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evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ D”P gva¨wgK

evsjv c_Ö g I wØZxq cÎ evsjv wefvM

K¨v g weª qv b K †j R ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

côv b¤^i-8


evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

 cÖKvkK K¨vgweªqvb cvewj„KkÝ cøU-2, ¸jkvb mv„K©j-2 XvKv| ƒdvb : 9891919, 9881355 [cÖKvkK KZ…©K me©¯^Z¡ msiwÿZ]

 cÖ_g cÖKvk  cÖ_g ms¯‥iY  wØZxq ms¯‥iY  Z…Zxq ms¯‥iY  Z…Zxq ms¯‥iY  Z…Zxq ms¯‥iY

: 15 RyjvB, 2008 : 01 RyjvB, 2009 : 10 gvP©, 2010 : 25 Ryb, 2011 : 25 Ryb, 2012 : 25 Ryb, 2013

 †UªW gvK© †iwRt bs : 96504, ƒkªwY-16, MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv„`k miKvi

 cÖ”Q` I AjsKiY : eyjeyj Avn‡g`

 K‡¤úvR : †gv. Rwniæj Bmjvg

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

côv b¤^i-9


evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

...

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

cvÖ K K _ b

ƒkªwYK„ÿ wkÿv`vb cÖwµqvq cÖfvlY GKwU eûj cÖPwjZ I Kvh©Ki c×wZ| ƒkªwYK„ÿ cÖfvl„Yi gva¨„g djcÖm~ I cÖvYešÍÑwkÿ„Yi ƒÿ„Î wkÿv_©x Ges wkÿ„Ki c~e© cÖ¯‘wZi ƒKvb weKí ƒbB| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ GB cÖ¯‘wZi ƒÿ„Î we„kl mnvqK f~wgKv cvjb Ki„Z cv„i| ƒKbbv, cÖfvlY c„Îi gva¨„g K¬v„mi c~„e©B cvV`v„bi welqwU„K wkÿv_x©„`i AeMZ Kiv„j wkÿv`vb cÖwµqv A„bK ƒewk mnR I djcÖm~ nq| GB we„kl w`KwUi K_v we„ePbv K„i K¨vgweªqvb ¯ˆzj GÛ K„j„Ri cÖKvkbv wefvM K¨vgweªqvb cvewj„Kkb wbqwgZfv„e Ô†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎÕ cÖKvk K„i Avm„Q| Avgv„`i Rvbv g„Z D”P gva¨wgK ch©v„q K¨vgweªqvb ¯ˆzj GÛ K„jRB evsjv„`„k cÖ_g G ai„bi D„`¨vM wb„q„Q| K¨vgweªqvb ¯ˆzj GÛ K„j„Ri evsjv wefvM ƒ_„K cÖKvwkZ GB Ô†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎÕ Mքš’ D”P gva¨wgK ƒkªwYi evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq c„Îi b¤^i eÈb, MÖš’ cwiwPwZ, cÖwZwU Aa¨v„qi g~j Av„jvP¨ welq, Qwe msewjZ ƒjLK cwiwPwZ, cvV cwiwPwZ, cv„Vi Drm, e¨vKi„Yi wewfbœ msÁv I `óvšÍ, fvlY I cÖwZ„e`„bi AvaywbK KvVv„gv I MVb„K‡kj Ges ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cÖkm œ n Abykxjbg~jK KvR mwbœ„ewkZ n„q„Q; hv wkÿv_x©„`i Ávb Avni„Y h„_ó mnvqK n„e| Avgv„`i GB cÖqvm„K Kv„R jvwM„q wkÿK I wkÿv_x©iv DcK‚Z n„j Gi ƒcQ„b Avgv„`i wPšÍv, ƒgav I kª„gi ƒh mgš^q N„U„Q Zv mv_©K n„e| evsjv wefvM K„jR kvLv K¨vgweªqvb ¯ˆzj GÛ K„jR, 23, cÖMwZ miwY, evwiaviv, XvKv|

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

côv b¤^i-10


evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

welq : evsjv (Avewk¨K)

cÖ_g cÎ (M`¨, KweZv I Dcb¨vm)

welq †KvW : 101

GKv`k †kªwY †gvU K¬v‡mi msL¨v : 116 wU

 mvaviY D‡Ïk¨ wkÿv_©x„`i gv„S bv›`wbK ƒPZbv MVb, ms„e`bkxjZv ew×, gvbweK g~j¨„eva mwó, fvlvMZ DrKl© mvab, mRbkxjZvi weKvk Ges RMr I Rxeb m¤ú„K© …kwíK `wófw½ wbg©vY GB ƒKv„mi© ƒg‡j D„Ïk¨|

 wkLb dj ƒKvm©wU m¤úbœ K„i wkÿv_©x„`i g„a¨ cvi¯úwiK ƒhvMv„hvM I fve wewbg„qi ÿgZv ew× cv„e| wkÿv_©xiv evsjv fvlv ï×fv„e wjL„Z, ej„Z I co„Z cvi„e| e¨envwiK ƒÿ„Î G fvlvi ï× cքqvM Ki„Z cvi„e| ƒm m„½ fvlvi wewPÎ I wkwíZ cքqvM NUv„Z cvi„e| GQvov ƒKv„bv wKQy we„kølY I Zv cÖKvk Kivi mÿgZv AR©„bi gva¨„g wb„R„K G wel„q D”PZi wkÿvi Rb¨ cÖ¯Z ‘ Ki„Z cvi„e|

 gvbeÈb m„Rbkxj K -wefvM (M`¨) - 20 2 wU mRbkxj cքkœi DËi wjL„Z n„e ( 3wU ƒ_„K) :

10  2 = 20

L -wefvM (KweZv) Ñ 20 2 wU mRbkxj cքkœi DËi wjL„Z n„e ( 3wU ƒ_„K) : M-wefvM (Dcb¨vm) - 20 2 wU mRbkxj cքkœi DËi wjL„Z n„e ( 3wU ƒ_„K) :

10  2 = 20 10  2 = 20

eûwbe©vPbx evsjv msKjb eB„qi M`¨ I KweZv ƒ_„K 40wU cքkœi DËi wjL„Z n„e Ñ

40  1= 40 me©‡gvU = 100

 cÖkœcÎ cÖYqb bxwZgvjv : cÖ_g cÎ   mRbkxj As„k 1wU K„i AwZwi³ cÖkœ ƒ`qv _vK„e|  cÖwZwU cքkœ 1wU K„i DÏxcK I 4wU K„i cÖkœ _vK„e (Ávb, Abyaveb, cքqvM I D”PZi `ÿZv)|  mRbkxj cքkœi cÖwZwU DÏxcK n„e ƒg‡wjK|  eB ƒ_„K mivmwi ƒKv„bv DÏxcK ƒ`qv hv„e bv|  eûwbe©vPbx cքkœ ƒKv„bv AwZwi³ cÖkœ ƒ`qv _vK„e bv| cÖwZwU cքkœi DËi w`„Z n„e|  eûwbe©vPbx cÖkœ mvavib, eûc`x mgvwßm~PK I Awfbœ Z_¨wfwËKÑGB wZb fv„M wef³ _vK„e|

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

côv b¤^i-11


†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

 cv V¨ cy ¯Í K m g~ n  (RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK ƒevW© KZ©K Aby„gvw`Z cvV¨cy¯Í„Ki bvg) 1. D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb msKjK : W. gvneyeyj nK 2. cÙvb`xi gvwS g~j : gvwbK e„›`¨vcva¨vq m¤úv`bv : gyn¤§` RvjvjDÏxb wek¦vm cÖKvkK : Kvgiæj G›UvicÖvBR

cvV¨m~wP M`¨ µwgK 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Aa¨v‡qi wk‡ivbvg KgjvKv„šÍi Revbew›` …ngšÍx mvwn„Z¨ ƒLjv wejvmx Aa©v½x ƒh‡e„bi Mvb KwjgwÏ `dv`vi `ybx©wZ, Dbœq„bi AšÍivq I DËi„Yi c_ GKwU Zzjmx Mv„Qi Kvwnbx GKz„ki Mí Aciv„nèi Mí

†jLK ew¼gP›`ª PÆcva¨vq iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi cÖg_ ƒP‡ayix kirP›`ª P„Ævcva¨vq „iv„Kqv mvLvIqvZ ƒnv„mb KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb msKwjZ iPbv …mq` IqvjxDjøvn Rwni ivqnvb ûgvq~b Avn„g`

KweZv µwgK 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

KweZvi wk‡ivbvg e½fvlv ƒmvbvi Zix Rxeb-e›`bv evsjv„`k Kei Zvnv„iB c„o g„b Avgvi c~e© evsjv cv„Äwi AvVv„iv eQi eqm GKwU d„UvMÖvd

Kwe gvB„Kj gaym~`b `Ë iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg Awgq PµeZ©x RmxgD`&`xb mywdqv Kvgvj …mq` Avjx Avnmvb diiæL Avng` myKvšÍ fÆvPvh© kvgmyi ivngvb

Dcb¨vm  cÙvb`xi gvwS : gvwbK e„›`¨vcva¨vq ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

côv b¤^i-12


evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

welq : evsjv (Avewk¨K) wØZxq cÎ welq ƒKvW : 102 Øv`k †kªwY  cÖkœcÎ

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 

cÖYqb bxwZgvjv : wØZxq cÎ 

bvU„Ki 2 wU iPbvg~jK cÖkœ ƒ_„K 1wUi DËi wjL„Z n„e| bvU„Ki 2 wU welqwfwËK mswÿß cÖkœ ƒ_„K 1wUi DËi wjL„Z n„e| bvU„Ki 2 wU e¨vL¨v ƒ_„K 1wU e¨vL¨v wjL„Z n„e| cÖeÜ iPbvi Rb¨ 5wU welq _vK„e| ƒh ƒKvb 1wU welq Aej¤^„b cÖeÜ iPbv Ki„Z n„e| e¨vKi„Yi Rb¨ wba©vwiZ cvV¨m~wP ƒ_„K 8wU cÖkœ ƒ`Iqv _vK„e| Gi g„a¨ 5wU cքkœi DËi w`„Z n„e| eY©bvg~jK cÖkœ Qvov Ab¨vb¨ cÖk¸ œ „jv„Z evQvB K„i DËi ƒ`Iqvi my„hvM _vK„e| cÎ wjL„bi Rb¨ 2wU cÖkœ _vK„e| Gi g„a¨ ƒh ƒKvb 1wUi DËi wjL„Z n„e| 1wU fvlY Ges 1wU cÖwZ„e`b ƒ`Iqv _vK„e| G `ywU ƒ_„K ƒh ƒKvb 1wUi DËi wjL„Z n„e| KweZvsk ƒ_„K 1wU Ges M`¨vsk ƒ_„K Av„iv 1wU fvee¯‘ ƒ`Iqv _vK„e| G `ywU ƒ_„K ƒh ƒKvb 1wUi fvem¤cÖmviY Ki„Z n„e| cÖeÜ iPbv, cÎ wjLb, fvlY Ges cÖwZ„e`„bi welq Ggbfv„e wba©viY Kiv n„e hv„Z K„i cixÿv_©xiv Zv„`i wbR¯^ wPšÍv I AwfÁZvi Av„jv„K Zv wjL„Z cv„i| gyL¯’ K„i DËi `v„bi cÖeYZv `~i Ki„Z mvaviYZ ƒh me MZvbyMwZK welq cixÿvq Av„m ƒm¸„jv h_vm¤¢e cwinvi Ki„Z n„e|

 cv V¨ e B m g~ n  ( RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK ƒevW© KZ©K Aby„gvw`Z ) 1. i³v³ cÖvšÍi (bvUK) g~j : gybxi ƒP‡ayix msKjK I m¤úv`bv : cÖYe ƒP‡ayix 2. fvlv wkÿv : W. nvqvr gvgy` 3. evsjv e¨vKiY : W. kvnRvnvb gwbi 4. bZzb evsjv iPbv : AwRZ Kzgvi ¸n I Avwbmy¾vgvb| 5. evsjv fvlvi e¨vKiY I iPbv ixwZ : W. gvneyeyj nK 6. D”P gva¨wgK evsjv e¨vKiY I iPbv : Ave`yjøvn Avj gvgyb 7. D”PZi evsjv e¨vKiY I iPbv : Aa¨vcK wbiÄb AwaKvix

 cv V¨ my wP  1. bvUK : i³v³ cÖvšÍi (RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK ƒevW© KZ©K Aby„gvw`Z) 2. cÖeÜ iPbv 3. e¨vKiY : kã MVb, evK¨ MVb, mgvm, mwÜ, cÖK‚wZ-cÖZ¨q, DcmM©, mgv_©K kã, wecixZ kã, cvwifvwlK I `vßwiK kã, weivgwP„ýi e¨envi, evK¨ I k„ãi ï× cքqvM| (G me wel„q cÖkœ cÖYq„bi ƒÿ„Î ÔD”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjbÕ Mքš’i cvV¨m~wPfy³ cvV ¸iæZ¡ cv„e|) 4. cÎ wjLb 5. fvlY I cÖwZ‡e`b 6. fve m¤cÖmviY ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

côv b¤^i-13


evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

GKv`k †kªwY †gvU Uvg© Ñ 3wU

†gvU K¬vm msL¨v Ñ 100wU

K¬vm msL¨v - 35 cvV Ñ 1 cvV Ñ 2 cvV Ñ 3 cvV Ñ 4 cvV Ñ 5 cvV Ñ 6 cvV Ñ 7 cvV Ñ 8 cvV Ñ 9 cvV Ñ 10 cvV Ñ 11 cvV Ñ 12 cvV Ñ 13 cvV Ñ 14 cvV Ñ 15 cvV Ñ 16 cvV Ñ 17 cvV Ñ 18 cvV Ñ 19 cvV Ñ 20 cvV Ñ 21 cvV Ñ 22 cvV Ñ 23 cvV Ñ 24 cvV Ñ 25 cvV Ñ 26 cvV Ñ 27 cvV Ñ 28 cvV Ñ 29 cvV Ñ 30 cvV Ñ 31 cvV Ñ 32 cvV Ñ 33 cvV Ñ 34 cvV Ñ 35

cÖ_g el© : cÖ_g Uvg© cwiwPwZce© I evsjvmvwn„Z¨i BwZnvm-1 evsjvmvwn„Z¨i BwZnvm-2 wm„jevm I cixÿvi gvbeÈb m¤úwK©Z Av„jvPbv mRbkxj I eûwbe©vPwb cªkœ m¤úwK©Z Av„jvPbv KgjvKv„šÍi Revbew›` Ñ 1 KgjvKv„šÍi Revbew›` Ñ 2 KgjvKv„šÍi Revbew›` Ñ 3 e½fvlv Ñ 1 e½fvlv Ñ 2 e½fvlv Ñ 3 …ngšÍx Ñ 1 …ngšÍx Ñ 2 …ngšÍx Ñ 3 …ngšÍx Ñ 4 …ngšÍx Ñ 5 ƒmvbvi Zix Ñ 1 ƒmvbvi Zix Ñ 2 mvwn„Z¨ ƒLjv Ñ 1 mvwn„Z¨ ƒLjv Ñ 2 mvwn„Z¨ ƒLjv Ñ 3 Rxeb-e›`bv Ñ 1 Rxeb-e›`bv Ñ 2 wejvmx Ñ 1 wejvmx Ñ 2 wejvmx Ñ 3 wejvmx Ñ 4 evsjv„`k Ñ 1 evsjv„`k Ñ 2 Aa©v•Mx Ñ 1 Aa©v•Mx Ñ 2 Aa©v•Mx Ñ 3 Aa©v•Mx Ñ 4 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (M`¨) Ñ 1 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (M`¨) Ñ 2 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (KweZv) Ñ 3

K¬vm msL¨v - 35 cvV Ñ 36 cvV Ñ 37 cvV Ñ 38 cvV Ñ 39

cÖ_g el© : wØZxq Uvg© KweZv I Q›` m¤úwK©Z Av„jvPbv কবর-১ কবর-২ কবর-৩

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

côv b¤^i-14


evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

cvV Ñ 40 cvV Ñ 41 cvV Ñ 42 cvV Ñ 43 cvV Ñ 44 cvV Ñ 45 cvV Ñ 46 cvV Ñ 47 cvV Ñ 48 cvV Ñ 49 cvV Ñ 50 cvV Ñ 51 cvV Ñ 52 cvV Ñ 53 cvV Ñ 54 cvV Ñ 55 cvV Ñ 56 cvV Ñ 57 cvV Ñ 58 cvV Ñ 59 cvV Ñ 60 cvV Ñ 61 cvV Ñ 62 cvV Ñ 63 cvV Ñ 64 cvV Ñ 65 cvV Ñ 66 cvV Ñ 67 cvV Ñ 68 cvV Ñ 69 cvV Ñ 70

ƒh‡e„b iMvb Ñ 1 ƒh‡e„bi Mvb Ñ 2 ƒh‡e„bi Mvb Ñ 3 Zvnv„iB c„o g„b Ñ 1 Zvnv„iB c„o g„b Ñ 2 Zvnv„iB c„o g„b Ñ ৩ KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Ñ 1 KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Ñ 2 KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Ñ 3 KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Ñ 4 cv„Äwi Ñ 1 cv„Äwi Ñ 2 cv„Äwi Ñ 3 GKwU Zzjmx Mv„Qi Kvwnbx Ñ 1 GKwU Zzjmx Mv„Qi Kvwnbx Ñ 2 GKwU Zzjmx Mv„Qi Kvwnbx Ñ 3 GKwU Zzjmx Mv„Qi Kvwnbx Ñ 4 Avgvi c~e© evsjv Ñ 1 Avgvi c~e© evsjv Ñ 2 Avgvi c~e© evsjv Ñ 3 GKz„ki Mí Ñ 1 GKz„ki Mí Ñ 2 GKz„ki Mí Ñ 3 `yb©xwZ, Dbœq„bi AšÍivq I DËi„Yi c_ Ñ 1 `ybx©wZ, Dbœq„bi AšÍivq I DËi„Yi c_ Ñ 2 `ybx©wZ, Dbœq„bi AšÍivq I DËi„Yi c_ Ñ 3 `ybx©wZ, Dbœq„bi AšÍivq I DËi„Yi c_ Ñ 4 `ybx©wZ, Dbœq„bi AšÍivq I DËi„Yi c_ Ñ 5 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (M`¨) Ñ 1 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (M`¨) Ñ 2 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv(KweZv) Ñ 3

K¬vm msL¨v - 30 cvV Ñ 71 cvV Ñ 72 cvV Ñ 73 cvV Ñ 74 cvV Ñ 75 cvV Ñ 76 cvV Ñ 77 cvV Ñ 78 cvV Ñ 79 cvV Ñ 80 cvV Ñ 81 cvV Ñ 82 cvV Ñ 83 cvV Ñ 84 cvV Ñ 85

cÖ_g el© : Z…Zxq Uvg© (el© mgvcbx) AvVv„iveQieqm Ñ 1 AvVv„iveQieqm Ñ 2 Aciv„nèiMí Ñ 1 Aciv„nèiMí Ñ 2 Aciv„nèiMí Ñ 3 GKwUd„UvMÖvd Ñ 1 GKwUd„UvMÖvd Ñ 2 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 1 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 2 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 3 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 4 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 5 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 6 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 7 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 8

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

côv b¤^i-15


†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ cvV Ñ 86 cvV Ñ 87 cvV Ñ 88 cvV Ñ 89 cvV Ñ 90 cvV Ñ 91 cvV Ñ 92 cvV Ñ 93 cvV Ñ 94 cvV Ñ 95 cvV Ñ 96 cvV Ñ 97 cvV Ñ 98 cvV Ñ 99 cvV Ñ 100

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 9 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 10 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 11 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 12 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 13 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 14 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 15 cÙvb`xigvwS Ñ 16 c~e© cv„Vicybiv„jvPbv (M`¨) Ñ 1 c~e© cv„Vicybiv„jvPbv (M`¨) Ñ 2 c~e© cv„Vicybiv„jvPbv (M`¨) Ñ ৩ c~e© cv„Vicybiv„jvPbv (KweZv) Ñ4 c~e© cv„Vicybiv„jvPbv (KweZv) Ñ 5 c~e© cv„Vicybiv„jvPbv (Dcb¨vm) Ñ 6 c~e© cv„Vicybiv„jvPbv (Dcb¨vm) Ñ 7

cÖ_g I wØZxq Uvg© cixÿvi cÖkœcÎ cÖYqb c×wZ I gvb eÈb

mgq : 3 NÈv

evwl©K (el© mgvcbx) cixÿvi cÖkœcÎ cÖYqb c×wZ I gvb eÈb

cÖ kœ c Î cÖ Y q b c × wZ I gv b e È b

mgq : 3 NÈv

c~Y©gvb : 100

1. M`¨vsk ƒ_„K 3wU mRbkxj cքkœi DËi w`„Z n„e (5wUi g„a¨) : 103=30 2. KweZvsk ƒ_„K 3wU mRbkxj cքkœi DËi w`„Z n„e (4wUi g„a¨) : 103=30 3. M`¨ I KweZvsk ƒ_„K 40wU enywbe©vPbx cքkœi DËi w`„Z n„e (40wUi g„a¨) : 140=40 [24wU (60%) Ávb I Abyavebg~jK Ges 16wU (40%) cª„qvM I `ÿZvg~jK cÖkœ _vK„e]

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

1. 2. 3. 4.

c~Y©gvb : 100

M`¨vsk ƒ_„K 2wU mRbkxj cքkœi DËi w`„Z n„e (3wUi g„a¨) : 102=20 KweZvsk ƒ_„K 2wU mRbkxj cքkœi DËi w`„Z n„e (3wUi g„a¨) : 102=20 Dcb¨vm ƒ_„K 2wU mRbkxj cքkœi DËi w`„Z n„e (3wUi g„a¨) : 102=20 M`¨ I KweZvsk ƒ_„K 40wU enywbe©vPbx cքkœi DËi w`„Z n„e (40wUi g„a¨) : 140=40 [M`¨ I KweZvsk ƒ_„K 24wU (60%) Ávb I Abyavebg~jK Ges 16wU (40%) cª„qvM I `ÿZvg~jK cÖkœ _vK„e]

côv b¤^i-16


evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

Øv`k †kªwY Uvg© msL¨v Ñ 3 wU

†gvU K¬vm msL¨v Ñ 100wU

K¬vm msL¨v - 35 cvV Ñ 1 cvV Ñ2 cvV Ñ3 cvV Ñ4 cvV Ñ5 cvV Ñ6 cvV Ñ7 cvV Ñ8 cvV Ñ9 cvV Ñ10 cvV Ñ11 cvV Ñ12 cvV Ñ13 cvV Ñ14 cvV Ñ15 cvV Ñ16 cvV Ñ17 cvV Ñ18 cvV Ñ19 cvV Ñ20 cvV Ñ21 cvV Ñ22 cvV Ñ23 cvV Ñ24 cvV Ñ25 cvV Ñ26 cvV Ñ27 cvV Ñ28 cvV Ñ29 cvV Ñ30 cvV Ñ31 cvV Ñ32 cvV Ñ33 cvV Ñ34 cvV Ñ35

wØZxq el© : cÖ_g Uvg© wm„jevm I cixÿvi gvbeÈb m¤úwK©Z Av„jvPbv fvlv I e¨vKiY m¤úwK©Z Av„jvPbv Ges msÁv e¨vKi„Yi Av„jvP¨m~wP I cքqvRbxqZv aŸwb msµvšÍ Av„jvPbv kã I k„ãi DrcwËMZ cÖKvi„f` k„ãi A_©MZ cÖKvi„f` k„ãi MVbMZ cÖKvi„f` I wewfbœ MVb c×wZ kã msµvšÍ mgwš^Z Av„jvPbv fve m¤cÖmviY (wba©vwiZ 3wU fve m¤cÖmviY ) Ñ 1 fve m¤cÖmviY (wba©vwiZ 3wU fve m¤cÖmviY) Ñ 2 evK¨, D„Ïk¨, we„aq I mv_©K evK¨ MV„bi …ewkó¨mg~n ev„K¨i MVbMZ cÖKvi„f` I i€cvšÍi c×wZ ev„K¨i A_©MZ cÖKvi„f` I i€cvšÍi c×wZ ev„K¨i ƒevaMZ cÖKvi„f` I i€cvšÍi c×wZ evK¨ i€cvšÍi I evK¨ msµvšÍ mgwš^Z Av„jvPbv cÎ (cÎ m¤úwK©Z aviYv I e¨w³MZ cÎ) Ñ 1 cÎ (Av„e`b cÎ) Ñ 2 Y-Z¡ weavb l-Z¡ weavb mgvm Ñ 1 mgvm Ñ 2 mgvm Ñ 3 mgvm Ñ 4 fvlY Ñ 1 fvlY Ñ 2 fvlY Ñ 3 mgv_©K kã Ñ 1 mgv_©K kã Ñ 2 AbymM© DcmM© cÖeÜ iPbv (cÖv_wgK Av„jvPbv) Ñ 1 cÖeÜ iPbv (wba©vwiZ 1wU iPbv) Ñ 2 cÖeÜ iPbv (wba©vwiZ 1wU iPbv) Ñ 3 cÖeÜ iPbv (wba©vwiZ 1wU iPbv) Ñ 4 cÖeÜ iPbv (wba©vwiZ 1wU iPbv) Ñ 5

K¬vm msL¨v - 30 cvV Ñ36 cvV Ñ37 cvV Ñ38 cvV Ñ39 cvV Ñ40 cvV Ñ41 cvV Ñ42

wØZxq el© : wØZxq Uvg© cÖK‚wZ-cÖZ¨q Ñ 1 cÖK‚wZ-cÖZ¨q Ñ 2 cÖK‚wZ-cÖZ¨q Ñ 3 cÖK‚wZ-cÖZ¨q Ñ 4 fve m¤cÖmviY (wba©vwiZ 3wU fve m¤cÖmviY) Ñ 3 fve m¤cÖmviY (wba©vwiZ 3wU fve m¤cÖmviY) Ñ 4 wecixZ kã Ñ 1

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

côv b¤^i-17


evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

cvV Ñ43 cvV Ñ44 cvV Ñ45 cvV Ñ46 cvV Ñ47 cvV Ñ48 cvV Ñ49 cvV Ñ50 cvV Ñ51 cvV Ñ52 cvV Ñ53 cvV Ñ54 cvV Ñ55 cvV Ñ56 cvV Ñ57 cvV Ñ58 cvV Ñ59 cvV Ñ60 cvV Ñ61 cvV Ñ62 cvV Ñ63 cvV Ñ 64 cvV Ñ 65

wecixZ kã Ñ 2 cvwifvwlK kã Ñ 1 cvwifvwlK kã Ñ 2 cvwifvwlK kã Ñ 3 cÎ (cwÎKvi cÎ) Ñ 3 cÎ (Avgš¿Y cÎ / wbgš¿Y cÎ, gvb cÎ) Ñ 4 cÎ (e¨emvwqK cÎ I Ab¨vb¨ cÎ) Ñ 5 mwÜ Ñ 1 mwÜ Ñ 2 kã ïw×KiY Ñ 1 kã ïw×KiY Ñ 2 evK¨ ïw×KiY Ñ 1 evK¨ ïw×KiY Ñ 2 cÖwZ„e`b (cÖv_wgK Av„jvPbv I cÖwZ„e`b cwiwPwZ) Ñ 1 cÖwZ„e`b (cwÎKvi cÖwZ„e`b) Ñ 2 cÖwZ„e`b (Awdwmqvj cÖwZ„e`b) Ñ 3 cÖwZ„e`b (mvwe©K Av„jvPbv I Abykxjb) Ñ 4 hwZ wPý Ñ 1 hwZ wPý Ñ 2 cÖeÜ iPbv (wba©vwiZ 1wU iPbv) Ñ 6 cÖeÜ iPbv (wba©vwiZ 1wU iPbv) Ñ 7 cÖeÜ iPbv (wba©vwiZ 1wU iPbv) Ñ 8 cÖeÜ iPbv (wba©vwiZ 1wU iPbv) Ñ 9

K¬vm msL¨v - 35 cvV Ñ 66 cvV Ñ 67 cvV Ñ 68 cvV Ñ 69 cvV Ñ 70 cvV Ñ 71 cvV Ñ 72 cvV Ñ 73 cvV Ñ 74 cvV Ñ 75 cvV Ñ 76 cvV Ñ 77 cvV Ñ 78 cvV Ñ 79 cvV Ñ 80 cvV Ñ 81 cvV Ñ 82 cvV Ñ 83 cvV Ñ 84

wØZxq el© : Z…Zxq Uvg© (el© mgvcbx) i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 1 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 2 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 3 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 4 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 5 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 6 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 7 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 8 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 9 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 10 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 11 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 12 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 13 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 14 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 15 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 16 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 17 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 18 i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 19

cvV Ñ 85 cvV Ñ 86 cvV Ñ 87

i³v³ cÖvšÍi Ñ 20 fve m¤cÖmviY (wba©vwiZ 3wU fve m¤cÖmviY) Ñ 5 fve m¤cÖmviY (wba©vwiZ 3wU fve m¤cÖmviY) Ñ 6

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

côv b¤^i-18


†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ cvV Ñ 88 cvV Ñ 89

fve m¤cÖmviY (wba©vwiZ 3wU fve m¤cÖmviY ) Ñ 7 cÖeÜ iPbv (wba©vwiZ 1wU iPbv) Ñ 10

cvV Ñ 90 cvV Ñ 91 cvV Ñ 92 cvV Ñ 93 cvV Ñ 94 cvV Ñ 95 cvV Ñ 96 cvV Ñ 97 cvV Ñ 98 cvV Ñ 99 cvV Ñ 100

cÖeÜ iPbv (wba©vwiZ 1wU iPbv) Ñ 11 cÖeÜ iPbv (mvwe©K Av„jvPbv) Ñ12 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (e¨vKiY) Ñ 1 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (e¨vKiY) Ñ 2 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (fve m¤cÖmviY) Ñ 3 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (cÎ) Ñ 4 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (fvlY I cÖwZ„e`b) Ñ 5 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (i³v³ cÖvšÍi) Ñ 6 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (i³v³ cÖvšÍi) Ñ 7 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (cÖeÜ iPbv) Ñ 8 c~e© cv„Vi cybiv„jvPbv (cÖeÜ iPbv) Ñ 9

cÖ_g I wØZxq Uvg© cixÿv

cÖ kœ c Î

cÖ Y q b

c × wZ

I

gv b e È b

mgq : 3 NÈv

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

c~Y©gvb : 100

cwVZ wel„qi Ici wfwË K„i gvb eÈb mv„c„ÿ cÖkœ cÖYqb Kiv n„e|

mgq : 3 NÈv

c~Y©gvb : 100

 bvUK

 1 wU iPbvg~jK cÖkœ (2wU ƒ_„K)  1 wU welqwfwËK mswÿß cÖkœ (2wU ƒ_„K)  1 wU e¨vL¨v (2wU ƒ_„K)

el© mgvcbx cixÿv

101 =10 51 =05 51 =05

 cÖeÜ, e¨vKiY I weiPb

    

1 wU cÖeÜ iPbv (5wU ƒ_„K) 5 wU e¨vKiYg~jK cÖkœ (8wU ƒ_„K) 1 wU cÎ wjLb (2wU ƒ_„K) 1wU fvlY A_ev cÖwZ„e`b 1 wU fve-m¤cÖmviY (2wU ƒ_„K)

201=20 65 =30 101 =10 101 =10 101 =10 me©„gvU=100

GB côv ev` hv„eGB côv ev` hv„e

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

côv b¤^i-19


evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

cÖ_g cÎ

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

côv b¤^i-20


evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i BwZnvm  evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i hyM-wefvM mvwnZ¨ mgv„jvPKMY evsjv mvwnZ¨ iPbvi mgqKvj„K ƒgvU wZbwU fv„M wef³ K„i„Qb| h_v : 1. cÖvPxb hyM (650Ñ1200 wLª÷vã)| 2. ga¨ hyM (1201Ñ1800 wLª÷vã)| 3. AvaywbK hyM (1801ÑA`¨vewa)|

 cÖvPxb hyM               

wb`k©b : Ph©vc` (¯^Zš¿ Zvj I ivMwewkó ƒe‡× a„g©i mvab msMxZ)| ƒgvU c„`i msL¨v : 51 wU| msMnxZ c„`i msL¨v : mv„o 46 wU| msMքni Drm : ƒbcv„ji ivR`ievi¯’ cvVvMvi| msMÖn I Avwe®ˆv„ii mgq : 1907 wLª÷vã| msMÖvnK : gnvg„nvcva¨vq nicªmv` kv¯¿x| cÖ_g cÖKvk : 1916 wLª÷vã (e½xq mvwnZ¨ cwil`, m¤úv`K Ñ gnvg„nvcva¨vq nicªmv` kv¯¿x)| Ph©vKv„ii msL¨v : 24 Rb| Ph©vKvi‡`i bvg : jyB, Kz°zix, weiyAv, MyÛix, PvwUj, fymyKz, Kvý, Kvgwj, ƒWv¤^x, kvwšÍ, gwnËv, exYv, min, kei, AvR„`e, ƒXÛb, `vwiK, fv„`, ZvoK, K¼Y, RAbw›`, avg, Zš¿x I jvox„Wv¤^x| msMnxZ c„`i g„a¨ jvox„Wv¤^xi ƒKvb c` cvIqv hvqwb| c„`i fwYZvq cքZ¨K c`KZ©vi bv„gi ƒk„l m¤§vbm~PK ÔcvÕ hy³ Kiv n„Zv| A„bK c`KZ©vi bvgB wQj QÙbvg| me©vwaK c` iPwqZv : Kvýcv` (13 wU)| welqe¯‘i we„klZ¡ : agx©q Z„Ë¡i mv„_ mgvRwP„Îi Dcw¯’wZ| GKwU c„`i Askwe„kl  DÂv DÂv cveZ Zwnu emB meix evjx| ƒgviv½ cx”Q cwinvY meix MxeZ ¸Äix gvjx|| [ DuPz DuPz ce©Z Ñ Z_vq e„m keix evwjKv, gq~icy”Q cwiwnZ keix Mjvq ¸Ävi gvjv| Ñ keicv]

 ga¨ hyM  D„jøL„hvM¨ wb`k©bmg~n 1. kªxK…òKxZ©b Kve¨ : eo– PÛx`vm kªxK‚òKxZ©b Kv„e¨i LÐ msL¨v : 13 wU (Rb¥LÐ, Zv¤^yjLÐ, `vbLÐ, ƒb‡KvLÐ, fviLÐ, QÎLÐ, e›`vebLÐ, Kvwji`gbLÐ, hgybvLÐ, nviLÐ, evYLÐ, eskxLÐ I ivavwein)| 2. •eòe c`vejx : we`¨vcwZ, PÛx`vm, ƒMvwe›``vm, Ávb`vm, ejivg`vm, RM`vb›`, ivq„kLi, ƒkL Kwei, AvdRj, ƒkL dqRyjøvn&, …mq` AvBbywÏb, …mq` gZ©yRv, AvjvIj, Avjx iRv, Kgi Avjx, …mq` myjZvb, bIqvwRm cÖgyL| 3. kªx •PZb¨‡`‡ei Rxebx mvwnZ¨ (GKvwaK) : e›`veb`vm, ƒjvPb`vm, Rqvb›`, K‚ò`vm KweivR, ƒMvwe›``vm, P~ovgwY`vm cÖgyL| 4. Abyev` mvwnZ¨ K. ivgvqY : K‚wËevm, A™¢yZvPvh©, P›`ªveZx| L. gnvfviZ : Kex›`ª ci„gk¦i (j¯ˆi civMj Lv„bi wb„`©„k), kªxKi b›`x (j¯ˆi civMj Lv„bi cyÎ QzwU Lv„bi wb„`©„k), mÄq, Kvkxivg `vm| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

côv b¤^i-21


evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

M. fvMeZ (kªxK‚ò weRq) : gvjvai emy (¸YivR Lvb Ñ ƒM‡„ok¦i KZ©K ƒ`qv Dcvwa)| 5. g½jKve¨ K. gbmvg½j : Kvbvnwi`Ë, bvivqb„`e, weRq¸ß, wecÖ`vm wcwcjvB, wØR eskx`vm, ƒKZKv`vm ƒÿgvb›`, ƒÿgvb›`, Zš¿wef~wZ, RM¾xeb ƒNvlvj, weòzcvj, lôxei `Ë, Kvwj`vm, mxZvivg`vm cÖgyL| L. PÛxg½j (Kvj„KZz DcvL¨vb, abcwZ m`vM„ii Kvwnbx): gvwYK `Ë, wØR gvae, gvaevPvh©, gyKz›`ivg PµeZx©, wØR ivg„`e, nwiivg, jvjv RqbvivqY ƒmb, fevbxk¼i `vm, AwKÂb PµeZx© cÖgyL| M. `yM©vg½j : wØR Kgj„jvPb, fevbxcÖmv` ivq| N. ag©g½j (ivRv nwikP„›`ªi Kvwnbx, jvD„m„bi Kvwnbx) : gq~ifÆ, Avw` i€civg, ƒLjvivg PµeZx©, gvwYKivg, i€civg, k¨vgcwÐZ, mxZvivg `vm, ivRvivg `vm, ivg`vm Av`K, wØR cÖfyivg, Nbivg PµeZx©, ivgP›`ª e„›`¨vcva¨vq, mn„`e PµeZx©, ü`qivg mvD, biwmsn emy cÖgyL| O. wkeg½j   wkevqb : ivgK‚ò ivq, k¼i KweP›`ª, iv„gk¦i fÆvPvh© cÖgyL|  g„Mjyä : ivgivRv, iwZ„`e| P. KvwjKvg½j (we`¨vmy›`„ii Kvwnbx): Kwe K¼, kªxai KweivR, mvwewi` Lvb, ƒMvwe›` `vm, ejivg Kwe„kLi, ivgcÖmv` ƒmb cªgyL| Q. Abœ`vg½j : fviZP›`ª ivq ¸YvKi| GQvovI g½jKve¨ wn„m„e ZLb ƒh Kve¨¸„jv iwPZ n„q„Q Zvi g„a¨ D„jL„hvM¨ n„jv Ñ lôxg½j, ivqg½j, kxZjvg½j I Kgjvg½j Kve¨| 6. bv_ mvwnZ¨ K. ƒMviÿ weR„qi Kvwnbx : „kL dqRyjvn&, k¨vg`vm ƒmb, Kex›`ª`vm, fxg„mb| L. gqbvgZx ev ƒMvcxP„›`ªi MxZ : `yj©f gwjK, fevbx`vm, myKzi gvngy`| 7. AvivKvb ivRmfvi evsjv mvwnZ¨   †`․jZ KvRx : mZx gqbv I ƒjvi P›`ªvbx (Kwei gZz¨i ci Kve¨wUi ƒklvsk iPbv K„ib Kwe AvjvIj)|  gi`b : bmxiv-bvgv|  †Kv‡ikx gvMY VvKzi : cÙveZx|  AvjvIj : cÙveZx (g~j : gvwjK gyn¤§` Rvqmx), mqdzj gyjyK ew`D¾vgvj, mZx gqbv I ƒjvi P›`ªvbxi ƒklvsk, mß cqKi, ƒZvn&dv, ƒmKv›`ibvgv, m½xZkv¯¿ (ivMZvjbvgv), ivaK‚ò i€c„K iwPZ c`vejx|  Ave`yj Kixg ‡Lv›`Kvi : `yjv gRwjk| 8. †ivgvw›UK cÖY‡qvcvL¨vb  kvn gyn¤§` mMxi : BDmyd ƒRv„jLv|  ƒ`‡jZ DwRi evnivg Lvb : jvqjx gRby|  gyn¤§` Kexi :gaygvjZx|  mvwewi` Lvb : nvwbdv-Kqivcix, we`¨vmy›`i|  ƒ`vbvMvRx ƒP‡ayix : mqdzj gyjyK ew`D¾vgvj|  ƒ`‡jZ KvRx : mZx gqbv-ƒjvi P›`ªvbx|  AvjvIj : cÙveZx, mß cqKi|  ƒKv„ikx gvMY VvKzi : cÙveZx|  Ave`yj nvwKg : jvjgZx mqdzj gyjyK|  bIqvwRm Lvb : ¸„j eKvIjx|  g½j Puv` : kvnRvjvj-gaygvjv|  …mq` gyn¤§` AvKei : ƒRejgyjyK kvgv„ivL|  gyn¤§` gyKxg : gMveZx|  ƒkL mv`x : M`vgwjKv| 9. gwm©qv mvwnZ¨  ƒkL dqRyjvn& : Rqb„ei ƒP‡wZkv|  ƒ`‡jZ DwRi evnivg Lvb : R½bvgv|  gyn¤§` Lvb : g³zj ƒnv„mb|  ƒkievR : Kvwk„gi jovB|  nvqvr gvngy` : R½bvgv (Ab¨vb¨ Kve¨: wPË DÌvb, wnZÁvbevYx I Avw¤^qvevYx)| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

côv b¤^i-22


evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

 Rvdi : knx`-B Kvievjv|  nvwg` : msMÖvg ûmb| 10. †jvK mvwnZ¨ : Qov, Mvb (ƒjvKMxwZ), MxwZKv (AvL¨vbg~jK ƒjvKMxwZ), bv_ MxwZKv, …ggbwmsn MxwZKv (gûqv, gjyqv, P›`ªveZx, Kgjv, ƒ`Iqvb fvebv, `my¨ ƒKbviv„gi cvjv, i€ceZx, K¼ I jxjv, KvRj ƒiLv I ƒ`Iqvbv gw`bv), c~e©e½ MxwZKv, K_v (M„`¨ ewY©Z Kvwnbx), i€cK_v, DcK_v (ckycÿxi PwiÎ Aej¤^„b iwPZ Kvwnbx), eªZK_v (ƒg„qwj eª„Zi mv„_ m¤úwK©Z Kvwnbx), auvauv, cÖev` BZ¨vw`| 11. KweMvb  KweMv„bi Askmg~n : K. e›`bv ev ¸iæ„`„ei MxwZ, L. mLxmsev` M. wein Ges N. ƒLDo  Kweqvje›`: ƒMuvRjv MyuB, fevbx ƒe„b, ivmy-bwmsn, niy VvKzi, ƒKóv gywP, wbZvB …eivMx, ivg emy, ƒfvjv gqiv, G›Uwb wdwiw½, kªxai K_K, bxjgwY cvUbx, ejivg …eòe, ivg-my›`i m¨vKiv cÖgyL| 12. UàvMvb : ivgwbwa Myß (wbay evey), Kvjx wgR©v, kªxai K_K| 13. cuvPvwj Mvb : `vkiw_ ivq (`vï ivq)| 14. cuyw_ mvwnZ¨  dwKi Mixeyjvn& : BDmyd-„Rv„jLv, Avgxi nvgRv (cÖ_g Ask), R½bvgv, ƒmvbvfvb, mZ¨cx„ii cuyw_|  •mq` nvgRv : gaygvjZx, Avgxi nvgRv (ƒklvsk), …RMy„bi cuyw_|  †gvnv¤§` `v‡bk : Pvnvi `i„ek, ƒMvj„e Qvbyqvi, b~iæj Bgvb, nv„Zg ZvB|  Ave`yj Mdzi : MvRx Kvjy I P¤úveZx|  Ave`yj nvwKg : MvRx Kvjy I P¤úveZx|  1200 „_„K 1350 wLª. ch©šÍ mgqKvj„K ejv nq AÜKvi hyM| G mg„qi D„jL„hvM¨ mvwnZ¨ KxwZ© n„jv :  k~b¨cyivY : ivgvB cwÐZ (ag©c~Rvi kv¯¿MÖš’)|  †mK ï‡fv`qv : njvq~a wgkª (j²Y ƒm„bi mfvKwe)|

 AvaywbK hyM     K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. P.   1. 2.

AvaywbK hy„Mi m~Pbv„ÿÎ : wn›`y K„jR| AvaywbK hyM cÖeZ©„bi cÖavb cyiæl : wW„ivwRI (wn›`y K„j„Ri wkÿK)| AvaywbK hyM cÖeZ©„bi g~j PvwjKv kw³ : Bqs ƒe½j (wW„ivwRI -Gi gš¿gy» wkl¨ `j)| evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ AvaywbKZvi j²Ymg~n : gvbweKZv (ƒ`e-„`exi gvnvZ¥¨ Z_v ag©wbf©iZv cwinvi K„i gvby„li cÖvavb¨ cÖwZôvmn gvbweK g~j¨„ev„ai weKvk)| e¨w³„PZbv AvZ¥„PZbv I AvZ¥cÖmvi mgvR m„PZbZv ƒ`k„cÖg ƒivgvw›UKZv ƒg‡wjKZv gy³eyw× bvMwiKZv Avw½„Ki i€cvšÍi (c„`¨i GKK Avwac„Z¨i cwie„Z© M„`¨i cÖvavb¨)| gy`ªYh„š¿i e¨envi| evsjv M`¨ mvwnZ¨ weKv„ki Avw`„ÿÎ : kªxivgcyi wgkb I ƒdvU© DBwjqvg K„jR| M`¨ mvwnZ¨ weKv‡ki cÖavb `yB w`Kcvj ivRv ivg„gvnb ivq Ck¦iP›`ª we`¨vmvMi

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 AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i avivmg~n :  cÖeÜ : ivRv ivg„gvnb ivq, Ck¦iP›`ª we`¨vmvMi, ƒ`„e›`ªbv_ VvKzi, AÿqKzgvi `Ë, c¨vixPuv` wgÎ, KvjxcÖmbœ wmsn, f~„`e gy„Lvcva¨vq, ivRbvivqY emy, ew¼gP›`ª P„Ævcva¨vq, KvjxcÖmbœ ƒNvl, mÄxeP›`ª P„Ævcva¨vq, wkebv_ kv¯¿x, gxi gkviid ƒnv„mb, P›`ª„kLi gy„Lvcva¨vq, nicÖmv` kv¯¿x, AÿqKzgvi …g„Îq, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi, iv„g›`ªmy›`i w΄e`x, cÖg_ ƒP‡ayix, e„j›`ªbv_ VvKzi, Aebx›`ªbv_ VvKzi, AZzjP›`ª ¸ß, ƒgvwnZjvj gRyg`vi, W. mybxwZKzgvi P„Ævcva¨vq, AwRZKzgvi PµeZx© cÖgyL|  Dcb¨vm : n¨vbv K¨v_vwib g¨v„jÝ, c¨vixPuv` wgÎ, KvjxcÖmbœ wmsn, f~„`e gy„Lvcva¨vq, ew¼gP›`ª P„Ævcva¨vq, ZviKbv_ M„½vcva¨vq, i„gkP›`ª `Ë, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi, cÖfvZKzgvi gy„Lvcva¨vq, kirP›`ª P„Ævcva¨vq, Abyi€cv ƒ`ex, wbi€cgv ƒ`ex, Bw›`iv ƒ`ex, mxZv ƒ`ex, kvšÍv ƒ`ex, …kjevjv ƒNvlRvqv, Avkvc~Y©v ƒ`ex, cÖwZfv emy, gnv„¯^Zv fÆvPvh©, evYx ivq, jxjv gRyg`vi, eyׄ`e emy, AwPšÍ¨Kzgvi ƒmb¸ß, ƒcքg›`ª wgÎ, cքevaKzgvi mvb¨vj, Abœ`vk¼i ivq, gvwbK e„›`¨vcva¨vq, Zvivk¼i e„›`¨vcva¨vq, wewf~wZf~lY e„›`¨vcva¨vq, ejvBPuv` gy„Lvcva¨vq (ebdzj), g„bvR emy, …kjRvb›` gy„Lvcva¨vq, cÖg_bv_ wekx, wegj wgÎ, mg„ik emy, gxi gkviid ƒnv„mb, bIqve dqRy„bœQv ƒP‡ayivbx, ƒgvRv„¤§j nK, ƒgvnv¤§` bwRei ingvb, …mq` BmgvBj ƒnv„mb wmivRx, KvRx Bg`v`yj nK, ƒeMg ƒiv„Kqv mvLvIqvZ ƒnv„mb, Wv³vi ƒgvnv¤§` jyrdi igvb, kvnv`r ƒnv„mb, KvRx Ave`yj I`y`, KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg, …mq` gyRZev Avjx, Rwni ivqnvb, Bg`v`yj nK wgjb, ûgvq~b Avn„g` cÖgyL|  †QvUMí : ew¼gP›`ª P„Ævcva¨vq, b„M›`ªbv_ ¸ß, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi, cÖfvZKzgvi gy„Lvcva¨vq, kirP›`ª P„Ævcva¨vq, `wÿYviÄb wgÎ gRyg`vi, D„c›`ªwK„kvi ivq ƒP‡ayix, cÖg_ ƒP‡ayix, ivR„kLi emy, „eMg ƒiv„Kqv mvLvIqvZ ƒnv„mb, ƒcքg›`ª wgÎ, AwPšÍ¨Kzgvi „mb¸ß, eyׄ`e emy, KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg, …kjRvb›` gy„Lvcva¨vq, Zvivk¼i e„›`¨vcva¨vq, gvwbK e„›`¨vcva¨vq, cÖg_bv_ wekx, wewf~wZf~lY gy„Lvcva¨vq, wewf~wZf~lY e„›`¨vcva¨vq, kiw`›`y e„›`¨vcva¨vq, ejvBPuv` gy„Lvcva¨vq (ebdzj), g„bvR emy, Abœ`vk¼i ivq, …mq` gyRZev Avjx, cքevaKzgvi mvb¨vj, m„ivRKzgvi ivq ƒP‡ayix, my„eva ƒNvl cÖgyL|  bexb KweZv : Ck¦iP›`ª ¸ß, i½jvj e„›`¨vcva¨vq, gvB„Kj gaym~`b `Ë cÖgyL|  gnvKve¨ : gvB„Kj gaym~`b `Ë, ƒngP›`ª e„›`¨vcva¨vq, bexbP›`ª ƒmb, Kvq„Kvev`, …mq` BmgvBj ƒnv„mb wmivRx, nvwg` Avwj, ƒhvMx›`ªbv_ emy cÖgyL|  MxwZ KweZv : wenvixjvj PµeZx© (ƒfv„ii cvwL), K‚òP›`ª gRyg`vi, my„i›`ªbv_ gRyg`vi, w؄R›`ªbv_ VvKzi, ¯^YK © zgvix ƒ`ex, ƒMvwe›`ªP›`ª `vm, ƒ`„e›`ªbv_ ƒmb, ƒgvRv„¤§j nK, AÿqKzgvi eovj, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi, w؄R›`ªjvj ivq (wWGj ivq), Kvwgbx ivq, iRbxKvšÍ ƒmb, †mq` Gg`v` Avjx, ƒkL dRjj Kwig, m„Z¨›`ªbv_ `Ë, KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg, hZx›`ª„gvnb evMPx, Kzgy`iÄb gwjøK, hZx›`ªbv_ ƒmb¸ß, ƒgvwnZjvj gRyg`vi, Rxebvb›` `vm, myax›`ªbv_ `Ë, weòz ƒ`, Awgq eµeZx©, eyׄ`e emy, ƒcª„g›`ª wgÎ, myKvšÍ fÆvPvh©, myfvl gy„Lvcva¨vq, Aveyj ƒnv„mb, ƒnvm„b Aviv, diiæL Avng`, ƒeMg mywdqv Kvgvj, Avj gvngy`, nvmvb nvwdRyi ingvb, kvgmyi ivngvb, wbg©„j›`y MyY cÖgyL|  bvUK I cÖnmb : ivgbvivqY ZK©iZœ, gvB„Kj gaym~`b `Ë, `xbeÜz wgÎ, wMwikP›`ª ƒNvl, gb„gvnb emy, gxi gkviid ƒnv„mb, w؄R›`ªjvj ivq, AgZjvj emy, iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi, KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg, g„n›`ª ¸ß, weavqK fÆvPvh©, gybxi ƒPxayix, Ave`yjøvn Avj gvgyb, AvgRv` ƒnv„mb, gvgybyi ikx`, ƒmwjg Avj `xb, ûgvq~b Avn„g`, Bg`v`yj nK wgjb cÖgyL| GQvov, AvaywbK hy„M M`¨ weKv„ki d„j msev`cÎ I mvgwqKc„Îi m~Pbv Ges AMÖhvÎv m~wPZ nq| MÖ š’ bv : eyjeyj Avn„g` Z _¨ m~ Î :  evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i BwZnvm Ñ gvneyeyj Avjg evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i m¤ú~Y© BwZe„Ë Ñ W. AwmZ Kzgvi e„›`¨vcva¨vq  

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M`¨vsk

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KgjvKv‡šÍi Revbew›` ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq  †jLK cwiwPwZ evsjv Dcb¨v„mi RbK I evsjvmvwn„Z¨i Ab¨Zg ƒkªô ƒjLK| wZwb ÔmvwnZ¨ mgªvUÕ wn„m„eI AwfwnZ n„q _v„Kb| wZwb Ôe½`k©bÕ mvwnZ¨ cwÎKvi cÖwZôvZv m¤úv`K wQ„jb| evsjv mvwn„Z¨i weKv„k Ges kw³kvjx ƒjLK mwó„Z Zuvi Ae`vb Amvgvb¨| ew¼gP›`ª AvaywbK evsjv mvwn„Z¨i cÖavb mwókxj ƒjLK„`i GKRb| Rb¥ : 1838 wLª÷v„ã cwðge„½i PweŸk ciMYv ƒRjvi KuvVvj cvovq | g„Zz¨ : 1894 wLª÷v„ã|

 iPbvewj Dcb¨vm : `y„M©kbw›`bx (cÖ_g cÖK‚Z evsjv Dcb¨vm), KcvjKzÐjv, weleÿ, K‚òKv„šÍi DBj, ivRwmsn| cÖeÜ MÖš’ : ƒjvKinm¨, KgjvKv„šÍi `ßi, wewea cÖeÜ, mvg¨|

 Drm I cwiwPwZ ÔKgjvKv„šÍi Revbew›`Õ cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq Ôe½`k©bÕ cwÎKvi 1288 e½v„ãi dvêyb msL¨vq| GwU ew¼gP„›`ªi weL¨vZ ig¨e¨½ iPbv msKjb ÔKgjvKv„šÍi `ßiÕ Gi me©„kl msL¨vi iPbv|G iPbvi wbe©vwPZ Askwe„kl GLv„b m¤úvw`Zfv„e msKwjZ n„q„Q| G iPbvwUi g~j wk„ivbvg wQj ÔKgjvKv„šÍi ƒRvevbew›`Õ| ÔKgjvKv„šÍi Revbew›`Õ iPbvwU Awfbe bKkv RvZxq iPbv| GwU ew¼g mvwn„Z¨i Ab¨Zg PgKcÖ` m¤ú`| GLv„b Av`vj„Zi KvVMovq `uvov„bv mvÿx KgjvKv„šÍi Revbew›`i gva¨„g ew¼gP›`ª ƒ`wL„q„Qb Av`vj„Z ƒh mvRv„bv ƒMvQv„bv Mvjfiv Kvievi P„j Zv A„bKvs„kB K‚wÎg AvbyôvwbKZvgvÎ| G iPbvq ew¼gP›`ª ƒK‡ZzKim mwó„Z ƒh `ÿZvi cwiPq w`„q„Qb Zv AZyjbxq|  mvwnZ¨‡eva  bKkv  evM&‰e`» ( Wit )  kãv_© I UxKv GRjvm ƒWcywU KvUviv gynywi ag©veZvi kvgjv ƒmi&Kk& Iu h„ÁvcexZ KzVvwi

: wePviKÿ| : ƒWcywU g¨vwR„÷ªU| : KvVMov| : DwK„ji Kv„R mnvqZvKvix ƒjLK| : ag© ev b¨v„qi g~wZ©gvb i€c| : DwK„ji ƒcvkvK wn„m„e e¨eüZ kv„ji cvMwo| : GKMuy„q, GK„ivLv| : Ck¦ievPK aŸwb| : hÁm~Î, …cZv| : ƒQvU Kvgiv|

 evbvb mZK©Zv eªvþY, mvgMÖx, mvÿx, mvÿ¨, cÖZ¨ÿ, eªvþ|  bgybv cÖkœvewj

 ................................................................................................................ eûwbe©vPbx cÖkœ 1. KgjvKvšÍ ƒKvb cwiP„q Av`vj„Z G„m„Qb? K. dwiqvw` L. Avmvgx ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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M. mvÿx N. DwKj 2. Ôci„gk¦i„K cÖZ¨ÿ RvwbqvÕ evK¨vs„ki cÖPwjZ A_©i. wek¦vm ivLv ii. mivmwi ƒ`Lv iii. Dcw¯’wZ Dcjwä wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. ii I iii M. i I iii N. i, ii I iii 3. ԃhB mvÿx GB iKg, Zvnv„K Avwg Pvwn bvÕ-GB RwUj evK¨wUi mij Ges PwjZ i€c ƒKvbwU? K. ƒh mvÿx GiKg Zv„K Avwg Pvwn bv| L. Avwg G iKg mvÿx PvB bv| M. Avwg GB mvÿx Pvwn bv| N. Avwg I mvÿx PvB bv| 3. Aby„”Q`wU co 4 Ges 5 b¤^i cքkœi DËi `vI: eb¨vcøvweZ GjvKvi ÎvYcÖv_x© ƒjvK„`i …ah© aivi Rb¨ ¯’vbxq ƒmevms¯’vi cwiPvj„Ki j¤^v -PIov e³e¨ ƒkl nj| eq¯ˆ ¯ˆzj wkÿK ÿzäK„É D”P¯^„i ej„jb, ÒAvcbvi iPbvgZ Avgv„`i RVivwMœ ev ƒZóv ƒKv„bvwU ƒgUv„Z mg_© bq| Ggwb wK ïK„bv Dc„`„k wPov ƒfRv„bvi g„Zv cvwbi eÇ Afve| 4. Aby„”Q„`i wkÿ„Ki msjv„c KgjvKv„šÍi K„_vcK_„bi ƒKvb w`KwU cÖavbfv„e dz„U D„V„Q? K. ƒK‡ZzK L. ƒkøl M. PgK N. ƒnuqvwj 5. ÔKgjvKv„šÍi Revbew›`Õ Gi ƒh e³e¨ Aby„”Q`wU„Z dz„U D„V„Q Zv nji. mgv„Ri AmsMwZ ii. wePvi e¨e¯’vi AmiZv iii. Abyôvb me©¯^Zv wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii

 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1. ƒ`‡jZcy„ii abvX¨ e¨w³ ƒ`‡jZ Luv„qi Pwjøkv Dcj„ÿ `wi`ª„fvRb I e¯¿`v„bi wekvj Av„qvRb Kiv n„q„Q| Luv„qi fv„Mœ Gnmvb Z`viwK Ki„Q| Abyôv„bi ƒklvs„k Lv`¨-e„¯¿i NvUwZ ƒ`Lv ƒMj| Gnmvb wgqv AwMœg~wZ© aviY K„i wPrKvi K„i DVj, ÔnvRvi ƒjv„Ki Av„qvRb, ƒZik„K LvIqvjvg| Muv„qi me„jvKB ƒ`LwQ Mwie|Õ lv„Uva© ivqnvb wgqv Reve w`„jb, ÔAvgiv `xbnxb, Zv„Z m„›`n wK? ƒ`Ljvg Gnmvb wgqvi evwoi w`„K Kvgjviv Lvev„ii ƒWKwP Avi Kvc„oi MvwÆ wb„q hv„”Q| AvR„Ki w`„b Gnmvb wgqvB ƒZv `x„bi ƒP„q `xb| Pj„i mevB, evwo hvB|Õ K. Ôh„ÁvcexZÕ k„ãi AvwfavwbK A_© Kx? L. Ôewj LvI Kx Kwiqv?Õ- msjvcwU Øviv Kx ƒevSv„bv n„q„Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. KgjvKv„šÍi ƒKvb …ewkó¨ ivqnvb wgqvi Pwi„Î cvIqv hvq? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Dc„ii Aby„”Q`wU ÔKgjvKv„šÍi Revbew›`Õ iPbvwUi fvev„_©i `c©Y|Õ-gšÍe¨wU hvPvB Ki| 2. ZvivMÄ MÖv„g ƒP‡ayix mv„n„ei bv„g GwZgLvbvi fywi„fv„Ri Av„qvRb Kiv n„q„Q| GjvKvi MY¨gvb¨, Ae¯’vcbœ e¨w³ivI Zv„Z mvwgj n„q„Qb| ƒP‡ayix mv„ne GwZg„`i wbR nv„Z cwi„ekb Ki„Qb,- nvZZvwji m„½ wK¬K wK¬K K„i K¨v„givi d¬vk R¡j„Z jvM„jv| Ab¨w`„K eûe¨Äb ƒkvwfZ ƒUwe„j Avgwš¿Z e¨w³„`i Avc¨vq„bi e¨e¯’v n„q„Q| GwZgLvbvi evi eQ„ii evjK ew`D„ii g„b GK welg fvebvi Rb¥ nq- ÔG MÖv„g GZ MY¨gvb¨ GwZg i„q„Qb!Õ K. Ôdwiqvw` cÖmbœ ƒMvqvwjbxÕ evK¨wUi RwUj i€c ƒjL| L. ԃNviZi K‚òeY©Õ msjv„c DwK„ji cÖZ¨vwkZ DËi I KgjvKv„šÍi Abyave„bi cv_©K¨ eywS„q `vI| M. ew`D„ii fvebvi m„½ KgjvKv„šÍi msjv„ci fvev„_©i mv`k¨ eywS„q wjL| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

N. Dc„ii Aby„”Q„` ÔKgjvKv„šÍi Revbew›`Õi g~jfvewU wfbœ ƒcÖÿvc„U cwi„ewkZ n„q„QÕ- gšÍe¨wUi ƒÿ„Î ƒZvgvi gZvgZ Dc¯’vcb Ki|

•ngšÍx iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi  †jLK cwiwPwZ wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi wQ„jb AZzjbxq I me©„ZvgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix| wZwb GKvav„i wQ„jb Kwe, myiKvi, MxwZKvi, MíKvi, bvU¨Kvi, Jcb¨vwmK, Awf„bZv, wkíx I wPÎKi| wZwb mvwnZ¨ cwÎKvi m¤úv`K I `ÿ wkÿvmsMVK wn„m„eI cwiwPZ wQ„jb| gvÎ c„bi eQi eq„m Zuvi cÖ_g Kve¨ ÔebdzjÕ cÖKvwkZ nq| wZwb 1913 wLª÷v„ã we„k¦i ƒkªô Kwei gh©v`v wb„q Gkxq„`i g„a¨ mvwn„Z¨ me©cÖ_g ƒbv„ej cyi¯ˆvi cvb| evsjv ƒQvUM„íi cw_K‚r wZwb| ÔkvwšÍwb„KZbÕ I Ôwek¦fviZxÕ ZvuiB mwó| Rb¥ : 1861 mv„ji 7 ƒg (25 …ekvL, 1268 e½vã) KjKvZvi ƒRvovmuv„Kvi VvKzi evwo„Z| g„Zz¨ : 1941 mv„ji 7 AvM÷ (22 kªveY, 1348 e½vã) KjKvZvq|

 iPbvewj Dcb¨vm : ƒe‡ VvKzivYxi nvU (cÖ_g), ivRwl©, ƒPv„Li evwj, ƒb‡KvWywe, ƒMviv, PZzi½, N„i evB„i, ƒhvMv„hvM, `yB ƒevb, Pvi Aa¨vq, gvjÂ, ƒk„li KweZv|

†QvUMÖš’ : Mí¸”Q, Mímí| cÎ mvwnZ¨ : wQbœcÎ, wPwVcÎ, ivwkqvi wPwV, Rvcvb hvÎx| wPÎbvU¨ : wPÎv½`v, k¨vgv, PÐvwjKv, wemR©b, gvwjbx| cÖeÜ mvwnZ¨ : wewPÎ cÖeÜ, mf¨Zvi msKU, cÂf~Z, KvjvšÍi| Rxeb K_v : Rxeb ¯§wZ, we`¨vmvMi PwiZ, eyׄ`e, Avgvi ƒQ„j„ejv| Kve¨ MÖš’ : ebdzj (cÖ_g), mܨv m½xZ, gvbmx, wPÎv, ƒmvbvi Zix, …PZvjx, ÿwYKv, ƒLqv, c~iex, ejvKv, k¨vgjx, cÖfvZ m½xZ, fvbywmsn VvKz„ii c`vejx, MxZvÄwj, ƒkl„jLv, gûqv, cybð, Qovi Qwe, Kíbv, Kwo I „Kvgj| bvUK : APjvqZb, wPiKygvi mfv, Ai€ciZb, Zvcmx, Zv„mi ƒ`k, WvKNi, i³Kiex, gy&³aviv, gyKzU, ivRv, Mn cքek|

 Drm I cwiwPwZ ԅngšÍxÕ MíwU cÖg_ ƒP‡ayix m¤úvw`Z ÔmeyRcÎÕ cwÎKvq …R¨ô 1321 e½v„ã (1914 wLª÷vã) cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq| GwU cÖ_„g ÔMí mßKÕ Mքš’ 1916 wLª÷v„ã; c„i ÔMí¸”QÕ Z‚Zxq L„Ð 1926 wLª÷v„ã mwbœ„ewkZ nq| ԅngšÍxÕ GK ¯^fve„Kvgj, cweÎ, gvayh©gq, jveY¨gqx ƒg„qi Kvwnbx; ƒh ƒh‡ZzKcÖ_vi h~cKv„ô wbg©g ewj n„q„Q| ü`qnxb ¯^v_©vÜ k¦ïi-kvïwoi wbôzi AvPi„Y Avi Zvi ¸Ygy» A_P ƒc‡iælnxb ¯^vgxi wb„ðó AmnvqZvi gy„L mij, ïå, wb®ˆj¼ mZ¨eªZx Ges GKB m„½ ƒZRw¯^bx …ngšÍxi ƒe`bvweayi cwiYwZ Avgv„`i gg©g~„j AvNvZ K„i|

 kãv_© I UxKv MvwjPv cÙvmb aªæe IuPv ÿxYRxex cÖRvcwZ ƒc‡btcywbK welg k¥kvbPvix Zvgªkvmb wLowK wUcvB

: Kv„c©U| : c„Ùi Avmb| : Aÿq / wbZ¨| : wbK‚ó| : ¯^í¯’vqx| : eªþv / we„qi ƒ`eZv| : evievi N„U Ggb| : `ytmn, `viæY| : k¥kv„b wePiY K„i Ggb| : Zvgvi cv„Z ƒLv`vB Kiv cÖvPxbKv„ji Abykvmb| : wcQ„bi w`„Ki `iRv| : wZb cvqvIqvjv ƒQvU ƒUwej|

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ƒLvÆv ivm ƒKvwô AvBeo cÂg¯^i evRLuvB bv` Fwl ƒ`evjq i„Ü« i„Ü« Avmw³ k³ e¨v„gv evRLuvB wkKvq ƒZvjv Pzjvq ƒ`Iqv Gd, G ƒM‡ix`vb cÖZœZvwË¡K gvwU©„bv evK©

: wb›`v„_© wnw›`fvlx ƒjvKRb| : kªxK‚„òi ivmjxjv msµvšÍ Drme| : Rb¥cwÎKv| : AweevwnZ| : ivMwe„kl | : KK©k aŸwb| : kv¯¿Á Zc¯^x| : c~Rvi Ni| : wQ„`ª wQ„`ª| : Mfxi AbyivM| : KwVb ƒivM| : KK©k / DuPz| : ¯’wMZ ivLv| : „Mvjøvq ƒh„Z ƒ`Iqv| : F.A.(First Arts) | eZ©gvb D”P gva¨wgK ch©vq| : cÖvPxb wn›`y kv¯¿we`„`i weavb Abymv„i AvU eQi eqmx Kb¨v„K we„q ƒ`Iqv| : cÖvPxb aŸsmve„kl, gy`ªvwjwc BZ¨vw` „_„K HwZnvwmK Z_¨ wbY©„qi we`¨v ev cÖZœZ„Ë¡ cwÐZ e¨w³| : Bs„iR ƒjLK| Zvui ƒjLv ÔPwiÎZË¡ Õ weL¨vZ MÖš|’ : GWgÐ evK© (1729 - 1797) Bs„iR ivRbxwZK, cÖvewÜK Ges myweL¨vZ e³v| Archaeologist : cyivZË¡we`| Av„cwÿK ¸iæZ¡ : Zzjbvg~jK MÖnY„hvM¨Zv| ƒd«Â ƒi„fvjy¨kb : AvVv„iv kZ„Ki ƒkl cÖv„šÍ msNwUZ HwZnvwmK divwm wecø„ei Dc„i „jLv GWgÐ ev„K©i weL¨vZ MÖš’Ñ æReflections on the Revolution in France” MÖš’wU 1790 wLª÷v„ã cÖKvwkZ nq|

 evbvb mZK©Zv ¯^v`, wØav, ƒd«Â ƒi„fvjy¨kb, gy»„eva, el©Y, mbœ¨vmx, k¥kvbPvix, Li„i‡`ª, cÖZœZvwË¡K, Aiæ„Yv`q, kZiÄ, k¦ïi, cY, AšÍtcywiKv, ¸uwRqv, DrmyK, wekªx, ƒKvwô, wbey©w×Zv, AvBeo, euvab, MÄbv, Kj¨vY, MnŸi, Av”Qbœ, Af~Zc~e©, ƒM‡ix`vb, wUcvB, cÙvmb, MvwjPv, Avbvwo, wLowK, cÖmªeY, Kwlqv, KUz, `yM©wZ, k~b¨Zv, ÿzä|  bgybv cÖkœvewj

.................................................................................................................. eûwbe©vPbx cÖkœ 1. ԅngšÍxÕ M„í Acyi Rxe„b KZ eQi eqmwU Aÿq n„qwQj? K. ƒlvj L. m„Zi M. AvVvi N. Dwbk 2. …ngšÍxi ƒlvj eQi eqmwU wQji. mg„qi ƒlvj ii. cÖK‚wZi ƒlvj iii. wbq„gi ƒlvj wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii wb„Pi msjvc¸„jv co Ges 3 I 4 b¤^i cքkœi DËi `vI| Av„jv : evev, Avgvi wdi„Z mܨv n„e| Lvevi nUc„U ƒi„L ƒMjvg, mgqgZ ƒL„q wbI| AvdZve : wVK Av„Q| wPwbi ƒK‡„UvUv ƒKv_vq ƒi gv? ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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Av„jv : IUv Avwg mwi„q ƒi„LwQ| wPwb ƒc„j Zzwg mvivw`b wZb Kvc Pv„q Q-PvgP wPwb Lv„e| AvdZve : ƒ`wLm ƒZvi jyK„bv wPwbi ƒK‡Uvi g„Zv bv AvwgI Rxeb ƒ_„K jyKvwqZ nB! nv nv nv! 3. ƒM‡ixksKi I …ngšÍxi K„_vcK_„bi m„½ msjvc¸„jvi mv`k¨ i„q„Qi. fv„e ii. mvwnZ¨ ai„Y iii. fvlv …kjx„Z wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii 4. Ô …ngšÍxÕ M„íi wcZv-cyÎxi ƒKvb welqwU msjvc¸„jvi g~jfv„ei m„½ AwaK mvgÄm¨c~Y©? K. m¤ú„K©i MfxiZv L. D`vi g„bvfve M. wPšÍvi ¯^vaxbZv N. evKcUzZv

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1| i„gb evey GKgvÎ Kb¨v we„q„Z k¦ïi evwoi Pvwn`v ƒgUv„Z `kfwi ¯^Yv© jsKvi I jÿ UvKv w`„q„Qb| `xcv wkÿKZv K„ib; KweZv cvV I Zvi Av„jvPbvq Zuvi Aemi Kv„U| msmv„ii Kv„RI ƒm cvi`kx©| mrcv„Î Kb¨v`vb n„q„Q ƒf„e i„gb evey gZz¨i Av„M Zuvi welq m¤úwË mgvR ƒmevg~jK cÖwZôv„b `vb K„ib| K. iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi KZ mv„j ƒbv„ej cvb? L. ÔAvBeoÕ ƒg„q ej„Z …ngšÍx M„í Kx ƒevSv„bv n„q„Q? M. …ngšÍx Pwi„Îi ƒKvb …ewkó¨ `xcvi g„a¨ jÿ Kiv hvq? eywS„q `vI| N. ƒM‡ixk¼i evey I i„gb eveyi Pwi„Îi GKwU Zzjbvg~jK Av„jvPbv Ki| 2| NUbv-1 ÔMv„qMZ„i GKUz evo„jB n¹„ji PÿzK UvUvq, ¯ˆz„j hvB„Z cv„i bv| ƒLj„Z cv„i bv| gvZeŸi Kq-wK, gvBqv„i weqv w`ev bv? N„i ivLb `vq ZLb| gvBqviv hZ eo nBe UvKv ZZ ƒewk jvMe| GZ UvKv KB cvgy KbÕ- mvdzjø¨v MÖv„gi nvwRi evwoi D„Vv„b `uvwo„q ejwQ„jb cÂv„kva© `yjy wgqv| NUbv-2 nvUvB„ji Avovwjqv MÖv„gi cvifx„bi we„q nq nvwd„Ri m„½| GK eQi Av„M we„qi K_v cvKvcvwKi mg„q wba©vwiZ UvKv nv„Z cvIqvi `yB wZb w`b ci Kv„Ri K_v e„j Ni Qv„o nvwdR| cvifxb„K ev„ci evwo cvwV„q ƒ`Iqv nq| eZ©gv„b Zvi K_v I AvPi„Y AmsMwZ ƒ`Lv w`„q„Q| K. …ngšÍxi cÖK‚Z f³ ƒK wQj? L. Ôcvk KwieB Ges fv„jv KwiqvB cvk KwieÕ- Acyi GB cY Kivi KviY e¨vL¨v Ki| M. DÏxc„Ki NUbv-1 G Ô …ngšÍxÕ M„íi dz„U IVv welqwU e¨vL¨v Ki| N. ÔDÏxc„Ki NUbv `ywU cwiewZ©Z mg„qi c„U Ô …ngšÍxÕ ƒQvU M„í dz„U IVv mgvR wP„Îi cÖKvk„f` gvÎÑ G e³„e¨i ƒcÖwÿ„Z ƒZvgvi gZvgZ Dc¯’vcb Ki|

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mvwn‡Z¨ †Ljv cÖg_ †P․ayix  †jLK cwiwPwZ evsjv mvwn„Z¨i BwZnv„m cÖg_ ƒP‡ayixi `vb Awe¯§iYxq| evsjv M„`¨i cÖ_g hy„M mvayixwZ cÖPwjZ wQj| Avgiv eZ©gv„b M„`¨ ƒh PwjZixwZi e¨envi KiwQ, Zvi cÖ_g cÖe³v, mg_©K I Av„›`vjbKvix n„jb cÖg_ ƒP‡ayix| cÖg_ ƒP‡ayix 1912 wLª÷v㠃_„K PwjZixwZ„Z cÖeÜ iPbv ïiæ K„ib| 1914 wLª÷v„ã wZwb evsjv mvwn„Z¨ hyMmwóKvix ÔmeyR cÎÕ cwÎKv cÖKvk K„ib| meyRcÎ ƒKw›`ªK fvlv I mvwnZ¨v`k© Av„›`vj„b Zuv„K cÖej we„ivwaZvi m¤§yLxb n„Z nq| G wel„q iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi wQ„jb Zuvi Nwbô mg_©K| G QvovI mgKvjxb weL¨vZ gbbkxj ƒjLK„`i A„b„KB G Av„›`vjb Øviv cÖfvweZ n„qwQ„jb| evsjv M„`¨ cÖg_ ƒP‡ayix wbR¯^ Avjv`v ÷vBj †Zwi K„i ƒM„Qb| A„bK RwUj I ¸iæM¤¢xi welq wZwb Ggb gRwjwk X„O Av„jvPbv K„i„Qb ƒh, Zv„Z welqe¯‘i ¸iæZ¡ nvjKv nqwb; n„q„Q `xwßgq I AvKl©Yxq| Zuvi iPbvq gbbkxjZvi m„½ i„q„Q hyw³Z„K©i aviv„jv cÖKvk; Avi Zv„Z e³„e¨i ZxÿèZvi m„½ hy³ n„q„Q e¨„½i SuvR| Rb¥ : 1868 wLª÷v„ã h„kv„i (…cZ‚K wbevm cvebv ƒRjvi nwicyi MÖv„g)| g„Zz¨ : 1946 wLª÷v„ã KjKvZvq|

 iPbvewj Pvi Bqvix K_v, exie„ji nvjLvZv, ivq„Zi K_v, ƒZj-byb-jKwo, m„bU cÂvkr BZ¨vw`|  Drm I cwiwPwZ cÖg_ ƒP‡ayixi Ômvwn„Z¨ ƒLjvÕ cÖeÜwU me©cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq ÔmeyR cÎÕ cwÎKvi 1322 e½v„ãi (1915 wLª÷vã) kªveY msL¨vq| mvwn„Z¨i cÖK‚Z ƒm‡›`„h©i ¯^i€c Ges Av`k© I D„Ï„k¨i mywe¯Z‚‚Z i€c„iLv cÖ`k©b Ki„Z wM„qB „jLK G cÖeÜwU iPbv K„ib| ƒjLK cÖeÜwU ïiæ K„i„Qb RMwØL¨vZ fv¯ˆi ƒiv`u¨vi cÖm½ ƒU„b| G „ÿ„Î wZwb ƒevSv„Z ƒP„q„Qb ƒh, cÖK‚Z wkíxi `ÿZv KLbB mxgve× bq| Zviv B„”Q Ki„j wkeI Mo„Z cv„ib, Avevi evu`iI Mo„Z cv„ib| wKš‘ AwZ mvaviY wkíx„`i c„ÿ Zv KLbB m¤¢e bq| cÖg_ ƒP‡ayixi g„Z, mvwn„Z¨i D„Ïk¨ n„”Q, mKj„K Avb›` `vb Kiv, KviI g„bviÄb Kiv bq| mgv„Ri g„bviÄb Ki„Z ƒM„j mvwnZ¨ n„q co„e ¯^ag©Pz¨Z| Ab¨w`„K wkÿv `vb KivI mvwn„Z¨i D„Ïk¨ bq| KviY cvV¨welq gvbyl c„o Awb”Qvq Ges eva¨ n„q| cÿvšÍ„i mvwn„Z¨i imv¯^v`b K„i gvbyl ƒ¯^”Qvq I Avb„›`| ZvQvov wkÿvi D„Ïk¨ g~jZ Áv„bi welq Rvbv„bv; cÿvšÍ„i mvwn„Z¨i D„Ïk¨ gvby„li g„b mvov RvMv„bv| ƒjL„Ki g„Z, mvwn„Z¨i m„½ Zzjbv P„j ƒLjvayjvi| ƒLjvayjvq ƒhgb wbQK Avb›`B cÖavb, mvwn„Z¨I ZvB| ƒLjvayjvq ƒhgb Avb›` Qvov Ab¨ ƒKvb D„Ïk¨ ƒbB, mvwn„Z¨i D„Ïk¨ ƒZgwbÑGKgvÎ Avb›` `vb Kiv|

 kãv_© I UxKv ƒiv`¨uv, wke, imvZj, AeZxY©, MZvqvZ, cÖewË, wb®ˆvg Kg©, ƒgvÿjvf, RxevZ¥v, cigvZ¥v, g„bviÄb, ƒL„jv Kiv, evj¥xwK, Kzkxje, ƒK‡cxb, ƒcjv, Kw¯§bKv„jI|

 evbvb mZK©Zv fv¯ˆi, f~Zj, AeZxY©, MZvqvZ, U„O Pov, gbtÿzYœ, µxov, eªZx, ƒfucy, D†”Pt¯^„i, AšÍivZ¥v, AšÍf©y³, RxevZ¥v, g„bviÄb, cÖvqkB, evj¥xwK, ivgvqY, ¯úóZi, Avwe®ˆvi, DcbxZ, Abyf~wZmv„cÿ, m„MvÎ, ke„”Q`, ¯^v_©, wbM~p|  bgybv cÖkœvewj

 ...........................................................................................................eûwbe©vPbx cÖkœ 1.

2.

3.

Ôciv_©Õ k„ãi A_© ƒKvbwU? K. cvwi„ZvwlK L. g„bvRMr M. c„ivcKvi N. g„bviÄb ƒjL„Ki g„Z mvwn„Z¨i D„Ïk¨ ƒKvbwU? K. mgv„Ri g„bviÄb Kiv L. A„b¨i g„bi Afve c~Y© Kiv M. gvby„li gb„K RvMv„bv N. gb„K we„k¦i Lei Rvbv„bv mvwn„Z¨ Ô¯^ag©Pz¨ZÕ nq ZLb, hLb mvwn„Z¨ PP©v nqK. djjv„fi AvKvOÿv k~b¨ L. Rbmvai„Yi mš‘wói Rb¨

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M. Rbmvavi„Yi g½„ji Rb¨ N. wkíxwP„Ëi m¤ú~Y©Zvi j„ÿ¨ 4. Ômvwn„Z¨ ƒLjvÕ cÖe„Ü Aby„”Q`wUi ÔÁv„bi K_vÕi mgv_©K fve nji. Lei cÖ`vb ii. cvV„Ki gbZzwó iii. gyL¯’we`¨v wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i L. i I ii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii 5. Ômvwn„Z¨ ƒLjvÕ cÖeÜwU Abymv„i wb„Pi ƒKvbwU Aby„”Q„`i g~jfv„ei m„½ AwaK m½wZc~Y©? K. g„bi k~Y¨Zv c~Y© KivB mvwn„Z¨i jÿ¨ L. Kj¨vY mvab Kiv mvwn„Z¨i cÖavb D„Ïk¨ M. cÖksmv AR©„bi Rb¨ mvwn„Z¨i mwó N. g„bi m„½ m¤úK© iPbv mvwn„Z¨i …ewkó¨

 m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1| Áv„bi K_v Rvbv n„q ƒM„j Avi Rvb„Z B„”Q K„i bv-Zv ƒR„b g„b Avb›` I R„b¥ bv| m~h© c~e©vKv„k I„V- GB Z_¨ Avgv„`i gb Uv„b bv| wKš‘ m~„h©v`„q ƒh ƒm‡›`h© I ƒ`Lvi Avb›` Zv mwóKvj ƒ_„K AvRI we`¨gvb| GB ƒm‡›`h© I Avb›`vbyf~wZ cvVK ü`„q RvwM„q ƒZvjvB mvwn„Z¨i KvR| cvV I Abyave„bi gva¨„g iwmK cvV„Ki ü`„q Zv mÂvwiZ nq| im MÖn„Y Amg_© ƒjvKB mvwn„Z¨ ƒm‡›`h© Avb›`vbyf~wZi cwie„Z© AvZœwnZ I mš‘wó ƒLuv„R| mvwn„Z¨ wbwg©Z ƒm‡›`h©-Abyf~wZ hw` ƒjvKwnZ mvab K„i, Zv„Z mvwn„Z¨i KzjjÿY bó nq bv| ïay ƒjvKwnZv„_© I mš‘wói Rb¨ cքPóv mvwnZ¨„K KzjZ¨vMx K„i, mvwnwZ¨K wkÿ„K i€cvšÍwiZ nb|Õ K. ÔivgvqYÕ ƒK iPbv K„i„Qb? L. ÔAwZ m¯Ív ƒLjbvÕ ej„Z Kx ƒevSv„bv n„q„Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. Ômvwn„Z¨i ¯^ag©Py¨ZÕ nIqvi welqwU Dc„ii Aby„”Q„` Kxfv„e cÖwZdwjZ n„q„Q eywS„q `vI| N. Ôwkÿv I mvwn„Z¨i D„Ïk¨ ƒh wfbœagx©Õ- e³e¨wU Dc„ii KZLvwb cÖwZdwjZ n„q„Q e„j Zzwg g„b Ki- D˄ii c„ÿ hyw³ `vI| 2| gvby„li GKwU Avkv-AvKvOÿv n„”Q wb„Ri Abyf~wZ, Dcjw× A„b¨i Kv„Q cÖKvk Kiv| Rqbyj Av„e`x„bi g„Zv Qwe Gu„K, iex›`ªbv„_i g„Zv KweZv Mvb wj„L wbR ü`qvbyf~wZ I i€c„PZbv ƒm Ab¨ g„b Qwo„q w`„Z Pvq| Gfv„e ƒm RM„Zi mKj gvby„li m„½ m¤úK© ¯’vcb Ki„Z Pvq| Pvq jÿ ü`„qi g„a¨ _vK„Z| GKvR ZLbB mdj nq, hLb, i„O, X„O, AvKvicÖKv„i, fvlvq-my„i, Q„›` Bw½„Z wbLyuZ i€c ev Abyf~wZ Ab¨g„b cÖwZdwjZ I mÂvwiZ Kiv hvq| G KvR ƒh cv„e, wkíiv„R¨i ƒmB ivRv, mgvR a„g©i RvZcvZ, eY©„f` ƒmLv„b GKvKvi| K. „iv`¨uvi GKwU ƒkªô fv¯ˆ„h©i bvg D„jøL Ki| L. gvby„li ƒ`ng„bi mKj wµqvi g„a¨ µxov ƒkªô ƒKb? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. cÖe„Ü ewY©Z ÔeªvþYk~„`ªiÕ mgvbvwaKvi Dc„ii Aby„”Q„`i ƒKvb e³„e¨ cÖZxqgvb nq? Av„jvPbv Ki| N. Dc„ii Aby„”Q„`i Ôjÿ ü`„qi g„a¨ ƒeu„P _vKvi AvKvOÿvÕ- cÖe„Ü ewY©Z Ôwek¦gvb„ei m„½ m¤^Ü cvZv„bviB bvgvšÍiՃZvgvi gZvgZ Dc¯’vcb Ki|

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wejvmx kirP›`ªª P‡Ævcva¨vq  †jLK cwiwPwZ iex›`ªhy„Mi AZ¨šÍ RbwcÖq K_vmvwnwZ¨K kirP›`ª PƒÆvcva¨vq| wZwb PweŸk eQi eq„m g„bi ƒSuv„K mbœ¨vmx n„q MnZ¨vM K„ib| cieZx©Kv„j RxweKvi ZvwM„` A„bKUv mgq evg©v ev wgqvbgv„i Ae¯’vb K„ib| kirP›`ª Zuvi Rxe„bi bvbv AwfÁZv I wewPÎ me gvby„li PwiÎ dzwU„q Zz„j„Qb Zuvi mwó„Z| GB `ÿ Jcb¨vwmK g~jZ mgv„Ri bxPz Zjvi gvbyl„K ƒK›`ª K„i mó Pwi„Î Ac~e© gwngv `vb K„ib| Zuvi cÖ_g gyw`ªZ iPbvÔgw›`iÕbvgK GKwU Mí Ñ hv KzšÍjxb cyi¯ˆv„i f~wlZ nq| wPišÍb bvix cÖwZK‚wZi mv_©K i€cKvi kirP„›`ªi eû Dcb¨vm fviZe„l©i wewfbœ fvlvq Ab~w`Z I Pjw”PÎvwqZ n„q„Q| Zuvi K„qKwU Dcb¨vm we„`wk fvlvqI Ab~w`Z n„q„Q| mvwnZ¨K„g©i ¯^xK‚wZ wn„m„e 1936 mv„j XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq Zuv„K m¤§vbm~PK wW-wjU wWwMÖ cÖ`vb K„i| Rb¥ : 1876 wLª÷v„ã cwðg e„½i ûMwj „Rjvi ƒ`evb›`cyi MÖv„g| g„Zz¨ : 1938 wLª÷v„ã KjKvZvq|

 iPbvewj ƒ`e`vm, cjøxmgvR, Mn`vn, kªxKvšÍ, ƒ`bv-cvIbv, PwiÎnxb cÖfwZ|

 Drm I cwiwPwZ kirP›`ª P„Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔwejvmxÕ MíwU cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq fviZx cwÎKvq 1918 wLª÷v„ã| b¨vov bv„gi GK hye„Ki Revwb„Z weeZ ÔwejvmxÕ M„í ƒjL„Ki ƒQ„j„ejvi QvqvcvZ N„U„Q| GLv„b „K›`ªxq PwiÎ wejvmxi Rxeb cªev„ni gva¨„g dz„U D„V„Q Avgv„`i MÖvg-evsjvi A„h‡w³K ag©vÜ mgvR e¨e¯_vi wbqg-bxwZi hvZvK„j wcó ARmª wbiæcvq bvixi fvOv ey„Ki AvZ©bv`| cjøxi gwËKv msjMœ K_vwkíx kirP›`ª Zuvi Kvkxbv_ Mքš’i AšÍM©Z GB M„í ƒ`wL„q„Qb `yB e¨wZKªgag©x© gvbe-gbexi AmvaviY ƒcքgi gwngv; hv Qvwc„q D„V„Q RvwZMZ we„f„`i msKxY© mxgv„K| Abb¨mvaviY g„bve„ji AwaKvix,Kg©wbcyY, M„íi ƒK›`ªxq PwiÎ wejvmxi AvwZ¥K kw³ I …ah© Acwi„gq| „cքgi Kvi„Y ƒ¯^”QvÑ gZy¨ eiYKvix G bvix Zuvi PvwiwÎK gwngvi Av„jvq cÖwZev` K„i„Q mgv„Ri Aby`viZv I iÿYkxjZvi weiæ„×| AZtci wbwÿß n„q„Q welv` I wbtm½Zvi Mfx„i|

 kãv_© I UxKv K‚Zwe`¨ cÖZœZvwË¡K gv„jv mZ¨hyM Kwj ƒ¤ø”Q„`k eviIqvix g„š¿i `ªóv fywR¨ D”QyMy¨

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 evbvb mZK©Zv mi¯^Zx, Kvg¯ˆvU&Kv, cÖZœZvwË¡K, hgivR, DrKwÉZ, wZjva©, AKvjKz®§vÐ, wbKv, `», kªve¨-Akªve¨, cÖvZt¯§iYxq, eviIqvwi, G›UªvÝ, cÂgyL, gvbm, KvgvL¨v, wcwÐ, fywR¨, D”Qy¸¨, eû`k©x|  bgybv cÖkœvewj

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K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii 3. Lyov MÖvgevmxi wb„q wejvmxi Ici nvgjv K„iwQj ƒKb? K. RvZ iÿv Riæwi n„q c„owQ„j L. wgwËi es„ki gh©v`v iÿvi Rb¨ M. gZz¨Ä„qi evMv„bi cÖwZ Zvi ƒjvf wQ„jv N. mvcy„o wejvmx„K ƒm NYv Ki„Zv Aby„”Q`wU co Ges 4 I 5 b¤^i cքkœi DËi `vI| Kí`ªs Riæwi Kv„R kn„i G„m„Q| mKvj ƒ_„K ƒNvivNywi K„i ÿyavZ© n„q Lvevi PvB„j ƒnv„Uj gvwjK ejj, ÔAvw`evmx„`i Rb¨ `yb¤^i evmb Avgvi ƒnv„U„j ivwL bvÕ| 4. Kí`ªs Gi m„½ ÔwejvmxÕ M„íi ƒKvb Pwi„Îi wgj i„q„Q? K. Lyov L. b¨vov M. wejvmx N. gZz¨Äq 5. Kí`ªs Gi cÖwZ ƒnv„Uj gvwj„Ki g„bvfve ÔwejvmxÕ M„íi ƒh cÖm„½i m„½ m½wZc~Y© Zv nji. A¯úk¨Zv ii. AÁZv iii. eªvþY¨ev` wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i L. ii M. iii N. i I ii 6. wejvmx ƒjvK VKv„bv AcQ›` KiZ, ƒKbbvi. Zv„`i N„i ch©vß Lvevi wQj ii. G ƒckvwU wQj fqsKi I SzuwKc~Y© iii. Zvi wQj mrfv„e euvPvi Zxeª AvKvOÿv wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i L. ii M. i I iii N. ii I iii

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1.

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Aa©v½x †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb  †jLK cwiwPwZ evOvwj gymwjg bvixÑRvMi„Yi cw_K‚r ƒiv„Kqv GKvav„i wQ„jb eyw×Rxex, ƒjwLKv I mgvRKg©x| GB wZb i€„cB wZwb Zuvi wb„R„K weKwkZ K„iwQ„jb| evOvwj, evOvwj-gymjgvb, evOvwj-gymjgvb bvix mgvR, bvixwkÿv, bvixRvMiY G me„K ƒK›`ª K„iB Zuvi wPšÍv-fvebv AvewZ©Z n„q„Q| ¯ˆzj, bvixKj¨vY ms¯’v cÖwZôv ; G me wQj Zuvi K„g©i cwiwa| ƒjwLKv wn„m„e ƒh me Mí-KweZv-Dcb¨v„mi ga¨ w`„q wZwb AvZ¥cÖKvk K„i„QbÑ ƒm m„ei ga¨ w`„qI bvixRvMiY Z_v mgvRwnZÑ Gi AvKv•ÿvB Zxeª n„q cÖKvk ƒc„q„Q| g~jZ wZwb cÖvewÜK; M`¨B Zuvi wPšÍvi cÖavb evnb| Zuvi weKvk I Kg©„ÿÎ g~jZ wZb RvqMvqÑiscyi (evsjv„`k), fvMjcyi (wenvi) I KjKvZv (cwðge½)| Aek¨ Zuvi cÖwZfvi ù~iY N„UwQj KjKvZv„ZB|

Rb¥ : 1880 wLª÷v„ã iscyi ƒRjvi wgVvcyKzyi _vbvi cvqive›` MÖv„g| g„Zz¨ : 1932 wLª÷v„ã|  iPbvewj ÔÔgwZP~iÓ (1g I 2q LÐ), ÒcÙivMÓ, ÒAe„ivaevwmbxÓ, myjZvbvi ¯^cœ, Sultana’s Dream.

 Drm I cwiwPwZ ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe„Ü ƒjwLKv Dwbk kZ„Ki ƒkl I wek kZ„Ki ƒMvovq fviZe„l© cyi ælkvwmZ mgvR Rxe„bi me„ÿ„Î bvix, we„kl K„i gymjgvb bvixmgv„Ri cðv`c`Zv, Kzms¯ˆviv”QbœZv, AwaKvinxbZv I `ywe©ln Rxeb m¤ú„K© Av„jvKcvZ K„i„Qb| cvkvcvwk GB cÖe„Ü cyiæ„li msKxY© `wófw½, ¯^v_©ciZv I AvwacZ¨Kvgx gvbwmKZvi cwiPq dzwU„q Zz„j„Qb| wZwb GB iPbvq AZ¨šÍ e¨w_Z wP„Ë bvixmgvR„K ÁvbPP©v I Kg©eªZ, AwaKvi m„PZbZv I gyw³ AvKv•ÿvq DØy× Ki„Z m„Pó n„q„Qb| wZwb ewjô hyw³i gva¨„g ƒ`Lv„Z ƒP„q„Qb, mgvR ƒh c~Y© I ¯^vfvweK MwZ„Z AMÖmi n„Z cvi„Q bv Zvi KviY cwievi I mgvRRxe„bi Acwinvh© A„a©K kw³ bvixmgv„Ri `ye©j I AebZ Ae¯’v| G Rb¨ wZwb cyiælmgv„Ri `wófw½ I msKxY©Zv„K `vqx K„i„Qb| wZwb ƒ`Lv„Z ƒP„q„Qb, mgvR Rxe„bi AMÖMwZ I Kj¨vY mva„bi Rb¨ bvixRvMiY Ges ƒmB m„½ cyiælmgv„Ri msKxY© `wófw½ cwieZ©„bi ƒKvb weKí ƒbB|  kãv_© I UxKv evZzj : cvMj, Db¥v`| ivmfKY© : Mvavi Kvb| cvwm© : cvim¨ ƒ`„ki A_©vr Bivwb| bv„Ki `wo : bvKvj I eva¨ Kivi A¯¿| Aejv RvwZ : ejnxbv| GLv„b bvixmgvR A„_© e¨eüZ| ïK¬„Kk : kyå ev mv`v Pzj wewkó, cK¡„Kk| ivgP›`ª : ivgvq„Y ewY©Z `ki_ I ƒK‡kj¨vi cyÎ Ges mxZvi ¯^vgx| mxZv : ivgvq„Y ewY©Z wgw_jvivR Rb„Ki Kb¨v I ivgP„›`ªi cZœx| Kj¤^vm : wµ„÷vdvi Kj¤^vm (1447-1506) cÖwm× BZvjxq bvweK Ges Av„gwiKv gnv„`„ki Avwe®ˆZv© | ƒev„av`q : Ck¦iP›`ª we`¨vmvMi iwPZ ÔwkïwkÿvÕ Z‚Zxq fvM eB„qi bvg ԃev„av`qÕ| eBwU cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq 1851 wLª÷v„ã| Gd. G : First Arts. eZ©gvb D”P gva¨wgK ch©vq| GbUªvÝ : cքewkKv, eZ©gvb gva¨wgK ev Gm.Gm.wm| bRg&-Dj-Ijvgv : Ávbx„`i g„a¨ bÿÎ| kgm-Dj-Ijvgv : Ávbx„`i g„a¨ m~h©|

 evbvb mZK©Zv ev®úxf~Z, wbixÿY, ÿxY, m~², w`OwbY©q, ew›`bx, AwaKvwiYx, cÖYwqbx, Aa©v½x, `c©Y, ƒMuvov, ¯^Z¡-¯^vwgZ¡, AšÍtcyi, ƒR¨vwZ„e©Ëv, Avwe®ˆvi, kxl©K, MwnYx, e¨³, we„Øl, fMœx, aŸsm| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

 bgybv cÖkœvewj

 ...........................................................................................................eûwbe©vPbx cÖkœ 1. mvM„ii cvwb ev®ú n„q ƒg„N cwiYZ nq| Avevi ƒmB ƒgN ewóKYv n„q mvM„i cwZZ nq| Dc„ii evK¨¸„jv Øviv ƒevSv„bv n„q„QK. G„K Ac„ii Abymvix L. cքZ¨„K Avgiv c„ii Z„i M. G„Ki KZ©e¨ A„b¨i AwaKvi N. cքZ¨„KB cքZ¨„Ki wbKU FYx 2. bvix„`i ïay ivbœva„iB mxgve× ivLv DwPZ bq| KviY GUv Zv„`ii. AKg©Y¨ K„i ƒZv„j ii. gvbwmK `vmZ¡ cÖKvk K„i iii. ¯^vgx„`i AvivgwcÖqZv ew× K„i wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i L. ii M. i I ii N. ii I iii 3. ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe„Ü ewY©Z Ôbv„Ki `woÕ k„ãi A_© Kx? K. AwaKvi I gvwjKvbvi e¯‘ L. ƒg„q„`i AvUK ivLvi ƒK‡kj M. Zš‘ eqb K„i …ZwiK‚Z iwk N. bZRvby I eva¨ Kivi A¯¿ wb„Pi KweZvsk c„o 4 I 5 b¤^i cքkœi DËi `vI| we„k¦i hv wKQz gnvb mwó wPiKY¨vYKi A„a©K Zvi Kwiqv„Q bvix, A„a©K Zvi bi 4. Dc„ii KweZvs„ki gg©vbymv„i bvixi mv_©K cwiPq ƒKvbwU? K. cÖYwqbx L. mnPix M. Aa©v½x N. mgfvwMbx 5. mvgvwRK Kj¨vY mva„b ƒeMg ƒiv„Kqvi ƒKvb AvnevbwUi m„½ Dc„ii KweZvs„ki wgj Av„Q? K. bvixi gvbwmK `vmZ¡ ƒgvPb L. bvixi h_vh_ m¤§vb cÖwZôv M. bvix„K cyiæ„li mgKÿ Kiv N. bvix cyiæ„li mw¤§wjZ cքPóv

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1| ƒiYy I ivRy GKB wcZv-gvZvi mšÍvb| wKš‘ Zv„`i wcZv-gvZv ivRy„K ƒiYy A„cÿv ƒewk Av`i hZœ K„i| `yB fvB„evb ƒL„Z em„j eo fvMUv ivRy cvq| ivRy ƒKvb Aciva Ki„j Zv„`i wcZv-gZv ƒeUv ƒQ„j e„j Avg„j ƒbq bv| ivRyi Rb¨ MnwkÿK _vK„jI ƒiYyi Rb¨ Zv ivLv nq wb| ƒiYy hZB eqtcÖvß n„”Q wcZv-gvZv Zvi we„q ƒ`Iqvi Rb¨ ZZB e¨vKzj n„q D„V„Q| G„Z ƒiYy AvcwË Ki„j Zvi gv e„jb, ƒg„q„`i GZ ƒjLvcov wk„L KvR ƒbB, eis Ni-„`vi mvRv„bv ƒMvQv„bv, my„qUvi eybb Ges ivbœv KivUv wk„L wb„j Zv Kv„R Avm„e| K. Ôkgm-Dj-IjvgvÕ A_© Kx? L. Ô¯^vgxiÕ¯’„j ÔAa©v½Õ kãwU cÖPwjZ nIqvi myweav eY©bv Ki| M. ƒiYyi cwiev„i bvixi ƒh Ae¯’vwU dz„U D„V„Q Zv ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe„Üi Av„jv„K e¨vL¨v Ki| N. ƒiYyi gv„qi g„bvfv„ei g„a¨ ƒh welqwU cÖKvk ƒc„q„Q Zv we„kølY Ki| 2. wkwib GK gymwjg cwiev„i Rb¥MÖnY K„i| evwjKv eq„m Zvi ¯ˆz„j hvIqvi Lye kL _vK„jI ƒm cvwievwiK kvmb wWw½„q ¯ˆz„j ƒh„Z cv„i wb| gv„qi Kv„Q ƒm Aviwe eY©gvjv wk„L„Q| Gici Kvq`v wk„L hLbB Avgcviv wkL„Z ïiæ K„i ZLbB Zvi we„qi cÖ¯Íve Av„m| Zvi wcZv-gvZv Kvjwej¤^ bv K„i ƒg„qi we„q ƒ`q| fvM¨¸„Y wkwib fvj ¯^vgx ƒc„q hvq| ƒm ¯^vgxi msmv„i ƒ_„K wb„Ri cքPóv I ¯^vgxi Drmv„n we`¨v AR©b K„i| Zv„Z ƒm mgv„R bvixi nxb Ae¯’v eyS„Z cv„i| bvixi gh©v`v cÖwZôvi Rb¨ ƒm bvixwkÿv ƒK›`ª K„i Zvi GjvKvi bvix„`i wkwÿZ K„i ƒZv„j| K. Ae„iva cÖ_v Kx? L. bvixi cÖwZ cyiæ„li ƒKvb `wófw½ ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe„Ü cÖeÜKvi mgv„jvPbv K„ib? eY©bv Ki| M. wkwib wcZ‚-cwiev„i bvixi cÖwZ g„bvfve cvV¨cy¯Í„Ki Av„jv„K e¨vL¨v Ki| N. wkwi„bi Kv„Ri g„a¨ ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe„Üi cÖvew܄Ki B”Qvi wK ƒK„bv cÖwZdjb N„U„Q? D˄ii c„ÿ hyw³ `vI| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

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†h․e‡bi Mvb KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg  †jLK cwiwPwZ ƒQ„j„ejvq ƒj„Uv Mv„bi `„j ƒhvM ƒ`Iqvi gva¨„gB KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg Zvi mRbkxj Kg©Kv„Ði m~Pbv K„ib| MÖv„gi g³„e covi ci wZwb ea©gvb I gqgbwms„ni wÎkvj _vbvi `wiivgcyi nvB ¯ˆz„j ƒjLvcov K„ib| 1917 mv„j wZwb ƒmbvevwnbxi evOvwj cë„b ƒhvM w`„q KivwP hvb| ƒmLv„bB Zvui mvwnZ¨ Rxe„bi m~Pbv N„U| Zvui ƒjLvq wZwb mvgvwRK AwePvi I civaxbZvi weiy„× ƒmv”Pvi n„q„Qb| G Rb¨ Zuv„K Ôwe„`ªvnx KweÕ ejv nq| evsjv mvwnZ¨ RM„Z Zvui Avwefv©e GK bZzb w`M„šÍi D„b¥vPb K„i| gvÎ ƒZZvwjøk eQi eq„m cÖvewÜK `yiv„ivM¨ ƒiv„M AvKªvšÍ n„q evKkw³ nvwi„q ƒd„jb| evsjv„`k cÖwZôvi ci Amy¯’ Kwe„K XvKvq Avbv nq Ges c„i Zvu„K evsjv„`„ki bvMwiKZ¡ cÖ`vb Kiv nq| Zvu„K ¯^vaxb evsjv„`„ki ÔRvZxq KweÕi ghv©`vq f~wlZ Kiv nq| Rb¥ : 1899 wLª÷v„ãi 25 ƒg, 1306 m„bi 11 …R¨ô, fvi„Zi cwðge„•Mi ea©gvb ƒRjvi Avmvb„mvj gnKzgvi Pziæwjqv MÖv„g| g„Zz¨ : 1976 mv„ji 29 AvM÷ XvKvq| XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq gmwR` msjMœ cÖv½„Y Zvu„K cwic~Y© mvgwiK ghv©`vq mgvwnZ Kiv nq|

 iPbvewj Kve¨MÖš’ : AwMœexYv, we„li evuwk, QvqvbU, cÖjq-wkLv, PKªevK, wmÜz-wn„›`vj BZ¨vw`| cÖeÜMÖš’ : hyM-evYx, `yw`©„bi hvÎx, iy`ª-g½j, ivRe›`xi Revbe›`x BZ¨vw`| Mí MÖš’ : e¨_vi `vb, wi„³i ƒe`b, wkDwjgvjv| Dcb¨vm : gZz¨-ÿzav, Kz„nwjKv, euvabnviv BZ¨vw`| bvUK : Av„jqv, wSwjwgwj, cyZz„ji we„q|

 Drm I cvV cwiwPwZ 1932 wLª÷v„ã wmivRM„Ä gymwjg hye mgv„Ri Awfb›`„bi D˄i Zv„`i D„Ï„k KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg ƒh cÖv„Yv”Qj fvlY w`„qwQ„jb Ԅh‡e„bi MvbÕ iPbvwU ZviB cwigvwR©Z wjwLZ i~c| GB Awffvl„Y wZwb `yišÍ `yev©i ƒh‡e„bi cÖkw¯Í D”PviY K„i„Qb| ƒh‡eb n„”Q AdzišÍ cÖvYkw³i Avavi| Zv gvby„li Rxeb„K K„i MwZkxj I cÖZ¨vkvgq| `yev©i DÏxcbv, K¬vwšÍnxb D`¨g, Acwimxg J`vh©, AdzišÍ cÖvYPÂjZv I AUj mvabvi cÖZxK ƒh‡eb gZz¨„K Zz”Q K„i ms¯ˆv„ii ƒeovRvj wQbœwfbœ K„i mKj evav ƒcwi„q GwM„q hvq mgvR-cÖMwZ I bZzb ¯^cœgq gy³Rxe„bi c„_| Avi wecbœ gvbeZvi cv„kI ƒm `vuovq ƒmeveªZxi f~wgKvq| cÿvšÍ„i iÿYkxjZv, RoZv, ms¯ˆviv”QbœZv I cðv`c`Zvgq eva©K¨ evav n„q `vuovq Rxe„bi cÖvYešÍ AMÖMwZi c„_| ZvB ¯^fve†ewk„ó¨i w`K ƒ_„K ƒh ƒh‡eb ƒ`k-RvwZ-Kvj I a„g©i evuab gv„b bv, ƒmB ƒh‡eb-kw³„K „jLK D`vË AvnŸvb Rvwb„q„Qb mg¯Í RxY©-cy„iv„bv ms¯ˆvi„K aŸsm K„i g„bi g„Zv bZzb RMr iPbvi mvabvq AMÖmi n„Z|

 kãv_© I UxKv evqm PÂz iywai aviv Z›`ªv …`e gvZ©Ð gywi` wØav Aj„ÿ cwiµgY bv-IqvwKd RevKzmygm¼vk wZwgiKyšÍjv jxjvf~wg bvwfk¦vm AwMœgv›`¨ Dw`© RxY©veiY ƒbqvgZ

: KvK| : ƒVuvU| : i³ cÖevn| : Ny„gi fve wb`ªv| : AvKw¯§K| : m~h©| : wkl¨| : ms„KvP, mskq, KzÉv| : Avov„j, `wói A„MvP„i| : cÖ`wÿY, cwiågY| : AbwfÁ, AÁvZ| : Rev dz„ji g„Zv| : AÜKvi hvi Pzj, ivwÎ| : wePiY¯’vb, µxov„ÿÎ| : giYvcbœ Ae¯’v| : ARxY©Zv, ÿzavgv›`¨| : Kg©Pvix„`i Rb¨ wbw`©ó „cvkvK we„kl| : RivRxY© ev ÿqcÖvß gwjb ƒcvkvK| : ab-m¤ú`, AbyMÖn|

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

 evbvb mZK©Zv ZviæY¨, evYx, ZiæY, gYvj, cvlvY, RxY©, Acwimxg, wbkxw_bx, ƒh‡ebm~h©, wZwgi-KzšÍjv, a¨vbx, Sibv, `ywf©ÿ, wØav|  bgybv cÖkœvewj

 ...........................................................................................................eûwbe©vPbx cÖkœ 1. ԃh‡e„bi MvbÕ cÖe„Ü ƒjLK Kx n„q ZiæY„`i gnv`vb MÖnY Ki„Z Pvb? K. ga¨gwY L. `jcwZ M. mnhvÎx N. c~Rvix 2. ÔAvwg Kwe e„bi cvwLi g„Zv ¯^fve Avgvi Mvb KiviÕ- Dw³wU„Z eywS„q„QbK. ƒh‡e„bi D”Q¡jZv L. gvbe Kj¨v„Y eªZ nIqv M. Zviæ„Y¨i cÖwZ AKzÉ cÿcvZ N. Mv„bi cvwLi mv„_ KweZvi Zzjbv Aby„”Q`wU co Ges 3 I 4 b¤^i cքkœi DËi `vI| c~e©Kv„j BD„iv„c AvBb Øviv Kzô„ivMx„`i wbe©vmb ƒ`Iqv n„Zv| gvbe„cÖwgK `vwb„qj ƒh‡e„bi ƒfv-jvjmv Z¨vM K„i gvjv„Kv Øx„c Kzô„ivMx„`i ƒmevq eªZx n„jb, Ck¦i„K ej„jb cÖfy! AvR Avgvi ƒcÖg mKj c~Y©Zvq mdj I mv_©K n„jv| 3. Aby„”Q„` ƒh‡e„bi ƒKvb …ewk„ó¨i me©vwaK cÖwZdjb N„U„Q? K. D`¨g L. J`vh© M. gvZ‚i€c N. mvabv 4. ƒKvb ev„K¨ Aby„”Q„`i …ewk„ó¨i cwiPq Av„Q? K. Bnviv _v„K kw³i wcQ„b L. is QvovB„Z QovB„Z A¯Í M. hLb `ye©„ji cv„k ej nBqv `uvovq N. Zvnvi nvwm„Z Mvb, Zvnvi Kvbœvq Mvb Aby„”Q`wU co Ges 5 I 6 b¤^i cքkœi DËi `vI| Ôeva©K¨ wKQz Kvo„Z cv„i bv e„j wKQz Qvov„ZI cv„i bv- `ywU Kv„jv ƒPv„Li Rb¨I bq, wek ƒKvwU Kv„jv ƒjv„Ki Rb¨I bq| 5. GLv„b Ô ƒh‡e„bi MvbÕ cÖe„Ü e„×i ƒh …ewk„ó¨i cwiPq cvIqv hvq, Zv nji. cðv`c`Zv ii. iÿYkxjZv iii. ¯’weiZv wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii 6. Aby„”Q„` ewY©Z eva©„K¨i wecixZ fvlv ƒKvbwU? K. kw³i ƒcQ„b iæwai avivi g„Zv ƒMvcb L. ƒm ivwÎi ci ivwÎ RvwMqv cwiPh©v K„i M. ZiæY Aiæ„Yi g„ZvB ƒh ZviæY¨ wZwgi we`vix N. AbšÍ AvKv„ki mxgv LyuwR„Z wMqv cÖvY nvivq

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------m„Rbkxj cÖkœ

1. AemicÖvß dviæK mv„n„ei KuvPv cvKv Pzj, gy„L eq„mi Qvc| Z„e iv¯Ívi `yB av„i MvQ jvMv„bv, iv¯Ívi MZ© fivU Kiv BZ¨vw` Kv„R Zvi ƒKv„bv K¬vwšÍ ƒbB| GQvovI cvovi ƒQ„j„`i wb„q evj¨weevn ƒiva, ƒg„q„`i ¯ˆz„j cvVv„bv, Amy¯’ ƒivMx„K nmwcUv„j cvVv„bv Gmg¯Í Kv„RI Zvi Drmv„ni mxgv ƒbB| K. Mv„bi cvwL„K Zvov K„i ƒK? L. ÔAvwg AvR Zvnv„`i `„j, hvnviv Kgx© bb- a¨vbxÕ-GLv„b Ôa¨vbxÕ ej„Z Kx ƒevSv„bv n„q„Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. dviæK mv„n„ei PvwiwÎK …ewk„ó¨ ƒh‡e„bi ƒKvb w`KwU dz„U D„V„Q-e¨vL¨v Ki| N. ÒAvgv„`i cw_ex Avgiv Avgv„`i g„bi gZ K„i Mwoqv jBeÓ- Dw³wU dviæK mv„n„ei Pwi„Î KZUzKz cÖwZdwjZ n„q„Q Zv Ô ƒh‡e„bi MvbÕ cÖeÜ Abymv„i Av„jvPbv Ki| 2. hye„Kiv cvMj, eviæ„`i g„Zv mn„RB hyeKcÖv„Y Av¸b a„i| Zievwi ƒ`„L, KvivMv„i duvwm„Z wKQz„ZB Zvi `wc©Z cÖvY Kvey nq bv| G„`i g„a¨ w¯’iZv, exiZv, Mv¤¢xh©, ag©fq, webq Ávb ej„Z wKQz ƒbB| Iiv mwZ¨B cvMj, ev®úxq BwÄb Ave× kw³ ejv hvq| K. e„bi cvwLi g„Zv Mvb Kiv Kvi ¯^fve? L. Kwe ZiæY„`i `jfy³ n„Z ƒP„q„Qb ƒKb? M. Aby„”Q„` ԃh‡e„bi MvbÕ cÖe„Üi hye„Ki ƒKvb i€cwUi cÖKvk ƒc„q„Q Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Aby„”Q„` ԃh‡e„bi MvbÕ cÖe„Üi AvswkK e³e¨ cÖwZdwjZ n„q„Q-gšÍ„e¨i ƒh‡w³K g~j¨vqb Ki| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb  †jLK cwiwPwZ

evsjv„`„ki AMÖMY¨ K_vmvwnwZ¨K Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb cÂvk eQ„iiI ƒewk mgq a„i mvwnZ¨ mvabvq wb„qvwRZ wQ„jb| wZwb wQ„jb GKvav„i MíKvi, Jcb¨vwmK, bvU¨Kvi I Abyev`K| mvsevw`K wn„m„eI wZwb ƒek mycwiwPZ wQ„jb| evsjv„`„ki mvwnZ¨ A½„b wZwb we„kl cwiwPwZ jvf K„ib Zuvi eûj Av„jvwPZ ÔfvIqvj M„oi DcvL¨vbÕ wj„L| mvwn„Z¨ I mvsevw`KZvq K‚wZZ¡c~Y© Ae`v„bi ¯^xK‚wZ wn„m„e RxeÏkvq wZwb Ôevsjv GKv„WgxÕ, Ôgy³avivÕ BZ¨vw` mvwnZ¨ cyi¯ˆvimn ÔGKz„k c`KÕ jvf K„ib| Rb¥ : 1919 wLª÷v„ã XvKv ƒRjvi KvwjM„Ä| g„Zz¨ : 1988 wLª÷v„ã XvKvq|  iPbvewj Dcb¨vm : fvIqvj M„oi DcvL¨vb, cÙv ƒgNbv hgybv, msKi msKxZ©b, cÖcÂ, ƒ`qvj| MíMÖš’ : Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏx„bi ƒkªô Mí, ƒkl ivwÎi Zviv, GK ƒRvov c¨v›U I Ab¨vb¨, iv„Rb VvKz„ii Zx_©hvÎv BZ¨vw`| ÔAvZ¥¯§wZÕ Zvui GKwU Amvgvb¨ MÖš’|

 Drm I cwiwPwZ Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏx„bi ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU msKwjZ n„q„Q gyw³hy× welqK Mí-msKjb Ôgyw³hy„×i MíÕ ƒ_„K| GB M„í ewY©Z n„q„Q evsjv„`„ki MÖvgv„j cvwK¯Ívwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi wbôzi ee©iZvi Qwe| `Lj`vi evwnbxi weiæ„× mk¯¿ gyw³evwnbxi exiZ¡c~Y© msMÖv„gi cÖZ¨ÿ Qwe GB M„í ewY©Z bv n„jI Zv„`i `ye©vi cÖwZ„iva-ZrciZv ¯úóZB Kvwnbx„Z Abyfe Kiv hvq| 1971 Gi gnvb gyw³hy„× MÖvg evsjvi Avbmvi, ƒP‡wK`v„iivI ƒh KL„bv cÖZ¨ÿ Avevi KL„bv ev c„ivÿfv„e „K‡k„j AZ¨šÍ cvwK¯Ívwb `Lj`vi evwnbxi weiæ„× jovB„q gyw³„hv×v„`i bvbvfv„e mnvqZv K„iwQj ƒmB ev¯ÍeZvB wkí-mZ¨ n„q ƒ`Lv w`„q„Q ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M„í|  kãv_© I UxKv bvI : ƒb‡Kv| cyj„mivZ : ciKv„ji wec¾bK mvu„Kv we„kl| evo evov : J×Z¨, ¯úa©v| ÔAv¸BbvÕ wPZv : ƒflR Dw™¢` we„kl| fv½ybwZ : b`xi cv„oi fvObkxj Ask| LZibvK : wec¾bK, gvivZ¥K| gyw³ Av wMqv : gyw³evwnbx G„m c„o„Q| MÜewYK : MÜ`ªe¨-e¨emvqx| Uzqv : N„ii Pv„ji kxl©| evo–B : N„ii Pvj QvIqv wgw¯¿| Pwj„q : Pjyb| Avwf : GLb| aiwb : aivi Aej¤^b| bvI`vuov : ƒb‡Kv Pjvi ƒQvU Lv„ji g„Zv c_| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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gyw³! gyw³! : gyw³„hv×v! gyw³„hv×v! vRvKvi : ƒ¯^”Qv„meK (gyw³hy„× cvwK¯Ívwb evwnbxi mnvqZvKvix `vjvj) PzcivI : Pzc _vK mv„j : kvjv Kv„diKv ev”Pv Kv„di : Kv„d„ii ev”Pv, Kv„di eiMvi Kvbv RvqMv : AvovAvwo jvMv„bv Kv„Vi fvOv gyL|

 evbvb mZK©Zv P›`ªwe›`y : evsjvq A„bK k„ãi P›`ªwe›`y Avm„j Zrmg k„ãi AvbybvwmK aŸwbi (O, b, g, s) cwiewZ©Z i€c| ƒhgb : evuk < esk, cvuP < cÂ, mvu„Kv < msµg, `vuZ < `šÍ, nvum < nsm, Kvucb < K¤úb, evuab < eÜb|

 wb‡Pi kãyM‡jvi evbv‡b P›`ªwe›`y bv w`‡j fyj n‡e: Lyuwo, `vuwo, DuwP„q, AvuKvevuKv, Gu„K„eu„K, ƒXuwK, Kvua, Qyu„Pv, Bu`yi, DuPz, mvuZvi|  bgybv cÖkœvewj

 ...........................................................................................................eûwbe©vPbx cÖkœ 1. ÔAv¸Bbv wPZv Kx? K. wnsmª cÖvYx we„kl L. ƒflR Dw™¢` M. R¡jšÍ k¥kvb N. wÿcÖ ƒhv×v 2. KwjgwÏ `dv`v„ii ƒevW© AwdmwU ƒKv_vq? K. m`i iv¯Ív msjMœ L. kxZjÿ¨vi Zx„i M. ƒij„÷k„bi cv„k N. nvB¯ˆz„ji cv„k 3. KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Zvi KvR„K gh©`vc~Y© g„b Kivi KviYi. ƒg¤^viiv Avcwb e„j m„¤^vab Ki„Zb ii. _vbvi `v„ivMv m¤§vb Ki„Zb iii. `dv`v„ii KvRwU A„bK m¤§v„bi wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii 4. Lvb„mbviv LZibvK Ae¯’vi g„a¨ coZ ƒKb? K. G ƒ`„ki iv¯ÍvNvU m¤ú„K© aviYvi Afve| L. gyw³„mbvi G„jvcv_vwo Avµg„Yi Kvi„Y| M. Zv„`i muvZvi Rvbv wQ„jv bv| N. Zv„`i ƒMwijv ƒUªwbs wQ„jv bv| wb„Pi Aby„”Q`wU co Ges 5 I 6 bs cքkœi DËi `vI| Lv„ji Icv„i KvRjWv½v MÖvg| mKv„j wM„q ƒ`Lv ƒMj MÖvgwU jÐfÐ| Nievwo cywo„q ƒ`qv n„q„Q| wf„U¸„jv Luv Luv Ki„Q| cv„kB GKwU Lv„ji cv„o wKQz jvk c„o Av„Q| i„³i aiviv wM„q wg„k„Q Lv„ji cvwb„Z| 5. ewY©Z wPÎKíwU ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M„íi ƒh NUbvi cÖwZwbwaZ¡ K„i Zv n„jvi. Lvb„mbv„`i bviKxq nZ¨vhÁ ii. gyw³hy„× kÎæ evwnbxi AZ¨vPvi iii. Lvb„mbv„`i hy„×i `ÿZv wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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mvwKbv wewei Kcvj fvO„jv, wmuw_i wmu`yi gy„Q ƒMj nwi`vmxi| Zzwg Avm„e e„j, ƒn ¯^vaxbZv, kn„ii ey„K RjcvB i„Oi U¨v¼ G„jv `vb„ei g„Zv wPrKvi Ki„Z Ki„Z Zzwg Avm„e e„j, ƒn, ¯^vaxbZv QvÎvevm, ew¯Í DRvo n„jv| wiK„qj„jm ivB„dj Avi ƒgwkbMvb LB ƒdvUv„jv hÎZÎ|Ó K. `dv`vi c`wU Kx? L. Lvb„mbviv KwjgwÏ `dv`vi„K Zv„`i Awfhv„bi m½x wn„m„e ƒe„Q ƒbq ƒKb? M. KweZvskwUi 2q I 3q PiY ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M„íi ƒKvb w`K„K wb„`©k K„i? N. KweZvskwU ƒhb ÒKwjgwÏ `dv`vi M„í Kve¨i€cÓ-g~j¨vqb Ki| evsjvi el©v| wf„U¸„jv Qvov mg¯Í MÖvg cvwbi wb„P| Kvjy gvwS ƒ`kcÖxwZ„Z wek¦¯Í| Lvb„mbv„`i Acv„ik„b wb„q hvq ƒm ƒb‡Kv ƒe„q| b`xi Icv„i gyw³evwnbx Av¯Ívbv ƒM„o„Q| ƒmUv ¸uwo„q w`„Z n„e| Lvb„mbviv cÖ¯Z ‘ | Acv„ikb n„e AvR iv„ZB| Kvjy gvwSi WvK co„jv| fiv ƒRvqv„ii b`x| gvS b`x„Z ƒb‡Kv| A¯¿ Avi Lvb„mbv ƒevSvB ƒb‡KvwU nVvr `y„j D„V KvZ n„q ƒMj| AvZ‚bv` K„i b`x„Z c„o ƒMj Lvb„mbviv| muvZ„i K~„j DV„jv Kvjy gvwS| K¬všÍ gy„L Zvi weRqxi nvwm| K. Pig `yw`©„bI KwjgwÏ `dv`vi ƒKgb gvbyl? L. Ô`dv`vi fvB Avc„bI?Õ-K_vwU w`„q Kx ƒevSv„bv n„q„Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. Kvjy gvwS Ges KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Gi ƒckvMZ cv_©K¨ M„íi Av„jv„K e¨vL¨v Ki| N. ÔKvjy gvwS KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Gi cÖwZ”QweÕ- KwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ Mí Aej¤^„b gšÍe¨wU we„kølY Ki|

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GKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Kvwnbx •mq` IqvjxDjøvn  †jLK cwiwPwZ evsjv K_v mvwn„Z¨i ƒkªô i€cKvi …mq` IqvjxDjøvn, wZwb wQ„jb mgvR m„PZb mvwnZ¨ wkíx| RxebmÜvbx G wkíx e¨w³Rxeb I mgvR mgm¨v„K K„i„Qb Zuvi mRbK„g©i cÖavb DcRxe¨| …mq` IqvjxDjøvn KjKvZvi GKwU weL¨vZ …`wbK cwÎKvq mvsevw`K wn„m„e Kg©Rxeb kyiæ K„ib| Gi ci PvKwi K„i„Qb XvKv I KivwP ƒeZvi ƒK„›`ªi evZv© wefv„M| c„i cvwK¯Ívb miKv„ii …e„`wkK wefv„M| Kg©m~„Î bqvw`wjø, wmWwb, RvKvZv© I jۄb `vwqZ¡ cvjb ƒk„l `xN©w`b c¨vwi„m Kg©iZ wQ„jb| ƒmLv„b Ae¯’vbKv„j 1971-G evsjv„`„ki gyw³hy„× mwKªq f~wgKv cvjb K„ib| Rb¥ : 1922 wLª÷v„ãi 15 AvM÷, PÆMÖv„g| g„Zz¨ : 1971 wLª÷v„ãi 10 A„±vei, c¨vwi„m|  iPbvewj Dcb¨vm : ÔjvjmvjyÕ (1948) divwm I Bs„iwR fvlvq Ab~w`Z Zvui weL¨vZ Dcb¨vm| G Dcb¨v„mi gva¨„g wZwb RvZxq I AvšÍRv©wZK L¨vwZ AR©b K„ib| ÔPvu„`i Agvem¨vÕ (1964) I ÔKvu„`v b`x Kvu„`vÕ (1968)| Mí : ÔbqbPvivÕ (1951) Ô`yB Zxi I Ab¨vb¨ MíÕ (1965)| bvUK : ÔewncxiÕ (1965), ÔZi•Mf•MÕ (1966) I Ômyo•MÕ (1964)|  Drm I cwiwPwZ …mq` IqvjxDjøvni ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv„Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU 1965 wLª÷v„ã cÖKvwkZ Zvui Ô`yB Zxi I Ab¨vb¨ MíÕ bvgK MíMÖš’ ƒ_„K msKwjZ| M„íi mxwgZ cwim„i Rxe„bi Mfxi ƒKvb Zvrch©„K Bw•MZgq I e¨Äbvmg× K„i cÖKvk Kivi ƒÿ„Î …mq` IqvjxDjøvni gywÝqvbv i„q„Q| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv„Qi KvwnbxՃZI G MyYwU jÿ Kiv hvq| ƒ`k wefv„Mi Ae¨ewnZ c„iB XvKvq GKwU cwiZ¨³ evwo `Lj K„i KjKvZv ƒ_„K AvMZ K„qKRb DØv¯Íy Kg©Pvix| KjKvZvi wNwÄ GjvKvq ƒKvb iK„g gv_v Myu„R `ywe©ln Rxebhvcb Ki„jI wbivkªq Ae¯’vq DØv¯Íy Rxe„bi D„ØM Avi DrKÉv Zv„`i MÖvm K„i „dj wQj; d„j KjKvZvi Zyjbvq A„bK ƒLvjv„gjv evwo ƒc„q Zviv ƒKej ƒh nvud ƒQ„o evuPj Zv bq, eis evwoLvbv„K Zv„`i Kv„Q g„b nj ƒe„nk&Z| AwP„iB evwoi DVv„b AvMvQvi g„a¨ Zviv Avwe®ˆvi Kij GKwU Zzjmx MvQ| Ab¨ Avi ƒKvb wPý bv _vK„jI GB GKwU wb`©kb ƒ_„KB mevB eySj G evwowU Avm„j GKwU cwiZ¨³ wn›`y evwo| mevB cÖ_„g MvQUv„K Dc„o ƒdjvi Rb¨ …n†P Ki„jI ciÿ„YB Zv„`i gv„S wKQyUv wØav Rv„M Ges „kl ch©šÍ ƒeu„P hvq Zzjmx MvQUv| ƒ`Lv ƒMj mK„ji ARv„šÍ ƒKD GKRb Zvi cwiPhv© Ki„Z kyiy K„i„Q| Zvici GKw`b miKvwi wb„`©„k ƒeAvBwb `Lj ƒ_„K Zv„`i D„”Q` Kiv nj| k~b¨ evwoUv„Z iBj ƒKej Qov„bv wQUv„bv cwiZ¨³ AveR©bv Avi ƒmB Zzjmx MvQUv| cvwbi Afv„e Zzjmx MvQUv AwP„iB Avevi ky®ˆcÖvq n„q DVj| G ƒ_„K eySv hvq, AmsL¨ gvby„li kvšÍ Rxeb ƒhfv„e ivR†bwZK N~Yv©e„Z©i wkKvi n„q„Q Zzjmx MvQUvI Zv ƒ_„K gy³ bq|

 kãv_© I UxKv K¨vbfvm ¸o¸wo gw`i ƒWiv civnZ wdwKi wi„cvU© „R‡jym evgcš’x KwoKvV BqvW© wiKzBwRkb K”Q„`kxq

: gReyZ ƒgvUv Kvco we„kl| : Avj„evjv, divk| : gËZv RvMvq ev mwó K„i Ggb| : A¯’vqx evm¯’vb, Av¯Ívbv| : civ¯Í, evavMÖ¯Í, e¨vnZ| : dw›`, gZje| : cÖwZ„e`b| : PvKwPK¨, J¾¡j¨,ƒRjøv, RuvKRgK| : mvg¨ev`x, cÖMwZev`x, wecøex , ivR†bwZK Av`„k© wek¦vmx| : Qv„`i Zjvq ƒ`Iqv AvovAvwo j¤^v KvV| : ƒ÷kb msjMœ PZ¡i| : „Kvb wKQy ƒP„q wjwLZ digvk, Zje Kiv| : ¸Riv„Ui D˄i Aew¯’Z mgy`ª ZxieZx© ¯’v„bi|

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 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1.

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Aciv‡nèi Mí ûgvq~b Avn‡g`  †jLK cwiwPwZ evsjv„`„ki mgmvgwqK mvwnZ¨RM„Z ûgvq~b Avn„g` GK hv`yKix bvg| g~jZ Jcb¨vwmK ûgvq~b Avn„g`-Gi cÖ_g Dcb¨vm Ôbw›`Z bi„KÕ cÖKvwkZ nq 1972 mv„j| GB A„_© Zuv„K mgKvjxb AvL¨vbKvi ejv hvq| Zvui Avi GKwU Ac~e© mvwnZ¨Kg© nj Ôk•Lbxj KvivMviÕ| imvq„bi „gavex QvÎ W. ûgvq~b XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq ƒ_„K Abvm© I gv÷vm© Dfq cixÿv„ZB cÖ_g ƒkªwY„Z DËxY© nb| wZwb b_© Wv„KvUv ƒ÷U wek¦¨we`¨vjq ƒ_„K cwjgvi ƒKwgw÷ª„Z M„elYvi Rb¨ wcGBP. wW wWwMÖ jvf K„ib| Aa¨vcK ûgvq~b Avn„g` 1981 mv„j mvwnZ¨K„g©i ¯^xK‚wZ¯^i€c Ôevsjv GKv„Wgx cyi¯ˆviÕ QvovI 1994 mv„j cvb m„e©v”P ivóªxq m¤§vbÑGKz„k c`K| GQvovI wZwb wkï GKv„Wgx cyi¯ˆvi, gvB„Kj gaym~`b cyi¯ˆvi, Rqbyj Av„ew`b ¯^Yc © `Kmn bvbv cyi¯ˆvi ƒc„q„Qb| Zuvi cwiPvwjZ gyw³hy×wfwËK QvqvQwe ÔAv¸„bi cikgwYÕ ƒkªô Qwemn 8wU kvLvq RvZxq Pjw”PÎ cyi¯ˆvi jvf K„i„Q| Rb¥ : 1948 wLª÷v„ã 13 b„f¤^i gqgbwmsn ƒRjvi KzZzecyi MÖv„g|  iPbvewj wgwmi Avwj Agwbevm, k¨vgj Qvqv, `viæwPwb Øxc, Qvqvexw_, mv„qÝ wdKkb mgMÖ BZ¨vw`|  kãv_© I UxKv WKz„g›Uvwi (Documentary) : cÖvgvY¨ wPÎ| fvBivm (Virus) : msµvgK ƒiv„Mi exR| U¨vey (Taboo) : wbwl×| Aj•Nbxq| ƒ¯úW„K ƒ¯úW ejv : M„í Ôev¯Íe mZ¨„K ¯^xKvi K„i ƒbIqvÕ A„_© e¨eüZ| Avo¤^i : RvuKRgK| K¼vjmvi : nvo-cvuRi gvÎ Aewkó Av„Q Ggb| Awfkvc : Awfm¤úvZ, AwbóKvgbv| msµwgZ : GK ƒ`n ƒ_„K Ab¨ ƒ`„n mÂvwiZ| mgKvgx : mgwj½fy³ ƒh‡bKvgx| jwmKv MÖwš’ (lymph Gland) : jwmKv MÖwš’ n„”Q, Ggb GK ai„bi MÖwš’ hv kixi„K wewfbœ RxevYy I ÿwZKi ƒKv„li nvZ ƒ_„K iÿv K„i| mvaviYZ gvby„li Nv„o, eM„j I KzuPwK„Z jwmKv MÖwš’ ƒewk _v„K| GBWm& (AIDS- Acquired Immune Defidciency Syndrome) : GBWm& GK ai„bi fvBivmNwUZ „ivM, hv gvby„li ƒivM cÖwZ„iva ÿgZv bó K„i gZz¨ NUvq|  evbvb mZK©Zv e¨vwa, Kzô, fwel¨r, ƒivMMÖ¯Í, A¯^w¯Í, Acivnè|  bgybv cÖkœvewj

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Q›` cwiwPwZ Q›` : evK&ixwZi wkwíZ i€c„KB ejv nq Q›`| ms¯ˆ‚Z fvlvq Q›` k„ãi `ywU A_© i„q„Q| Gi GKwU n„”Q ÔB”QvÕ Ges AciwU ÔKv„e¨i gvÎvÕ| ZvB KweZvi ƒÿ„Î Q„›`i wØZxq A_©wUB ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| cÖL¨vZ Qv›`wmK cÖ‡ev`P›`ª †m‡bi g„Z, ÔwkwíZ evK&ixwZi bvgB Q›`|Õ Ag~j¨ab gy‡Lvcva¨v‡qi g„Z, ԃhfv„e c`web¨vm Kwi„j evK¨ kÖæwZgayi nq Ges g„b i„mi mÂvi nq, Zvnv„K Q›` e„j|Õ Zvivc` fÆvPv‡h©i g„Z, Ôfvlvi AšÍM©Z cÖengvb aŸwb-ƒm‡›`h©B Q›`|Õ Qv›`wmK Avãyj Kvw`‡ii g„Z, Ôk„ãi mywgZ I mywbqwš¿Z evYx-web¨vm„K ejv nq Q›`|Õ W. mybxwZKzgvi P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi g„Z, ÔevK¨w¯’Z c`¸wj„K ƒhfv„e mvRvB„j evK¨wU kÖæwZgayi nq I Zvi g„a¨ GKUv KvjMZ I aŸwbMZ mylgv Dcjä nq, c` mvRvBevi ƒmB c×wZ„K Q›` e„j|Õ  Q‡›`i

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gv„Mv Avgvi ƒkvjK ejv KvRjv w`w` KB †Q` : k¦vm MÖn„Yi myweav„_© A_©„ev„ai w`„K jÿ ƒi„L evK¨vs„ki ƒk„l ƒh wekªvg MÖnY Kiv nq, Zv„K ƒQ` e„j| ƒQ„`i Aci bvg n„”Q A_©hwZ ev fvehwZ| hwZi g„Zv ƒQ`I 2 cÖKvi| h_v : 1. Dc‡”Q` : ev„K¨i g„a¨ wewfbœ evK¨vs„ki w`„K jÿ ƒi„L ƒh ƒQ` e¨eüZ nq, Zv„K Dc„”Q` e„j| ƒhgb : MM„Y Mi„R ƒgN * Nb eilv K~ „j GKv e„m AvwQ * bvwn fimv| 2. c~Y©‡”Q` : A_©„ev„ai w`„K jÿ ƒi„L ev„K¨i ƒk„l ƒh ƒQ` e¨eüZ nq, Zv„K c~Y©„”Q` e„j| ƒhgb : MM„Y Mi„R ƒgN Nb eilv ** K~„j GKv e„m AvwQ bvwn fimv **| ¯^ivNvZ : KweZv AvewËi mgq ƒKv„bv ƒKv„bv k„ãi cÖ_g Aÿ„i ƒh we„kl ai„Yi ƒSuvK c„o Zv„K ¯^ivNvZ e„j| G„K k¦vmvNvZ ev cÖ¯i^ I ejv nq| ƒhgb : hLb ƒZvgvi †KD wQj bv ZLb wQjvg Avwg GLb ƒZvgvi me n„q„Q ci n„qwQ Avwg| ce© : KweZvi Pi„Y hwZ Øviv wef³ cÖwZwU Ask„K ce© e„j| ƒhgb : GB Lv„b ƒZvi| `vw`i Kei| Wvwjg Mv„Qi| Z„j wZwik eQi| wfRv„q ƒi„LwQ| `yB bq„bi| R„j| Ac~Y© ce© : mggvÎvi ce© wewkó ƒKv„bv Pi„Yi ƒkl ce© hw` A„cÿvK‚Z ƒQvU nq, Z„e Zv„K Ac~Y© ce© e„j| ƒhgb : GB Lv„b ƒZvi| `vw`i Kei| Wvwjg Mv„Qi| Z„j wZwik eQi| wfRv„q ƒi„LwQ| `yB bq„bi| R„j| AwZc~Y© ce© : mggvÎvi ce© wewkó ƒKv„bv Pi„Yi ƒkl ce© hw` A„cÿvK‚Z eo nq, Z„e Zv„K AwZc~Y© ce© e„j| ƒhgb : …Kjvk f~ai| AwZ g„bvni| ƒKvwU kkx ciKvk AwZ ce© : Ab¨ ce©¸„jvi mv„_ mgZv iÿv bv K„i cO&w³i ïiæ„Z ƒh ƒQvU ce© _v„K Zv„KB AwZ ce© ejv nq| ƒhgb : (hLb) ƒZvgvi wei„n| KvwU„qwQ ƒejv| GKjv e„m e„m ga¨LÐb : ce© web¨v„mi cքqvR„b hLb ƒKv„bv kã„K ƒf„O `yB L„Ð D”PviY Kiv nq, ZLb Zv„K ga¨LÐb e„j| ƒhgb : KvÐvwi Ze| m¤§y„L H| cjvkxi cÖvb&| Zi cO&w³ : GK mvwi„Z Aew¯’Z c`mgwó„KB cO&w³ ev PiY e„j| cO&w³„K QÎ ev jvBbI ejv nq| ƒhgb : MM„Y Mi„R ƒgN Nb eilv ¯ÍeK : GK„Î mwbœ„ewkZ `yB ev Z„ZvwaK c`„K GK K_vq ¯ÍeK e„j| ¯ÍeK n„”Q GK ai„Yi PiY¸”Q| G„Z GKwU wg„ji …ewkó¨ _v„K| GKwU KweZvq GK ev GKvwaK ¯ÍeK _vK„Z cv„i| ƒhgb : MM„b Mi„R ƒgN, Nb eilv K~„j GKv e„m AvwQ, bvwn fimv| ivwk ivwk fviv fviv avb KvUv nj mviv, fiv b`x ÿziaviv LicikvÑ KvwU„Z KvwU„Z avb Gj eilv \ jq : KweZv AvewËi ƒh MwZ _v„K Zv„KB ejv nq jq| Q›` ƒf„` GB j„qi ZviZg¨ n„q _v„K| evsjv Q„›` 3 cÖKvi jq i„q„Q| h_v1. `ªæZ jq 2. axi jq 3. wejw¤^Z jq GB 3 cÖKvi jq wZb ai„Yi Q„›` e¨eüZ nq| ƒhgb Ñ 1. ¯^ie„Ë Q›` : `ªæZ jq gv„Ni gvwm weovj Qvbv hv„”Q ƒZcvšÍi Ggwb mgq nVvr G„jv g¯Í eo So| 2. gvÎve„Ë Q›` : wejw¤^Z jq GBLv„b ƒZvi eywRi Kei, cixi gZb ƒg„q, we„q w`„qwQby KvwR„`i evwo ewbqvw` Ni ƒc„q| 3. Aÿie„Ë Q›` : axi jq ivZ ƒcvnvevi KZ ƒ`wi cv„Äwi? ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

GL„bv ƒZvgvi Avmgvb fiv ƒg„N? ƒmZviv, ƒnjvj GL„bv I„Vwb ƒR„M?  Q‡›`i cÖKvi‡f` : Q›` g~jZ 3 cÖKvi| h_v Ñ 3. ¯^ie„Ë (`jeË, ¯^igvwÎK, ¯^ivNvZ cÖavb, k¦vmvNvZ cÖavb, cÖvK‚Z ev ƒj‡wKK Q›`, Qovi Q›`) 4. gvÎve„Ë (KjveË, aŸwb cÖavb, aŸwbgvwÎK, we¯Ívi cÖavb) I 5. Aÿie„Ë (wgkªKjveË, wgkªcÖvK‚wZK, AÿigvwÎK, Zvb cÖavb, m„¼vPcÖavb, ƒh‡wMK Q›`)| 1. ¯^ie„Ë : ƒh Q„›` hyM¥ ev AhyM¥aŸwb„K me mgq GK gvÎv wn„m„e MY¨ Kiv nq Zv„K ¯^ieË Q›` e„j| G Q„›` cքZ¨K c„e©i cÖ_g k„ãi ïiæ„ZB k¦vmvNvZ c„o| G Q„›`i cÖwZwU c„e© mvaviYZ 4wU K„i gvÎv _v„K| G Q„›` Pvi ce© wewkó Pi„Yi ƒkl ce© mvaviYZ Ac~Y© nq| ƒhgb : euvk evMv„bi gv_vi Dci Puv` I„V„Q IB gv„Mv Avgvi ƒkvjK ejv KvRjv w`w` KB| 2. gvÎve„Ë : ƒh Q„›` hyM¥aŸwb„K me mgq `yB gvÎv Ges AhyM¥aŸwb„K GK gvÎv wn„m„e MY¨ Kiv nq Zv„K gvÎveË Q›` e„j| AwaKvsk ƒÿ„ÎB Pi„Yi ƒkl ce© Qvov G Q„›`i cÖwZwU c„e© 6wU K„i gvÎv _v„K| Z„e KweZv ƒf„` g~j c„e©i G gvÎv msL¨v 4, 5, 7 ev 8wUI n„Z cv„i| G Q„›`i PiY¸„jv„ZI ƒkl ce© mvaviYZ Ac~Y© _v„K| G„Z AšÍ¨ ce© Qvov Ab¨ ce©¸„jvi gvÎv msL¨v cÖvq ƒÿ„ÎB mgvb nq| ƒhgb : GB Lv„b ƒZvi `vw`i Kei Wvwjg Mv„Qi Z„j wZwik eQi wfRv„q ƒi„LwQ `yB bq„bi R„j| 3. Aÿie„Ë : ƒh Q„›` k„ãi ƒkl hyM¥aŸwb„K `yB gvÎv a„i AhyM¥aŸwb Ges k„ãi Avw` I ga¨eZx© hyM¥aŸwb„K GK gvÎv wn„m„e MY¨ Kiv nq Zv„K gvÎveË Q›` e„j| G Q„›` GKwU gvÎ hyM¥aŸwb w`„q ƒKv„bv kã MwVZ n„j Zv„K `yB gvÎv wn„m„eB MY¨ Kiv nq| G Q„›`i PiY¸„jv mvaviYZ 2 c„e©i nq| AwaKvsk ƒÿ„ÎB Gme ce©¸„jv 6, 8 I 10 gvÎvi n„q _v„K| Z„e 2 c„e© wef³ Gi cÖwZwU Pi„Yi gvÎv msL¨v mvaviYZ 14 wU (8+6)| …ewPÎc~Y© bvbv ai„Yi Q›` ƒhgb : cqvi, GKvewj, wÎc`x, ƒP‡c`x, GKc`x, AwgÎvÿi, …Mwik, gy³K, AwZgy³K I M`¨Q›` AÿieË Q„›`iB Askwe„kl|  Q›` we‡køl‡Y e¨eüZ wPýmg~n : 1. gvÎv :  hyM¥ aŸwb : 2. hwZ :  Aa©hwZ : 3. †Q` :  Dc„”Q` : *

 AhyM¥ aŸwb :  c~Y©hwZ :  c~Y©„”Q` : **

4. ¯^ivNvZ : 5. Ac~Y© c‡e©i Dn¨ gvÎv : 0 6. AwZ ce© :( )  Q›` we‡kølY

¯^ie„Ë

:

wQc Lvb| wZb `uvo| wZb Rb| gvjøv ƒP‡ci| w`bfi| ƒ`q `~i| cvjøv|

gvÎve„Ë :

Zvici GB| k~b¨ Rxe„b| hZ KvwUqvwQ| cvwo ƒhLv„b hvnv„i| Rov„q a„iwQ| ƒmB P„j ƒM„Q| Qvwo|

Aÿie„Ë :

ƒn e½, fvÐv„i Ze wewea iZb;Zv m„e,(A„eva Avwg!) Ae„njv Kwi, ci-ab-ƒjv„f gË, Kwiby ågY ci ƒ`„k, wfÿvewË Kzÿ„Y AvPwi|

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

 MÖš’bv : eyjeyj Avn„g`

e½fvlv gvB‡Kj gaym~`b `Ë  Kwe cwiwPwZ D”Pvwfjvlx Kwe gvB„Kj gaym~`b `Ë Bs„iwR mvwn„Z¨i cÖwZ Abyi³ wQ„jb| Avi ƒmB Abyiv„Mi Kvi„YB ƒ`k „Q„o wZwb we„`„k cvwo Rwg„qwQ„jb| wZwb Bs„iwR„Z mvwnZ¨PP©v K„i weL¨vZ n„Z ƒP„qwQ„jb, wKš‘ cv„ibwb| ƒkl ch©šÍ Bs„iwRi cÖwZ AÜ ƒgvn Z¨vM K„i wZwb evsjv fvlvq mvwnZ¨ PP©v Ki„Z ïiæ K„ib| cieZx©Kv„j wZwb G fvlv„ZB Zuvi KvjRqx mvwnZ¨Kg©¸„jv mwó K„ib| gvÎ Dwbk eQi eq„m gaym~`b wLª÷ag© MÖnY Kivi ci Zuvi bv„gi ïiæ„Z ÔgvB„KjÕ ƒhvM Kiv nq| gaym~`„bi wcZvi bvg ivR bvivqY `Ë Ges gvZvi bvg Rvýex ƒ`ex| Rb¥ : 1824 wLª÷v„ã h„kv„ii mvMi`vwo MÖv„g| g„Zz¨ : 1873 wLª÷v„ã KjKvZvq|  iPbvewj gnvKve¨ : ƒgNbv` ea Kve¨| evsjv Kve¨ : wZ„jvËgvm¤¢e Kve¨, eªRv½bv Kve¨, exiv½bv Kve¨, PZz`©kc`x KweZvejx| Bs‡iwR Kve¨ : The Captive Lady, Vision of the Past. bvUK : K‚òKzgvix, cÙveZx, kwg©ôv, gvqvKvbb| cÖnmb : G„KB wK e„j mf¨Zv, ey„ov kvwj„Ki Nv„o ƒiuv|  Drm I cwiwPwZ gnvKwe gvB„Kj gaym~`b `„Ëi ÔPZz`©kc`x KweZvejxÕ ƒ_„K Ôe½fvlvÕ KweZvwU msMÖn Kiv n„q„Q| KweZvwU cÖ_„g 1860 mv„j ÔKwe-gvZ‚fvlvÕ bv„g cÖKvwkZ nq| 1865 mv„j cybivq ms„kvwaZi€„c Ôe½fvlvÕ bv„g cÖKvwkZ nq| Ôe½fvlvÕ KweZvq Kwe evsjv fvlvi cÖwZ cÖKvk K„i„Qb Acwimxg kª×v-fv„jvevmv| e½fvlvi Rb¨ wZwb Zvi ƒ`ngb mu„c w`„Z ƒP„q„Qb| evsjv fvlv„K AeÁv K„i wZwb Bs„iwR fvlv„K MÖnY K„iwQ„jb| cwiYwZ„Z Zuvi ƒh Aby„kvPbv I AvZ¥mgv„jvPbv ZvB ¯’vb ƒc„q„Q Ôe½fvlvÕ bvgK m„b„U|  Z_¨cyÄ  Ôe½fvlvÕ evsjv mvwn„Z¨i cÖ_g m„bU KweZv|  KweZvwU AÿieË Q„›` iwPZ| cÖwZ Pi„Y ƒP‡Ï gvÎv Ges ƒP‡ÏwU Aÿi i„q„Q| cÖwZ Pi„Y `ywU ce© Av„Q| cÖ_g c„e© AvU gvÎv Ges wØZxq c„e© Qq gvÎv|  Kwei Kv„Q evsjv mvwnZ¨ Kgj-Kvbb i€„c cÖZxqgvb|  gvB„Kj gaym~`b `Ë kZvwaK m„bU iPbv K„ib|  ԃgNbv` ea Kve¨Õ evsjv mvwn„Z¨i cÖ_g gnvKve¨ Ges Kwei ƒkªô KxwZ©|  evsjv mvwn„Z¨ AwgÎvÿi Q„›`i cÖeZ©K gvB„Kj gaym~`b `Ë|  Ôe½fvlvÕ KweZvwU d«v„Ýi fvm©vB bMix„Z _vKvKvjxb iPbv K„ib|  wek¦ mvwn„Z¨ m„b„Ui cÖeZ©K - BZvwji Kwe ƒcÎvK©|  evsjv mvwn„Z¨ m„b„Ui cÖeZ©K - gvB„Kj gaym~`b `Ë|  kãv_© I UxKv †n e½ : Ôe½Õ ej„Z Kwe GLv„b evsjv fvlv„K eywS„q„Qb Ges Zv„KB m„¤^vab K„i„Qb| wewea iZb : evsjv fvlvq iwPZ mvwnZ¨-fvÐvi …ewPΨgq I DrKl©gwÐZ mvwnZ¨ m¤ú„` cwic~Y©| wfÿve„wË : we„`wk mvwnZ¨„K ciab we„ePbv K„i Zvi PP©v„K wZwb wfÿvewËi mgZzj¨ g„b K„i„Qb| GLv„b wb„Ri m¤ú`„K D„cÿv K„i Ab¨ fvlvi Øvi¯’ nIqvi Rb¨ Aby„kvPbv I AvZ¥mgv„jvPbv cÖKvwkZ n„q„Q| •kevj : k¨vIjv| (Bs„iwR fvlv„K GLv„b k¨vIjvi mv„_ Zzjbv Kiv n„q„Q)| Kgj-Kvbb : cÙeb (GLv„b evsjv fvlv„K Kgj Kvbb ev cÙ evMv„bi mv„_ Zzjbv Kiv n„q„Q)|  evbvb mZK©Zv mucv, c~Y©, gwY, wfLvix, ågY| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

 bgybv cÖkœvewj

 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------eûwbe©vPbx cÖkœ 1.

e½fvlvÕ KweZvwU ƒKvb Q„›` iwPZ? K. ¯^ieË L. gvÎveË M. gy³K N. AÿieË 2. ÔgwRby wedj Z„cÕÑPiYvs„k ƒevSv„bv n„q„Q KweiÑ K. evsjv mvwn„Z¨i cÖwZ Ae„njv L. Bs„iwR mvwn„Z¨i cÖwZ AvKl©Y M. evsjv fvlvi ƒm‡›`„h© Abvmw³ N. Bs„iwR fvlvq mvwnZ¨ PP©vq e¨_©Zv wb‡Pi KweZvsk `y‡Uv jÿ Ki Ges 3 I 4 b¤^i cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| cvBjvg Kv„j gvZ‚fvlv-i€cLwb; c~Y© gwYRv„j| ********************* gv„qi gy„Li fvlv ƒhb gwb gy³v„ng, iPbv Kwiqv hZ AjsKvi f„i Zzwj gv„qi fuvovi! 3. KweZvsk `ywUi g„a¨ mv`k¨ Av„Q Gii. fv„e ii. Q„›` iii. AjsKv„i wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii 4. KweZvsk `ywUi GB mv`k¨ wb„Pi ƒKvb PiYwU„Z me„P„q ƒewk cÖwZdwjZ n„q„Q? K. ƒKwjby †kev„j, fywj Kgj-Kvbb! L. ci„`„k, wfÿvewË Kzÿ„Y AvPwi M. ƒn e½, fvÛv„i Ze wewea iZb; N. ciab ƒjv„f gË, Kwiby ågY

 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1| cjøxi Nv„U, gv„V, cjøxi Av„jv evZv„m, cjøxi ci„Z ci„Z mvwn„Z¨ Qwo„q Av„Q| cjøx mvwnZ¨ m¤ú„`i g„a¨ cjøx Mvb¸„jv Ag~j¨ iZœwe„kl, kû„i Mv„bi cÖfv„e ƒm¸„jv AvR ee©i Pvlvi Mvb e„j f`ª mgv„R Avi weKvq bv| evsjvi DcK_v¸„jv GK RvqMvq Ro Ki„j wek¦„Kv„li g„Zv evjv„g Zvi msKzjvb nZbv| cÖev` ev„K¨ Ges WvK I Lbvi eP„b KZ hy„Mi f~„qv`k©„bi cwicK¡ dj mwÂZ n„q Av„Q, ƒK Zv A¯^xKvi Ki„Z cv„i? K. ÔKvUvBby eûw`b myL cwinwiÕ PiYwU„Z ÔcwinwiÕ kãwUi PwjZ i€cwU Kx? L. we„`wk fvlvq mvwnZ¨ PP©v„K Ôe½fvlvÕ KweZvq Kwe ÔwfÿvewËÕ e„j„Qb ƒKb? M. Ôe½fvlvÕ KweZvi Aó„Ki ƒKvb welqwU Aby„”Q„`i cÖ_g Aby„”Q„` cÖKvwkZ n„q„Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. ÔKweZvwU ƒhb ÔgvZ‚„Kv„l iZ„bi ivwRÕ Gi PiYwUi mv_©K cwic~iKÕ-GB e³e¨wUi h_v_©Zv wbi€cY Ki| 2| ƒhB ƒ`„k ƒhB evK¨ K„n biMY| ƒmB evK¨ ey„S cÖfy Av„c wbiÄb|| ************************ ƒ`kx fvlv we`¨v hvi g„b b Ryqvq| wbR ƒ`k Z¨vMx ƒKb we„`k b hvq|| gvZvwcZvmn µ„g e„½Z emwZ| ƒ`kx fvlv Dc„`k g„b wnZ AwZ|| K. Ôe½fvlvÕ KweZvwUi Aó„Ki gyjfve Kx? L. we„`kx fvlvq mvwnZ¨ PP©vq Kwe wedj n„jb ƒKb? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. KweZvskwUi ƒkl PiY`ywU„Z Ôe½fvlvÕ KweZvi NU&ƒKi ƒKvb cO&w³i fvev„_©i cÖwZdjb N„U„QÑe¨vL¨v Ki| N. MVb†kjxi wfw˄Z Ôe½fvlvÕ KweZvi lU&ƒKi m„½ KweZvskwUi GKwU Zzjbvg~jK Av„jvPbv Ki| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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†mvbvi Zix iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi  Kwe cwiwPwZ iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Gwkqvq mvwn„Z¨ cÖ_g ƒbv„ej weRqx| 1913 mv„j wek¦e¨vcx DMÖ RvZ¨vwfgvb, mvgªvR¨ev`x AvMÖvmb Ges cÖ_g wek¦hy„×i cUf~wg„Z kvwšÍ, †gÎx Ges gvbweK D”Pvi„Yi Kvi„Y wZwb ÔMxZvÄwjÕ Kve¨Mքš’i Rb¨ mvwn„Z¨ ƒbv„ej jvf K„ib| wZwb GKvav„i wQ„jbÑ Kwe, Jcb¨vwmK, bvU¨Kvi, MxwZKvi, myiKvi, wPÎwkíx, m¤úv`K, `vk©wbK Ges wkÿvwe`| Rb¥ : 1861 mv„ji 7 ƒg (25 …ekvL, 1268 e½vã) KjKvZvi ƒRvovmv„Kuvi weL¨vZ VvKzi cwiev„i| g„Zy¨ : 1941 mv„ji 7 AvM÷ (22 kªveY, 1348 e½vã) KjKvZvq|  iPbvewj ƒmvbvi Zix, wPÎv, Kíbv, gvbmx, ƒb‡KvWywe, ƒMviv, ƒk„li KweZv, N„i evB„i, ejvKv, i³Kiex, ivRv, wPÎv½`v, wemR©b BZ¨vw`|  Drm I cwiwPwZ ԃmvbvi ZixÕ KweZvwU iex›`ªbv_ VvKz„ii ԃmvbvi ZixÕ Kve¨Mքš’i bvgKweZv| G KweZwU wb„q eû Av„jvPbv, mgv„jvPbv e¨vL¨v I weZK© i„q„Q| GKwU ƒQvU ƒÿZ, Pvwiw`„K cÖej ƒmªv„Zi we¯Ívi, ƒmvbvi avb wb„q GKjv K‚lK, Aejxjvq Zix ƒe„q Avmv ƒb„qÑ G K„qKwU wPÎKí I ƒm¸„jvi Abyl„½ iwPZ GK Abycg KweZv ԃmvbvi ZixÕ| ÿziavi el©vi b`x„mªvZ wnsmª n„q ƒLjv Ki„Q Øxcm`k avb„ÿ„Zi Pvicv„k| ƒmLv„b ivwk ivwk ƒmvbvi avb ƒK„U bvbv Avk¼v wb„q GKjv A„cÿgvY GK K‚lK| Ggb mgq AcÖZ¨vwkZfv„e fivcv„j Zix ƒe„q Av„m GK ƒb„q| wbtm½ K‚lK Avkvi Avb„›` D„ØwjZ n„q DV„jI wbwe©Kvifv„e ARvbv ƒ`„ki w`„K avegvb nq gvwS| ƒmvbvi Zix K‚l„Ki dmj wb„q ƒM„jI Zvi KvZi Abyb„q wm³ n„q Zix„Z Zv„K ¯’vb ƒ`q bv| k~b¨ b`xi Zx„i Ac~Y©Zvi ƒe`bv wb„q GKjv KlK `uvwo„q _v„K| G KweZvq AšÍj©xb i„q„Q Rxeb`k©b| gnvKv„ji wPišÍb ƒmªv„Z GKv gvbyl Awbevh© cwiYwZ Gov„Z cv„i bv, ƒKej wU„K _v„K Zvi mó ƒmvbvi dmj| m½ZÑKvi„Y Kwei mwóKg© Kv„ji ƒmvbvi Zix„Z ¯’vb ƒc„jI e¨w³ Kwei ¯’vb ƒmLv„b nq bv| GK AZ‚wßi ƒe`bv wb„q Zv„K A„cÿv Ki„Z nq gnvKv„ji k~b¨Zvq wejxb nIqvi R„b¨| Q›` : gvÎveË Q„›` (c~Y© ce© 8 gvÎv, Ac~Y© ce© 5) iwPZ|  kãv_© I UxKv fimv : Avkv, Av¯’v| fviv fviv : ƒevSv ƒevSv| ÿziavi : ÿz„ii g„Zv aviv„jv ƒh ƒmªvZ| Avwg : mvaviY A„_© K‚lK I cÖZxKx A„_© Kwe| Licikv : aviv„jv ek©vi gZ| ZiæQvqvgmx-gvLv: MvQcvjvi Qvqvi Kvj„P is gvLv| _„i we_„i : ¯Í„i ¯Í„i mywbe¨¯Í K„i| euvKv Rj : Kvjƒmªv„Zi ƒLjv|  evbvb mZK©Zv kªveY, VuvB, ZiYx, k~b¨, ÿwYK|  bgybv cÖkœvewj

 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------eûwbe©vPbx cÖkœ 1. 2. 3.

ƒKvb k㠃_„K ÔeilvÕ kãwUi eyrcwË? K. ek©v L. el©v M. el©Y N. eikv ԃmvbvi ZixÕ KweZvwU ƒKvb Q„›` iwPZ? K. ¯^ieË L. Aÿi eË M. gvÎveË N. wgkª ÒPvwiw`„K euvKv Rj Kwi„Q ƒLjvÓ cO&w³wU„Z cÖKvk ƒc„q„Qi. Kv„ji M„f© mewKQy nvwi„q hvIqvi k¼v ii. el©vi cjøxcÖK‚wZ iii. Kwei AmnvqZ¡

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wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii ÔARmª gZz¨„i jw½, ƒn bexb, P„jv Abvqv„m gZz¨Rqx Rxeb-Djøv„mÕ Aby‡”Q‡`i Av‡jv‡K wb‡Pi 4 I 5 b¤^i cÖ‡kœi DËi `vIÑ 4. Aby„”Q„`i mv„_ Ԅmvbvi ZixÕ KweZvi mv`k¨ ƒKv_vq? K. Aj¼v„i L. e³„e¨ M. cÖÿvc„U N. AvnŸv„b 5. Aby„”Q„`i mv„_ Zzj¨ PiYK. ƒh„qv ƒh_v ƒh„Z PvI hv„i Lywk Zv„i `vI L. I„Mv, Zzwg ƒKv_v hvI ƒKvb we„`„k ev„iK wfovI Zix Kz„j„Z Gm M. mKwj w`jvg Zz„j _„i we_„i GLb Avgv„K j„nv KiæYv K„i N. k~b¨ b`xi Zx„i iwnby cwo hvnv wQj wb„q ƒMj ƒmvbvi Zix

 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1|

ƒevKv ey„ovi Mí ï„bv ******************** ƒQ„ji nvZ a„i GwM„q P„j `~„ii cvnvoUv„K GKvB Kv„¯Í nv„Z K„i w`„Z mvd D˄i nvIqv Av„b wng So ƒQvÆ ƒQ„ji g„b c„o hvq Ni ****************** GKw`b MÖvgevmx ƒ`Lj G„m weivU cvnvo ƒM„Q ay„jvq wg„k ƒmLv„b w`„q„Q ƒ`Lv GK m„ivei KZ cvwL Mvb Mvq Zx„i e„m ƒevKv ey„ov, g„i c„o Av„Q ƒmLv„b cvwLiv MvB„Q Zvi ƒkLv„bv ƒmB Mvb We shall over come. K. ԃmvbvi ZixÕ KweZvwU ƒKvb Q„›` iwPZ? L. ԃmvbvi ZixÕ KweZvq eû RvqMvq wØiæ³ kã e¨env„ii KviY e¨vL¨v Ki| M. Aby„”Q„`i wng S„oi m„½ Ԅmvbvi ZixÕ KweZvi mv`k¨c~Y© Pi„Yi e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Aby„”Q`wU„Z Ԅmvbvi ZixÕ KweZvi g~jfve dz„U D„V„QÑgšÍe¨wUi h_v_©Zv wePvi Ki| Qwe : ƒgvbvwjmv ................................ wPÎKg© : ƒgvbvwjmv (1503-1506) wkíx : wjIbv„`©v `¨v wfw (1452-1510) QwewU mviv we„k¦ AvRI mgvb RbwcÖq| K. ÔLicikvÕ k„ãi A_© Kx? L. ÒPvwiw`„K euvKv RjÓÑGi gva¨„g Bw½Zc~Y© cwiw¯’wZ- e¨vL¨v Ki| M. ҃h„qv ƒh_v ƒh„_ PvI hv„i Lywk Zv„i `vIÑÓ Gi Av„jv„K Aby„”Q`wU e¨vL¨v Ki| N. ԃgvbvwjmvÕ wPÎKg©wU„Z Ԅmvbvi ZixÕ KweZvi av„bi m„½ Zzjbv Kiv KZUv hyw³hy³ Ñe¨vL¨v Ki|

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Rxeb-e›`bv KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg  Kwe cwiwPwZ

we„`ªvnx Kwe wn„m„e L¨vZ Avgv„`i RvZxq Kwe KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg-Gi wcZvi bvg

KvRx dwKi Avn¤§`, gvZvi bvg Rv„n`v LvZzb, ¯¿xÑ cÖgxjv ƒ`ex| ƒQvUƒejvq ƒj„Uv Mv„bi `„j ƒhvM`v„bi gva¨„g wZwb Zuvi ¯^xq cÖwZfvi ¯^vÿi ivL„Z ïiæ K„ib| 1917 mv„j cÖ_g gnvhy× ïiæ n„j wZwb evOvwj cë„b †mb¨ wn„m„e ƒhvM w`„q KivwP hvb| „mLv„bB Zuvi mvwnZ¨Rxe„bi m~Pbv N„U| we„`ªvn wQj Zuvi KweZvi g~j myi| Ôwe„`ªvnxÕ KweZvi gva¨„g wZwb evsjv mvwn„Z¨ bZzb ƒPZbvi D„Øvab K„ib| mvgvwRK AbvPvi, …elg¨, AwePvi I civaxbZvi weiæ„× wZwb wQ„jb GK cÖwZev`x Kɯ^i| G R„b¨ Zuv„K we„`ªvnx Kwe ejv nq| gvÎ ƒZZvwjøk eQi eq„m Kwe `yiv„ivM¨ ƒiv„M AvµvšÍ n„q evKkw³ nvwi„q ƒd„jb| ZLb ƒ_„KB g~jZ Zuvi mRbkxjZvi Aemvb N„U|

Rb¥ : 1899 wLª÷v„ãi 25 ƒg fvi„Zi cwðge„½i ea©gvb ƒRjvi Avmvb„mvj gnKzgvi Pziæwjqv MÖv„g| g„Zz¨ : 1976 mv„ji 29 AvM÷ XvKvq| XvKv wek¦we`¨vj„qi gmwR` cÖv½„b Zuv„K cwic~Y© mvgwiK gh©v`vq mgvwnZ Kiv nq|  iPbvewj Kve¨MÖš’ : mܨv, AwMœ-exYv, we„li euvwk, wmÜy wn„›`vj, QvqvbU, cÖjq-wkLv, PµevK BZ¨vw`| Mí I Dcb¨vm : e¨_vi `vb, wi„³i ƒe`b, wkDwjgvjv, gZz¨-ÿzav BZ¨vw`| cÖeÜMÖš’ : hyM-evYx, `yw`©„bi hvÎx, iæ`ª-g½j, ivRe›`xi Revbe›`x BZ¨vw`| Abyev` : ƒ`Iqvb-B-nvwdR, iæevBqvr-B-Igi …Lqvg BZ¨vw`| bvUK : Av„jqv, cyZz„ji we„q, wSwjwgwj BZ¨vw`|  Drm I cwiwPwZ ÔRxeb-e›`bvÕ KweZvwU Kwei ÔmܨvÕ bvgK Kve¨MÖš’ n„Z msKwjZ| KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg wQ„jb Rxebev`x Kwe| wZwb Zuvi „jLbx„Z Rxe„bi cÖvYgqZv, MwZkxjZv, msMÖvg I mRbkxjZvi K_v wewPÎfv„e Zz„j a„i„Qb| ewUk Jcwb„ewkK kvmbvg„j KvRx bRiæj Bmjv„gi mvwnZ¨ mvabvi D™¢e N„U| ƒm mgq fviZel© wQj civaxb| wZwb GB civaxbZvi k•Lj fvO„Z ƒP„qwQ„jb| wZwb Dcjwä Ki„Z ƒc„iwQ„jbÑ gvby„li msnwZ, kw³ Ges HK¨ Qvov civaxbZvi k•Lj fvOv m¤¢e bq| Rxeb kw³i aviK| Avi GB Rb¨B wZwb memgq Rxe„bi ¯‘wZ Z_v RqMvb ƒM„q„Qb| ÔRxeb-e›`bvÕ KweZv Zuvi ƒmB cÖqv„miB GK Abe`¨ wkwíZ cÖKvk| ÔRxeb-e›`bvÕ k„ãi A_© ÔRxe„bi e›`bv ev cÖksmvÕ| Kwei g„Z, cw_ex GKKv„j wQj gbyl¨ emev„mi Aby„cv„hvMxÑ eb¨ k¦vc` cÖvYx„Z ficyi| Avw`„Z cw_ex G„Zv gvqvgq wQj bv| hyM hyM a„i AmsL¨ kªgRxex gvby„li AK¬všÍ kªg, Mfxi wbôv, K„Vvi mvabv Øviv GB cw_ex gvby„li Dc„hvMx Avevmf~wg„Z cwiYZ n„q„Q| cw_ex„Z cÖwZwôZ n„q„Q mf¨Zvi AvwacZ¨| Gme m¤¢e n„q„Q K‚l„Ki Kvi„Y| K‚lK `p KwVb nvZ Øviv cw_exi KwVb gvwU„Z dzj, dj I dmj dwj„q„Qb| kªgwbô ƒgnbwZ gvby„li i³ I Nv„gi wewbg„q cw_ex n„q„Q Abycg my›`i I g„bv„jvfv| Avw`g, ee©i gvby„li ƒPóvq gZz¨ mgvKxY© cw_ex„Z gvby„li AvwacZ¨ cÖwZwôZ n„q„Q| Amxg mvnm Ges wecyj cÖvY kw³ w`„q gvbylB `yj©•N¨ ce©Z Rq K„i„Q| ÔRxeb-e›`bvÕ KweZvq Kwe Gfv„e gvbemf¨Zvi µgweKv„ki HwZnvwmK ƒcÖÿvc„U gvby„li Ae`vb; we„klZ kªgRxex gvby„li gwngv„K Zz„j a„i„Qb|  kãv_© I UxKv digvb : evYx ev msev`| AKz„Zvf„q : wbf©„q, wbf©xK wP„Ë| weei : MZ©, MnŸi| hvhvei : åvg¨gvb RvwZ| K~cgÐyK : AíÁvb| AgiveZx : ¯^M© fxg iYf~„g : fqsKi hyׄÿ„Î| wMwi-wbtmªve : ce©Z-wbtmZ SY©v ev b`x| kªg-wKYv¼-KwVb : cwikª„g Kov-cov I `p| eb¨Ñk¦vc`- m¼zj : wnsmª gvsmvkx RxeRš‘„Z cwic~Y©| aiYx-ƒgixi hxky : cw_ex-gvZvi Av„Z¥vrmM©Kvix cyÎ| wKYv¼ : Nl©„Yi d„j nvZ ev cv„qi k³ nIqv Pvgov ev gvsm,Kov| ee©i : mf¨Zv weKv„ki Av„MKvi Avw`g Amf¨ RvwZ, Avw` gvbe| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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 ...........................................................................................................eûwbe©vPbx cÖkœ 1. 2.

wb„Pi ƒKvbwU ï× evbvb? K. wKbvsK L. wKYvsK M. wKbv¼ N. wKYv¼ ÔRxeb-e›`bvÕ KweZvq ÔίÍv aiYxÕ ej„Z cw_exi ƒKvb i€c„K ƒevSv„bv n„q„Q? K. fxZv L. fqsKiv M. AKwl©Zv N. AbyMZv

KweZvskwU co Ges 3 I 4 b¤^i cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| KwVb kxZj giYmvMi gš’b K„i hviv AgZ Avwbqv Dcnvi w`j wb„R„i Kwiqv mviv| 3. KweZvskwU ÔAgZÕ k„ãi m„½ ÔRxeb-e›`bvÕ KweZvi ƒKvb kãwUi fvev„_©i wgj i„q„Q? K. Rxe„bi cmiv L. DMÖmyL M. bRivbv N. Rxe„bi Djøvm 4.

wb„Pi ƒKvb PiY `ywU„Z KweZvskwUi fv„ei m½wZ i„q„Q? K. Rxe„bi AvwZk„h¨ hvnviv `viæY DMÖmy„L mva K„i wbj Mij-wcqvjv, ek©v nvwbj ey„K! L. hviv Rxe„bi cmiv ewnqv gZz¨i Øv„i Øv„i Kwi„Z„Q wdwi, fxg iYf~„g cÖvY evwR ƒi„L nuv„i| M. kªg-wKYv¼-KwVb hv„`i wb`©q gywV-Z„j ίÍv aiYx bR&ivbv ƒ`q Wvwj f„i dz„j d„j| N. ZeyI _v„g bv ƒh‡eb-„eM, Rxe„bi Djøv„m Pj„Q P›`ª-g½j-MÖn ¯^„M© AmxgvKv„k| 5. ÔRxeb-e›`bvÕ KweZvq ÔAmshgxÕ A¨vL¨vwU hv„`i„K ƒ`Iqv n„q„Q ZvivÑ i. evavnxb Rxe„b Af¨¯Í ii. Rxeb Djøv„m ficyi iii. `ye©jwP„Ëi AwaKvix wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii

 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1|

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N„ii ƒ`qv„ji d„UvMÖvdwU ƒ`wL„q Kwe AwZw_ eÜy„K ej„jbÔG Avgvi ƒQvU ƒQ„j, ƒh ƒbB GLb, cv_„ii UzK„ivi gZb Wy„e ƒM„Q Avgv„`i MÖv„gi cyKz„i eQi wZ„bK Av„M KvK WvKv MÖx„®§i `ycy„i|Õ K. ÔKeiÕ KweZvwU ƒKvb Q„›` iwPZ? L. ÔG K_v jBqv fvex-mve ƒgv„i Zvgvkv KwiZ kZÕ-fvwe-mve Zvgvkv Ki„Zb ƒKb? M. ԄmB ƒkvIqv Zvi ƒkl ƒkvIqv n„e,Õ-GLv„b ƒkl ƒkvIqv DÏxc„Ki `k¨cU Aej¤^„b e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Aby„”Q„` ewY©Z Kwei ƒQ„ji gZz¨¯§wZ ÔKeiÕ KweZvq e„×i ƒKvb ƒe`bv„ev„ai cÖwZwbwaZ¡ K„iÑwe„kølY Ki| ï„q„Q ƒfv„ii ƒiv` av„bi Dc„i gv_v ƒc„Z Ajm ƒMu„qvi g„Zv GBLv„b KvwZ©„Ki ƒÿ„Z; gv„Vi Nv„mi MÜ ey„K Zvi, ƒPv„L Zvi wkwk„ii NÖvY, Zvnvi Av¯^v` ƒc„q Aemv„` ƒc„K I„V avb| K. ÔMnbÕ k„ãi Kvwe¨K i€c Kx? L. Ԅgvi Rxe„bi ƒivR„KqvgZÕ ej„Z Kx ƒevSv„bv n„q„Q? M. Dc„ii KweZvs„ki mv„_ ÔKeiÕ KweZvi fveMZ cv_©K¨ wbiæcY Ki| N. Aby„”Q`wUi mv„_ ÔKeiÕ KweZvi fvlv†kjx wK mv`k¨c~Y©? `óvšÍ D„jøL K„i gZvgZ `vI| iwng gywÝ GKRb e„bw` ƒMi¯’ wQj| Zvi ƒmvbv eD MnK„g©i Aem„i Zv„K mvnvh¨ Ki„Zb| ƒQ„j ƒg„q„`i Avb›` ƒKvjvn„j Zvi evwoi Avw½bv wQj gyLwiZ| G ƒQ„j-„g„qiv MÖv„gi ¯ˆz„ji cvV PzwK„q D”P wkÿvi Rb¨ kn„i P„j hvq| wkÿvRxeb ƒk„l Zviv we„q-kv`x K„i kn„i emevm Ki„Z _v„K| Gi g„a¨ GK ƒQ„j Ges GK „g„q ƒ`k ƒQ„o cÖevm Rxeb ïiæ K„i| Ggwb K„i iwng gywÝi evwoi Avb›` ƒKvjvnj ƒ_„g hvq| Gic„iI wZwb ƒmvbv eD„K wb„q w`b KvUv„Z _v„Kb| GKw`b nVvr ey„Ki e¨_v I„V Zvi eD gviv hvq| gv„qi gZz¨ msev„` ƒQ„j-„g„qiv Qy„U Av„m| `yÕPviw`b ƒh„Z bv ƒh„Z ƒh hvi MšÍ„e¨ wd„i hvq| wZwb GKvKx wbR wf„U evwo„Z gZz¨i cÖni ¸Y„Z _v„Kb| Avi Rvqbvgv„h e„m ¯¿xi Rb¨ `yÕAv Ges mšÍvb„`i g½j Kvgbv K„ib| K. Rxe„bi ƒKvb Abyf~wZ w`„q Kei KweZv kyiæ n„q„Q? L. ÔgvwU„i Avwg ƒh eo fv„jvevwm-e„×i G Dw³wUi Zvrch© e¨vL¨v Ki| M. ÔKeiÕ KweZvi ƒKvb w`KwU iwng gywÝi Rxe„b cÖwZdwjZ n„q„Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Òiwng gywÝ Ges ÔKeiÕ KweZvi e„×i mgqKvi Rxeb„eva wfbœ m~„Î Muv_vÓ-we„kølY Ki|

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Aby„”Q`wU co Ges wb„Pi cÖk¸ œ „jvi DËi `vI| KZ ƒh Avuavi c`©v cviv„q ƒfvi nÕj Rvwbbv Zv| bvi½x e„b Kuvc„Q meyR cvZv| `yqv„i ƒZvgvi mvZ-mvM„ii ƒRvqvi G„b„Q ƒdbv| Zey RvM„j bv? Zey Zzwg RvM„j bv? mvZ mvM„ii gvwS ƒP„q ƒ`„Lv `yqv„i Wv„K RvnvR, APj Qwe ƒm, Zmwei ƒhb `uvwo„q i„q„Q AvR| K. Ôcv„ÄwiÕ k„ãi A_© Kx? L. ÔGL„bv ƒZvgvi Avmgvb fiv ƒg„N?Õ –GB cOw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| M. Aby„”Q„`i Av„jv„K Ôcv„ÄwiÕ KweZvi welqe¯‘ Dc¯’vcb Ki| N. Aby„”Q„`i m„½ Ôcv„ÄwiÕ kxl©K KweZvi …kjxMZ m¤úK© wePvi Ki| `yM©g wMwi KvšÍvi giæ `y¯Íi cvivevi jw•N„Z n„e ivwÎ wbkx„Z hvwÎiv ûwkqvi `ywj„Z„Q Zix, dzwj„Z„Q Rj fywj„Z„Q gvwS c_ wQuwoqv„Q cvj, ƒK awi„e nvj Av„Q Kvi wn¤§Z? ƒK AvQ ƒRvqvb nI Av¸qvb nvwK„Q fwel¨r G Zzdvb fvwi, w`„Z n„e cvwo, wb„Z n„e Zix cvi| K. Ôgwm©qvÕ k„ãi A_© Kx? L. ÔGL„bv ƒZvgvi Avmgvb fiv ƒg„N?Õ Dw³i Øviv Kx ƒevSvbv n„q„Q? M. Aby„”Q„`i mv„_ Ôcv„ÄwiÕ KweZvi wgj ƒKv_vq-e¨vL¨v Ki| N. ԃK AvQ ƒRvqvb nI Av¸qvbÕ cOw³i m„½ Ôcv„ÄwiÕ KweZvi fvee¯‘i Zzjbvg~jK-wePvi we„kølY Ki|

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…mq` Avjx Avnmvb GKvav„i GKRb Kwe, cÖvewÜK, wkÿvwe` I M„elK| Kg©Rxe„b wZwb XvKv, KivwP I PÆMÖvg wek¦we`¨vj„q Aa¨vcbv K„i„Qb| DcvPv„h©i `vwqZ¡ cvjb K„i„Qb Rvnv½xibMi I ivRkvnx wek¦we`¨vj„q| GQvov evsjv GKv„Wgxi cwiPvjK Ges evsjv„`k miKv„ii wkÿv I ms¯ˆ‚wZwelqK Dc„`óv wQ„jb| evsjv„`„ki wewkó AvaywbK Kwe„`i Ab¨Zg …mq` Avjx Avnmv„bi KweZvi fvee¯‘„Z HwZn¨ m„PZbZv, ƒm‡›`h©„eva I ƒ`kcªxwZ Ges ƒmB m„½ i€cixwZ„Z cixÿv-wbixÿvi cwiPq cvIqv hvq| wZwb evsjv GKv„Wgx cyi¯ˆvi, GKz„k c`K, bvwmi DwÏb ¯^Yc © `Kmn wewfbœ cyi¯ˆvi I c`K jvf K„ib| Rb¥ : 1922 wLª÷v„ã gv¸iv ƒRjvi Av„jvKw`qvq | g„Zz¨ : 2002 wLª÷v„ã, 25 RyjvB|  iPbvewj Kve¨ MÖš’ : A„bK AvKvk, GKK mܨvq emšÍ, mnmv mPwKZ, Avgvi cÖwZw`„bi kã, mgy„`ªB hv„ev| M‡elYv I cÖeÜ MÖš’ : Kwe gaym~`b, iex›`ª Kve¨wePv„ii f~wgKv, KweZvi K_v I Ab¨vb¨ we„ePbv, evsjv mvwn„Z¨i BwZnvm, mZZ ¯^vMZ, Ôwkí„eva I wkí †PZb¨| Abyev` MÖš’ : ûBUg¨v„bi KweZv| GQvovI wZwb GKvwaK ¯§wZ K_v I ågY Kvwnbx iPbv K„i„Qb|  Drm I cwiwPwZ …mq` Avjx Avnmv„bi wØZxq Kve¨MÖš’ ÔGKK mܨvq emšÍÕ Kve¨MÖš’ n„Z Avgvi c~e© evsjv KweZvwU msKwjZ n„q„Q| G KweZvwU„Z Kwei ƒm‡›`h©cÖxwZ, I ¯^„`k„PZbv bvbv Dcgv I i€cK Ges wPÎK„íi mywbcyY web¨v„m GK ALÐ fveg~wZ©„Z D¾¡j| KweZvwU Kwei GKvšÍ I AšÍi½ Abyf~wZi wø» dmj| ¯^„`„ki i€cjveY¨ I …ewP„Ψ Kwe Awff~Z| c~e©evsjvi cÖK‚wZ Zvui AšÍ„i ARmª Abyf„ei mwó K„i„Q| Avi Kwe ƒmB fv„ei cÖevn„K G„Ki ci GK ci„Z ci„Z mvwR„q„Qb Dcgv, i€cK I wPÎK„í| GKB m„½ ƒgjeÜb NwU„q„Qb Avengvb evsjvi cÖK‚wZ I gvby„li Abycg HwZ„n¨i bvbv Abyl„½i| cÖK‚wZi ARmª i€cgqZv, e¨w³MZ Abyfe, ƒkKomÜvbx ƒPZbv-me wgwj„q wkímdj G KweZvwU wbg©vY Kiv n„q„Q gvÎ GKwU ev„K¨i Avav„i| wbtm„›`„n GwU Kwei AvaywbK wkí„eva I wkí†PZ„b¨i GK Hk¦h©gq dmj| Q›`: ÔAvgvi c~e© evsjvÕ KweZvwU M`¨Q„›` iwPZ| M`¨Q„›` ƒKv„bv mywbw`©ó ce© ev gvÎvmvg¨ iwÿZ nq bv| wKš‘ Kwe GLv„b GKwU AbwZi€wcZ aŸwb mwó K„i„Qb|  kãv_© I UxKv

wbKzÄ : jZvMn| KbK-jZv : ¯^Yj © Zv| m„ive„ii AZ„ji gZ : kvšÍ kxZj Abyf~wZi MfxiZv ƒevSv„Z e¨eüZ n„q„Q| GwUI Dcgv| `ywU DcgvB cÖkvwšÍi fve RvMÖZ K„i| wegy» ƒe`bvi kvwšÍ : Kwei G Abyf„e welbœZvi g„a¨ GK ai„bi cÖkvwšÍi Avfvm i„q„Q| KZ `kv weiwnbxi GK `yB wZb `kwU : …eòe KweZvq ewY©Z ivavi wei„ni `kwU Ae¯’vi D„jøLm~„Î Kwe c~e© evsjvi gvby„li fvev„e„Mi …ewkó¨ I …ewPΨ„K G ƒ`„ki Aw¯Í„Z¡i m„½ GKxf~Z K„i ƒ`„L„Qb|  evbvb mZK©Zv

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 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------eûwbe©vPbx cÖkœ 1. ÔAvgvi c~e©evsjvÕ KweZvwU Kwei D¾¡j Dc¯’vcb Zuvi-

2.

K. ƒm‡›`h© I ¯^„`k ƒPZbvq L. cÖK‚wZ I gvbe„cքg M. gyw³hy× I GKz„ki ƒPZbvq N. ƒ`k„cÖg I gvbeZvi ÔAvgvi c~e©evsjvÕ KweZvwU ƒKvb Q„›` iwPZ? K. AÿieË L. gvÎveË M. M`¨ N. ¯^ieË

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3. M`¨Q„›`i ƒÿ„Î cքhvR¨i. wba©vwiZ ce©msL¨v iÿv Kiv hvq bv ii. mywbw`©ó Zvj wefvRb _v„K bv iii. ƒKvb Q›` ixwZ ƒg„b P„j bv wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii wb„Pi KweZvskwU co Ges 4 I 5 b¤^i cքkœi DËi `vI| G mwL, nvgvwi `yt„Li bvwn Ii G fiv fv`i, gvn fv`i k~b¨ gw›`i ƒgvi| 4. KweZvskwUi fv„ei wgj i„q„Q wb„Pi ƒKvbwU„Z? K. Ni Avi we„`k AvwObv AvKzjZvi GKvKvi L. KZ `kv weiwnYxi-GK `yB wZb `kwU M. GLv„b Î¯Í AvKzjZvi wPiKvj Awfmvi N. Ny„gi AjmZvi ƒPvL eyu„R Avmvi g„Zv kvwšÍ 5. KweZvskwU„Z ÔAvgvi c~e©evsjvÕ KweZvi Ab¨Zg ƒKvb fv„ei cÖKvk ƒc„q„Q?K. ü`„qi e¨vKzjZv L. we„”Q„`i AbyfywZ M. wgj„bi AvKzjZv N. kvwšÍi A„š^lv 6. ÔA„kl Abyfe wb„q i. evsjvi gyL Avwg ƒ`wLqvwQ, ZvB Avwg cw_exi i€c LyuwR„Z hvB bv Avi; ii. Avwg ƒh ƒ`wL„Z PvB; Avwg ƒh ewm„Z PvB evsjvi Nv„m; iii. Rxeb A_ev gZz¨ ƒPv„L i'„e-Avi GB evsjvi Nvm wb„Pi ƒKvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii

 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1.

2.

Avmyb Qwei g„Zv GB ƒ`„k ƒewo„q hvb i„Oi Ggb e¨envi, wel„qi Ggb ZxeªZv Avcwb ƒKv„bv wkíxi Kv„R cv„eb bv, e¯‘Z wkí gv„bB bKj bq wK? A_P ƒ`Lyb, GB wekvj Qwei Rb¨ e¨eüZ me DcKiY AK‚wÎg : K. weiwnYxi `kv KqwU? L. ÔcÖMvp wbKzÄÕ ej„Z Kwe Kx eywS„q„Qb? M. Ôi„Oi Ggb e¨enviÕ AskwU„Z ÔAvgvi c~e©evsjvÕ KweZvi ƒKvb w`KwUi cÖwZdjb N„U„Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. GB wekvj QweB ÔAvgvi c~e©evsjvÕ KweZvi g~jfve„K aviY K„i„Q- we„kølY Ki| GLv„b NyNyi Wv„K Aciv„nè kvwšÍ Av„m gvby„li g„b; GLv„b myeR kvLv AvuKveuvKv njy` cvwL„i iv„L ƒX„K Rv„gi Avov„j ƒmB eDK_vKIwU„i hw` ƒdj ƒ`„L GKevi, -GKevi `yÕcni Aciv„nè hw` GB NyNyi ¸Ä„b aiv `vI,-Zvn'„j AbšÍKvj _vwK„Z ƒh n„e GB e„b; ƒg‡wii MÜgvLv Nv„mi kix„i K¬všÍ ƒ`nwU„i ƒi„L Avwk¦„bi ƒÿZSiv KwP KwP k¨vgv ƒcvKv„`i Kv„Q ƒW„K iÕe Avwg; -P„Kvixi mv„_ ƒhb P„Kv„ii gZb wgj„b; K. ÔAvgvi c~e©evsjvÕ ƒKvb Kve¨MÖš’ ƒ_„K msKwjZ ? L. Ôü`q Qzu„q hvIqv wm³ bxjv¤^ixÕ ej„Z Kx ƒevSv„bv n„q„Q? M. KweZvsk I ÔAvgvi c~e© evsjv' KweZvq kvwšÍi Drƒmi cv_©K¨ e¨vL¨v Ki| N. cÖK‚wZi i€cgqZvq mv`k¨ _vK„jI KweZvskwUi mv„_ ÔAvgvi c~e©evsjvÕ KweZvi e¨w³MZ Abyf„ei cv_©K¨ we`¨gvbgšÍe¨wU g~j¨vqb Ki|

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AvVv‡iv eQi eqm myKvšÍ fÆvPvh©  Kwe cwiwPwZ wK„kvi Kwe myKvšÍ fÆvPvh© gvÎ bq eQi eq„mB KweZv ƒjLv ïiæ K„ib| we„`ªv„ni Kwe KvRx bRiæj Bmjv„gi g„ZvB wZwb Zvui Kv„e¨ Ab¨vq, AwePvi, ƒkvlY I eÂbvi weiæ„× ƒhgb msMÖv„gi WvK w`„q„Qb, ƒZgwb wecøe I gyw³i c„ÿ msMÖv„g GKvZ¥Zv ƒNvlYv K„i„Qb| Rwg`vwi kvm„bi Zxeª KlvNvZ Zvi gb„K GZUvB welgq K„i Zz„jwQj ƒh, wZwb gvK©mev`x ivRbxwZ„Z AbycÖvwYZ n„q ƒkvlYnxb mgvR cÖwZôvi ¯^cœ ƒ`L„Z ïiæ K„ib| mvgvwRK AbvPvi I …el„g¨i weiæ„× cÖwZev`, wbh©vwZZ gvby„li cÖwZ Mfxi ggZv Zuvi KweZvq evYxi€c jvf K„i„Q| gvÎ 21 eQi eq„m G cÖwZfvevb Kwei gZz¨ nq| Rb¥ : 1926 wLª÷v„ã KjKvZvq gvZvg„ni evwo„Z (…cZ‚K wbevm ƒMvcvjMÄ ƒRjvi ƒKvUvwjcvovi Ebwkqv MÖv„g)| g„Zz¨ : 1947 wLª÷v„ã|  iPbvewj QvocÎ, Nyg ƒbB, c~e©vfvm, wg„VKov, Awfhvb, niZvj|  Drm I cwiwPwZ ÔAvVv„iv eQi eqmÕ KweZvwU 1948 mv„j cÖKvwkZ Zvui weL¨vZ Kve¨MÖš’ ÔQvocÎÕ ƒ_„K msKwjZ n„q„Q| Abygvb Kiv nq ƒh, Kwe AvVv„iv eQi eq„m c`vc©„Yi c~„e©B wKsev AvVv„iv eQi eq„m G KweZvwU iPbv K„ib| m¤¢eZ Kwe Zuvi wb„Ri AwfÁZvi Av„jv„K eqtmwÜKv„ji …ewkó¨mg~n„K G KweZvq Zz„j a„i„Qb| AvV„v„iv eQi eqm A`g¨ I wbfx©K| G eqm ƒhgb `ytmvn„mi Dci fi K„i mKj evav wecw˄K AwZµg K„i hvq, ƒZgwb Ab¨v„qi weiæ„× `ywe©bxZfv„e gv_v DuPz K„i `uvovq| G eq„mi gva¨„gB gvbyl ƒh‡e„b c`vc©Y K„i e„j Zvi g„a¨ cÖPÐ AvZ¥cÖZ¨q …Zwi nq| gvbeZvi cքkœI gvbyl G eq„m AwaK „mv”Pvi I msMÖvgx nq| mZ¨, my›`i I Kj¨v„Yi Rb¨ gvbyl G eq„m i³g~j¨ w`„Z Rv„b| Ab¨vq, AZ¨vPvi, ƒkvlY, Ryjyg I wbcxo„bi cvkvcvwk bvbv mvgvwRK …el„g¨i weiæ„× gvbyl G eq„m cÖwZev`x n„q I„V| gvby„l gvby„l ƒf`v„f` wbg©~„ji eqm GB AvVv„iv eQi| G eqm m„ZR I ïå n„jI Amn¨ hš¿Yvq Zv QUdU K„i| Rxe„bi G mwÜÿ„Y kvixwiK, gvbwmK, mvgvwRK I ivR†bwZK bvbv RwUj AveZ©„b gvbyl wb„R„K Rwo„q ƒd„j| G mg„qi mvgvb¨ Am„PZbZv wKsev msh„gi Afve gvby„li Rxe„b Pig wech©q ƒW„K Avb„Z cv„i| e¨_©Zvi `xN©k¦vm G eqm„K ƒbwZevPKZvi Kv„jv Pv`„i ƒX„K w`„Z cv„i ; Rb¥ w`„Z cv„i jÿ jÿ Kv„jv `xN©k¦vm | MwZ w`„qB m¤¢e g„bi Riv-RxY©Zv Avi ¯’weiZvi g„Zv cÖwZK~j cvwicvwk¦©K Ae¯’v `~i Kiv| G eqm ƒm MwZi cÖZxK| A`g¨ G eq„mi i„q„Q bvbv `y„h©vM I `ywe©cvK ƒgvKv„ejv Kivi AdzišÍ cÖvYkw³| G eq„mi ƒKvb K¬vwšÍ ƒbB| G eqm c_ P„j wbZ¨ Avb„›`| G eq„mi AwaKvix gvbyl `ye©j, fxZz, iæMœ ev Kvcyiæl bq| G eqm mKj mgq, mKj Ae¯’vq bZzb wKQz Ki„Z Pvq| cÖMwZ I mf¨Zvi c„_ wbišÍi avegvbZvB G eq„mi cÖavb …ewkó¨| ZvB RvZxq Rxe„bi g~j PvwjKvkw³ wn„m„e m½Zfv„eB Kwei Kvgbv - ÕG ƒ`„ki ey„K AvVv„iv AvmyK ƒb„g|Õ Q›` : ÔAvVv„iv eQi eqmÕ KweZvwU gvÎveË Q„›` iwPZ| 6 gvÎvi gvÎveË Q›`| cÖwZ Pi„Y gvÎv msL¨v (6+6+2)|  evbvb mZK©Zv ¯úa©v, w÷gvi, AvZ¥v, fq¼i, Zxeª, gš¿Yv, fxiæ, mskq,  bgybv cÖkœvewj

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 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------eûwbe©vPbx cÖkœ 1. AvVv„iv eQi eq„m Kx ƒbB? 2. 3.

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 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1.

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 Dcb¨v‡mi †kªwY wefvM : welqe¯‘ I cÖeYZv Abymv„i Dcb¨vm„K AšÍZ c„ÿ bqwU fv„M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v(1) HwZnvwmK Dcb¨vm : BwZnvm„K Aej¤^b K„i ƒh Dcb¨vm iwPZ nq, Zv-B HwZnvwmK Dcb¨vm| ƒhgb- ¯ˆ„Ui AvBfvb„nv, fvwmwj Bqv„bi ƒPw½m-Lvb, wjI Uj÷„qi Iqvi A¨vÛ wcm, ew¼gP›`ª P„Ævcva¨v„qi ivRwmsn, Avb›`gV, P›`ª„kLi BZ¨vw`| (2) mvgvwRK-cvwievwiK Dcb¨vm : cwievi I mgvR Rxe„bi bvbv welqe¯‘, NUbv I NvZ-cÖwZNvZ„K Aej¤^b K„i G ai„bi Dcb¨vm ƒjLv n„q _v„K| ƒhgb- ew¼gP›`ª P„Ævcva¨v„qi K‚òKv„šÍi DBj, weleÿ; ƒgvnv¤§` bwRei ingv„bi Av„bvqviv; kirP›`ª P„Ævcva¨v„qi cjøxmgvR, Mn`vn, PwiÎnxb; KvRx Bg`v`yj n„Ki Ave`yjøvn cÖfwZ| (3) Kve¨agx© Dcb¨vm : ƒh me Dcb¨v„m Kvwnbx I PwiÎwPÎb A„cÿv ƒjL„Ki Kve¨`wó cÖvavb¨ cvq Ges eY©bvq I fvlvixwZ„Z Zv dz„U I„V, ƒm ai„bi Dcb¨vm„K Kve¨agx© Dcb¨vm ejv nq| ƒhgb- iex›`ªbv_ VvKz„ii ԃk„li KweZvÕ, KvRx bRiæj Bmjv„gi Ôe¨_vi `vbÕ, eyׄ`e emyi ԃh w`b dzUj KgjÕ BZ¨vw`| (4) gb¯ÍvwË¡K Dcb¨vm : ƒh Dcb¨v„mi cvÎ cvÎx„`i g„bvwe„kølY ƒjL„Ki Kv„Q gyL¨ n„q I„V; ƒm ai„bi Dcb¨vm„K gb¯ÍvwË¡K Dcb¨vm ejv nq| ƒhgb- iex›`ªbv_ VvKz„ii ԃPv„Li evwjÕ, ÔN„i evB„iÕ; gvwbK e„›`¨vcva¨v„qi Ôw`evivwÎi Kve¨Õ BZ¨vw`| (5) †Mv‡q›`v Dcb¨vm : wewfbœ Acivag~jK NUbv„K Aej¤^b K„i mv_©K ƒMv„q›`v PwiÎ mwó K„i G ai„bi Dcb¨vm ƒjLv nq| kiwe›`y e„›`¨vcva¨vq, bxnviiÄb ƒmb¸ß, mZ¨wRr ivq evsjv mvwn„Z¨i wewkó ƒMv„q›`v Dcb¨vm iPwqZv| (6) e¨•MimvZ¥K Dcb¨vm : mvgvwRK bvbv Am•MwZ„K Zxeª e¨•M I nvm¨i„mi gva¨„g G ai„bi Dcb¨v„m Dc¯’vcb Kiv nq| ciïivg, wkeivg PµeZx© I …mq` gyRZev Avjx G ai„bi iPbvq we„kl mvdj¨ ƒ`wL„q„Qb| (7) AvZ¥Rxebxg~jK Dcb¨vm : Jcb¨vwmK Zvui e¨w³MZ Rxe„bi bvbv NvZ-cÖwZNvZ„K A™¢yZ iPbv†kjx I wjwc KzkjZvi ga¨ w`„q Dc„fvM¨ Dcb¨v„m i~c`vb K„ib| ƒhgb- kirP›`ª P„Ævcva¨v„qi Pvi L„Ð ƒjLv ÔkªxKvšÍÕ, wef~wZf~lY e„›`¨vcva¨v„qi Ôc„_i cvuPvjxÕ BZ¨vw`| (8) AvZ¥Rxebxg~jK åg‡Yvcb¨vm : ƒKvb f~-ch©UK ev feNy„i ƒjLK Zvui ågY c„_i wewPÎ AwfÁZv„K AvZ¥Rxebxi Av`„j hLb Dcb¨v„mi gZ mim I Dc„fvM¨ K„i ƒj„Lb Zv„K AvZ¥Rxebxg~jK åg„Yvcb¨vm e„j| …mq` gyRZev Avjxi ԃ`„k-we„`„kÕ, Abœ`vk¼i iv„qi Ôc„_ cÖev„mÕ AvZ¥Rxebxg~jK åg„Yvcb¨v„mi DrK‚ó D`vniY| (9) AvÂwjK Dcb¨vm : we„kl ƒKvb AÂj ev ƒm A„ji wbw`©ó cwim„ii gvby„li myL-`ytL, nvwm-Kvbœv wgwkªZ ƒh Kvwnbx ZvB AvÂwjK Dcb¨vm| ƒhgb- Zvivk¼i e„›`¨vcva¨v„qi ÔKweÕ, Ônvumywj evu„Ki DcK_vÕ, gvwbK e„›`¨vcva¨v„qi ÔcÙvb`xi gvwSÕ, A†ØZ gjøeg©„Yi ÔwZZvm GKwU b`xi bvgÕ cÖfwZ|  bgybv cÖkœvewj

 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1. Mwie eM©vPvwl Imgvb| eû K„ó gv_vi Nvg cv„q ƒd„j c„ii Rwg„Z dmj djvq ƒm| wKš‘ dm„ji cy„ivcywi Ask Zvi cÖvc¨ bq| dm„ji A„a©K ƒm cvq| GZ K„ói dmj ƒm meUzKz cvq bv e„j Zvi `ytƒLi AšÍ ƒbB| ƒm ƒLZgRyi, ƒL„Zi gvwjK bq| ƒL„Zi gvwjK ƒL„Zi Kv„Q bv wM„qI Zv„K bvbv ƒK‡k„j VwK„q dm„ji wmsnfvM ƒK„o ƒbb| GB gvwj„Kiv ƒhb ƒRuv„Ki g„Zv-B i³„Pvlv| Mwie Pvwli i³ Pz„l Giv dz„j ƒdu„c I„V| wKš‘ G ƒkvlY `xN©w`b Pj„Z cv„i bv| GKw`b Zviv msNe× nq| iæ„L `uvovq ƒkvlK ƒRvZ`vi„`i weiæ„×| K. ÔcÙvb`xi gvwSÕ ƒKvb ai„bi Dcb¨vm? L. ÒBwj„ki gImyg dzivB„j wecyj cÙv K‚cY nBqv hvqÓ-„Kb? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. Imgvb wgqvi gvbwmKZvi m„½ Kz„ei gvwSi gvbwmKZvi KZUzKz wgj i„q„Q? N. Ô ƒcÖÿvcU wfbœ n„jI Imgvb I Kz„ei kªgRxex gvby„li cÖwZwbwaZ¡ Ki„Q|Õ GB Dw³i Zvrch© wePvi Ki| 2. gvwbKM„Äi gaycyi GjvKvi Awaevmx AvgRv`| GjvKvi AwaKvsk ƒjvK grwk„íi KvR K„i RxweKv wbe©vn K„i| Afve-AbU„bi Kvi„Y ƒQ„j- ƒg„q„K fv„jvfv„e ƒL„Z w`„Z cv„i bv ƒm| B„”Q _vKv m„Ë¡I ¯ˆz„j cvVv„Z cv„i bv, Z„e AvaywbKZvi cÖfv„e grwk„í wKQzUv cwieZ©b nIqvq AvgRv„`i cwiev„iI cwieZ©b G„m„Q| AvR Zviv `y„ejv `ygy„Vv ƒL„Z cvq| GKUz ¯^w¯Íi wbtk¦vm ƒd„j| K. wgQv K_v KBjvg bvwK ƒi Kzwei? ÑG Dw³wU Kvi? L. ÒCk¦i _v„Kb H MÖv„g, f`ª cjøx„Z- GLv„b Zvnv„K LyuwRqv cvIqv hvB„e bv|Ó Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki|

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M. AvgRv„`i cwiev„i ¯^w¯Íi wbtk¦v„mi KviY ÔcÙvb`xi gvwSÕ Dcb¨v„mi ƒR„j„`i Rxe„b KZUzKz cÖwZdwjZ n„q„Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. mg„qi cUf~wg„Z grwkíx„`i cwieZ©b Avm„jI ÔcÙvb`xi gvwSÕ Dcb¨v„m ƒR„j Rxe„b cwieZ©b ƒ`Lv hvq bv| Dw³wUi Zvrch© wePvi Ki| 3. Avgvi weev„n Avgvi k¦ïi c„bi UvKv bM` Ges cuvP nvRvi UvKvi Mnbv w`„qwQ„jb| evev Zu vnvi GK `vjvj eÜzi Kv„Q Lei cvBqv„Qb, Bnvi g„a¨ c„bi nvRvi UvKvB avi Kwiqv msMÖn Kwi„Z nBqv„Q| K. Kz„e„ii ƒg„qi bvg Kx? L. ƒnv„mb wgqv„K inm¨gq ƒjvK ejv n„q„Q ƒKb? M. DׁZvs„ki cYcÖ_vi m„½ ÔcÙvb`xi gvwSÕ Dcb¨A„m cYcÖ_vi ƒh …elg¨ ƒ`Lv hvq Zv wbiæcY Ki| N. Aby„”Q„` DwjøwLZ cYcÖ_vi KviY Ges G ƒ_„K DËi„Yi Dcvq ÔcÙvb`xi gvwSÕDcb¨A„mi Av„jv„K we„kølY Ki| 4. cÙvb`xi fvO„b gyÝxM„Äi my›`icyi MÖv„gi AwaKvsk Nievwo b`xM„f© wejxb n„q ƒM„Q| ev¯‘nxb Mwie GB ƒjvK¸wji cybe©vm„bi Rb¨ KvR Ki„Q D`¨gx, mvnmx BKevj ingvb| wbt¯^v_©fv„e wb„Ri Rwgi A„bKLvwb Ask Zv„`i cybe©vm„bi Kv„R jvMv„jb| Amnvq ƒjvK¸„jv VuvB ƒc„jv BKevj mv„n„ei RvqMvq| K. i„_i Drme ƒKvb MÖv„g AbywôZ nq? L. gv„Qi `vg eywS„q ƒ`Iqvi mgq abÄq Kz„ei„K mwi„q ƒ`q ƒKb? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. ƒnv„mb wgqvi m„½ BKevj mv„n„ei mvnvh¨ Kivi gvbwmKZvi mv`k¨ wbiæcY Ki| N. ҃nv„mb wgqvi g„Zv BKevj mv„n„ei mgvRZvwš¿K mgvR cÖwZôvi gvbwmKZv G„Kev„iB ƒbB|Ó-GB Dw³wUi Zvrch© wePvi Ki|

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Øv`k †kªwYi wm‡jevm, cixÿv c×wZ I gvbeÈb welq : evsjv Ñ wØZxq cÎ welq †KvW : 102 cvV¨ welq : bvUK, cÖeÜ, e¨vKiY, cÎ, fvlY, cÖwZ„e`b I fvem¤cÖmviY|  wkÿvel© : wØZxq|  „gvU K¬v„mi msL¨v : 116wU|  wel„qi cÖK‚wZ : Avewk¨K welq|  wkÿv`vb c×wZ : e³Zv, B›Uvi„bU, AskMÖnYg~jK I evmvi KvR|  mvaviY D‡Ïk¨ : wkÿv_©x„`i gv„S bv›`wbK ƒPZbv MVb, ms„e`bkxjZv ew×, gvbweK g~j¨„eva mwó I fvlvMZ DrKl© mvab| fvlvi kªxew×, evbvb, evK¨ I D”PviY ïw×KiY wel„q Ávb`vb Kiv| ƒm m„½ g~jfve we„kølY K„i fvwlK ƒm‡Kh©ew× I ƒh ƒKvb wel„q c~Y©v½ we„kølYc~e©K cÖeÜ iPbvi ga¨ w`„q e³e¨ cÖ`vb I wjL„b wkÿv_©x„`i Af¨¯Í K„i ƒZvjv|  wkLb dj : ƒKvm©wU m¤úbœ K„i wkÿv_©xiv ev¯Íe Rxe„bi wewfbœ w`K m¤ú„K© mvaviY Ávb jvf Ki„e| Rxeb I RMr m¤ú„K© aviYv cv„e| e¨w³K Abyf~wZi wkwíZ cքqv„M mÿg n„e| gvbexq g~j¨„ev„a mg× n„q gvbe mgv„R BwZevPK f~wgKv ivL„e| G QvovI wkÿv_©x wkÿvRxe„b ev wkÿv ƒk„l ƒh ƒKv„bv KvR I wPšÍvi e¨vcv„i cig AvZ¥wek¦vm I `p g„bvej Lyu„R cv„e| ƒm m„½ ï×fv„e fvlv wjL„Z, co„Z I ej„Z cvi„e| e¨envwiK ƒÿ„ÎI fvlvi ï× cքqvM Ki„Z cvi„e| my›`ifv„e ƒhvMv„hv„Mi gva¨gi€„c fvlvi e¨envwiK I wkwíZi€c cքqvM Ki„Z cvi„e; ƒKv„bv wKQy we„kølY I cÖKvk Kivi ÿgZv AR©b Ki„e Ges wb„R„K G wel„q D”PZi wkÿvi Rb¨ cÖ¯Z ‘ Ki„Z cvi„e| e¨envwiK Rxe„b ƒhgb cÎ ƒjLvi ¸iæZ¡ Dcjwä Ki„e, ƒZgwb fvlY I cÖwZ„e`„b Af¨¯Í n„q e¨w³ I mgvR Rxe„b DrKl© mva„b mÿg n„e|

 gv b e È b  c~Y©gvb : 100  bvUK 1 10 = 10 1  05 = 5 1 0 5 = 5

 1 wU iPbvg~jK cÖkœ  1 wU welqwfwËK mswÿß cÖkœ  1 wU e¨vL¨v

 e¨vKiY, weiPb I iPbv     

1  20 = 20 5  6 = 30 1  10 = 10 1  10 = 10 1  10 = 10 me©„gvU = 100

1 wU cÖeÜ iPbv 5 wU e¨vKiYg~jK cÖkœ 1 wU cÎ wjLb 1wU fvlY A_ev cÖwZ„e`b 1 wU fvem¤cÖmviY

 cÖkœcÎ cÖYqb bxwZgvjv : wØZxq cÎ  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 

bvU„Ki 2wU iPbvg~jK cÖkœ ƒ_„K 1wUi DËi wjL„Z n„e| bvU„Ki 2wU welqwfwËK mswÿß cÖkœ ƒ_„K 1wUi DËi wjL„Z n„e| bvU„Ki 2wU e¨vL¨v ƒ_„K 1wUi e¨vL¨v wjL„Z n„e| cÖeÜ iPbvi Rb¨ 5wU welq _vK„e| ƒh ƒKvb 1wU welq Aej¤^„b cÖeÜ iPbv Ki„Z n„e| e¨vKi„Yi Rb¨ wba©vwiZ cvV¨m~wP ƒ_„K 8wU cÖkœ ƒ`qv _vK„e| Gi g„a¨ 5wU cքkœi DËi w`„Z n„e| eY©bvg~jK cÖkœ Qvov Ab¨vb¨ cÖk¸ œ „jv„Z evQvB K„i DËi ƒ`qvi my„hvM _vK„e| cÎ wjL„bi Rb¨ 2wU cÖkœ _vK„e| Gi g„a¨ ƒh ƒKvb 1wUi DËi wjL„Z n„e| 1wU fvlY Ges 1wU cÖwZ„e`b ƒ`qv _vK„e| G `ywU ƒ_„K ƒh ƒKvb 1wUi DËi wjL„Z n„e| KweZvsk ƒ_„K 1wU Ges M`¨vsk ƒ_„K Av„iv 1wU fvee¯‘ ƒ`qv _vK„e| G `ywU ƒ_„K ƒh ƒKvb 1wUi fvem¤cÖmviY Ki„Z n„e| cÖeÜ iPbv, cÎ wjLb, fvlY Ges cÖwZ„e`„bi welq Ggbfv„e wba©viY Kiv n„e hv„Z K„i cixÿv_©xiv Zv„`i AwfÁZvi Av„jv„K A_ev wb„Riv wPšÍv K„i Zv wjL„Z cv„i| gyL¯’ K„i DËi `v„bi cÖeYZv `~i Kivi Rb¨ mvaviYZ ƒh me MZvbyMwZK welq cixÿvq Av„m ƒm¸„jv cwinvi Ki„Z n„e|

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 cv V¨ e B m g~ n  (RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK ƒevW© KZ©K Aby„gvw`Z)

1. i³v³ cÖvšÍi (bvUK) g~j : gybxi ƒP‡ayix msKjK I m¤úv`bv : cÖYe ƒP‡ayix 2. fvlv wkÿv : W. nvqvr gvgy` 3. evsjv e¨vKiY : W. kvnRvnvb gwbi 4. bZzb evsjv iPbv : AwRZ Kzgvi ¸n I Avwbmy¾vgvb| 5. D”PZi evsjv e¨vKiY I iPbv : Aa¨vcK wbiÄb AwaKvix 6. evsjv fvlvi e¨vKiY I iPbv ixwZ : W. gvneyeyj nK 7. D”P gva¨wgK evsjv e¨vKiY I iPbv : Ave`yjøvn Avj gvgyb

 cv V¨ m~ wP  1| bvUK : i³v³ cÖvšÍi (RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK ƒevW© KZ©K Aby„gvw`Z)

2| cÖeÜ iPbv 3| e¨vKiY : kã MVb, evK¨ MVb, mgvm, mwÜ, cÖK‚wZ-cÖZ¨q, DcmM©, mgv_©K kã, wecixZ kã, cvwifvwlK I `vßwiK kã, weivgwP„ýi e¨envi, evK¨ I k„ãi ï× cքqvM| (G me wel„q cÖkœ cÖYq„bi ƒÿ„Î ÔD”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjbÕ Mքš’i cvV¨m~wPfy³ cvV ¸iæZ¡ cv„e|) 4| cÎ wjLb 5| fvlY I cÖwZ„e`b 6| fve m¤cÖmviY|

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fvlv I e¨vKiY  fvlv : Abyfe Avi Dcjwäi mgwó wb„qB Avgv„`i Rxeb| GB Abyfe Avi Dcjwäi cÖavb evnK n„”Q fvlv| fvlvi gva¨„gB gvbyl gvby„li m„½ cքqvRbxq ƒhvMv„hvM iÿv K„i _v„K| mf¨Zv Ges mgvR-msNU„b fvlvi f~wgKv Ab¯^xKvh©| mf¨Zv wbg©v„Yi c~„e© gvbyl Bkviv-Bw½„Zi gva¨„g g„bi fve cÖKvk Ki„Zv| wbe©vK gvbyl hLb g„bi ARv„šÍ GKw`b aŸwb mwó Ki„jv ZLbB fvlvi BwZnvm m~wPZ n„jv| Gici gvbyl GKw`b fve cÖKv„ki cÖZxK mwói gva¨„g fvlvi ƒjL¨ i€„ci cÖeZ©b K„i|  fvlvi msÁv: evM&h„š¿i mvnv„h¨ D”PvwiZ ƒh mKj A_©„evaK aŸwb ev aŸwbmgwó Øviv gvbyl Zvi wb„Ri g„bi fve A„b¨i Kv„Q cÖKvk K„i Ges hv GKwU wbw`©ó fvlvfvlx Rb„Mvôxi g„bvfve cÖKv„k mvnvh¨ K„i Zv„K fvlv e„j| fvlvcwÐZMY fvlv m¤ú„K© wewfbœ gZvgZ e¨³ K„i„Qb| Zuviv GUv„K msÁvwqZI K„i„Qb bvbvfv„e| GLv„b K„qKwU wewkó msÁv D„jøL Kiv n„jv : W. gyn¤§` knx`yjøvn fvlvi msÁvq e„j„Qb, Ògvbe RvwZ ƒh aŸwb ev aŸwbmgwó w`„q g„bi fve cÖKvk K„i, Zvi bvg fvlv|Ó fvlvwe` gyn¤§` Ave`yj nvB- Gi g„Z, ÒGK GK mgv„Ri mKj gvby„li A_©„evaK aŸwbi mgwó fvlv|Ó gyn¤§` Gbvgyj nK-Gi g„Z, Ògvbyl Zvi g„bi fve cÖKvk Kivi Rb¨ evM&h„š¿i mvnv„h¨ Ac„ii ƒevaMg¨ ƒh aŸwb ev aŸwbmgwó D”PviY K„i _v„K, ƒm aŸwb ev aŸwbmgwó„K fvlv ejv nq|Ó Dch©y³ Av„jvPbv ƒ_„K Avgiv fvlvi K„qKwU …ewkó¨ wPwýZ Ki„Z cvwi| ƒhgb Ñ 1. fvlv g„bi fve cÖKvkK 2. fvlv A_©c~Y© aŸwbi gva¨„g D”PvwiZ 3. we„kl Rb„Mvôx ev mgv„Ri Rb¨ ƒevaMg¨|  evsjv fvlvi DrcwË : B„›`v-BD„ivcxq fvlv„Mvôx ƒ_„K evsjv fvlvi DrcwË| evsjv QvovI ms¯ˆ‚Z, j¨vwUb, wMÖK, divwm BZ¨vw` fvlv GB ƒMvôxi AšÍfy©³|  evsjv fvlvi iƒc: cÖwZwU fvlvi g„Zv evsjv fvlviI `yÕwU cÖavb i€c i„q„Q| h_v: 1. ƒjL¨ i€c I 2. K_¨ i€c| 1. ƒjL¨ i€c„K `ywU fv„M fvM Kiv hvq| ƒhgb: mvay I PwjZ| K_¨fvlvi i€cI `ycÖKvi| h_v Ñ 1. AvÂwjK I 2. PwjZ|  wewfbœ fvlvixwZi •ewkó¨ mvayfvlv: GB fvlv K‚wÎg, myk•Lj, ¸iæM¤¢xi, Zrmg kãeûj, bvUK I e³Zvi Abyc„hvMx| PwjZ fvlv: GB fvlv cwieZ©bkxj, Z™¢e kãeûj Ges mnR„eva¨| G„Z me©bvg Ges wµqvc„`i mswÿß i€c e¨eüZ nq| AvÂwjK fvlv: GB fvlv wbw`©ó A„j e¨eüZ nq| mK„ji Rb¨ ƒevaMg¨ bq, AÂj„f„` i€„ci cv_©K¨ we`¨gvb| ƒhgb Ñ mvayfvlv: ivRv Zvnv„`i i€„ci gvayh© ƒ`wLqv wew¯§Z nBqv ewj„Z jvwM„jb, Bnviv Avkªgevwmbx, Bnviv ƒhi€c i~ceZx, GBi€c i€ceZx igYx Avgvi AšÍtcy„i bvB| eywSjvg, AvR D`¨vbjZv ƒm‡›`h©¸„Y ebjZvi wbKU civwRZ nBj| PwjZ fvlv: ivRv Zv„`i i€„ci gvayh© ƒ`„L wew¯§Z n„q ej„Z jvM„jb, Giv Avkªgevwmbx, Giv ƒhi€c i~ceZx, Gi€c i€ceZx igYx Avgvi AšÍtcy„i ƒbB| eySjvg, AvR D`¨vbjZv ƒm‡›`h©¸„Y ebjZvi wbKU civwRZ nj| AvÂwjK fvlv (MvRxcyi): ivRv Zv„Mv i€c ƒ`BLv AevK ABqv KB„Z jvM„jv, Aiv Avkª„g _v„K, Aiv ƒhgb my›`i Agb my›`i gvBqv gvbyl Avgvi evwoi wfZ„i bvB| eyRjvg AvBRKv e„bi jZvcvZv my›`„ii ¸„Y evMv„bi jZvcvZv„K AvivBqv w`j|

 e¨v K i Y  msÁv : e¨vKiY n„”Q fvlvi Af¨šÍixY k•Ljv welqK Ávb ev we`¨v| e¨vKiY k„ãi A_© we„klfv„e we„kølY (we + Av + K‚ + Ab)| ƒh Mքš’ ƒKvb fvlvi wewfbœ Dcv`v„bi cÖK‚wZ I ¯^i€„ci wePvi we„kølY Kiv nq Ges wewfbœ Dcv`v„bi m¤úK© wbY©q I cքqvMwewa wek`fv„e Av„jvwPZ nq Zv„K e¨vKiY e„j| evsjv e¨vKiY: W±i gyn¤§` knx`yjøvni g„Z, ԃh kv¯¿ Rvb„j evsjv fvlv ï×i€„c wjL„Z, co„Z I ej„Z cviv hvq Zvi bvg evsjv e¨vKiY|Õ W. mybxwZKzgvi P„Ævcva¨v„qi g„Z, ԃh kv¯¿ w`„q evsjv fvlv„K we„kølY K„i Zvi ¯^i€c, cÖK‚wZ I cքqvM bxwZ wek`fv„e wbY©q Kiv hvq Zv„K evsjv e¨vKiY e„j|Õ GK K_vq, ƒh kv¯¿ cvV Ki„j evsjv fvlv ï×i€„c ej„Z, wjL„Z I co„Z cviv hvq Zv„K evsjv e¨vKiY e„j|

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†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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 evsjv e¨vKi‡Yi DrcwË I weKv‡ki BwZnvm: evsjv fvlvq e¨vKi„Yi PP©v ƒewk w`„bi bq, BD„ivcxq ewYK m¤cÖ`vq I wgkbvwiiv L÷vb ag© cÖPvi Ges e¨emvq cÖwZôv jv„fi cքqvR„b evsjv fvlv wkÿvi cքqvRbxqZv Abyfe K„i| GB we„`wkivB cÖ_g evsjv fvlvi wjwLZ e¨vKi„Yi c_ cÖ`k©K| 1. evsjv fvlvi e¨vKiY cÖ_g 1743 mv„j iPbv K„ib g„bvGj `¨v Avmmy¤úmuvD ; hv cZz©wMR fvlvq iwPZ| 2. Bs„iwR fvlvq evsjv e¨vKiY iPbv K„ib 1778 mv„j Gb we n¨vjƒnW | 3. evsjv fvlvq evsjv e¨vKiY cÖ_g iPbv K„ib 1833 mv„j ivRv ivg„gvnb ivq| cieZx©Kv„j W. mybxwZKzgvi P„Ævcva¨vq, W. gyn¤§` knx`yjøvn, W. myKzgvi ƒmb, W. Gbvgyj nK cÖgyL evsjv e¨vKiY iPbvi cÖqvm ƒc„q„Qb|  evsjv e¨vKiY cv‡Vi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv fvlv ï×i€„c Rvbv I e¨envi Kivi Rb¨ cքZ¨K fvlvfvlx Rb„Mvôxi e¨vKiY cvV Kiv Acwinvh©| ZvB evsjv fvlv mwVKfv„e e¨env„ii Rb¨ Avgv„`iI e¨vKiY cv„Vi cքqvRb i„q„Q| wb„P e¨vKiY cv„Vi ¸iyZ¡ Av„jvPbv Kiv nj : 1. fvlvi ¯^iƒc I cÖK…wZ Rvbvi Rb¨ : g„bi fve ƒh-ƒKvb i€„c cÖKvk Kiv hvq; Bkvivq ev Bw½„Z, K_vq ev Qwe„Z| Z„e fvlv w`„q g„bi fve„K mwVKfv„e cÖKvk Ki„Z n„j e¨vKiY cv„Vi cքqvRb i„q„Q| KviY, e¨vKiY fvlvi ¯^i€c ev cÖK‚wZ wePviwe„kølY K„i fyjÎæwU wbY©q K„i ky×i€„c e¨envi Ki„Z mvnvh¨ K„i| 2. mwVK evbvb I D”PviY †kLvi Rb¨: fvlv„K wjwLZ i€c „`Iqvi Rb¨ ƒhgb e„Y©i cքqvRb, ƒZgwb D”Pvi„Yi Rb¨ cքqvRb aŸwbi| GB eY© I aŸwb¸„jvi mwVK evbvb I D”PviY e¨vKi„Yi Av„jvP¨ welq| ZvB e¨vKiY cvV Ki„j Gi mwVK e¨envi Rvbv hv„e| evsjv fvlvq wZbwU ÔmÕ aŸwb i„q„Q| `ywU ÔbÕ aŸwb i„q„Q| G QvovI B;C, D;E Ges ƒekwKQy hy³eY© i„q„Q| e¨vKiY cvV Ki„j k„ãi evbv„b G¸„jvi e¨envi Ges D”PviY c×wZ Rvbv hvq| 3. k‡ãi e¨envi, MVb I A_© wbY©‡qi Rb¨ : k„ãi h_vh_ e¨envi, A_© wbi€cY Ges bZzb bZzb kã MV„bi Rb¨ e¨vKi„Yi Ávb _vKv Avek¨K| mgvm, DcmM©, cÖZ¨q ev mwÜmn Kx Kx Dcv„q kã MwVZ nq e¨vKiY ƒ_„K ZvI Rvbv hvq| Gm„ei Rb¨ Aek¨B e¨vKiY cvV Kiv cքqvRb| 4. evK¨ MVb I fvecÖKv‡ki Rb¨ : ïay k„ãi ƒÿ„Î bq, evK¨ MV„bi ƒÿ„Î Ges ev„K¨i gva¨„g h_vh_ fve cÖKv„ki ƒÿ„ÎI e¨vKi„Yi Ávb _vKv Avek¨K| ev„K¨i evP¨v_© I jÿ¨v_© Abyave„bi Rb¨ Aek¨B e¨vKi„Yi Ávb _vKv `iKvi| mij, RwUj I ƒh‡wMK evK¨ m¤ú„K© h_vh_ aviYv jv„fi Rb¨ e¨vKi„Yi evK¨ZË¡ AskwU cvV Kiv `iKvi| Gi gva¨„g mwVKfv„e evK¨ MVb I e¨env„ii welqwU m¤ú„K© we¯ÍvwiZ nvbv hv„e| 5. Q›` I AjsKv‡ii Áv‡bi Rb¨ : gvbyl Mvb ev KweZvi gva¨„gI g„bi fve cÖKvk K„i| Avi Gme Mvb I KweZvi Acwinvh© Ask n„jv Q›`| e¨vKiY cvV Ki„j GB Q„›`i ¯^i€c I Zvi ï×vïw× m¤ú„K© Rvbv hv„e| hv ï×fv„e Mvb I KweZv wjL„Z I co„Z mvnvh¨ Ki„e| G Qvov fvlvq AjsKvi cքqvMI e¨vKi„Yi Av„jvP¨ welq| ZvB fvlvq ï×i€„c Q›` I AjsKvi cքqv„Mi Rb¨ e¨vKi„Yi Ávb _vKv Avek¨K| 6. mvwn‡Z¨i †`vl¸Y m¤ú‡K© Ávb jvf : mvwn„Z¨i Qv΄`i Rb¨ e¨vKiY cvV Kiv Acwinvh©| mvwn„Z¨i ƒ`vl-¸Y wbY©q ev Dcjwäi Rb¨ h_vh_ Ávb AvniY Ki„Z n„j Zv„`i Aek¨B e¨vKiY cvV Ki„Z n„e| m„e©vcwi, fvlvi mwVK e¨envi I weï×Zvi Rb¨ e¨vKiY cvV Kiv GKvšÍ `iKvi|  e¨vKi‡Yi Av‡jvP¨ welq cքZ¨K fvlviB PviwU ƒg‡wjK Dcv`vb _v„K| G¸„jv n„”Q- aŸwb, kã, evK¨ I A_©| cքZ¨K fvlvi e¨vKi„YB G welq¸„jv Av„jwPZ nq| Avi G¸„jvB n„”Q e¨vKi„Yi Av„jvP¨ welq|  ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cÖkvœ ewj 1. e¨vKiY Kv„K e„j ? e¨vKiY cv„Vi cքqvRbxqZv Av„jvPbv Ki| 2. Òfvlvi Af¨šÍixY k•Ljv Avwe®ˆv„ii bvgB e¨vKiYÓ- Av„jvPbv Ki|

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†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

aŸwb cwiPq  aŸwb gvby„li evMhš¿ Z_v KÚbvjx, gyLweei, wRnev, Avj wRnŸv, ƒKvgj Zvjy, k³ Zvjy, `vuZ, gvwo, ƒVuvU, ƒPvqvj BZ¨vw`i mvnv„h¨ D”PvwiZ AvIqvR„K aŸwb e„j|  aŸwbi cÖKvi‡f` : D”Pvi„Yi …ewkó¨ Abyhvqx aŸwb„K `yBfv„M fvM Kiv hvq| ƒhgb : ¯^iaŸwb I e¨ÄbaŸwb|  ¯^iaŸwb : ƒh me aŸwb D”Pvi„Yi mgq dymdzmZvwoZ evZvm evMh„š¿i ƒKv_vI evavcÖvß nq bv, Zv„`i ¯^iaŸwb e„j| evsjvfvlvq ¯^iaŸwbi msL¨v 11 wU| h_v Ñ A, Av, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J|  e¨ÄbaŸwb : ƒh me aŸwb D”Pvi„Yi mgq dzmdzmZvwoZ evZvm evMh„š¿i ƒKv_vI bv ƒKv_vI evavcÖvß nq ev Nl©Y jv„M Zv„`i e¨ÄbaŸwb e„j| ƒhgb : K, L, M, N BZ¨vw`| evsjvfvlvq e¨ÄbaŸwbi msL¨v 39 wU| h_v Ñ K, L, M, N, O P, Q, R, S, T U, V, W, X, Y Z, _, `, a, b c, d, e, f, g h, i, j k, l, m, n o, p, q, r s, t, u  ¯^iaŸwbi cÖKvi‡f` : D”PviYKv„ji e¨vwß Abyhvqx ¯^iaŸwbmg~n„K `yBfv„M fvM Kiv hvq| ƒhgb : n«¯^¯i^ : A, B, D| `xN©¯^i : Av, C, E, G, H, I, J|  e¨ÄbaŸwbi cÖKvi‡f` : D”PviY ¯’vb Abyhvqx e¨ÄbaŸwbi cÖKvi„f` wbæi€c : Kɨ K, L, M, N, O Zvjy P, Q, R, S, T g~a©v U, V, W, X, Y `šÍ¨ Z, _, `, a, b Iô¨ c, d, e, f, g AšÍt¯’ h, i, j D®§ k, l, m, n ZvobRvZo, p (q-AšÍt¯’, r- Z-Gi mswÿß i€c) civkªqx s, t, u| G QvovI e¨Äbe„Y©i Av„iv wKQz ƒkªwYwefvM n„Z cv„i| ƒhgb : bvwmK¨ aŸwb, cvwk¦©K aŸwb, K¤úbRvZ aŸwb, ¯úó aŸwb BZ¨vw`|  D”PviY …ewkó¨ Abyhvqx e¨ÄbeY©„K Avevi Pvifv„M wef³ Kiv n„q„Q| ƒhgb Ñ A„Nvl aŸwb : e„M©i 1g I 2q eY©| „Nvl aŸwb : e„M©i 3q I 4_© eY©| AícÖvY aŸwb : e„M©i 1g I 3q eY©| gnvcÖvY aŸwb : e„M©i 2q I 4_© eY©|  hy³eY© (hy³e¨Äb) `yB ev Z„ZvwaK eY© GK„Î hy³ n„j Zv„K hy³eY© e„j| Ôhy³Õ k„ãi A_©ÑƒhvM| evsjv fvlvq e¨Äbe„Y©i ƒÿ„ÎB hy³e„Y©i G e¨envi jÿ Kiv hvq| GKwU e¨Äbe„Y©i mv„_ Aci GKwU e¨ÄbeY© hy³ n„q ƒh bZzb eY©wU …Zwi nq Zv„K GK K_vq hy³eY© ev hy³e¨Äb e„j| „hgb : ÔKÕ I ÔlÕ `ywU e¨ÄbeY©| G eY© `y„Uvi ms„hv„M ÔÿÕ (wLI) hy³e¨Äb MwVZ n„q„Q| hy³ e¨Äbe„Y©i gv„S ƒKvb ¯^ieY© _v„K bv| e„Y©i mv„_ eY© hy³ n„j Zv„`i AvKwZi cwieZ©b N„U| evsjvfvlvq hy³e„Y©i msL¨v A„bK| G¸„jvi g„a¨ wb„Pi hy³eY©¸„jvi e¨enviB ƒewk ƒ`Lv hvq|

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D”PviY K-ƒq Z-ƒq mshy³ K-ƒq K-ƒq mshy³ K-ƒq e-ƒq mshy³ K-ƒq l-ƒq mshy³ M-ƒq b-ƒq mshy³ M-ƒq a-ƒq mshy³

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R+T U+U U+i ( ª) Y+W Y+b Z+Z Z+b Z+g Z+i Z+_ b+_ b+b b+g c+Z e+a g+b g+g l+Y l+K m+_ m+K m+Z n+g n+Y n+b n+F n+h (¨) `+e `+a T+R T+P T+Q T+S

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†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ R-ƒq T-ƒq mshy³ U-ƒq U-ƒq mshy³ U-ƒq i ( ª)-„q mshy³ Y-ƒq W-„q mshy³ Y-ƒq b-„q mshy³ Z-ƒq Z-„q mshy³ Z-ƒq b-„q mshy³ Z-ƒq g-„q mshy³ Z-ƒq i-„q mshy³ Z-ƒq _-„q mshy³ b-ƒq _-„q mshy³ b-ƒq b-„q mshy³ b-ƒq g-„q mshy³ c-ƒq Z-„q mshy³ e-ƒq a-„q mshy³ g-ƒq b-„q mshy³ g-ƒq g-„q mshy³ l-„q Y-„q mshy³ l-ƒq K-„q mshy³ m-ƒq _-„q mshy³ m-ƒq K-„q mshy³ m-ƒq Z-„q mshy³ n-ƒq g-„q mshy³ n-ƒq Y-„q mshy³ n-ƒq b-„q mshy³ n-ƒq F-„q mshy³ n-ƒq h-„q mshy³ `-ƒq e-„q mshy³ `-ƒq a-„q mshy³ T-ƒq R-„q mshy³ T-ƒq P-„q mshy³ T-ƒq Q-„q mshy³ T-ƒq S-„q mshy³

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

Ávb ƒQvÆ ivóª KvÐ welYœ `Ë hZœ AvZ¥ QvÎ AkÌ MÖš’ Abœ Rb¥ myß jä wbæ m¤§vb K‚ò ﮈ `yt¯’ cyi¯ˆvi g¯Í eªvþY Acivnè ga¨vý AcnZ evn¨ D„Øj e× MÄ AÂj evÃv SÅv côv b¤^i-88


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†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

kã I k‡ãi †kªwY wefvM  

kã : A_©c~Y© aŸwb ev aŸwbmgwó„K kã e„j| ƒhgb Ñ Kjm, cw_K, b`x, cw_ex BZ¨vw`| k‡ãi †kªwY wefvM

wewfbœ w`K ƒ_„K k„ãi ƒkªwY wefvM Kiv hvq| ƒhgb Ñ 1. DrmMZ ƒkªwYwefvM : (K) Zrmg (L) Aa©-Zrmg (M) Z™¢e (N) ƒ`wk (O) we„`wk| 2. MVbMZ ƒkªwYwefvM : (K) ƒg‡wjK (L) mvwaZ| 3. A_©MZ ƒkªwYwefvM : (K) ƒh‡wMK (L) i€p / i€wp (M) ƒhvMi€p|

 k‡ãi DrmMZ †kªwYwefvM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Drm Abyhvqx kã„K cuvP fv„M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v Ñ Zrmg, Aa©-Zrmg, Z™¢e, ƒ`wk I we„`wk| Zrmg kã : ms¯ˆ‚Z fvlv ƒ_„K AvMZ ƒh me k㠃KvbiKg weK‚Z bv n„q mivmwi evsjv fvlvq e¨eüZ n„”Q, ƒm me kã„K Zrmg kã e„j| ƒhgb : eÿ, eÿ, KY©, bvwmK¨, P›`ª, m~h©, MÖn, bÿÎ, n¯Í, ¯ˆÜ, ïå, K‚ò BZ¨vw`| Aa©-Zrmg kã : ƒh me kã ms¯ˆ‚Z fvlv ƒ_„K wKQzUv weK‚Z ev cwiewZ©Z n„q evsjv fvlvq G„m„Q, ƒm me kã„K Aa©Zrmg kã e„j| ƒhgb : wMbœx (MwnYx), ƒKó (K‚ò), ƒQivÏ (kªv×), „cbœvg (cÖYvg), ƒNbœv (NYv), ƒevógx (…eòex) BZ¨vw`| Z™¢e kã : ƒh me kã ms¯ˆ‚Z fvlv ƒ_„K cÖvK‚Z ¯Í„ii gva¨„g i€cvšÍwiZ n„q evsjv fvlvq G„m„Q, ƒm me kã„K Z™¢e kã e„j| ƒhgb : Puv` (P›`ª > P›` > Puv`), nvZ (n¯Í > nÌ > nvZ), Pvgvi (Pg©Kvi > P¤§Avi > Pvgvi) BZ¨vw`| †`wk kã : ƒh me kã Avw`Kvj ƒ_„KB evsjv fvlvi wbR¯^ kã wn„m„e e¨eüZ n„q Avm„Q, ƒm me kã„K ƒ`wk kã e„j| ƒhgb: Kzjv, ƒXuwK, SuvUv, ƒUvci, wWwO BZ¨vw`| we‡`wk kã : ms¯ˆ‚Z Qvov Ab¨vb¨ we„`wk fvlv ƒ_„K ƒh me kã evsjv fvlvq G„m„Q, ƒm me kã„K we„`wk kã e„j| ƒhgb: Pv, wPwb, Zvjv, Pvwe, PvKz, jyw½, ¸`vg, Avjgvwi, PvKi, `v„ivMv, bvgvh, ƒivhv, wi·v, cvDiæwU BZ¨vw`|

 k‡ãi MVbMZ †kªwY wefvM MVbMZ w`K ƒ_„K kã `yB cÖKvi| h_v : 1. †g․wjK kã : ƒh me kã„K fvOv ev we„kølY Kiv hvq bv ƒm¸„jv„K ƒg‡wjK kã e„j| ƒhgb : bvK, ƒMvjvc, jvj, wZb BZ¨vw`| G me ƒg‡wjK k㸄jvB n„”Q fvlvi g~j Dcv`vb| 2. mvwaZ kã : ƒh me kã„K fvO„j ev we„kølY Ki„j Ab¨ ƒKvb ÿz`ªZi kã cvIqv hvq, ƒm¸„jv„K mvwaZ kã e„j| mvaviYZ GKvwaK kã mgvmwb®úbœ n„q, wKsev „Kvb kã ev avZzi mv„_ cÖZ¨q ev DcmM© hy³ n„q mvwaZ kã MwVZ nq| D`vniY: bxjvKvk (bxj ƒh AvKvk), N„ivqv (Ni+Dqv), mywePvi (my+wePvi) BZ¨vw`|

 k‡ãi A_©MZ †kªwYwefvM A_©„f„` kã„K wZb fv„M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v : 1. ƒh‡wMK kã 2. i€p ev i€wp kã 3. ƒhvMi€p kã| 1. †h․wMK kã : ƒh me k„ãi ey¨rcwËMZ I e¨envwiK A_© cÖvq GKB iKg, „m¸„jv„K ƒh‡wMK kã e„j| ƒhgb : MvqK = …M+YK (AK), KZ©e¨ = K‚+Ze¨| Abyi€cfv„eÑ N„ivqv, co–qv, ƒQ„jwg, bxwjgv, ƒM„Qv, ƒMu„qv BZ¨vw`| 2. iƒp ev iƒwp kã : ƒh me k„ãi A_© Zvi ey¨rcwË Abyhvqx bv n„q wfbœ ƒKvb A_© cÖKvk K„i, Zv„K i€wp kã e„j| ƒhgb : n¯Íx = n¯Í + Bb& , M„elYv (ƒMv+GlYv), Abyi€cfv„e Ñ cvÄvwe, euvwk, †Zj, m„›`k, cÖexY BZ¨vw`| 4. †hvMiƒp kã : mgvmwb®úbœ ƒhme kã Zvi mgm¨gvb c`mg~„ni ƒKvbwUi A_© bv eywS„q wewkó ƒKvb A_© cÖKvk K„i Zv„K ƒhvMi€p kã e„j| ƒhgb: c¼RÑc„¼ R„b¥ hv| kvjyK, …kevj, kvcjv I c„Ùi g„Zv A„bK dzj ev Dw™¢`B c„¼ (Kv`vq) R„b¥ MÖnY K„i| A_P Zvi g„a¨ GKgvÎ cÙdzj„KB Ôc¼RÕ ejv nq| Gfv„eB Ôc¼RÕ GKwU wewkó A_© cÖKvk Ki„Q| `„óvšÍ : AbyR, AMÖR, gnvhvÎv, Rjwa, Z„cveb BZ¨vw`|  Abykxjbx

1. MVbMZ w`K †_‡K †KvbwU †Kvb ai‡bi kã Zv c„_K K‡i †`LvI : ƒLjv, Pj, Puv`gyL, nvZ, nvZj, AvKvk, bxj, we`¨vjq, Mn, `vZv, cov, ƒMvjvc, myMÜ, hyeivR, wÎbqb, Awÿ| 2. A_©MZ w`K †_‡K †KvbwU †Kvb ai‡bi kã Zv c„_K K‡i †`LvI : wgZvwj, MvqK, …Zj, euvwk, Rjwa, m„ivR, cÖexY, …kevj, n¯Íx, gnvhvÎv, m„›`k, evwi`, Mv„ovqvb, cvÄvwe| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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3. DrmMZ w`K †_‡K †KvbwU †Kvb ai‡bi kã Zv c„_K K‡i †`LvI : bvgvh, wiKmv, ¯ˆzj, m~h©, bÿÎ, gv÷vi, cy¯ÍK, Pv, niZvj, Avjøvn, ƒLv`v, e`LZ, ƒg‡jfx, cw_ex|  ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cÖkvœ ewj

1. kã Kv„K e„j? DrmMZfv„e kã KZ cÖKvi I Kx Kx ? D`vniYmn Zv Av„jvPbv Ki| 2. kã Kv„K e„j? MVbMZfv„e kã KZ cÖKvi I Kx Kx ? D`vniYmn Zv Av„jvPbv Ki| 3. kã Kv„K e„j? A_©MZfv„e kã KZ cÖKvi I Kx Kx ? D`vniYmn Av„jvPbv Ki|

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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kã MVb  kã : A_©c~Y© aŸwb ev aŸwb mgwó„K kã e„j| aŸwbi mv„_ aŸwb wKsev kã ev avZzi mv„_ cÖZ¨q ev DcmM© hy³ n„q A_ev mwÜ ev mgv„mi gva¨„g ƒh cÖwµqvq kã MwVZ nq ƒm cÖwµqv„KB ejv nq kã MVb| kã n„”Q fvlvi cÖvYkw³| cÖwZwU kã GK GKwU fve, e¯‘ ev Abyf~wZi cÖZxK| ƒh fvlvi kã msL¨v hZ ƒewk, ƒm fvlvi fve cÖKvk Kivi ÿgZvI ZZ „ewk| mg„qi weeZ©„bi mv„_ mv„_ bZzb bZzb fve cÖKv„ki cքqvR„b wKsev wkÿv-`xÿv I Ávb-weÁvb PP©vi cքqvR„b cÖwZwbqZB bZzb bZzb kã mwó nq|  kã MV‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv e¨vKi„Y kã MV„bi Av„jvPbv GKvwaK Kvi„Y ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| cÖ_gZ, ƒKvb kã Kxfv„e MwVZ nq Zv Rvb„j kãwU e¨vKiYMZ …ewkó¨ m¤ú„K© Avgiv aviYv jvf Ki„Z cvwi| wØZxqZ, kã MV„bi wbqg Rvbv _vK„j eûj cÖPwjZ k„ãi e`„j bZzb kã MVb K„i fve cÖKvk Kiv hvq| Z‚ZxqZ, kã-MV„bi ƒÿ„Î e¨vKi„Yi wbqg ƒh me©Î AbymZ nq bv, ƒÿÎ we„k„l wbq„gi wkw_j cքqvM N„U ƒm m¤ú„K©I Avgv„`i aviYv R„b¥| wb„P kã MV„bi wewfbœ ixwZ m¤ú„K© Av„jvKcvZ Kiv n„”Q|

 evsjv kãMV‡bi c×wZmg~n wewfbœ Dcv„q evsjv fvlvq kã MwVZ nq| ƒhgb Ñ (K) cÖZ¨q„hv„M (L) DcmM©„hv„M (M) mwÜi gva¨„g (N) mgv„mi gva¨„g (O) wØiæw³i gva¨„g (P) c`všÍ„ii gva¨„g BZ¨vw`| (K) cÖZ¨q ‡hv‡M : avZz ev k„ãi m„½ cÖZ¨q hy³ K„i bZzb bZzb kã mwó KivB n„jv cÖZ¨q„hv„M kãMVb| ƒhgb Ñ Kuv`& + bv = Kvbœv, Pj& + Ab = Pjb BZ¨vw`| cÖZ¨q„hv„M Avevi `yfv„e kã MwVZ nq| „hgb Ñ 1. K‚r cÖZ¨q„hv„M Ges 2. Zw×Z cÖZ¨q ƒhv„M| (L) DcmM© ‡hv‡M : wKQz Ae¨qm~PK kãvsk avZz ev k„ãi c~„e© e„m g~j k„ãi A„_©i cwieZ©b, cwiea©b, ms„KvPb BZ¨vw` NwU„q _v„K| Gfv„e bZzb kã MVb cÖwµqv„K e„j DcmM©„hv„M kãMVb| ƒhgb Ñ nv + fvZ = nvfvZ, cwi + nvi = cwinvi BZ¨vw`| DcmM©„hv„M Avevi wZbfv„e kã MwVZ nq| h_v Ñ 1. evsjv DcmM©„hv„M, 2. Zrmg DcmM©„hv„M Ges 3. we„`wk DcmM©„hv„M| (M) mwÜi gva¨‡g : cvkvcvwk `y„Uv aŸwbi wgj„bi bvg mwÜ| mvaviYZ mn„R D”PviY Ges aŸwbMZ gvayh© m¤úv`„bi Rb¨B mwÜi gva¨„g kã MVb Kiv nq| mwÜi gva¨„g wZbfv„e kã MVb Kiv hvq| h_v Ñ 1. ¯^imwÜi gva¨„g| ƒhgb Ñ we`¨v + Avjq = we`¨vjq 2. e¨ÄbmwÜi gva¨„g „hgb Ñ Dr + ƒjL = D„jøL Ges 3. wemM©mwÜi gva¨„g| „hgb Ñ Avwet + Kvi = Avwe®ˆvi (N) mgv‡mi gva¨‡g : evsjv fvlvq kã MV„bi ƒh me Dcvq i„q„Q Zvi g„a¨ Ab¨Zg Dcvq nj mgvm| `yB ev Z„ZvwaK c„`i GK c„` cwiYZ nIqv„K mgvm e„j| „hgbÑ bxjcÙ, wPimyLx, nvU-evRvi BZ¨vw` mgv„mi gva¨„g MwVZ k„ãi `óvšÍ| mgv„mi gva¨„g bZzb bZzb kã MVb Kiv m¤¢e; hv evsjv fvlvi kãm¤¢vi„K mg× K„i| mgv„mi gva¨„g Qq fv„e kã MVb Kiv hvq| (O) c`všÍi ev c` cwieZ©‡bi gva¨‡g : GK cÖKvi c`„K Ab¨ cÖKvi c„` cwieZ©b K„i bZzb bZzb kã MVb Kiv hvq| evsjv fvlvq mvaviYZ we„kl¨ ƒ_„K we„klY, we„klY ƒ_„K we„kl¨ Ges wµqv ƒ_„K we„kl¨ c` MVb Kiv hvq| ƒhgbAsk > AvswkK, wPÎ > wPwÎZ, wK„kvi > …K„kvi, wjL > wjwLZ BZ¨vw`| (P) wØiæw³i gva¨‡g : evsjv kã MV„bi ƒÿ„Î wØiæw³i f~wgKv AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| wØiæw³i gva¨„g iPbvq e¨Äbv mwó nq Ges fvlv myMwVZ i€c jvf K„i| evsjv fvlvq wKQz wKQz kã GKevi e¨envi Ki„j ƒh A_© cÖKvk K„i, „m¸„jv `yBevi e¨envi Ki„j Ab¨ A_© cÖKvk K„i| Avi Gfv„e k„ãi `yevi cքqv„MB wØiæw³ kã MwVZ nq| ƒhgb - Avgvi Nyg Nyg jvM„Q| eo eo Avg wb„q G„mv| wØiæw³ kã MwVZ nq wZbfv„e| h_v Ñ 1. k„ãi wØiæw³i gva¨„g, 2.c„`i wØiæw³ i gva¨„g I 3. aŸbvZ¥K ev AbyKvi wØiæw³i gva¨„g | cwi„k„l Avgiv ej„Z cvwi ƒh, Dchy©³ c×wZi gva¨„g evsjv fvlvq AmsL¨ kã MwVZ n„q„Q| G me kã evsjv fvlvi kã fvÐvi„K ƒhgb ƒm‡Kh©gwÐZ K„i„Q ƒZgwb h„_ó mg×I K„i„Q| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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 Abykxjbg~jK KvR 1. wb‡Pi cÖwZwUi gva¨‡g cvuPwU K‡i kã MVb Ki : DcmM©„hv„M, cÖZ¨q„hv„M, mwÜi gva¨„g, mgv„mi gva¨„g, wØiæw³i gva¨„g| 2. wb‡Pi Aby‡”Q‡`i †iLvwPwýZ k㸇jv †Kvb ‡Kvb wbq‡g MwVZ n‡q‡Q Zv ‡jL|

w`b KvwUqv hvq| Rxeb AwZevwnZ nq| FZyP„µ mgq cvK Lvq, cÙvi fvOb-aiv Zx„i gvwU awm„Z _v„K, cÙvi ey„K Rj ƒf` Kwiqv RvwMqv D„V Pi, Aa© kZvãxi we¯ÍxY© Pi cÙvi R„j Avevi wejxb nBqv hvq|  ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cÖkvœ ewj 1. kã MVb Kv„K e„j? D`vniYmn kã MV„bi cuvPwU wbqg ƒjL| 2. Kx Kx Dcv„q kã MwVZ nq ? D`vniYmn Zv Av„jvPbv Ki| 3. AwZ, wbt, cwi, mg DcmM© ƒhv„M cuvPwU K„i MVb Ki|

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evK¨ I evK¨ cÖKiY  evK¨ : †h c` ev c` mgwó Øviv †Kvb c~Y© g‡bvfve e¨³ Kiv nq, †m c` ev c`mgwó‡KB evK¨ e‡j| evK¨ n‡”Q fvlvi cÖavb Dcv`vb| Avi ev‡K¨i †g․wjK Dcv`vb n‡jv kã| GKvwaK c` ev kã ci¯úi m¤úK©hy³ n‡qB evK¨ MVb K‡i| W. mybxwZKzgvi P„Ævcva¨vq evK¨ m¤ú„K© e„j„Qb, Ò †h c` ev c`mgwói Øviv †Kvb wel‡q e³vi g‡bi fve m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c cÖKwUZ nq, †mB c` ev kãmgwó‡K evK¨ (sentence) e‡j|Ó ev„K¨ mvaviYZ `ywU Ask _v„K| ƒhgb Ñ (1) D„Ïk¨ I (2) we„aq 1. D‡Ïk¨ : ev„K¨ hv„K jÿ K„i ev hvi m¤ú„K© wKQy ejv nq Zv„K D„Ïk¨ e„j| ƒhgb : ƒg„qwU eB co„Q| ev„K¨ Ԅg„qwUÕ m¤ú„K© wKQz ejv n„q„Q| GLv„b ԃg„qwUÕ D„Ïk¨| 2. we‡aq : ev„K¨ D„Ïk¨ m¤ú„K© hv wKQz ejv nq ZvB we„aq| ƒhgb Ñ ƒQ„jwU ej ƒLj„Q| ev„K¨ Ôej ƒLj„QÕ we„aq| ev„K¨ D„Ïk¨ A_©vr ԃQ„jwUÕ m¤ú„K© ejv n„q„Q| KZ¸„jv c` GK„Î wgwjZ n„jB evK¨ nq bv| evK¨ n„Z n„j Zvi mywbw`©ó KZK¸„jv …ewkó¨ ev ¸Y _vKv Avek¨K|

 mv_©K ev‡K¨i •ewkó¨mg~n Ñ GKwU mv_©K ev„K¨i 3wU ¸Y _vKv Avek¨K| h_v Ñ (1) AvKv•ÿv (2) AvmwË ev c`µg Ges (3) ƒhvM¨Zv|

1. AvKv•ÿv : ev„K¨i A_© cy„ivcywi Abyave„bi Rb¨ GK c„`i ci Av„iK c` ƒkvbvi ƒh B”Qv Zv„K AvKv•ÿv e„j| ƒhgbevsjv„`k 1971 mv„j...... | G ev„K¨ g„bi fve m¤ú~Y©i€„c cÖKvk cvq bv| G ev„K¨i A_© cy„ivcywi ƒevSvi Rb¨ Av„iv wKQz c„`i cքqvRb| hw` evK¨wU„Z ejv nq, evsjv„`k 1971 mv„j ¯^vaxbZv jvf K„i„Q| Z„e g„bi fve m¤ú~Y©i€„c cÖKvk cvq| myZivs GB evK¨wU„K mv_©K evK¨ ejv hvq|

2. AvmwË ev c`µg : ÔAvmwËÕ A_© †bKU¨| G„K c`µgI ejv nq| ev„K¨i myk•Lj c`web¨vmB AvmwË ev c`µg| A_©vr ev„K¨i A_© ƒevSvi Rb¨ c`¸„jv„K Ggbfv„e mvRv„Z n„e ƒhb GK c„`i ci Av„iK c` MVb Abyhvqx e„m| GK K_vq ev„K¨i c`¸„jv fvlvi ¯^vfvweK wbqg ƒhb ƒg„b P„j| ƒhgb:Ñ ƒm co„Q K„j„R GB hveZ `yB eQi| GB evK¨wU mv_©K evK¨ bq| wKš‘ Avgiv hw` evK¨wU„K Gfv„e mvwR„q wjwLZ- ƒm GB K„j„R `yB eQi hveZ co„Q| Z„e evK¨wU mv_©K evK¨ n„e| Avi ZvB evK¨„K mv_©K i€c w`„Z n„j AvmwË ev c`µg wVK ivL„Z n„e| [„bvU : Bs„iwR„Z evK¨MVb Kiv nq sub + verb + obj-GB c×wZ„Z; Z„e evsjv evK¨ MwVZ nq sub + obj + verb GB wbq„g]| 3. †hvM¨Zv : evK¨w¯’Z c`mg~„ni A_©MZ Ges fveMZ wgjeÜb„KB ƒhvM¨Zv ejv nq| hLb ƒKvb ev„K¨i kãMZ A_© Ges „evaMZ A_© Awfbœ i€c jvf K„i, ZLb Zv„K ejv nq ƒhvM¨Zvm¤úbœ evK¨| ƒhgb - Mi渄jv AvKv„k Do„Q| evK¨wU„Z AvKv•ÿv, AvmwË meB wVK Av„Q wKš‘ ƒhvM¨Zv ƒbB| KviY Ggb ev„K¨i kãMZ A„_©i mv„_ Avgv„`i „evaMZ A„_©i ƒKvb wgj ƒbB| ZvB GwU GKwU ƒhvM¨Zvnxb evK¨| wKš‘ hw` ejv nq, cvwL¸„jv AvKv„k Do„Q| Zvn„j evK¨wU mv_©K n„e| KviY GB evK¨wUi kãMZ A„_©i mv„_ Avgv„`i ƒevaMZ A„_©i wgj Av„Q| ZvB mv_©K evK¨ n„Z n„j ƒmLv„b Aek¨B ƒhvM¨Zv _vK„Z n„e| myZivs, Avgiv ej„Z cvwi, evK¨„K mv_©K n„Z n„j Zv„Z Aek¨B Dchy©³ ¸Y¸„jvi mgš^q _vK„Z n„e|

 ev‡K¨i †kªwY wefvM fve, A_© Ges MVbixwZi w`K ƒ_„K evK¨„K GKvwaK fv„M fvM Kiv hvq| ev„K¨i G ai„bi `ywU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© fvM n„jv (K) A_©MZ cÖKvi„f` Ges (L) MVbMZ cÖKvi„f`|

 ev‡K¨i A_©MZ cÖKvi‡f` A_© Abymv„i evK¨„K mvaviYZ cuvP fv„M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v Ñ 1. eY©bvg~jK: ƒh evK¨ Øviv mvaviYfv„e ƒKvb wKQy eY©bv ev weeZ Kiv nq; Zv„K eY©bvg~jK evK¨ e„j| eY©bvg~jK evK¨„K weewZg~jK evK¨I e„j| h_vÑ evsjv„`k GKwU b`xgvZ‚K ƒ`k| 2. cÖkm œ ~PK : ƒh evK¨ Øviv mivmwi ƒKvb wKQy wRÁvmv Kiv nq Zv„K cÖkm œ ~PK evK¨ e„j| ƒhgb: Zzwg wK „L„qQ ? 3. Av‡`k ev Dc‡`kg~jK : ƒh evK¨ Øviv Av„`k, Dc„`k, AbyMnÖ cÖfwZi fve cÖKvk cvq; Zv„K Av„`k ev Dc„`km~PK evK¨ e„j| h_v : Av„`kÑ GLbB cov ƒkl Ki„e| Dc„`kÑ wg_¨v e„jv bv| AbyMÖnÑ `qv K„i KjgwU w`b| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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4. cÖv_©bvg~jK : ƒh ev„K¨ cÖv_©bvi fve cÖKvwkZ nq Zv„K cÖv_©bvg~jK evK¨ e„j| ƒhgb: Zzwg myLx nI| 5. we¯§q ev Av‡eMm~PK evK¨: ƒh evK¨ Øviv we¯§q ev wewfbœ cÖKvi Av„eM cÖKvwkZ nq Zv„K we¯§q ev Av„eMm~PK evK¨ e„j| h_v : evn! Kx my›`i `k¨|

 ev‡K¨i MVbMZ cÖKvi‡f` MVb Abyhvqx evK¨„K wZb fv„M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v Ñ 1. mij evK¨ : ƒh ev„K¨ GKwU gvÎ D„Ïk¨ ev KZ©v Ges GKwUgvÎ we„aq ev mgvwcKv wµqv _v„K, Zv„K mij evK¨ e„j| ƒhgb Ñ ƒLvKv AvR ¯ˆz„j wM„q„Q| GLv„b ԃLvKvÕ D„Ïk¨ ev KZ©v Ges ÔwM„q„QÕ we„aq ev mgvwcKv wµqv| 2. RwUj evK¨ : ƒh ev„K¨ GKwU cÖavb LÐev„K¨i m„½ GK ev GKvwaK AvwkªZ evK¨ ci¯úi mv„cÿfv„e hy³ nq; Zv„K RwUj evK¨ e„j| G ev„K¨i Av„iK bvg wgkª evK¨| ƒhgb Ñ ƒh cwikªg K„i, ƒm myL jvf K„i| GLv„b AvwkªZevK¨ Ԅh cwikªg K„iÕ Ges cÖavb LÐevK¨ Ԅm myL jvf K„i|Õ G `ywU LÐevK¨ ci¯úi m¤úwK©Z n„q GLv„b GKwU ALÐ ev c~Y© evK¨ MVb K„i„Q| RwUj evK¨ mvaviYZ ƒh, ƒm; hviv, Zviv; whwb, wZwb; hLb, ZLb; BZ¨vw` mv„cÿ me©bvg Øviv hy³ nq| 3. †h․wMK evK¨ : ci¯úi wbi„cÿ `yB ev Z„ZvwaK mij ev RwUj evK¨ hLb „Kvb Ae¨q ev hwZ wPý Øviv hy³ n„q GKwU ALÐ ev c~Y© evK¨ MVb K„i, ZLb Zv„K ƒh‡wMK evK¨ e„j| ƒh‡wMK ev„K¨i AšÍM©Z evK¨¸„jv Ges, I, wKš‘, A_ev, A_P, wKsev, eis, Z_vwc cÖfwZ Ae¨q Øviv mshy³ nq| ƒhgbÑ kwdK Ges wmdvZ AvR ƒeov„Z hv„e| ƒjvKwU abx, wKš‘ K‚cY|

 ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cÖkvœ ewj 1. evK¨ Kv„K e„j? GKwU mv_©K ev„K¨i KqwU ¸Y _vKv Avek¨K, D`vniYmn Zv Av„jvPbv Ki| 2. MVb Abyhvqx evK¨ KZ cÖKvi I Kx Kx ? D`vniYmn Zv Av„jvPbv Ki| 3. D`vniYmn A_© Abyhvqx ev„K¨i ƒkªwYwefvM Av„jvPbv Ki|

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evK¨ iƒcvšÍi  evK¨ iƒcvšÍi : A„_©i ƒKvb ai„bi cwieZ©b bv NwU„q GK cÖKvi evK¨„K Ab¨ cÖKvi ev„K¨ i€cvšÍi Kivi cÖwµqv„KB ejv nq evK¨ i€cvšÍi| wewfbœ Dcv„q evK¨ i€cvšÍi Kiv ƒh„Z cv„i| ev„K¨i A_© AcwiewZ©Z ƒi„L MVbMZ, fveMZ Ges A_©MZ w`K ƒ_„K evK¨ i€cvšÍi n„Z cv„i| wb„P Gm„ei wKQz `óvšÍ ƒ`qv n„jv|  MVbMZ iƒcvšÍi  mij ƒ_„K RwUj mij : wkwki Avgvi ƒP„q `yB eQ„ii ƒQvU wQj| RwUj : ƒh wkwki, ƒm Avgvi ƒP„q `yB eQ„ii ƒQvU wQj|  RwUj ƒ_„K mij RwUj : ƒZvgvi whwb gvgv, Zvi bvg Kx? mij : ƒZvgvi gvgvi bvg Kx?  mij ƒ_„K ƒh‡wMK mij : mviw_„K GB Av„`k w`qv ivRv Z„cve„b cքek Kwi„jb| †h․wMK : mviw_„K ivRv GB Av„`k w`„jb Ges Z„cve„b cքek Kwi„jb|  ƒh‡wMK ƒ_„K mij †h․wMK : ciw`b kn„i LeiUv Qwo„q c„o Ges AbvwkªZ„`i AvMgb ïiæ nq| mij : ciw`b kn„i LeiUv Qwo„q co„j AbvwkªZ„`i AvMgb ïiæ nq|  RwUj ƒ_„K ƒh‡wMK RwUj : hw`I wkwk„ii eqm h_vmg„q ƒlvj nBj, Zey ƒmUv ¯^fv„ei ƒlvj| †h․wMK : wkwk„ii eqm h_vmg„q ƒlvj nBj, wKš‘ ƒmUv ¯^fv„ei ƒlvj|  ƒh‡wMK ƒ_„K RwUj †h․wMK : ƒKn Kwnqv w`„Z„Q bv, Z_vwc Z„cveb ewjqv ƒeva nB„Z„Q| RwUj : hw`I ƒKn Kwnqv w`„Z„Q bv, ZeyI Z„cveb ewjqv ƒeva nB„Z„Q|  fveMZ iƒcvšÍi :  Aw¯ÍevPK ƒ_„K ƒbwZevPK Aw¯Í: cwÄKvi cvZv DëvB„Z _vwKj| ƒbwZ: cwÄKvi cvZv Dëv„bv eÜ iwnj bv|  ƒbwZevPK ƒ_„K Aw¯ÍevPK ƒbwZ: Z„e bvwjkUv „h‡w³K bq| Aw¯Í: Z„e bvwjkUv A„h‡w³K|  A_©MZ iƒcvšÍi :  eY©bvg~jK ƒ_„K cÖk„œ evaK eY©bv: ƒQ„jwU K„j„R hv„”Q| cÖk:œ ƒQ„jwU K„j„R hv„”Q wK?  cÖk„œ evaK ƒ_„K eY©bvg~jK cÖk:œ evsjv„`k wK b`xgvZ‚K ƒ`k ? eY©bv: evsjv„`k b`xgvZ‚K ƒ`k|  eY©bvg~jK ƒ_„K AbyÁvm~PK eY©bv: fvj QvÎiv gb w`„q ƒjLvcov K„i| AbyÁv: gb w`„q ƒjLvcov Ki|  eY©bvg~~jK ƒ_„K cÖv_©bvm~PK eY©bvg~jK: ƒZvgvi mvdj¨ Kvgbv Kwi| cÖv_©bv: Zzwg ƒhb mdj nI|  wb„`©kvZ¥K ƒ_„K we¯§qm~PK eY©bv: dzjwU my›`i| we¯§q: evn, dzjwU KZ my›`i! ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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 Abykxjbx 1. wb‡Pi evK¨¸‡jv wb‡`©kbvbyhvqx iƒcvšÍi Ki : 1. bv gnvivR, wZwb Avkª„g bvB| 2. wcÖqse`v h_v_© Kwnqv„Q| 3. mi¯^wZ ei ƒ`„eb bv| 4. Zvnviv wK cvlvY? 5. Rbbx I Rb¥f~wg wK ¯^„M©i ƒP„q eo bq? 6. Avwg ƒZvgv„K wb„Z G„mwQ| 7. hviv fvj ƒQ„j Zviv ¸iæR„bi K_v ƒg„b P„j| 8. hw`I ƒm `wi`ª ,Z_vwc ƒm PwiÎevb| 9. ƒm‡i„fi ¯^v¯’¨ fvj bq| 10. AvRKvj ƒKvb wRwbmB mnRjf¨ bq| 11. G„Z ƒ`vl ƒbB| 12. ƒ`„ki „mev Kiv mK„ji KZ©e¨| 13. kx„Z `wi`ª gvby„li Lye Kó nq| 14. hv eva©K¨ Zv eq„mi ƒdª„g euvav hvq bv| 15. „m gi„e, Zey G K_v ej„e bv| 16. `qv K„i me K_v Ly„j ejyb| 17. fvj ƒQ„jiv wkÿ„Ki Av„`k ƒg„b P„j| 18. abxiv cÖvqB KcY nq| 19. a„bi ag©B Amvg¨| 20. G„Z ƒ`vl Kx? 21. mwZ¨ K_v bv e„j wec„` c„owQ| 22. gb w`„q ƒjLvcov Kiv DwPZ| 23. Qv΄`i Aa¨qbB Zcm¨v| 24. ƒmB euvwki myi fvix wgwó| 25. …ng Zvi A_© eySj bv| 26. wZwb abx n„qI AmyLx wQ„jb| 27. Zzwg abx; wKš‘ D`vi bI| 28. Aí „jvKB ƒe„`i A_© eySZ| 29. Zv„`i ƒh `wó, Zv„Z mvgvb¨ we¯§„qi fve| 30. G K_v ƒKvb evc f`ªmgv„R Keyj Kwi„Z PvwnZ bv| 31. ƒjvf cwiZ¨vM Ki, my„L _vK„e| 32. gvbyl giYkxj| 33. wcZv hLb Av„Qb, ZLb cy΄K ƒLuvR ƒKb? 34. UvKvq wK me nq? 35. A„b„Ki Rxe„b cÖ_„g `ytL Av„m ,c„i myL Av„m| 36. GRb¨B ƒZvgv„K mevB wcÖqse`v e„j| 37. evsjv„`„ki ivRavbxi bvg Kx ? 38. hLb wec` Av„m, ZLb `ytLI Av„m| 39. kx„Z `wi`ª gvby„li Kó nq| 40. GUv wbtm„›`n Zzjmx Mv„Qi hZœ wb„”Q ƒKD|

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Aw¯ÍevPK ƒbwZevPK cÖkeœ vPK ƒbwZevPK wb„`©kg~jK RwUj mij ƒh‡wMK Aw¯ÍevPK Aw¯ÍevPK cÖkeœ vPK AbyÁv we¯§q„evaK mij RwUj ƒh‡wMK wgkªevK¨ RwUj ƒh‡wMK ƒbwZevPK ƒh‡wMK AbyÁv RwUj we¯§qevPK Aw¯ÍevPK ƒbwZevPK RwUjevK¨ ƒbwZevPK mijevK¨ cÖkeœ vPK mijevK¨ ƒbwZevPK ƒh‡wMKevK¨ ƒbwZevPK mijevK¨ ƒbwZevPK Aw¯ÍevPK ƒh‡wMKevK¨ we®§qevPK ƒbwZevPK

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Y-Z¡ Ges l-Z¡ weavb  Y-Z¡ weavb : evsjv fvlvq e¨eüZ Zrmg k„ãi evbv„b ÔYÕ Gi e¨env„ii mwVK wbqg„K Y-Z¡ weavb e„j| ƒhgb Ñ 1. F, i, l I ÿ-GB eY©¸„jvi ci g~a©b¨-Y e¨eüZ nq| ƒhgb: F / F-Kvi (  ): FY, Z‚Y, NYv, gYvj BZ¨vw`| i / ƒid ( ©) / i-djv ( ª) : KviY, aviY, giY, KY©, P~Y©, `xY©, cY©, NÖvY, cÖYq, eªY, hš¿Yv, BZ¨vw`| l : lÐ, Nl©Y, `~lY, el©Y, fxlY BZ¨vw`| ÿ : ÿY, ÿwYK, ÿxY, ÿzYœ BZ¨vw`|  (ÔÿÕ g~jZ evsjv eY© bq| GwU K Ges l Gi hy³i€c| ZvB Gi Af¨šÍ„i ÔlÕ i„q ƒM„Q e„jB Gi c„i g~a©b¨-Y e¨eüZ nq)|  wb„Pi QovwU ƒ_„K Y-Z¡ weav„bi GKwU wbqg g„b ivLv mnR nq|

FKvi iKvi lKv„ii ci bKvi hw` _v„K; Lu¨vP K„i Zvi KvUe gv_v ƒKvb& evc Zv„i iv„L| [ bKvi (b)-Gi gv_v KvUv gv„b gvÎv bv-„`Iqv, Avi Zvi A_©B nj g~a©b¨-Y ]

2. Ôi,F, l, (  , ©, ª) A_ev ÔÿÕ-Gi c„i hw` K-e„M©i 5wU eY© (K L M N O), c-e„M©i 5wU eY© (c, d, e, f, g) A_ev h, q, n I Ab¨ ƒKvb ¯^iaŸwb _v„K Z„e Zvi c„i Ôg~a©b¨-YÕ n„e| ƒhgbÑ civqY, ƒivcY, K‚cY, MwnYx, AMÖnvqY BZ¨vw`|  e¨wZµg : Mixqvb, el©xqvb, kªxgvb |

3. U-e„M©i U, V, W, X-GB PviwU e„Y©i m„½ hy³e¨Äb wn„m„e me mgq ÔYÕ e„m| ƒhgb Ñ KÈK, NÈv, KÉ, jyÉb, VvÐv BZ¨vw`| 4. DËi, ci, cvi, iex›`ª ,P›`ª Ges bvi-k㸄jvi c„i ÔAqbÕ hy³ n„j mvwaZ k„ã Ô`šÍ¨-bÕ Ôg~a©b¨-YÕ ƒZ i€cvšÍi nq| ƒhgb Ñ DËi + Aqb-DËivqY, ci + Aqb = civqY, bvi + Aqb = bvivqY BZ¨vw`|  Ggb wKQz kã Av„Q ƒhLv„b ¯^fveZB g~a©b¨-Y e„m| G¸„jv ƒKvb wbq„gi AbymiY K„i bv| G RvZxq k㸄jv g„b ivLvi Rb¨ GKwU PgrKvi Qov i„q„Q| QovwU wb„P DׁZ n„jv Ñ PvYK¨ gvwYK¨ MY evwYR¨ jeY gY ƒeYy exYv K¼Y KwYKv Kj¨vY ƒkvwYZ gwY ¯’vYy MyY cyY¨ ƒeYx dYx AYy wecwY MwYKv| AvcY jveY¨ evYx wbcyY fwYZv cvwY ƒM‡Y ƒKvY fvY cY kvY wP°Y wb°Y Z~Y K„dvwY ewYK MyY MYbv wcYvK cY¨ evY|

 we‡kl ÁvZe¨ 1. hy³ e¨Ä„bi ƒÿ„Î Z, _, `, a-GB PviwU e„Y©i m„½ me mgq ÔbÕ e¨eüZ nq| ƒhgb : AšÍ, KvšÍ, cÖvšÍ, cš’v, A›`i, L›`, MÖš’, µ›`b BZ¨vw`| 2. we„`wk kã A_ev bv„gi evbvb Ges wµqvc„`i ƒÿ„Î Y e¨eüZ nq bv| A_©vr GmKj ƒÿ„Î Ôg~a©b¨-Y bv n„q Ô`šÍ¨-bÕ e¨eüZ nq| ƒhgbÑ Mfb©i, wb„ik BZ¨vw`| 3. mgvme× c„` mvavibZ Ôg~a©b¨-YÕ- bv n„q Ô`šÍ¨-bÕ e¨eüZ nq| ƒhgb- wÎbqb, me©bvg, `yb©xwZ, `yb©vg BZ¨vw`| 4. A-Zrmg k„ã (A_©vr Z™¢e k„ã) me©`v `šÍ¨-b nq| „hgb-Sibv, ivbx, cyivb (cyivZb), aib BZ¨vw`|  l-Z¡ weavb : evsjv fvlvq e¨eüZ Zrmg k„ãi evbv„b ÔlÕ e¨env„ii mwVK wbqg„K l-Z¡ weavb e„j| evsjv fvlvq ÔmÕ aŸwbi i€c wZbwU -k, l, m d„j evbv„b mgm¨vq co„Z nq| G „ÿ„Î l-Z¡ weavb g„b ivL„j G m¤úwK©Z evbv„bi wecwË n„Z A„bKUvB iÿv cvIqv hvq| 1. A Ges Av Kvi Qvov me ¯^ie„Y©i c„i Ôg~a©b¨-lÕ nq| A_©vr B, C, D, E, G, H, I Ges J-Gi ci mvaviYZ ÔlÕ nq| ƒhgb Ñ Clr, fxlY, wRMxlv, Dò, mylg, Zzlvi, Eli, Elv, f~lY GlY, Glv, ƒØl,HwlK, …eòe,Ilwa, Ilya, Jla, ƒc‡l BZ¨vw`| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

2. i, „id ( )© Ges F ev F-Kvi (  )-Gi ci mvaviYZ Ôg~a©b¨-lÕ nq| ƒhgb Ñ Kl©Y, Fwl, gnw©l©, Z‚òv BZ¨vw`| 3. I V eY© `ywUi mv„_ hy³ Ae¯’vq memgq Ôg~a©b¨-lÕ e„m| ƒhgb- ewó, Abyôvb, wewkó BZ¨vw`| 4. evsjv fvlvq ƒ`wk-we„`wk kã wgwj„q cÂvkwUiI ƒewk ÔDcmM©Õ Av„Q| ƒhgb- Awa, Aby, Awf, Dc, civ, cwi, cÖwZ, my BZ¨vw`| Gme Dcm„M©i g„a¨ B-KvivšÍ (Ôw Õ w`„q ƒkl n„q„Q Ggb-h_v : Awa, Awf, cÖwZ, cwi BZ¨vw`) Ges D-KvivšÍ Dcm„M©i ci mvaviYZ Ôg~a©b¨-lÕ nq| ƒhgb- Abyl`, Awf„lK, cÖwZôvb, Abyl½ BZ¨vw`|

 we‡kl ÁvZe¨ 1. we„`wk k„ãi ƒÿ„Î St D”PviY n„j Ô÷Õ wjL„Z n„e| ƒhgbÑ ƒ÷vi, ƒ÷kb, ÷j, w÷j| 2. Aviwe, dviwm, Bs„iwR BZ¨vw` we„`wk k„ã KL„bv g~a©b¨ ÔlÕ n„e bv| Gme k„ãi g~j D”PviY Abyhvqx Ô`šÍ¨-mÕ A_ev ÔZvje¨ -kÕ n„e| ƒhgb Ñ Aviwe : bKkv, gRwjm, dmj| Bs„iwR : Kwgkb, weªwUk, ƒgwkb, wm„jevm| dvwm© : Lywk, ƒLvk, Pkgv, iwm`, Lvbmvgv|

 wb‡Pi k㸇jv ï× K‡i †jL : Aveib, eib, aibx, nwib, wbgš¿b, wgkªb,kªveb, cÖbvg, cwibvg, KvÛ,gÛjx, jÚb,gvóvi, ƒcvóvi, d„Uvó¨vU, wbM©gb, kªxgvb, `yb©vg. Abyôvb, Avwe¯ˆvi, cyi¯ˆvi, Plgv, mY`, wój, ój, ewj÷, a~wjl¨vr,Awf„mK, bexY, bevYœ, aibx, Mwnbx, `w÷, Ac„P÷v,wbwm³, kª×vfvR„bly, e¨vcwUó, wjcwóK, ƒówWqvg, Bó, GKwb÷, gwnm|

 ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cÖkœvewj 1. Y-Z¡ weavb K„K e„j ? D`vniYmn Y-Z¡ weav„bi cvuPwU wbqg ƒjL| 2. l-Z¡ weavb Kv„K e„j ? D`vniYmn l-Z¡ weav„bi cuvPwU wbqg D„jøL Ki|

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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mgvm  mgvm: ci¯úi m¤úK©hy³ `yB ev Z„ZvwaK c„`i GKc„` cwiYZ nIqv„K mgvm e„j| mgvm gv„b ms„ÿcY, wgjb ev GKvwaK c„`i GKc`xKiY| mgv„mi gva¨„g GKvwaK c` ev kã wgwjZ n„q GKwU bZzb c` ev kã mwó K„i| ZvB mgvm„K bZzb k㠆Zwi I cքqv„Mi GKwU we„kl ixwZ ejv hvq| mgv„mi ixwZ ms¯ˆ‚Z ƒ_„K evsjvq G„m„Q|

 mgv‡mi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv mgvm fvlv„K mswÿß I kÖæwZgayi K„i| mgv„mi gva¨„g Avgiv bZzb bZzb kã …Zwi Ki„Z cvwi|

 mgvm m¤úwK©Z wKQy cwifvlv  mg¯Í c` : mgv„mi gva¨„g `yB ev Z„ZvwaK c` wg„j ƒh bZzb c` MwVZ nq, Zv„K mg¯Í c` e„j| ƒhgb : wmsnvmb (wmsn, Avmb)| GLv„b ÔwmsnvmbÕ c`wU mg¯Í c`| mg¯Í c`„K mgvme× c`I e„j|  mgm¨gvb c` : „h ƒh c„`i wgj„b mg¯Í c` MwVZ nq, Zv„`i cքZ¨KwU c`„KB ejv nq mgm¨gvb c`| ƒhgb Ñ wmsn/ Avmb (wmsnvmb)| GLv„b wmsnvmb mg¯Í c`wUi AšÍM©Z ÔwmsnÕ Ges ÔAvmbÕ G `ywU c` n„jv mgm¨gvb c`|  e¨vmevK¨ ev weMÖnevK¨ : mg¯Íc`„K we„kølY Kivi Rb¨ ƒh evK¨vsk e¨envi Kiv nq Zv„K, e¨vmevK¨ ev mgvmevK¨ ev weMÖnevK¨ e„j| ƒhgb Ñ wmsn wPwýZ Avmb (wmsnvmb)| GLv„b Ôwmsn wPwýZ AvmbÕ n„”Q e¨vmevK¨ ev weMÖn evK¨|  c~e©c` : mg¯Í c„`i cÖ_g Ask„K c~e©c` ejv nq| ƒhgb Ñ ÔwmsnvmbÕ kãwU„Z ÔwmsnÕ n„”Q GB c~e©c`|  cic` : mg¯Í c„`i ƒkl Ask„K cic` ev DËi c` e„j| ƒhgb Ñ ÔwmsnvmbÕ kãwU„Z Avmb n„”Q cic` ev DËi c`|  mgvm mvaviYZ Qq cÖKvi h_v Ñ (1) Ø›Ø (2) wظ (3) Kg©aviq (4) Zrcyiæl (5) eûeªxwn I (6) Ae¨qxfve| wb„gœ mgvm m¤ú„K© we¯ÍvwiZ Av„jvPbv Kiv nj  Ø›Ø

mgvm 

ƒh mgv„m mgvb wefw³ wewkó GKvwaK c` GKc„` cwiYZ nq Ges cքZ¨KwU c„`i A„_©i cÖvavb¨ _v„K Zv„K Ø›Ø mgvm e„j| ƒhgb: Zvj-Zgvj = Zvj I Zgvj| Ø›Ø mgv„m A„cÿvK‚Z m¤§vwbZ I ¯¿xevPK c` c~„e© e„m| ƒhgb: ¸iæ-wkl¨ = ¸iæ I wkl¨, gvZv-wcZv = gvZv I wcZv| Ø›Ø mgv„m c~e©c` I cic„`i m¤^Ü ƒevSv„bvi Rb¨ e¨vmev„K¨ I, Ges, Avi-G wZbwU Ae¨qc` e¨eüZ nq|

Kg©aviq mgvm  ƒh mgv„m we„klY ev we„klYfvevcbœ c„`i mv„_ we„kl¨ ev we„kl¨fvevcbœ c„`i mgvm nq Ges DËic„`i A_© cÖvavb¨ cvq Zv„K Kg©aviq mgvm e„j| ƒhgb: bxjcÙ Ñ bxj ƒh cÙ, KuvPvwgVv Ñ hv KvuPv ZvB wgVv| Kg©aviq mgv„m we„klY c`wU mvaviYZ cÖ_„g e„m| ƒhgb : i³ Kgj Ñ i³ (e„Y©i) ƒh Kgj| Avevi we„klY c`wU KL„bv c„iI e„m| ƒhgb : R†bK Ñ Rb ƒh GK| Kg©aviq mgvm K„qK cÖKvi| ƒhgb Ñ ga¨c`„jvcx, Dcgvb, DcwgZ Ges i€cK Kg©aviq| 1. ga¨c`‡jvcx Kg©aviq mgvm : ƒh Kg©aviq mgv„mi ga¨c` ƒjvc cvq ev Dn¨ _v„K, Zv„K ga¨c`„jvcx Kg©aviq mgvm e„j| ƒhgb: wmsnvmb = wmsn wPwýZ „h Avmb, cjvbœ = cj (gvsm) wgwkªZ ƒh Abœ BZ¨vw`| 2. Dcgvb Kg©aviq mgvm: hvi mv„_ ƒKvb wKQz Zyjbv Kiv nq Zv„K Dcgvb c` e„j| Avi Dcgvb c„`i mv„_ hv„K Zzjbv Kiv nq, Zv„K e„j Dc„gq c`| Dc„gq c„`i D„jøL bv K„i Dcgvb c„`i mv„_ mvaviY ¸Y ev ag©evPK c„`i wgj„b ƒh mgvm nq Zv„K Dcgvb Kg©aviq mgvm e„j| „hgbÑ ågiK‚ò (åg„ii b¨vq K‚ò), Zzlviïå (Zzlv„ii b¨vq ïå), wgkKv„jv (wgwki b¨vq Kv„jv) BZ¨vw`|  Dcgvb Kg©aviq mgvm = we„kl¨ + we„klY | 3. DcwgZ Kg©aviq mgvm : mvaviY ¸„Yi D„jøL bv K„i Dcgvb c„`i mv„_ Dc„gq c„`i wgj„b ƒh mgvm nq Zv„K DcwgZ Kg©aviq mgvm e„j| ƒhgb: IjKwc (Kwc I„ji b¨vq), KiKgj (Ki Kg„ji b¨vq), Puv`gyL (gyL Puv„`i b¨vq) BZ¨vw`|  DcwgZ Kg©aviq mgvm = we„kl¨ + we„kl¨ |  ƒh we„kl …ewk„ó¨i Rb¨ GKwU e¯‘„K Ab¨ e¯‘i mv„_ Zzjbv Kiv nq Zv„K e„j mvaviY ag© ev ¸Y| 4. iƒcK Kg©aviq mgvm : Dcgvb I Dc„gq c„`i g„a¨ A„f` Kíbv Kiv ƒevSv„j i€cK Kg©aviq mgvm nq| ƒhgb : gbgvwS (gb i€c gvwS), welv`wmÜz ( welv` i€c wmÜz)| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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 wظ mgvm  mgvnvi ev mgwó A„_© msL¨vevPK k„ãi mv„_ we„kl¨ c„`i ƒh mgvm nq Zv„K wظ mgvm e„j| wظ mgv„m mgvme× c`wU we„kl¨ c` nq| ƒhgb : ƒmZvi = ƒm (wZb) Zv„ii mgvnvi, AóavZz = Aó avZzi mgvnvi|

 Zrcyiæl mgvm  c~e©c„` wefw³ „jv„c ƒh mgvm nq Ges ƒh mgv„m DËic` ev cic„`i A„_©i cÖvavb¨ _v„K Zv„K Zrcyiæl mgvm e„j| ƒhgb: wec`vcbœ-wec`„K Avcbœ (2qv Zrcyiæl), kªgjä-kªg Øviv jä (Z‚Zxqv Zrcyiæl), ivRcyÎ-ivRvi cyÎ (6ôx Zrcyiæl) BZ¨vw`| Zrcyiæl mgvm wewfbœ cÖKvi n„Z cv„i| ƒhgb Ñ  bT Zrcyiæl mgvm : bT Ae¨q (Ab, b, ƒbB, bvB, A, Av) c~e©c„` e„m ƒh mgvm nq Zv„K bT Zrcyiæl mgvm e„j| ƒhgb: AKvj- bq Kvj| Av„avqv-bq ƒavqv| Abvewó-bq ewó|  Dcc` Zrcyiæl mgvm : K‚`šÍ c„`i c~e©eZx© c`„K Dcc` ejv nq| K‚`šÍc„`i m„½ Dcc„`i wgj„b ƒh mgvm nq Zv„K Dcc` Zrcyiæl mgvm e„j| ƒhgb: c„KUgvi (c„KU gv„i ƒh), ƒQ„jaiv (ƒQ„j a„i ƒh), Qv„cvlv (Qv ƒcv„l ƒh) BZ¨vw`|  AjyK Zrcyiæl mgvm : „h Zrcyiæl mgv„mi c~e©c„` wefw³ ƒjvc cvq bv Zv„K AjyK Zrcyiæl mgvm e„j| ƒhgbÑ wN„q fvRvwN„q fvRv, K„j QvUv-K„j QvUv|

 eûeªxwn mgvm  ƒh mgv„m mgm¨gvb c`¸„jvi ƒKvbwUiB A_© bv eywS„q Ab¨ ƒKvb c`„K ƒevSvq Zv„K eûeªxwn mgvm e„j| ƒhgb: Avkxwel Ñ Avkx„Z (`uv„Z) wel hvi| Gi€c : eûeªxwn, b`xgvZ‚K BZ¨vw`|

 Ae¨qxfve mgvm  c~e©c„` Ae¨q„hv„M wb®úbœ mgv„m hw` Ae¨„qi A_© cÖvavb¨ cvq Zv„K Ae¨qxfve mgvm e„j| Ae¨qxfve mgv„m ïay Ae¨„qi A_©„hv„M e¨vmevK¨wU †Zwi nq| ƒhgb : AvgiY-giY ch©šÍ| DcKÉ-K„Éi mgx„c, wbivwgl-Avwg„li Afve|  cÖvw` mgvm : c~e©c„` cÖ, civ, cÖwZ, Awf DcmM© ƒhv„M ƒh mgvm nq Zv„K cÖvw` mgvm e„j| „hgb cÖfvZ-cÖK‚ó i€„c fvZ, cÖePb- cÖK‚ó i€„c ePb|  Abykxjbx

 e¨vmevK¨mn mgv‡mi bvg †jL: Rxeb-Av„eM, K~cgÐyK, D×Z-wki, giæ-Kwe, ƒLqvj-Lywk, wecøe-Awfhvb, wMwi-wbtmªve, Mij-wcqvjv, eb¨-k¦vc`-m¼zj, gvZ©ÐcÖvq, RevKzmygm¼vk, wZwgiwe`vix, ƒh‡ebm~h©, cvlvY¯Z~c, mwjjmgvwa, Av„jvKwcqvmx, ƒgNjyß, ƒgvnwb`ªv, RqgyKzU, †mb¨mvgšÍ, becw_ex, SiYvaviv, AjmZ›`ªv|

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mgv_©K kã ev cÖwZkã  mgv_©K kã : mgv_©K k„ãi e¨yrcwË n„”QÑ mg + A_© + K| Gi A_© nj GK ev Abyi€c, GKv_©„evaK, mgv_©ÁvcK wKsev mg A_© wewkó| ZvB Avgiv ej„Z cvwi, mg A_© wewkó `yB ev Z„ZvwaK k„ãi GKwU„K AciwUi cÖwZkã ev mgv_©K kã e„j| Bs„iwR„Z G„K Synonym ejv nq| h_v Ñ Av¸b : AwMœ, Abj, cveK, ewý, ûZvkb, ûZfyK, me©fyK| ƒPvL : Pÿz, AuvwL, Awÿ, bqb, ƒbÎ, ƒjvPb|  mgv_©K k‡ãi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv evsjv fvlvq mgv_©K k„ãi cքqvRbxqZv Ab¯^xKvh©| GwU GKvav„i kã msL¨v ƒhgb ew× K„i, ƒZgwb A_©„K …ewPΨgq K„i fvlv„K AjsK‚Z K„i I fvlvi ƒm‡›`h© ew× K„i| fvlvq e¨eüZ Q„›`i gvÎv e¨env„ii ƒÿ„ÎI mgv_©K k„ãi cքqvRbxqZv i„q„Q| e¨w³K g„bvfv„ei ƒh‡w³K I h_v_© cքqvM Ges k„ãi ƒc‡btcywbKZv `~i Ki„ZI mgv_©K k„ãi ¸iæZ¡ i„q„Q| ƒm m„½ e³e¨ I weewZ cÖ`vb Ges Avjvc-Av„jvPbvi ƒÿ„Î mgv_©K kã fvlv„K gvwR©Z i€c`vb K„i mylgvgwÐZ K„i ƒZv„j|

 wKQy cÖ‡qvRbxq mgv_©K kã µg

cÖ`Ë kã mgv_©K kã

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

ce©Z B”Qv mc© Akªy cv_vi AvKvk mgy`ª AwMœ Pÿz Ak¦ evqy ¯^Y© n¯Íx fq L¨vwZ ivRv cÙ w`b fvB bvix Kjn my›`i

cvnvo, wMwi, Aw`ª, APj, …kj evmbv, mva, AvKv•ÿv, AwfcÖvq, Awfjvl Awn, bvM, Avkxwel, dYx, welai avivcvZ, AvuwLRj, ƒbÎ evwi, bqb bxi mvMi, mgy`ª, wmÜy, evwiwa, Rjwa, iZœvKi ƒe¨vg, Avmgvb, MMb, AbšÍ, bft AY©e, mvMi, wmÜz, Rjwa, evwiwa ewý, Av¸b, ûZvkb, cveK, Abj ƒPvL, bqb, AvuwL, ƒbÎ, ƒjvPb ƒNvov, evwR, ZziM, Zzi½g, ƒNvUK evZvm, mgxiY, mgxi, ceb, Awbj ƒmvbv, KbK, KvÂb, myeY©, wniY¨ MR, wØi`, nvwZ, wØc, `šÍx fxwZ, Îvm, AvZ¼, Wi, k¼v hk, mybvg, cÖwmw×, myev`, KxwZ© bcwZ, bicwZ, b„ik, bc, mgªvU, f~cwZ kZ`j, Kgj, m„ivR, Drcj,c¼R w`em, An, w`bgvb, w`ev, Aý åvZv, m„nv`i, fvBqv, AMÖR, AbyR igYx, ƒg„q, jjbv, Kvwgbx, gwnjv weev`, SMov, we„iva, Ø›Ø, ƒKv›`j g„bvni, PgrKvi, my`k¨ , g„bvig, Pviæ

23.

kÎæ

Awi, …eix, AivwZ, `ykgb, cÖwZcÿ

24.

Av„jv

Av„jvK, iwk¥, Ki, `xwß, cÖfv, ƒR¨vwZ

25.

AÜKvi

Auvavi, wZwgi, Zgt, Zgmv, Zwgmªv

26.

b`x

cÖevwnbx, ƒmªvZw¯^bx, ZwUbx, Ziw½bx, mwir

27.

Kb¨v

`ywnZv, Zbqv, cyÎx, AvZ¥Rv, bw›`bx, ƒg„q

28.

ƒKk

Pzj, wPKyi, KzšÍj, AjK

29.

P›`ª

kkx, kkai, Puv`, myavsï, myavKi, P›`ªgv

30.

ƒ`n

Mv, MvÎ, Zby, ecy, Kvqv, kixi, A½

31.

¯^M©

ƒe„nkZ, RvbœvZ, myi„jvK, `¨y„jvK, AgiveZx

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32.

cvwb

evwi, Rj,bxi, mwjj, A¤^y, Rxeb

33.

cvwL

cÿx, ƒLPi, wenM, wen½, wen½g

34.

cw_ex

aiv, aiYx, awiÎx, emyÜiv, emygwZ, RMr

35.

ivwÎ

wZwgi, hvwgbx, iRbx, wbwk, ke©ix

36.

ƒKvwKj

KjKÉ, wcK, cicyó, KvKcyó, emšÍ`~Z

37.

m~h©

Avw`Z¨, w`evKi, cÖfvKi, Zcb, iwe

38.

Mn

Avjq,Avevm, wbevm, wb„KZb, evwo, feb

39.

mvnmx

fqk~b¨, wbfx©K, wbf©q, AKz„Zvfq, wbtk¼

40.

ƒXD

Zi½, Ewg©, wn„jøvj, ƒKvUvj,K„jøvj, jni

41.

gv

gvZv, Rbbx, Av¤§v, cÖm~wZ, Mf©avwiYx

42.

gZz¨

giY, „`nZ¨vM, cÖqvY, Rxebvemvb, Rxebbvk

43.

AvuwL

ƒPvL, bqb, Pÿz, ƒbÎ, ƒjvPb

44.

hy×

mgi, iY, weMÖn, msMÖvg, jovB, R½

45.

eb

AUwe, AiY¨, KzÄ, Kvbb, wewcb, KvšÍvi

46.

K~j

wKbviv, ZU, ƒejv, Zxi, cvo, …mKZ

47.

mr

mZ¨, mvay, ïf, gnr, DËg, DrK‚ó

48.

¯¿x

cZœx, Rvqv, fvh©v, `viv, wMwbœ

49.

wmsn

nwi, ƒKkix, ckyivR, gMivR, g„M›`ª

50.

nvwZ

MR, n¯Íx, wØi`, wØc, `šÍx

51.

ƒgN

Aå, evwi`,Rj`, Rjai, bxi`, Nb

52.

we`y¨r

Zwor, weRyjx, weRjx, Pcjv, ƒm‡`vwgbx

53.

Av¸b

AwMœ, ewý, Abj, cveK, ûZvkb

54.

cyÎ

myZ, b›`b, Zbq, ƒQ„j, AvZ¥R, Kzgvi

55.

Lei

msev`, mgvPvi, m„›`k, evZ©v, mÜvb

56.

cv_i

cvlvY, Dcj, wkjv, Ak¥, cÖ¯Íi

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

 wb‡Pi k㸇jvi 5wU K‡i cÖwZkã †jL : cvnvo, bvM, ƒe„nk&Z, mwjj, wen½, aiYx, mvMi, MMb, Av¸b, ƒNvov, evZvm, ƒmvbv, nvwZ, fxwZ, mybvg, mgªvU, c¼R, fvB, igYx, SMov, `ykgb, cÖfv, wZwgi, ƒg„q, Pzj, Puv`, kixi, ivwÎ, Avjøvn&, evwo, Zi½, gvZv, cÖqvY, bqb, AiY¨, wKbviv, Ziæ, Rj`, Zbq, cv_i, hk, fvM¨, gb, gvwU|

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wecixZ kã  wecixZ kã : GKwU k㠃h A_© cÖKvk K„i Ab¨ GKwU kã Zvi wecixZ A_© cÖKvk Ki„j kã `ywUi GKwU„K AciwUi wecixZ ev wecixZv_©K kã ejv nq| A_©vr, wecixZ A_© cÖKvkK `ywU k‡ãi GKwU‡K AciwUi wecixZ kã e‡j| ƒhgb: „`k Ñ we„`k, Avmj Ñ bKj, fyj Ñ wbf©yj BZ¨vw`| wecixZ k‡ãi MVb : wecixZ kã mvaviYZ `yÕwU Dcv„q MVb Kiv hvq | h_v Ñ 1. bZzb kã e¨envi K‡i : ƒKvb kƒãi mv„_ AvÿwiK m¤úK©nxb m¤ú~Y© bZyb GKwU k„ãi gva¨„gI wecixZ kã MVb Kiv hvq | ƒhgb : ivZ Ñ w`b, Av„jv Ñ Qvqv, fvj Ñ g›` BZ¨vw`| 2. k‡ãi Askwe‡kl cwieZ©b K‡i : bZzb ƒKvb kã e¨envi bv K„i c~„e©v³ k„ãi Askwe„kl cwieZ©b K„iI wecixZ kã MVb Kiv hvq| ƒhgb : ev`x Ñ weev`x, `~i Ñ A`~i, wgj Ñ Miwgj/ Awgj BZ¨vw`| G RvZxq kã MV„biI `ywU c×wZ i„q„Q| h_v : (K) k„ãi c~„e© A, Ac, `yi, Mi, Ab, we BZ¨vw` DcmM© hy³ ev wehy³ K„i | h_v : cvi Ñ Acvi, gvb Ñ Acgvb, MwZ Ñ `yM©wZ, wgj Ñ Miwgj, Av`i Ñ Abv`i, ƒ`k Ñ we„`k BZ¨vw`| (L) k„ãi ƒk„l nxb, wenxb, k~b¨, Qvov BZ¨vw` kã ev kãvsk hy³ ev wehy³ K„i| h_v : Ávb Ñ Ávbnxb, Ávbx Ñ Ávbk~b¨, j²x Ñ j²xQvov BZ¨vw` |

 wecixZ k‡ãi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv K) L) M) N)

fvlvi Muv_ywb msnZ Ki„Z, kãfvÐvi ew×Ki„Y, A„_©i …ewPΨ Avb„Z evsjvfvlvq wecixZ k„ãi cքqvRb i„q„Q| G QvovI wecixZ kã wb„æv³ cքqvRbmg~„n e¨eüZ nq| e³e¨ mnRxKiY: A„bK ƒÿ„ÎB wecixZ kã e¨envi Ki„j e³e¨ ¯úó I mnRZi nq| e³e¨ hyw³c~Y©KiY : fvlvq e³e¨ hyw³c~Y©Ki„Yi ƒÿ„ÎI wecixZ kã ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K„i| fvlvi kÖæwZgvayh© weavb: fvlvi kÖæwZgvayh© weav„bi ƒÿ„ÎI wecixZ kã GKwU we„kl f~wgKv cvjb K„i| k‡ãi msL¨ve„w× I fvlvi mg„×KiY: kã msL¨v ew× I fvlv mg×Ki„Yi „ÿ„ÎI wecixZ kã h„_ó ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ae`vb iv„L|

 wKQy cÖ‡qvRbxq wecixZv_©K kã cÖ`Ë kã myK‚wZ ƒm‡g¨ gnr webxZ BZi AÜ Clr Elv cÖkvwšÍ J×Z¨ DcPq R½g cÖjq Avwej AjxK Mij ƒMvcb ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

wecixZ kã `y®K‚wZ Kivj nxb `ywe©bxZ f`ª Pÿz®§vb AwaK ƒMva~jx AkvwšÍ webq AePq ¯’vei mRb Abvwej ev¯Íe AgZ cÖKvk

cÖ`Ë kã cÖvP¨ HwnK jNy Mnx ¯’~j DRvb ƒRvqvi K‚ò wZi¯ˆvi Avwef©ve AvKl©Y AMÖ Avh© AvMgb ÿwqòz eÜzi AbyivM

wecixZ kã cÖZxP¨ cviwÎK ¸iæ mbœ¨vmx m~² fvwU fvUv ïK¬ cyi¯ˆvi wZ„ivfve weKl©Y cðvr Abvh© cÖZ¨vMgb ewa©òz mgZj weivM côv b¤^i-108


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K‚k AbyR `yó cÖvPxb wbw›`Z ev`x we„kølY

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb ¯’~j AMÖR wkó Ae©vPxb bw›`Z weev`x ms„kølY

 cÖ`Ë k㸇jvi wecixZ kã †jL : Akb, eb¨, A¤ø, welv`, mv`k¨, wbMÖn, A¯’vei, ƒjL¨, mskq, wZwgi, wei³, Hk¦h,© ƒfuvZv, Zxeª, Kvcyi æl, ƒPvi, ¯^M©, bk¦i, Lj, Abyi³, we¯Í‚Z, AvZ¥xq, weØvb, Avek¨K, `yišÍ, AšÍi, ƒjvf, UvUKv, AgmY, Av`©ª, cÖkvwšÍ, wbe©vK, wbj©¾, ü`¨Zv, f~wgKv, Avevnb, wbiÿi, mܨv, RwUj, cÖxwZ, AšÍ, AvUK, BwZ, ÿgv, Ávbx, Zvc, c_, hy³, B`vwbs, VKv, NvZ, n«vm, Aat, Zb¥q, cviwÎK, J`vh©, k¦vm, mÂq, DVwZ, wbwl×, Ajm, UvUKv, MÖvg¨, `y¨„jvK, ƒK„Rv, Hw”QK, Ac©Y, mij, gnvZ¥v, D`vi, ƒevKv, wRZ, wjß, mij, ciKxq, Abkb, evûj¨, Acgvb, cÖxwZKi, AbvPvi, AvMgb, myi, ƒh‡eb, mykxj, Svby, cvwZQvMj, mwó, cyY¨, fxiæ, kÎæ, wbwl×, Kzrmv, eÜb, D`vi, FRy, `vZv, Zxÿè, DrKl©, wbgxwjZ, PÂj, ke©ix, D¾¡j, mgwó, PwiÎevb, Zxeª, hk, mim, MwZ, wbMÖn, wel|

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cvwifvwlK kã  cvwifvwlK kã

 Ávb weÁv„bi wewfbœ kvLvq wewkó A_© cÖKvkK welqwfwËK kã„KB cvwifvwlK kã e„j| A_©vr ƒKvb wbw`©ó wel„q we„kl A„_© e¨eüZ k㸄jv„KB e„j cvwifvwlK kã| ƒhgb Ñ c`v_© weÁv„bi ƒÿ„Î fi, ƒeM, MwZ; Kw¤úDUv„ii ƒÿ„Î gvDm, gwbUi, i¨vg; Awdm-Av`vj„Zi ƒÿ„Î dvBj, Iqv„i›U, ƒeBj BZ¨vw`| Z„e, Avgv„`i D”P gva¨wgK ƒkªwYi e¨vKiY As„k cvwifvwlK kã ej„Z hv cvV¨ Kiv n„q„Q, Zv„K Bs„iwR k„ãi evsjvKiY ev evsjv Abyev` ejv hvq| Gw`K ƒ_„K ejv hvq, ƒhme Bs„iwR k„ãi h_vh_ ƒKvb evsjv cÖwZk㠃bB wKsev _vK„jI i€cvšÍwiZ kã A„cÿv g~j kãwUB AwaK kÖæwZga~i, e¨envi Dc„hvMx , cª„qvMmdj ev A_©en Zv„KB cvwifvwlK kã e„j| ƒhgb Ñ Kw¤úDUvi, ƒUwjwfkb, ƒUwj„dvb, ƒgvevBj, cywjk, Kwgkbvi, A¨vKvD›U, Aw·„Rb, G·„i BZ¨vw`|

 cvwifvwlK k‡ãi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv  cw_exi ƒKvb fvlvB GKKfv„e ¯^qsm¤ú~Y© bq| ZvB fvlv„K mg× Kivi Rb¨ cÖwZwU RvwZB wfbœ wfbœ fvlv ƒ_„K wKQz bv wKQz kã msMÖn K„i Zv„`i Ávb I Kg© cwiwa we¯Í‚Z K„i _v„K| ƒmw`K ƒ_„K evsjv fvlvI e¨wZµg bq| Ávb-weÁv„bi wewfbœ kvLvq we„kl aviYv ev e¯‘„K wb„`©k Kivi Rb¨ evsjv fvlv„ZI GRvZxq wfbœ fvlvi A„bK kã cքek K„i„Q| ZvB Gme aviYv cÖKvk Ki„Z wKsev e¯‘„K wPwýZ Ki„Z evsjv fvlvq cvwifvwlK k„ãi h„_ó cքqvRbxqZv i„q„Q| GQvov, A„bK ƒÿ„ÎB evsjv ev„K¨i ƒfZi mivmwi Gme cvwifvwlK kã e¨envi K„i evK¨„K kÖæwZgayi Ges mnR„eva¨ Kiv hvq| Gw`K ƒ_„KI evsjv evK¨ MV„b cvwifvwlK kã h„_ó ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K„i _v„K| GQvovI Ñ 1. cvwifvwlK kã GKwU fvlvi kãfvÐvi ew× K„i| 2. cvwifvwlK k„ãi e¨env„i evK¨ kÖæwZgayi nq| G„Z ev„K¨i …ewPΨ cÖKvk cvq| 3. A„bK we„`wk k„ãi ƒKvb evsjv cÖwZkã bv _vKvq ƒm mKj kãe¨envi Kivi Rb¨ cvwifvwlK k„ãi cքqvRb i„q„Q| 4. fvlv I mvwnZ¨img×Ki„Yi cvkvcvwk Abyev` mvwn„Z¨i ƒÿ„ÎI cvwifvwlK k„ãi h„_ó cքqvRb i„q„Q|

 Abykxjbx A - Admission, Agenda, Acknowledgement, Air-mail, Academic year, Administration, Autonomous, Allotment, Assembly, Acting editor, Acting, Academic, Aid, Account, Adviser, Address of Welcome, Author, Appendix, Air-conditioned, Affidavit, Adult Education, Admit Card, Accounting, Agreement, Advice. B - Back-ground, Bio-data, Break of study, Book post, Basic pay, Bail, Ballot paper, Board, Bidder, Boy scout, Biography, Bacteria, Banker, Brand, Bearer. C - Chancellor, Cold storage, Cartoon, Capital, Calendar, Cabinet, Catalogue, Constitution, Campus, Conduct, Caretaker, Crown, Code, Cordon, Carbon-di-Oxide, Copyright, Caption, Cable, College, Copy, Civil War. D - Donation, Data, Donor, Deed, Deputation, Dowry, Deputy, Dialect, Demonstrator, Diplomat, Diplomacy, Donate, Defence, Deed of Gift. E - Editor, Embargo, Excuse, Enquiry, Editorial, Expert, Energy, Earned Leave, Economist, Equation, Edition. F - Fundamental, Fiction, File, Follow up, Faculty, Fact, Feudal, Fee, Finance, Fine Arts, Fixture, Folio, Floor. G - Godown, Green room, Galaxy, Geology, Global, Gunny, Gazetted, Goodwill, Graduate, Graph, Guest House, Guarantee, Grade, Guide Line. H - Hostage, Hood, Handbill, Hostile, Home ministry, Handicraft, Heading, High Way. I - Irrigation, Idiom, Index, Interview, Ideology. Illegal, Immigrant, Imprisonment. J - Justice, Judge, Jiont Account, Journalist, Judicial. K - Key-Word, Keeper, Key note, Knot, Know-how. L - Leap year, limited, Legend, Lien, Ledger, Legal Adviser, Letter Head, Life insurance, Literature, Linguistics. M - Mercury, Memorandum, Method, Mayor, Manuscript, Manifesto, Marine. N - Notice Board, National Assembly, Nursery, Notice, Nationalization, Note, Nationality. O - Option, Occupation, Obedient, Oxygen, Objective. ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

P - Payee, Pollution, Pay bill, para, Principle, Passport, Parliament, Principal, Public works. Q - Quota, Quotation, Quality Control, Quarterly. R - Rank, Republic, Regiment, Radical, Ratio, Rational, Reputation, Republic, Renew, Resign, Regulation, Resource, Registration. S - Secondary, Sanction, Specialist, Salary, Sabotage, Schedule. T - Theory, Taxable, Tabulation, Telecast, Tender, Tribal, Tropical, Transit Visa, Termination. U - Urbanization, Union, Ultra Modern, Unfair-mens. V - Valid, Vacation, Venue, Viva voce, Vehicle, Vice chairman, Validity, Venue, Version, Vocation. W - White paper, Walk out, Worship, Wage Board. X - X-ray, X-File. Y - Year book.

Z - Zoo, Zone, Zebra Crossing, Zoologist.

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†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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mwÜ  mwÜ : cvkvcwk Aew¯’Z `ywU aŸwbi wgjb„K mwÜ e„j| ƒhgb : Avkv + AZxZ = AvkvZxZ, Zr + g„a¨ = Zb¥„a¨, Avwet +Kvi = Avwe®ˆvi BZ¨vw`| mwÜ ƒgvU wZb cÖKvi| h_v : 1. ¯^imwÜ 2. e¨Äb mwÜ I 3. wemM© mwÜ|  mwÜi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv fvlv„K mswÿß, cÖvÄj I kÖæwZgayi Kivi Rb¨ evsjv fvlvq mwÜi cքqvRbxqZv Acwimxg| mwÜ D”PviY„K mnR K„i Ges fvlvq aŸwb gvayh© `vb K„i| mwÜ bZzb kã …Zwii GKwU wewkó cÖwµqv| G cÖwµqvq aŸwb wgj i„q„Q Ggb `ywU kã wg„j GKwU bZzb kã …Zwi nq| ZvB fvlvi kã fvÐvi ewׄZI mwÜ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K„i|  ¯^imwÜ ¯^iaŸwbi m„½ ¯^iaŸwbi wgjb„K ¯^imwÜ e„j| wb„gœ ¯^imwÜi wKQz wbqg D„jøL Kiv n„jv Ñ 1. A+A=Av| ƒhgb : wng+APj=wngvPj| A+Av=Av| ƒhgb : wmsn+Avmb=wmsnvmb| Av+A=Av| ƒhgb : Avkv+AZxZ=AvkvZxZ| Av+Av= Av| „hgb : Kviv+AvMvi=KvivMvi| 2. B+B=C| ƒhgb : AwZ+BZ=AZxZ, iwe+B›`ª=iex›`ª B+C=C| ƒhgb : cÖwZ+Cÿv=cÖZxÿv, cwi+Cÿv=cixÿv C+B=C| ƒhgb : myax+B›`ª=myax›`ª, mZx+B›`ª=mZx›`ª C+C=C| ƒhgb : c_¡x+Ck¦i=c_¡xk¦i| 3. D+D=E| ƒhgb: giæ+D`¨vb=gi€`¨vb, KU~w³=KUz+Dw³ D+E=E| ƒhgb : eny+Eש=en~aŸ© E+D=E| ƒhgb : ea~+Dw³=ea~w³, ea~+Drme=ea~rme 4. A+B=G| ƒhgb : ¯^+B”Qv=ƒ¯^”Qv, ïf+B”Qv =ï„f”Qv A+C=G| ƒhgb : cig+Ck=ci„gk, MY+Ck=M„Yk Av+B=G| ƒhgb : h_v+Bó=h„_ó, gnv+B›`ª=g„n›`ª Av+C=G| ƒhgb : igv+Ck=i„gk, gnv+Ck=g„nk 5. A+D=I| ƒhgb : bi+DËg=b„ivËg A+E=I| ƒhgb : Mn+EaŸ©=M„nvaŸ©, be+Epv = b„evpv Av+E=I| ƒhgb : M½v+Ewg©=M„½vwg© 6. ÔAÕ-KvivšÍ wKsev ÔAvÕ-KvivšÍ k„ãi ci ÔFZÕ kãwU mwÜe× n„j A/Av+F= ÔAviÕ nq Ges mwÜNwUZ k„ãi evbv„b ÔAÕKvivšÍ wKsev ÔAvÕ-KvivšÍ kãwUi ƒk„l ÔAv-KviÕ Ges ÔFÕ eY©wUi cwie„Z© ԃidÕ ƒjLv nq| ƒhgb : Z‚òv + FZ = ZòvZ©, kxZ + FZ = kxZvZ© 7. ÔAÕ-KvivšÍ wKsev ÔAvÕ-KvivšÍ k„ãi ci ÔGÕ wKsev ÔHÕ eY© _vK„j Dfq wg„j ÔH-KviÕ nq| ƒhgb : wnZ + Glx = wn†Zlx , gZ + HK¨ = g†ZK¨ 8. ÔAÕ-KvivšÍ wKsev ÔAvÕ-KvivšÍ k„ãi ci ÔIÕ wKsev ÔJÕ eY© _vK„j Df„q wg„j ÔJ-KviÕ nq| ƒhgb : eb + Ilwa = e„b‡lwa, gnv + Ilwa = g„n‡lwa 9. hw` ƒKvb mwÜe× k„ãi gvSLv„b ÔhÕ djv (¨) _v„K, Z„e Zvi mwÜ we„”Q„`i mgq ƒh e„Y©i m„½ ÔhÕ djv (¨) hy³ wQj ƒm e„Y©i mv„_ ÔhÕ djvi cwie„Z© ÔBÕ Kvi (w) hy³ n„e| Z„e G„ÿ„Î cieZx© k„ãi Avw`„Z Aek¨B ÔBÕ ev ÔCÕ e¨ZxZ Ab¨ ¯^iaŸwb _vK„Z n„e| ƒhgb : h`¨wc=hw`+Awc, e¨ZxZ=we+AZxZ, e¨³=we+D³, cÖZ¨n=cÖwZ+An 10. ÔAÕ-KvivšÍ wKsev ÔDÕ-KvivšÍ DcmM© ev k„ãi ci ÔDÕ wKsev ÔEÕ e¨ZxZ Ab¨ „Kvb ¯^iaŸwb _vK„j ÔAÕ ev ÔDÕ aŸwbwU Zvi c~e©eZx© e„Y©i mv„_ Ôe-djvÕ wn„m„e hy³ nq| ƒhgb: my+AvMZ=¯^vMZ, my+A”Q=¯^”Q, Aby+GlY=A„š^lY, ¯^+Aaxb=¯^vaxb, ¯^+B”Qv =ƒ¯^”Qv  wbR¯^ mËv ƒevSv„j AšÍt¯’ ÔeÕ memgq AcwiewZ©Z _v„K| ƒhgb : ¯^vaxb=¯^+Aaxb, ƒ¯^”Qv=¯^+B”Qv ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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11. hw` ƒKvb mwÜNwUZ k„ãi cÖ_g e„Y©i mv„_ ÔAqÕ D”PvwiZ nq Z„e Zv mwÜ we„”Q` Kivi mgq ÔAqÕ D”PvwiZ nIqv k„ãi cÖ_g e„Y©i m„½ ÔGÕ Kvi hy³ Ki„Z n„e| c„ii Ask AcwiewZ©Z _vK„e| ƒhgb : bqb=ƒb+Ab, eqb=ƒe+Ab, Pqb=„P+Ab 12. hw` ƒKvb mwÜhy³ k„ãi cÖ_g e„Y©i mv„_ ÔAvqÕ D”PvwiZ nq Z„e Zv mwÜ we„”Q` Kivi mgq ÔAvqÕ D”PvwiZ nIqv k„ãi cÖ_g e„Y©i mv„_ ÔH-KviÕ ƒhvM Ki„Z nq| Z„e G„ÿ„Î c„ii Ask AcwiewZ©Z _v„K| ƒhgb : MvqK=…M+AK, bvqK=…b+AK 13. hw` ƒKvb mwÜe× k„ãi cÖ_g e„Y©i mv„_ ÔAeÕ D”PvwiZ nq Z„e Zv mwÜ we„”Q` Kivi mgq cÖ_g As„ki cÖ_g e„Y©i mv„_ ÔI-KviÕ hy³ nq| G„ÿ„ÎI c„ii Ask AcwiewZ©Z _v„K| ƒhgb : jeY=ƒjv+Ab, feb=ƒfv+Ab, ceb=ƒcv+Ab 14. hw` ƒKvb mwÜhy³ k„ãi cÖ_g e„Y©i mv„_ ÔAveÕ D”PvwiZ nq, Z„e Zv mwÜ we„”Q` Kivi mgq cÖ_g As„ki cÖ_g e„Y©i mv„_ ÔJÕ Kvi hy³ nq| G„ZI c„ii Ask AcwiewZ©Z _v„K| ƒhgb: bvweK=ƒb‡+BK, kveK=ƒk‡+AK, fveyK=ƒf‡+DK  ¯^imw܄Z Ggb wKQz kã jÿ Kiv hvq, hv ƒKvb wbqg gv„b bv| ƒhgb: Mevÿ=ƒMv+Aÿ, …¯^i=¯^+Ci, ƒcևp=cÖ+Ep, gbxlv=gbm+Clv/gb+Clv|  e¨ÄbmwÜ ¯^ie„Y©i mv„_ e¨ÄbeY©, e¨Äbe„Y©i mv„_ ¯^ieY© wKsev e¨Äbe„Y©i mv„_ e¨Äbe„Y©i wgj„b ƒh mwÜ nq Zv„K e¨Äb mwÜ e„j| ƒhgb : KuvPv+Kjv=KvuPKjv, ƒevb+AvB= ƒevbvB, e`+RvZ=e¾vZ| wb„gœ e¨ÄbmwÜi wKQz wbqg D„jøL Kiv n„jv Ñ 1. c~e©c„`i ƒk„l ¯^iaŸwb Ges cic„`i ïiæ„Z ÔQÕ eY© _vK„j mwÜe× k„ã ÔQÕ Gi cwie„Z© Ô”QÕ nq| ƒhgb : GK+QÎ=GK”QÎ, cÖ+Q`=cÖ”Q`, gyL+Qwe=gyL”Qwe, ¯^+Q›`=¯^”Q›`, c~Y©+ƒQ`=c~Y©„”Q`, we=wQbœ+wew”Qbœ Av=Qv`b=Av”Qv`b,cwi+Qbœ=cwi”Qbœ, Av+Qbœ=Av”Qbœ | 2. c~e©c„`i ƒk„l Z (r) ev ` Ges cic„`i ïiæ„Z P ev Q _vK„j mwÜe× k„ã Z, r ev ` Gi cwie„Z© P nq| ƒhgb : Dr+PviY=D”PviY, Pjr+wPÎ=Pjw”PÎ, wec`+wPšÍv=wecw”PšÍv, Dr+PwKZ=D”PwKZ, 3. c~e©c„`i ƒk„l eMx©q cÖ_g eY© Ges cic„`i ïiæ„Z eMx©q Z‚Zxq ev PZz_© eY© _vK„j mwÜe× k„ã eMx©q cÖ_g e„Y©i cwie„Z© ZZxq eY© nq| ƒhgb : w`K+`k©b=w`M`k©b, evK+`Ëv=evM`Ëv, evK+aviv=evMaviv, w`K+åvšÍ=w`MåvšÍ 4. P-eM©xq aŸwbi c~„e© Z-eM©xq aŸwb _vK„j mwÜe× k„ã Z-eM©xq aŸwb jyß n„q P-eM©xq aŸwbi wØZ¡ nq| „hgb : bvZ+RvgvB= bv¾vgvB, e`+RvZ=e¾vZ 5. c~e©c„`i ƒk„l ¯^iaŸwb Ges cic„`i ïiæ„Z e¨ÄbaŸwb _vK„j mwÜNwUZ k„ã ¯^iaŸwbwU jyß nq| ƒhgb : KuvPv + Kjv = KvuPKjv, ƒNvov +ƒ`‡o = ƒNvo„`‡o|  wemM© mwÜ ms¯ˆ‚Z mwÜi wbq„g c„`i AšÍw¯’Z i& I m& A„bK ƒÿ„Î A„Nvl D®§ aŸwb A_©vr n aŸwbi€„c D”PvwiZ nq Ges Zv wemM© (t) i€„c ƒjLv nq| i& I m& wemM© e¨Äb aŸwbgvjvi AšÍM©Z| ƒm Kvi„Y wemM© mwÜ e¨Äb mwÜi AšÍM©Z| e¯‘Z wemM© n„”Q i& Ges m&-Gi mswÿß i€c| wemM©„K `yfv„M fvM Kiv n„q„Q| h_vÑ 1. i& -RvZ wemM© 2. m& - RvZ wemM©|  wb‡Pi k㸇jvi mwÜ we‡”Q` K‡i †`LvI: wKsev, Z¯ˆi, w`MšÍ, Anin, ivÁx, eb¯úwZ, gyL”Qwe, ivRwl©, bxie, ¯^”Q, msmvi, kxZvZ©, cքZ¨K, MvqK, e¨ZxZ, g†ZK¨, h„_ó, g„n›`ª, mwÜ, cÖZ¨q, mgvm, KviK, ¯^vMZ, …¯^i, jeY, ï„f”Qv, Zš^x, wgZvwj, ƒm‡i|

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3. ci¯úi wbf©ikxj GKvwaK evK¨ ms„hvRK ev we„qvRK Ae¨q Øviv hy³ n„j KL„bv KL„bv H Ae¨„qi c~„e© „mwg„Kvjb e„m| ƒhgb: K. wkwk„ii eqm h_vmg„q ƒlvj nBj ; wKš‘ ƒmUv ¯^fv„ei ƒlvj, mgv„Ri ƒlvj b„n| L. Avwg wQjvg ei ; myZivs weevn m¤^„Ü Avgvi gZ hvPvB Kiv Abvek¨K wQj| 4. GKvwaK c`„K ƒkªwYfy³ Kivi mgq mgRvZxq kã„K Ab¨ „kªYx ƒ_„K c_K Ki„Z ƒmwg„Kvjb e¨eüZ nq| ƒhgb : Avg, Rvg, KuvVvj ; kmv, jvD, ƒe¸b ; byb, AvUv, ƒZj Gme ƒKbvKvUv Ki„Z ƒZv ZzwgB h„_ó| 5.ev„K¨i ƒKvb e³e¨„K cieZ©x As„k Av„iv ¯úófv„e eY©bv Ki„Z n„j `yB As„ki gvSLv„b ƒmwg„Kvjb e„m| ƒhgb : evsjv fvlv„K fv„jv K„i wPb„Z n„e ; ƒKv_vq Zvi kw³, ƒKv_vq Zvi `ye©jZv, `yB-B Avgv„`i Rvbv PvB| 6. `yB ev Z„ZvwaK ev„K¨i g„a¨ GKB fve we`¨gvb _vK„j Zv„`i gvSLv„b ƒmwg„Kvjb e„m| ƒhgb : Avgvi kixiUv Lye Lvivc; gbUvI fvj ƒbB|  nvB‡db (-)e¨env‡ii wKQz wbqg nvB„db„K evsjv fvlvq c`-ms„hvM wPý ejv nq| nvB„db ƒ`L„Z A„bKUv ƒQvU AvK‚wZi W¨v„ki g„Zv n„jI G `yԄUvi KvR m¤ú~Y© wfbœ| nvB„db ƒhLv„b `yԄUv kã„K hy³ K„i, W¨vk ƒmLv„b K„i wehy³| wb„P nvB„db (-) e¨env„ii wKQz wbqg ƒjLv n„jv| 1. cvkvcvwk Aew¯’Z wfbœv_©K ev wecixZ k„ãi ms„hvM ƒ`Lv„Z nvB„db e¨eüZ nq| ƒhgb : wn›`y-gymjgvb; „gvMj-cvVvb; w`b-ivZ; Avmv-hvIqv BZ¨vw`| 2. `yÔwU bvg-we„kl¨ ms„hv„Mi ƒÿ„ÎI nvB„db e¨eüZ nq| ƒhgb : fviZ-cvwK¯Ívb mxgv„šÍ GLb Lye D„ËRbv Pj„Q| 3. `k w`„Ki ƒh ƒKvb `yBwU A_ev `yԄqi ga¨eZ©x ƒKvb w`K ƒevSv„Z nvB„db e¨eüZ nq| ƒhgb : evsjv„`„ki DËi-c~e© w`„K ƒbcvj Aew¯’Z| 4. ƒKvb k„ãi mv„_ GKK ƒKvb Aÿi ms„hv„Mi ƒÿ„ÎI nvB„db e¨eüZ nq| ƒhgb : K-Aÿi ƒMvgvsm| 5. c` ms„hvM NUv„Z ƒKvb ƒKvb wefw³i c~„e©I KL„bv KL„bv nvB„db e¨eüZ nq| ƒhgb : K. 1947-G ƒ`k fvM nq| L. 1-Gi ci k~b¨ emv„j 10 nq| 6. wµqvc„`i mv„_ weK‚Z ƒKvb AbyMvgx wµqvc` _vK„j „m„ÿ„ÎI nvB„db e¨eüZ nq| ƒhgb : K. „L„q-„`„q Nyg ƒ`„ev| L. ƒm„R-¸„R evB„i hv„ev|

 hwZ wPý e¨env‡ii mgqKvj hwZ wP‡ýi bvg Kgv ƒmwg„Kvjb `uvwo (c~Y©„”Q`) wRÁvmv wPý we¯§q wPý ƒKvjb ƒKvjb W¨vm W¨vm nvB„db B„jK / ƒjvc wPý D×iY wPý eª¨v„KU (eÜbx -wPý)

AvK…wZ , ; | ? ! : :Ñ Ñ Õ ÒÓ ( ) { } [ ]

weiwZ-Kvj-cwigvY 1 ej„Z ƒh mgq cքqvRb 1 ejvi wظY mgq GK ƒm„KÛ GK ƒm„KÛ GK ƒm„KÛ GK ƒm„KÛ GK ƒm„KÛ GK ƒm„KÛ _vgvi cքqvRb „bB _vgvi cքqvRb ƒbB ÔGKÕ D”Pvi„Y ƒh mgq jv„M _vgvi cքqvRb ƒbB _vgvi cքqvRb ƒbB _vgvi cքqvRb ƒbB

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fvlY  fvlY : ƒKvb wbw`©ó welq„K ƒK›`ª K„i m„¤^vab I m¤¢vlY mn„hv„M ƒkªvZv„`i D„Ï„k Dc¯’vwcZ myMwVZ evK¨ mgwó„KB fvlY e„j|  DrmMZfv‡e fvlY `yB cÖKvi | †hgb Ñ 1. wjwLZ fvlY : wjwLZ „Kvb cvÐywjwc cv„Vi gva¨„g ƒh fvlY ƒ`qv nq, Zv„K wjwLZ fvlY e„j| mvaviYZ, RvZxq ev AvšÍRv© wZK ƒKv„bv ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Abyôv„b G ai„bi fvlY ƒ`qv nq| 2. AwjwLZ fvlY : wjwLZ cvÐywjwc Qvov ZvrÿwYKfv„e ¯^qsm¤ú~Y©fv„e ƒh fvlY ƒ`qv nq, Zv„K AwjwLZ fvlY e„j|  gva¨gMZfv‡e fvlY `yB cÖKvi | †hgb Ñ 1. cÖZ¨ÿ fvlY : ƒkªvZv„`i mvg„b mivmwi Dcw¯’Z n„q ƒh fvlY ƒ`qv nq, Zv„K cÖZ¨ÿ fvlY e„j| 2. c‡ivÿ fvlY : ƒkªvZv„`i mvg„b mivmwi Dcw¯’Z bv n„q ƒiwWI, ƒUwjwfkb, wmwW, wfwWI, K¨v„mU, B›Uvi„bU BZ¨vw` gva¨g e¨envi K„i ƒh fvlY ƒ`qv nq, Zv„K c„ivÿ fvlY e„j|  •ewkó¨MZfv‡e fvlY wZb cÖKvi | †hgb Ñ 1. ivR‣bwZK fvlY : ivR†bwZK `„ji Kvh©vewji mv„_ mvaviY RbMY„K m¤ú³ Kivi Rb¨ AvbyôvwbKfv„e ƒh fvlY ƒ`qv nq, Zv„K ivR†bwZK fvlY e„j| G RvZxq fvl„Yi m„¤^va„b we„kl„Yi e¨vcK evûj¨ jÿ Kiv hvq| G Qvov, Gi e³„e¨i wel„q _v„K e¨vcK …ewPΨ Ges KÚ¯^i ƒewkifvM mg„qB Zvivq Ae¯’vb K„i| Z„e G„Z Kɯ^„ii ƒKvb wbw`©ó mxgv„iLv ƒbB| 2. cÖkvmwbK fvlY : „Kvb ms¯’v, `ßi ev cÖwZôv„bi cÖkvmwbK Kvh©vewji mv„_ mivmwi m¤úK©hy³ welq wb„q N„ivqvfv„e ƒh fvlY ƒ`qv nq, Zv„K cÖkvmwbK fvlY e„j| G RvZxq fvl„Yi m„¤^vab nq LyeB mswÿß Ges gvwR©Z| Gi welq nq mywbw`©ó I w`K wb„`©kbvg~jK| G RvZxq fvl„Y KÚ¯^i mvaviYZ gy`viv m߄KB mxgve× _v„K| 3. mvaviY fvlY : ivR†bwZK I cÖkvmwbK Kvh©vewji mv„_ mivmwi m¤úK©nxb wewfbœ mvgvwRK, mvs¯ˆ‚wZK, HwZnvwmK, A_©†bwZK ev wkí-mvwnZ¨ welqK fvlY„KB mvaviY fvlY e„j| G RvZxq fvl„Yi m„¤^vab mvaviYZ Aj¼‚Z nq, Gi welqe¯‘ nq ZË¡ I Z_¨eûj| G ai„bi fvl„Y Kɯ^„i gy`viv m߄Ki cªvavb¨ _vK„jI D`viv mßKI e¨eüZ nq|  GKwU mv_©K fvl‡Y mvaviYZ 5wU Ask _v‡K| h_v Ñ 6. m„¤^vab| 7. m¤¢vlY| 8. g~j e³e¨ (m~Pbv, we¯Ívi I Dcmsnvi)| 9. we`vq m¤¢vlY| 10. mgvwß|  GKwU mvaviY fvl‡Yi m‡¤^va‡bi avivµg wbgœiƒc Ñ 1. mfvcwZ ( mfvcwZi fvl„Yi ƒÿ„Î cքhvR¨ bq)| 2. cÖavb AwZw_ (cÖavb AwZw_i fvl„Yi ƒÿ„Î cքhvR¨ bq)| 3. we‡kl AwZw_ (we„kl AwZw_ GKvwaK _vK„Z cv„ib) 4. Ab¨vb¨ †kªwY ev †ckvRxex †Mvôx (hviv Dcw¯’Z _v„Kb| ƒhgb - K„j„Ri Mfwb©s ewWi m¤§vwbZ m`m¨e›`/ Dcw¯’Z kª„×q wkÿK I Kg©Pvixe›`/ m¤§vwbZ AwffveKe›`/ wcÖq QvÎ-QvÎxe›`/ wewfbœ miKvix I ƒemiKvix ms¯’vi Kg©KZ©v-Kg©Pvixe›` / Dcw¯’Z wewfbœ RvZxq I ¯’vbxq cwÎKvi mvsevw`Ke›`/ Dcw¯’Z Kwe, mvwnwZ¨Ke›` / wewfbœ mvgvwRK I mvs¯ˆ‚wZK cÖwZôv„bi m¤§vwbZ m`m¨e›`/ m¤§vwbZ Av„jvPKe›` / e¨emvqxe›`/ wcÖq mnKg©xe›` BZ¨vw`)| 5. m¤§vwbZ myaxe„›`/ wcÖq fvB I ƒev„biv / msMÖvgx mv_x I eÜziv/ msMÖvgx K‚lK, kªwgK I ƒgnbwZ gvby„li GKvsk BZ¨vw`|  RvwZi D„Ï„k cÖ`Ë fvl„Y Gme m„¤^vab Gi cwie„Z© ïay ÔwcÖq ƒ`kevmxÕ m„¤^vabwU e¨envi Kiv nq|  Dcw¯’Z e³‚Zvi ƒÿ„ÎI Dc„ii GB avivµg cքhvR¨ bq|  GKRb mvaviY e³vi GKwU fvlY ïiæ Kivi bgybv : AvR„Ki GB bexb eiY Abyôv„bi m¤§vwbZ mfvcwZ, gvbbxq cÖavb AwZw_, m¤§vwbZ we„kl AwZw_, K„j„Ri Mfwb©s ewWi m¤§vwbZ m`m¨mn Avgvi cig kª„×q wkÿK I wkwÿKve›`, K„j„Ri wewfbœ ƒkªwYi Kg©Pvixe›`, kª„×q AwffveKgÐwj Ges Abyôv„b AvMZ m¤§vwbZ myaxe›` Avcbv„`i mevB„K AvšÍwiK kª×v, mvjvg I ky„f”Qv Rvwb„q Avwg Avgvi e³e¨ ïiæ KiwQ|.......  GKRb mvaviY e³vi GKwU fvlY ‡kl Kivi bgybv ........... G„ZvÿY †ah© a„i Avgvi e³e¨ ƒkvbvi Rb¨ Avcbv„`i mevB„K ab¨ev` Rvwb„q Ges mK„ji my¯^v¯’¨ I `xN©vqy Kvgbv K„i Avwg Avgvi e³e¨ GLv„bB ƒkl KiwQ| Avjøvn& nv„dR| Avmmvjvgy AvjvBKzg|  GKRb cÖavb AwZw_i GKwU fvlY ïiæ Kivi bgybv bRiæj RqšÍx D`hvcb Dcj„ÿ ivRkvnx ewYK mwgwZ KZ©K Av„qvwRZ AvR„Ki GB Abyôv„bi gvb¨ei mfvcwZ, Abyôv„b Dcw¯’Z m¤§vwbZ we„kl AwZw_, wewfbœ mvgvwRK, mvs¯ˆ‚wZK I ivR†bwZK msMV„bi m`m¨e›`, wewfbœ miKvix I ƒemiKvix ms¯’vi Kg©KZ©vKg©Pvixe›`, B„jKUªwbK wgwWqvmn wewfbœ RvZxq I ¯’vbxq cwÎKvi mvsevw`Ke›` Ges m¤§vwbZ myaxgÐwj, Avcbv„`i mevB„K A„bK A„bK cÖxwZ I ky„f”Qv Rvwb„q Avwg Avgvi e³e¨ ïiæ KiwQ|............... ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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 GKRb cÖavb AwZw_i GKwU fvlY †kl Kivi bgybv .......... AvR„Ki GB Abyôv„bi cÖavb AwZw_ K„i Avgv„K hviv m¤§vwbZ K„i„Qb, Zv„`i cÖwZ Avwg A„kl K‚ZÁZv cÖKvk KiwQ| G„ZvÿY †ah© a„i Avgvi GB e³e¨ ƒkvbvi Rb¨ Avcbv„`i mevB„K ab¨ev` Rvwb„q Ges GKB mv„_ mK„ji my¯^v¯’¨ I `xN©vqy Kvgbv K„i Avwg Avgvi e³e¨ GLv„bB ƒkl KiwQ| Avjøvn& nv„dR| Avmmvjvgy AvjvBKzg|  GKRb mfvcwZi GKwU fvlY ïiæ Kivi bgybv cvebv ƒRjv wkíKjv GKv„Wgx Av„qvwRZ AvR„Ki GB Abyôv„bi m¤§vwbZ cÖavb AwZw_ Ges MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv„`k miKv„ii gvbbxq wkÿvgš¿x W. Avmv`yj nK, Abyôv„b Dcw¯’Z m¤§vwbZ we„kl AwZw_ Ges cvebv ƒRjvi my„hvM¨ cywjk mycvi Rbve Avt iwng, wewfbœ ivR†bwZK `„ji ƒbZ‚e›`, wewfbœ …`wbK I mvßvwnK cwÎKvmn B„jKUªwbK wgwWqvi mvsevw`Ke›`, ƒRjv wkíKjv GKv„Wgxi m¤§vwbZ mvaviY K¤úv`K, KvjPvivj Awdmvi, cÖwkÿK, AwffveK I QvÎ-QvÎxe›` Ges wcÖq myaxe›` Avcbv„`i mevB„K Avwg Avgvi AvšÍwiK kª×v I ky„f”Qv Ávcb KiwQ|  GKRb mfvcwZi GKwU fvlY ‡kl Kivi bgybv Avcbviv hviv Kó K„i GB Abyôv„b G„m Avgv„`i GB Av„qvRb„K mv_©K K„i Zz„j„Qb Zv„`i cÖwZ Avwg Avgvi AvšÍwiK K‚ZÁZv cÖKvk K„i Ges G„ZvÿY †ah© a„i GB Abyôvb Dc„fvM Kivi Rb¨ Avcbv„`i mevB„K ab¨ev` Rvwb„q Ges GKB mv„_ mK„ji my¯^v¯’¨ I `xN©vqy Kvgbv K„i AvR„Ki g„Zv GLv„bB Abyôv„bi mgvwß ƒNvlYv KiwQ| Avjøvn& nv„dR| Avmmvjvgy AvjvBKzg|  mfvcwZi cÖavb `vwqZ¡ Abyôv„bi mgvwß ƒNvlYv Kiv|  GBP.Gm.wm cixÿvq mvaviYZ RvwZi D„Ï„k cÖ`Ë fvlY wKsev ivR†bwZK I cÖkvmwbK fvl„Yi Dci ƒKvb cÖkœ Kiv nq bv|

 GKwU bgybv fvlY gnvb weRq w`em D`hvcb Dcj„ÿ iscyi ƒRjv wkíKjv GKv„Wwg KZ©K Av„qvwRZ AvR„Ki GB Abyôv„bi m¤§vwbZ mfvcwZ, gvbbxq cÖavb AwZw_, m¤§vwbZ we„kl AwZw_, wewfbœ mvgvwRK, mvs¯ˆ‚wZK I ivR†bwZK msMV„bi m¤§vwbZ m`m¨e›`, wewfbœ miKvix I ƒemiKvix cÖwZôv„bi m¤§vwbZ Kg©KZ©v-Kg©Pvixe›`, wewfbœ †`wbK I mvßvwnK cwÎKvmn B„jKUªwbK wgwWqvi wcÖq mvsevw`Ke›` Ges m¤§vwbZ myaxgÐwj, Avcbv„`i mevB„K ky„f”Qv Rvwb„q Avwg Avgvi e³e¨ ïiæ KiwQ| AvR 16 wW„m¤^i, gnvb weRq w`em| GK mvMi i„³i wewbg„q 1971 mv„ji GB w`„b Avgiv Avgv„`i GB wcÖq gvZ‚f~wg„K kÎægy³ K„iwQjvg| G w`bwU„ZB cvK nvbv`vievwnbx XvKvi ƒim„Kvm© gq`v„b ƒh‡_ Kgv„Ûi Kv„Q AvZ¥mgc©Y K„i Avgv„`i P~ovšÍ weRq wbwðZ K„i| G weRq AR©b Ki„Z wM„q `y jÿ gv-„ev„bi m¤£g nviv„Z n„q„Q Avi Rxeb w`„Z n„q„Q cÖvq wÎk jÿ evOvwj„K| wKš‘ ƒh Av`k© Avi ¯^cœ„K aviY K„i ƒmw`b Zviv GB Z¨vM ¯^xKvi K„iwQ„jb, `ytLRbK n„jI mZ¨, ¯^vaxbZvi ci cÖvq PviwU `kK ƒcwi„q ƒM„jI Zv„`i ƒmB Av`k© Avi ¯^cœ GL„bv G ƒ`„k ev¯Íevqb nqwb| g~jZ mykvm„bi Afv„eB G „`„ki ¯^vaxbZv GLb A„b„Ki Kv„QB Avkxe©v„`i cwie„Z© Awfkvc n„q ƒ`Lv w`„q„Q| ƒ`„ki gywó„gq wKQz ƒjvK GB ¯^vaxbZv„K Zv„`i wb„R„`i e¨w³MZ I ƒMvôxMZ ¯^v„_© e¨envi K„i Gi mydj ƒ_„K „MvUv RvwZ„K ewÂZ Ki„Q| jyUcvU, `ybx©wZ Avi „PvivPvjv„bi gva¨„g Zviv m¤ú„`i cvnvo M„o Zzj„jI ƒ`„ki wmsnfvM gvbyl w`„bi ci w`b `vwi„`ªi mv„_ hy× Ki„Q| Pig `vwi`ªmxgvq evm Ki„Q ƒ`„ki AmsL¨ gvbyl| AvBb k•Ljv cwiw¯’wZi AebwZmn mvgvwRK mywePvi ƒ_„KI gvbyl GLb ewÂZ| ƒ`„ki cÖvq cÖwZwU ƒÿ„ÎB GLb Pj„Q GK `viæY Aeÿq| Avgiv hw` Gme wel„q m„PZb bv nB, Z„e ƒKvb w`bB G Ae¯’vi cwieZ©b n„e bv| ZvB mgq G„m„Q Avgv„`i ƒR„M IVvi| Avmyb Avgiv mevB Avgv„`i AwaKvi m¤ú„K© m„PZb nB| Avgiv Avgv„`i ƒhvM¨ ƒbZv wbe©vPb K„i Zv„`i gva¨„g G ƒ`„ki ¯^vaxbZv„K A_©en K„i Zzwj| mv_©K K„i Zzwj jv„Lv knx„`i ¯^cœ| G„ZvÿY …ah© a„i Avgvi GB e³e¨ ƒkvbvi Rb¨ mevB„K ab¨ev` Rvwb„q Ges mK„ji my¯^v¯’¨ I `xN©vqy Kvgbv K„i AvR„Ki g„Zv GLv„bB Avwg Avgvi e³e¨ ƒkl KiwQ| Avjøvn nv„dR|

 KwZcq cÖ‡qvRbxq fvlY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

iex›`ª RqšÍx Dcj„ÿ GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki| bRiæj Rq›Zx Dcj„ÿ GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki| „Zvgvi K„j„Ri bexb eiY Dcj„ÿ GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki| „Zvgvi K„j„Ri evwl©K µxov cÖwZ„hvwMZv Dcj„ÿ GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki| „Zvgvi K„j„Ri GBP.Gm.wm cixÿv_x©„`i we`vq msea©bv Dcj„ÿ Av„qvwRZ Abyôv„bi Rb¨ GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki| c„njv …ekvL D`hvcb Dcj„ÿ Av„qvwRZ GKwU Abyôv„bi Rb¨ fvlY …Zwi Ki| `ybx©wZgy³ mgvR MV„bi Rb¨ Rbm„PZbZv mwó m¤úwK©Z GKwU gÂfvlY …Zwi Ki| Ô`~lYgy³ cwi„ek PvBÕ Ñ kxl©K ƒmwgbv„i GKRb Qv„Îi fvlY …Zwi Ki| eÿ„ivcY Kg©m~wPi ¸iæZ¡ m¤ú„K© GKwU gÂfvlY …Zwi Ki| bvix wkÿvi ¸iæZ¡ m¤úwK©Z Av„jvPbvmfvi Rb¨ cÖavb AwZw_i GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki|

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11. wkÿvi gva¨g wn„m„e gvZ‚fvlvi ¸iæZ¡ m¤ú„K© GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki| 12. cvV¨m~wPi evB„i QvÎ-QvÎx„`i eBcovi Af¨vm m¤ú„K© GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki| 13. Ômevi Rb¨ wkÿvÕ kxl©K Av„jvPbvmfvi Rb¨ GKRb Qv„Îi fvlY …Zwi Ki| 14. cixÿvq `ybx©wZ I Zvi cÖwZKvi m¤ú„K© GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki| 15. Ôhye mgv„Ri …bwZK Aeÿq cÖwZ„iv„a KiYxqÕ kxl©K Av„jvPbvmfvi Rb¨ GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki| 16. AvaywbK mf¨Zv I weÁvb welqK GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki| 17. mš¿vmgy³ wkÿv½b m¤ú„K© GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki| 18. ÔAcms¯ˆ‚wZi weiæ„× Avgv„`i KiYxqÕ kxl©K Av„jvPbvmfvi Rb¨ GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki| 19. AvšÍRv© wZK mvÿiZv w`em Dcj„ÿ GKwU fvlY …Zwi Ki| 20. AvšÍRv© wZK gvZ‚fvlv w`e„mi Zvrch© eY©bv K„i GKwU fvlY iPbv Ki| 21. RvZxq Rxe„b GKz„ki ¸iæZ¡ welqK Av„jvPbv mfvq Dc¯’vc„bi Rb¨ GKwU fvlY †Zwi Ki| 22. RvZxq wkÿv mßvn Dcj„ÿ Ôwkÿvi gv„bvbœqbÕ kxl©K ƒmwgbv„ii mfvcwZi GKwU fvlY iPbv Ki| 23. cwi„ek `~lY I Zvi cÖwZKvi m¤ú„K© GKwU fvlY iPbv Ki| 24. „W½yR„¡ ii cÖwZ„iva m¤ú„K© m„PZbZv mwói j„ÿ¨ GKwU fvlY iPbv Ki| 25. gnvb ¯^vaxbZv w`e„mi Zvrch© eY©bv K„i GKwU fvlY iPbv Ki| 26. ÔweRq w`em ƒPZbvq A¤øvbÕ wel„q Av„jvPbv mfvq Dc¯’vc„bi Rb¨ GKwU fvlY iPbv Ki|

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†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

cÖ wZ ‡e ` b  cÖwZ‡e`b : msNwUZ ƒKv„bv NUbv ev Kvh©vewj A_ev we`¨gvb ƒKv„bv cwiw¯’wZ ev Zvi mv„_ m¤úwK©Z fwel¨r m¤¢ve¨Zvi Dci wfwË K„i we„kl ixwZ Abymi„Y ƒh Z_¨ weeiYx cÖYqb Kiv nq, Zv„KB cÖwZ„e`b e„j|  cÖwZ‡e`b cÖavbZ `yB cÖKvi| h_v Ñ 1. gy³ ev msev` cÖwZ‡e`b : mivmwi Kv„iv Øviv we„klfv„e Av„`kcÖvß bv n„q mvaviY gvbyl Z_v me©mvavi„Yi ¯^vfvweK Z_¨Pvwn`v c~i„Yi j„ÿ¨ ƒh cÖwZ„e`b cÖYqb Kiv nq, Zv„KB gy³ cÖwZ„e`b ev msev` cÖwZ„e`b e„j| mvaviYZ cÖwÎKvi cvZv„ZB G RvZxq cÖwZ„e`b cÖKvk Kiv nq| ƒhgb Ñ GKwU moK `yN©Ubvi Dci cÖwZ„e`b, GKwU Mv„g©›U„m AwMœKv„Ði Dci cÖwZ„e`b, evRv„i `ªe¨g~j¨ ew×i Dci cÖwZ„e`b, cÖavbgš¿xi Rbmfvi Dci cwZ„e`b, cyivKxwZ© cvPvi m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, GKRb gš¿x/ miKvix Kg©KZ©vi `ybx©wZ m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b BZ¨vw`|  gy³ ev msev` cÖwZ„e`b„K mvaviYZ `yB fv„M fvM Kiv ƒh„Z cv„i| h_v Ñ K. mvaviY cÖwZ‡e`b : ƒh me gy³ cÖwZ„e`„b cÖKvk¨ ƒKvb NUbv Zz„j aiv nq, ƒm me cÖwZ„e`b„K mvaviY cÖwZ„e`b e„j| ƒhgb Ñ GKwU mo„K hvbhU m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, GKwU moK `yN©Ubvi Dci cÖwZ„e`b, GKRb cÖavbgš¿x / we„ivax `jxq ƒbZvi Rbmfvi Dci cÖwZ„e`b BZ¨vw`| L. AbymÜvbx cÖwZ‡e`b : ƒh me gy³ cÖwZ„e`„b ƒKvb AbymÜvbg~jK Z_¨weeiYx Zz„j aiv nq, ƒm me cÖwZ„e`b„K AbymÜvbx cÖwZ„e`b e„j| ƒhgb Ñ GKwU nZ¨vKvÐ m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, cÖkc œ Î duv„mi Dci cÖwZ„e`b, GKRb gš¿xi `yb©xwZ m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, cyivKxwZ© cvPvi m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b BZ¨vw`| 2. cÖkvmwbK ev Awdwmqvj cÖwZ‡e`b : wewfbœ Awdm, Av`vjZ I _vbvmn Ab¨vb¨ miKvix, ƒemiKvix, mvgvwRK, mvs¯ˆ‚wZK, ƒ¯^”Qv„mex, `vZe¨ I wkÿvcÖwZôvbmg~„ni wbR¯^ cÖkvmwbK KvVv„gv ev Kvh©vewji Dci wfwË K„i ƒh me cÖwZ„e`b cÖYqb Kiv nq, ƒm me cÖwZ„e`b„KB cÖkvmwbK ev Awdwmqvj cÖwZ„e`b e„j| ƒhgb Ñ „Kvb wkÿv cÖwZôv„bi evwl©K eb„fvRb, evwl©K µxov cÖwZ„hvwMZv, mvs¯ˆ‚wZK mßvn wKsev cixÿv msµvšÍ cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKvb cixÿv„K„›`ª ƒMvj„hvM m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKvb ¯’v„b ƒevgv nvgjv m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKvb cÖwZôv„bi Kvh©µ„gi Dci lvb¥vwmK, evwl©K wKsev wØevwl©K cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKvb cÖwZôv„bi evwl©K wnmve cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKv_vI msNwUZ `yN©Ubv, Pzwi, WvKvwZ ev jyUcvU msµvšÍ cÖwZ„e`b, „Kv_vI mó kªwgK we„ÿvf ev Av„›`vjb m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, Mvwo fvsPzi ev Mvwo„Z AwMœ ms„hvM msµvšÍ cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKvb Kg©KZ©v, Kg©Pvix ev gš¿xi `yb©xwZ m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b BZ¨vw`|  cÖkvmwbK ev Awdwmqvj cÖwZ‡e`b‡K cÖavbZ `yB fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v Ñ (1) wbqwgZ cÖkvmwbK cÖwZ‡e`b : mywbw`©ó mg„qi e¨eav„b ƒh me cÖkvmwbK ev Awdwmqvj cÖwZ„e`b cÖYqb Kiv nq, ƒm me cÖwZ„e`b„K wbqwgZ cÖkvmwbK cÖwZ„e`b e„j| ƒhgb Ñ ƒKvb cÖwZôv„bi Kvh©vewji Dci lvb¥vwmK, evwl©K wKsev wØevwl©K cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKvb cÖwZôv„bi evwl©K wnmve cÖwZ„e`b BZ¨vw`| (2) AwbqwgZ cÖkvmwbK cÖwZ‡e`b : c~e© wba©vwiZ mg„qi cwie„Z© AwbqwgZfv„e msNwUZ NUbvi Dci wfwË K„i ƒh me cÖkvmwbK ev Awdwmqvj cÖwZ„e`b cÖYqb Kiv nq, ƒm me cÖwZ„e`b„K AwbqwgZ cÖkvmwbK cÖwZ„e`b e„j| ƒhgb Ñ ƒKvb cixÿv„K„›`ª ƒMvj„hvM m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKvb ¯’v„b ƒevgv nvgjv m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKv_vI msNwUZ Pzwi, WvKvwZ ev jyUcvU msµvšÍ cÖwZ„e`b, „Kv_vI mó kªwgK we„ÿvf ev Av„›`vjb m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, Mvwo fvsPzi ev Mvwo„Z AwMœ ms„hvM msµvšÍ cÖwZ„e`b, ƒb‡ `yN©Ubv m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKvb Kg©KZ©v, Kg©Pvix ev gš¿xi `yb©xwZ m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b BZ¨vw`| ƒKvb _vbvi First Information Report (F I R) ev cÖv_wgK Z_¨ weeiYx Ges Final Report ev P~ovšÍ cÖwZ„e`b G RvZxq cÖwZ„e`„bi `óvšÍ|  AwbqwgZ cÖkvmwbK cÖwZ‡e`b‡KI `yB fv‡M fvM Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| ƒhgb Ñ K. ¯^vfvweK cÖwZ‡e`b : GKwU cÖwZôv„bi AwbqwgZ „Kvb ¯^vfvweK Kvh©µg wb„q ƒh cÖwZ„e`b cÖYqb Kiv nq, ƒm cÖwZ„e`b„K ¯^vfvweK AwbqwgZ cÖkvmwbK cÖwZ„e`b e„j| ƒhgb Ñ „Kvb wkÿv ev mvgvwRK cªwZôv„bi mvs¯ˆ‚wZK Abyôvb ev mvs¯ˆ‚wZK mßvn msµvšÍ Af¨šÍixb cÖwZ„e`b, „Kvb wkÿv cÖwZôv„bi µxov cÖwZ„hvwMZvi Dci Af¨šÍixb cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKvb cÖwZôv„bi D„`¨v„M Av„qvwRZ eb„fvRb ev cÖ`k©bx m¤úwK©Z Af¨šÍixb cÖwZ„e`b BZ¨vw`| L. Z`šÍ cÖwZ‡e`b : ƒh me cÖkvmwbK cÖwZ„e`„bi gva¨„g ƒKvb ai„bi ƒMvcb KvR ev AcivaKg© m¤ú„K© D˜NvwUZ Z„_¨i weeiY Zz„j aiv nq, ƒm me cÖwZ„e`b„K Z`šÍ cÖwZ„e`b e„j| ƒhgb Ñ ƒKvb cixÿv„K„›`ª ƒMvj„hvM m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKvb ¯’v„b ƒevgv nvgjv m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKvb ¯’v„b msNwUZ Pzwi, WvKvwZ ev jyUcvU msµvšÍ cÖwZ„e`b, „Kv_vI mó kªwgK we„ÿvf ev Av„›`vjb m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, Mvwo fvsPzi ev Mvwo„Z AwMœ ms„hvM msµvšÍ cÖwZ„e`b, ƒb‡ `yN©Ubv m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b, ƒKvb Kg©KZ©v, Kg©Pvix ev gš¿xi `yb©xwZ m¤úwK©Z cÖwZ„e`b BZ¨vw`| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

 cÖwZ‡e`b †jLvi mvaviY wbqg   gy³ cÖwZ‡e`b †jLvi mvaviY c×wZ 1. wk„ivbvg (Dc„ii ga¨vs„k cÖ`Ë wel„qi Dci wfwË K„i h_vm¤¢e AvKl©Yxq K„i wjL„Z n„e)| 2. cÖwZ„e`„Ki bvg / c`we I cwiwPwZ / (bvCgyj Bmjvg / kvgmyj Bmjvg, Lyjbv cÖwZwbwa / wbR¯^ cÖwZ„e`K / we„kl cÖwZ„e`K / ewikvj cÖwZwbwa/ ƒRjv cÖwZwbwa, gqgbwmsn / wÎkvj (gqgbwmsn) cÖwZwbwa, åvg¨gvb cÖwZwbwa BZ¨vw`)| 3. Z_¨ weeiYx K. BbUªy ev cÖvi¤¢| L. ƒWmµvBf ev eY©bv|  Z_¨ weeiYx †jLvi mvaviY m~Î (Qq ÔKÕ A_ev dvBf WweøD, Iqvb GBP ) (1) KLb Ñ When. (2) †Kv_vq Ñ Where. (3) †K/ Kviv Ñ Who. 5W (4) †Kb Ñ Why. (5) Kx Ñ What. (6) Kxfv‡e Ñ How. 1H  gy³ cÖwZ‡e`b †jLvi bgybv  moK `yN©Ubvi Dci GKwU cÖwZ‡e`b •Zwi Ki|  wb„P moK `yN©Ubvi Dci GKwU cÖwZ„e`b …Zwi Kiv n„jv:

Uv½vB‡j fqven moK `yN©Ubvq wbnZ 9, AvnZ 27 wbR¯^ cÖwZ‡e`K (Uv½vBj) : MZ 26 Ryb mKvj 10Uvq e½eÜz hgybv ƒmZzi c~e© cÖv„šÍ GK gg©vwšÍK moK `yN©Ubvq 9 Rb wbnZ I 27 Rb AvnZ n„q„Q| cÖZ¨ÿ`kx©„`i weeiY ƒ_„K Rvbv hvq, XvKv ƒ_„K e¸ovMvgx GKwU hvÎxevnx ev„mi (bs - XvKv - e - 23256) mv„_ w`bvRcyi ƒ_„K XvKvMvgx gvj ƒevSvB GKwU Uªv„Ki (bs-ivRkvnx - n - 25632) gy„LvgywL msNl© n„j G `yN©UbvwU N„U| G„Z NUbv¯’„jB PvjKmn 4 Rb wbnZ nq| G Qvov nvmcvZv„j ƒbqvi c„_ 2 Rb Ges nvmcvZv„j ƒbqvi ci Av„iv 3 R„bi gZz¨ N„U| wbnZ„`i 3 R„bi cwiPq Rvbv ƒM„Q| Giv n„jv e¸ov m`i Dc„Rjvi aybU MÖv„gi „iv¯Íg Avjxi cyÎ nv„Zg Avjx (32), GKB MÖv„gi iwdKzj Bmjv„gi cyÎ wmivRyj Bmjvg (27) Ges Mvwoi PvjK MvRxcyi m`i Dc„Rjvi cvBbkvBj MÖv„gi gZ gwdR wgqvi cyÎ „gvt Avt ReŸvi (32)| G wi„cvU© ƒjLv ch©šÍ Ab¨vb¨ wbnZ„`i ƒKvb cwiPq cvIqv hvqwb| gvivZ¥Kfv„e AvnZ 3 Rb„K Uv½vBj ƒRbv„ij nvmcvZvj ƒ_„K XvKv c½y nvmcvZv„j ¯’vbvšÍi Kiv n„q„Q| G„`i g„a¨ 2 R„bi Ae¯’v LyeB Avk¼vRbK e„j Rvbv ƒM„Q| AvnZ Ab¨vb¨ hvÎxiv Uv½vBj ƒRbv„ij nvmcvZvjmn wewfbœ nvmcvZvj I wK¬wb„K fwZ© n„q„Q| A„bK„KB cÖv_wgK wPwKrmv ƒk„l ƒQ„o ƒ`qv n„q„Q| `yN©Ubvi Lei ƒc„q cywjk `ªæZ NUbv¯’„j Av„m Ges ¯’vbxq RbM„Yi mnvqZvq D×vi ZrciZv Pvjvq| G e¨vcv„i mswkøó _vbvq GKwU gvgjv n„q„Q|  `ªe¨g~j¨ e„w×i Dci GKwU cÖwZ‡e`b †jL|  wb„P `ªe¨g~j¨ ew×i Dci GKwU cÖwZ„e`b ƒjLv n„jv :

`ªe¨g~j¨ e„w× Ae¨vnZ : †µZv‡`i Pig `y‡f©vM wbR¯^ cÖwZ‡e`K : `dvq `dvq wbZ¨cքqvRbxq c„Y¨i g~j¨ ew× cvIqvq wbæ Av„qi gvbylmn mvaviY ƒµZv„`i Pig `y„f©vM ƒcvnv„Z n„”Q| G e¨vcv„i miKvi evievi Avkvi evYx ƒkvbv„jI ƒfv³v„`i `y„f©vM Kgvi ƒKvb jÿY GL„bv ƒ`Lv hv„”Q bv| MZKvj ivRavbxi K„qKwU evRvi cwi`k©b K„i „`Lv ƒM„Q, GK mßv„ni e¨eav„b PvD„ji g~j¨ ƒKwRcÖwZ 3 ƒ_„K 4 UvKv ew× ƒc„q„Q| „fvR¨„Z„ji `vg ƒe„o„Q wjUvicÖwZ 6 ƒ_„K 8 UvKv| Avjyi `vg ƒe„o„Q ƒKwRcÖwZ 3 ƒ_„K 4 UvKv| wPwb I ƒQvjvi `vg Kg„jI gvQ, gvsm I mwâi `vg Av„iv ew× ƒc„q„Q| Gme „ÿ„Î wmwU K„c©v„ik„bi wba©vwiZ ZvwjKv ƒKD gvb„Q bv| GKRb we„µZvi Kv„Q Gi KviY Rvb„Z PvB„j wZwb AwZwi³ cwienY Li„Pi K_v D„jøL K„i e„jb, wmwU K„c©v„ik„bi ZvwjKv AbymiY Ki„j jv„fi cwie„Z© Zv„`i ƒjvKmvb w`„Z n„e| Gmgq ¸u„ov `ya I gmywii Wv„ji `vg ew× ƒc„q„Q A¯^vfvweK nv„i| me„P„q ƒewk ew× ƒc„q„Q KuvPv gwi„Pi `vg| 3 w`„bi e¨eav„b 20 UvKv ƒKwRi KuvPv gwiP wewµ n„”Q GLb 80 ƒ_„K 90 UvKvq| evW© d¬zi Kvi„Y gyiwMi wWg I gvs„mi Pvwn`v n«vm ƒc„jI `vg Lye GKUv K„gwb| Av`v I imy„bi `vg wKQzUv w¯’wZkxj _vK„jI ew× ƒc„q„Q wcuqv„Ri `vg| wKQz wKQz c„Y¨i g~j¨ AcwiewZ©Z _vK„jI wbZ¨cքqvRbxq cÖvq cÖwZwU c„Y¨i g~j¨B w`b w`b ƒe„o Pj„Q| AbymÜv„b Rvbv ƒM„Q, AvšÍRv© wZK evRv„i g~j¨ew× I ƒ`kxq Drcv`b n«v„mi cvkvcvwk GK ai„bi bxie gRy``vixi Kvi„YB `dvq `dvq G me c„Y¨i g~j¨ ew× cv„”Q| G cÖm„½ GKRb ƒµZvi mv„_ K_v e„j Rvbv ƒM„Q, `ªe¨g~j¨ ew× Ae¨vnZ _vKvq cÖwZwbqZ Zv„`i wngwkg ƒL„Z n„”Q| w`„bi ci w`b ZvwjKv ƒ_„K ev` w`„Z n„”Q GKwUi ci GKwU cY¨| hvi d„j cwiev„ii m`m¨iv Acywói wkKvi n„”Q|

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

`ªe¨g~j¨ ew× ƒiv„a miKvi ƒh me c`„ÿc¸„jv wb„q„Q, Zvi djvdj „`„L mvaviY gvbyl GLb LyeB nZvk| ZvB A„b„KB g„b K„ib G e¨vcv„i miKv„ii DwPZ Pjgvb ƒK‡kj cwieZ©b K„i bZzb „Kvb ƒK‡kj MÖnY Kiv|  mgm¨v RR©wiZ GKwU nvmcvZv‡ji Dci cÖwZ‡e`b

( AbymÜvbx )

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 cÖkvmwbK cÖwZ‡e`b - 1 Gi bgybv   †Zvgvi K‡j‡Ri bexb ei‡Yi Dci GKwU cÖwZ‡e`b iPbv Ki| ZvwiL : 20/10/08 wLª÷vã. eivei Aa¨ÿ …mq`cyi wWwMÖ K„jR, …mq`cyi| welq : bexb eiY msµvšÍ cÖwZ„e`b| m~Î : …mwWK/102/10(1)/08. Zvs - 13/11/2008 wLª. Rbve, webxZ wb„e`b GB ƒh, DwjøwLZ m~Î I wel„qi Av„jv„K Avcbvi m`q AeMwZi Rb¨ wb„gœv³ cÖwZ„e`b Dc¯’vcb Kiv nj| 1. MZ 10 A„±vei 2008 Bs ZvwiL mKvj 10 NwUKvq AÎ K„jR wgjbvqZ„b bexb eiY - 2008 Gi AvbyôvwbK Kvh©µg ïiæ nq| 2. D³ Abyôv„b Dc¯’vcK wn„m„e `vwqZ¡ cvjb K„ib AÎ K„j„Ri Bs„iwR wefv„Mi cÖfvlK Rbve ejivg PµeZ©x| Abyôv„bi ïiæ„ZB wZwb mfvcwZ Ges c„i AwZw_e›`„K g„ Avgš¿Y Rvbvb| D³ Abyôv„b mfvcwZi Avmb MÖnY K„ib Aa¨ÿ Rbve ƒgvt wgqv Puvb Ges cÖavb AwZw_i Avmb MÖnY K„ib wewkó wkÿvwe` Wt Pv„gwj `vm| we„kl AwZw_i Avmb MÖnY K„ib ¯’vbxq ƒc‡imfvi ƒPqvig¨vb Rbve Qv„bvqvi ƒnv„mb wniY| 3. cweÎ ƒKviAvb ƒ_„K ƒZjvIqv„Zi gva¨„g Abyôv„bi cieZx© Kvh©µg ïiæ nq| 4. Gici ¯^vMZ e³e¨ iv„Lb K„jR QvÎ msm„`i mn mfvcwZ wgR©v iæ„ej ivqnvb| Gici eiYwjwc I iRbxMÜv dzj weZi„Yi gva¨„g bexb„`i dz„jj ï„f”Qv Rvwb„q AvbyôvwbKfv„e Zv„`i eiY K„i ƒbqv nq| 5. AZtci bexb„`i cÿ ƒ_„K e³e¨ iv„L bevMZ QvÎ Avwmd BKevj Ges cÖexb„`i cÿ ƒ_„K e³e¨ iv„L kvIb| 6. Gici GKRb cÖfvlK Ges `yRb Mfwb©s ewWi m`m¨ Zv„`i e³e¨ iv„Lb| Zv„`i ci e³e¨ iv„Lb KÕRb ¯’vbxq MY¨gvb¨ e¨w³ Ges me„k„l e³e¨ iv„Lb Abyôv„bi m¤§vwbZ we„kl AwZw_ I cÖavb AwZw_| wgjbvqZb fwZ© QvÎ-QvÎxiv wcbcZb bxieZvi ga¨w`„q Zv„`i GB g~j¨evb e³e¨ ƒkv„b Ges KiZvwji ga¨w`„q Abyôvb„K cÖvYešÍ K„i ƒZv„j| Gici mfvcwZi fvl„Yi ga¨w`„q cÖ_g c„e©i mgvwß N„U| 7. wØZxq c„e© ïiæ nq g„bvÁ mvs¯ˆ‚wZK Abyôvb| 8. G Abyôv„bi cª_g c„eÕ© K„jR QvÎQvÎxiv AvewË, msMxZ, bZ¨ I ƒK‡ZzK cwi„ekb Kivi ci g„ Av„mb ƒ`„ki L¨vwZgvb `yB ZviKv wkíx mvqšÍbx ƒP‡ayix I wkwki nvmvb | Zv„`i ƒ`o NÈve¨vcx msMxZ cwi„ekbvq AbyôvbwU `viæYfv„e Drme gyLi n„q D„V| 9. Ae„k„l we„Kj cuvPUvq Abyôv„bi mgvwß N„U| 10. Abyôv„bi mvwe©K e¨e¯’vcbvi `vwqZ¡ cvjb K„i„Q K„jR QvÎ msm`| Avi Zv„`i Dc„`óv wn„m„e KvR K„i„Qb evsjv wefv„Mi cÖfvlK Rbve ƒdi„`‡m nvmvb| 11. GB Abyôv„bi Rb¨ 50000/- UvKvi ƒh ev„RU eivÏ Kiv n„qwQj, Zv ƒ_„K ƒkl ch©šÍ 2000/- UvKv DØË nq| 12.Abyôvb„K myôz I my›`i K„i ƒZvjvi Rb¨ mevB h_vh_fv„e Zv„`i `vwqZ¡ cvjb K„i„Qb| Z„e hvwš¿K ƒMvj„hv„Mi Rb¨ AbyôvbwU mvgvb¨ wewNœZ n„jI mswkøó„`i Zwor c`„ÿ„ci Kvi„Y Lye Aí mg„qi g„a¨B Zv KvwU„q IVv m¤¢e nq| wb„e`K (¯^vÿi) ƒgvt Avey nvwbd AvnŸvqK bexb eiY D`&hvcb KwgwU I cÖfvlK Ñ Bs„iwR wefvM …mq`cyi wWwMÖ K„jR, …mq`cyi|  Ggb wKQz welq i„q„Q hvi Dci wfwË K„i GKB mv„_ cÖkvmwbK A_ev gy³ cÖwZ„e`b cÖYqb Kiv ƒh„Z cv„i| Gme ƒÿ„Î my¯úó ƒKvb KZ©cÿ ev cÖwZôv„bi D„jøL bv _vK„j Zv„K gy³ cªwZ„e`b wn„m„e a„i wb„Z n„e| ƒhgb - N~wY©So Dc`ªæZ GjvKvi Dci cÖwZ„e`b, weRq w`em D`&hvc„bi Dci cÖwZ„e`b, moK `yN©Ubvi Dci cÖwZ„e`b, mgm¨v RR©wiZ nvmcvZv„ji Dci cªwZ„e`b BZ¨vw`|  cÖkvmwbK cÖwZ„e`„bi Dc„ii As„k cÖ_„gB _v„K ÔeiveiÕ Zvici cÖvcK ev MÖnxZvi c`we I wVKvbv| Zvici _v„K m~Î (cքhvR¨ ƒÿ„Î) Ges welq| „Kvb ƒKvb ƒÿ„Î welq Gi ci m~Î D„jøL Kiv nq| Gici m„¤^vab Ges m„¤^va„bi wb„P Dc¯’vcbv ev m~Pbv w`„q Zvi wb„P Z_¨ weeiYx wjL„Z nq| Z_¨ weeiYx ƒkl nevi ci cÖwZ„e`K bv wj„L cÖwZ„e`b cÖYqbKvix„K wb„e`K wj„L Zvi wb„P wb„Ri ¯^vÿi ev bvg wjL„Z nq| Zvi wb„P H cÖwZ„e`b cÖYq„bi ƒÿ„Î Zvi hyw³hy³ c`wemn cwiPq D„jøL Ki„Z nq| G„ÿ„Î ƒKD mvaviY QvÎ-QvÎx ev bvMwiK wn„m„e ƒKvb cÖwZ„e`b wjL„j Zv mwVK n„e bv| ZvB cixÿvi DËic„Î GKRb Q&Î/QvÎx„K H ai„Yi c`vwaKvixi f~wgKvq AeZxY© n„Z n„e; ƒhgbwU Ki„Z nq PvKzwii Av„e`bc„Î| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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 b gy bv  `yt‡Li gZ GZ eo cik cv_i Avi †bB cÖwZwU gvby„li Rxe„bB i„q„Q myL-`ytƒLi mnve¯’vb| gvbyl Gi GKwU„K Qvov Ab¨wU„K h_vh_fv„e Dcjwä Ki„Z cv„i bv| myL Dcjwä Ki„Z n„j GKRb gvbyl„K Aek¨B `yt„Li Abyf~wZ ƒKgb Zv Rvb„Z n„e| Ab¨_vq Zvi c„ÿ myL ev `ytL Gi ƒKvbUvB KL„bv mwVKfv„e Dcjwä Kiv m¤¢e n„e bv| we„kl K„i `ytƒLi ms¯ú„k© bv G„j gvby„li ¯^xqmËv I AvZ¥kw³ cwic~Y©fv„e RvMÖZ nq bv| `ytƒLi ci„kB gvby„li we„eK RvMÖZ nq, Rxeb nq gvbweK g~j¨„ev„a Av„jvwKZ| G„Z K„i gvbyl n„q I„V gnvbyfe I gnxqvb| `ytLB gvby„li mKj …`b¨ `~i K„i Zv„K LvuwU gvby„l cwiYZ K„i| mªóvi i€c wewPÎ| wZwb KL„bv KiæYv avivq Zvui mg¯Í myav ƒX„j ƒ`b; KL„bv wZwb iæ`ª g~wZ© aviY K„i Avgv„`i cixÿvq ƒd„jb| myLwejvmx gvbyl Rxe„bi mvieËv cy„ivcywi Dcjwä Ki„Z cv„i bv| `ytƒL cwZZ n„j gvbyl my „Li h_v_© gg© eyS„Z cv„i| `ytƒLi `viæY `nb ƒk„l gvby„li Rxe„b ƒh myL Av„m Zv Abvwej I AZzjbxq| `ytLB cv„i gvby„li AšÍwb©wnZ gbyl¨Z¡ I we„eK„K RvMÖZ K„i Zv„K LvuwU gvby„l cwiYZ Ki„Z| `ytL ƒgvKv„ejv Kivi kw³ w`„qB gvbyl Avcb kw³i cwiPq w`„Z cv„i| cw_ex„Z gnr wKQy AR©b Ki„Z n„j `ytL mB„Z nq| Kó Qvov ƒKó cvIqv hvq bv e„jB cw_ex„Z gnvgbxlxiv `ytL„K Zzjbv K„i„Qb cik cv_„ii mv„_| cik cv_„ii ƒQvuqvq ƒjvnv ƒhgb ¯^Y©wc„Ð cwiYZ nq, `ytLI ƒZgwb gvby„li Rxeb„K bZzb i€c cÖ`vb K„i| `ytL, Kó I Z¨vM-wZZxÿv Qvov gvby„li c„ÿ KL„bv Rxe„bi ¯^Y©-wkL„i Av„ivnY Kiv m¤¢e bq| cw_exi eû gbxlx `ytL„K AšÍi w`„q Abyfe K„iwQ„jb| `ytL„K eiY K„i wb„qwQ„jb e„jB AvRI Zvuiv ¯§iYxq-eiYxq n„q Av„Qb| gnvbex nhiZ gyn¤§` (m.), whï wLª÷, ƒM‡Zg ey× cÖgyL gnvb ag©„eËv `ytL„K Rq K„i LvuwU gvby„l cwiYZ n„qwQ„jb; KvR K„iwQ„jb mgMÖ gvbeRvwZi Kj¨v„Yi R„b¨| e¯‘Z, gvby„li gbyl¨Z¡ I AšÍwb©wnZ ¸Yvewji R„b¨ `ytL gvby„li Rxe„b A„bKUv cikcv_„ii gZB KvR K„i|  wKQy

1. 2. 3. 4.

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Øvi iæ× K„i ågUv„K iæwL/ mZ¨ e„j Avwg Z„e ƒKv_v w`„q XywK| bvbvb ƒ`„ki bvbvb fvlv/ webv ¯^„`kx fvlv wg„U wK Avkv| Rx„e `qv K„i ƒhBRb, ƒmBRb ƒmwe„Q Ck¦i| Ab¨vq ƒh K„i Avi Ab¨vq m„n Ze NYv ƒhb Zv„i Z‚Ymg `„n| 9. msmvi mvM„i `ytL-Zi„½i ƒLjv Avkv Zvi GKgvÎ ƒfjv| 10. cwikªg ƒm‡fv„M¨i cÖm~wZ| 11. MÖš’MZ we`¨v Avi ci n„¯Í ab b„n we`¨v b„n ab n„j cքqvRb| 12. ƒh m„n, ƒm i„n| 13. mevi Dc„i gvbyl mZ¨/ Zvnvi Dc„i bvB| 14. g„š¿i mvab wKsev kixi cvZb| 15. `wЄZi mv„_ `Ð`vZv Kuv„` h„e mgvb AvNv„Z me©„kªô ƒm wePvi| 16. wgÎZ¡ me©Î myjf, wgÎZ¡ iÿv KivB KwVb| 17. ƒm K„n we¯Íi wgQv,ƒh K„n we¯Íi| 18. c„_i cÖv„šÍ Avgvi Zx_© bq c„_i `yav„i Av„Q ƒgvi ƒ`evjq| 19. ƒfv„M bq, Z¨v„MB gbyl¨„Z¡i weKvk| 20. hZ eo ƒnvK B›`ªaby ƒm my`~i AvKv„k AuvKv| Avwg fvjevwm ƒgvi aiYxi cÖRvcwZwUi cvLv| 21. cÖvY _vK„jB cÖvYx nq, wKš‘ gb bv _vK„j gvbyl nq bv| 22. ¯^„`„ki DcKv„i bvB hvi gb ƒK e„j gvbyl Zv„i ? cï ƒmB Rb|

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cÖeÜ  cÖeÜ : bvwZ`xN© myweb¨¯Í iPbv„K mvaviYZ cÖeÜ ejv n„q _v„K| ÔcÖeÜÕ GKwU ms¯ˆ‚Z kã| Gi Øviv ÕcÖK‚ó i€„c eÜb Av„Q hviÕ Ggb iPbv„K eySvq| cÖeÜ kãwUi A„_© ƒh Avfvm cvIqv hvq Zv n„”Q GB ƒh, GwU ƒKvb wkw_jfv„e web¨¯Í iPbv bq| ZvB cÖeÜ ej„Z ƒjL„Ki eyw×`xß I hyw³ cքqv„M cÖLi iPbv„K eySvq| Bs„iwR„Z G„K ejv nq Essay.  cÖe‡Üi †kªwYwefvM : cÖeÜ mvwnZ¨„K cÖavbZ `ywU fv„M wef³ Kiv hvq| h_v(K) wPšÍvwkªZ cÖeÜ : G„Z welqe¯‘i ¸iæZ¡ cÖvavb¨ cvq| G ai„bi iPbvi e³e¨„K n„Z nq Abycy•L, wPšÍvMfxi, hyw³wbf©i Ges myweb¨¯Í| (L) fvevwkªZ cÖeÜ : G„Z hyw³-cÖgvY, wePvi-we„køl„Yi ƒP„q „jL„Ki we„kl `wófw½ I g„bvfve cÖvavb¨ cvq|  cÖe‡Üi Ask : cÖeÜ cÖavbZ wZbfv„M wef³ _v„K| h_vÑ (K) f~wgKv/m~Pbv (L) g~j welq (GKwaK Aby„”Q„` wef³) (M) Dcmsnvi|  cÖe‡Üi fvlv : cÖeÜ ev iPbvi fvlv n„e mnR, mvejxj, cÖvÄj I MwZm¤úbœ| G„Z jÿ ivL„Z n„e ƒh, evbvb ƒhb fyj bv nq Ges fvlvi cքqv„M mvay I Pwj„Zi wgkªY bv N„U|  DׄwZ : cÖe„Ü ¯§iYxq e¨w³„Z¡i DׁwZ w`„j Gi ¸YMZ gvb ew× cvq| Z„e fyj ev Am¤ú~Y© DׁwZ w`„j cÖe„Üi gvb webó nq|  Z_¨ I ZË¡ : cÖe„Ü Z_¨ Ges Z„Ë¡i Dcw¯’wZ _vK„Z nq| Z„_¨i Ici wfwË K„i ZË¡ cÖwZôv Ki„Z nq|  cÖe‡Üi •`N©¨ : cÖe„Üi …`N©¨ m¤ú„K© m„PZb _vK„Z n„e| G„Z wel„qi ƒh‡w³K I cwiwgZ e¨vL¨v _vK„e| AKvi„Y AwZ ƒQvU wKsev AwZ `xN© ƒjLvi cÖeYZv cwinvi Ki„Z n„e|  cÖeÜ †jLvi cwiKíbv : mKj K„g©i b¨vq cÖeÜ ƒjLviI cwiKíbv _vKv DwPZ| cÖe„Üi welq m¤ú„K© cÖ_„gB GKwU cwiKíbv Kiv `iKvi| ƒm m„½ welqwU c~e©vci eyS„Z nq| welqwUi c„ÿ I wec„ÿi hyw³¸„jv eyS„Z Ges Gi m„½ wb„Ri g„bvfve hy³ Ki„Z nq|  cÖeÜ †jLvi Rb¨ ÁvbvR©b : cÖeÜ ƒjLvi Rb¨ wewfbœ ai„bi cÖeÜ, cwÎKv, …`bw›`b Leiv-Lei BZ¨vw`i mv„_ mswkøó ƒ_„K Z_¨ msMÖn Ki„Z nq|  KwZcq ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cÖeÜ 1. weÁvb I AvaywbK mf¨Zv : f~wgKv / weÁv„bi Kj¨vYKi w`K / Avwe®ˆvimg~n / weÁv„bi mv¤cÖwZK cÖfve / Dcmsnvi| 2. K‚wl Kv„R weÁvb : f~wgKv/ weÁv„bi RqhvÎv / gvbeRxe„b K‚wli ¸iæZ¡/ K‚wli AvaywbKvq„b weÁvb/ DbœZ „`„k K‚wlKv„h© weÁvb / evsjv„`„k K‚wlKv„h© weÁvb/ evsjv„`„k K‚wlKv„h© weÁv„bi cքqvM I Avgv„`i KiYxq/ Dcmsnvi| 3. Kw¤úDUvi I AvaywbK mf¨Zv : f~wgKv/ Kw¤úDUvi I mf¨Zvi BwZnvm/mf¨Zv wbg©v„Y Kw¤úDUv„ii f~wgKv/mf¨Zvi mgm¨v I m¤¢vebv/Dcmsnvi| 4. eZ©gvb mf¨Zvq we`y¨„Zi f~wgKv/ we`y¨r I AvaywbK Rxeb ; f~wgKv/ mf¨Zv I we`y¨„Zi BwZnvm/ wewfbœ ƒÿ„Î we`y¨„Zi Ae`vb-wkÿv, wkí, ¯^v¯’¨, wPwKrmv, K‚wl, M„elYv, cÖhyw³/ we`y¨„Zi ÿwZKi w`K/ Dcmsnvi| 5. evsjv„`„ki ch©Ub wkí: f~wgKv/ ch©Ub wk„íi AZxZ Ae¯’v/ eZ©gvb Ae¯’v/ RvZxq I A_©†bwZK Rxe„bi Gi ¸iæZ¡/ mgm¨v I m¤¢vebv/Dcmsnvi| 6. evsjv„`„ki ƒcvkvK wkí : f~wgKv/ AZxZ BwZnvm/ eZ©gvb Ae¯’v / evsjv„`„ki A_©bxwZ„Z ¸iæZ¡ / mgm¨v I mgvavb / Dcmsnvi| 7. cwi„ek `~lY I Zvi cÖwZKvi : f~wgKv / `~l„Yi KviY / cÖfve / cÖwZKvi / mv¤cÖwZK Ae¯’v / Dcmsnvi| 8. cwi„ek msiÿ„Y ebvqb : f~wgKv/ evsjv„`„ki Ae¯’v/ ¸iæZ¡ ev cքqvRbxqZv/ebvq„bi Dcvq/ Dcmsnvi| 9. gv`Kvmw³ I Zvi cÖwZKvi : f~wgKv / gv`Kvmw³i ¯^i€c / ÿwZKi w`K / cÖwZKv„ii Dcvq / Dcmsnvi| 10. GKzk Avgvi AnsKvi ev GKz„ki ƒPZbv: f~wgKv/ BwZnvm I NUbvcÖevn/ RvZxq I ivR†bwZK Rxe„b ¸iæZ¡/ eZ©gvb Ae¯’v/ Dcmsnvi| 11. GKz„ki eB„gjv : DcµgwYKv/ eB„gjvi Avw`K_v/ eB„gjvi ¸iæZ¡ I cքqvRbxqZv/ mvwnZ¨-ms¯ˆ‚wZi weKv„k eB„gjvi ¸iæZ¡/ ƒjLK„`i Kv„Q eB„gjv/ cvVK„`i Kv„Q eB„gjv/ ƒjLK-cvVK-cÖKvk„Ki wgjb„gjv wn„m„e eB„gjv/DrmegyLi cwi„ek mwó„Z eB„gjv/ Dcmsnvi| 12. GKwesk kZvãxi P¨v„jÄ ƒgvKv„ejvq evsjv„`k: f~wgKv / P¨v„jÄ-Gi ¯^i€c / evsjv„`„ki cÖ¯w‘ Z/ mgm¨v I m¤¢vebv / Dcmsnvi| 13. i€cmx evsjv„`k: f~wgKv/ evsjv„`„ki FZz †ewPΨ I cÖvK‚wZK ƒm‡›`h©/eÿ,cïcvwL,gvbyl/Dcmsnvi| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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14. MYZš¿ : f~wgKv/MYZ„š¿i msÁv I …ewkó¨/„`vl-¸Y/ BwZnvm/ evsjv„`„ki ƒcÖÿvcU/ mgm¨v I m¤¢vebv/Dcmsnvi| 15. evsjv„`„ki K‚wl I K‚lK : f~wgKv / AZxZ I eZ©gvb Ae¯’v / mgm¨v / mgvavb I MnxZ c`„ÿc / Dcmsnvi| 16. `ªe¨g~j¨ ew× I Zvi cÖwZKvi : f~wgKv/ g~j¨ew×i KviY/ cwiYwZ ev ÿwZKi cÖfve/ cÖwZKvi/Dcmsnvi| 17. GKwU el©YgyLi mܨv : f~wgKv/ mܨvi m~Pbv/ eY©bv/ myLgq Abyf~wZ/ mܨvi cÖK‚wZ/Dcmsnvi| 18. ƒ`k„cÖg ev wcÖq G ƒ`k Avgvi : f~wgKv / ƒ`k„cքgi ¯^i€c / ƒ`k„cքgi cÖKvk / cªfve / Dcmsnvi| 19. AvaywbK Rxeb I mf¨Zv : f~wgKv/ Rxeb I mf¨Zvi ¯^i€c/ Rxe„bi m„½ mf¨Zvi m¤úK©/ msKU/ m¤¢vebv/Dcmsnvi| 20. GKz„ki eB„gjv : f~wgKv/ BwZnvm/ eB„gjvi eY©bv/¸iæZ¡ I cÖfve/ mgm¨v I mgvavb/Dcmsnvi| 21. bvixwkÿvi ¸iæZ¡ : f~wgKv / eZ©gvb Ae¯’v / cքqvRbxqZv / MnxZ c`„ÿc / Dcmsnvi| 22. AvšÍRv© wZK bvix w`em: f~wgKv/ bvix w`e„mi BwZnvm/¸iæZ¡ ev cքqvRbxqZv/ evsjv„`„k bvix„`i Ae¯’v/ bvix w`e„mi wkÿv/Dcmsnvi| 23. evsjv„`„ki wµ„KU : f~wgKv / BwZnvm/ mv¤cÖwZK Ae¯’v / mgm¨v / m¤¢vebv / Dcmsnvi| 24. hy× bq kvwšÍ : f~wgKv / hy× ebvg kvwšÍ / hy„×i AZxZ „cÖÿvcU / eZ©gvb wek¦ cwiw¯’wZ / ÿwZKi w`K / kvwšÍi D„`¨vM / Dcmsnvi| 25. ƒmB ƒh Avgvi bvbv i„Oi w`b¸wj ev …kke¯§wZ: f~wgKv / …kk„ei Ae¯’v / †kk„ei ¯§wZgq Aa¨vq / eZ©gvb mg„qi m„½ cv_©K¨ / Dcmsnvi| 26. eB covi Avb›`: f~wgKv/ eB„qi …ewkó¨/ eB covi ¸iæZ¡/ Rxe„bi m„½ eB„qi m¤úK©/eB wbe©vPb/Dcmsnvi| 27. GKwU kx„Zi mKvj / kx„Zi mKvj | 28. GKwU …P„Îi `ycyi / …P„Îi `ycyi|

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i³v³ cÖvšÍi  bvU¨Kvi cwiwPwZ 1925 wLª÷v„ãi 25 b„f¤^i GK AwfRvZ m¤£všÍ gymwjg cwiev„i gvwbKMÄ kn„i gybxi ƒP‡ayixi Rb¥| gybxi ƒP‡ayix 1947 mv„j Bs„iwR„Z I 1954 mv„j evsjvq XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq ƒ_„K Gg.G K„ib| 1958 mv„j nvf©vW© wek¦we`¨vjq ƒ_„K fvlvZ„Ë¡ Gg.G wWwMÖ ƒbb| 1952 mv„ji fvlv Av„›`vj„b mwµq AskMÖnY Zuvi Rxe„bi ƒM‡iegq Aa¨vq|

 iPbvewj  ƒg‡wjK bvUK Ñ gvbyl, bó ƒQ„j, Kei, i³v³ cÖvšÍi, `Ð, `ÐKviY¨, `Ðai, wPwV BZ¨vw`|  Abyev` bvUK Ñ gyLiv igYx ekxKiY, i€cvi ƒK‡„Uv, ƒKD wKQy ej„Z cv„i bv, I„_„jv (Amgvß) BZ¨vw`|  cÖeÜ MÖš’ - WªvB„Wb I wW Gj ivq, gxi gvbm, Zzjbvg~jK mgv„jvPbv, evsjv M`¨ixwZ BZ¨vw`|  i³v³ cÖvšÍi bvUK I wKQy Z_¨  GKwU c~Y©v½ bvU„K cuvPwU ce© _v„K| h_v- cÖvi¤¢, cÖevn, DrKl©, MÖwš’„gvPb I Dcmsnvi| i³v³ cÖvšÍi bvU„KI Zv Av„Q|  wkíixwZi we„køl„Y GKwU c~Y©v½ bvU„K PviwU Ask| h_v- Kvwnbx, PwiÎ, NUbv mgv„ek I msjvc|  gybxi ƒP‡ayixi cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ Ges ƒkªô bvUK Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ|  Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ- Gi bvU¨¸Y wePv„ii cÖavb K„qKwU w`K n„”Q- HwZnvwmKZv, Uª¨v„RwW, bvgKiY, PwiÎ mwó, hy× we„ivax ƒPZbv I fvlv msjvc|  cÖK‚Zc„ÿ gybxi ƒP‡ayix HwZnvwmK cUf~wg„Z GKwU ƒcքgi bvUK iPbv K„i„Qb|  Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ GKwU mv_©K Uª¨v„RwWi `óvšÍ|  AvaywbK wPšÍvq Uª¨v„RwW Ôrepresentation of human unhappiness’  Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ GKwU Ø›ØgyLi bvUK|  1761 mv„ji msNwUZ cvwbc„_i Z‚Zxq hy× Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ bvU„Ki cUf~wg |  Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ bvU„K bvix PwiÎ (3wU)- ƒRvniv ƒeMg, Rwibv ƒeMg Ges wniYevjv|  Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ bvU„K cyiæl PwiÎ (8wU)- Beªvwng Kvw`©, beve bRxe„χjv, beve myRvD„χjv, Avn&g` kvn Ave`vjx, AvZv Luv, w`jxc, ewki Luv Ges iwng ƒkL|  Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ bvUKwU wZbwU A„¼ I AvUwU `„k¨ ms„hvwRZ|  Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ bvUKwUi Kvwnbxi mvivsk ƒbIqv n„q„Q Kvq„Kvev„`i gnvKve¨ Ôgnvk¥kvbÕ ƒ_„K |  Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ bvU„K hy„×i BwZnvm bvU„Ki DcKiY gvÎ Aby„cÖiYv bq|  Kvw`©i gZz¨i KviY B”QvK‚Zfv„e A¯úó ivLv n„q„Q bvU„K|  h„Zv wn›`y Avi h„Zv gymjgvb GB hy„× cÖvY ƒ`q cvK-fvi„Zi BwZnv„m ƒZgb Avi ƒKvbw`b nqwb|  bvU‡Ki msÁv Rxeb m¤^Üxq aviYvi Kvwe¨K cÖKvk hv Awf„bZviv i€c w`„Z cv„i Ges kãgvayh© ƒkvbvi Rb¨ I Avw½K wµqvw` ƒ`Lvi Rb¨ Dcw¯’Z `k©K„`i Avb›` `vb Ki„Z cv„i Ggb wkí gva¨g| ms¯ˆ‚Z AvjsKvwiK„`i g„Z- Ôhv `k¨ I kªe¨ Kv„e¨i mgš^„q i½g„Âi mvnv„h¨ MwZgvb gvbe Rxe„bi cÖwZ”Qwe Avgv„`i m¤§y„L g~Z© K„i ƒZv„j ZvB bvUK|Õ Ab¨ K_vq ejv hvq- ÔRxeb wel„q aviYvi Ggb GK evwn¨K cÖKvk hv Awf„bZvMY i€c w`„Z cv„ib Ges hvi kã gvayh© ï„b I Avw½K wµqvw` ƒ`„L Dcw¯’Z `k©Ke›` Avb›` jvf Ki„Z cv„ib- Zv„K bvUK e„j|  bvU‡Ki Avw½K I MVb‡K․kj bvU„Ki BwZnvm eû cÖvPxb| Mí ev Dcb¨vm mwói eûc~„e© cÖvPxb wMÖm ƒ`„k bvUK iPbvi m~Î cvZ| bvUK wbw`©ó mg„qi g„a¨, g„Âi mxgve× cwim„i Ges wbw`©ó K„qKwU Pwi„Îi mvnv„h¨ AwfbxZ nq| Avi ƒm Kvi„YB bvU„Ki ¯’vb, Kvj, NUbv I Pwi„Îi msnwZ ev HK¨ cքqvRb| bvU„Ki wZbwU HK¨ GKvšÍ evÃbxq| ƒm¸„jv n„jv:  mg„qi HK¨ (Unity of time)  ¯’v„bi HK¨ (Unity of place)  NUbvi HK¨ (Unity of action)  bvU‡Ki †kªwYwefvM Kvwnbxi Drm, welqe¯‘, MVbixwZ I im Abymv„i bvUK„K bvbv fv„M wef³ Kiv hvq| ƒhgb Ñ ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

K) mvgvwRK bvUK (Kvwnbxi Drƒmi wfw˄Z) mgv„R cÖPwjZ ixwZbxwZ, AvPvi-AvPiY I ms¯ˆvi cÖfwZ welq„K Aej¤^b K„i ƒh bvUK iwPZ nq Zv„K mvgvwRK ev Mvn©¯’¨ bvUK e„j| ƒhgb- gxi gkviid ƒnv„m„bi ÔRwg`vi `c©YÕ| L) HwZnvwmK bvUK (Kvwnbxi Drƒmi wfw˄Z) h_vm¤¢e HwZnvwmK mZ¨ ÿzYœ bv K„i, BwZnvm ƒ_„K Kvwnbx MÖnY K„i ƒh bvUK iwPZ nq, Zv„K HwZnvwmK bvUK e„j| ƒhgb- wMixkP›`ª ƒNv„li ÔwmivR„χjvÕ| M) ƒc‡ivwYK bvUK (Kvwnbxi Drƒmi wfw˄Z) ivgvqY,gnvfviZ ev Ab¨vb¨ fviZxq cyiv„Yi Kvwnbxi Av„jv„K ƒh bvUK iwPZ nq, Zv„K ƒc‡ivwYK bvUK e„j| ƒhgbgvB„Kj gaym~`b `„Ëi Ôkwg©ôvÕ| N) i€cK ev mvs„KwZK bvUK (fvee¯‘ Abymv„i) ƒKv„bv we„kl NUbv„K ƒK›`ª K„i ƒKv„bv we„kl ZË¡ cÖKv„ki D„Ï„k¨ bvU¨Kvi ƒh bvUK iPbv K„ib, Zv„K i€cK ev mvs„KwZK bvUK e„j| ƒhgb- iex›`ªbv_ VvKz„ii ÔivRvÕ| O) MxwZbvU¨ (MVbixwZ Abymv„i) MxwZbvU¨ ej„Z bZ¨MxZ msewjZ bvUK„K ƒevSvq| „hgb: iex›`ªbv_ VvKz„ii ÔwPÎv½`vÕ| P) PwiZ bvUK (welqe¯‘ Abymv„i) ƒKv„bv gnr ƒjv„Ki Rxebx Aej¤^„b ƒh bvU„Ki Kvwnbx i€c jvf K„i Zv„K PwiZ bvUK e„j| ƒhgb -ejvBPuv` gy„Lvcva¨v„qi ÔebdzjÕ|  evsjv bvU‡Ki mswÿß cwiwPwZ

iæk cwieªvRK ƒn„ivwmg ƒj„e„W„di bvU¨PP©vi ga¨ w`„q evsjv bvU„Ki m~ÎcvZ| ƒn„ivwmg ƒj„e„Wd I Zu vi eÜz gybwk ƒMvjKbv_ `vm wg„j ‘Disguise’ Ges ‘Love is the best doctor’ bv„g `yÕwU bvUK evsjvq Abyev` K„ib Ges 1795 wLª÷v„ã ƒj„e„W„di cwiPvjbvq Zv KjKvZvq gÂvqb nq| Gw`K ƒ_„K ejv hvq, 1795 wLª÷v„ãB evsjv bvU„Ki Avwefv©e N„U| Z„e mv_©K evsjv bvU„Ki cw_K‚r g~jZ gvB„Kj gaym~`b `Ë (1824-1873)| wZwbB cÖ_g cvðv„Z¨i bvU¨-ixwZ Abymv„i evsjv bvUK iPbv K„ib| Zuvi HwZnvwmK we„qvMvšÍK bvUK ÔK‚òKzgvixÕ (1861)| G Qvov kwg©ôv (1859) I cÙveZx (1860) Zuvi `yÕwU D„jøL„hvM¨ ƒc‡ivwYK bvUK| GQvov ÔG„KB wK e„j mf¨ZvÕ (1860) Ges Ôey„ov kvwj„Ki Nv„o ƒiuvÕ (1860) Zuvi `ywU mv_©K cÖnmb| gaym~`„bi mgmvgwqK Avi GKRb mv_©K bvU¨Kvi n„jb `xbeÜz wgÎ (1830-1873)| Zuvi Ôbxj `c©YÕ (1860) evsjv mvwn„Z¨i GKwU Av„jvob mwóKvix bvUK| gxi gkviid ƒnv„m„bi (1847-1912) ÔRwg`vi `c©YÕ evsjv bvU¨mvwn„Z¨i GKwU D„jøL„hvM¨ ms„hvRb| cieZ©x evsjv bvU„K wMixkP›`ª ƒNvl, w؄R›`ªjvj ivq I iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Amvgvb¨ mvdj¨ ƒ`wL„q„Qb| wMixkP„›`ªi ÔwmivR„χjv; w؄R›`ªjv„ji Ôb~iRvnvbÕ I ÔmvRvnvbÕ; iex›`ªbv_ VvKz„ii ÔWvKNiÕ, ÔivRvÕ, ÔAPjvqZbÕ ÔwemR©bÕ, Ôi³KiexÕ ÔwPÎv½`vÕ I ÔwPiKzgvi mfvÕ evsjv bvU¨mvwn„Z¨i Agi m¤ú`| KvRx bRiæj Bmjv„gi ÔwSwjwgwjÕ, ÔAv„jqvÕ BZ¨vw` bvUK¸„jvI evsjv bvU¨mvwn„Z¨ MxwZKvwe¨K e¨Äbvq wfbœgvÎv ƒhvM K„i„Q|  evsjv‡`‡ki bvU‡Ki mswÿß cwiwPwZ

evsjv„`„ki bvU¨mvwn„Z¨i L¨vwZgvb bvU¨Kvi„`i g„a¨ byiæj ƒgv„g„bi (1906-1989) bvUK¸„jv we„klfv„e D„jøL„hvM¨| Zuvi iwPZ ԃb„gwmmÕ GKwU AmvaviY bvUK| AvmKvi Be„b kvB„Li (1925) HwZnvwmK I mvgvwRK bvUK¸„jvi g„a¨ ÔwZZzgxiÕ I ÔGcvi IcviÕ LyeB D„jøL„hvM¨| evsjv„`„ki bvU¨„ÿ„Î wbixÿvag©x I AvaywbK bvUK mwó„Z gybxi ƒP‡ayixi (1925-1971) bvg ¯§iYxq n„q Av„Q| Zuvi ÔKeiÕ, Ôbó ƒQ„jÕ I Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ LyeB weL¨vZ bvUK| Jcb¨vwmK kIKZ Imgv„bi GKwU we„kl wbixÿvag©x bvUK n„”Q (19191998) ÔAvgjvi gvgjvÕ| cÖL¨vZ Jcb¨vwmK …mq` IqvjxDjøvni (1922-1971), ÔewncxiÕ I ÔZi½f½Õ bvU„K Avw½„Ki wbixÿvg~jK cÖqvm jÿ Kiv ƒM„Q| G Qvov Ab¨vb¨ D„jøL„hvM¨ bvU¨Kvi„`i g„a¨ wmKv›`vi Avey Rvd„ii (1918-1975) ÔwmivR„χjvÕ, AvjvDwÏb Avj AvRv„`i (1932) Ôgvqvex cÖniÕ, Avwbm ƒP‡ayixi (1929-1990) ÔgvbwPÎÕ bvUK evsjv„`„ki bvU¨mvwn„Z¨ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© ms„hvRb|  ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cÖkvœ ewj  iPbvg~jK-DËi cÖkœ 1. ÒUª¨v„RwW Kv„K e„j? Uª¨v„RwW wn„m„e Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ bvU„Ki mv_©KZv wePvi Ki| 2. HwZnvwmK bvUK K„K e„j ? HwZnvwmK bvUK wn„m„e Òi³v³ cÖvšÍiÓ-Gi mv_©KZv wePvi Ki| 3. bvUK wn„m„e Òi³v³ cÖvšÍiÓ-Gi mv_©KZv wePvi Ki| ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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evsjv cÖ_g I wØZxq cÎ 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 8.

†Kvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªwb

Òi³v³ cÖvšÍi bvU„Ki GKwU Ab¨Zg ƒPZbv nj hy×we„ivax ƒPZbv|Ó-Av„jvPbv Ki| i³v³ cÖvšÍiÓ bvU„Ki bvgKi„Yi mv_©KZv wePvi Ki| Òi³v³ cÖvšÍiÓ bvUK Aej¤^„b Beªvwng Kvw`©i PwiÎ Av„jvPbv Ki| Òi³v³ cÖvšÍiÓ bvUK Aej¤^„b „Rvniv ƒeM„gi PwiÎ Av„jvPbv Ki| Òi³v³ cÖvšÍiÓ bvU„K bvqK bq bvwqKvB cÖavb Ñ Av„jvPbv Ki| Ôi³v³ cÖvšÍiÕ GKwU Ø›ØgyLi bvUK- Av„jvPbv Ki|

 mswÿß-DËi cÖkœ 1. ÒZzwg cï, ƒm ƒ`eZvÓ Ñ ƒK, Kv„K Ges ƒKb G K_v e„j„Q? 2. ÒAšÍ„i AgZ bv _vK„j gyL w`„q GZ Mij DM„i w`„Z cvi„Zv bv|ÓÑ ƒK, Kv„K, Kvi cÖm„½ G K_v e„j„Q? 3. „di wg„Q K_v e„j„Qv ƒZv GK ƒKv„c `yUzK„iv K„i ƒdj„ev|Ó ƒK, Kv„K, ƒKb fq ƒ`Lv„”Q? 4. ÒKv„jv c`©v bv QvB| H i€„ci Av¸b AZ mn„R XvKv c„o?Ó Kvi i€„ci K_v ejv n„q„Q? ƒK, Kv„K, KLb G Dw³ K„i„Q? 5. w`jxc ƒK? ms„ÿ„c Zvi cwiPq `vI| 6. ҃Zvgvi Qلek AšÍ„i bq ewni„½|Ó ƒK, Kx cÖm„½ G K_v e„j„Q? 7. ÒAvwg Avi GKR„bi Rb¨ A„cÿv Ki„ev|ÕÕÑ ƒK, Kvi Rb¨ ƒKb A„cÿv Ki„e? 8. Ògvbyl„K Lyb K„i gvbyl| gvby„li i„³ wcqvm ƒgUvq gvbyl| Rv„bvqvi Pv„U Rv„bvqv„ii i³ÓÑ ƒK , Kv„K, KLb G Dw³ K„iwQj? 9. ÒAvgvi c„ÿ Awbw`©óKvj ch©šÍ D`vmxb _vKv m¤¢e bqÓÑ ƒK Kv„K KLb G K_v e„jwQj? 10. ÒAvwg cixÿv Ki„Z Avwmwb ; MÖnY Ki„Z G„mwQ|ÓÑ GwU Kvi Dw³? Kx cÖm„½ G Dw³ Kiv n„q„Q? 11. ÒAvR Avgiv Rqx| m¤ú~Y© Rqx|Ó ƒK, KLb, ƒKb G Dw³ K„i„Q? 12. wniYevjv ƒK? ms„ÿ„c Zvi cwiPq `vI| 13. Rwibv ƒK? Zvi cwiPq `vI| 14. ÒgiY ƒhLv„b evmv ƒeu„a„Q Zvi bvg KvivMvi bq|Ó-„K, Kx cÖm„½ G Dw³ K„i„Q| 15. ÒGB wkwe„i ƒZvgvi Avgvi gvSLv„b Avgvi wcZvi jvk ï„q Av„Q|Ó-Dw³wU ƒK, Kv„K, ƒKb K„i„Q? 16. ҄h wd„i hv„e ƒm Avwg n„ev bv| ƒm n„e wek¦vm NvZK|Ó -Dw³wU Kvi, ƒKb G Dw³ K„i„Q? 17. ÒAvwg Dò, Avwg RxešÍ| ƒKb Avgv„K Z¨vM Ki„eb?Ó- „K, Kv„K Ges ƒKb G K_v e„j„Q|  e¨vL¨v 1. hZ eo ÿwZ ZZ eo jvfÑ GZ RM„Zi wbqg| 2. ƒ`k bq, RvwZ bq, hk bqÑ hv Avcbv„K GB AÜKvi iv„Z Avgvi KvQ ƒ_„K wQwb„q wb„q hv„”Q ƒm Ab¨ ƒKvb bvix| 3. giY ƒhLv„b evmv ƒeu„a„Q Zvi bvg KvivMvi bq| 4. Avwg bvix, Avwg ü`q w`„q wek¦ Rq Kie | 5. jvj bv bxj, mv`v bv Kv„jv, G AÜKv„i Zv wK K„i gvjyg Ki„ev| 6. Kó, Ny„gi eo K„ó fy„M„Qv Zzwg| NygvI! Av„iv NygvI| cÖvY f„i NygvI| 7. whwb cÖK‚Z exi I gnvb; wZwb `y„qi g„a¨ ƒgwKUv„K ƒV„j ƒd„j w`„q mv”PvUv Kzwo„q wb„q„Qb| 8. ƒh wd„i hv„e; ƒm Avwg n„ev bv| ƒm n„e wek¦vmNvZK| 9. GB wkwe„i ƒZvgvi Avgvi gvSLv„b Avgvi wcZvi jvk ï„q Av„Q| 10. Avwg Dò, Avwg RxešÍ| 11. Avgvi c„ÿ Awbw`©óKvj ch©šÍ D`vmxb _vKv m¤¢e bq| 12. ƒQvU gyw³Uv„K Ae„njv K„i eo gyw³Uv„K Avwj½b K„i„Qb| 13. gvbyl g„i ƒM„j c„P hvq| ƒeu„P _vK„j e`jvq| Kvi„Y-AKvi„Y e`jvq| mKv„j-weKv„j e`jvq| 14. Kv„jv c`©v bv QvB| H i€„ci Av¸b AZ mn„R XvKv c„o? 15. Avwg wbwðZ Rvwb Rq-civRq hvB AvmyK gZz¨ wfbœ Avgvi gyw³i ƒKvb c_ ƒbB|

ƒKvm© cwiwPwZ I cÖfvlY cÎ

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