e Kx‡ev‡W©i Rb¨ wba©vwiZ evdviwU k~b¨ K‡i Ges 27 bs ev‡qvm& B‡›UivÞ‡K Wv‡K|  hw` Print screen ev Shift-Print Screen Kx nq, Z‡e 5bs ev‡qvm& B‡›UivÞ‡K Wv‡K|  hw` Alt Kx †P‡c a‡i †i‡L Kx‡ev‡W©i ev w`‡Ki Kxc¨v‡Wi Kx¸‡jv‡K ch©vqµ‡g AvNvZ Kiv nq, Z‡e Kxi Mv‡qi msL¨v Avm&wK †Kv‡Wi Ask wn‡m‡e Rgv Kiv ïiæ K‡i Ges Alt Kx †Q‡o †`evi m‡½ m‡½ cy‡iv Avm&wK †KvWwU c~e©wba©vwiZ ¯
v‡b msiÿY K‡i|  Ab¨ †h †Kv‡bv Kx AvNvZ Kiv n‡j, Kw¤úDUvi Shift, Alt, Ctrl, Caps Lock Kx¸‡jvi Ae¯
v‡bi Dci wfwË K‡i Avmj AvmwK †KvW wba©viY K‡i Ges cÖ‡qvRb‡ev‡a ¯‥¨vb †KvW (ïaygvÎ AvmwK ewnf©~Z Kx¸‡jvi R‡b¨) cwieZ©b K‡i| cÖwZwU Kxi R‡b¨ `yB evB‡Ui GKwU †KvW †g‡gvwi‡Z msiwÿZ nq| cÖ_g evB‡U _v‡K Aÿ‡ii Avm&wK †KvW, wØZxq evB‡U _v‡K Aÿ‡ii m‡½ RwoZ KxwUi ¯‥¨vb †KvW| GLv‡b D‡jøL‡hvM¨ †h, Avm&wK ewnf©~Z Kx¸‡jvi (†hgb F1-F12) cÖ_g evB‡U k~b¨ _v‡K|


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Kw¤DUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

ev‡qvm Kx-†evW© †_‡K cÖvß Aÿi¸‡jv‡K mvgwqKfv‡e msiÿ‡Yi Rb¨ ewÎk weU cÖ‡¯
i wm‡÷g †ggwii GKwU mywba©vwiZ Askwe‡kl e¨envi K‡i| 41Eh †_‡K 43Dh ch©šÍ we¯Í…Z GB Ask‡K ÒKx‡evW© evdviÓ ejv nq| GB evdv‡i †lvjwU ch©šÍ Aÿi msiÿY Kiv m¤¢e| evdvi c~Y© n‡q †M‡j me‡P‡q c~‡e© mwÂZ Aÿ‡ii ¯
v‡b bZzb Aÿi msiÿY Kiv nq| GRb¨ GB evdvi‡K Òe„ËvKvi evdviÓ (Circular buffer) ejv n‡q _v‡K| evdv‡i msiwÿZ Aÿi¸‡jv‡K ev‡qvm& Kx‡evW© mvwf©‡mi gva¨‡g cVb Kiv m¤¢e|

7.10 gvDm gvDm nvZ w`‡q wbqwš¿Z GKwU c‡qw›Us wWfvBm (Pointing Device)| GUv Kx †ev‡W© wb‡`©k cÖ`vb QvovB GKwU Kw¤úDUvi wbqš¿Y K‡i _v‡K| AvaywbK MÖvwdK BDRvi B›Uvi‡dmwfwËK †cÖvMÖvg¸‡jv‡Z cÖPzi †gby (Menu) Ges mnRfv‡e †gbyi (Menu) wbw`©ó AvB‡Ug cQ›` Kiv hvq|GKwU ÷¨vÛvW© gvB‡µvmd&U gvD‡m `yÕwU ev wZbwU evUb i‡q‡Q| mvaviYfv‡e evg cv‡ki evUb e¨envi wPÎ: gvDm Kiv nq| Z‡e Wvb cv‡ki wKQz AwZwi³ Ac&kb i‡q‡Q hv wKQz wKQz †cÖvMÖvg KvR Kivi mgq e¨envi Kiv nq| †hme gvD‡m wZbwU evUb _v‡K †m¸‡jvi gv‡Si I Wvb cv‡ki evUb †P‡c wewfbœ †h․_ KgvÛ †`qv nq| gvB‡µvgvDm n‡jv `y‡Uv avZe PvKv jvMv‡bv GKwU †QvU cøvw÷‡Ki ev·| Gi mvnv‡h¨ Kvm©i‡K LywkgZ †h †Kv‡bv ¯
v‡b miv‡bv hvq|

7.11 wcÖ›Uvi †Kv‡bv Output ev Result KvM‡R wcÖ›U Kivi Rb¨ wcÖ›Uvi e¨envi Kiv nq| wcÖ›Uv‡ii ROM me Character Information Set¸‡jv (A_v©r A ...Z, a .... z, 0 .......9 Ges ~, !, @, #, $, %, , &, * BZ¨vw`) wc›Uvi cÖ¯ÍyZKviK †Kv¤úvwb wcÖ›Uv‡i †mU K‡i †`q| d‡j Kw¤úDUv‡ii †g‡gvwi †_‡K †Kv‡bv KvM‡R wcÖ›U Kivi Rb¨ wb‡`©k cvVv‡j wcÖ›Uvi Zv mn‡RB wcÖ›U Ki‡Z cv‡i| wcÖ›Uvi mv`vKv‡jv wKsev KvjviI n‡Z cv‡i| Ab¨vb¨ AvDUcyU wWfvB‡mi Zzjbvq wcÖ›Uvi GKwU axiMwZ AvDUcyU e¨e¯
v| Z‡e nvW© Kwc •Zwi Kivi Rb¨ wcÖ›Uvi LyeB ¸iæZ¡c~Y© AvDUcyU hš¿| Kvh©cÖYvwj Abymv‡i wcÖ›Uvi‡K cÖavbZt `yB fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v: 1. Bgc¨v± (Impact printer) 2. bb-Bgc¨v± wcÖ›Uvi (Non-Impact printer) Bgc¨v± wcÖ›Uv‡i wcÖ›Uvi †nW (Head) †h KvM‡R wcÖ›U nq Zv‡K ¯úk© K‡i wKšÍy bb-Bgc¨v± wcÖ›Uv‡i †Kv‡bv ¯úk© nq bv| Bgc¨v± wc›Uvi (Impact Printer) Bgc¨v± wcÖ›Uvi Avevi `yB ai‡bi nq| †hgb1. jvBb wcÖ›Uvi (Line Printer) I 2. wmwiqvj wcÖ›Uvi (Serial Printer) ev K¨v‡i±vi wcÖ›Uvi


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jvBb wcÖ›Uvi (Line Printer) jvBb wcÖ›Uv‡i cÖwZev‡i GKwU m¤ú~Y© jvBb Qvcv nq, G¸‡jv ms¯úk© wcÖ›Uv‡ii g‡a¨ me‡P‡q `ª æZMwZm¤úbœ| jvBb wcÖ›Uv‡ii `ªæwZ 200 †_‡K 3000 Ipm (lines per minute) A_©vr G‡Z wgwb‡U 200 †_‡K 3000 jvBb Qvcv nq| mvaviYZ cÖwZ jvB‡b 132wU eY© Ges Abyf~wgKfv‡e cÖwZ Bw‡Z 10 †_‡K 8wU jvBb _v‡K| mvaviYZ 64 †_‡K 96wU wewfbœ e‡Y©i mvnv‡h¨ mewKQz Qvcv‡bv nq, G‡K e‡j GK †mU eY© (Character set)| wgwb I †gBb‡d«g Kw¤úDUv‡i mvaviYZ jvBb wcÖ›Uvi e¨eüZ nq, cÖPzi cwigv‡Y AvDUcyU †WUv Qvcv‡Z n‡j G wcÖ›Uvi Lye Kv‡R jv‡M| jvBb wcÖ›Uvi‡K `yB fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v: 1. †PBb wcÖ›Uvi (Chain Printer) I 2. Wªvg wcÖ›Uvi (Drum Printer) †PBb wcÖ›Uvi (Chain Printer): †PBb wcÖ›Uv‡i GKwU B¯úv‡Zi †PBb ev e¨vÛ (Band) me e‡Y©i `c©Y cÖwZwe¤^ (Mirror image) DuPz K‡i emv‡bv _v‡K (Embossed)| GKwU †P‡b K‡qK †mU eY© _v‡K| Qvcvi KvMR I †P‡bi gv‡S GKwU Kvwj jvMv‡bv wieb (Ribbon) _v‡K| GKwU jvB‡b hZ¸‡jv eY© a‡i KvM‡Ri mvg‡b ZZ¸‡jv n¨vgvi (Hammer) _v‡K| •e`y¨wZK †gvUi Øviv †PBb‡K `ªæZ‡e‡M †Nvivevi e¨e¯
v _v‡K| †P‡bi †Kv‡bv eY© KvM‡Ri †h Ae¯
v‡b Qvcv‡Z n‡e †mB Ae¯
v‡b G‡j †mB Ae¯
v‡bi n¨vgvi KvMR I wieb‡K †mB e‡Y©i Dci †P‡c a‡i| d‡j †mB eY© Qvcv n‡q hvq| g‡b Ki 132 wU eY© a‡i cÖwZ jvB‡b| †Kv‡bv jvB‡b cÖ_g, `kg I 52Zg Ae¯
v‡bi eY© A n‡j, hLbB †P‡bi A cÖ_g, `kg ev 52Zg Ae¯
v‡b ZLbB A Qvcv n‡q hvq| Gfv‡e Z GKv`k I 130 Zg Ae¯
v‡bi eY© n‡j †P‡bi Z GKv`k ev 130 Zg Ae¯
v‡b G‡jB Zv Qvcv n‡q hvq| myZivs GK †mU eY© KvMR‡K m¤ú~Y© KvMR‡K m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c AwZµg Ki‡j †mB mg‡q GKwU cy‡iv jvBb Qvcv n‡q hvq| wcÖ›Uv‡i GKwU mÂq GKK _v‡K hv‡K wcÖ›Uvi evdvi †iwR÷vi e‡j| Kw¤úDUv‡ii cÖavb †ggwi †_‡K GKwU jvB‡bi me e‡Y©i †KvW GKev‡i wcÖ›Uvi evdvi †iwR÷v‡i cvVv‡bv nq| GKwU jvBb Qvcv nIqvi ci KvMR GKUz D‡V hvq hv‡Z c‡ii jvBb Qvcv n‡Z cv‡i| CPU n¨vgvi¸‡jv‡K wbqš¿Y I KvMR IVvevi e¨e¯
v K‡i| †PBb MwZ n¨vgvi Pvjbvi g‡a¨ mvgÄm¨ ivL‡Z nq (Synchronization)| Ab¨_vq Qvcv‡bv fv‡jv nq bv| †PBb wcÖ›Uv‡ii cÖavb myweav n‡jv Lye mn‡RB †PBb cvëv‡bv hvq| myZivs †PBb Lvivc n‡q †M‡j Ab¨ †PBb jvMv‡bv hvq, d‡j mgq bó nq bv| GQvov GKB wcÖ›Uv‡i wewfbœ d«›U (Font) A_v©r wewfbœ ai‡bi UvBc e¨envi Kiv hvq| d«›U n‡jv GKB ai‡bi mg¯Í UvB‡ci mgwó hvi mvnv‡h¨ †mB UvB‡c me wKQzB Qvcv‡bv hvq| Wªvg wcÖ›Uvi (Drum Printer) Wªvg wcÖ›Uv‡i GKwU avZe Wªv‡gi (Drum) Mv‡q eY©¸‡jvi `c©Y cÖwZwe¤^ DuPz K‡i †jLv _v‡K GKB mvwii me eY© (mvaviYZ 132wU) GKB _v‡K| GK †mB e‡Y© hZ¸‡jv wewfbœ eY© _v‡K mvwiI ZZ¸‡jv _v‡K| myZivs me


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Kw¤DUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

wgwj‡q GK‡mU e‡Y©i meKwU eY©B _v‡K| Wªv‡gi •`N©¨ I KvM‡Ri cÖ¯
 mgvb| hZ¸‡jv eY© _v‡K n¨vgviI _v‡K ZZ¸‡jv| Wªvg‡K `ªæZ‡e‡M †Nvivevi e¨e¯
v _v‡K| g‡b Kwi, Wªvg Ny‡i †Kv‡bv GK mg‡q A e‡Y©i mvwi KvM‡Ri †Kv‡bv GK jvB‡bi mgv‡b Gj| ZLb KvM‡Ri †mB jvB‡bi †h †h Ae¯
v‡b A _vK‡e †mB †mB Ae¯
v‡bi n¨vgvi wcÖ›Uvi evdvi †iwR÷v‡ii wb‡`©‡k KvMR‡K AvNvZ K‡i| d‡j KvM‡Ri †mB Ae¯
v‡b A Qvcv n‡q hvq| Gi ci Wªvg Av‡iKUz Ny‡i †mB jvB‡bi mvg‡b Wªv‡gi B mvwi G‡j †mB jvB‡bi †h †h Ae¯
v‡b B _vK‡e †mLv‡b B Qvcv n‡q hvq| myZivs Wªvg GKevi m¤ú~Y© Nyi‡j jvB‡bi †hLv‡b †h eY© cÖ‡qvRb Qvcv n‡q hvq| A_©vr GB mg‡q GKwU m¤ú~Y© jvBb Qvcv nq| KvM‡Ri av‡i wQ`ª (Sprocket) Kiv _v‡K, Gi g‡a¨ †XvKv‡bv `vuZIqvjv PvKv cÖwZ jvBb Qvcv nIqvi (A_©vr Wªv‡gi GKevi c~Y© N~Y©‡bi) c‡i KvMR‡K GK jvBb GwM‡q †`q| Wªv‡gi N~Y©b I n¨vgv‡ii AvNv‡Zi g‡a¨ mvgÄm¨ _vKv cÖ‡qvRb, Ab¨_v jvBb AvuKvevuKv nq| Wªvg wcÖ›Uv‡i GKwU wbw`©ó d«›U e¨eüZ nq A_©vr GK ai‡bi UvBcB e¨envi Kiv m¤¢e| wmwiqvj wcÖ›Uvi ev K¨v‡i±vi wcÖ›Uvi (Serial Printer) wmwiqvj wcÖ›Uv‡i UvBcivBUv‡ii g‡Zv GKev‡i gvÎ GKwU eY© Qvcv nq| G‡K eY© wcÖ›UviI (Character printer) e‡j, G¸‡jv axiMwZm¤úbœ| eY© wcÖ›Uv‡ii `vg Kg wKšÍy G GKbvMv‡o NÈv Lv‡b‡Ki †ewk KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i bv, DËß n‡q c‡o| wmwiqvj wcÖ›Uvi‡K `yB fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_vt 1. WU g¨vwUª· (Dot Matrix) I 2. †WBwR ûBj (Daisy Wheel)

WU g¨vwUª· wcÖ›Uvi (Dot Matrix) AvqZKv‡i mvRv‡bv KZK¸‡jv we›`y‡K WU g¨vwUª· e‡j| †hgb- we›`y¸‡jv 7wU mvwi I 5wU ¯Í‡¤¢ mvRv‡bv _vK‡j Zv‡K e‡j 75 WU g¨vwUª·| GB we›`y¸‡jvi g‡a¨ wKQz we›`y wbe©vPb K‡i †h †Kv‡bv eY©‡K dzwU‡q †Zvjv hvq| †hgb- wP‡Î W‡Ui mvnv‡h¨  eY©wU dzwU‡q †Zvjv n‡q‡Q| wewfbœ ai‡bi WU g¨vwUª· wcÖ›Uv‡ii cÖPjb jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| †hgb 9 wcb, 24 wcb BZ¨vw`| hLb †h eY© Qvcv‡Z nq ZLb †mB e‡Y©i we›`y¸‡jvi Abyiƒc wcb¸‡jv wcÖ›U‡nW †_‡K †ewi‡q G‡m Kvwj gvLv‡bv wieb‡K KvM‡Ri Dci †P‡c a‡i| d‡j †mB e‡Y©i WU¸‡jv A_©vr †mB eY©wU KvM‡R Qvcv n‡q hvq| wcÖ›U †nW‡K •e`y¨wZK †gvU‡ii mvnv‡h¨ mivevi e¨e¯
v Av‡Q| GKwU eY© Qvcv nIqvi ci wcÖ›U‡nW GKUz m‡i hvq| d‡j GKB jvB‡bi c‡ii eY© Qvcv nq| GKwU cy‡iv jvBb n‡q †M‡j KvMR GKUz m‡i wM‡q c‡ii jvBb P‡j Av‡m| Avi wcÖ›U‡nWI †mB m‡½ evuw`‡Ki †kl cÖv‡šÍ m‡i wM‡q Avevi Qvcv‡Z ïiæ K‡i| Z‡e wKQz WU g¨vwUª· wcÖ›Uvi DfqgyLx (Bidirectional) A_©vr Zviv evu †_‡K Wvb I Wvb †_‡K evu Dfqw`‡KB Qvcv‡Z cv‡i| G‡ÿ‡Î GKwU jvBb evuw`K †_‡K I c‡ii jvBb Wvbw`K †_‡K, Gfv‡e Qvcv nq| G‡Z Qvcv A‡cÿvK…Z `ªæZ nq|


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WU g¨vwUª· wcÖ›Uv‡i †m‡K‡Û 50 †_‡K 500wU eY© Qvcv hvq| Gi GKwU myweav WU g¨vwUª‡·i mvwi I ¯Í‡¤¢i msL¨v cwiewZ©Z K‡i e‡Y©i mvBR ev Mob cvëv‡bv hvq| WU g¨vwUª· wcÖ›Uv‡i †jLv QvovI Qwe ev MÖvd Qvcv‡bv hvq| G ai‡bi wcÖ›Uv‡i eY©¸‡jv KwZcq we›`y Øviv Qvcv nIqvq †jLv my`„k¨ nq bv| Z‡e 249 ev 4018 WU g¨vwUª· e¨envi Ki‡j †jLv cÖvq mvaviY Qvcvi †jLvi g‡ZvB nq| †h ai‡bi wcÖ›Uv‡i fv‡jv Qvcvi Aÿ‡ii g‡Zv †jLv nq Zv‡`i †jUvi †KvqvwjwU (Letter quality) wcÖ›Uvi e‡j| eY©¸‡jv wew”Qbœ we›`y Øviv bv Gu‡K Awew”Qbœ †iLv Øviv AvuK‡j Z‡eB †jUvi †KvqvwjwU Qvcv‡bv m¤¢e| †WBwR ûBj wcÖ›Uvi (Daisy wheel Printer) †WBwR ûBj wcÖ›Uvi n‡jv GK ai‡bi †KvqvwjwU wcÖ›Uvi| GLv‡b P¨vÞv PvKvi m‡½ mvB‡K‡ji †¯úv‡Ki g‡Zv A‡bK¸‡jv †¯úvK (Spoke) jvMv‡bv _v‡K| cÖwZ †¯úv‡Ki gv_vq GKwU eY© Ggem Kiv _v‡K| †¯úvK¸‡jvmn PvKv‡K GKwU †WBwR dz‡ji g‡Zv †`L‡Z e‡j Gi GB bvg| GB PvKv euv †_‡K Wvbw`‡K ev Wvb †_‡K euvw`‡K mi‡Z cv‡i Avevi Nyi‡ZI cv‡i| Av‡Mi g‡ZvB PvKv I KvM‡Ri gvSLv‡b Kvwji wieb _v‡K| †Kv‡bv eY© Qvcv‡Z n‡j †WBwR ûBj Ggb RvqMvq m‡i hvq hv‡Z me‡P‡q Dc‡ii †¯úvK KvM‡Ri †hLv‡b Qvcv‡Z n‡e †mLv‡b _v‡K| Gevi PvKv Ny‡i eY© Qvcv‡Z n‡j †¯úvK me‡P‡q Dc‡i P‡j Av‡m| m‡½ m‡½ GKwU n¨vgvi GB †¯úv‡Ki gv_vq AvNvZ K‡i d‡j KvM‡R H eY© Qvcv n‡q hvq| GB eY© Qvcv n‡j PvKv GKUz m‡i hvq hv‡Z me‡P‡q Dc‡ii †¯úvK cieZ©x eY© †hLv‡b Qvcv n‡e †mLv‡b P‡j Av‡m| GKwU jvBb Qvcv n‡j KvMR GKUz D‡V hvq Avi PvKv G‡Kev‡i euvw`‡K m‡i wM‡q Avevi c‡ii jvBb Qvcv ïiæ nq| †WBwR ûBj wcÖ›UviI WU wcÖ›Uv‡ii g‡Zv DfqgyLx n‡Z cv‡i A_©vr GKwU jvBb evuw`K †_‡K Qvcv ïiæ n‡j c‡ii jvBb Wvbw`K †_‡K Qvcv ïiæ nq| †WBwR ûBj wcÖ›Uv‡ii cÖ`vb myweav n‡jv GKwU †WBwR ûBj cv‡ë Ab¨ d«›Uwewkó Av‡iKwU †WBwR ûBj jvMv‡bv hvq| Gfv‡e †h‡Kv‡bv AvKv‡ii ni‡d †jLv Qvcv‡bv hvq| †WBwR ûBj wcÖ›Uv‡i me ai‡bi Qvcv‡bvi KvRB fv‡jvfv‡e Kiv hvq Z‡e Gi `ªæwZ Lye Kg, †m‡K‡Û 20 †_‡K 80wU e‡Y©i g‡Zv| bb-Bgc¨v± wcÖ›Uvi G‡ÿ‡Î wcÖ›U‡nW KvMR‡K ¯úk© K‡i bv; Zvc, Av‡jv, Zworkw³ BZ¨vw` Øviv †jLv †dvUv‡bv nq| Ams¯úk© wcÖ›Uv‡i wcÖ›U‡nW KvMR‡K ¯úk© bv Kivq `ªæZ Qvcv‡bv hvq, kãI Kg nq| G‡`i Qvcv‡bvI Lye fv‡jv, iÿYv‡eÿY LiPI Kg| Z‡e G‡`i Øviv GKvwaK Kwc cvIqv hvq bv, `vgI AZ¨šÍ †ewk| GQvov †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv bb-Bgc¨v± wcÖ›Uv‡i we‡kl ai‡bi `vwg KvM‡Ri cÖ‡qvRb nq| bb-Bgc¨v± wcÖ›Uvi eû ai‡bi nq, h_v1. _vg©vj (Thermal) wcÖ›Uvi 2. w¯
i •e`y¨wZK (Electrostatic) wcÖ›Uvi 3. B¼ †RU (Ink jet) wcÖ›Uvi 4. †jRvi (Laser) wcÖ›Uvi


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Kw¤DUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

_vg©vj wcÖ›Uvi (Thermal Printer) Gi wcÖ›U‡nW A‡bKUv WU g¨vwUª· wcÖ›Uv‡ii g‡Zv, Z‡e wcÖ‡bi e`‡j _v‡K KZK¸‡jv •e`y¨wZK †iva‡Ki we›`y| Qvcvi KvM‡R we‡kl ai‡bi ivmvqwbK c`v_© jvMv‡bv _v‡K, hv Lye `vwg| †Kv‡bv eY© Qvcv‡Z n‡j Zvi Abyiƒc we›`y †ivaK¸‡jv ZworcÖevn Øviv DËß Kiv nq, G‡ZB KvM‡R †mB e‡Y©i Qvc D‡V hvq| _vg©vj wcÖ›Uv‡ii Qvcv‡bvi `ªæwZ 5000 lmp. w¯’i •e`y¨wZK wcÖ›Uvi (Electrostatic Printer) GLv‡b KZK¸‡jv •e`y¨wZK wbe _v‡K hv‡K e‡j ÷vBjvm (Stylus)| Gi Øviv †jLv nq| we‡kl ai‡bi KvM‡R GB wbe Øviv †Kv‡bv e‡Y©i WU g¨vwUª· Drcbœ Kiv nq, Z‡e GB WU¸‡jv nq •e`y¨wZK Pv‡R©i| Gevi GB KvMR‡K wecixZ PvR©hy³ i‡Oi ¸uovi ga¨ w`‡q wb‡q †M‡j w¯
i •e`y¨wZK AvKl©‡Yi Rb¨ i‡Oi ¸uov cÖ‡Z¨K W‡U AvU‡K hvq| d‡j WU g¨vwUª‡·i eY©wU Qvcv n‡q hvq| GB c×wZ‡Z fv‡jv Qvcv nq, Gi `ªæwZ 5000 lpm. B¼ †RU wcÖ›Uvi (Ink jet Printer) B¼ †RU wcÖ›Uv‡i KZK¸‡jv m~² m~wPgyL (Nozzle) †_‡K •e`y¨wZK PvR©hy³ Kvwj †ewi‡q G‡m KvM‡Ri w`‡K Qz‡U hvq| GKwU Zwor†ÿÎ (Electric field) GB PvR©hy³ Kvwji m~² KYv¸‡jv‡K wVKgZ mvwR‡q w`‡q KvM‡Ri Dci †Kv‡bv eY©‡K dzwU‡q †Zv‡j| GB wcÖ›Uv‡i Zij Kvwj e¨envi Kiv nq| i½xb WKz‡g›U wcÖ›U Kivi Rb¨ i½xb Kvwji cÖ‡qvRb nq| B¼ †RU wcÖ›Uv‡i _vg©vj wcÖ›Uv‡ii †P‡q fv‡jv Qvcv nq| Z‡e Kvwj KvM‡R Qwo‡q †h‡Z cv‡i Ges bRi¸‡jv A‡bKmgq eÜ n‡q hvq| wPÎ: B¼ †RU wcÖ›Uvi B¼ †RU wcÖ›Uv‡ii †iRyjykb 360 wWwcAvB †_‡K 1440 wWwcAvB ch©šÍ †`Lv hvq| Z‡e eZ©gv‡b d‡Uv †KvqvwjwU wcÖ›U Kivi Rb¨ GB wcÖ›Uvi †ek e¨eüZ n‡”Q| wgwb ÷zwWI cÖwZôvq GB wcÖ›Uv‡ii Rywo †bB| Z‡e GB wcÖ›Uv‡ii GKwU eo Amyweav n‡jv wcÖ‡›Ui ci Kvwj ïKv‡Z GKUz mg‡q jv‡M| Z‡e fv‡jv gv‡bi Kvwj I KvMR e¨envi Ki‡j GB Amyweav `~i Kiv hvq|

†jRvi wcÖ›Uvi †jRvi wcÖ›Uv‡ii Qvcv LyeB DbœZgv‡bi Ges Gi `ª æwZ 10000 lpm GiI †ewk| GB wcÖ›Uv‡i †jRvi (LASER-Light Amplification by Limited Emission of Radiation) iwk¥i mvnv‡h¨ hv Qvcv‡Z n‡e Zvi GKwU D‡ëv Qvc ev B‡gR dzwU‡q †Zvjv nq| GB D‡ëv Qvc ev B‡gRwU GKwU Av‡jvK ms‡e`bkxj Wªv‡gi Dci B‡jK‡Uªv ÷¨vwUK Pv‡R©i gva¨‡g •Zwi Kiv nq| GB Wªv‡gi Dci dzwU‡q †Zvjv D‡ëv Qvc ev B‡gR Kve©b KYv ev ¸u‡ov Kvwj‡K AvKl©Y Ki‡Z cv‡i| Kve©b KYv ev ¸u‡Wv Kvwj †jRvi wcÖ›Uv‡ii †Uvbv‡i msiwÿZ _v‡K| †UvbviwU‡K Ggbfv‡e ¯
vcb Kiv _v‡K hv‡Z Wªv‡gi B‡gR cwigvYgZ ¸u‡ov Kvwj‡K AvKl©Y Ki‡Z cv‡i| AZtci gy`Yª ‡hvM¨ GKwU KvMR Wªv‡gi Mv †Nu‡m Ggbfv‡e cwiågY Kiv‡bv nq wPÎ: †jRvi wcÖ›Uvi hv‡Z Wªv‡g cwiùzwUZ B‡g‡Ri AvKwl©Z Kve©b KYv ev ¸u‡ov Kvwj¸‡jv †mB KvM‡R ¯
vbvšÍwiZ n‡Z cv‡i| KvM‡Ri Dci cwZZ Kve©b KYv D”P Zvc I Pv‡c M‡j wM‡q ¯
vqxfv‡e KvM‡R e‡m hvq| G fv‡eB †jRvi wcÖ›Uv‡i gy`‡ª Yi KvR m¤úbœ nq|


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7.12 ¯‹¨vbvi ¯‥¨vbvi GKwU AvaywbKZg BbcyU hš¿| ¯‥¨vbv‡ii mvnv‡h¨ Qwe, †jLv BZ¨vw` mivmwi Kw¤úDUv‡i †cÖiY Kiv hvq| ¯‥¨vbv‡ii mvn‡h¨ Kw¤úDUv‡i †cÖwiZ Qwe cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx m¤úv`b Kiv hvq, GKvwaK Qwei mgš^‡q Qwe‡Z bZzb gvÎv †hvM Kiv hvq, B‡”Q gZ i‡Oi e¨envi Kiv hvq, wewfbœ •ewk‡ó¨i †jLv ms‡hvRb Kiv hvq| Kw¤úDUv‡i Qwe K¨vcPvi Kivi Rb¨ Avgv‡`i †`‡k †hme ¯‥¨vbvi e¨envi Kiv nq †mme ¯‥¨vbvi mvaviYZ d¬vU †eW ¯‥¨vbvi wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ| Awd‡mi Kv‡R †cR ¯‥¨vbvi ev †nìn¨vì ¯‥¨vbviI e¨eüZ n‡q _v‡K| †ckv`vix gy`ª‡Yi Rb¨ †hme ¯‥¨vbvi e¨eüZ nq Zvi †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bvwU‡K Wªvg ¯‥¨vbviI ejv nq| mv¤cÖwZKKv‡j Kx †evW© ¯‥¨vbviI cÖPwjZ n‡q‡Q| mvaviY K¨v‡givq †Zvjv Qwe Ges KvM‡R gyw`ªZ Qwe ¯‥¨vbv‡ii mvnv‡h¨ Kw¤úDUv‡i †cÖiY Kiv hvq| wPÎ: ¯‥¨vbvi ¯‥¨vbv‡ii mvnv‡h¨ Kw¤úDUv‡i Qwe MÖnY Ges Kw¤úDUv‡i Qwe m¤úv`bvi Rb¨ cÖavbZ GWve d‡Uvkc †cÖvMÖvg e¨envi Kiv n‡q _v‡K| AcwUK¨vj ¯‥¨vbvi Av‡jvK iwk¥ Ges Av‡jvK ms‡e`bkxj hš¿ (Sensor) Gi mvnv‡h¨ Qwe, †iLv, †jLv BZ¨vw`i Z_¨ cvV K‡i _v‡K|

7.13 md&UIq¨vi mgm¨v mgvavb ev Kvh© m¤úv`‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ Kw¤úDUv‡ii fvlvq avivevwnKfv‡e mvRv‡bv wb‡`©kgvjv‡K †cÖvMÖvg e‡j| †cÖvMÖvg ev †cÖvMÖvg mgwó hv Kw¤úDUv‡ii nvW©Iq¨vi I e¨enviKvixi g‡a¨ m¤úK© m„wói gva¨‡g nvW©Iq¨vi‡K Kvh©ÿg K‡i Zv‡KB md&UIq¨vi e‡j| md&UIq¨vi Qvov nvW©Iqvi A_©nxb| md&UIq¨vi e¨enviKvix Ges nvW©Iqv‡ii mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM iÿv K‡i| Dchy³ md&UIq¨v‡ii cÖfv‡e Kw¤úDUvi MvwYwZK kw³m¤úbœ eyw×gvb h‡š¿ iƒc †`q| wP‡Î Kw¤úDUvi e¨enviKvwi Ges nvW©Iq¨v‡ii g‡a¨ †hvMv‡hvM †`Lv‡bv n‡jv| Kw¤úDUv‡ii Af¨šÍ i xY Kvh© m¤úv`‡bi fvlv I Avgv‡`i fvlv GK bq| e¯‧ Z Kw¤úDUvi †cÖ v MÖ v g †jLvi Rb¨ A‡bK K… w Îg fvlvi D™¢ e n‡q‡Q| †hgb-wm, c¨vm‡Kj, Rvfv, †Kvej, †ewmK BZ¨vw`| †Kv‡bv we‡kl mgm¨vi mgvavb Kivi Rb¨ Kw¤úDUv‡ii fvlvi gva¨‡g avivevwnKfv‡e †Kv‡bv †cª v Mª v g mgwó •Zwi Kiv‡KB †cÖ v MÖ v wgs ev †cÖ v MÖ v g Kiv e‡j| Avi †h †cÖ v MÖ v g •Zwi K‡i Zv‡K †cÖ v MÖ v gvi e‡j| †cÖ v MÖ v gvi Kw¤úDUv‡ii nvW© I q¨v‡ii cÖ v Y cÖ w Zôv K‡ib| †cÖ v MÖ v gvi wewfbœ Kv‡Ri Dc‡hvMx K‡i †h †cÖ v MÖ v g mgwó •Zwi K‡ib, ZvB md& U Iq¨vi|


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Kw¤DUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

7.14 md&UIq¨v‡ii ¸iæZ¡ mgm¨v mgvavb ev Kvh© m¤úv`‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ Kw¤úDUv‡ii fvlvq avivevwnKfv‡e mvRv‡bv wb‡`©kgvjv‡K †cÖvMÖvg e‡j| †cÖvMÖvg ev †cÖvMÖvg mgwó hv Kw¤úDUv‡ii nvW©Iq¨vi I e¨enviKvixi g‡a¨ m¤úK© m„wói gva¨‡g nvW©Iq¨vi‡K Kvh©ÿg K‡i| md&UIq¨v‡ii ¸iyZ¡ wb‡gœ eY©bv Kiv n‡jv: 1. mgm¨v mgvavb: e¨enviKvixi cÖ‡qvRb we‡ePbv K‡i c¨v‡KR md&UIqvi¸‡jv mvaviYZ Kgb †Kv‡bv KvR ev mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Rb¨ •Zwi Kiv nq| 2. c¨v‡KR md&UIqvi: Kw¤úDUvi †cÖvMÖvg •Zwi‡Z `ÿ †h †Kv‡bv Uxg †h †Kv‡bv c¨v‡KR md&UIqvi •Zwi Ki‡Z cv‡ib| Z‡e GwU mgq mv‡cÿ I e¨qeûj| 3. bZzb fvm©b: c¨v‡KR md&UIqvi wbg©vZv cÖwZôvb wbqwgZ Zvi †µZv‡`i Pvwn`vi Dci wfwË K‡i bZzb fvm©b evRv‡i Qv‡ob| d‡j cÖPwjZ c¨v‡KR md&UIqvi¸‡jvi KvwiMwi `ÿZv A‡bK †ewk nq Ges AvKv‡iI G¸‡jv A‡bK eo| 4. RbwcÖqZv: mn‡R e¨envi Ki‡Z cv‡i e‡j Gme md&UIqv‡ii RbwcÖqZvI †ewk| 5. mnRjf¨: Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e Kg `v‡g c¨v‡KR md&UIqvi †h †Kn evRvi †_‡K wKb‡Z cv‡i| 6. ¯^í e¨q: md&UIqvi ‣Zwii RwUjZv I LiP †_‡K gy³| 7. MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv: Gme md&UIqvi ‣Zwi Kivi ci eûevi cixÿv-wbixÿv Kiv nq e‡j Gi MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv A‡bK †ewk| 8. KvwiMwi †mev: c¨v‡KR md&UIqvi cÖ¯‧ZKvix cÖwZôv‡bi KvQ †_‡K KvwiMwi †mev cvIqv hvq| 9. wbqš¿Y Kg: c¨v‡KR md&UIqvi cÖ¯‧ZKvix cÖwZôv‡bi Kv‡Ri ¸Yv¸Y Ges †mevi Dci e¨enviKvixi Lye Kg wbqš¿Y _v‡K| 10. wbf©ikxjZv: c¨v‡KR md&UIqvi cÖ¯‧ZKvix cÖwZôvb bZyb †µZv‡K AvK„ó Kiv Ges cyivZb †µZv‡K a‡i ivLvi Rb¨ cÖwZwbqZ bZzb •ewkó¨hy³ fvm©b evRviRvZ K‡ib| †m‡ÿ‡Î e¨enviKvix Lye †ewk gvÎvq c¨v‡KR mieivnKvixi Dci wbf©ikxj n‡q c‡ob| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, †cÖvMÖvgvi wewfbœ Kv‡Ri Dc‡hvMx K‡i †h †cÖvMÖvg mgwó •Zwi K‡ib, ZvB md&UIq¨vi| †cÖvMÖvgvi Kw¤úDUv‡ii nvW©Iq¨v‡ii cÖvY cÖwZôv K‡ib| ZvB Kw¤úDUv‡i md&UIqv‡ii ¸iyZ¡ A‡bK|

7.15 Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g Bs‡iwR Operate kãwUi AvwfavwbK A_© cwiPvjbv Kiv| Aciw`‡K System Gi AvwfavwbK A_© c×wZ| Kw¤úDUvi weÁv‡b Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g ej‡Z Kw¤úDUvi cwiPvjbvi c×wZ‡K eywS‡q _v‡K| GKUv †`k Z_v miKvi cwiPvjbv I wbqš¿‡Yi Rb¨ †hiƒc c×wZ ev wm‡÷‡gi cÖ‡qvRb (†hgb- MYZš¿, ivRZš¿, mgvRZš¿ BZ¨vw` c×wZ) wVK †Zgwb †h †Kv‡bv Kw¤úDUvi‡K ¯^qswµqfv‡e mdU&Iq¨vi ev †cÖvMÖvg w`‡q wbqš¿Y I cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ †h md&UIq¨vi A_v©r †cÖvMÖvg ev †cÖvMÖvg mgwó e¨eüZ nq H¸‡jv‡K GKmv‡_ ejv nq Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g (Operating System ms‡ÿ‡c OS)| Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g Qvov †Kv‡bv Kw¤úDUviB Pvjy Kiv hvq bv| ÒAcv‡iwUs wm‡÷g n‡jv Ggb KZK¸‡jv †cÖvMÖv‡gi mgwó †h¸‡jvi mvnv‡h¨ Kw¤úDUv‡ii mKj nvW©Iq¨vi I mdU©Iq¨vi‡K wbqš¿Y (Controts), ZË¡veavb (Supervise) Ges mdU&Iq¨vi¸‡jvi cwiPvjbv, wbqš¿Y I Kvh©Kix (Execute) Ki‡Z mg_©b (Support) Ges mvnvh¨ K‡iÓ| GQvovI Ac‡iwUs wm‡÷gm& Kw¤úDUvi e¨enviKvixi mv‡_ mdU&Iq¨vi I nvW©Iq¨v‡ii †hvMv‡hvM ¯
vcb K‡i| Bnv nvW©Iq¨vi‡K mveavb (Carefully) I wbLyuZfv‡e (Efficiently) wbqš¿Y Ges e¨e¯
vcbv Ki‡Z cv‡i †hb Kw¤úDUvi e¨enviKvixi nvW©Iq¨vi msµvšÍ mKj Amyweav jvNe nq|


mvwPweK we`¨v

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1951 mv‡j gvwK©b hy³iv‡óªi (USA) †Rbv‡ij gUi wimvP© j¨ve‡iUwi KZ…©K (IBM Corp. Gi Rb¨ me©cÖ_g Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g Avwe®‥„Z nq| Bnv ZLb †gBb‡d«g Kw¤úDUv‡i e¨envi Kiv n‡Zv| Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g wcwm‡Z 1971 mvj †_‡K e¨envi ïiæ nq hv CP/M bv‡g cwiwPZ| Av‡gwiKvb b¨vkbvj ÷¨vÛvW© BÝwUD‡Ui (American National Standards Institute-ANSI) g‡Z, æSoftware which controls the execution of computer programs and which may provide scheduling, debugging, input/output control, accounting, compilation, storage assignment, data management and related services.” eûj e¨eüZ Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g¸‡jv n‡jv MS-DOS, PC-DOS

 MS WINDOWS (95/98/2000/Me/XP/Vista BZ¨vw`)

 UNIX,  Mac OS

 XENIX  LINUX (RedHat, Fedora, Ubuntu BZ¨vw`)

 OS/2 Warp

 Sun Solaries BZ¨vw`|

Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g n‡”Q Ggb GKwU md&UIq¨vi hv Kw¤úDUvi †cÖvMÖv‡gi Gw·wKDkb‡K wbqš¿Y K‡i Ges hv wmwWDwjs, wWevwMs, BbcyU/AvDUcyU K‡›Uªvj, GKvDw›Us, K¤úvB‡jkb, †÷v‡iR A¨vmvBb‡g›U, †WUv g¨v‡bR‡g›U Ges Avbymw½K KvR K‡i _v‡K|

7.16 Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi ¸iæZ¡ Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g Kw¤úDUv‡ii g‡a¨ cÖv‡Yi mÂvi K‡i| Bnv Kw¤úDUvi I e¨enviKvixi g‡a¨ †mZzeÜb •Zwi K‡i| Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi gva¨‡gB e¨enviKvix Kw¤úDUv‡ii mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM ¯
vcb K‡i I Gi hvwPZ e¨envwiK md&UIq¨vi Pvjv‡Z mÿg nq I Zvi AvKvw•ÿZ wewea Kvh© m¤úv`b Ki‡Z mÿg nq| Kv‡RB Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g Qvov Kw¤úDUvi wm‡÷g g~j¨nxb hš¿| wb‡P Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi Av‡iv wKQz MiæZ¡ Zz‡j aiv n‡jv| h_ve¨enviKvix e¨enviKvix e¨enviKvix e¨enviKvix 1

2

n

3

 wmwcBD Gi KvR wbqš¿Y K‡i  †g‡gvwi e¨e¯
vcbv K‡i

K¤úvBjvi A¨v‡m¤^jvi

 †bUIqvK© e¨e¯
vcbv K‡i  BbcyU AvDUcyU wWfvBmmn Ab¨b¨ wi‡mvm© wbqš¿Y K‡i  e¨enviKvix Ges †cÖvMÖv‡gi wbivcËv cÖ`vb K‡i  wm‡÷‡gi wewfbœ Ask Ges †cÖvMÖv‡gi mgš^q mvab K‡i|

†U±U GwWUi

†WUv‡em wm‡÷g

A¨vcwj‡Kkb †cÖvMÖvg Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g Kw¤úDUvi nvW©Iq¨vi wPÎ: Kw¤úDUvi wm‡÷‡gi g‡a¨ Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi Ae¯
vb


188

Kw¤DUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi KvR (Functions of Operating System) Kw¤úDUv‡ii AvKvi, MVb I cÖ‡qv‡Mi Dci wbf©i K‡iB Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi MVb, AvKvi †QvU ev eo Ges Kv‡Ri cwiwa Kg ev †ewk nq| eZ©gv‡b eûj cÖPwjZ Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g¸‡jvi cÖavb cÖavb KvR¸‡jv wb‡gœ D‡jøL Kiv n‡jvBDRvi B›Uvi‡dm

 BDRvi B›Uvi‡dm: BDRvi B›Uvi‡dm Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi Ggb GKwU Ask hv e¨enviKvixi mv‡_ wewfbœ md&Iq¨v‡ii ms‡hvM, mgš^q mvab, cwiPvjbv I wb‡`©k MÖn‡Y mnvqZv cÖ`vb K‡i| ZvQvov md&UIq¨vi¸‡jvi wbqš¿Y I wewfbœ †cÖvMÖvg †jvW Kiv I KvR Kivi my‡hvM m„wó K‡i _v‡K| Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡g mvaviYZ wZb ai‡bi BDRvi B›Uvi‡dm †`Lv hvq| h_vKgvÛ PvwjZ, †gby PvwjZ I MÖvwdK¨vj BDRvi B›Uvi‡dm|

wi‡mvm© g¨v‡bR‡g›U

†ggwi g¨v‡bR‡g›U

Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi KvR

BDwUwjwU †cÖvMÖvg&m †bUIqvwK©s

wmwKDwiwU Uv¯‥ g¨v‡bR‡g›U

dvBj g¨v‡bR‡g›U

wPÎ 2.2: Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi KvR

 wi‡mvm© g¨v‡bR‡g›U: Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g Kw¤úDUvi‡K mPj I e¨envi Dc‡hvMx K‡i †Zv‡j| Bnv Kw¤úDUv‡ii wewfbœ wi‡mvm© †hgb BbcyU I AvDUcyU wWfvBm (wcÖ›Uvi, d¬wc/nvW© wW¯‥ WªvBf, gvDm, gwbUi I Kx‡evW© BZ¨vw`) I Ab¨vb¨ wWfvBm¸‡jvi wbqš¿Y, ÎæwU I Ae¯
v ch©‡eÿY Ges mgš^q mvab K‡i| ZvQvov †ggwi g¨v‡bR‡g›U K‡i Kw¤úDUv‡ii `ÿZv e„w× K‡i|  wmwKDwiwU: Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g Kw¤úDUv‡ii wi‡mvm©‡K Abvw`ó e¨enviKvixi nvZ †_‡K iÿv K‡i| Bnv †WUv I Bbdi‡gkb Pzwi †_‡KI iÿv K‡i|  Uv· g¨v‡bR‡g›U: Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi Uv¯‥ g¨v‡bR‡g›U †cÖvMÖvg e¨enviKvixi wb‡`©k MÖnY, we‡kølY Ges e¨vP cÖ‡mwms K‡i| wmwcBDi UvBg mœvBm‡K wewfbœ Uv‡¯‥i g‡a¨ eÈb K‡i Ges B›UvivÞ K‡›Uªvj K‡i hv‡Z mKj Uv¯‥B mwVKfv‡e m¤úbœ nq|  dvBj g¨v‡bR‡g›U: Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g Kw¤úDUv‡ii wi‡mvm©‡K Abvw`ó e¨enviKvixi nvZ †_‡K iÿv K‡i| Bnv †WUv I Bbdi‡gkb Pzwi †_‡KI iÿv K‡i|


mvwPweK we`¨v

189

 †bUIqvwK©s: AvaywbK Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g GKvwaK Kw¤úDUvi wKsev Ab¨vb¨ wWwRUvj wWfvB‡mi mv‡_ mshy³ nIqvi hveZxq KvR K‡i _v‡K| GB mshyw³ ev †bUIqvwK©s‡qi gva¨‡g e¨enviKvix wewfbœ ai‡bi myweav †hgb†WUv UªvÝdvi, wi‡mvm© †kqvwis BZ¨vw` †c‡q _v‡Kb|  BDwjwUm: Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g e¨enviKvix‡K wewfbœ ai‡bi myweav †hgb- dvBj wWd«vM‡g‡›Ukb, †WUv K‡¤cÖkb, e¨vKAvc, †WUv wi‡Kvfvwi, Gw›U-fvBivm BDwUwjwUm BZ¨vw` cÖ`vb K‡i|

7.17 Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi cÖKvi‡f` †g‡gvwi msMVb, wewfbœ †cÖvMÖvg Pvjv‡bv ev Kvh©Kix KiY Ges †m‡KÛvwi ev gva¨wgK †g‡gvwi wWfvBm¸‡jvi Dci wbf©i K‡i mvaviYZt Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g¸‡jv‡K wewfbœ fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v1. e¨vP/Ad-jvBb †gvW (Batch/of-line Mode) Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g 2. gvwë‡cÖvMÖvwgs (Multiprogramming) ev gvwëUvmwKs (Multitasking) Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g 3. gvwëcÖ‡mwms (Multiprocessing) Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g 4. wi‡qj UvBg ev cÖK…Z mgq Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g 5. UvBg‡kqvwis (Time Sharing) Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g 6. Ab-jvBb ev B›Uvi-GKwUf (On-line/Interactive) †gvW Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g 7. fviPzq¨vj †÷v‡iR/†gwkb (Virtual Storage/Machine) Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g 8. †WwW‡K‡UW& (Virtual Storage/Machine) Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g 9. wWw÷ªweD‡UW (Distributed) Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g

e¨vP cÖ‡mwms Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi (Batch Processing Operating System) e¨vP cÖ‡mwms (ev e¨vP †gvW) Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡g GKwU wbw`©ó mg‡q GKwU †cÖvMÖvg wKQz mgqe¨vcx msM„nxZ †WUv cÖ‡mm Kivi ci Ab¨ Av‡iKwU †cÖvMÖvg ev Ab¨ †WUv cÖ‡mm Kiv nq| GB Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡g GKwU mgq a‡i wewfbœ e¨enviKvixi Uvwg©bvj †_‡K †WUv GKwU wbw`©ó †g‡gvwi ev †÷v‡i‡R Rgv nq| GKwU wbw`©ó mgq a‡i msiwÿZ †WUv¸‡jv cÖwµqvKiY Kiv nq| †hgb- †Kv‡bv †`vKv‡b mvivw`‡b †Kv‡bv wRwbm Kx cwigv‡Y KZ `v‡g wewµ n‡q‡Q Zvi me †WUv iv‡Î GKev‡iB cÖ‡mm Kiv nq A_ev mvivw`‡bi msM„nxZ e¨vsK †PK w`‡bi †k‡l e¨vP †gv‡W wn‡me Avc‡WU K‡i cÖ‡qvRb n‡j wi‡cvU© •Zwi Kiv nq| GB Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷gwU †gBb‡d«g I wgwb Kw¤úDUv‡i cÖv_wgK Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g wQj| gvB‡µv Kw¤úDUv‡i e¨eüZ CP/M, MS-DOS Ges PCDOS- ¸‡jvI e¨vP c×wZi Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g|


190

Kw¤DUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

e¨vP cÖ‡mwms Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g‡K †KD †KD wmKz‡qbwmqvj (Sequential), wmwiqvj (Serial), e¨vP †gvW (Batch Mode) ev Ad-jvBb †gvW (Off Line Mode) I e‡j _v‡Kb| GB c×wZi Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡g gvÎ GKwU KvR (A_v©r Job-1) ev †cÖvMÖvgB †kl nIqvi ci bZzb Av‡iKwU †cÖvMÖvg ev KvR (A_v©r Job-2) Pvjy ev Kvh©Kix Kivi Rb¨ cÖ‡ek K‡i A_v©r GKwU Kv‡Ri (Job1-Gi) BbcyU(I), cÖ‡mwms(P) I AvDUcyU (O) †kl nIqvi ci wØZxq Kv‡Ri (Job1-Gi) BbcyU (I) ïiæ nq|

Job- 1 I P O

Job- 2 I P O mgq

wPÎ 2.3 : e¨vP cÖ‡mwms Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g|

Kw¤úDUv‡ii cÖv_wgK hy‡M e¨vP cÖ‡mwms Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi e¨envi wQj| ZLbKvi hy‡M e¨vsK, wegv, eo wWcvU©‡g›Uvj †÷vi BZ¨vw`i Kw¤úDUvi wbf©i wnmve e¨e¯
vcbv g~jZ e¨vP cÖ‡mwms Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi gva¨‡g cwiPvwjZ n‡Zv| eZ©gv‡b GB Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi e¨envi bvB ej‡jB P‡j| e¨vP cÖ‡mwms Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi myweav GB wm‡÷‡g KvR Kivi mgq e¨envixi †Kv‡bv cÖKvi weiwZi cÖ‡qvRb nq bv|  Kv‡Ri mgq wmwcBD ev Kw¤úDUvi wm‡÷‡gi Ajm mgq wKQzUv K‡g hvq| e¨vP cÖ‡mwms Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi Amyweav GB wm‡÷‡g cÖwZwU KvR‡K jvB‡b ev wKD‡Z A‡cÿv Ki‡Z nq| d‡j mg‡qi AcPq nq|  GLv‡b †cÖvMÖv‡gi ¸iæZ¡ we‡ePbv bv K‡i GKUvi ci GKUv KvR cÖwµqvKiY Kiv nq| gvwë‡cÖvMÖvg ev gvwëUvmwKs Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g (Multiprogramming or Multitasking) gvwë‡cÖvMÖvwgs ev gvwëUvmwKs Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡g GKwU Kw¤úDUvi GKm‡½ GKvwaK †cÖvMÖvg Pvjv‡Z cv‡i A_ev †WUv cÖ‡mwms Ki‡Z cv‡i| GKwU Kw¤úDUvi GKvwaK cÖ‡mwms ev †cÖvMÖvg Pvjv‡bv‡K gvwë‡cÖvMÖvwgs ev gvwëUvmwKs ejv nq| e¨vP cÖ‡mwms Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡g GKwU †cÖvMÖvg cÖ‡mwms Kivi ci Av‡iKwU †cÖvMÖvg cÖ‡mwms-G nvZ †`q| GB e¨e¯
vq hLb BbcyU ev AvDUcyU (I/O) †cwi‡divj e¨e¯
v †WUv Av`vb-cÖ`v‡b e¨¯Í _v‡K ZLb CPU Ajm n‡q e‡m _v‡K| wKš‧ gvwë‡cÖvMÖvwgs-Gi †ÿ‡Î RAM-G GKvwaK †cÖvMÖvg mwÂZ _v‡K| CPU GKwU †cÖvMÖvg cÖ‡mwms m¤ú~Y© ev AvswkKfv‡e Kivi ci ZLb (I/O) †cwi‡divj e¨e¯
v GB †cÖvMÖv‡gi ev Ab¨ Av‡iKwU †cÖvMÖv‡gi BbcyU †bqvi wKsev AvDUcyU †`qvi Kv‡R nvZ †`q| Avi GB mg‡q Gw`‡K CPU Ab¨ Av‡iKwU †cÖvMÖv‡gi cÖ‡mwms ïiæ K‡i| myZivs CPU GgbwK (I/O) †cwi‡divj e¨e¯
vI KLbI Ajm Ae¯
vq _v‡K bv| A_v©r hLb CPU GKwU †cÖvMÖvg Pvjvq ZLb †cwi‡divj¸‡jv Ab¨ †cÖvMÖv‡gi (I/O) Acv‡ik‡bi KvR Pvjvq| gvwë‡cÖvMÖvwgs-Gi †ejvq RAM-G Aew¯
Z GKwU Kvh©wbe©vnx †cÖvMÖvg (Executive Program- hv gvwë‡cÖvMÖvwgs Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡giB GKwU Ask) wVK K‡i †Kv‡bv mgq †Kv‡bv †cÖvMÖv‡g cÖ‡mm ev (I/O) Kvh© ïiæ ev †kl n‡e| †Kv‡bv †cÖvMÖv‡gi KvR eÜ Ki‡Z n‡j gvwë‡cÖvMÖvwgs CPU †K B›UvivcU& (Interrupt) Aby‡iva cvVvq|


mvwPweK we`¨v

191

wb‡gœi †Uwe‡j D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ gvwë‡cÖvMÖvwgs †`Lv‡bv n‡jv| †Uwej: gvwë‡cÖvMÖvwgs Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g

Pµ-1

Pµ-2

Pµ-3

Pµ-4

Pµ-5

Pµ-6

Pµ-7

I P O Re-1 I P O Re-2 I P O Re-3 I P 0 Re-4 I P O Re-5 GLv‡b, Re (Job) ej‡Z †cÖvMÖvg ev †WUv cÖ‡mwms eySvq Ges I = BbcyU, P = cÖ‡mwms, Ges O = AvDUcyU ev djvdj| Pµ-1-G Rb-1 BbcyU K‡i Pµ-2-G H Re-1- †K CPU †Z cÖ‡mm Ki‡Q Ges Aciw`‡K, Re-2 BbcyU Ki‡Q A_P Kw¤úDUvi Pµ-3-G G‡m Re-1-Gi djvdj w`‡”Q AvDUcyU wWfvBm w`‡q| Ab¨w`‡K CPU cÖ‡mm Ki‡Q Re-2 Ges H mgq (A_©vr Pµ-3-G) BbcyU Ki‡Q Re-3| Gfv‡e gvÎ GKwU BbcyU I AvDUcyU BDwbU n‡j Re-5 ch©šÍ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| wKš‧ GKvwaK BbcyU I AvDUcyU BDwbU n‡j Kw¤úDUvi AviI R‡ei BbcyU cÖ‡mwms Ges djvdj w`‡Z cv‡i| gvwë‡cÖvMÖvwgs Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi myweav-

 GB c×wZ‡Z GKB mv‡_ GKvwaK †cÖvMÖvg †g‡gvwi‡Z Ae¯
vb K‡i mgvšÍivjfv‡e cwiPvwjZ n‡q _v‡K|  GB c×wZ‡Z `ªæZ MwZ‡Z †cÖvMÖvg cÖwµqvKi‡Yi KvR m¤úbœ Kiv nq| gvwë‡cÖvMÖvwgs Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi Amyweav GB wm‡÷‡g GKmv‡_ GKvwaK †cÖvMÖvg †g‡gvwi‡Z ivL‡Z nq e‡j Lye eo †g‡gvwii cÖ‡qvRb nq|  †g‡gvwii cvwU©k‡bi cÖ‡qvRb nq|  †g‡gvwi‡Z †ewk †cÖvMÖvg mwÂZ bv _vK‡j CPU Amj Ae¯
vq e‡m _v‡K|

7.18 Kw¤úDUv‡ii nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨v‡ii g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ (The difference between hardware & software) GKwesk kZvwã‡K ejv nq Kw¤úDUv‡ii hyM| GKK_vq ejv hvq, Kw¤úDUvi Qvov eZ©gv‡b mKj KvRB cÖvq APj| G Kw¤úDUv‡ii Ab¨Zg `yB Dcv`vb n‡jv nvW©Iq¨vi I mdUIq¨vi| G `ywU wel‡qi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Av‡jvPbv Kivi c~‡e© G‡`i cwiwPwZ Zz‡j aiv n‡jv: nvW©Iq¨vi:

Kw¤úDUv‡ii evwn¨K AvK…wZm¤úbœ mKj hš¿vsk, wWfvBmmg~n‡K nvW©Iq¨vi e‡j| A_©vr nvW©Iq¨vi n‡”Q Kw¤úDUv‡ii evwn¨K KvVv‡gv hv Avgiv ¯úk© Ki‡Z cvwi| †hgb-wW¯‥ WªvBf, Kx-†evW©, gvDm, gwbUi, wcÖ›Uvi BZ¨vw`| nvW©Iq¨vi cÖavbZ 3 cÖKvi| h_v: K) BbcyU; L) wm. wc. BD.; I M) AvDUcyU


Kw¤DUv‡ii BwZnvm, nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi

192

md&UIq¨vi: my-k„•Lj I avivevwnKfv‡e mvRv‡bv wKQy wbqg-Kvbyb hvi gva¨‡g Kw¤úDUvi‡K wb‡`©k †`qv hvq Kw¤úDUvi wK KvR K‡i, Kxfv‡e KvR Ki‡e, GB wbqg-Kvbyb‡K e‡j md&UIq¨vi| md&UIq¨vi‡K cÖavbZ 2fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v: K) wm‡÷g md&UIq¨vi; L) A¨vwcø‡Kkb md&UIq¨vi| wb‡gœ nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨v‡ii g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ †`Lv‡bv n‡jv: cv_©‡K¨i welq

nvW©Iq¨vi

md&UIq¨vi

1. Kv‡Ri cÖK…wZ

GwU Kw¤úDwUs Gi KvR K‡i|

GwU Kw¤úDUvi Pvjvq|

2. g~j¨

md&UIq¨v‡ii Zzjbvq nvW©Iq¨v‡ii g~j¨ Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e Kg|

md&UIq¨v‡ii g~j¨ Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e †ewk n‡q _v‡K|

3. cÖKvi‡f`

nvW©Iq¨vi cÖavbZ 3 cÖKvi|

md&UIq¨vi cÖavbZ 2 cÖKvi|

4. `ÿZv

nvW©Iq¨vi •Zwi‡Z kvixwiK `ÿZvi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o|

md&UIq¨vi •Zwi‡Z gvbwmK Áv‡bi `iKvi nq|

5. •Zwi

†h †KD B”Qv Ki‡j GwU •Zwi Ki‡Z cv‡i bv|

†h‡Kv‡bv e¨enviKvix GwU •Zwi Ki‡Z cv‡ib|

6. D`vniY

Kx-†evW©, gvDm, Rq÷xK, gwbUi, wcÖ›Uvi BZ¨vw`|

MS-Word; Lotus-1,2,3; Excel; Windows-2000; Foxpro BZ¨vw`|

7. AvšÍtms‡hvM

Gi cÖwZwU hš¿vs‡ki gv‡S AvšÍt ms‡hvM _v‡K|

Gi †Kv‡bv AvšÍtms‡hvM _v‡K bv|

8. Aw¯ÍZ¡

Gi evwn¨K Aw¯ÍZ¡ i‡q‡Q|

Gi †Kv‡bv evwn¨K Aw¯ÍZ¡ †bB|

9. wbqš¿Y e¨e¯
v

nvW©Iq¨vi md&UIq¨vi KZ©„K wbqwš¿Z nq| md&UIq¨vi nvW©Iq¨vi‡K wbqš¿Y K‡i|

10. wbf©ikxjZv

nvW©Iq¨vi m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c md&UIq¨v‡ii Dci wbf©ikxj|

md&UIq¨v‡ii cÖwZwU Ask ¯^qsm¤úbœ|

11. KvVv‡gv

nvW©Iq¨v‡ii evwn¨K KvVv‡gv hv ¯úk©bxq|

md&UIq¨vi Af¨šÍixY Ask e‡j GwU ¯úk© Kiv hvq bv|

12. ¯Íi

GwU cÖv_wgK ¯Íi|

GwU P~ovšÍ ¯Íi|

Dch©y³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq, Kw¤úDUv‡ii nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨vi G‡K A‡b¨i mv‡_ I‡Zv‡cÖvZfv‡e RwoZ| nvW©Iq¨vi Kw¤úDwUs KvR K‡i Ges md&UIq¨vi Kw¤úDUvi Pvjvq| Gi GKwU Qvov Ab¨wU g~j¨nxb| G‡`i g‡a¨ h‡_ó cv_©K¨ weivRgvb _vK‡jI Df‡qi mgš^‡q Kw¤úDUvi cwiPvjbv Kiv nq|


mvwPweK we`¨v

cÖkœvewj 1|

Kw¤úDUvi wK?

2|

Kw¤úDUv‡ii RbK †K?

3|

Kw¤úDUv‡ii e¨envi ev cÖ‡qvM eY©bv Ki|

4|

Kw¤úDUv†ii †kªwYwefvM Av‡jvPbv Ki|

5|

Kw¤úDUv‡ii mswÿß BwZnvm eY©bv Ki|

6|

nvW©Iq¨vi wK?

7|

wm‡÷g BDwbU wK?

8|

gwbUi wK?

9|

Kx-†evW©

10|

gvDm wK?

11|

wcÖ›Uvi wK?

12|

¯‥¨vbvi wK?

13|

md&UIq¨vi wK?

14|

md&UIq¨v‡ii ¸iæZ¡ Av‡jvPbv Ki

15|

Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g ej‡Z wK eyS?

16|

Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi ¸iæZ¡ eY©bv Ki|

17|

Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gi cÖKvi‡f` Av‡jvPbv Ki|

18|

Kw¤úDUv‡ii nvW©Iq¨vi I md&UIq¨v‡ii cv_©K¨ †jL|

193


Aóg Aa¨vq

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8.1 WKz‡g›U •Zwi Kw¤úDUv‡i DB‡ÛvR 95/98 Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡g KvR Kivi Rb¨ Kw¤úDUv‡ii myBP Ab (ON) Kivi ci c`©vq DB‡ÛvR 95/98 †W¯‹Uc cwi‡ek cvIqv hvq| †W¯‹U‡ci wb‡P evgw`‡K ÷vU© (Start) †evZv‡g gvDm c‡q›Uvi w`‡q wK¬K Ki‡j wewfbœ †cÖvMÖvg, dvBj, †dvìvi BZ¨vw`i ZvwjKv cvIqv hvq| G ZvwjKv †_‡K †cÖvMÖvg G wK¬K Ki‡j wewfbœ †cÖvMÖv‡gi bv‡gi ZvwjKv cvIqv hvq| G ZvwjKv †_‡K gvB‡µvmd&U IqvW©-Gi bv‡gi Dci wK¬K Ki‡j gvB‡µvmd&U IqvW© †cÖvMÖvg Pvjy n‡q hvq ev Ly‡j hvq| D³ †gby †_‡K AvB‡Kv‡b wK¬K Ki‡j wb‡¤œi †gbywU cÖ`wk©Z n‡e| D³ †gby †_‡K AvB‡Kv‡b wK¬K K‡i gvB‡µvmd&U Iqv‡W© cÖ‡ek Kiv hv‡e| DB‡ÛvR 3.1 Ges DB‡ÛvR 95/98/2000, DB‡ÛvR NT, †gwKb‡Uvk-Gi †h †Kv‡bv Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g †_‡K gvB‡µvmd&U IqvW© †cÖvMÖvg †Lvjvi ci cÖvß gvB‡µvmd&U IqvW© †cÖvMÖv‡gi k~b¨ (Blank) WKz‡g›U DB‡Ûv †`L‡Z GKB iKg Ges Kv‡Ri my‡hvMI cÖvq GKB iKg| k~b¨ WKz‡g›U DB‡ÛvR n‡”Q †jLv‡jwLi Rb¨ mv`v KvM‡Ri g‡Zv| Kx-†ev‡W©i mvnv‡h¨ evsjv ev Bs‡iwR‡Z UvBc K‡i GB k~b¨ WKz‡g›U DB‡Ûv‡Z wPwVcÎ, cÖwZ‡e`b, cÖeÜ, Mí, KweZv BZ¨vw` †h †Kv‡bv wel‡q mswÿß †_‡K `xN©Zi welqe¯‘i †jLv‡jwLi KvR Kiv hvq ev UvBc Kiv hvq| GB UvBc Kiv welqe¯‘‡KB Kw¤úDUv‡ii †ggwi‡Z msiÿY Ki‡Z nq| bvgmn WKz‡g›U‡K dvBj ejv nq|

8.2 WKz‡g›U m¤úv`bv (Edit) †h‡Kv‡bv WKz‡g›U UvB‡ci KvR †kl Kivi c‡i m¤úv`bvi KvR Ki‡Z nq| UvB‡ci KvR †kl K‡i WKz‡g›UwU ïay •Zwii KvR m¤úbœ Ki‡Z nq| UvB‡ci KvR Kivi mgq bvbv cÖKvi fzj-åvwšÍ n‡Z cv‡i| †hgb-fzj evbvb, fzj kã, fzj evK¨ BZ¨vw`| GQvov mwVK Aby‡”Q` wefvRb, †Kv‡bv kã ev ev‡K¨i cÖwZ we‡klfv‡e `„wó AvKl©Y ev ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb Ges AviI bvbv cÖKvi KvR _v‡K, hvi gva¨‡g GKwU WKz‡g›U c~Y©Zv cvq bv ev A‡bK mgq A_©enI nq bv| UvBc Kivi KvR †kl K‡i GB KvR¸‡jv m¤úbœ KivB n‡”Q m¤úv`bvi KvR| m¤úv`bvi KvR Kivi Rb¨ †h `ÿZvwU cÖ_‡gB AR©b Kiv `iKvi †mwU n‡jv eY©, kã ev evK¨ KvU, Kwc Kiv Ges cÖwZ¯’vcb Ki‡Z Rvbv| ZvQvov m¤úv`bvi KvR whwb K‡ib Zuv‡K Aek¨B mswkøó welq m¤ú‡K© AewnZ n‡Z nq Ges cÖKvkbv m¤úwK©Z †mŠ›`h© Áv‡bi AwaKvix n‡Z nq| mswkøó welq m¤ú‡K© AewnZ bv n‡j †jLvi †Kv‡bv Ask, †Kv‡bv evK¨ ev †Kv‡bv kã we‡klfv‡e `„wó AvKl©Y ev ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc Kivi Rb¨ wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e, Zv A_©c~Y©fv‡e wba©viY Kiv hvq bv| Avevi cÖKvkbv m¤úwK©Z †mŠ›`h© Ávb bv _vK‡j nq‡Zv AcÖ‡qvRbxq ev AwZwi³ †gvUv ev euvKv Aÿi e¨envi Kivi d‡j gyw`ªZ welqe¯‘ `„wóKUz n‡Z cv‡i| m¤úv`bv c‡e©i D‡jøL‡hvM¨ KvR¸‡jv n‡”Q fzj evbvb ï× Kiv,  cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx Aÿ‡ii AvKvi-AvK…wZ web¨vm Kiv,  welqe¯‘i e³e¨ Abyhvqx ch©vqµwKfv‡e Aby‡”Q` web¨vm Kiv BZ¨vw`| Gi g‡a¨ mevi Av‡M Ki‡Z nq evbvb ms‡kva‡bi KvR|


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8.3 WKz‡g›U cwieZ©b (Replace) WKz‡g›U †_‡K †Kv‡bv k‡ãi cwie‡Z© ¯^qswµqfv‡e Ab¨ kã emv‡bvi Rb¨ Replace KgvÛ e¨envi Kiv nq| G KvR Kivi Rb¨ g~j †gbyi Edit n‡Z Replace wbe©vPb Ki‡j cv‡mi DB‡ÛvwU Avm‡e| GLb kãwU cwieZ©b Ki‡Z n‡e Zv Find what G Ges †h kãwU emv‡Z n‡e Zv Replace With G wj‡L Replace G wK¬K Ki‡jB kãwU cwieZ©b n‡q hv‡e Ges Replace All w`‡j kãwU hZ RvqMvq Av‡Q me RvqMv †_‡KB cwieZ©b n‡q hv‡e|

8.4 WKz‡g›U msiÿY (Save) Kw¤úDUv‡ii hLb †Kv‡bv KvR Kiv nq ZLb Zv A¯’vqx †ggwi ev i¨vg (RAM) -G Rgv _v‡K| we`y¨r P‡j †M‡j A¯’vqx †ggwi‡Z we`¨gvb wKQzB Aewkó _v‡K bv| A¯’vqx †ggwi fvÛvi m¤ú~Y© k~b¨ n‡q hvq| wKš‘ UvBc Kiv welqe¯‘ msiÿY K‡i wb‡j welqe¯‘ mnvqK †ggwi, †hgb nvW© wW¯‹ ev d¬wc wW‡¯‹ P‡j hvq| WKz‡g‡›U UvBc Kiv welqe¯‘ msiÿY Kivi Rb¨ gvB‡µvmdU IqvW© †cÖvMÖv‡gi dvBj †gby‡Z gvDm c‡q›Uvi w`‡q wK¬K Ki‡j dvBj †gbyi Aax‡b A‡bK¸‡jv Kgv‡Ûi ZvwjKv cvIqv hvq| G ZvwjKv †_‡K †mf (Save) ev †mf G¨vR (Save As) KgvÛ wm‡j± Ki‡Z nq| KgvÛ wm‡j± Kivi ci c`v©q †mf G¨vR (Save As) WvqjM e· Av‡m| msiÿY cÖwµqv m¤úbœ Kivi ciciB WvqjM e· P‡j hvq Ges WKz‡g›U DB‡Ûvi Dc‡i UvB‡Uj evi-G WvqjM e‡· UvBc Kiv dvB‡ji bvg †`Lv hvq| DB‡ÛvR 95, DB‡ÛvR 98-Gi †mf G¨vR WvqvjM e‡·i wb‡Pi w`‡K File Name †jLvi cv‡ki †U·U e‡· dvB‡ji bvg UvBc Ki‡Z nq| Gici Save in As‡k WvB‡±wii ZvwjKv ev wj÷ e· †_‡K †h †Kv‡bv GKwU WvB‡i±wi wm‡j± K‡i WvqvjM e‡·i †evZv‡g wK¬K Ki‡Z nq A_ev Kx- †ev‡W©i G›Uvi, †evZv‡g Pvc w`‡Z nq| G‡Z WvqvjM e·wU P‡j hvq Ges WvqvjM e‡·i File Name †U·U e‡· UvBc Kiv dvB‡ji bv‡g WKz‡g›UwU †mf n‡q hvq| WKz‡g›U DB‡Ûvi Dc‡i UvB‡Uj evi-G dvB‡ji bvg †`Lv hvq| †mf/†mf G¨vR WvqvjM e‡· †Kv‡bv WKz‡g›U †mf Kivi mgq WKz‡g‡›Ui dvBj di‡gU ev dvBj UvBc Ges Ab¨vb¨ Ackbmg~n m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb _vK‡Z n‡e| WKz‡g›UwU Ab¨ †cÖvMÖv‡g e¨envi Ki‡Z n‡j †h †cÖvMÖv‡g e¨envi Kiv n‡e †m †cÖvMÖv‡g gvB‡µvmdU Iqv‡W©i †Kv‡bv dvBj di‡gU ev dvBj UvBc mv‡cvU© Ki‡e Zv Rvb‡Z n‡e|

8.5 wcÖwfD I gy`ªY wcÖwfD: †Kv‡bv IqvK©eyK‡K wcÖ›U Kivi c~‡e© GwU wcÖ›U Ki‡j †Kgb n‡e Zv cÖ`k©b Kiv‡K wcÖ›U wcÖwfD ejv nq| †Kv‡bv IqvK©eyK‡K wcÖ›U wcÖwfD Kivi Rb¨ K) IqvK©eyKwU c`©vq I‡cb Ki‡Z n‡e| L) File+Print-wb‡`©k w`‡j wcÖ›U WvqvjM Avm‡e| M) Preview wK¬K Ki‡j wcÖ›U wcÖwfD DB‡Ûv Avm‡e|


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wPÎ: wcÖwfD WvqvjM e·

: G evU‡b wK¬K K‡i cieZ©x c„ôv cÖ`k©b Kiv hvq| : G evU‡b wK¬K K‡i c~e©eZ©x c„ôv cÖ`k©b Kiv hvq| : G evU‡b wK¬K K‡i eo/†QvU K‡i c„ôv cÖ`k©b Kiv hvq| : G evU‡b wK¬K K‡i mivmwi wcÖ›U Kiv hvq| : G evU‡b wK¬K Ki‡j †cR †mUAvc Wvqvj e· Avm‡e| WvqvjM e· †_‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq Ackb wba©viY K‡i †cR †mUAvc Kiv hvq| †mUAvc K‡i OK Ki‡Z n‡e| Margin : G evU‡b wK¬K K‡i gvwR©bmn cÖ`k©b Kiv hvq| Page Break Preview : G evU‡b wK¬K K‡ic„ôv‡K †f‡½ †f‡½ w¯Œ‡b cÖ`k©b Kiv hvq| Close : G evU‡b wK¬K K‡i wcÖwfD DB‡Ûv †K¬vR Kiv hvq| gy`Yª : WKz‡g›U •Zwii KvR P~ovšÍ Kivi ci WKz‡g›U‡K nvW© Kwc ev KvM‡R Kwi •Zwii Rb¨ WKz‡g›UwUi wcÖ›U wb‡Z nq| wewfbœ ai‡bi gva¨‡g †Kv‡bv WKz‡g›U wcÖ›U Kiv n‡q _v‡K| me‡P‡q †ewk e¨eüZ gva¨g nj KvMR| ZvQvov Ac‡mU †cÖ‡m Qvcvi R‡b¨ †Uªwms †ccv‡i wcÖ›U †bqv nq| Dc¯’vcbvi Rb¨ hw` †Kv‡bv WKz‡g›U cÖ¯‘Z Kiv nq Z‡e Zv ¯øvB‡W ev UªvÝcv‡iwÝ wk‡U Kiv hvq| wcÖ‡›Ui Av‡M KZK¸‡jv welq jÿ¨ Ki‡Z n‡e| †hgbNext Previous Zoom Print Setup

1. wcÖ›Uv‡ii aib: KvMR ev ¯øvB‡W gy`Yª Kivi Rb¨ cÖavbZ †jRvi ev B¼‡RU wcÖ›Uvi wKsev Ab¨ †h †Kv‡bv wcÖ›Uvi e¨envi Kiv hvq| wKš‘ †Uªwms †ccv‡i wcÖ›U †bevi Rb¨ Aek¨B †jRvi wcÖ›Uvi e¨envi Ki‡Z nq| 2. wcª›Uv‡ii ms‡hvM: †h wcÖ›Uv‡i gy`Yª †bqv n‡e †mB wcÖ›UviwUi mv‡_ Kw¤úDUviwUi ms‡hvM Av‡Q wKbv| 3. wcÖ›Uv‡ii WªvB I wm‡jKkb: †h wcÖ›Uv‡i wcÖ›U Kiv n‡e Zv evQvB Kiv Av‡Q wKbv Ges wcÖ›U Kivi cÖ‡qvRbxq mdUIq¨vimg~n Kw¤úDUv‡i BÝUj Kiv Av‡Q wKbv| g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e G‡KK ai‡bi wcÖ›Uv‡ii Rb¨ G‡KK ai‡bi WªvBfvi md&UIq¨v‡ii cÖ‡qvRb nq| 4. wcÖ›Uv‡ii Ab: wcÖ›UviwU Ab Kiv Av‡Q wKbv Ges †Uª‡Z KvMR Av‡Q wKbv| Dc‡ii welq¸‡jv wbwðZ nevi ci wcÖ›U (Print) KgvÛ w`‡j c`©vq wcÖ›U (Print) WvqvjM e· cvIqv hvq| GB WvqvjM e‡·i wewfbœ Ackb c~iY K‡i OK Ki‡j wcÖ›U n‡e|


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8.6 WKz‡g›U di‡gwUs (Formatting) WKz‡g›U di‡gwUs Gi KvR¸‡jvi g‡a¨ D‡jøL‡hvM¨ n‡”Q kxl©PviY (Header), cv`PiY (Footer) c„ôv b¤^i ms‡hvRb Ges gvwR©b I Bb‡W›U web¨vm| cÖeÜ-cÖwZ‡e`b RvZxq `xN© WKz‡g‡›Ui cÖwZ c„ôvi Dc‡i GKwU Pi‡Y cÖeÜ/cÖwZ‡e`‡bi bvg mvaviYZ †e‡Rvo c„ôvq Ges †jL‡Ki bvg mvaviYZ †Rvo c„ôvq e¨envi Kiv nq| G PiY¸‡jv‡KB kxl©PiY (Header) ejv nq| cÖwZ c„ôvi wb‡P c„ôv b¤^i Ges c„ôv b¤^‡ii m‡½ dg©v msL¨v ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv †jLv A‡bK mgq e¨envi Kiv n‡q _v‡K| cÖwZ c„ôvi wb‡P e¨eüZ G PiY¸‡jv‡K ejv nq cv`PiY (Footer)| c„ôv msL¨v cv`PiY Qvov Ab¨fv‡eI hy³ Kiv hvq| GQvov A‡bK †jLvq †Kv‡bv kã ev †WUvi mswÿß e¨vL¨v ev cwiPq wn‡m‡e cv`UxKv (Footer) e¨envi Kiv n‡q _v‡K| gvwR©b (Margin) gvwR©b n‡”Q KvM‡Ri Wvb-evg Ges Dci-wbP w`‡Ki k~b¨ RvqMv| wP‡Î gvwR©b web¨v‡mi bgybv †`Lv‡bv n‡jv| aiv hvK, KvM‡Ri Wvb w`K †_‡K 1 Bw Ges evg w`‡K †_‡K 1 Bw gvwR©b wn‡m‡e †Q‡o w`‡j KvM‡Ri Dci wjwLZ welqe¯‘i jvBb¸‡jvi cvkvcvwk gvc n‡e 6.5 BwÂ| web¨vm (Alignment) wjwLZ welqe¯‘‡K K‡qKwU web¨v‡m web¨¯Í Kiv hvq| †hgb1. evg web¨vm (Left Alignment) 2. Wvb web¨vm (Right Alignment) 3. mg web¨vm (Justified Alignment) 4. ga¨ web¨vm (Centre Alignment) evg web¨v‡m †jLvi evg cÖvšÍ evg gvwR©b eivei _v‡K Ges Wvb cÖv‡šÍi cÖwZwU jvBb Wvb gvwR©b ch©šÍ †cuŠ‡Q bv| Wvb web¨v‡m †jLvi Wvb cÖvšÍ Wvb gvwR©b eivei _v‡K Ges evg cÖv‡šÍi cÖwZwU jvBb evg gvwR©b ch©šÍ †cuŠ‡Q bv| mg web¨v‡m †jLvi Dfq cÖvšÍ gvwR©b eivei _v‡K| ga¨ web¨v‡m cÖwZwU jvBb `yB gvwR©‡bi gvSLv‡b web¨¯Í nq Ges cÖwZwU jvB‡bi `yB cÖvšÍ †_‡K gvwR©b ch©šÍ mgvb RvqMv _v‡K| evg web¨vm (Left Alignment) WKz‡g›U (Document) k‡ãi mvaviY A_© n‡”Q cÖgvY `wjj, cÖgvY cÎ, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw`| UvBc †mwUs K‡i ev UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g KvMR wKsev gwbU‡ii c`©vq hv Dc¯’vcb Kiv hvq Ggb mewKQz‡K WKz‡g›U e‡j| wPwVcÎ, ev‡qvWvUv, wi‡cvU©, eB †g‡gv, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw` meB WKz‡g‡›Ui AvIZvq c‡o| UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g kã msMwVZ K‡i wjwc •Zwi, cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx Gi m¤úv`bv, †ggwi‡Z AbywjwcKiY, msi¶Y gy`Yª BZ¨vw`i mgwš^Z cÖwµqv‡K WKz‡g›U cÖ‡mwms e‡j|


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ga¨ web¨vm (Centre Alignment) WKz‡g›U (Document) k‡ãi mvaviY A_© n‡”Q cÖgvY `wjj, cÖgvY cÎ, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw`| UvBc †mwUs K‡i ev UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g KvMR wKsev gwbU‡ii c`©vq hv Dc¯’vcb Kiv hvq Ggb mewKQz‡K WKz‡g›U e‡j| wPwVcÎ, ev‡qvWvUv, wi‡cvU©, eB †g‡gv, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw` meB WKz‡g‡›Ui AvIZvq c‡o| UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g kã msMwVZ K‡i wjwc •Zwi, cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx Gi m¤úv`bv, †ggwi‡Z AbywjwcKiY, msi¶Y gy`Yª BZ¨vw`i mgwš^Z cÖwµqv‡K WKz‡g›U cÖ‡mwms e‡j| Wvb web¨vm (Right Alignment) WKz‡g›U (Document) k‡ãi mvaviY A_© n‡”Q cÖgvY `wjj, cÖgvY cÎ, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw`| UvBc †mwUs K‡i ev UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g KvMR wKsev gwbU‡ii c`©vq hv Dc¯’vcb Kiv hvq Ggb mewKQz‡K WKz‡g›U e‡j| wPwVcÎ, ev‡qvWvUv, wi‡cvU©, eB †g‡gv, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw` meB WKz‡g‡›Ui AvIZvq c‡o| UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g kã msMwVZ K‡i wjwc •Zwi, cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx Gi m¤úv`bv, †ggwi‡Z AbywjwcKiY, msi¶Y gy`Yª BZ¨vw`i mgwš^Z cÖwµqv‡K WKz‡g›U cÖ‡mwms e‡j| mg web¨vm (Justified Alignment) WKz‡g›U (Document) k‡ãi mvaviY A_© n‡”Q cÖgvY `wjj, cÖgvY cÎ, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw`| UvBc †mwUs K‡i ev UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g KvMR wKsev gwbU‡ii c`©vq hv Dc¯’vcb Kiv hvq Ggb mewKQz‡K WKz‡g›U e‡j| wPwVcÎ, ev‡qvWvUv, wi‡cvU©, eB †g‡gv, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw` meB WKz‡g‡›Ui AvIZvq c‡o| UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g kã msMwVZ K‡i wjwc •Zwi, cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx Gi m¤úv`bv, †ggwi‡Z AbywjwcKiY, msi¶Y gy`Yª BZ¨vw`i mgwš^Z cÖwµqv‡K WKz‡g›U cÖ‡mwms e‡j| †jLv cÖavbZ evg I mgvb web¨v‡m web¨¯Í Kiv nq| ga¨ web¨vm I Wvb web¨vm e¨envi Kiv nq mvaviYZ †jLvi Ask we‡k‡l H As‡ki cÖwZ `„wó AvKl©Y Kivi Rb¨ ev ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc Kivi Rb¨| A‡bK mgq wjd‡jU, †cv÷vi BZ¨vw`i †jLv web¨v‡mi Rb¨I ga¨ Wvb web¨vm e¨envi Kiv n‡q _v‡K|

8.7 evsjv IqvW© cÖ‡mwms evsjv fvlvq IqvW© cÖ‡mwms KivB n‡”Q evsjv IqvW© cÖ‡mwms| Avgv‡`i †`‡k GLb e¨vcKfv‡e evsjv IqvW© cÖ‡mwms‡qi e¨envi n‡”Q| miKvwi-†emiKvwi Awdm-Av`vj‡Zi wPwVcÎ, cÖvwZôvwbK gyLcÎ (Newsletter) wewfbœ cÖKvi cÖwZ‡e`b BZ¨vw` †_‡K ïiæ K‡i cÖKvkbv I msev`cÎ wk‡í GLb e¨vcKfv‡e evsjv IqvW© cÖ‡mwms‡qi KvR n‡”Q| evsjv IqvW© cÖ‡mwms‡h KvR Kivi Rb¨ wKsev evsjv fvlvq Kw¤úDUv‡ii Ab¨ †Kv‡bv KvR Kivi Rb¨ evsjv mdUIq¨vi cÖ‡qvRb| evsjv IqvW© cÖ‡mwms Gi Rb¨ cÖPwjZ evsjv md&UIq¨vimg~‡ni `ywU welq jÿ¨Yxq| GB `ywU n‡jv: K. evsjv w¯ŒÞ B›Uvi‡dm wm‡÷g| L. evsjv d›U|


200

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wPÎ: †cR †mUAvc WvqvjM e·

†cR †mUAvc WvqvjM e‡· PviwU U¨ve i‡q‡Q| h_v: Page, Header/Footer, Margins Ges Sheet IqvK©wkU KvR‡M wcÖ›U Kivi Rb¨ hv hv welq we‡ePbvq Avb‡Z nq Zv meB Page Setup WvqvjM e‡·i G PviwU U¨ve Ack‡b i‡q‡Q|


mvwPweK we`¨v cwiwPwZ

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8.9 gvwR©b †mUAvc gvB‡µvmdU IqvW© †cÖvMÖv‡gi k~b¨ (Blank) WKz‡g›U †`L‡Z cvB Zv‡K Avgiv GKwU mvaviYZ KvM‡Ri †c‡Ri m‡½ Zzjbv Ki‡Z cvwi| KvM‡Ri evg cv‡k, Wvb cv‡k, Dc‡i- wb‡P †h Lvwj RvqMv ivLv nq Zv‡K gvwR©b e‡j| wb‡¤œi wP‡Î gvwR©b †`Lv‡bv n‡jv| gvwR©b Gi gvc wVK Kivi Rb¨ dvBj †gby‡Z wM‡q †cR †mUv‡c †h‡Z n‡e Zv †_‡K B”Qvg‡Zv gvwR©b †mUAvc Kiv hv‡e| mvaviYZ 8 Bw gv‡ci GKwU KvM‡R Pvicv‡k 1 Bw K‡i RvqMv Lvwj ivL‡Z nq| wPÎ: gvwR©b †mUAvc WvqvjM e·

8.10 †Uwej •Zwi: †Uwej cÖ¯‘Z Ki‡Z n‡j cÖ_‡g †gby †_‡K Table-G wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| Uyj WvDUb †gby †_‡K Insert Table G wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| c`©vq Insert Table bv‡g Windows Avm‡e| Number of Column Ges Number of Row Gi cv‡k msL¨v w`‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq msL¨K Row Ges Column wewkó Table cÖ¯‘Z Kiv hvq| A_ev, †Uwej AvBK‡b †iv Ges Kjvg wbw`©ó Ki‡j †Uwej •Zwi nq|

wPÎ: †Uwej •Zwi WvqvjM e·

bZzb Row Ges Column mshy³KiY :  †Uwe‡ji †hLv‡b bZzb †iv mshy³ Ki‡Z n‡e †mLv‡b gvDm c‡q›Uvi ivL‡Z n‡e|  Table †gby †_‡K Insert Row †Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e|  †h Column G bZzb Kjvg mshy³ n‡e †mB Column wm‡j± Ki‡Z n‡e|  Table †gby †_‡K Insert Column G wK¬K Ki‡j bZzb Column mshy³ n‡e| A_ev, †iv/Kjv‡g gvDm †i‡L ivBU evU‡b wK¬K K‡i Insert evU‡b wK¬K K‡i bZzb †iv Gi Ae¯’vb wm‡j± K‡i wK¬K Ki‡j bZzb †iv •Zwi nq|


202

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BbmvU©: Insert k‡ãi A_© mwbœ‡ewkZ Kiv ev ms‡hvRb Kiv| GK‡m‡j Insert †gby¯’ wewfbœ Ackb wbe©vPb K‡i IqvK©wk‡U cÖ‡qvRbxq A‡bK wKQz mwbœ‡ewkZ Kiv hvq| GK‡m‡j Insert †gby‡Z wK¬K Ki‡j A_ev Alt + I Kx Øq Pvc‡j c`©vq BbmvU© †gby I‡cb n‡e: G †gby¯’ wewfbœ Ackb wbe©vPb K‡i hv Kiv hvq Zvnj:  IqvK©wk‡U †mj, Kjvg, †iv Ges bZzb IqvK©wkU mwbœ‡ewkZ Kiv hvq|  A‡bK ai‡bi PvU© ev MÖvd Avbv hvq|  c„ôvi gv‡S bZzb c„ôv •Zwi Kiv hvq|  wewfbœ ai‡bi MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Rb¨ dvskb BbmvU© Kiv hvq|  IqvK©wk‡Ui wbw`©ó †iÄi Rb¨ GKwU bvg †`qv hvq|  g¨vcm, nvBcviwjsK •Zwi Kiv hvq| (ïaygvÎ GK‡mj 97 G)| GQvovI Ab¨vb¨ AviI KvR Kiv hvq| wPÎ: BbmvU© †Uwej WvqvjM e·

wWwjU :  †h †mjwU gyQ‡Z n‡e †mLv‡b gvDm c‡q›Uvi ivL‡Z n‡e|  Table †gby †_‡K Delete G wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e|  Delete Entire Row/Delete Entire Column wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| A_ev, †iv/Kjv‡g gvDm †i‡L ivBU evU‡b wK¬K K‡i Delete evU‡b wK¬K Ki‡j bZzb †iv/Kjvg gy‡Q hvq|

wPÎ: wWwjU WvqvjM e·


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8.11 †Uwej di‡gwUs †Uwej •Zwi Kivi ci Avgiv wewfbœ di‡gwUs Gi KvR Ki‡Z cvwi| †hgb- Kjvg¸‡jv mgvb Kiv A_ev †iv ¸‡jv mgvb Kiv| †UwejwU wm‡j± K‡i gvD‡mi ivBU evU‡b wK¬K K‡i †iv A_ev Kjvg¸‡jv mgvb Kivi Rb¨ wbw`©ó evUb wK¬K Ki‡Z nq | Avevi GKvwaK †mj GKwÎKiY ev GKvwaK †mj GK mv‡_ mshy³ Kivi KvRI Kiv hvq| GjvBb‡g›U: †Uwe‡ji wewfbœ †m‡ji †jLv‡K Avgiv wewfbœ web¨v‡m ivL‡Z cvwi| †hgb- evg web¨vm, Wvb web¨vm, ga¨ web¨vm BZ¨vw` web¨v‡m mvRv‡Z cvwi| wewfbœ web¨v‡m mvRv‡bvi Rb¨ †mj¸‡jv wm‡j± K‡i gvD‡mi ivBU evUb wK¬K K‡i wbw`©ó evU‡b wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| †cR bv¤^vi: hLb †Kv‡bv WKz‡g‡›U A‡bK c„ôv _v‡K ZLb cÖ‡Z¨K †c‡R b¤^i w`‡j mn‡R Luy‡R †ei Kiv hvq| ZvB WKz‡g‡›Ui mvBR eo n‡j †cR b¤^i w`‡Z nq| WKz‡g‡›U †cR b¤^i †`qvi Rb¨ Insert †gby †_‡K Page Number wm‡j± Ki‡Z nq| Zvi ci †c‡Ri †Kv_vq †Kvb ÷vB‡j †cR b¤^i w`‡Z n‡e Zv wbw`©ó K‡i w`‡Z nq| Gi d‡j ¯^qswµqfv‡e cÖ‡Z¨K †c‡R b¤^i hy³ nq|

wPÎ: †cR bv¤^vi WvqvjM e·

†nWvi I dzUvi: †nWvi I dz U vi n‡”Q H mKj †U·U hv WKz ‡ g‡›Ui cÖ ‡ Z¨K †c‡R kx‡l© Ges wb‡P _v‡K| †nWv‡i mvaviYZ cÖ e ‡Üi bvg/Aa¨v‡qi bvg _v‡K| dz U v‡i _v‡K cÖ ô v bs, ZvwiL, dvBj †bg BZ¨vw`| †Kv‡bv WKz ‡ g‡›U †nWvi I dz U vi †`qvi Rb¨ Insert †gby †_‡K Header/Footer wm‡j± Ki‡Z nq| Zvi ci †c‡Ri †Kv_vq †Kv‡bv ÷vB‡j †Kvb Z_¨/†U·U n‡e Zv wbw`© ó K‡i w`‡Z nq| Gi d‡j ¯^ q swµqfv‡e cÖ ‡ Z¨K †c‡R †nWvi I dz U vi hy ³ nq|


IqvW© cÖ‡mwms

204

8.12 evbvb cixÿY (Spell Checking) UvBc Kivi mgq wKQz fzj †_‡K hvIqv A¯^vfvweK bq| UvB‡ci KvR †kl nIqvi ci cÖ_‡gB cixÿv K‡i fzj evbvb Lyu‡R †ei Ki‡Z nq| fzj evbvb †Pv‡L covi m‡½ m‡½ H evbvbwU ms‡kvab K‡i mwVK evbvb wjL‡Z nq| †h k‡ãi evbvb fzj n‡q‡Q †mB k‡ãi fzj AÿiwUi cv‡k Kvm©i ewm‡q e¨vK‡¯úm/wWwjU †evZv‡g Pvc w`‡j fzj AÿiwU gy‡Q hvq| Gevi ï× AÿiwU UvBc Ki‡Z nq| GKwU fzj Aÿi cvkvcvwk _vK‡j me¸‡jv fzj Aÿi gy‡Q †djvi Rb¨ hZevi cÖ‡qvRb e¨vK‡¯úm wWwjU †evZv‡g Pvc w`‡Z nq Ges Zvici ï× Aÿi¸‡jv UvBc Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖæd wiwWs (Proof Reading) Kw¤úDUv‡ii c`©vq †`‡L †`‡L evbvb ms‡kva‡bi KvR Kiv hvq, ZvQvov welqe¯‘i wcÖ›U wb‡qI evbvb cixÿvi KvR Kiv hvq| wcÖ›U †bqvi ci fzj evbvb¸‡jv Kjg w`‡q †K‡U w`‡q ï× evbvb Wvb I evg gvwR©‡b wjL‡Z nq| G‡K ejv nq cÖæd wiwWs (Proof Reading)| gyw`ªZ KvR‡R †MvUv wele¯‘i evbvb ms‡kva‡bi ci KvMRwU mvg‡b †i‡L †`‡L †`‡L Kw¤úDUv‡ii c`v©q we`¨gvb welqe¯‘i evbvb ms‡kvab Ki‡Z nq| cÖæd †`Lvi Rb¨ we‡kl wKQz wPý e¨envi Ki‡Z nq| wcÖ›U wb‡q evbvb ms‡kva‡bi †ÿ‡Î Gme wPý fv‡jvfv‡e †R‡b †bqv cÖ‡qvRb|

cÖkœvewj 1|

WKz‡g›U •Zwi Kxfv‡e Kiv nq?

2|

WKz‡g›U m¤úv`bv Kx?

3|

WKz‡g›U cwieZ©b Ki‡Z nq Kxfv‡e?

4|

WKz‡g›U msiÿ‡Yi c×wZ †jL|

5|

wcÖwfD I gy`Yª Kx?

6|

WKz‡g›U di‡gwUs m¤ú‡K© †jL|

7|

evsjv IqvW© cÖ‡mwms Kx?

8|

†cR †mUAvc Kxfv‡e Kiv nq?

9|

gvwR©b †mUAvc Kxfv‡e Kiv nq?

10|

†Uwej •Zwi Kivi c×wZ †jL|

11|

†Uwej di‡gwUs Kx?

12|

evbvb cixÿY Kx?


e¨envwiK `kg Aa¨vq G¨vwcø‡Kkb I Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g Application & Operating System 1. Kw¤úDUvi Pvjy Kiv: Kw¤úDUvi Pvjy Kivi ci DB‡ÛvR †jv‡Mv ev cÖZxK cÖ`k©‡bi ci DB‡Ûv‡Ri g~j †W¯‹Uc cvIqv hv‡e| e¨enviKvix B‡”Q Ki‡j GB †W¯‹U‡ci Kvjvi, †W¯‹U‡c cÖ`wk©Z dvBj ev †dvìv‡ii web¨vm, Ae¯’vb BZ¨vw` cwieZ©b Ki‡Z cv‡i| wb‡¤œ Windows Xp Gi bgybv †W¯‹Uc †`qv †Mj|

Pvjy Kivi c×wZ: K. cÖ_‡g Kw¤úDUv‡ii mv‡_ mshy³ †gBb cvIqvi mvcøvB Gi my¨BP Ab Ki‡Z n‡e| L. Zvici, Kw¤úDUv‡ii wmwcBD Ges gwbU‡ii my¨BP Ab Ki‡Z n‡e| M. wKQzÿY A‡cÿv Kivi ci DB‡ÛvR Pvjy n‡q gwbU‡i wewfbœ Z_¨vw`i †W¯‹Uc w¯Œb †`Lv hv‡e| 2. †W¯‹Uc †_‡K G¨vwcø‡Kkb †cÖvMÖvg Pvjy Kiv: Kw¤úDUv‡ii Start †gby‡Z wK¬K K‡i †h †Kvb †cÖvMÖvg Pvjy Kiv hvq|


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3. DB‡ÛvR Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡g dvBj •Zwi Kiv Ges msiwÿZ dvBj †Lvjv: Kw¤úDUv‡i wewfbœ Z_¨ UvBc K‡i GKUv K‡i bvg w`‡q msiÿY Kiv‡K dvBj e‡j| DB‡ÛvR Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷‡gI cÖ‡qvRbxq †U·U dvBj •Zwi Kiv hvq| g‡b Kwi Faruq bv‡g GKwU dvBj •Zwi Ki‡Z n‡e| K. cÖ_‡g Start †gby‡Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e, Zvici Click Program  Click Accessories  Click Word pad. L. Word pad bv‡g DB‡Ûv Avm‡e| M. Kvm©i cwRkb †_‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨vewj UvBc Ki‡Z n‡e| N. dvBj †gby †_‡K Save G Click Ki‡j Save As WvqvjM e· Avm‡e| O. File Name e‡·i g‡a¨ Faruq UvB cKi‡Z n‡e| P. Save In wj÷ e· †_‡K †h WvB‡i±wi‡Z dvBjwU msiÿY Kiv n‡e Zv wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e| (awi D:\ WªvB‡f) Q. Save evU‡b wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| O. dvBj †gby n‡Z Exit G wK¬K K‡i †ei n‡Z n‡e| dvBj †Lvjvi c×wZ: A‡bK mgq Kw¤úDUv‡i msiwÿZ dvBj I‡cb K‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq KvR Kivi `iKvi nq| g‡b Kwi D:\ WªvB‡fi Faruq dvBjwU Lyj‡Z n‡e| c×wZ: K. DB‡Ûv‡Ri †W¯‹Uc †_‡K G Wvej wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| L. †h WªvBf ev †dvìvi / WvB‡i±wi‡Z dvBjwU msiÿY Kiv n‡q‡Q Zv wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e (awi D:\WªvBf)| GLb Local Disk (D:) WªvB‡f wK¬K Ki‡j wb¤œiæc wPÎ Avm‡e| M. Faruq dvBjwU‡Z Wvej wK¬K K‡i dvBjwU †Lvjv hv‡e| N. DB‡Ûv †_‡K X wK¬K K‡i ev dvBj †gbyi Exit G wK¬K K‡i †ei n‡Z n‡e|


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4. †W¯‹Uc †_‡K †dvìvi I dvBj •Zwi Kiv Ges gy‡Q †djv: dvBj / †dvìvi •Zwi Kiv:  †hLv‡b dvBj / †dvìvi •Zwi Ki‡Z n‡e †mLv‡b duvKv RvqMvq gvD‡mi Wvb evUb wK¬K Kiv|  cÖ`Ë wj÷ †_‡K New Ackb wm‡j± Kiv|  Kx-‡ev‡W©i mvnv‡h¨ dvBj ev †dvìv‡ii bvg UvBc K‡i Enter evUb Pvc `vI|

dvBj/‡dvìvi gy‡Q †djv:  wbw`©ó dvBj ev †dvìviwU wm‡j± Ki|  Kx-‡ev‡W©I Delete evUb †P‡c dvBj/ †dvìiwU gy‡Q †`Iqvi wb‡`©k †`qv| A_ev, dvBj/ †dvìvi-Gi Dci gvD‡mi Wvb evUb Pvcvi ci cÖ`Ë wj÷ †_‡K Delete Ackb wm‡j± Ki|  Yes evUb †P‡c gyQv wbwðZ Ki| 4. wimvB‡Kj web †_‡K cyYiæ×vi Kiv: wimvB‡Kj AvBKb wm‡j± Kiv| gvD‡mi Wvb evUb †P‡c cÖ`Ë wj÷ †_‡K AckbwU wm‡j± Kiv| wimvB‡Kj we‡b cÖ`wkZ dvBj / †dvìv‡ii ZvwjKv †_‡K wba©vwiZ dvBj / †dvìvi wm‡j± Kiv| File †gbyi Restore Ackb wm‡j± Ki‡j wm‡j± Kiv dvBj / †dvìvi c~e©eZx© ¯’v‡b wd‡i hv‡e| 5. evsjv UvBc Kiv: cÖ_‡g dvBj I‡cb Ki‡Z n‡e| Zvici weRq wm‡j± Ki‡Z n‡e, hw` evsjv wjL‡Z PvB Zvn‡j Ctrl + Alt- B Pvc‡Z n‡e| Zvn‡j evsjv †jLvi Dc‡hvMx n‡e Ges SutonnyMJ wm‡j± Ki‡Z n‡e| A_ev Ab¨ Dcv‡q Aå Øviv evsjv, Bs‡iRx †jLv hv‡e| 6. evsjv hy³vÿi •Zwii wbqg: hy³ Aÿi wjL‡Z n‡j G Gi mv‡_ m¤úK© †hgb- ÿ (K G Shift l), (bœ -b G b)|


224

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7. Aÿi †QvU-eo Kiv: Aÿi †QvU Kivi †ÿ‡Î cÖ _ ‡g †Kvb Aÿi †QvU †mUv‡K wbe© v Pb Ki‡Z n‡e| Zvici wK-†evW© Ctrl + [ Pvc‡Z n‡e| Zvn‡j Aÿi †QvU n‡e| GKB wbq‡g Ctrl + ] e¨envi K‡i Aÿi eo Kiv hvq| Ab¨ Dcv‡q Font wm‡j± K‡i Format †gby i wfZ‡i Font G wK¬ K K‡i Size Ack‡b wM‡q †h †Kvb Size w`‡Z n‡e| Zvn‡j Aÿi †QvU-eo n‡e| 8. gvwR©b web¨vm: evg web¨vm (Left Alignment) WKz‡g›U (Document) k‡ãi mvaviY A_© n‡”Q cÖgvY `wjj, cÖgvY cÎ, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw`| UvBc †mwUs K‡i ev UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g KvMR wKsev gwbU‡ii c`©vq hv Dc¯’vcb Kiv hvq Ggb mewKQz‡K WKz‡g›U e‡j| wPwVcÎ, ev‡qvWvUv, wi‡cvU©, eB †g‡gv, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw` meB WKz‡g‡›Ui AvIZvq c‡o| UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g kã msMwVZ K‡i wjwc •Zwi, cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx Gi m¤úv`bv, †ggwi‡Z AbywjwcKiY, msi¶Y gy`ªY BZ¨vw`i mgwš^Z cÖwµqv‡K WKz‡g›U cÖ‡mwms e‡j|

Wvb web¨vm (Right Alignment) WKz‡g›U (Document) k‡ãi mvaviY A_© n‡”Q cÖgvY `wjj, cÖgvY cÎ, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw`| UvBc †mwUs K‡i ev UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g KvMR wKsev gwbU‡ii c`©vq hv Dc¯’vcb Kiv hvq Ggb mewKQz‡K WKz‡g›U e‡j| wPwVcÎ, ev‡qvWvUv, wi‡cvU©, eB †g‡gv, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw` meB WKz‡g‡›Ui AvIZvq c‡o| UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g kã msMwVZ K‡i wjwc •Zwi, cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx Gi m¤úv`bv, †ggwi‡Z AbywjwcKiY, msi¶Y gy`ªY BZ¨vw`i mgwš^Z cÖwµqv‡K WKz‡g›U cÖ‡mwms e‡j|

ga¨ web¨vm (Middle Alignment) WKz‡g›U (Document) k‡ãi mvaviY A_© n‡”Q cÖgvY `wjj, cÖgvY cÎ, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw`| UvBc †mwUs K‡i ev UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g KvMR wKsev gwbU‡ii c`©vq hv Dc¯’vcb Kiv hvq Ggb mewKQz‡K WKz‡g›U e‡j| wPwVcÎ, ev‡qvWvUv, wi‡cvU©, eB †g‡gv, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw` meB WKz‡g‡›Ui AvIZvq c‡o| UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g kã msMwVZ K‡i wjwc •Zwi, cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx Gi m¤úv`bv, †ggwi‡Z AbywjwcKiY, msi¶Y gy`ªY BZ¨vw`i mgwš^Z cÖwµqv‡K WKz‡g›U cÖ‡mwms e‡j|

mg web¨vm (Justified Alignment) WKz‡g›U (Document) k‡ãi mvaviY A_© n‡”Q cÖgvY `wjj, cÖgvY cÎ, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw`| UvBc †mwUs K‡i ev UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g KvMR wKsev gwbU‡ii c`©vq hv Dc¯’vcb Kiv hvq Ggb mewKQz‡K WKz‡g›U e‡j| wPwVcÎ, ev‡qvWvUv, wi‡cvU©, eB †g‡gv, bw_cÎ BZ¨vw` meB WKz‡g‡›Ui AvIZvq c‡o| UvBwcs Gi gva¨‡g kã msMwVZ K‡i wjwc •Zwi, cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx Gi m¤úv`bv, †ggwi‡Z AbywjwcKiY, msi¶Y gy`ªY BZ¨vw`i mgwš^Z cÖwµqv‡K WKz‡g›U cÖ‡mwms e‡j|

9. mviwY •Zwi Kivi c×wZ: WKz‡g›U •Zwi Kivi mgq WKz‡g‡›Ui gv‡S mviwY / †Uwej •Zwi K‡i KvR Kiv mnR nq| †hgb ev‡qv‡WUv •Zix Kivi mgq wkÿvMZ †hvM¨Zv wjLvi mgq mviwY / †Uwej •Zwi Kiv nq|


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c×wZ: K. †gbyev‡ii †Uwej †gby‡Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| L. Pull Down menu †_‡K Isnert Table menu †Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| GLb c`v©q wb¤œwjwLZ Dialouge Box wU †`Lv hv‡e| M. Dialouge Box †_‡K Row Ges Column b¤^i wm‡j± Ki‡Z n‡e| N. Ok evU‡b wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| 6Uv Column Ges 3Uv Row wewkó wb¤œiæc †Uwej •Zwi n‡e|

10. kxl©PviY: †Kvb WKz‡g‡›Ui cÖwZwU cvZvi Dc‡ii As‡k GKB †jLv ivL‡j Zv‡K †nWvi ev kxl©PiY e‡j| K. †Kvb WKz‡g‡›Ui kxl©PiY w`‡Z n‡j †gby ev‡ii View †gby wm‡j± Ki‡j View -Gi Aax‡b A‡bK ¸‡jv mve‡gby †`Lv hv‡e| L. GLvb n‡Z Header & Footer- G wK¬K Ki‡j wb‡Pi Tool Bar wU Avm‡e| M. GLvb n‡Z Switch Between Header & Footer-Gi gva¨‡g kxl©Pi‡Y cÖ‡qvRbxq Ask wjLv hv‡e|

11. cv`PviY: †Kvb WKz‡g‡›Ui cÖwZwU cvZvi wb‡Pi As‡k GKB †jLv ivL‡j Zv‡K dzUvi ev cv`PiY e‡j| K. †Kvb WKz‡g‡›Ui cv`PiY w`‡Z n‡j †gby ev‡ii View †gby wm‡j± Ki‡j View-Gi Aax‡bi mve‡gby¸‡jv †`Lv‡e| L. GLvb n‡Z Header & Footer-G wK¬K Ki‡j †h eviwU Avm‡e †mLvb n‡Z Switch Between Header & Footer-Gi gva¨‡g cv`PiY-G cÖ‡qvRbxq Ask wjLv hv‡e| 12. KvU: †Kvb †jLv‡K KvU Kivi Rb¨ Av‡M wbw`©ó †jLv UzKz wm‡j± K‡i Edit †gby‡Z wM‡q Cut Ack‡b wK¬K Ki‡j wm‡j± Kiv AskUzKz KvU n‡e| weMZ eQi Avwg mva¨gZ †Pó K‡iwQ Avgvi QvÎÑQvÎx‡`i G wel‡q aviYv †`Iqvi| Rvwbb KZUzKz ¯^v_©K n‡qwQ Zv A‡bKUv G cwi`k©b wi‡cvU© †_‡KB eyS‡Z cviwQ| ej‡Z cvwi cÖwZ‡e`b •Zix Ki‡Z Iiv Avgvi aviYv‡K ch©š Í nvi gvwb‡q‡Q| Zvic‡iI ej‡Z nq I‡`i KuvPv nv‡Zi •Zix G Acwic° cÖwZ‡e`‡b fyj ÎywU _vKvB ¯^vfvweK| ZvQvov Awdm cwi`k©‡bi mgq Zv‡`i A‡bK AmsjMœ cÖkœ Ges AvPvi AvPiY hv G Awd‡mi Kg©KZ©v Kg©Pvix‡`i nv‡gkvB weeªZ K‡i‡Q| GRb¨ Avwg cwi`k©K `‡ji ZË¡veavqK wnmv‡e mK‡ji wbKU ÿgvcÖv_x©| hw` Zviv ev¯Íe K‡g©I Zv‡`i G AwR©Z wkÿv‡K cÖ‡qvM K‡i Z‡eB Avgvi mKj kªg ¯^v_©K g‡b n‡e|


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16.

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17.

gvwR©b †mUAvc: WKz‡g›U •Zwii ci †h KvM‡R gy`Yª wb‡Z n‡e Zvi Dci-wb‡P ev Wv‡b ev ev‡g KZUz‡Kv duvKv _vK‡e Zv wba©viY KivB †cR gvwR©‡bi KvR| †cR gvwR©b Kivi Rb¨ †h KvR¸‡jv Ki‡Z n‡e Zv wbgœiæc

K. †gby evi n‡Z File †gby wm‡j± Kiv nq| L. File Gi Aax‡b GKvwaK mve‡gby †`Lv‡e| GLvb n‡Z Page Setup G wK¬K Kiv nq| Page Setup DB‡ÛvwU Avm‡e| M. wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e| GLvb †_‡K n‡Z BZ¨vw` wbe©vPb K‡i wbw`©ó gvwR©b w`‡j KvM‡Ri Dci-wb‡P ev Wv‡bev‡g wbw`©ó cwigvY duvKv _vK‡e|


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†ccvi mvBR wVK Kiv: WKz‡g›U •Zwii ci †h KvM‡R gy`Yª wb‡Z n‡e Zvi AvKvi wba©viY KivB †cR mvB‡Ri KvR| mvBR wVK Kivi Rb¨ †h KvR¸‡jv Kiv nq Zv wb¤œiæcK. †gby evi n‡Z File †gby wm‡j± Kiv nq| L. File Gi Aax‡b GKvwaK mve‡gby †`Lv‡e| GLvb n‡Z Page Setup Gi wK¬K Kiv nq| Page Setup DB‡ÛvwU Avm‡e| M. Paper wbe©vPb Ki‡Z n‡e| GLvb †_‡K Paper Size n‡Z †h †Kvb AvKv‡ii †ccvi A_ev Width I Heigtht wbe©vPb K‡i w`‡j wbw`©ó AvKv‡ii †ccvi Avm‡e †hLv‡b Avgiv Avgv‡`i •ZwiK…Z gy`Yª Ki‡Z cvie| 19. (K) Row e„w× Kiv: K. †h cwiRk‡b †iv evov‡Z n‡e Zvi wbw`©ó †iv‡Z Kvm©i ivL‡Z n‡e| L. †Uwej †gby‡Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| M. Pull Down menu †_‡K Insert menu †Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| N. Zvici mve-†gby Rows Above or Rows Below †Z wK¬K Ki‡j wbw`©ó †iv Gi Dc‡i ev wb‡P GKwU †iv evo‡e| 19. (L) Row gy‡Q †djv: K. †h Row ev Row ¸‡jv gyQ‡Z PvB Zv nvBjvBU Ki‡Z n‡e| L. †gbyev‡ii †Uwej †gby‡Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| M. Pull Down menu †_‡K Delete G wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| N. Zvici Rows G wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| nvBjvBU Kiv Row ¸‡jv gy‡Q hv‡e| 19. (M) Column evov‡bv: K. †h cwik‡b Kjvg evov‡Z n‡Z Zvi wbw`ó© Kjv‡g Kvm©i ivL‡Z n‡e| L. †Uwej gyb‡Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| M. Pull Down menu †_‡K Insert menu †Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| N. Zvici mve- †gbyi Columns to the Left or Columns to the right †Z wK¬K †Z wK¬K Ki‡j wbw`©ó Kjv‡gi ev‡g ev Wv‡b ev Wv‡b GKwU Kjvg evo‡e|


228

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19. (N) Comumn gy‡Q: K. †h A_ev ¸‡jv gyQ‡Z PvB Zv nvBjvBU Ki‡Z n‡e| L. †gbyev‡ii †Uwej †gby‡Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| M. Pull Down menu †_‡K Delete G wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| N. Zvici Columns G wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| nvBjvBU Kiv Column ¸‡jv gy‡Q hv‡e|

20. †gBj gvR© Gi e¨envi: avc-1: †h wPwV ev WKz‡g›UwU wewfbœ A¨v‡Wª‡m cvVv‡bv `iKvi Zv •Zwi ev I‡cb Ki‡Z n‡e| avc-2: Click Tools  Click Letters and Mailing  Click Mail Merge. avc-3: Mail Merge WvqvjM e· cÖ`wk©Z n‡e| Select Recipients Ackb †_‡K type a new List wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| wbgœiƒc wPÎ Avm‡e| avc-4: Enter Address Information G cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki wVKvbv UvBc Ki‡Z n‡e| GKR‡bi wVKvbv UvBc †kl K‡i bZzb Av‡iK R‡bi wVKvbv UvB‡ci Rb¨ New entry evU‡b wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| wVKvbv UvBc †kl K‡i Close evU‡b wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| avc-5: Save Address list WvqvjM e· cÖ`wk©Z n‡e| WvqvjM e‡·I File Name e‡· dvB‡ji bvg UvBc Ki‡Z n‡e| Zvici Save evU‡b wK¬K Ki‡j Mail Merge Recipients WvqvjM e· Avm‡e| avc-6: Mail Merge Recipients WvqvjM e· †_‡K wbw`©ó Ackb wm‡j± K‡i OK evU‡b wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| avc-7: GLb †gBj WKz‡g›U Mail Merge Uzjevi †`Lv hv‡e| Mail Merge Uzjevi †_‡K Insert Mege Field AvBKb wK¬K K‡i ch©vqµ‡g me wdì wm‡j± Ki‡Z n‡e| avc-8: Mail Merge AvBK‡b wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e|

cÖkœvewj 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

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1.

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2.

IqvK© kxU cwiwPwZ: A worksheet is a sheet of paper, or on a computer, on which problems are worked out or solved and answers recorded. †¯úªWkxU GKwU wekvj I e¨vcK †cÖvMÖvg| G‡K¬j †h †Kvb KvR Kivi GKgvÎ ¯’vb n‡jv IqvK©kxU| mvwi (†iv) I Kjvg m¤^wjZ Kv‡Ri RvqMv‡K e‡j G‡·‡ji IqvK©kxU| ms‡ÿ‡c ejv hvq G‡·j IqvK©ey‡Ki GK GKwU Ask ev cvZv‡K e‡j IqvK©kxU| DB‡Ûv‡Z Sheet1, Sheet2, Sheet3 †jLv m¤^wjZ U¨ve¸wj‡K e‡j kxU U¨ve| wbw`©ó kxU U¨v‡e wK¬K Ki‡j mn‡RB wbw`©ó kx‡U Mgb Kiv hvh| †mwUsm IqvK©ey‡K wZbwU IqvK©kxU cÖ`wk©Z _v‡K| cÖ‡qvR‡b Kv‡Ri myweav‡_© kxU evov‡bv ev Kgv‡bv hvq| GKwU †¯cÖWkxU Dj¤^ Ges Abyf~wgKfv‡e A‡bK¸‡jv †iLvi mvnv‡h¨ fvM Kiv _v‡K| Dj¤^ †iLvi mvnv‡h¨ †h fvM Kiv nq, Zv‡K ejv nq Kjvg Ges Avbyf~wgK †iLvi mvnv‡h¨ †h fvM¸‡jv nq Zv‡K ejv nq †iv| †¯cÖWkxU †cÖvMÖv‡g †iv I Kjv‡gi mgš^‡q MwVZ kxU‡K IqvK©kxU ejv nq| GKwU ÷¨vÛvW© †¯úªWkxU †cÖvMÖv‡g 256 wU Kjvg I 65,536wU †iv Ges †m‡ji msL¨v 1,67, 77, 216 wU| mywekvj †¯úªWkx‡Ui †h As‡k KvR Kiv nq Zv‡K IqvK©kxU e‡j| g~jZt †¯úªWkxUB n‡jv IqvK©kxU| †¯úªWkxU †cÖvMÖvg Db¥y³ Kivi ci Kw¤úDUv‡ii c`v©q GKwU duvKv (Blank) IqvK©kxU cvIqv hvq| G duvKv IqvK©kx‡Ui wewfbœ †m‡j cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ cÖ`vb K‡i wb‡`©k Abyhvqx wbw`©ó Kg© m¤úv`b Kiv hvq| GKwU c~Y©v½ IqvK©kx‡Ui A‡bK¸‡jv Ask _v‡K|


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†gbyevi: UvB‡Uj ev‡ii bx‡PB †h ev‡ii Ae¯’vb Zv‡K †gbyevi e‡j| Kx‡evW© ev gvD‡mi mvnv‡h¨ †gbyev‡ii gva¨‡g dvBj e¨e¯’vcbv I Ab¨vb¨ KvR Kiv hvq| File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Help, Data, Window †gby ev‡ii AšÍfy³|

÷¨vÛvW© Uzj evi: †gby ev‡ii wb‡P wewfbœ cÖZxK m¤^wjZ evi‡K Uzjevi e‡j| we‡kl wPý hy³ GB Uyj ev‡ii mvnv‡h¨ gvD‡mi gva¨‡g mn‡R I Kg mg‡q dvBj †Lvjv, msiÿY Kiv, KvU, Kwc, †c÷ Kiv hvq| mvaviYZ m¨vÛvW© Ges di‡gwUs Uzjevi †¯úªWkxU †cÖvMÖv‡gi mv‡_B I‡cb nq|

di‡gwUs Uzjevi: Excel Window †Z cÖ`wk©Z ÷¨vÛvW© Uzjev‡ii wb‡Pi mvwi‡Z we`¨gvb eviwUB di‡gwUs Uzjevi bv‡g cwiwPZ| di‡gwUs Uzjev‡ii wewfbœ evUb e¨envi K‡i ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wewfbœ KvR †hgb-Bold, Italic, Under Line, Alignment, Outline KvR Kiv hvq|


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fvwU©‡Kj I nwiR›Uvj mµjevi: Excel G A‡bK eo WKz‡g›U KvR Kivi mgq c`v©q me wKQz †`Lv hvq bv| cÖ‡qvRbgZ WKz‡g‡›Ui †h †Kvb RvqMvq wM‡q c`©vq cÖ`k©b Kivi myweav‡_© c`©vi Wvb w`‡K Vertical Scroll Bar Ges c`v©i wb‡P _v‡K| gvDm c‡q›Uvi iwÿZ A¨v‡iv evU‡b wK¬K K‡i A_ev ¯Œj e‡· WªvM K‡i c`v©i Dcw‡i bx‡P B”QvgZ hvIqv hvq Ges †jLv cÖ`k©b Kiv hvq|

÷¨vUvm evi: Iqv©K eyK DB‡Ðvi me©wb‡¤œ Task bar Gi Dc‡ii evi status bar bv‡g cwiwPZ| G‡Z work sheet status ev Ae¯’v cÖ`wk©Z nq| Status bar G ready †jLv _vK‡j eyS‡Z n‡e Kvm©I IqvK©kx‡Ui †m‡j Av‡Q Ges G Ae¯’vq IqvK© kx‡U KvR Kiv hv‡e|

kxU U¨ve: IqvK© eyK DB‡Ðvi bx‡P evg w`‡K kxU U¨ve cÖ`wk©Z nq| GKwU IqvK© ey‡K mvavibZ wZbwU IqvK©kxU (Sheet-1, Sheet-2, Sheet-3) _v‡K| cÖ‡qvRb n‡j Insert work sheet †_‡K bZzb kxU †hvM Kiv hvq| †h kxU U¨v‡e wK¬K Kiv hvq †m kxUwU mwµq _v‡K|

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Kjvg: †¯úªWkx‡U Kjvg n‡”Q Dj¤^ ev j¤^vjw¤^ Awb&KZ †iLv| Kjvg¸wj‡K Bs‡iwR Aÿi BZ¨vw` Øviv mywPZ Kiv nq| GKwU ÷¨vÐvW© IqvK©kx‡U .. Kjvg _v‡K|

†iv: †¯úªWkx‡U f~wgi mgvšÍiv‡j ev Avbyf~wgK fv‡e †h mg¯’ †iLv _v‡K †m me †iLv‡K †iv ejv nq| Row mvavibZ 1,2,3,4 BZ¨vw` Øviv wPwýZ Kiv nq| GKwU Av`k© IqvK©kx‡U 65536 wU Row _v‡K| †mj: †¯úªWkx‡U †cÖvMÖv‡g Row I Column Gi mgš^‡q †h †QvU †QvU Ni •Zwi nq Zv‡K Cell e‡j| cÖwZwU †m‡ji GKwU mywbw`©÷ G‡Wªm _v‡K| GKwU ÷¨ÐvW© IqvK©kx‡U †gvU 1,67,77,216 wU Cell _v‡K| cÖwZwU †m‡ji wVKvbvq cÖ_‡g Kjvg Ic‡I †iv Gi b¤^I _v‡K|

4. †ivu, Kjvg ms‡hvM Kiv I gy‡Q †djv:

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232

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(ii) Row gy‡Q †djv: K. †h Row ev Row ¸‡jv gyQ‡Z PvB Zv nvBjvBU Ki‡Z n‡e| L. †gbyev‡ii †Uwej †gby‡Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| M. Pull Down menu †_‡K Delete G wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| N. Zvici Rows G wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| nvBjvBU Kiv Row ¸‡jv gy‡Q hv‡e|

(iii) Column evov‡bv: K. †h cwik‡b Kjvg evov‡Z n‡Z Zvi wbw`ó© Kjv‡g Kvm©i ivL‡Z n‡e| L. †Uwej gyb‡Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| M. Pull Down menu †_‡K Insert menu †Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| N. Zvici mve- †gbyi Columns to the Left or Columns to the right †Z wK¬K †Z wK¬K Ki‡j wbw`©ó Kjv‡gi ev‡g ev Wv‡b ev Wv‡b GKwU Kjvg evo‡e|

(iv) Comumn gy‡Q †djv: K. †h A_ev ¸‡jv gyQ‡Z PvB Zv nvBjvBU Ki‡Z n‡e| L. †gbyev‡ii †Uwej †gby‡Z wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| M. Pull Down menu †_‡K Delete G wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| N. Zvici Columns G wK¬K Ki‡Z n‡e| nvBjvBU Kiv Column ¸‡jv gy‡Q hv‡e| 5. dg©~jvi mvnv‡h¨ †eZb wej •Zwi Kiv: wmm‡UK cvewj‡KkÝ cÖwZ NÈv wn‡m‡e Kg©Pvwi‡`i gRywi cÖ`vb K‡i| cÖwZw`b 8 NÈv ev Zvi †P‡q Kg mg‡qi Rb¨ gRywi 15 UvKv/NÈv| A_©vr 8 NÈv KvR Ki‡j cv‡e 15  8 = 120 UvKv| 8 NÈvi Kg 6 NÈv KvR Ki‡j cv‡e 15  6 = 90 UvKv| 8 NÈvi AwZwi³ cÖwZ NÈvi Rb¨ gRywi 20 UvKv/NÈv| A_©vr †KD hw` 12 NÈv KvR K‡i Zvn‡j †m cv‡e 158 = 120, 20 4 = 80, 12 NÈv = 120 + 80 = 200 UvKv| cÖwZôv‡bi Rb¨ GwU •Zwi Ki‡Z n‡e †hLv‡b ïaygvÎ †gvU Kg© NÈv Gw›Uª †`qv gvÎ IfviUvBg I †gvU gRywi †ei n‡e|


†¯cÖWkxU

233

1. wb‡gœi IqvK©wkUwU •Zwi Ki|

2. †mjc‡qÈvi D5 †m‡j Gb = IF(C5>8,C5-8,0) m~ÎwU UvBc K‡i G›Uvi Kx Pvc| 3. †mjc‡q›Uvi E5 †Z G‡b - =IF(D5>0,D5*20+8*15,C5*15) UvBc K‡i G›Uvi w`b| D5:E10 wm‡j± Ki| †mjc‡q›Uvi D2 †Z †i‡L Shift Kx †P‡c a‡i  Kx †P‡c E2 †Z Avmyb| Fill Handle G wK¬K K‡i WªvM K‡i wb‡Pi w`‡K E10 G G‡b G›Uvi Pvc| 4. C5 †m‡j 8 UvBc Ki| C6 †m‡j 11 UvBc Ki| C7 †m‡j 7 UvBc Ki| C8 †m‡j 13 UvBc Ki| C9 †m‡j 9 UvBc Ki| C10 †m‡j 15 UvBc Ki| 5. D5, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10 †m‡j ¯^qswµqfv‡e AfviUvBg Ges E5, E6, E7, E8, E9, E10 †m‡j †c‡g‡›U Avm‡e| 6.

cixÿvi djvdj •Zwi

GZÿY Avgiv cÖvß †gvU b¤^‡ii Dci wfwË K‡i djvdj wbY©q K‡iwQ| wKš‘ gva¨wgK ev D”P gva¨wgK A_ev Ab¨vb¨ GKv‡WwgK djvd‡j G ai‡bi wbqg Av‡Q †h, †gvU b¤^i cÖ_g †kÖwY ev wØZxq †kÖwY A_ev Ab¨ b¤^i hv cvm b¤^‡ii (33%) †P‡q †ewk n‡jB cvm n‡e bv cÖwZ wel‡q Avjv`v Avjv`v cvm b¤^i †c‡Z n‡e| †hgb†Kvb QvÎ †gvU 627 b¤^i †c‡q As‡K 28 b¤^i cvIqv‡Z Zv‡K AK…ZKvh© (Fail) aiv n‡q‡Q G ai‡bi GKwU mgvavb = IF e¨envi K‡i Kivi Rb¨ wbgœiƒc IqvK©wkU •Zwi K‡i cixÿv Ki| aiæb, GKwU wWwMÖ K‡j‡Ri we, Gm, wm cixÿvi djvdj †ei Kiv n‡e| CHMEISTRY, PHYSICS, MATHS G wZbwU wel‡q cÖvß †gvU b¤^‡ii Dci wfwË K‡i hviv 60% A_©vr †gvU 180 ev Zvi Dc‡i b¤^i cv‡e Zviv 1ST CLASS, kZKiv 45% ev Zvi Dc‡i wKš‘ 60% Gi wb‡P A_©vr 135 n‡Z 177 b¤^i †c‡j 2nd Class Ges 33% ev Zvi Dci wKš‘ 45% Gi wb‡P A_©vr 99 n‡Z 134 †c‡j 3RD CLASS Ges 99 Gi wb‡P †c‡j FAIL n‡e| G †ÿ‡Î cÖwZwU wel‡q I Avjv`v Avjv`v fv‡e cvm Ki‡Z n‡e A_©vr †Kvb wel‡q 33 Gi wb‡P †c‡j Zv‡K I AK…ZKvh© aiv n‡e|


234

mvwPweK we`¨v

G mgm¨vwU mgvavb Kivi Rb¨ wbgœiƒc IqvK©wkU •Zwi K‡i cixÿv Ki| A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Roll No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

B

C

D

E

F

G

Name ASRAF RAHIM MAHBUB TANVIR MASUM SAFIQ MOHSIN RASHID

CMS 47 60 70 40 45 46 68 45

PHYSICS 53 72 65 55 30 76 72 31

MATH 55 50 65 35 49 34 80 55

TOTAL 155 182 200 135 124 156 220 131

RESULT

†mj c‡q›Uvi D2 †Z ivL| =IF(OR(C2<33,D2<33,E2<33,Fail,IF(AND(F>0,F2<99),Fail,IF(AND(F2>=99,F2<1 35, 3rd Div, IF(AND(F2=>135,F2<180),2nd Div, 1st Div)))) wj‡L G›Uvi w`b| G2 †Z djvdj 2ND CLASS Avm‡e| G2 †mj Fill handle WªvM K‡i Ab¨vb¨ Qv‡Îi djvdj †ei Ki| 7. Kwgkb wbY©q ABC Company Zv‡`i weµq cÖwZwbwa‡`i weµ‡qi Dci wfwË K‡i Kwgkb †`‡e| kZ© n‡jv hw`weµq 10,000 UvKvi Kg n‡j Kwgkb 2.5%| weµq 10,000 UvKv †_‡K 30000 UvKv n‡j Kwgkb 5%| weµq 30,000 UvKvi †ewk Ges 50000 UvKvi g‡a¨ n‡j Kwgkb 7%| weµq 50,000 UvKvi E‡aÿ n‡j Kwgkb 10%| †mj&mg¨vb KZ K‡i Kwgkb cv‡e Zv †ei Kivi Rb¨ wb‡gœi cixÿvwU Ki: 1. wbgœiƒc IqvK©wkU •Zwi Ki|

2. †mjc‡q›Uvi C5 †m‡j G‡b wb‡gœi m~ÎwU UvBc Ki| =IF)B5<10000,b5*2.5%,IF(AND(B5>=10000,B5<=30000,B5*5%,IF(AND(B5>3 0000,B5<=50000,B5*7%,IF(AND(B5>50000,B5*10%))))


†¯cÖWkxU

235

3. G›Uvi Kx Pvc| 4. C †m‡j †mjc‡q›Uvi †i‡L A‡Uvwdëvi + wPý‡Z gvDm wK¬K K‡i wb‡Pi w`‡K wm‡j± Ki| 5. B5 †m‡j 25000 Gw›Uª Ki‡j C5 G Kwgkb KZ Zv wbY©q n‡e| B6 G 32000, B7 G 51000, B8 G 9000, B9 G 50000 Ges B10 G 13500 UvBc Ki‡j C6, C7, C8, C9, C10 †m‡j Kwgkb †ei n‡e| A_©vr-

cÖkœvewj 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Kw¤úDUvi Kx Kw¤úDUv‡ii RbK †K? Acv‡iwUs wm‡÷g Kx? nW©Iq¨vi Kx? mdUIq¨vi Kx? wc.wm Kx? Kw¤úDUv‡ii K‡qKwU BbcyU wWfvB‡mi ev hš¿vs‡ki bvg wjL| Kw¤úDUv‡ii K‡qKwU AvDUcyU wWfvB‡mi ev hš¿vs‡ki bvg wjL| IqvW© cÖ‡mwms Kx? K‡qKwU IqvW© cÖ‡m‡ii bvg wjL| WKz‡g›U Kx? d›U Kx? Gg. Gm Iqv‡W©i K‡qKwU fvm©‡bi bvg ej| ev‡qv †WUv UvBc Ki‡Z Zzwg †Kvb †cÖvMÖvg e¨envi Ki‡e Ges †Kb?


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