Issuu on Google+


RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© KZ©„K Aby‡gvw`Z

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv cÖ_g cÎ GKv`k-Øv`k †kªwY iPbvq †gv. iæevB‡qZ †nv‡mb mnKvix Aa¨vcK I wefvMxq cÖavb, K¨vgweªqvb K‡jR weweGm (m¤§vb), GgweG (e¨e¯’vcbv), ivRkvnx wek¦we`¨vjq cÖv³b cÖfvlK, K‡jR Ae †W‡fjc‡g›U Aëvi‡bwUf (†KvWv), XvKv| cixÿK: gva¨wgK I D”P gva¨wgK wkÿv †evW©, XvKv, NTRCA mb`cÖvß m„Rbkxj †UªwbscÖvß (TTC)

||| ZvbwRbv nK

†gv. mvBdzj AvRg

mnKvix Aa¨vcK, K¨vgweªqvb K‡jR we.Kg (m¤§vb) e¨e¯’vcbv, Gg.Kg, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq cÖv³b cÖfvlK, K‡jR Ae †W‡fjc‡g›U Aëvi‡bwUf (†KvWv) NTRCA mb`cÖvß m„Rbkxj †UªwbscÖvß (TTC)

mnKvix Aa¨vcK, K¨vgweªqvb K‡jR we.we.G (Abvm©). Gg.we.G (†gRi gv‡K©wUs) cÖv³b cÖfvlK, K‡jR Ae †W‡fjc‡g›U Aëvi‡bwUf (†KvWv)

wbjydv Bqvmwgb

†gv. †`‡jvqvi †nv‡mb

mnKvix Aa¨vcK, K¨vgweªqvb K‡jR weweG (m¤§vb), GgweG (wnDg¨vb wi‡mvm© g¨v‡bR‡g›U) XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq gv÷vi †UªBbvi (SESDP) NTRCA mb`cÖvß

cÖfvlK, K¨vgweªqvb K‡jR we.Kg (m¤§vb), Gg.Kg (e¨e¯’vcbv), RMbœv_ wek¦we`¨vjq cÖv³b cÖfvlK, DËiv Kgvm© K‡jR Ges DËiv cvewjK K‡jR, XvKv|

m„Rbkxj †UªwbscÖvß (TTC)

NTRCA mb`cÖvß

m„Rbkxj †UªwbscÖvß (TTC)

†gv. Avkivdzj Avjg

Avwmd-DR-Rvgvb

cÖfvlK, K¨vgweªqvb K‡jR we.Kg (m¤§vb). Gg.Kg (e¨e¯’vcbv), RvZxq wek¦we`¨vjq cÖv³b cÖfvlK, †KvqvwjwU GWy‡Kkb K‡jR, XvKv| NTRCA mb`cÖvß m„Rbkxj †UªwbscÖvß (TTC)

cÖfvlK, K¨vgweªqvb K‡jR weweG (m¤§vb) , GgweG (gv‡K©wUs), XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq NTRCA mb`cÖvß

m„Rbkxj †UªwbscÖvß


K¨vgweªqvb cvewj‡KkÝ cøU-2, ¸jkvb, XvKv KZ…©K cÖKvwkZ| [cÖKvkK KZ©„K me©¯^Z¡ msiwÿZ]

cÖ_g cÖKvk: 1 RyjvB, 2013

†UªWgvK© †iwR: bs- 96504, †kªwY-16 MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKvi cÖvwß ¯’vb: K¨vgweªqvb eyKm& Gb †gvi 72, cÖMwZ miwY,evwiaviv, †R-eøK, XvKv| †dvb: 01823055399, 01818035158, 01720557177

Kw¤úDUvi K‡¤úvR †gvnv¤§` Igi dviæK f~uBqv

cÖ”Q` BDbyQ wgqv I Avãyjøvn Avj gvgyb

wPÎ msM„nxZ g~j¨: UvKv−


†jLK‡`i K_v mKj cÖksmv gnvb Avjøvn iveŸyj Avjvwg‡bi cig KiæYvgq AvjøvnÕZvjvi A‡kl K…cvq AvaywbK Z_¨ mg„× m¤ú~Y© bZzb wm‡jev‡mi wfwˇZ D”Pgva¨wgK ch©v‡qi wkÿv_©x‡`i Rb¨ e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv welqwUi cÖ_g cÎ (e¨emvq cwiwPwZ) eBwU cÖKvk Ki‡Z †c‡i Avgiv Avbw›`Z| wkÿv RvZxq Rxe‡bi me©‡ÿ‡Î Dbœq‡bi c~e©kZ©| Avi `ªæZ cwieZ©bkxj we‡k¦i P¨v‡jÄ †gvKv‡ejv K‡i evsjv‡`k‡K Dbœqb I mg„w×i w`‡K wb‡q hvIqvi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb mywkwÿZ RbMY| Avi GB mywkwÿZ RbMY M‡o †Zvjvi j‡ÿ¨ RvZxq cvV¨ cy¯K Í †evW© 2013 mv‡j m¤ú~Y© bZzb wm‡jevm cÖYqb K‡i‡Q| Avi GB bZzb wm‡jev‡mi wfwˇZ Avgiv eBwU cÖKvk Kivi †Póv K‡iwQ| GB eBwU cÖKv‡k cÖZ¨ÿ ev c‡ivÿfv‡e hv‡`i Aby‡cÖiYv I mn‡hvwMZv †c‡qwQ Zv‡`i cÖwZ K…ZÁ| we‡kl K‡i Avgv‡`i K¨vgweªqvb K‡j‡Ri m¤§vwbZ †Pqvig¨vb g‡nv`q ïiæ †_‡K Avgv‡`i AbycÖvwYZ K‡i‡Q| Ab¨vb¨ wefv‡Mi mnKg©xe„›` Zv‡`i AwfÁZv I avibv w`‡q Avgv‡`i‡K mg„× K‡i‡Q| wewfbœ e¨emvq msMVb I Z_¨ mieivnKvix cÖwZôvb¸‡jv †_‡K Z_¨ msMÖ‡n mnvqZvi Rb¨ Zv‡`i‡K ab¨ev` Rvbvw”Q| eBwU iPbvq †`kx-we‡`kx cÖPyi ¯^bvgab¨ †jLK‡`i g~j¨evb eB‡qi mn‡hvwMZv MÖnY Kiv n‡q‡Q e‡j Zv‡`i wbKU Avgiv wPiFbx| MÖš’wU iPbvKv‡j AvaywbK evsjv evbvb ixwZ Abymib Kivi h‡_ó †Póv Kiv n‡q‡Q| eBwU‡Z A‡bK bZzb Z_¨ ms‡hvRb Kiv n‡q‡Q| c„ôvi msL¨v mxgve×Zvi Kvi‡Y B”Qv _vKv m‡Ë¡I A‡bK welq ms‡ÿ‡c Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| AZ¨šÍ mZK© _vKvi c‡iI wKQz fyjÎæwU †_‡K hvIqv A¯^vfvweK bq| cieZ©x ms¯‹i‡b Zv `~i n‡e Avkv Kwi| G wel‡q m¤§vwbZ wkÿKgÛjx I wkÿv_©x‡`i civgk© mv`‡i M„nxZ n‡e| cwi‡k‡l, eBwUi e¨vcK cÖPvi I cÖmv‡i m¤§vwbZ wkÿKgÛjxi I wkÿv_©x‡`i my`„wó Kvgbv KiwQ|

K¨vgweªqvb K‡jR, XvKv Avjøvn nv‡dR †jLKe„›`


m~PxcÎ Aa¨vq

weeiY

c„ôv bs

1.

e¨emv‡qi †gŠwjK aviYv

01 − 20

2.

e¨emvq cwi‡ek

21 − 30

3.

GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq

31 − 42

4.

Askx`vwi e¨emvq

43 − 62

5.

†hŠ_g~jabx e¨emvq

63 − 112

6.

mgevq mwgwZ

113 − 128

7.

ivóªxq e¨emvq

129 − 144

8.

e¨emv‡qi AvBbMZ w`K

145 − 164

9.

e¨emv‡qi mnvqK †mev

165 − 182

10.

e¨emvq D‡`¨vM

183 − 206

11.

e¨emv‡q Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i e¨envi

207 − 218

12.

e¨emv‡qi •bwZKZv I mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv

219 − 238


BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Scanner, Stcven J. Z. John M. Ivanoevich – Business for the 21st century. Richard & Irwin Inc., USA 2000. Kotler philip & Armstrong – Principles of Marketing, Prentice Hall India, 12th Edition. Strauss Ansary and Frost-E-marketing, 3rd edition. Glos E. Raymond & Harold A Baker-Introduction to Business. Lv‡jKz¾vgvb I †gvnv¤§`, evwYR¨ I wkí AvBb| Lv‡jKz¾vgvb I †gvnv¤§`, e¨emvq bxwZ I cÖ‡qvM, hgybv cÖKvkbx| dviæKx KvRx D”P gva¨wgK e¨emvq bxwZ I cª‡qvM, KvRx cÖKvkbx| AvjZvd nvwbd D”P gva¨wgK e¨emvq bxwZ I cÖ‡qvM, i‡qj jvB‡eªix| Khalekujjaman Z Musharraf- Introduction to Business, Jamuna Publishar. Lv‡jKz¾vgvb I †gvnv¤§` e¨emv‡qi AvBbMZ cwi‡ek, hgybv cvewjkvm©| Avjg Avkivdzj-Bb‡U‡jKPzqvj †cÖvcvwU© AvBb, Kvgiæj eyK nvDR| ingvb gvnveye-e¨emvq evwY‡R¨ Kw¤úDUvi| bRiæj I nvwim-D”P gva¨wgK Awdm e¨e¯’vcbv| wKiY †Mvjvg-AvR‡Ki wek¦| Avjg gvnveyeyj-fvlv †mŠif, AvBwWqvj jvB‡eªix-XvKv| wbiÄb I mwdDwÏb-D”PZi evsjv e¨vKiY I iPbv| gvnvgy` nvqvr-fvlv wkÿv| Lv‡jKz¾vgvb I AvZvDi- D”P gva¨wgK e¨emvq D‡`¨vM| IivKj wewm Gm wcÖwjwgbvix-IivKj cvewj‡Kkb| Business dictionary.com Encyclopedia. Askx`vix AvBb 1932| †Kv¤úvwb AvBb 1994| exgv AvBb 2010| c¨v‡U›U AvBb 1911| †UªWgvK© AvBb 2009| Website of different organization (For example website of SME Foundation, FBCCI, Grameen Phone.

•`wbK Kv‡ji KÚ, cÖ_g Av‡jv|


cÖ_g Aa¨vq

e¨emv‡qi †g․wjK aviYv BASIC CONCEPT OF BUSINESS cÖvPxbKvj †_‡KB gvbyl wbR cÖ‡qvRb †gUv‡bvi cÖ‡Póvq m‡Pó wQj| grm AvniY, K…wlKvR, cï wkKvi, cY¨ wewbgq, Drcv`b cÖ‡Póv cÖf„wZ A_©‣bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ð wb‡qvwRZ wQj| Gi g~‡j †h wRwbm KvR K‡i Zvn‡jv gvby‡li Afve‡eva| Afve c~i‡Yi j‡ÿ¨ Zviv wewfbœ A_©‣bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ð Rwo‡q c‡o Ges A_© DcvR©‡bi cÖ‡Póv Pvjvq| g~jZ A_©‣bwZK Kg©KvÐ I †jb‡`b‡K wN‡iB D™¢e nq e¨emv‡qi|

G Aa¨vq cvV †k‡l Avgiv Rvb‡Z cvie− • e¨emv‡qi aviYv| • e¨emv‡qi AvIZv| − wk‡íi •ewkó¨ I cÖKvi‡f`; − evwY‡R¨i •ewkó¨ I cÖKvi‡f`; − cÖZ¨ÿ †mevi •ewkó¨ I cÖKvi‡f`| • wkí, evwYR¨ I cÖZ¨ÿ †mevi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨| • evsjv‡`‡ki e¨emv‡qi AvIZv wn‡m‡e wkí, evwYR¨ I cÖZ¨ÿ †mevi mgm¨v I m¤¢vebv| • mvgvwRK e¨emvq aviYv| • e¨emv‡qi Kvh©vewj| • e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡| • A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b e¨emv‡qi Ae`vb| • RxweKv AR©‡bi Dcvq wn‡m‡e e¨emvq|


2

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

1.01 e¨emv‡qi aviYv Concept of Business mvaviYfv‡e †Kv‡bv wKQy †Kbv-†ePvi Kvh©µg‡K Avgiv e¨emvq wnmv‡e Rvwb| wKš‘ ïaygvÎ †Kbv-†ePvi mv‡_ e¨emvq m¤ú„³ bq| e¨emvq n‡jv Drcv`b, eÈb Ges Drcv`b I eȇbi mnvqK Kvh©vewj| Avgiv e¨emvq‡K GKwU Q‡Ki gva¨‡g Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z cvwiÑ Afve †eva

cY¨ I †mev Drcv`b

wewbgq I eÈb µq-weµq

wewbgq mnvqK KvR

Afv‡ei cwiZ…wß I RxweKv AR©b

gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ cwiPvwjZ A_©‣bwZK Kg©KvÛ‡K e¨emvq e‡j| cwiev‡ii m`m¨‡`i Rb¨ Lv`¨ Drcv`b Kiv, nuvm-gyiwM cvjb Kiv, mewR Pvl Kiv‡K e¨emvq ejv hvq bv| wKš‘ hLb †Kv‡bv K…lK gybvdvi Avkvq avb Pvl K‡i ev mewR djvq Zv e¨emvq e‡j MY¨ n‡e| Z‡e gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ cwiPvwjZ mKj A_©‣bwZK Kg©KvÐ e¨emv e‡j MY¨ n‡e hw` †m¸‡jv †`‡ki AvB‡b •ea I mwVK Dcv‡q cwiPvwjZ nq| gvbyl Zvi Afve c~i‡Yi j‡ÿ¨ wewfbœ cY¨ ev †mev Drcv`b, eÈb, Drcv`b I eȇbi mnvqK Kvh©µ‡g wb‡R‡K m¤ú„³ K‡i Ges gybvdv AR©b K‡i| G gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ m¤úvw`Z A_©‣bwZK Kvh©µg‡KB e¨emvq e‡j| Kg©cÎ-1 †Zvgv‡`i evwoi Av‡kcv‡k †hme e¨emvq Pvjy Av‡Q Zvi GKwU ZvwjKv •Zwi Ki| • • • • •

• • • • •

e¨emv‡qi •ewkó¨ (Characteristics of Business) mgvR weÁv‡bi kvLv wn‡m‡e e¨emvq cY¨ I †mev Drcv`b I eÈb Kvh©vewji mv‡_ mswkøó| gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ cwiPvwjZ Giƒc Kvh©vewji KZK¸‡jv ¯^Zš¿ •ewkó¨ cwijwÿZ nq| hv wb‡æ Dc¯’vwcZ n‡jv−

• e¨emv‡qi cÖ_g I cÖavb •ewkó¨ n‡jv gybvdv AR©b| KviY e¨emv‡qi aib hv-B †nvK bv †Kb, gvwjKMY gybvdv AR©b‡KB cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ wn‡m‡e MY¨ K‡i e¨emvq MVb I cwiPvjbv K‡i _v‡Kb|


e¨emv‡qi †g․wjK aviYv

3

• e¨emv‡qi Ab¨Zg •ewkó¨ n‡”Q jvf-†jvKmv‡bi SuywK MÖnY| cÖ‡Z¨K e¨emvqx Zvi mvdj¨ m¤ú‡K© m¤ú~Y© AwbwðZ| myZivs e¨emv‡qi Aw¯Í‡Z¡i mv‡_ jvf-†jvKmv‡bi AwbðqZvi SuywK RwoZ| • g~jab e¨emv‡qi g~j PvwjKvkw³| mwVK mg‡q e¨emv‡qi myôz MVb I cwiPvjbvi wbwg‡Ë mwVK cwigv‡Y g~jab cÖ‡qvRb| gvwjK ev D‡`v³vMY G g~jab wb‡R‡`i Znwej †_‡K ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Drm †_‡K FY wn‡m‡e MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡ib| • †µZvMY Zv‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq cY¨vw` P~ovšÍ †fv‡Mi Dc‡hvMx K‡i †c‡Z Pvq| GR‡b¨B e¨emvq AvnwiZ cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i gv‡S Dc‡hvwMZv m„wó K‡i Ges †µZv‡`i †fv‡Mi Dc‡hvMx K‡i Zv evRviRvZ K‡i| • e¨emvwqK †jb‡`‡bi GKwU Ab¨Zg •ewkó¨ n‡”Q †µZv-we‡µZv| A_© cÖ`vb I A_© MÖnY-G `ywUi Aw¯ÍZ¡ e¨emvwqK †jb‡`‡b Acwinvh©| • e¨emvwqK †jb‡`b wbqwgZ I †c․btcywbKfv‡e n‡Z nq| AvKw¯§K †Kv‡bviƒc †jb‡`b‡K e¨emvq ejv hvq bv| • e¨emvq‡K Aek¨B AvBbvbyM I •ea n‡Z n‡e| • e¨emvq memgq GKUv ¯^vaxb †ckv wn‡m‡e MY¨ nq|

1.02 e¨emv‡qi AvIZv ev cwiwa Scope of Business Afve c~i‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxq cY¨ I †mevi Drcv`b I eÈb Ges Gi mnvqK hveZxq Kvh©vewj e¨emv‡qi AvIZvfy³| A_©vr Drcv`‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxq KuvPvgvj msMÖn n‡Z Avi¤¢ K‡i •Zwi cY¨ ev †mev †fv³vi nv‡Z †cu․Qv‡bv ch©šÍ mKj Kvh©vewjB e¨emv‡qi AvIZv ev cwiwai AšÍfy©³| wkí (Industry): wkí Drcv`‡bi evnb| †h Kg© cÖ‡Póv ev cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g cÖvK…wZK m¤ú` AvniY Ges Gi Dc‡hvM m„wói gva¨‡g gvby‡li e¨envi Dc‡hvMx cY¨ cÖ¯‘Z Kiv nq Zv‡K wkí e‡j| wk‡íi •ewkó¨ mg~n−

K. L. M. N. O.

wkí cY¨`ªe¨ cÖwµqvRvZKi‡Yi mv‡_ m¤ú„³; m¤ú` ev g~j¨ Drcv`bB wk‡íi g~j jÿ¨; wkí c‡Y¨i AvKviMZ Dc‡hvM m„wó K‡i; wk‡í Drcvw`Z cY¨mvgMÖx gvby‡li Afve †gvP‡bi Kv‡R wb‡qvwRZ; Aa© cÖ¯yZ Í cY¨‡K P~ovšÍ c‡Y¨ iƒcvšÍwiZ K‡i|


4

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

wkí‡K wb‡gœv³ wewfbœ fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v− e¨emvq wkí cÖv_wgK wkí: cÖRbb wb®‥vkb K…wlR

†M․Y wkí: Drcv`b we‡k­lYg~jK cÖwµqvwfwËK

evwYR¨ ms‡hvRb wkí: mshy³ wbg©vY †mev cwi‡ekK

Af¨š—ixY

cÖZ¨¶ †mev

wewbgq

mnvqK Kvh©vewj e¨vsK

wegv

cwienb

¸`vgRvZKiY

evRviRvZKiY cÖmvi

•e‡`wkK

cÖmvi cvBKvwi

LyPiv

Avg`vwb

ißvwb

cybtißvwb

QK: e¨emv‡qi AvIZv| K. cÖv_wgK wkí (Primary Industry) cÖv_wgK wk‡í †Kv‡bv iƒcMZ cwieZ©b N‡U bv| cÖv_wgK wkí‡K wZbwU †kªwY‡Z fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| • cÖRbb wkí (Genetic Industry): †h wk‡í Drcvw`Z cY¨ mvgwMÖ cybtevi m„wó ev Drcv`‡bi Kv‡R e¨eüZ nq Zv‡K cÖRbb wkí e‡j| D`vniY ¯^iƒc grm Pvl, bvm©vwi, nuvmgyiwM, djg~j I Mevw` cïi Lvgvi|

• wb®‥vkb wkí (Extractive Industry): f~-Mf©, b`x, mvMi ev f~wg †_‡K cÖK…wZ cÖ`Ë m¤ú` AvniY, Dchy³ Kv‡Ri cwi‡ek, DbœZgv‡bi cY¨ I †mev cwi‡ekb BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g Avni‡Yi Kv‡R †h wkí m¤úK©hy³ Zv‡K wb®‥vkb wkí e‡j|


e¨emv‡qi †g․wjK aviYv

5

D`vniY¯^iƒc mgy`ª nB‡Z grm wkKvi I RjR m¤ú` msMÖn, eb n‡Z KvV ev Ab¨vb¨ ebR m¤ú` msMÖn, b`x nB‡Z evjy I f~-Mf© n‡Z LwbR c`v_© D‡Ëvjb BZ¨vw`|

• K…wlR wkí (Agricultural Industry): †h cÖwµqvq K…wlR cY¨ Drcv`b I AvniY Kiv nq Zv‡K K…wlR wkí e‡j| D`vniY¯^iƒc avb I cv‡Ui K_v ejv hvq|

L. †M․Y wkí (Secondary Industry) †h cÖ w µqvq m¤ú‡`i iƒ‡ci cwieZ© b N‡U Zv‡K †M․Y wkí e‡j| wb‡gœ †M․Y wk‡íi m¤¢ v e¨ AvIZv¸‡jv Zz ‡ j aiv n‡jv− • Drcv`b ev cÖ¯ÍyZ wkí (Productive Industry): kªg I h‡š¿i mvnv‡h¨ wewfbœ cÖwµqvq KuvPvgvj ev Aa© cÖ¯ÍyZ `ªe¨‡K gvby‡li e¨envi Dc‡hvMx c‡Y¨ cÖ¯ÍyZ Kivi cÖ‡Póv‡K Drcv`b wkí e‡j| A_©vr cY¨ Drcv`‡bi Rb¨ c‡Y¨i †h iƒcMZ cwieZ©b mvwaZ nq †mB cÖwµqvB n‡jv Drcv`b wkí| †hgb- MvQ †K‡U AvmevecÎ •Zwi, eqb wkí, B¯úvZ wkí BZ¨vw`|


6

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

• we‡kølYg~jK wkí (Analytical Industry): G RvZxq wk‡í †Kv‡bv `ªe¨‡K we‡kølY K‡i bvbv iKg `ªe¨ •Zwi Kiv nq| †hgb-A‡kvwaZ LwbR •Zj †_‡K wW‡Rj, †c‡Uªvj, M¨v‡mvwjb, †K‡ivwmb, LwbR Kqjv n‡Z †KvK Kqjv,, b¨vc_vwjb, AvjKvZiv BZ¨vw` •Zwi Kivi KvR| • cÖwµqvwfwËK wkí (Processing Industry): G RvZxq wk‡í wewfbœ cÖwµqv Aej¤^b K‡i cY¨ Drcv`b Kiv nq| A_©vr cÖwµqvRvZKi‡Yi gva¨‡g cY¨ Drcv`b Kivi wkíB n‡jv cÖwµqvwfwËK wkí| †hgb-Zzjv n‡Z e¯¿, AvL n‡Z wPwb BZ¨vw`| • †h․wMK wkí (Synthetic Industry): G wk‡í GKvwaK †g․wjK `ª‡e¨i mgš^‡q GKwU bZzb `ªe¨ •Zwi nq| †hgb-mvi wkí GwU K‡qKwU †g․wjK DcKi‡Yi ga¨ w`‡q mv‡i cwiYZ n‡q‡Q| mvevb, wm‡g›U BZ¨vw` †h․wMK wk‡íi D`vniY| M. ms‡hvRb wkí (Assembling Industry): G cÖwµqvq GKvwaK hš¿ ev hš¿vsk ms‡hvRb K‡i bZzb cY¨ •Zwi Kiv nq| †hgb-†gvUi wkí, †ij BwÄb|

• mshy³ wkí (Integrated Industry): †h wkí †ÿ‡Î wewfbœ ai‡bi wkí cÖwµqvi GKB mv‡_ mgš^q N‡U Zv‡K mshy³ wkí e‡j| †hgb-†j․n I B¯úvZ wkí| • wbg©vY wkí (Constructive Industry): †h cÖwµqvq wewfbœ ai‡bi wbg©vY KvR m¤úbœ n‡q _v‡K Zv‡K wbg©vY wkí e‡j| †hgb-iv¯Ív NvU, `vjvb‡KvVv, euva, †mZz BZ¨vw` wbg©vY|

• †mev cwi‡ekK wkí (Service Industry): †h wkí RbKj¨vYg~jK Kv‡R wb‡qvwRZ n‡q _v‡K Zv‡K †mev cwi‡ekK wkí e‡j| †hgb-cvwb, we`y¨r, M¨vm, †Uwj‡dvb BZ¨vw` mieivn G wk‡íi AvIZvfy³|


e¨emv‡qi †g․wjK aviYv

cÖRbb wkí 1. grm Pvl 2. 3. 4. 5.

Kg©cÎ-2 wewfbœ cÖKvi wk‡íi 5wU K‡i D`vniY K…wlR wkí we‡kølYg~jK wkí mshy³ wkí 1. avb I cvU 1. LwbR •Zj †_‡K wW‡Rj 1. †j․n I B¯úvZ wkí 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 5. 5. 5.

7

†mevg~jK wkí 1. cvwb wkí 2. 3. 4. 5.

evwYR¨ (Commerce): wk‡í Drcvw`Z cY¨ cÖK…Z †fvMKvixi wbKU A_ev KuvPvgvj I Aa© cÖ¯‘Z cY¨ cieZx© †fvMKvix ev Drcv`‡Ki wbKU †c․uQv‡bvi †ÿ‡Î m¤¢ve¨ mKj cÖwZeÜKZv‡K `~ixKi‡Yi Rb¨ M„n xZ hveZxq Kv‡Ri mgwó‡K evwYR¨ e‡j|

evwY‡R¨i •ewkó¨mg~n (Features of Commerce): 1. cY¨ msMÖn I eÈb: cY¨ Drcv`b nq GK ¯’v‡b Ges †fvM nq wewfbœ ¯’v‡b| evwYR¨ e¨emvq, cwienY, ¸`vgRvZKiY, exgv, e¨vswKs I cÖPvi e¨e¯’vi gva¨‡g H mg¯Í cY¨ msMÖn K‡i eÈb K‡i| 2. Drcv`b I eȇbi g‡a¨ mgš^q: evRviRvZKiY cÖwµqvq Drcv`b I eȇbi g‡a¨ mgš^qmvab K‡i evwYR¨ evRvi w¯’wZkxj ivL‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| 3. e¨emv‡qi cÖwZeÜKZv `~ixKiY: evwYR¨ e¨emvq, cwienY, ¸`vgRvZKiY, e¨vsK, exgv I cÖPv‡ii Øviv h_vµ‡g e¨emv‡qi e¨w³MZ, ¯’vbMZ, KvjMZ, A_© msµvšÍ, SzwKMZ evav ev cÖwZeÜKZvmg~n `~i K‡i myôzfv‡e e¨emvq‡K Pj‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| 4. c‡Y¨i gvb I ¸Y DbœZKiY I msiÿb: c‡Y¨i gvb I ¸Y DbœZKiY Ges msiÿ‡Yi j‡ÿ¨ evwYR¨ cÖwgZKiY, ch©vwqZKiY, wPwýZKiY, †gvowKKiY c`‡ÿc MÖnY K‡i| 5. e„n`vqZb Drcv`‡b mvnvh¨: evwYwR¨K cÖwµqvq c‡Y¨i evRviRvZKiY wbwðZ nq e‡j Drcv`K AweiZ Drcv`b Kv‡h© wb‡qvwRZ †_‡K evRv‡ii Pvwn`vbyhvqx e¨vcK AvKv‡i Drcv`b Ki‡Z cv‡i|


8

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

evwY‡R¨i cÖKvi‡f` wbgœiƒc− wewbgq (Trade): cY¨ `ªe¨ ev †mev mvgwMÖi ¯^Z¡ n¯ÍvšÍ‡ii KvR‡K cY¨ wewbgq e‡j| wewbg‡qi gva¨‡g ¯^Z¡ n¯ÍvšÍ‡ii †ÿ‡Î we`¨gvb e¨w³MZ evav AcmvwiZ nq| cY¨ ev †mev wewbgq‡K wb‡¤œv³ K‡qKwU †kªwY‡Z fvM Kiv hvq| 1. Af¨šÍixY evwYR¨ (Home Trade): GKwU †`‡ki †f․‡MvwjK mxgvbvi g‡a¨ †h µq - weµq Kvh© m¤úvw`Z nq, Zv‡K Af¨šÍixY evwYR¨ e‡j| Af¨šÍixY evwYR¨‡K cÖK…wZ Abyhvqx Avevi `yfv‡M fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| i. cvBKvix e¨emvq (Whole sale trade): †h e¨emvq cvBKvwi e¨emvqx Drcv`‡Ki wbKU n‡Z AwaK cwigv‡Y cY¨ `ª e ¨ µq K‡i †m¸‡jv †QvU †QvU j‡U Ly P iv e¨emv qx‡`i wbKU wewµ K‡i Zv‡K cvBKvwi e¨emvq e‡j| ii. LyPiv e¨emvq (Retail trade): LyPiv e¨emvqx cvBKvi‡`i wbKU †_‡K cY¨ `ªe¨ msMÖn K‡i †m¸‡jv †fv³v‡`i wbKU wewµ K‡i| Giƒc e¨emvq‡K LyPiv e¨emvq e‡j| 2. AvšÍR©vwZK/•e‡`wkK evwYR¨ (Foreign trade): GK †`‡ki mv‡_ Ab¨ †`‡ki evwYR¨ n‡j Zv‡K •e‡`wkK evwYR¨ e‡j| G e¨e¯’vq GK †`‡ki †µZv Ab¨ †`‡ki we‡µZvi mv‡_ evwYR¨ K‡i _v‡K| •e‡`wkK evwYR¨ wZbwU Dcv‡q n‡q _v‡K− i. Avg`vwb (Import): Ab¨ †`k †_‡K cY¨ wK‡b wbR †`‡k wb‡q Avmvi KvR‡K e‡j Avg`vwb| ii. ißvwb (Export): ißvwb evwY‡R¨i †ÿ‡Î cY¨ `ªe¨ ev †mev ¯^‡`k †_‡K we‡`‡k †cÖiY Kiv nq| iii. cybtißvwb (Re-export): GK †`k †_‡K Avg`vwbK…Z cY¨ Z…Zxq †`‡k wewµ Kiv n‡j Zv‡K cybtißvwb evwYR¨ e‡j|

wPÎ: cybtißvwb|


e¨emv‡qi †g․wjK aviYv

9

mnvqK Kvh©vewj (Auxilaries to trade): gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ wkí I evwY‡R¨ mnvqZv `v‡bi j‡ÿ¨ †hme Kvh© m¤úvw`Z nq †m¸‡jvI e¨emv‡qi AvIZvaxb| mnvqK Kvh©vewj wbgœiƒc− i. e¨vswKs (Banking): e¨vswKs e¨e¯’v e¨emv cÖwZôvb‡K FY mieivn K‡i e¨emv‡qi A_© ms¯’vbRwbZ cÖwZeÜKZv `~i K‡i|

ii. wegv (Insurance): e¨emv‡qi mv‡_ RwoZ SzuwK msµvšÍ cÖwZeÜKZv `~ixKi‡Y mnvqZv K‡i wegv|

iii. cwienb (Transportation): cwienb cY¨ ¯’vbvšÍ‡ii †ÿ‡Î ¯’vbMZ cÖwZeÜKZv `~ixf~Z K‡i _v‡K| cwienb wZb Dcv‡q n‡q _v‡K-¯’j c‡_, Rj c‡_, wegvb c‡_|


10

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

iv. ¸`vgRvZKiY (Warehousing): G cÖwµqvq cY¨ wKQz mg‡qi R‡b¨ gRyZ †i‡L mgqMZ Dc‡hvM m„wó Kiv nq|

v. c¨vwKs (Packing): cY¨ evRviRvZKi‡Yi Av‡M c‡Y¨i `vg, ¸Y, ZvwiL BZ¨vw` msewjZ GKwU AvKl©Yxq †gvo‡K cY¨‡K mvRv‡bv n‡j G‡K c¨vwKs e‡j| vi. evRviRvZKiY cÖmvi (Promotion): c‡Y¨i mwVK g~j¨vqb nIqvi Rb¨, †h D‡Ï‡k¨ cY¨ •Zwi Kiv n‡q‡Q Ges gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ cY¨‡K evRviRvZKiY Kiv nq| evRviRvZKi‡Yi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wZbwU welq n‡jv-cY¨ M‡elYv, evRvi M‡elYv, weµwqKZv| cÖZ¨ÿ †mev (Direct Services) A‡_©vcvR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ †hme Kvh© mivmwi m¤úvw`Z nq wKsev •`wnK ev gvbwmK kª‡gi wewbgq Kiv nq Zv‡K cÖZ¨ÿ †mev e‡j|

wPÎ: cÖZ¨ÿ †mev


e¨emv‡qi †g․wjK aviYv

11

cÖZ¨ÿ †mevi •ewkó¨: 1. A_© DcvR©‡bi D‡Ïk¨ ¯^vaxb †ckvq wb‡qvwRZ _v‡K, 2. cY¨ Qvov mivmwi †mev cÖ`vb, 3. †mev`vZv I †mev MÖnxZvi Dcw¯’wZ _vK‡Z nq|

cÖZ¨ÿ †mevi AvIZv ev cÖKvi‡f` †hme Kg©KvÐ cªZ¨ÿ †mevi g‡a¨ c‡o †m¸‡jv n‡jv-wPwKrmv e„wË, AvBb e„wË, wnmve e„wË, cª‡K․kjx e„wË, civgk© e„wË, †nv‡Uj, †mjyb, bvU¨kvjv, wm‡bgv nj, Awf‡bZv, Awf‡bÎx‡`i Awfbq, Wv³viiv wg‡j wK¬wbK e¨emv ev K‡qKRb DwKj wg‡j GUwb© dvg© ev cÖ‡K․kjxiv wg‡j BwÄwbqvwis dvg© MVb Ki‡Z cv‡ib; hv cÖZ¨ÿ †mev weµqKvix cÖwZôvb wn‡m‡e m½Z Kvi‡Y e¨emv‡qi AvIZvq Av‡m| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, e¨emv‡qi AvIZv AZ¨šÍ e¨vcK| eZ©gvb we‡k¦ e¨emvq GKwU e¨vcK AvIZvwewkó A_©‣bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ði mgwó| gvby‡li AdzišÍ Afve c~i‡Yi Rb¨ e¯‘MZ I Ae¯‘MZ †mev I kª‡gi h‡_ó cÖ‡qvRb i‡q‡Q| Kv‡RB gvby‡li Gme Pvwn`v c~i‡Yi Rb¨ A‡_©vcvR©‡bi j‡ÿ¨ m¤úvw`Z hveZxq Kvh©B e¨emv‡qi AvIZvfy³ | Kg©cÎ-3 wkí, evwYR¨ I cÖZ¨ÿ †mevi aviYv I •ewkó¨ we‡kølY K‡i G‡`i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Lyu‡R †ei Ki| wkí evwYR¨ cÖZ¨ÿ †mev

1.03 evsjv‡`‡k e¨emv‡qi AvIZv wnmv‡e wkí, evwYR¨ I cÖZ¨ÿ †mevi mgm¨v I m¤¢vebv Problems & Prospects of Industry, Commerce and Direct Services of Bangladesh

evsjv‡`k wk‡í AbMÖmi GKUv †`k| cÖvPxb Kvj †_‡KB K…wl LvZ G †`‡k gyL¨ n‡jI eZ©gv‡b wk‡ívbœq‡bi †Kv‡bv weKí †bB| RvZxq m¤ú` I M„nxZ •e‡`wkK F‡Yi eo cwigvY A_© wk‡ívbœq‡bi ¯^v‡_© e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q wKš‘ cÖZ¨vwkZ AMÖMwZ bvbvb Kvi‡YB GLbI AwR©Z nqwb| evsjv‡`‡k wk‡íi mgm¨v (Problems of Industry in Bangladesh): evsjv‡`‡k wkíLv‡Z `~ej © Zvi wcQ‡b wewfbœ KviY we`¨gvb| wb‡gœ G m¤ú©‡K Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv− 1| mr I †hvM¨ D‡`¨v³vi Afve: Avgv‡`i †`‡ki mKj ch©v‡qB `ÿ I †hvM¨ D‡`¨v³v ev msMV‡Ki Afve jÿbxq| A_P D‡`¨v³v n‡jv e¨emv‡qi †bZv| †hvM¨ D‡`¨v³v †kÖYx M‡o bv DVvi Kvi‡Y G †`‡ki wkí †ÿ‡Î h‡_ó m¤¢vebv _vKv m‡Ë¡I †m m¤¢vebv‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡bv hv‡”Q bv| 2| e¨e¯’vcbvi A`ÿZv: wkí wb‡R Pj‡Z cv‡i bv| e¨e¯’vcbvi Dci Zv‡K wbf©i Ki‡Z nq| wkí myôzfv‡e cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ Gi e¨e¯’vcK‡`i †hiƒc `ÿZv I AwfÁZv _vKv cÖ‡qvRb Avgv‡`i †`‡k Zvi eoB Afve cwijwÿZ nq| 3| g~ja‡bi Afve: wkí †QvU eo †h ai‡biB †nvK bv †Kb Zv‡Z hw` Kvg¨ cwigv‡Yi g~jab ms¯’vb Kiv bv hvq Z‡e Zv n‡Z Kvw•LZ dj jvf Kiv hvq bv|


12

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

4| miKvwi myôz bxwZgvjvi Afve: wkí‡K GwM‡q †bIqvi Rb¨ miKv‡ii †h myôy bxwZ-cwiKíbv I Z`byhvqx D‡`¨vM Ges mn‡hvwMZv _vKv cÖ‡qvRb ZviI gvivZ¥K Afve G †`‡k jÿYxq| 5| DbœZ cÖhyw³ I KvwiMwi `ÿZvi Afve: Avgv‡`i †`‡ki wkí cÖwZôvb¸‡jv †ewki fvM †ÿ‡ÎB cyivZb hš¿cvwZ I cÖhyw³i e¨envi K‡i| d‡j we‡`wk cÖwZ‡hvMx‡`i b¨vq gvbm¤§Z cY¨ Drcv`b Zv‡`i c‡ÿ m¤¢e nq bv| G Qvov e¨emvq cwiPvjbv I Drcv`‡b †h ai‡bi Kjv‡K․kj I c×wZ GLv‡b e¨eüZ nq ZvI DbœZ bq| d‡j e¨emvq msMVb¸‡jvi `ÿZvi gvb DbœZ nIqvi my‡hvM Kg| evsjv‡`‡k wk‡íi m¤¢vebv (Prospects of Industry in Bangladesh) †`‡ki µgea©gvb Rbkw³i Kg©ms¯’v‡bi e¨e¯’v Ges `ªæZ A_©‣bwZK cÖe„w× AR©‡b wkívq‡bi †Kv‡bv weKí †bB| cÖvK…wZK M¨v‡mi e¨vcK e¨envi, Af¨šÍixY evRvi, we‡`kx wewb‡qvMKvix‡`i AvMÖn e„w×, DbœZgv‡bi Kqjv Lwbi mÜvb jvf, ißvwb‡hvM¨ cY¨ Drcv`b e„w×, †emiKvwi D‡`¨vM m¤úªmvib, mykvmb cÖwZôvq ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc, ivR‣bwZK w¯’wZkxjZv AR©‡bi cÖqvm, wek¦vq‡bi cÖfve BZ¨vw` mewKQzB G‡`‡k wkíLv‡Zi AMÖMwZi Bw½Z †`q| †`‡ki A_©‣bwZK mg„w× AR©‡b wkíLv‡Zi Dbœq‡bi Avek¨KZv I KiYxq m¤ú‡K© mswkøó mKj gn‡ji BwZevPK `„wófw½ I g‡bvfve hZ `ªæZ m„wó nq ZZB Zv g½jRbK| m‡e©vcwi †`kxq D‡`¨vM I wewb‡qvM AvKl©‡Yi cvkvcvwk we‡`wk wewb‡qvMKvix‡`i Av¯’v AR©b I cwi‡ek m„wó Ki‡Z cvi‡j mKj evav-wecwË `~i K‡i m¤¢vebv‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡bv hv‡e|

evsjv‡`‡k e¨emv‡qi AvIZv wn‡m‡e evwY‡R¨i mgm¨v Problems of Commerce in Bangladesh evsjv‡`‡k Af¨šÍixY I •e‡`wkK evwY‡R¨ wewfbœ mgm¨v we`¨gvb| †h Kvi‡Y h‡_ó m¤¢vebv _vKvi ciI G‡`‡k evwY‡R¨i Kvw•ÿZ m¤úªmviY m¤¢e n‡”Q bv| wb‡gœ Giæc mgm¨vmg~n D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv− K. Af¨šÍixY evwY‡R¨ mgm¨v: (Problems of home trade)  `ÿ D‡`¨v³v I e¨e¯’vc‡Ki Afve  g~ja‡bi mxgve×Zv  cwienb I †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vi mxgve×Zv  ivR‣bwZK Aw¯’wZkxjZv  miKvwi wewfbœ ms¯’vi mn‡hvwMZvi Afve  ga¨¯’ e¨emvqx‡`i †`․ivZœ¨  cY¨ I †mevi wbgœgvb L. •e‡`wkK evwY‡R¨ mgm¨v: (Problems of foreign trade )  ißvwbgyLx wk‡íi Afve  `ÿ ißvwbKvi‡Ki Afve  ißvwb c‡Y¨i mxgve×Zv ev †cvkvK wk‡íi Dci AwZwbf©iZv  ißvwb evRvi m¤úªmvi‡Y DbœZ †K․kj I cÖhyw³ e¨env‡ii Afve  `ªæZ wkc‡g›U mgm¨v  AvÂwjK mnvqZvi Afve  ißvwb m¤úªmvi‡Y e¨vKIqvW© I d‡ivqvW© wjs‡KR wk‡íi Afve


e¨emv‡qi †g․wjK aviYv

13

evsjv‡`‡k evwY‡R¨i m¤¢vebv (Prospects of commerce in Bangladesh): evsjv‡`‡k evwY‡R¨vi m¤¢vebv h‡_ó Zv ejvi A‡cÿv iv‡L bv| cvBKvwi I LyPiv e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î eª¨v‡Ûi c‡Y¨i m¤úªmviY, LyPiv weµqg~j¨ wba©viY, †gvoKxKiY e¨e¯’vi Dbœqb, cÖZ¨ÿ evRviRvZKiY e¨e¯’v cÖmvi BZ¨vw` c`‡ÿc MÖvgxY evRvi ch©šÍ we¯Í…Z n‡”Q weavq †jb‡`b A‡bK mnR n‡q‡Q| gv_vwcQz Avq e„w× cvIqvq gvby‡li †fv‡Mi cÖeYZv w`b w`b evo‡Q| gvby‡li iæwP I Pvwn`vi mv‡_ Zvj wgwj‡q bZzb wWRvBb I gv‡bi cY¨ evRv‡i Avm‡Q| ivRavwb †_‡K ïiæ K‡i †QvU kni ch©šÍ wecwb weZvb M‡o DVvq evwYwR¨K Kg©Kv‡Ûi we¯Í…wZ NU‡Q| ißvwb evwY‡R¨ we`¨gvb mgm¨v gv_vq †i‡L Avg`vwbKviK‡`i g‡b Av¯’v m„wói D‡`¨vM †bqv n‡”Q| ißvwbgywL cÖwZôvb¸‡jvi `ÿZv e„w× I we‡`wk evwYwR¨K wgkb¸‡jv‡K mwµq Kivi D‡`¨vM †bqv n‡”Q| mewKQz wgwj‡q evsjv‡`‡ki Af¨šÍwib I •e‡`wkK evwYR¨ fwel¨‡Z AviI mg„× n‡e|

1.04 mvgvwRK e¨emv‡qi aviYv Concept of Social Business cÖPwjZ e¨emvq Avgv‡`i wkÿv †`q Kxfv‡e AwaK gybvdv AR©b Kiv hvq| A_©vr cÖPwjZ e¨emvq Avgv‡`i‡K ¯^v_©ci K‡i †Zv‡j| Aciw`‡K mvgvwRK e¨emvq Avgv‡`i‡K wkÿv †`q Kxfv‡e e¨emv‡qi gva¨‡g ¯^í gybvdvq mgv‡Ri wewfbœ mgm¨v mgvavb Kiv hvq| gybvdv AR©‡bi wbR¯^ •ewkó¨, e¨emvq m¤úªmviY Ges mvgvwRK mgm¨v mgvav‡b D‡jøL‡hvM¨ fzwgKv ivLvq eZ©gvb we‡k¦ mvgvwRK e¨emvq aviYvwU e¨cK RbwcÖqZv AR©b K‡i‡Q| G avibvwU cÖ_‡g Dc¯’vcb I Dbœqb K‡ib evsjv‡`‡ki †bv‡ej weRqx Wt †gvt BDbym| wZwb 2008 mv‡j Zvi cÖKvwkZ eB ÒCreating a world without poverty:social business and the future of capitalism” me©cÖ_g G avibvwU †`b| ciewZ©‡Z 2010 mv‡j Zvi cÖKvwkZ ÒBuilding Social Business: The new kind of Capitalism that serve humanity’s most pressing needs” G GB g‡WjwUi we¯ÍvwiZ Av‡jvPbv K‡ib|

wPÎ: mvgvwRK e¨emvq


14

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

mvgvwRK e¨emvq n‡”Q GKwU KviY avweZ (Cause-driven) e¨emvq| mvgvwRK e¨emvq wewb‡qvMKvix ax‡i ax‡i Zvi wewb‡qvMK…Z g~jab Zz‡j wb‡Z cv‡i| wKš‘ Gi evB‡i †Kv‡bv jf¨vsk †m †fvM Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| G e¨emv‡qi D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q e¨emvq cwiPvjbvi gva¨‡g mgv‡Ri GK ev GKvwaK mvgvwRK D‡Ïk¨ AR©b Kiv; GLv‡b wewb‡qvMKvixi †Kv‡bv e¨w³MZ D‡Ïk¨ _v‡K bv| G e¨emv‡qi gybvdv e¨envi Kiv nq mvgvwRK e¨emvq m¤úªmviY ev cY¨ Dbœq‡b| G Kvi‡YB wewb‡qvMKvix cÖwZôvb †_‡K †Kv‡bv gybvdv D‡Ëvjb K‡i bv| c‡Y¨i LiP Zz‡j gybvdv AR©‡bi cvkvcvwk G e¨emvq GK ev GKvwaK mvgvwRK D‡Ïk¨ †hgb−Mixe‡`i ¯^v¯’¨‡mev, Avevmb e¨e¯’v, Avw_©K †mev cÖ`vb, Acywó‡Z †fvMv wkï‡`i cywói e¨e¯’v Kiv, wbivc` Lvevi cvwb mieivn, bevqb‡hvM¨ R¡vjvwbi e¨e¯’v BZ¨vw` AR©b Ki‡Z mnvqZv Ki‡e| W. gynv¤§` BDb~m mvgvwRK e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î wb‡gœv³ •ewk‡ó¨i K_v D‡jøL K‡i‡Qb−  mvgvwRK D‡Ïk¨ _vK‡Z n‡e| †hgb: ¯^v¯’¨, wkÿv, `wi`ªZv, cwi‡ek, Rjevqy BZ¨vw`|  jf¨vsk wn‡m‡e wewb‡qvMKvix †Kv‡bv gybvdv MÖnY Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv|  GKwU e¨emvq‡K mvgvwRK e¨emvq wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv hv‡e hw` GwUi gvwjKvbv `wi`ª †kªwYi Rb¨ nq Ges GwU mgv‡Ri †Kv‡bv we‡kl D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡b wb‡qvwRZ _v‡K| mvgvwRK e¨emv‡qi cÖKvi‡f` (Types of Social Business): mvgvwRK e¨emvq `ycÖKvi| h_v− 1. UvBc-I: mvgvwRK e¨emvq 2. UvBc-II: mvgvwRK e¨emvq| 1. UvBc-I: G ai‡bi mvgvwRK e¨emvq †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó mvgvwRK, •bwZK A_ev cwi‡ekMZ jÿ¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv cY¨ mieiv‡ni Dci ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc Kiv nq| †hgb−MÖvgxY Wv‡bvb (Grameen Danone), MÖvgxY kw³ (Grameen Sokti)| 2. UvBc-II: G ai‡bi mvgvwRK e¨emvq gybvdvwbf©i e¨emvq †hwUi gvwjK n‡eb Mwie ev mgv‡Ri wbgœweËiv hviv mivmwi jf¨vsk †fvM Ki‡Z cv‡i ev c‡ivÿfv‡e myweav MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| †hgb: MÖvgxY e¨vsK mvgvwRK e¨emvq Ae¨emvqx cÖwZôvb Ges e¨emvwqK mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ †_‡K wfbœ|

mvgvwRK e¨emv‡qi bxwZgvjv (Principles of Social Business) W. gynv¤§` BDb~m Ges n¨vbm †iBUR (Hans Reitz), mvgvwRK e¨emv‡qi 7wU bxwZgvjvi K_v D‡jøL K‡i‡Qb| †m¸‡jv n‡jv−  mvgvwRK e¨emv‡qi D‡Ïk¨ n‡e `vwi`ªZv `~i Kiv, A_ev mgv‡Ri GK ev GKvwaK mgm¨v mgvavb Kiv|  Avw_©K I A_©‣bwZK Dbœqb mvab  wewb‡qvMKvixiv ïaygvÎ Zv‡`i cÖv_wgK wewb‡qv‡Mi A_© Zz‡j wb‡Z cvi‡e| wewb‡qv‡Mi AwZwi³ jf¨vsk †fvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv|  hLb †Kv¤úvwbi wewb‡qvMK…Z A_© †diZ †`qv n‡e ZLb †Kv¤úvwbi hZ gybvdv n‡e Zv †Kv¤úvwbi Dbœqb I m¤úªmvi‡Y e¨envi Kiv n‡e|  cwi‡ekMZ m‡PZbZv|  Kgx©iv fv‡jv cwi‡e‡k Kv‡Ri cvkvcvwk b¨vh¨ gRywi cvq|  KvR Avb‡›`i mv‡_ Kiv|


e¨emv‡qi †g․wjK aviYv

1.05

15

e¨emv‡qi Kvh©vewj

Functions of Business

cY¨ ev †mev Drcv`b Ges Drcvw`Z cY¨ ev †mev mvgMÖx †fv³vi Kv‡Q †cu․Qv‡bv ch© šÍ hveZxq Kvh©vewj e¨emv‡qi AšÍfy©³| †fv³v ev †µZvi mšÍywó AR©bB e¨emv‡qi g~j D‡Ïk¨ ev jÿ¨| wb‡gœ e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Kvh©vewjmg~n eY©bv Kiv n‡jv−  Drcv`b ( production): cÖvK…wZK m¤ú` msMÖn ev D‡Ëvjb K‡i †fv³v‡`i Afve c~i‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ G¸‡jv‡K e¨env‡ivc‡hvMx Kivi Rb¨ e¨emvq Drcv`bKvh© cwiPvjbv K‡i _v‡K| G KvR‡K iƒcvšÍi Dc‡hvwMZv m„wóI ejv n‡q _v‡K| Drcv`b e¨emv‡qi g~L¨ KvR|  cwienb (Transportation): mvaviYZ cY¨mvgMÖx †`‡ki we‡kl GjvKvq Drcvw`Z nq Ges Zv †`‡ki wewfbœ A‡j fvM Kiv nq| GgZve¯’vq Drcvw`Z cY¨ cwien‡bi gva¨‡g Drcv`b †K›`ª n‡Z †`‡ki wewfbœ GjvKvq wb‡q wM‡q †fv³v‡`i KvQvKvwQ gRy` Kiv nq| G KvR‡K c‡Y¨i ¯’vbMZ Dc‡hvwMZv m„wó ejv nq| cY¨mvgwMÖ‡K ¯’vbvšÍ‡i cwievwnZ Kiv n‡jB Zv †fv‡M jvMv‡bv m¤¢e nq|  µq-weµq (Buying and selling): e¨emv‡qi Ab¨Zg cÖavb KvR n‡jv cY¨ I †mev µqweµq Kiv| mwZ¨Kvi A‡_©, cY¨ I †mevi µq-weµq e¨emv‡qi cÖvY¯^iƒc|  A_© mieivn (Supply of money): e¨emv‡qi cÖ‡qvRb Abymv‡i e¨vswKs-G wb‡qvwRZ cÖwZôvb¸‡jv A_© mieiv‡ni gva¨‡g e¨emvq-evwYR¨‡K MwZkxj K‡i †Zv‡j|  SuywK n¯ÍvšÍi (Transfering risk): e¨emv‡qi gva¨‡g e¨emvq-msµvšÍ eûwea SuywKI n¯ÍvšÍwiZ nq| cY¨ enbKv‡j wKsev e¨emvq cwiPvjbvKv‡j AwMœKvÐ, eb¨v, f~wgK¤ú, Pzwi-WvKvwZ BZ¨vw` Kvi‡Y †hme SuywKi m„wó nq wegv †Kv¤úvwb †mme SuywKi `vwqZ¡ MÖnY K‡i|  wnmveiÿY (Accounting): e¨emvq wnmve iÿv GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Kvh©| e¨emvqx †jb‡`b wnmvefy³ KivB G Kv‡h©i AšÍf©y³| wnmveiÿ‡Yi gva¨g Kviev‡ii Avq-e¨q, jvf-ÿwZ Ges Dnvi Avw_©K Ae¯’v Rvbv hvq| Gi Øviv †hgb eZ©gvb Ae¯’v eyS‡Z cviv hvq †Zgwb fwel¨r cš’v w¯’i Kiv nq|  weÁvcb I cÖPvi (Advertisement and publicity): cª‡Z¨K e¨emvqx ms¯’v cY¨-evZ©v m¤¢ve¨ †µZv‡`i `„wó‡MvPi Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨ weÁvcb I cÖPviKvh© m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡K| †µZv m„wó Kiv Ges RbmvaviY‡K cY¨wUi LwiÏv‡i cwiYZ Kivi Rb¨ weÁvcb I cÖPvi cÖ‡qvRb|

wPÎ: weÁvcb I cÖPvi


16

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

• †gvoKxKiY (Packing): cY¨ weµq I en‡bi myweav‡_© wewfbœ cwigv‡Y cY¨‡K Av‡MB †gvoKxKiY Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| DbœZ I AvKl©bxq c¨v‡KU, †evZj ev wU‡b cY¨ †gvoKxKiY Kiv n‡j Zv †µZv‡`i `„wó AvKl©‡b I Gi h_vh_ msiÿ‡b mnvqZv nq |

• gRyZKiY (Storing) Drcvw`Z ev µqK…Z cY¨ weµq n‡Z wKQzUv mgq †bq| †g․mygx `ªe¨ Drcv`b I msMÖ‡ni ci A‡bKw`b gRyZ K‡i ivLvi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| ZvB Giƒc msiÿ‡Yi Rb¨ e¨emvq‡K cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx ¸`vgRvZKiY myweav M‡o Zzj‡Z †`Lv hvq| • cÖwgZKiY I ch©vwqZ KiY (Standardising and grading):

cÖwgZKiY n‡jv †g․wjK gvb wbav©iY Ges ch©vwqZKiY n‡jv D³ cÖwZwôZ gvb Abyhvqx cY¨ `ªe¨ fvM ev †kÖwYe× Kiv| e¨emv‡q cY¨-`ªe¨ Drcv`b I e���U‡bi †ÿ‡Î cÖwgZKiY I ch©vwqZKi‡Y cÖ‡qvRb c‡o|  evRvi msµvšÍ M‡elYv I DrKl© mvab (Market research and development): cY¨ weµ‡qi KvR ÿgZvi mv‡_ mym¤úbœ Kivi Rb¨ evRvi msµvšÍ M‡elYv e¨emv‡qi GKwU cª‡qvRbxq KvR| cÖ‡Z¨K e¨emvqx ms¯’v weµ‡qi Rb¨B cY¨ ev †mev Drcv`b A_ev µq K‡i _v‡K| wKš‘ weµ‡qi evRvi e¨vcK I AwbwðZ| weµ‡qi mvd‡j¨i Rb¨ evRvi cwiwa wba©viY Kiv Ges LwiÏv‡ii Pvwn`v m¤ú‡K© mywbwðZ _vKv GKvšÍ `iKvi| LwiÏv‡ii iæwP, Pvwn`vi eZ©gvb I fwel¨r MwZ-cÖK…wZ, evRv‡ii we¯Í„wZ, µqÿgZv BZ¨vw` wewfbœ welq m¤ú‡K© AbymÜvb Kiv G Kv‡h©i AšÍf©y³| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, gvby‡li Afve c~i‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ hveZxq •ea A_©‣bwZK wµqvKjvcB n‡jv e¨emvq Avi e¨emv‡qi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z Kg©KvÐB n‡jv e¨emv‡qi Kvh©vewj| m¤úvw`Z Kvh©vewji g‡a¨ †hme KvR gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ Kiv nq, †m¸‡jv e¨emvwqK Kvh©Kjv‡ci AvIZvq c‡o| cÖK…Zc‡ÿ gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ GKRb e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb hv K‡i ZvB e¨emvqxK Kvh©Kjvc|


e¨emv‡qi †g․wjK aviYv

17

1.06 e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡ Importance of Business eZ©gvb Dbœqbkxj we‡k¦ `ªæZ A_©‣bwZK I mvgvwRK Dbœqb I cwieZ©‡bi Rb¨ e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡ ev cÖ‡qvRbxqZv evwo‡q ejvi A‡cÿv iv‡L bv| †`‡ki K…wl, wkí, evwYR¨ †hvMv‡hvM, cwienb cÖf„wZ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wel‡qi Dbœq‡bi mv‡_ e¨emvq IZ‡cÖvZfv‡e RwoZ| wb‡gœ e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡ ev cÖ‡qvRbxqZv eY©bv Kiv n‡jv− K. A_©‣bwZK ¸iæZ¡ (Economic Importance):  A_©‣bwZK Dbœqb (Economic development): cÖK…wZ cÖ`Ë wewfbœ m¤ú` AvniY K‡i e¨emvq wk‡íi gva¨‡g bZzb bZzb Dc‡hvM m„wó K‡i| †`‡ki cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i h_vh_ e¨envi wbwðZ K‡i e¨emvq A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i|  kªgwefv‡Mi mydj (Merits of division of labour): e¨emvwqK ZrciZv e„w× cvIqvi `iæb Drcv`b I Ab¨vb¨ e¨emvwqK Kh©µ‡g kªgwefvM Ges we‡klxKi‡Yi D™¢e n‡q‡Q| Gi d‡j kªg `ÿZv e„w× cvq Ges c‡Y¨i g~j¨ Kg c‡o| ZvB †fv³viv ¯^í e¨‡q cY¨ µq K‡i Zv †fvM Ki‡Z mÿg nq|  cuywR MVb (Formation of capital): †`‡k cuywRMV‡bi nvi hZ †ewk nq, A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡bi nviI ZZ †e‡o hvq| e¨emvq e¨vswKs e¨e¯’v, wegv e¨e¯’v BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g †`‡ki †fZiKvi wewÿß mÂq GKwÎZ K‡i cuywR MV‡b mnvqZv K‡i Ges G cuywR e¨emv-evwY‡R¨ e¨envi K‡i RvZxq Drcv`bkxjZv e„w× K‡i| d‡j A_©‣bwZK Dbœqb Z¡ivwš^Z nq|  cÖhyw³i e¨envi I A_©‣bwZK Kj¨vY (Use of technology and economic welfare): e¨emvq DbœZ ai‡bi cÖhyw³ e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g wbZ¨ bZzb cY¨ Drcv`b K‡i gvby‡li AZ…ß Pvwn`v c~iY Kivi cÖqvm cvq| cÖhyw³i Dchy³ e¨envi mgv‡R gvby‡li Kj¨vY e‡q Av‡b Ges A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b cÖZ¨ÿfv‡e mnvqZv K‡i|

 miKvwi Avq e„w× (Increase of government income): e¨emvqx cªwZôvb¸‡jvi wbKU †_‡K wewfbœ cÖKvi Ki I ïé eve` miKvi cÖPzi ivR¯^ Avq K‡i| G A_© miKvi RbwnZKiKv‡h© e¨q K‡i †`‡ki mvgwMÖK A_©bxwZ‡K Pv½v K‡i †Zv‡j|  m¤ú‡`i e¨envi (Use of resources): e¨emvqx Kvh©Kjv‡ci gva¨‡g †`‡ki †fZ‡i cÖvß cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i Dchy³ e¨envi m¤¢eci nq| Lwb †_‡K m¤ú` D‡Ëvjb, mgy`ª †_‡K grm m¤ú` AvniY, eb-R½j †_‡K ebR m¤ú` msMÖn BZ¨vw` meB e¨emv‡qi djkÖæwZ|


18

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

L. mvgvwRK ¸iæZ¡ (Social Importance):  g~‡j¨i w¯’wZkxjZv iÿv (Keeping price stability): `ªe¨g~j¨ †ewk DVvbvgv Ki‡j gvby‡li RxebhvÎv Amnbxq n‡q D‡V| ZvB e¨emvq cY¨g~j¨ w¯’wZkxj ivLvi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v MÖnY K‡i|  Kg©ms¯’vb (Employment): GKwU †`‡k AmsL¨ e¨emvq cÖwZôvb A_©‣bwZK AMÖMwZ‡Z Ae`vb iv‡L| Gme cÖwZôv‡b kZ kZ †jv‡Ki Kg©ms¯’vb nq| myZivs †`Lv hv‡”Q †h, e¨emvq Kg©ms¯’v‡bi gva¨‡g A_©‣bwZK DbœwZi hvÎvc_‡K wbwe©Nœ Kivi cÖqvm Pvjvq|  cY¨ mieivn (Product supply): mgv‡R emevmiZ gvby‡li •`bw›`b Pvwn`v c~i‡Yi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq gvbm¤§Z cY¨`ªe¨ I †mev mieivn wbwðZKi‡Yi gva¨‡g e¨emvq Kvh©µg cwiPvwjZ nq|  c‡Y¨i gvb Dbœqb (Improvement of the quality of products): e¨emv‡qi AvaywbKvq‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ Drcvw`Z c‡Y¨i gvb e„w×i cÖ‡Póv Pvjv‡bv nq| wba©vwiZ cY¨ ¸‡Y-gv‡b DËg n‡j †fvMKvixiv h‡_ó DcK…Z nq| †fvMKvix‡`i DcKvi mvgvwRK Kj¨v‡YiB bvgvšÍi|  RxebhvÎvi gvb Dbœqb (Improvement of standard of living): e¨emvq GKw`‡K cÖPzi cY¨`ªe¨ †hgb Drcv`b K‡i Ges Ab¨w`‡K Gme mvgwMÖ e¨enviKvixi ØvicÖv‡šÍ G‡b nvwRi K‡i| Gfv‡e e¨emvq mvgwMÖKfv‡e RbM‡Yi myL-mg„w× e‡q Av‡b Ges Gi d‡j RbM‡Yi RxebhvÎvi gv‡bi Dbœqb N‡U|  AvšÍR©vwZK m¤úK© (International relation): e¨emvq w`K-w`M‡šÍ Gi evû cÖmvwiZ K‡i wewfbœ RvwZi g‡a¨ m¤cÖxwZ I åvZ…Z¡ m„wó K‡i| AvšÍR©vwZK evwYR¨ e¨emv‡qi GKwU A½ wn‡m‡e wewfbœ †`‡ki g‡a¨ c‡Y¨i †jb‡`b NwU‡q cÖ‡Z¨K †`‡ki A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b mnvqK K‡i| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, AvaywbK we‡k¦ gvbe †Mvôxi me©v½xY Kj¨vY I mf¨Zvi µ‡gvbœwZ‡Z e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡ ev cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Acwimxg| e¨w³, mgvR I RvZxq Rxe‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq cY¨ ev †mev AvniY, Drcv`b I weZiY msµvšÍ Kvh©µ‡g e¨emv‡qi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Ab¯^xKvh©|

1.07

A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b e¨emv‡qi Ae`vb Effect of Business in Economic Development

†h †Kvb †`‡ki Rb¨ e¨emvq n‡”Q A_©bxwZi g~L¨ PvwjKv kw³| evsjv‡`k GKwU Dbœqbkxj †`k| DbœZ †`‡ki ch©v‡q †c․Qv‡Z n‡j A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡bi †Kvb weKí †bB| K…wlwbf©i †`k n‡jI G †`‡ki A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b e¨emv‡qi Ae`vb w`b w`b e„w× †c‡q‡Q| e¨emvq m¤ú‡`i myôz e¨envi wbwðZ Kiv, e¨w³MZ I RvZxq Avq e„w×, m‡q Drmvn cÖ`vb, g~jab MV‡b mnvqZv, miKv‡ii ivR¯^ e„w×, Kg©ms¯’v‡bi my‡hvM m„wó, gvbem¤ú‡`i Dbœqb, AeKvVv‡gvMZ Dbœqb BZ¨vw` Kv‡h©i gva¨‡g Avgv‡`i A_©bxwZ‡Z ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivL‡Q| ZvB ejv hvq, evsjv‡`‡ki A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b e¨emv‡qi Ae`vb e¨vcK I Ab¯^xKvh©|


e¨emv‡qi †g․wjK aviYv

19

1.08 RxweKv AR©‡bi Dcvq wn‡m‡e e¨emvq Business as a Career †Kv‡bv we‡kl we`¨vq e„wËg~jK Ávb AvniY K‡i cvi`wk©Zv I `ÿZv AR©‡bi ci ev¯Íe Rxe‡b Zvi cÖ‡qvM I e¨env‡ii Øviv RxweKv wbe©v‡ni cÖ‡Póv‡K †ckv e‡j| †Kv‡bv gvbyl Zvi Rxeb‡K mvg‡bi w`‡K GwM‡q wb‡q hvevi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv KvR‡K Aej¤^b Ki‡j †mUv †ckv wn‡m‡e MY¨ nq| G `„wó‡KvY †_‡K e¨emvq‡K †ckv ev RxweKv AR©‡bi Dcvq ej‡Z cvwi| KviY GKRb e¨w³ e¨emvq K‡i Zvi e¨w³MZ ev cvwievwiK Afvemg~n c~iY Ki‡Q| e¨emvq gvby‡li RxweKv AR©‡bi Ab¨Zg cÖavb Dcvq| †h‡Kv‡bv e¨w³ Zvi ¯^í ev †ewk g~jab wb‡q mn‡RB e¨emvq Ki‡Z cv‡i| ZvB A‡b‡K e¨emvq‡K †ckv wn‡m‡e MÖnY K‡i‡Q| e¨emv‡qi gva¨‡g gvbyl Zvi Rxeb‡K DbœwZi w`‡K GwM‡q wb‡q hvq| †KD hw` PvKwi K‡i Z‡e †m wbw`©ó †eZb cvq| †m‡ÿ‡Î Zvi Pvwn`v ev AvKv•ÿv mxwgZ n‡q _v‡K| wKš‘ †KD hw` e¨emvq mwVKfv‡e Ki‡Z cv‡i Z‡e †m PvKwii †P‡q A‡bK †ewk DcvR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| GLv‡b Zvi DcvR©b mxwgZ _v‡K bv| e¨emvq Kg©ms¯’v‡b ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv iv‡L| GKwU †`‡k hZ †ewk e¨emv‡qi m¤úªªmviY NU‡e ZZ †ewk gvby‡li K‡g©i ms¯’vb n‡e| e¨emvq n‡jv ¯^vaxb †ckv ev e„wË| GKRb e¨emvqx •eafv‡e †h‡Kv‡bv e¨emv‡q cyuwR wewb‡qvM Ki‡Z cv‡i, †mLvb †_‡K gybvdv AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i, GRb¨ †Kv‡bv Revew`wn KviI wbKU Ki‡Z nq bv| ZvB ¯^vaxb †ckv wn‡m‡e e¨emvq‡K mevB cQ›` K‡i|

eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ: 1| e¨emv‡qi cÖ_g I Ab¨Zg cÖavb KvR Kx ? K. evRviRvZKiY L. Drcv`b M. cÖwgZKiY N. evRvi M‡elYv 2| †UªW (µq-weµq) †Kvb ai‡bi evav `~i K‡i? K. ¯^Z¡MZ L. cÖPviMZ M. A_©MZ N. iƒcMZ 3| evwYR¨ †fv³v‡`i wbKU cY¨ †cu․Qv‡Z mnvqZv K‡i _v‡K− i. ¯’vbMZ evav `~i Kivi gva¨‡g ii. mvgvwRK mnvqZv `v‡bi gva¨‡g iii. A_©MZ evav `~i Kivi gva¨‡g wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii


20

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges 4 I 5 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| Rwjj eb †_‡K †eZ msMÖn K‡i Zv Øviv cwiev‡ii m`m¨‡`i‡K wb‡q †mvdv, †gvov BZ¨vw` •Zwi K‡i Rbve Kvgv‡ji †`vKv‡b mieivn K‡i| Kvgvj †m¸‡jv XvKv kn‡ii wewfbœ †`vKv‡b mieivn K‡i| 4| Rbve Kvgv‡ji e¨emvqwU †Kvb ai‡bi e¨emvq? K. GKgvwjKvbv L. Askx`vwi M. cvBKvwi N. LyPiv 5| Rwjj hw` wb‡RB Zvi Drcvw`Z `ªe¨ XvKv kn‡ii wewfbœ †`vKv‡b mieivn Ki‡Z Pvq Zvn‡j Zvi cÖ‡qvRb n‡e− i. cwiwPwZ I evRviRvZKiY `ÿZv ii. AwZwi³ Rbej I cÖ‡qvRbxq hš¿cvwZ iii. cwienb myweav wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i I ii M. ii I iii

L. i I iii N. i,ii I iii

m„Rbkxj cÖkœ: 1|

wg. AvKvk _vBj¨vÛ †_‡K Pvj µq K‡i D³ Pvj evQvB‡qi ci we‡k¦i wewfbœ †`‡k weµq K‡ib| 2011 mv‡j AvšÍR©vwZK evRv‡i Pv‡ji g~j¨ n«vm †c‡j wZwb mswKZ n‡q c‡ob Ges `ªæZZvi mv‡_ †`kxq evRv‡i D³ Pvj wewµ K‡i †`b| G‡Z wZwb Avw_©K ÿwZi m¤§yLxb nb| wKš‘ 2012 mv‡ji ïiæ‡ZB AvšÍR©vwZK evRv‡i Avevi Pv‡ji `vg evo‡Z ïiæ K‡i| K. e¨emvq Kx? L. cÖZ¨ÿ †mev ej‡Z Kx eySvq? M. wg. AvKvk †Kvb ai‡bi evwY‡R¨i mv‡_ RwoZ? −e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Zzwg wK g‡b Ki †`kxq evRv‡i Pvj wewµ bv K‡i Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Dcv‡q wg. AvKvk ÿwZi nvZ †_‡K iÿv †c‡Z cvi‡Zb? hyw³mn gZvgZ `vI|

2|

w`cb we. G. cvm K‡i wb‡Ri cv‡q `vuov‡bvi †Póv Ki‡Q| wb‡R‡`i GKUv Abvev`x cyKzi ms¯‥vi K‡i gv‡Qi †iby †Q‡o‡Q| cv‡ki †QvÆ RvqMv‡Z wKQz Pviv w`‡q‡Q| •`wbK hv‡Z wKQz wbqwgZ Avq Av‡m GRb¨ GbwRI †_‡K FY wb‡q GKUv gyiMxi Lvgvi K‡i‡Q| `yÕRb Kg©PvixI wb‡qvM w`‡q‡Q| cÖwZw`b †m A‡bK wWg weµq K‡i| wKš‘ nVvr †iv‡M A‡bK gyiMx gviv hvIqvq †m kswKZ| cïcvjb Kg©KZ©v Zv‡K cÖwkÿY †bqvi Rb¨ e‡j‡Qb| K. mvgvwRK e¨emvq Kx? L. wb®‥vkb wkí ej‡Z Kx eySvq? M. w`cb †Kvb ai‡bi wkí M‡o Zz‡j‡Q Zv−e¨vL¨v Ki| N. w`c‡bi ksKvi mv‡_ e¨emv‡qi †Kvb •ewk‡ó¨i mvgÄm¨ i‡q‡Q we‡kølY Ki|


wØZxq Aa¨vq

e¨emvq cwi‡ek BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT ejv nq gvbyl cwi‡e‡ki `vm| Rb¥ †_‡K g„Zz¨ Aewa cwi‡ek cÖZ¨ÿ I c‡ivÿfv‡e gvbyl‡K PvwjZ K‡i| Avgv‡`i Pvicv‡k hv wKQz Av‡Q Zv wb‡q Avgv‡`i cwi‡ek| Aciw`‡K e¨emvq cwi‡ek mvgwMÖK cwi‡e‡ki GKwU Ask, hv ïay e¨emvwqK Kg©Kv‡Ði mv‡_ RwoZ| eZ©gvb cÖwZ‡hvwMZvc~Y© gy³evRvi A_©bxwZi hy‡M e¨emv‡qi mvdj¨ AR©b m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c wbf©i K‡i e¨emv‡qi cwi‡e‡ki Dci| †hme cvwicvwk¦©K Dcv`vb e¨emvq‡K cÖZ¨ÿ I c‡ivÿfv‡e cÖfvweZ K‡i Zvi mgwó‡K e¨emv‡qi cwi‡ek e‡j| cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vb¸‡jv e¨emv‡qi Kvh©vewj‡K e¨vcKfv‡e cÖfvweZ K‡i|

G Aa¨vq cvV †k‡l Avgiv Rvb‡Z cvie− •

e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki aviYv|

e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki wewfbœ Dcv`vb|

e¨emv‡qi Dci cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vb¸‡jvi cÖfve|

e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vb¸‡jvi g‡a¨ †Kvb¸‡jv evsjv‡`‡k AbyK~j ev cÖwZK~j Zv wPwýZKiY|

evsjv‡`‡k e¨emvq cwi‡ek Dbœq‡bi mgm¨v|

evsjv‡`‡k e¨emv‡qi cwi‡ek Dbœq‡bi c‡_ we`¨gvb mgm¨v¸‡jv `~i Kivi Dcvq wPwýZKiY|


22

2.01

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki aviYv Concept of Business Environment

evsjv‡`‡ki †Kv‡bv MÖv‡g ¯^íweËm¤úbœ GKRb K…l‡Ki N‡i GKUv wkï Rb¥ wbj| Gici Zvi cwiPh©v, †e‡o IVv, †jLvcov, Rxeb-RxweKv I wPšÍv-fvebv †h ai‡bi n‡e Bsj¨v‡Ûi †Kv‡bv MÖv‡g Rb¥ †bqv wkï Ges Zvi cwiPh©v, †e‡o IVv, †jLvcovmn mewKQz n‡e wfbœZi| Gi wcQ‡b Df‡qi cvwicvwk¦©KZv A_©vr cÖvK…wZK, A_©‣bwZK, mvgvwRK, ivR‣bwZK BZ¨vw` cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vbmg~n wfbœ ev¯ÍeZvi Rb¥ w`‡q‡Q| GUv‡K A¯^xKvi Kivi †Kv‡bvB my‡hvM †bB| ZvB ejv hvq, cÖwZwU gvbyl Zvi wPšÍv-wek¦vm, AvPvi-AvPiY, Rxeb-RxweKvmn †h wfbœ fveaviv‡Z M‡o I‡V Gi wcQ‡b me‡P‡q eo cÖfve Zvi cwi‡ek| †mRb¨B ejv nq, gvbyl AvRb¥ cwi‡e‡ki Øviv cÖfvweZ nq| †hme cvwicvwk¦©K Dcv`vb e¨emvq‡K cÖZ¨ÿ I c‡ivÿfv‡e cÖfvweZ K‡i Zvi mgwó‡K e¨emv‡qi cwi‡ek| †hme Ae¯’v e¨emv‡qi DbœwZi Dci cÖfve we¯Ívi K‡i _v‡K, Zv‡K e¨emvq cwi‡ek e‡j| e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi cwi‡ek ej‡Z mvaviYZ evB‡ii †mme Dcv`vb¸‡jv‡K eySv‡bv nq †h¸‡jv cÖwZôv‡bi Rb¨ my‡hvM e‡q Avb‡Z cv‡i wKsev ÿwZi m„wó Ki‡Z cv‡i|

2.02 e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vb Elements of Business Environment

eZ©gvb cÖwZ‡hvwMZvc~Y© gy³evRvi A_©bxwZi hy‡M e¨emv‡qi mvdj¨ AR©b m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c wbf©i K‡i e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki Dci| cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vb¸‡jv gvby‡li A_©‣bwZK Kvh©vewj Ges e¨emvqÑevwYR¨‡K e¨vcKfv‡e cÖfvweZ K‡i| wb‡gœ e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vb¸‡jv Zy‡j aiv n‡jv: 1| cÖvK…wZK Dcv`vb (Natural element): cÖK…wZMZ Kvi‡Y †h cwi‡ek m„wó nq Zv‡K cÖvK…wZK cwi‡ek e‡j| †Kv‡bv †`‡ki f~-cÖK…wZ, Rjevqy, cÖvK…wZK m¤ú`, Ae¯’vb, AvqZb, RbmsL¨v, b`b`x, cvnvo-ce©Z BZ¨vw` cÖvK…wZK cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vb| G Dcv`vbmg~‡ni Dcw¯’wZ wKsev Abycw¯’wZi Øviv e¨emvq Kvh©Kjvc cÖfvweZ nq| †m Kvi‡YB Gme Dcv`v‡bi AbyK~j †ÿ‡Î e¨emvq-evwYR¨, wkí-KiLvbv AwaK cwigv‡Y M‡o I‡V| 2| A_©‰bwZK Dcv`vb (Economic element): ÒA_©‣bwZK cwi‡ek KZK¸‡jv Dcv`v‡bi mgš^‡q MwVZ hv †fv³vi µq ÿgZv I e¨‡qi aib‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i|Ó Gme Dcv`v‡bi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q A_© I FY e¨e¯’v, mÂq I wewb‡qvM, g~jab BZ¨vw`| A_©‣bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ði Dci GKwU †`‡ki wkí I evwY‡R¨i cÖwZôv I cÖmvi e¨vcKfv‡e wbf©ikxj| GKwU †`‡ki RvZxq Avq, †fv‡Mi cwigvY, Drcv`b I eÈb, Mo gv_vwcQy Avq BZ¨vw`i Ici wfwË K‡i M‡o I‡V †Kv‡bv †`‡ki A_©‣bwZK cwi‡ek| Kv‡RB DcwiD³ Dcv`vbmg~n AbK~j n‡j e¨emvq evwY‡R¨i m¤cÖmviY I Dbœqb mnRZi nq|


e¨emvq cwi‡ek

23

3| mvgvwRK I mvs¯‹„wZK Dcv`vb (Social and cultural element):

gvbyl mgvRe× Rxeb hvc‡b Af¨¯Í| G mgvRe× gvby‡li a¨vb-aviYv, wkÿv I ms¯‥…wZ, g‡bvfve I wek¦vm, ixwZ-bxwZ, g~j¨‡eva, ag©xq †PZbv BZ¨vw`i Dci wfwË K‡i M‡o I‡V mvgvwRK cwi‡ek| e¨emvq-evwY‡R¨i Dci G mvgvwRK Dcv`vb¸‡jvi cÖfve Amxg| mvgvwRK cwi‡ek mnR, my›`i I AbyK~j n‡j e¨emvq evwYR¨ Zvi Kvg¨ jÿ¨ AR©b Ki‡Z mÿg nq| 4| ivR‰bwZK I AvBbMZ Dcv`vb (Political and legal element): GKwU †`‡ki ivR‣bwZK I AvBbMZ Dcv`vbmg~n e¨emv‡qi Dbœqb I weKv‡k e¨vcK f~wgKv iv‡L| †Kv‡bv †`‡ki miKvwi wbqg-Kvbyb, AvBb-k„•Ljv I wbivcËv e¨e¯’v AbyK~j n‡j e¨emvqI `ªæZMwZ‡Z weKwkZ n‡Z cv‡i| wVK †Zgwb ivR‣bwZK w¯’wZkxjZv, e¨emvq evwY‡R¨i cÖwZ miKv‡ii `„wófw½, evwYR¨ bxwZ, ivR¯^ bxwZ, wewb‡qvM bxwZ BZ¨vw`i AvbyK~j¨ Ges miKvwi c„ô‡cvlKZv e¨emv‡qi m¤úªmviY I Dbœq‡b BwZevPK f~wgKv iv‡L| e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vbmg~n cÖvK…wZK Dcv`vb

A_©‣bwZK Dcv`vb

• f~-cÖK…wZ • Rjevqy • cÖvK…wZK m¤ú` • AvqZb I RbmsL¨v • cvnvo-b`x BZ¨vw`|

• A_© I FY e¨e¯’v • mÂq I wewb‡qvM • g~jab • Avw_©K cÖwZôvbmg~n BZ¨vw`|

mvgvwRK I ivR‣bwZK I Z_¨ I cÖhyw³MZ mvs¯‥…wZK Dcv`vb AvBbMZ Dcv`vb Dcv`vb

• ivR‣bwZK • cÖhyw³MZ wk¶v w¯’wZkxjZv e¨e¯’v • miKvwi • Z_¨cÖevn bxwZgvjv • weÁvb M‡elYv • e¨emvq msµvš— cÖwZôvbmg~n AvBb-Kvbyb BZ¨vw`| • AvBb-k„•Ljv • cwi‡ek msµvš— AvBb BZ¨vw`| wPÎ: e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki Dci cÖfve we¯ÍviKvwi Dcv`vbmg~n • wk¶v ms¯‥…wZ • ag©xq †PZbv • mvgvwRK ixwZbxwZ • g‡bvfve I wek¦vm • g~j¨‡eva • BwZnvm I HwZn¨ BZ¨vw`|

Avš—R©vwZK Dcv`vb • Avš—R©vwZK Pzw³ • wek¦ evwYR¨ bxwZ • Avš—R©vwZK evRvi e¨e¯’v • cÖwZ‡ewk †`‡ki mv‡_ m¤úK© • DbœZ †`‡ki mv‡_ m¤úK© BZ¨vw`|


24

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

5| Z_¨ I cÖhyw³MZ Dcv`vb (Information and technological element): eZ©gvb wek¦e¨e¯’v Z_¨ I cÖhyw³ wbf©i| cÖhyw³ †hgb gvby‡li Rxe‡b G‡b‡Q AvaywbKZvi †Quvqv, eZ©gvb Kw¤úDUviwfwËK Z_¨ e¨e¯’vI †Zgwb gvby‡li Rxebaviv‡K cy‡ivcywi e`‡j w`‡q‡Q| cÖhyw³ I KvwiMwi Áv‡bi Øviv M‡elYv I D™¢ve‡bi d‡j wek¦ cv‡”Q bZzb bZzb Avwe®‥vi, †µZv I †fv³viv cv‡”Q bZyb bZzb cY¨ I †mevmvgMÖx| Avevi Z_¨ e¨e¯’vi Aeva cÖevn e¨emvq-evwYR¨ MwZ mÂvi Ki‡Z mÿg n‡q‡Q| Z‡_¨i Aeva cÖevn e¨ZxZ AvR‡Ki wek¦vq‡bi (Globalisation) hy‡M e¨emvq-evwY‡R¨ AMÖMwZ I Dbœq‡bi cÖZ¨vkv `yivkvgvÎ| 6| AvšÍR©vwZK Dcv`vb (International element): eZ©gvb e¨emvq-evwY‡R¨i †ÿÎ AvR Avi †Kej mxwgZ MwЇZ Ave× †bB| e¨emvq AvR †`‡ki mxgvbv Qvwo‡q wek¦e¨vcx Zvi mKj Wvjcvjv cÖmvwiZ Ki‡Z mg_© n‡q‡Q| myZivs e¨emv‡qi AvšÍR©vwZK w`K‡K Ae‡njv Kivi my‡hvM †bB| GKwU †`‡ki mv‡_ Aci †`‡ki m¤úK©, we‡kl K‡i DbœZ †`‡ki mv‡_ Dbœqbkxj ev AbybœZ †`‡ki m¤úK© e¨emvq‡K we‡klfv‡e cÖfvweZ K‡i| GQvov AvšÍR©vwZK Pyw³, wek¦ evwYR¨ bxwZ I wek¦evRvi e¨e¯’v, cÖwZ‡ewk †`kmg~‡ni mv‡_ m¤úK© BZ¨vw` †h‡Kv‡bv †`‡ki e¨emvqevwY‡R¨ AbyK~j cwi‡ek m„wó K‡i| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki Dc‡iv³ cÖwZwU Dcv`vbB e¨emvq‡K †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bvfv‡e cÖfvweZ Ki‡Q|

2.03 e¨emv‡qi Dci cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vb¸‡jvi cÖfve The Effect of Environmental Elemants on Business

e¨emvq GKwU A_©‣bwZK Kg©KvÐ| gvby‡li Rxeb cÖYvwj I Ab¨vb¨ A_©‣bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ði Dci cwi‡e‡ki wewfbœ Dcv`vb ev kw³mg~n †hfv‡e cÖfve we¯Ívi K‡i, †Zgwbfv‡e e¨emvq Ges ZrmsµvšÍ Kvh©vewjI cwi‡ekMZ wewfbœ PjK / Dcv`vb / kw³ Øviv cÖfvweZ nq| cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vbmg~‡ni g‡a¨ †hgb i‡q‡Q f~-cÖK…wZ, Rjevqy, g„wËKv, b`-b`x, cvnvo-ce©Z BZ¨vw`i g‡Zv cÖvK…wZK Dcv`vb, †Zgwb i‡q‡Q mvgvwRK, mvs¯‥…wZK, ivR‣bwZK, A_©‣bwZK, cÖhyw³, miKvwi wewa-weavb BZ¨vw`i g‡Zv AcÖvK…wZK Dcv`vbmg~n| †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó A‡ji G mgq cwi‡ekMZ Dcv`vb GKK Ges mw¤§wjZfv‡e Anin H ¯’v‡bi e¨emvwqK Kg©aviv, wm×všÍ, djcÖ`Zv BZ¨vw`‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i| wb‡gœ e¨emv‡qi Dci cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vbmg~‡ni cÖfve Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv− 1| cÖwZôv‡bi Rb¨ g~jab cÖvwß (Availability of capital for the venture): e¨emvq GKwU m„Rbkxj I D™¢vebg~jK KvR| e¨emvqxi Giƒc D™¢vebx kw³‡K ev¯Í‡e iƒc`v‡bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb ch©vß g~ja‡bi| msMVb ¯’vcb, KjKâv I hš¿cvwZ µq, KuvPvgvj msMÖn BZ¨vw` eve` cÖPzi A‡_©i cÖ‡qvRb| D`vi FY`vb bxwZ, myô z I Kvh©K i †kqvi evRv‡ii Dcw¯’wZ Ges m‡e©vcwi †`‡ki A_©‣bwZK DbœwZi Dci g~jab mieivn cwiw¯’wZ wbf©ikxj| †`‡k AbyK ~j A_©‣bwZK cwi‡ek we`¨gvb _vK‡j e¨emv‡qi g~jab cÖvwß mnR nq| Ab¨w`‡K cÖwZK~ j A_©‣bwZK cwi‡ek g~jab cÖvw߇Z weNœ m„wó K‡i| d‡j e¨emvq evavcÖvß nq|


e¨emvq cwi‡ek

25

2| AbyK~j Ki KvVv‡gv (Favourable tax structure): †`‡ki weivRgvb AbyK~j Ki I ïé bxwZ e¨emv‡qi Dci BwZevPK cÖfve †d‡j| †`‡k we`¨gvb Ki KvVv‡gv‡Z †hme Lv‡Z ev A‡j wkí-KviLvbv I e¨emvq ¯’vc‡b Ki †iqvZ †`qv nq, †mme Lv‡Z ev A‡j `ªæZ wkí KviLvbv M‡o D‡V| cÖwZK~j Ki I ïé KvVv‡gv bZzb wkí ¯’vcb‡K wbiærmvwnZ Kivi mv‡_ mv‡_ Pvjy wkí KviLvbv I e¨emvq Kg©Kv‡Ði BwZ NUvq| 3| jvB‡mÝ cÖvwßi myweav (Facility to getting licence): †`‡k wkí ¯’vcb I e¨emvwqK Kg©KvÐ cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb mswkøó KZ„©c‡ÿi Aby‡gv`b| wkí ¯’vc‡bi Giƒc Aby‡gv`b ev jvB‡mÝ cÖvwßi myweav ev Amyweav e¨emvqx Kvh©µ‡g h_vµ‡g BwZevPK ev †bwZevPK cÖfve we¯Ívi K‡i| ZvB †`Lv hvq, wewfbœ †ÿ‡Î miKvwi Aby‡gv`b I jvB‡mÝ cÖ`v‡b `xN©m~wÎZvi bxwZ e¨emvqx D‡`¨vM‡K wbiærmvwnZ K‡i| Avevi G‡ÿ‡Î Z¡wiZ e¨e¯’vi bxwZ wkí KviLvbv ¯’vc‡b mnvqK kw³ wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| 4| f~wg cÖvwßi myweav (Advantages of getting land): wkí ev e¨emvq ¯’vc‡b h_vh_ myweav msewjZ f~wg cÖ‡qvRb| myôz †hvMv‡hvM I cwienb e¨e¯’v, evRv‡ii •bKU¨, KuvPvgvj, kÖgkw³, M¨vm, we`y¨r BZ¨vw`i mnRjf¨Zv msewjZ f~wg h_vh_ wkí ¯’vc‡bi mnvqK| Ab¨w`‡K wkí ¯’vc‡bi Dc‡hvMx f~wgi Ach©vßZv e¨emvq Kg©KvЇK evavMÖ¯Í K‡i| 5| myôz †hvMv‡hvM I cwienb e¨e¯’v (Smooth communication and transportation system): myôz I ch©vß †hvMv‡hvM I cwienb e¨e¯’v GKwU AwZ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© A_©‣bwZK Dcv`vb-hv e¨emvq ev wk‡íi cÖwZôv I Gi AMÖMwZ‡Z BwZevPK cÖfve we¯Ívi K‡i| myôz †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v GKw`‡K †hgb KuvPvgvj msMÖ‡ni Rb¨ Acwinvh©, Ab¨w`‡K Drcbœ cY¨ evRviRvZKi‡Yi Rb¨I ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| Avevi DbœZ †hvMv‡hvM I cwienb e¨e¯’v e¨emvq mswkøó wewfbœ c‡ÿi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vc‡bi Rb¨I GKvšÍ Acwinvh©| 6| evRv‡i cÖ‡e‡ki my‡hvM (Facility to access in the market): Drcvw`Z cY¨ Aev‡a weµ‡qi my‡hvM Z_v c‡Y¨i evRvi jv‡fi my‡hvM Av‡iKwU A_©‣bwZK Dcv`vb-hv wkíxq Drcv`b‡K cÖZ¨ÿfv‡e DrmvwnZ K‡i| g~jZ cY¨ Drcvw`Z nq evRv‡i weµ‡qi wbwg‡Ë| GgZve¯’vq, †Kv‡bv c‡Y¨i evRvi hw` GK‡PwUqv ev wbqwš¿Z ev msiÿYg~jK nq Z‡e H wk‡íi AMÖMwZ e¨vnZ nq| A‡bK mgq †`Lv hvq †c‡U›U, †UªWgvK©, KwcivBU A_ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv miKvwi wb‡`©k c‡Y¨i evRvi‡K msiwÿZ I msKzwPZ K‡i iv‡L| Giƒc Ae¯’vq e¨emvq Kg©KvÐ evavMÖ¯Í n‡q _v‡K| 7| AbyK~j FY I Avw_©K myweav (Favourable credit and financial facilities): e¨emvqxMY wkí ¯’vcb Ges Pjgvb wk‡í cÖ‡qvRbxq PjwZ g~jab †hvMvb †`qvi wbwg‡Ë A_ev m¤úªmvi‡Yi Rb¨ ¯^í I `xN©‡gqvw` g~jab ev F‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv †eva K‡ib| GgZve¯’vq, †Kv‡bv A‡j Giƒc g~jab ev FY cÖvwßi my‡hvM bv _vK‡j e¨emvqxMY wbiærmvwnZ n‡q c‡ob| d‡j e¨emvq Kg©KvÐ e¨vnZ nq| Avevi cÖ‡qvRbxq FY ev g~ja‡bi †hvMvb †`qvi Rb¨ †h A‡j ch©vß e¨vsK, myôz †kqvi evRvi ev we‡`wk mvnvh¨ we`¨gvb †mLv‡b mn‡RB wkí I e¨emvq cÖwZôvb M‡o D‡V|


26

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

8| mnvqK I †mevg~jK cÖwZôv‡bi Dcw¯’wZ (Presence of supporting and service organisations): †Kv‡bv A_©‣bwZK Kg©KvÐ ev wkí cÖwZôvbB ¯^qsm¤ú~Y© bq| GK‡K LvZ ev wk‡í Dbœqb Ab¨vb¨ A‡bK wkí ev e¨emv‡qi mg_©b ev mnvqZvi Dci wbf©ikxj| ZvB e¨vsK, wegv, cwienb, M¨vm, we`y¨r, dvqvi mvwf©m, cvBKvwi I LyPiv †`vKvb, †givgwZ mc, †Uwj‡hvMv‡hvM, WvK BZ¨vw`i g‡Zv †mev`vbKvwi Ges mnvqK cÖwZôvb e¨emvq cÖ‡Póv‡K †eMevb K‡i Zzj‡Z cv‡i| 9| mvgvwRK-mvs¯‹…wZK Ae¯’v (Socio-cultural conditions): †Kv‡bv mgv‡R bZzb wkí ¯’vc‡bi D‡`¨vM ev D`¨g M‡o DVv bv DVvi †cQ‡b H A‡ji mvgvwRK, mvs¯‥…wZK cwi‡ek ev g~j¨‡ev‡ai cÖfve A‡bKLvwb| AvaywbK cÖMwZkxj mvgvwRK-mvs¯‥…wZK ixwZbxwZ, AvPvi-AvPiY, g~j¨‡eva, wek¦vm-Awek¦vm, cQ›`-AcQ›`, Av‡eM-Abyf~wZ BZ¨vw` bZzb e¨emvq cÖwZôvb M‡o DVvi mnvqK n‡jI mbvZbx mvs¯‥…wZK g~j¨‡eva e¨emvq D‡`¨vM m„wó‡Z e¨vNvZ NUvq| mbvZbx mvs¯‥…wZK g~j¨‡ev‡a wek¦vmxMY mvgšÍev`x wPšÍv- †PZbvq wek¦vmx| Zuviv e¨emv‡q A_©-wewb‡qv‡Mi †P‡q f~wgi gvwjKvbvq A_© wewb‡qvM‡K AwaK mvgvwRK gh©v`vi cÖZxK g‡b K‡ib| d‡j wewb‡qvM wfbœ Lv‡Z cÖevwnZ nq weavq e¨emvq Kg©KvÐ e¨vnZ nq| 10| AbyK~j miKvwi bxwZgvjv (Favourable government policies): ivóªxq mKj ch©v‡q cÖYxZ I RvwiK…Z wewfbœ AvBb-Kvbyb, wewa-weavb, miKvwi-Av‡`k-Aa¨v‡`k BZ¨vw`i †eovRv‡j Ave× †_‡K GKRb e¨emvqx ev wkí D‡`¨v³v‡K e¨emvq ¯’vcb I cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z nq| e¨emv‡qi Rb¥jMœ †_‡K wejywßKvj ch©šÍ wewfbœ AvBbKvbyb e¨emvwqK Kvh©µg‡K cÖfvweZ I wbqwš¿Z K‡i| miKvwi Giƒc AvBbKvby‡bi g‡a¨ Ki, ïé, f¨vU, e¨emvq msMVb, e¨vsK, wegv, •e‡`wkK wewbgq, cwi‡ek, kÖwgK, cwienb, Avg`vwb-ißvwb BZ¨vw` welqK wewa-weavb Ab¨Zg| e¨emv‡qi cÖwZ miKv‡ii g‡bvfve cÖYxZ I RvwiK„Z Gme AvBb, wewa-weavb BZ¨vw`‡Z cÖwZdwjZ nq| 11| A_©‰bwZK e¨e¯’v (Economic system): A_©‣bwZK cwi‡e‡ki ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Dcv`vb A_©‣bwZK e¨e¯’vI GKwU †`‡ki e¨emvq cÖqvm‡K e¨vcKfv‡e cÖfvweZ K‡i| Ôgy³Õ ev cyuwRZvwš¿KÕ A_© e¨e¯’vq A_©‣bwZK Kg©Kv‡Û iv‡óªi †Zgb n¯Í‡ÿc bv _vKvq e¨w³MZ ch©v‡q D‡`¨vM cÖvavb¨ jvf K‡i| Ab¨w`‡K, Ôwbqwš¿ZÕ ev ÔmgvRZvwš¿KÕ A_© e¨e¯’vq Drcv`‡bi mgMÖ cÖwµqv iv‡óªi gvwjKvbv I wbqš¿Yvaxb _v‡K weavq e¨w³MZ ch©v‡q e¨emvq D‡`¨vM MÖnY ev wkí ¯’vcb evavMÖ ¯Í nq| 12| †`‡ki ivR‰bwZK w¯’wZkxjZv (Political stablility): †`‡ki ivR‣bwZK w¯’wZkxjZv wkí ev e¨emvq cwi‡ek‡K e¨vcKfv‡e cÖfvweZ K‡i| ivR‣bwZK Aw¯’wZkxjZv, AvÂwjK Ø›Ø-msNvZ, Nb Nb miKvi I bxwZi cwieZ©b BZ¨vw` wkí I evwYwR¨K cwi‡ek‡K wewNœZ K‡i| KviY Giæc cwiw¯’wZ‡Z `xN©‡gqvw` cwiKíbv I wm×všÍ MÖnY I G‡`i ev¯Íevqb evavMÖ¯Í nq| Ab¨w`‡K †`‡k


e¨emvq cwi‡ek

27

ivR‣bwZK w¯’wZkxjZv I e¨emv‡qi Dbœq‡b `xN©‡gqvw` myôz bxwZgvjv envj _vK‡j wkí-evwY‡R¨i Dbœqb N‡U| 13| weÁvb I cÖhyw³ (Science and technology): gvby‡li Rxe‡b bvUKxq cwieZ©b mva‡b me‡P‡q cÖfve we¯ÍviKvwi Dcv`vb weÁvb I cÖhyw³| eZ©gvb hy‡Mi †cwbwmwjb, I‡cbnvU© mvR©vwi, Kw¤úDUvi, †gvevBj †dvb BZ¨vw` we¯§qKi Avwe®‥vi I e¨envi weÁvb I cÖhyw³MZ Dbœq‡biB dmj| cÖhyw³i `ªæZ Dbœqb GKw`‡K †hgb Drcv`b‡K mnRZi K‡i, Drcv`‡bi ¸YMZ gvb I cwigvY e„w× K‡i, †Zgwb Zv e¨emvqx‡`i Rb¨ wech©qI m„wó Ki‡Z cv‡i| KviY bZzb cÖhyw³i Avwef©ve cyivZb cÖhyw³i cÖwZ¯’vcb‡K Aek¨¤¢vex K‡i †Zv‡j| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbvi †cÖwÿ‡Z ejv hvq, e¨emvq Kg©KvÐ cwi‡e‡ki wewfbœ Dcv`vb Ges Zv †_‡K D™¢~Z wewfbœ cvwicvwk¦©K kw³ Øviv cÖfvweZ nq| c„w_exi wewfbœ A‡j ev †`‡k cwi‡ekMZ kw³i Giƒc cÖfve wfbœZi n‡q _v‡K| GRb¨ ivó †_‡K iv‡óª, AÂj †_‡K A‡j e¨emv‡qi cÖK…wZ, MwZaviv, Dbœqb, cÖe„w× BZ¨vw`‡Z wfbœZv cwijwÿZ nq| Kg©cÎ-1 e¨emv‡qi Dci cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vbmg~‡ni cÖfve we‡kølYc~e©K evsjv‡`‡ki Dci Gi cÖfve wPwýZ Ki| • • • • • • • • • • • •

2.04

evsjv‡`‡ki e¨emvq cwi‡ek Dbœq‡bi mgm¨v Problems in Developing Business Environment of Bangladesh

1| AeKvVv‡gv m¼U: evsjv‡`‡ki e¨emvq cwi‡ek Dbœq‡b Ab¨Zg mgm¨v n‡”Q AeKvVv‡gvMZ m¼U ev mgm¨v, AeKvVv‡gv ej‡Z, iv¯ÍvNvU, we`y¨r e¨e¯’v, M¨vm, KuvPvgv‡ji cÖvc¨Zv,


28

2| 3| 4|

5|

6|

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

†hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v, e¨emv‡qi jvB‡mÝ cÖvc¨Zv BZ¨vw`‡K eySvq| GB welq¸‡jv Avgv‡` i †`‡k mn‡R cvIqv hvq bv| cÖvwZôvwbK Lv‡Zi `ye©jZv: e¨emvq cwi‡ek Dbœq‡b wewfbœ cÖwZôv‡bi mvnvh¨ cÖ‡qvRb †hgbAvw_©K cÖwZôvb (e¨vsK, wegv, †kqvi evRvi) GB mKj Lv‡Z h‡_ó `yej © Zv Av‡Q| mgwóK A_©‰bwZK Aw¯’wZkxjZv: e¨emvq †ÿ‡Î †h․_ D‡`¨v‡M •e‡`wkK wewb‡qvM cvIqv hvq bv, hvi d‡j mgwóK A_©bxwZi e¨e¯’vcbv `ye©j n‡q c‡o‡Q| cY¨evRvi I kÖgevRv‡ii A`ÿZv: cY¨ mieiv‡n †`wi nIqv ev e¨q e„w× Avg`vwb I ißvwb evwY‡R¨i †ÿ‡Î cÖwµqvRvZ RwUjZv, A_©vq‡bi mnRcÖvc¨Zvi Afve, I iæjm Ae AwiwRb BZ¨vw`i Rb¨ cY¨ evRvi I kÖgevRv‡i A`ÿZv †`Lv w`‡”Q| ivR‰bwZK Aw¯’wZkxjZv: evsjv‡`‡ki ivR‣bwZK cwi‡ek kZ m¤¢vebv‡K webó Ki‡Q| ej‡j A‡h․w³K n‡e bv| ivR‣bwZK Aw¯’ivZv, mš¿vm, Puv`vevwR, †UÛvievwR meB n‡”Q ivR‣bwZK QÎQvqvq| hv RbMY‡K ev‡i ev‡i nZvk Ki‡Q| Drcv`‡b e¨eüZ cÖhyw³ I `ÿZvi NvUwZ: Dcv`‡b e¨eüZ cÖhyw³ I `ÿZvi NvUwZi Kvi‡Y †µZvi Pvwn`v Abycv‡Z ¸YMZ gv‡bi cY¨ mieiv‡n e¨_©Zv †`Lv †`q|

2.05 evsjv‡`‡ki e¨emvq cwi‡ek Dbœq‡bi mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Dcvq Ways to Overcome Business Environment Development in Bangladesh • Avgv‡`i e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki †ÿ‡Î AeKvVv‡gvMZ †h mgm¨v †hgb-†hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v, we`y¨r e¨e¯’v, M¨vm BZ¨vw` mnRjf¨ Ki‡Z n‡e| • e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki Dbœq‡b wewfbœ cÖwZôv‡bi mvnvh¨ †hgb-e¨vsK, wegv, †kqvi evRvi n‡Z mn‡R Avw_©K mvnvh¨ ev FY myweav ch©vß n‡Z n‡e| • †h․_ D‡`¨v‡M •e‡`wkK wewb‡qv‡M D‡`¨v³viv hv‡Z DrmvwnZ nq Ges mgwóK A_©bxwZ‡K mej Ki‡Z n‡e| • ivR‣bwZK Aw¯’iZv, mš¿vm, Puv`vevwR, †UÛvievwR, Ab¨‡K VKv‡bvi cÖeYZv `~i Ki‡Z n‡e| • Drcv`‡b DbœZ cÖhyw³ I `ÿZvi e¨envi Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z †µZv‡`i‡K Pvwn`v Abyhvqx ¸bMZ gv‡bi cY¨ me©ivn Kiv hvq| • Avg`vwb ißvwb evwY‡R¨i †ÿ‡Î cÖwµqvMZ RwUjZv `~ixKiY, iæjm Ae AwiwRb BZ¨vw` h_v_© K‡i cY¨ evRvi I kÖg evRv‡ii A`ÿZv `~i Ki‡Z n‡e| Kg©cÎ-2 evsjv‡`‡k e¨emvq cwi‡ek Dbœq‡bi mgm¨v we‡kølY c~e©K Gi mgvav‡bi Dcvq wPwýZ Ki • • • • • •


e¨emvq cwi‡ek

29

• •

eûwbe©vPwb cÖk:œ 1|

c‡Y¨i Pvwn`v wba©viK cwi‡ek †KvbwU? K. cÖvK…wZK cwi‡ek L. ivR‣bwZK cwi‡ek M. mvgvwRK cwi‡ek N. AvBbMZ cwi‡ek

2| mgv‡Ri gvbyl GKw`‡K Drcv`bKvwi Ab¨w`‡K †fv³v wn‡m‡e †Kvb f~wgKv cvjb K‡ib? K. ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv

L. mgš^qKvixi f~wgKv

M. •ØZ f~wgKv

N. Drcv`bKvwii f~wgKv

3| `ÿ kÖgkw³i Ici wbf©ikxj− i. e¨emv‡qi DbœwZ ii. Ávb weÁv‡bi DbœwZ iii. wk‡íi mvdj¨ wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii 4.

L. i I iii

M. ii I iii

N. i, ii I iii

evsjv‡`‡k e¨emv‡qi A_©‣bwZK cwi‡ek cÖwZK~j n‡jI wb‡Pi †KvbwU wewb‡qvM mnvqK f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i? K. RbemwZc~Y© †`k nIqvq wewfbœ c‡Y¨i Pvwn`v L. miKvwi gy`vª bxwZi Dbœqb M. cyuwR evRv‡ii Dbœqb N. D‡`¨v³v‡K DrmvwnZKiY

5.

•Zwi †cvkvK wkí evsjv‡`‡k GKwU m¤úªmviYkxj wkí| G wk‡íi Dbœq‡b †hme A_©‣bwZK I mvgvwRK cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`v‡bi cÖfve i‡q‡Q Zvi g‡a¨ †KvbwU we‡`k †_‡K Avg`vwb Ki‡Z nq bv?


30

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

K. g~jab ev cyuwR

L. cÖhyw³

M. Rbkw³

N. kw³ m¤ú`

m„Rbkxj cÖkœ: 1|

wg. ingv‡bi Ôingvb K¬_ †÷viÕ bv‡g gqgbwmsn evmv-evwo gv‡K©‡U GKwU Kvc‡oi e¨emvq i‡q‡Q| Ryb-RyjvB gv‡m niZv‡ji Kvi‡Y weµq Kg nIqvq g~jab AvU‡K †M‡Q| mvg‡bi C`yj wdZ‡i weMZ mg‡qi ÿwZ cywl‡q †b‡eb e‡j wg. ingvb fve‡Qb| K. L. M. N.

mÂq I wewb‡qvM †Kvb ai‡bi cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vb? e¨emv‡qi AvBbMZ cwi‡ek ej‡Z Kx eyS? wg. ingv‡bi e¨emv‡q †Kvb e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki cÖfve cwijwÿZ nq? e¨vL¨v Ki| Ôe¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki GKwU Dcv`v‡bi AbyK~j cÖfveB wg. ingv‡bi weMZ ÿwZ cywl‡q wb‡Z mnvqKÕ G e¨vcv‡i †Zvgvi gZvgZ e¨³ Ki|

2| bqb K…l‡Ki †Q‡j| cwj we‡a․Z hgybv b`xi cv‡o Zv‡`i evwo| cÖPzi dmj djvq Zv‡`i cwievi Av‡M ¯^”Qj wQj| wKš‘ b`x fv½‡bi Kvi‡Y weMZ wZb eQ‡i mewKQzB b`xM‡f© wejxb n‡q‡Q| ZvB bqb e¨emvq Ki‡e fve‡jI cyuwRi ms¯’vb Ki‡Z bv cvivq GLb B‡Ui fvUvq KvR K‡i| K. L. M. N.

cwi‡ek Kx? mvgvwRK cwi‡ek ej‡Z Kx eySvq? bq‡bi cwievi ¯^”Qj _vKvi wcQ‡b †Kvb ai‡bi cwi‡e‡ki Ae`vb †ewk wQj e¨vL¨v Ki| bqb e¨emvq Ki‡Z bv cvivi wcQ‡b †Kvb cwi‡ek `vq? DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Zv we‡kølY Ki|


e¨emvq cwi‡ek

31


Z…Zxq Aa¨vq

GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP BUSINESS c„w_exi cÖvPxbZg I mnR cÖK …wZi e¨emvq msMVb wn‡m‡e GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq cwiwPZ | GKK gvwjK Kg cuywR wb‡q †h‡Kv‡bv RvqMvq ¯^vaxbfv‡e wbR wm×v‡šÍ AvBbvbyM AvbyôvwbKZv QvovB G ai‡bi msMVb M‡o Zzj‡Z cv‡i| G‡Z Suyw Ki cwigvYI AZ¨šÍ Kg| ZvB e¨emv msMV‡bi BwZnvm ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i Avgiv †`wL, e¨emvq ïiæi cÖv_wgK ch©vq †_‡KB GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq hvÎv ïiæ K‡i Avayw bK cÖwZ‡hvwMZvg~jK we‡k¦I RbwcÖq Zvi mv‡_ mdjfv‡e wU‡K Av‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki g‡Zv Z…Zxq we‡k¦i Dbœq bkxj †`k¸‡jvi A_©‣bwZK Dbœw Z‡Z GKgvwjKvbv msMVb e¨vcKfv‡e Ae`vb ivL‡Z cvi‡Q|

G Aa¨vq cvV †k‡l Avgiv Rvb‡Z cvie− • gvwjKvbvi wfwˇZ e¨emv‡qi aviYv| • GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi •ewkó¨| • GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡| • GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi Dchy³ †ÿθ‡jv wPwýZKiY| • e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi cvkvcvwk GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq wU‡K _vKvi KviYmg~n|


32

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

3.01 gvwjKvbvi wfwˇZ e¨emvq Business Based on Ownership

mg‡qi wmuwo †e‡q gvby‡li wewfbœgyLx Pvwn`v c~i‡Yi Rb¨ hy‡M hy‡M M‡o D‡V‡Q bZzb bZzb e¨emvq msMVb| e¨emv‡qi gvwjKvbv, cÖK…wZ, AvqZb, Kvh©‡ÿÎ BZ¨vw` †f‡` wfbœ wfbœ iƒc cwiMÖn K‡i‡Q| wb‡¤œ gvwjKvbvi `„wó‡KvY †_‡K e¨emvq msMV‡bi cÖKvi‡f` †`Lv‡bv n‡jv− 1. GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq 2. Askx`vwi e¨emvq

e¨emvq msMV‡bi cÖKvi‡f`

3. †Kv¤úvwb msMVb 4. mgevq mwgwZ 5. ivóªxq e¨emvq 6. e¨emvq †RvU 7. †h․_ D‡`¨v‡M e¨emvq

wPÎ: e¨emvq msMV‡bi cÖKvi‡f`|

GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi aviYv Concept of Sole Proprietorship Business mvaviYfv‡e GKRb e¨w³i gvwjKvbvq cÖwZwôZ, cwiPvwjZ I wbqwš¿Z e¨emvq‡K GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq e‡j| GKK gvwjKvbvq c„w_ex‡Z me©cÖ_g e¨emvq Kvh©µg ïiæ n‡qwQj| GRb¨ GwU‡K me‡P‡q cÖvPxbZg e¨emvq msMVb ejv nq| eZ©gvb †cÖÿvc‡U ejv hvq, gybvdv AR©‡bi jÿ¨ wb‡q hLb †Kv‡bv e¨w³ wbR `vwq‡Z¡ g~jab †hvMvo K‡i †Kv‡bv e¨emv MVb I cwiPvjbv K‡i Ges D³ e¨emv‡q AwR©Z mKj jvf wb‡R †fvM K‡i ev ÿwZ n‡j wb‡RB Zv enb K‡i, ZLb Zv‡K GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq e‡j| GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq MVb AZ¨šÍ mnR| †h †Kv‡bv e¨w³ wb‡Ri D‡`¨v‡M ¯^í A_© wb‡q G RvZxq Kvievi ïiæ Ki‡Z cv‡ib Ges AwaK A_©I wewb‡qvM Ki‡Z cv‡ib| AvB‡bi †Pv‡L GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi MVb I cwiPvjbvq †Zgb †Kv‡bv eva¨evaKZv †bB| MÖv‡g-M‡Ä, nvUevRvi ev iv¯Ívi cv‡k wKsev wbR evwo‡Z †h †KD †QvU-Lv‡Uv e¨emv ïiæ Ki‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e kn‡i ev †c․imfv GjvKvq D‡`¨v³v‡K †UªW jvB‡mÝ msMÖn K‡i e¨emv Avi¤¢ Ki‡Z nq| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki AwaKvsk e¨emvq msMVb GKgvwjKvbvi wfwˇZ MwVZ| ïay ZvB bq BD‡ivc I Av‡gwiKvi cÖvq 80% e¨emvq GK gvwjKvbvwfwËK| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki mvaviY gyw` †`vKvb, Pv‡qi †`vKvb, AwaKvsk LyPiv †`vKvb GKK gvwjKvbvi wfwˇZ cÖwZwôZ|


GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq

33

Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi aviYv Concept of Partnership Business

`yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¨w³ Pzw³e× n‡q wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ gybvdv eȇbi wbwg‡Ë †h e¨emvq msMVb M‡o †Zv‡j Zv‡K Askx`vwi e¨emvq e‡j| e¨emvq RM‡Z GKgvwjKvbv me‡P‡q cÖvPxb I RbwcÖq n‡jI GKK gvwj‡Ki g~ja‡bi ¯^íZv, Amxg `vq, e¨emv‡qi ÿz`ª AvIZv BZ¨vw` mxgve×Zvi Rb¨ e¨emv‡qi cwiwa Av‡iv e„w× I SzuwK Kwg‡q Askx`vwi‡Z¡i wfwˇZ e¨emvq Kivi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv †`Lv †`q| Z‡e Askx`vwi e¨emv‡q wKQy wKQz mgm¨vI †`Lv †`q| we‡kl K‡i gybvdv eÈb, wm×všÍ MÖnY, `vwqZ¡ I Kg© wefvRb, m`m¨‡`i cvi¯úwiK m¤úK© wba©viY BZ¨vw` wel‡q m`m¨‡`i g‡a¨ Ø›Ø I Av¯’vi msKU †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i| d‡j Askx`vwi Pzw³cÎ I Askx`vwi AvBb cÖYqb Ki‡Z nq| evsjv‡`‡ki Askx`vwi e¨emvq Ô1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvBbÕ Øviv cwiPvwjZ nq| 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvBb Abyhvqx m`m¨ msL¨v me©wbgœ 2 Rb Ges m‡e©v”P 20 Rb n‡e| Z‡e Askx`vwi e¨emvqwU hw` e¨vswKs e¨emvq nq ZLb m‡e©v”P m`m¨ msL¨v 10 Gi †ewk n‡e bv|

†Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi aviYv Concept of Company Organisation

GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi gva¨‡g we‡k¦i ey‡K e¨emv‡qi †h AbyôvwbK hvÎv ïiæ n‡qwQj Kvjµ‡g Zv Avi GKgvwjKvbvi g‡a¨ mxgve× _v‡Kwb| GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi †ek wKQz mxgve×Zv we‡kl K‡i g~ja‡bi ¯^íZv I GKK cwiPvjbv I ÿz`ª AvqZ‡bi Rb¨ Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi DrcwË nq| wKš‘ Askx`vwi e¨emvqI g~ja‡bi mxgve×Zv, AvBbMZ mxgve×Zv, ¯’vwqZ¡nxbZv I Amxg `v‡qi fvi †_‡K gy³ n‡Z cv‡iwb| GK mgq gvby‡li Pvwn`v, cÖ‡qvRbxqZv I e¨emv‡qi AvIZv AviI e„w× †c‡Z _v‡K| djkÖæwZ‡Z AvB‡bi wfwˇZ m„wó nq AwaK g~jab I e„n`vqZ‡bi †h․_ g~jabx e¨emvq hv †Kv¤úvwb msMVb bv‡gI cwiwPZ| KwZcq e¨w³ †¯^”Qvq wgwjZ n‡q wbw`©ó D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ mw¤§wjZfv‡e cuywR mieivn K‡i mxgve× `v‡qi wfwˇZ †h e¨emvq MVb K‡i Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwb msMVb ev †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| †h․_ g~jabx e¨emvq AvB‡bi gva¨‡g m„ó I cwiPvwjZ nq| me©cÖ_g †Kv¤úvwb AvBb cvm nq weª‡U‡b 1844 mv‡j hv `The joint stock Company Act 1844’ bv‡g cwiwPZ wQj| weªwUk kvwmZ fviZxq Dcgnv‡`‡k cÖ_g †Kv¤úvwb AvBb cvm nq 1850 mv‡j| 1913 mv‡j fviZxq †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Avevi bZzb K‡i cvm nq| ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`‡kI A‡bK eQi hver 1913 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Pvjy wQj| †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi e¨vcK ms®‥vi K‡i 1994 mv‡j evsjv‡`‡k bZzb †Kv¤úvwb AvBb cÖeZ©b Kiv nq| eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡ki mKj †Kv¤úvwb e¨emvq 1994 mv‡ji AvBb Abyhvqx cwiPvwjZ n‡”Q| KwZcq e¨w³ †¯^”Qvq gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ †h․_fv‡e g~jab wewb‡qvM K‡i †`‡ki cÖPwjZ †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abyhvqx †Kvb e¨emvq MVb Ki‡j Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwb msMVb e‡j| G e¨emv wbR bvg I mxj‡gvni Øviv cwiPvwjZ Ges m`m¨‡`i †_‡K wfbœ Aw¯Í‡Z¡i AwaKvix n‡q _v‡K|


34

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

mgevq mwgwZi aviYv Concept of Co-operative Society mgev‡qi kvwãK A_© n‡jv mw¤§wjZ D‡`¨vM ev cÖ‡Póvq KvR Kiv| mw¤§wjZ cÖ‡Póvq GwM‡q hvIqvi Aby‡cÖiYv I wPšÍv †_‡KB mgev‡qi DrcwË| wkíwecøe I cÖhyw³wbf©i e„n`vqZb e¨emvq msMV‡bi weKv‡ki d‡j c~uwRev`x mgvR e¨e¯’vi wfZ hZ gReyZ n‡Z _v‡K, Gi cÖfv‡e mgv‡Ri A_©‣bwZK •elg¨I †`Lv w`‡Z _v‡K| ¯^íweË I ga¨weË †kÖwYi †ckvRxex I e¨emvwqiv Avw_©Kfv‡e `~ie¯’vi m¤§yLxb n‡Z _v‡K| cyuwRevw` mgv‡Ri m„ó G RvZxq A_©‣bwZK •elg¨ I `~ie¯’v †_‡K gyw³i cÖqv‡m we‡k¦i wewfbœ †`‡k mgevq msMVb M‡o D‡V| me©cÖ_g mgevq Av‡›`vj‡bi m~Pbv nq cwðg BD‡ivc, DËi Av‡gwiKv I Rvcv‡b| Z‡e mgevq mwgwZ cÖwZôvi c‡_ AMÖcw_K msMVb n‡”Q 1844 mv‡j DËi Bsj¨v‡Ûi iP‡Wj bvgK ¯’v‡b cÖwZwôZ iP‡Wj mgevq mwgwZ (Rochdale Equitable Pioneers Society)| 28 Rb ZuvZ kÖwg‡Ki 28 ÷vwj©s cvDÛ cyuwR wb‡q cÖwZwôZ G mgevq mwgwZ‡K we‡k¦i me©cÖ_g mgevq e¨emvq wn‡m‡e MY¨ Kiv nq| mgv‡Ri kªgRxex, ga¨weË I ¯^íwe‡Ëi KwZcq e¨w³ †¯^”Qvq wgwjZ n‡q mgwaKv‡ii wfwˇZ wb‡R‡`i Avw_©K DbœwZi Rb¨ †h e¨emvq msMVb M‡o †Zv‡j Zv‡K mgevq mwgwZ e‡j| gybvdv AR©b bq, m`m¨‡`i Kj¨vYmvabB mgevq mwgwZi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨|

ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi aviYv Concept of the State Enterprise

mvaviY A‡_© miKvi KZ…©K MwVZ, cwiPvwjZ I wbqwš¿Z e¨emvq‡K ivóªxq e¨emvq e‡j| Giƒc e¨emvq ivóª KZ©„K cÖwZwôZ n‡Z cv‡i| Avevi e¨w³gvwjKvbvaxb †h‡Kv‡bv e¨emvq‡K iv‡óªi cÖ‡qvR‡bi RvZxqKi‡Yi gva¨‡g ivóªxq e¨emv‡q wbqš¿Y, cÖvK…wZK m¤ú`mn mKj m¤ú‡`i mymg eÈb I e¨env‡ii D‡Ï‡k¨ Ges we‡kl wKQz RbKj¨vYg~jK †ÿ‡Î ivóªxqfv‡e e¨emvq cÖwZwôZ n‡q _v‡K| ZvQvov †`kiÿv I wbivcËvi Rb¨ A¯¿ wbg©vY wk‡íi Dci wbqš¿Y ivLvi D‡Ï‡k¨I cÖwZôv I cwiPvwjZ n‡q _v‡K| eZ©gv‡b we‡k¦i cÖvq me †`‡kB ivóªxq cwiPvjbvq †ek wKQz e¨emvq cwiPvwjZ n‡q _v‡K|

e¨emvq †Rv‡Ui aviYv Concept of Business Combination e¨emvq †RvU g~jZ †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡biB e¨vcKZi I ewa©Z iƒc| Dbwesk kZ‡Ki wØZxqv‡a© awb †`kmg~‡ni †Kv¤úvwb gvwjKMY wb‡R‡`i ga¨Kvi cÖwZ‡hvwMZv n«vm, GK‡PwUqv e¨emvq cÖwZôv Ges m‡e©v”P gybvdv AR©‡bi Rb¨ mw¤§wjZ n‡q †RvU MVb K‡ib| Uªv÷, Kv‡U©j, †nvwìs †Kv¤úvwb, cyj cÖf…wZ G ai‡bi †Rv‡Ui wewfbœ iƒc| †RvU MV‡bi d‡j mgv‡R awb-`wi‡`ªi cv_©K¨ e¨vcKZi nq Ges †kÖwY msMÖv‡gi aviYv `„pg~j n‡Z _v‡K|

†h․_ D‡`¨v‡M e¨emv‡qi aviYv Concept of Joint Venture Business †`wk I we‡`wk D‡`¨v³v‡`i mgš^‡q †Kv‡bv e¨emvq MVb I cwiPvjbv Kiv n‡j Zv‡K †h․_ D‡`¨v‡M e¨emvq e‡j| Dbœqbkxj I awb †`k¸‡jvi D‡`¨v³v‡`i mgš^‡q Giƒc e¨emvq eZ©gv‡b †ek RbwcÖqZv jvf K‡i‡Q| Giƒc e¨emv‡qi we‡kl myweav n‡jv, G‡Z †`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i we‡`wk cyuwR I cÖhyw³i mnR AvMgb N‡U, Af¨šÍixY m¤ú‡`i m‡e©v”P e¨envi m¤¢e nq Ges we‡`wk D‡`¨v³v‡`i mvnP‡h© †`kxq D‡`¨v³vMY `ÿZv AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i| d‡j wkívqb Z¡ivwš^Z nq|


GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq

3.02

35

GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi •ewkó¨ Features of Sole Proprietorship Business

GK gvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi ¯^Zš¿ wKQy •ewkó¨ i‡q‡Q hv Ab¨vb¨ e¨emvq †_‡K G‡K c„_K K‡i iv‡L| GK gvwjKvbv e¨emvq n‡”Q c„w_exi cÖvPxbZg e¨emvq| GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡q AvBbMZ †Zgb Sv‡gjv †bB Ges †h †KD B‡”Q Ki‡j ¯^í cuywR wb‡q G e¨emv ïiæ Ki‡Z cv‡i| wb‡gœ GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi •ewkó¨mg~n wPwýZ Kiv n‡jv− • G RvZxq cªwZôvb MVb Kiv LyeB mnR I mij| †h‡Kv‡bv e¨w³ †h‡Kv‡bv mg‡q G cÖKvi Kvievi MVb Ki‡Z cv‡i| Giƒc Kvievi ¯’vcb Kivi Rb¨ miKvwi AvBb I wbq‡gi †Kv‡bv eva¨evaKZv _v‡K bv| • G RvZxq e¨emv‡qi g~jab gvwjK wb‡RB mieivn K‡i| †m wbR¯^ mÂq n‡Z g~ja‡bi ms¯’vb Ki‡Z cv‡i A_ev cÖ‡qvRb n‡j wb‡Ri `vwq‡Z¡ Ac‡ii wbKU n‡Z FY K‡i g~ja‡bi Afve c~iY Ki‡Z cv‡i| • e¨emv‡qi mKj SzuwK gvwjK GKvB enb K‡i| gvwjKB e¨emv‡qi cÖK…Z AwaKvix| myZivs Zv‡KB e¨emv‡qi mg¯Í SzuwK I AwbðqZv enb Ki‡Z nq| • e¨emvq cwiPvjbv I e¨e¯’vcbvi m¤ú~Y© `vwqZ¡ n‡jv gvwj‡Ki| Aek¨ gvwjK ¯^qs e¨e¯’vcbvi bxwZ I c×wZ wba©viY K‡i A‡bK †ÿ‡Î e¨emv‡qi cÖZ¨ÿ cwiPvjbvi `vwqZ¡ Kg©Pvixi Dci †Q‡o w`‡Z cv‡i| • e¨emv‡qi AvqZb ÿz`ª nIqvq wm×všÍ MÖn‡Y KvD‡K WvK‡Z nq bv| gvwjK †h‡Kv‡bv cwiw¯’wZ‡Z `ªæZ wm×všÍ MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| • wnmve •Zwii †ÿ‡Î †Kv‡bv euvavaiv wbqg †bB| gvwjK Zvi wb‡Ri g‡Zv K‡i wnmve msiÿY Ki‡Z cv‡i| ZvB G‡ÿ‡Î GKZidv `vwLjv c×wZ‡Z wnmve ivLv nq| • Giƒc e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi GKK KZ©„‡Z¡i AwaKvix nIqvq †h‡Kv‡bv wel‡q †m `ªæZ wm×všÍ MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| GRb¨ G ai‡bi e¨emv‡q AwaKZi bgbxqZv jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| • GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡q gvwjK wb‡RB e¨emvq cwiPvjbv K‡i weavq †µZv, mieivnKvwi, Kg©Pvix BZ¨vw` c‡ÿi mv‡_ Zvi cÖZ¨ÿ m¤úK© M‡o D‡V| ZvB cÖZ¨ÿ m¤úK© †hLv‡b e¨emvwqK ¯^v‡_© AZ¨vek¨K, †mLv‡b G ai‡bi e¨emvqB me©v‡cÿv DËg| • Giƒc e¨emv‡qi †Kv‡bv AvBbMZ c„_K mËv †bB| Kvievi n‡Z gvwjK‡K c„_K K‡i †`Lv nq bv| • Giƒc e¨emv‡qi ¯’vwqZ¡ gvwj‡Ki B”Qvi Dci wbf©ikxj| gvwjK B”Qv Ki‡j †h‡Kv‡bv mgq e¨emvq ¸wU‡q †dj‡Z cv‡i| Avevi B”Qv Ki‡j hZw`b Lywk ZZw`b ch©šÍ †m Kvievi Pvjy ivL‡Z cv‡i|


36

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

Kg©cÎ-1 GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi •ewk󨸇jv we‡kølY K‡i G e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡ wPwýZ Ki| • • • • • • •

• • • • • • •

3.03 GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi ¸iyZ¡ Importance of Sole Proprietorship Business

1|

2| 3| 4|

5|

6|

eZ©gv‡b MwZkxj we‡k¦i RwUj A_©‣bwZK mgv‡R GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡ I cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Acwimxg| Av‡Mi w`‡b AvZ¥wbf©ikxj A_©‣bwZK e¨e¯’vq gvbyl hLb ïay cÖ‡qvRbxq wRwbm Drcv`b K‡i Zv‡`i cÖ‡qvRb wgUv‡Zv ZLb GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi ZZUv ¸iæZ¡ wQj bv| wKšÍ Kv‡ji weeZ©‡b mf¨Zvi µgweKv‡ki mv‡_ mv‡_ gvby‡li Pvwn`v e„w×, e„n`vqZb Drcv`b, †hvMv‡hvM I cwienb e¨e¯’vi DbœwZ BZ¨vw` Ki‡Y GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡ w`b w`b e„w× cv‡”Q| wb‡b¥ wewfbœ `„wó‡KvY †_‡K GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv mnR MVb (Easy Formation): GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi MVb cÖYvwj AZ¨šÍ mnR| e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi MVb I cwiPvjbv c×wZ LyeB RwUj Ges AvbyôvwbKZv cvjb Ki‡Z nq| G Kvi‡Y G ai‡bi e¨emvq cÖwZôvb M‡o Zzj‡Z mevB cQ›` K‡i| Kg SzuwK (Small risk): GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq `vq Amxg n‡jI SzuwKi cwigvY Kg| mZK©Zv I wbôvi m‡½ KvR Ki‡j SzuwK‡K mvd‡j¨i nvwZqv‡i iƒcvšÍwiZ Kiv hvq| g~ja‡bi ¯^íZv (Limited capital): evsjv‡`‡ki AwaKvsk †jvKB `wi`ª| Zv‡`i mÂq I g~ja‡bi cwigvY LyeB Kg| ZvB GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq Zv‡`i cQ‡›`i ZvwjKvq AMÖvwaKvi cvq| mÂq I wewb‡qvM e„w× (Increase of saving and investments): kni I MÖvgM‡Ä e¨vcK Rb‡Mvôx Giƒc e¨emvq M‡o †Zvjvi gvb‡m Zv‡`i ÿz`ª mÂq‡K GKwÎZ K‡i G ai‡bi e¨emvq MVb K‡i _v‡K| hv †`‡ki Rb¨ g~jab MVb Ges wewb‡qvM I Drcv`b e„wׇZ ¸iyZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K| RxebhvÎvi gv‡bvbœqb (Raising standard of living): RvZxq Avq I m¤ú` e„w×i mv‡_ mv‡_ gvby‡li RxebhvÎvi gv‡bvbœqb n‡q _v‡K| Ab¨w`‡K Pvwn`v Abyhvqx cY¨`ªe¨ mieivn K‡i G e¨emvq gvby‡li RxebhvÎvi gv‡bvbœq‡b we‡kl f~wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K| AbybœZ A_©‣bwZK Ae¯’v (Undeveloped economy): evsjv‡`‡ki Av_© - mvgvwRK Ae¯’v †gv‡UB DbœZ bq| Af¨šÍi xY I ¯’v bxq Pvwn`v c~ i‡Yi Rb¨ cÖ avbZ ÿz` ª ÿz ` ª cÖw Zôv‡bi gva¨‡g cY¨ Drcv`b Kiv nq| e„n `vqZb Drcv`‡bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq cyuw R I cÖh yw ³i NvUwZ _vKvq ÿz `ª vqZ‡bi GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvqB G‡`‡k RbwcÖq |


GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq

37

7| e¨vcK †mev cÖ`vb (Rendering of greater service): ¯^í g~jab wb‡q AwZ mn‡R G e¨emvq kn‡ii †K›`ª¯’j †_‡K ïiy K‡i MÖvg-M‡Äi me©Î M‡o I‡V| ZvB cÖ‡qvRbxq cY¨ I †mevmvgMÖx mn‡R †fv³v mvavi‡Yi nv‡Z Zz‡j w`‡q G e¨emvq e¨vcK Rb‡Mvôx‡K †mev cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cv‡i| 8| Kg©ms¯’vb (Employment): GKKfv‡e cÖw ZwU e¨emvq cÖw Zôv‡b Kg msL¨K †jv‡Ki Kg© ms¯’v b n‡jI mgwóMZfv‡e AwaK msL¨K †jv‡Ki †eKvi mgm¨v `~i xKi‡Y GwU AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c ~Y © f~w gKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K| 9| m¤ú‡`i mymg eÈb (Proper distribution of wealth): GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq †`‡ki †h‡Kv‡bv ¯’v‡b M‡o DV‡Z cv‡i e‡j m¤ú‡`i mymg eȇbi †ÿ‡Î ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K| 10| RvZxq Avq I m¤ú` e„w× (Increase of national income and wealth): m¤ú‡`i mymg eȇbi d‡j e¨w³MZ Avq I m¤ú` e„w×i cvkvcvwk RvZxq Avq I m¤ú` e„w× †c‡q _v‡K| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡q gvby‡li iywP, cQ›`, B”Qv BZ¨vw`‡K cÖvavb¨ †`qv nq e‡j e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi cvkvcvwk GwU AvRI wU‡K Av‡Q| ZvB GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡ Acwimxg|

3.04

GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi Dchy³ †ÿÎ Suitable Areas for Sole Proprietorship Business

GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi Ggb wKQz •ewkó¨ I myweav Av‡Q †h Kvi‡Y G RvZxq e¨emvq mK‡ji wbKU RbwcÖq| †hme †ÿ‡Î GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq AwaK Dc‡hvMx wb‡gœœ †mB †ÿθ‡jv Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv− • ¯^í cuywR wewb‡qvM (Investment of small capital):

wPÎ: ¯^ícyuwRi e¨emv|

wKQy wKQy Kvievi Av‡Q †h¸‡jvi MVb I cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ Lye mvgvb¨ cu yw R n‡jB P‡j| Giƒc Kvievi GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi Rb¨ Dchy³ | †hgb: gyw `Lvbv, cvb-wewoi †`vKvb, Pv‡qi †`vKvb, †mjy b, †dwiIqvjv BZ¨vw`| • cwieZ©bkxj Pvwn`vi cY¨`ªe¨ (Goods of flexible demand): †hme c‡Y¨i iæwP I Pvwn`v wbqwgZ cwieZ©bkxj †m‡ÿ‡Î †fv³v‡`i Pvwn`v Abyhvqx cY¨`ªe¨ †hvMv‡bi Rb¨ GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvqB cÖ‡hvR¨| †hgbÑcÖmvabx mvgMªx, Ry‡qjvwi, †m․wLb cY¨ BZ¨vw`|


38

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

• ÿz`vª qZb e¨emvq (Small Scale Business): me ai‡bi ÿz`ªvqZb e¨emvq-evwYR¨ I wkí cÖwZôvb GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi Aax‡b cwiPvwjZ nq| †hgb−ÿz`ª I KzwUi wkí, LyPiv Kvievi BZ¨vw`| • cPbkxj cY¨ (Perishable Goods): cPbkxj e¨emvq mvaviYZ GKgvwjKvbvi wfwˇZ cwiPvwjZ n‡q _v‡K| G ai‡bi cY¨`ªe¨ `ªæZ evRviRvZKi‡Yi cÖ‡qvRb n‡q c‡o| †hgb−gvQ, gvsm, `ya, djg~j, kvK-mewR, wWg BZ¨vw`| • †ckv`vwi e¨emvq (Professional businesss):

wPÎ: †ckv`vwi e¨emvqx

• • • • •

†ckv`vwi e¨emvqmg~n cÖvqB GKgvwjKvbvi wfwˇZ MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ n‡q _v‡K| †hgb−Wv³vwi, AvBb e¨emvq, cÖwZwbwa e¨emvq, PvU©vW© GKvDw›Us dvg© BZ¨vw`| cÖZ¨ÿ †mev`vb (Direct services): †hme e¨emv †_‡K †fv³viv cÖZ¨ÿ †mev Pvq †m¸‡jv GKK gvwjKvbvi wfwˇZ msMwVZ nIqv DËg| †hgb−Kb‡dKkbvwi e¨emvq, Pyj KvUv †mjyb, jwÛª cÖf„wZ Kvievi| ¯’vbxq mxwgZ Pvwn`v (Local limited demand) : †hme c‡Y¨i Pvwn`v ¯’vbxqfv‡e mxgve× †m¸‡jvi Drcv`b I eȇbi Rb¨ GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq m‡e©vËg| K…wlR c‡Y¨i e¨emvq (Business of agricultural goods): K…wlR c‡Y¨i e¨emvq AwaKvsk †ÿ‡ÎB GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq nq| †hgb−av‡bi e¨emvq, cv‡Ui e¨emvq BZ¨vw`| †fvM¨c‡Y¨i †`vKvb (Consumer goods shop): me ai‡bi wbZ¨ e¨envh© †fvM¨c‡Y¨i †`vKvb GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi wfwˇZ cwiPvwjZ nq| †hgb-gwbnvwi †`vKvb, gyw` †`vKvb BZ¨vw`| cwienb I R¡vjvwb e¨emvq (Business of transportation and fuel): cY¨`ªe¨ I hvÎx mvaviY cwien‡b wbhy³ Kvievi cÖwZôvbmg~n GKgvwjKvbvi wfwˇZ cwiPvwjZ n‡q _v‡K| †hgb−evm, UªvK, jÂ, †c‡Uªvj cv¤ú BZ¨vw`|

wPÎ: cwienb e¨emvq|


GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq

• •

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cÖKvkbv e¨emvq (Publication business): cÖKvkbv e¨emvq †hgb−Le‡ii KvMR, eBcÎ, g¨vMvwRb, mvßvwnK, mvgwqKx BZ¨vw`| LyPiv e¨emvq mvaviYZ GKgvwjKvbv Kviev‡ii wfwˇZB MwVZ nq| e¨w³MZ •bcyY¨ cÖ`k©b (Show of individual skill): †hme e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î e¨w³MZ •bcyY¨ cÖ`k©‡bi gva¨‡g e¨emv‡qi mv_©KZv AR©b Ki‡Z nq †m¸‡jv GKgvwjKvbv Kviev‡ii Aax‡b cwiPvwjZ nIqv DwPZ| †hgb−wkíKg©, Av‡jvKwPÎ BZ¨vw` e¨emvq| ¯^vaxb RxweKv (Free occupation): ¯^í SuywK‡Z ¯^vaxbfv‡e gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ cÖwZwôZ Kvievi GKgvwjKvbvi wfwˇZ msMwVZ nq| †hgb−Kvgvi, Kzgvi, ZuvZx BZ¨vw`| ¯^í SzuwKi e¨emvq (Business of minimum risk): Ggb wKQy e¨emvq Av‡Q †hLv‡b SuywKi cwigvY G‡Kev‡iB Kg| Kg Av‡qi GKK gvwjK G ai‡bi e¨emvq‡K †ewk cQ›` K‡i| †hgbÑIly‡ai †`vKvb| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, ¯^ícyuwR, `ªæZ wm×všÍ MÖnY, mnR ¯’vbvšÍi BZ¨vw` Kvi‡Y GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv A‡bK †ÿ‡Î e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi Zzjbvq AwaK Dc‡hvMx| G Kvi‡Y GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq DcwiD³ †ÿÎmg~‡n h‡_ó `ÿZvi mv‡_ wU‡K Av‡Q|

3.05 e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi cvkvcvwk ÿz`ªvqZb GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq wU‡K _vKvi KviY Causes of Survival of Sole Proprietorship Business Side by Side with Large Organisation

1|

2|

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e„n`vqZb Drcv`b I jvf AR©b cÖf„wZ †ÿ‡Î AwaK myweav †fvM Ki‡jI ÿz`vª qZb GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq we‡kl KZK¸‡jv †ÿ‡Î mvdj¨ jvf K‡i‡Q| G Kvi‡Y e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi cvkvcvwk GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq AvRI `ÿZvi mv‡_ wU‡K Av‡Q| wb‡b¥ G KviY¸‡jv e¨vL¨v Kiv n‡jv− MVb myweav (Easy of formation): GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq MVb Ki‡Z †Kv‡bviƒc AvB‡bi AvbyôvwbKZv cvjb Ki‡Z nq bv| †h‡Kv‡bv †jvK Aí g~ja‡b Giƒc e¨emvq MVb Ki‡Z cv‡i| †h‡Kv‡bv †jvK Aí g~ja‡b Giƒc e¨emvq MVb Ki‡Z cv‡i| wKš‘ e„n`vqZb GKgvwjKvbv cÖwZôvb MVb Kiv Kómva¨ e‡j A‡bK †jvK e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi cÿcvwZ bq| G Kvi‡YB e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi cvkvcvwk GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq wU‡K Av‡Q| we‡kl †ÿ‡Îi myweav (Suitability of special field): e„nv`vqZb I ÿz`vª qZb e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi Kvh© †ÿ‡Îi cÖK…wZ wfbœ| wKQy e¨emv Av‡Q hv‡Z e„n`vqZb e¨emvq wb®cÖ‡qvRb †hgbÑcvb wewoi †`vKvb, gyw`i †`vKvb, †mjyb cÖf„wZ| ¯^vaxbfv‡e KvR Kivi my‡hvM (Opportunity to act independently): gvbyl m„wói †miv Rxe| A‡bK gvbyl Av‡Q hviv A‡b¨i PvKwi Ki‡Z cQ›` K‡i bv| Zviv ¯^í cuywR wb‡q ¯^vaxbfv‡e e¨emv Ki‡Z Pvq| Giƒc g‡bvfve GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq cÖwZdwjZ n‡Z †`Lv hvq| Ae¯’vb (Location): e„n`vqZb e¨emvq mvavYZ kn‡ii †K›`ª¯’‡j ¯’vwcZ nq| MÖv‡gi Avbv‡PKvbv‡P e„n`vqZb e¨emvq cÖwZôv Kiv m¤¢e bq| G‡ÿ‡Î ÿz`vª qZb GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq cªwZôv Kiv evÃbxq|


40

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

5| Av¯’v I wek¦vm (Confidence and trust): G ai‡bi e¨emv‡qi gvwjK GKRb gvÎ e¨w³| ZvB e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi g‡Zv A‡b¨i Av¯’v I wek¦v‡mi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o bv| 6| ¯^í e¨q (Economy of cost): GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq mvaviYZ gvwjK wb‡R ev cwiev‡ii †jvKRb wb‡q cwiPvjbv K‡i _v‡Kb| d‡j e¨emv‡qi me© ¯Í‡i e¨q ms‡KvPb m¤¢e nq| wKš‘ e„n `vqZb e¨emvq Giƒc e¨q ms‡KvPb m¤¢e bq| d‡j GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq e„n `vqZb e¨emv‡qi cvkvcvwk mvdj¨RbKfv‡e wU‡K _v‡K| 7| mxwgZ Drcv`b I Pvwn`vm¤úbœ `ª‡e¨i Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx (Suitable for products having limited production and demand): †hme c‡Y¨i Drcv`b I Pvwn`v mxwgZ Ges ¯’vbxq MwÛi g‡a¨ mxgve× †mme c‡Y¨i Drcv`b I eȇbi †ÿ‡Î GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq AwaK Dc‡hvMx| 8| mnR cwiPvjbv (Easy administration): mxwgZ AvqZb I mxwgZ c‡Y¨i e¨emvq nIqvq GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq cwiPvjbv Kiv mnR nq| †Kbbv e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi g‡Zv cwiPvjbvMZ AvbyôvwbKZv cvjb Ki‡Z nq bv| 9| ¯^í SzuwK (Limited risk): AZ¨šÍ `ÿZvi mv‡_ G ai‡bi e¨emvq cÖwZôvb cwiPvwjZ nq e‡j e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi Zyjbvq SuywKI Kg _v‡K| 10| Pvwn`vi bgbxqZv (Flexibility of demand): eZ©gvb cÖwZ‡hvwMZvg~jK evRv‡i †µZvi Pvwn`v I iywP w`b w`b cwieZ©b n‡”Q| Giƒc cwiewZ©Z iywPi mv‡_ Zvj wgwj‡q Pj‡Z n‡j e„n`vqZb e¨emvq A‡cÿv ÿz`vª qZb GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq AwaK Dc‡hvMx| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, e„n`vqZb Drcv`b I eȇbi hy‡MI GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq evwYR¨ Kvh©Ki fywgKv ivL‡Q| e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡q cÖwZ‡hvMx bv n‡q Zvi mn‡hvMx wn‡m‡e GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡ w`b w`b e„w× cv‡”Q| Kg©cÎ-2 GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi •ewkó¨, ¸iæZ¡ I Dchy³ †ÿÎmg~n we‡kølY K‡i Gi RbwcÖqZvi KviY¸‡jv Lyu‡R †ei Ki| •


GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq

41

eûwbe©vPwb cÖk:œ 1| me‡P‡q RbwcÖq Ges mnR I mij cÖK…wZi msMVb †Kv‡bvwU? K. mgevq msMVb L. GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq M. †h․_ g~jabx e¨emvq N. Askx`vwi e¨emvq 2| GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq mxwgZ AvqZ‡bi nq †Kb? K. ¯^í cyuwR I GKK mvg‡_©i mxgve×Zvi Rb¨ L. GKK gybvdv †fvM Kivq M. cÖZ¨ÿ m¤ú‡K©i R‡b¨ N. AwbwðZ ¯’vwq‡Z¡i R‡b¨ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| ¯^íwkwÿZ ivZzj hye Dbœqb cÖwkÿY GKv‡Wwg †_‡K Kw¤úDUv‡ii †Uªwbs †bq| evRv‡i GKwU †QvU †dvb I d‡Uv÷¨vU Gi †`vKvb wQj Zvi| Gi mv‡_ Kw¤úDUvi K‡¤úv‡Ri KvRwU hy³ K‡i ivZzj| Kv‡R mnvqZv Kivi Rb¨ †QvU fvB kvwKj I Zvi eÜy wgbnvR‡K mv‡_ †bq| 3| ivZz‡ji e¨emvqwU †Kv‡bv ai‡bi e¨emvq? K. GKgvwjKvbv

L. Askx`vwi

M. †h․_ gvwjKvbv

N. mgevq

4| ivZy‡ji e¨emv‡qi d‡j− i. Zvi Avq e„w× †c‡q‡Q ii. Kg©ms¯’vb n‡q‡Q iii. †fv³v‡`i Pvwn`v c~iY n‡”Q wb‡Pi †Kv‡bvwU mwVK? K. i I ii

L. i I iii

M. ii I iii

N. i,ii I iii


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

m„Rbkxj cÖkœ: 1|

¯^vaxb‡PZv †eKvi hyeK cÖYq 10 nvRvi UvKv avi K‡i †gvU 20 nvRvi UvKvi cY¨ wK‡b gyw`i †`vKvb mvwR‡q e¨emvq ïiæ K‡ib| ¯^í cyuwRi Kvi‡Y Zvi †`vKv‡b ch©vß cY¨mvgMÖx †bB| d‡j †m cÖvqB †µZvi Pvwn`v c~i‡Y e¨_© nq| G‡Z †m fxlY wPwšÍZ n‡q c‡o| GgZve¯’vq ¯’vbxq K‡qKRb †µZvi civg‡k© †m †hme cY¨ w`‡Z cv‡i bv Zvi GKUv ZvwjKv K‡i cieZ©x‡Z Hme cY¨ †`vKv‡b †Zv‡j| wKQz w`‡bi g‡a¨B Zvi weµq e„w× cvq Ges ax‡i ax‡i †m cÖwZwôZ e¨emvqx n‡q I‡V| K. GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq Kx? L. GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq †Kb GZ RbwcÖq? M. GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi †Kvb •ewkó¨wU DÏxc‡Ki e¨emvwq‡K cÖwZwôZ e¨emvqx n‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i‡Q−e¨vL¨v Ki| N. DÏxc‡Ki cwiw¯’wZ‡Z GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq wbe©vPb Kivi wm×v‡šÍi †h․w³KZv e¨vL¨v Ki|

2|

Rbve mvjgvb cvuPRb Kg©x wb‡q kvcjv e¯¿vjq bv‡g GKwU Kvc‡oi †`vKvb cwiPvjbv K‡ib| evRv‡i cÖwZ‡hvwMZv †gvKv‡ejvq g~jab e„w× Kivi Rb¨ †g․wLK mg‡SvZvi wfwˇZ wZwb Zvi eÜz Kwjg‡K e¨emv‡qi m`m¨ K‡ib| G‡Z cÖwZôvbwU jvfRbK n‡q D‡V| wKš‘ GKRb †`bv`vi GK jÿ UvKv †`bv cwi‡kv‡a Mwogwm Ki‡jI wZwb †mB cvIbv Av`v‡qi Rb¨ AvBbx e¨e¯’v wb‡Z cvi‡Qb bv| d‡j cÖwZôvbwU mgm¨vi m¤§ywLb nq| K. e¨emvq †RvU Kx? L. †h․_ D‡`¨v‡M e¨emvq¡ ej‡Z Kx eyS? M. Rbve Kwjg‡K m`m¨ †bqvi c~‡e© DÏxc‡K ewY©Z cÖwZôvbwUi aib wK wQj e¨vL¨v Ki| N. DÏxc‡K DwjøwLZ cÖwZôvbwU fwel¨‡Z Giƒc mgm¨v Gov‡Z KiYxq Kx? hyw³mn †Zvgvi gZvgZ `vI|


PZz_© Aa¨vq

Askx`vwi e¨emvq PARTNERSHIP BUSINESS e¨emvq cwiev‡ii wØZxq m`m¨ n‡jv Askx`vwi msMVb| GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡q GKK gvwj‡Ki cuywR I mvg‡_©i mxgve×Zvi Kvi‡Y GK ch©v‡q eo ai‡bi msMV‡bi cÖ‡qvRb Abyf~Z nq| djkÖæwZ‡Z GKvwaK e¨w³i gvwjKvbv I ZË¡veav‡b m„wó nq Askx`vwi msMVb| G e¨emv‡q b~¨bZg 2 Rb Ges me©vwaK 20 Rb m`m¨ _v‡K| Z‡e e¨vswKs e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î me©vwaK 10 Rb m`m¨ _v‡K| 1932 mv‡ji fviZxq Askx`vwi AvBb Abyhvqx, ÒmKj e¨w³i Øviv ev mK‡ji c‡ÿ GKRb Øviv cwiPvwjZ e¨emv‡qi gybvdv wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ eȇbi wbwg‡Ë KwZcq e¨w³e‡M©i g‡a¨ Pyw³e× m¤úK©B n‡jv Askx`vwi e¨emvq| evsjv‡`‡k eZ©gv‡b 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvBbwU cÖPwjZ i‡q‡Q|

G Aa¨vq cvV †k‡l Avgiv Rvb‡Z cvie− • • • • • • • • • •

Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi •ewkó¨mg~n| Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi MVb cªYvwj| Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi myweav I mxgve×Zv/Amyweav| Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi cÖKvi‡f`| Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi Pzw³c‡Îi bgybv I welqe¯‧| Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi wbeÜb c×wZ Ges wbeÜb bv Kivi cwiYvg| Askx`vi‡`i aib| Askx`vi‡`i †hvM¨Zv| Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi we‡jvcmvab cÖwµqv| evsjv‡`‡k Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi eZ©gvb Ae¯
v|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

4.01 Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi aviYv Concept of Partnership Business Askx`vwi e¨emvq GKwU cÖvPxb ai‡bi msMVb| ïiæ‡Z GKK gvwjKvbvi wfwˇZ G msMVb cÖwZôv jvf Ki‡jI GK ch©v‡q G‡m †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv †ÿ‡Î e¨emvwqK cª‡qvR‡bB GKvwaK e¨w³ mvg‡_©¨i mgš^q Acwinvh© n‡q c‡o| Rb¥ †bq Askx`vwi e¨emvq msMV‡bi| mnR A‡_© G‡Ki AwaK e¨w³ gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ Askx`vwiZ¡ ev kwiKvbvi wfwˇZ †h e¨emvq MVb K‡i Zv‡K Askw`vwi e¨emvq e‡j| e¨vcK A‡_© Kgc‡ÿ `yRb Ges m‡e©v‪P wekRb (e¨vswKs e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î m‡e©v‪P `kRb) e¨w³ gybvdv ARb I Zv wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ eȇbi wbwg‡Ë Pzw³e× n‡q †¯^‪Qvq †h e¨emvq cÖw Zôvb M‡o †Zv‡j Zv‡K Askx`vwi e¨emvq ejv n‡q _v‡K| 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvB‡bi 4bs avivq ejv n‡q‡QÑÒmK‡ji Øviv A_ev mK‡ji c‡ÿ †h‡Kv‡bv GKR‡bi Øviv cwiPvwjZ e¨emv‡qi gybvdv wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ eÈb Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨ Pzw³e× e¨w³‡`i g‡a¨ †h m¤ú‡K©i m„wó nq, Zv‡K Askx`vwi e¨emvq e‡j|Ó

4.02 Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi •ewkó¨mg~n Features of Partnership Business Askx`vwi e¨emvq `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¨w³i mw¤§wjZ Pyw³i gva¨‡g MwVZ GKwU e¨emvq msMVb| gvwjKvbv MVb I cwiPvjbvMZ wewfbœ w`K †_‡K Askx`vwi e¨emvq KZK¸‡jv •ewk‡ó¨i AwaKvix| hv G e¨emvq‡K Ab¨vb¨ e¨emvq †_‡K Avjv`v K‡i‡Q| wb‡gœ Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi •ewkó¨mg~n Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. Askx`v‡ii msL¨v (Number of partners): evsjv‡`‡k cÖPwjZ AvBb Abymv‡i Kgc‡ÿ `yRb Ges mvaviY e¨emv‡q 20 R‡bi AbwaK e¨w³i mgš^‡q G e¨emvq MwVZ nq| cÖm½µ‡g D‡jøL Kiv cÖ‡qvRb †h, e¨vswKs e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î 10 R‡bi AwaK n‡j D³ cÖwZôvb‡K cÖ‡Z¨K m`‡m¨i Rb¨ GK nvRvi UvKv ch©šÍ Rwigvbv w`‡Z n‡Z cv‡i| 2. Pzw³e× m¤úK© (Contractual relation): Pzw³B Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi g~j wfwË| Pzw³i gva¨‡gB Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi m„wó nq| Rb¥MZ ev mvgvwRK AwaKvi e‡j bq| `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¨w³ e¨emvq cÖwZôvi j‡ÿ¨ Pzw³‡Z Ave× n‡jB Askx`vi‡`i Pyw³e× m¤úK© cÖwZwôZ nq| 3. mnR MVb cÖYvwj (Easy formation): Askx`vwi e¨emvq msMVb †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi g‡Zv ZZ RwUj bq| `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¨w³ (wKš‧ mvaviY e¨emv‡q 20 R‡bi AwaK bq, Ges e¨vswKs e¨emv‡q 10 R‡bi AwaK bq) GK‡Î wgwjZ n‡q Pzw³e× n‡q G e¨emvq MVb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| e¨emv‡qi D³ Pzw³ †g․wLK ev wjwLZ DfqB n‡Z cv‡i| D³ Pzw³ wbeÜb ev AwbeÜbK…Z n‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e Pzw³i D‡Ïk¨ Aek¨B AvBbm¤§Z n‡Z n‡e| 4. g~jab (Capital): e¨emv‡qi g~jab Askx`viMY †hvMvb †`q| †K KZUzKz g~jab †hvMvb w`‡e Zv Zv‡`i wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ m¤úvw`Z Pzw³i Dci wbf©i K‡i| G wel‡q †Kv‡bv Pzw³ bv _vK‡j Zviv mgvbfv‡e g~jab †hvMvq| cÖm½µ‡g D‡jL Kiv cÖ‡qvRb †h, †Kv‡bv g~jab bv w`‡q Askx`vi n‡Z cv‡i Ges gybvdv eȇb AskMÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i|


Askx`vwi e¨emvq

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5. `vq-`vwqZ¡ (Liabilities): Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi †`bvi Rb¨ cÖ‡Z¨K Askx`vi e¨w³MZ I mgwóMZfv‡e `vqx _v‡K| A_©vr e¨emv‡q †jvKmvb n‡j †jvKmv‡bi fvM Zv‡`i g‡a¨ m¤úvw`Z Pzw³ Abymv‡i fvM K‡i †`qv nq| †jvKmv‡bi fvM ïay GKR‡bi c‡ÿ enb Kiv m¤¢e n‡j Ges Ab¨ m`m¨‡`i c‡ÿ Zv enb Kiv m¤¢e bv n‡j weËkvjx GKRb‡K mKj †jvKmv‡bi SzuwK enb Ki‡Z nq| ms‡ÿ‡c ejv hvq, Askx`v‡ii `vq mxgvnxb Ges Zviv e¨w³MZ I mgwóMZfv‡e Kviev‡ii †`bvi Rb¨ `vqx _v‡K| 6. jf¨vsk eÈb (Profit sharing): †Kv‡bv Askx`vi KZ jf¨vsk cv‡e Zv Zv‡`i g‡a¨ m¤úvw`Z Pzw³i Dci wbf©i K‡i| Pzw³‡Z gybvdv eȇbi D‡jL bv _vK‡j evsjv‡`‡ki Askx`vwi AvBb Abymv‡i cÖ‡Z¨K Askx`vi mgvb Abycv‡Z gybvdv †fvM Kivi AwaKvix| 7. ci¯ú‡ii cÖwZ ci¯ú‡ii Av¯’v I wek¦vm (Mutual trust and confidence): Askx`vi‡`i g‡a¨ cvi¯úwiK mwØk¦vm I Av¯
v Askx`vwi Kviev‡ii GKwU ‣ewkó¨| G‡K Ac‡ii cÖwZ wek¦v‡mi Dci Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi Aw¯ÍZ¡ wbf©i K‡i| A‡bK mgq GK ev GKvwaK Askx`v‡ii c‡ÿ n‡q e¨emvq cwiPvjbv K‡i| †m †ÿ‡Î Askx`viMY D³ e¨w³i cÖwZ Av¯
vevb bv n‡j e¨emvq Pj‡Z cv‡i bv| GKRb Askx`vi Zvnvi Kvh© Øviv cÖ‡Z¨K Askx`vi‡K mgfv‡e Ave× K‡i Ges e¨emvq †Kv‡bv †jvKmvb †`Lv w`‡j Zv mgfv‡e ev Pzw³ †gvZv‡eK mKj Askx`vi‡K enb Ki‡Z nq| 8. wbeÜb (Registration): Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi wbeÜb eva¨Zvg~jK bq| GwU wbewÜZ n‡Z cv‡i bvI n‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e fwel¨r weev` Gov‡bvi Rb¨ wbeÜb Kiv fv‡jv| GwU 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvBb Øviv wbqwš¿Z nq| 9. mËv (Entity): e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi gvwjKvbv n‡Z Gi c„_K †Kv‡bv mËv bvB| Askx`viM‡Yi e¨w³MZ e¨emv‡qi mËv †bB †h․_-g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbi b¨vq dvg© (Firm) ev cÖwZôvb wbR bv‡g Pzw³‡Z Ave× n‡Z cv‡i bv| G Kvi‡Y G RvZxq cÖwZôvb Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi m`m¨ n‡Z cv‡i bv ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv e¨w³i mv‡_ Askx`vwi Pzw³‡Z Ave× n‡Z cv‡i bv| 10. Askx`vi‡`i †hvM¨Zv (Capacity of partners): †`‡ki cÖvß eq¯‥ †h‡Kv‡bv bvMwiK Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi m`m¨ n‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e cvMj, bvevjK, †`Dwjqv cÖf„wZ e¨w³ Pzw³ m¤úv`‡bi Abychy³ weavq Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi m`m¨ n‡Z cv‡i bv| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, D‡jwLZ •ewkó¨mg~n Askx`vwi msMVb‡K ¯^KxqZv `v‡bi gva¨‡g Dc‡hvMx †ÿ‡Î mdjZvi mv‡_ e¨emvwqK Kg©KvÐ cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z mnvqZv Ki‡Q| Kg©cÎ-1 Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi aviYv I •ewk󨸇jv we‡kølY K‡i D³ e¨emv‡qi AviI wKQz myweav I Amyweav †ei Ki| Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi myweav Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi Amyweav • • • • • • • • • •


46

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

4.03 Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi MVb c×wZ Formation of Partnership Organization Askx`vwi e¨emvq MVb Kiv mnR| `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK e¨w³ gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ Pzw³e× n‡q g~jab mieivn K‡i G e¨emvq MVb Ki‡Z cv‡i| Avgv‡`i †`‡k 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvBb Abyhvqx G e¨emvq MwVZ I wbqwš¿Z n‡q _v‡K| Askx`vwi e¨emvq MVb Ki‡Z n‡j wbæwjwLZ c×wZ AbymiY Ki‡Z nq| GKwÎZ nIqv

Pzw³cÎ m¤úv`b

Pzw³cÎ wbeÜb

†UªW jvB‡mÝ msMÖn

Ab¨vb¨ miKvwi `߇ii AbygwZ

e¨emvq ïi


wPÎ : Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi MVb c×wZ 1| GKwÎZ nIqv (Being united): cÖ_‡g cÖ‡qvRbxq msL¨K D‡`¨v³v ev m`m¨ e¨emv‡qi D‡Ï‡k¨ GKwÎZ n‡eb| 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvB‡bi weavb Abymv‡i me©wbæ m`m¨ msL¨v 2 Rb Ges m‡e©v‪P m`m¨ msL¨v mvaviY †ÿ‡Î 20 Rb Ges e¨vswKs Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î 10 Rb| 2| Pzw³cÎ m¤úv`b (Sign contract): Askx`vwi e¨emvq m¤úwK©Z welq †hgbÑg~ja‡bi cwigvY, jvf †jvKmvb eÈb, cvi¯úwiK AwaKvi BZ¨vw` D‡jøL K‡i m`m¨‡`i g‡a¨ Pzw³cÎ m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq| Z‡e Pzw³cÎ Qvov †g․wLK Pzw³i wfwˇZI Askx`vwi e¨emvq MwVZ n‡Z cv‡i| 3| Pzw³cÎ wbeÜb (Register contract): G ch©v‡q Askx`vi‡`i Øviv m¤úvw`Z Pzw³cÎ miKvi wba©vwiZ wbe܇Ki Awd‡m wbeÜb Kiv‡Z nq| Aek¨ AvB‡b Pzw³c‡Îi wbeÜb eva¨Zvg~jK Kiv nqwb| A_©vr Gi wbeÜb bv Ki‡jI P‡j| 4| †UªW jvB‡mÝ msMÖn (Collecting trade licence): e¨emvq ïiæ Kivi Rb¨ G ch©v‡q ¯
vbxq †c․imfv ev wmwU K‡c©v‡ik‡bi wba©vwiZ Awdm †_‡K wba©vwiZ wd Rgv w`‡q †UªW jvB‡mÝ msMÖn Ki‡Z nq| Aek¨ †c․i GjvKvi evB‡i G ai‡bi †UªW jvB‡mÝ Lye ¸iæZ¡c~Y© bq| 5| Ab¨vb¨ miKvwi `߇ii AbygwZ (Permission from other Govt. authority): G‡ÿ‡Î e¨emv‡qi cÖK…wZ Abymv‡i mswkøó miKvwi `ßi †_‡K AbygwZ wb‡Z nq| †hgb−ißvwbgyLx Mv‡g©›Um BÛvw÷ªi Rb¨ ißvwb Dbœqb ey¨‡iv Ges Uªv‡fj G‡RwÝi †ÿ‡Î †emvgwiK wegvb PjvPj I ch©Ub gš¿Yvj‡qi AbygwZ cÖ‡qvRb| 6| e¨emvq ïiæ (Start Business): DcwiD³ AvbyôvwbKZvmg~n mdjfv‡e mgvß n‡j Askx`viMY gybvdv AR©‡bi Rb¨ e¨emvwqK Kg©KvÛ ïiæ K‡ib| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, Dc‡i ewY©Z AvbyôvwbKZvmg~n avivevwnKfv‡e AbymiY K‡i GKwU Askx`vwi e¨emvq msMVb MwVZ n‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e me ai‡bi Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î DwjøwLZ mKj AvbyôvwbKZv cvjb Kivi cÖ‡qvRb bvI n‡Z cv‡i|


Askx`vwi e¨emvq

4.04

47

Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi cÖKvi‡f` Types of Partnership Business

GKvwaK e¨w³ Pzw³i gva¨‡g gybvdv AR©‡bi Rb¨ †h e¨emvq M‡o †Zv‡j Zv‡K Askx`vwi e¨emvq e‡j| ev¯Íe †ÿ‡Î Avgiv K‡qK ai‡bi Askx`vwi e¨emvq †`wL| wb‡gœ e¨emv‡qi cÖK…wZ I Askx`vi‡`i `vq-`vwq‡Z¡i wfwˇZ G e¨emvq‡K K‡qKwU †kªwY‡Z wef³ Kiv hvq| h_v− Askx`vwi e¨emvq mxgve× Askx`vwi e¨emvq/ mxwgZ Askx`vwi e¨emvq

mvaviY Askx`vwi e¨emvq Hw‪QK Askx`vwi e¨emvq

wbw`©ó Askx`vwi e¨emvq

wbw`©ó mg‡qi Rb¨ cÖwZwôZ Askx`vwi e¨emvq

wbw`©ó D‡Ïk¨ mva‡bi Rb¨ cÖwZwôZ Askx`vwi e¨emvq

wPÎ: Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi cÖKvi‡f` 1|

mvaviY Askx`vwi e¨emvq (General partnership business): †h Askx`vwi cÖwZôv‡bi Askx`vi‡`i `vq Amxg Ges Askx`viMY GKK I †h․_fv‡e †`bv cwi‡kv‡ai Rb¨ `vqx _v‡K Zv‡K mvaviY Askx`vwi e¨emvq e‡j| G ai‡bi Askx`vwi cÖwZôv‡bi cwiPvjbvq mKj Askx`v‡ii mgvb AwaKvi _v‡K| mvaviY Askx`vwi e¨emvq mK‡ji Øviv A_ev mK‡ji c‡ÿ GK ev GKvwaK Askx`v‡ii Øviv cwiPvwjZ| evsjv‡`‡k Askx`vwi e¨emvq ej‡Z mvaviY Askx`vwi e¨emvq‡K eySvq| evsjv‡`‡k cÖPwjZ 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvBb Abyhvqx mvaviY Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi wbeÜb eva¨Zvg~jK bq| Giƒc e¨emvq `yÕai‡bi n‡Z cv‡i|

K.

Hw”QK Askx`vwi e¨emvq (Partnership at will): 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvBb Abymv‡i †Kv‡bv Askx`vwi Pzw³c‡Î Askx`viMY e¨emv‡qi ¯
vwqZ¡ ev mxgvbv wba©viY bv Ki‡j Zv‡K Hw‪QK Askx`vwi e¨emvq e‡j|

AvBb Abymv‡i G e¨emvq wb‡gœv³fv‡e MwVZ n‡Z cv‡i− i. Awbw`©ó †gqv‡`i Rb¨ e¨emvq MwVZ n‡j; ii. wbw`©ó D‡Ïk¨ mva‡bi ciI e¨emvq Pvjy _vK‡j; iii. wbw`©ó mg‡qi ciI e¨emvq Pvjy _vK‡j;


48

L.

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

wbw`©ó Askx`vwi e¨emvq (Particular partnership): Askx`vwi AvB‡bi 8 avivq ejv n‡q‡Q †h, GKRb e¨w³ Ab¨ †Kv‡bv e¨w³i mv‡_ GK‡Î †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó †gqv` ev cÖ‡Póvi Rb¨ Askx`vwi wn‡m‡e MY¨ n‡Z cv‡i| G‡KB wbw`©ó ev we‡kl Askx`vwi e¨emvq e‡j|

Giƒc e¨emvq `yai‡bi n‡Z cv‡i− i.

wbw`©ó mg‡qi Rb¨ cÖwZwôZ Askx`vwi e¨emvq (Specific term partnership): GKwU wbw`©ó mg‡qi Rb¨ MwVZ Askx`vwi e¨emvq‡K wbw`©ó mg‡qi Rb¨ cÖwZwôZ Askx`vwi e¨emvq e‡j| G wbw`©ó mgq AwZµg nIqvi mv‡_ mv‡_ Giƒc Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi wejywß N‡U| Z‡e Askx`viM‡Yi m¤§wZ‡Z G ai‡bi e¨emv‡qi †gqv` †kl nIqvi ciI Pvjy _vK‡Z cv‡i|

ii.

wbw`©ó D‡Ïk¨ mva‡bi Rb¨ cÖwZwôZ Askx`vwi e¨emvq (Specific Job partnership): we‡kl †Kv‡bv D‡Ïk¨ mva‡bi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv Askx`vwi e¨emvq MVb Kiv n‡j Zv‡K wbw`©ó D‡Ïk¨ mva‡bi Rb¨ ¯
vwcZ Askx`vwi e¨emvq ejv nq| wbw`©ó D‡Ïk¨ AwR©Z n‡j Gi wejywß N‡U| Aek¨ mKj Askx`vi GKgZ n‡j GiciI Pvjv‡Z cv‡i|

2|

mxgve× Askx`vwi e¨emvq (Limited partnership): GK ev GKvwaK Askx`v‡ii mxwgZ cwigvY `vq-`vwqZ¡ wb‡q †h Askx`vwi e¨emvq MwVZ nq Zv‡K mxgve× Askx`vwi e¨emvq e‡j| A_©vr hw` †Kv‡bv Askx`v‡ii `vq Amxg bv _v‡K ev †Kv‡bv GK ev GKvwaK m`‡m¨i `vq Pz w³ Abyhvqx ev AvBbMZ Kvi‡Y mxgve× _v‡K Zv‡K mxgve× Askx`vwi e¨emvq e‡j|

G e¨emvq `yÕai‡bi Askx`vi _v‡K| h_v− i. mvaviY Askx`vi, hv‡`i `vq Amxg _v‡K| ii. mxwgZ Askx`vi, hv‡`i `vq mxgve× _v‡K| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, †`‡k †hme Askx`vwi e¨emvq Pvjy Av‡Q Zvi g‡a¨ mvaviY Askx`vwi e¨emvq †ewk| Z‡e Gi cvkvcvwk mxgve× Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qiI Aw¯ÍZ¡ jÿ¨ Kiv hvq|

4.05

Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi Pzw³cÎ Deed of Partnership Business

Askx`vwi e¨emvq ci¯úi Pzw³i wfwˇZ MwVZ nq| Pzw³‡Z Ave× nIqvi cÖv°v‡j Askx`vwi msMVb MV‡b‪Qy e¨w³MY ¯^ZtcÖ‡Yvw`Z n‡q e¨emvq msMVb I cwiPvjbv msµvšÍ hveZxq welqvw` wba©viY K‡i Ges Zv‡`i me©m¤§wZµ‡g M„nxZ welqvw` wjwLZfv‡e GKwU `wj‡j mwbœ‡ewkZ K‡i| D³ `wjj‡KB Askx`vwi Pzw³cÎ e‡j| evsjv‡`‡k envj 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvB‡bi 5 aviv g‡Z, ÓAskx`vwii m¤úK© Pzw³ n‡Z Rb¥ jvf K‡i; mvgvwRK gh©v`v e‡j bq|Ó (The relation of partnership arises from contract and not from status”)


Askx`vwi e¨emvq

hgybv G›UvicÖvBR Pzw³cÎ

49

Zvs ......................

1g c¶ 2q c¶ bvg : .............................................................. bvg : ......................................... wVKvbv : ............................................................. wVKvbv : ..................................... Pzw³i kZ©vewj : 1| ....................... 2| ....................... 3| ....................... mv¶xM‡Yi bvg, wVKvbv I ¯^v¶i: 1| ..................... 2| ..................... 3| .....................

Askx`viM‡Yi bvg I ¯^v¶i: 1| ......................... 2| .........................

wPÎ: Askx`vwi Pzw³cÎ cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, Kvievi cwiPvjbvi myweavRbK Ges we‡jvcmvab msµvšÍ kZ©vewj msewjZ wjwLZ Askx`vwi Pzw³‡K Askx`vwi Pzw³cÎ ev `wjj e‡j|

ÒPzw³B Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi wfwËÓÑe¨vLv Ki| Contract is the Essence of Partnership”–Explain.

Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi g~j wfwË n‡jv Pzw³| A_©vr Pzw³i gva¨‡g GKwU Askx`vwi e¨emvq Rb¥jvf K‡i Ges Pzw³ n‡Z D™¢~Z m¤úK© Øviv Askx`vwi e¨emvq cwiPvwjZ nq| Askx`viM‡Yi cvi¯úwiK m¤úK©I wba©vwiZ nq Pyw³i gva¨‡g| Askx`vwi AvB‡bi 5 avivq ¯úófv‡e ejv n‡q‡Q †h, ÒAskx`vwii m¤úK© Pzw³ n‡Z Rb¥ jvf K‡i, AvZ¥xqZv ev mvgvwRK AwaKvi e‡j bq|Ó (Partnership relation arises from the contract and not from status.”)

mvaviYfv‡e †Kv‡bv e¨emv‡q GKvwaK m`m¨ Ges gybvdv eȇbi •ewkó¨ _vK‡j Zv‡K Askx`vwi e¨emvq g‡b Kiv nq| wKš‧ AvBbMZ wePv‡i Askx`vwii Aw¯ÍZ¡ wbY©‡q Pzw³e× m¤úK©B gyL¨ e‡j we‡ewPZ| D‡jøwLZ msÁv Ges Av‡jvPbvi †cÖwÿ‡Z cwijwÿZ nq †h, Askx`vwi m¤cK© m„wó‡Z Pzw³i Avek¨KZv i‡q‡Q| †hme D‡Ïk¨ mva‡bi Rb¨ Askx`vwi Pzw³ m¤cbœ Kiv nq Zvn‡jv− i. †Kv‡bv wel‡qi fyj eySveywS wbimb; ii. Askx`vwi‡Z¡i wfwË I iÿvKeP wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i; iii. Pzw³cÎ cÖvgvY¨ `wjj wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i; iv. Z…Zxq cÿ n‡Z FY ev †Kv‡bv cÖKvi my‡hvM-myweav cvIqvi Rb¨; v. Pzw³i wfwˇZ e¨emvq cwiPvjbv K‡i; vi. Askx`vi‡`i g‡a¨ cvi¯úwiK m¤úK© wba©viY; vii. g~jab Avbqb I Zvi e¨envi mywbwðZ Kivi Rb¨|


50

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

wb‡Pi K‡qKwU D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g welqwU e¨vL¨v Kiv n‡jv− wn›`y †hŠ_ cvwievwiK e¨emvq (Hindu joint family business): †Kv‡bv wn›`y cwiev‡ii m`m¨iv hw`I Zv‡`i cwiev‡ii †gvU Avq wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ eÈb K‡i _v‡K wKš‧ ïaygvÎ Pzw³ bv _vKvq eZ©gv‡b G‡K Askx`vwi e¨emvq ejv hvq bv| 2| DËivwaKvi m¤úK© (Heriditary relationship): Pjgvb e¨emv‡qi †Kv‡bv m`‡m¨i g„Zy¨i ci Zvi ¯¿x ev mšÍvbiv Kviev‡ii gybvdv †fvM Ki‡jI Zviv e¨emvq Askx`vi bq| Askx`vi n‡Z PvB‡j Zv‡`i cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki Avjv`v Avjv`vfv‡e Ab¨vb¨ Askx`vi‡`i mv‡_ Pzw³e× n‡Z n‡e| 3| c`gh©v`v (Designation) : mvgvwRK c`gh©v`vi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv Kg©Pvix ev Kg©KZ©v‡K gybvdvi wKQy Ask cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jI Zv‡K e¨emv‡qi Askx`vi ejv hv‡e bv| KviY ïaygvÎ mvgvwRK c`gh©v`vi Rb¨ gybvdvi Ask †fvM Ki‡Q wKš‧ Pzw³‡Z Ave× bv nIqvi Rb¨ Askx`vi bq| 4| mvgvwRK Ae¯’vb (Social position) : K‡qKRb MvwqKvi Mv‡bi Abyôvb †_‡K cÖvß Avq wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ fvM K‡i wb‡jI Zv‡`i msMVb‡K Askx`vwi e¨emvq ejv hvq bv| KviY Zv‡`i g‡a¨ e¨emvq ev gybvdv AR©b msµvšÍ †Kv‡bv Pzw³ m¤úvw`Z nqwb| 5| F‡Yi gybvdv cÖvwß (Profit receive for status) : Askx`vwi e¨emv‡q FY w`‡q †Kv‡bv e¨w³ FY Pyw³ Abyhvqx e¨emvq n‡Z gybvdv MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| wKšÍy Zvi mv‡_ Askx`vwi Pzw³ bv _vKvq Zv‡K Askx`vi wn‡m‡e MY¨ Kiv hv‡e bv| 6| †ckv`vwi `‡ji gybvdv eÈb (Profit distribution in professional group): †ckv`vwi mvs¯‥…wZK `j gybvdv AR©‡bi ci Zv wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ eÈb K‡i wb‡jI Zv‡`i Askx`vi ejv hv‡e bv| KviY Zviv Askx`vwi Pzw³ m¤úbœ K‡iwb| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi Aw¯ÍZ¡ hvPvB‡qi cÖavb gvcKvwV n‡‪Q Askx`vi‡`i g‡a¨ m¤úvw`Z Pzw³| gyjZ Pzw³ wjwLZ ev †g․wLK †hfv‡eB †nvK bv †Kb Zv e¨emvq MVb I cwiPvjbvi w`K-wb‡`©kK (Guide line) wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nq| ZvB ejv nq, ÒPzw³B Askx`vwi Kviev‡ii g~j wfwË|Ó

1|

Askx`vwi Pzw³c‡Îi welqe¯‘ Contents of Partnership Deed Askx`vwi Pzw³cÎ Askx`vwi e¨emvq cwiPvjbvi g~jgš¿ wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ| Askx`viMY wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ cvi¯úwiK Avjvc-Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g wb‡RivB Pzw³c‡Îi welqe¯Íy wba©viY K‡i _v‡K| Askx`vi‡`i g‡a¨ fwel¨‡Z SMov-weev` I gvgjv-†gvKÏgv Gov‡Z Pzw³c‡Îi kZ©vewjB Kvh©Ki f~wgKv iv‡L| wb‡æ Askx`vwi Pzw³c‡Îi welqe¯Íy D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv− 1. Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi bvg; 2. e¨emv‡qi wVKvbv; 3. e¨emv‡qi AvIZvfy³ GjvKv; 4. e¨emv‡qi cÖK…wZ, D‡Ïk¨ I AvIZv; 5. e¨emv‡qi Kvh©µg we¯Íw„ Zi eZ©gvb I m¤¢ve¨ GjvKv; 6. e¨emv‡qi ¯
vwqZ¡; 7. Askx`vi‡`i bvg, wVKvbv I †ckv; 8. e¨emv‡qi †gvU g~ja‡bi cwigvY; 9. g~jab Avbqb I msMÖn c×wZ;


Askx`vwi e¨emvq

51

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

Askx`vi‡`i cÖK…wZ wba©viY; Askx`vi‡`i cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki cÖ`Ë cuywRi cwigvY I Zv cwi‡kva c×wZ; g~ja‡bi Ici my` †`qv n‡e wKbv, n‡j wK nv‡i; Askx`viMY e¨emvq n‡Z †Kv‡bv A_© D‡Ëvjb Ki‡Z cvi‡e wKbv, cvi‡j †K KZ ev wK nv‡i; D‡ËvwjZ A‡_©i Ici my` aiv n‡e wKbv; e¨emv‡qi jvf-†jvKmvb eÈb c×wZ I nvi; e¨emv‡qi cwiPvjbv I e¨e¯
vcbv c×wZ; e¨emv‡qi wnmve ewn iÿY I wnmve wbixÿv c×wZ; e¨emv‡qi wnmve ewn msiÿY I cwi`k©b msµvšÍ wbqg; †h e¨vs‡K wnmve †Lvjv n‡e Zvi bvg, wVKvbv I wnmv‡ei aib; e¨vs‡Ki wnmve cwiPvjbvKvix e¨w³ ev e¨w³e‡M©i bvg c`we; e¨emv‡qi `wjj c‡Î `¯ÍLZ cÖ`vbKvix e¨w³ ev e¨w³e‡M©i bvg c`ex; e¨emv‡qi cÖ‡qvR‡b †Kv‡bv Askx`vi FY mieivn Ki‡j Zvi Ici †`q my‡`i nvi; e¨emv‡qi cÖ‡qvR‡b Ab¨Î n‡Z FY msMÖn c×wZ; Askx`viM‡Yi AwaKvi, `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ m¤ú‡K© wek` eY©bv; †Kv‡bv Askx`vi‡K †Kv‡bv †eZb ev cvwi‡ZvwlK †`qv n‡e wKbv, n‡j Kx nv‡i; e¨emv‡qi mybvg g~j¨vqb m¤úwK©Z wewa-weavb; Askx`vi‡`i g‡a¨ †Kv‡bv weev` †`Lv w`‡j Zv gxgvsmv c×wZ; Askx`vi AcÖK…wZ¯
 ev †`Dwjqv n‡j Zvi Ask wbiƒcY, msiÿY I cwi‡kva c×wZ; e¨emvq m¤cÖmvi‡Yi wbqg; bvevjK Askx`vi MÖn‡Yi wbqg; bZzb Askx`vi MÖnY I cÖ‡qvR‡b we`¨gvb †Kv‡bv Askx`vi‡K ewn®‥v‡ii wbqg; †Kv‡bv Askx`v‡ii g„Zy¨ ev AemiMÖnYKv‡j e¨emv‡qi `vq-m¤úwË wbiƒcY I cvIbv cwi‡kva c×wZ; 33. e¨emv‡qi Avw_©K eQ‡ii ïiæ I †kl mgq; 34. FY MÖnY I cÖ`v‡bi wbqgvewj; 35. Askx`vi KZ…©K cÖ`Ë F‡Yi wbqg I my‡`i nvi; 36. FY cwi‡kva I Av`vq c×wZ; 37. e¨emv‡qi we‡jvcmvab c×wZ; 38. e¨emv‡qi we‡jvcKv‡j e¨emv‡qi `vq-m¤úwË g~j¨vqb I eÈb cÖYvwj; 39. Pzw³c‡Îi †Kv‡bv cwieZ©‡bi cÖ‡qvR‡b wbqg c×wZ; 40. Pzw³c‡Îi evB‡i †Kv‡bv wel‡q gZv‣bK¨ †`Lv w`‡j Avgv‡`i †`‡k Zv 1932 mv‡j Askx`vwi AvBb Abyhvqx A_ev msL¨vMwiô m`‡m¨i gZvg‡Zi wfwˇZ gxgvsmv Kiv nq| Aek¨ Pzw³c‡Îi †Kv‡bv aviv ev avivmg~n mKj m`‡m¨i gZvbyhvqx AvB‡bi AvIZvq †_‡K me©`vB cwieZ©b,cwiea©b, ms‡hvRb ev iwnZ Kiv hvq|

cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, Pzw³ †g․wLK n‡Z cv‡i, Z‡e mgm¨v †`Lv w`‡j †g․wLK Pzw³i †Kv‡bv AvBbMZ wfwË †bB| GRb¨ Pzw³ wjwLZ nIqv myweavRbK|


52

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

4.06 Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi wbeÜb c×wZ Process of Registration of a Partnership Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi wbeÜb ej‡Z miKvi wba©vwiZ wbe܇Ki Awd‡m e¨emv‡qi bvg ZvwjKvfy³ Kiv‡K eySvq| A_©vr wbw`©ó GjvKvi wbe܇Ki Kvh©vj‡q iwÿZ eB‡Z Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi bvg I cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ wjwce×KiY‡K Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi wbeÜb ejv nq| 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvB‡bi 58 aviv Abyhvqx †Kv‡bv Askx`vwi cÖwZôvb wbeÜb Ki‡Z n‡j cÖ_gZ wbe܇Ki Awdm n‡Z wba©vwiZ wd Rgvc~e©K GKwU dg©/ Av‡e`bcÎ msMÖn Ki‡Z n‡e| Av‡e`bcÎwU h_vh_fv‡e c~iY K‡i Pyw³cÎ I MVbZš¿mn wbe܇Ki Awd‡m Rgv Ki‡Z n‡e| mvaviYZ Av‡e`bc‡Î wbæ wjwLZ welqmg~n D‡jøL Ki‡Z nq− 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Askx`vwi cÖwZôv‡bi bvg; cÖavb Awd‡mi wVKvbv; Ab¨ †Kv_vI e¨emv‡qi kvLv Awdm _vK‡j Zvi wVKvbv; e¨emv‡qi D‡Ïk¨ I AvIZv; e¨emv‡qi †gqv` (hw` wbw`©ó †gqv‡`i Rb¨ nq); cÖwZwôZ nIqvi ZvwiL; cÖ‡Z¨K Askx`v‡ii bvg, wVKvbv, †ckv; Askx`vi wn‡m‡e †hvM`v‡bi ZvwiL BZ¨vw`|

Av‡e`bcÎwU cÖ‡Z¨K Askx`vi KZ©„K ev Zvi Dchy³ / AvBbMZ cªwZwbwa KZ©„K ¯^v ÿwiZ n‡Z n‡e| wbeÜK Av‡e`bcÎ I Pzw³cÎwU cixÿv-wbixÿv K‡i mš‧ó n‡j e¨emvqwU ZvwjKvfy³ Ki‡eb| Pzw³cÎ wKsev Av‡e`bc‡Îi †Kv‡bv cwieZ©b, cwiea©b, ms‡hvM I we‡qvRb Ki‡Z n‡j wbe܇Ki AbygwZ wb‡Z n‡e Ges Zv m¤^‡Ü Zv‡K AewnZ Ki‡Z n‡e|

Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi wbeÜb wK eva¨Zvg~jK Is Registration of a Partnership Business Compulsory wbeÜb Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y © w`K| Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi wbeÜb eva¨Zvg~jK bv n‡jI evÂbxq e‡U| KviY Askx`vwi e¨emvq wbewÜZ n‡j Gi AvBbMZ wfwË my`„p nq Ges e¨emvwqK Kg©K vÛ cwiPvjbvq †ek wKQy myw eav †fvM K‡i| wbeÜb Askx`v‡ii B‪Qv-Awb‪Qvi Ici †Q‡o †`qv n‡q‡Q| Askx`vi e¨emv‡qi wbeÜb eva¨Zvg~jK bv n‡jI evÃbxq e‡U| KviY Askx`vwi e¨emv‡q wbewÜZ n‡j cieZ©xKv‡j Askx`viM‡Yi ga¨w¯
Z m¤¢ve¨ Kjn A_ev Z„Z xq c‡ÿi mv‡_ †`bvcvIbv wb®úwËi cwi‡cÖw ÿ‡Z mnvqK nq| wbeÜb Ki‡j e¨emv‡qi Pzw³cÎwU AvBbm¤§Z `wjjiƒ‡c ¯^xK…w Z jvf K‡i| e¯‧Z : wbeÜb Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi Aw¯ÍZ ¡ cÖKvk K‡i| ZvQvov wbewÜZ Askx`vwi e¨emvq KZK¸‡jv my‡hvM-myw eav †fvM K‡i|


Askx`vwi e¨emvq

53

Askx`vwi AvB‡bi 69 (1) aviv g‡Z, Askx`vwi cÖwZôvb wbewÜZ bv n‡j, ev wbeÜb ewn‡Z mswkøó Askx`v‡ii bvg wjwLZ bv _vK‡j †Kv‡bv Askx`vi Aci Askx`vi ev cÖwZôv‡bi weiæ‡× Pzw³ n‡Z D™¢~Z AwaKvi Av`v‡qi Rb¨ gvgjv Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, Askx`vwi e¨emvq wbeÜb AvBbZ eva¨Zvg~jK bq| Z‡e Askx`viMY fwel¨r my‡hvM-myweavi R‡b¨ wbeÜb K‡i wb‡Z cv‡i| KviY msMVb wbeÜb Kiv ev bv Kiv Askx`vi‡`i B‪Qvi Dci wbf©i K‡i| Z‡e GK_v mZ¨ †h, wbeÜb Kiv n‡j KwZcq AvBbMZ myweav cvIqv hvq| ZvB Giƒc e¨emvq cÖwZôvb wbeÜb KivB DËg|

Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi wbeÜb bv Kivi cwiYvg Consequences of Non-Registration of Partnership Business

1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvB‡b e¨emv‡qi wbeÜb eva¨Zvg~jK Kiv nqwb| Z‡e wbewÜZ Askx`vwi dvg© I Askx`vi‡K †ek wKQy myweav †`qv n‡q‡Q| ZvB AwbewÜZ Askx`vwi e¨emvq I Gi m`m¨MY wbewÜZ e¨emv‡qi Zzjbvq wKQyUv AmyweavRbK cwiw¯
wZi m¤§yLxb nq| 1| cvIbv Av`v‡qi mgm¨v (Problem in collecting credit): A-wbewÜZ cÖwZôvb 100 UvKvi †ewk cvIbv Av`v‡qi Rb¨ gvgjv Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| [69(4) aviv] 2| Z…Zxq c‡ÿi weiæ‡× gvgjvq mgm¨v (Problem in submit case against third party): A-wbewÜZ Askx`vwi Kvievi Zvi †Kv‡bv AwaKvi Av`v‡qi Rb¨ Z…Zxq c‡ÿi weiæ‡× gvgjv Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| wKš‧ Z„Zxq cÿ Zvi †Kv‡bv AwaKvi Av`v‡qi j‡ÿ¨ AwbewÜZ Askx`vwi Kviev‡ii weiæ‡× gvgjv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3| Pzw³RwbZ AwaKvi Av`v‡qi mgm¨v (Problem in Established right in contract): AwbewÜZ Askx`vwi cÖwZôv‡b Pzw³RwbZ †Kv‡bv AwaKvi Av`v‡qi j‡ÿ¨ †Kvb Askx`vi Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Askx`v‡ii weiæ‡× gvgjv Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| [69(1) aviv] 4| ¯^v_©iÿv (Protect interest) : ¯^v_© Av`v‡qi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv Askx`vi Aci †Kv‡bv Askx`vi e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi weiæ‡× gvgjv Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| 5| cvi¯úwiK gvgjv `v‡qi-G mgm¨v (Problem in case file against each other): AwbewÜZ Askx`vwi cÖwZôv‡bi Askx`viMY ci¯ú‡ii weiæ‡× Pzw³i kZ© †g‡b Pjvi Rb¨ Av`vj‡Z gvgjv Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| Z‡e DcwiD³ Amyweav¸‡jv _vKv m‡Ë¡I AwbewÜZ Askx`viM‡Yi wb‡¤œv³ AwaKvi¸‡jv ejer _v‡K− i. wbR cvIbv ey‡S cvIqvi AwaKvi: we‡jvc mvabK…Z e¨emvq n‡Z Askx`viM‡Yi cvIbv ey‡S †bqvi AwaKvi Av‡Q| ii. we‡jvcmvab I wnmve msµvšÍ AwaKvi: AwbewÜZ Askx`vwi msMV‡bi Askx`iMY e¨emvq we‡jvc mvab I wnmve msµvšÍ wel‡q gvgjv Ki‡Z cv‡i| iii.cÖwZôv‡bi m¤úwË D×v‡ii AwaKvi: AwbewÜZ Askx`vwi e¨emvq msMV‡bi Askx`viMY wnmve-wbKvk I m¤úwË D×v‡ii Rb¨ Av`vj‡Z gvgjv Ki‡Z cv‡i| iv. Pzw³RwbZ AwaKvi: †Kv‡bv Askx`vi Pzw³ f½ Ki‡j Zvi weiæ‡× gvgjv Ki‡Z cv‡i|


54

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvBb Abymv‡i wbewÜZ Aswk`vwi e¨emvq †hme my‡hvM-myweav †fvM K‡i Zv wb‡gœ D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv− K. L. M. N. O.

Askx`viMY cvIbv Av`v‡qi Rb¨ Z…Zxq c‡ÿi weiæ‡× gvgjv Ki‡Z cvi‡e; AwaKvi cÖwZôvi Rb¨ GK Askx`vi Ab¨ Askx`v‡ii weiæ‡× gvgjv Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv; Giƒc e¨emv‡q Z…Zxq cÿ‡K Pzw³ cvj‡b eva¨ Kivi Rb¨ gvgjv Ki‡Z cvi‡eb; Z…Zxq cÿ `vwe Av`v‡qi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv Askx`v‡ii weiæ‡× gvgjv cwiPvjbv Kivi AwaKvi Av‡Q; cÖ‡Z¨K Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î jvf-†jvKmvb wnmv‡ei ci Askx`viM‡Yi wb‡R‡`i AvqKi cÖ`vb Ki‡Z nq, d‡j Sv‡gjv †_‡K Ae¨vnwZ cvIqv hvq; P. cÖwZôvb wbewÜZ n‡j AvBbMZ gh©v`v cvq| d‡j Giƒc e¨emvq cÖwZôvb FY`vbKvix cÖwZôv‡bi wbKU gh©v`v †c‡q _v‡K| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, Askx`vwi e¨emvq msMVb wbewÜZ nIqv eva¨Zvg~jK bv n‡jI fwel¨‡Z fyj eySveywS wbim‡bi R‡b¨ Ges Askx`vi‡`i AwaKvi cÖwZôv Kivi Rb¨ Giƒc e¨emvq msMV‡bi wbeÜb Kiv evÃbxq n‡e|

4.07

Askx`v‡ii cÖKvi‡f` Classsification of Partners

e¨emvq †ÿ‡Î Avgiv wewfbœ Askx`vwi e¨emvq msMVb †`wL| †Zgwb Ae¯
v, f~wgKv, KZ©e¨, `vq`vwqZ¡, ÿgZv cÖf„wZi `„wó‡KvY †_‡K wewfbœ Askx`vi †`wL|

Askx`v‡ii cÖKvi‡f`

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

mwµq Askx`vi wbw®…q Askx`vi bvggvÎ Askx`vi AvcvZ`„wó‡Z Askx`vi bvevjK Askx`vi AvPi‡Y AbywgZ Askx`vi Kgx© Askx`vi mxwgZ ev mxgve× Askx`vi cÖwZeÜ Askx`vi

wPÎ : Askx`v‡ii cÖKvi‡f` 1. mvaviY ev mwµq Askx`vi (Active partner): †h e¨w³ Pzw³i e‡j Askx`vi n‡q cÖwZôvbwU cwiPvjbvq mwµqfv‡e wbhy³ _v‡K Zv‡K mwµq Askx`vi e‡j| H e¨w³‡K Ab¨vb¨ Askx`viM‡Yi cÖwZwbwa ejv n‡q _v‡K| Giƒc Askx`v‡ii `vwqZ¡ n‡jv− K. e¨emv‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq g~jab mieivn Kiv; L. •`bw›`b Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvq AskMÖnY Kiv; M. e¨emvq cwiPvjbvq m„ó `vq-`vwqZ¡ m¤ú~Y© enb Kiv BZ¨vw`|


Askx`vwi e¨emvq

55

2. wbw®Œq ev NygšÍ Askx`vi (Sleeping or Inactive partner): †h e¨w³ cÖwZôvb n‡Z jvf I ÿwZi Ask MÖnY K‡i, A_P wb‡R e¨emvq cwiPvjbvq AskMÖnY K‡i bv, Zv‡K wbw®…q Askx`vi e‡j| wbw®…q Askx`vi‡K Kvievi n‡Z Aemi MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ weÁwß (Public notice) †`evi †Kv‡bv eva¨eva¨KZv †bB| weÁwß bv w`‡jI Aemi MÖn‡Yi cieZ©x mg‡q m¤úvw`Z Kv‡h©i Rb¨ †m `vqe× n‡e bv| Giƒc Askx`v‡ii •ewkó¨ n‡jv− K. e¨emv‡q g~jab mieivn K‡i; L. e¨emvq n‡Z gybvdv MÖnY K‡i; M. †jvKmvb I `vq enb K‡i; N. e¨emvq cwiPvjbvq mwµqfv‡e AskMÖnY †_‡K weiZ _v‡K; O. Zviv Ab¨ Askx`v‡ii Dci wbf©i K‡i; P. Ab¨ Askx`v‡ii Dci Av¯
v †i‡L e¨emvq cwiPvjbvq wbw¯…qfv‡e AskMÖnY K‡i BZ¨vw`| 3. bvggvÎ Askx`vi (Nominal partner): Giƒc Askx`v‡ii Askx`vwi e¨emv‡q †Kv‡bv ¯^v_© _v‡K bv| †KejgvÎ wb‡Ri mybvg Askx`vi wn‡m‡e e¨envi Ki‡Z †`qv nq| wKš‧ evwn‡ii cvIbv`viM‡Yi wbKU F‡Yi Rb¨ wZwb `vqx _v‡K| Giv e¨emv‡q g~jab wewb‡qvM K‡i bv, cwiPvjbvqI Ask †bq bv, Z‡e Pzw³ Abyhvqx jv‡fi Ask A_ev wbw`©ó †eZb ev A_© †bq| bvggvÎ Askx`v‡ii •ewkó¨ n‡jv− K. Giƒc Askx`vi e¨emv‡q g~jab wewb‡qvM K‡i bv; L. G Askx`v‡ii mybvg I hk e¨emv‡q e¨eüZ nq; M. †KD mij wek¦v‡m H Askx`v‡ii Dcw¯
wZi Kvi‡Y e¨emv‡q FY`vb Ki‡j Zvi Rb¨ bvggvÎ Askx`vi `vqe× nb BZ¨vw`| 4. AvcvZt`„wó‡Z Askx`vi (Quasi-partner): †Kv‡bv Askx`vi Kvievi n‡Z Aemi MÖn‡Yi ci Zuvi cÖ`Ë g~jab Zz‡j bv wb‡q FY wn‡m‡e e¨emvq †i‡L w`‡j Zuv‡K AvcvZt`„wó‡Z Askx`vi e‡j| g~ja‡bi Dci wZwb my` †c‡q _v‡Kb| Kvh©Z Giyc e¨w³ e¨emv‡qi cvIbv`vi; Askx`vi bq| Z‡e †Kv‡bv mwµq Askx`viMY weÁwß bv w`‡q e¨emv‡q †_‡K P‡j †M‡j Zvi Øviv Z„Zxq c‡ÿi m„ó `vq Zv‡KB enb Ki‡Z n‡e| 5. bvevjK Askx`vi (Minor admitted as a partner): AcÖvß eq¯‥ e¨w³ (A_©vr 18 eQ‡ii wb‡P) Askx`vwi Kviev‡i AskMÖnY Ki‡j Zv‡K bvevjK Askx`vi e‡j| 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvB‡bi 30(1) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q †h, mKj Askx`viM‡Yi Aby‡gv`bµ‡g †Kv‡bv we`¨gvb cÖwZôv‡b bvevjK‡K Askx`vwi my‡hvM-myweav¸‡jv †fvM Ki‡Z †`qv nq| wKš‧ †m cÖwZôv‡bi †Kv‡bv `vq-`vwqZ¡ enb K‡i bv e‡j Askx`viiƒ‡c ¯^xKw…Z cvq bv| 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvB‡bi 30 aviv Abyhvqx bvevjK †Kvb e¨emv‡qi Askx`vi bv n‡Z cvi‡jI †m Ab¨vb¨ Askx`v‡ii m¤§wZµ‡g e¨emv‡q g~jab wewb‡qvM K‡I gybvdv †fvM Ki‡Z cv‡i| wKšÍy †Kvb cÖKv‡iB Zv‡K dv‡g©i `vq-`vwq‡Z¡i Rb¨ `vqx Kiv hv‡e bv| †Kej dv‡g© †`q Zvi g~ja‡bi Ask cwigvY `v‡qi Rb¨B Zv‡K `vqx Kiv hvq, AwZwi³ wKQzi Rb¨ `vqx Kiv hvq bv| GgbwK Zvi e¨w³MZ m¤úwËI G `vq n‡Z gy³| wKšÍy †m hLb mvevjK n‡e ZLbB †m dv‡g©I mewKQzi Rb¨ `vqx n‡e| Aek¨ mvevjK nIqvi 6 gv‡mi g‡aB Zv‡K Pzw³c‡Î `¯ÍLZ w`‡Z n‡e| GgbwK ZLb bvevjK Ae¯
vq †h w`b n‡Z †m dv‡g©i Askx`viiƒ‡c MY¨ n‡qwQj, †m mgqKvi `vq Ges Kvh©Kjv‡ci Rb¨ Zv‡K `vqx Kiv hv‡e| bvevjK Askx`vi‡K mxgve× Askx`vi e‡j WvKv nq|


56

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

6. AvPi‡Y AbywgZ Askx`vi (Partner by holding out): †h e¨w³ cÖK …Z Askx`vi bv n‡qI Zvi K_vevZ©v, AvPiY Øviv wb‡R‡K e¨emv‡qi Askx`vi e‡j cwiPq †`b Zv‡K AvPi‡Y Abyw gZ Askx`vi e‡j| hw` †KD G‡Z cÖfvweZ n‡q e¨emvq‡K FY †`q ev Pzw³ K‡i Z‡e H `vq AvPi‡Y AbywgZ Askx`vi‡K wb‡Z n‡e | msÁvi Av‡jv‡K ej‡Z cvwi AvPi‡Y AbywgZ Askx`vi n‡jv − K. AvPi‡Yi gva¨‡g cwiPq`vbKvwi Askx`vi; L. G Askx`vi e¨emvq cwiPvjbvq AskMÖnY K‡i bv; M. e¨emv‡q g~jab mieivn K‡i bv; N. e¨emvq n‡Z gybvdvI MÖnY K‡i bv; O. wKšÍy AvPiY Øviv cÖfvweZ Z…Zxq c‡ÿi `v‡qi Rb¨ AvPi‡Y AbywgZ Askx`vi `vqe× nb; P. Giƒc Askx`v‡ii †fvUvwaKvi _v‡K bv BZ¨vw`| 7. Kgx© Askx`vi (Working partner): †h Askx`vi e¨emv‡q †Kv‡bv g~jab wewb‡qvM K‡i bv ïaygvÎ wbR¯^ kÖg I `ÿZv mwµqfv‡e wb‡qvwRZ iv‡L Zv‡K Kgx© Askx`vi e‡j| Pzw³ Abyhvqx Giv Ab¨vb¨ Askx`v‡ii b¨vq e¨emv‡qi jvf-ÿwZ AskMÖn Y K‡i Ges Amxg `vq en‡b eva¨ _v‡K| Aek¨ e¨emvq cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ G‡`i‡K wbw`©ó nv‡i †eZb ev jv‡fi Ask †`qv n‡Z cv‡i| 8. mxwgZ ev mxgve× Askx`vi (Limited partner): Pzw³ Abyhvqx e¨emv‡qi †Kv‡bv Askx`v‡ii `vq mxgve× n‡j ev AvBbMZfv‡e mKj Askx`v‡ii m¤§wZµ‡g †Kv‡bv bvevjK‡K myweav cÖ`v‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ Askx`vi wn‡m‡e MÖnY Kiv n‡j †m‡ÿ‡Î Abyiƒc Askx`vi‡K mxwgZ Askx`vi e‡j| G‡`i `vq mvaviYZ e¨emv‡q wb‡qvwRZ D³ Askx`v‡ii g~jab ch©šÍ mxgve× nq| AvBb Abyhvqx Giƒc Askx`vi e¨emvq cwiPvjbvq AskMÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| †Kv‡bv mvevjK †hvM¨ e¨w³I Pzw³i kZ© Abyhvqx Giƒc Askx`vi n‡Z cv‡i| †Kv‡bv Askx`vwi e¨emv‡q GK ev GKwaK mxwgZ Askx`vi _vK‡jI Zv‡K mxgve× Askx`vwi e¨emvq (limited partnership) e‡j| 9. cÖwZeÜ Askx`vi (Patner by estoppel): hw` e¨emv‡qi Askx`viMY †Kv‡bv e¨w³‡K e¨emv‡qi Askx`vi wnmv‡e cwiPq †`q Ges D³ e¨w³ Zv †R‡bI †g․bZv Aej¤^b K‡i Z‡e Zv‡K cÖwZeÜ Askx`vi e‡j| Giƒc cÖPviYvi d‡j m„ó `v‡qi Rb¨ D³ e¨w³ Z…Zxq c‡ÿi wbKU `vqe× nq | cÖwZôvb wb‡Ri ¯^v‡_© †Kvb e¨w³ ev Z…Zxqcÿ‡K Gai‡bi cÖwZeÜ Askx`vi wn‡m‡e cwiPq w`‡q _v‡K| Gai‡bi Kv‡Ri Rb¨ cÖwZôvb cÖwZeÜ Askx`vi‡K gvwmK nv‡i m¤§vbx ev Ab¨‡Kvb myweav w`‡Z cv‡i| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi Askx`vi n‡Z n‡j †Kv‡bv e¨w³i Aek¨B Pzw³ m¤úv`‡bi †hvM¨Zv _vK‡Z n‡e| Aek¨ bvevjK Ab¨ Askx`vi‡`i m¤§wZµ‡g mxwgZ Askx`vi n‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e cvMj, †`Dwjqv miKvwi Kg©Pvix, we‡`wk ivóª`~Z I we‡`wk kÎæ AvBb Abyhvqx Askx`vi n‡Z cv‡i bv| †Kv‡bv cÖwZôvb ev msN Askx`vi nIqvi †hvM¨Zv iv‡L bv|


Askx`vwi e¨emvq

57

Kg©cÎ-2

• • •

4.08

NygšÍ ev wbw®…q Askx`vi Ges bvggvÎ Askx`vi‡`i g‡a¨ 3wU cv_©K¨ †ei Ki| NygšÍ Askx`vi bvggvÎ Askx`vi • • •

Askx`vi‡`i †hvM¨Zv

Qualification of Partner †`‡ki cÖvß eq¯‥ †h‡Kv‡bv bvMwiK Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi m`m¨ n‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e cvMj, bvevjK, †`Dwjqv cÖf„wZ e¨w³ Pzw³ m¤úv`‡bi Abychy³ weavq Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi m`m¨ n‡Z cv‡i bv| Pzw³ Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi wfwË| Avgv‡`i Pzw³ AvB‡bi 11 aviv Abyymv‡i bvevjK (18 erm‡ii Kg eq¯‥) Pzw³ m¤úv`‡b Aÿg|

4.09 Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi we‡jvcmvab Dissolution of Partnership Business Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi we‡jvc mvab ev cwimgvwß ej‡Z mKj Askx`viM‡Yi g‡a¨ Askx`vwi m¤ú‡K©i Aemvb‡K eySvq Ges Zvi cwiYwZ¯^iƒc e¨emv‡qi we‡jvc N‡U _v‡K| Askx`vwi m¤úK© wejywß n‡jB e¨emvq eÜ n‡q hv‡e Ggb bvI n‡Z cv‡i| KviY Aci Askx`viMY e¨emvq eRvq †i‡L e¨emvq Pvjv‡Z cv‡i| †m‡ÿ‡Î G‡K e¨emv‡qi cybtMVb e‡j| Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi we‡jvcmva‡bi mv‡_ †h welq¸‡jv RwoZ− K. Askx`vi‡`i Pzw³RwbZ m¤ú‡K©i Aemvb N‡U; L. cÖwZôv‡bi mKj Kg©Kv‡Ûi wejywß; M. cÖwZôv‡bi mgy`q m¤ú` I `vq-†`bvi g~j¨vqb Ges mswkøó mKj‡K cwi‡kva Kiv| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, e¨emv‡qi we‡jvcmva‡b cÖwZôvb I Askx`vwi‡Z¡i- Df‡qiB we‡jvcmvab nq| wKš‧ Askx`vwii we‡jvc NU‡j e¨emv‡qi cwimgvwß NU‡Z cv‡i|

Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi we‡jvcmvab c×wZ

Methods of Dissolution of Partnership Business

Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi we‡jvc mvab ej‡Z Askx`vi‡`i g‡a¨ e¨emv‡qi mKj m¤ú‡K© i m¤ú~Y© Aemvb‡K eySvq| wb‡P ewY©Z †h‡Kv‡bv c×wZ‡Z Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi we‡jvc N‡U− Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi we‡jvcmvab c×wZ ] [

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

mK‡j GKgZ n‡q we‡jvcmvab Hw‪QK we‡jvcmvab †Kv‡bv we‡kl NUbvi †cÖw¶‡Z we‡jvcmvab eva¨Zvg~jK we‡jvcmvab Av`vj‡Zi gva¨‡g we‡jvcmvab

wPÎ: Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi we‡jvc mvab c×wZ|


58

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

1| mK‡j GKgZ n‡q we‡jvc mvab (Dissolution by mutual agreement): Askx`viMY GKgZ n‡q Kvievi we‡jvcmva‡bi wm×všÍ wb‡j †h‡Kv‡bv mgq ev mK‡ji g‡a¨ m¤úvw`Z Pzw³i kZ©vbymv‡i wbw`©ó mgq †k‡l Kviev‡ii wejywß NUv‡bv hvq (aviv 40)| 2| weÁwß Øviv we‡jvcmvab (Dissolution by notice): Hw‪QK Askx`vwi Kviev‡ii †ÿ‡Î weÁwßi gva¨‡g Askx`vwi Kviev‡ii we‡jvcmvab N‡U _v‡K| A_©vr †h‡Kv‡bv GKRb Askx`vwi †¯^‪Qvq weÁwß cÖ`v‡bi Øviv G RvZxq Kvievi we‡jvc Ki‡Z cv‡i| Kvievi we‡jvc mva‡bi †h ZvwiL D³ weÁw߇Z †jLv _v‡K †mB ZvwiL †_‡K Kviev‡ii we‡jvc mvab Kvh©Ki n‡q _v‡K| hw` Zvwi‡Li D‡jøL bv _v‡K Z‡e †h Zvwi‡L Askx`viMY weÁwß m¤ú‡K© AewnZ nb †m ZvwiL †_‡KB Kviev‡ii wejywß N‡U‡Q a‡i †bqv nq| [aviv 43 (1) I (2)] 3| we‡kl †Kv‡bv NUbvi Rb¨ we‡jvc mvab (Dissolution on the happening of some contingencies): 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvB‡bi 42 aviv Abymv‡i wbæwjwLZ we‡kl NUbvi cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Z Askx`vwi Kviev‡ii wejywß N‡U _v‡K− i. Askx`viMY GKgZ n‡q (By consensus of partners): mKj Askx`vi †¯^‪Qvq GKgZ n‡q Askx`vwi Kvievi ¸wU‡q †dj‡Z cv‡i| ii. wbw`©ó mgq mgvcbv‡šÍ (After the end of fixed time) : †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó mg‡qi Rb¨ Askx`vwi Kviev‡ii Pzw³ n‡q _vK‡j D³ mgq DËxY© nevi mv‡_ mv‡_ Kvievi cÖwZôvbwUi we‡jvc mvab N‡U| iii. Askx`vi Db¥v` ev cvMj n‡j (If a partner becomes lunatic) : †Kv‡bv Askx`v‡ii gw¯Í®‥ weK…wZ NU‡j KvieviwU †f‡½ †h‡Z cv‡i| iv. Askx`v‡ii g„Zy¨i Kvi‡Y (On the death of partner): †h‡Kv‡bv Askx`v‡ii g„Zy¨i Kvi‡Y G RvZxq Kvievi †f‡½ †h‡Z cv‡i| v. D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡bi ci (After the achievement of the objective): †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó D‡Ïk¨‡K mvg‡b †i‡L Kvievi ¯
vwcZ n‡j H D‡Ïk¨ nvwm‡ji ci KvieviwU wejywßi cÖkœ D‡V| vi. †Kv‡bv Askx`vi Aemi MÖnY Ki‡j (On the retirement of a partner): Kviev‡ii †h‡Kv‡bv Askx`vi hw` Aemi MÖn‡Yi wbwg‡Ë Av‡e`b †ck K‡i Z‡e Avskx`vwi Kviev‡ii we‡jvc mvwaZ nq| vii. Av`vjZ KZ©„K †`Dwjqv †NvwlZ n‡j (If a partner is declared insolvent by the court): hw` †Kv‡bv Askx`vi we‡kl †Kv‡bv Kvi‡Y Av`vjZ gvidZ †`Dwjqv †NvwlZ nq Zvn‡j D³ Kviev‡ii wejywß N‡U| 4| eva¨Zvg~jK we‡jvc mvab (Compulsory dissolution): wb¤œwjwLZ †ÿ‡Î Askx`vwi Kviev‡ii eva¨Zvg~jK Aemvqb n‡q _v‡K− i. †`DwjqvZ¡ (Insolvency): mKj Askx`vi ev GKRb e¨ZxZ mKj Askx`vi Av`vjZ KZ©„K †`Dwjqv †NvwlZ n‡j Askx`vwi Kviev‡ii Aemvb n‡e| ii. AvB‡bi cwicš
x n‡j (Illegality): Askx`vwi Kvievi cwiPvjbvq hw` †Kv‡bv A‣ea NUbv N‡U hvq Ges Zv‡Z cÖwZôv‡bi Kvh©Kjvc AvBb we‡ivax e‡j AvL¨vwqZ nq Zvn‡j Kviev‡ii we‡jvc mvab NU‡e| (41 aviv)|


Askx`vwi e¨emvq

59

5| Av`vj‡Zi wb‡`©k Abymv‡i we‡jvc mvab (Dissolution by the court) 1932 mv‡ji Askx`vwi AvB‡bi 44 aviv †gvZv‡eK †Kv‡bv Askx`vi GK ev Z`ya© Askx`v‡ii weiæ‡× †Kv‡bv †gvKvÏgv `v‡qi Ki‡j Av`vjZ wb‡æi †h‡Kv‡bv Ae¯
vi cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Z Kvievi we‡jvc mva‡bi wb‡`©k w`‡Z cv‡i− i.

†Kv‡bv Askx`vi Db¥v` ev cvMj n‡j;

ii. †Kv‡bv Askx`vi B‪QvK„Zfv‡e Askx`vwi Kviev‡ii Pzw³ µgvMZ f½ Ki‡j; iii. †Kv‡bv Askx`vi †`Dwjqv e‡j cÖgvwYZ n‡j; iv. †Kv‡bv Askx`vi Zvi Aciv‡ai Rb¨ `Û ev mvRvcÖvß n‡q _vK‡j; v. †Kv‡bv Askx`vi Z…Zxq c‡ÿi wbKU †e-AvBbxfv‡e Zvi AvswkK ev m¤ú~Y© ¯^Z¡ n¯ÍvšÍi K‡i _vK‡j; vi. Av`vjZ hw` G g‡g© wbwðZ n‡q _v‡K †h, µgvMZfv‡e Kviev‡ii ïayB †jvKmvb n‡‪Q; vii. GQvov †h‡Kv‡bv Kvi‡Y Av`vjZ hw` g‡b K‡i †h, Kvievi cÖwZôvbwUi we‡jvc mvabB n‡‪Q h_v_© n‡e; Z‡e Askx`vwi Kviev‡ii we‡jvc mvab NU‡e| (aviv-42) Kg©cÎ-3 †Zvgv‡`i GjvKvq Av‡M Askx`vwi wfwˇZ e¨emv cwiPvwjZ n‡Zv wKš‧ eZ©gv‡b †m¸‡jvi we‡jvc mvab n‡q‡Q Ggb cÖwZôv‡bi bvg †jL| • • • • • •

4.10

evsjv‡`‡k Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi Ae¯’vb Partnership Business in Bangladesh

evsjv‡`k e¨emv-evwY‡R¨ cðvrc` GKwU †`k| eo ai‡bi wkí-KviLvbv, e¨emv-evwYR¨ GLv‡b GLbI †Zgb M‡o I‡Vwb| eo eo kn‡i ev Zvi Avkcv‡k wKQz eo ai‡bi e¨emvq-†Kv¤úvwb msMVb wn‡m‡e M‡o DV‡jI MÖvg-M‡Ä, nvU-evRv‡i Ggb wK kn‡ii †K›`ª¯
‡j GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi msL¨vB me©vwaK| Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi msL¨v †m wePv‡i †bnv‡qZ bMY¨: hv 5% Gi †ewk bq| A_P Askx`vwi e¨emvq cÖwZôvi gva¨‡g G †`‡ki me©ÎB gvSvwi ai‡bi e¨emvq msMVb M‡o †Zvjvi h‡_ó my‡hvM wQj|


60

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

evsjv‡`‡k Askx`vwi e¨emvq e¨vcKZv jvf Ki‡Z bv cvivi wcQ‡b †h mKj KviY we`¨gvb Zv wb‡¤œ Zz‡j aiv n‡jv− 1. e¨emvwqK Ávb I AwfÁZvi Afve (Lack of business knowledge and experience): Avgv‡`i †`‡k hviv bZzb e¨emv‡q bv‡g Zviv G m¤ú‡K© Kvh©Z †Zgb †Kv‡bv Ávb wb‡q Av‡m bv| hviv e¨emv‡q wjß Zv‡`iI AwaKvs‡kiB G wel‡q Ávb I AwfÁZvi h‡_ó Afve jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| G ai‡bi e¨w³eM© ÿz`ª GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq MVb K‡i cwiPvjbvq †hfv‡e ¯^v‪Q›`¨‡eva K‡i Askx`vwi e¨emvq MV‡b Abyiƒc ¯^v‪Q›`¨‡eva K‡i bv| 2. cvi¯úwiK Av¯’v I wek¦v‡mi Afve (Lack of reciprocal trust and faith): Avgv‡`i RbM‡Yi g‡a¨ cvi¯úwiK Av¯
v I wek¦v‡mi AfveI cÖKU| A_P Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y © Dcv`vb n‡jv Askx`vi‡`i ga¨Kvi cvi¯úwiK Av¯
v I wek¦vm| Ab¨‡`i Ici Av¯
v bv _vKvi Kvi‡Y A‡b‡KB Giƒc e¨emvq cQ›` K‡i bv| 3. mZZvi Afve (Lack of honesty): Avgv‡`i †`‡ki A‡b‡Ki g‡a¨ e¨emvwqK †jb‡`‡b mZZvi gvivZ¥K AfveI jÿYxq| K_vevZ©vq Avgiv hZUv mr Kvh©‡ÿ‡Î ZZUv bq| A‡bK‡ÿ‡ÎB †`Lv hvq, Askx`vwi e¨emvq †h Pvjvq cieZx© mg‡q e¨emv‡qi mKj m¤úwˇK †m wb‡Ri fv‡e Ges Ab¨‡`i VKv‡bvi nxb Pµv‡šÍ wjß nq| 4. g~ja‡bi mgm¨v (Problem of capital): Avgv‡`i †`‡k hviv Askx`vi wn‡m‡e Giƒc e¨emv‡q †hvM`vb K‡i Zv‡`i cÖ‡Z¨‡KiB Avw_©K mvg_© AZ¨šÍ mxgve×| d‡j e¨emv‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq g~jab †hvMvo Kiv hvq bv| Askx`vi‡`i bvbvb gZ Ges mr I mvg_©evb wewb‡qvMKvixi Afv‡eI bZzb Askx`vi MÖnY K‡i g~ja‡bi ms¯
vb KivI A‡bK †ÿ‡ÎB m¤¢e bq| 5. AvBbMZ mnvqZvi Afve (Lack of legal assistance): Avgv‡`i †`‡k Askx`vwi e¨emvq cwiPvjbv I wbqš¿‡Yi †ÿ‡Î AvBbMZ mnvqZv I wbqš¿YI Kvg¨gv‡bi bq| Avgv‡`i †`‡k AwaKvsk †ÿ‡ÎB †g․wLK Pzw³i gva¨‡g Giƒc e¨emvq MVb Kiv nq| hvi d‡j cieZx© mg‡q bvbvb mgm¨v †`Lv †`q| 6. cÖvB‡fU †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î wkw_j wbqg-Kvbyb (Loose rules and regulation in case of private company): Avgv‡`i †`‡k †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b Gi MVb wKQzUv KovKwo Av‡ivc Kiv n‡jI Zv GLbI †Zgb h‡_ó bq| †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi gva¨‡g †ÿÎwe‡k‡l myweav jv‡fi my‡hvM _vKvq A‡b‡KB Askx`vwi e¨emvq Mo‡Z DrmvwnZ nq bv| DcwiD³ mgm¨vw` QvovI Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi †hme mvaviY Amy w eav; †hgb-Askx`vi‡`i Amxg `vq, ¯^ v axb mËvi Afve, gvwjKvbv n¯Í v šÍ ‡ i Amy w eav, RbAv¯
 v i Afve, cwiPvjbvMZ RwUjZv BZ¨vw` mgm¨vI GLv‡b i‡q‡Q|


Askx`vwi e¨emvq

61

eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ: 1| Askx`vwi msMV‡bi g~j wfwË Kx ? K. AvBb M. Pzw³cÎ

L. Pzw³ N. wbeÜb

2| Askx`vwi e¨emv‡q GKRb Askx`v‡ii `vq †Kgb ? K. g~jab ch©šÍ mxgve× L. cÖwZkÖæwZ g~j¨ ch©šÍ mxgve× M. e¨emv‡q Zvi cvIbv ch©šÍ mxgve× N. e¨w³MZ mnvq-m¤ú` ch©šÍ mxgve× 3. weÁwßi gva¨‡g wejywß Kiv hvq †Kvb Askx`vwi e¨emvq ? K. Hw‪QK Askx`vwi e¨emvq L. NygšÍ Askx`vwi e¨emvq M. mvaviY Askx`vwi e¨emvq N. Kg©x Askx`vwi e¨emvq 4. Askx`vwi e¨emvq GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq n‡Z DËg KviY− i. AwaK cuywR msMÖn Kiv hvq ii. mw¤§wjZfv‡e wm×všÍ MÖnY Kiv hvq iii. gvwj‡Ki ¯^vaxbZv †ewk _v‡K wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i L. ii M. i I ii N. i, ii I iii 5| wg. ingvb cvi¯úwiK mg‡SvZvi wfwˇZ GKwU e¨emvq cwiPvjbv Ki‡Q| e¨emv‡qi g~jab mieivn Ki‡jI cwiPvjbvq AskMÖnY Ki‡Q bv| wZwb Kx ai‡bi Askx`vi ? K. mxwgZ L. wbw®…q M. mvaviY N. bvggvÎ 6| Askx`vwi e¨emvq wbewÜZ n‡j myweav cvIqv hvq− i. ¯^v_© iÿv Kiv hvq ii. ivR¯^ n‡Z gyw³ cvIqv hvq iii. Askx`v‡ii weiæ‡× gvgjv Kiv hvq wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i I ii

L. i I iii

M. ii I iii

N. i,ii I iii


62

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

m„Rbkxj cÖkœ: 1|

mvB`, †LvKb I gvgyb mg‡SvZvi wfwˇZ `X’ Builders bv‡g GKwU wbg©v Y cÖwZôvb MVb Ki‡jv hvi jÿ¨ imyjcyi MÖv‡g GKwU Kvj©fvU wbg©vY Kiv| ciewZ©‡Z g‡nkLvjx‡Z GKwU N~wY©So AvkÖq‡K›`ª wbg©v‡Yi KvR †cj| GRb¨ Zv‡`i AwaK g~ja‡bi cÖ‡qvRb| ZvB Zviv mygb‡K GB k‡Z© e¨emvq AšÍfy©³ Ki‡Z Pvq, †m ïay e¨emvq 5,00,000 UvKv wewb‡qvM Ki‡e wKš‧ cwiPvjbvq AskMÖn Y Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| K. wjwLZ Pzw³‡K Kx ejv nq? L. Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi wbeÜb Kx eva¨Zvg~jK? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. `X’ Builders †Kvb ai‡bi Askx`vwi e¨emvq cÖwZôvb? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. DÏxc‡K mygb †Kvb ai‡bi Askx`vi? Zv‡K e¨emvq AšÍf³ y© Kivi †h․w³KZv we‡kølY Ki|

2|

K, L I M GKwU AwbewÜZ Askx`vwi cÖwZôvb cwiPvjbv Ki‡Q| wZb R‡bi g~ja‡bi cwigvY mgvb Ges gybvdv †fv‡Mi nviI mgvbycvwZK| Z‡e K Zvi g~ja‡bi AwZwi³ `vq enb K‡i bv| cÖwZôvbwU eZ©gv‡b A‡bK †Póv K‡iI GKRb †`vKvb`v‡ii wbKU n‡Z 10,000 UvKv Av`vq Ki‡Z cvi‡Q bv| Zviv fve‡Q cvIbv Av`v‡qi Rb¨ Av`vj‡Zi AvkÖq wb‡e| K. evsjv‡`‡k KZ mv‡ji Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi AvBb cÖPwjZ? L. bvggvÎ Askx`vi ej‡Z Kx eyS? M. DÏxc‡Ki cÖwZôvbwU †Kvb ai‡bi Askx`vwi e¨emvq msMVb ? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Zzwg Kx g‡b Ki Av`vj‡Zi gva¨‡g cvIbv Av`vq Ki‡Z cvi‡e? gZvgZ `vI|


cÂg Aa¨vq

†hŠ_g~jabx e¨emvq JOINT STOCK BUSINESS mf¨Zvi µgweeZ©‡bi avivq m~Pbv j‡Mœ e¨emv‡qi cwimi wQj Aí I msKxY©, ZvB Gi mvsMVwbK iƒc wQj mnR, †QvU| †hgb−GKgvwjKvbv, Askx`vwi| Aóv`k kZvãxi gvSvgvwS n‡Z ïiæ n‡q Ebwesk kZvãxi cÖ_gv‡a© Bsj¨v‡Û wkí wecøe msNwUZ n‡j wkí I e¨emvq-evwY‡R¨i †ÿ‡Î e¨vcK cwieZ©b mvwaZ nq| c~‡e©Kvi KvwqKkª‡gi ¯’vb `Lj K‡i †bq hš¿cvwZ Ges ïiæ nq e„n`vqZb Drcv`‡bi cvjv| GgZve¯’vq e¨emvq msMV‡bi cÖv_wgK iƒc Z_v GKgvwjKvbv e¨emvq Ges Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi c‡ÿ G‡`i KwZcq mxgve×Zvi Kvi‡Y e„n`vqZb cY¨`ªe¨vw`i Drcv`b I eÈb Kvh© cwiPvjbv Kiv Am¤¢e n‡q c‡o| djkÖæwZ‡Z GB cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ Zvj wgjv‡Z †h‡q AwaK g~jab, mxgve× `vq, `ÿ cwiPvjbv I e¨e¯’vcbv Ges wPišÍb Aw¯Í‡Z¡i myweav wb‡q hy‡Mvc‡hvMx e¨emvq msMVb wn‡m‡e †h․_ g~jabx e¨emv‡qi D™¢e N‡U|

G Aa¨vq cvV †k‡l Avgiv Rvb‡Z cvie− • • • • • • •

†Kv¤úvbx msMV‡bi aviYv| †Kv¤úvbx msMV‡bi •ewkó¨mg~n| †Kv¤úvbx msMV‡bi cÖKvi‡f`| cvewjK I cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvbxi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨| †Kv¤úvbx msMV‡bi ¸iæZ¡| †Kv¤úvbx msMV‡bi myweav I mxgve×Zv| †Kv¤úvbx msMV‡bi MVb cÖwµqv| - cwi‡gje‡Üi aviYv, welqe¯‘ I bgybv - cwi‡gje‡Üi ¸iæZ¡ - cwi‡gj wbqgvewji aviYv I welqe¯‘ - cwi‡gjeÜ I cwi‡gj wbqgvewji cv_©K¨ - weeiYc‡Îi welqe¯‘mg~n


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

• †Kv¤úvbx wbeÜbc‡Îi aviYv I bgybv| • Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ| • †Kv¤úvbxi g~jab msMÖ‡ni Drmmg~n| • †kqvi Gi aviYv Ges cÖKvi‡f`| • FYcÎ Gi aviYv Ges cÖKvi‡f`| • †kqvi I FYc‡Îi cv_©K¨| • †Kv¤úvbx msMV‡bi we‡jvc mvab c×wZ| • evsjv‡`‡k †Kv¤úvbx msMV‡bi eZ©gvb Ae¯’v | • evsjv‡`‡k †Kv¤úvbx msMV‡bi fwel¨Z m¤¢vebvi w`K¸‡jv| • mv¤úªwZKKv‡ji weKvkgvb e¨emvq¸‡jvi aviYv|

5.01 †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi aviYv Concept of Company Organization cÖK„wZMZfv‡eB †Kv¤úvwb msMVb GKwU jvfRbK e¨emvq cÖwZôvb| Gi K…wÎg mËv, wPišÍb Aw¯ÍZ¡, wbR¯^ mxj‡gvni, cÖf„wZ we‡kl •ewkó¨ G‡K Ab¨ e¨emvq msMVb †_‡K c„_K K‡i‡Q| wb‡æ †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi cÖK…wZ m¤ú‡K© GKwU aviYv †`qv n‡jv− †Kv¤úvwb n‡jv AvBbm„ó GKwU K…wÎg e¨w³mËv we‡kl cÖwZôvb| †Kv¤úvwb AvBb †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwb‡K GKRb e¨w³i gZ ¯^Zš¿ mËv `vb K‡i‡Q| †Kv¤úvwbi GB mËv AvBbMZfv‡e ¯^xK…Z| GB mËv e‡j GwU wbR bv‡g me©Î cwiwPZ Ges GB mËv wb‡q †Kv¤úvwb e¨emvq cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z cv‡i| hw`I †Kv¤úvwbi nvZ-cv †bB, †m †L‡Z cv‡i bv, Ny‡gv‡Z cv‡i bv Zey G‡K e¨w³ wn‡m‡e MY¨ Kiv nq, hv‡K K…wÎg e¨w³mËv e‡j AvL¨vwqZ Kiv n‡q _v‡K| A_©vr AvB‡bi †Pv‡LB GwU GKwU ¯^Zš¿ e¨w³, hv A`„k¨ I A¯úk©bxq| Z‡e i³gvs‡mi Mov gvbyl ev e¨w³ bv n‡jI †Kv¤úvwb GKRb e¨w³i g‡ZvB wbR bv‡g Z„Zxq c‡ÿi mv‡_ †h‡Kvb ai‡bi Pzw³‡Z Ave× n‡Z cv‡i Ges Aci‡KI Pzw³‡Z Ave× Ki‡Z cv‡i| GwU wbR bv‡g A‡b¨i weiæ‡× Av`vj‡Z †gvKÏgv `v‡qi Ges Ac‡iI †Kv¤úvwbi weiæ‡× †gvKÏgv `v‡qi Ki‡Z cv‡i| AvB‡bi `„wó‡Z †Kv¤úvwb c„_K I wPišÍb Aw¯ÍZ¡m¤úbœ| K…wÎg e¨w³mËvB G‡K wPišÍb Aw¯ÍZ¡ (Perpetual succession) `vb K‡i‡Q| †Kv¤úvwbi m`‡m¨i A_©vr gvwj‡Ki Aw¯Í‡Z¡i mv‡_ Gi Aw¯Í‡Z¡i †Kv‡bv mswkøóZv †bB| †Kvb Kvi‡Y †Kv¤úvwbi m`m¨ c` cwieZ©b wKsev mKj m`‡m¨i g„Zy¨ NU‡jI †Kv¤úvwbi Aw¯ÍZ¡ wejyß nq bv| G cÖm‡½ m‡jvgvb ebvg m‡jvgvb GÛ †Kvs wjt-Gi gvgjvi iv‡q ejv nq †h, †Kv¤úvwb Gi m`m¨‡`i †_‡K c„_K Ges Gi ¯^Zš¿ Aw¯ÍZ¡ we`¨gvb|


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eZ©gv‡b e¨vcK cÖPwjZ, RbwcÖq I e„nr cwim‡i Kvh©Kix e¨emvq msMVb n‡jv †Kv¤úvwb msMVb| mvaviY A‡_©, K‡qKRb e¨w³ †¯^‛Qvq gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ †h․_fv‡e g~jab wewb‡qvM K‡i †`‡ki cÖPwjZ AvB‡bi AvIZvq †Kv‡bv e¨emvq msMVb MVb Ki‡j Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwb msMVb e‡j| evsjv‡`‡k G ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb Ò†Kv¤úvwb AvBb 1994Ó Abymv‡i MwVZ, cwiPvwjZ I wbqwš¿Z n‡q _v‡K| †Kv¤úvwb wbR bv‡gi mxj‡gvn‡ii wPišÍb Aw¯Í‡Z¡i I K…wÎg e¨w³mËvi AwaKvix n‡q _v‡K| ZvB e¨vcKfv‡e ejv hvq †h, †Kv¤úvwb n‡jv AvBb m„ó K…wÎg e¨w³mËvwewkó, wPišÍb Aw¯ÍZ¡m¤úbœ mxwgZ `vqwewkó Ggb GKwU ms¯’v ev cÖwZôvb †hLv‡b wKQy †jvK gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ †h․_fv‡e g~jab wewb‡qvM K‡i| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2 (1) (N) aviv Abyhvqx Ò†Kv¤úvwb ej‡Z G AvB‡bi Awa‡b MwVZ I wbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwb ev †Kv‡bv we`¨gvb †Kv¤úvwb‡K eySvq|Ó ("Company means a company formed and registered under this Act of any existing.") †Kv¤úvwb msMVb ev †Kv¤úvwb n‡jv AvBb-m„ó K…wÎg e¨w³ mËvi AwaKvix Ggb GK ai‡bi AvaywbK I cÖPwjZ e¨emvq msMVb hv A`„k¨, A¯úk©bxq A_P wPišÍb Aw¯Í‡Z¡i AwaKvix hvi wbR¯^ bvg mxj †gvni Øviv cwiwPZ I cwiPvwjZ nq| GB msMVb †¯^‛Qvq †h․_fv‡e †kqvi µ‡qi gva¨‡g g~jab wewb‡qvM K‡i Ges wewb‡qvMK…Z g~ja‡bi Dci gybvdv †NvlYv I eÈb K‡i|

5.02 †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi •ewkó¨ Features of Company Organization eZ©gvb e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi RM‡Z †Kv¤úvwb msMVb AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© I RbwcÖq e¨emvq msMVb| GwU GKwU AvBb-m„ó †h․_ gvwjKvbvi †¯^‛Qvg~jK e¨emvq msMVb, Gi Ggb we‡kl KZK¸‡jv •ewkó¨ Av‡Q hv G‡K Ab¨vb¨ e¨emvq msMVb †_‡K c„_K mËvi AwaKvix K‡i‡Q| †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi G •ewk󨸇jv wb‡gœ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv−

K.

mvaviY •ewkó¨mg~n Common Features of a Company

1. RwUj MVb c×wZ (Complicated formation): †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbi MVb c×wZ AZ¨šÍ RwUj| †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi †ÿ‡Î h‡_ó AvBbvbyM AvbyôvwbKZv cvjb Ki‡Z nq| 2. †¯^”Qvg~jK ms¯’v (Voluntary association): †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwb GKwU †¯^‛QvcÖ‡Yvw`Z e¨emvq ms¯’v| gybvdvi D‡Ï‡k¨ KwZcq e¨w³i †¯^‛QvK…Z cÖ‡Póvq †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ n‡q _v‡K| †h †KD B‛Qv Ki‡jB †kqvi µq Kivi gva¨‡g †Kv¤úvwbi gvwjK n‡Z cv‡i, Avevi †KD B‛Qv Ki‡jB †kqvi n¯ÍvšÍi K‡i mn‡RB e¨emvq n‡Z we`vq wb‡Z cv‡i| 3. wecyj cuywR (Huge capital): eû msL¨K e¨w³i msMVb weavq †Kv¤úvwb Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e AwaK g~jab msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i| GwU RbM‡Yi wbKU †kqvi wewµ K‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq g~ja‡bi ms¯’vb K‡i _v‡K| 4. e„n`vqZb e¨emvq msMVb (Large-scale enterprise): AvaywbK e„n`vqZb e¨emvq msMVb wn‡m‡e †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwb mgwaK cwiwPZ| cÖPzi m`m¨ msL¨v, e¨vcK g~jab me©‡ ÿ‡ÎB †Kv¤úvwb e„n`vqZb cÖwZôvb wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…Z|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

5. jf¨vsk eÈb (Distribution of dividend): †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbi AwR©Z gybvdvi GKUv wbw`©ó Ask jf¨vsk wn‡m‡e †kqvi gvwjK‡`i g‡a¨ †kqv‡ii AvbycvwZK nv‡i ewÈZ n‡q _v‡K| †Kv¤úvwbi mvaviY mfvi Aby‡gv`bµ‡g cwiPvjKMY GB jf¨vs‡ki cwigvY †NvlYv K‡ib| 6. Kiv‡ivc (Taxation): †Kv¤úvwbi Ici avh© K‡ii nvi mvaviYZ AwaK n‡q _v‡K| Gi AwR©Z gybvdvi Ici Kiv‡ivc Kiv nq| Avevi †kqvi gvwjK‡`i cÖvß jf¨vs‡ki Dci Ki cÖ`vb Ki‡Z nq| 7. we‡jvcmvab (Dissolution): †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbi MVb †hgb AvbyôvwbKZvc~Y© †Zgwb Gi we‡jvcmva‡bi †ÿ‡ÎI AvbyôvwbKZv cvj‡bi cÖ‡qvRb nq| †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi weavb Abyhvqx Gi we‡jvcmvab N‡U| G Kvi‡Y †Kv¤úvwbi m`m¨ ev †kqvi‡nvìviMY B‛Qv Ki‡jB Gi we‡jvcmvab Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| 8. MYZvwš¿K e¨e¯’vcbv (Democratic management): †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbi e¨e¯’vcbv I cwiPvjbvi †ÿ‡Î mKj ¯Í‡i MYZvwš¿K bxwZgvjv Abym„Z nq| MYZvwš¿K cÖwµqvq †kqvi‡nvìviM‡Yi †fv‡Ui gva¨‡g †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjKMY wbe©vwPZ n‡q _v‡K Ges Zv‡`i Øviv †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvwjZ nq| GQvov e¨emv‡qi D‡jøL‡hvM¨ bxwZ wba©vi‡Yi †ÿ‡ÎI †kqvi‡nvìviM‡Yi †fv‡Ui djvd‡ji Ici ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc Kiv n‡q _v‡K| L. AvBbMZ •ewkó¨mg~n Legal Features of a Company 1. AvBb-m„ó cÖwZôvb (Law-created concern): †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Øviv G cÖwZôvb m„ó nq| evsjv‡`‡k †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbmg~n 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abyhvqx MwVZ, cwiPvwjZ I wbqwš¿Z n‡q _v‡K| D³ AvB‡bi 2.1 (N) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q †h, Ó†Kv¤úvwb ej‡Z G AvB‡bi Aax‡b MwVZ Ges wbeÜbK…Z †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb ev †Kv‡bv we`¨gvb †Kv¤úvwb‡K †evSv‡e|Ó 2. m`m¨ msL¨v (Number of members) : †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi weavb Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwbi m`m¨ msL¨v wba©vwiZ| cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î Gi m`m¨ msL¨v b~¨bZg 2 Ges me©vwaK 50 R‡b mxgve× _v‡K Ges cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi †ejvq me©wbæ m`m¨ msL¨v 7 Ges m‡e©v‛P msL¨v †Kv¤úvwbi msN-¯§vi‡K DwjøwLZ †kqvi msL¨v Øviv mxgve× _v‡K| 3. c„_K I K…wÎg e¨w³mËv (Seperate and aritificial entity): †Kv¤úvwb GKwU ¯^Zš¿ K…wÎg e¨w³ wn‡m‡e cwiMwYZ nq| G K…wÎg e¨w³mËv Gi m`m¨‡`i mËv †_‡K m¤ú~Y© Avjv`v| AvBb Abyhvqx GwU K…wÎg I ¯^Zš¿ e¨w³mËvi gh©v`v †fvM K‡i _v‡K| GB AvBbMZ mËve‡j †Kv¤úvwb wbR bv‡g A‡b¨i mv‡_ †hgwb †jb‡`b Ki‡Z cv‡i †Zgwb †gvKÏgvI `v‡qi Ki‡Z cv‡i| 4. wPišÍb Aw¯ÍZ¡ (Perpetual succession): AvB‡bi `„wó‡Z †Kv¤úvwb wPišÍb Aw¯Í‡Z¡i AwaKvix GK K„wÎg e¨w³| †Kv¤úvwbi m`m¨ ev †kqvi gvwjK‡`i Aw¯Í‡Z¡i Dci G Aw¯ÍZ¡ wbf©i K‡i bv| †Kv¤úvwbi gvwjKvbv ev m`m¨ c‡`i cwieZ©‡b Gi Aw¯ÍZ¡ wecbœ nq bv| †Kej †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi weavb Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwbi we‡jvcmvab Kiv n‡jB Gi Aw¯Í‡Z¡i cwimgvwß N‡U _v‡K|


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5. mxwgZ `vq (Limited liability): †Kv¤úvwbi m`m¨ ev †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i `vq mxwgZ| GKRb m`m¨ †h cwigvY A‡_©i †kqvi wKb‡e wVK †m cwigvY A‡_©i Rb¨B Zv‡K `vqx Kiv †h‡Z cv‡iÑGi †ewk bq| A_©vr Gi m`m¨‡`i `vq Zv‡`i µqK…Z †kqv‡ii †gvU g~j¨ ch© šÍ mxgve× _v‡K| 6. eva¨Zvg~jK wbeÜb (Compulsory registration): †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbi wbeÜb AvBbMZfv‡e eva¨Zvg~jK| †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abymv‡i †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwb‡K Aek¨B wbewÜZ n‡Z n‡e| wbeÜb e¨ZxZ †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ Ges cwiPvwjZ n‡Z cv‡i bv| 7. mvaviY mxj‡gvni (Common seal): cÖwZwU †Kv¤úvwbi wbR¯^ bvgvw¼Z GKwU mvaviY mxj‡gvni _v‡K| †Kv¤úvwbi hveZxq `wjj-`¯Ív‡eR I KvMRc‡Î G mxj‡gvni e¨envi Kiv eva¨Zvg~jK| G mxj‡gvn‡ii gva¨‡gB †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwb ¯^Zš¿ I K…wÎg e¨w³mËv wb‡q Rbmvavi‡Yi wbKU cwiwPwZ jvf K‡i| 8. †kqv‡ii n¯ÍvšÍi‡hvM¨Zv (Transferability of shares): †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi¸‡jv Aev‡a n¯ÍvšÍi‡hvM¨| †kqv‡ii n¯ÍvšÍ‡ii mv‡_ mv‡_ †Kv¤úvwbi gvwjKvbvqI cwieZ©b m~w PZ nq| A_©vr †kqvi n¯ÍvšÍ‡ii gva¨‡g †kqvi µqKvix †Kv¤úvwbi gvwjK nb| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, †Kv¤úvwb msMVb AvBb-m„ó K…wÎg e¨w³mËvi AwaKvix e„n`vqZb cÖK…wZi e¨emvq cÖwZôvb| hv †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Ges wbR¯^ ¯§viKwjwc I cwi‡gj wbqgvewji AvIZvq GKwU ¯^Zš¿ e¨emvq msMVb wn‡m‡e MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ n‡q _v‡K| Kg©cÎ-1 †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi aviYv I •ewkó¨mg~n we‡kølY K‡i Gi myweav I Amyweav mg~n wPwýZ Ki| †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi myweav †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi Amyweav • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • •


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5.03 †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi cÖKvi‡f` Types of Company Organization GKw`‡K e¨emvq RM‡Z e¨vcK Dbœqb Ab¨w`‡K GKgvwjKvbv I Askx`vwi e¨emv‡qi mvsMVwbK mxgve×Zvi Kvi‡Y bZzb msMVb KvVv‡gv †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi DrcwË N‡U, cieZ©x mg‡q e¨emvq RM‡Z Av‡iv e¨vcK Dbœq‡bi d‡j Gi e¨emv‡qi MwZ cÖK…wZ‡ZI cwieZ©b m~wPZ nq| hvi d‡j †Kv¤úvwbi ai‡bI cv_©K¨ N‡U| wb‡gœ †Kv¤úvwbi cÖKvi‡f` we¯ÍvwiZ Av‡jvwPZ n‡jv− (K) `vqwfwËK †Kv¤úvwb (Companies on the basis of the liability of the members): m`m¨‡`i `v‡qi cÖK„wZ Abymv‡i Giƒc †kªYxweb¨vm Kiv nq| `vq-Gi cÖK…wZ Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwb wZb cÖKvi n‡Z cv‡i| h_v− 1. †kqvi Øviv mxgve× `vqwewkó †Kv¤úvwb (Companies limited by share): †h †Kv¤úvwb‡Z m`m¨M‡Yi `vq †kqv‡ii AvswKK g~j¨ ch©šÍ mxwgZ _v‡K, Zv‡K †kqvi Øviv mxgve× `vqwewkó †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| †hgbÑcÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW I cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb| 2. cÖwZkÖæwZ Øviv mxgve× `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb (Companies limited by guarantee): †hme †Kv¤úvwb‡Z m`m¨MY wbw`©ó cwigvY A_© ch©šÍ `vq cwi‡kv‡ai cÖwZkÖæwZ †`q, Zv‡`i cÖwZkÖæwZ Øviv mxgve× `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| Giƒc †Kv¤úvwb‡Z †h me m`m¨ †kqvi Øviv cÖwZkÖæwZ `vq enb K‡i, †kqv‡ii Acwi‡kvwaZ g~j¨ ch©šÍ Zv‡`i `vq _v‡K| †kqvig~j¨ cwi‡kvwaZ n‡q †M‡j Zviv `vqgy³| Avw_©K g~j¨ Øviv cÖwZkªywZ `vqm¤úbœ m`m¨MY H cwigvY A_© cwi‡kva bv nIqv ch©šÍ `vqe× _v‡Kb| mvaviYZ Ae¨emvwqK D‡Ï‡k¨ G ai‡bi cÖwZkÖæZ †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ nq|

†Kv¤úvwb `vqwfwËK †Kv¤úvwb

MVb cÖK…wZwfwËK †Kv¤úvwb

1. mb`cÖvß 1. †kqvi Øviv mxwgZ `vq †Kv¤úvwb m¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb 2. wewae× 2. cÖwZkÖ‚wZ Øviv †Kv¤úvwb mxwgZ `vqm¤úbœ 3. wbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwb 3. Amxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb

†Kv¤úvwb

m`m¨wfwËK †Kv¤úvwb

1. cÖvB‡fU wjt †Kv¤úvwb 2. cvewjK wjt †Kv¤úvwb

gvwjKvbvwfwËK †Kv¤úvwb

Ab¨vb¨ †Kv¤úvwb

1. miKvwi †Kv¤úvwb 1. †nvwìs †Kv¤úvwb 2. †emiKvwi 2. mvewmwWqvwi †Kv¤úvwb †Kv¤úvwb 3. we‡`wk †Kv¤úvwb 4. eûRvwZK †Kv¤úvwb

wPÎ: †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi cÖKvi‡f`


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L. Amxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb (Unlimited company): †hme †Kv¤úvwb‡Z m`m¨M‡Yi `vq Amxg nq, Zv‡`i Amxg `vqm¤úbœ †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| Gme †Kv¤úvwb‡Z m„ó `v‡qi Rb¨ †Kv¤úvwbi m¤úwË QvovI †kqvi‡nvìviM‡Yi e¨w³MZ m¤úwË `vqe× nq| eZ©gv‡b G ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb †bB ej‡jB P‡j|

M. MVb-cÖK…wZwfwËK †Kv¤úvwb Companies on the basis of incorporation MVb cÖK…wZi Dci wbf©i K‡i †Kv¤úvwb‡K wZb fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq− 1. mb`cÖvß †Kv¤úvwb (Chartered company): ivóª cÖ avb ev ivRv ev ivbxi we‡kl Av‡`k e‡j G ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ nq| we‡kl K‡i †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Pvjy nIqvi c~‡e© G ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ n‡Zv| B÷ BwÛqv †Kv¤úvwb, w` e¨vsK Ae Bsj¨vÛ, w` PvU©v W© e¨vsK Ae A‡÷ªw jqvÑ G ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwbi D`vniY| eZ©gv‡b GLb Avi Giƒc †Kv¤úvwb msMVb `„w ó‡MvPi nq bv| 2. wewae× †Kv¤úvwb (Statutory company) :

wPÎ: wewae× †Kv¤úvwb|

hLb †`‡ki AvBb cwil` ev cvj©v‡g‡›U we‡kl AvB‡bi gva¨‡g †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ nq, ZLb Zv‡K wewae× †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| evsjv‡`k K…wl Dbœqb K‡c©v‡ikb, wkí Dbœqb K‡c©v‡ikb, wiRvf© e¨vsK Ae BwÛqv cÖf„wZ Giƒc †Kv¤úvwb| 3. wbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwb (Registered company) : †hme †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇Ki Awd‡m ZvwjKfyw³i gva¨‡g m„wó nq, †m¸‡jv‡K wbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| eZ©gv‡b we‡k¦i AwaKvsk †Kv¤úvwbB wbewÜZ †Kv¤úvwb|

N. m`m¨ msL¨vwfwËK †Kv¤úvwb Companies on the Basis of Number of Member m`m¨ msL¨vi Dci wfwË K‡i †Kv¤úvwb‡K cÖavbZ `yfv‡M fvM Kiv nq− 1. cÖvB‡fU wjt †Kv¤úvwb (Private ltd. company): AvaywbK e„n`vqZb e¨emvq RM‡Z ¯^vaxb mËv I mxwgZ `vq wewkó †QvU ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb msMVb nj cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb| GwU wbR bv‡gB me©mvavi‡Y¨ cwiwPZ|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

mvaviYZ AvZ¥xq¯^Rb I eÜzevÜe wg‡j mxwgZ `v‡qi wfwˇZ †h †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ nq Zv‡K cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| e¯‘Z †h †Kv¤úvwbi m`m¨ msL¨v me©wb¤œ `yÕRb Ges m‡e©v‛P cÂvk R‡b mxgve× Ges hvi †kqvi Aev‡a n¯ÍvšÍi‡hvM¨ bq, Zv‡K cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(1) (U) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q †h,ÒcÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UWÓ ej‡Z Ggb †Kv¤úvwb‡K eySv‡e hv Gi cwi‡gj wbqgvewj Øviv− K. †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi hw` _v‡K, n¯ÍvšÍ‡ii AwaKv‡i evavwb‡la Av‡ivc K‡i| L. †Kv¤úvwbi †kqv‡i ev wW‡eÂv‡i (hw` _v‡K) Puv`v `v‡bi wbwgË (Subscription) Rbmvavi‡Yi cÖwZ Avgš¿Y Rvbv‡bv wbwl× K‡i| M. Gi m`m¨ msL¨v †Kv¤úvwbi PvKwi‡Z wbhy³ e¨w³MY e¨ZxZ cÂv‡ki g‡a¨ mxgve× iv‡L| m`m¨ msL¨v mxwgZ e‡j cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e ÿz`ªvqZ‡bi n‡q _v‡K| †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abyhvqx GB †Kv¤úvwbi MVb †_‡K ïiæ K‡i cwiPvjbvi wewfbœ ¯Í‡i AvBbMZ Sv‡gjv A‡bKUv Kg| AvBb Abyhvqx GUv ¯^vaxb K…wÎg e¨w³mËvi gh©v`v †fvM K‡i Ges †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`I `vq mxgve× _v‡K| myZivs, cÖPwjZ †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi Aax‡b wbewÜZ n‡q †h †Kv¤úvwb K…wÎg e¨w³mËvi gh©v`v jvf Ki‡jI cwi‡gj wbqgvewj Abyhvqx 50 R‡bi AwaK m`m¨ MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i bv, Rbmvavi‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ †kqvi weµ‡qi Avnevb Rvbv‡Z cv‡i bv Ges †kqvi gvwjKMY Aev‡a †kqvi n¯ÍvšÍ‡ii myweav †fvM K‡i bv Zv‡K cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| 2. cvewjK wjt †Kv¤úvwb (Public ltd. company): gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ Kgc‡ÿ 7 (mvZ) Rb Ges m‡e©v‛P †h‡Kvb msL¨K (†kqvi msL¨v Øviv mxgve×) m`m¨ †¯^‛Qvq mxwgZ `v‡qi wfwˇZ †kqvi n¯ÍvšÍ‡ii AwaKvi wb‡q K…wÎg mËvwewkó †h cÖwZôvb MwVZ nq, Zv‡K cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| GB msMV‡bi g~jab KZK¸‡jv LÛ LÛ †kqv‡i wef³ Ges †kqvi¸‡jv Aev‡a n¯ÍvšÍi‡hvM¨| cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi gvwjKvbv I e¨e¯’vcbv m¤ú~Y© Avjv`v| †Kv¤úvwbi wbe©vwPZ cwiPvjK cl©` Øviv GB †Kv¤úvwbi e¨e¯’vcbv I cwiPvjbv Kvh© cwiPvwjZ nq| cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb wbewÜZ nevi ci Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ msMÖn K‡i Zvi Kvh©µg myôzfv‡e ïiæ K‡i| evsjv‡`‡ki cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi AvBbMZ msÁv D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv: 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 2(1-T) avivq ejv n‡q‡Q †h, ÒcvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb ej‡Z cÖvB‡fU †Kv¤úvwb bq Ggb †Kv¤úvwb †evSvq, hv †Kv¤úvwb AvBb 1994 mvj ev †Kv¤úvwb AvBb 1913 ev 1882 A_ev †Kv¤úvwb AvBb 1886 A_ev GZØviv evwZjK…Z Ab¨ †Kvb AvBb Abyhvqx wbewÜZ n‡q‡Q|Ó cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb me©v‡cÿv †ewk RbwcÖq| gybvdv AR©‡bi wbwg‡Ë eû msL¨K e¨w³i µxZ †kqv‡ii wfwˇZ †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abyhvqx GB †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ nq|


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P. gvwjKvbvwfwËK †Kv¤úvwb Companies on the Basis of Ownership gvwjKvbvi wfwˇZ †Kv¤úvwb `yÕiKg n‡Z cv‡i| †hgb− 1. miKvwi †Kv¤úvwb (Government company): †hme †Kv¤úvwb mvaviYZ miKvwi gvwjKvbvq MwVZ nq, A_ev †Kv¤úvwb‡Z Kgc‡ÿ 51% †kqv‡ii gvwjKvbv miKv‡ii _v‡K Zv‡K miKvwi †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| 2. †emiKvwi †Kv¤úvwb (Non-government company): †hme †Kv¤úvwb †emiKvwi gvwjKvbvq cwiPvwjZ nq †m¸‡jv‡K †emiKvwi †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| O. Ab¨vb¨ †Kv¤úvwb (Other companies): GQvovI wewfbœ ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb e¨emvq RM‡Z RwoZ i‡q‡Q| wb‡æ †m¸‡jv Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv− 1. †nvwìs †Kv¤úvwb (Holding Company): †Kvb †Kv¤úvwb MVb ev µqm~‡Î Ab¨ †Kv¤úvwb wbqš¿‡Yi AwaKvsk ÿgZv †c‡j Zv‡K †nvwìs †Kv¤úvwb ev wbqš¿YKvix †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| Giƒc †Kv¤úvwb wbqš¿YK…Z †Kv¤úvwbi 50%-Gi AwaK †kqv‡ii gvwjK Ges AwaKvsk cwiPvjK wb‡qvM I AcmviY ÿgZv †fvM K‡i| †nvwìs †Kv¤úvwbi •ewkó¨ n‡jv− K. †Kvb †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi g~ja‡bi 50% Gi †ewk mieivnKvix; L. mvewmwWqvwi †Kv¤úvwbi AwaKvsk cwiPvjK wb‡qv‡Mi ÿgZv G †Kv¤úvwbi Dci b¨¯Í _v‡K; M. Aaxb¯’ †Kv¤úvwbi e¨e¯’vcbv cwil` wbe©vP‡bi `vwqZ¡I G †Kv¤úvwb †ewkifvMB †fvM K‡i; N. cwiPvjK‡`i c`Py¨wZ ev Aemi`v‡bi ÿgZvI Gi Dci b¨¯Í _v‡K; O. G †Kv¤úvwbi c~Y© wbqš¿‡Y †_‡K Aaxb¯’ †Kv¤úvwbwU cwiPvwjZ nq; BZ¨vw`| 2. mvewmwWqvwi †Kv¤úvwb (Subsidiary company): †hme †Kv¤úvwbi 50% -Gi AwaK †kqv‡ii gvwjK Ab¨ †Kv¤úvwb Zv‡K mvewmwWqvwi †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| A‡a©‡Ki †ewk g~jab mieivnKvix †Kv¤úvwb Giƒc †Kv¤úvwbi cy‡iv wbqš¿‡Yi `vwq‡Z¡ _v‡K| wbqwš¿Z †Kv¤úvwb‡K mvewmwWqvwi †Kv¤úvwb ejv nq| 3. we‡`wk †Kv¤úvwb (Foreign company): †h †Kv¤úvwb †`‡ki evB‡i MwVZ n‡q, †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó †`‡k Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv K‡i, Zv‡K we‡`wk †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| 4. eûRvwZK †Kv¤úvwb (Multinational company):

wPÎ: eûRvwZK †Kv¤úvwb|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

†h †Kv¤úvwbi gvwjKvbv, e¨e¯’vcbv Ges wbqš¿‡Y GKvwaK †`‡ki Awaevmx AšÍf©y³ _v‡K Zv‡K eûRvwZK †Kv¤úvwb e‡j| †hgbÑBDwbwjfvi evsjv‡`k wjwg‡UW, †bm‡j evsjv‡`k wjwg‡UW BZ¨vw`| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, †Kv¤úvwb msMVb wewfbœ cÖKv‡ii n‡q _v‡K| e¨env‡ii •ewPΨ, D‡Ï‡k¨i wfbœZv wKsev mg‡qi wfwˇZ †Kv¤úvwbi wewPÎZv cÖmvwiZ n‡q‡Q| Kg©cÎ-2 cÖvB‡fU I cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi 6wU cv_©K¨ wjL cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb • • • • • •

5.04

cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb • • • • • •

†Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi ¸iæZ¡ Importance of Company Organization

†Kv¤úvwb K…wÎg e¨w³mËv wewkó e¨emvq msMVb| GB e„nËg e¨emvq msMVbwU Ab¨vb¨ msMVb †_‡K †ewk my‡hvM myweav †fvM K‡i| eZ©gvb e¨emvq I wkÿvK‡g©i e¨vcK cÖmv‡ii g~‡j i‡q‡Q †h․_ g~jabx e¨emv‡qi Abb¨ Ae`vb| wb‡æ Gmg¯Í myweavmg~n eY©bv Kiv n‡jv− 1. ch©vß g~jab msMÖn (Enormous capital): †Kv¤úvwbi cÖwZwU †kqv‡ii g~j¨ nq Kg| Kg g~‡j¨ AwaK msL¨K †kqvi wewµ K‡i g~jab msMÖn Kiv mnR nq| G‡Z Aí mÂqKvix‡`i wbKU †_‡K g~jab msMÖn Kiv myweavRbK Ges †Kv¤úvwbi g~ja‡bi cwigvYI AwaK nq| 2. e„n`vqZb e¨emvq cÖwZôvb (Establishment of large-scale business): e„n`vqZb e¨emvq MVb I cwiPvjbvq †Kv¤úvwb me‡P‡q Dc‡hvMx msMVb| wecyj cwigvY †kqvi I FYcÎ weµq Ges `ÿ e¨e¯’vcK wb‡qvM K‡i mn‡RB †Kv¤úvwb G ai‡bi e¨emvq MVb I cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z cv‡i | 3. DËg wewb‡qvM †ÿÎ (Proper Investment Field): †Kv¤úvwb msMVb mviv we‡k¦B DËg wewb‡qvM †ÿÎ wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ| †kqv‡ii g~j¨gvb Kg nIqvq mKj ai‡bi gvbyl I Avw_©K cÖwZôvb Gi †kqvi wK‡b wewb‡qvM Ki‡Z cv‡i| jf¨vsk QvovI †kqv‡ii g~j¨gvb e„w×, ivBU †kqvi cÖvwß BZ¨vw` myweav _vKvq Zv mevi wbKU AviI AwaK AvKl©bxq| 4. SuywK eȇbi my‡hvM m„wó (Creating Facilities of Risk Distribution): GKK gvwjKvbv ev Askx`vwiiwfwˇZ KL‡bvB eo ai‡bi SzuwKc~Y© Lv‡Z A_© wewb‡qvM m¤¢e nq bv| A_P †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡b SzuwK eȇbi my‡hvM _vKvq G‡Z A_© wewb‡qv‡Mi mnR my‡hvM m„wó nq| †Kv¤úvwb hZ eo nq wewµZ †kqv‡ii msL¨vI ZZB e„w× cvq| SzuwKI Z‡Zv †ewk eȇbi my‡hvM m„wó n‡q _v‡K|


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5. `ÿ cwiPvjbv (Efficient management): G ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbvi fvi cwiPvjKgÐjxi Dci b¨¯Í _v‡K| cwiPvjKgÐjx MwVZ nq `ÿ cwiPvjKMY Øviv| Aek¨ cwiPvjKgÐjx cwieZ©b‡hvM¨| A_©vr cÖ‡qvR‡b cyivZb cwiPvjKgÐjx‡K cwieZ©b K‡i `ÿ cwiPvjK wbhy³ Kiv hvq| 6. MYZvwš¿K cwiPvjbv (Democratic management): G ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb MYZvwš¿K c×wZ‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi m`m¨‡`i Øviv wbe©vwPZ cÖwZwbwa Øviv cwiPvwjZ I wbqwš¿Z n‡q _v‡K| A_©vr msL¨vMwi‡ôi Øviv cwiPvwjZ nq e‡j Gi e¨e¯’vcbv MYZvwš¿K| 7. RbM‡Yi Av¯’v (Public confidence): †Kv¤úvwbi MVb, cwiPvjbv, e¨e¯’vcbv I wbqš¿Y AvBb Øviv wba©viY nq e‡j G‡Z AvB‡bi eva¨evaKZvI †ewk _v‡K| d‡j e¨emv‡qi Dci Rbmvavi‡Yi Av¯’v e„w× cvq Ges wewb‡qvMKvixMY wbf©‡q Zv‡`i A_© wewb‡qvM K‡i _v‡K| 8. AvšÍR©vwZK mybvg (International goodwill) : e„n`vqZb cÖwZwôZ †Kv¤úvwb kyay †h ‡`‡ki g‡a¨ Rbmvavi‡Yi Av¯’v AR©b K‡i Zv bq, eis †`‡ki evwn‡iI G‡`i mybvg Qwo‡q c‡o| A_©vr c„w_exi wewfbœ †`‡k Zv‡`i e¨emvwqK Kvh©Kjvc Qwo‡q c‡o| GK K_vq ejv hvq •e‡`wkK e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î †h․_g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbB n‡jv GKgvÎ Dchy³ e¨emvq msMVb| 9. M‡elYv (Research): bZzb Drcv`‡bi †K․kj Avwe¯‥vi, Drcv`bÑe¨q n«vm BZ¨vw`i D‡Ï‡k¨ †Kv¤úvwb M‡elYv Kv‡h© A_© e¨q Ki‡Z cv‡i hv GKgvwjKvbv ev Askx`vwi e¨emvq m¤¢e bq| 10. K‡ii myweav (Tax relief): Ab¨vb¨ e¨emvq msMV‡bi K‡ii nvi A‡cÿv †Kv¤úvwbi K‡ii nvi Kg| Aciw`‡K bZzb †Kv¤úvwb¸‡jv wKQyw`b ch©šÍ Ki cÖ`vb †_‡K †invB cvq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, DcwiD³ myweavw` QvovI G e¨emvq n‡Z mgvR, miKvi Z_v †`‡ki mKj RbMYB cÖZ¨ÿ I c‡ivÿfv‡e myweavcÖvß n‡q _v‡K| G Kvi‡Y eZ©gv‡b Giƒc e¨emvq MV‡b e¨emvqx‡`i g‡a¨ e¨vcK AvMÖn jÿ¨ Kiv hvq|

5.05 †hŠ_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbi myweavmg~n Advantages of Company Organization 1. mxwgZ `vq: †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbi †kqv‡ii Avw¼K g~j¨ (Face value) A_ev cÖwZkÖæwZ Øviv mxgve× _v‡K| d‡j RbMY webvwØavq I msMV‡b wewb‡qvM K‡i| 2. AwaK cyuwR: G ms¯’v RbM‡Yi wbKU †kqvi wewµ K‡i ch©vß cyuwR msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i| GgbwK cÖ‡qvR‡b FYcÎ wewµi gva¨‡gI g~jab msMÖn Kiv hvq, hv Ab¨vb¨ msMVb¸‡jv cv‡i bv| 3. wPišÍb Aw¯ÍZ¡: AvB‡bi m„ó K…wÎg e¨w³mËv G‡K wPišÍb Aw¯ÍZ¡ cÖ`vb K‡i‡Q| d‡j Gi ¯’vwqZ¡ AwaK| GgbwK NUbvµ‡g †Kv¤úvwbi mKj m`‡`¨i g„Zz¨ n‡jI ms¯’v wejyß nq bv| A_©vr GUv wbw`©ó AvB‡bi Øviv MwVZ I wbqwš¿Z nq| d‡j Gi we‡kl AvBbMZ mve©Rbxb mËv Av‡Q| hv e¨emv‡qi DbœwZi mnvqK| 4. MYZvwš¿KZv: GUv AvB‡bi AvIZvq mvwe©K MYZvwš¿K c×wZ‡Z wbqwš¿Z I cwiPvwjZ nq| 5. Rbmvavi‡Yi Av¯’v: wbw`©ó AvB‡bi Øviv G ms¯’v MwVZ, cwiPvwjZ I wbqwš¿Z nq e‡j GUv RbM‡Yi AwaK Av¯’v AR©‡b mÿg nq| d‡j wewb‡qvMKvixMY wbwð‡šÍ G msMV‡b wewb‡qvM K‡i Ges K…wÎg e¨w³mËvi Kvi‡Y †Kv¤úvwb AwaK F‡Yi myweav †fvM K‡i|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

6. AwaK Drcv`b: e„n`vqZ‡bi Kvi‡Y G msMVb e¨vcK Drcv`b Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges RbMY Kgg~‡j¨ cY¨µ‡qi my‡hvM cvq| 7. Kg©ms¯’v‡bi my‡hvM: Ab¨ †h †Kv‡bv e¨emv‡qi Zzjbvq e„n`vqZ‡bi †Kv¤úvwb‡Z RbM‡Yi K‡g©i my‡hvM-myweav †ewk| d‡j RbM‡Yi AwaK Kg©ms¯’vb K‡i †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwb †`‡ki †eKviZ¡ `~ixKi‡Y ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i|

5.06 †Kv¤úvwb e¨emv‡qi Amyweav Disadvantages of Company wbewÜZ, wewae× `vqm¤úbœ e„nr AvKv‡ii e¨emvq msMVb †Kv¤úvwb msMVb| GwU A‡bK¸‡jv myweav †fvM Ki‡jI wewfbœ w`K wePv‡i Gi †ek wKQy AmyweavI `„ó nq| wb‡æ Gme Amyweavmg~n Av‡jvwPZ n‡jv: 1| MV‡b RwUjZv (Complexity in formation): we‡klZ mve©Rbxb †Kv¤úvwb MVb Kiv †ek RwUj| GRb¨ †ek wKQy AvbyôvwbK I AvBbMZ c`‡ÿc MÖnY Kivi ci G †Kv¤úvwb MVb Kiv m¤¢e nq| A_©vr GwU MVb Kiv AZ¨šÍ e¨qeûj Ges mgqmv‡cÿ| 2| AwZ e„nr AvKvi (Gigantic size): †h․_g~jabx e¨emv‡qi AvqZb GZ e„nr AvKvi aviY K‡i †h, GwU cwiPvjbv I wbqš¿Y Kiv AZ¨šÍ KóKi nq| 3| ¯^RbcÖxwZ (Nepotism): cwiPvjKM‡Yi g‡a¨ D‛Pc`¯’ Kg©Pvix wb‡qv‡Mi e¨vcv‡i †hvM¨Zv I AwfÁZvi cwie‡Z© ¯^RbcÖxwZi cÖeYZv †ewk _v‡K| 4| gvwjKvbv I e¨e¯’vcbvq we‡”Q` (Divorce between ownership and management): G ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb‡Z †kqvi‡nvìviMY mivmwi e¨e¯’vcbvq AskMÖnY K‡i bv| d‡j gvwjKvbv I e¨e¯’vcbvq we‡‛Q` †`Lv †`q| 5| †kqvi ev‡RqvßKiY (Forfeiture of shares): †kqv‡ii Zjex A_© Abv`vqx _vK‡j cwiPvjKgÐjx cwi‡gj wbqgvewj Abymv‡i cwiPvjKgÐjxi mfvq cÖ¯vÍ e cvm K‡i GwU ev‡Rqvß Ki‡Z cv‡i| †hme †kqvi ev‡Rqvß Kiv nq Gi cÖ`Ë A_© †diZ †`qv nq bv, d‡j †kqvi‡nvìiMY ewÂZ nq| 6| GK‡PwUqv D™¢e (Growth of monopoly): e„n`vqZb †Kv¤úvwb¸‡jv e¨emvq m¤cÖmviY Ki‡Z Ki‡Z Ggb Ae¯’vq G‡m `uvovq †h, Zviv ZLb GK‡PwUqv e¨emvq cÖfve we¯Ívi Ki‡Z mÿg nq| 7| kªwgK †kvlY (Exploitation of workers): e„n`vqZb †Kv¤úvwb¸‡jvi `iKlvKwli ÿgZv AwaK _vKvq Zviv Kg© cwi‡ek‡K `~wlZ K‡i kªwgK †kvlY Ki‡Z _v‡K| 8| kªwgK-gvwjK we‡iva (Dispute between labour and owner): †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbvi fvi †ckv`vwi cwiPvjK‡`i nv‡Z _vKvq kªwgK I gvwj‡Ki g‡a¨ we‡iva e„w× †c‡q _v‡K| 9| mgš^‡qi Afve (Lack of co-ordination): e„n`vqZb †Kv¤úvwbi e¨e¯’vcbvq mgš^‡qi Afve _v‡K| d‡j cÖwZôv‡bi Drcv`b n«vm cvq| 10| miKvwi wbqš¿Y (Government Control): e„n`vqZb †Kv¤úvwb¸‡jvi KvRK‡g©i Dci miKvwi wbqg-Kvbyb Av‡ivc Kiv nq| e¯‘Ztc‡ÿ †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i ¯^v_© AÿzYœ ivL‡Z, wewfbœ `yb©xwZi Aemvb NUv‡Z G ai‡bi wbqš¿Y LyeB Dc‡hvMx| wKš‘ miKvwi cÖkvm‡b Mj` _vKvi Kvi‡Y A‡bK †ÿ‡ÎB AZ¨waK wbqš¿Y e¨e¯’v Av‡ivc Kiv nq| d‡j †Kv¤úvwbi ¯^vfvweK KvRK‡g© bvbv RwUjZv m„wó nq|


†hŠ_ g~jabx e¨emvq

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cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, hw`I G e¨emv‡qi A‡bK¸‡jv Amyweav ev mxgve×Zv i‡q‡Q ZeyI Zzjbvg~jK wePv‡i Gi myweavB A‡bK †ewk| mZK©Z vi mv‡_ e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kiv n‡j Gi A‡bK¸‡jv mxgve×ZvB `~i Kiv m¤¢e| ZvB mKj †`‡kB GwU GKwU AcÖwZØ›Øx e¨emvq msMVb wn‡m‡e B‡Zvg‡a¨B Zvi ¯’vb K‡i wb‡q‡Q|

5.07.

†Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi MVb cÖYvjx Formation Procedure of Company

†Kv¤úvwb msMVb n‡jv AvBb-m„ó e¨emvq cÖwZôvb hv †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi wba©vwiZ cš’vq MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ nq| cvewjK I cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb Dfq Ò†Kv¤úvwb AvBb 1994Ó Abymv‡i MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ nq| †Kv¤úvwb MV‡b wewfbœ ch©v‡q KZK¸‡jv mywbw`©ó c`‡ÿc ev c×wZ AbymiY Kiv n‡q _v‡K| wb‡gœ G AvBb Abyhvqx †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi c`‡ÿc/c×wZ eY©bv Kiv n‡jv− 1. D‡`¨vM MÖnY ch©vq (Promotional stage): GKvwaK e¨w³ †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi j‡ÿ¨ me©cÖ_g D‡`¨vMx nb| †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi Rb¨ cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î Kgc‡ÿ 7 Rb Ges cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î Kgc‡ÿ 2 Rb D‡`¨v³vi cÖ‡qvRb nq| e¨emv‡qi m¤¢vebv, mvdj¨ BZ¨vw` wel‡q wPšÍvfvebv K‡i Zviv †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi cÖv_wgK c`‡ÿc MÖnY K‡ib| G e¨w³eM© ev cÖeZ©KMY G ch©v‡q wb‡gœv³ KvR m¤úv`b K‡ib: K. cÖ‡qvRbxq wm×všÍ MÖnY L. bv‡gi QvocÎ msMÖn 2. `wjjcÎ cÖYqb ch©vq Documents Preparation Stage cwiKíbv •Zwii ci D‡`¨v³vMY †Kv¤úvwbi Rb¨ me‡P‡q ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wb‡¤œv³ `ywU `wjj cÖYqb K.

L.

3.

K‡ib− ¯§viKwjwc/msN¯§viK ev cwi‡gje× (Memorandum of Association): GwU †Kv¤úvwbi g~j `wjj ev mb`| G `wj‡j †Kv¤úvwbi bvg, †Kv¤úvwbi wbewÜZ Awd‡mi wVKvbv, †Kv¤úvwbi g~j jÿ¨mg~n, †kqvi, g~ja‡bi cwigvY, †kqv‡ii AvswKK g~j¨mn g~ja‡bi wefw³ Ges GwU cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW bv-wK cvewjK wjwg‡UW Zv D‡jøL Kiv Aek¨K| msNwewa ev cwi‡gj wbqgvewj (Articles of association): G `wj‡j †Kv¤úvwbi Af¨šÍixY cwiPvjbv msµvšÍ wbqg-c×wZ †jLv nq| cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b ewY©Z Zdwmj-1 †K msNwewa wn‡m‡e MÖnY Ki‡j †m‡ÿ‡Î Zv‡K Avi G `wjj •Zwi Ki‡Z nq bv| wbeÜbcÎ msMÖn ch©vq (Certificate of incorporation collection stage): G ch©v‡q cÖeZ©KMY †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇Ki Awdm n‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq dig msMÖn Kib Ges Zv c~iYc~e©K `wjjcÎ mwbœ‡ewkZ K‡i wbe܇Ki wbKU Rgv †`b| Aek¨ Rgv`v‡bi mgq g~jab Abycv‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq ÷¨v¤ú I wd Gi mv‡_ `vwLj Ki‡Z nq|


76

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

Av‡e`bc‡Îi mv‡_ wb‡¤œv³ `wjj I KvMRcÎ Rgv †`qvi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o− K. †Kv¤úvwbi ¯§viKwjwci wZb Kwc; L. msNwewai wZb Kwc; Aek¨ cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb Zdwmj-1 †K msNwewa wn‡m‡e MÖnY Ki‡j G g‡g© †NvlYvc‡Îi Kwc; M. D‡`¨v³v cwiPvjK‡`i bvg, wVKvbv I †ckv; N. D‡`¨v³v cwiPvj‡Kiv wbR ¯^vÿihy³ `vwqZ¡cvj‡bi m¤§wZcÎ; O. D‡`¨v³v cwiPvjKMY †hvM¨Zvm~PK †kqvi µ‡q m¤§Z Av‡Qb G g‡g© GKwU Pzw³cÎ I P. nvB‡Kv‡U©i DwKj A_ev msNwewa‡Z D‡jøL †Kv‡bv cwiPvjK ev mwPe c‡`i AwaKvix e¨w³ KZ…©K cÖ`Ë h_v_©Zvi †NvlYvcÎ| Dc‡iv³ mewKQz wVKfv‡e †c‡q wbeÜK wbeÜb eB‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi bvg ZvwjKvfy³ K‡ib Ges cÖeZ©K‡`i wbeÜbcÎ (Certificate of Incorporation) Ges PvB‡j cÖZ¨vwqZ ¯^viKwjwc I msNwewai Kwc cÖ`vb K‡ib| Gi ciB cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb KvR ïiæ Ki‡Z cv‡i wKš‘ cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb‡K KvR ïiæ Kivi Rb¨ wbe܇Ki wbKU n‡Z Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ msMÖn Ki‡Z nq| 4. Kvh©vi¤¢ ch©vq (Commencement stage): cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb‡K Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ cvIqvi Rb¨ b~¨bZg Puv`v (Minimum Subscription) msMÖ‡ni †NvlYvcÎ Ges Rbmvavi‡Yi wbKU †kqvi weµ‡qi †NvlYvcÎmn wKQz ¸iæZ¡c~Y© `wjjcÎmn Av‡e`b Ki‡Z nq| me KvMRcÎ wVK _vK‡j Ges mš‘ó n‡j wbeÜK cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb‡K Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ cÖ`vb K‡ib| G cÎ cvIqvi c‡iB cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb e¨emvq ïiæ Ki‡Z cv‡i|

5.08 ¯§viKwjwc / cwi‡gjeÜ / msN ¯§vi‡Ki aviYv Concept of Memorandum of Association ¯§viKwjwc n‡jv †Kv¤úvwbi g~j `wjj, mb` ev msweavb| G‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi g~j welqvewj; †hgb-bvg, wVKvbv, D‡Ïk¨, g~jab, `vq I m¤§wZi welq wjwce× _v‡K| GUv †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©‡ ÿÎ I ÿgZvi mxgv wb‡`©k K‡i| G‡Z AšÍf~©³ †bB Ggb †Kv‡bv KvR †Kv¤úvbx m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cv‡i bv|

¯§viKwjwci welqe¯‘ ev avivmg~n Contents of Memorandum of Association †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 6 avivq †kqvi Øviv mxgve× †Kv¤úvwbi 7 avivq cÖwZkÖæwZ Øviv mxgve× †Kv¤úvwbi Ges 8 avivq Amxg `vq †Kv¤úvwbi ¯§viKwjwci welqe¯Íy m¤ú‡K© ejv n‡q‡Q| wb‡gœ ¯§viKwjwci avivmg~n D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv− 1. bvg aviv (Name Clause): †Kv¤úvwbi bvg Ges bv‡gi †k‡l cvewjK †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î Ôwjwg‡UWÕ Ges cÖvB‡fU †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î ÔcÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UWÕ -G k㸇jv †hvM Ki‡Z n‡e| †Kv¤úvwbi †h‡Kv‡bv bvg ivLv †h‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e bvg MÖn‡Yi †ÿ‡Î AÎ AvB‡bi 11 avivq ewY©Z wb‡æv³ wewawb‡la †g‡b Pj‡Z nq−


†hŠ_ g~jabx e¨emvq

77

i) GKwU we`¨gvb †Kv¤úvwb B‡Zvc~‡e© †h bv‡g wbewÜZ n‡q D³ bv‡gB envj Av‡Q A_ev †h bv‡gi mv‡_ cÖ ¯ÍvweZ bv‡gi Ggb mv`„k¨ _v‡K †h, D³ mv`„‡k¨i d‡j cÖZviYv Kiv m¤¢e |

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

ii) miKvwi †M‡R‡U cÖÁvc‡bi Øviv Abwf‡cÖZ e‡j †NvlYv K‡i‡Q; Ggb †Kv‡bv bvg miKv‡ii wjwLZ c~e©vbygwZ e¨wZ‡i‡K MÖnY Kiv hv‡e bv| iii) RvwZmsN ev RvwZmsN KZ©„K MwVZ Gi †Kv‡bv mnvqK ms¯’v A_ev wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’vi bvg ev Hme bv‡gi kã ms‡ÿc msewjZ †Kv‡bv bvg, RvwZmsN ev Gi mnvqK ms¯’vi †ÿ‡Î RvwZms‡Ni †m‡µUvwi †Rbv‡ij Ges wek¦ ¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’vi †ÿ‡Î Gi WvB‡i±i †Rbv‡i‡ji wjwLZ c~e© AbygwZ e¨ZxZ e¨envi Kiv hv‡e bv| Ae¯’vb I wVKvbv aviv (Situation and Address Clause): †Kv¤úvwbi wbewÜZ Kvh©vjq †h A‡j Aew¯’Z _vK‡e †m ¯’v‡bi bvg| Gi mv‡_ †Kv¤úvwb †Kvb †Kvb GjvKvq Gi Kvh©vewj we¯Í„Z Ki‡e ZvI ewY©Z _vK‡e| D‡Ïk¨ aviv (Objective Clause): †Kv¤úvwb wK ai‡bi e¨emv‡q wjß _vK‡e Zv G avivq we¯Í„Zfv‡e wjwce× _vK‡e| G D‡Ï‡k¨i evB‡i †Kv‡bv e¨emvq Kiv hvq bv| G aviv GKw`‡K †Kv¤úvwbi ÿgZv‡K msÁvwqZ K‡i Ges Ab¨w`‡K †Kv¤úvwb cÖ`Ë ÿgZv‡K mxgve× K‡i| D³ avivq †Kv¤úvwbi m¤¢ve¨ †ÿÎmg~‡ni eY©bv _v‡K Ges fwel¨‡Z cÖ‡qvRb n‡j Kx Kx e¨emvq Ki‡Z cvi‡e ZvI wek`fv‡e ewY©Z _v‡K| `vq aviv (Liability Clause): †Kv¤úvwbi m`m¨‡`i `vq Zv‡`i µqK…Z †kqv‡ii AvswKK g~j¨ (Face value) Øviv mxgve× _v‡K| †kqv‡ii Acwi‡kvwaZ g~‡j¨i Rb¨ †Kej †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i‡K `vqx Kiv hv‡e Ges †kqv‡ii g~j¨ m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c cwi‡kva Ki‡j Zviv m¤ú~Y© `vqgy³ n‡eb| g~jab aviv (Capital Clause): cÖ¯vÍ weZ †gvU g~ja‡bi cwigvY Ges g~jab KZK¸‡jv Ges Kx cÖKv‡ii †kqv‡i wef³ _vK‡e Zv G avivq D‡jøL _v‡K| †Kv¤úvwbi G g~jab‡K wbewÜZ ev Aby‡gvw`Z g~jab ejv nq| Gi AwZwi³ g~jab †Kv¤úvwb msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| m¤§wZ aviv (Consent Clause): ¯§viKwjwci †kl As‡k cÖ‡Z¨K m`m¨ Zuvi bv‡gi wecix‡Z KZ¸‡jv †kqvi µq Ki‡eb Zvi m¤§wZ aviv m¤ú‡K© wbæiƒc weavb ewY©Z n‡q‡Q− i. msN-¯§vi‡K ¯^vÿi cÖ`vbKvix cÖ‡Z¨K m`m¨‡K Kgc‡ÿ GKwU †kqvi µq Ki‡Z n‡e| [aviv 6 (L)] ii. cÖ‡Z¨K ¯^vÿiKvix m`m¨‡K Zvi bv‡gi wecix‡Z µqK…Z †kqv‡ii cwigvY D‡jøL Ki‡Z n‡e| [aviv 6 (M)] iii. cÖ‡Z¨K ¯^vÿiKvix m`m¨ AšÍZtc‡ÿ `yÕRb mvÿxi Dcw¯’wZ‡Z ¯§viKwjwc‡Z ¯^vÿi cÖ`vb Ki‡eb Ges D³ ¯^vÿi mvÿx KZ©„K mZ¨vwqZ n‡Z n‡e| [aviv 9(M)]

cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, Dchy³ avivmg~n ewY©Z mKj ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb‡K me©`v AbymiY Ki‡Z nq| Gi †Kv‡bv GKwU kZ© cwieZ©‡bi †ÿ‡Î Aby‡gv`b I we‡kl wm×všÍ MÖnY I †ÿÎ we‡k‡l Av`vjZ I miKv‡ii Aby‡gv`b MÖnY Ki‡Z nq|

wb‡gœ ¯§viKwjwci GKwU bgybv †`qv nj: gviæwZ ÷xj wgj&m wjwg‡UW ¯^viKwjwc


78

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

1. †Kv¤úvwbi bvg: gviæwZ ÷xj wgj&m wjwg‡UW| 2. †Kv¤úvwbi wbewÜZ Awdm: ivR feb, 31, w`jKzkv evwYwR¨K GjvKv, XvKv| 3. †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi D‡Ïk¨mg~n: K. wewfbœ †j․n I B¯úvZmvgMÖx Drcv`b I Avg`vwb Kiv; L. †kv-iæg I weµq‡K›`ª cÖwZôvi gva¨‡g †`‡k-we‡`‡k `ªe¨ weµq Kiv: M. G‡R›U wb‡qv‡Mi gva¨‡g †`‡ki me©Î Drcvw`Z ev Avg`vwbK…Z `ªe¨ weµ‡qi e¨e¯’v Kiv I N. D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ g~j D‡Ï‡k¨i Avbylw½K I cÖ‡qvRbxq mKj Kvh© m¤úv`b Kiv| 4. †Kv¤úvwbi AvIZvfz³ GjvKv: †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©µg mviv evsjv‡`ke¨vcx e¨vc„Z n‡Z cvi‡e| 5. g~jab: †Kv¤úvwbi g~ja‡bi cwigvY n‡e 50 †KvwU UvKv, hv cÖwZwU 100 UvKv g~‡j¨i 50 jÿ mvaviY †kqv‡i wef³ n‡e| 6. m`m¨‡`i `vq: †Kv¤úvwbi m`m¨‡`i `vq †kqvi g~j¨ Øviv mxgve× _vK‡e| Avgiv wb‡gœœewY©Z e¨w³eM© G g‡g© m¤§wZ cÖ`vb KiwQ †h, ¯§viKwjwc‡Z DwjøwLZ kZ© Abymv‡i Avgiv GKwU †Kv¤úvwb MV‡b B‛QzK Ges Avgv‡`i bv‡gi Wvbcv‡k¦© ewY©Z wbw`©ó A‡¼i †kqvi µ‡qI Avgiv cÖwZkÖæwZe×| µ‡q”Qz †kqvi m¤§wZ `vbKvix e¨w³‡`i bvg I µ‡q”Qz †kqv‡ii g~ja‡bi cwigvY ¯^vÿi wVKvbv cwigvY (cÖwZUv 100 UvKv nv‡i) 1. mvBdzj AvRg 5000 5 jÿ UvKv 114 / G-G g‡bk¦i †ivW wRMvZjv, XvKv wbjydv BqvQwgb 2. †gv: Avwe` Avjg 5000 5 jÿ UvKv wbKzÄ feb 45, cvZjv Lvb †jb, †gv: Avwe` Avjg XvKv| 3. †di‡`․m Aviv †eMg 5000 5 jÿ UvKv Gb, Gm, †ivW, cvebv| †di‡`․m Aviv †eMg 4. Avkivdzj Avjg 3000 3 jÿ UvKv Gb, Gm, †ivW, cvebv Avkivdzj Avjg 5. RvwKqv myjZvbv 3000 3 jÿ UvKv Gb, Gm, †ivW, cvebv RvwKqv myjZvbv 6. Avwmd-D¾vgvb 3000 3 jÿ UvKv †Mvcvjcyi, GK`šÍ cvebv Avwmd-D¾vgvb 7. ivqnvb Avjx 3 jÿ UvKv †Mvcvjcyi, GK`šÍ, cvebv ivqnvb Avjx 8. †gv: †njvj AvKb 3000 3 jÿ UvKv


†hŠ_ g~jabx e¨emvq

ewikvj, SvjKvVx †gvU M„nxZ †kqv‡ii msL¨v

79

†gv: †njvj AvKb 30,000 (wÎk nvRvi)

30,00,000.00 (wÎk jÿ)

ZvwiL: 25 †k Ryb, 2005 Bs Dc‡ivwjøwLZ e¨w³e‡M©i bvg, wVKvbv I ¯^vÿi mZ¨vwqZ Kiv n‡jv| --------------------(GW‡fv‡KU AvZvDi ingvb) evsjv‡`k nvB‡KvU©, XvKv| evm¯’v‡bi wVKvbv evqZzj Avgvb 81, †jKmvK©vm, KjvevMvb, XvKv|

--------------------(†gv: Kwei †nvmvBb) 131, wWAvBwU G·t †ivW, XvKv| evm¯’v‡bi wVKvbv 103 / 1-G, DËi gyM`vcvov XvKv

wPÎ: msN ¯§vi‡Ki bgybv

5.09 ¯§viKwjwci ¸iæZ¡ ev Zvrch© Importance of Memorandum of Association GKUv †`‡ki Rb¨ Zvi msweav‡bi AvBbMZ gh© v `v †hgb GKUv †Kv¤úvwbi Rb¨ Zvi msN¯§vi‡Ki gh© v `vI wVK Aby i ƒc ej‡jI AZz ¨ w³ nq bv| msN¯§vi‡Ki ¸ iæZ¡ ev AvBbMZ Zvrch© ‡ K wb‡gœ v ³fv‡e D‡jø L Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i: 1. ÿgZvi wb‡`©k (Indication of power): ¯§viKwjwc †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©ÿgZvi mxgv wb‡`©k K‡i| Giƒc `wj‡ji D‡Ïk¨ avivq ewY©Z KvR ev Gi mv‡_ mswkøó Avbylw½K KvR †Kv¤úvwb Ki‡Z cv‡i| Gi evB‡i †Kv‡bv KvR Kiv n‡j Zv ÿgZv ewnf©yZ KvR we‡ewPZ nq| 2. m¤úK© wb‡`©k (Indication of relationship): msN¯§vi‡Ki kZ©¸wj Øviv †Kv¤úvwb I †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i g‡a¨ GKwU Pzw³ ev AvBbMZ e܇bi m„wó nq| A_©vr †Kv¤úvwb I †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i ga¨Kvi m¤úK© Gi Øviv wbY©xZ n‡q _v‡K| †Kv¤úvwb‡Z Zv‡`i AwaKvi Ges `vqI Gi gva¨‡g wbiƒwcZ nq| 3. h_vwbq‡g cwieZ©b Avek¨K (Necessary to change at law): AvB‡b D‡jøwLZ KviY e¨wZ‡i‡K Ges AvBb gvwdK AvbyôvwbKZv cvjb bv K‡i †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i me©m¤§wZµ‡g M„nxZ wm×v‡šÍi Øviv msN¯§viK cwieZ©b Kiv hvq bv| A_©vr Giƒc `wjj h_vwbq‡g cwie©Zb Avek¨K| 4. ÿgZv ewnf©~Z Kv‡Ri `vq (Liability for ultra vires activites): †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjKiv hw` ¯§viKwjwci ÿgZv ewnf©yZ †Kv‡bv Kvh© K‡i Z‡e Zvi Rb¨ †ÿÎwe‡k‡l Zviv †Kv¤úvwbi ev Z…Zxq c‡ÿi wbKU `vqx _v‡K|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

5. msN¯§vi‡Ki AMÖMY¨Zv (Primacy of memorandum of asociation): msN¯§viK I msNwewai g‡a¨ †Kv‡bv we‡iva †`Lv w`‡j †kqvi‡nvìviiv msNwewa ms‡kvab K‡i D³ Kvh© Aby ‡ gv`b Ki‡Z cv‡i| wKš‘ msN¯§viK envj _v‡K| A_© v r Giƒc `wjj memgqB gy L ¨ we‡ewPZ nq| 6. cÖKvk¨ `wjj (Exressed document): msN¯§viK GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cÖKvk¨ `wjj| myZivs †Kv¤úvwbi mv‡_ †jb‡`‡b mKj cÿ Zv AeMZ Av‡Q e‡j aiv nq| Giƒc `wjj m¤ú‡K© Rvbv wQj bv GB ARynvZ KLbB Av`vj‡Z MÖvn¨ nq bv| Dcmsnv‡i ejv hvq †h, ¯§viKwjwc †Kv¤úvwbi gyL¨ `wjj, mb` ev msweavb| cÖ‡Z¨K †Kv¤úvwbi Rb¨ G ai‡Yi `wjj •Zwi Acwinvh©| cÖ_g cwiPvjK I D‡`¨v³v‡`i bvg Ges ¯^vÿi G‡Z _vKvq Zv †Kv¤úvwbi HwZ‡n¨i cÖKvk K‡i|

¯§viKwjwci cwieZ©b (Alternation of Memorandum of Association): †Kv¤úvwbi ¯§viKwjwc cwieZ©b †ek AvbyôvwbKZvc~Y© I RwUj KvR| ¯§viKwjwci cÖ‡Z¨KwU welqe¯‘ cwieZ©‡bi wfbœ wbqg †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| wb‡gœ c×wZmg~n Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv− 1. bvg avivi cwieZ©b (Change of name clause): GB avivi cwieZ©‡bi Rb¨ †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i mvaviY mfvq we‡kl cÖ¯vÍ e cvm Ki‡Z nq Ges G wel‡q miKv‡ii AbygwZ msMÖn Ki‡Z nq| AZtci we‡kl cÖ¯vÍ e cv‡mi I miKv‡ii AbygwZi Abywjwc †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇Ki wbKU `vwLj Ki‡Z nq| AvBbMZ mgm¨v †`Lv bv w`‡j wbeÜK, eB‡Z cyivZb bvg ev` w`‡q bZzb bvg AšÍf©y³ K‡ib Ges G g‡g© mvwU©wd‡KU cÖ`vb K‡ib| AZtci bvg cwieZ©b KvR mgvß nq| 2. D‡Ïk¨ avivi cwieZ©b (Change of objects clause): GB avivi cwieZ©‡b †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i mvaviY mfvq GB g‡g© we‡kl cÖ ¯Íve cvm K‡i Av`vj‡Zi Aby‡gv`b jvf Ki‡Z nq| Av`vj‡Zi Aby‡gv`b jv‡fi ci beŸB w`‡bi g‡a¨ ms‡kvwaZ ¯§viKwjwci gyw `ªZ Kwc I Aby‡gv`b jv‡fi cÖw Zwjwc wbe܇Ki wbKU `vwLj Ki‡Z nq| wbeÜK ms‡kvwaZ ¯§viKwjwc Aby‡gv`b Ki‡j D‡Ïk¨ avivi cwieZ©b m¤ú~Y © nq| Aek¨ wbgœwjwLZ †h †Kv‡bv GKwU Kvi‡YB ïaygvÎ GB avivq cwieZ©b Kiv hvq− K. AwaKZi e¨q ms‡KvP I e¨emvq cwiPvjbvq `ÿZv e„w×i Rb¨; L. bZzb A_ev DbœZZi Dcv‡q †Kv¤úvwbi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ mvab Kivi Rb¨; M. ¯’vbxq Kvh©‡ÿÎ cwieZ©b Kivi Rb¨: N. Ggb †Kv‡bv bZzb e¨emvq Avi¤¢ Kivi Rb¨ hv †Kv¤úvwbi eZ©gvb e¨emv‡qi mv‡_ jvfRbKfv‡e hy³ Kiv hvq; O. ¯§viKwjwc‡Z D‡jøwLZ †Kv‡bv D‡Ïk¨ ms‡KvPb ev cwiZ¨vM Kivi Rb¨; P. †Kv¤úvwbi hveZxq e¨emvq A_ev e¨emv‡qi Askwe‡kl A_ev GKvwaK e¨emv‡qi †Kv‡bv GKwU weµq wKsev n¯ÍvšÍi Kivi Rb¨; Q. Ab¨ †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb ev e¨w³e‡M©i mv‡_ GKÎxf~Z nIqvi Rb¨|


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3. Ae¯’vb I wVKvbv avivi cwieZ©b (Change of situation and address clause): G †ÿ‡ÎI D‡Ïk¨ aviv cwieZ©‡bi Abyiƒc mvaviY mfvq we‡kl cÖ¯vÍ e cvm Ges Av`vj‡Zi Aby‡gv`b jvf Ki‡Z nq Ges Zv wbeÜK‡K Rvbv‡Z nq| D‡Ïk¨ avivi cwieZ©‡bi bv¨q †h‡Kv‡bv GKwU KviY Giƒc cwieZ©‡bi †ÿ‡ÎI cÖ‡hvR¨ n‡q _v‡K| Z‡e GKB kn‡ii g‡a¨ ev ¯’vbxq GjvKvi g‡a¨ wVKvbv cwieZ©‡bi †ÿ‡Î wVKvbv ¯’vbvšÍ‡ii 28 w`‡bi g���a¨ GB m¤ú‡K© †Kv¤úvwb wbeÜK‡K weÁwß w`‡jB P‡j| 4. g~jab avivi cwieZ©b (Change of capital clause): †Kv¤úvwbi cwi‡gj wbqgvejx‡Z g~jab cwieZ©b m¤ú‡K© weavb _vK‡j †Kv¤úvwbi g~jab n«vm ev e„w × Kiv hvq| g~jab e„w ×i †ÿ‡Î mvaviY mfvq mvaviY cÖ ¯Íve cvm Ki‡jB P‡j| wKš‘ g~ja‡bi cwigvY n«vm Ki‡Z n‡j †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i mvaviY mfvq we‡kl cÖ ¯Íve cvm K‡i Av`vj‡Zi AbygwZ wb‡Z nq| AZtci †Kv¤úvwbi ¯§viKwjwc‡Z bZzb g~ja‡bi cwigvY D‡jøL K‡i cÖ ¯Íve MÖn ‡Yi ci 15 w`‡bi g‡a¨ g~jab cwieZ©‡bi †NvlYv wbe܇Ki wbKU `vwLj Ki‡Z nq| cwi‡gj wbqgvewj Øviv ÿgZvcÖvß n‡j †kqvi g~j¨ Øviv `vq mxgve× †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwb wbgœwjwLZ †h‡Kv‡bv Dcv‡q g~jab cwieZ©b ev n«vm e„w× Ki‡Z cv‡i− K. L. M. N.

bZzb †kqvi wewj; eZ©gvb †kqv‡ii g~j¨gvb e„w×; †kqvi¸‡jv‡K cybivq wef³ K‡i Aí g~‡j¨i †kqv‡i cwieZ©bKiY; eÈb Kiv nqwb ev evwZj Kiv n‡q‡Q Ggb †kqvi wnmve n‡Z ev` w`‡q †kqvi g~jab n«vm|

5.10 msNwewa ev cwi‡gj wbqgvewji aviYv Concept of Articles of Association GwU †Kv¤úvwbi wØZxq ¸iæZ¡c~Y© `wjj| G‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi Af¨šÍixY wbqš¿Y m¤úwK©Z wewa-weavb A_©vr †Kv¤úvwb Kxfv‡e cwiPvwjZ n‡e Zv D‡jøL _v‡K| Aek¨ cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡b ewY©Z Zdwmj-1 †K †Kv¤úvwbi cwi‡gj wbqgvewj wn‡m‡e MÖnY Kiv hvq| †m‡ÿ‡Î `wjj •Zwii cÖ‡qvRb nq bv| cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î GwU cÖ¯‘Z eva¨Zvg~jK|

cwi‡gj wbqgvewji welqe¯‘ Contents of Articles of Association

cwi‡gj wbqgvewj n‡jv †Kv¤úvwbi wØZxq Ab¨Zg ¸iæZ¡c~Y© `wjj, hvi g‡a¨ †Kv¤úvwbi Af¨šÍixY Kvh©Kjvc cwiPvjbv msµvšÍ hveZxq welqvw` wjwce× _v‡K| ¯§viKwjwci Aax‡b G `wjj †Kv¤úvwbi Af¨šÍixY wµqv-Kjv‡ci w`K-`k©b wn‡m‡e f~wgKv iv‡L, †Kv¤úvwbi cwi‡gj wbqgvewj‡Z †hme welq AšÍf©y³ nIqv DwPZ †m¸‡jv wbæiƒc− 1. cÖwZôv‡bi bvg: †Kv¤úvwbi bvg Ges bv‡gi †k‡l wjwg‡UW ev mxwgZ ms‡ÿ‡c wjt kãwU emv‡Z n‡e| 2. †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjK msµvšÍ wbqgvewj− i. cwiPvjK msL¨v;


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

ii. cwiPvjK, e¨e¯’vc‡Ki bvg, wVKvbv, †ckv I Ab¨vb¨ weeiYx; iii. cÖ_g cwiPvjK‡`i bvg, wVKvbv I †ckv; iv. e¨e¯’vcK I cwiPvjK‡`i `vq-`vwqZ¡, AwaKvi I KZ©e¨; v. cwiPvjK‡`i †hvM¨Zvm~PK †kqvi I g~j¨; v i. cwiPvjK‡`i cvwikªwgK; vii. cwiPvjK‡`i Aemi MÖnY, `vwqZ¡ Ae¨vnwZ BZ¨vw` msµvšÍ wbqgvewj| 3. Ab¨vb¨ Kg©KZ©v wb‡qvM c×wZ− i. g¨v‡bwRs G‡R›U; ii. mwjwmUvi; iii. `vjvj; iv. Ae‡jL‡Ki bvg; v. †ckv| 4. g~jab msµvšÍ wbqgvewj− i. Aby‡gvw`Z g~ja‡bi cwigvY; ii. g~ja‡bi †kªYxwefvM I cwigvY; iii. b~¨bZg g~ja‡bi cwigvY; iv. g~ja‡bi cwieZ©b ev n«vmÑe„w×i wbqg; 5. †kqvi msµvšÍ wbqgvewj: i. †gvU †kqv‡ii msL¨v I †kªYxwefvM; ii. cÖwZ †kqv‡ii g~j¨; iii. †kqvi µ‡qi Rb¨ RbmvaviY‡K Avnev‡bi wbqg; iv. †kqvi n¯ÍvšÍi msµvšÍ wbqgvewj; v. †kqvi weµ‡qi Kwgkb I `vjvwj; vi. †kqvi g~j¨ cwi‡kv‡ai wbqgvewj; vii. †kqvi weµq c×wZ; viii. †kqvi ev‡RqvßKiY c×wZ I kZ©vewj; ix. †kqvi n¯ÍvšÍi msµvšÍ wbqgvewj; x. †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i cvi¯úwiK m¤úK© I AwaKvi; xi. wewfbœ †kªYxi †kqvigvwjK‡`i `vq-`vwqZ¡, ÿgZv I AwaKvi| 6. †Kv¤úvwbi FY msµvšÍ wbqgvewj: i. †Kv¤úvwbi FY MÖnY msµvšÍ wbqgvewj; ii. †Kv¤úvwbi FY MÖnY ÿgZvi weeiY; iii. FY MÖnY c×wZ|


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7. †Kv¤úvwbi mfv msµvšÍ wbqgvewj: i. †Kv¤úvwbi mfv AvnŸvb I mfv cwiPvjbv c×wZ; ii. mfvi †fvU MÖnY c×wZ; iii. wewfbœ mfvi †Kvivg msµvšÍ wbqg; iv. mvaviY mfv I we‡kl mfv Abyôv‡bi wbqgvewj| 8. †Kv¤úvwbi jf¨vsk msµvšÍ wbqgvewj: i. jf¨vsk †NvlYvi c×wZ; ii. jf¨vsk‡K g~ja‡b iƒcvšÍwiZ Kivi wbqgvewj| 9. †Kv¤úvwbi e¨vs‡Ki wnmve msµvšÍ wbqgvewj| 10. †Kv¤úvwbi FY MÖn‡Yi c×wZ I wbqgvewj| 11. †Kv¤úvwbi wmj‡gvni msµvšÍ wbqgvewj| i. Gi msiÿY I ii. e¨envi-wewa| Kg©cÎ-3 ¯§viK wjwc I cwi‡gj wbqgvewji aviYv I welqe¯Íy we‡kølY K‡i G‡`i g‡a¨ 5wU cv_©K¨ †ei Ki| ¯§viKwjwc cwi‡gj wbqgvewj • • • • • • • • • •

5.11 weeiYc‡Îi aviYv Concept of Prospctus ÒProspectus is an advertisement of a company” mvaviYZ cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb RbM‡Yi Kv‡Q †kqvi I FYcÎ weµ‡qi Rb¨ †Kv¤úvwbi cwic~Y© Z_¨ m¤^wjZ †h weÁvcb cÖPvi K‡i, †mwU weeiY cÎ wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nq| GLv‡b m¤¢ve¨ wewb‡qvMKvix‡`i‡K AvK…ó Ki‡Z †Póv Pvjv‡bv nq| G‡K †Kv¤úvwbi `c©‡Yi (Mirror) mv‡_ Zzjbv Kiv nq| mvaviYZ cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi QvocÎ msMÖ‡ni ci g~jab msMÖ‡ni wbwg‡Ë e¨emv‡qi Avw_©K Ae¯’v Rvwb‡q Rbmvavi‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ †h cÎ iPbv Kiv nq Zv‡K weeiYcÎ e‡j| g~jZ Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ cvevi wbwg‡Ë wbe܇bi QvocÎ AR©‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi cÖeZ©K ev D‡`¨v³vMY †h c‡Îi gva¨‡g RbMY‡K †kqvi ev wW‡eÂvi µ‡qi Avnevb Rvbvq Zv‡K weeiYcÎ ev cÖm‡cKUvm e‡j|

weeiYc‡Îi welqe¯Íy


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

Contents of the Prospectus cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb hLb cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb‡Z cwiYZ nq ev bZzb †Kv¤úvwb evRv‡i †kqvi †Q‡o g~jab msMÖ‡ni mgq RbmvaviY‡K AewnZ Kiv ev DrmvwnZ Kivi Rb¨B weeiYx cÖPvi K‡i _v‡K| weeiY c‡Î Ggb me welq AšÍf©y³ Kiv DwPZ hv RbMY‡K G †Kv¤úvwb m¤ú‡K© c~Y© weeiY w`‡Z mÿg | GKwU weeiY c‡Î †hme welq AšÍfy©³ nIqv DwPZ Zv wbæiƒc− 1. †Kv¤úvwbi bvg, wVKvbv, D‡Ïk¨vewj| 2. Aby‡gvw`Z g~ja‡bi cwigvY I weeiY| 3. †kqvi µ‡qi Av‡e`b, AveÈb I Zj‡e cÖ‡`q A‡_©i cwigvY Ges Av‡e`bcÎ Rgv †`qvi †kl ZvwiL| 4. b~¨bZg g~jab msMÖ‡ni cwigvY| 5. cÖv_wgK Li‡Pi cwigvY| 6. cwiPvjK‡`i bvg, wVKvbv I †ckv| 7. cwiPvjK‡`i †hvM¨Zvm~PK †kqvi µ‡qi msL¨v I g~j¨| 8. cwiPvjK‡`i cvwikªwg‡Ki cwigvY| 9. cwiPvjK cl©‡`i m`m¨‡`i ¯^vÿi| 10. m¤úwËi we¯ÍvwiZ weeiY| 11. cwiPvjK‡`i †`q A_© I Ab¨vb¨ myweav| 12. jf¨vsk eÈb c×wZ| 13. †Kv¤úvwbi wbixÿ‡Ki bvg I wVKvbv| 14. †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Dc‡`óvi bvg I wVKvbv| 15. †Kv¤úvwbi e¨vsKv‡ii bvg I wVKvbv| 16. †Kv¤úvwbi wnmve wbixÿ‡Yi wbqgvewj| 17. Z…Zxq c‡ÿi mv‡_ m¤úvw`Z Pzw³i we¯ÍvwiZ weeiY| 18. ¯§viKwjwci mswÿß eY©bv| 19. cwi‡gj wbqgvewji msw&ÿß eY©bv| 20. cwiPvjKM‡Yi ¯^v_©| 21. †kqv‡ii †kªYxwefvM I cÖ‡Z¨K †kqv‡ii msL¨v| 22. cÖwZ †kqv‡ii weµqg~j¨ Ges cwi‡kva c×wZ| 23. †Kv¤úvwb‡Z †kqvi gvwjK‡`i ¯^v_©| 24. †kqvi eȇbi `vq †KD MªnY Ki‡j Zvi bvg I wVKvbv| 25. †Kv¤úvwbi c~e© BwZnv‡mi msw&ÿß weeiY| 26. g¨v‡bwRs G‡R›U ev e¨e¯’vcbv cwiPvjK‡`i bvg, wVKvbv, cvwikªwgK Ges wb‡qvM c×wZ| 27. PjwZ g~ja‡bi cwigvY| 28. †kqvi Av‡e`‡bi mgq Ges eiv‡×i Rb¨ †h cwigvY A_© cÖ`vb Ki‡Z n‡e Zvi cwigvY| 29. †Kv¤úvwbi wbKU m¤úwË we‡µZv‡`i bvg wVKvbv I cwiPq|


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30. 31. 32. 33.

†Kvb D‡`¨v³v‡`i bvg, wVKvbv Ges †Kv‡bv A_© ev myweav cÖ`vb Kiv n‡j Zvi weeiY| †Kv¤úvwbi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Pzw³mg~‡ni ZvwiL, cÿmg~n| †Kv¤úvwbi e¨emvq Pvjy _vK‡j weMZ K‡qK eQ‡ii DØ„Ë cÎ I jvf ÑÿwZi wnmve weeiYx| weeiYcÎ cÖPv‡ii ZvwiL I cwiPvjK‡`i cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki ¯^vÿi BZ¨vw`| cwi‡k‡l ej‡Z cvwi †h, me ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwbi weeiYc‡ÎB D‡jøwLZ me¸‡jv welq AšÍfy©³ bvI _vK‡Z cv‡i| cÖeZ©K ev cwiPvjKiv wePvi-we‡ePbv K‡i †Kv¤úvwbi weeiYc‡Îi welqe¯Íy wba©viY K‡i _v‡K| Z‡e †Kv‡bv Ae¯’v‡ZB weeiY c‡Î wg_¨v Z_¨-cwi‡ekb Kiv hv‡e bv|

weeiYc‡Îi weKí wee„wZ Statement in Lieu of Prospectus †kqvi Øviv mxgve× cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi weeiYcÎ wbe܇Ki wbKU †ck Kiv Ges †m¸‡jv Rbmvavi‡Yi ÁvZv‡_© cÖPvi Kiv eva¨Zvg~jK| Z‡e †Kv¤úvwb‡K me©‡ÿ‡ÎB Zv cÖPvi Ki‡Z n‡e G ai‡bi †Kv‡bv eva¨evaKZv †bB| A‡bK mgq †`Lv hvq †Kv¤úvwbi cÖeZ©KMY AvZ¥xq¯^Rb, eÜzev܇ei wbKU †_‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq g~jab msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i| †m‡ÿ‡Î Avi weeiYcÎ cÖPvi Kivi cÖ‡qvRb nq bv| ZLb 1994 mv‡ji AvB‡b ewY©Z ZdwmjÑ4 Abyhvqx GKwU weKí weeiYcÎ cÖ¯‘Z Ki‡Z nq Ges Zvi GK Kwc wbe܇Ki wbKU †cÖiY Ki‡Z nq| Zv bv n‡j †Kv¤úvwb †kqvi ev FYcÎ wewj Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| A_©vr, GKwU †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxq g~jab hLb cÖeZ©KMY Zv‡`i wbR¯^ AvZ¥xq¯^Rb A_ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Drm †_‡K msMÖn Ki‡Z mg_© nb ZLb weeiYcÎ cÖPv‡ii cwie‡Z© wbe܇Ki wbKU †h wee„wZ cÖ`vb Kiv nq Zv‡K weeiYc‡Îi weKí wee„wZ e‡j AwfwnZ Kiv nq|

5.12 †Kv¤úvwb wbeÜbcÎ Company Registration Certificate †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi wewfbœ weavb ev Avby ô vwbKZv cvjb †k‡l †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwbi cÖ e Z© K ev D‡`¨v³vMb †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇Ki wbKU n‡Z wbe܇bi cÖ g vb wnmv‡e †h `wjj msMÖ n K‡i Zv‡KB wbeÜbcÎ e‡j| cÖ v B‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb Giƒc `wjj cvIqvi ciB KvR ïiæ Ki‡Z cv‡i; wKš‘ cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi †ÿ‡Î Giƒc `wjj cÖ v wßi ci Aw¯Í ‡ Z¡ i m„ w ó n‡jI Kvh© v i‡¤¢ i Aby g wZcÎ msMÖ ‡ ni c~ ‡ e© Zviv KvR ïiæ Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| wb‡gœ †Kv¤úvwbi wbeÜbc‡Îi GKwU bgybv †`qv n‡jv− Bs 57/wb/2004

MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKvi †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇Ki Kvh©vjq gwZwSj ev/G, XvKv-1000 wbeÜb cÎ

ZvwiL: ........................


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

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wbeÜK

wPÎ: wbeÜb cÎ cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, wbeÜb cÎ n‡jv †Kv¤úvwb MV‡bi cÖgvY ev `wjj| †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇bi ci wbeÜb KZ©„cÿ †Kv¤úvwb‡K D³ `wjj ev mvwU©wd‡KU cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K|

5.13

Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ Certificate of Commencenment

cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb‡K wbeÜbcÎ cvIqvi ci cÖ‡qvRbxq `wjj cÎmn †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇Ki wbKU Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZ †P‡q Av‡e`b Ki‡Z nq| Av‡e`‡b 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 50 avivi wbqg mwVKfv‡e cvwjZ n‡j wbeÜK †Kv¤úvwb‡K Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZ w`‡q GKLvbv cÎ cÖ`vb K‡ib, hv Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ bv‡g cwiwPZ| Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZc‡Î †hme welq D‡jøL _v‡K, Zvn‡jv− i. wbeÜb Awd‡mi bvg I wVKvbv ; ii. Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ Bmy¨i ZvwiL ; iii. Kvh©vi‡¤¢i ZvwiL ; iv. cÎ b¤^i ; v. Awdm mxj ; vi. wbe܇Ki bvg I c`wemn wmj I ¯^vÿi ; vii. †Kv‡bv kZ©hy³ _vK‡j Zvi weeiY BZ¨vw`| wb‡gœ Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZc‡Îi GKwU wPÎ †`qv n‡jv− cÎ bs-A/07/2004

MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKvi †Kv¤úvwb wbe܇Ki Kvh©vjq gwZwSj ev/G, XvKv-1000

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†hŠ_ g~jabx e¨emvq

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Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 103 aviv Abyhvqx ‘Y’ †Kv¤úvwb wjwg‡UW‡K Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZ †`qv †Mj| hv..............ZvwiL n‡Z Kvh©Ki n‡e| ¯^vÿi

wmj

wbeÜK

wPÎ: Kvh©vi‡¤¢i AbygwZcÎ

5.14 †Kv¤úvwbi g~jab Company Capital AvaywbK e¨emv‡qi RM‡Z g~jab‡K Rxebxkw³ wn‡m‡e AwfwnZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| A_© Qvov †h‡Kv‡bv e¨emvqB APj †hgb i³ Qvov gvby‡li kixi| Avgv‡`i Pvicv‡k †hme e¨emvq msMVb Avgiv †`wL †m¸‡jvi g‡a¨ e¨emv‡qi Dcv`vb me¸‡jv GKmv‡_ bvI _vK‡Z cv‡i| wKš‘ me cÖwZôv‡b GKwU g~j Dcv`vb Aek¨B Av‡Q Avi Zv n‡jv A_©| e¨emv‡qi cÖv_wgK e¨q wbe©vn, Drcv`b Kvh© Ae¨vnZ ivLv, cY¨ weZiY I kªwg‡Ki cvIbv cwi‡kva cÖf„wZ mKj Kv‡R A‡_©i cÖ‡qvRb| GRb¨B e¨emv‡qi mdjZv A‡bKvs‡kB A_©ms¯’v‡bi Dci wbf©i K‡i| A_© ms¯’vb g~jZ cÖwZôv‡bi A‡_©i cÖ‡qvRb wba©viY, Drm AbymÜvb, e¨envi wbiƒcY, fwel¨‡Zi Rb¨ A_© msiÿY, mvgwMÖK A_© msiÿY I mvgwMÖK A_© e¨e¯’vcbv BZ¨vw`i mv‡_ m¤úK©hy³| †Kv¤úvwb e¨emv‡q A_©ms¯’v‡bi ¯^í‡gqvw` I `xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡bi Drm mg~n wb‡gœ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv−

¯^í‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡bi Drm Sources of Short Term Business Finance A_©evRvi n‡Z wkí Z_v e¨emvq cÖwZôvbmg~‡ni ¯^í‡gqvw` g~jab ev cyuwR msMÖn Kiv nq| mvaviYZ GK eQ‡ii Rb¨ ¯^í †gqvw` A‡_©i ms¯’vb Kiv nq| evwYwR¨K e¨vsK, †`kxq FY`vZv †Mvôx, e¨e¯’vcbv cÖwZwbwae„›`, wej evRvi, mgevq e¨vsK, f~wgeÜwK e¨vsK cÖf„wZ wb‡q ¯^í †gqvw` F‡Yi Drm A_©evRvi MwVZ nq| 1. gvwj‡Ki Znwej (Owner’s Fund):

wPÎ: gvwj‡Ki Znwej|


88

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

e¨emv‡q ¯^í‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡bi †ÿ‡Î gvwj‡Ki Znwej‡K cÖavb Drm wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv nq| gvwjK cÖ_ gZ Zvi wb‡Ri mwÂZ A_© e¨emv‡q wewb‡qvM K‡ib| gvwj‡Ki Znwej n‡Z msM„nxZ A_© w`‡q e¨emv‡qi PjwZ g~ja‡bi cÖ‡qvRb †gUv‡bvi †Póv Kiv nq| G‡ÿ‡Î G Drm n‡Z msM„n xZ A_© Ach©vß n‡j Ab¨vb¨ Drm n‡Z A_©vq‡bi †Póv Kiv nq| 2. e¨emvq FY (Trade Credit): e¨emvq FY Ggb GK ai‡bi FY hv av‡i µq-weµ‡qi d‡j m„wó nq| G ai‡bi F‡Yi AvIZvq cY¨ mvgMÖxi we‡µZv cY¨ weµ‡qi GKwU wbw`©ó mgq ci †µZvi KvQ n‡Z g~j¨ MÖnY K‡i _v‡K| d‡j †µZvi wbKU GB wbw`©ó mg‡qi g‡a¨ g~j¨ cwi‡kva bv Kivi myweav FY wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ, hv‡K e¨emvq FY ejv nq| A_©vr, e¨emvq FY Ggb GK ai‡bi FY‡K eySvq hv GKRb e¨emv‡qi ¯^vfvweK Kg©Kv‡Ði d‡j cY¨ mieivnKvixi KvQ †_‡K †c‡q _v‡K| eZ©gv‡b Dbœqbkxj e¨emvq RM‡Z Giƒc F‡Yi e¨envi e¨emv‡qi A_©ms¯’vb‡K LyeB mnR K‡i‡Q| 3. evwYwR¨K e¨vsK (Commercial Bank): evwYwR¨K e¨vsK¸‡jv‡K ¯^í‡gqvw` F‡Yi e¨emvqx ejv nq| e¨vsK¸‡jvi cÖavb KvR n‡jv wewfbœ e¨emvq-evwYR¨ I wkí KviLvbvq ¯^í †gqvw` FY †`qv| myZivs †h †Kv‡bv e¨emvqxi A‡_©i cÖ‡qvRb n‡jB evwYwR¨K e¨vsK¸‡jvi KvQ n‡Z ¯^í‡gqv‡` A_© msMÖn Kiv hvq| G‡ÿ‡Î e¨vsK¸‡jv mnR k‡Z© avi, bM` FY I RgvwZwi³ FY wn‡m‡e A_© w`‡q _v‡K| 4. AvZ¥xq¯^Rb I eÜz evÜe (Relatives & Friends): cÖ‡Z¨K gvbyy‡liB Ggb wKQy AvZ¥xq ¯^Rb I eÜz evÜe _v‡K, hviv wewfbœ wec`-Avc` I cÖ‡qvR‡bi mgq GwM‡q Av‡m| e¨emvqx‡`i †ÿ‡ÎI †`Lv hvq, e¨emv‡q A_©vq‡b wbR¯^ Znwej n‡Z msM„nxZ A_© Ach©vß n‡j wbKUZg AvZ¥xq¯^Rb I eÜzevÜe‡`i kiYvcbœ nq Ges Zv‡`i KvQ †_‡K FY wn‡m‡e A_© wb‡q e¨emvq cwiPvjbv Kiv nq| AvZ¥xq ¯^Rb I eÜz-evÜe‡`i KvQ †_‡K FY MÖn‡Yi BwZevPK w`K n‡‛Q †Kv‡bv ai‡bi RvgvbZ Ges my` ev gybvdv bv w`‡qB LyeB mnR k‡Z© I mnR cÖwµqvq FY MÖnY Kiv hvq| 5. †`kxq e¨vsKvi (Indigenous Banks): cÖvPxbKvj n‡ZB e¨emv‡qi A_©ms¯’v‡b †`kxq e¨vsKvi gyL¨ f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Q| †`kxq e¨vsKvi ej‡Z A_© e¨emv‡q wjß wewfbœ e¨w³ ev gnvRb †kªYx‡K eySvq| †`kxq e¨vsKvi Pov my‡` wewfbœ e¨emvqx‡K FY cÖ`vb K‡i| MÖvgv‡j †`kxq e¨vsKvi‡`i Dcw¯’wZ AwaK jÿYxq| 6. e¨e¯’vcbv cÖwZwbwa (Management Agent): e¨e¯’vcbv cÖwZwbwa ej‡Z †Kv‡bv e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb‡K eySvq hviv Pzw³i AvIZvq †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwbi e¨e¯’vcbvi `vwq‡Z¡ wb‡qvwRZ _v‡K| Giƒc e¨e¯’vcbv cªwZwbwa e¨emv‡qi ¯^í‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡bi Ab¨Zg Drm| e¨e¯’vcbv cÖwZwbwa


†hŠ_ g~jabx e¨emvq

89

Avw_©K w`K †_‡K AZ¨šÍ ¯^‛Qj _vKvq Lye mn‡RB Zviv A‡_©i ms¯’vb Ki‡Z mÿg nq| ZvQvov evRv‡i h‡_ó mybvg _vKvq mn‡RB †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi FYcÎ wewµ Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges wb‡R‡`i wR¤§vq e¨vsK n‡Z FY MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| 7. mgevq e¨vsK I mgevq FY`vb mwgwZ (Co-operative Banks & Co-operative Credit Society): mgevq e¨vsK¸‡jv wewfbœ wkí, e¨emvq I evwY‡R¨ FY cÖ`v‡b ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivL‡Q| we‡kl K‡i †QvULv‡Uv wewfbœ wkí I e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡b ¯^í‡gqvw` FY cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g Gme cÖwZôv‡bi PjwZ g~ja‡bi cÖ‡qvRb †gUv‡‛Q| Ab¨w`‡K mgevq FY`vb mwgwZ m„wói D‡Ïk¨B n‡jv mnR k‡Z© wewfbœ e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡b FY `vb Kiv| Aek¨ Giƒc cÖwZôvb cÖavbZ m`m¨‡`i FY`v‡bi †ÿ‡ÎB AMÖvwaKvi w`‡q _v‡K| 8. AwMÖg A_© (Advance Money): †hme cÖwZôv‡bi Drcvw`Z cY¨ m¤ú‡K© evRv‡i h‡_ó mybvg i‡q‡Q Zv‡`i ¯^í‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡b Lye GKUv †eM †c‡Z nq bv| †Kbbv, Zv‡`i cY¨ cvIqvi R‡b¨ †µZv, LyPiv we‡µZv, cvBKvi, `vjvj ev dwoqvMY A‡bK mgq cY¨ Drcv`b ev msMÖ‡ni Av‡MB AwMÖg g~j¨ cwi‡kva K‡i _v‡K| Avevi, KuvPvgvj mieivnKvix cÖwZôvb¸‡jvI wewfbœ wkí gvwjK‡`i KvQ †_‡K KuvPvgv‡ji AwMÖg g~j¨ †c‡q _v‡K| 9. miKvwi I Avav miKvwi cÖwZôvb (Government and Semi-Govt. Organizations): miKvwi I Avav-miKvwi cÖwZôv‡bi A‡bK Kg©m~wP i‡q‡Q †`‡ki e¨emvq I wkí Lv‡Zi Dbœq‡b| KvwiMwi mnvqZvi cvkvcvwk Gme cªwZôvb ÿz`,ª gvSvwi I e„n`vKvi e¨emv‡qi PjwZ g~ja‡bi Pvwn`v wbim‡b ¯^í †gqvw` A_© mieivn K‡i _v‡K| 10. f~wg eÜwK e¨vsK (Land Mortgage Banks): f~wg eÜwK e¨vs‡Ki KvR n‡jv f~wg ev Rwg eÜK †i‡L FY cÖ`vb Kiv| wewfbœ e¨emvqx I wkí cÖwZôv‡bi gvwjKMY Zv‡`i e¨w³MZ I e¨emvwqK m¤úwË eÜK †i‡L f~wg eÜwK e¨vsK n‡Z ¯^í‡gqvw` FY MÖnY K‡i _v‡K| 11. wkí e¨vsK (Industrial Bank): wkí e¨vsK GKwU we‡klvwqZ e¨vsK| Giƒc e¨vs‡Ki cªavb KvR n‡jv †`‡ki wkíLv‡Zi Dbœq‡b FY I civgk© cÖ`vb Kiv| wkí e¨vsK ga¨g I `xN©‡gqvw` F‡Yi cvkvcvwk wk‡íi PjwZ g~ja‡bi Pvwn`v c~i‡Yi R‡b¨ ¯^í‡gqvw` FY gÄyi K‡i _v‡K| 12. ÿz`ª FY Kg©m~wP (Micro Credit Program): Avgv‡`i †`‡ki e¨emvq I KzwUi wk‡íi Dbœq‡b we‡kl K‡i ¯^í‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡b ÿy`ª FY Kg©m~wP gyL¨ f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Q| G‡ÿ‡Î †emiKvwi wewfbœ ms¯’v (NGO) †hgb−eªvK, Avkv, cÖwkKv cÖf„wZ MÖvgxY RbM‡Yi Av_©-mvgvwRK Ae¯’vi Dbœq‡b ÿz`ª FY Kg©m~wPi AvIZvq e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡b ¯^í‡gqvw` A‡_©i †hvMvb w`‡‛Q| we‡klvwqZ e¨vsK wn‡m‡e MÖvgxY e¨vs‡Ki RvgvbZwenxb ÿz`ª FY Kg©m~wPI e¨emv‡qi ¯^í‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡b Kvh©Ki f~wgKv ivL‡Q| 13. wej evÆvKiY (Discounting Bills): e¨emvq cÖwZôvb¸‡jv cÖvc¨ wej evÆvKi‡Yi gva¨‡gI ¯^í‡gqvw` A‡_©i ms¯’vb K‡i _v‡K| G‡ÿ‡Î cÖvc¨ wej †Kv‡bv e¨vsK ev Avw_©K cªwZôv‡b wb‡q


90

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

wM‡q we‡ji wjwLZ g~‡j¨i (Face Value) †P‡q Kg A‡_©i ms¯’vb Ki‡Z cv‡i| Riæwi cÖ‡qvR‡b Giƒc wej evÆvKi‡Yi gva¨‡g ¯^í‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’vb Kiv nq| 14. m¤úwË weµq (Sale of Assets): A‡bK mgq e¨emvq wKQy wKQy m¤úwË _v‡K hv e¨emv‡q Kv‡R jv‡M bv ev AwZwi³ ev AcÖ‡qvRbxq| Giƒc m¤úwË weµq K‡iI e¨emv‡qi ¯^í‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, mKj e¨emvq cÖwZôvbB ¯^í †gqvw` wewfbœ ai‡bi A_©ms¯’v‡bi Dci wbf©ikxj| ¯^í‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡bi Drm n‡‛Q cÖavbZ Drcv`b mswkøó e¨q| Kgx©‡`i cvwikªwgK Awdm iÿYv‡eÿY e¨q, cÖf„wZ Lv‡Z e¨q Kiv nq| e¨emvq A_©ms¯’v‡bi `xN©‡gqvw` Drm (Sources of Long Term Business Finance): `xN© Kvjxb mg‡qi Rb¨ A_©vr 5 ev 10 eQ‡ii AwaK mg‡qi Rb¨ e¨emv‡q †h A_©ms¯’vb Kiv nq Zv‡K `xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’vb e‡j| e„n`vqZb e¨emvq cÖwZôvb M‡o †Zvjvi Rb¨ `xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡bi cÖ‡qvRb nq|

`xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡bi Drmmg~n wb‡gœ eY©bv Kiv n‡jv− 1. †kqvi weµq (Sale of share): †Kv¤úvwb RbM‡Yi wbKU †kqvi weµq K‡i `xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’vb Ki‡Z cv‡i| mvaviYZ: †Kv¤úvwb we‡jvcmva‡bi Av‡M †kqv‡ii A_© †diZ w`‡Z nq bv| wewfbœ cÖKvi †kqv‡ii gva¨‡g G ai‡bi A_©ms¯’v‡bi KvR nq| 2. FYcÎ weµq (Sale of debenture): †Kv¤úvwb RbM‡Yi wbKU †kqvi weµq Kivi cvkvcvwk FYcÎ weµ‡qi gva¨‡g `xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’vb Ki‡Z cv‡i| 3. mwÂwZ Znwej (Reserve fund): †Kv¤úvwbi gybvdvi †h Ask eÈb bv K‡i †i‡L †`qv nq Zv‡K mwÂwZ Znwej e‡j| GB AewÈZ gybvdv w`‡q wewfbœ ai‡bi mwÂwZ Znwej MVb Kiv nq hv e¨emv‡qi `xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡bi Drm e‡j we‡ewPZ nq| †hgb- mvaviY mwÂwZ Znwej, jf¨vsk mgZvKiY Znwej|


†hŠ_ g~jabx e¨emvq

91

4. Ae‡jLK (Underwriter): †h mKj e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb bZzb †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi I FYcÎ weµ‡qi SzwuK MÖnY K‡i Zv‡`i‡K Ae‡jLK e‡j| †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi I FYcÎ weµq Kiv m¤¢e bv n‡j Ae‡jLKivB Pzw³ Abyhvqx Aewkó †kqvi I FYcÎ µq K‡i `xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡bi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡K| 5. †kqvi evRvi (Share market): †h wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b wbqwgZ I Aby‡gvw`Z fv‡e wewfbœ †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi I FYcÎ µq-weµq Kiv nq Zv‡K †kqvi evRvi ejv nq| †kqvi evRv‡i †kqvi weµ‡qi gva¨‡g `xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’vb Kiv hvq| 6. wkíe¨vsK (Industrial bank): wkíe¨vsK I wkí FY ms¯’v e„n`vqZb wkí ¯’vcb I Dbœq‡b `xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡bi KvR K‡i _v‡K| 7. eÜwK e¨vsK (Mortage bank): mvaviYZ: evwYwR¨K e¨vsK Dchy³ RvgvbZ †c‡j `xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡bi Rb¨ FY mieivn K‡i _v‡K| A‡bK mgq wewfbœ wkí cÖwZôv‡bi Rb¨ `xN©‡gqvw` wmwÛ‡K‡Ui gva¨‡g A_©ms¯’v‡bi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡K| 8. wewb‡qvMKvix cÖwZôvb (Investment organisation): wewfbœ wewb‡qvMKvix cÖwZôvb †hgb e¨vsK, exgv, wjwRs BZ¨vw` `xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’v‡bi e¨e¯’v K‡i| 9. exgv cÖwZôvb (Insurance company): e¨emv‡qi AwbðqZv `~i K‡i SuywK MÖnY K‡i _v‡K exgv cÖwZôvb| Giv G‡`i Kg©Kv‡Ði gva¨‡g e¨emv‡qi `xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’vb K‡i _v‡K| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, †h‡Kv‡bv e¨emvq cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ cÖPzi cwigvY g~jab ev Znwe‡ji cÖ‡qvRb nq| G cÖ‡qvRb `xN©‡gqvw`I nq| DcwiD³ Drm¸‡jvi gva¨‡g e¨emvq cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ `xN©‡gqvw` A_©ms¯’vb Kiv hvq|

5.15 †kqvi (Share) bZzb wKsev cyivZb †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi g~jab msMÖ‡ni cÖavb nvwZqvi n‡jv †kqvi| Bs‡iwR ‘Share’’ k‡ãi AvwfavwbK A_© ÕAskÕ| †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi †ÿ‡Î †kqviÑGi A_© n‡‛QцKv¤úvwbi †gvU g~ja‡bi Ask| †Kv¤úvwbi †gvU g~jab‡K †gvU mgcwigvY KZK¸‡jv ÿz`ª ÿz`ª GK‡K wef³ Kiv nq| G‡`i cÖ‡Z¨KwU GKK‡K GK GKwU †kqvi e‡j| cª‡Z¨KwU †kqv‡ii wbw`©ó AvswKK g~j¨ (Face value) _v‡K Ges cÖ‡Z¨KwUi g~j¨ mgvb _v‡K| †hgbцKv‡bv ‡Kv¤úvwbi 10 jÿ UvKvi g~jab‡K 10,000 fv‡M fvM Kiv n‡j GK GKwU fv‡Mi g~j¨ n‡e 100 UvKv| g~ja‡bi G †kqv‡ii gvwjK n‡q †Kv¤úvwbi gvwjKvbv `vwe Kiv hvq| †Kv¤úvwbi wbe©vP‡b †fvU`v‡bi AwaKvi cvIqv hvq| e„n`vqZb †Kv¤úvwb Pjgvb Ae¯’vq Avw_©K msK‡U co‡j †kqvi wewµi gva¨‡g g~jab msMÖ‡ni e¨e¯’v K‡i|


92

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

myZivs †Kv¤úvwbi mgMÖ g~jab‡K mgcwigvY GK‡K wef³ Ki‡j cÖ‡Z¨KwU GKK‡K †kqvi e‡j| cÖ‡Z¨KwU GKKB mgvb g~j¨ enb K‡i Ges g~ja‡bi GKwU ÿz`ª Ask wb‡`©k K‡i, hv‡K †kqvi e‡j| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, †kqvi n‡‛Q †Kv¤úvwbi †gvU g~ja‡bi Ask| †h e¨w³ †kqvi µq K‡i Zv‡K †kqvi‡nvìvi e‡j| cÖ‡Z¨KwU †kqvi g~ja‡bi Ask e‡j †mwU µ‡qi Øviv †kqvi‡nvìviMY †Kv¤úvwbi AvswkK gvwjKvbv jvf K‡i Ges Gi e‡j Zviv †Kv¤úvwbi jf¨vsk cvevi AwaKvi jvf K‡i| †Kv¤úvwbi we‡jvc mvab NU‡j †kqvi‡nvìviMY †Kv¤úvwbi m¤úwˇZ cÖ`Ë g~ja‡bi AvbycvwZK Ask †diZ cvevi AwaKvix nq|

†kqv‡ii †kªwYwefvM Classification of Shares of Company †kqvi n‡jv †h․_ g~jabx †Kv¤úvwbi †gvU g~ja‡bi ÿy`Z ª g Ask| †Kv¤úvwb g~jab msMÖn Kivi Rb¨ RbM‡Yi Kv‡Q †kqvi wewµ K‡i †`q| †Kv¤úvwb wb‡Ri Ges wewb‡qvMKvix‡`i K_v we‡ePbv K‡i,wewfbœ cÖKvi †kqvi Bmy¨ K‡i| wb‡gœ Q‡Ki gva¨‡g †kqv‡ii †kªwYwefvM †`Lv‡bv n‡jv−

†kqvi

mvaviY †kqvi

AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi

wejw¤^Z †kqvi

we‡kl/Ab¨vb¨ †kqvi

†evbvm †kqvi AwaKvi ev ivBU Awba©vwiZ g~j¨ ev AbvswKK †kqvi g~‡j¨i †kqvi

AmÂqx cwi‡kva¨ mÂqx AMÖ vwaKvi AMÖvwaKvi AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi †kqvi †kqvi

Acwi‡kva¨ AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi

AskMÖnYKvix Ask bv MÖnYKvix cwieZ©b‡hvM¨ AMÖvwaKvi AMÖvwaKvi AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi †kqvi †kqvi

AcwieZ©bxq AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi

wPÎ: †kqv‡ii †kªwYwefvM|

1. mvaviY †kqvi (Ordinary Share): †h †kqv‡ii gvwjKMY AMÖvwaKvihy³ †kqv‡ii gvwjK‡`i g‡a¨ jf¨vsk eȇbi ci jf¨vsk cvq Ges e¨emvq we‡jvc mvabKv‡jI AMÖvwaKvi hy³ †kqvi gvwjK‡`i g~jab †`qvi ci Zv‡`i g~jab †diZ cvevi AwaKvix nq Zv‡K mvaviY ev BKz¨BwU †kqvi e‡j|


†hŠ_ g~jabx e¨emvq

93

mvaviY †kqv‡ii jf¨vs‡ki nv‡ii †Kv‡bv w¯’iZv †bB| jvf †ewk n‡j jf¨vsk †ewk n‡e Avi jvf Kg n‡j Zv‡`i cÖvc¨ jf¨vskI Kg n‡e| mvaviY †kqvi‡K BKz¨BwU †kqvi ejv nq| G ai‡bi †kqvi gvwjKMY c~Y© †fvUvwaKvi cÖvß nb Ges e¨emvq cwiPvjbvq AskMÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| 2. AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi (Preference Share): †h †kqv‡ii gvwjKMY e¨emv‡qi jf¨vsk eȇbi †ÿ‡Î ev e¨emv‡qi we‡jvc mva‡bi mg‡q Zv‡`i g~ja‡bi A_© †diZ cvevi †ÿ‡Î AMÖvwaKvi jvf K‡i _v‡Kb Zv‡KB e‡j AMÖvwaKvihy³ †kqvi| †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 85 bs avivq ejv Av‡Q †h, AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi n‡jv †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi g~ja‡bi †mB Ask hv wbæiƒc myweavmg~n †fvM K‡i _v‡K: (K) jf¨vsk eȇbi mgq G †kqv‡ii wbw`©ó nv‡i jf¨vsk cvevi AMÖvwaKvi _v‡K| (L) †Kv¤úvwb we‡jvc n‡j g~jab †diZ †`evi AMÖvwaKvi _vK‡Z cv‡i| jf¨vsk eÈb c×wZi Dci wfwË K‡i AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi‡K Avevi KwZcq †kªYx‡Z fvM Kiv hvq− i. mÂqx AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi (Cumulative Preference Share): hw` †Kv‡bv eQi †Kv¤úvwbi gybvdv AwR©Z bv nq Zvn‡j †Kv¤úvwb Zv‡`i jf¨vsk cÖ`v‡b e¨_© nq | Z‡e Zv‡`i Acwi‡kvwaZ jf¨vsk e‡Kqv †i‡L c‡i hLb †Kv¤úvwb gybvdv AwR©Z nq ZLb eZ©gvb jf¨vs‡ki mv‡_ c~‡e©i Acwi‡kvwaZ e‡Kqv jf¨vsk cwi‡kva K‡i †`qv nq| Acwi‡kvwaZ jf¨vsk †Kv¤úvwbi KvQ cvIbv n‡Z _v‡K Ges gybvdv AwR©Z n‡j †Kv¤úvwb Zv cÖ`vb K‡i| G ai‡bi †kqvi‡K mÂqx AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi ejv n‡q _v‡K| ii. AmÂqx AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi (Non-Cumulative Preference Share): G †kªYxi †kqvi gvwjKMY †KejgvÎ †h eQi †Kv¤úvwbi gybvdv AwR©Z nq †m eQiB jf¨vsk cvevi AwaKvix nq| hw` †Kv‡bv eQi †Kv¤úvwbi gybvdv AwR©Z bv nq Zvn‡j Zviv †Kv¤úvwbi Kv‡Q H eQ‡ii gybvdv `vwe Ki‡Z cv‡i bv Ges Giƒc gybvdv †Kv¤úvwbi Kv‡Q Zv‡`i cvIbv nq bv| G Kvi‡Y Giƒc †kqvi‡K AmÂqx AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi e‡j| iii. cwi‡kva¨ AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi (Redeemable Preference Share): †h AMÖvwaKvi †kqv‡ii g~j¨ GKwU wbw`©ó mgq †k‡l †kqvi gvwjK‡`i †diZ †`qv nq Zv‡K cwi‡kva¨ AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi e‡j| Giƒc †kqvi †Kej cwi‡gj wbqgvewji Aby‡gv`bµ‡g †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi kZ© Abyhvqx weµq Kiv P‡j| GwU g~jZ †kqvi I FYc‡Îi wgwkªZ GK we‡kl ai‡bi †kqvi| iv. Acwi‡kva¨ AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi (Irredeemable Preference Share): †h AMÖvwaKvi †kqv‡ii g~j¨ †Kv¤úvwbi we‡jvc mva‡bi c~‡e© †dir cvIqv hvq bv Zv‡K Acwi‡kva¨ †kqvi e‡j| v. AskMÖnYKvix AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi (Participating Preference Share): †h AMÖvwaKvi †kqv‡ii gvwjKMY gybvdv n‡Z cÖ_gZ wbw`©ó nv‡i jf¨vsk cÖvß n‡jI cieZ©x‡Z mvaviY †kqvi gvwjK‡`i g‡a¨ jf¨vsk eȇbi mgq cybivq Zvi Ask cvq Zv‡K AskMÖnbKvix AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi ev cvwU©wm‡cwUs †kqvi e‡j|


94

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

vi. Ask bv MÖnYKvix AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi (Non-Participating Preference Share): †h RvZxq †kqv‡ii gwjKMY gybvdv n‡Z ïaygvÎ wbw`©ó nv‡i jf¨vsk cvq wKš‘ mvaviY †kqvi gvwjK‡`i gv‡a¨ jf¨vsk eȇbi mgq cybivq Ask cvq bv Zv‡K Ask bv MÖnYKvix AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi ev bb cvwU©wm‡cwUs †kqvi e‡j| vii. cwieZ©b‡hvM¨ AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi (Convertible Preference Share): †kqvi weµ‡qi kZ© Abyhvqx wbw`©ó mgqv‡šÍ †h AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi‡K mvaviY †kqv‡i iƒcvšÍ‡ii my‡hvM †`qv nq Zv‡K cwieZ©b‡hvM¨ †kqvi e‡j| viii. AcwieZ©b‡hvM¨ AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi (Non-Convertible Preference Share): †h AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi‡K KLbB mvaviY †kqv‡i iƒcvšÍwiZ Kiv hvq bv Zv‡K AcwieZ©b‡hvM¨ AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi e‡j| 3. wejw¤^Z †kqvi (Deferred Share): AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi I mvaviY †kqvi gvwjK‡`i g‡a¨ jf¨vsk eȇbi ci G †kªYxi †kqvi gvwjK‡`i g‡a¨ jf¨vsk eÈb Kiv nq| Avevi †Kv¤úvwbi we‡jvc mva‡bi †ÿ‡Î c~‡e©v³ `yB †kªYxi †kqvi gvwjK‡`i g~ja‡bi A_© cÖZ¨vc©Y Kivi ci hw` g~ja‡bi ev m¤úwËi †Kv‡bv DØ„Ë _v‡K Zvn‡j Zv‡`i `vwe †gUv‡bv nq| Kv‡RB †Kv¤úvwbi jf¨vsk eÈb ev g~jab cÖZ¨c©‡Yi wel‡q Giv me©‡kl `vwe`vi ev AwaKvi‡fvMx| †Kv¤úvwbi cÖeZ©K ev D‡`¨v³vivB G †kªYxi †kqv‡ii gvwjK nq| G ai‡bi †kqvi‡K cÖeZ©‡Ki †kqvi ev Founder’s Share e‡j| 4. we‡kl/Ab¨vb¨ †kqvi (Special/Other Share): mvaviYfv‡e Dc‡i ewY©Z wZb ai‡bi †kqvi †`Lv hvq| Z‡e A‡bK mgq †Kv¤úvwb‡K Dc‡ii †kqvi¸‡jv QvovI wewfbœ bv‡g †kqvi eÈb Ki‡Z †`Lv hvq| •ewk‡ó¨i `„wó‡Z G †kqvi¸‡jv mvaviY †kqvi| wb‡gœ wZb ai‡bi we‡kl †kqv‡ii eY©bv †`qv n‡jv− K. Awae„wË/†evbvm †kqvi (Bonus Share): KLbI KLbI †Kv¤úvwb AwR©Z gybvdvi wKQy wKQy Ask m`m¨‡`i g‡a¨ eÈb bv K‡i †Kv¤úvwbi Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ msiwÿZ Znwe‡j Zv Rgv iv‡L| Znwe‡j iwÿZ GB AewÈZ gybvdv †_‡K m„ó jf¨vsk cieZ©x‡Z †kqvi gvwjKMY‡K bM‡` cÖ`vb bv K‡i H jf¨vs‡ki e`‡j †Kv¤úvwb †kqvi Bmy¨ K‡i| bM` jf¨vs‡ki e`‡j †h †kqvi Bmy¨ ev cÖ`vb Kiv nq †mB †kqvi‡K Awae„wË ev †evbvm †kqvi e‡j| G †kqvi‡K we‡kl ai‡bi †kqvi ejv n‡jI G †kqvi mvaviY †kqv‡ii AšÍM©Z| †evbvm †kqv‡ii AvswKK g~j¨ bM‡` †kqvi gvwjKMY‡K bv w`‡q Zv msiwÿZ Znwej †_‡K g~jab Znwe‡j iƒcvšÍi Kiv nq| L. AwaKvi ev ivBU †kqvi (Right Share): cª‡qvR‡bi ZvwM‡` AwaKZi g~jab msMÖ‡ni D‡Ï‡k¨ †Kv¤úvwb Avevi bZzb K‡i †kqvi evRv‡i Qvovi mgq eZ©gvb †kqvi gvwjK‡`i‡K cÖvavb¨ w`‡q _v‡K| eZ©gvb (existing) †kqvi gvwjKMY Zv‡`i AwaKvify³ c~‡e© KªxZ †kqv‡ii Abycv‡Z bZzb †kqvi µ‡qi AwaKvix nq| AwaKvi cÖvß G bZzb †kqvi‡K ivBU †kqvi e‡j| g‡b Kiv


†hŠ_ g~jabx e¨emvq

95

hvK, †Kv¤úvwb wm×všÍ wbj †h, Zviv 2:1 Abycv‡Z ivBU †kqvi Bmy¨ Ki‡e| A_©vr hvi cyivZb 2wU †kqvi Av‡Q †m 1wU bZzb †kqvi Kª‡qi ivBU †kqvi wn‡m‡e cv‡e| ivBU †kqviI †Kv‡bv c„_K ai‡bi †kqvi bq| GwU mvaviY ev AMÖvwaKvi †kqvi n‡Z cv‡i| M. Awba©vwiZ g~j¨ ev Abvw¼K g~‡j¨i †kqvi (No-par value Shares): †h †kqv‡ii †Kv‡bv Avw¼K g~j¨ c~e© n‡Z wbw`©ó _v‡K bv, eQi †k‡l wnmveÑwbKv‡ki ci †gvU m¤ú` n‡Z †gvU Ab¨vb¨ `v‡qi cwigvY ev` w`‡q †kqv‡ii g~j¨gvb wbiƒcY Kiv nq, Zv‡K Abvw¼K g~‡j¨i †kqvi e‡j| Avgv‡`i †`‡k G ai‡bi †kqv‡ii cÖPjb †bB| Av‡gwiKvq G ai‡bi †kqvi †ewk †`Lv hvq| cÖeZ©K ev D‡`¨v³vMY G †kqv‡ii gvwjK nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, †Kv¤úvwb wewfbœ cwiw¯’wZ‡Z wewfbœ ai‡bi †kqv‡ii e¨envi NUvq †kqvi‡nvìviMY Zv‡`i cÖ‡qvRb I mvg_©¨ Abyhvqx Gme †kqvi aviY K‡ib| Dc‡ii Av‡jvPbvq wewfbœ ai‡bi †kqvi m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| Kg©cÎ-4 †kqv‡ii †kÖwYwefvM ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i †Zvgvi Kv‡Q †Kvb ai‡bi †kqvi m‡e©vËg g‡b nq Ges †Kb? • • • • •

5.16 FYc‡Îi aviYv Concept of Debenture FYcÎ n‡jv F‡Yi `wjj| A_©‣bwZKfv‡e msKUMÖ¯Í cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi A_© msMÖ‡ni Ab¨Zg nvwZqvi G FYcÎ| FYc‡Îi gva¨‡g †Kv¤úvwb GKw`‡K A_© msMÖn K‡i Ab¨w`‡K A_© cÖ`vbKvix e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb wbw`©ó mg‡q my` cÖvwßi gva¨‡g Av‡qi welq wbwðZ nq| hviv FYcÎ µq K‡i Zv‡`i‡K †Kv¤úvwbi cvIbv`vi e‡j| cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb ¯^xq mxj‡gvnihy³ †h `wj‡ji mvnv‡h¨ GKwU wbw`©ó nv‡i cÖwZeQi my` cÖ`v‡bi cÖwZkÖæwZ‡Z RbM‡Yi wbKU †_‡K FY wn‡m‡e g~jab msMÖn K‡i Zv‡K FYcÎ e‡j| FYc‡Î †Kv¤úvwbi bvghy³ mxj‡gvni _v‡K| Gi Dci cÖ‡`q my`, Rvwgb, cwi‡kv‡ai mgq cÖf„wZ kZ©vewji D‡jøL _v‡K| †kqv‡ii g‡Zv GiI GKwU Avw¼K g~j¨ _v‡K| D‡jøL¨ †h,


96

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

†Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abyhvqx cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb FYcÎ wewj K‡i FY msMÖn Ki‡Z cv‡i| cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb FYcÎ wewµ Ki‡Z cv‡i bv|

FYc‡Îi †kªwYwefvM Classification of Debenture FYc·K F‡Yi `wjj ejv nq| †Kv¤úvwbi g~jab MV‡bi Rb¨ G `wjjwU wewfbœfv‡e e¨envi K‡i| myZivs, FYcÎ wewfbœ cÖKv‡ii n‡Z cv‡i| F‡Yi RvgvbZ, FY cwi‡kv‡ai kZ©, n¯ÍvšÍi I cwieZ©‡bi my‡hvM, myweav BZ¨vw`i wfwˇZ FYc·K wewfbœ fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| †Kv¤úvwbi FY `vZviv my‡hvM Ges Pvwn`v Abyhvqx FY cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K|

FYc·K wb‡æv³ †kªYx‡Z wef³ Kiv hvq− FYc‡Îi †kªwYwefvM Rvgvb‡Zi wfwˇZ FYcÎ

cwi‡kv‡ai wfwˇZ FYcÎ

ZvwjKvfyw³ ev n¯—vš—i myweavi wfwˇZ FYcÎ

1. mvaviY ev RvgvbZ wenxb FYcÎ

1. cwi‡kva¨ FYcÎ

1. wbewÜZ FYcÎ

2. eÜKx ev RvgvbZhy³ FYcÎ

2. Acwi‡kva¨ FYcÎ

2. AwbewÜZ FYcÎ

cwieZ©b myweavi wfwˇZ FYcÎ

1. iƒcvš—i‡hvM¨ FYcÎ 2. Aiƒcvš—i‡hvM¨ FYcÎ

wPÎ: FYc‡Îi †kªwYwefvM|

K. Rvgvb‡Zi wfwˇZ FYcÎ Classification on the Basis of Security 1. mvaviY ev RvgvbZ wenxb FYcÎ (Ordinary or Unsecured Debenture): †h FYcÎ wewj Ki‡Z †Kv¤úvwb‡K †Kv‡bv cÖKv‡ii Rvwgb w`‡Z nq bv Zv‡K mvaviY ev RvgvbZ wenxb FYcÎ e‡j| G RvZxq FYc‡Î kyay F‡Yi UvKv I my` cÖ`v‡bi cÖwZkÖæwZ _v‡K| evRv‡i †Kv¤úvwbi h‡_ó mybvg _vK‡j Zvi Dci wfwË K‡i RbmvaviY Rvwgb QvovB Giƒc FYcÎ µq K‡i _v‡K| mybvgB †µZvi Kv‡Q RvgvbZ wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| Giƒc FYc‡Îi gvwjKMY †Kv¤úvwbi mvaviY cvIbv`vi e‡j we‡ewPZ nb|


†hŠ_ g~jabx e¨emvq

97

2. eÜKx ev RvgvbZhy³ FYcÎ (Mortgage or Secured Debenture): e¨emv‡qi †Kv‡bv m¤úwË eÜK †i‡L ev Rvwgb †i‡L †Kv¤úvwb †hme FYcÎ Bmy¨ K‡i, †m¸‡jv‡K eÜKx FYcÎ ejv nq| G‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi FYMÖnxZvMY F‡Yi Avmj I my` cvIqvi wbðqZv jvf K‡i| G RvZxq FYcÎ wewji †ÿ‡Î †Kv¤úvwb‡K FYc‡Îi RvgvbZK…Z m¤ú‡`i we¯ÍvwiZ weeiY w`‡q wbe܇Ki Kv‡Q Rvbv‡Z nq|

eÜKx/RvgvbZhy³ FYc·K wb‡gœœv³ fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq: 3. wbw`©ó RvgvbZ hy³ FYcÎ (Fixed Charge Debenture): †Kv¤úvwbi we‡kl m¤ú‡`i Dci Rvwgb †i‡L †h FYcÎ wewj Kiv nq Zv‡K e‡j wbw`©ó RvgvbZhy³ FYcÎ| Gme †ÿ‡Î FYcÎavix‡`i AbygwZ QvovB †jb‡`b K‡i _v‡K|

L. cwi‡kv‡ai wfwˇZ FYcÎ Classification on the Basis of Payment 1. cwi‡kva¨ FYcÎ (Redeemable Debenture): wbw`©ó mgq †k‡l FY cwi‡kv‡ai cÖwZkÖæwZ w`‡q †h me FYcÎ †Kv¤úvwb Bmy¨ K‡i _v‡K †m¸‡jv‡K e‡j cwi‡kva¨ FYcÎ| mvaviYfv‡e FYc‡Î D‡jøwLZ kZ©vbymv‡i Giƒc F‡Yi UvKv cwi‡kva Ki‡Z nq| 2. Acwi‡kva¨ FYcÎ (Irredeemable Debenture): †h FYc‡Îi UvKv cwi‡kv‡ai †ÿ‡Î †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó mgq D‡jøL _v‡K bv Ges FYcÎavwiMY Zv‡`i cÖ`Ë A_© `vwe Ki‡Z cv‡i bv Zv‡K Acwi‡kva¨ FYcÎ e‡j| Giƒc FYc·K wPi¯’vqx FYcÎ e‡j|

M. ZvwjKvfyw³ ev n¯ÍvšÍi myweavi wfwˇZ FYcÎ Classification on the basis of Registration 1. wbewÜZ FYcÎ (Registered Debenture): †h FYc‡Î †µZvi bvg †Kv¤úvwbi eB‡Z wjwce× _v‡K Zv‡K wbewÜZ FYcÎ e‡j| G ai‡bi wbeÜb c‡Î †µZvi bvg, µwgK b¤^imn D‡jøL _v‡K| n¯ÍvšÍi `wjj m¤cÖ`vb K‡i G ai‡bi FYc‡Îi aviK mswkøó FYcÎ †Kv¤úvwb‡K Rvwb‡q wewµ Ki‡Z cv‡i| 2. AwbewÜZ FYcÎ (Un-Registered Debenture): †h FYc‡Î †µZvi bvg Ges Gi wewjKvix †Kv¤úvwbi eB‡Z wjwce× _v‡K bv Zv‡K AwbewÜZ FYcÎ e‡j| G FYc‡Î †µZvi bvg I KªwgK b¤^i D‡jøL _v‡K bv| G ai‡bi FYcÎ n¯ÍvšÍ‡ii Rb¨ †Kv‡bv AvbyôvwbKZv cvjb Ki‡Z nq bv|

N. cwieZ©b myweavi wfwˇZ FYcÎ Classification on the basis of conversion 1. iƒcvšÍi‡hvM¨ FYcÎ (Convertible Debenture): kZ©vbymv‡i GKwU wbw`©ó mg‡qi c‡i FYc‡Îi gvwjKMY B‛Qv Ki‡j Zv‡`i FYc·K †kqv‡i iƒcvšÍi Ki‡Z cv‡i| G ai‡bi FYc·K cwieZ©bxq ev iƒcvšÍi‡hvM¨ FYcÎ e‡j|


98

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

2. AiƒcvšÍi‡hvM¨ FYcÎ (Unconvertible Debenture): †h FYc·K KLbB †kqv‡i iƒcvšÍ i Kiv hvq bv Zv‡K AiƒcvšÍ i ‡hvM¨ FYcÎ e‡j| †Kej A‡_© i gva¨‡g G FYc‡Îi UvKv cwi‡kva Kiv n‡q _v‡K| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, †Kv¤úvwb RM‡Z wewfbœ ai‡bi FYc‡Îi e¨envi e¨vcK| wewfbœ ai‡bi FYcÎ †Kv¤úvwbi A_©vq‡b wewfbœfv‡e Ae`vb ivL‡Q|

• • • • •

Kg©cÎ-5 †kqvi I FYcÎ ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i †kqvi I FYc‡Îi g‡a¨ 5wU cv_©K¨ wjL: †kqvi FYcÎ • • • • •

5.17 †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi we‡jvcmvavb Dissolution/Winding up of the Company we‡jvcmvab ej‡Z ¸wU‡q †djv ev wejyß Kiv ev eÜ K‡i †`qv‡K †evSvq| Avi †Kv¤úvwbi we‡jvcmvab ej‡Z Gi Kvh©µg eÜ K‡i †`qv‡K †evSvq| †h c×wZ‡Z †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh©ÿgZvi Aemvb N‡U Zv‡K †Kv¤úvwbi we‡jvcmvab e‡j| †Kv¤úvwb AvBb-m„ó K…wÎg e¨w³mËvi AwaKvix GKwU †¯^‛Qv msMVb| AvB‡bi gva¨‡g m„ó e‡j Gi cwimgvwßI AvB‡bi gva¨‡gB n‡q _v‡K| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi wbqg †gvZv‡eK †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh© µ g ¸wU‡q †djv‡K B †Kv¤úvwbi we‡jvcmvab e‡j| AvB‡bi weavb cvj‡bi gva¨‡g †Kv¤úvwbi Kvh© µ g ¸wU‡q †bqv hvq| Avi G i gva¨‡gB †Kv¤úvwb nvivq Zvi Aw¯Í Z ¡ |

†Kv¤úvwb we‡jvcmvab c×wZ Methods of Dissolution of the Company †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi weavb Abyhvqx †Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwbi KvRKg© ¸wU‡q †bqvi c×wZ‡K †Kv¤úvwbi we‡jvcmvab e‡j| 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvB‡bi 234(1) avivq †Kv¤úvwbi we‡jvcmva‡bi wZbwU c×wZ D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q| K. Av`vjZ KZ©„K eva¨Zvg~jK we‡jvcmvab [234-1(K) aviv ]: †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi‡nvìvi, cvIbv`vi ev †Kv¤úvwbi wbe܇Ki Av‡e`‡bi †cÖwÿ‡Z †h me Kvi‡Y Av`vjZ KZ©„K eva¨Zvg~jK we‡jvcmvab n‡Z cv‡i, †m¸‡jv n‡jv−


†hŠ_ g~jabx e¨emvq

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

99

we‡kl mfvq †kqvi‡nvìviMY KZ©„K we‡jvc mva‡bi wm×všÍ MÖnY; wbw`©ó mg‡qi g‡a¨ wewae× mfv Abyôvb I wbe܇Ki wbKU wewae× weeiYx †c‡k e¨_©Zv; wbe܇bi GK eQi mg‡qi g‡a¨ Kvh©vi‡¤¢ e¨_©Zv; hyw³msMZ KviY e¨ZxZ GK eQi mg‡qi †ewk Kvh©µg eÜ _vKv; AvBb †gvZv‡eK †Kv¤úvwb‡Z b~¨bZg msL¨K m`m¨ bv _vKv; †Kv¤úvwbi cuvP nvRvi UvKv ev Zvi †P‡q †ewk cwigvY FY cwi‡kv‡a e¨_©Zv;

D‡jøwLZ †h‡Kv‡bv Kvi‡Y Av`vjZ Aemvq‡bi wm×všÍ wb‡q GKRb wjKzBwWUi wb‡qvM Ki‡Z cv‡ib, whwb †Kv¤úvwbi me m¤úwË n‡Z cÖ_‡g Z…Zxq c‡ÿi †`bv cwi‡kva K‡i wKQy _vK‡j †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i g‡a¨ eÈb K‡ib| L. †¯^”Qvq we‡jvcmvab [234-1(L) aviv]: †Kv¤úvwbi †kqvi‡nvìvi ev cvIbv`viMY B‡‛Q Ki‡j wb‡RivB †Kv¤úvwbi Aemvqb NUv‡Z cv‡ib| †m †ÿ‡Î †kqvi‡nvìvi I cvIbv`viMY cvi¯úwiK †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wfwˇZ Av`vj‡Zi mvnvh¨ QvovB †¯^ ‛ Qvq we‡jvcmvab NUv‡Z cv‡ib| †hme Kvi‡Y †Kv¤úvwbi †¯^ ‛ Qvq we‡jvcmvab NUv‡Z cv‡i Zv n‡jv [290(1) aviv] : i. we‡kl mfvq †kqvi‡nvìviMY I cvIbv`vie„‡›`i we‡jvcmva‡bi wm×všÍ MÖnY; ii. †Kv‡bv we‡kl D‡Ï‡k¨ I mg‡qi Rb¨ †Kv¤úvwb MwVZ n‡q Zv m¤úbœ n‡j; iii. †Kv¤úvwb FYMÖ¯Í n‡q co‡j Ges cwi‡kv‡a Aÿg n‡j; iv. †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbv AjvfRbK n‡j BZ¨vw`| M. Av`vj‡Zi ZË¡veav‡b we‡jvcmvab 234-1(M) aviv: †Kv¤úvwbi †¯^‛Qvg~jK we‡jvcmva‡bi †ÿ‡Î †h‡Kv‡bv c‡ÿi Av‡e`‡bi †cÖwÿ‡Z Av`vj‡Zi ZË¡veav‡b we‡jvcmvab NU‡Z cv‡i| †hme Kvi‡Y Giƒc we‡jvcmvab N‡U| †mme n‡jv : i. †kqvi gvwjK ev cvIbv`vi‡`i cÖZviYvi D‡Ï‡k¨ we‡jvc mva‡bi wm×všÍ MÖnY Kiv n‡j; ii. †Kv¤úvwbi m¤ú` msMÖn I weµ‡q Awbqg n‡j; BZ¨vw`| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, Dc‡i D‡jøwLZ wewfbœ cš’vq †Kv¤úvwbi Aemvb NUv‡bv hvq| G¸‡jv Qvov †h‡Kv‡bv †h․w³K Kvi‡Y Av`vjZ †h‡Kv‡bv †Kv¤úvwbi we‡jvc mvab NUv‡Z cv‡i|

5.18 evsjv‡`‡k †Kv¤úvwb msMV‡bi eZ©gvb Ae¯’v I fwel¨Z m¤¢vebv The Present Condition and Future Prospects of Company in Bangladesh cÖvq 15 †KvwU gvby‡li †`k nIqvq G‡`‡ki Af¨šÍixY evRvi †gvUvgywU eo| Z`ycwi m¯Ív Rbkw³i Kvi‡Y G †`‡ki A‡bK eo eo e¨emvq cÖwZôvb M‡o IVv cÖZ¨vwkZ wQj| wKš‘ `ytLRbK n‡jI mZ¨ †h, G †`‡k e„n`vqZb e¨emvq cÖwZôvb ev †Kv¤úvwb msMVb we¯Ívi jvf Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| Gi wcQ‡b AšÍivqmg~n wbgœiƒc−


100

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1. `ÿ D‡`¨v³vi Afve (Insufficiency of efficient entrepreneurs): G ai‡bi e¨emvq msMVb M‡o †Zvjvi Rb¨ GK`j `ÿ, AwfÁ I AvšÍwiK D‡`¨v³v †kªYx Avek¨K| `ytLRbK n‡jI mZ¨ †h, G †`‡k Zvi Afve i‡q‡Q| 2. `ÿ I †ckv`vi e¨e¯’vc‡Ki Afve (Insufficiency of shilled and professional managers): †Kv¤úvwb cÖwZôv‡bi we‡klZ e„n`vqZb cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwbi cwiPvjbv c×wZ RwUj nIqvq Gi cwiPvjbvq GK`j `ÿ I †ckv`vi e¨e¯’vc‡Ki cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| evsjv‡`‡k G ai‡bi e¨e¯’vc‡Ki h‡_ó Afve jÿYxq| 3. cwiPvjK‡`i BwZevPK g‡bvfv‡ei Afve (Lack of the positive mentality of directors): Avgv‡`i †`‡ki A‡bK †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvj‡Ki e¨emvq cwiPvjbvq BwZevPK g‡bvfv‡ei h‡_÷ Afve jÿYxq| e¨vsK †_‡K FY wb‡q Zv cwi‡kva bv Kiv, †kqv‡ii `vg evwo‡q wb‡R‡`i ¯^v_©wmw×, ¯^RbcÖxwZ BZ¨vw` gvbwmKZv mevB‡K nZvk K‡i| 4. cwiPvjbv e¨‡qi AvwaK¨ (Excess management expenses): cwiPvjKmn Gi D‛P ch©v‡qi A‡bK e¨e¯’vc‡Ki g‡a¨ AwaK e¨q Kivi nxb gvbwmKZvI jÿYxq| †kqvi‡nvìvi‡`i cÖwZ `vwqZ¡‡ev‡ai Afve †_‡K G ai‡bi gvbwmKZvi m„wó nq, hv mevB‡K nZvk K‡i| 5. kw³ m¤ú‡`i Afve (Lack of energy): e„n`vqZb wkí KviLvbv M‡o †Zvjvi Rb¨ eZ©gvbKv‡j kw³ m¤ú‡`i cÖvPzh©Zv ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| wKš‘ evsjv‡`‡k M¨vm I we`y¨r Lv‡Zi `yie¯’v G ai‡bi cÖwZôvb MV‡b D‡`¨v³v‡`i wbiærmvwnZ K‡i| 6. Kvh©Ki `„óv‡šÍi Afve (Absence of effective instance): c„w_exi †`‡k †`‡k jÿYxq †h, GKUv D‡`¨v³v MÖæc †`‡k e„n`vqZb wkí-KviLvbv cÖwZôvq †bZ…Z¡ w`‡q‡Q| hv‡`i `„óvšÍ Abymi‡Y Ab¨iv GwM‡q G‡m‡Q| wKš‘ Avgv‡`i †`‡k GB `„óv‡šÍi eoB Afve i‡q‡Q| 7. Kvh©Ki e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki Abycw¯’wZ (Absence of effective business environment): Avgv‡`i `yf©vM¨ n‡jv GB †h, †`‡k e¨emv‡qi Kvh©Ki †Kv‡bv cwi‡ek M‡o I‡Vwb| cvU, Pvgov BZ¨vw` wkí GK mgq G¸‡jI cieZ©x‡Z Zv ¯’vqx nqwb| miKv‡ii RvZxqKiY bxwZI ¯^vaxbZv cieZ©x mg‡q mdj nqwb| †PvivKvievixI GK mgq e¨emvq‡K ÿwZMÖ¯Í K‡i‡Q| 8. kw³kvjx †kqvi evRv‡ii Abycw¯’wZ (Absence of sound share market): †h †Kv‡bv †`‡kB e„n`vqZb †Kv¤úvwb msMVb cÖwZôvq †kqvi evRvi †bZ…Z¡ †`q| GB evRv‡ii Kvi‡Y ÿz`ª wewb‡qvMKvixiv wewb‡qv‡M AvK…ó n‡q _v‡K| wKš‘ Avgv‡`i †`‡k †kqvi evRvi dUKvevR‡`i Afvqvi‡Y¨ cwiYZ nIqvq Gi mydj †Kv¤úvwb¸‡jv cv‡‛Q bv| †gvUK_v evsjv‡`‡k †Kv¤úvwb msMVb GwM‡q †bIqvi gZ cwi‡ek Kvh©Z m„wó nqwb| bvbvb cÖwZK~j cwi‡ek `~ixKi‡Y hv‡`i D‡`¨vMx nIqvi K_v Zv‡`i f~wgKv‡Z wewb‡qvMKvixi AmšÍyó| ZvB bvbvb cÖwZkÖæwZ Avi K_vi dzjSzwi w`‡q G mgm¨vi mgvavb n‡e bv|

5.19 mv¤úªwZK e¨emvq Recent Business


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102

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AvDU‡mvwm©s e¨emv Outsourcing Business

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106

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mdUIq¨vi Dbœqb Software Development


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†gvevBj mvwf©wms Mobile Servicing

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d‡UvKwc Photocopy

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Kw¤úDUvi

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gvwbMÖvg Money gram


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gv‡P©›UWvBwRs Merchandising

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges 5 I 6 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| wg. AvwRg I Zvi cuvP eÜz GKwU †Kv¤úvwbi gvwjK I cwiPvjK| m¤úªwZ evRv‡i †kqvi weµ‡qi R‡b¨ Zviv cÖwZôvbwUi MVbMZ KvVv‡gv cwieZ©‡bi wm×všÍ wb‡q‡Qb| 5| DÏxc‡K D‡jøwLZ cÖwZôvbwU †Kvb ai‡bi †Kv¤úvwb? K. cvewjK wj:

L. cÖvB‡fU wj:

M. †nvwìs †Kvs

N. mvewmwWqvix †Kvs

6| evRv‡i †kqvi weµ‡qi R‡b¨ cÖwZôvbwU‡K− i.

cwi‡gj wbqgvejx cwieZ©b Ki‡Z n‡e

ii. ÷K G·‡P‡Ä ZvwjKvfz³ n‡Z n‡e iii. wmwKDwiwU GÛ G·‡PÄ Kwgk‡bi Aby‡gv`b wb‡Z n‡e wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii

L. i I iii

M. ii I iii

N.

i,ii I iii

m„Rbkxj cÖkœ: 1|

ivbv ‘XYZ’†Kv¤úvwbi 2,00,000 †kqvi µq K‡i‡Qb| ‘XYZ’†Kv¤úvwb cieZ©x‡Z e¨emvq m¤úªmvi‡b AwaKZi g~ja‡bi Rb¨ bZzb †kqvi Bmy¨ Ki‡Z Pv‡‛Q| wKš‘ AvBbMZ eva¨evaKZvi Kvi‡Y cvi‡Q bv| Ab¨w`‡K ivbv AviI 1,00,000 †kqvi µq K‡i †Kv¤úvwb cwiPvjbvq AskMÖnY Ki‡Z B‛QzK| wKš‘ Zvi µqK…Z †kqv‡ii cÖK…wZ Abyhvqx †mUv m¤¢e bq| K. ¯§viKwjwc Kx? L. †Kv¤úvwbi wPišÍb Aw¯ÍZ¡ ej‡Z Kx eySvq? M. ivbv ‘XYZ’ †Kv¤úvwbi †h †kqvi wK‡bwQ‡jb Zv †Kvb ai‡bi †kqvi? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. ‘XYZ’ †Kv¤úvwb AwaKZi g~jab msMÖ‡ni Rb¨ †Kvb ai‡bi †kqvi Bmy¨ Ki‡Z cv‡i? Gi †h․w³KZv we‡kølY Ki|

2|

mvwnb 50 Rb mggbv †jvK wb‡q 2011 mv‡ji Ryb gv‡m GKwU e¨emvq cÖwZôvb h_vwbq‡g wbeÜb K‡ib| AvB‡bi eva¨evaKZv _vKvq Zviv h_vh_ KZ©„cÿ †_‡K KvR ïiæ Kivi AbygwZI MÖnY K‡i| wKšÍy 2012 mv‡ji Ryb gv‡mi g‡a¨ Zviv e¨emvwqK KvR Avi¤¢ Ki‡Z cv‡iwb|


†hŠ_ g~jabx e¨emvq

K. cwi‡gj wbqgvewj Kx? L. weeib cÎ ej‡Z Kx eySvq? M. DÏxc‡Ki D‡jøwLZ e¨emvqwU †Kvb ai‡bi msMVb? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. 2012 mv‡ji Ryb gv‡mi ci cÖwZôvbwUi cwiYwZ Kx n‡e? hyw³mn Dc¯’vcb Ki|

113


lô Aa¨vq

mgevq mwgwZ CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY Ò`‡k wg‡j Kwi KvR, nvwi wRwZ bvwn jvRÓ-G wPšÍvaviv n‡ZB mgev‡qi Rb¥, mgevq msMVb ev mwgwZ n‡jv KwZcq e¨w³i GKwU †¯^”Qvg~jK msMVb| Gai‡bi msMV‡b m`m¨iv wb‡R‡`i ¯^v_© iÿvi D‡Ï‡k¨ GKwÎZ n‡q _v‡K| GwU Ggb GK ai‡bi e¨emvq msMVb hv gybvdv AR©‡bi j‡ÿ¨ m„wó bv n‡q m`m¨‡`i cvi¯úwiK Kj¨vYv‡_© m„wó nq| mgevq mwgwZ MV‡bi gva¨‡g mgv‡R cuywRcwZ‡`i †kvlY n‡Z A‡cÿvK…Z `~e©j †kªwYi gvbyl‡`i Kj¨vY mvab Kiv nq|

G Aa¨vq cvV‡k‡l Avgiv Rvb‡Z cvie− • mgevq mwgwZi aviYv I BwZnvm| • mgevq mwgwZi •ewkó¨| • mgevq mwgwZi bxwZgvjv| • mgevq mwgwZi MVb cÖYvwj| • mgevq mwgwZi cÖKvi‡f`| • evsjv‡`‡ki Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b mgevq mwgwZi Ae`vb g~j¨vqb| • mgevq mwgwZi gva¨‡g e¨emvq Kivi c×wZ| • mgev‡qi Dbœq‡b evW© I mgevq GKv‡Wwgi Kvh©µg I Ae`vb| • evsjv‡`‡k mgevq weKv‡k weivRgvb mgm¨v¸‡jv wPwýZKiY| • evsjv‡`‡ki mgevq Av‡›`vj‡bi mgm¨v `~ixKi‡Yi Dcvq| • mgev‡qi gva¨‡g mdj nevi Kvwnbx|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

6.01 mgevq mwgwZi aviYv Concept of Co-operative Society

mß`k kZ‡Ki †klfvM †_‡K mgevq msMV‡bi fvebv `vbv euva‡jI wkí weí‡ei ïiæi ci G wPšÍv ev¯Íeiƒc jvf K‡i| 1752 m‡b gvwK©b hy³iv‡óªi †cÖwm‡W›U †eÄvwgb d«v¼wjb me©cÖ_g AvbyôvwbKfv‡e mgevq msMVb cÖwZôv K‡ib| e„‡U‡b AvbyôvwbKfv‡e mgevq MwVZ nq 1844 mv‡j| G mg‡q e„‡U‡bi iP‡Wj bvgK ¯’v‡bi 28 Rb ZuvZx gvÎ 28 cvDÛ cuywR mn‡hv‡M G ai‡bi e¨emvq M‡o †Zv‡j| Gi ci mgevq GK Av‡›`vj‡b iƒc †bq hvi †XD evsjv‡`‡kI G‡m †j‡M‡Q| evsjv‡`‡k mgevq mwgwZ wewfbœ ai‡bi I wewfbœ D‡Ï‡k¨ cwiPvwjZ nq| cvi¯úwiK mn‡hvwMZvi gva¨‡g `ye©j I `wi`ª Rb‡Mvôxi A_©‣bwZK Kj¨vY wbwðZKi‡Yi Rb¨ mgev‡qi †h D‡Ïk¨ Zv ev¯Íevq‡b mgwóMZfv‡e eûmsL¨K gvby‡li mn‡hvwMZvq Zv mn‡RB Kiv m¤¢e nq, GUvB mgev‡qi g~j K_v| A_©vr gybvdv AR©b bqÑcvi¯úvwiK Kj¨vYmvabB G mgev‡qi g~j jÿ¨|

6.02 mgevq mwgwZi •ewkó¨ Features of Co-operative Society mgevq GKwU AvBb m„ó, Abb¨ •ewkó¨gwÐZ e¨emvq msMVb| Gi gva¨‡g wbw`©ó †ckvRxexiv D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡b Drmvn ev kw³ cvq| GwU e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î D‡jøL‡hvM¨ GKwU msMVb| evsjv‡`‡k mgevq AvBb-2001 Abymv‡i mgevq msMVb MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ nq| wb‡æ mgevq mwgwZi •ewkó¨mg~n eY©bv Kiv n‡jv−

• `wi`ª I ga¨weË †kªwYi KwZcq †jvK †¯^”Qvq wgwjZ n‡q †Kv‡bv we‡kl D‡Ïk¨ mva‡bi Rb¨ Giƒc msMVb MVb Ki‡Z cv‡i| mgevq AvBb Abymv‡i wbe܇Ki wbKU G ai‡bi mgevq cÖwZôvb wbeÜb Ki‡Z nq| • ïaygvÎ †¯^”QvK…Zfv‡e KwZcq e¨w³ mgev‡qi Av`‡k© DØy× n‡q Gai‡bi cÖwZôvb MVb K‡i, †Kv‡bv iKg eva¨evaKZvi ¯’vb GLv‡b †bB| • abZvwš¿K mgvR e¨e¯’vq abx‡`i Øviv `wi`ª I ga¨weË †kªwY A_©‣bwZK wb‡®úl‡Yi wkKvi nq| mgevq †kvlK †kªwYi nvZ †_‡K †kvwlZ‡`i AvZ¥iÿvi gva¨g wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i|


mgevq mwgwZ

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• mgevq mwgwZi cÖwZwU †kqv‡ii g~j¨ 10 UvKv ev Z`ya© g~‡j¨i n‡Z cv‡i| • e¨emv‡qi †Kv‡bv we‡kl As‡k A_©vr Drcv`b, eÈb BZ¨vw`‡Z RwoZ n‡q mw¤§wjZfv‡e Kvh© cwiPvjbvi gva¨‡g m`m¨‡`i Avw_©K Kj¨vY mvabB Giƒc cÖwZôv‡bi D‡Ïk¨| gybvdv AR©b Gi g~j D‡Ïk¨ bq| • mgevq AvBbvbymv‡i mgevq mwgwZ Aek¨B wbewÜZ n‡Z nq| • mgev‡qi AwR©Z gybvdvi meUzKz m`m¨‡`i g‡a¨ eÈb nq bv| eva¨Zvg~jKfv‡e Gi b~¨bZg 15% msiwÿZ Znwe‡j Ges 5% mgevq Dbœqb Znwe‡j Pvu`v wn‡m‡e msiÿY K‡i evwK Ask mvaviY mfvi wm×všÍµ‡g †kqvi MÖnxZv‡`i g‡a¨ eÈb Kiv nq| [34 (1) aviv] • evsjv‡`‡k cÖPwjZ 2001 mv‡ji mgevq mwgwZ AvB‡bi 8(1K) aviv †gvZv‡eK cÖv_wgK mgevq mwgwZ MV‡bi †ÿ‡Î Kgc‡ÿ 20 Rb e¨w³ m`m¨ Ges †K›`ªxq I RvZxq mwgwZi †ÿ‡Î Kgc‡ÿ 10 wU mgevq mwgwZ m`m¨ _vK‡Z nq| m`m¨ msL¨vi m‡ev©”P mxgv AvB‡b ejv nqwb | • mgevq mwgwZ AvBb-m„ó GKwU cÖwZôvb| Gi c„_K AvBbMZ mËv I cwiwPwZ Av‡Q| GwU wbR bv‡g cwiPvwjZ| • mgevq mwgwZi m`m¨‡`i wbKU †_‡K gvwmK m‡qi gva¨‡g A_ev m`m¨‡`i g‡a¨ †kqvi weµq K‡i mgev‡qi cÖ‡qvRbxq g~jab msMÖn Kiv nq| • mgevq mwgwZ‡Z cÖ‡Z¨K m`m¨‡`i `vq Zvi µqK…Z †kqvi g~j¨ Øviv mxgve× _v‡K| • 2001 m‡bi mgevq AvB‡bi 15(2K) aviv Abyhvqx GKRb m`m¨ mwgwZi †gvU g~ja‡bi GK-cÂgvs‡ki (1/5) †ewk †kqvi µq Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| †Kbbv †ewk †kqvi µq Ki‡j AvwacZ¨ we¯Ív‡ii †Póv Ki‡e| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, mgevq mwgwZ AvB‡bi Aaxb MwVZ, cwiPvwjZ, c„_K mËv I mxwgZ `vq wewkó GKwU †¯^”Qv cÖ‡Yvw`Z e¨emvq msMVb| Gi m`m¨iv MYZvwš¿K ixwZ-bxwZ Abymi‡Y cwiPvwjZ nq hvi g~j jÿ¨ n‡jv Gi m`m¨‡`i Avw_©K Kj¨vY wbwðZ Kiv|

6.03 mgevq mwgwZi bxwZgvjv/Av`k©mg~n Principles of Co-operative Society bxwZgvjv kãwUi Bs‡iwR kã n‡jv Principles G‡K guidence for action ejv hvq| mgevq msMVbI wKQy bxwZ ev Av`k© †g‡b P‡j| GKwU wfbœagx© e¨emvq msMVb wn‡m‡e mgevq msMVb mgv‡Ri ga¨ I wbæweË, m¤úbœ gvby‡li bvbvb mxgve×Zv wb‡q cvi¯úvwiK A_©‣bwZK Kj¨v‡Yi j‡ÿ¨ MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ nq| †hme Av`k© ev bxwZgvjv †g‡b mgevq mwgwZ cwiPvwjZ nq †m¸‡jv wb‡æ ewY©Z n‡jv−


116

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

1| GKZv (Unity): GKZvB ej| mgv‡Ri `wi`ª e¨w³ GKZve× n‡j abxi †kvlY I wbh©vZ‡bi weiæ‡× Abvqv‡m `uvov‡Z cv‡i| GKZvB g~jZ mgev‡qi mvd‡j¨i g~j ¯Í¤¢| 2| mZZv (Honesty): mgevq mwgwZ‡Z mZZv GKvšÍ cÖ‡qvRb| cÖwZôv‡b mZZv weivRgvb n‡j m`m¨‡`i g‡b AvZ¥wek¦vm e„w× cvq| A_©vr e¨emvwqK mvdj¨ jvf Ki‡Z n‡j mZZv GKvšÍ Acwinvh©| 3| †¯^”QvK…Z wgjb (Voluntary Association): mgevq mwgwZi m`m¨‡`i g‡a¨ me©vwaK e¨w³ ¯^vaxbZv †`qv nq| †Kv‡bv cÖKvi ûgwK ev cÖ‡ivPbv Qvov Zviv mgev‡qi gva¨‡g †¯^”Qvq wgwjZ n‡Z cv‡i| 4| mn‡hvwMZv (Co-operation): mn‡hvwMZv mgev‡qi GKwU Ab¨Zg bxwZ| cvi¯úwiK Kj¨v‡Yi j‡ÿ¨ mgev‡qi m`m¨‡`i g‡a¨ Ô`‡k wg‡j Kwi KvRÕ A_ev ÔmK‡ji Z‡i mK‡j Avgiv, cÖ‡Z¨‡K Avgiv c‡ii Z‡iÕ Giƒc g‡bvfve _vKv cÖ‡qvRb| †Kbbv GKgvÎ mn‡hvwMZvB mvdj¨ jv‡fi Ab¨Zg PvweKvwV| 5| MYZš¿ (Democracy): mgevq mwgwZ‡Z me©`vB MYZvwš¿K ixwZbxwZ Abym„Z nq| G mwgwZi ÔcwiPvjK KwgwUÕ m`m¨‡`i cÖZ¨ÿ †fv‡Ui gva¨‡g wbe©vwPZ nq| wm×všÍI †fv‡Ui gva¨‡g M„nxZ nq| wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi †ÿ‡Î cÖ‡Z¨K m`m¨ ¯^vaxbfv‡e Zv‡`i gZvgZ cÖKvk Ki‡Z cv‡i| 6| mg‡SvZv (Understanding): mgev‡qi D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ mg‡SvZv Acwinvh©| KviY Z¨v‡Mi g‡bvfve Qvov mgevq mwgwZ wU‡K _vK‡Z cv‡i bv| Avi GRb¨ cÖ‡qvRb cvi¯úwiK mg‡SvZv| 7| mvg¨ (Equality): mgevq mwgwZ mv‡g¨i Av`‡k© AbycÖvwYZ| Gi m`m¨iv mvgvwRK, A_©‣bwZK ev cvwievwiKfv‡e hvB †nvK bv †Kb mgev‡qi m`m¨ wn‡m‡e Zviv mevB mgvb mvgvwRK gh©v`vi AwaKvix| wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ Gai‡bi mvg¨ cÖw Zôv Kiv bv †M‡j mgevq mvdj¨ jvf Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| 8| †mev (Service): mgev‡qi g~jK_v n‡jv ÔmK‡ji Z‡i mK‡j Avgiv, cÖ‡Z¨‡K Avgiv c‡ii Z‡iÕ| G‡K Ac‡ii mn‡hvwMZvi wfwˇZ G e¨emvq cÖwZwôZ nq| ZvB ejv hvq, cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki g‡a¨ GKwU mn‡hvwMZvg~jK g‡bvfve _vKv Avek¨K| 9| •bKU¨ (Proximity): mgevq mggbv e¨w³e‡M©i msMVb| ZvB Gi cÖwZôvi †ÿ‡Î •bK‡U¨i welqwU we‡ePbv Ki‡Z nq| m`m¨iv mggbv bv n‡j cÖwZôvb Pvjv‡Z wewfbœ †ÿ‡Î evavMÖ¯Í n‡Z nq| 10| mg-†fvUvwaKvi (Equal right of votes): mg-†fvUvwaKvi mgevq mwgwZi Ab¨Zg g~jbxwZ| cÖwZôv‡b †h hZ wewb‡qvM KiæK bv †Kb mevi †fvUvwaKvi mgvb| G†ÿ‡Î mK‡j GKwU K‡i †fvU cÖ`vb K‡i Kvh©Kix KwgwU wbe©vPb K‡i _v‡Kb| 11| wbi‡cÿZv (Secularism): mgev‡qi †ÿ‡Î ag© I ivR‣bwZK gZv`‡k©i wbi‡cÿZv eRvq _v‡K| d‡j ag© I ivR‣bwZK gZ wbwe©‡k‡l mK‡jB Gi m`m¨ n‡Z cv‡i| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, mgev‡q mdjZv AR©b Ki‡Z n‡j D³ g~jbxwZ ev Av`k©mg~n h_vh_fv‡e AbymiY Kiv DwPZ| Gi AwaKvskB G‡K A‡b¨i mv‡_ m¤úK©hy³ Kvh©‡ÿ‡Î Gi me¸‡jv mgvbfv‡e AbymiY Ki‡Z nq| †h mgevq D³ Av`k©mg~n hZ †ewk AbymiY Ki‡Z cv‡i ev¯Í‡e Zvi c‡ÿB ZZ mdjZv AR©b m¤¢e nq|


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6.04 mgevq mwgwZi MVb cÖYvwj Formation Procedures of Co-operative Society mgevq mwgwZ GKUv AvBb-m„ó K…wÎg e¨w³mËvwewkó cÖwZôvb| GKvwaK e¨w³ wb‡R‡`i A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ G msMVb cÖwZôv I cwiPvjbv K‡i _v‡K| evsjv‡`‡ki mgevq mwgwZmg~n Òmgevq mwgwZ 2001Ó Ges Òmgevq wewa 2004Ó e‡j MwVZ I wbqwš¿Z nq| mggbv I mg¯^v_©wewkó Kgc‡ÿ 10 Rb m`m¨‡K mwgwZ MV‡bi Rb¨ m¤§Z n‡Z nq eqm hv‡`i 18 eQi ev Zvi D‡aŸ©| wb‡gœ Giƒc cÖwZôvb MV‡bi †ÿ‡Î AbymiYxq ch©vqµwgK c`‡ÿcmg~n Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv :

mgevq mwgwZi MVb D‡`¨vM MÖnY wbeÜb cÖYvwj vq MVb cÖYvwj|ch©vq wPÎ: mgevq ch© mwgwZi

Kvh©vi¤¢ ch©vq

1| D‡`¨vM MÖnY ch©vq (Stage of Taking Initiative): mgevq mwgwZ MV‡bi †ÿ‡Î cÖv_wgKfv‡e D‡`¨vM MÖnYKvix‡`i D‡`¨v³v wn‡m‡e AwfwnZ Kiv nq| GKB GjvKvi mggbv, mg‡ckv I mg‡kªwYi Kgc‡ÿ 20 (wek) Rb D‡`¨v³v mwgwZ MV‡bi D‡`¨vM MÖnY K‡i _v‡K| D‡`¨v³v‡`i‡K Aek¨B cÖvß eq¯‥ I my¯’ gw¯Í®‥ m¤úbœ A_©vr Pyw³ m¤úv`‡b †hvM¨ n‡Z n‡e| D‡`¨v³viv cÖ_‡gB wb‡R‡`i ga¨ n‡Z Kgc‡ÿ Qq m`m¨wewkó GKwU e¨e¯’vcbv KwgwU MVb K‡i| e¨e¯’vcbv KwgwUi c`My‡jv wbgœiƒc− i. ii. iii. iv.

†Pqvig¨vb Ñ 1 Rb fvBm †Pqvig¨vb Ñ 1 Rb †m‡µUvwi Ñ 1 Rb mvaviY m`m¨ Ñ 3 Rb (Zb¥‡a¨ 1 Rb †Kvlva¨ÿ n‡Z cv‡i, †m‡ÿ‡Î mvaviY m`m¨ n‡e 2 Rb) Giƒc KwgwU mgevq mwgwZi wbeÜbmn MVb msµvšÍ hveZxq Kg©KvÐ m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡K| KwgwUi cÖ_g `vwqZ¡ n‡jv GKwU Lmov Dcwewa (By-laws) •Zwi Kiv| Dcwewa‡Z cÖavbZ wb‡æv³ wel‡qi D‡jøL _v‡K− K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S.

mgevq mwgwZi bvg (mmxg `vqm¤úbœ mwgwZi bv‡gi †k‡l mxwgZ ev Ltd. k‡ãi D‡jøL _vK‡e); wVKvbv I Kvh© GjvKv; D‡Ïk¨ I Kvh©µg; D‡`¨v³v‡`i bvg, wVKvbv I c`we; m`m¨ AšÍf©yw³ I Ae¨vnwZi wbqg; g~ja‡bi cwigvY I †kªwYwefvM; †kqvi g~j¨, †kªwYwefvM I †gvU †kqvi msL¨v; †kqvi weµq c×wZ; mwgwZ cwiPvjbv msKªvšÍ hveZxq wbqg-Kvbyb cÖf„wZ|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

D‡`¨v³viv B”Qv Ki‡j Gai‡bi Dcwewa cÖ¯‘Z bv K‡iI mgevq wefvM n‡Z Qvcv‡bv Dcwewa msMÖn K‡i D³ Dcwewa †gvZv‡eK wm×všÍ MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| G ch©v‡q cÖ ¯ÍvweZ mwgwZi Rb¨ mxj‡gvni cÖ ¯ÍyZ Kiv nq| 2. wbeÜb ch©vq (Stage of Registration): G ch©v‡q mgevq mwgwZ wbe܇bi D‡`¨vM †bqv nq| †h GjvKvq mwgwZ ¯’vcb Ki‡Z B”QyK †m GjvKvq miKvi wbhy³ mgevq mwgwZ wbe܇Ki Awdm n‡Z wbeÜb dig msMÖn Kiv nq| wbeÜb dig h_vh_fv‡e c~iY K‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq `wjjcÎvw` I wd mn wbe܇Ki wbKU Rgv †`qv nq|

Av‡e`b di‡gi mv‡_ wb‡gœv³ `wjjcÎ Rgv w`‡Z nq− K. mwgwZi m`m¨‡`i ¯^vÿihy³ bvg I wVKvbv| G‡ÿ‡Î b~¨bZg 20 (wek) Rb cÖvß eq¯‥ m`‡m¨i bvg I ZvwiLmn ¯^vÿi _vK‡Z nq| L. D‡`¨v³v‡`i ¯^vÿimn DcwewaÑ2 Kwc M. mwgwZi wmj‡gvn‡ii bgybvÑ1 wU N. Av‡e`b digwU AvBbm¤§Zfv‡e c~iY Kiv n‡q‡Q Ges G‡Z DwjøwLZ Z_¨mg~n mwVK-Gg‡g© †m‡µUvwi I D‡`¨v³v‡`i †NvlYvcÎ 1 Kwc| D‡jøw LZ KvMRcÎ I wba©vwiZ wd cvIqvi ci wbeÜK KvMRcθ‡jv hvPvB-evQvB K‡ib Ges G wel‡q mš‘ó n‡j Av‡e`bcÎ cÖvwßi 60 w`‡bi g‡a¨ Zv gÄyi K‡i wbeÜb cÎ Bmy¨ K‡ib| 60 w`‡bi g‡a¨ wbeÜbcÎ Bmy¨ bv Ki‡j Ges Av‡e`b cÎ M„nxZ n‡j wbeÜK wbeÜb mb` wn‡m‡e wbeÜbcÎ Bmy¨ K‡ib| G ch©v‡q wbeÜK mwgwZi Dcwewai 3 Kwci cÖ‡Z¨K c„ôvq ¯^v ÿi I mxjhy³ K‡i 1 Kwc wbeÜb Awd‡m msiÿ‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ iv‡Lb Ges 2 Kwc D‡`¨v³v‡`i †diZ †`b| D‡jøL¨, Av‡e`bcÎ cÖvwßi ci wbeÜK hw` †`‡Lb †Kv‡bv Z_¨ ev KvMRc‡Îi NvUwZ i‡q‡Q Z‡e †m¸‡jv AbwaK 30 w`‡bi g‡a¨ †P‡q ev Z`šÍ K‡i wbe܇bi Dchy³ Zv †`Lv nq| Gfv‡eB mwgwZi wbeÜb cÖwµqv m¤úbœ n‡q _v‡K| 3. Kvh©vi¤¢ ch©vq (Stage of Commencement): wbe܇bi gva¨‡g mgevq mwgwZ AvBbvbyM cÖwZôv‡b cwiYZ nq Ges mwgwZi bvg I mxj‡gvni e¨envi K‡i D‡`¨v³vMY I KwgwU mwgwZi ¯^vfvweK KvRKg© cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z cv‡i| Gici mwgwZi Kg©Kv‡Ð Avi †Kv‡bv evav _v‡K bv| cwi‡k‡l ej‡Z cvwi †h, mgevq msMVb mywba©vwiZ mgev‡qi MV‡bi wbqg †g‡b MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ nq| GKwU wbewÜZ e¨emvq msMVb wn‡m‡e mgevq msMVb‡K Aek¨B Gme wbqg-bxwZ †g‡b Pj‡Z nq|

6.05

mgevq mwgwZi cÖKvi‡f` Types of Co-operative Society

mgevq ÔGKZvB ejÕ ev Ô`‡k wg‡j Kwi KvRÕ-G RvZxq bxwZ‡Z wek¦vm K‡i msMwVZ nq, A_©vr mgv‡Ri ¯^í Avq wewkó mvaviY Rb‡Mvôxi A_©‣bwZK Kj¨vY agx© †h․_ cÖ‡Póvi msMVb n‡”Q mgevq msMVb| wewfbœ †ckvRxex gvbyl Zv‡`i cÖ‡qvRb †gUvevi j‡ÿ¨ bvbvag©x mgevq msMVb M‡o Zzj‡Z cv‡i| G Kvi‡Y mgv‡R wewPÎag©x mgevq msMVb †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq|


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wb‡gœ GKwU wPÎmn wewfbœ cÖK vi mgevq msMV‡bi eY©bv †`qv n‡jv−

K. m`m¨‡`i Pvwn`v Abymv‡i According to the Demand of Members

1. Drcv`K mgevq mwgwZ (Producers co-operative society) ÿz`ª ÿz`ª wk‡íi gvwjK I Drcv`KMY e„n`vqZb wkí¸‡jvi mv‡_ cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq wU‡K _vKvi Rb¨ Zv‡`i ¯^í A_©‡K GKwÎZ K‡i †h mgevq MVb K‡i Zv‡K Drcv`K mgevq mwgwZ e‡j| †Kv‡bv GjvKvq KwZcq kªwgK GK‡Î wg‡j †Kv‡bv Drcv`b ïiæ Ki‡j ev KwZcq e¨w³ mgev‡qi wfwˇZ †Kv‡bviƒc Drcv`b Kv‡Ri mv‡_ RwoZ n‡j Zv Drcv`K mgevq mwgwZ bv‡g cwiwPZ n‡e| ZuvwZ‡`i mgevq, `y» Drcv`K mgevq, K…lK mgevq, †R‡j mgevq BZ¨vw` G RvZxq mgevq mwgwZi D`vniY|

2. †fv³v mgevq mwgwZ Consumers Co-operative Society hLb †Kv‡bv we‡kl c‡Y¨i ev KwZcq c‡Y¨i †fv³vMY ga¨¯’e¨emvqxi gybvdvi wkKvi bv n‡q b¨vh¨ g~‡j¨ wRwbm wKb‡Z Pvb ZLb Zv‡`i Pvwn`v c~i‡Y †h mgevq cÖwZôvb MVb Kiv nq Zv‡K †fv³v mgevq mwgwZ e‡j| G mgevq mwgwZ Drcv`bKvix, Avg`vwbKviK ev cvBKv‡ii wbKU †_‡K cvBKvwi g~‡j¨ cY¨mvgMÖx Lwi` K‡i †mme cY¨ m`m¨e„›` I Ab¨v‡b¨i wbKU b¨vh¨g~‡j¨ wewµi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡K| †fv³v mgevq mwgwZ‡K eÈbKvix mgevq mwgwZ bv‡gI AwfwnZ Kiv nq| wkí cÖwZôv‡bi kªwgK‡`i D‡`¨v‡M cÖwZôv‡bi †M‡U, eo cÖwZôv‡bi Kg©Pvix‡`i D‡`¨v‡M cÖwZôv‡b, eo nvDwRs Kg‡cø‡·i †M‡U Gi gvwjK‡`i D‡`¨v‡M Gai‡bi mgevq mwgwZ M‡o †Zvjv n‡Z cv‡i|

mgevq mwgwZ m`m¨‡`i cÖK…wZ Abymv‡i

1. Drcv`K mgevq 2. †fv³v mgevq

D‡Ïk¨/Kv‡h©i cÖK…wZ Abymv‡i 1. µq mgevq 2. weµq mgevq 3. Avg`vwb mgevq 4. ißvwb mgevq 5. exgv mgevq 6. e¨vsK mgevq

mvsMVwbK ¯—i Abymv‡i

7. FY`vb mgevq 8. M„n wbg©vY mgevq 9. mgevq AvevwmK GjvKv 10. eûgyLx mgevq

1. cÖv_wgK mgevq 2. †K›`ªxq mgevq 3. wgkª mgevq 4. RvZxq mgevq

wPÎ: mgevq mwgwZi cÖKvi‡f`|

`vq-`vwq‡Z¡i cÖK…wZ Abymv‡i

1. Amxg `vq mgevq 2. mmxg- `vq mgevq


120

L.

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

D‡Ïk¨/Kv‡h©i cÖK…wZ Abymv‡i According to the objectives/nature of functions

1. µq mgevq mwgwZ (Purchasing co-operative society): wewfbœ †ckvRxex gvbyl hw` mgevq mwgwZi gva¨‡g msNe×-n‡q Zv‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq miÄvgvw` msMÖ‡ni Rb¨ µq myweav MÖnY K‡i Z‡e Zv‡K µq mgevq mwgwZ e‡j| 2. weµq/wecYb mgevq mwgwZ (Marketing co-operative society): ÿz`ª Drcv`K, K…lK BZ¨vw` †kªYxi †jvKRb Zv‡`i cY¨`ªe¨ wewµ, ¸`vgRvZKiY, cwienY BZ¨vw` e¨vcv‡i cvBKvwi myweav cÖvwßi j‡ÿ¨ hw` †Kv‡bv mgevq msMVb K‡i Z‡e weµq mgevq mwgwZ e‡j| 3. Avg`vwb mgevq mwgwZ (Import co-operative society): ÿz`ª Avg`vwbKviKMY Zv‡`i bvbvwea myweav I miKv‡ii KvQ †_‡K `vwe Av`v‡qi wbwg‡Ë †h mgevq mwgwZ MVb K‡i Zv Avg`vwb mgevq mwgwZ bv‡g cwiwPZ| 4. ißvwb mgevq mwgwZ (Export co-operative society): ÿz`ª Avg`vwbKviKMY ißvwb wel‡q cvBKvwi myweav, mw¤§wjZ AwfÁZv I miKv‡ii wbKU n‡Z `vwe Av`v‡qi wbwg‡Ë hw` †Kv‡bv mgevq mwgwZ MVb K‡i Zv‡K ißvwb mgevq mwgwZ ejv n‡e| 5. exgv mgevq mwgwZ (Insurance co-operative society): wb‡R‡`i exgv wb‡Riv msNe×fv‡e Kivi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv Rb‡Mvôx mgevq mwgwZ cÖwZôv Ki‡j Zv‡K exgv mgevq mwgwZ ejv nq| 6. e¨vsK mgevq mwgwZ (Bank co-operative society): ÿy`ª AvqZ‡bi wfwˇZ m`m¨‡`i wbKU n‡Z AvgvbZ MÖnY I Zv‡`i‡K FY`v‡bi Rb¨ †h mgevq M‡o I‡V Zv‡K e¨vsK mgevq mwgwZ ejv nq| 7. FY`vb mgevq mwgwZ (Credit co-operative society): gnvRb ev e¨vsK †_‡K FY MÖn‡Yi e`‡j Kg my‡` wb‡R‡`i mÂq n‡Z FY MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ hw` †ckvRxexiv wgwjZ n‡q †Kv‡bv mgevq MVb K‡i Zv‡K FY`vb mgevq mwgwZ wn‡m‡e AwfwnZ Kiv nq| 8. M„nwbg©vY mgevq mwgwZ (Housing co-operative society): hw` ga¨weË I ¯^íweË †jv‡Kiv wb‡R‡`i M„n wbg©v‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ †Kv‡bv mgevq M‡o †Zv‡j Z‡e Zv‡KB M„n wbg©vY mgevq mwgwZ ejv nq| 9. mgevq AvevwmK GjvKv (Co-operative housing society): †Kv‡bv ¯’v‡b AvevwmK cøU Lwi‡`i D‡Ï‡k¨ hw` †Kv‡bv Rb‡Mvôx GKwÎZ nq Z‡e Zv‡K mgevq AvevwmK GjvKv ev AvevwmK GjvKvwfwËK mgevq e‡j| 10. eûgyLx mgevq mwgwZ (Multi purpose co-operative society): hLb †Kv‡bv mgevq mwgwZ wewfbœ cÖKvi e¨emvwqK Kv‡R wjß nq ZLb Zv‡K eûgyLx mwgwZ e‡j| Giƒc mgevq mwgwZ µq, weµq, M„n wbg©vY FY`vb, e¨vswKs, wegv-G ai‡bi eûgyLx Kvh© m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡K|

M.

mvsMVwbK ¯Íi Abymv‡i According to the Organisational Stage


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1. cÖv_wgK mgevq mwgwZ (Primary co-operative society): cÖv_wgK mgevq mwgwZ n‡”Q †m ai‡bi mgevq msMVb hv me©w bæ ¯Íi ev cÖv_wgK ch©v‡q MwVZ nq| mgevq ej‡Z g~ jZ G ¯Í‡ii mgevq‡KB eySv‡bv nq| MÖvgxY mgevq mwgwZmg~n Gi D`vniY| 2. †K›`ªxq mgevq mwgwZ (Central co-operative society): b~¨bZg 10wU cÖv_wgK mgevq mwgwZi mw¤§wjZ iƒc n‡”Q †K›`ªxq mgevq mwgwZ| MÖvgxY K…lK mgevq mwgwZmg~n wg‡j BDwbqb ev _vbv ch©v‡q mwgwZ¸‡jv GKwÎZ n‡q G RvZxq mwgwZ MwVZ nq| GwU mgev‡qi wØZxq ¯Íi| G mwgwZ‡Z †Kv‡bv e¨w³ m`m¨ n‡Z cv‡i bv| 3. wgkª mgevq mwgwZ (Mixed co-operative society): GwU mgev‡qi Z…Zxq ¯Íi| e¨w³ m`‡m¨i cvkvcvwk cÖv_wgK mgevq mwgwZ¸‡jv Gi m`m¨ n‡q _v‡K| wefvMxq (ev cÖ‡`k) ch©v‡q mgevq mwgwZ¸‡jv GKwÎZ n‡q G ai‡Yi mgevq mwgwZ MVb K‡i| G mgevq mwgwZi Rb¨ b~¨bZg 20 Rb m`m¨‡`i g‡a¨ Kgc‡ÿ 12wU cÖv_wgK mgevq mwgwZi m`m¨ _vK‡Z nq| 4. RvZxq mgevq mwgwZ (National co-opeative society): GwU m‡e©v”P ¯Í‡ii (PZy_© ¯Íi) mgevq msMVb| RvZxq ch©v‡q †h mwgwZ MVb Kiv nq Zv‡KB RvZxq mgevq mwgwZ e‡j| 10wU †K›`ªxq mgevq mwgwZ wg‡j RvZxq mgevq mwgwZ MwVZ nq|

N. `vq-`vwq‡Z¡i cÖK…wZ Abymv‡i According to the Liabilities 1. Amxg-`vq mgevq mwgwZ (Unlimited co-operative society): Amxg `vq mgevq mwgwZ n‡”Q †m ai‡bi mgevq msMVb †hLv‡b m`m¨‡`i `vq Zv‡`i µqK…Z †kqvi Øviv ev Ab¨ Dcv‡q mxgve× _v‡K bv| mwgwZi †`bvi Rb¨ G RvZxq mwgwZi m`m¨iv GKKfv‡e Ges †h․_fv‡e `vqx _v‡K| evsjv‡`‡k G ai‡bi mwgwZi cÖPjb †`Lv hvq bv| 2. mmxg `vq mgevq mwgwZ (Limited Co-operative society): mgevq mwgwZi m`m¨‡`i `vq hLb Zv‡`i µqK…Z †kqv‡ii AvswkK g~j¨ Øviv mxgve× _v‡K ZLb mmxg-`vq mgevq mwgwZ e‡j| m`m¨‡`i mxwgZ `vq‡K eySvevi Rb¨ Giƒc mwgwZi bv‡gi †k‡l Õwjwg‡UWÕ ev ‘Ltd’ kã †hvM Kiv nq| †`‡ki AwaKvsk mgevqB G †kªwYfy³| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, wewfbœ ai‡bi e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi cÖ‡qvRb c~i‡Yi g‡a¨ wewfbœ ai‡bi mgevq mwgwZ KvR Ki‡Q, ¯^í mg‡qi gvby‡li fwel¨r Dbœqb I wU‡K _vKvi Rb¨ fwel¨‡Z AviI bZzb bZzb mgevq mwgwZ M‡o DV‡e GK_v wbwðZ K‡i ejv hvq|

6.06 evsjv‡`‡ki Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b mgevq mwgwZi Ae`vb The Role of Co-operative Society in the Socio-Economic Development of Bangladesh

¯^íweË m¤ú` ev weËnxb e¨w³‡`i c‡ÿ mxwgZ mvg_©¨ e¨envi K‡i GKKfv‡e eo †Kv‡bv KvR Kiv m¤¢e nq bv| mwgwZ MV‡bi gva¨‡g Giƒc mxwgZ mvg‡_©¨i gvbyl wb‡R‡`i Av_© -mvgvwRK Ae¯’vi Dbœqb Ki‡Z cv‡i| ZvB A_©‣bwZKfv‡e `ye©j gvbyl cvi¯úvwiK Kj¨vY mva‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ mgevq mwgwZ MVb K‡i|


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wb‡gœ evsjv‡`‡ki Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b mgevq mwgwZi Ae`vb eY©bv Kiv n‡jv− 1. A_©‣bwZK myweav (Economic Advantages): mgevq msMVb g~jZ m`m¨‡`i A_©‣bwZK Ae¯’vi Dbœq‡b bvbvfv‡e KvR K‡i| †hgb- K…lK ev Kg Av‡qi m`m¨‡`i Avw_©K myweav cÖ`vb, cY¨ ev †mev Drcv`‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ ev wewfbœ cÖ‡qvR‡b ¯^í my‡` mnR k‡Z© FY mnvqZv `vb cÖf„wZ| d‡j mwgwZi m`m¨iv gnvR‡bi †`․ivZ¥¨ n‡Z wb‡R‡`i iÿv Ki‡Z mÿg nq| 2. mvgvwRK myweav (Social Advantages): mgevq MV‡bi gva¨‡g ewÂZ RbMY Avw_©K myweavi cvkvcvwk mvgvwRK myweav †fvM K‡i _v‡K| mvgvwRK myweavi g‡a¨ cvi¯úwiK mn‡hvwMZv, MYZ‡š¿i PP©v, A_©‣bwZK kw³i we‡K›`ªxKi‡Yi d‡j m`m¨‡`i gh©v`v e„w× cÖf„wZ D‡jøL‡hvM¨| 3. RxebhvÎvi gv‡bvbœqb (Improving Standard of Living): mgevq mwgwZ mgv‡Ri wbgœœweË I weËnxb‡`i msMVb| mwgwZ‡Z †hvM`v‡bi gva¨‡g m`m¨‡`i Avq e„w×, b¨vh¨ g~‡j¨ cY¨ cÖvwß, FY mnvqZv cÖvwß Kg©ms¯’v‡bi my‡hvM, mvgvwRK gh©v`v e„w× cvq, hv Zv‡`i RxebhvÎvi gv‡bvbœq‡b cÖZ¨ÿ f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| 4. Kg e¨e¯’vcbv e¨q (Low Management Cost): m`m¨‡`i †¯^”Qvg~jK mn‡hvwMZv I AskMÖn‡Yi d‡j e¨e¯’vcbv LiP eûjvs‡k n«vm cvq| e¨e¯’vcbvq AskMÖnYKvix‡`i †Kv‡bv cÖKvi †eZbÑfvZv cÖ`vb Ki‡Z nq bv| Zviv mwgwZ cwiPvjbvq Lye AvMÖ‡ni mv‡_B webv cvwikªwg‡K KvR K‡i| 5. e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi myweav (Advantage of Large-scale Business): m`m¨ msL¨v †ewk nIqvq mgevq mwgwZ AwaK mÂq msMÖn I cuywR MVb Ki‡Z cv‡i| hv w`‡q e„n`vqZb e¨emv‡qi wewfbœ myweav †hgb- e„n`vqZb µq, Drcv`b I wecYb myweav cvIqv hvq| G‡Z mwgwZi Avq e„w× cvq| 6. †mevi D‡Ïk¨ (Service Motive): Giƒc msMVb g~jZ m`m¨‡`i †mev cÖ`v‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨B m„wó nq, gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ bq| m`m¨‡`i‡K wewfbœfv‡e Avw_©K mnvqZv I b¨vh¨g~‡j¨ cY¨ ev †mev cÖ`v‡bi my‡hvM †`qv nq| mwgwZi m`m¨‡`i g‡a¨ cvi¯úwiK mn‡hvwMZvg~jK g‡bvfve KvR K‡i| 7. K‡ii Ae¨vnwZ (Tax Relief): mgevq mwgwZ MV‡b DrmvwnZ Kivi j‡ÿ¨ Giƒc msMV‡bi Av‡qi Ici Ki avh© Kiv nq bv| d‡j m`m¨‡`i AwaK Avw_©K Kj¨vY wbwðZ Kiv hvq| 8. miKvwi mnvqZv (Government Help): †`‡ki Av_©ÑmvgvwRK Ae¯’vi Dbœq‡b mgevq msMVb¸‡jv BwZevPK f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| Avi G f~wgKv‡K Av‡iv †ewk DrmvwnZ Kivi Rb¨ miKv‡ii cÿ †_‡K mgevqx‡`i ev mwgwZ‡K Avw_©K I Abvw_©K wewfbœ myweav cÖ`vb Kiv nq| 9. g‡bvej Dbœqb (Moral Development): mgevq mwgwZ KwZcq Av`‡k©i Ici wfwË K‡i cwiPvwjZ nq| †hgb-cvi¯úwiK mn‡hvwMZv, AvZ¥mn‡hvwMZv, K‡Vvi cwikªg, wkÿv, AvZ¥wbf©ikxjZv, mÂq msMÖn cÖf„wZ| Gme Av`k© Abykxj‡bi d‡j m`m¨‡`i g‡a¨ †h‡Kv‡bv KwVb KvR Lye mn‡R m¤úbœ Kivi g‡bvej I gvbwmKZv •Zwi nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, DcwiD³ myweavi Kvi‡Y mgevq msMVb mvaviYZ wewfbœ †ckvi gvby‡li Kv‡Q AZ¨šÍ Drmvne¨ÄK I AvKl©Yxq msMVb wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡q _v‡K| †gvUK_v, e¨w³K, mvgvwRK I RvZxq A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b mgevq mwgwZi f~wgKv D‡jøL‡hvM¨|


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Kg©cÎ-1 mgevq mwgwZi MVb cÖYvjx Av‡jvPbv K‡i mgevq mwgwZi gva¨‡g e¨emvq Kivi c×wZ wPwýZ Ki • • • • •

• • • • •

6.07 evW© BARD mgevq mwgwZi Dbœq‡b evsjv‡`k cjøx Dbœqb †evW© (evW©) Gi Ae`vb: æBangladesh Academy for Rural Development” ev BARD cjøx Dbœq‡bi †ÿ‡Î GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cÖwZôvb| 1959 mv‡j Kzwgjøvi †KvUevwo‡Z cÖL¨vZ mgvRKg©x Aa¨ÿ AvLZvi nvwg` Lvb G cÖwZôvb ¯’vcb K‡ib|

G GKv‡Wwgi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q cjøx Z_v MÖvgxY A_©bxwZi Dbœqb| G D‡Ï‡k¨ GKv‡Wwgi M„nxZ c`‡ÿc I Kg©m~wPi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q cjøx Dbœq‡bi †ÿ‡Î miKvwi Kg©KZ©v‡`i cÖwkÿY, M‡elYv I cixÿvg~jK cÖKí cwiPvjbv, cjøx Dbœq‡bi Dci †mwgbvi, Av‡jvPbv BZ¨vw`| cÖwkÿ‡Yi myweav‡_© GLv‡b cÖwkÿY cÖv_©x‡`i AvevwmK e¨e¯’v, cÖwkÿY †K›`ª, IqvK©kc, K¨vw›Ub cÖf…wZ me©vwaK my‡hvMmyweav i‡q‡Q| evW©-Gi G eûg~Lx Ae`vb I Kvh©Kjv‡ci Rb¨ G‡K Kzwgjøv g‡Wj bv‡gI AwfwnZ Kiv nq| cÖK…Zc‡ÿ MÖvgxY A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b Gi my`~icÖmvix Ae`vb Ab¯^xKvh©|

6.08 evsjv‡`‡k mgevq weKv‡k mgm¨v Poblems of Co-operative Development in Bangladesh

Z…Zxq we‡k¦i GKwU `wi`ª †`k wn‡m‡eB evsjv‡`k mevi Kv‡Q cwiwPZ| G‡`‡k wbæweË m¤úbœ gvby‡li msL¨v †ewk| G‡`i fv‡M¨vbœq‡bi Rb¨ we‡kl K‡i ¯^vaxbZvi ci evsjv‡`‡k mgevq Av‡›`vjb MwZ †c‡q‡Q, wKšÍy Kvh©‡ÿ‡Î G Av‡›`vjb mdjZvi gyL †`Lv hvqbv|


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ev¯Íe‡ÿ‡Î G‡`‡k mgevq Av‡›`vj‡b †h mgm¨v jÿbxq Zv wb‡gœ Zz‡j aiv n‡jv− 1. mwVK cwiKíbvi Afve (Lack of proper planning): evsjv‡`‡k mgevq mwgwZi Dbœq‡b †Kv‡bv myôy cwiKíbv †bB| d‡j G‡`i Aw¯ÍZ¡ nq ¯^í‡gqvw` Ges weKvk nq evavcÖvß| 2. cÖwkÿ‡Yi Afve (Lack of training): mgev‡qi wbe©vnxM‡Yi †Kv‡bviƒc cÖwkÿY MÖn‡Yi my‡hvM †bB e‡j Zviv A‡bK mgq fyj c‡_ cwiPvwjZ nq| 3. AvgjvZvwš¿K g‡bvfve (Bureaucratic attitude): G‡`‡k †KD †Kv‡bv ØvwqZ¡ I ÿgZv †c‡jB wb‡R‡K GKRb AmvaviY e¨w³ fve‡Z ïiæ K‡ib| Avi mgevq mwgwZ cwiPvjbvi R‡b¨ wbhy³ e¨w³ivI AvgjvZwš¿K g‡bvfve aviY Kivq Zviv m`m¨‡`i †mevi e`‡j A‡bK mgq Amyweav m„wó K‡ib| d‡j mgevq mwgwZ †f‡½ hvq| 4. ¯^Rb-cÖxwZ (Nepotism): mwgwZi cwiPvjK‡`i ¯^Rb-cªxwZ evsjv‡`‡ki mgevq¸‡jvi weKv‡ki c‡_ AšÍivq| we‡kl K‡i FY`vb mgevq mwgwZ¸‡jvi FY`v‡bi †ÿ‡Î G mgm¨v †`Lv †`q †ewk| 5. wkÿvi Afve (Lack of education): evsjv‡`‡k AwkwÿZ Rb‡Mvôxi msL¨vB AwaK| G wecyj Rb‡Mvôxi g‡a¨ wkÿv m‡PZbZv bv _vKvq Zviv mgevq cÖwZôvi ¸iæZ¡ Abyave‡b e¨_© n‡q‡Q| G‡Z mgevq cÖwZôv I weKvk evavMÖ¯Í n‡Z eva¨| 6. Amg cªwZ‡hvwMZv (Un-equal competition): ÿz`vª qZb cÖK…wZi msMVb nIqvq mwgwZ‡K ga¨g I e„n`vqZb msMV‡bi mv‡_ cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq wU‡K _vKv KóKi n‡q c‡o| 7. mZZv I wbôvi Afve (Lack of honesty and sincerity): mgev‡qi g‡Zv †h․_ cÖ‡Póvi mdjZv A‡bKUvB mZZv I wbôvi Dci wbf©ikxj| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki AwaKvsk e¨w³¯^v_© PwiZv_© Ki‡Z wM‡q G `y‡UviB wemR©b w`‡Z e‡m‡Q| d‡j mgevq mwgwZi D‡Ïk¨I AvR e¨_©Zvq ch©ewmZ n‡”Q| 8. g~ja‡bi ¯^íZv (Defeciency of Capital): mgevq `wi`ª‡`i msMVb| Zv‡`i cÖ`Ë ¯^í cwigvY Puv`v mwgwZi Rb¨ ch©vß I cÖ‡qvRbxq g~jab m„wó K‡i bv| 9. miKv‡ii mn‡hvwMZv (Co-operation of govt): mgev‡qi gva¨‡g Z…Zxq we‡k¦i †`k¸‡jvi Dbœqb Kiv m¤¢e| wKšÍy ev¯ÍeZv n‡jv miKv‡ii cÖZ¨ÿ mn‡hvwMZv G‡ÿ‡Î Kg| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, evsjv‡`‡k mgevq mwgwZ‡K GwM‡q †bqvi m¤¢vebv _vK‡jI DcwiD³ mgm¨vi Kvi‡Y Zv h‡_ó AMÖMwZ jvf Ki‡Z cvi‡Q bv| ZvB Gme mgm¨v `~i Kivi Rb¨ mswkøó meviB gnvbyfeZvi g‡bvfve wb‡q GwM‡q Avmv cÖ‡qvRb|

6.09 evsjv‡`‡k mgevq mwgwZi mgm¨v `~ixKi‡Yi Dcvqmg~n Ways of Removing the Problems of Co-operative Society in Bangladesh evsjv‡`‡k `vwi`ª¨, AbMÖmiZv I Afve-AbUb †_‡K wbgœweËm¤úbœ e¨vcK Rb‡Mvôx‡K D×vi K‡i Dbœq‡bi bZzb c_ †`Lv‡Z n‡j mgevq Av‡›`vjb †h ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ae`vb ivL‡Z cv‡i Zv ejvi A‡cÿv iv‡L bv| G j‡ÿ¨ A‡bK c~e© n‡ZB G‡`‡k mgevq Av‡›`vjb ïiæ n‡jI wKQy mgm¨vi Kvi‡Y Zv mdjZvi gyL †`L‡Z cvi‡Q bv|


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wb‡gœ G mKj mgm¨v `~ixKi‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxq Dcvq D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv: 1. jvj wdZvi †`․ivZ¥¨ n«vm (Reduction of red-tapism): jvj wdZvi †`․ivZ¥¨ Z_v AvgjvZvwš¿K RwUjZv mgevq mwgwZi AMÖmiZvi Rb¨ Kg-†ewk `vqx| G‡ÿ‡Î MwZkxjZv Avb‡Z n‡j mgevq gš¿Yvjq, mgevq wefvM I Ab¨vb¨ mswkøó Awd‡m `ÿ I mgev‡qi g‡š¿ Av¯’vkxj Kg©V Rbej wb‡qvM Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| 2. mgevqg~jK wkÿvi e¨e¯’vKiY (Arrangement of co-operative oriented education): mgevq Av‡›`vjb‡K †eMevb Ki‡Z n‡j †`‡ki mgevqg~jK wkÿvi cÖPjb Ki‡Z n‡e| Dc-AvbyôvwbK wkÿvi e¨e¯’v Kiv Ges cvV¨µ‡g G welqK Av‡jvPbv AšÍf©y³ K‡i mgevq wkÿv †Rvi`vi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| 3. mgevq Dbœq‡b e„nr cwiKíbv (Master plan for development of cooperatives): mgevq mwgwZi g~j jÿ¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ evsjv‡`‡ki Av_©ÑmvgvwRK, ivR‣bwZK I mvs¯‥…wZK cwi‡ek we‡ePbvq †i‡L GKwU e„nr ev¯ÍewfwËK cwiKíbv MÖnY Kiv Riæwi| miKvwi D‡`¨v‡M †K›`ªxqfv‡e M„nxZ G cwiKíbvi gva¨‡g †`‡ki AwkwÿZ, Aa©wkwÿZ mvaviY RbMY‡K DØy× Ki‡Z n‡e| 4. cÖwkÿY Kg©m~wP MÖnY (Adopting training programme): mgevq mwgwZi mv‡_ cwiPvjbvq hy³ e¨w³eM© Ges mvaviY m`m¨‡`i ¯^íKvjxb Ges KL‡bv ev `xN©Kvjxb cÖwkÿY cÖ`v‡bi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e| G‡Z mswkøó mK‡j ÿz`ª I KzwUi wkí, K…wlKvRmn wewfbœ wel‡q ev¯Íe aviYv AR©‡b mÿg n‡e| 5. `yb©xwZ I ¯^Rb-cÖxwZ †iva (Measures to prevent corruption and nepotism) : `yb©xwZ I ¯^Rb-cÖxwZ Ab¨vb¨ †ÿ‡Îi b¨vq mgev‡qI kw³kvjx wfZ M‡o‡Q| G wfZ‡K Dc‡o †dj‡Z n‡j wbi‡cÿfv‡e K‡Vvi cÖkvmwbK e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e| 6. mgev‡qi mydj m¤úwK©Z cÖPviYv (Publicity regarding the merits of cooperatives): mgev‡qi Kj¨vYgyLx f~wgKv m¤ú‡K© †eZvi, wUwf, msev`cÎ BZ¨vw` wewfbœ gva¨‡g cÖPviYvi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e| G‡Z mvaviY RbMY mgevq m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb n‡e Ges G wel‡q Drmvnx n‡q DV‡e| 7. mvaviY wkÿvi m¤cÖmviY (Expansion of general education): GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Dbœqbg~jK LvZ wn‡m‡e mgevq Av‡›`vjb RvZxqwfwËK Av‡›`vj‡bi ¸iæZ¡ cvevi AeKvk iv‡L| G Kvi‡Y †`‡ki RbMY‡K G wel‡q m‡PZb K‡i †Zvjv `iKvi| †`‡ki `wi`ª, Am‡PZb mvaviY †jv‡Ki g‡a¨ wkÿvi Av‡jv R¡vjv‡Z cvi‡j G wel‡q BwZevPK dj Avkv Kiv hvq|


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8. cÖ‡Yv`bvi e¨e¯’v (Taking incentive measures): G msMV‡bi mgm¨v `~ixKi‡Yi j‡ÿ¨ mgev‡qi mv‡_ mswkøó wbe©vnx, e¨e¯’vcK Ges m`m¨‡`i we‡kl cvi`wk©Zvi wfwˇZ cÖ‡Yv`bvg~jK e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖv_wgK ¯Íi †_‡K m‡e©v”P ¯Íi ch©šÍ wewfbœ †ÿ‡Î †kªô‡Z¡i Rb¨ wbi‡cÿfv‡e cyi¯‥vi cÖ`v‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| 9. Kvh©Ki mgš^‡qi e¨e¯’v MÖnY (Taking effective measures for co-ordination): cÖv_wgK, †K›`ªxq I RvZxq ch©v‡qi mgevq msMVbmg~‡ni g‡a¨ Ges mgev‡qi wewfbœ `ßi, mgevq wefvM I mgevq mwgwZi m`m¨‡`i g‡a¨ mgš^‡qi Afve mgev‡qi Dbœq‡b GKwU eo AšÍivq| GRb¨ Gme †ÿ‡Î myôz I Kvh©Ki mgš^q mva‡bi gva¨‡g mgev‡qi weKvk NUv‡Z n‡e| 10. mnR k‡Z© FY`vb (Providing credit with simple terms & condition): g~ja‡bi ¯^íZv mgevq mwgwZMy‡jv mPj ivLvi †ÿ‡Î GKwU eo evav| mgev‡qi m¤cÖmvi‡Y miKvi mnR k‡Z© FY w`‡q G mgm¨v `~i Ki‡Z cv‡i| 11. miKvwi mn‡hvwMZv e„w× (Increasing government co-operation): G †m±‡ii Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ Avw_©K I Ab¨vb¨ wel‡q miKvwi c„ô‡cvlKZv I mn‡hvwMZv Av‡iv e„w× Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| G e¨vcv‡i ¯’vbxq miKvi, cjøx Dbœqb I mgevq welqK gš¿Yvjq Kvh©Ki I ev¯ÍewfwËK c`‡ÿc MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| 12. MwZkxj Z_¨ e¨e¯’v (Dynamic information system): mgevq m¤ú‡K© mvaviY RbMY‡K m‡PZb I DØy× Ki‡Z n‡j G m¤úwK©Z Z_¨ cÖ`v‡bi e¨e¯’vI _vKv `iKvi| G Kvi‡Y wewfbœ cÖKvi cÖKvkbv, gy`ªY I Zvi h_vh_ weZiYmn mKj Z_¨ cÖ`v‡bi e¨e¯’v myôz I MwZkxj n‡Z n‡e| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, evsjv‡`‡k mgevq Av‡›`vjb‡K GwM‡q wb‡Z DcwiD³ e¨e¯’v `ªæZ MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e| GRb¨ miKvwi I †emiKvwi wefvMmg~n‡K GwM‡q Avm‡Z n‡e| mgev‡qi DrcwË nIqv wewfbœ mgm¨v wbim‡b miKvi I RbMY‡K ZvB GK‡hv‡M KvR K‡i †h‡Z n‡e| Kg©cÎ-2 evsjv‡`‡k mgevq weKv‡ki †ÿ‡Î mgm¨v¸‡jv we‡kølYc~e©K Gi mgvav‡bi Dcvq wPwýZ Ki| • • • • • • •


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6.10 mgev‡qi gva¨‡g mdj nevi Kvwnbx Success History Through Co-operative Society Lvw`Rv †eMg Zvi w`bgRyi Ges m¤ú`nxb wcZvgvZvi GKgvÎ Kb¨v| †m Zvi evev-gvi •Zwi gvwUi N‡i eo n‡q‡Q| gvÎ 11 eQi eq‡m GKRb †eKvi †Q‡ji mv‡_ Zvi we‡q nq| Avi weevwnZ Rxeb †evSvi Av‡MB wZwb `ymšÍv‡bi Rbbx nb| Rxe‡bi G mgq G‡m wZwb eyS‡Z cvi‡jb wZwb Zvi ¯^vgx Ges `ymšÍvb Zvi evev-gvi msmv‡i †evSv ¯^iƒc wVK GB mgq wZwb ÒwbRaviv gwnjv mgevq mwgwZÓ bv‡g GKwU mgevq mwgwZi bvg ïb‡jb †hwU wQj gqgbwms‡ni nvjyqvNv‡Ui Ôevsjv‡`k †ijI‡qÕ (B.R) Gi Aaxb| c‡i wZwb G mgevq mwgwZi m`m¨ n‡jb| cÖ_‡g wZwb mgevq mwgwZ n‡Z 1000 UvKv FY wb‡jb Ges F‡Yi e¨emv ïiæ Ki‡jb| FY µq-weµ‡qi gva¨‡g †h gybvdv n‡jv Zv w`‡q wZwb Zvi •`bw›`b LiP wgUv‡bvi cvkvcvwk F‡Yi 1g wKw¯Íi UvKv cwi‡kva K‡ib| Zvici n‡Z DÏxcbvi gva¨‡g Zvi msmvi cwiPvjbv Ki‡Qb| Gfv‡e wZwb 1992 †_‡K 2006 mvj ch©šÍ †gvU 68000 UvKv FY MÖnY K‡ib Ges `y» Drcv`bKvix Mvfx jvjb-cvjb K‡ib| wZwb `y» Drcv`bKvix Mvfx µq K‡i GKwU †WBwi dvg© Ges GKwU †cvjwUª dvg© ¯’vcb K‡ib| eZ©gv‡b Zvi Lvgv‡i AvUwU Miæ i‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨ 2wU we‡`wk Mvfx Ges 6wU gvSvwi mvB‡Ri Mvfx i‡q‡Q| eZ©gv‡b †m Mvfx n‡Z cÖwZw`b 30 wjUvi `ya cvq hvi eZ©gvb evRvig~j¨ 750 UvKv| G w`‡q wZwb Lvgv‡ii me LiP Ges Zv‡`i •`bw›`b LiP wgUv‡bvi ci 300 UvKv mÂq K‡ib| wZwb GKwU †cvjwUª dvg© M‡o Zz‡j‡Qb †hLv‡b 20wU nuvm Ges 325 wU gyiwM jvjb cvjb K‡ib| †cvjwUª dvg© n‡Z wZwb •`bw›`b Pvwn`v wgUv‡bvi ci Aewkó wWg evRv‡i wewµ K‡ib| Zvi †gvU •`bw›`b Rgv UvKv w`‡q ¯’vbxq ÔaivÕ evRv‡ii wbK‡U 26 kZvsk Rwg µq K‡ib hvi eZ©gvb evRvig~j¨ 3,00,000 (wZb jvL) UvKv| ÔaivÕ evRv‡i wZwb GKwU KxUbvkK Jly‡ai †`vKvi w`‡q‡Qb| eZ©gv‡b wZwb Zvi evwo‡Z GKwU Avav cvKv Ni w`‡q‡Qb| Zvi ¯^vgx eZ©gv‡b UªvK Pvjvb| Zvi wb‡Ri Ges Zvi ¯^vgxi Av‡q eZ©gv‡b Zvi msmvi Lye fv‡jvfv‡e Pj‡Q| GLb wZwb A‡bK ¯^”Qj| †Q‡j-†g‡q‡`i ¯‥z‡j cvVv‡”Q| Zvi e„× evev-gvi I †`Lvïbv Ki‡Qb| eZ©gv‡b wZwb Zvi mgv‡R Ges MÖv‡g GKRb m¤§vwbZ e¨w³| wZwb Ab¨ gwnjv‡`i Rb¨ AbyKiYxq| eZ©gv‡b wZwb LyeB myLx Ges GRb¨ wZwb mgevq mwgwZi cÖwZ K…ZÁ|

eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ: 1| ÿz`ª Drcv`Kiv wb‡R‡`i ¯^v_© iÿvi R‡b¨ †h mgevq mwgwZ MVb K‡i Zv‡K Kx ai‡bi mgevq mwgwZ e‡j| K. †fv³v mgevq L. Drcv`K mgevq M. cÖv_wgK mgevq N. RvZxq mgevq 2| Drcv`K mgevq mwgwZi D`vniY− i. `y» mgevq mwgwZ wjwg‡UW ii. ÿz`ª mgevq mwgwZ wjwg‡UW iii. ZuvwZ mgevq mwgwZ wjwg‡UW wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii


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3| mgevq mwgwZ KLb Kvh©vi¤¢ Ki‡Z cv‡i? K. D‡`¨vM MÖnY Kivi ci M. Kwgkbv‡ii AbygwZ ci

L. Dcwewa mgevq wefv‡M `vwLj Kivi ci N. wbeÜbcÎ cvevi ci

wb‡Pi Aby‡”Q`wU co Ges 4 I 5 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| iscy‡ii gvnxMÄ wbevmx KwZcq AvLPvlx wg‡j GKwU msMVb MV‡bi D‡`¨vM †bq| Zviv ¯’vbxq mgevq Awa`߇i mwgwZ wbe܇bi Rb¨ Av‡e`b K‡i Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq `wjjcÎ Rgv †`q| Z‡e `xN© wZbgvm AwZevwnZ n‡jI D³ msNVb wbeÜb nqwb| GgZve¯’vq welqwU m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z PvB‡j wbe܇Ki Awdm †_‡K Dcwewai wKQz mgm¨vi K_v ejv nq| 4| DÏxc‡K †Kvb ai‡bi mwgwZ MV‡bi Rb¨ Av‡e`b Kiv nq? K. K…lK L. Drcv`K M. †ckvRxex N. kÖgRxex 5| wbeÜb KZ…©K msMVbwU wbeÜb bv Kivi Rb¨ †h KviY †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q, G m¤ú‡K© GLb D‡`¨v³v‡`i KiYxq Kx? K. cybivq Dcwewa cÖ¯‘Z L. wbeÜb QvovB Kvh©vi¤¢ M. Dcwewai ms‡kvab N. msMVb MV‡bi cwiKíbv evwZj

m„Rbkxj cÖkœ: 1|

Uv½vB‡ji fzqvcyi _vbvi 70 Rb ZvuZx wg‡j Zv‡`i Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ GKwU mgevq mwgwZ MVb K‡i| 2012 mvj ch©šÍ Zv‡`i AwR©Z gybvdvi cwigvY wQj wb¤œiƒc: eQi 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 gybvdv(UvKv) 25,000 /= 32,000 /= 28,000 /= 25,000 /= 30,000 /= Zviv b~¨bZg nv‡i Znwej msiÿY K‡i| 2013 mv‡j Zviv GKwU bZzb ZuvZ emv‡Z PvB‡Q hvi Rb¨ 25,000 /= UvKvi cÖ‡qvRb| ZuvZ emv‡bvi Rb¨ Zviv Zv‡`i mwÂwZ Znwej e¨envi Ki‡Z PvB‡Q| K. L. M. N.

mgevq Dcwewa Kx? µq mgevq mwgwZ ej‡Z Kx eyS? mvsMVwbK wePv‡i DÏxc‡Ki cÖwZôvbwU †Kvb ai‡bi mgevq msMVb e¨vL¨v Ki| Zywg wK g‡b Ki ZuvZ †Kbvi mgy`q A_© mwÂwZ Znwej e¨envi K‡i †Kbv m¤¢e? hyw³mn DËi `vI|

2| Kzwgjøvi wbgmv‡ii meRx Drcv`Kiv cv‡ki evRv‡i meRx weµq K‡i| G‡Z Zviv †Zgb `vg cvq bv| †ewk meRx evRv‡i G‡j weµq Kivq `y¯‥i n‡q c‡o| ZvB Zviv GKUv mgevq mwgwZ Movi wm×všÍ wbj| GB mwgwZ‡Z UvKv Rwg‡q Zviv GKUv wgwb UªvK wKb‡jv| Uªv‡K mgevqx‡`i gvj GK‡Î wb‡q e‡ov evRv‡i weµq K‡i| Gi g‡a¨ mgevq Kg©KZ©v civgk© w`‡jb, Zviv XvKvq wb‡Riv GKUv †`vKvb Ly‡j †mLv‡b meRx weµq Ki‡Z cv‡i| GK mg‡q Zviv ZvB Ki‡jv| K. mgev‡qi g~jgš¿ Kx? L. †fv³v mgevq mwgwZ ej‡Z Kx eySvq? M. DÏxc‡Ki meRx Drcv`Kiv D‡Ïk¨ wePv‡i †Kvb ai‡bi mgevq M‡o Zz‡j‡Q e¨vL¨v Ki| N. XvKvq meRxi †`vKvb †Lvjvq mgevqx‡`i Avq evo‡e-Gi e³‡e¨i h_v_©Zv we‡kølY Ki|


mßg Aa¨vq

ivóªxq e¨emvq STATE ENTERPRISE e¨w³¯^vZš¿¨ev` ev Lywkg‡Zv Pj‡Z †`qvi bxwZi Kvi‡Y abev`x mgv‡R ab‣el‡g¨i m„wó nq I ivóªxq wbqš¿Y wkw_j n‡q c‡o| ZvB G Ae¯’v cwieZ©b K‡i mgvRZvwš¿K ev wgkÖ A_©bxwZ M‡o Zz‡j Kj¨vYKi ivóª cÖwZôvi j‡ÿ¨ A‡bK †`‡kB ivóªxq e¨emvq MVb I cwiPvjbv Kiv nq|

G Aa¨vq cvV †k‡l Avgiv Rvb‡Z cvi‡ev− • ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi aviYv| • ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi •ewkó¨mg~n| • ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi D‡Ïk¨mg~n| • ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi myweav I Amyweav| • evsjv‡`‡ki ivóªxq e¨emvqmg~n| • evsjv‡`‡k ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi †h․w³KZv| • evsjv‡`‡ki Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi Ae`vb| • miKvwi †emiKvwi Askx`vixZ¡wfwËK e¨emvq cwiPvjbvi aviYv|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

7.01 ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi aviYv Concept of the State Enterprise ivóª ev miKv‡ii gvwjKvbvax‡b MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ e¨emvq‡K ivóªxq e¨emvq e‡j| ivóªxq D‡`¨v‡M ev miKvwi cÖ‡Póvq bZzb e¨emvq cÖwZôvb MwVZ n‡q _v‡K| Avevi, Dcw¯’Z †Kv‡bv †emiKvwi e¨emvq cÖwZôvb‡K ivóªvqË ev RvZxqKiY K‡i iv‡óªi wbqš¿‡Y Avbv nq| mvaviYZ †`‡ki wkívqb, Kg©ms¯’v‡bi my‡hvM m„wó, m¤ú`mg~‡ni mylg eÈb cÖf…wZi D‡Ï‡k¨ Ges KZK¸‡jv RbKj¨vYg~jK †ÿ‡Î ivóªxq e¨emvq ¯’vcb Kiv nq| ZvQvov, †`kiÿv I wbivcËvi Rb¨ A¯¿cvwZi wbg©vY wk‡íi Ici c~Y© wbqš¿Y ivLvi D‡Ï‡k¨ miKvi Giƒc †ÿ‡Î ivóªxq e¨emvq MVb I cwiPvjbv K‡i _v‡K|

7.02 ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi •ewkó¨ Features Of State Enterpirse †h e¨emvq cÖwZôvbmg~n iv‡óªi gvwjKvbvq _v‡K Ges †`‡ki miKv‡ii Aax‡b cwiPvwjZ nq †m e¨emvq cÖwZôvbmg~n‡K ivóªxq e¨emvq e‡j| ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi gvwjKvbv _v‡K iv‡óªi nv‡Z| †mB wn‡m‡e mvaviY e¨w³ gvwjKvbvaxb e¨emv‡qi †P‡q G ai‡bi msMV‡bi wKQz evowZ •ewkó¨ _v‡K| wb‡gœ †m¸‡jv we‡kølY Kiv n‡jv− • MVb cÖYvjx (Mode of fromation): ivóªxq e¨emvq g~jZ miKvwi wbqg-Kvbyb cvjb K‡i miKvwi D‡`¨v‡M MwVZ nq| ivóªcwZi we‡kl Av‡`‡k ev †`‡ki AvBbmfvi we‡kl AvBbe‡j A_ev †emiKvwi e¨emvq RvZxqKiY Kivi gva¨‡g ivóªxq e¨emvq msMwVZ n‡Z cv‡i| • gvwjKvbv (Ownership): ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi gvwjK n‡jv miKvi ev RbMY| Gi mKj m¤ú` iv‡óªi Ges Gi Kg©Pvixiv cÖZ¨ÿ ev c‡ivÿfv‡e iv‡óªi Kg©Pvix wn‡m‡e MY¨ nq| Aek¨ Giƒc e¨emvq miKvwi I †emiKvwi †h․_ gvwjKvbvq cÖwZwôZ n‡Z cv‡i| • g~jab (Capital): miKvi Giƒc e¨emv‡qi gvwjK nIqvi Kvi‡Y Zv‡KB Gi cÖ‡qvRbxq g~ja‡bi ms¯’vb Ki‡Z nq| GRb¨ miKvi wbR¯^ †KvlvMvi †_‡K A_ev cÖ‡qvR‡b †`wk-we‡`wk wewfbœ Drm †_‡K FY msMÖn K‡i Gi g~jab msMÖn K‡i| • D‡Ïk¨ (Objectives): ivóªxq msMV‡bi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ gybvdv AR©b bq| ZviciI wewfbœ Kvh©K jv‡ci gva¨‡g G e¨emvq gybvdv AR©b K‡i _v‡K| G gybvdv miKvwi †KvlvMv‡i Rgv nq A_ev Rb¯^v‡_© e¨q Kiv nq| • AvBbMZ gh©v`v (Legal status): ivóªxq gvwjKvbvaxb e¨emvq K…wÎg I ¯^Zš¿ mËvi AwaKvix| we‡kl AvBb Øviv MwVZ e‡j Gi GKwU c„_K AvBbMZ gh©v`v i‡q‡Q| • RbKj¨vb mvab (Public Welfare): gybvdv e„w× †Kv‡bv ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi gyL¨ D‡Ïk¨ bq| Rb‡mev I RbKj¨vYB Gi g~L¨ D‡Ïk¨| we‡kl we‡kl D‡Ïk¨ nvwm‡ji Rb¨ ivóªxq e¨emvq MwVZ nq Ges †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv †ÿ‡Î GK‡PwUqv KZ…©Z¡ †fvM K‡i _v‡K|


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• ¯^vqËkvmb (Autonomy): ivóªxq e¨emvq msMVb K…wÎg e¨w³mËvi AwaKvix| d‡j G e¨emvq wPišÍb Aw¯Í‡Z¡i AwaKvix| we‡kl AvBb ev Aa¨v‡`k e‡j ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi Aemvb NUv‡bv hvq| • MY-•KwdqZ (Public accountability): G e¨emv‡qi mvdj¨ I e¨_©Zvi Rb¨ RvZxq msm‡` miKvi‡K Revew`wnZv Ki‡Z nq| Kg©cÎ-1 aviYv I •ewkó¨ we‡kølY K‡i evsjv‡`‡k G e¨emv‡qi †h․w³KZv wPwýZ Ki| • • • • • • • • • •

7.03 ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi D‡Ïk¨ Objectives of State Enterprise mgvRZvwš¿ K A_© e¨e¯’ v q ivóª x q Kviev‡ii cÖ P jb †ewk| abZvwš¿ K A_© e¨e¯’ v q ivóª x q e¨emvq cÖ v q †ÿ‡ÎB e¨_© nq| ivóª x q e¨emvq D‡Ïk¨MZ w`K †_‡K Ab¨vb¨ e¨emv‡qi †P‡q wfbœ | Ab¨vb¨ cÖ w Zôv‡bi g‡Zv ivóª x q e¨emv‡qi cÖ a vb D‡Ïk¨ gy b vdv AR© b bq| we‡kl wKQz D‡Ïk¨ ev¯Í e vq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ G e¨emvq MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ nq| •

RbKj¨vY (Public Welfare): RbKj¨vY‡K cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ wn‡m‡e `uvo Kwi‡q ivóªxq e¨emvq MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ nq| e¨emvwqK Kvh©Kjv‡ci gva¨‡g gybvdv AwR©Z n‡jI †m gybvdv Avevi RbM‡Yi Kj¨v‡YB LiP Kiv nq|

wbivcËv I †MvcbxqZv iÿv (Maintenance of Secrecy & Security): we‡kl wKQz Lv‡Zi †MvcbxqZv iÿv Kiv LyeB Riæwi| †hgb-cÖwZiÿv LvZ, †bvU Bmy¨ BZ¨vw`| Avi wbivcËv I †MvcbxqZv iÿvi wbwi‡L H ai‡bi LvZ¸‡jv miKvwi gvwjKvbvq cwiPvwjZ nq|

GK‡PwUqv e¨emvq †iva (Prevention of monopoly business): GK‡PwUqv e¨emvq cÖwZôvi gva¨‡g e¨w³ gvwjKMY hv‡Z mgv‡R Aïf cÖfve we¯Ívi Ki‡Z bv cv‡ib ev †¯^”QvPvix nIqvi my‡hvM bv cvb Zv †iv‡ai D‡Ï‡k¨I A‡bK mgq e¨w³gvwjKvbvaxb cÖwZôv‡bi cvkvcvwk ivóªxq e¨emvq M‡o †Zvjv nq|


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`ªæZ wkívqb (Rapid industrialisation): `ªæZ wkívq‡bi Rb¨ D‡`¨vM, cyuwR I SzuwK MÖn‡Yi gvbwmKZv D‡`¨v³v‡`i gv‡S _vK‡Z nq| A_P Dbœqbkxj †`kmg~‡ni e¨emvqx‡`i gv‡S Gi Afve _vKvq wkívqb e¨vnZ nq| ZvB miKvi mivmwi D‡`¨vM MÖnY K‡i †`‡k `ªæZ wkívq‡bi Rb¨ Giƒc e¨emvq cÖwZôv K‡i| Avg`vwb I ißvwb wbqš¿Y (Control of import and export): †`‡ki Avg`vwb I ißvwbi Dci Kvh©Ki wbqš¿Y eRvq ivLvi D‡Ï‡k¨I wKQz wKQz evwYwR¨K miKvwi gvwjKvbvq MVb I cwiPvjbv Kiv nq| Avgv‡`i †`‡k wU.wm.we. Giƒc cÖwZôv‡bi GKwU D`vniY| RvZxq Avq e„w× (Increasing national income): miKvwi gvwjKvbvq wkí-evwYR¨ cwiPvjbv Kiv n‡j cyuwRMZ myweavi Kvi‡Y Gi `ªæZ Dbœqb N‡U| Z`ycwi Giƒc cÖwZôv‡bi Ki ev ivR¯^ duvwK †`qvi cÖeYZv bv _vKvq mn‡RB RvZxq Avq e„w× cvq| fvix I †g․wjK wkí cÖwZôv (Establishing basic and heavy industries ): g~jab ms¯’v‡bi mxgve×Zv, AwaK SuywK Ges g~jab cÖZ¨veZ©‡b ev gybvdv cÖvw߇Z wej‡¤^i Kvi‡Y e¨w³gvwjKMY AwaKvsk †ÿ‡ÎB †g․wjK I fvix wk‡í wewb‡qvM Ki‡Z Pvb bv| A_P wk‡íi eywbqv` m„wói j‡ÿ¨ Giƒc Lv‡Z wewb‡qvM GKvšÍ Acwinvh©| ZvB Gai‡bi wkí cÖwZôvi j‡ÿ¨I ivóªxq e¨emvq MVb Kiv nq| ¸iæZ¡c~Y© †flR I ÿwZKviK cY¨ wbqš¿Y (Control of essential drug, herbal and harmful products): ¸iæZ¡c~Y© †flR I ÿwZKviK c‡Y¨i Drcv`b I e›Ub †emiKvwi Lv‡Z Ac©Y Ki‡j Zvi Ace¨env‡ii m¤¢vebv †ewk _v‡K| †hgb-Rxeb iÿvKvix Ilya, Avwdg, g` BZ¨vw`| ZvB hv‡Z Gme c‡Y¨i Ab¨vq Drcv`b I eÈb n‡Z bv cv‡i Z¾b¨ ivóªxq gvwjKvbvq Giƒc c‡Y¨i e¨emvq Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|

Dcmsnv‡i ejv hvq, ivóªxqKiYK…Z A_ev ivóªxq D‡`¨v‡M cÖwZwôZ †h mKj wkí ev evwYwR¨K cÖwZôv‡bi gvwjKvbv, cwiPvjbv I wbqš¿Y cÖZ¨ÿ ev c‡ivÿfv‡e miKvwi AvIZvax‡b _v‡K Zv‡K ivóªxq e¨emvq e‡j| gybvdv AR©b G e¨emv‡qi g~j D‡Ïk¨ bq; g~j D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv RbKj¨vY|

7.04 ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi myweav Advantages of State Enterprise ivóªxq e¨emvq g~jZ miKvwi wbqg-Kvbyb cvjb K‡i miKvwi D‡`¨v‡M MwVZ nq ivóªcwZi we‡kl Av‡`‡k ev †`‡ki AvBbmfvi we‡kl AvBbe‡j A_ev †emiKvwi e¨emvq RvZxqKiY Kivi gva¨‡g ivóªxq e¨emvq msMwVZ n‡Z cv‡i| wb‡gœ G e¨emv‡qi myweav Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. mvgvwRK b¨vqwePvi (Social justice): ivóªxq e¨emvq mgv‡Ri wKQzmsL¨K e¨w³i nv‡Z m¤ú` †K›`ªxf~Z nIqvi cÖeYZv eÜ K‡i Ges RbM‡Yi fv‡M¨bœq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ m¤ú‡`i mylg eÈb wbwðZ K‡i mvgvwRK b¨vqwePvi cÖwZôv K‡i| 2. RbKj¨vY mvab (Public welfare): Giƒc e¨emvq RbKj¨v‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨B g~jZ MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ nq| RbKj¨vYgyLx wewfbœ LvZ; †hgb-Iqvmv, †ijI‡q, WvK I Zvi BZ¨vw`i g‡Zv wewfbœ cÖwZôvb cwiPvjbv K‡i Avgv‡`i †`‡k G e¨emvq RbM‡Yi A‡kl DcKvi mvab K‡i|


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AwaK Kg©ms¯’vb (More employment): G e¨emvq kÖwgK-Kg©x‡`i †kvlY bv K‡i eis Zv‡`i cÖwZ `vwqZ¡ cvj‡bi g‡š¿ DØy× n‡q bZzb e¨emvq cÖwZôvb MVb I G‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq msL¨K †jvK wb‡qvM K‡i AwaK Kg©ms¯’v‡bi my‡hvM m„wó K‡i| mylg wkívqb (Balanced industrialization): ivóªxq e¨emvq cwiPvjbvi †ÿ‡Î †`‡ki mKj A‡ji Dbœq‡bi cÖwZ ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc Kiv nq| G Qvov †`‡k hv‡Z fvimvg¨c~Y© A_©vr mKj ai‡bi wk‡íi Dbœqb N‡U Zvi cÖwZI bRi †`qv nq| d‡j †`‡ki mylg wkívqb N‡U|

5.

Pvwn`v I †hvMvb mgZv weavb (Balancing between demand and supply): G‡ÿ‡Î †K›`ªxf~Z cwiKíbvi gva¨‡g wkí msµvšÍ Kvh©vewj we‡klZ Drcv`b I eȇbi g‡a¨ h_vh_ mgš^q I fvimvg¨ eRvq ivLv hvq| d‡j ¯^í ev AwaK Drcv`‡bi m¤¢vebv n«vm cvq|

6.

GK‡PwUqv cÖfve †iva (Resisting monopoly influence): e¨w³gvwjK‡`i g‡a¨ GK‡PwUqv cÖfve m„wói Amr cÖeYZv jÿYxq| GRb¨ Zviv wewfbœ mgq bvbvb ai‡bi Ac‡K․kj MÖnY K‡i RbMY‡K ÿwZMÖ¯Í K‡i| ivóªxq e¨emvq cÖwZôvi gva¨‡g Zv eÜ Kiv hvq|

7.

`ybx©wZ I AcPq †iva (Resisting corruption and wastage): e¨w³gvwjKMY AwaK gybvdvi Avkvq A‡bK mgq bvbv ai‡bi `yb©xwZi AvkÖq MÖnY K‡i| Ki duvwK †`qvi cÖeYZvq †fv‡M| hv ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î N‡U bv| GQvov G e¨emvq fvimvg¨nxb cÖwZ‡hvwMZv †iva K‡i AcPq n«vm Ki‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i|

8. e¨emv-evwYR¨ wbqš¿Y (Control of business): †`‡ki wkí-evwY‡R¨i Dci miKv‡ii cÖ‡qvRbxq wbqš¿Y _vKv DwPZ| †`‡ki Avg`vwb-ißvwbi DciI miKv‡ii cÖ‡qvRbxq wbqš¿Y _vKv Avek¨K| ivóªxqfv‡e cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨vsK, exgv BZ¨vw` cÖwZôvb cwiPvjbv K‡i miKvi †`‡ki A_© e¨e¯’v wbqš¿Y Ki‡Z cv‡i| 9.

cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i mبenvi (Best utilization of natural resources): †emiKvwi Lv‡Z †`‡ki cÖvK…wZK m¤ú` †Q‡o †`qv n‡j e¨w³¯^v_© we‡ePbvq Zvi Ace¨env‡ii m¤¢vebv †ewk _v‡K| ivóªxq gvwjKvbvq cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i e¨envi Kiv n‡j †`‡ki mKj gvbyl Gi mydj cvq|

10. g›`vRwbZ msKU †iva (Resisting problem relating to recession): A_©‣bwZK g›`vi mgq †`‡ki †`‡ki †emiKvwi Lv‡Z wewfbœ ai‡bi mgm¨v †`Lv †`q| we‡klZ Kj-KviLvbv eÜ n‡q hvIqvi †eKvi mgm¨v cÖKU nq| Drcv`b eÜ n‡q hvq| d‡j evRv‡i c‡Y¨i Zxeª msKU †`Lv hvq| wKš‘ ivóªxq gvwjKvbvaxb e¨emvq G ai‡bi msKU m„wó K‡i bv| 11. M‡elYv I Dbœqb (Research and development): ivóªxq e¨emvq e„n`vqZb cÖK…wZ‡Z M‡o DVvq Ges Avi Avw_©K mvg_©¨ fv‡jv _vKvq G‡ÿ‡Î M‡elYv I Dbœq‡bi my‡hvM †ewk _v‡K| DbœZ cÖhyw³i e¨envi K‡i G e¨emvq mn‡RB Dbœqb wbwðZ Ki‡Z cv‡i|


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7.05 ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi Amyweav Disadvantages of State Enterprise gybvdv e„w× †Kv‡bv ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi gyL¨ D‡Ïk¨ bq| Rb‡mev I RbKj¨vYB Gi g~L¨ D‡Ïk¨| we‡kl we‡kl D‡Ïk¨ nvwm‡ji Rb¨ ivóªxq e¨emvq MwVZ nq Ges †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv †ÿ‡Î GK‡PwUqv KZ…©Z¡ †fvM K‡i _v‡K|Gi d‡j wKQz Amyweav †`Lv †`q wb‡gœ ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi Amyweav mg~n Av‡ivPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1. ¯^vfvweK A_©‣bwZK weKv‡k evav (Hindrance towards normal economic development): mivmwi gvwjKvbvq e¨emvq MVb I cwiPvjbv Kiv n‡j †emiKvwi D‡`¨v³vMY wbiærmvwnZ nq| G‡Z †`‡ki Kvh©Kix Kvievwi cwi‡ek wecbœ nq I ¯^vfvweK A_©‣bwZK weKvk evavMÖ¯Í nq| 2. `ªæZ wm×všÍ MÖn‡Y Amyweav (Problem of taking quick decision): h_vmg‡q h_vh_ wm×všÍ MÖnY I Zvi ev¯Íevq‡bi Dci e¨emvq mvdj¨ wbf©i K‡i| wKšÍy ivóªxq e¨emv‡q AvgjvZvwš¿K e¨e¯’vcbvi Kvi‡Y mKj wel‡q `xN©m~ÎZvi m„wó nq| hv wm×všÍ MÖnY‡K wejw¤^Z I AKvh©Ki K‡i| 3. jvjwdZvi †`․ivZ¥¨ (Suffering of red tapisim): ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi e¨e¯’vcK I Kg©Pvix‡`i g‡a¨ AvgjvZvwš¿K gvbwmKZv we`¨gvb _vKvq aiveuvav wbqg-Kvby‡bi wbM‡o me KvR MwÐe× n‡q c‡o| G‡Z jvjwdZvi †`․iv‡Z¥¨i m„wó nq| A_©vr mKj Kv‡Ri MwZ AZ¨šÍ axi I gš’i n‡q _v‡K| 4. AjvfRbK ms¯’v (Unprofitable organisation): Giƒc e¨emvq AwaKvsk †ÿ‡Î AjvfRbK cÖwZôv‡b cwiYZ nq Ges miKvwi mvnv‡h¨ wU‡K _v‡K| AbeiZ †jvKmv‡bi d‡j Giæc e¨emvq m¤ú‡K© Rbg‡b Lvivc aviYv R‡b¥ Ges RvwZi Rb¨ Zv †evSv n‡q `uvovq| 5. bgbxqZvi Afve (Lack of flexibility): Giƒc e¨emvq miKvwi wbqg-bxwZi †eovRv‡j Ave× _v‡K weavq cÖwZwbqZ cwieZ©bkxj Kvievwi Ae¯’vi mv‡_ m½wZ weav‡b e¨_© nq| d‡j Zv †emiKvwi cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq wU‡K _vK‡Z cv‡i bv| 6. `ybx©wZ I ¯^bRbcÖxwZ (Corruption and nepotism): mvaviYfv‡e G e¨emv‡q KZ©ve¨w³‡`i Avjv`v †Kvb ¯^v_© bv _vKvq Zv‡`i g‡a¨ Ab¨vq c‡_ ¯^v_©wmw×i e¨vcK cÖeYZv jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| d‡j Gi Af¨šÍ‡i `ybx©wZ evmv euv‡a| G Qvov Giƒc e¨emvq miKvwi Avgjv I ivR‣bwZK †bZ…e„‡›`i AvZ¥xq †cvl‡Yi †ÿ‡Î cwiYZ nq| 7. bxwZi Nb Nb cwieZ©b (Frequent change of policies): miKvwi cÖkvm‡bi b¨vq Gi cwiPvjbvq wb‡qvwRZ e¨w³eM©‡KI Nb Nb e`wj Kiv nq| d‡j wbe©vnx e`‡ji mv‡_ bxwZiI cwieZ©b N‡U| G Qvov miKvi cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_I Gi bxwZ‡Z A‡bK cwieZ© b nq| Avi Giƒc bxwZi cwieZ©b e¨emv‡qi AMÖMwZ e¨vnZ K‡i| 8. †MvcbxqZv cÖKvk (Expressing secrecy): AvBbmfvi we‡kl AvBbe‡j Giƒc e¨emvq cÖwZwôZ nq weavq msm‡` Gi Kvh©µg wb‡q †LvjvLywj Av‡jvPbv Kiv nq| G Qvov gš¿Yvj‡qi Aaxb miKvwi wefvMxq msMV‡bi KvR wb‡qI mivmwi Av‡jvPbvi my‡hvM _v‡K| d‡j e¨emvq †MvcbxqZv cÖKvk n‡q c‡o|


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we‡jv‡ci Amyweav (Problem in dissolution): miKvwi cÖwZôvb weavq Gi we‡jv‡ci wm×všÍ MÖn‡Y msm‡` I Rbmvavi‡Y¨ bvbvb K_v D‡V| kÖwgK-Kg©Pvix‡`i g‡a¨ e¨vcK Av‡›`vj‡bi m„wó nq| G‡Z miKvi Rbmg_©‡bi welq we‡ePbv K‡i cÖ‡ qvRbxq wm×všÍ wb‡Z cv‡i bv| d‡j cÖ‡qvRbxq †ÿ‡ÎI Gi we‡jvc Kiv hvq bv| Kg©cÎ-2 ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi aviYv, •ewkó¨ I D‡Ïk¨ we‡kølY K‡i D³ e¨emv‡qi myweav I Amyweav¸‡jv †ei Ki| ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi myweav / mej w`K • • • • • • • •

ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi Amyweav / `~e©j w`K| • • • • • • • •

7.06 evsjv‡`‡ki ivóªxq e¨emvq State Enterprises of Bangladesh evsjv‡`k Zvi I †Uwj‡dvb †evW© (BTTB): evsjv‡`k Zvi I †Uwj‡dvb †evW©, WvK I †Uwj‡hvMv‡hvM gš¿bvj‡qi GKwU ¯^vqZ¡kvwmZ cÖwZôvb| GwU 1971 mv‡j cÖwZôv jvf K‡i| evsjv‡`k Zvi I †Uwj‡dvb †evW© g~jZ j¨vÛ‡dvb †mev cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K| GwUi †mev kni AÂj, Dckni Ges AvšÍR©vwZKfv‡e we¯Í…Z| hw`I miKvi

†emiKvwi

†ÿ‡Î

†Uwj‡dv‡bi jvB‡mÝ cÖ`vb K‡i‡Q Z_vwc j¨vÛ‡dv‡bi †ÿ‡Î GwU GL‡bv GK‡PwUqv cÖvavb¨ we¯Ívi K‡i P‡j‡Q| GwU kyay j¨vÛ †dv‡bi †mevB cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K Zv bq, GwU Avgv‡`i 64 †Rjvq B›Uvi‡bU †mev cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

1998 mv‡j GKwU Aa¨v‡`‡ki gva¨‡g GwU‡K cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb‡Z iƒcvšÍ i Kiv nq| MÖ v nK‡`i AviI Dbœ Z †mev cÖ ` vb Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨ 2004 mv‡j Ò†UwjUKÓ bv‡gi Avjv`v GKwU †Kv¤úvwb †Lv‡j †hwU eZ© g v‡b †gvevBj †mev cÖ ` vb Ki‡Q| †UwjUK n‡”Q †`‡ki GKgvÎ cvewjK †gvevBj Acv‡iUi| 2012 mv‡j †UwjUK 3G cÖ h y w ³ hy ³ K‡i †gvevBj †ÿ‡Î e¨vcK cwieZ© b mvab K‡i| G cÖ h y w ³i Kj¨v‡Y eZ© g v‡b †gvevBj MÖ v nKiv K_v ejvi mv‡_ mv‡_ hvi mv‡_ K_v ej‡Q Zvi QweI †`L‡Z cvi‡Q| A‡bK †ÿ‡Î wewfbœ †Uwjwfkb P¨v‡b‡ji Aby ô vbI †`L‡Z cv‡”Q| Av‡iv bZz b bZz b cÖ h y w ³ hy ³ Kivi Rb¨ evsjv‡`k Zvi I †Uwj‡dvb †evW© cÖ w ZwbqZ KvR Ki‡Q|

evsjv‡`k moK cwienb ms¯’v (BRTC):

evsjv‡`k moK cwienb ms¯’v (weAviwUwm) GKwU ivóªvqË cwienb ms¯’v| GwU 1961 mv‡ji 4 †deªæqvwi 1961 mv‡ji 7bs miKvwi Aa¨v‡`k Gi gva¨‡g cÖwZwôZ nq| 1971 mv‡ji ¯^vaxbZvi ci GwU eZ©gvb bvg avib K‡i| weAviwUwm †hvMv‡hvM gš¿bvj‡qi GKwU Avav ¯^vqZ¡kvwmZ cÖwZôvb| GwUi MfwY© sewWi m`m¨‡`i g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q †hvMv‡hvM gš¿x, †hvMv‡hvM mwPe, cÖwZôv‡bi cwiPvjK Ges Ab¨vb¨ Awdmvi hv‡`i Øviv miKvi KZ…©K GKRb †Pqvig¨vb wbe©vPb Kiv nq| weAviwUwm hvÎx‡mev Ges cY¨ cwienb †mev `y‡UvB cÖ`vb K‡i| weAviwUwm wZbwU AvšÍR©vwZK evmiæU i‡q‡Q; G¸‡jv n‡”Q XvKv-KjKvZv, XvKv-AvMiZjv I XvKv-wkwj¸wo| evsjv‡`‡ki g‡a¨ GwU PUªMÖvg, e¸ov, Kzwgjøv, cvebv, iscyi, ewikvj, wm‡jU, XvKv evm wW‡cv †_‡K AvšÍt‡Rjv evm †mev w`‡q _v‡K| eZ©gv‡b XvKvi hvbhU wbim‡b weAviwUwm ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Q| cÖwZwbqZ weAviwUwmi en‡i bZyb bZzb evm †hvM n‡”Q| Rvbyqvwi 2012 mvj ch©šÍ weAviwUwmi †gvU ev‡mi msL¨v wQj 1116wU| cieZ©x‡Z 2012 mv‡j Av‡iv wKQy †`vZvjv evm Avg`vwb Kiv nq| weAviwUwmi me‡P‡q AvaywbK ms‡hvRb n‡”Q AvwU©Kz‡j‡UW ev †Rvov evm †hwU 2013 mv‡j D‡™¢vab Kiv nq| wewfbœ Drme ev Abyôv‡bi mgq weAviwUwm †¯úkvj mvwf©m Pvjy K‡i; †hgb C` †¯úkvj mvwf©m| evm QvovI cY¨ cwien‡bi myweavi Rb¨ weAviwUwm UªvK †mev cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K| weAviwUwm mvaviYZ wewfbœ miKvwi cÖwZôv‡bi Lv`¨, mvi, KvMR Ges Rxeb iÿvKvix Jla cwien‡bi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡K| ZvQvov wewfbœ `~‡h©v‡Mi mgq Îvb cwien‡b mnvqZv K‡i _v‡K| eZ©gv‡b cÖvq 171 wU UªvK weAviwUwm en‡i i‡q‡Q|


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evm I UªvK †mev QvovI weAviwUwm PvjK‡`i‡K cÖwkÿ‡Yi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡K| GwUi cÖavb PvjK cÖwkÿY †K›`ª Aew¯’Z MvwRcy‡ii Rq‡`ecyi| GQvovI XvKv, PUªMÖvg, e¸ov, Lyjbv, wSbvB`v‡nI cÖwkÿY †K›`ª Ges mvwf©wms †m›Uvi i‡q‡Q| weAviwUwmi cÖavb IqvK©kc XvKvi †ZRMuvI G Aew¯’Z|

evsjv‡`k wPwb I Lv`¨ wkí ms¯’v Bangladesh Sugar and food Industry Corporation evsjv‡`k wPwb I Lv`¨ wkí ms¯’v (BSFIC) GKK cÖwZôvb wn‡m‡e Avwef©~Z nq c‡njv RyjvB 1976 mv‡j| GwU 1972 mv‡ji 26 gvP© ivóªcwZi Aa¨v‡`k 1972 Gi 26 bs AW©v‡ii wfwˇZ `ywU cÖwZôvb h_v evsjv‡`k wPwbKj wgj K‡c©v‡ikb (BSMC) Ges evsjv‡`k Lv`¨ Ges mnvqK wkí K‡c©v‡ikb (BFAIC) GwKf~Z n‡q cÖwZwôZ nq| evsjv‡`k wPwb I Lv`¨ wkí ms¯’v Lv`¨ gš¿bvj‡qi GKwU cÖwZôvb| GwUi mvaviY cÖkvmwbK Kvh©vewj Ò†evW© Ae wW‡i±imÓ Gi gva¨‡g cwiPvwjZ nq| Ò†evW© Ae wW‡i±imÓ G _v‡K GKRb †Pqvig¨vb Ges 5 Rb cwiPvjK hvi g‡a¨ _v‡K GKRb A_©vqb, GKRb wecYb, GKRb Drcv`b I cÖ‡K․kjx, GKRb cwiKíbv I Dbœqb Ges GKRb AvL Dbœqb I M‡elYv| jÿ¨ I D‡Ïk¨ (Goal & Objective) • wewfbœ Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g DbœZgv‡bi wPwb Drcv`b Kiv| • wPwbKj¸‡jvi mÿgZv‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q wPwbi Drcv`b e„w× K‡i •e‡`wkK g~`vª iÿv Kiv| • `ÿ wecY‡bi gva¨‡g ¯’vbxq evRv‡i wPwbi `vg w¯’wZkxj ivLv| • wPwb‡Z AvZ¥-wbf©ikxjZv AR©b Kivi j‡ÿ¨ eZ©gvb wPwbKj¸‡jvi Drcv`b e„w× Kiv Ges bZzb wPwbKj ¯’vcb Kiv| evsjv‡`k wPwb I wkí ms¯’vi Aax‡b wPwbKj ¸‡jv wbgœiƒc: µwgK cÖwZôv‡bi bvg Ae¯’vb 1 cÂMo wPwbKj wj. cÂMo 2 †LZveMÄ wPwbKj wj. †LZveMÄ, w`bvRcyi 3 VvKziMuv wPwbKj wj. VvKziMuv 4 k¨vgcyi wPwbKj wj. k¨vgcyi, iscyi 5 RqcyinvU wPwbKj wj. RqcyinvU 6 bv‡Uvi wPwbKj wj. bv‡Uvi 7 DËie½ wPwbKj wj. †Mvcvjcyi, bv‡Uvi 8 ivRkvnx wPwbKj wj. ivRkvnx 9 Kzwóqv wPwbKj wj. Kzwóqv 10 †gveviKMÄ wPwbKj wj. wSbvB`n 11 †Kiæ GÛ †Kv¤úvwb wj. `k©bv, PzqvWv½v 12 dwi`cyi wPwbKj wj. gayLvwj, dwi`cyi 13 cvebv wPwbKj wj. cvebv 14 wSj-evsjv wPwbKj wj. †`IqvbMÄ, Rvgvjcyi 15 iscyi wPwbKj wj. gwngvMÄ, MvBevÜv


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Iqvmv Wasa-Water and Swearage Authority cvwb mieivn Ges b`©gv e¨e¯’vcbvi `vwq‡Z¡ wb‡qvwRZ GKwU Avav ¯^vqZ¡kvwmZ cÖwZôvb| 1963 mv‡j Iqvmv cÖwZwôZ nq| ¯’vbxq miKvi I cjøx Dbœqb gš¿bvj‡qi Aax‡b Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv K‡i _v‡K|

evsjv‡`k imvqb wkí ms¯’v (BCIC) evsjv‡`‡k ivmvqwbK wk‡íi Dbœqb I weKvk mva‡b BCIC AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K| 1972 mv‡j BCIC cÖwZwôZ nq| Z‡e †m mgq GwU (1) evsjv‡`k mvi, imvqb I †flR wkí ms¯’v (2) evsjv‡`k KvMR †evW© (3) evsjv‡`k †UbvwiR K‡c©v‡ikb G wZbwU ms¯’vq wef³ wQj| cieZ©x‡Z G wZbwU ms¯’v‡K GKwÎZ K‡i BCIC cÖwZôv Kiv nq| BCIC evsjv‡`‡ki Pvgov wkí, KvMR wkí, †flR †c‡Uªvwjqvg, ivmvqwbK mvi cÖf„wZ wel‡q M‡elYv, gv‡bvbœqb, msiÿY, evRviRvZKiY BZ¨vw` Kvh©vewj cvjb K‡i _v‡K| eZ©gv‡b Gi Aax‡b 30wU wkí BDwbU i‡q‡Q| we‡`‡ki mv‡_I G ms¯’vi ms‡hvM i‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`k wkí gš¿bvj‡qi Aax‡b BCIC cwiPvwjZ nq|

evsjv‡`k ch©Ub K‡c©v‡ikb (BPC) cÖvK…wZK †m․›`‡h©i jxjvfywg evsjv‡`‡k ch©Ub wkí GKwU we‡kl ¯’vb AwaKvi K‡i Av‡Q| ch©Ub wk‡íi DbœZ cÖmvi I weKv‡k miKvi 1977 mv‡j evsjv‡`k ch©Ub K‡c©v‡ikb MVb K‡i‡Q| G K‡c©v‡ik‡bi cÖavb jÿ¨ I Kg©m~wP n‡”Q evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvK…wZK AvKl©Yxq ¯’vb mg~n wPwýZ Kiv Ges cÖK…wZ †cÖwgK ch©UK‡`i Kv‡Q Zz‡j aivi Rb¨ †m¸‡jvi ms¯‥vi, Dbœqb, mg‡qvc‡hvMx †hvMv‡hvM I wbivcËv BZ¨vw`i e¨e¯’v Kiv| ch©UK‡`i AvK…ó Kivi Rb¨ cyw¯ÍKv, †cv÷vi, ¯úUmg~‡ni cwiwPwZg~jK n¨vÛwej, cwÎKvq weÁvcb BZ¨vw` cÖKvk Kivi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡K| Gme Kv‡Ri Rb¨ XvKvq Gi †K›`ªxq `ßi cÖwZwôZ n‡jI K·evRvi, ivOvgvwU, Kywgjøv, iscyi, wm‡jU wewfbœ ¯’v‡b Gi kvLv †K›`ª ¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q| †`‡ki ¸iæZ¡c~Y© ¯úU ¸‡jv‡Z AwfRvZ †nv‡Uj, †i‡¯Íviv I µxov‡K›`ªI ¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q ch©Ub K‡c©v‡ik‡bi D‡`¨v‡M| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki cÖavb cÖavb ch©Ub ¯úU¸‡jv n‡jv K·evRvi, KzqvKvUv, my›`ieb, Rvdjs, ivOvgvwU, wm‡jU, ev‡MinvU, Kzwgjøvi gqbvgwZ, w`bvRcyi|


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WvK †hvMv‡hvM (Postal Communication) gvbe mf¨Zvi GK we‡kl Ae`vb n‡”Q WvK e¨e¯’v| cÖwZwU †`‡kB WvK e¨e¯’v Av‡Q| evsjv‡`‡k WvK wefvM MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii WvK I †Uwj‡hvMv‡hvM gš¿bvj‡qi GKwU AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wefvM| Gi kvLv evsjv‡`‡ki MÖv‡gM‡Ä me©Î Qwo‡q Av‡Q| e¯‘Z evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM Zvi cÖvq 8000 †cv÷ Awd‡mi gva¨‡g †`‡ki Avcvgi Rbmvavi‡bi Aweivg †mev K‡i hv‡”Q| eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`k miKvi ivRavbxi mv‡_ mKj †Rjv m`i Ges †Rjv m`‡ii mv‡_ mKj _vbv m`‡i WvK †hvMv‡hvM Z¡ivwš^Z Kivi e¨e¯’v wb‡q‡Qb| G Rb¨ XvKv †_‡K mKj †Rjv m`i I †Rjv m`i †_‡K _vbv m`‡i mivmwi †gBj e¨vM cÖeZ©‡bi gva¨‡g b~b¨Zg mg‡q WvK Av`vb-cÖ`v‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv n‡q‡Q| RbM‡Yi Kj¨v‡Y evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM †ekwKQz mvwf©m ev †mev cÖ`vb K‡i: 1. mvaviY wPwV: evsjv‡`k WvK wefvM 3 UvKv wd wb‡q mvaviY wPwV evsjv‡`‡ki †h‡Kv‡bv cÖv‡šÍi cÖvc‡Ki wbKU †cu․‡Q †`q| 2. cv‡m©j: cv‡m©‡ji gva¨‡g †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó cwigv‡ci cY¨ GK ¯’vb †_‡K Ab¨ ¯’v‡b cvVv‡bv hvq| cv‡m©j †iwRw÷ªK…Z Ges wegv Kiv hvq| 3. gvwb AW©vi: gvwb AW©v‡ii gva¨‡g †`‡k-we‡`‡k †h‡Kv‡bv ¯’v‡b UvKv †cÖiY Kiv hvq| †`‡ki wewfbœ ¯’v‡b PvKwiRxwe‡`i Rb¨ GwU LyeB mvnvh¨Kvix| 4. †cv÷vj AW©vi: A_© n¯ÍvšÍ‡ii Rb¨ WvK wefv‡M †cv÷vj AW©vi weµq Ges fvOv‡bvi e¨e¯’v i‡q‡Q| 5. †UwjMÖvd: WvK wefv‡Mi cyivZb GKwU †mev n‡”Q †UwjMÖvd| eZ©gv‡b Aek¨ †UwjMÖvd e¨envi Kg n‡q _v‡K| 6. WvKNi mÂqcÎ: WvK Ni mÂqc‡Îi gva¨‡g MÖvn‡Ki UvKv wbw`©ó †gqv‡`i wfwˇZ Rgv †i‡L my` cÖ`vb K‡i| 7. ÷¨v¤ú: Rwg, d¬¨vU, †`vKvb µq-weµq, Pzw³ BZ¨vw` Kv‡R `wjj wjL‡b ÷¨v¤ú e¨eüZ nq, WvK wefvM GwU weµq K‡i _v‡K| 8. cÖvBReÛ µq-weµq: wewfbœ Dcnvi Ges wbw`©ó mgqv‡šÍ Wª-Gi gva¨‡g RbmvaviY‡K mÂqx g‡bvfve M‡o †Zvjvi Rb¨ WvK wefv‡M cÖvBReÛ µq I weµ‡qi e¨e¯’v Av‡Q|

evsjv‡`k †ijI‡q (BR) evsjv‡`‡ki †ijc‡_i cwigvY Aí n‡jI Zv G‡`‡ki A_© b xwZ‡Z AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡ c ~ Y © f~ w gKv cvjb K‡i| †ijc_ †`‡ki cÖ a vi kni, e›`i, evwYR¨ I wkí †K‡›`ª i m‡½ †`‡ki cÖ Z ¨šÍ A‡ji ms‡hvM iÿv K‡i| evsjv‡`k †ijI‡qi BwZnvm AZ¨šÍ c~ i vZb| GwUi hvÎv ïiæ nq 15B b‡f¤^ i 1862 mv‡j| †ijI‡q GKwU ¯^ v qZ¡ k vwmZ cÖ w Zôvb| GwU evsjv‡`k †ijI‡q gš¿ b vj‡qi Aaxb| Avi †Uª b cwiPvjbvi `vwq‡Z¡ _v‡Kb gnvcwiPvjK|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

evsjv‡`‡k eZ©gv‡b wZb ai‡bi †ijc_ Pvjy Av‡Q| c_¸‡jv n‡”Q-wgUvi‡MR †ijc_, eªW‡MR †ijc_ I Wz‡qj‡MR †ijc_| hgybv b`xi c~e©vs‡k wgUvi‡MR I Wz‡qj‡MR Ges cwðgvs‡k eªW‡MR †ijc_ Pvjy Av‡Q| hgybv †mZz Pvjyi c~‡e© †ijc‡_i •`N©¨ wQj 2768 wK.wg.| eZ©gv‡b †ijc‡_i •`N©¨ 2855 wK.wg. Ges cÖvq 34,168 Rb Kg©iZ Av‡Q| Gi g‡a¨ 660 wK.wg. eªW‡MR (†ewkifvM cwðgvÂj), 1830 wK.wg. wgUvi‡MR (†ewkifvM †K›`ªxq Ges c~ev©Â‡j Aew¯’Z) Ges 365 wK.wg. Wz‡qj †MR| 1998 mv‡j hgybv †mZz Pvjy nIqvi ci c~‡e© wew”Qbœ c~e©-cwðg A‡ji mv‡_ hy³ nq| DbœZ †mev cÖ`vb Kivi Rb¨ †ijc_‡K `ywU A‡j fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q-c~e©vÂj Ges cwðg AÂj| `ywU A‡j `yRb e¨e¯’vcK _v‡Kb whwb gnvcwiPvj‡Ki wbKU `vqe× _v‡Kb| cÖ‡Z¨K A‡j `y wU IqvK©mc Av‡Q; GKwU cvnvoZjx Ges Ab¨wU •mq`cy‡i Aew¯’Z| †ijI‡qi wbR¯^ cÖwkÿ‡YiI e¨e¯’v i‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`k †ijI‡q wewfbœ †mev cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K| wek¦we`¨vj‡qi wkÿv_©x‡`i Rb¨ mvUj †Uªb †mev †_‡K ïiæ K‡i hvÎx †mev Ges cY¨ cwien‡bi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡K| GZ †mev cÖ`vb Kivi c‡iI †ij GL‡bv jvfRbK cÖwZôv‡b iƒcvšÍi n‡Z cv‡i bvB| GL‡bv miKvi‡K G Lv‡Z fZ©~Kx w`‡Z nq| eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡ki †ijc_ eûwea mgm¨vq RR©wiZ| evsjv‡`k †ijI‡qi cÖavb mgm¨v¸‡jv n‡jv; µzwUc~Y© e¨e¯’vcbv, µzwUc~Y© ms‡KZ c×wZ, BwÄb I ewMi AcÖZyjZv, BwÄb WªvBfvi msKU, IqvMb ¯^íZv, `yN©Ubv, †ijI‡q w¯øcvi, †ijI‡q cv_‡ii Ach©vßZv, `yb©xwZ BZ¨vw`| Z‡e Avkvi K_v eZ©gv‡b miKvi G Lv‡Z we‡kl ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc K‡i‡Q| wKQz wKQz †ijc_ †h¸‡jv eÜ wQj Zv ms¯‥v‡ii e¨e¯’v K‡i‡Q| bZzb jvBb ¯’vc‡bi c`‡ÿc wb‡q‡Q| m¤úªwZ fviZ †_‡K bZzb †KvP Avg`vwb K‡i‡Q Ges RvBKvi mv‡_ †g‡Uªv †i‡ji Pzw³ n‡q‡Q| G¸‡jv m¤úvw`Z n‡j evsjv‡`k †ijI‡q Zvi mgm¨v A‡bKvs‡k mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

7.07 evsjv‡`‡k ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi †h․w³KZv Appropriateness of State Business in Bangladesh †h e¨emvq cÖwZôvbmg~n iv‡óªi gvwjKvbvq _v‡K Ges †`‡ki miKv‡ii Aax‡b cwiPvwjZ nq †m e¨emvq cÖwZôvbmg~n‡K ivóªxq e¨emvq e‡j| evsjv‡`‡k ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi †h․w³KZv Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: •

ivóªxq e¨emvq mgv‡Ri wKQzmsL¨K e¨w³i nv‡Z m¤ú` †K›`ªxf~Z nIqvi cÖeYZv eÜ K‡i Ges RbM‡Yi fv‡M¨bœq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ m¤ú‡`i mylg eÈb wbwðZ K‡i mvgvwRK b¨vqwePvi cÖwZôv K‡i|

G e¨emvq kÖ w gK-Kg© x ‡`i †kvlY bv K‡i eis Zv‡`i cÖ w Z `vwqZ¡ cvj‡bi g‡š¿ DØy × n‡q bZz b e¨emvq cÖ w Zôvb MVb I G‡Z cÖ ‡ qvRbxq msL¨K †jvK wb‡qvM K‡i AwaK Kg© m s¯’ v ‡bi my ‡ hvM m„ w ó K‡i|

e¨w³gvwjKMY AwaK gybvdvi Avkvq A‡bK mgq bvbv ai‡bi `yb©xwZi AvkÖq MÖnY K‡i| Ki duvwK †`qvi cÖeYZvq †fv‡M| hv ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î N‡U bv| GQvov G e¨emvq fvimvg¨nxb cÖwZ‡hvwMZv †iva K‡i AcPq n«vm Ki‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i|


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†`‡ki wkí-evwY‡R¨i Dci miKv‡ii cÖ‡qvRbxq wbqš¿Y _vKv DwPZ| †`‡ki Avg`vwb-ißvwbi DciI miKv‡ii cÖ‡qvRbxq wbqš¿Y _vKv Avek¨K| ivóªxqfv‡e cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨vsK, exgv BZ¨vw` cÖwZôvb cwiPvjbv K‡i miKvi †`‡ki A_© e¨e¯’v wbqš¿Y Ki‡Z cv‡i|

ivóªxq e¨emvq e„n`vqZb cÖK…wZ‡Z M‡o DVvq Ges Avi Avw_©K mvg_©¨ fv‡jv _vKvq G‡ÿ‡Î M‡elYv I Dbœq‡bi my‡hvM †ewk _v‡K| DbœZ cÖhyw³i e¨envi K‡i G e¨emvq mn‡RB Dbœqb wbwðZ Ki‡Z cv‡i|

Giƒc e¨emvq RbKj¨v‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨B g~jZ MwVZ I cwiPvwjZ nq| RbKj¨vYgyLx wewfbœ LvZ; †hgb-Iqvmv, †ijI‡q, WvK I Zvi BZ¨vw`i g‡Zv wewfbœ cÖwZôvb cwiPvjbv K‡i Avgv‡`i †`‡k G e¨emvq RbM‡Yi A‡kl DcKvi mvab K‡i| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq †h, Dc‡iv³ Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`‡k ivóªxq gvwjKvbvq G e¨emvq cÖ‡qvRbxqZvi h_v_Zv i‡q‡Q|

7.08 evsjv‡`‡k Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi Ae`vb Contribution of State Enterprise in Social Economic Development of Bangladesh

mgvRZvwš¿K A_© e¨e¯’vq ivóªxq Kviev‡ii cÖPjb †ewk| abZvwš¿K A_© e¨e¯’vq ivóªxq e¨emvq cÖvq †ÿ‡ÎB e¨_© nq| Zvi c‡iI ivóªxq e¨emvq †`‡ki wkívqb I A_©‣bwZK Dbœqb, Kg©ms¯’vb ,m¤ú`mg~‡ni mبenvi I mylg e›U‡bi †ÿ‡Î Awcwimxg Ae`vb †i‡L‡Q| ivóªxq e¨emvq wb‡¤œv³fv‡e Avgv‡`i †`‡ki Av_©mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b Ae`vb ivL‡Z cv‡i| •

cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i mبenvi (Best utilization of natural resources): †emiKvwi Lv‡Z †`‡ki cÖ v K… w ZK m¤ú` †Q‡o †`qv n‡j e¨w³¯^ v _© we‡ePbvq Zvi Ace¨env‡ii m¤¢ v ebv †ewk _v‡K| ivóª x q gvwjKvbvq cÖ v K… w ZK m¤ú‡`i e¨envi Kiv n‡j †`‡ki mKj gvby l Gi my d j cvq|

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142

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

Kg©ms¯’v‡bi my‡hvM m„wó (Creating of employment opportunity): †`‡k AwaK Kg©ms¯’v‡bi my‡hvM m„wó I †eKviZ¡ n«v‡mi cÖ‡Póv‡ZI A‡bK mgq ivóªxq e¨emvq M‡o †Zvjv nq| M.C. Sukla G m¤ú‡K©B e‡j‡Qb Òivóªxq gvwjKvbvq D‡jøL‡hvM¨ msL¨K wkí cÖwZwôZ n‡j Gi gva¨‡g e¨vcK wewb‡qvM Kg©m~wP `xN©‡gqv‡` MÖnY Kiv hvq| hv †`‡ki Kg©ms¯’v‡bi †ÿ‡Î AwbwðZ Ae¯’v Gov‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i|Ó

M‡elYv I D™¢veb (Research and development): †fv³vi µgea©gvb Pvwn`v wgUv‡bvi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb nq bZzb bZzb c‡Y¨i| Avi GRb¨ cÖ‡qvRb M‡elYvi| M‡elYvg~jK KvR memgq e¨qeûj| miKvi wbqwš¿Z †Kv‡bv e¨emvq cÖwZôvb mn‡RB evRvi M‡elYv I bZzb cY¨ D™¢veb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

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2|

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ivóªxq e¨emv‡qi gva¨‡g †kÖwY •elg¨ `yixf~Z n‡Z cv‡i− i. m¤ú‡`i mylg e›Ub K‡i ii. A‡ji mylg Dbœq‡bi gva¨‡g iii. Kg©ms¯’v‡bi e¨e¯’v K‡i wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii

L. i I iii

M. ii I iii

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144

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

m„Rbkxj cÖkœ: 1|

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2|

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Aóg Aa¨vq

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G Aa¨vq cvV †k‡l Avgiv Rvb‡Z cvie− • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

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146

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

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147

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148

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

8.03 †c‡U›U I †UªWgvK© AvB‡bi myweav Benefits of Patent and Trademark Law †c‡U›U AvB‡bi myweav (Benefits of Patent Law): GKwU †c‡U›U D™¢vebKvix‡K mvg_© †`q / AwaKvi †`q AvBbMZ e¨e¯’v wb‡Z hw` †Kvb e¨w³ ev cÖwZôvb c~e© AbygwZ e¨ZxZ †Kvb Avwe®‥vi ev D™¢veb bKj, Drcv`b, wewµ ev Avg`vwb Ki‡j| †c‡U›U wb‡RB Ab¨‡`i‡K Zvi D™¢veb aŸs‡mi †Póvi nvZ †_‡K iÿv K‡i| GwU wb‡R eÜ bv Ki‡Z cvi‡j D™¢vebKvix wb‡RB Av`vj‡Zi gva¨‡g AvBbMZ e¨e¯’v wb‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e AvBbMZ e¨e¯’v †bIqv e¨qeûj| G‡Z civgk©K wb‡qvM w`‡Z nq| AvBbx jovB G wRZ‡j Aek¨ hveZxq e¨‡qi A_© †diZ cv‡e| †c‡U›U Av‡iv wKQz myweav cÖ`vb K‡i h_v− * D™¢veb Ges eyw×`xß m¤úwË wewµi AwaKvi cÖ`vb K‡i| * †Kvb e¨w³‡K Avwe®‥v‡ii jvB‡mÝ †`Iqv hvq wKš‘ mKj AvB. wc (IP) AwaKvi we`¨gvb D™¢vebKvixi wbKUB _v‡K| * D™¢ve‡bi wfwˇZ †Kvb e¨e¯’v Avi¤¢ Kivi Rb¨ Z…Zxq c‡ÿi mv‡_ Av‡jvPbv Kiv hvq| * †c‡U›U †_‡K RbMYI DcK…Z nq| * †c‡U›U Gi Kvi‡Y Avgiv DbœZ gv‡bi cb¨ †c‡q _vwK| * hw` †KD D™¢ve‡bi †c‡U›U bv K‡i Zvn‡j †h †KD H D™¢veb e¨envi Ki‡Z cv‡i| wewµ Ki‡Z cv‡i| †c‡U›U D™¢vebKvix‡K Gi nvZ †_‡K iÿv K‡i|

†UªWgvK© AvB‡bi myweav Benefits of Trade Mark Act †UªWgv‡K©i AwaKvi †fvM Kivi Rb¨ †UªWgvK© †iwR‡÷ªkb eva¨Zvg~jK bq| wKš‘ hw` †UªWgvK© AvBb Abyhvqx †iwR‡÷ªkbK…Z nq Zvn‡j †mwU wb‡¤œv³ myweav¸‡jv †c‡q _v‡K− • GwU RbM‡Yi wbKU †bvwUk wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i Ges gvwjKvbv wPwýZ K‡i| • GwU •ea I AvBbMZfv‡e gvwjKvbv wPwýZ K‡i Ges wek¦e¨vcx c‡Y¨i cwiwPwZ Zz‡j a‡i| • hw` †Kvb cÖwZôvb GKUvbv 5eQi †Kvb †UªWgvK© e¨envi K‡i Zvn‡j GwU AKv‡U¨i gh©v`v jvf K‡i| Zvn‡j †KD Awf‡hvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv †h H †Kv¤úvwb Ab¨ †Kvb †Kv¤úvwbi †UªWgvK© e¨envi Ki‡Q| • hw` †Kvb †Kv¤úvwb Zvi †UªWgvK©, Ò†UªWgvK© AvBbÓ Abyhvqx †iwR‡÷ªkb K‡i Zvn‡j Ab¨ †Kvb †Kv¤úvwb GUv MÖnY Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| Avi †Kvb †Kv¤úvwb MÖnY Ki‡j Zvi weiæ‡× AvBbMZ e¨e¯’v †bIqv hv‡e| • †UªWgvK© †iwR‡÷ªk‡bi myweav A‡bK G‡Z c‡Y¨i gv‡K©U f¨vjy A‡bK †e‡o hvq|


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8.04 †c‡U›U I †UªW gvK© †iwRw÷ª Kivi c×wZ The Registration Method of Patent and Trademark †c‡U›U †iwR‡÷ªkb c×wZ: hw` †Kvb e¨w³ †Kvb †c‡U›U †iwR‡÷ªkb Ki‡Z Pvq Zvn‡j Zv‡K wb‡gœv³ c×wZ AbymiY Ki‡Z nq| 1. Av‡e`b (Application): †c‡U›U Gi Rb¨ †Kvb e¨w³ GKK fv‡e ev Ab¨ †Kvb e¨w³i mv‡_ †h․_fv‡e Av‡e`b Ki‡Z cv‡i| Av‡e`bwU Aek¨B wba©vwiZ d‡g© •Zwi Ki‡Z n‡e Ges wba©vwiZ wbqgKvbyb †g‡b †c‡U›U Awd‡m Rgv w`‡Z n‡e| Av‡e`bc‡Îi mv‡_ Aek¨B Av‡e`bKvixi GKwU †NvlYvcÎ _vK‡Z n‡e †h wZwb wb‡RB D³ welqe¯‘ D™¢vebKvix| Avi hw` †h․_ Av‡e`bKvix nq Zvn‡j Av‡e`bKvixi g‡a¨ Kgc‡ÿ GKRb‡K †NvlYv Ki‡Z n‡e D™¢ve‡bi `vex mZ¨| 2. welqe¯‘ m¤ú‡K© cy•Lvbycy•L eY©bv/mywbw`©ó KiY (Full Description): D™¢vebxq e¯‘ m¤ú‡K© cy•Lvbycy•L eY©bv Ki‡Z n‡e Ges D™¢ve‡bi aib Ges GwU wKfv‡e KvR Ki‡e Zv wbiæcb Ki‡Z n‡e| mywbw`©ó KiY Avi¤¢ n‡e wk‡ivbv‡gi (Title) Gi gva¨‡g Avi mywbw`©ó KiY †kl n‡e Avwe®‥v‡ii `vex m¤ú‡K© mZ¨ NUbv, gZvgZ wel‡q wee„wZi gva¨‡g bKkv ev A¼b, Av‡e`b M„nxZ nIqvi Av‡M †h‡Kvb mgq Rgv †`Iqv hvh Z‡e Uªvwms †ccvi wcÖ›U Kivi c~‡e©B A¼b (Drawing) wU Rgv †`Iqv fvj| 3. Kb‡fbk‡b we‡ewPZ nIqvi `vex (Consider in Convention): evsjv‡`k c¨vwim Kb‡fbkb (The paris convention for the protection of industrial property of march 20, 1883) Gi GKwU m`m¨ †`k| †Kvb welq †c‡U›U †c‡Z we‡ewPZ n‡Z n‡j m`m¨ †`‡ki g‡a¨ cÖ_‡g whwb Av‡e`b K‡i‡Qb Zvi Av‡e`‡bi GK eQ‡ii g‡a¨ Zv Av‡e`b Ki‡Z n‡e| PCT Av‡e`bKvixi KvQ †_‡K we‡ewPZ nIqvi `vex Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| we‡ewPZ nIqvi `vexi †ÿ‡Î Aek¨B Av‡e`bKvix‡K we‡`kx †c‡U›U Gi mvwU©dvBW Kwc Aek¨B Rgv w`‡Z n‡e hvi wfwˇZ wZwb we‡ewPZ nIqvi `vex †ck Ki‡eb| 4. Av‡e`‡bi Rb¨ cª‡qvRbxq DcKiY (Filing Requirement): †c‡U›U Gi Rb¨ Av‡e`b Kivi mgq wb‡gœv³ DcKiY¸‡jv Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z n‡e: K. D™¢vebKvixi bvg (Av‡e`bKvix) L. Av‡e`bKvixi wVKvbv I RvZxqZv M. mywbw`©ó Ki‡Yi `yB Kwc Ges Uªvwms †ccv‡ii Dci WªBs (Av‡jvK wP‡Î) GK Kwc| N. GmvBb‡g›U Gi 1 Kwc AvBbMZ `wjj (hw` _v‡K) O. cvIqvi Ae GUwb© (dig-31) P. we‡`kx †c‡U›U Gi mZ¨vwqZ Kwc (we‡ewPZ nIqvi `vexi †ÿ‡Î) 5. Av‡e`b MÖn‡Yi weÁvcb cÖ`vb (Advertisement on Acceptane of application): hLb †Kvb Av‡e`b MÖnb Kiv nq ZLb wbqš¿Kvix‡K Aek¨B Av‡e`bKvix‡K †bvwUk cÖ`vb Ki‡Z nq Ges RbM‡bi AbymÜv‡bi Rb¨ WªBsmn weÁvcb w`‡Z nq|


150

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

hw` †Kvb c‡ÿi †c‡U›U m¤ú‡K© †Kvb AvcwË _v‡K Zvn‡j Av‡e`b MÖn ‡bi weÁvcb †`Iqvi Pvi gv‡mi g‡a¨ c¨v‡U›U Awd‡m †bvwUk w`‡Z n‡e| we‡ivaxZv Kivi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq cÖgvb Aek¨B Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z n‡e| 6. †c‡U›U Gi ¯^ËvwaKvi cÖvwß (Getting Patent certificate): hw` †Kvb AvcwË bv Av‡m Zvn‡j †c‡U›U KZ…©cÿ wmjmn wbeÜb cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K| Gi Uvg©wU Gi ZvwiL n‡Z 16 eQi _v‡K Ges c‡bi eQi ch©šÍ 4 eQi AšÍi AšÍi bevqb Ki‡Z nq|

8.05

KwcivBU Kx? KwcivBU AvB‡bi avibv What is Copyright? Concept of Copyright Law

Bs‡iRx Copy Right kãwUi A_© †Kvb GKwU we‡kl avibvi cÖKvk ev Z_¨ e¨env‡ii wbqš¿YKvix we‡kl wKQz AwaKv‡ii mgwó| GwU AvB‡bi avibv| mvavibZ †Kvb †`‡ki miKvi GB avibvi ev¯Íevqb K‡i| KwcivBU ej‡Z †Kvb Kv‡Ri g~j m„wóKZ©vi †mB KvRwUi Dci GKK, Abb¨ AwaKvi‡K †evSv‡bv nq| KwcivBU mvavibZ GKwU mxwgZ †gqv‡`i Rb¨ Kvh©Ki nq| H †gqv‡`i ci KvRwU cvewjK †Wv‡gB‡bi AšÍM©Z n‡q hvq| m„wókxj gvbyl `y ai‡bi m¤ú` wb‡q Rxebhvcb K‡i; cÖ_ gZ e¯‘MZ m¤ú`, RvqMv-Rwg, Mvwoevwo, UvKv-cqmv, e¨emvq-evwYR¨, wkí-KviLvbv BZ¨vw` I bvbv iKg cÖvZ¨wnK e¨envh© `ªe¨vw` Ges wØZxqZ KwcivBU ev Intellectual Property Gi AvIZvq Av‡Q mvwnZ¨Kg©, bvU¨Kg©, wkíKg©, d‡UvMÖvd, fv®‥h©K g©, m¤úªPvi Kg© BZ¨vw`| gvby‡li e¯‘MZ m¤ú` gvwjK e¨wZZ Ab¨ †KD cÖK…Z gvwj‡Ki AbygwZ ev g~j¨ cwi‡kva Qvov †fvM ev e¨envi Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| Copy Right kãwU we‡kølY Ki‡j A_© `vovq Copy Kivi AwaKvi| A_©vr mKj ai‡bi m„wókxj Kg©B, K‡g©i kÖóv ev iPwqZvi AbygwZ Qvov Kwc Kiv, Abyev` Kiv, Dc‡hvMx Kiv, iƒcvšÍi Kiv ev Awf‡hvRb Kiv Zv evwYwR¨K ev e¨w³MZ †h ch©v‡qB †nvK bv †Kb, Zv KwcivBU avibv, AvšÍR©vwZK AvBb, AvšÍR©vwZK Pzw³, †`kxq AvBb, •bwZKZv I BwZevPK‡ev‡ai Pig cwicš’x| evsjv‡`‡k eZ©gv‡b KwcivBU AvBb 2000 cÖPwjZ|

8.06

KwcivBU wbeÜb Kivi c×wZ Registration Method of Copyright

†Kvb K‡g©i cÖ‡YZv, cÖKvkK ev KwcivB‡Ui ¯^Z ¡vwaKvix ev Dnv‡Z ¯^v_© Av‡Q Ggb e¨w³ KwcivB‡Ui †iwRóv‡i Kg©w Ui weeiY AšÍf©~³ Kievi Rb¨ †iwRóv‡ii wbKU wba©vwiZ d‡g© Ges wba©vwiZ wd mn‡hv‡M `iLv¯Í Ki‡Z cvi‡eb|


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KwcivBU wbe܇bi Rb¨ cÖwZwU Av‡e`b dg© wZb cÖ‡¯’ Rgv w`‡Z n‡e Ges wbeÜb eB‡Z AšÍf©~³ KwcivBU weeiY cwieZ©‡bi welq wbe܇bi cÖwZwU Av‡e`b dg© wZb cÖ‡¯’ Rgv w`‡Z n‡e| GKwU wbw`©ó Kv‡Ri wbe܇bi Rb¨ GKwU dg© c~iY K‡i Zvi mv‡_ D³ Kv‡Ri weeiwYmn wbw`©ó wd Rgv w`‡Z n‡e| wbeÜb wewai AvIZvq Av‡e`bKvix‡K cÖ‡qvR‡b Zvi Kv‡Ri KwcivBU ¯^‡Z¡i mv‡_ ¯^v_©mswkøó wbeÜb Awd‡mi mKj e¨w³i wbKU Av‡e`bc‡Îi Kwc †cÖiY Ki‡Z n‡e| wbeÜb Awd‡mi †iwRóªvi mvavibZ Av‡e`b cÖvwßi 30 w`‡bi g‡a¨ Kv‡Ri weeiYmg~n wbeÜb eB‡q AšÍf©~³ K‡ib| Z‡e wbeÜb AvB‡bi Dc-wewa (4) Gi Aaxb wba©vwiZ mg‡qi g‡a¨ ‡iwRóªvi hw` H wbe܇bi wel‡q †Kvb AvcwË cvb, A_ev hw` Av‡e`‡b ewY©Z weei‡Yi mZ¨Zv m¤ú‡K© mš‘ó n‡Z bv cv‡ib Zvn‡j wZwb ïay Dchy³ weeiYmg~n wbeÜb eB‡Z AšÍf©~³ Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| Avevi wbeÜb AvB‡bi aviv 58 Abyhvqx, †iwR÷ªvi wbR D‡`¨v‡M A_ev ¯^v_©mswkøó †Kvb e¨w³i Av‡e`‡bi cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Z, wbeÜb ewn‡Z ms‡kvab ev cwieZ©b Ki‡Z cvi‡eb Ges ms‡kvwaZ ev cwieZ©xZ Ask mswkøó mKj‡K AewnZ Ki‡eb| cÖ‡qvRb Abyhvqx †h †Kvb e¨w³ wbw`©ó wd cÖ`vb K‡i †iwRóªvi Awdm n‡Z †iwRóªv‡ii Aby‡gv`‡bi gva¨‡g wbeÜb eB‡Z iwÿZ weeiYvw`i m~wPmg~n ev Askwe‡k‡li Kwc msMÖn Ki‡Z cvi‡eb|

8.07 KwcivBU f½ Kivi cwiYwZ Consequences of Violatiing Copyright (aviv 82) KwcivBU ev Ab¨vb¨ AwaKvi j•NbRwbZ Aciva: 1. †h e¨w³, Pjw”PÎ e¨wZ‡i‡K, †Kvb K‡g©i KwcivBU ev GB AvB‡bi aviv 23 Gi Aaxb Awc©Z AwaKvi e¨ZxZ Ab¨ †Kvb AwaKvi B”QvK…Z fv‡e j•Nb K‡ib ev Ki‡Z mnvqZv K‡ib, wZwb AbyaŸ© Pvi ermi wKš‘ Ab~¨ b Qq gvm †gqv‡`i Kviv`Û Ges AbyaŸ© `yB jÿ UvKv wKš‘ Ab~¨b cÂvk nvRvi UvKvi A_©`‡Ð `Ûbxq n‡eb: Z‡e kZ© _v‡K †h, hw` Bnv Av`vj‡Z mš‘wóg‡Z cÖgvwYZ nq †h, j•NbwU e¨emvwqK ev evwYwR¨K Kvh©µ‡gi avivq gybvdvi D‡Ï‡k¨ msNwUZ nq bvB, †mB †ÿ‡Î Av`vjZ Qq gv‡mi Kg †gqv‡`i Kviv`Ð Ges 50,000 UvKvi Kg cwigvY Rwigvbvi `Ð Av‡ivc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. †h e¨w³ Pjw”P‡Îi KwcivB‡Ui AwaKvi ev GB AvB‡b ewY©Z Ab¨ †Kvb AwaKvi B”QvK…Zfv‡e j•Nb K‡ib ev Ki‡Z mnvqZv K‡ib, wZwb Ab~a© cuvP ermi wKš‘ Ab~¨b GK ermi †gqv‡`i Kviv`Ð Ges Ab~a© cuvP jÿ UvKv wKš‘ Ab~¨b GK jÿ UvKvi A_©`‡Ð `wÛZ n‡eb| (aviv 83) wØZxq ev cieZ©x Aciv‡ai ewa©Z kvw¯Í: †h e¨w³ aviv 82 Gi Aax‡b `wÐZ n‡q cybivq Abyiƒc †Kvb Aciv‡a `wÐZ n‡j wZwb wØZxq ev cieZ©x cÖ‡Z¨K Aciv‡ai Rb¨ Ab~a© wZb ermi wKš‘ Ab~¨b Qq gv‡mi Kviv`Ð Ges Ab~a© wZb jÿ UvKv wKš‘ Ab~¨b GK jÿ UvKv A_©`‡Ð `Ðbxq n‡eb|


152

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

Z‡e kZ© _v‡K †h, hw` Bnv Av`vj‡Zi mš‘wóg‡Z cÖgvwYZ nq †h, aviv 82 Gi Dc-aviv (1) G ewY©Z j•NbwU e¨emvwqK Kvh©µ‡gi avivq gybvdvi D‡Ï‡k¨ msNwUZ nq bvB, †mB †ÿ‡Î Av`vjZ Qq gv‡mi Kg †gqv‡`i Kviv`Ð Ges 1 jÿ UvKvi Kg cwigvY Rwigvbvi `Ð Av‡ivc Ki‡Z cvi‡eb| Av‡iv kZ© _v‡K †h, GB avivi D‡Ïk¨ c~iYK‡í GB AvBb cÖewZ©Z nIqvi c~‡e© cÖ`Ë †Kvb kvw¯Í‡K Avg‡j †bqv n‡e bv|

(aviv 84) Kw¤úDUvi †cÖvMÖv‡gi jw•NZ Kwc cÖKvk, e¨envi, BZ¨vw`i Aciva: hw` †Kvb e¨w³− K. †Kvb Kw¤úDUvi †cÖvMÖv‡gi jw•NZ Kwc Abywjwc K‡i ‡h †Kvb gva¨‡g cÖKvk, weµq ev GKvwaK Kwc weZiY K‡ib, Zvn‡j wZwb Ab~a© Pvi ermi wKš‘ Ab~¨b Qq gvm †gqv‡`i Kviv`‡Ð Ges Ab~a© Pvi jÿ UvKv wKš‘ Ab~¨b GK jÿ UvKvi A_©`‡Ð `ÐYxq n‡eb; L. Kw¤úDUv‡i †Kvb jw•NZ Kwc e¨envi K‡ib, Zvnv nB‡j wZwb Ab~aÿ© wZb ermi wKš‘ Ab~¨b Qq gvm †gqv‡`i Kviv`‡Ð A_ev Ab~aÿ© Ab~aÿ© wZb jÿ UvKv wKš‘ Ab~¨b GK jÿ UvKvi A_© `‡Ð `wÐZ n‡eb: Z‡e kZ© _v‡K †h, hw` Av`vj‡Zi mš‘wóg‡Z cÖgvwYZ nq ‡h, Kw¤úDUvi †cÖvMÖvgwU e¨emvwqK ev ewYwR¨K Kvh©µ‡gi avivq gybvdv jv‡fi D‡Ï‡k¨ jw•NZ nq bvB, Zvnv n‡j Ab~¨b wZb gvm †gqv‡`i Kviv`‡Ð Ges Ab~¨b cuwPk nvRvi UvKvi A_©`Ð Av‡ivc Kiv hv‡e|

(aviv 85) AwaKvi j•NbKvix Abywjwc •Zwi Kievi D‡Ï‡k¨ †cøU `L‡j ivLv: †Kvb e¨w³, whwb B”QvK…Zfv‡e KwcivBU we`¨gvb i‡q‡Q Ggb †Kvb K‡g©i AwaKvi j•NbKvix Abywjwc •Zwi Kievi D‡Ï‡k¨ †Kvb †cøU •Zwi K‡ib ev `L‡j iv‡Lb, ev KwcivB‡Ui gvwj‡Ki m¤§wZ e¨wZ‡i‡K B”QvK…Zfv‡e Ges Zvnvi e¨w³MZ jv‡fi Rb¨ Hiƒc †Kvb K‡g©i Rbmvavi‡Yi m¤úv`‡bi KviY NUvb, Zvn‡j wZwb Ab~a© `yB erm‡ii Kviv`Ð ev AbyaŸ© cÂvk nvRvi UvKv A_©`‡Ð ev Dfq `‡Ð `Ðbxq n‡eb|

8.08 wegvi aviYv Concept of Insurance gvbyl m„wói †miv Rxe Avevi giYkxj| ZvB gvby‡li Rxe‡bi cÖwZwU ci‡Z ci‡Z i‡q‡Q AwbðqZvi nvZQvwb| gvby‡li mf¨Zvi weKvk cÖRb¥ †_‡K cÖR‡b¥ avivevwnKfv‡e cÖevwnZ nq| ZvB †m c„w_ex ‡_‡K P‡j †M‡jI Zvi Kg© Avi Ae`vb †kªôZ¡ eRvq iv‡L fwel¨‡Zi c„w_exi Kv‡Q| GRb¨ †m Zvi c„w_ex‡K evm‡hvM¨ Kivi †Póv Ae¨vnZ iv‡L| gvby‡li Rb¨, e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi Rb¨ gvwjK fve‡Z nq| eZ©gvb Avi fwel¨‡Zi mv‡_ Av‡ó c„‡ô Rwo‡q Av‡Q SzuwK| e¨emv‡qi RM‡Z m„ó Gme SzuwK, ÿwZ, k~Y¨Zv‡K c~i‡Y wKQy e¨emvwqK cÖwZôvb hviv wegv cÖwZôvb wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ, Zviv KvR K‡i _v‡K wegv Pzw³i gva¨‡g m¤úK© •Zix K‡i| wegvKvix I wegvMÖnxZvi g‡a¨ Rxeb I m¤ú‡`i SzuwK Gov‡bvi Rb¨ wbw`©ó cÖwZ`v‡bi wecix‡Z †h Pzw³MZ m¤úK© •Zix nq Zv‡K wegv Pzw³ e‡j|


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GK mgq mgy‡`ª PjvPjKvix bvweKiv G welq wb‡qB fve‡Z ïiæ K‡iwQj| `yN©Ubv, So, R‡jv”Q¡vm ev Ab¨‡Kvbfv‡e gvbyl AvnZ ev wbnZ n‡j ev m¤ú` webó n‡j Zvi ÿwZ c~i‡Yi †K․kj wn‡m‡eB wegvi Avwef©ve| MÖvnK‡`i Pvwn`v I welqe¯Íy wewfbœZvi Dci wbf©i K‡i wewfbœ ai‡bi wegvi cÖPjb †`Lv hvq| †hgb: Rxebwegv, †b․-wegv, AwMœ wegv, `yN©Ubv wegv, km¨wegv, ißvwbwegv BZ¨vw`| Gfv‡e wegv e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi m¤¢ve¨ mvwe©K AwaK ÿwZi SzuwK n‡Z gyw³ †`q| wegv e¨e¯’vi Avw` BwZnvm Ab¨vb¨ wel‡qi gZ Lye ¯^”Q bq| wegv e¨e¯’vi G‡Kev‡i †Mvovi BwZnvm †_‡K Rvbv hvq me©cÖ_g †b․-wegv †_‡K wegvi cÖPjb ïiæ| cieZ©x‡Z AwMœwegv I Rxebwegvi cÖPjb nq| Avevi cÖvPxbKv‡j f~-ga¨mvMixq A‡j we‡kl K‡i BZvwj‡K †K›`ª K‡i PZz`©k kZvãx‡Z BD‡iv‡c e¨emvq evwY‡R¨i D™¢e nq Ges G‡K wN‡iB wegv e¨e¯’vi †Mvov cËb nq e‡j A‡b‡Ki aviYv| Dwbk kZ‡Ki †Mvovi w`‡K wewea wegvi Kvh©Kg cwijwÿZ nq|

wegv Pzw³i Acwinvh© Dcv`vb Essential Elements of Insurance Contract

wegvMÖnxZv GKwU wbw`©ó †gqv` AšÍi wbw`©ó cwigvY wcÖwgqvg wegvKvix‡K cÖ`vb Ki‡Z m¤§Z nq| Aciw`‡K wegvKvix I wegvMÖnxZv‡K D³ wcÖwgqvg h_vwbq‡g cÖvwß mv‡c‡ÿ wbw`©ó SuywK †_‡K ÿwZc~iY cÖ`v‡b eva¨ _v‡K| wegvPyw³ MV‡bi Rb¨ wKQy Acwinvh© Dcv`vb cÖ‡qvRb, †h mKj Dcv`vb Qvov wegv Pzw³ m¤úvw`Z nq bv †mme Dcv`vbmg~n‡K GK‡Î wegv Pzw³i Acwinvh© Dcv`vb e‡j| wb‡P GB Acwinvh© Dcv`vb¸‡jv D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv−

K. AvBbMZ Dcv`vb Legal Elements 1. cÿ (Party): wegv Pzw³‡Z `ywU cÿ _vK‡e| GKcÿ n‡e wegvKvix (Insurer) Acicÿ n‡e wegv MÖnxZv (Policy Holder) wegvKvix n‡”Q BwÝI‡iÝ †Kv¤úvwb wegv MÖnxZv n‡”Q Kvógvi| 2. cÖ¯vÍ e I ¯^xK…wZ (Offer and accceptances): GK cÿ KZ©„K AvBbMZ cÖ ¯Íve Ges Aci cÿ KZ©„K AvBbMZ ¯^xK…wZi gva¨‡g wegv Pzw³ m¤úvw`Z nq| wbw`©ó dig c~ib K‡i cÖ ¯Íve Dc¯’vcb Kiv nq Ges wegv †Kv¤úvwb Dnv MÖn Y Kivi gva¨‡g Pzw³ Kvh©K i nq| myZ ivs †`Lv hvq cÖ ¯Íve I ¯^xK…wZ wegv Pyw³i g~j Dcv`vb| 3. AvBbMZ m¤úK© (Legal Relation Ship): Pzw³i d‡j †h m¤ú‡K©i m„wó nq Zv‡K AvBbMZ m¤úK© e‡j| †h †Kn G m¤úK© f½ Ki‡j, ÿwZMÖ¯’ cÿ AvB‡bi e‡j ÿwZc~iY `vex Ki‡Z cv‡i| 4. Pzw³ m¤úv`‡bi †hvM¨Zv (Capacity): 1872 mv‡ji Pzw³ AvB‡bi 11 aviv Abyhvqx wegv MªnxZvi Pzw&³ m¤úv`‡bi †hvM¨Zv _vK‡Z n‡e| bvevjK, †`Dwjqv, weK…Z gw¯Í®‥ e¨w³ Pzw&³ m¤úv`‡bi †hvM¨ b‡n|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

5. •ea cÖwZ`vb I D‡Ïk¨ (Lawful consider and objects): wegv Pz w ³i D‡Ïk¨ I cÖ w Z`vb Aek¨B •ea n‡Z n‡e| A‣ea e¨emv ev cY¨ Avg`vwb-ißvwbi †ÿ‡Î Pz w ³ I cÖ w Z`vb wVK _vK‡jI Pz w ³ •ea n‡e bv| 6. wbw`©óZv (Certainty): wegv Pzw³i 29 aviv Abymv‡i †Kvb m¤§wZi welqe¯Íy mywbw`©ó bv n‡j Zv evwZj e‡j MY¨ n‡e cwjwmi †gqv`, wcÖwgqv‡gi nvi, mgq, wegvi AsK, `vex cwi‡kv‡ai c×wZ mywbw`©ófv‡e D‡j­L _vK‡Z n‡e| 7. wjwLZ Pzw³ (Written contract): Pzw³ †g․wLK, wjwLZ ev wbewÜZ BZ¨vw` iKg n‡Z cv‡i, wKšÍy wegv Pzw³ Aek¨B wjwLZ n‡Z n‡e|

L. we‡kl Dcv`vb Special Elements 1. wegv‡hvM¨ ¯^v_© (Insurable Interest) : wegvi welqe¯Íy‡Z wegv MÖnxZvi †h ¯^v_© _v‡K Zv‡K wegv‡hvM¨ ¯^v_© e‡j| wegv Pzw³‡Z Aek¨B wegv‡hvM¨ ¯^v_© _vK‡Z n‡e| 2. wcÖwgqvg (Premium): wegvKvix cÖwZôvb SzuwK MÖnY K‡i, wegvK…Z Rvb-gv‡ji ÿwZ n‡j ÿwZc~iY w`‡Z wegvKvix eva¨, ZvB wegv MÖnxZv‡K SzuwKi Rb¨ avh©K…Z wcÖwgqvg w`‡Z n‡e| 3. cÖZ¨ÿ KviY (Causa proxima): wK wK Kvi‡Y ÿwZ n‡j, ÿwZc~iY cvIqv hv‡e Zv ÔwegvÕ Pzw³‡Z my¯úófv‡e D‡jøL _vK‡Z n‡e| Gi evB‡i Ab¨ †Kvb Kvi‡Y ÿwZ n‡j wegvKvix ÿwZc~iY w`‡Z eva¨ b‡n| Pink ebve Fleming GK weL¨vZ gvgjvi weeiY n‡Z Rvbv hvq, GKwU RvnvR msNl© ev av°vRwbZ Kvi‡Y ÿwZi Rb¨ wegv Kiv n‡qwQj| RvnvRwU av°v †j‡M P‡i AvUKv c‡o Ges G‡Z evwnZ Kgjv cu‡P bó n‡q hvq| ÿwZc~iY gvgjvq ejv nq av°vRwbZ Kvi‡Y m¤ú‡`i ÿwZ nq wb wej‡¤^i Rb¨ ÿwZ n‡q‡Q| ZvB ÿwZMÖ¯’ cÿ ÿwZc~iY †c‡Z cv‡i bv| 4. Avw_©K ÿwZc~iY (Propotional compensation): exgvPzw³ ÿwZc~i‡Yi Pzw³| we‡klZ †b․exgv I AwMœ wegvi Pzw³i †ÿ‡Î wegvK…Z cwiw¯’wZ ev NUbvi Kvi‡Y welqe¯Íy ÿwZMÖ¯Í n‡j wegvKvix ÿwZc~iY w`‡Z eva¨| wKšÍy wegvK…Z e¯Íy ÿwZMÖ¯Í bv n‡j wegv †Kv¤úvwb †Kvb ÿwZc~iY w`‡e bv| Avevi wegvK…Z welqe¯Íy hZUzKz ÿwZ n‡e wegvKvix ZZUzKz ÿwZB c~iY Ki‡e Z‡e Rxeb wegv‡K ÿwZc~i‡Yi Pzw³ ejv nq bv| 5. wek¦v‡mi m¤úK© (Faithful relation): wegvKvix I wegv MÖnxZvi g‡a¨ cig wek¦v‡mi m¤úK© _vK‡Z n‡e| Dfq cÿ †Kvb cÖKvi Z_¨ †Mvcb Ki‡eb bv| Z_¨ †Mvcb cÖZ viYv wn‡m‡e MY¨ n‡Z cv‡i Ges ÿwZc~iY bvI cvIqv ‡h‡Z cv‡i,ZvB ci¯ú‡ii cÖwZ wek¦vm wegv Pzw³i GKwU we‡kl Dcv`vb wn‡m‡e MY¨ Kiv nq| 6. cÖwZ¯’vcb (Subrogation): wegv †Kv¤úvwb †Kvb WyešÍ Rvnv‡Ri m¤ú~Y© ÿwZc~iY cÖ`vb Ki‡j, H WyešÍ Rvnv‡Ri gvwjK wegv †Kv¤úvwb n‡e| wegvMÖnxZv Avi gvwjK _vK‡e bv| GUv gvwjKvbvi cÖwZ¯’vcb ev ¯’jvwfwl³KiY|


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7. g‡bvbqb (Nomination): Rxeb wegvq wegvK…Z e¨w³i AeZ©gv‡b †K wegv `vwe ev ¯^Z¡ MÖnY Ki‡e, Zv Pzw³i mgq wVK Ki‡Z nq| wegvK…‡Zi AeZ©gv‡b myweav cÖvc‡Ki bvg AšÍf©y³ Kiv‡K g‡bvbqb ejv nq| g‡bvbxZ e¨w³B wegvMÖwnZvi AeZ©gv‡b `vwe MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| 8. AwaKvi Ac©Y (Assignment): wegv Pzw³‡Z wegvMÖwnZv wegvc‡Îi ¯^Z¡ ev gvwjKvbv †h KvD‡K n¯ÍvšÍi Ki‡Z cv‡ib| Rxeb wegv I †b․-wegvq G KvRwU mnR n‡jI AwMœwegv I `yN©Ubv wegvi †ÿ‡Î wegvKvixi AbygwZ ev c~e© kZ© Qvov AwaKvi Ac©Y Kiv hvq bv| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, wegv Pzw³‡Z e¨³ ev Ae¨³ Dcv`vb ev kZ©¸‡jv G‡K mvaviY Pzw³ n‡Z c„_K mËv w`‡q‡Q| Dcv`vb¸‡jvi Acwinvh©Zv Ggbfv‡e cÖgvwYZ †h, †Kv‡bvwUB ev` w`‡q wegv Pzw³ m¤úbœ nq bv|

evsjv‡`‡k exgv e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡ Importance of Insurance in Bangladesh evsjv‡`k GKwU ¯^‡ívbœZ †`k| GLv‡b gvby‡li Rxeb I m¤úwËi SzuwK DbœZ wek¦ A‡cÿv A‡bK †ewk| ZvB exgvi ¸iæZ¡ †h GLv‡b AZ¨waK Zv ejvi A‡cÿv iv‡L bv| evsjv‡`‡k exgv e¨emv‡qi ¸iæZ¡ wb‡gœ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: 1.

g~jab MVb I wewb‡qvM e„w× (Formation of capital and increase of investment): exgv †Kv¤úvwbmg~n wcÖwgqvg wn‡m‡e †h UvKv msMÖn K‡i Zv G‡`‡ki RvZxq g~jab MV‡b ¸iæZ¡c~Y © f~w gKv iv‡L| Giƒc g~jab wewfbœ Lv‡Z `xN©‡gqv‡` wewb‡qv‡Mi d‡j †`‡ki mvgwMÖK Drcv`‡bi cwigvb e„w × cvq|

2.

mÂq e„w× (Increase of savings): G‡`‡ki gvby‡li gv_vwcQy Avq AZ¨šÍ mxwgZ nIqvq m‡qi nvi Kg| Rxeb exgv G‡ÿ‡Î ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivL‡Q| exgvMÖnxZv G‡ÿ‡Î wbw`©ó mgqv‡šÍ exgv wKw¯Í cwi‡kva K‡i hv †_‡K eva¨Zvg~jK m‡qi m„wó nq| d‡j e¨w³K I RvZxq m‡qi cwigvb e„w× cvq|

3.

SuywKMZ cÖwZeÜKZv n«vm (Reduce of hindrance of risk): e¨emvq RM‡Z cY¨ Drcv`b I eȇb bvbvb ai‡bi Sz u w K jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| Avgv‡`i †`k Aby b oeZ weavq Giƒc Sz u w Ki gvÎv AviI †ewk| †b․, AwMœ , `y N © U bv BZ¨vw` exgvi my e v‡ ` Avgv‡`i e¨emvqxMY wbwðZ I ¯^ v ”Q›`¨gq Kvh© µ g cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z cv‡i|

4.

RvZxq m¤ú` iÿv (Maintenance of national wealth): exgv m¤úwËi wec‡ÿ ïaygvÎ Avw_©K wbivcËvB e¨e¯’v K‡i bv †mB mv‡_ mnvq-m¤ú` hv‡Z `yN©Ubvi wkKvi bv nq Z¾b¨I wewfbœ wbivcËvgyjK e¨e¯’v MÖn ‡Y mevB‡K DØy× K‡i| G‡Z RvZxq m¤ú‡`i wbivcËv wbwðZ nq|


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5.

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

m‡PZbZv e„w× (Increase of awarness): Avgv‡`i †`‡ki gvbyl AwaKvskB AwkwÿZ nIqvi Kvi‡Y fwelr Rxeb Ges †m‡ÿ‡Î KiYxq e¨e¯’v m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb bq| exgv e¨emvq wewfbœgyLx cÖPvi e¨e¯’v I Kvh©µ‡gi gva¨‡g e¨vcK MYm‡PZbZvi m„wó K‡i| hv mgvR Dbœq‡b f~wgKv iv‡L|

6.

Kg©ms¯’v‡bi my‡hvM m„wó (Increase of employment facilities): exgv e¨emvq G‡`‡ki wkí-evwY‡R¨ A_©ms¯’vb K‡i Gi Dbœq‡b mnvqZv K‡i| G‡Z cÖPzi †jv‡Ki Kg©ms¯’v‡bi my‡hvM m„wó nq| GQvov Giƒc e¨emv‡q cÖ Z ¨ÿfv‡eI cÖ Pz i †jvK KvR cvq| hv †`‡ki †eKvi mgm¨v mgvav‡b f~w gKv iv‡L|

7.

A_©‣bwZK Dbœqb (Economic development): exgv e¨emvq m¤¢ve¨ SzuwKi wec‡ÿ wbivcËv e¨e¯’v wbwðZ K‡i †`‡ki K…wl I wkí-evwY‡R¨i wewfbœ LvZ‡K mnvqZv K‡i| exgvi AvIZvq †`‡ki Af¨šÍ‡i wewfbœ SzuwKc~Y© wkí-evwYR¨ cÖwZôvbI M‡o I‡V| G‡Z †`‡ki A_©‣bwZK Dbœqb wbwðZ nq|

8.

mvgvwRK ¯^w¯Í cÖwZôv (Brings social security): exgv gvby‡li Rxeb I m¤úwËi SzuwK Kwg‡q mvgvwRK ¯^w ¯Í wdwi‡q Av‡b| hv mgv‡Ri gvbyl¸‡jv‡K Dboeq‡b †cÖiYv †hvMvq| Avgv‡`i †`‡kI exgv e¨w³ Rxe‡b Ges mvgvwRK Rxe‡b Dbœq b I ¯^w ¯Í cÖwZôv Ki‡Z mÿg n‡q‡Q|

9.

RvZxq Avq e„w× (Increasing national income): evsjv‡`‡k exgv e¨emv‡qi cÖZ¨ÿ Ae`vb RvZxq Drcv`b we‡ePbvq gvÎ 0.37% n‡jI mvwe©K wePv‡i Zv Kg bq| G‡Z Kg©iZ Rbkw³ Ges Gi A_©vq‡b cÖwZwôZ e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡b Kg©iZ Rbkw³i Avq RvZxq Avq e„wׇZ f~wgKv iv‡L|

10. A`„k¨ ißvwb Avq e„w× (Increasing invisible export): exgv e¨emvq †`‡ki A`„k¨ ißvwb Avq e„wׇZI f~wgKv iv‡L| Avgv‡`i ißvwbK…Z cY¨ †cÖi‡Y Zv †`kxq exgv †Kv¤úvwb¸‡jv‡Z exgv Kiv nq| hvi LiP we‡`wk Avg`vwbKviK cÖ`vb K‡i| hv cY¨g~‡ji mv‡_ hy³ n‡q A`„k¨ ißvwb Avq evovq| Dcmsnv‡i ejv hvq, exgv e¨emvq evsjv‡`‡ki A_©bxwZ‡ZB ïay bq e¨w³ I mvgvwRK Rxe‡b ¸iæZ¡c~Y © f~w gKv ivL‡Q|


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8.09 e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡b wegv Kivi cÖwµqv Process of Formation of Insurance for Business wegv n‡”Q GKwU Pzw³| GB Pzw³ wegvKvix I wegvMÖwnZvi g‡a¨ m¤úvw`Z nq| wegv Pyw³ KZ¸‡jv avivevwnK c`‡ÿ‡ci gva¨‡g m¤úvw`Z nq| wb‡gœœ c`‡ÿc mg~n eY©bv Kiv n‡jv: 1. cÖv_wgK AvbyôvwbKZv (Primary formalities): wegvKvix cÖwZôvb wegv Pzw³ Kievi Rb¨ RbM‡Yi Kv‡Q bvbvfv‡e cÖPvi K‡ib| cÖPvi Pvjvevi Ab¨Zg Dcvq nj wegv cÖwZwbwa RbM‡Yi N‡i N‡i wM‡q wegvi mydj eY©bv K‡i| Gi d‡j AvMÖnvwš^Z e¨w³eM© wegv Lyjevi Rb¨ m‡Pó nb| 2. cª¯Íve cÖ`vb (Making proposal): †h e¨w³ wegvcÎ Ki‡Z B”QyK Ggb e¨w³‡K me©cÖ_g †Kv¤úvwbi Awdm n‡Z A_ev †Kvb wegv cÖwZwbwai KvQ †_‡K webv g~‡j¨ cÖ¯Ívebv cÎ (Proposal form) msMÖn Ki‡Z ev wb‡Z nq| msM„nxZ digwU c~i‡Yi gva¨‡g wegv Awd‡m Rgv w`‡jB cÖ¯Íve `vb cÖwµqv m¤úbœ nq| 3. cÖ¯vÍ ebv cÎ we‡ePbv (Consideration of Proposal): c~iY Kiv cÖ¯Ívebv cÎ wegv Awd‡m Rgv †`Iqvi ci wegvKvix D³ cÖ¯Ívebv c‡Î wegv MÖnxZv KZ…©K †`q DËimg~n h_vh_ I wbf©~j wKbv Zv cixÿv-wbixÿv K‡i †`‡Lb| G welq¸‡jv wegvc‡Îi cÖv_wgK g~j¨ I †gqv‡`i mv‡_ wgwj‡q †`Lv nq| Gi ci cÖ¯vÍ ewU †Kgb ai‡bi SzuwKc~Y© Zv wbY©q Kiv nq| hw` cÖ`Ë Z_¨vw` h_v_© I mZ¨ e‡j we‡ewPZ nq Z‡eB wegvKvix SzuwK MÖnY Ki‡Z m¤§Z nq Ges cieZ©x c`‡ÿc MÖnY K‡i| 4. wegv cÖwZwbwa‡`i wi‡cvU© msMÖn (Collection of reports from insurance agent): wegv cÖwZwbwai gva¨‡g hw` wegvcÎ mieivn Kiv nq †m †ÿ‡Î wegv cÖwZwbwai cªwZ‡e`b †ck Ki‡Z nq| 5. cÖ¯Íve wbe©vPb (Selection of proposal): cÖ¯vÍ eKvixi Av‡e`bcÎ, Ab¨vb¨ wi‡cvU©mg~n Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq I msMÖn‡hvM¨ mKj KvMRcÎ wegv Awd‡m G‡m †cu․Q‡j Zv cÖwZôv‡bi we‡klÁMY cixÿv-wbixÿv K‡i cÖ¯vÍ e wbe©vPb K‡ib | 6. cÖ¯Íve MÖnY (Accceptance of proposal): cÖ¯vÍ e wbe©vP‡bi ci cÖ¯Íve MÖnY Kivi wm×všÍ †bqv nq Ges cÖ¯Íve MÖnY Z_v ¯^xK…wZcÎ w`‡q Rvwb‡q †`qv nq| 7. wegvcÎ cÖ`vb (Issuance of insurance policy): me wKQz wVKVvK _vK‡j wegvKvix wegvMÖnxZvi `vwe cwi‡kva K‡i †`q| DcwiD³ c`‡ÿc mg~n Rxeb wegv Pzw³ m¤úv`b cÖwµqv avivevwnKfv‡e cvjb Ki‡Z nq| Pzw³ m¤úv`b cÖwµqvi ¯^v_©KZv wegvKvix I wegv MÖwnZv mZZvi Dci wbf©i K‡i|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

8.10 e¨emvq I cwi‡ek AvB‡bi m¤ú‡K© aviYv Concept of Business and Envrionment Law wek¦ cwi‡e‡ki `ªæZ AebwZ n‡”Q, evsjv‡`‡k MZ K‡qK `k‡K G AebwZ n‡q‡Q AviI `ªæZ| evsjv‡`‡k 1995 mv‡j e¨emvq cwi‡ek AvBb cvm n‡q‡Q| wKš‘ Rbwe‡ùviY, ebv‡ji Aeÿq I NvUwZ Ges wkí I cwienb wbqš¿Y e¨e¯’vi Afv‡ei `iæY †`‡ki e¨emvwqK cwi‡ek GK RwUj Ae¯’vi w`‡K †cu․Qv‡Z hv‡”Q| ZvQvov 1997 mv‡ji cwi‡ek I eb msiÿY AvBb Abyhvqx nvmcvZvj wkÿv cÖwZôvb Ges miKvi wba©vwiZ wKQz cÖwZôvb †_‡K 100 wgUvi ch©šÍ bxie GjvKv wn‡m‡e wPwýZ| Gme RvqMvq †gvUi Mvwoi nY© evRv‡bv ev gvBwKs Kiv m¤ú~Y© wbwl×| Giæc RvqMvq Mvwoi nY© ev jvDW w¯úKv‡ii gva¨‡g kã `~lYKvixi K‡Vvi kvw¯Íi weavb _vKv `iKvi| KviLvbv ev wkí ms¯’v KZ©„K ewR©Z kã Drcv`bKvix hš¿cvwZ A‡cÿv DbœZ cÖhyw³ m¤úbœ Ges Kg kã Drcv`bKvix hš¿cvwZ w`‡q kã wbqš¿b Kiv hvq| Gme hš¿cvwZ‡K kã Acwievnx e¯¿ w`‡q †X‡K kã `~lY Kgv‡bv hvq| ZvQvov miKvi †`‡ki cwi‡ek msiÿ‡Yj j‡ÿ¨, cwi‡ek msiÿY †kÖwY wej 2002 Ges cwi‡ek Av`vjZ (ms‡Kvjb) wej 2002 bv‡g `ywU AvBb cvm K‡i‡Q|

8.11 e¨emvq cÖwZôvb KZ…©K cwi‡ek `~l‡Yi KviY I djvdj The Pollution Created by Business and its Results kã `~lY (Sound Polution) µgea©gvb RbmsL¨vi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb nq evowZ hvbevnb I Ab¨vb¨ KjKviLvbv| Gme Mvwo KjKviLvbv †_‡K wbM©Z †avqv cwi‡ek‡K gvivZ¥Kfv‡e `~wlZ K‡i| kã `~lY cwi‡e‡ki `~l‡Yi Ab¨Zg KviY| KviLvbv I Mvwo †Nvov QvovI gvBK, jvDW w¯úKvi, †iwWI, wUwf cÖK…wZi AvIqvR kã `~l‡Yi m„wó K‡i| G‡Z K‡i gvby‡li kªeY kw³ †jvc cvq| i³Pvc e„w× cvq, KLbI †`Lv hvq gvbwmK wech©q| GQvov KjKviLvbv Av‡k cv‡ki ¯’vqx evwm›`v‡`i wkï mšÍvbiv Kg †ewk ewai n‡Z †`Lv hvq| evqy `~lY I Zvi djvdj (Air Polution & its Effect) Avgv‡`i cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i Ab¨Zg m¤¢vi n‡jv evqy| †mB evqy AvR `~w lZ n‡”Q wek¦Ry‡o| evqy `~l‡Yi g~‡j Av‡Q KjKviLvbv, †gvUi Mvwo, †Uªb, NievwoI e¨emv evwYR¨ cÖwZôv‡bi DËvc m„wói hš¿cvwZ Ges bvbv AveR©bv| e¨emv cÖwZôv‡b Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwb A_©vr †Zj, Kqjv BZ¨vw` cywo‡q Kve©b -WvB A·vBW evZv‡m Qwo‡q †`Iqv †K¬v‡ivd¬z ‡ivwg‡_b, bvBUªvm A·vBW, Av‡jvK ivmvqwbK †avqvkv BZ¨vw` me¸‡jv evqy `~l‡Yi cÖavb DcKiY|


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wewfbœ A·vBW evZv‡mi Rjxq ev‡®úi m‡½ wg‡k •Zwi K‡i mvjdvi Ges bvB‡Uªv‡R‡bi A¤ø| GB A¤ø c‡i wb‡P †b‡g G‡m cvwb I gvwUi m‡½ wg‡k hvq| GiB bvg ÔGwmW †iBbÕ A¤ø el©Y| evqy `~l‡Yi Dr‡mi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q B‡Ui fvUv, mvi Kvi Lvbv, wPwb, KvMR, cvU I e¯¿ KviLvbv, myZvKj, Pvgov wkí, †cvkvK wkí, we¯‥zU •Zwii KviLvbv, ivmvqwbK Jla •Zwi wkí, wm‡g›U Drcv`b, wMÖj I `iRv-Rvbvjv, ivmvqwbK Jla •Zwi wkí, wm‡g›U Drcv`b, IqvK© kc BZ¨vw`| Drm †_‡K cÖ Pzi cwigv‡Y †avqv, ev®ú, M¨vm I aywjKYv BZ¨vw` evZv‡m wg‡k †auvqv m„wó K‡i| d‡j cwi‡ek `~wlZ nq| evqy `~l‡bi d‡j k¦vmKô, nvcvwb, `xN©¯’vqx dzmdzm K¨vÝvi GRvZxq `yl‡Yi dj|

cvwb `~lY I Zvi djvdj Water Polution & Its Effect eZ©gv‡b wkí I †c․i eR©¨ b`x I Rjvkq‡K `ywlZ K‡i‡Q| cwi‡ek Awa`ßi D‡jøL K‡i‡Q †h PÆMÖv‡g wUGmwc mvi KviLvbv †_‡K mvjwdDwiK I dmdwiK GwmW Ges P›`ª‡Nvbvi KY©dzwj KvM‡Ri wgj, wm‡jU KvMR wgj, `k©bvi †Kiy A¨vÛ †Kv¤úvwb, Lyjbvi wkcBqvW©I gvQ cÖwµqvKiY KviLvbv, XvKvi Awjw¤úK I Kv‡`wiqv †U·UvBj wgjm jÿ jÿ †Mjb Zij eR©¨ cvk¦eZx© b`x I Rjvk‡q wb‡ÿc K‡i cvwb `~lY NUv‡”Q| b`xi Zx‡i M‡o D‡V‡Q mg„× Rbc` kni cÖwZwôZ n‡q‡Q AvaywbK PUKj, KvcoKj, wPwbKj, KvM‡Ri Kj, †flR †Zj BZ¨vw`| GB me KjKviLvbvi AveR©bv cÖwZwbqZ cvwb `ywlZ Ki‡Q| `ªæZ wkívqb wewfbœ †`‡ki cvwb mieiv‡ni Ges AveR©bv wb‡ÿ‡ci mgm¨v‡K µgk RwUj K‡i Zzj‡Q| Dbœqbkxj I DbœZ †`k¸‡jv‡Z †`Lv w`‡”Q M„nKv‡h© e¨eüZ †bvsiv cvwb‡K †kvab K‡i cybivq Zv e¨envi †hvM¨ K‡i †Zvjvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv| wKš‘ cÖwikÖyZKiY e¨e¯’vq mvgvb¨ Zg ÎæwU _vK‡j G †_‡K jÿ jÿ gvby‡li g‡a¨ ¸iæZi iK‡gi msµgY NU‡Z cv‡i|

gvwU `~lY I Zvi djvdj (Soil Polution & Effect) g„wËKv I gvwU f~Z¡‡Ki Dcwifv‡Mi GKwU cvZjv AveiY| wewfbœ Kvi‡Y g„wËKv `~lY N‡U †hgb−f~wg ÿq, evqy cÖevn m„wó, MvQKvUv, eb DRvo, Rwg‡Z AwZwi³ ev wbqwgZ ivmvqwbK mvi e¨envi Kiv BZ¨vw` Kvi‡Y gvwUi ¸bMZ gvb bó n‡q hvq d‡j gvwU `~lY N‡U| GQvov KxUbvkK e¨env‡i Avgv‡`i gvwU `~wlZ n‡”Q| evowZ dmj Drcv`‡bi Rb¨ dmj‡K KxU cZ‡½i AvµgY †_‡K iÿv Kivi ZvwM‡` †h ivmvqwbK `ªe¨vw` I mvi e¨envi Kiv nq, Zv gvwUi Ici weiƒc cÖfve †d‡j gvwU `~wlZ n‡q _v‡K|


160

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

8.12 e¨emvq cÖwZôvb KZ…©K cwi‡ek `~lY‡iv‡a KiYxq cÖwZKvi Prevent Environment Pollution by Business Organization cwi‡ek `~lY †iva Kivi Rb¨ mvivwek¦ m‡PZb n‡q D‡V‡Q| cwi‡ek `yl‡Yi d‡j we‡k¦i wewfbœ ¯’v‡b wei”c cÖwZwµqv †`Lv wM‡qwQj Zvi cwi‡cÖwÿ‡Z `ylY †iva Kivi cÖ‡Póv P‡j| ZvB cwi‡ek `ylY cÖwZ‡iva Kievi Rb¨ †MvUv wek¦evmx‡K GwM‡q Avm‡Z n‡e| AbwZwej‡¤^ †ei Ki‡Z n‡e cÖK…wZi fvimvg¨ iÿvq h_v_© Dcvq| †h me hš¿ ev Mvwo †_‡K ÿwZKi †auvqv ev M¨vm‡ei nq Zvi e¨envi wbqš¿Y Ki‡Z n‡e| cvkvcvwk weKí kw³i e¨envi e¨e¯’v †hgb cÖvK…wZK M¨vm, †m․ikw³ cÖK…wZ wbf©i h‡š¿i e¨envi e„w× cwi‡ek‡K A‡cÿvK…Z ¯^vfvweK ivL‡Z n‡e| wbwe©Pv‡i hv‡Z MvQ KuvUv‡bv nq †mw`‡K cy‡iv wek¦evmx‡K bRi w`‡Z n‡e Ges miKvwi I †emiKvwi ev e¨w³MZ D‡`¨v‡M ebvqb ev e„ÿ †ivcb‡K mvgvwRK Av‡›`vj‡b cwiYZ Ki‡Z n‡e| ivmvqwbK mvi I KxUbvk‡Ki cwie‡Z© •Re mv‡ii e¨envi e„w× cwi‡e‡ki my¯’Zv iÿv mnvqK n‡Z cv‡i|

8.13 AvBGmI ISO AvBGmI (ISO) Gi c~Y© A_© n‡”Q International Organization for Standardization (AvšÍR©vwZK gvb Dbœqb ms¯’v)| GwU we‡k¦i gvb Dbœq‡b mnvqZv K‡i _v‡K| GwU GKwU ¯^vaxb, †emiKvix cÖwZôvb †hwU cÖvq 162 †`‡ki RvZxq gvb Dbœqb KwgwU

(National

Standard

bodies) Øviv MwVZ| GwU 1947 mv‡ji †deªæqvwi gv‡m cÖwZwôZ nq| GwUi m`i `ßi †R‡bfv, myBRvij¨v‡Û Aew¯’Z| eZ©gv‡b GB cÖwZôv‡bi m`m¨ 162wU †`k Ges cÖvq 3368 KvwiMix †evW© (Technical body) gvb Dbœq‡b KvR K‡i| Gi m`i `߇i cÖvq 150 Rb †jvK c~Y©Kvjxb Kg©iZ i‡q‡Q| ISO e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi Kg©`ÿZv e„w× K‡i| ISO Gi Kvi‡Y we‡k¦i wewfbœ †`k c‡Y¨i ¸Yv¸b m¤ú‡K© wbwðZ nq, hvi Kvi‡b AvšÍR©vwZK evwY‡R¨i †h evav Av‡Q Zv `~i nq| ISO me©‡ÿ‡ÎB AvšÍR©vwZK gvb eRvq ivL‡Z mnvqZv K‡i _v‡K| Lv`¨ wbivcËv †_‡K Kw¤úDUvi, K…wl †_‡K ¯^v¯’¨‡mev ISO me©‡ÿ‡Î Avgv‡`i Rxe‡b cÖfve we¯Ívi K‡i‡Q|


e¨emv‡qi AvBbMZ w`K

161

AvBGmI Gi ¸iæZ¡ (Importance of ISO) AvšÍR©vwZK e¨emvq evwYR¨ Ges A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b AvBGmI ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K| AvBGmI ïaygvÎ MÖvnK‡`i‡K DbœZgv‡bi cY¨ mieiv‡ni wbðqZv cÖ`vb K‡i bv; GwU AvšÍR©vwZK evwY‡R¨i evav `~i K‡i e¨emvq evwY‡R¨i Dbœq‡b mnvqZv K‡i _v‡K| wb‡gœ AvBGmI Gi ¸iæZ¡ mswÿßfv‡e Zz‡j aiv n‡jv− • AvBGmI (ISO) wbwðZ K‡i †h cY¨ ev †mev wbivc`, wek¦¯Í Ges fvj gv‡bi| Gi d‡j MÖvnKiv eyS‡Z cv‡i cY¨wU wbivc`| hvi Kvi‡Y MÖvnKiv †fRvj c‡Y¨i nvZ †_‡K iÿv cvq| • e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î AvBGmI GKwU †K․kjMZ hš¿ wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nq| AvBGmI Gi Kvi‡Y e¨emv‡qi †gvU e¨q n«vm cvq| AvBGmI Gi Kvi‡Y e¨emvq-cÖwZôv‡bi AcPq Ges fzj µzwU n«vm cvq Ges Drcv`b ÿgZv e„w× cvq| • AvBGmI e¨emvq cÖwZôvb‡K bZzb bZzb gv‡K©‡U XzK‡Z mnvqZv K‡i _v‡K| Dbœqbkxj †`‡ki Rb¨ mylg evRvi (Playing field) ‣Zwi K‡i| hvi Kvi‡Y Dbœqbkxj †`k I mgfv‡e bZyb bZzb evRv‡i cÖ‡ek Ki‡Z cv‡i| • AvBGmI, gy³ Ges b¨vh¨ wek¦ e¨emvq m„wó‡Z mnvqZv K‡i _v‡K| • †µZv mš‘wó Ges †µZv a‡i ivL‡Z mnvqZv K‡i _v‡K| • wbixÿvi cwigvb Kgvq| • Bnv Kg©x‡`i †cÖlbv, m‡PZbZv Ges •bwZKZv e„w× K‡i| • GwU e¨emv‡qi gybvdv e„wׇZ mnvqZv K‡i _v‡K| • AcPq †iva K‡i Ges Drcv`b e„w× K‡i| Dc‡iv³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K Avgiv ej‡Z cvwi c‡Y¨i gvb Dbœq‡b Ges AvšÍR©vwZK evwY‡R¨ AvBGmI ¸iæZ¡ f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Q|

8.14 evsjv‡`k ÷¨vÛvm© GÛ †Uw÷s Bbw÷wUDkb Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institution ZrKvjxb cvwK¯Ívb miKvi †`kxq cY¨-mvgMÖxi gvb cixÿvi Rb¨ 1956 mv‡j XvKvq Ô †m›Uªvj †Uw÷s j¨ve‡iUwiRÕ cÖwZôv K‡i| cieZx©‡Z 1963 mv‡j Chamber of Commerce & Industries Gi D‡`¨v‡M Zv Standard Institution G iæcvšÍwiZ nq Ges ¯^vaxbZvi ci 1971 mv‡j Bangladesh Standards Institution bvg aviY K‡i| cieZx©‡Z 1985 mv‡j ZrKvjxb ivóªcwZi Av‡`k bs 37 e‡j ``The Bangladesh Standards & Testing Institution” bvg w`‡q K‡c©v‡iU ewW‡Z iƒcvšÍi Kiv nq| GB cÖwZôvb †`wkq Drcvw`Z c‡Y¨i gvb wVK †i‡L evsjv‡`‡ki Af¨šÍixY Ges •e‡`wkK evRvi a‡i ivLvi Rb¨ eZ©gv‡b KvR K‡i hv‡”Q|


162

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

ZvQvov A`¨ewa G cÖwZôvbwU †`wkq Drcvw`Z c‡Y¨i gvb wbqš¿Y I cixÿvKi‡Yi †ÿ‡Î ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKvI †i‡L P‡j‡Q| evsjv‡`‡k GwUB GKgvÎ gvb wbaviYx cÖwZôvb| GB cÖwZôvb †`‡k Drcvw`Z †h †Kv‡bv cY¨, c×wZ ev †mevi gvb wba©viY K‡i _v‡K| 1989 mv‡j Special Regulatory Order Gi AvIZvq miKvwi Aby‡gv`‡bi ci †Kv‡bv c‡Y¨i Rb¨ BSTI Gi Aby‡gv`b I c‡Y¨ BSTI mxj cÖ`vb‡K eva¨Zvg~jK Kiv nq| wewfbœ †ÿ‡Î RvZxq gvb wba©vi‡Yi †ÿ‡Î we.Gm.wU.AvB G ch©šÍ 6wU wWwfkbvj KvDwÝj MVb K‡i‡Q| G ¸‡jv n‡jv− 1. K…wl I Lv`¨; 2. †KwgK¨vjm 3. B‡jKUªwb· 4. cvU I e¯¿ 5. wewìs I wewìs miÄvgvw` Dc‡iv³ 6wU wWwfkb Avevi 70wU †mKkbvj KwgwU MVb K‡i wZb gvm ci ci ev cÖ‡qvRb n‡j cÖwZ gv‡m mfv K‡i Ges wewfbœ gvb •Zwi K‡i _v‡K|

evsjv‡`k ÷¨vÛvm© GÛ †Uw÷s Bbw÷wUDkb Gi D‡Ïk¨ Objectives of Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institution evsjv‡`‡k ÷¨vÛvm© GÛ †Uw÷s Bbw÷wUDU Gi D‡Ïk¨mg~n wb‡¤œ †`Iqv nj− 1. cY¨-`ªe¨ I cÖwµqvi mv‡_ m¤úK©hy³ wba©vwiZ gvb •Zwi Kiv| 2. RvZxq I AvšÍR©vwZK ch©v‡q G mKj gv‡bi e¨envi wbwðZ Kiv| 3. wkí I evwY‡R¨ cÖwgZKiY I gvb wbqš¿‡Yi DbœwZ mvab Kiv| 4. c‡Y¨i gvb Dbœq‡b Drcv`K I e¨enviKvix‡`i cÖ‡qv‡Mi g‡a¨ ms‡hvM ¯’vcb Kiv| 5. cY¨-`ªe¨ cÖwµqvKi‡Y cÖ‡qvR‡b gvbwPý (Brand) wbe܇bi e¨e¯’v Kiv|

evsjv‡`k ÷¨vÛvm© GÛ †Uw÷s Bbw÷wUDkb Gi Kvh©vewj Functions of Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institution evsjv‡`k ÷¨vÛvm© GÛ †Uw÷s Bbw÷wUDkb Gi Kvh©vewj wb‡gœœ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv− 1. †`‡ki Af¨šÍixY I AvšÍRv©wZKfv‡e KuvPvgvj,cY¨, KvVv‡gv Ges †mevi gvb, AvKvi-AvK…wZ wba©viY Ges RbM‡Yi Kv‡R Zv‡`i mvaviY MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv wVKKiY| 2. c‡Y¨i •`N©¨, IRb, cwigvY BZ¨vw` wel‡qi gvb wVK Kiv Ges miKv‡ii Kv‡Q G wel‡q mycvwik Kiv| 3. c‡Y¨i gvb Dbœqb,gvb wbqš¿Y Ges wkí I evwY‡R¨i †ÿÎ mnRxKiY| 4. cY¨, cb¨ Drcv`b cÖwµqv Ges Kvh©µg cwi`k©b, cixÿY BZ¨vw` e¨e¯’vKiY|


e¨emv‡qi AvBbMZ w`K

163

5. ¯’vbxq †fv³v, Avg`vwbKviK ev ißvwbKviK‡`i Rb¨ cY¨, KuvPvgvj Ges †mevi gvb m¤ú‡K© mb`cÎ cÖ`vb| 6. KuvPvgvj, cY¨, Kvh©vewji gvb Ges Kvh©cÖwµqvi gvb Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ Drcv`K I †fv³v‡`i g‡a¨ m¤ú‡K©i Dbœqb NUv‡bvi e¨e¯’v Kiv, hv‡Z Drcv`‡bi cÖwZwU Dcv`v‡bi AcPq n«vm cvq| 7. evsjv‡`k ÷¨vÛvW© †¯úwmwd‡KkÝ (Bangladesh Standard Specifications) KZ…©K wba©vwiZ cY¨ ev Kvh©bxwZ m¤ú‡K© wba©vwiZ cš’vmg~‡ni ev¯Íevqb Ges cÖPvi| 8. evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii Ab¨‡Kv‡bv cÖwZôvb KZ…©K wba©vwiZ ev AvšÍR©vwZK ms¯’v KZ…©K wba©viZ cY¨ gvb cixÿvKiY, MÖnY Ges cwiwPwZKiY| 9. G‡`kxq c‡Y¨i gvb wb‡`©k K‡i Ggb c‡Y¨i Dci gvb wPý (Standard Mark) cÖ`vb| G gvb wPý Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution Certification Mark wnmv‡e cwiwPZ| 10. c~‡e© cÖ`Ë gvb wPý bevqb, mvgwqK evwZj ev ¯’vqxfv‡e evwZjKiY| 11. BSTI KZ…©K cÖ`Ë gvb wPý m¤^wjZ cY¨ Drcv`‡bi ¯’vb cwi`k©b, bgybv msMÖn, cixÿY Ges cÖ‡qvR‡b AvBbMZ e¨e¯’v MÖnY| 12. BSTI Gi D‡Ï‡k¨i mv‡_ mvgÄm¨c~Y© KvR K‡i Ggb †Kv‡bv e¨w³, cÖwZôvb,ms¯’v, ev AvšÍR©vwZK cÖwZôvb‡K mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZv cÖ`vb Kiv|

eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ: 1|

2.

KviLvbv AvBb KZ mv‡ji? K. 1925 M. 1961 †c‡U›U ej‡Z wb‡¤œi †KvbwU‡K †evSvq? K. we‡kl AwaKv‡ii mgwó‡K M. †gavmËv‡K

L. 1932 N. 1965 L. mvRm¾vi bKkv‡K N. SuywK I AwbðqZv wbimbK‡í

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| Z †Kv¤úvwb GKwU cÖwZwôZ †Kv¤úvwb| Zv‡`i Drcvw`Z c‡Y¨i gvb AvšÍR©vwZKfv‡e ¯^xK…wZ †c‡Z Pvq| G Rb¨ Zviv AvšÍR©vwZKfv‡e ¯^xK…Z GKwU cÖwZôv‡bi mb` †bqvi †Póv Pvjv‡”Q| hviv c‡Y¨i gvb I †mev m¤ú‡K© mb` cÖ`vb K‡i|

3|

DÏxc‡K AvšÍR©vwZKfv‡e ¯^xK…Z ej‡Z †Kvb cÖwZôvb‡K eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q? K. ISO

L. BSTI

M. BIMSTEC

N. ASEAN


164

4|

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

Z †Kv¤úvwbi cY¨wU AvšÍR©vwZKfv‡e ¯^xK…Z n‡j wb‡¤œi †Kvb myweav¸‡jv cv‡e? i. MÖvnK mš‘wó AR©b ii. bZzb bZzb evRv‡i cÖ‡ek iii. gybvdv e„w× wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i I ii

L. i I iii

M. ii I iii

N. i, ii I iii

m„Rbkxj cÖkœ: 1|

Aveyj Lv‡qi GKRb M‡elK| wZwb M‡elYv K‡i †m․ikw³ PvwjZ we`y¨r mieivn hš¿ Avwe®‥vi K‡ib Ges Zv evRviRvZ K‡ib| Zvi GB hš¿wU ¯’vbxq MÖvnK‡`i Kv‡Q e¨vcK cwiwPwZ jvf K‡i| wKQyw`‡bi g‡a¨B Ab¨ GKwU cÖwZwôZ †Kv¤úvwb Zvi G hš¿ bKj K‡i evRviRvZ Kiv ïiæ K‡i| wKš‘ wZwb H †Kv¤úvwbi weiæ‡× gvgjv K‡iI AvBbMZ †Kvb e¨e¯’v wb‡Z cv‡ibwb| K. wegv Kx? L. ISO m¤ú‡K© aviYv `vI? M. Aveyj Lv‡q‡ii we`y¨r mieivn hš¿wU †Kvb ai‡bi m¤ú‡`i AšÍf©~³? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Aveyj Lv‡qi †Kvb AvBwb mnvqZv bv cvIqvi KviY we‡kølY Ki|

2|

cÖwZôv‡bi cÖwZ e¨vcK ggZ¡‡eva †_‡K wg. AvRv` Ô÷vi Mv‡g©›UmÕ-Gi GKRb Kg©Pvix wn‡m‡e cÖwZôv‡bi Rb¨ AwMœwegv Pzw³‡Z Ave× n‡Z Pvb| wegv †Kv¤úvbx Zvi cÖ¯ÍvewU cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡i| Ae‡k‡l Zvi Aby‡iv‡a Mv‡g©›Um gvwjK 1 †KvwU UvKvi AwMwœegv K‡ib| AwMœKv‡Û 20 jÿ UvKvi gvjvgvj ÿwZM¯Í nq| D³ UvKv ÿwZc~i‡Yi ci ÿwZM¯Í gvjvgvj weµq K‡i 50 nvRvi UvKv cvIqv hvq Ges D³ UvKvi gvwjKvbv wb‡q Dfq c‡ÿi g‡a¨ we‡iva †`Lv †`q| K. g~j¨vwqZ wegvcÎ Kx? L. AvRxeb wegvcÎ ej‡Z Kx eySvq? M. wegv Pzw³i †Kvb Dcv`v‡bi Afv‡e wg. AvRv` D³ cÖwZôv‡bi wegv Ki‡Z e¨_© nb Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| N. wegv Pzw³i Av‡jv‡K DÏxc‡K weµqK…Z gvjvgv‡ji cÖvcK †K n‡eb? Zv DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K we‡kølY Ki|


beg Aa¨vq

e¨emvq mnvqK †mev ASSISTANCE SERVICE OF BUSINESS e¨emvq eZ©gv‡b Ab¨Zg †ckv wnmv‡e we‡ewPZ nq| Z‡e e¨emvq cÖwZôvb †h †Kv‡bv ai‡YiB †nvK bv †Kb Zvi MVb, cwiPvjbv I Dbœqb †Kv‡bv GKK e¨w³i c‡ÿ m¤¢e bq| Gi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb wewfbœ e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi cÖZ¨ÿ ev c‡ivÿ mn‡hvwMZv| Avevi GmKj mvnvh¨ n‡Z cv‡i-Avw_©K, gvbwmK, cÖ‡K․kjMZ, AvBbMZ, cÖPviMZ, AwfÁZvj× BZ¨vw`| G mKj mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZv GKRb e¨emvwq‡K A_ev D‡`¨v³v‡K GKw`‡K †hgb bZzb e¨emvq cÖwZôvi †ÿ‡Î Drmvn †hvMvq †Zgwb cieZx©‡Z be¨ cÖwZwôZ e¨emvq‡K cwiPvjbv Ges Dbœq‡b ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ae`vb iv‡L| ZvB †h †Kv‡bv e¨emv‡qi Rb¨ Giƒc mvnvh¨mn‡hvwMZv AZ¨šÍ Riæix|

G Aa¨vq cvV †k‡l Avgiv Rvb‡Z cvie− • mnvqK †mevi aviYv I cÖKvi‡f`| • evsjv‡`k ÿz`ª I KzwUi wkí ms¯’v †_‡K cÖvß mnvqZv • evwYwR¨K e¨vsK¸‡jv †_‡K cÖvß mnvqZv • GmGgB dvB‡Ûkb (SME) †_‡K cÖvß mnvqZv • †emiKvwi ms¯’v †_‡K cÖvß mnvqZv • wkí I ewYK mwgwZ Ges wewRGgBG †_‡K cÖvß mnvqZv • ißvwb Dbœqb ey¨‡iv †_‡K cÖvß mnvqZv • e¨emv‡q mnvqZv`vbKvwi AvÂwjK I AvšÍR©vwZK ms¯’vmg~n|


166

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

9.01 mnvqK †mevi aviYv I cÖKvi‡f` Concept of Assistance Service and its Type †`‡ki A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ GKw`‡K †hgb wk‡ív‡`¨v‡Mi cÖ‡qvRb †Zgwb cÖ‡qvRb bZzb D‡`¨v³v m„wó I Zv a‡i ivLvi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZvi| wk‡ív‡`¨vM GKwU avivevwnK cÖwµqv| G cÖwµqvi Ask wn‡m‡e cÖ‡qvRbxq mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZvI avivevwnKfv‡e cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| A_©vr wk‡ív‡`¨v‡M cÖ‡qvRbxq mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZv¸‡jvi cÖ‡qvRb GK‡Î c‡o bv, G¸‡jvi GKwU c~iY n‡j Av‡iKwUi cÖ‡qvRb †`Lv †`q| cÖ‡qvR‡bi aib Abyhvqx wk‡ív‡`¨vM mvnvh¨‡K †gvUvgywU wZb fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| wb‡gœ wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ wk‡ív‡`¨vM mnvqZv‡K Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: wk‡ív‡`¨vM mnvqZv

DÏxcbvg~jK

mg_©bg~jK

msi¶Yg~jK

K. DÏxcbvg~jK mnvqZv Stimulation assistance DÏxcbvg~jK mnvqZv ej‡Z GKRb m¤¢vebvgq wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡K wkí ¯’vc‡b Aby‡cÖiYv †hvMv‡Z mÿg Ggb ai‡bi mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZv I Kg© ZrciZv‡K eySvq| 1. gvby‡li gv‡S D‡`¨v³vm~jf ¯ú„nv m„wói j‡ÿ¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq wk‡ív‡`¨vMg~jK wkÿvi cÖmv‡ii e¨e¯’vKiY| 2. wk‡ív‡`¨vMg~jK ev wewb‡qvM my‡hvM-myweavi cwiKwíZ cÖPviYv| 3. weÁvbm¤§Z Dcv‡q m¤¢vebvgq D‡`¨v³v mbv³KiY| 4. bZzb wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡`i‡K wewfbœ ai‡bi cÖ‡Yv`bvg~jK cÖwkÿY cÖ`vb| 5. cY¨ wbe©vPb Ges cÖKí cÖwZ‡e`b cÖYq‡b D‡`¨v³v‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq mvnvh¨ I w`K-wb‡`©kbv cÖ`vb| 6. KvwiMwi I A_©‣bwZK Z_¨ Ges cY¨ weµqRwbZ Kvh©vewj †_‡K cÖvß gybvdvi cwigvY Rvbv‡bvi e¨e¯’vKiY| 7. ¯’vbxqfv‡e Dchy³ bZzb cY¨ Ges Drcv`b cÖwµqvi D‡b¥‡li e¨e¯’vKiY| 8. wkí‡`¨vMg~jK civgk© Ges wk‡ív‡`¨vM Dbœq‡b cÖwkÿY cÖvß ¯’vbxq civgk©K‡`i cÖwZôv‡bi Dcw¯’wZ wbwðZKiY| 9. wk‡ív‡`¨vMxq †dvivg MV‡bi e¨e¯’vKiY|


e¨emvq mnvqK †mev

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L. mg_©bg~jK mnvqZv Supporting assistance †h mKj mvnvh¨-mnvqZv m¤¢vebvgq wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡`i‡K wkí cÖwZôvb ¯’vcb Ges cwiPvjbvq mÿg K‡i †Zv‡j Zv‡`i‡KB mvgwMÖKfv‡e mg_©bg~jK mnvqZv e‡j| wb‡gœ mg_©bg~jK mnvqZvmg~‡ni eY©bv †`qv n‡jv− 1. e¨emvq ev wkí cÖwZôv‡bi wbe܇bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq myweav cÖ`vb| 2. e¨emv‡qi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq A_©vq‡bi e¨e¯’vKiY| 3. f~wg, `vjvb, kw³ I cvwb m¤ú` cÖvwßi e¨e¯’v Kiv| 4. hš¿cvwZ wbe©vPb Ges msMÖ‡n cÖ‡qvRbxq mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZv cÖ`vb| 5. `y®úÖvc¨ KuvPvgvj msMÖ‡n cÖ‡qvRbxq mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZv `vb| 6. Avg`vwb jvB‡mÝmn Ab¨vb¨ jvB‡mÝ cÖvw߇Z mnvqZv `vb| 7. Ab¨vb¨ mvaviY myweavw` cÖ`vb Kiv| 8. Ki †iqvZ ev Ab¨vb¨ fZ©ywK cÖ`vb| 9. e¨e¯’vcKxq civgk© cÖ`v‡bi e¨e¯’vKiY| 10. cY¨ evRviRvZKi‡Y mvnvh¨ Kiv|

M. msiÿYg~jK mnvqZv Sustaining Assistance wk‡ív‡`¨vM Dbœq‡b msiÿYg~jK mnvqZvmg~n GKRb wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡K e¨emv‡qi cÖwZeÜKZvmg~n KvwU‡q mdjfv‡e wU‡K _vK‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| wkí ¯’vc‡bi ci wk‡ív‡`¨v³v wewfbœ ai‡bi cÖwZeÜKZv I mgm¨vi m¤§yLxb nq| msiÿYg~jK mnvqZvmg~‡ni gva¨‡g D‡`¨v³v Gme cÖwZeÜKZv I mgm¨vw` `~i Ki‡Z mÿg nb| wb‡gœ msiÿYg~jK mnvqZvmg~‡ni eY©bv †`qv n‡jv− 1. KviLvbv AvaywbKxKi‡Y mnvqZv cÖ`vb Kiv| 2. c‡Y¨i •ewPÎKiY, KviLvbvi m¤úªmviY I weKí c‡Y¨i Drcv`‡b mnvqZv cÖ`vb Kiv| 3. cÖK…Z FY I my` cwi‡kv‡ai †gqv` e„w×Ki‡Y mnvqZv| 4. mgm¨v wPwýZKiY I wkíxq cÖwZôv‡bi m¤úªmvi‡Y cÖ‡qvRbxq civgk© cÖ`vb| 5. Drcv`b cÖwZôvb msµvšÍ AvBbvbyM bxwZ cÖYqb I cÖ‡qvR‡b we`¨gvb bxwZi cwieZ©b| 6. c‡Y¨i ¸Yv¸Y cixÿv Ges †mevi Dbœq‡b mnvqZv cÖ`vb Kiv| 7. cÖ‡qvRb wfwËK mvaviY myweavw` cÖ`vb †K›`ª ¯’vcb Kiv|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

9.02 mnvqK †mevi Drm Sources of Assistance Service c„w_exi Ab¨vb¨ †`‡ki b¨vq evsjv‡`‡kI e¨emvq D‡`¨vM MÖnY I ¯’vc‡b mnvqZvKvix wewfbœ miKvwi†emiKvwi cÖwZôvb M‡o D‡V‡Q Ges e¨emvq-evwY‡R¨i †ÿ‡Î Ae`vb †i‡L Pj‡Q| H mKj cÖwZôvb †`‡k e¨emvq ev wkí ¯’vc‡b D‡`¨vM MÖnY, wkí ¯’vcb I cY¨-`ª‡e¨i MÖn‡Y mnvqK wewfbœ w`K D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q hv A‡b‡Ki Rb¨ Aby‡cÖiYvg~jK n‡Z cv‡i| wb‡gœ G¸‡jvi ZvwjKv cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jvevsjv‡`k ÿz`ª I KywUi wkí ms¯’v †_‡K cÖvß mnvqZv− evsjv‡`k ÿz`ª I KzwUi wkí ms¯’v (wewmK) †`‡k ÿz`ª I KzwUi wkí Dbœqb I weKv‡k wb‡qvwRZ miKvwi cÖwZôvb| G ms¯’vi cÖavb KvR n‡jv G wkí Lv‡Zi Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ wewb‡qv‡Mi c~‡e© civgk©`vb| G ms¯’vi Ab¨vb¨ Kg©¸‡jv wbgœiƒc: 1. wkí msµvšÍ Z_¨mieivn 2. D‡`¨v³v kbv³KiY, 3. mvnvh¨g~jK †mev 4. wk‡ív‡`¨vM Dbœqb 5. cÖKí wbe©vPb 6. cÖKí g~j¨vqb 7. m¤¢ve¨Zv cixÿv 8. FY e¨e¯’vcbv I ZË¡veavb 9. wkí BDwbU Aby‡gv`b cÖKí ev¯Íevqb 10. AeKvVv‡gvMZ Dbœqb 11. e¨e¯’vcbv I `ÿZv Dbœqb 12. cY¨ wWRvBb 13. †cÖv‡UvUvBc Dbœqb I Zvi weZiY 14. KuvPvgvj mieiv‡n mvnvh¨ 15. Drcvw`Z `ªe¨ mvgMÖxi wecY‡b mnvqZv 16. DcwVKv`vwii e¨e¯’v Kiv 17. M‡elYv I Dbœqb 18. h‡_vchy³ Drcv`b cÖwµqv wba©viY I gvb wbqš¿Y 19. c‡Y¨i evRvi mgxÿv 20. ÿz`ª I KzwUi wk‡íi Dci cÖKvkbv cÖf…wZ| †ÿÎ we‡k‡l G ms¯’ v evwYwR¨K e¨vsKmg~ ‡ ni mv‡_ †h․_ D‡`¨v‡M cÖ ‡ qvRbxq F‡Yi e¨e¯’ v K‡i _v‡K| wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡`i Kv‡Q ms¯’ v i mvnvh¨mg~ n †cu ․ ‡Q †`qvi Rb¨ G ms¯’ v †`‡ki wewfbœ ¯’ v ‡b kvLv ¯’ v cb K‡i‡Q|


e¨emvq mnvqK †mev

169

evwYwR¨K e¨vsK¸‡jv †_‡K cÖvß mnvqZv Assistance from Commercial Bank

†`‡ki PviwU ivóªvqË evwYwR¨K e¨vsK (†mvbvjx, RbZv, AMÖYx I iƒcvjx e¨vsK) Ges evsjv‡`k K…wl e¨vsK mviv †`‡k weivRgvb Zv‡`i kvLv¸‡jvi gva¨‡g wkí I e¨emvq D‡`¨v³v‡`i Avw_©K †mev cÖ`vb K‡i Avm‡Q| we‡kl K‡i wbweo kÖgNb I Kg©ms¯’vbg~Lx A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b GKgvwjKvbv, Askx`vwi, cÖvB‡fU wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb Ges cvewjK wjwg‡UW †Kv¤úvwb‡K wewfbœ ai‡bi †mev cÖ`vb K‡i Avm‡Q| e¨emvq ev cÖK‡íi aib Abyhvqx FYmxgv me©wbgœ 50 nvRvi †_‡K m‡e©v”P 10 †KvwU UvKv| F‡Yi †gqv` e¨emvq ev cÖK‡íi Dci wbf©i K‡i wba©vwiZ nq| Z‡e PjwZ g~ja‡bi †ÿ‡Î 1 ermi Ges †gqvw` F‡Yi †ÿ‡Î 3−7 eQi ch©šÍ we‡ewPZ nq| G mKj †ÿ‡Î FY cÖvwßi †hvM¨Zv wbgœiƒc: • FYcÖv_x© D‡`¨v³v‡K b~¨bZg 2 eQ‡ii e¨emvwqK AwfÁZv _vK‡Z n‡e| • D‡`¨v³v‡K my¯’, wkwÿZ Ges eqm 18 †_‡K 60 eQ‡ii g‡a¨ n‡Z n‡e| • FY‡Ljvcx, †`Dwjqv, Db¥v` I Roeyw×m¤úbœ e¨w³ F‡Yi Rb¨ Av‡e`b Ki‡Z cvi‡eb bv| • D‡`¨v³v‡K evsjv‡`‡ki bvMwiK n‡Z n‡e| • gwnjv D‡`¨v³v‡`i AMÖvwaKvi †`Iqv n‡e|


170

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

GmGgB dvD‡Ûkb SME Foundation

ÿz`ª I gvSvix wkí weKv‡k Ges gvb Dbœq‡b GmGgB dvD‡Ûkb GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© fywgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K| ÿz`ª Ges gvSvix wkí D‡`¨v³v Ges we‡kl K‡i bvix D‡`¨v³v‡`i Rb¨ GwU mswkøó wel‡q wewfbœ cÖwkÿYg~jK Kg©myPx Av‡qvRb K‡i _v‡K| †`‡ki ÿz`ª Ges gvSvix wkí hv‡Z †`‡ki `vwi`ªZv wbim‡b Ges A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b eo Ae`vb ivL‡Z cv‡i, †mRb¨ GmGgB dvD‡Ûkb cÖ‡qvRbxq c`‡ÿc MÖnY K‡i _v‡K| GmGgB dvD‡Ûkb GKwU ¯^vaxb Ges AjvfRbK cÖwZôvb| GwU evwYR¨ gš¿bvjq †_‡K †iwR‡÷ªkb cvq 12 b‡f¤^i 2006 mv‡j Ges 1994 mv‡ji †Kv¤úvwb AvBb Abyhvqx R‡q›U ÷K †Kv¤úvwb †_‡K †iwR‡÷ªkb cvq| Avi GwU AvbyôvwbK fv‡e hvÎv ïiæ K‡i 2007 mv‡ji 30 †g|

GmGgB dvD‡Ûkb n‡Z cÖvß mnvqZvmg~n Assistances from SME Foundation

evsjv‡`‡ki ÿz`ª I KzwUi wkí Dbœq‡b GmGgB dvD‡Ûkb ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K| wb‡gœ GmGgB dvD‡Ûkb †_‡K cÖvß mnvqZvmg~n ms‡ÿ‡c D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv−  evsjv‡`k miKvi KZ©„K M„nxZ GmGgB cwjwm‡K ev¯Íevqb Kiv;  GmGgB dvD‡Ûk‡bi mnR cwjwm¸‡jv MÖ n Y Ki‡Z miKv‡ii wefbœ gš¿ Y vjq Ges G‡Rw݇K Aby ‡ iva Kiv;  ÿz`ª I gvSvix wkí D‡`¨v³v‡`i wewfbœ †ÿ‡Î e¨emvwqK mv‡cvU© cÖ`vb Kiv;  bZzb GmGgB e¨emvqx‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ Ges MvBW jvBb cÖ`vb Kiv;  wewfbœ miKvwi I †emiKvix Avw_©K cÖwZôv‡bi gva¨‡g GmGgB e¨emvqx‡`i wewfbœ †gqv`x F‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv;  GmGgB e¨emvqx‡`i `ÿZv Avbq‡b wewfbœ cÖwkÿY Kg©m~Px Av‡qvRb Kiv;


e¨emvq mnvqK †mev

171

 GmGgB e¨emvqx‡`i Zv‡`i cÖ¯‘ZK…Z cY¨ evRviRvZKi‡Y mnvqZv Kiv;  bvix D‡`¨v³v‡`i cÖ_g mvwi‡Z wb‡q Avmv Ges Zv‡`i‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq cÖwkÿY cÖ`vb K‡i GmGgB e¨emv‡q AvMÖnx K‡i †Zvjv;  bvix D‡`¨v³v‡`i GmGgB e¨emv‡q wewfbœ F‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv;  GmGgB e¨emv‡q Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU mn wbZ¨bZzb cÖhyw³i mw¤§jb NUv‡bv;  GmGgB e¨emv‡q we‡`kx D‡`¨v³v‡`i AvK…ó Kiv|

†emiKvix ms¯’v †_‡K cÖvß mnvqZv Assistances from Private Organization D‡`¨v³v Dbœq‡b †emiKvwi †¯^”Qv‡mex mvnvh¨ ms¯’v¸‡jvi f~wgKv D‡jøL‡hvM¨| Z‡e G ms¯’v¸‡jv g~jZ MÖvgxY weËnxb‡`i D‡`¨vMx nevi e¨vcv‡i mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZv K‡i _v‡K| GLv‡b K‡qKwU D‡jøL‡hvM¨ ms¯’vi Kvh©µg eY©bv Kiv n‡”Q−

MÖvgxY e¨vsK Grameen Bank

ÔMÖvgxY e¨vsKÕ MÖvgxY fywgnxb I `y t¯’ Rbmvavi‡Yi g‡a¨ Avw_©K FY`vbKvix GKwU we‡klvwqZ Avw_©K cÖwZôvb| G e¨vsK †Kv‡bviƒc RvgvbZ QvovB FY cÖ`vb K‡i| G e¨wZµgag©x e¨vs‡Ki cÖwZôvZv n‡jb kvwšÍ‡Z †bv‡ej cyi®‥vi weRqx W. gynv¤§` BDbym| MÖvgxY e¨vsK cÖwZôvi gva¨‡g wZwb ïaygvÎ wb‡RB GB cyi®‥vi cvbwb Zuvi cÖwZwôZ GB e¨vsKwUI GKB m¤§v‡b f~wlZ n‡q‡Q Ges †mB mv‡_ e‡q G‡b‡Q evsjv‡`‡ki Rb¨ weij m¤§vb| kvwšÍ‡Z †bv‡ej weRqx MÖvgxY e¨vs‡Ki hvÎv ïiæ 1976 mv‡j PUªMÖvg †Rjvi †Rveiv MÖv‡g ÔMÖvgxY e¨vsK cÖKíÕ wn‡m‡e| †Rveiv cÖK‡íi mvd‡j¨i Kvi‡Y 1979 mv‡ji b‡f¤^i gv‡m Uv½vBj †Rjv‡Z G cÖKí ewa©Z Kiv nq| 1983 mv‡ji 2 A‡±vei miKvi MÖvgxY e¨vsK Aa¨v‡`k Rvwi K‡i G cÖKí‡K ÔMÖvgxY e¨vsKÕ bv‡g GKwU ¯^Zš¿ e¨vsK wn‡m‡e iƒc`vb K‡i| eZ©gv‡b GwU GKwU ¯^vqZ¡kvwmZ we‡kl A_©jwMœKvix cÖwZôvvb wnmv‡e KvR Ki‡Q| G e¨vs‡Ki gvwjKvbv 93 kZvsk f~wgnxb‡`i nv‡Z, Aewkó 7 kZvs‡ki gvwjK cÖZ¨ÿ ev c‡ivÿfv‡e evsjv‡`k miKvi|


172

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

2007 mv‡ji 31 gvP© Zvwi‡L MÖvgxY e¨vs‡Ki Aby‡gvw`Z g~ja‡bi cwigvY wQj 50 †KvwU UvKv Ges cwi‡kvwaZ g~ja‡bi cwigvY wQj 31.8 †KvwU UvKv| MÖvgxY e¨vs‡Ki cwiPvjbv I e¨e¯’vcbv msµvšÍ bxwZ wba©viY K‡i _v‡K 13 m`m¨wewkó cwiPvjKgÛjx| cwiPvjKgÛjxi mfvcwZ, e¨e¯’vcbv cwiPvjK I 2 Rb m`m¨ miKvi KZ…©K wbhy³ nb| Aewkó 9 Rb m`m¨ wbe©vwPZ nb f~wgnxb †kqvi gvwjKMY KZ…©K| 2007 mv‡ji 31 gvP© Zvwi‡L XvKv, PUªMÖvg, Uv½vBj, iscyi, cUzqvLvjx, e¸ov, wm‡jU, iRkvnx, w`bvRcyi, dwi`cyi, Kzwgjøv, gqgbwmsn, bvivqYMÄ, Lyjbv, †bvqvLvjx †gvU 15wU †Rvb-G MÖvgxY e¨vs‡Ki †gvU 2400wU kvLv Awdm wQj| 2006 mv‡ji wW‡m¤^i ch©šÍ 74,462wU MÖv‡g G e¨vsK Zv‡`i Kvh©µg m¤úªmvwiZ K‡i‡Q|

MÖvgxY e¨vs‡Ki Kvh©vewj: MÖvgxY e¨vsK mvaviYZ wb‡gœœv³ Kvh©vewj m¤úv`b K‡i _v‡K− 1. weËnxb I `yt¯’ bvix I cyiæl‡`i msMwVZ K‡i MÖæc-dv‡Ûi gva¨‡g mÂq m„wó Kiv| 2. G e¨vsK `yt¯’ I `wi`ª bvix I cyiæl‡`i g‡a¨ webv Rvgvb‡Z FY`vb K‡i _v‡K| Z‡e G F‡Yi 80% gwnjv‡`i g‡a¨ ewÈZ nq| 3. Avw_©K cÖwZôvb wnmv‡e G e¨vs‡Ki KvR n‡jv FY Av`vq Kiv| G e¨vsK m`m¨‡`i M„n wbg©vY, grm Pvl, nuvm-gyiwMi Lvgvi •Zwi, KzwUi wkí cÖf…wZ cÖKí •Zwi‡Z mvnvh¨ I A_©vqb K‡i|

eª¨vK Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee

eª¨vK me©e„nr †emiKvwi mvnvh¨ ms¯’v| ¯^vaxbZvi ci 1972 mv‡j ÎvY I cybe©vm‡bi Kvh©µg nv‡Z wb‡q ms¯’vwU ¯’vwcZ nq| wKš‘ Gici †_‡K `vwi`ª¨ `~ixKiY I `wi`ª RbMY‡K ÿgZvq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ G ms¯’v wewfbœ Kg©m~wP ev¯Íevqb Ki‡Q| D‡`¨v³v Dbœq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ eª¨vK †h Kvh©µg¸‡jv nv‡Z wb‡q‡Q †m¸‡jv n‡”Q−  ÿz`ª wkí Dbœqb Kvh©µg: Gi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q Kvco eybb, nuvm-gyiwM cvjb, AvmevecÎ, •Zj Drcv`b, ¸o, `wo, euvk I †e‡Zi mvgMÖx •Zwi, avb fvbv cÖf…wZ|


e¨emvq mnvqK †mev

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 mn‡hvMx cÖwZôvb Dbœqb: G Kg©m~wPi AvIZvq f~wgnxb †jvK‡`i‡K cÖKí cÖYqb, ev¯Íevqb, e¨e¯’vcbv, wecYb cÖf…wZ Kvh©µ‡gi gva¨‡g msMwVZ Kiv nq| †hgb, BU •Zwi cÖKí|  Drcv`b †K›`ª Dbœqb: AvaywbK wWRvBb I cÖhyw³i gva¨‡g MÖvgxY wkíRvZ mvgMÖxi gvb Dbœqb I Drcv`b e„w× Kiv nq| HwZn¨MZ Kviæwk‡íi Dbœq‡bi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q wmé, Rvg`vwb, bKwkKuv_v cÖf…wZ|

wkí I ewYK mwgwZ Chembar of Commerce and Industry ewYK mfv †Kvb wbw`©ó kni, AÂj ev †`‡ki e¨emvqx, wkícwZ, †ckvRxwe cÖf…wZ †kÖY xi cÖwZwbwaZ¡Kvix GKwU AevwYwR¨K Hw”QK msMVb| GwU mxgve× `vqwewkó †h․_g~jabx †Kv¤úvbx wn‡m‡e wbewÜZ| †Kv¤úvbx AvB‡b wbewÜZ n‡jI ewYK mfv cÖZ ¨ÿfv‡e †Kvb wkí I evwYwR¨K Kvh©µg m¤úv`b K‡i bv| Z‡e †`‡ki wkí I evwYwR¨K Kvh©µ‡gi myôz m¤úv`b, m¤úªmviY I Dbœq‡b we‡kl f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| wb‡gœ †`‡ki wkí

I

evwY‡R¨i mvgwMÖ K

Dbœ q b Ges

¸iæZ¡ / cÖ ‡ qvRYxqZv/ f~ w gKv cÖ ` Ë nB‡jv− 1.

wkíbxwZ I evwYR¨bxwZ cÖYq‡b mnvqZv;

2. e¨emvq cwi‡e‡ki Dbœqb; 3. Kvievwi msev`, Z_¨ I civgk© `vb; 4. MVbg~jK e¨emvq cÖwZ‡hvwMZv I mn‡hvwMZvi D‡b¥l; 5. cY¨ I †mevi gv‡bvbœqb; 6. gvbe m¤ú‡`i Dbœqb; 7. we‡iva wb®úwË; 8. cÖfe‡jL Bmy¨; 9. evRvi m¤úªmviY; 10. e¨emvq Z_¨ m¤úwK©Z cwÎKv I mvgwqKx cÖKvk|

m¤úª m vi‡Y

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mfvi


174

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

wewRGgBG †_‡K cÖvß mnvqZv Assistance from BGMEA

BGMEA-Gi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv †`‡k •Zwi †cvlvK cÖ¯‘Z I ißvwb K‡i †`‡k •e‡`wkK gy`ªvi µgea©gvb Avq I cÖe„w× AR©‡bi Rb¨ Gi m`m¨‡`i‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZv I w`K-wb‡`k©bv cÖ`vb| G j‡ÿ¨ wewRGgBG •Zwi †cvlvK cÖ¯‘ZKviK, ißvwbKviK I Avg`vwbKviK‡`i g‡a¨ GKwU Nwbô I cvi¯úwiK mn‡hvwMZvg~jK e¨emvq cwi‡ek m„wói cÖqvm Pvwj‡q Avm‡Q Ges miKvwi wewfbœ bxwZgvjvi mv‡_ m½wZc~Y©fv‡e •Zwi †cvlvK cÖ¯‘ZKviK I ißvwiKviK‡`i‡K `ÿZvi mv‡_ †bZ…Z¡ w`‡q Avm‡Q| wb‡gœ wewRGgBG KZ…©K m¤úvw`Z wewfbœ Kvh©vejxi mswÿß eY©bv cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jv− 1. we‡`kx †µZv, e¨emvq msN Ges ewYK mfvmg~‡ni mv‡_ wewfbœ Pzw³ m¤úv`b I Dbœqb| 2. AvšÍR©vwZK evRv‡i †cvlv‡Ki evwYR¨ Ges evwYR¨ †gjvmg~n Z`viwK Kiv| hy³ivóª Ges BD‡ivwcqvb BDwbq‡bi mv‡_ mshy³ Ab-jvBb WvUv †mvm© †_‡K Z_¨ msMÖn K‡i Kw¤úDUvi †bUIqvK© wm‡÷‡gi gva¨‡g cÖvß Z_¨vewj wewfbœ c‡ÿi gv‡S weZiY Kiv| 3. •Zwi †cvlvK cÖ¯‘ZKvix, •Zwi †cvlvK Drcv`‡bi mv‡_ m¤ú„³ wewfbœ wkí Ges •Zwi †cvlvK ißvwb‡Z wb‡qvwRZ wewfbœ wkí, †Kv¤úvbx Ges dvg©mg~‡ni AvšÍtmn‡hvwMZv‡K DrmvwnZ Kiv| 4. Mv‡g©›Um wk‡íi mv‡_ m¤ú„³ wewfbœ e¨w³ Ges Ab¨vb¨ mswkøó cÿmg~‡ni gv‡S mvabZv I m‡PZbZv m„wói j‡ÿ¨ Pjgvb e¨emvq welqK wewfbœ †mwgbvi, wm‡¤úvwRqv‡gi Av‡jvPbv Kiv| 5. gvwK©b hy³ivóª I KvbvWvi mv‡_ †KvUv wba©viY Ges msiÿ‡Y miKvwi cÖ‡Póv‡K mnvqZv Kiv| 6. wewfbœ Mv‡g©›Um wkí KviLvbv KZ…©K Avg`vwbK…Z AvUKvcov gRyZ Kvco ¯’vbxq evRv‡i weµ‡q mvnvh¨ Kiv| 7. †cvlvK •Zwi KviLvbvmg~‡n m¤¢ve¨ AwMœKvÛ wbevi‡Yi Rb¨ wewfbœ wbivcËv Kg©m~Px MÖnY wbwðZ Kiv|


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ißvwb Dbœqb ey¨‡iv †_‡K cÖvß mnvqZv Assistance from Export Promotion Bureau

evsjv‡`‡ki gZ Dbœqbkxj †`‡k ißvbx Dbœqb ey¨‡ivi ¸iæZ¡ ev f~wgKv Acwimxg| G ms¯’v †`‡ki kxl©¯’vbxq e¨emvq mnvqK cÖwZôvb wn‡m‡e ißvwb Lv‡Zi Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ Af¨šÍixY I AvšÍR©vwZK †ÿ‡Î D‡jøL‡hvM¨ fv‡e mnvqK n‡q _v‡K| wb‡gœ ißvwb Dbœqb ey¨‡ivi ¸iæZ¡ ev f~wgKv Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv−

K. Af¨šÍixY †ÿ‡Î ißvwb Dbœqb ey¨‡ivi f~wgKv: 1. ißvwb‡hvM¨ DØ„Ë m„wói Rb¨ Af¨šÍixY Drcv`b e„wׇZ Drmvn cÖ`vb I mn‡hvwMZv `vb| 2. ißvwb c‡Y¨i e¨vcK Drcv`b e„w×i Rb¨ wkíKviLvbv ¯’vc‡b mn‡hvwMZv Ges cÖvmw½K c‡Y¨i Drcv`bKvix‡`i ¯^v_© iÿv‡_© miKvwi bxwZgvjv cÖYq‡b BwZevPK f~wgKv cvjb| 3. ißvwb‡hvM¨ c‡Y¨i mywbw`©ó gvb I ¸Yv¸Y eRvq ivLvi Rb¨ Drcv`bKvix cÖwZôvbmg~n‡K civgk© I mnvqZv `vb| 4. ißvwb c‡Y¨i gvb wba©viY †kÖYxweb¨vm, wWRvBb, †gvowKKiY BZ¨vw` Dbœq‡b mn‡hvwMZv `vb| 5. ¯^í cyuwRi ißvwbKviK‡`i‡K ißvwb FY I Ab¨vb¨ my‡hvM-myweav cÖ`vb| 6. ißvwb‡hvM¨ c‡Y¨i DbœZ cwienb I wkwcs myweav cÖvw߇Z mnvqZv| 7. ißvwb c‡Y¨i Drcv`K, ißvwbKviK I ißvwb Kg©KZ©v‡`i cÖwkÿ‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv|

L. AvšÍRv© wZK †ÿ‡Î ißvwb Dbœqb ey¨‡ivi f~wgKv: 1. we‡`‡k evwYwR¨K cÖwZwbwa †cÖiY, evRvi AbymÜvb BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g ißvwb evRvi Dbœqb I m¤úmviY| 2. evsjv‡`kx ißvwb‡hvM¨ c‡Y¨i Rb¨ fvj kZ© wba©viY| 3. ÿz`ª ißvwbKvi‡K‡`i Rb¨ evwYwR¨K åg‡Yi e¨e¯’vKiY| 4. wewfbœ †`‡ki wkí I evwYR¨ †gjv Ges cÖ`k©bx‡Z AskMÖnY| 5. we‡`‡k evsjv‡`k wgkbmg~n cÖ`k©b I weµq‡K›`ª †Lvjv I cwiPvjbv Kiv|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

6. ißvwb Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ AvšÍR©vwZK †dviv‡gi mnvqZv MÖnY| 7. we‡k¦i ¸iæZ¡c~Y© kni¸‡jv‡Z evwYR¨ †K›`ª †Lvjv| 8. we‡`‡k m¤¢ve¨ evRvi GjvKvq evsjv‡`kxq ißvwb‡hvM¨ c‡Y¨i weeiY, cÖKvkbv, cÖPviYv, cY¨ MvBW BZ¨vw` mieivn †`qv| 9. ißvwbKviK I ißvwb Kg©KZ©v‡`i‡K we‡`‡k cÖwkÿY, AvšÍR©vwZK †mwgbvi, wm‡¤úvwRqvg BZ¨vw`‡Z AskMÖn‡Yi my‡hvM `vb BZ¨vw`| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, evsjv‡`‡ki ivßvwb‡hvM¨ cY¨`ªe¨ Drcv`b, †`‡ki ißvwb e„w×i Rb¨ evRvi Dbœqb I m¤úªmviY Ges •e‡`wkK gy`vª AR©‡bi †ÿ‡Î ißvwb ey¨‡iv AZ¨šÍ Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb K‡i Avm‡Q|

9.03 e¨emv‡q mnvqZv`vbKvix AvÂwjK I AvšÍ©RvwZK ms¯’v The Regional and International Organization for Assisting Business

mvcUv (Sapta) `wÿY Gkxq mvZwU †`k †hgb, evsjv‡`k, fviZ, cvwK¯Ívb, †bcvj, f~Uvb, kÖxj¼v I gvjØx‡ci g‡a¨ AvÂwjK mn‡hvwMZv e„w×i j‡ÿ¨ MwVZ mv‡K©i (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation-SAARC) Aax‡b GKwU evwYR¨ Pyw³| mvcUv g~jZ `wÿY Gkxq G mvZwU †`‡ki g‡a¨ AMÖvwaKv‡ii wfwˇZ e¨emvq I evwYwR¨K mn‡hvwMZv e„w×i j‡ÿ¨ MVb Kiv n‡q‡Q| we‡k¦i wewfbœ †`k ev A‡ji mgš^‡q MwVZ wewfbœ Pzw³ ev ms¯’v †hgb: bvdUv, I‡cK, BD‡ivwcqvb BDwbqb, b¨v‡Uv, BZ¨vw`i g‡ZvB mvK©f~³ †`kmg~n wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ evwYwR¨K mn‡hvwMZv e„w× I m¤úªmvi‡Yi j‡ÿ¨ `wÿY Gkxq AMÖvwaKvi wfwËK evwYR¨ Pzw³-mvcUv (South Asian Preferental Trade Agreement) m¤úv`b K‡i| 1985 mv‡j XvKvq AbywôZ cÖ_g mvK© kxl© m‡¤§j‡bi ci †_‡K ïiæ K‡i wewfbœ m‡¤§j‡b GZ` A‡ji †`kmg~‡ni g‡a¨ AvšÍtevwYR¨ e„w× msµvšÍ bvbv Av‡jvPbv nq| cieZx©‡Z kÖxjsKvi ivRavbx Kj‡¤^v‡Z mv‡K©i lô m‡¤§j‡b mvcUv Pzw³i cÖv_wgK wm×všÍ M„nxZ nq| 1993 mv‡j XvKvq mv‡K©i mßg m‡¤§j‡b mvK©f~³ †`kmg~‡ni g‡a¨ we`¨gvb ïé welqK wewfbœ cÖwZeÜKZvi AcmviY, AvšÍt‡`kxq evwY‡R¨i †ÿ‡Î we`¨gvb wewawb‡la Ges m‡e©vcwi ïé †iqv‡Zi gva¨‡g evwYR¨ D`vwiKi‡Yi j‡ÿ¨ mvcUv Pzw³ ¯^vÿwiZ nq| cieZx©‡Z 1995 mv‡ji †g gv‡m fvi‡Zi bqv w`jøx‡Z AbywôZ mv‡K©i Aóg m‡¤§j‡bi mvcUv Pzw³ ev¯Íevq‡bi wm×všÍ nq Ges 1995 mv‡ji 8B wW‡m¤^i †_‡K mvcUv Kvh©Ki nq| GPzw³ Kvh©Ki nIqvi d‡j mvK©f~³ mvZwU †`k AMÖvwaKv‡ii wfwˇZ wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ evwYR¨ e„w×, m¤úªmviY Ges GZ` j‡ÿ¨ wewfbœ †`‡k we`¨gvb AvšÍ: †`kxq evwYR¨ welqK ïémn wewfbœ wewa wb‡la Acmvi‡Yi e¨e¯’v M„nxZ nq|


e¨emvq mnvqK †mev

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mvcUvi D‡Ïk¨ Objectives of SAPTA

mvcUv Pzw³ m¤úv`‡bi g~j D‡Ïk¨vewj wbgœiƒc− 1. mvK©f~³ †`kmg~‡ni g‡a¨ AvšÍt †`kxq evwYR¨ ïé nvi n«vm K‡i ev †ÿÎ we‡k‡l AcmviY K‡i GZ` A‡j GKwU gy³ evwYR¨ GjvKv (Free Trade Area) ¯’vcb Kiv| Gj‡ÿ¨ 1997 mv‡ji †g gv‡m gvjØx‡ci ivRavbx gv‡j‡Z AbywôZ mv‡K©i beg m‡¤§j‡b mvK©f~³ †`kmg~n 2001 mv‡ji g‡a¨ G A‡j Aeva I gy³ evwYR¨ GjvKv cÖwZôvi wel‡q HK¨g‡Z †c․Qvq| 2. mvK©f~³ †`kmg~‡ni g‡a¨ AvšÍt†`kxq evwY‡R¨i m¤úªmviY I m¤úv`‡b †`kmg~‡ni g‡a¨ mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZv e„w× Kiv| 3. mvK©f~³ †`kmg~‡n we`¨gvb e¨vcK evwYwR¨K •elg¨ `~ixKi‡Yi cÖ‡Póv †Rvi`vi Kiv| 4. mvK©f~³ †`kmg~‡ni gv‡S cY¨ PjvP‡j mKj cÖKvi wewa wb‡la AcmviY K‡i AMÖvwaKv‡ii wfwˇZ GK †`‡ki cY¨ Ab¨ †`‡k AbycÖ‡e‡ki e¨e¯’v †Rvi`vi Kiv|

Avwmqvb ASEAN

AvÂwjK, ivR‣bwZK I A_©‣bwZK wewfbœ wel‡q cvi¯úwiK mn‡hvwMZv I Aeva evwYR¨ e¨e¯’v M‡o †Zvjvi j‡ÿ¨ 1967 mv‡ji 8B AvMó `wÿY c~e© Gwkqvi K‡qKwU †`‡ki mw¤§wjZ cÖqv‡m `wÿY-c~e© Gkxq ivóªmg~‡ni ms¯’v ms‡ÿ‡c Avwmqvb (Association of South East Asian Nations /ASEAN) MwVZ nq| cÖwZôvKv‡j `wÿY c~e© Gwkqvi cuvPwU ivóª h_v, B‡›`v‡bwkqv, gvj‡qwkqv, wdwjcvBb, wm½vcyi Ges _vBj¨v‡Ûi ivR‣bwZK ev ciivóª gš¿xMY _vBj¨v‡Ûi ivRavbx e¨vsK‡K AbywôZ GK •eV‡K Avwmqvb MV‡bi †NvlYvcÎ ¯^vÿi K‡ib| GwU e¨vsKK †NvlYv bv‡g cwiwPZ| cieZ©x‡Z e¨vsKK †NvlYvi wfwˇZ 1976 mv‡ji 24 †deªæqvwi‡Z Avwmqvb MVb msµvšÍ P~ovšÍ `wjj •Zwi K‡i cuvPwU †`‡ki ivóª cÖavbMY B‡›`v‡bwkqvi evwj‡Z D³ `wj‡j ¯^vÿi K‡ib| Gici 1984 mv‡j lô m`m¨ wn‡m‡e eªæbvB, 1995 mv‡j mßg m`m¨ wn‡m‡e wf‡qZbvg, 1997 mv‡j Aóg I beg m`m¨ wn‡m‡e wgqvbgvi I jvIm Ges AwZ m¤úªwZ `kg m`m¨ wn‡m‡e K‡¤^vwWqv G‡Z †hvM`vb K‡i| eZ©gv‡b Gi m`m¨ msL¨v `k|

mvsMVwbK iƒc: Avwmqvb Gi cÖavb Kvh©¨vjq B‡›`v‡bwkqvq Aew¯’Z| Z‡e cÖ‡Z¨K m`m¨ iv‡óª Gi GKwU K‡i kvLv Kvh¨©vjq i‡q‡Q| Avwmqv‡bi bxwZ wba©viY I Gi Kvh©µg ch©v‡jvPbvi Rb¨ mswkøó ¯^vMwZK †`‡ki ciivóªgš¿x Ges Ab¨vb¨ m`m¨ iv‡óªi ¯^vMwZK †`‡k wb‡qvwRZ ivóª`~ZM‡Yi mgš^‡q GKwU ÷vwÛs KwgwU i‡q‡Q| GQvovI we‡klÁ Kg©KZ©v‡`i mgš^‡q wewfbœ KwgwU wewfbœ wel‡q KvR K‡i| we‡kl cÖ‡qvR‡b m`m¨ ivóªmg~‡ni ivóª cÖavb‡`i AskMÖn‡Y kxl© •eVKI n‡q _v‡K|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

Avwmqv‡bi D‡Ïk¨: `wÿY c~e© Gwkqvi †`kmg~‡ni A_©‣bwZK, ivR‣bwZK, mvgvwRK I mvs¯‥…wZK †ÿ‡Îi weKvk I Dbœq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ cvi¯úwiK mn‡hvwMZv e„w×i Rb¨B g~jZ Avwmqvb MVb Kiv nq| wb‡¤œ Gi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨mg~n Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv− 1. m`m¨ ivóªmg~‡ni ivR‣bwZK w¯’wZkxjZv AR©b, A_©‣bwZK cÖe„w× AR©b, mvgvwRK AMªMwZ I mvs¯‥…wZK weKvk mvab Kiv| 2. m`m¨f~³ †`kmg~‡ni g‡a¨ RvwZms‡Ni mb` Abyhvqx AvÂwjK kvwšÍ I w¯’wZkxjZv eRvq ivLv| 3. wkÿv, cÖwkÿY Ges M‡elYvg~jK Kg©Kv‡Û cvi¯úwiK mn‡hvwMZv e„w× K‡i| 4. m`m¨ ivóªmg~‡ni g‡a¨ evwYR¨ e„w×i j‡ÿ¨ m`m¨ ivóªmg~‡ni mgš^‡q Aeva evwYR¨ GjvKv ¯’vcb| Gj‡ÿ¨ 1993 mv‡ji Rvbyqvix gv‡m Avwmqvbf~³ †`kmg~n ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) MVb K‡i‡Q| 5. ¯’vbxq D‡`¨v³v‡`i DrmvwnZ Kiv Ges cÖZ¨ÿ •e‡`wkK wewb‡qvM AvK…ó Kivi j‡ÿ¨ RvZxq A_©‣bwZK e¨e¯’vq miKvix n¯Í‡ÿ‡ci gvÎv n«vm Kivi wel‡q m`m¨ ivóªmg~‡n HK¨gZ ¯’vcb| 6. c„w_exi Ab¨vb¨ kw³kvjx evwYR¨ ms¯’v; †hgb- EU, NAFTA BZ¨vw`i cÖe„w×i wel‡q iÿYvZ¥K g‡bvfve †cvlY Kiv|

wek¦ evwYR¨ ms¯’v (WTO) cÖ_g wek¦hy‡×i ci wek¦e¨vcx A_©‣bwZK wech©‡qi †h m~Pbv N‡U wØZxq wek¦ hy‡×i Kvi‡Y Zv Av‡iv fqven n‡q D‡V| wØZxq wek¦hy‡×i ci we‡k¦i DbœZ †`kmg~‡ni A_©‣bwZK g›`ve¯’vi D‡ËviY, we‡k¦i wewfbœ †`‡k bZzb bZyb evRvi m„wó Ges wek¦ A_©bxwZi MwZ cÖK…wZi Dci wbqš¿Y e¨e¯’v cÖwZôvi j‡ÿ¨ General Agreement on Tarriffs and Trade ev ms‡ÿ‡c GATT cÖwZôvi Kvh©µ‡gi m~Pbv N‡U| Giƒc GKwU cwiw¯’wZ‡Z 1948 mv‡ji 1 Rvbyqvix wKDevi ivRavbx nvfvbvq 23wU cyuwRev`x I mgvRZvwš¿K †`‡ki ivóª cÖavbM‡Yi GK m‡¤§j‡b GATT Gi AvbyôvwbK Kvh©µg ïiæ nq| cÖwZôvKv‡j Gi m`m¨ msL¨v 23 n‡jI cieZx©‡Z Zv e„w× †c‡q 132-G DbœxZ nq| M¨vU Pzw³i Ab¨Zg cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ wQj wek¦ evwYR¨ e¨e¯’vq mgš^q mva‡bi gva¨‡g wek¦ evwY‡R¨ MwZkxjZv wdwi‡q Avbv, we‡k¦ gy³ evRvi A_©bxwZ‡K MwZkxj K‡i †Zvjv Ges AbybœZ I Dbœqkxj †`kmg~‡ni ißvbx evwY‡R¨i cwiwa e„w× K‡i|


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1944 mv‡j †eªUb DW&m Kbdv‡i‡Ý wek¦ e¨vsK Ges AvBGgGd-Gi mv‡_ mv‡_ AvšÍR©vwZK evwYR¨ ms¯’v (AvBwUI) MV‡bi cÖ¯Íve Kiv nq| cieZx©‡Z wek¦ e¨vsK Ges AvBGgGd cÖwZôv jvf Ki‡jI gvwK©b Ks‡MÖ‡mi Aby‡gv`b bv cvIqvi Kvi‡Y AvBwUI MV‡bi cÖ¯Íve ev¯ÍevwqZ nqwb| AvBwUI ev¯ÍevwqZ bv nIqvq AvBwUI Gi cwie‡Z© 1947 mv‡j †R‡bfvq we‡k¦i 23wU †`‡ki AskMÖn‡Y AbywôZ mfvq GATT Pzw³ ¯^vÿwiZ nq| 1947 mv‡j †R‡bfvq AbywôZ •eVKwUB wQj GATT Gi cÖ_g mfv ev •eVK| GATT Gi mfv ev •eVK‡K Round wn‡m‡e AvL¨vwqZ Kiv nq| 1947 mv‡ji †R‡bfv Round †_‡K G ch©šÍ GATT Gi AvU Round •eVK AbywôZ nq Ges m`m¨ msL¨v 23 †_‡K 132 G DbœxZ nq| 1986 mv‡ji 20 †m‡Þ¤^i †_‡K Di渇q‡Z ïiæ nq GATT-Gi me‡P‡q `xN© I AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© ivDÛ| 74wU †`‡ki evwYR¨ gš¿xiv G ivD‡Û Ask †bb| K‡qK eQi Avjvc Av‡jvPbvi ci 1994 mv‡ji 15 GwcÖj gi‡°vi ivRavbx ivev‡Z 128wU †`‡ki M¨vU Pzw³‡K Aby‡gv`‡bi gva¨‡g †kl nq Di渇q ivDÛ| GPzw³i DËimyix wn‡m‡e 1995 mv‡j cÖwZwôZ nq World Trade Organisation (WTO) ev wek¦ evwYR¨ ms¯’v Ges H eQ‡ii 1 Rvbyqvwi †_‡K WTO Zvi Kvh©µg ïiæ K‡i|

wek¦ evwYR¨ ms¯’vi D‡Ïk¨vewj Objectives of WTO GATT-Gi b¨vq wek¦ evwYR¨ ms¯’vi g~j D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv wewfbœ †`‡k ewntevwY‡R¨i †ÿ‡Î Av‡ivwcZ RwUj wewa-wb‡la AcmviY c~e©K wek¦e¨vwc myôz, mvejxj I evav-weNœnxb Aeva I gy³ evwY‡R¨i m¤úªmviY I Dbœq‡b mnvqZv Kiv| g~jZ wek¦ evwYR¨ ms¯’v cÖwZôvi ci GATT-Gi D‡Ïk¨vewj AR©‡bi `vwqZ¡ WTO-Gi DciB Ac©Y Kiv nq| wb‡gœœ WTO Gi D‡jøL‡hvM¨ D‡Ïk¨vewj Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv− 1. `ÿ I Zzjbvg~jK e¨q myweavq cY¨ Drcv`b‡K wek¦e¨vcx DrmvwnZ Kivi ¯^v‡_© wek¦e¨vwc Aeva I cÖwZ‡hvwMZvg~jK evwYwR¨K cwi‡ek m„wó Kiv| 2. wek¦e¨vcx Aeva I cÖwZ‡hvwMZvg~jK evwYwR¨K cwi‡ek m„wói j‡ÿ¨ AvšÍR©vwZK Avjvc Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g wewfbœ †`‡k we`¨gvb U¨vwid, †KvUv I Ab¨vb¨ wewa wb‡la Acmvi‡Y Kvh©Ki e¨e¯’v †bqvi civgk© cÖ`vb Kiv| 3. RvZxqZv wbwe©‡k‡l †h †Kvb †`k‡K AvšÍR©vwZK evRv‡i cÖ‡ek I cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq AskMÖn‡Y mnvqZv Kiv| 4. wewfbœ †`‡ki g‡a¨ m¤úvw`Z •e‡`wkK evwY‡R¨i †ÿ‡Î A‣elg¨g~jK bxwZgvjv cÖeZ©‡b Kvh©Ki f~wgKv ivLv| G j‡ÿ¨ Most fovoured Nation (MFN) bxwZi Abymi‡Y m`m¨ ivóªmg~n‡K DrmvwnZ Kiv| MFN bxwZi g~j K_v n‡jv †Kvb we‡kl †`k hw` Zv‡`i †`‡k cY¨ ißvbx‡Z Ab¨ †Kvb †`k‡K †Kvb AMÖvwaKvig~jK myweav cÖ`vb K‡i, Z‡e Zv mKj †`k‡KB †fvM Kivi myweav cÖ`vb Kiv| 5. wek¦ e¨vcx Zzjbvg~jK e¨q myweavi wfwˇZ cY¨ Drcv`b c~e©K Zv Aev‡a weµq K‡i wek¦e¨vwc gvbyl‡K Zzjbvg~jK ¯^í g~‡j¨ cY¨ mvgMÖx e¨env‡ii my‡hvM w`‡q gvby‡li RxebhvÎvi gv‡bvbœqb NUv‡Z mnvqZv Kiv| 6. wek¦ e¨vcx DbœZ, AbybœZ I Dbœqbkxj wewfbœ †`‡k cY¨ Drcv`b e„wׇZ mnvqZv I Kvh©Ki e¨e¯’v MªnY Kiv|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

BD‡ivwcq BDwbqb European Union BD‡ivcxq †`k¸‡jvi A_©‣bwZK, mvgvwRK I ivR‣bwZK Kj¨v‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ GwU MwVZ nq| GwU we‡k¦i me‡P‡q eo A_©‣bwZK †RvU| Gi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv cvi¯úwiK ¯^v‡_© ïé nvi n«v‡mi gva¨‡g c‡Y¨i evRvi cÖwZôv| GwU 1993 mv‡ji 1 b‡f¤^i cÖwZwôZ nq| Gi eZ©gvb m`m¨ msL¨v 27 Ges Zzi¯‥ G‡mvwm‡qU m`m¨ †`k| Gi m`i `ßi †ejwRqv‡gi eªv‡mjm G Aew¯’Z| hw`I GwU 1993 mv‡j cÖwZwôZ nq wKš‘ GwUi MV‡bi BwZnvm A‡bK cy‡iv‡bv| 1957 mv‡ji 25 gvP© BD‡iv‡ci 6wU †`k-d«vÝ, †ejwRqvg, jy‡·gevM©, †b`vij¨vÛ, cwðg Rvg©vwb I BUvwji g‡a¨ †iv‡g GK Pyw ³ ¯^vÿwiZ nq| Pzw³ Abyhvqx 1 RvbyqvwiÕ 58, BBwm AvZ¥cÖKvk K‡i| cieZ©x‡Z weª‡Ub, †WbgvK©, Avqvij¨vÛ, †¯úb, cZ©yMvj G ms¯’vq †hvM †`q| 1 b‡f¤^i 1993 mv‡j BBD bvgKiY Kiv nq| 1992 mv‡j GwU GKK BD‡ivcxqvb evRvi cÖwZôvi jÿ¨ AR©b K‡i Ges 1999 mv‡j m`m¨f~³ †`kmg~‡n GKK gy`vª ÒBD‡ivÓ Pvjyi e¨e¯’v K‡i|

BBD-Gi A½msMVb A Eight Associate Organization of EU 1. BD‡ivcxq cvj© v ‡g›U: m`i `ßi ÷ª v mevM© (d« v Ý)| m`m¨ eZ© g v‡b 76, wjmeb Pz w ³ Kvh© K i n‡j m`m¨ n‡e 751| 2. KvDwÝj Ae BD‡ivc: cÖw ZwU m`m¨ †`k Gi m`m¨| m`m¨ †`‡ki ciivóª g š¿x iv Gi cÖw ZwbwaZ¡ K‡i| 3. BD‡ivcxq Kwgkb: cÖwZwU m`m¨ †`k Gi m`m¨| 4. `¨v †KvU© Ae Rvw÷m Ae `¨v BD‡ivcxqvb KwgDwbwU : cÖwZwU m`m¨ †`k Gi m`m¨| 5. BD‡ivcxqvb Bb‡f÷‡g›U e¨vsK: cÖwZwU m`m¨ †`k Gi m`m¨| GwU Kgb gv‡K©U MVb, wkí msK‡U mvnvh¨ `vb Ges AbybœZ A‡ji Dbœq‡b fvimvg¨ iÿv K‡i _v‡K| 6. B‡KvbwgK GÛ †mvm¨vj KwgwU: cÖwZwbwa 222 Rb| 7. KwgwU Ae wiRbm: cÖwZwbwa 222 Rb| 8. BD‡ivcxqvb †KvU© Ae GwWUim: cÖwZwU m`m¨ †`k Gi m`m¨|


e¨emvq mnvqK †mev

181

wegm‡UK BIMSTEC wegm‡UK (BIMSTEC) GKwU A_©‣bwZK msMVb| hvi c~Y© bvg Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Co-operation| GwU 1997 mv‡ji 6B Ryb cÖwZôv jvf K‡i| ïiæ‡Z evsjv‡`k, fviZ, kÖxjsKv I _vBj¨vÛ wb‡q MVb Kiv nq evsjv‡`k-BwÛqv, kÖxjsKv-_vBj¨vÛ B‡Kv‡bvwgK †Kv-Acv‡ikb (BISTEC)| 1997 mv‡ji wW‡m¤^‡i wgqvbgvi ‡hvM`vb Ki‡j ÒM” hy³ n‡q BIMSTEC bvgKiY Kiv nq| 2003 mv‡ji †k‡li w`‡K †bcvj I fyUvb wegm‡U‡K †hvM`vb Ki‡j Gi mgm¨ msL¨v †e‡o `uvovq 7| 2004 mv‡ji kxl© m‡¤§j‡b Gi bvg cwieZ©b Kiv nq| wegm‡U‡Ki D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv m`m¨ †`k¸‡jvi A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZv Kiv| eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`k, BwÛqv, _vBj¨vÛ, wgqvbgvi, kÖxjsKv, †bcvj I fzUvb GB 7wU †`k BIMSTEC Gi m`m¨| Gi A¯’vqx Kvh©¨vjq _vBj¨v‡Ûi e¨vsK‡K| Gi ¯’vqx m`i `ßi ¯’vwcZ n‡e evsjv‡`‡ki ivRavbx XvKvq|

eûwbev©Pwb cÖkœ: 1|

2|

3|

wk‡ív‡`¨vM GKwU Kx ai‡bi cÖwµqv ? K. GKv_©K M. avivevwnK GmGgB dvD‡Ûkb †Kgb cÖwZôvb ? K. ¯^vaxb I AjvfRbK M. ¯^vqZ¡kvwmZ I AjvfRbK

L. mvgwqK N. AavivevwnK L. ¯^vaxb I jvfRbK N. ¯^vqZ¡kvwmZ I jvfRbK

†h j‡ÿ¨ mvcUv Pzw³ ¯^vÿwiZ nq, Zv n‡jv− i. mvK©f~³ †`kmg~‡ni g‡a¨ ïé AcmviY ii. AvšÍt‡`kxq evwY‡R¨i †ÿ‡Î wewawb‡la `~ixKiY iii. mvK©f~³ †`kmg~‡ni g‡a¨ evwYwR¨K ‣elg¨ `~ixKiY wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. ii I iii M. i I iii N. i, ii I iii


182

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡o 4 I 5 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| GKRb wk‡ív‡`¨v³vi wkí cÖwZôvb mwVK I my›`ifv‡e cwiPvjbvi †ÿ‡Î wewfbœ ai‡bi mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZvi cÖ‡qvRb nq| GB Kvi‡b wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡`i mnvqZvi Rb¨ miKvwi c„ô‡cvlKZvq wewfbœ cÖwZôvb M‡o †Zvjv n‡q‡Q| cÖZ¨ÿ ev c‡ivÿfv‡e wkí cwiPvjbvq GmKj cÖwZôvb e¨cK mnvqZv Ki‡Q| 4| †Kvb ms¯’v wkí †ÿ‡Î Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ wewb‡qv‡Mi c~‡e© civgk© cÖ`vb K‡i? K. evsjv‡`k ÿz`ª I KzwUi wkí ms¯’v L. GmGgB dvD‡Ûkb M. evsjv‡`k wkí FY ms¯’v N. wek¦ evwYR¨ ms¯’v 5| †`‡ki ÿz`ª I KzwUi wk‡íi e¨e¯’vcbv I `ÿZv Dbœq‡b wb‡qvwRZ cÖwZôvb †KvbwU? K. BGMEA L. SME M. BKMEA N. BISIC

m„Rbkxj cÖkœ: 1|

2|

e¨emvq GKwU m„Rbkxj, RwUj I SuywKc~Y© KvR| ZvB cÖv_wgK Ae¯’vq wg.dviæK e¨emv‡q Avm‡Z Pvbwb| cieZ©x‡Z Rbve Avj‡gi cÖ`Ë wkí ¯’vc‡b Aby‡cÖiYv, cÖhyw³MZ I A_©‣bwZK Z_¨ mieivn civgk© †c‡q wZwb cÖ‡qvRbxq hveZxq Kvh©m¤úv`b K‡i e¨emvq ïiæ Ki‡jb| cieZ©x‡Z e¨emv‡qi AvaywbKxKiY, c‡Y¨i •ewPÎKi‡Yi Rb¨ e¨vsK †_‡K FY †bqvi wm×všÍ †bb| wZwb fve‡Qb e¨vsK hw` cÖK…Z FY I my` cwi‡kv‡ai †gqv` e„w× KiZ Zvn‡j Zvi FY cwi‡kva myweav n‡Zv| K. MÖvgxY e¨vs‡Ki cÖwZôvZv †K? L. wegm‡UK ej‡Z Kx eyS? M. wg. Avjg, wg. dviæK‡K e¨emvq Kivi Rb¨ †h Aby‡cÖiYv w`‡jb, Zv †Kvb ai‡bi mnvqZv? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. cÖK…Z FY I my` cwi‡kv‡ai †gqv` e„w × Ki‡j Zvi c‡ÿ FY cwi‡kv‡a myw eav n‡e| wg.dviæ‡Ki GB fvebvi †h․w³KZv g~j¨vqb Ki| weMZ K‡qK eQi Mv‡g©›Um wk‡í evsjv‡`k †ek GwM‡q †M‡Q| Mv‡g©›Um Lv‡Zi GB Dbœq‡bi welqwU bR‡i Avmvq gvmy` mv‡ne mvfvi GjvKvq GKwU Mv‡g©›Um wkí ¯’vcb K‡ib| wZwb •Zix †cvkvK hy³iv‡óª ißvwb K‡ib| •Zix †cvkvK ißvwb LvZ‡K DbœZ Kivi j‡ÿ¨ miKvi bvbvwea bxwZgvjv cÖYqb K‡i‡Q| GmKj mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZv cvevi D‡Ï‡k¨ gvmy` mv‡ne Ggb GKwU msMV‡bi m`m¨ n‡q‡Qb †mwU miKv‡ii GB bxwZgvjv ev¯Íevq‡b mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZv K‡i Avm‡Q| m¤úªwZ wZwb hy³iv‡óªi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© 5wU kn‡i evwYR¨ †K›`ª †Lvjvi wPšÍv fvebv Ki‡Qb| K. L. M. N.

mvcUv (SAPTA) Gi c~Y© bvg Kx? GmGgB dvD‡Ûkb ej‡Z Kx eySvq? gvmy` mv‡ne †Kvb cÖwZôv‡bi m`m¨ n‡q‡Q-e¨vL¨v Ki| hy³iv‡óªi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© kn‡i evwYR¨ †K›`ª ¯’vc‡bi †ÿ‡Î gvmy` mv‡ne miKvix †Kvb cÖwZôv‡bi mn‡hvwMZv cv‡eb e‡j Zzwg g‡b Ki|


`kg Aa¨vq

e¨emvq D‡`¨vM BUSINESS ENTREPRENEURSHIP D‡`¨vM ej‡Z bZzb wKQz ïiæ Kiv‡K eySvq| bZzb wKQz ïiæ‡Z SzuwK †hgwb †ewk _v‡K †Zgwb G‡ÿ‡Î mKj ai‡bi cÖvwßi m¤¢vebvI _v‡K AZ¨waK| AwaK cÖvwßi cÖZ¨vkv cÖvPxbKvj †_‡KB gvbyl‡K bZzb bZzb D‡`¨vM MÖn‡Y †cÖiYv RywM‡q‡Q| ÿz`ª GKgvwjKvbv e¨emv‡qi cÖPj‡bi ci †_‡K AvR‡Ki w`‡b e„n`vqZb I wek¦we¯Í…Z e¨emv‡qi DrcwËi wcQ‡b i‡q‡Q gvby‡li nvRv‡iv cÖqvm-cÖ‡Póv I D‡`¨v‡Mi `xN© weeZ©‡bi BwZnvm|

G Aa¨vq cvV †k‡l Avgiv Rvb‡Z cvie− • D‡`¨v‡Mi aviYv I µgweKvk| • e¨emvq D‡`¨v‡Mi •ewkó¨ I Kvh©vewj| • mdj D‡`¨v³vi ¸Yvewj| • AvZ¥we‡køl‡Yi gva¨‡g D‡`¨v³vi ¸Yvewj mbv³KiY| • e¨emvq D‡`¨vM M‡o DVvi AbyK~j cwi‡ek| • AvZ¥Kg©ms¯’vb I D‡`¨v‡Mi m¤úK©| • Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b e¨emvq D‡`¨v‡Mi Ae`vb| • evsjv‡`‡k e¨emvq D‡`¨vM Dbœq‡b mgm¨v Ges Zv `~ixKi‡Yi Dcvqmg~n| • evsjv‡`‡ki mdj D‡`¨v³v‡`i mswÿß cwiwPwZ| • evsjv‡`‡k bvix D‡`¨v³v‡`i miKvi cÖ`Ë my‡hvM-myweav| • evsjv‡`‡k bvix D‡`¨v³v‡`i Dbœq‡b wKQz mycvwikgvjv|


184

10.1

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

D‡`¨v‡Mi aviYv I µgweKvk Evolution & Concept of Entrepreneurship

bZzb e¨emvq ïiæ A_ev bZzb cY¨ aviYv, cÖhyw³ ev evRvi, D™¢veb Ges Zv‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡`¨vM e¨emvq D‡`¨vM bv‡g cwiwPwZ| e¨emvq n‡jv gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ cY¨-mvgMÖx Drcv`b, e›Ub I Gi mv‡_ mswkøó mKj KvR| Drcv`‡bi KvR wk‡íi gva¨‡g m¤úbœ nq| wkí gvwjK ïaygvÎ Drcv`b ev cÖwµqvRvZKiYB K‡i bv, †m GKw`‡K KuvPvgvj, kÖg I Ab¨vb¨ DcKiY µq K‡i cY¨-mvgMÖx Drcv`b ev Ab¨w`‡K Drcvw`Z mvgMÖx evRv‡i weµq K‡i| ZvB gybvdv AR©‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ µq, Drcv`b, weµq, cÖwµqvRvZKiYmn mswkøó †Kvb bZzb D™¢vebx wPšÍvi mdj ev¯Íevq‡bi cÖqvm‡KB e¨emvq D‡`¨vM ev wk‡ív‡`¨vM ejv nq|

wb‡gœœ e¨emvq D‡`¨v‡Mi aviYvi DrcwË I µgweKv‡ki BwZnvm Zz‡j aiv n‡jv− 1. cÖvPxb hyM (Earliest period): wewfbœ mf¨Zvi Dbœq‡bi mv‡_ m½wZ †i‡L e¨emvq D‡`¨vM mvaviY wbq‡g bZzb MwZ jvf Ki‡jI Ôe¨emvq D‡`¨vMÕ ev Ôwk‡ív‡`¨vMÕ aviYv †h cÖvPxb hy‡M cÖwZôv jvf K‡iwb Zv wbtm‡›`‡n ejv hvq| 2. ga¨ hyM (Middle age): GKv`k I Øv`k kZ‡K BUvjx‡Z e¨emv-evwYR¨ bZzbfv‡e weKvk jvf K‡i| e¨vsK cÖwZwôZ nq| wnmve-msiÿY c×wZi Dbœqb N‡U| mß`k kZ‡K G‡m BD‡iv‡c AviI wKQz †`k e¨emv‡q DbœwZ jvf Ki‡j •e‡`wkK e¨emv‡q cÖwZ‡hvwMZv jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| d‡j e¨emvq ev wkí-evwYR¨ A_©bxwZ‡Z ¸iæZ¡c~Y© n‡q D‡V| Gi myev‡` e¨emvq D‡`¨vM aviYv gvby‡li g‡b ¯’vb wb‡jI Zv Av‡jvPbvi welqe¯‘ nqwb| 3. AvaywbK hyM (Modern stage): AvaywbK hyM ej‡Z Aóv`k kZ‡Ki wkí wecøe ïiæi mgmvgwqK Kvj‡K eySvq| hvwš¿K kw³i D‡b¥l G mg‡q wkí wecø‡e g~L¨ f~wgKv iv‡L| GB hvwš¿K kw³i D™¢e wQj †mB mg‡qi GK Acwinvh© `vwe| KviY KvwqK kÖg Ges cïkw³ wbf©i Drcv`b e¨e¯’v e¨emvq Dbœq‡bi ZrKvjxb MwZavivi mv‡_ m½wZ weav‡b mÿg wQj bv| evRv‡i c‡Y¨i Pvwn`v e„w×i Zzjbvq Drcv`b e„w× bv cvIqvq bZzb bZzb e¨emvq M‡o †Zvjvi cÖ‡qvRb c~i‡Yi †Póv P‡j| d‡j e¨emvq D‡`¨vM ev bZzb e¨emvq Movi fvebv mgv‡R e¨vcK RbwcÖqZv cvq| G †cÖwÿ‡ZB Ôe¨emvq D‡`¨vMÕ ev Ôwk‡ív‡`¨vMÕ aviYv Av‡jvPbvi welqe¯Íy‡Z cwiYZ nq|

e¨emvq D‡`¨vM/wk‡ív‡`¨vM Gi msÁv Defination of Business Entrepreneurship evsjv fvlvq D‡`¨vM ej‡Z †Kvb KvR ïiæ Kiv, Kv‡Ri Av‡qvRb Kiv, bZzb fvebv Kv‡R iæcvq‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv BZ¨vw`‡K eySvq| Bs‡iwR `Entrepreneurship’ kãwU divmx Entrepreneur’ kãwUi evsjv cÖwZkã n‡jv D‡`¨v³v ev wk‡ív‡`¨v³v whwb ev huviv wkí ev e¨emvq MVb cwiPvjbvq `vwqZ¡ MÖnY K‡ib| Avi wkí D‡`¨v³vi D‡`¨vMg~jK Kvh©vewji mgwó‡K wk‡ív‡`¨vM ev e¨emvq D‡`¨vM e‡j|


e¨emvq D‡`¨vM

185

10.2 e¨emvq D‡`¨v‡Mi •ewkó¨ Features of Business Entrepreneurship • e¨emvq ¯’vcb msµvšÍ mKj Kg©KvÛ mdjfv‡e cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z e¨emvq D‡`¨vM mnvqZv K‡i| • e¨emvq D‡`¨vM D‡`¨v³v‡K fwel¨Z mvdj¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ ¯^xq Kg© m¤úv`‡b AvšÍwiK K‡i †Zv‡j| • e¨emvq D‡`¨vM MZvbyMwZK aviv cwinvi K‡i bZzb wPšÍv ev aviYvi D™¢veb K‡i D‡`¨v³v‡K eªZ n‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| • ¯^vaxbfv‡e cwiKíbv cÖYqb I Zv ev¯Íevq‡bi gvbwmK kw³B n‡jv D`¨g| D‡`¨vM D‡`¨v³v‡K †h †Kvb cwiw¯’wZ‡Z Z¡wir Kvh© m¤úv`‡b mnvqZv K‡i| • e¨emvq D‡`¨vM gvwj‡Ki Kg©ms¯’vb Gi cvkvcvwk Ab¨‡`i Rb¨ Kg©ms¯’v‡bi m„wó K‡i| • D‡`¨vM bZzb cY¨ Drcv`b ev bZzb Kg©m~w P ev¯Íevq‡bi j‡ÿ¨ Drcv`‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxq mKj Dcvq-DcKiY myôzfv‡e msMÖn, msnZ I h_vh_fv‡e Kv‡R jvwM‡q cÖvwZôvwbK mdjZv AR©‡bi mvnvh¨ K‡i| • e¨emvq D‡`¨vM D‡`¨v³v‡`i mgv‡Ri wewfbœ Dbœqbg~jK Kg©Kv‡Û AskMÖnY Ki‡Z AYycÖvwYZ K‡i|

D‡`¨v³vi Kvh©vewj Functions of Entrepreneur GKUv bZzb D‡`¨vM wPšÍvi ev¯Íe iƒcvq‡b hv hv Kiv cÖ‡qvRb GKRb D‡`¨v³v‡K Zvi meB Ki‡Z nq| G Kvi‡Y wZwb ¯^cœ`óª v, D™¢veK, A_©ms¯’vbKvix, msMVK, †bZv, cwiPvjK I wbqš¿K| DbœZ we‡k¦ D‡`¨vM cÖKí ev¯Íevq‡b mnvqK cÖwZôvbmg~‡ni Kvh©Ki f~wgKv jÿ¨ Kiv †M‡jI Dbœqbkxj †`‡k Zvi h‡_ó Afve cwijwÿZ nq| d‡j GLvbKvi D‡`¨v³v‡`i A‡bK Kó I SzuwK ¯^xKvi K‡i Kvh© m¤úv`‡bi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| 1. D‡`¨vM MÖnY (Taking initiative): cÖ_gZ GK ev GKvwaK e¨w³i wPšÍv-†PZbvq bZzb †Kvb e¨emvq ¯’vc‡bi aviYvwU Av‡m| AZtci G D‡`¨v³v ev D‡`¨v³vMY wewfbœ w`K wPšÍv-fvebv K‡i wb‡R ev wb‡Riv G‡K GKwU m¤¢vebvgq I ev¯Íevqb‡hvM¨ D‡`¨vM wn‡m‡e MÖnY K‡ib| AZtci wb‡RB GB D‡`¨vM‡K GwM‡q †bqvi wm×všÍ †bb| 2. aviYv D™¢veb I DbœqY (Initiating and developing idea): GKUv D‡`¨vM MÖn‡Yi ci Zv iƒcvq‡bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq wewfbœ aviYvi D™¢veb I Dbœqb Ki‡Z nq| GKUv grm Lvgvi Kivi D‡`¨vM wb‡j Zv †Kv_vq, wKfv‡e Kiv n‡e, wK ai‡bi gvQ Pvl Kiv n‡e BZ¨vw` bvbvb wel‡q aviYv m„wó Ges m¤¢ve¨ †LuvR-Le‡ii Av‡jv‡K Zvi Dbœq‡bi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| 3. msMVb cÖwZôv (Establishing organization): cÖvwZôvwbK e¨emvq D‡`¨vM ev¯Íevq‡bi cÖ_g ch©v‡qB GKwU cÖwZôvb ev msMVb cÖwZôvi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| Askx`vwi cÖwZôvb MV‡b Pzw³cÎ Ges †Kv¤úvwb †ejvq msN¯§viK I msNwewa •Zwi Kiv nq| †Kv¤úvwbi †ejvq h_vwbq‡g Zv wbeÜb K‡i mvsMVwbK Aw¯ÍZ¡ cÖ`vb Kiv n‡q _v‡K| Awdm ev Kvh©vjq G ch©v‡qB Lyj‡Z nq|


186

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

4.

SzuwK MÖnY (Risk taking): †h †Kvb bZzb D‡`¨v‡MB A‡bK †ewk SzuwK _v‡K| D‡`¨v³vMY‡KB G SzuwK wb‡Z nq| cÖK‡íi mdjZv I wedjZv `vqI Zvi Dci e‡Z©| cÖwZôvb‡K jvfRbK Ae¯’vq wb‡q hvIqvi c~e© ch©šÍ cÖwZ c‡` c‡` bvbvb SzuwK D‡`¨v³v‡`i‡KB enb Ki‡Z nq| ZvB mKj Ae¯’vq wbtm‡¼v‡P SzuwK MÖnY D‡`¨v³v‡`i ¸iæZ¡c~Y© KvR|

5.

A_©ms¯’vb (Financing): †h †Kvb bZzb e¨emvq D‡`¨v‡M cyuw R ms¯’v‡bi welqwU LyeB ¸iæZ¡c~Y ©| D‡`¨v³vMY mvg_©¨gvwdK wbR¯^ Znwej †_‡K A_© ms¯’vb K‡ib, wewb‡qvMKvix‡`i‡K DrmvwnZ K‡ib| wbR¯^ e¨w³MZ B‡gR‡K Kvh©Z eÜK †i‡L wewfbœ A_© jwMœKvix cÖw Zôvb †_‡K FY †bb| msM„n xZ A‡_©i iÿYv‡eÿY, wewb‡qvM, cwiPvjbvmn wewfbœ KvR wZwbB m¤úv`b K‡ib|

6.

Kgx©ms¯’vb (Staffing): bZzb D‡`¨vM‡K mdj Ki‡Z n‡j Drmvnx, †hvM¨Zvm¤úbœ, m¤¢vebvgqKgx© wb‡qvM`vb Acwinvh©| e¨w³MZ cQ‡›`i E‡aŸ© D‡V cÖvwZôvwbK ¯^v‡_© h‡_vchy³ Drm †Z‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq Rbej D‡`¨v³v‡`i‡KB msMÖn Ki‡Z nq| cÖ‡qvR‡b GKUz Av‡M †jvK wb‡qvM w`‡q Zv‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq cÖw kÿ‡Yi e¨e¯’vc~e©K Zv‡`i g‡a¨ †_‡K †hvM¨Kgx© msMÖn Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|

7.

cwiPvjbv I e¨e¯’vcbv (Directing and manageing): D‡`¨v³vi ¸iæZ¡c~Y © KvR n‡jv wPšÍv I D‡`¨v‡Mi mydj ev¯Íevq‡b cÖwZôvb cwiPvjbv I e¨e¯’vcbvq †bZ…Z¡ `vb Kiv| G Rb¨ cwiKíbv cÖYqb, DcKiYvw` msMÖnKiY, wb‡`©kbv, ZË¡veavb, mgš^q , wbqš¿Y BZ¨vw` Kvh© m¤úv`b Ki‡Z nq| ZvB ejv nq †h, GKRb mdj D‡`¨v³v wb:m‡›`‡n DËg cwiPvjK, e¨e¯’vcK I †bZv|

8. evRviRvZKiY (Marketing): Drcvw`Z ev msM„nxZ cb¨ hv‡Z GKRb †µZv mš‘wó mn‡hv‡M cY¨ ev †mev msMÖ n Ki‡Z cv‡i Zv wbwðZ KivB D‡`¨v³vi evRviRvZKiYg~jK KvR| Pvwn`v gvwdK cY¨ Drcv`b, e›Ub cÖY vjx wba©viY, g~j¨ wba©viY, †mev myw eav wbwðZKiY BZ¨vw` Gi AšÍfz©³ | 9.

†hvMv‡hvM I m¤úK© iÿv (Maintaining communication and relation): wewfbœ c‡ÿi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM I m¤úK© iÿv KivI D‡`¨v³vi Av‡iKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© KvR| GKUv bZzb D‡`¨vM GwM‡q †bqvi †ÿ‡Î Ggwb‡ZB bvbvb mgm¨v _v‡K| ZvB Zv KvwU‡q GwM‡q hvIqvi Rb¨ bvbvb c‡ÿi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM I m¤úK© iÿv Ki‡Z nq, hv Ab¨‡`i wbKU †_‡K mn‡hvwMZv jv‡f I KvR Av`v‡q ¸iæZ¡c~Y © e‡j we‡ewPZ nq|

10. Dbœqb Kg©m~wP ev¯Íevqb (Implimentation of developing program): GKRb D‡`¨v³v Zvi bZzb e¨emvq D‡`¨vM Kvh©Z ïb¨ †_‡K ïiæ K‡ib| GRb¨ cy‡iv D‡`¨vM‡K A‡bK mgq KZK¸‡jv ch©v‡q fvM Kiv nq| ZvB D‡`¨v³vM‡Yi KvR n‡jv GKwU ch©v‡qi mdj cwimgvwßi mv‡_ mv‡_ bZzb ch©vq ev¯Íevq‡b D‡`¨vMx nIqv| G‡Z mK‡ji ¯^ZtùzZ© mn‡hvwMZv I mvdj¨vR©b m¤¢e nq|


e¨emvq D‡`¨vM

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Kg©cÎ-1 wb‡¤œi †KvbwU D‡`¨v‡Mi •ewkó¨ Ges †KvbwU D‡`¨v‡Mi KvR wPwýZKi| 1. mvdj¨ AR©‡bi Zxeª AvKv•Lv 2.

Aa¨vemvq

3.

D‡`¨vM MÖnY

4.

D`¨g

5.

djvdj cixÿv I g~j¨vqY

6.

mgqvbyewZ©Zv

7.

m¤¢ve¨Zv hvPvB

8. bZzb cY¨ D™¢veb

10.3

mdj D‡`¨v³vi ¸Yvewj Qualities of a Good Entrepreneur

SzuwKc~Y© I Abygvb wbf©i AwbwðZ c_hvÎvq †h D‡`¨v³v Zvi bZzb e¨emvq wPšÍvi ev¯Íe cÖwZdjb NwU‡q mvdj¨ AR©‡b mÿg nb Zv‡KB mdj D‡`¨v³v e‡j| mdj D‡`¨v³v wb:m‡›`‡n GKRb m„Rbkxj D™¢veK, DËg msMVK, †hvM¨ cwiPvjK I mdj †bZv| GKRb D‡`¨v³vi cÖavb cÖavb ¸Y¸‡jv n‡jv− • mvdj¨vR©‡bi ¯ú„nv (Need for achievement): GKRb mdj D‡`¨v³v mvdj¨ AR©‡bi Zxeª AvKv•Lv I Avkvev`x gb wb‡q c_ P‡j| †m Zvi D‡`¨vM cÖ‡Póv‡K Zvi wb‡Ri Rxe‡b mvdj¨ jv‡fi Dcvq ev K¨vwiqvi wn‡m‡e MY¨ K‡i Ges mKj cÖ‡Póvq Zvi G ¯ú„nvi cÖwZdjb N‡U| • m„Rbkxj gvbwmKZv (Creative mentality): GKRb fvj D‡`¨v³v bZzb wKQz m„wó Kivi gZ m„wókxj I MVbg~jK g‡bi AwaKvix nb| GQvovI bZzb m„wó wPšÍv‡K ev¯Í‡e iæcvwqZ Kivi Rb¨ bZzb Dcvq-c×wZ D™¢ve‡bi mvg_©¨ _vK‡Z nq| • `~i`„wó ev cÖÁv (Foresightness): `~i`„wó ev cÖÁv GKRb mdj D‡`¨v³vi GKUv eo ¸Y| Giæc ¸‡Yi Øviv wZwb m¤¢vebvi bZzb †ÿÎ wPwýZ K‡ib| fwel¨Z mgm¨v I m¤¢vebv Abygvb K‡i mvd‡j¨i m¤¢vebv‡K my`„p K‡ib Ges ev¯Íevq‡bi wewfbœ †ÿ‡Î wePÿYZvi cwiPq †`b| • Aa¨vemvq (Punctual) Aa¨vemvq ej‡Z •ah©¨ a‡i µgvMZ †Póv Pvwj‡q hvIqv‡K eySvq| GKRb D‡`¨v³v Zvi cÖ‡Póvq GKev‡iB mdj n‡eb ev µgvMZ mvdj¨ jvf Ki‡eb, GUv KLbB cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq bv| ZvB cÖwZUv c`‡ÿ‡c djvdj we‡ePbv c~e©K bZzb c`‡ÿ‡c GwM‡q hvIqv D‡`¨v³vi eo ¸Y|


188

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

• SzuwK MÖn‡Yi gvbwmKZv (Risk taking mentality) GKRb D‡`¨v³vi SzuwK MÖn‡Yi gvbwmKZv GKwU eo ¸Y| PvKwiRxwe I MZvbyMwZK e¨emvqx‡`i mvaviYZ G ai‡bi gvbwmKZv _v‡K bv| GKRb D‡`¨v³v Zvi mgq, kÖg I cyuwR‡K mgwš^Z K‡i Ges wewfbœ `v‡qi †evSv gv_vq wb‡q D‡`¨vM‡K GwM‡q †bb| • mvnm I eyw×gËv (Bravity and intallectual): SzuwKc~Y©, Abygvb wbf©i I A‡Pbv c‡_ Kvh©Z Rxeb‡K evwR †i‡L GKRb D‡`¨v³v Zvi D‡`¨vM wPšÍv‡K ev¯Íevqb K‡ib| G Rb¨ GKRb D‡`¨v³v‡K h‡_ó mvnmx n‡Z nq| Zvi G mvnm Aek¨B eyw×gËv Øviv mylgvgwÛZ n‡q _v‡K| • wkÿv I AwfÁZv (Education and experience) : eZ©gvb RwUj e¨emvq RM‡Z †h †Kvb e¨emvq D‡`¨vM‡K mdj Ki‡Z n‡j wewfbœ c‡ÿi ¯^Z:ù~Z© ¯^xK„wZ I mg_©b Acwinvh©| Avi G‡ÿ‡Î D‡`¨v³vi wkÿv I AwfÁZv Ab¨Zg ¸Y wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nq| mwVK c~e©vbygvb, Kvh©Ki †hvMv‡hvM, h_vh_ Kvh©e¨e¯’v MÖnY BZ¨vw`i mewKQzB GLb D‡`¨v³vi e¨w³MZ wkÿv I AwfÁZvi Dci wbf©ikxj| • †ckvMZ I cÖhyw³MZ Ávb (Knowledge about profession and technology): e¨emvq D‡`¨v‡M mdjZv AR©‡b D‡`¨v³vi †ckv`vwi g‡bvfve Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq †ckvMZ I cÖhyw³MZ Ávb _vKv Acwinvh©| †KD hw` †U·UvBj wkí Mo‡Z Pvq Z‡e Giæc wkí mswkøó cÖ‡qvRbxq Ávb Zvi _vKv `iKvi, hv Zv‡K mwVK wm×všÍ MÖn‡Y mnvqZv K‡i| • wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi mvg_¨© (Ability to take decision): h_vmg‡q h_vh_ wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi mvg_©¨ GKRb mdj D‡`¨v³vi eo ¸Y| †Kvb D‡`¨vM MÖnY †_‡K ïiæ K‡i ev¯Íevq‡bi wewfbœ ch©v‡q nvRv‡iv wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| m¤¢ve¨ mgm¨v, my‡hvM-myweav BZ¨vw`i h_vh_ g~j¨vqb K‡iB G mKj wm×všÍ wb‡Z nq| G‡ÿ‡Î †Kv‡bv ai‡bi wej¤^ ev `ye©jZv cy‡iv D‡`¨vM‡KB ÿwZMÖ¯Í Ki‡Z cv‡i| • bgbxqZv (Flexibility): bgbxqZv ej‡Z cwiewZ©Z cwiw¯’wZi mv‡_ m½wZ weavb K‡i Pjvi mvg_©¨‡K eySvq| GKRb D‡`¨v³vi wb:m‡›`‡n Giæc ¸Y _vKv Avek¨K| Abygvb wbf©i ARvbv D‡`¨v‡M bvbvb cÖwZK~jZv †`Lv †`qv LyeB ¯^vfvweK| ZvB c~e© wm×všÍ Abyhvqx me©Î Pjv m¤¢e nq bv| bgbxqZv ¸Y G‡ÿ‡Î D‡`¨v³v‡K ev¯Íe Kg©cš’v MÖn‡Y mnvqZv K‡i| Dcmsnv‡i ejv hvq, GKRb mdj D‡`¨v³v †h †Kv‡bv cÖ‡Póvq cw_K„‡Zi f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| Zvi be be D‡`¨vM †hgwb †`‡ki e¨emvq Dbœq‡b ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv iv‡L †Zgwb bZzb D‡`¨v³v m„wó‡ZI Zv LyeB mnvqK nq| Z‡e †m‡ÿ‡Î Dc‡iv³ ¸YvewjB Zv‡K mdjZv AR©‡b mnvqZv Ki‡Z cv‡i|

10.4

AvZ¥we‡køl‡Yi gva¨‡g D‡`¨v³vi ¸Yvewj mbv³KiY Methods of Assessing self Entrepreneurial Qualities

eZ©gv‡b we‡k¦ e¨emvq GKwU m¤§vbRbK †ckv wn‡m‡e me©Rb ¯^xK…Z| Z‡e e¨emvq‡K mevB †ckv wn‡m‡e MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| KviY, e¨emvq GKw`‡K †hgb SzuwKc~Y© Ab¨w`‡K †Zgb e¨emv‡qi wcQ‡b †h cwigvY, kÖg, g~jab I eyw×gËv e¨q Ki‡Z nq Zv A‡b‡KiB †bB| Z‡e e¨emvq SzuwKc~Y© n‡jI G †_‡K Avq DcvR©‡bi m¤¢vebvI mxgvnxb| ZvB †ckv wn‡m‡e e¨emvq‡K MÖnY Kivi c~‡e© GKRb e¨emvqx ev wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡K Zvi wb‡Ri †hvM¨Zv‡K A_©vr ¸Yvewj‡K wewfbœfv‡e hvPvB-evQvB Ki‡Z nq|


e¨emvq D‡`¨vM

189

wb‡gœ GKRb D‡`¨v³vi ¸Yvewj we‡køl‡Yi K‡qKwU c×wZ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv− avc-1 : K…wZZ¡vR©b Pvwn`v: GKRb D‡`¨v³v wbR¯^ ¸Yvejxi we‡køl‡Yi †ÿ‡Î †h welqwU hvPvB Ki‡eb Zv n‡jv-Zvi g‡a¨ K…wZZ¡vR©b Pvwn`v wK cwigv‡Y Av‡Q| A_©vr K…wZZ¡vR©‡bi Pvwn`v n‡jv fv‡jv wKQz Kivi AvKv•Lv, ¯^xq Kvh© m¤úv`‡bi gva¨‡g K…wZ‡Z¡i Af¨všÍixY Abyf~wZ AR©b| D‡`¨v³vi g‡a¨ K…wZZ¡vR©‡bi Pvwn`v wK cwigvY Av‡Q Zv we‡køl‡Yi Rb¨ wb‡¤œv³ cÖ‡kœi DËi m¤ú‡K© AeMZ nIqv Avek¨K| 1. †Kvb KvR m¤úv`b Kivi †ÿ‡Î Avwg e¨w³MZfv‡e `vwqZ¡ MÖnY Ki‡Z cQ›` Kwi wK bv? 2. Avwg wK `ÿZvi mv‡_ †Lj‡Z cQ›` Kwi, bv wK my‡hvM MÖnY K‡i _vwK? 3. wbqwš¿Z SzuwK wb‡Z cQ›` Kwi, bvwK Zvi †P‡q Kg ev †ekx SzuwK wb‡Z cQ›` Kwi? 4. †Kvb KvR m¤úv`‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ Zvi djvdj Rvb‡Z PvB wKbv? 5. cÖwZeÜKZvi m¤§yLxb n‡j Avwg wb‡R‡K msiÿY Ki‡Z cvwi wKbv? 6. Avwg wK Kg©e¨¯Í _vK‡Z PvB? 7. AvwK wK D`¨gx n‡Z cQ›` Kwi? 8. Avwg wK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z †Póv Kwi? Dc‡iv³ cÖ‡kœi DËi¸‡jv‡Z hw` ÔbvÕ A‡cÿv Ônu¨vÕ †ekx nq, Zvn‡j eyS‡Z n‡e Avgvi g‡a¨ D”PgvÎvi K…wZZ¡vR©‡bi Pvwn`v we`¨gvb| G‡ÿ‡Î Avwg Ryqvwo bB; GKRb wbqwš¿Z SzuwK MÖnYKvix Ges Ab¨vb¨ welq¸‡jv wVK _vK‡j Avgvi Rb¨ GKRb fvj D‡`¨v³v nIqv Am¤¢e bq| avc-2: wb‡Ri m¤ú‡K© wKQz gb¯ÍvwZ¡K cÖ‡kœi DËi I g~j¨vqb: wb‡Ri m¤ú‡K© wKQz cÖkœ •Zwi K‡i †m¸‡jvi mywPwšÍZ DËi cÖ`vb Ki‡Z n‡e| G cÖkœ¸‡jv n‡jv: 1. Avwg wK AweiZ evwR a‡i _vwK? 2. Avwg wK Aweivg my‡hvM MÖnY K‡i _vwK? 3. Avgvi mKj wPšÍv Ges Kíbv †Kvb eo Rq‡K †K›`ª K‡i AvewZ©Z nq wK bv? 4. Avwg hLb nvi‡Z _vwK, ZLb wK AbeiZ †Póv Ki‡Z _vwK? 5. GKevi Rqjvf Ki‡j Avwg wK †_‡g _vK‡Z cvwi? 6. Avwg wK me wKQz †kl †Póv wn‡m‡e SzuwK MÖnY Ki‡Z cÖjy× nB? GLv‡b ÔbvÕ Dˇii †P‡q Ôn¨vÕ DËi †ewk n‡j eyS‡Z n‡e Avwg Ryqvwo bB, GKRb wbqwš¿Z SzuwK MÖnYKvix| avc-3 mdjZvi Rb¨ `ÿZv I wb‡Ri gv‡S we`¨gvb `ye©jZv m¤ú‡K© cÖwZ‡e`b: G‡ÿ‡Î e¨emv‡q mvdj¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ †h mKj `ÿZv I ¸Yvewj me‡P‡q †ekx cÖ‡qvRb †m¸‡jvi GKwU ZvwjKv •Zwi Kwi Ges G mKj `ÿZv I ¸Yvewj Avgvi g‡a¨ wK cwigvY Av‡Q †m m¤ú‡K© GKwU cÖwZ‡e`b •Zwi Kwi|


190

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

avc-4: cÖwZwôZ D‡`¨v³vi mv‡_ gZ wewbgq: G ch©v‡q ¯’vbxq GKRb wk‡ív‡`¨v³vi mv‡_ gZwewbgq Kwi| gZ wewbgq Kv‡j c~‡e© •ZwiK…Z cÖwZ‡e`‡b D‡jøwLZ cÖwZwU welq m¤ú‡K© cy•Lvbycy•Lfv‡e we‡kølY Kwi| G‡ÿ‡Î wb‡¤œv³ welq¸‡jv we‡ePbv Ki‡Z nq| 1. Avgvi aviYv Ges wk‡ív‡`¨v³vi aviYvi g‡a¨ Zzjbvg~jK we‡kølY; 2. †h mKj wel‡q Avwg GKgZ Ges †h mKj wel‡q wØgZ †cvlY Kwi, †m¸‡jv wPwýZ Kwi; 3. †h mKj wel‡q Avgvi `ye©jZv Av‡Q, †m¸‡jv †gvKv‡ejv Kivi Dchy³ Dcvq wbiæcY Kwi; 4. mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Rb¨ GKwU Kvh©Ki cwiKíbv •Zwi Kwi; 5. †Kvb we‡kl `ye©jZv c~i‡Yi Rb¨ KZ mgq jvM‡e Ges KZ LiP n‡Z Zv wbiæcY K‡i Kvh©µg •Zwi Kwi| avc-5: cÖwkÿY MÖnY I cÖwkÿ‡Ki gZvgZ MÖnY: Gch©v‡q Avgiv wk‡ív‡`¨vM ¸Yvewj hvPvB‡qi Rb¨ cÖwkÿ‡Ki wbKU n‡Z GKwU cÖkœgvjv msMÖn Kwi| cÖkœgvjvwU g‡bv‡hvMmnKv‡i c‡o Avgvi GmKj ¸Y Av‡Q wKbv Zv wPwýZ Ki‡Z †Póv Kwi| cieZx©‡Z Avgvi m¤ú‡K© cÖwkÿ‡Ki gZvgZ Rvb‡Z †Póv Kwi| wb‡gœ msM„nxZ cÖkœgvjvwUi bgybv †`qv n‡jv: 1. e¨emv‡qi Rb¨ wK wK `ÿZvi cÖ‡qvRb Zvi GKwU ZvwjKv cÖ¯‘Z Ki‡Z n‡e| e¨emv‡qi Rb¨ cÖavb wZbwU `ÿZv wK wK? 2. `ÿZvi cÖ‡Z¨KwU w`K e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î wKfv‡e cÖ‡qvRb Zvi eY©bv| 3. m„Rbkxj nIqvi †ÿ‡Î evavmg~n wK wK? 4. wm×všÍ MÖn‡Yi mv‡_ wK wK welq mswkøó? 5. wm×všÍ MÖn‡Y wbR¯^ ÿgZv Ges mvg_©¨ g~j¨vqb| D`vniY w`‡q †`LvI e¨emvq Kivi †ÿ‡Î G `ÿZv Kvh©Kixfv‡e e¨eüZ n‡Z cv‡i| GLb Avwg Avgvi wbR¯^ ¸Yvewj g~j¨vqb K‡i †`wL, G¸‡jvi g‡a¨ KZUzKz Avgvi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q Avi KZUzKz †kLv hv‡e| †Kvb we‡kl KvR m¤úv`‡bi Rb¨ evB‡ii we‡kl‡Ái mvnvh¨ MÖnY cÖ‡qvRb wK bv? GmKj Z_¨ we‡kølY K‡i †`wL Avwg wk‡ív‡`¨vM nIqvi Rb¨ cÖ¯‘Z wK bv?

10.5 e¨emvq D‡`¨vM M‡o DVvi AbyK~j cwi‡ek Favourable Environment for Developing Business Entrepreneurship DËg cwi‡ek wewb‡qv‡Mi c~e©kZ©| wk‡ív‡`¨vM cwi‡ek ej‡Z cwi‡e‡ki Ggb me Dcv`vb ev kw³i mgwó‡K eySvq hv cÖZ¨ÿ ev c‡ivÿfv‡e wk‡ív‡`¨vMxq Kvh©µg‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i| cwi‡e‡ki G mKj Dcv`vb wk‡ív‡`¨vM Kvh©µg Z_v e¨emvq msMV‡bi MVb, cwiPvjbv, wm×všÍ, `ÿZv, djcÖ`Zv Ges m‡e©vcwi Gi mdjZv‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i|


e¨emvq D‡`¨vM

191

e¨emvq D‡`¨vM M‡o DVvi Rb¨ wb‡gœv³ AbyK~j cwi‡ek _vKv DwPZ− • cÖvK…wZK cwi‡ek: gvby‡li Pvicv‡k †h mKj cÖvK…wZK Ae¯’v †hgb- †f․MwjK Ae¯’vb, f~cÖK…wZ, Rjevqy, b`-b`x, cvnvo-ce©Z, g„wËKv, Dw™¢` RMr, LwbR m¤ú`, Rb‡Mvwô BZ¨vw` Av‡Q Zv wb‡q cÖvK…wZK ev †f․MwjK cwi‡e‡ki m„wó nq| c„w_exi †h †`k ev AÂj cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡` hZ mg„× †m †`k ev AÂj wkí I e¨emv-evwY‡R¨ ZZ‡ewk DbœwZ K‡i‡Q| • mvgvwRK cwi‡ek: mvgvwRK cwi‡ek wewb‡qvM cwi‡e‡ki Dci e¨vcK cÖfve we¯Ívi K‡i| gvby‡li Af¨vm, AvPvi-AvPiY, wek¦vm-Awek¦vm, cQ›`, Av‡eM-Abyf~wZ, g~j¨‡eva BZ¨vw` Dcv`v‡bi mgš^‡q mvgvwRK-mvs¯‥…wZK cwi‡ek MwVZ nq| †Kvb A‡j wk‡ív‡`¨vM M‡o DVv ev bv DVvi `vwqZ¡ H A‡ji mvgvwRK-mvs¯‥…wZK g~j¨‡ev‡ai DciI eZ©vq| Dbœqbkxj †`‡k gvbyl mvaviYZ fv‡M¨ wek¦vmx nq Ges Zviv †Kvb wKQzi AR©b‡K fv‡M¨i cÖmbœZv Ges e¨_©Zv‡K fv‡M¨i wech©q wnmv‡e g‡b K‡i| G welqwUI wk‡ív‡`¨v‡Mi Dci e¨vcK cÖfve we¯Ívi K‡i| • A_©‣bwZK cwi‡ek: A_©‣bwZK cwi‡ek ej‡Z †Kvb A‡ji gvby‡li Avq, mÂq, RxebvhvÎvi gvb BZ¨vw`‡K eySvq| †h †`‡ki gvby‡li Avq I mÂq †ewk †m †`‡ki gvby‡li RxebhvÎvi gvb DbœZgv‡bi nIqvq †mLv‡b wk‡ív‡`¨vM jvfRbK nq| wk‡ív‡`¨vM GKwU A_©‣bwZK Kg©cÖqvm| ZvB A_©‣bwZK cwi‡e‡ki Dcv`vbmg~‡ni Dci †`‡ki wk‡ív‡`¨vM cÖ‡Póv, e¨emv‡qi Dbœqb I cÖe„w× wbf©ikxj| GK K_vq wZwbB ¯^v_©K D‡`¨v³v whwb A_©‣bwZK cwi‡e‡ki wewfbœ PjK‡K †K․k‡j Kv‡R jvwM‡q we`¨gvb cwiw¯’wZ‡Z mdjZv AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡ib| • ivR‣bwZK cwi‡ek: †`‡ki Af¨šÍixY ivR‣bwZK cwi‡ek wewb‡qvM cwi‡e‡ki Dci gvivZ¥K cÖfve we¯Ívi K‡i| miKv‡ii w¯’wZkxjZv, ivR‣bwZK `jmg~‡ni msL¨v, ivR‣bwZK gZv`k©, `„wófw½, RbM‡Yi ivR‣bwZK fvebv BZ¨vw`i mgš^‡q ivR‣bwZK cwi‡e‡ki m„wó nq| †`‡ki ivR‣bwZK cwi‡ek wkí ¯’vcb, cwiPvjbv I e¨e¯’vcKxq wm×všÍ‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i| AbyK~j ivR‣bwZK cÖkª‡q †Kvb e¨emvq ev wk‡ív‡`¨vM †hgb mn‡RB kÖxe„w× Ki‡Z cv‡i, †miæcfv‡e cÖwZK~j ivR‣bwZK cwi‡e‡ki g‡a¨ wbcwZZ n‡q AwZ kÖxNªB GKwU cÖwZwôZ e¨emvq D‡`¨vM aŸsmI n‡Z cv‡i| ZvB †`‡k wewb‡qvM‡K Drmvn †`Iqvi Rb¨ Aek¨B wewb‡qvM evÜe ivR‣bwZK Ae¯’v m„wó Kiv Riæwi| • cÖhyw³MZ cwi‡ek: wkí I e¨emv-evwY‡R¨i DbœwZi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb `ÿZvm¤§bœ Kgx©, DbœZ hš¿cvwZ I cÖhyw³| ZvB eZ©gvb wkí I evwYwR¨K Kg©Kv‡Ûi Dci weÁvb I cÖhyw³MZ cwi‡e‡ki f~wgKv e¨vcKfv‡e e„w× †c‡q‡Q| mvaviYZ †`Lv hvq, †h †`k weÁvb PP©v I cÖhyw³‡Z hZ‡ewk AMªm i, wk‡ív‡`¨vM I e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î Zviv ZZ †ewk AMÖMvgx| • AvBbMZ cwi‡ek: miKv‡ii Avw_©K bxwZ, ivR¯^ bxwZ, wewb‡qvM bxwZ, Avg`vwb-ißvbx bxwZ, evwYR¨ bxwZmn Askx`vwi AvBb, †Kv¤úvwb AvBb, mgevq AvBb, cwi‡ek msiÿY AvBb BZ¨vw` mgš^‡q AvBbMZ cwi‡e‡ki m„wó nq| †`‡ki cÖwZwôZ AvBb-Kvbyb Øviv wk‡ív‡`¨vM e¨vcKfv‡e cÖfvweZ nq| D‡`¨v³v ev e¨emvq‡`i‡K ïaygvÎ wewfbœ ai‡bi AvBb I AvBbMZ cwi‡ek m¤ú‡K© Iqv‡Kenvj _v‡KjB Pj‡e bv eis e¨emvq cwiPvjbvq G mKj AvB‡bi f~wgKv ev cÖfveB ev wK ZvI Dcjw× Ki‡Z nq|


192

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

• AvšÍR©vwZK cwi‡ek: eZ©gvb wek¦vq‡bi hy‡M wek¦e¨vcx wewfbœ AvšÍR©vwZK ms¯’vi DÌvb, A_©‣bwZK I e¨emvwqK Kg©Kv‡Ûi AvZ¥wbf©ikxj, wØcvwÿK I eûcvwÿK evwYR¨ Pzw³, A_©‣bwZK †RvU BZ¨vw`i †cÖÿvcU wk‡ív‡`¨vM Kg©cÖqvmI †`‡ki mxgvbv †cwi‡q AvšÍR©vwZK cwigÛ‡j we¯Í…wZ jvf K‡i‡Q| ZvB AvšÍR©vwZK cwi‡ek Ges Z`w¯’Z wewfbœ ms¯’v, Pzw³, Kg©m~wP BZ¨vw` wk‡ív‡`¨vM Kg© Ges Gi cwiPvjbv‡K cÖfvweZ Ki‡Q| Kg©cÎ-2 †Zvgvi GjvKvq e¨emvq ¯’vcb I cwiPvjbvi †ÿ‡Î wb‡Pi †Kvb †Kvb cwi‡ek Abyiƒc Ges †Kvb †Kvb cwi‡ek cÖwZK~j i‡q‡Q Zv wPwýZ Ki| cwi‡ek

AbyK~j / cÖwZK~j

KviY

AeKvVv‡gvMZ Dcv`vb miKvwi c„ô‡cvlKZv Av_©-mvgvwRK w¯’wZkxjZv AvBb-k„•Ljv cwiw¯’wZ ch©vß cyuwRi cÖvc¨Zv cÖwkÿ‡Yi my‡hvM Ab¨vb¨

10.6

AvZ¥Kg©ms¯’vb I D‡`¨v‡Mi m¤úK© Relationship Between Self Employment and Entrepreneurship

AvZ¥Kg©ms¯’vb Self employment wb‡RB wb‡Ri Kg©ms¯’vb Kiv‡K AvZ¥Kg©ms¯’vb e‡j| AviI GKUz ¯úó K‡i ejv hvq †h, wbR¯^ A_ev FY Kiv ¯^í m¤ú`, wbR¯^ wPšÍv, Ávb, eyw ×gËv I `ÿZv‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q b~¨bZg SzuwK wb‡q AvZ¥cÖ‡Póvq RxweKv AR©‡bi e¨e¯’v‡K AvZ¥Kg©ms¯’vb ejv nq| AvZ¥Kg©ms¯’vb n‡”Q gRywi / †eZbwfwËK PvKwii weKí †ckvi Ab¨Zg Dcvq| AvZ¥Kg©ms¯’vb †ckv ej‡Z eySvq hLb †Kv‡bv e¨w³ ¯^xq `ÿZv ev ¸Yvewji e‡j †mev `v‡bi wewbg‡q A_© DcvR©b K‡i RxweKv Pvjvq| D`vnviY¯^ iƒc ejv hvq †h, AvZ¥Kg©ms¯’vb n‡”Q hLb GKRb KvV wgw¯¿ GKwU Kv‡Vi dv‡g© †eZ‡bi wewbg‡q DcvR©b bv K‡i wb‡RB Kv‡Vi AvmevecÎ cÖ¯‘Z K‡i Ges G †_‡K †h Avq nq Zv Øviv RxweKv wbe©vn K‡i| ej‡Z †M‡j GKwU †`‡ki Kg© ÿg RbmsL¨vi wmsnfvMB AvZ¥Kg©ms¯’v ‡b wb‡qvwRZ|


e¨emvq D‡`¨vM

193

e¨emvq D‡`¨vM Business entrepreneurship mvaviYZ D‡`¨vM n‡”Q SuywK Av‡Q †R‡bI jv‡fi Avkvq Kómva¨ Kv‡R nvZ †`qv| Avi wk‡ív‡`¨vM ev e¨emvq D‡`¨vM ej‡Z eySvq jvfevb nIqvi Avkvq †jvKmv‡bi m¤¢vebv †R‡bI SzuwK wb‡q wkí ev e¨emvq cÖwZôvi Rb¨ `„pfv‡e GwM‡q hvIqv| D‡`¨vM I D‡`¨v³v kã `ywU GKwU Ab¨wUi mv‡_ Ggbfv‡e RwoZ †h, GKwUi e¨vL¨v Ab¨wU‡K ev` w`‡q Kiv m¤¢e bq| ejv n‡q _v‡K †h, hvi D‡`¨vM Av‡Q wZwbB D‡`¨v³v| AZGe e¨emvq D‡`¨vM ej‡Z GKwU e¨emvq cÖwZôvb ¯’vc‡bi D‡`¨vM MÖn‡Yi Kvh©µg‡K eySvq, Avi whwb G D‡`¨vM MÖnY K‡ib Zv‡K ejv hvq D‡`¨v³v|

10.7 Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b e¨emvq D‡`¨v‡Mi Ae`vb Contribution of Business Entrepreneurship in Economic Development e¨emvq D‡`¨vM A_©bxwZi mKj †ÿÎ; †hgb-e¨emv-evwYR¨, Drcv`b-e›Ub, Avq-wewb‡qvM BZ¨vw` mewKQz‡KB cÖfvweZ K‡i| evsjv‡`‡k Bmjvg MÖæc, AvwKR MÖæc, ¯‥qvi MÖæc BZ¨vw` cÖwZôvb †`‡ki A_©bxwZ‡Z †h f~wgKv †i‡L P‡j‡Q Zv †_‡KB Gi cÖgvY †g‡j| e¨emvq D‡`¨vM wb‡¤œv³fv‡e Avgv‡`i †`‡ki Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b Ae`vb ivL‡Z cv‡i− • wk‡ívbœqb: †QvU, gvSvwi I eo mKj ai‡bi D‡`¨v³v Zv‡`i wPšÍv I Kg©cÖ‡Póvi gva¨‡g bZzb wkí cÖwZôvb MVb K‡ib| Zv‡`i wk‡íi cÖ‡qvRbB bvbvb mn‡hvMx wkí M‡o I‡V| Zv‡`i †`Lv‡`wL A‡b‡KB wkí cÖwZôvq GwM‡q Av‡m| Gfv‡e D‡`¨vM †`‡ki wk‡ívbœq‡b f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| • evwY‡R¨i Dbœqb: D‡`¨v³vMY wewfbœ LyPiv, cvBKvwi, Avg`vwb, ißvwb BZ¨vw` bvbvb ai‡bi cÖwZôvb mdjfv‡e MVb I cwiPvjbv K‡ib| G QvovI e¨vsK, exgv, cwienb, ¸`vgRvZKiY, †gvoKxKiY BZ¨vw` cÖwZôvb Zv‡`iB cÖ‡Póvq M‡o D‡V| wk‡ív‡`¨vM cÖ‡Póvi djkÖæwZ‡ZI evwY‡R¨i wewfbœ kvLvcÖkvLv m¤úªmvwiZ nq| • evRvi m¤úªmviY: D‡`¨v³vMY bZzb e¨emvqB ïay cÖwZôv K‡ib bv, bZzb bZzb evRviI m„wó K‡ib| Avi Giæc evRvi †`‡ki A_©‣bwZK AMÖMwZ‡Z ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ae`vb iv‡L| Avgv‡`i †`‡k Mv‡g©›Um Ges Rbkw³ ißvwbKviK †m±‡ii e¨emvqxMY bZzb bZzb evRvi Ly u‡R Zv Kv‡R jvMv‡bvi †Póv Pvjv‡”Qb| hv wbtm‡›`‡n †`‡ki A_©bxwZ‡Z mydj w`‡”Q| • wewb‡qvM I Drcv`b e„w×: wewb‡qvM I Drcv`b A½vAw½fv‡e RwoZ| D‡`¨v³vMY wewfbœ Drm †_‡K A_© msMÖn K‡i Zv h_vh_fv‡e wewb‡qvM K‡ib| GB wewb‡qvM Drcv`b AvKv‡i wd‡i Av‡m I DØ„‡Ëi m„wó K‡i| g~jabx hš¿cvwZ msMÖ‡ni d‡j RvZxq m¤ú`I e„w× cvq| RvZxq Drcv`b e„w×i d‡j A_©bxwZi mKj †ÿ‡Î Zvi BwZevPK cÖfve c‡o|


194

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

• m¤ú‡`i mبenvi: D‡`¨v³vMY Ae¨eüZ I Kg g~j¨evb m¤ú`‡K e¨envi K‡i Zv‡`i gybvdv evov‡bvi †Póv Pvjvq| G‡Z m¤ú‡`i Kvh©Ki e¨envi wbwðZ nq I A_©‣bwZK Dbœqb N‡U evsjv‡`‡k d¨vkb nvDR¸‡jv MÖv‡gi †g‡q‡`i Kv‡R jvwM‡q my›`i Kvco evbv‡”Q| Gfv‡e euv‡ki KvR, †e‡Zi KvR, †cvovgvwUi KvR BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡`i Kvh©Ki e¨envi wbwðZ K‡i‡Q| • Kg©ms¯’v‡bi my‡hvM m„wó: †h †Kvb †`‡kB Kg©ms¯’v‡b †emiKvwi D‡`¨v³v †kÖYxi f~wgKv jÿYxq| D‡`¨v³v †h ai‡biB †nvK bv †Kb †m wb‡Ri QvovI Kg- †ewk wKQz †jv‡Ki Kg©ms¯’v‡bi my‡hvM m„wó K‡i| ZvB mKj †`‡kB Kg©ms¯’v‡bi bZzb bZzb †ÿÎ m„wó‡Z miKvwi I †emiKvwi ms¯’vi cvkvcvwk D‡`¨v³vMY ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivL‡Q| • miKv‡ii ivR¯^ e„w×: †h †Kvb †`‡kB miKvi ivóª cwiPvjbvi g~j PvwjKv kw³| miKv‡ii Avw_©K Ae¯’v m‡šÍvlRbK bv n‡j KLbB †`‡ki kvwšÍ I AMÖMwZ cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq bv| D‡`¨v³vMY e¨emv‡qi AMªMwZ mvab K‡i miKvi‡K AwaK nv‡i f¨vU, U¨v·, ïé BZ¨vw` Av`v‡qi c_ myMg K‡i| hv †`‡ki A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b ¸iæZ¡c~Y© e‡j we‡ewPZ nq| • e¨w³MZ I RvZxq Avq e„w×: D‡`¨v³vMY wk‡íi †bZv wn‡m‡e bZzb wkí ev e¨emvq cÖwZôvi g~L¨ f~wgKv cvjb K‡ib| Zv‡`i †`Lv‡`wL A‡b‡KB bZzb wkí ev e¨emvq cÖwZôvq GwM‡q Av‡m| G‡Z wewfbœ mn‡hvMx cÖwZôvb M‡o I‡V| d‡j gvwjK, Kg©Pvix I mswkøó meviB e¨w³MZ Av‡qi my‡hvM m„wó nq| e¨emvq Dbœq‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ GB Avq e„w×| hvi djkÖæwZ‡Z RvZxq Avq ev‡o|

10.8 evsjv‡`‡k e¨emv D‡`¨vM Dbœq‡b mgm¨v Ges `~ixKi‡Yi Dcvq Obstacles to Entrepreneurship Development in Bangladesh K. evsjv‡`‡k e¨emv D‡`¨vM Dbœq‡b mgm¨v: GKwU †`‡ki A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b wk‡ív‡`¨v³vi ¸iæZ¡ Acwimxg| Z‡e wk‡ív‡`¨v³v Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ GKw`‡K †hgb D‡`¨vMx gvby‡li cÖ‡qvRb Ab¨w`‡K cÖ‡qvRb wk‡ív‡`¨vM cwi‡e‡ki| evsjv‡`k GKwU Dbœqbkxj †`k| Dbœqbkxj †`k wn‡m‡e A_©bxwZi mKj †ÿ‡Îi b¨vq wk‡ív‡`¨v‡MI A‡bK mgm¨v †`Lv hvq| wb‡gœ evsjv‡`‡k wk‡ív‡`¨vM ev e¨emvq D‡`¨vM Dbœq‡bi mgm¨vmg~n Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv− • RbM‡Yi ¯^í Avq: Avgv‡`i †`‡k RbM‡Yi gv_v wcQz Avq Kg| Kg Avq nIqvi Kvi‡Y RbM‡Yi g‡a¨ GKUv nZvkv KvR K‡i| d‡j Zv‡`i g‡a¨ bZzb wKQz m„wó Kiv ev SzuwK MÖnY Kivi gZ gvbwmKZv M‡o D‡V bv| • Kg mÂq: Avq Kg nIqvi Kvi‡Y G‡`‡ki gvby‡li mÂq AZ¨šÍ Kg| Av‡qi mv‡_ m‡qi aYvZ¥K m¤úK© we`¨gvb| evsjv‡`ki gvby‡li Av‡qi Zzjbvq RxebgvÎvi e¨q A‡bK †ekx| d‡j RbM‡Yi mÂq G‡Kev‡iB †bB| Avi Kg mÂq e¨emvq D‡`¨v‡Mi Dci cÖwZK~j cÖfve †d‡j| • g~ja‡bi Afve: e¨emvq ev wk‡ív‡`¨v‡Mi Ab¨Zg c~e©kZ© n‡jv ch©vß g~ja‡bi e¨e¯’vKiY| Kg mÂq nIqvi Kvi‡Y GKw`‡K †hgb D‡`¨v³vi wbR¯^ g~jab _v‡K bv, Avevi D‡`¨v³v we‡kl K‡i ÿz`ª D‡`¨v³vi g~jab mieiv‡n e¨vsK I Ab¨vb¨ Avw_©K cÖwZôvb¸‡jv AvMÖn †`Lvq bv| Giæc Ae¯’v wk‡ív‡`¨v‡Mi me‡P‡q eo evav|


e¨emvq D‡`¨vM

195

• wkÿv I m‡PZbZvi Afve: wk‡ív‡`¨v³v Rb¥MZ fv‡eB wk‡ív‡`¨v³v n‡jI wkÿv I G m¤ú‡K© m‡PZbZv mwZ¨Kv‡ii wk‡ív‡`¨v³vq cwiYZ K‡i| wKš‘ Avgv‡`i †`‡k wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡`i we‡kl K‡i ÿz`ª wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡`i †Zgb †Kvb cÖvwZôvwbK wkÿv _v‡K bv ev G m¤ú‡K© miKvi ev GbwRI¸‡jv †Zgb f~wgKv iv‡L bv| d‡j wk‡ív‡`¨v‡Mi e¨vcv‡i m‡PZbZvi Afve cwijwÿZ nq| • miKvwi mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZvi Afve: evsjv‡`‡k wk‡ív‡`¨v‡Mi †ÿ‡Î †h mKj miKvwi mvnvh¨mn‡hvwMZvi cÖ‡qvRb nq, Zvi Afve jÿ¨Yxq| wk‡ív‡`¨v³v we‡kl K‡i bZzb wk‡ív‡`¨v³MY miKv‡ii †KvbB my‡hvM-myweav cvq bv| miKv‡ii cvkvcvwk †emiKvwi cÖwZôvbI G e¨vcv‡i †Zgb AvMÖn †`Lvq bv| d‡j wk‡ív‡`¨vM evavMÖ¯’ nq| • AbybœZ cÖhyw³i e¨envi: AvaywbK cÖhyw³i e¨envi †`kxq wk‡ív‡`¨v‡M e¨vcK f~wgKv iv‡L| wKš‘ Avgv‡`i †`‡k wkí KviLvbv¸‡jv‡Z GLbI cyivZb I †m‡K‡j cÖhyw³ e¨envi Kiv n‡”Q| Giæc cÖhyw³i Kvi‡Y GLbI G‡`‡k ÿz`ª wk‡ív‡`¨v‡Mi †ÿ‡Î †Zgb DbœwZ jÿ¨ Kiv hvq bv| • evRviRvZKi‡Y mgm¨v: cY¨ Drcv`‡bi cvkvcvwk Zvi evRviRvZKiY Kiv Acwinvh©| wKš‘ Avgv‡`i †`‡k wk‡íi †ÿ‡Î we‡kl K‡i ÿz`ª wk‡íi gva¨‡g Drcvw`Z c‡Y¨i †ÿ‡Î evRviRvZKi‡Y e¨vcK mgm¨v †`Lv †`q| d‡j wk‡ív‡`¨v³vMY G e¨vcv‡i AvMÖn nvwi‡q †d‡j| • e¨e¯’vcbv I cwiPvjbvMZ mgm¨v: †h †Kvb mvd‡j¨i wcQ‡b DËg e¨e¯’vcbv ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv iv‡L| wk‡ív‡`¨v‡Mi †ÿ‡ÎI Zvi e¨wZµg nq bv| wKš‘ Avgv‡`i †`‡k e¨e¯’vcbv ZZ DbœZ gv‡bi bq| ZvQvov ÿz`ª D‡`¨v³v‡`i G m¤úK© †Kvb aviYvI _v‡K bv| d‡j †ewki fvM D‡`¨vM Kvh©µg mvd‡j¨i Øvi cÖv‡šÍ †c․Qv‡Z cv‡i bv| • cÖwkÿ‡Yi Afve: wk‡ív‡`¨v‡Mi mdjZv AR©‡bi Rb¨ cÖwkÿY cÖ`vb Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| Avgv‡`i †`‡k wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡`i cÖwkÿ‡Yi †Zgb e¨e¯’v †bB| miKvwifv‡e gv‡S g‡a¨ ÿz`ª I gvSvix wk‡ív‡`¨v³v‡`i cÖwkÿ‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv n‡jI Zv eoKZ©v‡`i c‡KU fvwi Kivi GKwU gva¨g wnmv‡eB mxgve× _v‡K| †m‡ÿ‡Î cÖK…Z D‡`¨v³vMY †Zgb DcK…Z nq bv|

L. evsjv‡`‡k e¨emvq D‡`¨vM Dbœq‡bi mgm¨v `~ixKi‡Yi Dcvq Ways to Overcome the Obstacles to Entrepreneurship Development in Bangladesh evsjv‡`k wk‡ív‡`¨v³v Dbœ q ‡bi GKwU m¤¢ v ebvgq †`k nIqv m‡Ë¡ I eZ© g v‡b wk‡ív‡`¨v³v / ÿz ` ª wk‡ív‡`¨v³v Dbœ q ‡b †ek wKQz mgm¨v †`Lv hvq, †h¸‡jv‡K `~ i Kivi † ÿ‡Î wb‡¤œ v ³ welq¸‡jv we‡ePbv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| 1. RbM‡Yi Avq e„w×g~jK Kvh©µg MÖnY: Avgv‡`i †`‡k RbM‡Yi gv_v wcQz Avq Kg nIqvq Zv‡`i D‡`¨vM MÖn‡Yi gZ gvbwmKZv M‡o D‡V bv| ZvB RbM‡Yi Avq e„w×i Rb¨ e¨vcK Kvh©µg MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e| 2. g~jab mieivn: Kg mÂq nIqvi Kvi‡Y GKw`‡K †hgb D‡`¨v³vi wbR¯^ g~jab _v‡K bv, Avevi D‡`¨v³v we‡kl K‡i ÿz`ª D‡`¨v³vi g~jab mieiv‡n e¨vsK I Ab¨vb¨ Avw_©K cÖwZôvb¸‡jv AvMÖn †`Lvq bv| Giæc Ae¯’v wk‡ív‡`¨v‡Mi me‡P‡q eo evav| ZvB miKvimn Ab¨vb¨ cÖwZôvb‡K g~jab mieiv‡n GwM‡q Avm‡Z n‡e|


196

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XvKvq evmv n‡q‡Q G Lei †c‡q Zuvi ¯^vgx KjKvZv †_‡K XvKvq P‡j Av‡mb| Ges Zuvi mv‡_ emevm Ki‡Z _v‡Kb Ges †m mg‡q Zuv‡`i N‡i Av‡iv `ywU mšÍvb Rb¥MÖnY K‡i| 1954−55 mv‡ji w`‡K Zuvi e¨emvqx‡K cyuwRi cwigvY `uvovq wZb nvRvi UvKv Ges cÖwZ gv‡m mKj LiP ev` w`‡q jvf n‡Zv cuvPkZ UvKv| e¨emvq m¤cÖmvi‡Yi K_v wPšÍv K‡i H mg‡qi bZzb XvKv wRbœvn GwfwbD‡q (eZ©gvb bvg e½eÜz GwfwbD) Zuvi Jl‡ai †`vKvbwU ¯’vbvšÍi K‡ib Ges bvg †`b ÔKwig WªvM nvDmÕ| hv eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡ki Ab¨Zg Jla †Kv¤úvwb †KwWGBP (KDH) bv‡g L¨vZ| 1958 mv‡j wZwb Jl‡ai cvBKvix e¨emvq, Avg`vwb I wWw÷ªweDU‡ii KvR ïiæ K‡ib| Hmgq cvwK¯Ívb miKv‡ii Jl‡ai †emiKvwi bxwZi AvIZvq wZwb Jl‡ai KviLvbv †`Iqvi wPšÍv-fvebv ïiæ K‡ib| G Kv‡R Zuv‡K cvebvi GWiæK Jla KviLvbvi gvwjK Rbve nvwg` mv‡ne †ek mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZv K‡i‡Qb| 1959 mv‡j wZwb Bb‡RKkb evbv‡bvi Rb¨ miKv‡ii jvB‡bÝ †bqvi kZ© c~i‡Yi Rb¨ g~j XvKv kni †_‡K A‡bK `~‡i eZ©gv‡b avbgwÛi mvZgmwR` †iv‡W Pvi nvRvi UvKvq GK weNv wbPz Rwg wK‡b †mLv‡b Jla •Zwii cÖg_ KviLvbv •Zwi K‡ib| `xN©v½x, D¾¡j k¨vgeY©v, myVvg †`‡ni AwaKvwiYx Av‡bvqviv †eMg evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^í msL¨K mdj wkí D‡`v³v‡`i g‡a¨ wb‡Ri ¯’vb K‡i wb‡Z †c‡i‡Qb AwZ mvgvb¨ Ae¯’v n‡Z Ges AmvaviY Amy weavRbK cwiw¯’wZ‡Z|

kvwn`v †eMg M„nea~ †_‡K D‡`¨v³v: ewikv‡j wje©vwU †R›Um †UBjv‡m©i ¯^Z¡vwaKvix kvwn`v †eMg kL ev cwiKíbv K‡i bq, wbZvšÍ cÖ‡qvR‡b wZwb e¨emvq ïiæ K‡ib| KLbI fv‡ebwb GiKg wKQz Ki‡Z n‡e| G‡ÿ‡Î Zvi †Kv‡bv AwfÁZvB wQj bv| hLb ïiæ Ki‡jb ZLb bvbv evav-wecwËi g‡a¨ c‡owQ‡jb| wKš‘ `„p g‡bvej I cwikÖgB Zv‡K G‡b w`‡q‡Q mvdj¨ I m¤§vb| cyiæl‡`i †cvkvK •Zwii KvR ïiæ K‡iwQ‡jb Ges KL‡bv Ki‡Qb| kvwn`v †eMg evm K‡ib ewikvj kn‡i| ¯^vgxi †UBjvwis e¨emvq Avi Pvi †g‡q wb‡q Zvi w`b¸‡jv fv‡jvB PjwQj| wKš‘ nVvr K‡iB Zvi ¯^vgx Amy¯’ nb| 1997 mv‡j Zvi ¯^vgx Zv‡`i mevB‡K †i‡L P‡j hvb cicv‡i| kvwn`v †hb †Pv‡L AÜKvi †`‡Lb| Kxfv‡e Pj‡e mvg‡bi w`bMy‡jv? †g‡q‡`i fwel¨Z Kx n‡e? Ni msmv‡ii KvR Qvov wZwb wKQzB Rvb‡Zb bv GgbwK e¨emvqI †ev‡Sb bv| ewikvj m`i nvmcvZv‡ji Kv‡Q Zvi ¯^vgxi †R›Um †UBjvm©wUi Ae¯’vI ZLb fv‡jv wQj bv| ¯^vgx A‡bKw`b Amy¯’ _vKvq mg¯Í mÂqI †kl n‡qwQj| kvwn`vi mvgvb¨ MnbvB m¤^j wQj| Mnbv wewµ K‡i cÂvk nvRvi UvKv w`‡qB e¨emvqwU ïiæ K‡ib| †`vKv‡bi Kg©Pvix ZLb wQj 2 Rb| Zv‡`i Kv‡Q †UBjvwis †k‡Lb| ïiæ K‡ib KvR| ïiæ‡Z cyiæl †µZv, cwiev‡ii †jvKRb, AvZ¥xq-¯^Rb †KD G KvRwU‡K fv‡jvfv‡e †bbwb| wKš‘ wZwb nvj †Q‡o †`bwb| AvZ¥wek¦vm I KwVb g‡bvej wb‡q wZwb cy‡iv cwiw¯’wZ mvg‡j wb‡q GKwU AvaywbK †R›Um †UBjvm© M‡o †Zv‡jb| Gfv‡eB wZwb mvaviY M„neay †_‡K cy‡ivcywi e¨emvqx n‡q D‡Vb| wZwb 2008 mv‡j mdj bvix D‡`¨v³v wn‡m‡e GmGgB dvD‡Ûkb †_‡K cyi¯‥vi †c‡q‡Qb|


e¨emvq D‡`¨vM

205

miKvi cÖ`Ë mnvqZv: miKvi bvix D‡`¨v³v‡`i‡K mnvqZv Kivi Rb¨ Avjv`v cwjwm MÖnY K‡i‡Q| miKvi cÖ`Ë myweav¸‡jvi g‡a¨ D‡jøL‡hvM¨ n‡jv: • GKwU myôz Ges †UKmB wkíbxwZ K‡i‡Q hv bvix Ges cyiæ‡li mgZv `vb K‡i‡Q| • bvix D‡`¨v³v‡`i DrmvwnZ Kivi Rb¨ we‡kl c¨v‡KR †NvlYv K‡i‡Q| • gwnjv‡`i mn‡R evRv‡i cÖ‡e‡ki e¨e¯’v K‡i‡Q| • gwnjv D‡`¨v³v‡`i `ÿZv e„w×i e¨e¯’v Ki‡Q| • gwnjv D‡`¨v³v‡`i mn‡R evRv‡i cÖ‡e‡ki e¨e¯’v Ki‡Q| • †hme †ÿ‡Î gwnjv D‡`¨v³v i‡q‡Q Zv‡`i‡K mnvqZv Kivi Rb¨ wewfbœ M‡elYv Kvh©µg nv‡Z wb‡q‡Q Ges †m¸‡jv g~j¨vq‡Yi gva¨‡g cÖ‡qvRbxq c`‡ÿc MÖnY K‡i‡Q| • gwnjv‡`i A_©‣bwZK AvZ¥wbf©ikxjZvi Dci ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc K‡i‡Q| • †h mKj bvix D‡`¨v³v mdj n‡q‡Q Zv‡`i‡K miKvwifv‡e ¯^xK…wZ †`qv nq| Gi d‡j Ab¨ bvix D‡`¨v³viv DrmvwnZ nq| • A‡bK mgq bvix D‡`¨v³v‡`i Avw_©Kfv‡e mnvqZv cÖ`vb Kiv nq| wKQz wKQz †ÿ‡Î bvix D‡`¨v³v‡`i Ki †iqvZ myweav cÖ`vb Kiv nq|

10.11 evsjv‡`‡k bvix D‡`¨v³v‡`i Dbœq‡b wKQz mycvwikgvjv Some Recommendations for Development of Women Entreprenures • • • • • •

miKvi bvix D‡`¨v³v‡`i Rb¨ mnRk‡Z© I webvmy‡` FY cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cv‡i| bZzb bvix D‡`¨v³v‡`i Rb¨ Dchy³ cÖwkÿ‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv| e¨emvq evwYR¨ cwiPvjbv mnR Ki‡Z bvix‡`i Rb¨ mnR MYcwienb e¨e¯’v Pvjy KiY| bvix‡`i wbivcËv e¨e¯’v †Rvi`vi Kiv| bvix‡`i cÖwZ mg`„wófw½ w`‡Z n‡e| ïé †iqvZmn wewfbœ ai‡bi myweav †`Iqv|

eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ: 1|

2|

e¨emvq D‡`¨vM Gi Bs‡iwR cÖwZkã Kx? K. Business Entrepreneurship M. Business Enterpreneur wb‡Pi †KvbwU e¨emvq D‡`¨v³vi •ewkó¨ bq? K. AvZ¥wek¦vm M. cyuwR msMÖ‡ni `ÿZv

L. Business Entrepreneur N. Business Enterpreneurship L. D™¢vebx ÿgZv N. SzuwK Gov‡bvi gvbwmKZv


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m„Rbkxj cÖkœ: 1| 10 Rwni †jLvcovq Kivi mgq †_‡KB fveZ bZzb wKQz Kivi| †jLvcov †kl K‡i PvKwi bv Luy‡R †m GKwU †WBwi dvg© Kivi wm×všÍ wbj| Rwni Zvi evevi KvQ †_‡K wKQz UvKv wb‡q Zv‡`i MÖv‡gi evwo‡Z cwiKíbv Abyhvqx GKwU dvg© cÖwZôv Kij Ges AvZœwek¦vm, mvnm I Aa¨vemvq Zv‡K mvdj¨ G‡b w`j| K. TMSS Gi c~Y©iƒc Kx? L. Aa¨vemvq •ewkó¨wU D‡`¨v³vi _vKv Avek¨K †Kb? M. Rwni Zvi dvg©wU MÖv‡gi evwo‡Z M‡o Zz‡j‡Qb †Kb? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. evsjv‡`‡k A_©‣bwZK Dbœq‡b Rwn‡ii D‡`¨v‡Mi Ae`vb DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K we‡kølY Ki | 2| Avwid, kvgxg I nvmvb wZb eÜz m¤úªwZ we.Kg. cvm K‡i‡Q| Zviv Zv‡`i fwel¨r cwiKíbv wb‡q Av‡jvPbv KiwQj| Avwid I kvgxg Gg.Kg G fwZ©i wPšÍv Ki‡Q| nvmvb GLbI wm×všÍ P~ovšÍ Ki‡Z cv‡iwb| KviY Zvi evevi B”Qv †m ga¨cÖv‡P¨i †Kvb †`‡k P‡j hvK| wKšÍy †gavex nvmvb Pvq †`‡kB wKQz Ki‡Z| GRb¨ †m Miæ QvMj cvj‡bi Dci `yÕgv‡mi cÖwkÿY MÖnY K‡i| G‡Z Zvi g‡bvej †e‡o hvq| we‡`k hvevi UvKv w`‡q †m evwo‡Z Miæ, QvMj Lvgvi cÖwZôv K‡i| cÖwkÿYj× Ávb cÖ‡qvM K‡i wb‡RB †Póvq AvR †m ¯^vej¤^x| K. AvZ¥Kg©ms¯’vb Kx? L. e¨emvq D‡`¨v³v ej‡Z Kx eySvq? M. nvmvb Miæ-QvMj Lvgvi cÖwZôv †Kvb ai‡bi Kv‡Ri AšÍfz©³? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. ¯^ej¤^x nevi †cQ‡b †Kvb ¸YwU nvmvb‡K †ewk cÖfvweZ K‡i‡Q e‡j Zzwg g‡b Ki| we‡kølY Ki|


GKv`k Aa¨vq

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G Aa¨vq cvV †k‡l Avgiv Rvb‡Z cvie− • e¨emv‡q Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i aviYv I cÖ‡qvRbxqZv| • e¨emv‡q Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i e¨envi| • AbjvBb e¨emvq aviYv, ¸iæZ¡ I c×wZ| • B-Kgvm© Gi aviYv I c×wZ| • B-weR‡bm aviYv I c×wZ| • B-gv‡K©wUs aviYv, ¸iæZ¡ I c×wZ| • B -wi‡UBwjs aviYv, c×wZ I myweav| • B- e¨vswKs aviYv, c×wZ I myweav| • †WweU I †µwWU KvW© aviYv I cÖ‡qvRbxqZv| • †gvevBj e¨vswKs aviYv Ges Gi ¸iæZ¡|


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11.1. e¨emv‡q Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i aviYv Concept of Use of Information and Communication Technology Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ ej‡Z H ai‡bi cb¨‡K †evSvq †h¸‡jv mn‡RB Z_¨ msiÿY, D×vi, wbcyYfv‡e cwiPvjbv ev e¨envi Kiv Ges wWwRUvj d‡g© Av`vb-cÖ`vb K‡i| Z_¨ msMÖn, msiÿY, cÖwµqvRvZKiY I weZi‡Yi mv‡_ mswkøó cÖhyw³ I e¨e¯’v‡K GK K_vq ejv nq Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ ev Bbdi‡gkb A¨vÛ KwgwbDwb‡Kkb †UK‡bv‡jvR (AvBwmwU)| e¨emvwqK Kvi‡Y `ªæZ wm×všÍ †bIqvi Rb¨ A_ev `ÿ Z_¨ e¨e¯’vcbvi Rb¨ Z_¨ AvniY, msiÿY, cÖwµqvKiY I weZiY A‡bK ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| AvBwmwUi e¨vcK DbœwZi d‡j gvbyl c„w_ex‡K nv‡Zi gy‡Vvq Avb‡Z †c‡i‡Q| B›Uvi‡b‡Ui Kj¨v‡Y gvbyl me mgq Bbdi‡gkb mycvi nvBI‡qi mv‡_ mshy³ _vK‡Z cvi‡Q| AvR‡K e¨emvq-evwY‡R¨ Kw¤úDUvi, B›Uvi‡bU †gvevBj, †Uwj‡dvb BZ¨vw` Qvov †h‡bv †Kvb wKQzB Kíbv Kiv hvq bv| Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³‡K 2 fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v− 1. cÖPwjZ Kw¤úDUvi wbf©i cÖhyw³| 2. AvaywbK wWwRUvj †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³|

11.2 e¨emv‡q Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i cÖ‡qvRbxqZv/¸iæZ¡ Importance of Information and Communication Technology in Business Kv‡Ri `ÿZv evov‡bv (Increase efficiency) Kv‡Ri `ÿZv ej‡Z KvR‡K `ªæZ I Kg mg‡q mwVKfv‡e m¤úbœ Kiv eySvq| Kv‡Ri cÖwZwU av‡ci ch©vß Z_¨ cvIqv †M‡j KvR `ÿZvi mv‡_ Kiv hvq| Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i cÖ‡qv‡M ev¯ÍevwqZ Bbdi‡gkb wm‡óg e¨env‡ii g~j D‡Ïk¨B n‡jv Kv‡Ri `ÿZv evov‡bv| KvR djcÖ` Kiv (Make the Work Effective): Z_¨ I cÖhyw³ †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i Avi GKUv ¸iæZ¡c~Y© D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv KvR‡K djcÖ` Kiv| Kv‡Ri cÖwZwU av‡c mwVK wm×všÍ †bIqvi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨ †c‡jB KvR‡K djcÖ` Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| DbœZ MÖvnK †mev (Develop Customer Service): Z_¨ I ���hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i DbœwZi mv‡_ mv‡_ wewfbœ †Kv¤úvwbi MªvnK †mevi gv‡bvbœqb Ki‡Q| KviY, †h cÖwZôvb hZ †ewk MÖvnK †mev w`‡Z cvi‡e, †m cÖwZôvbB cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq wU‡K _vK‡Z mÿg n‡e| Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i gva¨‡g GB MÖvnK †mevi gvb DbœZ Kiv hvq| cY¨ •Zwi I Dbœqb (Producing Product and its Development): A‡bK cÖwZôvb †hgb e¨vsK, exgv, A_©vqb †mev, ch©Ub ms¯’v BZ¨vw` Zv‡`i e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î Z_¨‡K cÖavb kw³ wn‡m‡e e¨envi K‡i wewfbœ cY¨ •Zwi K‡i wKsev Drcvw`Z c‡Y¨i gvb DbœqY K‡i| eB Drcvw`Z cb¨‡K Bbdi‡gkb Bb‡Ubwmf cY¨ e‡j| Bbdi‡gkb wm‡÷‡gi mn‡hvwMZvi Z‡_¨i cÖK…wZi Ici wfwË K‡i Drcbœ cb¨ wewfbœ ai‡bi n‡Z cv‡i|


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209

c‡Y¨i wecbb (Marketing of Products): Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ ïay gvÎ DbœZ cY¨ •Zwi Ki‡ZB mnvqZv K‡i _v‡K bv; c‡Y¨i wecb‡b I mnvqZv K‡i _v‡K| e¨emvq-my‡hvM kbv³ Kiv I Kv‡R jvMv‡bv (Identify business opportunities and apply it): c„w_ex e`‡j hv‡”Q| †mB mv‡_ e`‡j hv‡”Q gvby‡li iæwP, Pvwn`v Ges RxeYavib cÖYvjx| d‡j e¨emv‡qi †ÿÎ I aiY cv‡ë hv‡”Q| GB Ae¯’vq Z_¨ e¨e¯’v evRvi Z‡_¨i mgš^q K‡i Gi mvnv‡h¨ e¨emv‡qi my‡hvM m„wó Ki‡Z cv‡i| GKwU cÖwZôv‡bi KZ `ªæZ Ges Kx Kx welq cwieZ©b Ki‡Z n‡e, Z_¨ e¨e¯’v Zv mn‡R wbY©q Ki‡Z †`q| MÖvnK a‡i ivLv I cÖwZ‡hvMx‡K `~‡i ivLv (Keep the customers and avoid competitors): e¨emvq-cÖwZôvb Ges MÖvnK cÖ‡Z¨KB cvi¯úwiK mn‡hvwMZvi gva¨‡g jvfevb n‡Z cv‡i| e¨emvq-cÖwZôvb MÖvnK‡`i Pvwn`v Abyhvqx my‡hvM myweav evov‡bvi gva¨‡g MÖvnK‡`i a‡i ivL‡Z cv‡i Ges cÖwZ‡hvMx cÖwZôvb‡K `~‡i ivL‡Z cv‡i| Z_¨ e¨e¯’vi mnvqZvq MÖvnK‡`i Ges cÖwZ‡hvMx cÖwZôv‡bi ch©vß Z_¨ msMÖ‡ni gva¨‡g `ªæZ mwVK wm×všÍ wb‡q MÖvnK a‡i ivLv hvq| Dc‡iv³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K Avgiv ej‡Z cvwi eZ©gvb hy‡M wU‡K _vK‡Z n‡j Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i Dci Aek¨B ¸iæZ¡ w`‡Z n‡e|

11.3

e¨emv‡q Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i e¨envi Use of Information and Communication Technology

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†gvevBj e¨vswKs‡q cÖvß †mev: UvKv Rgv †`qv I D‡Ëvjb, cY¨ ev †mev µ‡qi g~j¨ cwi‡kva, wewfbœ a‡i‡bi wej cwi‡kva, †eZb fvZv weZiY, GwUGg †_‡K A_© D‡Ëvjb, dvÛ UªvÝdvi BZ¨vw`| wewfbœ bv‡g †gvevBj e¨vswKs: evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ evwYwR¨K e¨vs‡K †gvevBj e¨vswKs wewfbœ bv‡g AwfwnZ| †gvevBj e¨vswKs WvP-evsjv e¨vsK Gg-†c gv‡K©›UvBj e¨vsK G·‡cÖm K¨vk e¨vsK Gwkqv BwR K¨vk cÖvBg e¨vsK BD AvB Gm wm †_‡K †gvevBj e¨vswKs (UISC To Mobile Banking): e¨vswKs myweavi evB‡i _vKv wekvj Rb‡Mvôx‡K e¨vswKs myweavi AvIZvq Avb‡Z KvR Ki‡Q BDwbqb Z_¨ I †mev†K›`ª| BDwbqb Z_¨ I †mev‡K›`ª (BD AvB Gm wm) †_‡K wewfbœ e¨vs‡Ki †gvevBj e¨vswKs‡qi gva¨‡g MÖvgxb Rbc‡`i gvbyl‡K G myweav †`qv n‡”Q| WvP-evsjv e¨vsK †gvevBj e¨vswKs †iwR‡÷ªkb: evsjv‡`‡k †h KqwU e¨vsK †gvevBj e¨vswKs Pvjy K‡i‡Q Zvi g‡a¨ WvP& evsjv e¨vsK Ab¨Zg| GB e¨vs‡Ki †gvevBj e¨vswKs Kvh©µg eZ©gv‡b †ek RbwcÖq| cÖ_‡gB wbw`©ó G‡R›U †`vKvb ev wWwewej †gvevBj e¨vswKs kvLv †_‡K †iwR‡÷ªkb Ki‡Z n‡e| Gi Rb¨ cª‡qvRb n‡e 2 Kwc Qwe, b¨vkbvj/‡fvUvi AvBwW Kv‡W©i d‡UvKwc Avi †gvevBj †dvb| wWwewej †gvevBj e¨vswKs Gi Rb¨ 100 UvKv jvM‡e, hv GKvD›U Rgv n‡e| hw` ‡gvevBj b¤^i 01814035158 nq Ges †PK wWwRU 6 nq Z‡e Zvi GKvD›U b¤^i n‡e 01818035156| Gi ci †gvevB‡j GKwU Kj Avm‡e †hLv‡b Pvi wWwR‡Ui †Mvcb wcb b¤^i/cvmIqvW© w`‡Z n‡e| Zvici GKwU wbwðZKiY GmGgGm Avm‡e| †iwR‡÷ªkb Kiv hv‡e †h †Kvb †bUIqv‡K©| †jb‡`b: GKvD‡›U UvKv Rgv w`‡Z G‡R›U c‡q‡›U wM‡q GKvD›U b¤^i I UvKv w`‡j G‡R›U cÖwµqv m¤úbœ K‡i †`‡e, †gvevB‡j GKwU wbwðZKiY GmGgGm Avm‡e| ATM ey_ †_‡KI UvKv D‡Ëvjb Kiv hv‡e| e¨vs‡K UvKv Rgv I D‡Ëvjb `y‡UvB m¤úbœ Kiv hvq| B-Kgvm© (E-Commerce) B‡j±ªwbK Dcv‡q cY¨ I †mev mvgMªx µq I weµ‡qi cÖwµqv‡K B-Kgvm© e‡j| G c×wZ‡Z we‡µZviv Zv‡`i cY¨ I †mev mvgMÖx B‡j±ªwbK c×wZ‡Z †µZv‡`i wbKU Dc¯’vcb K‡i| †µZviv Z_¨ AbymÜvb K‡i, Zviv Kx Pvq Zv wPwýZ K‡i Ges †µwWU KvW© ev Ab¨ B‡j±ªwbK cwi‡kva c×wZ e¨envi K‡i AW©vi cÖ`vb K‡i| B-Kgv‡m©i gva¨‡g GKRb †µZv †hgb we‡k¦i †h †Kvb †`‡ki cY¨ µq Ki‡Z cv‡i, †Zgwb GKRb we‡µZv we‡k¦i †h‡Kvb †`‡ki we‡µZvi Kv‡Q Zvi cY¨ weµq Ki‡Z cv‡i| Avi GUv m¤¢e n‡q‡Q B›Uvi‡b‡Ui e¨envi e„w×i Kvi‡Y | Dc‡ii Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g Avgiv ej‡Z cvwi, B‡j±ªwbK Dcv‡q †µZv I we‡µZvi g‡a¨ cY¨mvgMÖx µq-weµ‡qi cÖwµqv‡K B‡jK±ªwbK Kgvm© e‡j|


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B-weR‡bm (E-Business) B-weR‡bm Gi c~Y© A_© n‡jv B‡j±ªwbK weR‡bm A_ev B›Uvi‡bU weR‡bm| e¨emv‡qi mKj Kvh©µg‡K mnvqZv Kivi Rb¨ hLb Z_¨ Ges †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ (IT) e¨envi Kiv nq, ZLb Zv‡K B-weR‡bm e‡j| B-weR‡bm ej‡Z eySvq Kw¤úDUvi †bUIqvK© e¨envi K‡i wkí, evwYR¨ I cY¨ wewbg‡qi Kvh©vw` m¤úv`b Kiv| B-weR‡bm †Kv¤úvwbi Af¨šÍixb Ges ewnt¯’ Z‡_¨i mv‡_ m¤úK© ¯’vcb K‡i wewfbœ mieivnKvix Ges Askx`vi‡`i mv‡_ KvR K‡i Ges †µZv I ‡fv³v‡`i Pvwn`v I cÖZ¨vkv c~iY K‡i _v‡K| B-weR‡bm, B-Kgvm© †_‡K Avjv`v| BweR‡bm memgq †mBme Kvh©vejxi Dci ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc K‡i †h¸‡jv B‡j±ªwbK mÿgZvi gva¨‡g msMwVZ nq| Avi B-Kgvm© n‡jv B-weR‡bm Gi GKwU Dc‡mU (Sub set) ev Ask| B-weR‡bm m¤ú~Y© †fjy †PBb (Value Chain) Gi mv‡_ m¤úK©hy³| cwi‡k‡l Avgiv ej‡Z cvwi, Kw¤úDUvi ev B›Uvi‡bU e¨envi K‡i hLb Drcv`b, e›Ub ev Drcv`b e›Ub mnvqK hveZxq Kvh©vejx m¤úv`b Kiv nq ZLb Zv‡K B-weR‡bm ev B‡jKUªwbK weR‡bm ejv nq|

B-gv‡K©wUs (E-Marketing) B-gv‡K©wUs Gi c~Y© iƒc n‡jv B‡j±ªwbK gv‡K©wUs| B-gv‡K©wUs A‡bK mgq B›Uvi‡bU gv‡K©wUs ev AbjvBb gv‡K©wUs Gi cÖwZkã wn‡m‡e e¨envi Kiv nq| mvaviY A‡_© B-gv‡K©wUs ej‡Z gv‡K©wUs G bxwZgvjv Ges Kjv‡KŠkj B‡j±ªwbK gva¨g ev B›Uvi‡bU Gi gva¨‡g cÖ‡qvM Kiv‡K eySvq| Ab¨fv‡e ejv hvq, Bgv‡K©wUs ej‡Z †evSvq B›Uvi‡bU e¨envi K‡i †Kvb eªv‡Ûi evRviRvZKiY| GUvi g‡a¨ mivmwi evRviRvZKiY ev c‡ivÿ evRviRvZKiY DfqB i‡q‡Q Ges GLv‡b e¨emvq Ges †µZv‡`i g‡a¨ m¤úK© ¯’vc‡b e¨vcK nv‡i cÖhyw³ e¨envi Kiv nq| B-gv‡K©wUs Gi †ÿ‡Î Avgiv wb‡gœv³ •ewk󨸇jv †`L‡Z cvB: i. B-gv‡K©wUs n‡”Q Kw¤úDUvi c×wZi gva¨‡g B‡j±ªwbK Dcv‡q †µZv I we‡µZvi g‡a¨ †hvMv‡hvM ii. Gi gva¨‡g we‡µZv mn‡R †µZv‡`i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z cv‡i iii. Gi gva¨‡g †µZv‡`i mv‡_ `xN©‡gqvw` m¤úK© ¯’vcb Kiv hvq iv. gv‡K©wUs Gi bxwZgvjv Ges Kjv‡KŠkj B‡j±ªwbK Dcv‡q cÖ‡qvM Kiv nq| cwi‡k‡l ejv hvq, B-gv‡K©wUs ej‡Z H mKj Kvhv©ejx‡K †evSvq †h¸‡jv m¤úv`b Kiv nq World Wide Web (Iqvì© IqvBW I‡qe) Gi gva¨‡g hvi jÿ¨ n‡”Q bZzb e¨emvq‡K AvKl©Y Kiv, eZ©gvb e¨emvq‡K a‡i ivLv Ges GwUi eªv‡Ûi cwiwPwZ e„w× Kiv|


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

Kg©cÎ-1 B-weR‡bm I B-gv‡K©wUs Gi aviYv †_‡K G‡`i g‡a¨ 3wU cv_©K¨ Ly‡u R †ei Ki| B-weR‡bm B-gv‡K©wUs • • •

• • •

B-wi‡UBwjs (E-Retailing) B-wi‡UBwjs Gi c~Y© A_© n‡jv B‡j±ªwbK wi‡UBwjs (Electronic Retailing)| B-wi‡UBwjs n‡jv weR‡bm Uz KbRygvi ev e¨emvq †_‡K †fv³v (B2C) ‡jb‡`‡bi cÖwZkã| mvaviYfv‡e LyPiv cY¨ `ªe¨ B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g wewµ Kiv‡K Bwi‡UBwjs e‡j| e¨vcK A‡_© B-wi‡UBwjs n‡jv we‡µZv KZ…©K mivmwi B›Uvi‡bU ev I‡qe eªvDRv‡ii gva¨‡g †fv³v‡`i Kv‡Q cY¨ `ªe¨ wewµ Kiv| †KD †KD Bnv‡K B-mc, B-‡÷vi, B›Uvi‡bU mc, AbjvBb †÷vi, I‡qe †÷vi BZ¨vw` bv‡g AwfwnZ K‡i| c„w_exi weL¨vZ `yBwU Bwi‡UBwjs n‡jv AvgvRb WU Kg (Amazon.com) Ges B-‡e (e-Bay)| evsjv‡`‡ki weµq WU Kg (bikroy.com) GKwU Bwi‡UBwjs Gi D`vniY| cwi‡k‡l Avgiv ej‡Z cvwi, hLb †Kvb cÖwZôvb mivmwi cY¨ `ªe¨ †`vKv‡b bv mvwR‡q B›Uvi‡b‡Ui gva¨‡g wewfbœ K¨vUvj‡M cY¨ mvwR‡q iv‡L Ges †µZviv mivmwi †`vKv‡b bv G‡m AbjvB‡bi gva¨‡g cY¨ `ªe¨ µq Ki‡Z cv‡i ZLb Zv‡K e‡j B-wi‡UBwjs| AbjvBb e¨emvq (Online Business) wecYb cY¨ I cwi‡mev B›Uvi‡bU e¨envi K‡i AbjvB‡bi gva¨‡g †h e¨emvq Kiv nq Zv‡K AbjvBb e¨emvq e‡j| AbjvBb e¨emv‡q GKwU cÖwZôvb Zvi mKj cY¨-`ªe¨ m¤ú‡K© hveZxq mKj wKQz AbjvBb K¨vUvj‡M w`‡q iv‡L| †h †KD H K¨vUvjM ‡`L‡Z cv‡i I cY¨ cQ›` K‡i AbjvB‡bB c‡Y¨i digv‡qk cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cv‡i| GB digv‡q‡ki gva¨‡gB we‡µZv Zvi cY¨ mieiv‡ni e¨e¯’v K‡i| GB ai‡bi c‡Y¨i g~j¨ AbjvB‡bB cwi‡kva Ki‡Z nq| AbjvBb e¨emv‡qi cÖavb gva¨g wn‡m‡e B›Uvi‡bU e¨envi Kiv nq| B›Uvi‡bU nvRvi nvRvi MÖvnK‡K cY¨ m¤ú‡K© Lye mn‡RB Z_¨ w`‡Z cv‡i, hvi gva¨‡g MÖvnKiv cY¨ m¤ú‡K© AvK…ó nq Ges cY¨ µ‡qi cÖwZ AvMÖnx nq| Z‡e AbjvBb e¨emv‡q wek¦vm Ges mZZv LyeB Riæix| GwU bv _vK‡j G e¨emv‡q mdj nIqv cÖvq Am¤¢e|


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B-e¨vswKs / B‡jKUªwbK e¨vswKs Gi aviYv Concept of E-Banking/Electronic Banking B‡jKUªwbK e¨vswKs c×wZ n‡jv e¨vswKs †mev myweav cÖ`v‡bi AvaywbK †KŠkj ev c×wZ| GwU Ggb GK ai‡bi e¨vswKs †mev c×wZ †hLv‡b DbœZ B‡jKUªwbK cÖhyw³ e¨envi K‡i AwZ`ªæZ, wbf©yj Ges e¨vcK we¯Í…Z †mev cÖ`vb m¤¢e| G ai‡bi e¨vswKs c×wZ mbvZb, KvwqK kªgwbf©i, mxwgZ †mevm¤^wjZ, gš’i, KvMR I bw_i RgvK…Z ¯Íy‡ci †m‡K‡j e¨vswKs c×wZi Aemvb NwU‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki cÖL¨vZ e¨vsK welqK †jLK Wt G Avi Lvb G m¤ú‡K© e‡jb, ÒB‡jKUªwbK e¨vswKs n‡jv DbœZ cÖhyw³wbf©i AvaywbKZg Zworevnx ev DcMÖn wbf©i Kw¤úDUvivwqZ cÖwµqvmg~n hvi gva¨‡g e¨vsK `ªæZZv I wbf©yjZv wbwðZc~e©K MÖvnK‡`i‡K Kvg¨ †mev cÖ`vbmn cvi¯úwiK †hvMv‡hvM ms¯’vc‡b mÿg nq|

B‡jKUªwbK e¨vswKs c×wZmg~n (Methods Of E-Banking)  †nvg e¨vswKs (Home Banking): †nvg e¨vswKs n‡jv Ggb e¨vswKs e¨e¯’v, †hLv‡b e¨vs‡Ki kvLvq bv wM‡q N‡i e‡mB e¨vswKs Kvh©vejx m¤úv`b Kiv‡K †evSvq| †nvg e¨vswKs mvaviYZ †Uwj‡dvb ev B›Uvi‡b‡Ui mvnv‡h¨ m¤úv`b Kiv n‡q _v‡K| hw`I †nvg e¨vswKs 1980 mv‡j ïiæ nq Z_vwc 1990 mv‡ji gvSvgvwS‡Z GwU RbwcÖqZv AR©b K‡i _v‡K| e¨vswKs Gi RbwcÖqZvi Kvi‡Y eZ©gv‡b e¨vswKs e¨e¯’vq e¨vcK cwieZ©b mvwaZ n‡q‡Q|  weµq we›`y †mev (Point of sale (POS): POS ej‡Z Ggb ¯’vb‡K †evSvq †hLv‡b LyPiv †jb‡`b m¤úv`b nq| GUv n‡”Q Ggb GKwU c‡qÈ †hLv‡b cY¨ I †mevi g~j¨ e¨emvqx‡`i‡K cÖ`vb Kiv nq| Avi cY¨ ev †mevi g~j¨ wba©viY Kivi Rb¨ GLv‡b ¯‹¨vbvi ev B‡jKUªwbK †gwkb e¨envi Kiv nq|


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 †gvevBj e¨vswKs (Mobile Bankig): †gvevBj e¨vswKs Ggb GKwU kvLvwenxb wWwRUvj e¨vswKs wm‡÷g hvi gva¨‡g ¯^í Li‡P `ÿZvi mv‡_ e¨vswKs myweavewÂZ gvby‡li wbKU †cuŠQv‡bv hvq| G c×wZi mvnv‡h¨ cÖK…Z Ab-jvBb myweav cvIqv hvq| B›Uvi‡bU e¨envi K‡i †gvevBj e¨vswKs Gi gva¨‡g †gvevB‡j UvKv wiPvR© Kiv hvq| GwU cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbx AwZ Kvw•ÿZ GKwU †mev| wcÖ-†cÖBW c¨v‡K‡R 10 UvKv †_‡K 1000 UvKv ch©šÍ w`‡b m‡e©v”P cuvPevi wiPvR©‡hvM¨| †cv÷‡cBW c¨v‡K‡R 50 UvKv †_‡K 5000 UvKv ch© šÍ w`‡b m‡e©v”P cuvPevi wiPvR©‡hvM¨| G‡Z †Kvb PvR© cÖ‡hvR¨ bq| w`‡b 24 N›Uv, mßv‡n 7 w`b I eQ‡i 365 w`b e¨vswKs myweav| G c×wZ‡Z we‡`k †_‡K A_© †cÖiY I MÖnY, bM` UvKv Rgv/D‡Ëvjb, GK GKvD›U n‡Z Ab¨ GKvD‡›U A_© ¯’vbvšÍi, GKvD‡›Ui e¨v‡jÝ Rvbv, †eZb/fvZv †cÖiY I MÖnY, †gvevBj Uc-Avc (wiPvR©), cY¨ µq-weµq, †h †Kvb †gvevBj †dvb I wmg e¨envi K‡i GB myweav MÖnY, gvÎ 20 UvKv Rgv w`‡q GKvD›U †Lvjvmn Av‡iv A‡bK myweav MÖnY Kiv hvq| evsjv‡`‡k me©cÖ_g WvPevsjv e¨vsK †gvevBj e¨vswKs mvwf©m Pvjy K‡i| ÔGg e¨vswKsÕ bv‡g Bmjvgx e¨vsKI G †mev Pvjy K‡i‡Q|  †WweU KvW© (Debit Card): †WweU KvW© B‡j±ªwbK dvÛ UªvÝdv‡ii GKwU Ab¨Zg c×wZ, hv ÔK¨vkKvW©Õ ev ÔG‡mU KvW©Õ wn‡m‡e eûj cÖPwjZ| GwU e¨vsK I Ab¨vb¨ cÖwZôvb KZ©„K AvgvbZKvix‡K cÖ`Ë Pzw³wfwËK mvs‡KwZK b¤^ihy³ GK ai‡bi we‡kl cøvw÷K KvW©| Gi gva¨‡g B‡j±ªwbK Dcv‡q Znwej ¯’vbvšÍi I AvgvbZ wnmve †_‡K UvKv D‡Ëvjb Kiv hvq| KvW©wU bM` UvKv, †PK ev †µwWU Kv‡W©i weKí wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nq| m”Qj †jvK‡`i wbKU G Kv‡W©i MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv †ewk|  AbjvbB e¨vswKs (Online banking): AbjvBb e¨vswKs n‡jv †Kvb GKK e¨vs‡Ki GKvwaK kvLv ev GKvwaK e¨vs‡Ki wewfbœ kvLvi g‡a¨ Kw¤úDUvi cÖhyw³wbf©i GKUv †bUIqvK© e¨e¯’v| G‡ÿ‡Î †bUIqv‡K©i Aaxb e¨vs‡Ki †h †Kvb kvLvq wM‡q GKRb MÖvnK Zvi e¨vsK wnmv‡ei myweav MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| A_©vr Zv‡`i Kw¤úDUv‡i D³ wnmve †ei K‡i †jb‡`b m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cv‡i| A_© Rgv`vb, A_© msMÖn, †P‡Ki A_© msMÖn, wej cÖ`vb BZ¨vw` bvbvb Kv‡R AbjvBb e¨vswKs †mev Kv‡R jvMv‡bv hvq| Giƒc e¨vswKs GKUv wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b MwÐe× mxwgZ †jb‡`b e¨e¯’v‡K MwÐi evB‡i G‡b e¨vcKfv‡e m¤úªmvwiZ K‡i‡Q Ges bM` A_© en‡bi ev WªvdU K‡i wb‡q Zv fv½v‡bvi cÖ‡qvRb `~i K‡i‡Q|  B-e¨vswKs Gi myweav (Benefits of E-Banking): B-e¨vswKs †_‡K †µZv, e¨vsK wkí Ges mvaviY A_©bxwZ‡Z wewfbœ myweav †c‡q _v‡K| wb‡gœ B-e¨vswKs Gi myweav Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv:  †µZvi myweav (Benefits to customar): †µZviv AbjvBb wnmv‡ei gva¨‡g mn‡RB w`b ivZ 24 N›Uv UvKv D‡Ëvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges †ÿÎwe‡k‡l RgvI w`‡Z cv‡i|


216

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

* bM` UvKv D‡Ëvjb QvovI e¨v‡jÝ AbymÜvb I wgwb e¨vsK †÷U‡g›U †c‡Z mnvqZv K‡i _v‡K| * Bs-e¨vswKs Gi mvnv‡h¨ eZ©gv‡b mn‡RB BDwUwjwU wej cwi‡kva Kiv hvq| Gi Rb¨ Avi N›Uvi ci N›Uv jvB‡b `uvwo‡q _vK‡Z nq bv| * GKUv GKK I‡qe mvBU Gi gva¨‡g e¨vs‡Ki hveZxq Kvh©vewj I myweav m¤ú‡K© Rvbv hvq| * †µwWU Kv‡W©i mvnv‡h¨ we‡k¦i †h‡Kvb †`k †_‡K cb¨ †Kbv hvq| Gi Rb¨ Avi †ccvi †bvU enb Ki‡Z nq bv| †WweU Kv‡W©i mvnv‡h¨ †`‡ki †h †Kvb kvLv †_‡K UvKv D‡Ëvjb Kiv hv‡e|

*

 e¨vs‡Ki myweav (Benefits to Bank): B-e¨vswKs Gi Kvi‡Y †µZvi cvkvcvwk e¨vsK BÛvw÷ª I A‡bK myweav †c‡q _v‡K hvi D‡jøL‡hvM¨¸‡jv n‡jv: * B-e¨vswKs Gi Kvi‡Y e¨vs‡Ki A‡bK cwiPvjbv e¨q Ges Dcwi e¨q n«vm cvq| * A‡bK KvR AbjvB‡bi gva¨‡g Kivq Kgx©‡`i `ÿZv e„w× †c‡q‡Q Ges wbqš¿Y Kivi ÿgZv e„w× †c‡q‡Q| * B-e¨vswKs Gi Kvi‡Y e¨vsK¸‡jvi g‡a¨ cÖwZ‡hvwMZv †e‡o‡Q, me e¨vsK GLb Av‡iv DbœZ †mev cÖ`v‡bi †Póv Ki‡Q hv e¨vsK e¨e¯’v Dbœq‡b ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Q| * B-e¨vswKs mn‡RB Zv‡`i †jb‡`b¸‡iv WKz‡g›U AvKv‡i msiÿY Ki‡Z cv‡i| * kvLv †bUIqv‡K©i Zzjbvq Kw¤úDUvi †bUIqvK© `ªæZ KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i| †µZv Ges e¨vswKs BÛvw÷ªR Gi Dbœq‡bi cvkvcvwk mvaviY A_©bxwZ‡ZI B-e¨vswKs ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Q ZvB w`b w`b B-e¨vswKs Gi e¨envi evo‡Q| Kg©cÎ-2 GwUGg KvW© e¨env‡ii Kvi‡Y mbvZb c×wZ A‡cÿv †h myweav¸‡jv cvIqv hvq Zvi GKUv ZvwjKv •Zwi Ki| • • • • •

• • • • •


e¨emv‡qi Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i e¨envi

217

eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ: 1|

2|

me©cÖ_g †gvevBj e¨vswKs Kvh©µg ïiæ nq KZ mv‡j? K. 1932

L. 1934

M. 1994

N. 1997

B-Kgvm© ej‡Z wb‡gœi †KvbwU‡K eySvq? K. B‡j±ªwbK Dcv‡q cY¨ I †mev mvgMÖx µq-weµq L. e¨emv‡qi mKj Kvh©µ‡g mnvqZv Kiv M. B›Uvi‡bU gva¨g cÖ‡qvM Kiv N. e¨vswKs Kg© cwiPvjbv Kiv

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges 3 I 4 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| wg. †iRv Ggb GKwU e¨vs‡K wnmve Ly‡j‡Qb †hLv‡b DbœZZi cÖhyw³ e¨envi K‡i AwZ`ªæZ, wbf©~j Ges e¨vcK †mev cÖ`vb K‡i| GQvovI e¨vsK Zv‡K wewfbœ AvaywbK †mev myweavI Advi Ki‡Q|

3|

wg. †iRvi e¨vsK e¨e¯’vi aibwU †Kgb? K. B-e¨vswKs L. wgkÖ e¨vswKs M. †PBb e¨vswKs N. MÖæc e¨vswKs

4|

e¨vsK wg. †iRv‡K †h mKj AvayywbK myweav Advi Ki‡Q Zv n‡Z cv‡i− i. †WweU KvW© ii. †µwWU KvW© iii. jKvi fvov wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK ? K. i I ii

L. i I iii

M. ii I iii

N. i, ii I iii


218

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

m„Rbkxj cÖkœ: 1|

Rvwid XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi n‡j _v‡K| Zvi evev †MvcvjMÄ m`‡i WvP-evsjv e¨vsK †_‡K †Q‡ji Rb¨ UvKv cvVvb| DbœZ cÖhyw³i gva¨‡g cuvP wgwbU ciB Rvwid XvKvi WvP-evsjv e¨vsK, avbgwÛ kvLv †_‡K UvKv DVvq| e¨vsKwU eZ©gv‡b AviI AvaywbK cÖhyw³ †mev †hgb−UvKv Rgv I D‡Ëvjb, cY¨ I †mev µ‡qi g~j¨ cwi‡kva, wewfbœ ai‡bi wej cwi‡kva, †eZb-fvZv BZ¨vw` my‡hvM-myweavi †ÿ‡Î GK avc GwM‡q Av‡Q| K. B-wi‡UBwjs Kx? L. B-weR‡bm ej‡Z Kx eySvq? M. †Kvb ai‡bi e¨vswKs e¨ve¯’vi myev‡` Rvwid `ªæZ UvKv DVv‡Z †c‡i‡Q−e¨vL¨v Ki| N. WvP-evsjv e¨vs‡Ki AviI AvaywbK cÖhyw³ ej‡Z Kx ai‡bi cÖhyw³i K_v ejv n‡q‡Q? DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K we‡kølY Ki|

2|

iv‡mj I gvmy` `yB eÜz| iv‡mj PvKyix K‡i Ges gvmy` e¨emv K‡i| iv‡mj •`bw›`b cÖ‡qvR‡b wewfbœ mg‡q Zvi wnmve †_‡K ATM ey_ GK ai‡bi Kv‡W©i gva¨‡g A_© D‡Ëvjb K‡i| Ab¨w`‡K gvmy` Zvi e¨vs‡K wnmve bv _vKv m‡Ë¡I we‡kl Kv‡W©i gva¨‡g A_© D‡Ëvjb I †KbvKvUv Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges cieZ©x‡Z wbw`©ó mg‡q my`mn A_© †diZ w`‡Z nq| K. B-Kgvm© Kx? L. †gvevBj e¨vswKs ej‡Z Kx eySvq? M. iv‡mj †h Kv‡W©i gva¨‡g A_© D‡Ëvjb K‡i Zv‡K Kx e‡j? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. gvmy‡`i e¨eüZ KvW©wU Kx bv‡g cwiwPZ? GB ai‡bi KvW© e¨env‡ii †hŠw³KZv we‡kølY Ki|


Øv`k Aa¨vq

e¨emvq •bwZKZv I mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv ETHICS IN BUSINESS & SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES e¨emv‡qi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ gybvdv AR©b ZeyI e¨emvq cÖwZôvb‡K •bwZKZv I mvgvwRK `vqe×Zvi welqwU †g‡b Pj‡Z nq| e¨emvq m¤úª`v‡qi m`m¨ wn‡m‡e e¨emvq D‡`¨v³v‡K g~j¨‡eva I •bwZKZv m¤ú‡K© BwZevPK `„wófw½ cvjb Ki‡Z nq|

G Aa¨vq cvV †k‡l Avgiv Rvb‡Z cvi‡ev− • e¨emvwqK g~j¨‡eva I •bwZKZvi aviYv| •

e¨emvwqK g~j¨‡eva I •bwZKZvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv|

• e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zvi aviYv| • e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vq×Zvi ¸iæZ¡mg~n| • mvgvwRK `vqe×Zvi †ÿθ‡jv wPwýZKiY| • e¨emvwqK Kvi‡Y cwi‡ek `~l‡Yi cÖfve| • cwi‡ek msiÿ‡Y ewYK mwgwZ / e¨emvq msMVbmg~‡ni `vwqZ¡mg~n| • mvgvwRK `vqe×Zvi Ask wn‡m‡e wewfbœ e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi M„wnZ Kvh©µg| • Lv`¨ msiÿ‡Y †h mKj ivmvqwbK e¨envi nq †m¸‡jvi ÿwZKi w`K mbv³KiY| • ivmvqwb‡Ki e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g Drcvw`Z Lv‡`¨i ÿwZKi w`K¸‡jv| • ÿwZKviK cwjw_b Drcv`b I e¨env‡ii ÿwZKi w`K¸‡jv| • Lv`¨ Drcv`b I msiÿ‡Y ivmvqwb‡Ki e¨env‡i mZK©Zv I KiYxq w`K¸‡jv|


220

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

12. 1 e¨emvwqK g~j¨‡eva I •bwZKZvi aviYv Concept of Business Values and Ethics •bwZKZv I g~j¨‡eva e¨emvq RM‡Z GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq| g~j¨‡eva n‡jv Ggb me AvPvi-AvPiY I Kg©cÖwµqvi mgwó, hv gvbyl‡K wbqš¿Y I cwiPvjbv K‡i| g~j¨‡eva I •bwZKZv‡eva gvbyl‡K b¨vqAb¨vq, wVK-†ewVK, fv‡jv-g‡›`i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wPwýZ Ki‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| mvaviY gvbyl AvRI mrfv‡e Rxebhvcb K‡i RxweKvi ms¯’vb Ki‡Z Pvq Ges mgv‡R GLbI wKQy msL¨K e¨emvqx Av‡Qb hviv mr e¨emvqx wn‡m‡e mvgvwRK ¯^xK…wZ †c‡q‡Qb| e¨emv‡q •bwZKZvi weKvk I g~j¨‡ev‡ai Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ ivóªxq D‡`¨v‡M AvBb-Kvbyb cÖeZ©b †hgb cÖ‡qvRb, †Zgwb mvgvwRK m‡PZbZvI Acwinvh©| cvðv‡Z¨i †`k¸‡jv‡Z e¨emvq-evwY‡R¨i †ÿ‡Î †h g~j¨‡eva I •bwZKZvi gvb cÖwZôv jvf K‡i‡Q Zv GKw`‡b nqwb Ges ïay ivóªxq D‡`¨v‡MI nqwb| DbœZ †`k¸‡jvi e„n`vqZb e¨emvq cÖwZôvb¸‡jv‡Z •bwZKZv wewa-weavb cÖYqb I Abymi‡Yi Ici †hfv‡e ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc Kiv nq Avgv‡`i †`‡kI Zv Ki‡Z n‡e| GK_v wVK †h, e¨emvwqK g~j¨‡eva I •bwZKZvi Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ Avgv‡`i †`‡ki AvBbKvbyb LyeB Ach©vß| wKš‘ †h mxwgZ msL¨K AvBbKvbyb G‡`‡k Av‡Q †m¸‡jviI myôz ev¯Íevqb †bB| e¨emv‡q g~j¨‡eva I •bwZKZvi Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ ivóª I mgvR- Dfq‡K GwM‡q Avm‡Z n‡e| Zvn‡j A`~i fwel¨‡Z e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î •bwZKZv I g~j¨‡ev‡ai Dbœqb NU‡e e‡j Avkv Kiv hvq|

12.2 e¨emvwqK g~j¨‡eva Business Values g~ j ¨‡eva n‡jv Ggb me AvPvi-AvPiY I Kg© c Ö w µqvi mgwó, hv gvby l ‡K wbqš¿ Y I cwiPvjbv K‡i| mZZv, b¨vqcivqYZv, wkóvPvi, k„ • Ljv, †m․Rb¨, mnbkxjZv, mngwg© Z v BZ¨vw` gvbweK ¸Yvewj n‡”Q g~ j ¨‡ev‡ai Dcv`vb| g~ j ¨‡eva gvby l ‡K Zvi Kg© K v‡Ûi fv‡jv-g›` w`K Aby a veb Ki‡Z mnvqZv K‡i| Ab¨w`‡K e¨emvwqK g~ j ¨‡eva ej‡Z Ggb GKwU gvb`Û‡K ey S vq hvi Dci wfwË K‡i e¨emvwqK ixwZ-bxwZ, wPšÍ v †PZbv, a¨vb-aviYv Z_v e¨emvwqK Kg© K vÛ cwiPvwjZ n‡q _v‡K| e¨emvq RM‡Z †hme g~j¨‡eva me©Rb ¯^xK…wZ jvf Ki‡Q Zv wb‡gœ D‡jøL Kiv n‡jv− 1. 2.

m‡e©v”P †fv³v mš‘wó wbwðZKi‡Yi gva¨‡gB gybvdvi m‡e©v”PKiY m¤¢e| ZvB MÖvnK mšÍywó weav‡b m¤¢e mewKQz Kiv DwPZ| cÖwZôv‡b Kg©iZ Rbkw³i Kvh© mšÍywói Dci cÖwZôv‡bi mvdj¨ wbf©ikxj| ZvB Zv‡`i mš‘wó AR©‡b Avw_©K I Abvw_©K mKj ai‡bi cÖ‡Yv`bv †`qv DwPZ|


e¨emvq •bwZKZv I mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv

3. 4. 5. 6.

221

mswkøó mK‡ji mv‡_ DËg †hvMv‡hvM I fv‡jv m¤úK© e¨emvwqK Dbœq‡bi PvweKvwV| ZvB m¤úK© m„wó, m¤úK© iÿv Ges wbqwgZ †hvMv‡hvM e¨emvwqK mg„w× AR©‡bi nvwZqvi| MÖvnK‡`i mv‡_ cÖZ¨ÿ m¤úK© ¯’vcb ev mivmwi Av‡e`b m„wói gva¨‡gB evRv‡i Ae¯’v mymsnZ Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| mgvR m¤ú‡K© D`vmxb †_‡K e¨emvq‡K GwM‡q †bqv m¤¢e bq| ZvB h_vm¤¢e mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡cvj‡b m‡Pó nIqv `iKvi| mybvg e¨emv‡qi eo m¤ú`| hv mZZv, AvšÍwiKZv, †hvM¨Zv I cvi¯úwiK kª×v‡ev‡ai gva¨‡g M‡o †Zvjv m¤¢e|

12.3 e¨emvq •bwZKZv ev e¨emvqx wkóvPvi Business Ethics †hme mvgvwRK wKsev AvBbMZ ixwZ-bxwZ AbymiY K‡i e¨emvqx‡K Zvi e¨emvq Kh©µg cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z nq, Zv‡K e¨emvq •bwZKZv ejv hvq| •bwZKZv gvbyl‡K mr I mwVK Kv‡Ri c_ cÖ`k©b K‡i, gvby‡li g‡a¨ `vwqZ¡‡eva RvMÖZ K‡i| Encyclopedia America -†Z ejv n‡q‡Q, Ò •bwZKZv n‡”Q `k©‡bi Ggb GKwU kvLv, hvi gva¨‡g gvbyl †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó Kvh©µg ev AvPvi-AvPiY m¤ú‡K© mwVK g~j¨vqb I wm×všÍ Mªn‡Y m‡Pó nq|Ó e¨emv‡qi †ÿ‡Î †h •bwZKZv ev wkóvPvi mKj mgv‡RB ¯^xK…wZ jvf K‡i‡Q Zv wb‡gœ Zz‡j aiv n‡jv| • mKj †ÿ‡Î mZZv eRvq ivLv I wbf©iZvi ¸Y AR©b Kiv| • †Kv‡bv ai‡bi cÖZviYv, kVZv I †avKvevwRi AvkÖq MÖnY bv Kiv| • evRv‡i K…wÎg msKU m„wó K‡i cY¨g~j¨ e„w× bv Kiv| • miKvwi wbqg-ixwZ †g‡b Pjv| • cwi‡ek iÿvq mva¨ g‡Zv f~wgKv ivLv| • ÿwZKi I †eAvBwb cY¨ Drcv`b ev weµq bv Kiv|

12.4

e¨emvwqK g~j¨‡eva I •bwZKZvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Necessity of Business Values and Ethics

evsjv‡`‡k e¨emvq •bwZKZvi cÖ‡qvM A‡bK †ÿ‡Î m‡šÍvlRbK bq| A_©‣bwZK `yie¯’v I nxbgb¨Zv †eva M‡o D‡V‡Q| wkÿvi Afv‡e gvby‡li gv‡S MZvbyMwZK wPšÍv I fveaviv we`¨gvb| Lv`¨ `ª‡e¨ †fRvj, wbgœgv‡bi cY¨ •Zwi, IR‡b Kg, digvwjbhy³ gvQ I djg~j, Jl‡a †fRvj, PjvP‡ji A‡hvM¨ hvbevn‡b iv¯Ívq PjvPj e¨emv‡q A‣bwZK Kvh©Kjv‡ci D`vniY| Giƒc Ae¯’vq mgv‡R •bwZKZv I g~j¨‡ev‡ai cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Acwimxg|


222

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

e¨emvqxiv Zv‡`i cÖ¯‘ZK…Z cY¨ ev †mev weµq K‡i RxebaviY K‡i| Zv‡`i •bwZK `vwqZ¡ n‡jv mwVK mg‡q gvbm¤§Z cY¨ ev †mev mieivn Kiv| e¨emv‡qi g~j jÿ¨ gybvdv AR©b n‡jI e¨emvqx‡`i g‡b ivLv DwPZ mgv‡Ri cÖwZ Zv‡`i A‡bK `vwqZ¡ Av‡Q Ges G Kv‡R Ae‡njv ev Abxnv e¨emv‡qi Rb¨ Kj¨vYKi bq|

• •

•bwZKZv ev wkóvPv‡ii mKj bxwZ¸‡jv AbymiY Ki‡j e¨emvqx‡`i wm×všÍ MÖnY mwVK n‡e|

e¨emvq GKwU mvgvwRK cÖwZôvb| mgv‡Ri wewfbœ ¯Í‡ii gvby‡li fv‡jv-g›`, Kj¨vY †`Lv GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© `vwqZ¡|

†`kxq I AvšÍR©vwZK AvB‡bi cÖwZ kÖ×v cÖ`k©b K‡i e¨emvqx‡`i e¨emvq MVb I cwiPvjbv Kiv DwPZ|

Lv‡`¨ †fRvj I Jlac‡Î †fRv‡ji Kvi‡Y gvbyl RwUj †iv‡M AvµvšÍ n‡”Q| •bwZKZv I g~j¨‡evaB cv‡i G fqven cwiYwZ n‡Z iÿv Ki‡Z|

mgv‡Ri m¤§vb I kÖ×v †c‡Z n‡j e¨emvq •bwZKZv I g~j¨‡eva Aej¤^‡bi weKí †bB| Kg©cÎ-1

†Zvgvi GjvKvq Ggb 3wU cÖwZôvb wbe©vPb Ki hviv •bwZKZvi mv‡_ e¨emv K‡i Ges 3wU cÖwZôvb wbe©vPb Ki hviv •bwZKZvi mv‡_ e¨emv K‡i bv| •bwZKZvi mv‡_ e¨emv K‡i • • •

•bwZKZvi mv‡_ e¨emv K‡i bv • • •

12.5 e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zvi aviYv Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv ej‡Z e¨emv cÖwZôv‡bi Ggb Kvh©‡K †evSvq hv mgvR I cwi‡e‡ki Dbœqb, mgm¨v `~ixKiY Ges DbœZ cwi‡ek I mgvR M‡o †Zvjvi mv‡_ m¤úK©hy³| e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zvi D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv mgvR I cwi‡e‡ki Dci e¨emv‡qi cÖfve DbœZ Kiv| mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv †Kvb AvBbMZ eva¨evaKZv Ges cwi‡ekev`x‡`i Av‡›`vj‡bi evB‡i m„wó nq| GwU‡K K‡c©v‡iU wmwU‡Rb (Corporate Citizen) bv‡g A‡b‡K AwfwnZ K‡i‡Q| G‡ÿ‡Î †Kv¤úvwb †hUv e¨q Ki‡e Zv ZrÿbvZ wd‡i cv‡e bv| wKšÍy GwU mgvR I cwi‡e‡ki BwZevPK cwieZ©b Avb‡e| †hgb WvPevsjv e¨vsK `wi`ª wkÿv_©x‡`i Rb¨ 102 †KvwU UvKvi wkÿve„wË w`‡q‡Q| G‡Z wkÿvi nvi †e‡o‡Q| cwi‡k‡l ej‡Z cvwi, e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv ej‡Z e¨emv‡qi A_©‣bwZK Dbœqb I •bwZK AvPi‡Yi GKwU Pjgvb A½xKvi‡K †evSvq †hLv‡b Kgx©‡`i RxebhvÎvi gvb Dbœqb, ¯’vbxq Awaevmx Ges m‡e©vcwi mgv‡Ri mvwe©K Dbœq‡bi KvR nq|


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12.6 e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vq×Zvi ¸iæZ¡mg~n Importance of Social Responsibilities of Business GKUv mgq wQj hLb e¨emvq cÖwZôvb †h‡Kvb Dcv‡q A_© DcvR©‡bi †Póv KiZ| ZLb e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv e‡j wKQz wQjbv| wKš‘ eZ©gv‡b †fv³v ev bvMwiKiv AwaK m‡PZb| hvi Kvi‡Y w`b w`b e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv evo‡Q| wb‡gœ e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zvi ¸iæZ¡ ms‡ÿ‡c Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv− 1.

e¨vÛ B‡gR I L¨vwZ e„ w ×: e¨emvq mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv mwVKfv‡e cvjb Ki‡j gvby l Rb D³ cÖ w Zôvb m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cv‡i| hvi d‡j cÖ w Zôv‡bi eª v Û B‡gR Ges L¨vwZ e„ w × cvq|

2.

weµq e„w×: cÖwZôv‡bi hLb ÿwZ ev‡o Ges RbMY D³ cÖwZôvb m¤ú‡K© Rv‡b ZLb cÖwZôv‡bi weµq e„w× cvq| ZvQvov eZ©gvb †µZv‡`i‡K I a‡i ivLv m¤¢e nq|

3.

Drcv`b I c‡b¨i ¸bv¸Y e„w×: GKwU cÖwZôvb hLb mwVKfv‡e Zvi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv cvjb K‡i ZLb †m me mgq c‡Y¨i ¸Yv¸b e„w×i †Póv K‡i| G‡Z c‡b¨i ¸bv¸b e„w× cvq Ges Drcv`b I ev‡o|

4.

bZzb Kgx‡`i AvKl©Y Kiv Ges eZ©gvb Kg©x‡`i a‡i ivLv: mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv cvj‡bi gva¨‡g cÖwZôv‡bi B‡gR ev‡o| G‡Z bZzb bZzb Kgx©iv D³ cÖwZôv‡bi cÖwZ AvMÖnx nq| wVK GKBfv‡e eZ©gvb Kg©xiv I D³ cÖwZôvb †Q‡o †h‡Z Pvq bv|

5.

c‡b¨i wbivcËv e„w× Ges `vq n«vm: mvgvwRK `vqe×Zvi Kvi‡Y Drcv`K DbœZgv‡bi cY¨ Drcv`‡bi †Póv K‡i| Avwi cY¨ hv‡Z mn‡R bó bv nq †m Rb¨ me mgq c‡Y¨i wbivcËvi Dci ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc Kiv nq| c‡Y¨i wbivcËvi Kvi‡Y cY¨ bó n‡j †h SzuwK MÖnY Ki‡Z nq Zvi cwigvY n«vm cvq|

6.

m¤cÖ ` vq I mvavib gvby ‡ li Kj¨vY: A‡bK mgq e¨emv cÖ w Zôv Zvi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv wn‡m‡e ¯’ v bxq gvby l ‡`i‡K †Wv‡bkb cÖ ` vb K‡i, Mixe wkÿv_x© ‡ `i‡K wkÿv DcKiY cÖ ` vb K‡i, iv¯Í v Nv‡Ui Dbœ q ‡b KvR K‡i| G‡Z ¯’ v bxq m¤cÖ ` vq I mvaviY gvby ‡ li Kj¨vY nq|


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12.7 e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ Social Responsibilities of Business AZx‡Z gybvdv AR©bB wQj e¨emv‡qi GKgvÎ D‡Ïk¨| wKš‘ eZ©gvb me©Rb ¯^xK…Z †h, †Kej gybvdv AR©bB e¨emv‡qi D‡Ïk¨ n‡Z cv‡i bv| gybvdv AR©‡bi cvkvcvwk G‡K mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡I cvjb Ki‡Z nq| e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ ej‡Z e¨emv‡qi mv‡_ mswkó mgv‡Ri wewfbœ e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi cÖwZ `vwqZ¡ cvjb Kiv‡K eySvq| e¨emv‡qi mv‡_ RwoZ wewfbœ cÿmg~n †hgb, †µZv, kªwgKÑKg©x, wewb‡qvMKvix, mieivnKvix, cvIbv`vi, miKvi, Ges mgv‡Ri RbMYG‡`i cÖwZ e¨emvq‡K cÖZ¨ÿ I c‡ivÿfv‡e A‡bK `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z nq| e¨emv‡qi mv‡_ mswkó Kg©x, mgv‡Ri mvaviY RbMY I miKv‡ii cÖwZ e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi gvwjK ev cwiPvjKMY ev D‡`¨v³vMY‡K †h `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z nq Zv‡K e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ ejv hvq|

12.8 e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zvi †ÿÎmg~n The Area of Corporate Social Responsibilities e¨emvq GKwU mvgvwRK cÖwZôvb| wewb‡qvMKvix, †µZv, kªwgK-Kgx©, cvIbv`vi, miKvi, mvaviY RbMY, KvuPvgvj mieivnKvix BZ¨vw` mK‡jB mgv‡Ri A½| gybvdv AR©‡bi cvkvcvwk G‡`i cÖwZ e¨emv‡qi A‡bK `vwqZ¡ i‡q‡Q| wb‡gœ e¨emv‡qi mv‡_ mswkó mgv‡Ri wewfbœ c‡ÿi cÖwZ e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ eY©bv Kiv nj|

kªwgK-Kg©x‡`i cÖwZ `vqe×Zv Responsibility to Employees kªwgK-Kg©x e¨emv‡qi g~j kw³| Zviv e¨emv‡qi mKj ¯Í‡i wb‡qvwRZ †_‡K e¨emvq cÖwZôvb‡K cwiPvwjZ K‡i Gi Afxó jÿ¨ AR©‡b mnvqZv K‡i| Zv‡`i cÖwZ e¨emv‡qi `vwqZ¡ n‡”QÑ K. Zv‡`i‡K b¨vh¨ cvwikªwgK cÖ`vb Kiv ; L. Zv‡`i mv‡_ fvj e¨envi Kiv ; M. Zv‡`i Rb¨ myôz Kvh© cwi‡ek M‡o †Zvjv ; N. Zv‡`i Ges Zv‡`i ¯¿x-mšÍvb‡`i Rb¨ wPwKrmvi e¨e¯’v Kiv|


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Zv‡`i mšÍvb-mšÍywZi wkÿvi e¨e¯’v Kiv ; Zv‡`i e¨w³MZ •bcyY¨ e„w×i Rb¨ Dchy³ cÖwkÿY I Dbœq‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv| kªwgK-Kg©x‡`i PvKwii wbivcËv weavb Kiv ; Zv‡`i gbmšÍywó weav‡bi Rb¨ we‡bv`bg~jK my‡hvM-myweavi e¨e¯’v Kiv ; PvKwi †k‡l Zv‡`i AemiKvjxb †cbk‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv BZ¨vw`|

†µZvM‡Yi cÖwZ `vqe×Zv Responsibility to Customers mgv‡Ri †fvMKvix †µZvMYB e¨emvq cwiPvjbvi jÿ¨we›`y| Zuviv cY¨mvgMÖx µq Ki‡j Drcv`b Ae¨vnZ MwZ‡Z P‡j Ges e¨emvwqK Kvh©µg m¤cÖmvwiZ nq| †Kbbv cY¨mvgMÖx Drcv`b Kiv nq †µZvmvavi‡Yi Pvwn`v I Afve c~i‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨; wKš‘ †µZvi Afv‡e e¨emv‡qi G D‡Ïk¨ cÛ n‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| myZivs mgv‡Ri †fvMKvix †µZvmvavi‡Yi cÖwZ e¨emv‡qi wbæewY©Z `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z nq− K.

†µZvM‡Yi Afve †gvP‡bi Rb¨ Pvwn`vbyhvqx cY¨`ªe¨ I †mevKg©vw` mieivn Kiv;

L.

wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b I wba©vwiZ mg‡q b¨vh¨g~‡j¨ ch©vß cwigv‡Y cY¨mvgMÖx mieivn Kiv;

M.

†µZv‡`i mš‘wó weav‡b c‡Y¨i ¸YMZ gvb DbœZ Kiv;

N.

mieivnK…Z cY¨ m¤ú‡K© †µZvmvavi‡Yi wbKU †_‡K †Kv‡bv Awf‡hvM G‡j Zv h_vh_ we‡ePbvq G‡b ÎæwU-wePy¨wZi cÖwZweav‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv;

O.

bZzb bZzb cY¨ Avwe®‥v‡ii gva¨‡g †µZv‡`i AZ…ß evmbv PwiZv_© K‡i Zv‡`i myL ¯^v”Q›`¨ e„w× Kiv BZ¨vw`| Kg©cÎ-2

†Zvgv‡`i K‡j‡Ri K¨vw›UbwU †µZv‡`i cÖwZ †h `vwqZ¡¸‡jv Av‡Q Zvi †KvbwU cvjb Ki‡Q Avi Ki‡Q bv Zvi GKwU ZvwjKv •Zwi Ki| `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Q `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Q bv; •


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e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

wewb‡qvMKvix‡`i cÖwZ `vqe×Zv Responsibility to Investors wewb‡qvMKvix A_© wewb‡qvM K‡i g~jZ: Avq e„w×i cÖZ¨vkvq| myZivs, hviv e¨emv‡q A_© wewb‡qvM K‡i, Zviv hv‡Z wewb‡qv‡M DrmvwnZ nq †mB j‡ÿ¨ e¨emv‡qi `vwqZ¡ n‡”Q− K. L. M. N.

wewb‡qv‡Mi Ici b¨vh¨ nv‡i Avq cÖvwßi myweav cÖ`vb Kiv ; wewb‡qvMKvixi wewb‡qvMK…Z A‡_©i wbivcËv weavb Kiv ; wewb‡qvwRZ A‡_©i mØe¨envi Kiv ; Zuv‡`i‡K e¨emv‡hi cªK…Z Ae¯’v AewnZ Kiv BZ¨vw`|

mieivnKvix I cvIbv`vi ev FY`vZvi cÖwZ `vqe×Zv Responsibility to Suppliers and Creditors e¨emv‡qi Drcv`b Kvh©‡K Ae¨vnZ ivL‡Z Ges e¨emvwqK Kvh©µg‡K mvejxj MwZ‡Z Pvjy ivLvi †ÿ‡Î KuvPvgvj mieivnKvix I FY`vZv‡`i ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv i‡q‡Q| myZivs Zv‡`i cÖwZI e¨emv‡qi KwZcq `vwqZ¡ _v‡K| †m¸‡jv wbgœiƒc− K. mieivnKvix KZ©„K mieivnK…Z KuvPvgv‡ji Dchy³ g~j¨ cÖ`vb Kiv ; L. FY`vZv‡`i F‡Yi Ici wbqwgZ my` cÖ`vb Kiv ; M. F‡Yi UvKv mgqgZ cwi‡kva Kiv BZ¨vw`|

miKv‡ii cÖwZ `vqe×Zv Responsibility to Government miKvi ev iv‡óªi mn‡hvwMZv bv †c‡j e¨emvq mg„w× AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i bv ; Ggb wK e¨emv‡qi Aw¯ÍZ¡B wejxb n‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| e¨emvqx‡K ZvB me mgqB miKv‡ii KvQ †_‡K wewfbœ A_©‣bwZK I ivR‣bwZK wbðqZv jvf Ki‡Z nq Ges Gi wewbg‡q e¨emvqx‡K miKv‡ii cÖwZ wb‡æv³ `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z nq− K. miKvwi AvBb-Kvbyb, ixwZ-bxwZ I wewa cÖ`vb Kiv ; L. miKvi‡K wbqwgZ b¨vqm½Z Ki cÖ`vb Kiv ; M. ivóªwe‡ivax Kvh©Kjvc †_‡K weiZ _vKv ; N. RvZxq m¤ú‡`i mبenvi Kiv ; O e¨vcK Kg©ms¯’v‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv BZ¨vw`|


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GjvKvi cÖwZ `vqe×Zv Responsibility to Community e¨emvq †h ¯’v‡b cÖwZwôZ nq †mLv‡b Kj-KviLvbvi †auvqv, AveR©bv BZ¨vw`i Rb¨ cvwb, gvwU, AvenvIqv Ges cwi‡ek `~wlZ n‡Z cv‡i| G‡Z ¯’vbxq Awaevmx‡`i hv‡Z ¯^v¯’¨nvwb bv N‡U †mRb¨ e¨emvq‡K wKQy `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z nq; Zv wbæiƒc− K. cwi‡e‡ki my¯’Zv eRvq ivLv; L. GjvKvi iv¯ÍvNvU Dbœq‡b mnvqZv `vb; M. GjvKvevmxi Kj¨v‡Y ¯‥zj-K‡j‡R, gmwR`-gw›`i, nvmcvZvj, cvVvMvi BZ¨vw` ¯’vc‡b mwµq mn‡hvwMZv Kiv; N. GjvKvi ÿwZMÖ¯Í RbM‡Yi Rb¨ ÎvY I cybe©vm‡bi Kv‡R AskMÖnY Kiv BZ¨vw`|

mgv‡Ri mvaviY RbM‡Yi cÖwZ `vqe×Zv Responsibility to General People of the Society mgv‡Ri Avcvgi RbM‡Yi cÖwZ e¨emv‡qi eûgywL `vwqZ¡ i‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨ KwZcq D‡jL‡hvM¨ `vwqZ¡ wb‡æ Zz‡j aiv nj− K. RbM‡Yi wbZ¨cÖ‡qvRbxq cY¨mvgMÖx Drcv`b Kiv ; L. RbM‡Yi Rb¨ ÿwZKviK Ggb me †fRvj I `~wlZ cY¨mvgMÖx mieivn bv Kiv ; M. mgv‡Ri RbM‡Yi Rb¨ Kg©ms¯’v‡bi my‡hvM m„wó Kiv ; N. `ªe¨g~‡j¨i w¯’wZkxjZv eRvq ivLv ; O. AwkwÿZ, Aa©wkwÿZ I Aÿg e¨w³‡`i wewfbœ cÖKvi cÖwkÿY Kg©m~wPi gva¨‡g DcvR©bÿg K‡i †Zvjv ; P. RbM‡Yi ¯^v_©iÿv Ges wkÿv I ms¯‥…wZi Dbœq‡b mn‡hvwMZv cÖ`vb ; Q. e¨emv‡qi gybvdvi wKq`sk mgv‡Ri Kj¨v‡Y e¨q Kiv ; R. mgv‡Ri mvwe©K jÿ¨ ev¯Íevq‡b BwZevPK f~wgKv cvjb Kiv|

12.9 e¨emvwqK Kvi‡Y cwi‡ek `~l‡Yi cÖfve The Impact of Pollution Created by Business wek¦ cwi‡e‡ki `ªæZ AebwZ n‡”Q, evsjv‡`‡k MZ K‡qK `k‡K G AebwZ n‡q‡Q AviI `ª æZ| evsjv‡`‡k 1995 mv‡j e¨emvq cwi‡ek AvBb cvm n‡q‡Q| wKš‘ Rbwe‡ùviY, ebv‡ji Aeÿq I NvUwZ Ges wkí I cwienb wbqš¿Y e¨e¯’vi Afv‡ei `iæY †`‡ki e¨emvwqK cwi‡ek GK RwUj Ae¯’vi w`‡K †cu․Qv‡Z hv‡”Q|


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kã `~lY Sound Pollution µgea©gvb RbmsL¨vi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb nq evowZ hvbevnb I Ab¨vb¨ KjKviLvbv| Gme Mvwo KjKviLvbv †_‡K wbM©Z †avqv cwi‡ek‡K gvivZ¥K fv‡e `~wlZ K‡i| kã `~lY I cwi‡e‡ki `~l‡Yi Ab¨Zg KviY| KviLvbv I Mvwo-†Nvov Qvov I gvBK, jvDW w¯úKvi, †iwWI, wUwf cÖK…wZi AvIqvR kã`~l‡Yi m„wó K‡i| G‡Z K‡i gvby‡li GKK kw³ †jvc cvq| i³Pvc e„w× cvq, KLbI †`Lv hvq gvbwmK wech©q| GQvov KjKviLvbv Av‡k cv‡ki ¯’vqx evwm›`v‡`i wkï mšÍvbiv Kg †ewk ewai n‡Z †`Lv hvq|

evqy `~lY I Zvi djvdj Air Pollution and Its Consequences Avgv‡`i cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡`i Ab¨Zg m¤¢vi n‡jv evqy| evqy `~l‡Yi g~‡j Av‡Q KjKviLvbv, †gvUi Mvwo, †Uªb, Nievwo I e¨emv evwYR¨ cÖwZôv‡bi DËvc m„wói hš¿cvwZ Ges bvbv AveR©bv| e¨emv cÖwZôv‡b Rxevk¥ R¡vjvwb A_©vr †Zj, Kqjv BZ¨vw` cywo‡q Kve©b-WvB A·vB evZv‡m Qwo‡q †`Iqv †K¬v‡ivd¬z‡ivwg‡_b, bvBUªvm A·vBW, Av‡jvK ivmvqwbK BZ¨vw` me¸‡jv evqy `~l‡Yi cÖavb DcKiY| wewfbœ A·vBW evZv‡mi Rjxq ev‡®úi m‡½ wg‡k •Zwi K‡i mvjdvi Ges bvB‡Uªv‡R‡bi A¤ø| GB A¤ø wb‡P †b‡g G‡m cvwb I gvwUim‡½ wg‡k hvq| GiB bvg ÔGwmW †iBbÕ A¤ø el©Y| evqy `~l‡Yi Dr‡mi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q B‡Ui fvUv| mvi Kvi Lvbv, wPwb, KvMR, cvU I e¯¿ KviLvbv, Pvgov wkí, †cvkvK wkí, we¯‥zU •Zwi‡Z KviLvbv, ivmvqwbK Jla •Zwi wkí, wm‡g›U Drcv`b, wMÖj I `iRv-Rvbvjv, ivmvqwbK Jla •Zwi wkí, wm‡g›U Drcv`b, wMÖj I `iRv Rvbvjvi IqvK© kc BZ¨vw`| Drm †_‡K cÖPzi cwigv‡Y †avqv, ev®ú, M¨vm I aywjKYv BZ¨vw` evZv‡m wg‡k †auvqv m„wó K‡i d‡j cwi‡ek `~wlZ nq| evqy `~l‡Yi d‡j k¦vmKô, nvcvwb, `xN© ¯’vqx eªsKvBwUm, dzmdzm K¨vÝvi G RvZxq `~l‡Yi dj|


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cvwb `~lY I Zvi djvdj Water Pollution and Its Consequences eZ©gv‡b wk‡íi eR©¨ b`x I Rjvkq‡K `~wlZ Ki‡Q| cwi‡ek Awa`ßi D‡jøL K‡i‡Q †h PÆMÖv‡g wUGmwc mvi KviLvbv †_‡K mvjwdDwiK I dmdwiK GwmW Ges P›`ª‡Nvbvi KY©dzwj KvM‡Ri wgj, wm‡jU KvMR wgj, `k©bvi †Kiæ A¨vÛ †Kv¤úvwb, Lyjbvi wkcBqvW© I gvQ cÖwµqvKiY KviLvbv, XvKvi Awjw¤úK I Kv‡`wiqv †U·UvBj wgjm jÿ jÿ †Mjb Zij eR©¨ cvk¦eZx© b`x I Rjvk‡q wb‡ÿc K‡i cvwb `~lY NUv‡”Q| b`xi Zx‡i M‡o D‡V‡Q mg„× Rbc` kn‡i cÖwZwôZ n‡q‡Q AvaywbK PUKj, KvcoKj, wPwbKj, KvM‡Ri Kj, †flR †Zj BZ¨vw`| GB me KjKviLvbvi AveR©bv cÖwZwbqZ cvwb‡K `~wlZ Ki‡Q| `ªæZ wkívqb wewfbœ †`‡ki cvwb mieiv‡ni Ges AveR©bv wb‡ÿ‡ci mgm¨v‡K µgk RwUj K‡i Zzj‡Q| Dbœqbkxj I DbœZ †`k¸‡jv‡Z †`Lv w`‡”Q M„nKv‡h© e¨eüZ †bvsiv cvwb‡K †kvab K‡i cybivq Zv e¨envi †hvM¨ K‡i †Zvjvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv| wKš‘ cvwb‡kvab e¨e¯’vq mvgvb¨Zg ÎæwU _vK‡j G †_‡K jÿ jÿ gvby‡li g‡a¨ ¸iæZi iK‡gi msµgY NU‡Z cv‡i|

gvwU `~lY I Zvi djvdj Soil Pollution and Its Consenquences

g„wËKv ev gvwU f~Z¡‡Ki Dcwifv‡Mi GKwU cvZjv AveiY| wewfbœ Kvi‡Y g„wËKv `~lY N‡U| †hgb f~wgÿq, evqy cÖevn m„„wó| MvQKvUv, eb DRvo, Rwg‡Z AwZwi³ ev wbqwgZ ivmvqwbK mvi e¨envi Kiv BZ¨vw` Kvi‡Y gvwUi ¸bMZ gvb bó n‡q hvq, d‡j gvwU `~lY N‡U|


230

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

GQvov KxUbvkK e¨env‡i Avgv‡`i gvwU `~wlZ n‡”Q| evowZ dmj Drcv`‡bi Rb¨ dmj‡K KxU cZ‡½i AvµgY †_‡K iÿv Kivi ZvwM‡` †h ivmvqwbK `ªe¨vw` I mvi e¨envi Kiv nq, Zv gvwUi Ici weiæc cÖfve †d‡j gvwU `~wlZ K‡i _v‡K|

12.10 cwi‡ek msiÿ‡Y ewYK mwgwZ The Role of Chamber of Commerce Protecting Environment cwi‡ek `~l‡Yi Rb¨ †ewkifvM mgq `vqx wewfbœ iKg e¨emvq cÖwZôvb| e¨emvq cÖwZôvb hw` Zv‡`i `~lY Kwg‡q †`q Zvn‡j mn‡RB cwi‡ek msiÿY Ki‡Z mÿg nq| Avi e¨emv cÖwZôv‡bi AwffveK wn‡m‡e ewYK mwgwZ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K| GB Rb¨ cÖvqB ewYK mwgwZ wewfbœ iKg †mwgbvi Av‡qvRb K‡i _v‡K †hLv‡b `~l‡Yi KviY Ges `~l‡Yi ÿwZKi cÖfve Zz‡j a‡i †Kvb e¨emvq cÖwZôvb hw` AvBb f½ K‡i Zvn‡j ewYK mwgwZ Zv‡`i weiæ‡× c`‡ÿc MÖnY K‡i| A‡bK mgq ewbK mwgwZ AbymÜvb K‡i †Kvb cÖwZôvb cwi‡e‡ki ÿwZ mvab Ki‡Q wKbv| hw` †Kvb cÖwZôvb AvBb f½ K‡i Zvn‡j A‡bK mgq Zv‡`i m`m¨c` ¯’wMZ K‡i| cwi‡ek msiÿ‡Yi Rb¨ ewYK mwgwZ wbZ¨ bZzb wbqg K‡i _v‡K Ges m`m¨‡`i‡K Zv cvj‡b DØy× K‡i _v‡K|

12.11 mvgvwRK `vqe×Zvi Ask wn‡m‡e wewfbœ e¨emvq cÖwZôv‡bi M„nxZ Kvh©µg The Functions of Different Organization as a Corporate Social Responsibility

e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ eûhyM a‡i Ae‡nwjZ n‡q Avm‡jI eZ©gv‡b †`‡k-we‡`‡k A‡bK cÖwZôvb mvgvwRK Kvh©µ‡g GwM‡q G‡m‡Q| wewfbœ e¨vsK I †gvevBj †Kv¤úvwb Zv‡`i mvavib e¨emvq Kvh©µ‡gi mv‡_ mv‡_ wewfbœ mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Q|


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WvP-evsjv e¨vsK, cÖvBg e¨vsK, Bmjvwg e¨vsK, RbZv e¨vsK †_‡K ïiæ K‡i mKj †emiKvix e¨vsK Ges wewfbœ †gvevBj †dvb †Kv¤úvwb †hgb-†UwjUK, MÖvgxb †dvb, iwe, evsjv wjsK, wmwU‡mj, Gqvi‡Uj Ges wewfbœ gvwëb¨vkbvj I b¨vkbvj †Kv¤úvwb e¨vcK nv‡i mvgvwRK Kvh©µ‡g AskMÖnY Ki‡Q| Zv‡`i D‡jøL‡hvM¨ mvgvwRK Kvh©µ‡gi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q `vwi`ª we‡gvPb, †gavex wkÿv_©xi cov‡kvbvi LiP enb, e„wË cÖ`vb, †Ljva~jvi Dbœq‡b Avw_©K c„ô‡cvlKZv cÖ`vb, mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b Ae`vb, GwmW ÿwZMÖ¯’‡`i mnvqZv `vb I Gi weiæ‡× mvgvwRK m‡PZbZv e„w×, MÖvgxY †gwW‡Kj †mev cÖ`vb, wewfbœ `~‡h©v‡Mi mgq Avw_©K mnvqZv cÖ`vb, cÖwZew܇`i mnvqZv cÖ`vb, wewfbœ nvmcvZv‡j G¨v¤^y‡jÝ cÖ`vb, we‡kl w`em Dcj‡ÿ Av‡qvwRZ Abyôv‡bi c„ô‡cvlKZv Kiv, Aÿg wkï‡`i mnvqZv Kiv, n‡R¡i Rb¨ AvMZ nvRx‡`i mnvqZv cÖ`vb, B‡¯Ígvq AvMZ gymwjø‡`i Rb¨ wd« wPwKrmv cÖ`vb, wewfbœ wkÿv cÖwZôv‡b webvg~‡j¨ j¨vcUc cÖ`vb, webvg~‡j¨ Pÿz †mev cÖ`vb, cwi‡ek cwi”QbœZv Kvh©µg BZ¨vw`| wKQz wKQz e¨emv cÖwZôvb ZiæY mgv‡Ri cÖwZfv AbymÜvb I weKv‡k GwM‡q G‡m‡Q| evsjv‡`‡k e¨emvwqK cÖwZôv‡bi mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ cvj‡bi cÖeYZv †ewk w`‡bi bq| Avkv Kiv hvq, Avgv‡`i wk‡ív‡`¨v³v †kÖYx gybvdvgyLx e¨emvq cwiPvjbvi mv‡_ mv‡_ mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ cvj‡b Av‡iv GwM‡q Avm‡e|

mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv wn‡m‡e K‡qKwU D‡jøL‡hvM¨ cÖwZôv‡bi M„nxZ Kvh©µ‡gi weeiY †`qv n‡jv: evsjvwjsK Gi M„nxZ c`‡ÿc− evsjv‡`‡ki †gvevBj †mev cÖ`vbKvix cÖwZôvb¸‡jv mgv‡Ri Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ A‡bK Ae`vb ivL‡Q| evsjvwjsK G †ÿ‡Î Ae`vb ivLvi Rb¨ `„p cÖwZÁ| GRb¨ Zviv wewfbœ mgq wewfbœ ai‡bi mvgvwRK Dbœqbg~jK Kvh©µg MÖnY K‡i _v‡K| evsjvwjs‡Ki D‡jøL‡hvM¨ c`‡ÿc¸‡jv n‡jv:  K·evRvi mx weP cwi®‥vi cÖKí Ges AvšÍRv© wZK mg~`ªK~j cwi®‥vi w`em cvjb: 2005 mvj †_‡K evsjvwjsK we‡k¦i `xN©Zg mg~`ª •mKZ K·evRv‡ii cwi®‥vi-cwi”QbœZvi `vwqZ¡ MÖnY K‡i‡Q| GRb¨ eQ‡i 263 w`b 26 Rb gwnjv Kg©x 2 wmd‡U wZb wK.wg `xN© mg~`ª •mKZwU cwi®‥vi K‡i _v‡K| GQvov Av‡iv 7Rb cyiæl Kg©x i‡q‡Q hviv fvix AveR©bv Acmvi‡b wb‡qvwRZ hv mg~`ª Zxi‡K `~lY †_‡K iÿv Ki‡Q| GQvovI evsjvwjsK AvšÍR©vwZK mg~`ª Zxi cwi”Qbœ w`em cvjb K‡i †hLv‡b 500 ZiæY-ZiæYx †¯^”Qv kÖ‡gi gva¨‡g cwi®‥vi-cwi”QbœZvi KvR K‡i _v‡K|  GwZg‡`i K¤^j cÖ`vb: 2009 mvj †_‡K evsjvwjsK GwZg‡`i K¤^j cÖ`v‡bi Kvh©µg nv‡Z wb‡q‡Q| GB j‡ÿ MZeQi (2012) mv‡j Zviv 101 wU GwZgLvbvq cÖvq 5000 Rb GwZg‡K webvg~‡j¨ K¤^j cÖ`vb K‡i‡Q|  nvRxK¨v‡¤ú AvMZ nvRx‡`i we‡kl e¨e¯’v: 2009 mvj †_‡K evsjvwjsK n‡R¡ AvMZ nvRx‡`i we‡kl myweav cÖ`vb Ki‡Q| Gi g‡a¨ D‡jøL‡hvM¨ n‡jv nvRx‡`i Rb¨ kxZvZc wbqwš¿Z ev‡mi e¨e¯’vKiY, cvwb eÈb AÂj ¯’vcb, webvg~‡j¨ †dvb K‡ji e¨e¯’vKiY, webvg~‡j¨ †gvevBj Pv‡h©i e¨e¯’vKiY, Uªwji e¨e¯’vKib, n‡R¡i MvBWjvBb cÖ`vb BZ¨vw`|  igRv‡bi mgq GwZg‡`i †LRyi I BdZvi cÖ`vb: 2009 mvj n‡Z evsjvwjsK GB Kvh©µg MÖnY K‡i‡Q| Gi AvIZvq 2011 mv‡j evsjvwjsK 85,000 †ivRv`vi‡K BdZvi Kivq hvi g‡a¨ wQj †`‡ki 123wU GwZgLvbvi cÖvq 12,000 GwZg|


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 `wi`ª wkÿv_©x‡`i‡K ICT ‡mev cÖ`vb: mgvR †_‡K wbiÿiZv `~ixKiY Ges wkÿv_©x‡`i‡K AvaywbK wkÿvq wkwÿZ Kivi j‡ÿ evsjvwjsK 2011 mv‡j cÖvq 270wU Kw¤úDUvi j¨ve ¯’vcb K‡i w`‡q‡Q hvi cÖ‡Z¨KwUi Ae¯’vb n‡”Q †`‡ki myweav ewÂZ ¯‥zj¸‡jv‡Z| cÖ‡Z¨KwU j¨v‡e evsjvwjsK j¨vcUc, B›Uvi‡bU g‡Wg Ges gvwëwgwWqv cÖ`vb Kiv n‡q‡Q| mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv wn‡m‡e MÖvgxY‡dv‡bi c`‡ÿc MÖvgxY‡dvb mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv wn‡m‡e †h c`‡ÿc¸‡jv MÖnY K‡i‡Q †m¸‡jv‡K wZbwU cÖavb fv‡M fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| h_v: 1. ¯^v¯’¨ 2. wkÿv 3. cwi‡ek| MÖvgxY‡dv‡bi M„wnZ cÖavb cÖavb mvgvwRK `vqe×Zvi Kvh©µg¸‡jv n‡”Q:  `wi`ª gv I wkï‡`i Rb¨ cÖvq 1.7 wgwjqb cÖv_wgK ¯^v¯’¨ †mev cÖ`vb K‡i‡Q|  cÖvq 28,700 Rb e¨w³‡K webvg~‡j¨ Pÿz‡mev cÖ`vb K‡i‡Q hvi g‡a¨ cÖvq 3,458 Rb AÜ e¨w³‡K `„wókw³ wdwi‡q †`qvi e¨e¯’v K‡i‡Q|  wewfbœ AvšÍR©vwZK Bmy¨ †hgb GBWm& wel‡q RbMY‡K m‡PZb Kivi Rb¨ m‡PZbZvg~jK Abyôv‡bi Av‡qvRb K‡i _v‡K|  MÖvgxY‡dvb cÖvq 4,00,000Rb †gvevBj Acv‡iUi‡K A_©‣bwZK ¯^vaxbZv G‡b w`‡q‡Q|  MÖvgxY‡dvb cÖvq 500 KwgDwbwU Z_¨‡K›`ª ¯’vcb K‡i‡Q  GwmW AvµvšÍ‡`i Kg©ms¯’v‡bi e¨e¯’vKiY  `wi`ª †gavex Qv·`i e„wË cÖ`vb  `wi`ª _¨vjvwmgv †iv‡M AµvšÍ †ivMx‡`i webvg~‡j¨ i³ mieivn  cÖvK…wZK `~‡h©v‡Mi mgq Riæix Îv‡bi e¨e¯’vKib BZ¨vw`| WvP-evsjv e¨vs‡Ki mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv wn‡m‡e M„wnZ c`‡ÿc †`‡ki mvgvwRK Dbœq‡b WvP-evsjv e¨vs‡Ki M„nxZ c`‡ÿc‡K mvgvwRK `vqe×Zvi cw_K…r ejv nq| mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv wn‡m‡e WvP-evsjv e¨vsK †h c`‡ÿc MÖnY K‡i‡Q Zvi D‡jøL‡hvM¨ n‡jv:  wkÿve„wË cÖ`vb : wewfbœ ¯Í‡i †gavex wkÿv_©x‡`i‡K e„wË cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K WvP-evsjv e¨vsK| GB j‡ÿ 2012 mv‡j Zviv 102 †KvwU UvKvi wkÿv e„wË cÖ`vb K‡i‡Q|  nvmcvZv‡j mnvqZv: WvP-evsjv e¨vsK cÖvq 9,36,00,000 UvKv Beªvnxg KwW©qvK nvmcvZvj‡K cÖ`vb K‡i‡Q j¨ve ¯’vcb Kivi Rb¨|  †ivMx‡`i wPwKrmv: wewfbœ mgq WvP-evsjv e¨vsK †VvU KvUv †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i webvg~‡j¨ Acv‡ik‡bi e¨e¯’v K‡i _v‡K|  GwmW AµvšÍ‡`i mnvqZv: 2000 mvj †_‡K WvP-evsjv e¨vsK GwmW wel‡q MYm‡PZbZv e„w×i Rb¨ wewfbœ MYgva¨‡g weÁvcb cÖKvk K‡i Avm‡Q| GwmW AvµvšÍ‡`i wewfbœ fv‡e Avw_©K mnvqZv cÖ`vb Ki‡Q| ZvQvov GwmW AvµvšÍ‡`i mvej¤^x Kivi Rb¨ gv_vwcQy 10,000 UvKv cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K|  gv`K wbqš¿Y: gv`K wbqš¿Y Kivi Rb¨ gv`K wbivgq †K›`ª ÒAvcbÓ-†K cÖvq 1 †KvwU UvKv cÖ`vb K‡i‡Q|


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GQvovI WvP-evsjv e¨vsK 10wU MÖvgxY ¯^v¯’¨‡mev †K›`ª ¯’vcb, B‡¤ú± dvD‡Ûkb‡K 21 jvL UvKv cÖ`vb, wU.Gg.Gm.Gm-†K 10 jvL UvKv †Wv‡bkb cÖ`vb, †h․ZzK †_‡K bvix‡`i iÿvi e¨ve¯’vKiY, wewfbœ cÖvK…wZK `~‡h©v‡M mnvqZv cÖ`vb K‡i _v‡K| Kg©cÎ-3 †Zvgvi cwiwPZ GKwU †Kv¤úvwbi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv wn‡m‡e †h `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i Zvi GKwU ZvwjKv •Zwi Ki| • • • • • • • • • •

12.12 Lv`¨ msiÿ‡Y †h mKj ivmvqwbK e¨envi nq †m¸‡jvi ÿwZKi w`K mbv³KiY The Bad Effects of Different Chemical Pestisides Which is Used in Preserving Food Avgv‡`i †`‡k cÖwZwU †ÿ‡Î `~b©xwZ Pig fv‡e cwijwÿZ nq| Lv`¨ `ªe¨‡KI GB `~b©xwZ †invq †`qwb| wewfbœ fv‡e `yb©xwZi gva¨‡g Lv`¨ `ª‡e¨ ‡fRvj †`qv n‡”Q| me‡P‡q fq¼i welq n‡”Q Lv‡`¨ ivmvqwbK c`v‡_©i e¨envi hv wewfbœ Lv`¨ msiÿ‡bi Rb¨ ev †µZv‡`i Kv‡Q AvKl©Yxq Kivi Rb¨ e¨envi Kiv n‡”Q| Avgiv cÖwZw`b †hme kvKmewR I djg~j wK‡b Lvw”Q †m¸‡jv m‡ZR ivL‡Z I cvKv‡Z we‡µZviv Kve©vBWmn wewfbœ welv³ ivmvqwbK e¨envi Ki‡Q| Gme ivmvqwb‡Ki Kvi‡Y wKWwb I wjfvi bó n‡Z cv‡i, †Pv‡Li `„wókw³ n«vm QvovI K¨vÝv‡i AvµvšÍ nIqvi m¤¢vebv i‡q‡Q| gv‡Qi evRv‡iI †fRv‡ji Kivj MÖvm Ae¨vnZ Av‡Q| †QvU-eo wewfbœ gvQ‡K m‡ZR ivL‡Z I †m¸‡jv m‡ZR †`Lv‡bvi Rb¨ we‡µZviv digvwjb e¨envi Ki‡Q, hv gvbe †`‡ni Rb¨ gvivZ¥K ÿwZKi| GQvov kyuUwK gv‡Qi mv‡_ Amvay e¨emvqxiv welv³ KxUbvkK I wWwWwU e¨envi K‡i, hv gvbe †`‡n K¨vÝvi, ü`‡ivMmn wewfbœ †ivM m„wó K‡i| M‡elYvMv‡i cixÿv K‡i †`Lv †M‡Q evRv‡i Aew¯’Z 93 fvM MvIqv wN, 92 fvM evUvi A‡qj, 100 fvM WvjWv, 92 fvM mqvweb I mwilvi †Zj ivmvqwbK c`v_© e¨env‡ii Kvi‡Y Lvevi Abyc‡hvMx| GmKj ‡fvR¨‡Zj †L‡j wKWwb, wjfv‡ii K¨vÝvi nIqv I Mf©¯’ wkï cÖwZeÜx nIqvi cvkvcvwk †c‡Ui †iv‡M AvµvšÍ nIqv mn bvbv ai‡bi RwUj e¨vwa‡Z AvµvšÍ nIqvi Avk¼v LyeB †ewk| B`vwbs dv‡g©i mv`v wWg jvj Kivi Rb¨ KviLvbvi welv³ WvB I is e¨envi Kiv n‡”Q hv ¯^v‡¯’i Rb¨ AZ¨šÍ ÿwZKi| Gme welv³ is wgwkÖZ Lvev‡ii Rb¨ Wvqv‡ewUK mn bvbv ai‡bi †ivM nq| evRv‡ii 96 fvM Wv‡j i‡q‡Q †fRvj| Avg`vwbK…Z wbgœgv‡bi gmyi Wvj‡K †`wk Kivi Rb¨ ÔwbD‡ivUw·bÕ bv‡g †h ivmvqwbK c`v_© e¨envi Kiv nq, Zv †`‡n cÖ‡e‡ki ci mœvqyZš¿ aŸsm K‡i †d‡j| Avi ÔgvB‡KvUw·bÕ bv‡g Av‡iKwU †KwgK¨vj e¨eüZ nq hv K¨vÝvimn wewfbœ ai‡bi RwUj †ivM m„wó‡Z mnvqZv K‡i| GQvovI evRv‡ii †ewki fvM wgbv‡ij IqvUvi, Rym I †Rwj, AvBmwµg, wgwó RvZxq Lvevi, PvBwbR BZ¨vw`‡Z wewfbœ ai‡Yi †KwgK¨vj e¨envi Kiv nq, hv gvby‡li kix‡i †ivM m„wó Kivi Rb¨ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Q|


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Kg©cÎ-4 Lv`¨ msiÿ‡Y †h mKj ivmvqwbK e¨envi nq †m¸‡jv we‡kølY K‡i Lv`¨ Drcv`b I msiÿ‡Y ivmvqwbK e¨env‡ii mZK©Zv I KiYxq w`K¸‡jv wPwýZ Ki| • • • • •

• • • • •

12.13

ivmvqwb‡Ki e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g Drcvw`Z Lv‡`¨i ÿwZKi w`K Negative Impacts of Chemical which is Used in Producing Food

gvby‡li cÖavb †g․wjK Pvwn`v n‡”Q Lv`¨| Lv`¨ Qvov gvbyl euvP‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvB memgq gvbyl Lv`¨ Drcv`b e„wׇZ m‡Pó| Avi GB Rb¨ Zviv wewfbœ mgq wewfbœ ai‡bi ivmvqwbK e¨envi K‡i _v‡K hv gvby‡li Ges cwie‡ki gvivZ¥K ÿwZmvab K‡i _v‡K| K…lKiv kvKkwâ, djg~jmn wewfbœ K…wlRvZ cY¨ Drcv`b ivmvqwbK mvi e¨envi K‡i| GB ivmvqwbK mvi cvwbi mv‡_ wg‡k b`x-bvjv, Lvj-we‡j wg‡k hvq| Gi Kvi‡Y b`x-bvjvi A‡bK gvQ gviv hvq| GB gvQ¸‡jv †L‡j gvbylI wewfbœ †iv‡M AvµvšÍ nq| kvKkwâ I djg~j m‡ZR ivL‡Z Ges `ªæZ cvKv‡Z we‡µZviv K¨vjwmqvg Kve©vBWmn wewfbœ welv³ †KwgK¨vj e¨envi K‡i| Gme Lv`¨ MÖn Y Ki‡j wKWwb, wjfvi bó n‡Z cv‡i, †Pv‡Li `„wókw³ n«vm cvIqv QvovI K¨vÝv‡i AvµvšÍ nIqvi m¤¢vebv i‡q‡Q| ïuUKx gvQ Drcv`‡b e¨emvqxiv welv³ KxUbvkK I wW.wW.wU e¨envi K‡i, hv gvbe‡`‡n K¨vÝvi, ü`‡ivMmn wewfbœ RwUj †ivM m„wó K‡i| Rym, km, †Rwj, wewfbœ iKg †eKvix Lvevi, dv÷dzW BZ¨vw`‡Z wewfbœ iKg is we‡kl K‡i WvB is e¨envi Kiv nq hv gvbe †`‡ni Rb¨ gvivZ¥K ÿwZKi| GBme Lv`¨ MÖnY Ki‡j mivmwi wKWwb I wjfvi bó n‡Z cv‡i| GQvov K¨vÝvi, †c‡Ui cxov, UvBd‡qW, fvBivm †ncvUvBwUm I Ab¨vb¨ RwUj †ivM nIqvi m¤¢vebv cÖej| Avg `ªæZ S‡i bv hvIqv ev `ªyZ cvKv‡bvi Rb¨ Av‡g mvBcvi‡gUw_ªb I g¨vb‡Kv‡Ri e¨envi Kiv nq| G¸‡jv mxwgZ AvKv‡i e¨envi Ki‡j Lye †ewk ÿwZKi bq| wKš‘ AwZwi³ †KwgK¨vj cÖ‡qvMK…Z Avg †L‡j gvbe‡`‡n gvivZ¥K ÿwZ n‡Z cv‡i| A‡b‡K Avg I Ab¨vb¨ dj `ªyZ cvKv‡bvi Rb¨ Kve©vBU e¨envi K‡i| GwU gvbe †`‡ni gvivZ¥K ÿwZmvab K‡i _v‡K| Gfv‡e cvKv‡bv dj-g~j †L‡j K¨vÝvi, wjfvi mgm¨v, WvBwiqv, `„wókw³ n«vmmn wewfbœ mgm¨v †`Lv †`q| eZ©gv‡b ü`‡ivM, †÷ªvK BZ¨vw` e„w×i GKgvÎ KviY n‡jv Lv`¨ Drcv`‡b wewfbœ ivmvqwb‡Ki AZ¨waK e¨envi| Lv`¨ Drcv`‡b wewfbœ ivmvqwb‡Ki e¨envi Kgv‡bv †M‡j gvby‡li †ivMe¨wai cwigvY 50% ch©šÍ Kgv‡bv m¤¢e|


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12.14 ÿwZKviK cwjw_b Drcv`b I e¨env‡ii ÿwZKi w`K¸‡jv The Bad Effects of Producing and Using Polythin cwjw_b n‡”Q LwbR †Z‡ji DcRvZ| cwjw_b •Zwi nq Acwi‡kvwaZ LwbR †Zj †_‡K| cwjw_b g~jK GKwU nvB‡Wªv -Kve©Y †h․M Gi AYy¸‡jv GZ k³fv‡e M„ n xZ _v‡K †h ÿwZKi ÿz`ªvK…w Zi dv½vm ev e¨vK‡Uwiqv I Gi †fZ‡i cÖ‡ek Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| d‡j cwjw_b kZ kZ eQi a‡i GKBfv‡e gvwUi Dc‡i ev wb‡P _vK‡Z cv‡i cwjw_b Ggb GKUv c`v_© hvi m„wó Av‡Q wKš‘ aŸsm †bB| cwjw_b cPbkxj e¯‘i cPb wµqv eÜ K‡i w`‡Z mÿg|

cwjw_b (Polythin) cwjw_b GKcÖKvi •Re ivmvqwbK e¯‘| eûmsL¨v Bw_b AYyi ivmvqwbK cÖwµqvq GwU Drcbœ nq e‡j G‡K cwjw_b (Poly = many) ejv nq| Z‡e G‡K cwjBw_wjbI ejv nq, KviY Bw_‡bi Avi GK bvg Bw_wjb| mvaviYZ D”P Pv‡c I D”P ZvcgvÎvq Gi wk‡ívrcv`b Kiv nq, hvi ms‡KZ nj| Zvc (− CH2 – CH2)n nH2C = CH2 Pvc Bw_b cwjw_b

cwjw_‡bi •ewkó¨ (Characteristics of Polythin) †h ivmvqwbK e܇bi d‡j cwjw_b MwVZ nq Zv Lye `„p e‡j G eÜb evZv‡m I Rjxq AvenvIqvq I gvwU¯’ †Kv‡bv e¯‘i Øviv †f‡O hvq bv, hvi d‡j GwU gvwU‡Z wg‡k bv ev c‡P-M‡j hvq bv-g~jZ G Kvi‡YB cwjw_‡bi e¨envi gvivZ¥K ûgwK¯^iƒc| cwjw_‡bi we‡kl ivmvqwbK •ewk‡ó¨i Kvi‡YB GwU me©vwaK e¨envi‡hvM¨ cY¨‡Z cwiYZ n‡q‡Q| cwjw_‡bi we‡kl •ewkó¨ nj− 1. GwU cvwb I evqy wb‡ivaK| 2. gvwU‡Z wg‡k bv| 3. mn‡RB enb‡hvM¨, e¨qfvi I cÖ¯‘Z LiP Kg wKš‘ ÿwZKi| 4. A‡bKw`b †UKmB nq e‡jB gvwU‡Z GwU wg‡k hvq bv Ges weiƒc cÖwZwµqvi m„wó K‡i|

cwjw_‡bi e¨envi (Uses of Polythin) Avgv‡`i •`bw›`b Rxe‡bi wbZ¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq wRwb‡mi cÖwZwU †ÿ‡ÎB cwjw_‡bi e¨envi jÿ¨ Kiv hvq| nv‡U-evRv‡i wRwbmcÎ †Kbvi mgq cÖvq mK‡jB GwU e¨envi K‡i| ZwiZiKvwi, gvQ, gvsm, wWg, PvjWvj BZ¨vw` evwo‡Z wb‡q Avmvi R‡b¨ cwjw_‡bi e¨envi nq| †gvUK_v, nvUevRvi Ki‡Z cwjw_b gvby‡li wbZ¨ m½x n‡q `uvwo‡q‡Q| GQvov Km‡gwUK, B‡jKwUªK, B‡jKUªwb·, Kvco †Pvco BZ¨vw` cÖwZwU cY¨‡ZB cwjw_b e¨envi Kiv nq| GKmgq cwjw_‡bi e¨envi GZUvB e„w× †c‡qwQj †h, Zvi Avi wK‡b Avbvi cÖ‡qvRb nq wb| d‡j evRv‡i hvIqvi mgq †KD _‡j ev e¨vM wb‡q hvqwb| KviY †`vKvb`vi wb‡RB webv cqmvq GK ev GKvwaK cwjw_b cÖwZwU `ª‡e¨i mv‡_ w`‡q w`Z| Gfv‡e evsjv‡`‡ki gvbyl `xN© GK hy‡MiI †ewk mgq a‡i cwjw_b e¨v‡M Af¨¯Í n‡q c‡owQj|


236

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

cwjw_‡bi ÿwZKviK w`K (The bad Effects of Polythin) evsjv‡`‡ki gvbyl Zvi wbZ¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq `ªe¨-mvgMÖx †KbvKvUvq GKiKg cwjw_b wbf©i n‡q hvIqvq, cwjw_‡bi e¨vcK cÖmvi N‡U| d‡j GB cwjw_b e¨env‡ii ci gv‡V-gq`v‡b, †Lvjv cwi‡e‡k, cyKz‡i, b`x‡Z hÎZÎ †d‡j w`‡q cwi‡ek‡K µ‡gB wech©‡qi w`‡K †V‡j w`‡q‡Q| GB cwjw_b cwi‡e‡ki R‡b¨ KZUv fqvenfv‡e wech©qKi Zv gvbyl GLb wKQzUv eyS‡Z †c‡i‡Q| cwjw_b gvwUi m‡½ wg‡k bv e‡j gvwU‡Z Zv R‡g gvwUi g~j •ewkó¨ †hgb bó K‡i †`q †Zgwb Gi De©iZvI bó K‡i †d‡j| cwjw_b cvwb wb‡ivaK e‡j cvwbi ¯^vfvweK wbtmiY NU‡Z †`q bv| d‡j iv¯ÍvNvU, b`xbvjvq cvwb R‡g wM‡q Rjve×Zv m„wó K‡i| kn‡ii †Wªb I cqtwb®‥vkb cÖYvjx‡K gvivZ¥Kfv‡e e¨vnZ Ki‡Q GB cwjw_b| m‡e©vcwi cwjw_b †hme ÿwZ K‡i Zvi K‡qKwU w`K wb‡Pi ZvwjKvq †`Iqv nj− 1. cwjw_b gvwU‡Z †g‡k bv e‡j gvwUi ¯^vfvweK ¸Y bó K‡i †`q| gvwUi Ee©iZv kw³‡K aŸsm K‡i| d‡j cwjw_b wgwkÖZ gvwU‡Z †hgb dmj djv‡bv m¤¢e bq, †Zgwb †Kv‡bv evwo-Ni wKsev `vjvb‡KvVv †ZvjvI m¤¢e bq| 2. cwjw_b cvwb wb‡ivaK e‡j f~Mf©¯’ cvwbi ¯^fvweK cÖevn bó K‡i †`q| 3. Av‡m©wbK m„wói g~‡jI cwjw_‡bi f~wgKv i‡q‡Q| 4. cwjw_b kniv‡j bvjv b`©gvi cvwb‡Z AvU‡K wM‡q `y‡f©v‡Mi m„wó K‡i| 5. b`xbvjvq cwjw_b R‡g µ‡gB b`xi bve¨Zv bó K‡i †d‡j| 6. b`-b`x, cyKzi BZ¨vw`‡Z gv‡Qi Pvl e¨nZ nq| d‡j gv‡Qi Drcv`b K‡g hvq| Gfv‡e cwjw_b cwi‡e‡ki R‡b¨ weivU ÿwZKi| e¯‘Z cwjw_b Avgv‡`i cwi‡e‡ki kÎæ|

cwi‡ek `~lY I cwjw_‡bi e¨envi eR©b Avoding From Environment Pollution and using Polythin cwi‡ek gvbe mf¨Zvi GK ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Dcv`vb| cwi‡ekB cÖv‡Yi aviK, Rxebxkw³i †hvMvb`vi| hy‡M hy‡M cwi‡ek ev cvwicvwk¦©‡Ki m‡½ cÖvYxi gvwb‡q †bIqvi ÿgZvi Ic‡iB Zvi Aw¯ÍZ¡ wbf©ikxj| cwi‡ek cÖwZK~j n‡j Zvi aŸsm I me©bvk Aek¨¤¢vex| cwi‡e‡ki Ici m¤ú„³ n‡q gvbyl, Ab¨vb¨ Dw™¢` I cÖvYxi Rxe‡bi weKvk N‡U| ZvB cwi‡ek I gvby‡li g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q GK wbweo †hvMm~Î| bvbv Kvi‡Y cwi‡ek `~wlZ n‡”Q Gi g‡a¨ cwjw_‡bi e¨enviI GKwU| evsjv‡`‡k cwjw_b e¨env‡ii e¨vcKZv GZB n‡qwQj †h, evsjv‡`k miKvi Gi weiæ‡× e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡Z eva¨ n‡q‡Qb| 2002 mv‡ji 1 Rvbyqvwi †_‡K miKvwifv‡e XvKv kn‡i cwjw_b e¨envi wbwl× †NvlYv Kiv nq, Avi mviv evsjv‡`‡k 2002 mv‡j 1 gvP© †_‡K cwjw_b e¨envi wbwl× †NvlYv Kiv nq| cwi‡ekB hw` webó n‡q hvq Zvn‡j gvbyl euvP‡e Kxfv‡e| evsjv‡`k c„w_exi GKwU Rbeûj †`k| GLv‡b cwi‡ek wU‡K bv ivL‡Z cvi‡j gvby‡li `y‡f©vMB ïay evo‡e| d‡j evsjv‡`k RbMY AviI Amyweavi m¤§yLxb n‡e| Avgv‡`i KiYxq: cwjw_b mnRjf¨ Ges `v‡gi w`‡K w`‡q LyeB m¯Ív e‡j Gi e¨envi GZ RbwcÖq| GB cwi‡cªwÿ‡Z Avgiv hw` †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bvfv‡e cwjw_b †_‡K cybiveZ©‡bi gva¨‡g Ggb †Kv‡bv e¯‘‡Z cwiYZ Ki‡Z cvwi hv mn‡R gvwUi mv‡_ c‡P-M‡j wg‡k hvq, Ges hvi Drcv`b LiP Kg Ges `v‡g m¯Ív, Z‡e cwjw_‡bi weKí wn‡m‡e Zv Avgiv e¨envi Ki‡Z cvie| myZivs G e¨vcv‡i miKvi I mswkøó weÁgn‡ji fvev DwPZ| MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii eb I cwi‡ek gš¿Yvjq cwjw_b e¨envi wbwl× Kivq †h mvnmx I mg‡hvc‡hvMx c`‡ÿc wb‡q‡Qb Zvi cÖwZ m¤§vb †`wL‡q, Zv Avgv‡`i †g‡b Pj‡Z n‡e| me©¯Í‡ii gvby‡li g‡a¨ †PZbv wdwi‡q Avb‡Z n‡e Ges cwjw_‡bi ÿwZKviK w`K¸‡jv m¤ú‡K© RbmvaviY‡K AewnZ Ki‡Z n‡e| m‡e©vcwi m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c cwjw_b‡K eR©b Ki‡Z n‡e|


e¨emvq •bwZKZv I mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv

237

•`bw›`b Rxe‡b bvbv ai‡bi ivmvqwbK `ª‡e¨i e¨envi µgkB evo‡Q| Gi Acwinvh© djkÖæwZ n‡”Qevqy, cvwb gvwU, Lv`¨`ªe¨ I RxweZ-†Kvl `~lY| M‡elK‡`i g‡Z, K¨vÝvi †iv‡Mi `ªæZ cÖmv‡ii †cQ‡b Ges Rb¥-msµvšÍ bvbviƒc weK…wZ ev •eKj¨ evoevi g~‡j i‡q‡Q Avgv‡`i cwi‡e‡k Qwo‡q _vKv bvbvwea ivmvqwbK `ªe¨| K…wÎg Dcv‡q cÖ¯‘Z wewfbœ ivmvqwbK c`v_© †_‡K evqy Lv`¨`ªe¨ Ges cvwb gvivZ¥Kfv‡e `~wlZ n‡”Q| eZ©gv‡bi cwi‡ek `~lY gvbemf¨Zvi R‡b¨ weivU ûgwK¯^iƒc| ZvB gvbemf¨Zv‡K euvPv‡Z n‡j cwi‡ek `~l‡Yi mg¯Í cÖwµqv‡K cÖwZnZ Kivi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e|

12.15 Lv`¨ Drcv`b I msiÿ‡Y ivmvqwbK e¨env‡ii mZK©Zv I Kibxq w`K¸‡jv The Caution and Duties of using Chemical in Producing and Preserving Food Lv`¨ gvby‡li Ab¨Zg †g․wjK Pvwn`v| GwU Qvov †Kvb gvbylB †eu‡P _vK‡Z cv‡i bv| wKš‘ Lv`¨ Drcv`‡b I msiÿ‡Y wewfbœ iKg ivmvqwbK e¨envi Kiv n‡”Q hv gvby‡li ¯^v‡¯’i Rb¨ gvivZ¥K ÿwZKi| ZvB Lv`¨ Drcv`‡b I msiÿ‡Y †h mKj ivmvqwbK e¨envi Kiv nq †m¸‡jvi e¨vcv‡i Drcv`bKvix, †fv³v Ges miKvi mevB‡K mZK© _vK‡Z n‡e| wb‡gœ Lv`¨ Drcv`b I msiÿ‡Y ivmvqwbK e¨env‡ii mZK©Zv I Kibxq w`K¸‡jv Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡jv: • Lv`¨ Drcv`b I msiÿ‡Y Ggb ai‡bi ivmvqwbK e¨envi Kiv DwPr †h¸‡jv gvby‡li †`‡ni †Zgb ÿwZ mvab K‡i bv| • wewfbœ dj cvKv‡Z †h ivmvqwbK e¨envi Kiv nq Zv Kgv‡bvi Rb¨ djg~j cwic° nIqvi Av‡M Zv msMÖn Kiv eÜ Kivi e¨vcv‡i Drcv`bKvix ev K„lK‡`i‡K mZK© _vK‡Z n‡e| • Lv`¨ Drcv`b I msiÿ‡Y †Kvb ÿwZKi ivmvqwbK e¨envi Kiv n‡”Q wKbv Zv wbqwgZ cixÿvi Rb¨ BSTI Gi †jvKej evov‡bv DwPr hv‡Z K‡i Zviv wewfbœ ¯’v‡b Awfhvb Pvwj‡q ÿwZKi ivmvqwbK wPwýZ Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges e¨enviKvix‡K Dchy³ kvw¯Í cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cv‡i| • Lv‡`¨ ivmvqwbK e¨envi Kiv n‡”Q wKbv Zv hvPvB Kivi Rb¨ cÖ‡Z¨KUv evRvi KwgwU wbR D‡`¨v‡M cixÿvi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges evRv‡ii †Kvb m`m¨ hv‡Z ivmvqwbK wgwkÖZ cY¨ weµq bv K‡i †mRb¨ Zv‡`i‡K DØy× Ki‡Z cv‡i| Gi ciI hw` †Kvb m`m¨ ivmvqwbKhy³ Lv`¨ wewµ K‡i Zvn‡j G‡`I m`m¨c` evwZjmn Ab¨vb¨ kvw¯Íg~jK e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| • miKvi I AvBb-k„•Ljv evwnbx‡K gv‡S gv‡S åvg¨gvb Av`vj‡Zi gva¨‡g wewfbœ iKg Lv`¨ cixÿv K‡i ivmvqwbK Av‡Q wKbv Zv wbwðZ n‡Z n‡e| Avi hviv G ivmvqwbK e¨envi Ki‡e Zv‡`i‡K Zrÿbvr kvw¯Íi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e| • Lv`¨ Drcv`b I msiÿ‡Yi Rb¨ †Kvb& ai‡bi ivmvqwbK e¨envi Kiv hv‡e Zvi GKUv ZvwjKv miKvi ev BSTI KZ…©K wewfbœ Drcv`bKvix‡K mieivn Kiv DwPr Ges cÖ‡Z¨K Drcv`bKvix‡K D³ ivmvqwbK c`v_© e¨envi Kiv DwPr| • wewfbœ MYgva¨g ivmvqwbK e¨env‡ii ÿwZKi w`K¸‡jv Zz‡j a‡i RbMY‡K m‡PZb Ki‡Z cv‡i| G wel‡q Zviv AbymÜvbg~jK cÖwZ‡e`b •Zwi Ki‡Z cv‡i| • Lv`¨ Drcv`b I msiÿ‡Y ivmvqwbK Gi weKí cÖvK…wZK †Kvb c×wZ D™¢ve‡bi Rb¨ M‡elYv Kiv DwPr Ges cÖvK…wZK c×wZ e¨envi Kivi Rb¨ Drcv`bKvix‡`i‡K DØy× Kiv DwPr| m‡e©vcwi, Avgv‡`i †fv³v‡`i gvbwmK `„wófw½ cwieZ©b Kiv DwPr| Avgv‡`i‡K cÖwZÁv Ki‡Z n‡e Avgiv ivmvqwbKhy³ †Kvb Lv`¨ µq I e¨envi Ki‡ev bv|


238

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’vcbv−cÖ_g cÎ

eûwbe©vPwb cÖk:œ 1| e¨emvq •bwZKZv Kx? K. m‡PZbZvi mv‡_ e¨emvq Kvh© m¤úv`b L. b¨vq-bxwZ I AvBbMZfv‡e e¨emvq cwiPvjbv M. cÖvwZôvwbK bxwZgvjv Abyhvqx e¨emvq cwiPvjbv N. mvgvwRK ixwZ c×wZ Abyhvqx Kvh© m¤úv`b 2| b¨vh¨g~‡j¨ cY¨ mieiv‡ni gva¨‡g e¨emvq Kv‡`i cÖwZ mvgvwRK `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i? K. kÖwgK-Kg©Pvwi‡`i cÖwZ L. †µZv I †fv³v‡`i cÖwZ M. wewb‡qvMKvix‡`i cÖwZ N. miKv‡ii cÖwZ 3| DbœZ †`kmg~‡n e¨emvwqK g~j¨‡eva AwaK PP©v Kiv nq| d‡j− i. myôzfv‡e e¨emvq cwiPvwjZ nq ii. my›`i e¨emvwqK cwi‡ek M‡o D‡V iii. w¯’wZkxj A_©‣bwZK Ae¯’v m„wó nq wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i,ii I iii 4| e¨emvq KZ…©K mvgvwRK `vqe×Zvi d‡j cÖ_gZ Kx e„w× cvq? K. gybvdv L. weµq M. mybvg N. mvg_©¨

m„Rbkxj cÖk:œ 1|

we¯ÍxY© GjvKvq †MvPviY f~wg _vKvq wmivRMÄ †Rjvi MÖvgv‡j A‡bK evwo‡Z †QvU †QvU `y» Lvgvi M‡o D‡V‡Q| cÖZvc †Nvl GKRb `wi`ª A_P mr `ya we‡µZv| G Kvi‡Y mevB Zv‡K m¤§vb K‡i| wZwb wmivRM‡Äi MÖvgvÂj †_‡K `ya µq K‡i kn‡i ewo evwo †mB `ya wkï Lv`¨ wn‡m‡e weµq K‡ib| `y‡ai Pvwn`v †e‡o †M‡jI wZwb †fRvj †gkvb bv| wZwb fv‡eb †fRvj wgwkÖZ `ya cvb Ki‡j wkïiv Acywó‡Z fzM‡e| K. e¨emvwqK g~j¨‡eva Kx? L. cwi‡ek msiÿ‡Y ewYK mwgwZi f~wgKv e¨vL¨v Ki| M. DÏxc‡K cÖZvc †Nvl e¨emv‡qi †Kvb `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Qb? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. DÏxc‡K D‡jøwLZ e¨emvwqK Kg©KvÛ •bwZKZvi gvb`‡Û g~j¨vqb Ki| 2| wg. Kwig jÿ¨ Ki‡jb, ZzivM b`xi Pvicv‡k A‡bK wkí KviLvbv M‡o D‡V‡Q| Gme KjKviLvbvq †h eR©¨ m„wó nq Zv ZzivM b`x‡Z wM‡q c‡o, hv b`xi ¯^vfvweK Ae¯’vi e¨vNvZ NUv‡”Q| Aciw`‡K GB KviLvbvq Drcvw`Z cY¨ evRviRvZKi‡Yi myweav‡_© Ggb c`v_© e¨envi Kiv n‡”Q hv cuPbkxj bq| d‡j,Zv gvwU‡Z weiƒc cÖwZwµqv m„wó K‡i‡Q| K. e¨emvwqK •bwZKZv Kx? L. e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv ej‡Z Kx eySvq? M. DÏxc‡K KjKviLvbvi eR©¨ c`v_© cvwb‡Z wg‡k b`xi ¯^vfvweK Ae¯’v bó Kivi Rb¨ †Kvb `~lY `vqx? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Drcvw`Z cY¨ evRviRvZKi‡Yi myweav‡_© †h c`v_©wU e¨envi Ki‡Q Zvi bvg Kx? GwU e¨env‡i cwi‡e‡ki Dci †h weiƒc cÖfve †d‡j Zv we‡kølY Ki|


238

e¨emvq msMVb I e¨e¯’ vcbvcÖ_g cÎ

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mR „ bk xj c Ö k :œ 1|

we¯ÍxY© GjvKvq †MvPviY fw~g _vKvq wmivRMÄ †Rjvi MÖvgv‡j A‡bK evwo‡Z †QvU †QvU `y» Lvgvi M‡o D‡V‡Q| cÖZvc †Nvl GKRb `wi`ª A_P mr `ya we‡µZv| G Kvi‡Y mevB Zv‡K m¤§vb K‡i| wZwb wmivRM‡Äi MÖvgvÂj †_‡K `ya µq K‡i kn‡i ewo evwo †mB `ya wkï Lv`¨ wn‡m‡e weµq K‡ib| `y‡ai Pvwn`v †e‡o †M‡jI wZwb †fRvj †gkvb bv| wZwb fv‡eb †fRvj wgwkÖZ `ya cvb Ki‡j wkïiv Acwyó‡Z fzM‡e| K. e¨emvwqK gj ~ ¨‡eva Kx? L. cwi‡ek msiÿ‡Y ewYK mwgwZi f~wgKv e¨vL¨v Ki| M. DÏxc‡K cÖZvc †Nvl e¨emv‡qi †Kvb `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Qb? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. DÏxc‡K D‡jøwLZ e¨emvwqK Kg©KvÛ ˆbwZKZvi gvb`‡Û gj ~ ¨vqb Ki| 2| wg. Kwig jÿ¨ Ki‡jb, ZizvM b`xi Pvicv‡k A‡bK wkí KviLvbv M‡o D‡V‡Q| Gme KjKviLvbvq †h eR©¨ mw„ó nq Zv ZizvM b`x‡Z wM‡q c‡o, hv b`xi ¯^vfvweK Ae¯v’i e¨vNvZ NUv‡”Q| Aciw`‡K GB KviLvbvq Drcvw`Z cY¨ evRviRvZKi‡Yi mwyeav‡_© Ggb c`v_© e¨envi Kiv n‡”Q hv cPubkxj bq| d‡j,Zv gvwU‡Z weiƒc cÖwZwµqv mw„ó K‡i‡Q| K. e¨emvwqK ˆbwZKZv Kx? L. e¨emv‡qi mvgvwRK `vqe×Zv ej‡Z Kx eS y vq? M. DÏxc‡K KjKviLvbvi eR©¨ c`v_© cvwb‡Z wg‡k b`xi ¯^vfvweK Ae¯v’ bó Kivi Rb¨ †Kvb `l~Y `vqx? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Drcvw`Z cY¨ evRviRvZKi‡Yi mwyeav‡_© †h c`v_©wU e¨envi Ki‡Q Zvi bvg Kx? GwU e¨env‡i cwi‡e‡ki Dci †h weiƒc cÖfve †d‡j Zv we‡kølY Ki|



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