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Avgvi evsjv eB

Z…Zxq fvM

K¨vgweªqvb ¯‹zj GÛ K‡jR cÖvBgvix kvLv


bs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

welq cÖv_©bv evsjv‡`k gvwS wPwV e„wói Qov gvgvi evwoi wcVv gyw³‡mbv Lwjdv nhiZ Avey eKi (iv) ¯^vaxbZvi myL †gNbv Pj& Pj& Pj& KjveZxi nv‡U ms‡KZ¸‡jv †R‡b ivwL evsjv fvlv fvB †ev‡bi kL †Uª‡b ågb dig c~iY Av`k© †Q‡j Rqbyj Av‡ew`b Avgv‡`i MÖvg RvZxq †Ljv nv-Wy-Wy †`k we‡`‡ki wkï ivLvj †Q‡j weRq w`em Gfv‡i÷ weRq iƒcK_v exi ‡kªô K¨v‡Þb gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi fi `ycy‡i

c„ôv 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 14 16 18 20 22 25 26 28 30 33 35 37 39 40 42 44 46


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

mywdqv Kvgvj bvg Rb¥ cwiPq wcZ…-gvZ… cwiPq

: mywdqv Kvgvj : 20 Ryb, 1911 wLªóvã, kv‡q¯Ívev` ewikvj : wcZvi bvg- •mq` Avãyj evix gvZvi bvg- bIqveRv`x •mq`v mv‡eiv LvZzb mvwnZ¨ mvabv : muv‡Si gvqv, gvqv KvRj, gb I Rxeb, †Kqvi KuvUv, GKvˇii WvBix, •Zj wZj| cyi®‥vi I m¤§vbbv : GKz‡k c`K, evsjv GKv‡Wgx cyi®‥vi| Rxebvemvb : 20 b‡f¤^i, 1999 wLªóvã

1| iwng ingvb †K? DËi: iwng k‡ãi A_© `qvjy, Avi ingvb k‡ãi A_© KiæYvgq| iwng ingvb n‡jb Avgv‡`i GB wek¦ RM‡Zi m„wóKZ©v gnvb Avjøvn| 2| Avjøvni Kv‡Q Avgiv Kx †gvbvRvZ Kwi? DËi: G wek¦ RM‡Zi mewKQzB gnvb Avjøvni `vb| wZwb Avgv‡`i Rb¨ my›`i c„w_ex m„wó K‡i‡Qb| Mv‡Q Mv‡Q dzjdj, km¨ fiv gvV, Rjfiv b`x I cvwLi K‡É Mvb w`‡q‡Qb| ZvB Avgiv gnvb Avjøvni Kv‡Q GB e‡j †gvbvRvZ Kwi Avgiv †hb gnvb Avjøvn‡K fy‡j bv hvB| mnR mij mr c‡_ Pwj| 3| Avjøvni `vb Kx Kx? DËi: gnvb Avjøvn GB wek¦ RM‡Zi me wKQzB m„wó K‡i‡Qb| wZwb Mv‡Q Mv‡Q w`‡q‡Qb bvbv iK‡gi dzj dj, gv‡V w`‡q‡Qb meyR dmj, b`x mvMi, Lvj we‡j w`‡q‡Qb bvbv iKg gvQ, cvwLi K‡É w`‡q‡Qb mygayi Mvb, gvby‡l gvby‡l AvZ¥xqZvi m¤úK© ZuviB `vb| †gvU K_v, GB m„ó RM‡Zi mewKQzB gnvb Avjøvni `vb| 4| AvcbRb Kviv? DËi: wcZv gvZv, `v`v `vw`, PvPv PvwP, fvB‡evb I AvZ¥xq ¯^Rb Avgv‡`i AvcbRb| AvcbR‡biv G‡K A‡b¨i †LuvR Lei iv‡L I mKjKv‡R mn‡hvwMZv K‡i| Giv G‡K Ac‡ii ïfvKv“Lx| 5| Avgv‡`i †kl †gvbvRvZ Kx? DËi: gvbe RvwZi A‡kl Kj¨v‡Yi Rb¨ Avjøvn ZvÕqvjv me wKQzB m„wó K‡i‡Qb| Avi Avgiv Zv †fvM K‡i hvw‛Q| ZvB Avgv‡`i †kl †gvbvRvZ n‡e me©¶Y gnvb Avjøvni ¸YMvb K‡i Zuvi Amxg `vb I KiæYvi Rb¨ K…ZÁZv cÖKvk Kiv Ges Zuvi wb‡`©wkZ c‡_ Pjv| c„ôv-1


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

1| evsjv‡`k Kv‡`i †`k? DËi: evsjv‡`k Avgvi †`k, Avgv‡`i †`k, wn›`y, gymwjg, †e․×, wLªóvb mK‡ji †`k| G †`k Avgv‡`i gvZ…f~wg| G †`k‡K Avgiv fv‡jvevwm| 2| evsjv‡`‡ki Kv‡Q †Kvb mvMi Av‡Q? DËi: evsjv‡`‡ki Kv‡Q e‡½vcmvMi Av‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki `w¶Y w`‡K Aew¯’Z wekvj Rjivwk G mvMi| G DcmvM‡ii Rj bxj| 3| evsjv‡`‡ki g~j f~L‡Ð Kx Kx Av‡Q? DËi: evsjv‡`‡ki g~j f~L‡Ð Av‡Q MvQcvjv, b`xbvjv, cvnvoce©Z, Lvjwej cyKzi, eb ebvbx, dm‡ji gvV, Rwg wRivZ, Nievwo Ges iv¯Ív NvU| 4| evsjv‡`‡ki †ewki fvM gvbyl †Kv_vq evm K‡i? DËi: evsjv‡`‡ki †ewki fvM gvbyl MÖv‡g evm K‡i Ges mv`v wm‡a Rxeb-hvcb K‡i| 5| cve©Z¨ GjvKvq Kviv evm K‡i? DËi: cve©Z¨ GjvKvq cvnvwoiv evm K‡i| wewfbœ DcRvwZi evm cvnv‡o| Zviv A‡bK cwikªg K‡i Rxebhvcb K‡i| 6| el©vKv‡j wbPz f~wgi Kx Ae¯’v nq? DËi: el©vKv‡j evsjv‡`‡ki wbPz f~wg cvwb‡Z cøvweZ nq| c_NvU me Wy‡e hvq| MÖv‡gi gvbyl †b․Kvq K‡i PjvPj K‡i| dm‡ji gvV Wy‡e dmj bó n‡q hvq| 7| evsjv‡`‡ki cÖK…wZi cÖavb is Kx? DËi: evsjv‡`‡ki cÖK…wZi is cÖavbZ meyR| cÖK…wZi †h w`‡KB ZvKvB ïay meyR MvQcvjv| meyR avb I cv‡Ui †¶‡Z evZvm eB‡j meyR †XD †L‡j hvq| GQvovI evsjv‡`‡ki cÖK…wZi evnvwi is i‡q‡Q| 8| evsjv‡`‡ki gvwU‡K Kwe I wkíxiv Kx e‡j‡Qb? DËi: Kwe I wkíxiv evsjv‡`‡ki gvwU‡K KvRj gvwU e‡j‡Qb| evsjvv‡`‡ki gvwU †mvbvi †P‡q I LuvwU| 9| †g‡Ni is †Kgb? DËi: evsjvi AvKv‡k KvjwfwËK •ewPÎgq †g‡Ni is †Ljv K‡i| el©vi bexb †g‡Ni is Kv‡jv| KLbI KLbI Nb Kv‡jv| ki‡Z †g‡Ni is cvëvq| el©v †k‡l ki‡Z †g‡Ni is mv`v Zy‡jvi g‡Zv †`Lvq| 10| †mvbvwj is wK‡mi? DËi: †iv‡`i is †mvbvwj| †gN gy³ AvKv‡k †mvbvwj m~h© D¾¡j Av‡jv Qovq| ZLb Pviw`‡K †mvbvwj is wSwKwgwK K‡i| Avevi cvKv av‡bi is I cvKv cv‡Ui is †mvbvwj| 11| MÖx‡®§i †iv` †Kgb? DËi: MÖx‡®§i †iv` Zxeª| MÖx‡®§ m~‡h©i †ZR †ewk _v‡K| G mgq †i․‡`ªi ZxeªZvq K…l‡Ki gv_vi Nvg S‡i| c„ôv-2


evsjv

cÖK…Z bvg Rb¥ ZvwiL Rxebvemvb esk cwiPq

Z…Zxq †kªwY

: : : :

iex›`ªbv_ VvKyi| QÙ bvg: fvbywmsn VvKzi| 7 †g, 1861 wLª: (25 •ekvL 1268) †Rvovmuv‡Kv KjKvZv, fviZ| 7 AvMó, 1941 wLª÷vã (22 kªveY, 1348) wcZvi bvg- gnwl© †`‡e›`ªbv_ VvKzi gvZvi bvg- mvi`v †`ex mvwnZ¨ mvabv : Kve¨- gvbmx, †mvbvi Zix, MxZvÄwj, ejvKv| Dcb¨vm- †Mviv, N‡i-evB‡i, †Pv‡Li evwj, †hvMv‡hvM| bvUK- wPi Kzgvi mfv, WvKNi, i³Keix| cyi®‥vi I m¤§vbbv : †bv‡ej cyi®‥vi 1913|

1| gvwS KweZvwU †K wj‡L‡Qb? DËi: ÔgvwSÕ KweZvwU wj‡L‡Qb wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi| GwU Kwe ¸iæ iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Gi GKwU Ab¨Zg KweZv| 2| b`xwUi IB cv‡i †h‡Z Kvi B‡”Q K‡i? DËi: ÔgvwSÕ KweZvi KwíZ wkïwUi b`xi Icv‡i †hLv‡b euv‡ki LuywU‡Z mvwi mvwi †b․Kv euvav †mLv‡b †h‡Z B‡‛Q K‡i| 3| KweZvq †K Kvi Kv‡Q Zvi B‡”Qi K_v ej‡Q? DËi: ÔgvwSÕ KweZvq †QvU wkïwU Zvi gvi Kv‡Q Zvi B‡‛Qi K_v ej‡Q| 4| wWwO †bŠKv †Kv_vq euvav _v‡K? DËi: b`xi Icv‡i †LqvNv‡U euv‡ki LuywU‡Z wWwO †b․Kv¸‡jv euvav _v‡K| 5| K…l‡Kiv Kxfv‡e cvi n‡q hvq? DËi: K…l‡Kiv gv‡Vi KvR †kl K‡i jvOj Kuv‡a †d‡j b`x cvi n‡q hvq| 6| †R‡j Kx K‡i? DËi: †R‡jiv Rvj †U‡b b`x‡Z gvQ a‡i| 7| ivLv‡ji †Q‡j Kx K‡i? DËi: ivLv‡ji †Q‡jiv Miæ, gwnl wb‡q muvZvi †K‡U b`x cvi n‡q hvq| 8| †kqvj¸‡jv KLb †Kv_vq †W‡K I‡V? DËi: ivZ `ycy‡i SvD WvOvi cv‡i †kqvj¸‡jv †W‡K I‡V| c„ôv-3


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

1| iscyi †_‡K †K wPwV wj‡L‡Q? Kvi Kv‡Q wPwV wj‡L‡Q? DËi: iscyi †_‡K Rvnvbviv wPwV wj‡L‡Q| Rvnvbviv Zvi evev‡K wPwV wj‡L‡Q| 2| Rvnvbviv Kq Zvwi‡L AveŸy‡K wPwV wj‡L‡Q? DËi: Rvnvbviv Zvi AveŸy‡K 17 GwcÖj, 2009 mv‡j wPwV wj‡L‡Q| 3| GB wPwV‡Z Kx Kx cïi bvg Av‡Q Zv wjL? DËi: Rvnvbviv Zvi AveŸyi Kv‡Q †h wPwV wj‡L‡Q †m wPwV‡Z †hme cïi bvg i‡q‡Q Zv wbgœiƒc: wRivd, Rjn¯Íx, wmsn, evN, †Reªv, ejMv nwiY, †kqvj, nbygvb, evbi I mRviæ| 4| gy‡Li g‡a¨ cvwb wb‡q fym fym K‡i Quy‡o w`w”Qj Kviv? DËi: gy‡Li g‡a¨ cvwb wb‡q fym fym K‡i Quy‡o w`w‛Qj Rjn¯Íx¸‡jv| 5| Rvnvbviv Kv‡`i mv‡_ wPwoqvLvbvq wM‡qwQj? iscyi wPwoqvLvbvi c‡_i eY©bv `vI? DËi: Rvnvbviv Zvi AveŸy, cÖÁv Lvjv, †QvU fvB I †QvU gvgvi mv‡_ iscyi wPwoqvLvbv wM‡qwQj| iscyi wPwoqvLvbvi c_ miæ, Muv‡qi g‡a¨ Pjvi c‡_i g‡Zv| `yav‡i jvMv‡bv Av‡Q mvwi mvwi dz‡ji MvQ| dzj¸‡jvi is D¾¡j wKš‘ Zv‡Z †Kvb MÜ †bB| 6| Rvnvbviv Kqai‡bi wPj †`‡LwQj ? DËi: Rvnvbviv wZb ai‡bi wPj †`‡LwQj| wPj¸‡jvi bvg n‡jv: (K) fyeb wPj, (L) avb wPj I (M) k“L wPj|

c„ôv-4


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

di&iæL Avng` mvims‡¶c: el©vi e„wó‡Z cÖK…wZ‡Z mvov c‡o‡Q| Kvkeb, Nvmeb, b`x-bvjv, MÖvg-MÄ, nvU-evRvi me©ÎB Zvi cÖfve| †Kqve‡b dzj †dv‡U, b`x‡Z †Lqv _v‡K bv| cvwLiv e„wó‡Z bx‡o wd‡i, ivLvj †Q‡j c_ fy‡j `uvwo‡q hvq, gb n‡q hvq D`vm PÂj| kãv_© I evK¨ iPbv: kã mvov ‡`qv Muv ev`j †`vjv c_-†fvjv cv‡b

A_© †kvi‡Mvj †gN MÖvg e„wó Av‡jvob c_ fy‡j‡Q †h w`‡K

evK¨ bZzb AwZw_ Avmvq evwo‡Z mvov c‡o †M‡Q| el©vi Nb †`qvi AvKvk †Q‡q hvq| Muv‡qi c_ a‡i †jvKwU †nu‡U hv‡‛Q| ev`‡ji aviv SiSi K‡i Si‡Q| Zvi Mvb mK‡ji gb †`vjv w`j| †m GK c_-†fvjv c_K| †`‡ki cv‡b ZvKvI|

msw¶ß-DËi cÖkœ: 1| e„wó G‡j †Kv_vq mvov RvMj? DËi: Kwe di&iæL Avng` Ôe„wói QovÕ KweZvq e„wó G‡j Nvm e‡b mvov RvMj| 2| e„wó G‡j e‡Ki mwi †Kv_vq jyKvq? DËi: e„wó G‡j e‡Ki mvwi euvk e‡b jyKvq| 3| †Kqv dzj †Kv_vq dzUj? DËi: el©vi dzj †Kqv| e„wó Avmvq †Kqv dzj e‡bi Avov‡j dzUj| 4| ivLvj †Q‡jiv Kx nj? DËi: Ôe„wói QovÕ KweZvq ivLvj †Q‡j †gN †`‡L c_ fy‡j †Kv_vq †hb nvwi‡q †Mj| 5| †g‡Ni Avuav‡i gb Kx Pvq? DËi: †g‡Ni Avuav‡i gb Avb‡›` †b‡P I‡V| G mgq g‡b Ab¨ iKg Av‡jvob m„wó nq| gb †hb †Kv_vI Qz‡U †h‡Z Pvq| 6| el©vi avb †KvbwU? DËi: el©vKv‡j AvEk avb Drcbœ nq| mwVK Dˇii cv‡k wUK () wPý `vI: K) mvov RvMj  L) e‡Ki mvwi jywK‡q †Mj  M) b`x †Z bvB  N) gb Qz‡U hvq  O) el©vi dzj 

euvk e‡b / Nvm e‡b / Kvk e‡b| b`xi Icv‡i / euvk e‡b / e‡bi Avov‡j| †`qv / †Kqv / †Lqv| AvEk av‡bi gv‡V / Avgb av‡bi gv‡V / Bwi av‡bi †`‡k| Kvk / Nvm / †Kqv| c„ôv-5


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

1| wcVv •Zwii Rb¨ Kx Kx jv‡M? DËi: evsjv‡`k wcVv cywji †`k| bvbv ai‡bi wcVv GLv‡b •Zwi nq| wcVv •Zwii Rb¨ A‡bK ai‡bi Dcv`vb jv‡M| Zvi g‡a¨ D‡jøL‡hvM¨ n‡‛Q- AvZc Pv‡ji Muy‡ov, bvwi‡Kj, Av‡Li ev †LRy‡ii ¸o, †LRy‡ii im, `ya, wPwb, wWg BZ¨vw`| GQvovI wcVv evbv‡bvi cvÎ †hgb- gvwUi †Lvjv, gvwUi XvKbv, KjvcvZv, KuvVvj cvZv BZ¨vw`| 2| wcVv evbv‡”Q †K? Kviv wcVv Lv‡”Q? DËi: Szgvi gvwg wcVv evbv‡‛Q| Avi wcVv Lv‡‛Q Szgv, Szgvi gvgv‡Zv †evb mvRy I gvRy| 3| †Lvjv wPZzB Kxfv‡e •Zwi nq? DËi: †hfv‡e †Lvjv wPZzB •Zwi nq: Pv‡ji Muy‡ov‡K cvwb w`‡q †Mvjv K‡i cÖ‡qvRb g‡Zv wWg w`‡q cÖ_‡g fv‡jvfv‡e wgwk‡q wb‡Z nq| Gici gvwUi •Zwi †Lvjvi Ici GKUv PvgP w`‡q cvZjv K‡i Qwo‡q w`‡q gvwUi XvKbv w`‡q †X‡K w`‡Z n‡e| GK wgwbU ci XvKbv DVv‡j †`Lv hv‡e wPZzB wcVv •Zwi n‡q †M‡Q| 4| kx‡Zi wcVv †Kvb ¸‡jv? DËi: fvcv, †Lvjv wPZzB, `ya wPZzB, im wcVv, cvwU mvcUv, `ya cywj, ¶xi cywj, bvwi‡Kj cywj, P›`ªcywj BZ¨vw` nj kx‡Zi wcVv| 5| mviv eQi †Kvb wcVv cvIqv hvq? DËi: cyqv,cvKb, g¨viv wcVv mviv eQi cvIqv hvq| 6| evsjv‡`‡ki wcVv †Kvb ¸‡jv? DËi: wPZzB, `ya wPZzB, fvcv wcVv, cyqv, cywj wcVv, g¨viv wcVv, bKwk wcVv, cvwUmvcUv, `ya cywj, P›`ªcywj, bvi‡Kj cywj, mR‡bcvZv, KvRj jZv, ¶xi cywj, †mgvB wcVv BZ¨vw` n‡jv evsjv‡`‡ki wcVv| 7| bKwk wcVv Kxfv‡e •Zwi nq? DËi: bKwk wcVv wewfbœ AvKv‡ii n‡q _v‡K| dzj, cvZv, MvQ, gvQ mn AviI A‡bK wKQzi bKkv AvuKv nq wcVvi Ici| 8| cywj wcVvi bvg Ges bvo–¸‡jvi bvg Kx? DËi: cywj wcVvi bvg ¸‡jv n‡”Q- P›`ªcywj, `ya cywj, bvi‡Kj cywj, ¶xi cywj| bvo– cywji bvg n‡”Q- Pv‡ji bvo”, wZ‡ji bvo”, wP‡oi bvo”, bvi‡K‡ji bvo”| c„ôv-6


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

myKzgvi eo–qv bvg Rb¥ cwiPq wcZ… cwiPq mvwnZ¨ mvabv

: myKzgvi eo”qv : 05 Rvbyqvwi, 1938 wLªóvã, webvRywi, ivDRvb, PÆMÖvg| : me©vb›` eo”qv : cvMjv †Nvov, wf‡R weovj, P›`ªbv iÄbvi Qov, G‡jvcvZvwo, bvbv i‡Oi w`b, wPwPs duvK BZ¨vw`

1| gyw³‡mbv Kviv? DËi: evsjv‡`k‡K ¯^vaxb Kivi Rb¨ huviv hy× K‡i‡Qb ZuvivB gyw³‡mbv| wcÖq gvZ…f~wgi Uv‡b Avgv‡`i gyw³‡mbviv nvbv`vi •mb¨evwnbxi Ici Suvwc‡q c‡o‡Qb| 2| Kviv ab¨? DËi: huviv gv‡qi fvlv I gvZ…f~wg‡K i¶vi Rb¨ Rxeb-evwR †i‡L‡Qb ZuvivB ab¨| Zuviv c„w_exi ey‡K wPi ¯§iYxq A¤­vb, A¶q| BwZnv‡mi †mvbvi cvZvq Zuv‡`i bvg †jLv _vK‡e| 3| knx` †K Avi MvwR †K? DËi: mZ¨ I b¨v‡qi Rb¨ hy× K‡i huviv cÖvY w`‡q‡Qb Zuviv knx` Ges huviv b¨vq hy‡× Rqx n‡q‡Qb Zuviv MvwR| 4| Kviv nvbv`vi‡`i Nv‡qj Kij? DËi: gyw³cvMj G †`‡ki gyw³ †mbviv hy× K‡i nvbv`vi‡`i Nv‡qj K‡i‡Qb| 5| Kviv Kviv GK n‡e? DËi: kªwgK Ges K…lv‡Yiv GK n‡e| 6| BwZnv‡mi cvZvq Kv‡`i bvg wjLv _vK‡e? DËi: huviv evsjv‡`k‡K ¯^vaxb Kivi Rb¨ hy× K‡i‡Qb, huviv i³ w`‡q‡Qb †mme kªwgK, K„lvY, gyw³‡mbv‡`i bvg BwZnv‡mi cvZvq †jLv _vK‡e|

c„ôv-7


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

1| †Lvjvdv‡q ivwkw`b Kv‡K e‡j? DËi: nhiZ gynv¤§` (m:) Gi g„Zz¨i ci †h PviRb Lwjdv n‡qwQ‡jb Zuv‡`i‡K †Lvjvdv‡q ivwkw`b ejv nq| 2| nhiZ Avey eKi (iv:) †K wQ‡jb? DËi: nhiZ Avey eKi (iv:) bwewRi wcÖq mvnvwe Ges gymwjg Rvnv‡bi cÖ_g Lwjdv wQ‡jb| ZvQvov wZwb gnvbwe (m:) Gi ¯¿x Av‡qkv (iv:) Gi wcZv wQ‡jb| 3| wZwb †Kv_vq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? Zuvi wcZvgvZvi bvg Kx? DËi: 573 wLªóv‡ã g°vi KzivBk es‡ki ZvBg †Mv‡Î wZwb Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZvi bvg Kznvdv Dmgvb Ges gvZvi bvg mvjgv| 4| cyiæl‡`i g‡a¨ †K cÖ_g Bmjvg ag© MÖnY K‡ib? DËi: cyiæl‡`i g‡a¨ me© cÖ_g nhiZ Avey eKi (iv:) Bmjvg ag© MÖnY K‡ib| 5| gnvbwe (m:) †Kb gw`bvq wnhiZ K‡iwQ‡jb? DËi: gnvbwe (m:) †K Kv‡diiv nZ¨v Ki‡Z PvB‡j wZwb Avjøvni Av‡`‡k Avey eKi (iv) †K m‡½ wb‡q gw`bvq wnhiZ K‡iwQ‡jb| 6| nhiZ Avey eKi (iv:) µxZ`vm‡`i gy³ Ki‡Zb †Kb? DËi: nhiZ Avey eKi (iv:) bwewRi gy‡L ï‡bwQ‡jb µxZ`vm gy³ Ki‡j A‡bK QIqve cvIqv hvq| GRb¨ wZwb µxZ`vm µq K‡i gy³ K‡i w`‡Zb| ZvB wZwb wb‡Ri A‡_© nhiZ wejvj (iv:) mn Av‡iv A‡bK µxZ`vm‡K µq K‡i gy³ K‡i‡Qb| 7| †Kvb hy‡×i mgq wZwb Zuvi mg¯Í m¤ú` wewj‡q †`b? DËi: ZveyK hy‡×i mgq wZwb Zuvi mg¯Í m¤ú` wewj‡q †`b| 8| ab m¤ú` wewj‡q †`qvi mgq bwewR (m:) Zuv‡K Kx wR‡Ám K‡ib? DËi: bwewR AevK n‡q Avey eKi (iv:) †K wRÁvmv K‡ib, ÒZzwg N‡i Kx †i‡L G‡mQ?Ó 9| nhiZ Avey eKi (iv:) K‡e g„Zz¨ eiY K‡ib? DËi: nhiZ Avey eKi (iv:) 634 wLªóv‡ã 23 AvM÷ g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib| c„ôv-8


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

mvims‡¶c : ¯^vaxbZv Qvov Rxe‡bi c~Y©Zv Av‡m bv| Rxe‡bi mv_©KZvi m‡½ ¯^vaxbZvi myL RwoZ| Hk¦h© KLbB ¯^vaxbZvi myL †`q bv| ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ A‡bK Z¨vM ¯^xKvi Ki‡Z nq| A‡b¨i †`Iqv ¯^vaxbZv KLbB h_v_© ¯^vaxbZv bq& wb‡Ri AwR©Z ¯^vaxbZvB cÖK…Z ¯^vaxbZv| GwU AR©‡b Ges i¶vq mK‡ji cÖ‡Póv _vKv DwPZ| 1.

kãv_© I evK¨ iPbv : kã A_© A‡b¨i Aax‡b bv _vKv, ¯^vaxbZv Aeva myL Avivg Nvm, cvZv ev Lo w`‡q Kzu‡o Ni •Zix †QvU Ni eovB †M․ie, evnv`ywi AÆvwjKv cvKv evwo, `vjvb †KvVv Lvmv PgrKvi, DËg

evK¨ 1971 mv‡j jvL jvL cÖv‡Yi wewbg‡q evsjv‡`k ¯^vaxbZv jvf K‡i‡Q| myL jv‡fi Avkvq gvbyl Kó K‡i| MÖv‡g A‡bK Kzu‡o Ni †`Lv hvq| Ab_©K eovB Kiv fvj bq| wekvj wekvj AÆvwjKv gv_v DPzu K‡i `uvwo‡q Av‡Q| KweZvwU Lvmv, Ave„wË Ki‡Z fv‡jv jv‡M|

2.

hy³eY© wP‡b †bB Ges bZzb kã •Zwi Kwi : ¯^vaxbZv Ñ ¯^ = m + e Ñ djv (e) ¯^v`, ¯^xq wkí Ñ í = j + Mí, ¯^í AÆvwjKv Ñ Æ = U + U VvÆv, PÆjv

3.

weivgwP‡ýi e¨envi wkwL : `uvwo [ | ] = eveyB evmv eyb‡Z cv‡i| Kgv [ , ] = †iv`, e„wó, S‡o, eveyB Kó K‡i| cÖkœwPý [ ? ] = eveyB cvwL wK g‡b g‡b Kó cvq? DׄwZwPý [ Ò Ó ] = eveyB‡K †W‡K Po”B cvwL e‡j, ÒKzu‡o N‡i †_‡K Zzwg wk‡íi eovB Ki|Ó

4.

cÖkœ DËi :

cÖkœ K. Po–B cvwL‡K †W‡K wK ej‡Q ? DËi : Po”B eveyB cvwL‡K †W‡K ej‡Q eveyB cvwL Kzu‡o N‡i _v‡K A_P †m Zvi •kwíK Kv‡Ri Rb¨ †M․ie †eva K‡i wKšÍy cvwLi G K_v ejv DwPZ bq Kvi‡Y †m A‡b¨i evwo‡Z evm K‡i|

c„ôv-9


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

cÖkœ L. Po–B cvwL eveyB cvwLi wK‡mi Kó cvIqvi K_v ej‡Q? DËi : Po”B cvwL g‡b K‡i eveyB cvwL wb‡Ri nv‡Z Mov †QvÆ †h Kzu‡o N‡i _v‡K †mLv‡b †m †iv`, e„wó, So mn¨ K‡i| Po”B cvwL eveyB cvwLi GB K‡ói K_vB e‡j‡Q| cÖkœ M. eveyB †Kv_vq †_‡K eovB K‡i? DËi : eveyB cvwL Zvi wb‡i Mov evmvq †_‡K eovB K‡i| cÖkœ N. eveyB cvwL wK‡mi eovB K‡i? DËi : eveyB cvwL Zvi wbR nv‡Z Lo Kz‡Uv w`‡q •Zix Kiv KviæKvh© Øviv wbwg©Z evmv wb‡q eovB K‡i| cÖkœ O. Po–B †Kv_vq gnvmy‡L _v‡K? DËi : Po”B A‡b¨i AÆvwjKvi Dc‡i gnvmy‡L evm K‡i| cÖkœ P. Kó †c‡jI eveyB cvwLi `ytL †bB †Kb? DËi : Kó †c‡jI eveyB cvwLi `ytL †bB KviY †m Zvi ¯^xq K‡g©i gva¨‡g Zvi Ni •Zix K‡i‡Q| 5.

6.

wecixZ kã wjL : ¯^vaxbZv

civaxbZv

Avivg

cvKv

KuvPv

myL

`ytL

Wvb cv‡ki As‡ki m‡½ wVK wVK wgjvB : K. Kzu‡o N‡i _vwK Ki wk‡íi eovB,

AÆvwjKv

L. Avwg _vwK gnvmy‡L AÆvwjKv c‡i|

m‡›`n

M. Zzwg KZ Kó cvI †iv`, e„wó, S‡o |

wb‡Ri

N. eveyB nvwmqv K‡n m‡›`n wK Zvq?

eovB

O. Kó cvB, Zey _vwK wb‡Ri evmvq|

e„wó, S‡o

P.

Mov †gvi

wbR nv‡Z Mov †gvi KuvPv Ni, Lvmv|

cvKv

c„ôv-10


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

1| †gNbv †Kvb †kªYx‡Z co‡Q? DËi: †gNbv Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z co‡Q| 2| †g‡qi bvg †gNbv †K †i‡L‡Q? DËi: †g‡qi bvg †gNbv Zvi gv †i‡L‡Qb| 3| †gNbv Ô‡gNbvÕ bvgwU Kvi KvQ †_‡K ï‡b‡Q? DËi: †gNbv Ô†gNbvÕ bvgwU Zvi gv‡qi KvQ †_‡K ï‡b‡Q| Avevi Zvi †kªYxwk¶‡Ki KvQ †_‡KI †R‡b‡Q| 4| †K w÷gv‡i Po‡Z Pvq? DËi: †gNbv w÷gv‡i Po‡Z Pvq| 5| †Kv_vq †gNbv b`xi Rb¥ n‡q‡Q? DËi: fvi‡Zi Avmvg iv‡R¨ †gNbv b`xi Rb¥ n‡q‡Q| 6| b`xi bvg †gNbv nq Kxfv‡e? DËi: myigv b`xwU wm‡jU Qvwo‡q G‡m Kzwkqvivi mv‡_ wgwjZ n‡q †gNbv bvg aviY K‡i| 7| eivK b`xi `yB kvLvi bvg Kx? DËi: eivK b`xi `yBkvLvi GKwUi bvg myigv Ab¨wUi bvg Kzwkqviv| 8| †Kv_vq †gNbv I cÙv wgwjZ n‡q‡Q? DËi: Puv`cy‡ii Kv‡Q cÙv I †gNbv b`x GKmv‡_ wgwjZ n‡q‡Q| 9| †Kvb DcmvM‡i †gNbv wgwj‡Q? DËi: e‡½vcmvM‡i G‡m †gNbv wg‡j‡Q| 10| †gNbvi Rjc_ e¨¯Í †Kb? DËi: †gNbv b`x‡Z cÖwZw`b eû jÂ, w÷gvi, gvjevnx Rjhvb Avi AmsL¨ †QvU eo †b․Kv PjvPj K‡i e‡j †gNbv Lye e¨¯Í _v‡K| ZvQvov †gNbvi ey‡K AmsL¨ †R‡j †b․Kv wb‡q iƒcvwj Bwjk aivq e¨¯Í _v‡K| c„ôv-11


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg 1|

kãv_© t DaŸ© Ñ Ic‡ii w`K MMb Ñ AvKvk gv`j Ñ †Xv‡ji gZ ev`¨hš¿ wb‡æ Ñ wb‡P DZjv Ñ e¨vKzj aiYx Ñ c„w_ex AiæY Ñ mKv‡ji m~h© cÖv‡Z Ñ mKv‡j Elv Ñ †fvi †ejv cÖfvZ Ñ mKvj UzUve Ñ fvOe wZwgi Ñ AÜKvi weܨvej Ñ weܨ ce©Z bexb Ñ bZzb mRxe Ñ m‡ZR, RxešÍ gnvk¥kvb Ñ g„Z‡`n †cvov‡bvi eo RvqM

2|

hy³eY© t DaŸ© wb‡æ weܨvPj gnvk¥kvb

Ñ aŸ© = †id ( © ) + a& + e Ñ djv (e), AbyaŸ© Ñ æ = g& + b Ñ Ü¨ = b& + a& + h Ñ djv (¨), mܨv Ñ k¥ = k& + g Ñ djv, Rxevk¥, Ak¥

3|

cÖkœ DËi :

K)

gv`j †Kv_vq ev‡R? DËi t KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg iwPZ Pj& Pj& Pj& KweZvq gv`j EaŸ© AvKv‡k ev‡R|

L)

Kwe Kv‡`i Pj‡Z WvK w`‡q‡Qb? DËi t GB c„w_exi AMÖMvgx ZiæY `j hviv c„w_ex‡K fwel¨‡Z AviI DbœwZi c‡_ GwM‡q wb‡q hv‡e| †mB me bZzb cÖv‡Yi bexb ZiæY‡`i Kwe KvRx bRiæj Bmjvg Pj‡Z WvK w`‡q‡Qb|

M)

Kviv wZwgi `~i Ki‡e? DËi t †h me ZiæY`j RM‡Zi mKj wec`, Kó‡K AwZµg K‡i me evav wWwO‡q hv‡e ZvivB RM‡Zi me AÜKvi ev wZwgi `~i Ki‡e|

N)

weܨvPj Kx? DËi t weܨvPj n‡jv fvi‡Zi GKwU ce©‡Zi bvg| c„ôv-12


evsjv

4|

Av‡Mi PiYwU ewj K) EaŸ© MM‡b ev‡R gv`j wb‡æ DZjv aiYx Zj| L) Elvi `yqv‡i nvwb AvNvZ Avgiv Avwbe ivOv cÖfvZ M) be bex‡bi Mvwnqv Mvb mRxe Kwie gnvk¥kvb

c„ôv-13

Z…Zxq †kªwY


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

mvi ms‡¶c : KjveZx cvcjy‡`i †QvU MÖvg| MÖv‡gi cvk w`‡q e‡m hvIqv b`xi cv‡k e‡m ejveZxi nvU| Avi G nvU e‡m iweevi I e„n¯úwZevi| †kl we‡K‡j cvcjy‡K wb‡q †Rej PvPv nv‡U hv‡‛Qb| †Lvjv RvqMvq bvbv wRwbm wb‡q e‡m‡Q we‡µZviv| †jvKRb †mme wRwbm wKb‡Q| ZwiZiKvwii nv‡U i‡q‡Q bvbv ai‡Yi UvUKv ZwiZiKvwi| Pv‡ji nv‡U bvbv ai‡Yi Pvj wewµ †`‡L cvcjyi wewbœ av‡bi fv‡Zi K_v g‡b c‡o| gv‡Qi evRv‡i Am¤¢e wfo, †R‡jiv fv‡o K‡i wewfbœ ai‡Yi gvQ wb‡q e‡m Av‡Q| nuvm gyiwM¸‡jvi Rvbv I cv `wo w`‡q euvav| my›`ifv‡e mvRv‡bv i‡q‡Q cvb mycvwii †`vKvb| avgv fwZ© i‡q‡Q UvUKv gywo| mv`v UvUKv gywo †`‡L gb f‡i hvq| AviI Av‡Q Kvgvi-Kz‡gvi‡`i †`vKvb| MvgQv we‡µZv MvgQv nv‡Z K‡i wewµ Ki‡Q| gqivi †`vKv‡b wewµ n‡‛Q wRjvwc| †`L‡Z †`L‡Z m~h© Wy‡e hvq| ejveZxi nv‡U R¡‡j I‡V AmsL¨v Kzwc (evwZ)| 1.

kãv_© I evK¨ iPbv : kã nvU ‣n-njøv †ejv c‡o G‡j UvUKv SuvR AvVv‡jv cvjv wgwn ¯^v` muvS

2.

A_© eû wRwbm †Kbv‡ePvi RvqMv wPrKvi we‡Kj n‡j ZvRv †ZR, †ewk MÜ PUP‡U cvwjZ AwZ wPKb †L‡Z gRvi mܨv

evK¨ Avgiv we‡K‡j nv‡U hve| †Zvgv‡`i •n-njøvq Avgvi Nyg †f‡O †Mj| ‡ejv c‡o G‡j Avgiv †Lj‡Z hve| nv‡U UvUKv ZwiZiKvix D‡V‡Q| KuvPv gwi‡Pi SvuR Av‡Q| UzKz AvVv‡jv fvZ †L‡Z Pvq bv| N‡i cvjv MiæwU‡K mevB Av`i K‡i| evev wgwn †mgvB wKb‡jb| G Mv‡Qi KuvVv‡ji ¯^v` †ewk| muv‡Si †ejvq evwo wdijvg|

hy³eY© wP‡b wbB : mßvn e„n¯úwZevi Zvov‡‛Q Ñ wewµ njøv R¡vjv wewbœ LywšÍ L‡Ïi ¯^v`

Ñ Ñ ‛Q Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ

ß = c& + Z ¸ß, jyß ¯ú = m& + c ¯úk©, ¯úó = P& + Q cvjv‡‛Q, †`Lv‡‛Q µ = P& + i-djv ( ª) †µZv, µq (Ab¨iƒc ÔµÕ) jø = j& + j cvjøv, gnjøv R¡ =R+e D¾¡j, R¡jR¡j bœ = b& + b Abœ, wfbœ šÍ = b& + Z R¨všÍ, `šÍ Ï = `& + ` †ivÏyi, †P․Ï ¯^ = m& + e ¯^‡`k, ¯^vaxb c„ôv-14


evsjv

3.

Z…Zxq †kªwY

eY© ewm‡q kã •Zwi : ¯^ Ñ ‛Q = ¯^‛Q ` Ñ šÍ = `šÍ R¡ Ñ i = R¡i g Ñ jø = gjø A Ñ šÍ = AšÍ

4.

cÖkœ DËi :

cÖkœ K. nvU †Kv_vq e‡m? DËi : nvU mvaviYZ MÖv‡gi †Kv‡bv †Ljv RvqMvq, eo Mv‡Qi wb‡P A_ev Lvj ev b`xi Zx‡i †hLv‡b †µZv-we‡µZv mK‡jiB cY¨ mvgMÖx Avbv †bIqv Ki‡Z myweav nq †mLv‡b e‡m| cÖkœ L. †Kvb †Kvb w`b nvU e‡m? DËi : MÖv‡g nvU mvaviYZ `yw`b e‡m| iweevi I e„n¯úwZevi mßv‡n G `yÕw`b KjveZxi MÖv‡g nvU e‡m| cÖkœ M. gvbyl KLb KjveZxi nv‡U hvq? DËi : we‡Kj n‡j A_©vr †ejv †kl n‡q Avm‡Z _vK‡j gvbyl nv‡U hvq| cÖkœ N. †Rej PvPv nvU †_‡K Kx Kx wKb‡jb? DËi : †Rej PvPv nvU †_‡K †e¸b, cUj, a‡bcvZv, KuvPvgwiP, •K gvQ, †QvU wPswo, mi‡li †Zj I mvevb wKb‡jb| cÖkœ O. †Kvb †Kvb Wvj nv‡U wewµ n‡”Q? DËi : KjveZxi nv‡U gyM, gmywi, †Lmvix, gvlKjvB BZ¨vw` bvbv ai‡Yi Wvj wewµ n‡‛Q| cÖkœ P. †Kvb Pv‡ji fvZ `ya I bvi‡Kj w`‡q †L‡Z gRv? DËi : wewbœ Pv‡ji fvZ `ya I bvi‡Kj w`‡q †L‡Z gRv| cÖkœ Q. evRv‡i †Kvb †Kvb gvQ D‡V‡Q? DËi : KjveZxi MÖv‡gi nv‡U ev evRv‡i •K, gv¸i, wks, †Usiv, cyuwU, †QvU wPswo BZ¨vw` gvQ D‡V‡Q| cÖkœ R. LB¸‡jv †`L‡Z †Kgb? DËi : LB¸‡jv †`L‡Z mv`v dz‡ji g‡Zv| cÖkœ S. gvwQ Zvov‡”Q †K? DËi : KjveZxi nv‡U ¸‡oi gUwK wb‡q e‡m ¸oIqvjv gvwQ Zvov‡‛Q| cÖkœ T. KLb Kzwc R¡‡j DVj? DËi : m~h© †Wvevi mv‡_ mv‡_ Kzwc R¡‡j DVj| c„ôv-15


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

mvims‡¶c: gvmygv kn‡ii †g‡q n‡jI †m kn‡ii A‡bK wKQz Rv‡b bv| AveŸv Av¤§vi mv‡_ †m kn‡i †ewo‡q‡Q wKš‘ PjvP‡ji ms‡KZ¸‡jv fv‡jvfv‡e Zvi Rvbv †bB| GKw`b †m Zvi gv‡qi mv‡_ wiKkvq †ewi‡q Rvbj iv¯Ívi wewfbœ ms‡KZ m¤ú‡K©| †Kvb Av‡jv R¡j‡j Mvwo P‡j, †Kvb Av‡jv R¡j‡j Mvwo _v‡g| Zxi wPý w`‡q Kx eySv‡bv nq| Kxfv‡e iv¯Ív cvi n‡Z nq| †j‡fj µwms Kx? 1|

kãv_© I evK¨ iPbv: kã A_© †Lqvj Kíbv, nuyk wiKkv AvovAvwo cvivcvi ms‡KZ

2|

evK¨ kn‡ii iv¯Ívq Pj‡Z n‡j ms‡KZ¸‡jv †Lqvj Ki‡Z n‡e| cv‡q PvwjZ wZb PvKvi gvmygv wiKkvq kni †`L‡Z †ewi‡q‡Q| Mvwo euvKvfv‡e w¯’Z Avgiv AvovAvwo iv¯Ív cvi njvg| Gcvi n‡Z Icvi Mgb ‡b․Kvq b`x cvivcvi Kiv nq| Bw½Z, Bkviv ms‡KZ †`‡L iv¯Ívi w`Kwb‡`©kbv cvIqv hvq|

cÖkœ DËi : K) gvmygv kn‡ii †g‡q n‡jI †Kvb welq¸‡jv m¤ú‡K© Rv‡b bv? DËi: gvmygv kn‡ii †g‡q n‡jI kn‡ii iv¯Ívq PjvP‡ji ms‡KZ¸‡jv m¤ú‡K© Rv‡b bv| L)

gvmygv †Kv_vq Rb¥MÖnY K‡i‡Q? DËi: gvmygv kn‡i Rb¥MÖnY K‡i‡Q|

M)

gvmygv Kv‡`i mv‡_ kn‡i †ewo‡q‡Q? DËi: gvmygv Zvi AveŸv I Av¤§vi mv‡_ kn‡i †ewo‡q‡Q|

N)

gvmygvi Av¤§v gvmygv‡K †Kvb welq¸‡jv wk‡L wb‡Z e‡jwQj? DËi: gvmygvi Av¤§v gvmygv‡K kn‡ii PjvP‡ji ms‡KZ¸‡jv wk‡L wb‡Z e‡jwQj|

O)

iv¯Ívq AvovAvwo mv`v `vMKvUv w`‡q Kx eySv‡bv nq? DËi: iv¯Ívq AvovAvwo mv`v `vMKvUv w`‡q iv¯Ív cvivcvi eySv‡bv nq| GLvb w`‡q gvbyl iv¯Ív cvi nq|

c„ôv-16


evsjv

P)

iv¯Ívq KLb hvbevnb †_‡K hvq? DËi: iv¯Ívi †cv‡÷ jvj evwZ R¡j‡j hvbevnb †_‡K hvq|

Q)

njy` Av‡jv R¡jvi A_© Kx? DËi: njy` Av‡jv R¡jvi A_© GKUz A‡c¶v Kiæb|

R)

KLb hvbevnb PjvPj ïiæ K‡i? DËi: †cv‡÷ meyR Av‡jv R¡j‡j hvbevnb PjvPj ïiæ K‡i|

3| wecixZ kã wjL: kni

MÖvg

fv‡jv

g›`

Av‡jv

AÜKvi

R¡jv

†bfv

_vgv

Pjv

4| evg w`‡Ki k‡ãi mv‡_ Wvb w`‡Ki kã wgjvI: gvmygvi Rb¥ R¡j‡Q ms‡KZ¸‡jv ZxiwPý †`Iqv jvj Av‡jv cvK© †gv‡o †gv‡o dj‡K kn‡i iv¯Ívi Icv‡i wk‡L bvI DËi: gvmygvi Rb¥ kn‡i ms‡KZ¸‡jv wk‡L bvI jvj Av‡jv R¡j‡Q †gv‡o †gv‡o dj‡K ZxiwPý †`Iqv iv¯Ívi Icv‡i cvK©

c„ôv-17

Z…Zxq †kªwY


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

AZzj cÖmv` †mb kãv_©: †gv‡`i Mie Av gwi †ev‡j KZB Rv`y `uvo evDj

- Avgv‡`i - Me©, AnsKvi - Avnv gwi gwi! - ev‡K¨, K_vq, fvlvq| - A‡bK, LyeB - gvqv, ek, Kivi kw³ - †b․Kv Pvjvevi `Ê, •eVv - GK †kªYxi msMxZ wkíx

evK¨ iPbv: wb‡R Ki A_ev eB †`L

2.

c‡ii PiY ewj I wjwL K) †gv‡`i Mie, †gv‡`i Avkv, Av gwi evsjv fvlv L) Kx hv`y evsjv Mv‡b! Mvb †M‡q `uvo gvwS Uv‡b, M) †M‡q Mvb bv‡P evDj, Mvb †M‡q avb Kv‡U Pvlv \

3.

wb‡Pi kã w`‡q evK¨ •Zwi Kwi wb‡R Ki|

DËi ewj I wjwL K)

Ôevsjv fvlvÕ KweZvwU †K wj‡L‡Qb? DËi: Ôevsjv fvlvÕ KweZvwU wj‡L‡Qb AZzj cÖmv` †mb|

L)

evsjv fvlv wb‡q Avgiv Me© Kwi †Kb? DËi: evsjv Avgv‡`i gvZ…fvlv, cÖv‡Yi fvlv| GB fvlvq Avgiv Avgv‡`i g‡bi fve, Av‡eM, myL, `ytL, Avb›` cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvwi| evsjv fvlvq Avgiv Avgv‡`i kvwšÍ I fv‡jvevmv Luy‡R cvB| 1952 mv‡j mvjvg, iwdK, eiKZ cÖg~L GB fvlvi Rb¨ Rxeb w`‡q‡Qb| GB knx`‡`i ZvRv i‡³i wewbg‡q AwR©Z fvlv w`em we‡k¦ AvšÍRv© wZK gvZ…fvlv w`e‡mi gh©v`v †c‡q‡Q| ZvB Avgiv evsjv fvlv wb‡q Me© Kwi| c„ôv-18


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

M.

gvwS `uvo Uvbvi mgq wK K‡ib? DËi: gvwS hLb `uvo Uv‡b ZLb †m g‡bi my‡L Mvb Mvq|

N.

avb KvUvi mgq Pvlxiv wK K‡ib? DËi: evsjv‡`‡k †ngšÍKvj dmj KvUvi mgq| G mgq m~‡h©i cÖLi †iv‡` Pvlxiv Zv‡`i K¬vwšÍ fy‡j I Mig †K D‡c¶v K‡i Avi avb Kv‡U Avi g‡bi Avb‡›` Mvb Mvq|

O.

Mvb MvBevi mgq evD‡jiv Avi wK K‡ib? DËi: evsjvi evD‡jiv Mvb MvBevi mgq Zv‡`i SuvKov gv_vi eveix †`vjv‡bv Pzj ¸‡jv SuvwK‡q Ny‡i Ny‡i †b‡P †b‡P GKZviv nv‡Z Mvb K‡i|

P.

evsjv fvlv Avgv‡`i wcÖq †Kb? DËi: evsjv fvlv Avgv‡`i gy‡Li fvlv| GB fvlvi gva¨‡g Avgiv Avgv‡`i g‡bi mg¯Í fve cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvwi| G fvlv Avgv‡`i Me© Avgv‡`i Avkv| GB fvlvi †Kv‡j Avgiv g‡bi kvwšÍ Lyu‡R cvB| hv Ab¨ †Kvb fvlvq cvBbv| evsjv fvlv †K mgMÖ evOvjx RvwZ fv‡jvev‡m ZvB evsjv fvlv Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q G‡Zv wcÖq|

Q.

evsjv Mvb Kv‡`i Kv‡Q Lye wcÖq? DËi: evsjv‡`k hv‡`i Rb¥f~wg, evsjv hv‡`i gvZ…fvlv Ges hviv evsjvq K_vq e‡j, Zv‡`i Kv‡Q evsjv Mvb Lye wcÖq|

c„ôv-19


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

mvims‡¶c: kvnvbv Avi Drm Avcb fvB‡evb| n‡jI Zv‡`i m¤úK© eÜzi g‡Zv| Zv‡`i evev Ab¨Î wk¶vKZv K‡ib weavq Zv‡`i cov‡jLvi `vwqZ¡ Zv‡`i gv‡qi Dci| me mgq †`Lvïbvi my‡hvM nq bv evevi| G R‡b¨B gv cÖwZw`b Zv‡`i ¯‥z‡j hvIqvi mgq wUwd‡bi Rb¨ Zv‡`i `yÕRb‡KB wKQz UvKv w`‡Zb Zviv `yÕR‡b eyw× K‡i GKwU gvwUi e¨vsK wKbj| Zviv e¨vsKwUi GKwU bvgI w`j Ò‡h․_ e¨vsKÓ wUwd‡bi UvKv †_‡K euvwP‡q cÖwZw`b Zviv wKQz UvKv e¨vs‡K †djZ| RGi mv‡_ Zv‡`i gvI gv‡S gv‡S †hvM w`‡Zb| eQi †k‡l Zviv gvwUi e¨vsKwU fvOj| e¨vs‡K †gvU †Zik c‡bi UvKv Rgv n‡q‡Q| K‡qKw`b c‡iB Zv‡`i evev evwo Avm‡jb| Zv‡`i gv‡qi Kv‡Q NUbv we¯ÍvwiZ ï‡b `yÕRb‡K Kv‡Q †U‡b Av`i Ki‡jb| `yÕR‡bi `yÕiK‡gi g‡bi K_v ïb‡jv| †gvU c‡biÕk UvKv n‡jv| evwo‡Z gyiwM cvjb Ki‡Z gv‡qi kZ© cvj‡b ivwR n‡jv| †jLvcovi †Kv‡bv iKg †eNvZ Pj‡e bv| gyiwM cvjb Avi¤¢ n‡jv| †`Lv †Mj Zv‡`i wnmve g‡Z eQ‡i cÖwZwU gyiwM 250 nB‡Z 275wU wWg w`‡q‡Q| Avevi evev evwo G‡jb| GLb AviI †ewk Drmv‡n KvR Avi¤¢ n‡jv d‡j kvnvbv Ges Dr†mi A‡bK mybvg n‡jv| Zviv Zv‡`i Avq †_‡K GKwU cvVvMvi •Zwi Kij| cvVvMvi •Zwi‡Z cvovi †Q‡j‡g‡qiv cvVvMv‡ii m`m¨ n‡jv| GKw`b Zviv AvZ¥xq ¯^Rb I wk¶K‡`i Avgš¿Y Rvbvj| Zuviv mevB kvnvbv I Dr†mi my›`i wPšÍvaviv I cvVvMvi †`‡L cÖksmv Ki‡jb| Zv‡`i GB K…wZ‡Z¡i R‡b¨ cÖksmvcÎ cÖ`vb Ki‡jb| cÖksmvc‡Î †jLv wQj ÒcvVvMvi ¯’vc‡bi Rb¨ kvnvbv I Drm‡K GB cyi¯‥vi cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jvÓ|

1| kãv_© I evK¨ iPbv: kã

2|

A_©

†h․_

GKÎ

cvVvMvi cyuwR civgk© K…wZZ¡ cyi¯‥vi

jvB‡eªix, MÖš’vMvi mÂq, Rgv hyw³, Dc‡`k Kvh©`¶Zv Dcnvi

evK¨ kvnvbv I Dr†mi gvwUi e¨vsKwUi bvg wQj Ô†h․_ e¨vsKÕ| cvVvMv‡i wM‡q eB cwo| AícuywR w`‡q kvnvbv gyiwM cvjb ïiæ K‡i| eo‡`i civgk© g‡Zv KvR Ki‡j mdjZv Av‡m| mšÍv‡bi K…wZ‡Z¡ gvZvwcZv Mwe©Z nq| cyi¯‥vi †c‡j mK‡ji fv‡jv jv‡M|

evg cv‡ki K_v¸‡jvi mv‡_ Wvb cv‡ki K_v¸‡jvi wgj Kwi kvnvbv c‡o Drm c‡o kvnvbv I Drm Zv‡`i evev GKRb Zv‡`i k‡Li KvR `ywU nj gv‡qi kZ© n‡jv wk¶‡Kiv Zv‡`i cÖ`vb K‡ib

Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ Ñ

PZz_© †kªYx‡Z Z…Zxq †kªYx‡Z fvB †evb wk¶K gyiwM cvjb I cvwievwiK jvB‡eªix Kiv †jLvcovq Ag‡bv‡hvMx nIqv hv‡e bv| cÖksmv cÎ c„ôv-20


evsjv

3|

Z…Zxq †kªwY

hy³eY© †Q` Ki I bZzb kã MVb Ki t e¨w³MZ Ñ ³ = K + Z e³v, g³e msMÖn Ñ MÖ = M + i Ñ djv (& ª) AvMÖn, RvMÖZ ¯^Rb Ñ ¯^ = m + e Ñ djv (e) ¯^‡`k, ¯^RvwZ

4|

GK K_vq ewj wb‡Ri B‛Qv whwb civgk© †`b ‡Kvb wKQy‡Z gb †`q bv Ggb hv e¨envi Kiv nq bv

Ñ †¯^‛Qv Ñ civgk©`vZv Ñ Ag‡bv‡hvMx Ñ Ae¨eüZ

5|

cÖkœ DËi :

K)

kvnvbv I Drm Kx kL Kij? DËi t kvnvbv I Drm `yB fvB †evb wg‡j `ywU kL K‡iwQj| kvnvbv kL K‡iwQj †m GKwU cvVvMvi Ki‡Z Pvq †hLv‡b me gRvi Qov, Mí, KweZv, auvav, †QvU‡`i Mvb, Qwei eB, Avi KvU©y‡bi eB _vK‡e| Avi Drm kL K‡iwQj fv‡jv Rv‡Zi gyiwM cyl‡e|

L)

Zviv wKfv‡e gvwUi e¨vsKwU wKbj? DËi t kvnvbv I Drm †ivR GKmv‡_ ¯‥z‡j Avmv hvIqv K‡i| Zviv `yB fvB †evb GK‡Î gv‡qi †`Iqv wUwd‡bi cÖwZw`‡bi UvKv †_‡K wKQy UvKv euvwP‡q gvwUi e¨vsKwU wKbj|

M)

e¨vs‡K Kxfv‡e UvKv ivLj? DËi t wUwd‡bi UvKv †_‡K wKQy UvKv euvwP‡q Zviv e¨vs‡K ivLZ| GQvovI Zv‡`i gv cÖvqB Zv‡`i e¨vs‡K wmwK, Avaywj, GKUvKv, cuvP UvKvi gy`ªv ivLZ| Gfv‡eB Zviv e¨vs‡K UvKv ivLj|

N)

e¨vsKwUi Kx bvg wQj? DËi t e¨vsKwUi bvg wQj Ô‡h․_ e¨vsKÕ|

O)

Zv‡`i e¨vs‡K †gvU KZ UvKv Rgv nj? DËi t Zv‡`i e¨vsKwU †f‡O †`Lv †Mj †gvU GK nvRvi wZbkZ c‡bi UvKv Rgv n‡q‡Q|

P)

cvVvMv‡ii eB †Kv_v †_‡K msMÖn Kiv n‡jv? DËi t kvnvbv I Drm Zv‡`i evevi cÖ¯vÍ ‡e XvKvq wM‡q evsjv GKv‡Wgxi Av‡qvwRZ GKz‡k eB‡gjv †_‡K Zv‡`i cQ›`gZ eB wK‡b G‡bwQj Avi GB cÖwµqvq Zviv Zv‡`i cvVvMv‡ii eB msMÖn K‡iwQj|

Q)

XvKvq wM‡q Zviv Kx Kx †`Lj? DËi t kvnvbv I Drm Zviv Zv‡`i gv‡qi mv‡_ XvKvq wM‡q wPwoqvLvbv, Rv`yNi I wkïcvK© †`‡L wQj|

R)

Kviv cvVvMv‡ii m`m¨ nj? DËi t kvnvbv I Drm `yB fvB‡ev‡bi mncvVxiv I cvovi †Q‡j †g‡q cÖvq mevB Zv‡`i cvVvMv‡ii m`m¨ n‡qwQj|

S)

Kvi civg‡k© Zviv gyiMx cvj‡bi KvR ïiæ Kij? DËi t Zviv Zv‡`i evevi civg‡k© gyiMx cvj‡bi KvR ïiæ Kij| c„ôv-21


evsjv

1|

hy³eY© wP‡b wbB I bZzb kã cwo: ågb Ñ å cÖwZ Ñ cÖ wKš‘ Ñ š‘ AvcwË Ñ Ë Ae¯’v Ñ ¯’v Ac©v Ñ c© iv¯Ív Ñ ¯Í B‡‛Q Ñ ‛Q kªxnÆ Ñ Æ ¯^cœ Ñ ¯^ ¯‥zj Ñ ¯‥ Kb¨v Ñ b¨ MÖx®§ Ñ MÖ fx®§ Ñ ®§ `xN© Ñ N© eÜ Ñ Ü g‡a¨ Ñ a¨ ev· Ñ · ‡÷kb Ñ ÷ j¤^v - ¤^ BwÄb - Ä hy³ - ³ wewµ - µ D‡ëv - ë `yfv© Mv - f© we¯§q - ¯§ ce©Z - e© `k©b - k© `„k¨ - k¨ VvÊv - Ê R¡i - R¡ ev›`v - ›` hvÎv - Î

‡Uªb Ñ Uª = U + i Ñ djv (& ª) UªvK = f& + i Ñ djv (& ª) åvZv = c + i Ñ djv (& ª) cÖfvZ = b + Z + y Rš‘ = Z + Z wPË = m + _ + v Ñ Kvi ¯’vb = © (†id) + c `c© = m + Z m¯Ív = P& + Q Av‛Qv = U& + U VvÆv = m + e djv ¯^Rb = m + K we¯‥zU = b& + ¨ djv eb¨v = M + i Ñ djv (& ª) AvMÖn = l& + g Ñ djv MÖx®§ = © (†id) + N AN© = b& + a MÜ = a& + ¨ djv mva¨ = K& + mÑdjv U¨v· = m& + U ÷vi = g + e nv¤^v = T + R MÄ = K& + Z wei³ = K + i ( ª) djv eµ = j + U cvëv = © (†id) + f `yfv© M¨ = m& + g - djv f¯§ = © (†id) + e me© = © (†id) + k ek©v = k& + ¨ (djv) ek¨ = Y& + W gÊv = R + e-djv (e) R¡jv = b& + ` m‡›`k = Z + i ( ª) djv cwÎKv c„ôv-22

Z…Zxq †kªwY


evsjv

av°v - ° wb`ªv - `ª m~h© - h© we`y¨r - `¨ eRª - Rª el©v - l© e„wó - ó U¨vw· - U¨ gMœ - Mœ Mí - í Zxeª - eª Kvbœv - bœ e¨vM - e¨ †kªYx - kª ev‛Pv - ‛P ¯^i - ¯^ NÈv - È Avi¤¢ - ¤¢ msL¨v - L¨ cÂvk - Â

Z…Zxq †kªwY

= K& + K g°v = ` + i ( ª) djv `ªæZ = © (†id) + h Kvh© = `& + ¨ djv we`¨v = R& + i ( ª) djv eRªvmb = © (†id) + l nh© = l& + U Kó = U + ¨ (djv) U¨viv = M& + b jMœ = j& + c Kíbv = e + i ( ª) djv †Reªv = b& + b cvbœv = e + ¨ djv e¨vO = k + i ( ª) djv wekªvg = P& + P D‛P = m& + e-djv ¯^vaxb = Y& + U eÈb = g& + f `¤¢ = L& + ¨ djv weL¨vZ = T& + P AÂj

2|

DËi ewj I wjwL:

K)

Ac©v Kvi mv‡_ PÆMÖvg †Mj? DËi t Ac©v Zv‡`i evwo‡Z †eov‡Z Avmv Zvi †QvU Lvjv wjwci mv‡_ PÆMÖv‡g Zvi bvbvi evwo‡Z †Mj|

L)

Ac©v †hw`b PÆMÖvg †Mj †mw`b AvKv‡ki Ae¯’v †Kgb wQj? DËi t Ac©v †hw`b PÆMÖvg wM‡qwQj †mw`b AvenvIqvi Ae¯’v Lye †ewk fvj wQj bv| AvKv‡k †gN wQj| m~h© †`Lv hvw‛Qj bv| we`y¨r PgKvw‛Qj I eRªcvZ nw‛Qj| hw`I el©vKvj wQj bv ZeyI mKv‡j GK ckjv e„wó n‡qwQj| me wgwj‡q ejv hvq †mw`b AvKv‡ki Ae¯’v Ac©v‡`i AbyKy‡j wQj bv|

M)

†Uª‡b Kvgivi m‡½ BwÄb jvMvi mgq Kx nq? DËi t †Uª‡b Kvgivi m‡½ hLb BwÄb jv‡M ZLb †Uª‡b GKUy av°v jv‡M| mgMÖ †Uªb †Ku‡c I‡V|

N)

†Uª‡b hvIqvi c‡_ Ac©v Kx Kx †`Lj? DËi t †Uª‡b PÆMÖvg hvIqvi c‡_ Ac©v Rvbvjv w`‡q †`Lj †jvKRb, evwoNi, MvQcvjv mewKQy †cQ‡b †d‡j †Uªb mvg‡bi w`‡K `ªæZ hvw‛Qj| moK w`‡q †gvUi Mvwo hv‡‛Q| Ac©v †mB Mvwoi msL¨vI ¸Yj| †m evB‡ii w`‡K `„wó w`‡q †`Lj meyR avb‡¶Z, AviI `~‡i meyR e„¶, b`x, `~‡i mvwi mvwi cvnvo gv_v DuPz K‡i `uvwo‡q Av‡Q| Zvi Kv‡Q me‡P‡q we¯§qKi †h `„k¨ wQj Zv n‡jv mgy`ª| Gme cÖvK…wZK `„k¨ Ac©v †h‡Z †h‡Z †`LwQj| c„ôv-23


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

O)

†UªbwU †Kvb b`xi Ici w`‡q †Mj? DËi: †UªbwU †gNbv b`xi Ici w`‡q †Mj|

P)

µwms gv‡b Kx? DËi: †Uªb †h c‡_ P‡j Zvi D‡ë w`K †_‡K Av‡iKwU †Uªb hLb Av‡m ZvB µwms|

Q)

Ac©vi Nyg fvwO‡q wjwc Lvjv Zv‡K Kx †`Lv‡jb? DËi: Ac©vi Nyg fvwO‡q wjwc Lvjv Zv‡K PÆMÖv‡gi mvwi mvwi ÔcvnvoÕ †`Lv‡jb| †mBme cvnvo †hb AvKvk ¯úk© KiwQj| Avi †`Lv‡jb Ac©vi †Pv‡L Av‡iK A‡c¶gvb `„k¨ Ômgy`ªÕ|

R)

PÆMÖvg hvIqvi c‡_ †Kvb †Kvb †÷k‡b †Uªb _vgj? DËi: PÆMÖvg hvIqvi c‡_ ÔAvïMÄ I KzwgjøvÕ G `ywU †÷k‡b †Uªb †_‡gwQj|

3.

GKB eY© wØZ¡ n‡j Zv‡K e‡j hyM¥ eY©: g + g = ¤§, (Av¤§v) e& + e = eŸv, (AveŸv) wfbœ eY© mshy³ n‡j Zv‡K e‡j hy³eY© ejv nq: K& + Z = ³, (hy³) M& + g = M¥, (hyM¥)

c„ôv-24


evsjv

1.

kãv_© _vbv BDwbqb †Rjv wefvM RvZxqZv ¯^v¶i

= K‡qKwU BDwbqb wb‡q GKwU _vbv nq| = K‡qKwU MÖvg wb‡q GKwU BDwbqb nq| = K‡qKwU _vbv wb‡q GKwU †Rjv nq| = K‡qKwU †Rjv wb‡q GKwU wefvM nq| = RvwZMZ cwiPq = mB, `¯ÍLZ

evK¨iPbv: wb‡R Ki A_ev eB †`L 2.

evsjv‡`‡ki wZbwU †Rjvi bvg ewj I wjwL DËi: K) XvKv L) bvivqYMÄ M) MvRxcyi

3.

evsjv‡`‡ki `ywU wefv‡Mi bvg ewj I wjwL DËi: K) XvKv L) PÆMÖvg

c„ôv-25

Z…Zxq †kªwY


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

KymygKzgvix `vk mvims‡¶c: ZiæY‡`i MwZ `ye©vi, w`‡K w`‡K beRvMi‡Yi WvK G‡m‡Q| ZiæY‡`i mKj‡K GwM‡q Pjvi AvnŸvb Rvbv‡‛Q| Zviv AÜKvi `~i K‡i ivOv cÖfv‡Zi m~Pbv Ki‡e| Zviv mKj euvav AwZµg K‡i m¤§y‡L GwM‡q hv‡e| 1.

2.

kãv_© I evK¨ iPbv: kã A_© Av`k© Abymibxq, †g‡b Pjvi †hvM¨ K‡e KLb ej kw³ †ZR kw³, †Rvi cY cÖwZÁv, kc_ †PZbv Ávb, †eva LvU cwikªg Kiv Kj¨vY g½j, fv‡jv

ey‡S wbB K_vq eo nIqv Kv‡R eo nIqv †Z‡R fiv gb gvbyl nB‡Z n‡e wg‡Q †Kb fq? †PZbv i‡q‡Q hvi †m wK c‡o iq? †`‡ki Kj¨vY gv_v Ny‡i hvq

3.

evK¨ AviRy evev I gv‡qi Av`k© †Q‡j| K‡e Zzwg Avm‡e? fv‡jv K‡i LvI, †`‡n ej evovI| Avgvi eo fvB‡qi g‡bi †ZR Lye †ewk| †m cY K‡i ivL‡Z cv‡iwb| Zvi fv‡jv KvR Kivi †PZbv Av‡Q| Lye LvUv n‡q‡Q, GLb wekªvg bvI| †m †`‡ki Kj¨vY Ki‡Z Pvq|

- gy‡L eo K_v ejv, Avùvjb Kiv| - KvR K‡i mdj nIqv I L¨vwZ AR©b Kiv| - g‡bi g‡a¨ †Rvi _vKv| - gvby‡li ¸Y AR©b Ki‡Z n‡e| - f‡qi †Kvb KviY †bB, fq wg_¨v| - hvi †fZ‡i fv‡jv Kv‡Ri Rb¨ ZvwM` Av‡Q| - †m Ajm n‡q _v‡K bv| - †`‡ki fv‡jv| - w`‡knviv n‡q hvq|

evK¨ iPbv Kwi gvbyl wec` kixi †PZbv Kj¨vY

    

gvbyl m„wói †miv Rxe| †n cÖfy! Zzwg Avgv‡K wec` †_‡K i¶v Ki| Avgvi kixi fv‡jv †bB| Zvi fv‡jv KvR Kivi †PZbv Av‡Q| †m †`‡ki Kj¨vY Ki‡Z Pvq| c„ôv-26


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

4.

cÖkœ DËi:

K.

†Q‡j eo n‡e wK‡m? DËii: Avgv‡`i †`‡ki †Q‡j hLb †m ïay Zvi gy‡Li K_vq bq eis Zvi gnr Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g wb‡Ri †kªôZ¡ cÖgvY Ki‡e ZLb †m eo n‡e|

L.

†Q‡ji cY Kx? DËi: gy‡L nvwm †i‡L, ey‡K ej †i‡L me mgq gb‡K kw³‡Z c~Y© ivL‡Z n‡e Ges Ôgvbyl n‡Z n‡eÕ-GB n‡jv †Q‡ji cY|

M.

†K c‡o _v‡K bv? DËi: †h gvbyl i³-gvsm-cÖvY Øviv Mov | kix‡i hvi †ZR Av‡Q, wec` Avm‡j GwM‡q hvq, Ah_v †Kvb wKQz‡K fq cvq bv- Ggb †eva †h †Q‡ji g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q, †m KL‡bv c‡o _v‡K bv|

N.

†Kvb †Q‡j‡K mevB Pvq? DËi: †h †Q‡j ey‡K mvnm, g‡b kw³ †i‡L wec‡` GwM‡q hvq| K_vq- Kv‡R mr _v‡K| †h wek¦vm K‡i Zv‡K eo n‡Z n‡e, gvbyl n‡Z n‡e| Ggb †Q‡j‡K mevB Pvq|

O.

†`‡ki Kj¨vY KLb n‡e? DËi: Avgv‡`i †`‡ki †Q‡jiv hLb eo n‡q, gvbyl n‡q, mKj evav AwZµg K‡i †`k‡K DbœwZi c‡_ GwM‡q wb‡q †h‡Z cvi‡e ZLb †`‡ki Kj¨vY n‡e|

P.

Av`k© †Q‡ji ¸Y Kx Kx? DËi: Av`k© †Q‡ji †hme ¸Y _vK‡Z n‡e †m ¸‡jv n‡jv- Zvi ey‡K ej _vK‡e, g‡b mvnm _vK‡e, mr n‡Z n‡e, wec‡` GwM‡q †h‡Z cvi‡e, mZ¨ K_v ej‡Z wcQ cv n‡e bv, mKj‡K kª×v I m¤§vb Ki‡e| m‡ev©cwi †`k I RvwZi Rb¨ g½jRbK KvR Ki‡e|

c„ôv-27


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

1. kãv_© : û‡jøvo  `j †e‡ua Avb›` Kiv| bRi  `„wó, g‡bv‡hvM| Aciƒc  Avðh©, PgrKvi, A™¢yZ| `„k¨  `k©bxq, hv †`Lv hvq| AvK…ó  gy», Kv‡Q Uvbv| †iLv  `vM, j¤^v wPý| wPÎ  Qwe, bKkv| gy»  wenŸj, Lye fv‡jv jvMv, AvZ¥nviv| wkíx  whwb wkí PP©v K‡ib| †hgb- MvqK, bvqK, wPÎKvi, bZ©K| eyfy¶z  ¶zavZ©, hvi †c‡U Lvevi †bB| jvk  g„Z‡`n| fqven  fxlY, fqsKi, fq cvIqvi g‡Zv| e¨vcK  eû, A‡bK| Ae`vb  gnr KvR, fv‡jv KvR| cÖvPxb  cyi‡bv, †m‡K‡j| mgvwa  Kei| 2. evK¨ iPbv Ki : wb‡R Ki A_ev eB †`L| 3. mwVK Dˇii Ic‡i wUK wPý () w`B K) Rqby‡ji AuvKv wmwiR Qwei wk‡ivbvg Muv‡qi ea~/ `ywf©¶/ So| L) MÖvg-evsjvi Drme wb‡q AuvKv Qwei bvg gv/ we‡`ªvnx/ bevbœ| M) fqven N~wY©So I R‡jv‛Q¡vm wb‡q AuvKv Qwei bvg gbcyiv: 70/ ¸bUvbv/ muvIZvj igYx| N) Rqbyj XvKv AvU© K‡jR cÖwZôv K‡ib 1948/ 1970/ 1976 mv‡j| O) Rqbyj †jvKwkí Rv`yNi I Kviæwkí cjøx Mo‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jb Kzwgjøvq/ PÆMÖv‡g/ †mvbviMvu‡q/ wm‡j‡U| 4. wecixZ kã wjwL I wkwL : `„k¨  wb›`v  AvMÖn  Qvqv  cQ›`  ms‡KvPb 

A`„k¨ cÖksmv AbvMÖn Av‡jv AcQ›` cÖmviY c„ôv-28


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

5. cÖkœ DËi : K) Qwe AvuKv †kLvi Rb¨ wZwb †Kvb cÖwZôv‡b fwZ© nb? DËi : Qwe AvuKv †kLvi Rb¨ Rqbyj ÔKjKvZv AvU© ¯‥z‡j fwZ© nb| †KvjKvZv AvU© ¯‥z‡j covi mgq cÖwZwU cix¶vq Rqbyj K…wZ‡Z¡i cwiPq †`b| wZwb †kl cix¶vq cÖ_g wefv‡M cÖ_g ¯’vb AwaKvi K‡iwQ‡jb| L) †K Zvui covi LiP †hvMvb? DËi : †QvU‡ejvq Rqby‡ji Qwe AvuKvi cÖwZ A`g¨ Drmvn I AvMÖn wQj| Qwe AvuKvi cÖwZ Zvui GB fv‡jvevmv †`‡L Rqby‡ji gv Zv‡K AvU© ¯‥z‡j fwZ© K‡i †`b Ges mšÍv‡bi g‡bi B‛Qv c~i‡Yi Rb¨ wb‡Ri Mjvi nvi wewµ K‡i covi LiP †hvMvb| M) Rqbyj Av‡ew`b KZ mv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? DËi : wkívPvh© Rqbyj Av‡ew`b 1914 wW‡m¤^i wK‡kviMÄ †Rjvq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| N) Zvui Rb¥ ¯’v‡bi bvg Kx? DËi : wPÎwkíx Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi MÖv‡gi bvg †K›`yqv| O) Zvui wcZv I gvZvi bvg Kx? DËi : Rqbyj Av‡ew`‡bi wcZvi bvg ZwgR DwÏb Avng`| wZwb wQ‡jb _vbvi GKRb `v‡ivMv| Zvui gvZvi bvg wQj Rqbvey‡bœmv| P) Rqbyjiv Kq fvB‡evb wQ‡jb? DËi : Rqbyjiv bq fvB‡evb wQ‡jb| Zvui g‡a¨ Rqbyj wQj fvB‡`i g‡a¨ eo| Q) RvZxq wPÎ cÖ`k©bx‡Z wZwb †Kvb c`K †c‡jb? DËi : 1938 mv‡j RvZxq wPÎ cÖ`k©bx‡Z QqwU Rj is Qwei Rb¨ wZwb m¤§vb RbK cyi¯‥vi ÔMfb©‡ii ¯^Y©c`KÕ †c‡jb|

c„ôv-29


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

e‡›` Avjx wgqv bvg Rb¥ cwiPq wcZ…cwiPq mvwnZ¨ mvabv Rxebvemvb 1|

kãv_©: †m_v cvvVkvjv wKiY euvkSvo AvZ¥xq †nb iwe

: e‡›` Avjx wgqv : 15 wW‡m¤^i, 1906 wLªóvã, ivavbMi, cvebv| : wcZv gyÝx D‡g` Avjx : gqbvgZxi Pi, AbyivM, †gNKzgvix, g„Mcix, †evKv RvgvB, KzPeiY Kb¨v, †QvU‡`i bRiæj, wkqvj cwЇZi cvVkvjv BZ¨vw`| : Ryb 17, 1979 wLªóvã Ñ †mLv‡b| Ñ we`¨vjq| Ñ Av‡jv, Av‡jvK iwk¥| Ñ euv‡ki †Svc| Ñ AvcbRb, ¯^Rb, KzUz¤^| Ñ Ggb| Ñ m~h©|

2|

evK¨ iPbv Ki: †m_v Ñ †m_vq Av‡Q †gv‡`i †QvU Muv| cvVkvjv Ñ mKv‡j †QvU †Q‡j‡g‡qiv `j †eu‡a cvVkvjvq hvq| wKiY Ñ mKv‡ji iwe †mvbvi wKiY Qovq| euvkSvo Ñ mܨvi Av‡MB euvkSv‡o Auvavi bv‡g| AvZ¥xq Ñ Bwb Avgvi AvZ¥xq| †nb Ñ †nb KvR †bB, †m cv‡i bv| iwe Ñ †fvi †ejvq c~e© AvKv‡k iwe †`Lv hvq|

2|

wecixZ kã †jL: g~j kã Muv‡q Avcb weKvj cye AvZ¥xq Av‡jv

wecixZ kã kn‡i ci mKvj cwðg AbvZ¥xq Qvqv c„ôv-30


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

3| K)

cÖ‡kœvËi: †QvU Muv‡qi Ni¸‡jv †`L‡Z †Kgb? DËi: Kwe e‡›` Avjx wgqv iwPZ ÒAvgv‡`i MÖvgÓ KweZvi †QvU Muv‡qi Ni¸‡jv †`L‡Z †QvU †QvU|

L)

†mLv‡b mevB Kxfv‡e _v‡K? DËi: ÒAvgv‡`i MÖvgÓ KweZvq †QvU Muv‡qi mevB wg‡j wg‡k _v‡K| †KD Kv‡iv ci bq, mevB †mLv‡b AvZ¥x‡qi gZ _v‡K|

M)

†Q‡j‡g‡qiv GKmv‡_ Kx Kx K‡i? DËi: ÒAvgv‡`i MÖvgÓ KweZvq cvovi mKj †Q‡j‡g‡qiv wg‡jwg‡k _v‡K| Zviv mevB GKmv‡_ †L‡j Avi cvVkvjvq hvq|

N)

†QvU MÖvgwU wK‡mi mgvb? DËi: ÒAvgv‡`i MÖvgÓ KweZvq †QvU MÖvgwU‡K gv‡qi mgvb ejv n‡q‡Q| gv †hgb Avgv‡`i Rb¥ †`b, Av`i hZœ K‡i euvwP‡q iv‡Lb| †Zgwb †QvU MÖvgwUI Avgv‡`i Av‡jv-evZvm w`‡q euvwP‡q iv‡L, ZvB †QvU MÖvgwU‡K gv‡qi mv‡_ Zzjbv Kiv n‡q‡Q|

O)

Av‡jv Avi evqy Avgv‡`i Kx Kv‡R jv‡M? DËi: Av‡jv I evqy Qvov Avgiv euvP‡Z cvwi bv| Av‡jv I evZvm Avgv‡`i cÖvY euvPvq|

P)

w`wNi Rj †Kb wSwKwgwK K‡i? DËi: ÒAvgv‡`i MÖvgÓ KweZvq w`wNi R‡j Puv‡`i wKiY †j‡M w`wNi Rj wSwKwgwK K‡i|

Q)

†mvbvi iwe KLb I‡V? †Kvb w`‡K I‡V? DËi: mKv‡j †mvbvi iwe I‡V| †mvbvi iwe c~e© w`‡K I‡V|

R)

mKv‡j Avi Kx Kx nq? DËi: mKv‡j c~e©w`‡K †mvbvi iwe I‡V| GQvov mKv‡j cvwL Wv‡K, evqy eq Avi bvbv iK‡gi dzj †dv‡U|

4|

wgj Ly‡R †ei Ki: gvV fiv cye w`‡K I‡V Rjfiv †Lwj GKmv‡_ w`wN †mvbvi iwe avb DËi: gvV fiv Ñ avb| Rjfiv Ñ w`wN| GKmv‡_ Ñ †Lwj| †mvbvi iwe Ñ cye w`‡K I‡V| c„ôv-31


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

5|

†K Kx K‡i: cvwL Ñ Wv‡K| dzj Ñ †dv‡U| evqy Ñ eq| e„wó Ñ c‡o| dj Ñ d‡j| b`x Ñ eq| cvwL Ñ Mvq|

6|

c‡i PiYwU wgwj‡q †jL: K) cvovi mKj †Q‡j †gviv fvB fvB, GKmv‡_ †Lwj Avi cvVkv‡j hvB| L) Avgv‡`i †QvU MÖvg gv‡qi mgvb, Av‡jv w`‡q, evqy w`‡q euvPvB‡Q cÖvY| M) Avg MvQ, Rvg MvQ, euvk Svo †hb, wg‡j wg‡k Av‡Q Iiv AvZ¥xq †nb|

8|

†Kvb ¸‡jv MÖv‡gi Zv Luy‡R †ei Ki: cvVkvjv, wkïcvK©, Rjfiv w`wN, `vjvb‡KvVv, euvk Svo, Mvwo‡Nvov, gvVfiv avb, ivRc_| DËi: cvVkvjv, Rjfiv w`wN, euvkSvo, gvVfiv avb|

c„ôv-32


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

mvims‡¶c : Avgv‡`i RvZxq †Ljv nv-Wy-Wy| el©vi mgq G †Ljv MÖvgM‡Ä n‡q _v‡K| mnR, mij, Abvo¤^i I webv A_© e¨‡qi G †Ljvq i‡q‡Q cÖPzi Avb›` I D‡ËRbv| Zx¶èeyw×, w¶ßMwZ, cÖej kw³, `xN©¯’vqx `g, mr mvnm Ges mgq g‡Zv mwVK wm×všÍB G †Ljvi Rb¨ we‡klfv‡e Dc‡hvMx| G †Ljvq `ywU `j _v‡K| eviRb †L‡jvqvo wb‡q `j MVb Ki‡jI g~jZ mvZRb wb‡q †Ljv Ki‡Z nq| G †Ljvi Rb¨ i‡q‡Q KZ¸‡jv wbw`©ó wbqg-Kvbyb| nv-Wy-Wy †Ljv kvixwiK e¨vqvg I ¯^v‡¯’¨i Rb¨ Lye Dc‡hvMx| MÖvgM‡Äi †Ljv n‡jI RvZxq I AvšÍRv© wZK ch©v‡q GwU GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© †Ljv| kãv_© I evK¨ iPbv : kã A_© DrKl© DbœwZ mej ejevb m¤§vb, mgv`i A‡bK Av`i AvenvIqv Rjevqy RbwcÖq mvavi‡Yi wcÖq D‡ËRbv DÏxcbv AvµgY nvgjv wec¶ weiæ× `j AvšÍRv© wZK mKj RvwZ m¤^Üxq

evK¨ kix‡ii mv‡_ mv‡_ g‡bi DrKl© evovI| †Ljvayjv †`n‡K my¯,’ mej iv‡L| evwo‡Z AwZw_ G‡j Avgiv mgv`i Kwi| GLb AvenvIqv g›` bq| wµ‡KU GLb †ek RbwcÖq †Ljv| dzUej †Ljvq D‡ËRbv Av‡Q| evN nwiY‡K AvµgY Kij| wec¶ `j Av‡M †Mvj Kij| 21 †k †deªæqvwi AvšÍRv© wZK fvlv w`em|

cÖ‡kœi DËi : cÖkœ K| nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvq `yc‡¶i †L‡jvqvoiv Kxfv‡e `uvovq? DËi : nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvq cÖ_‡gB †L‡jvqvo‡`i `ywU `‡j fvM K‡i wb‡Z nq| cÖwZ`‡ji †L‡jvqvoiv Zv‡`i `j‡bZv wbe©vPb K‡i| †bZvi Aax‡b `y`‡j mgvb msL¨K †L‡jvqvo _v‡K| gv‡Vi wVK ga¨Lv‡b `vM †K‡U KvV‡K `yfv‡M fvM Kiv nq| `yc‡¶i `y`j †L‡jvqvoiv `ycv‡k gy‡LvgywL Aa© e„ËvKv‡i `uvovq| cÖkœ L| evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq †Ljv †KvbwU? DËi : evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq †Ljv nv-Wy-Wy| Gi Ab¨ bvg KvevwW| cÖkœ M| nv-Wy-Wy-i Ab¨ bvg Kx? DËi : nv-Wy-Wy-i Ab¨ bvg KvevwW| c„ôv-33


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

cÖkœ N| nv-Wy-Wy-i DrcwË ¯’vb †Kv_vq? DËi : nv-Wy-Wy ev KvevwW evsjv‡`‡ki wbR¯^ HwZn¨evnx GKwU MÖvgxY †Ljv| †KD †KD g‡b K‡ib GB †Ljvi DrcwË dwi`cy‡i| Avevi †KD †KD Gi DrcwË ¯’j ewikvj e‡j _v‡Kb| cÖkœ O| †Kvb ai‡Yi gvV nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvi Dc‡hvMx? DËi : nv-Wy-Wy ev KvevwW n‡‛Q gy³ gv‡Vi Dc‡hvMx †Ljv| †h †Kvb cwi®‥vi-cwi‛Qbœ mgZj gvV G †Ljvi Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx| cÖkœ P| nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvq KqwU `j _v‡K? DËi : nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvq `yBwU `j _v‡K| cÖkœ Q| †K nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvq Ask wb‡Z cvi‡e bv? DËi : nv-Wy-Wy †Ljvq 80 wK‡jvMÖv‡gi †ewk IR‡bi †L‡jvqvo Ask wb‡Z cvi‡e bv| cÖkœ R| †gvU KZ wgwbU a‡i nv-Wy-Wy †Ljv P‡j? DËi : †gvU 45 wgwbU a‡i nv-Wy-Wy †Ljv P‡j| cÖ_g †Ljv nq 10 wgwbU, Gici 5 wgwbU nq wekªvg Ges me †k‡l cybivq 20 wgwbU †Ljv n‡q _v‡K| A_©vr 20 wgwbU + 5 wgwbU = 25 wgwbU| cÖkœ S| GK K_vq DËi `vI : (Wvb w`K †_‡K †e‡Q wbB) DËi hviv †L‡j mK‡ji wcÖq Ab¨ c¶ PZziZvi mv‡_ `ªæZZvi mv‡_

myPZzi †L‡jvqvo w¶cÖMwZ RbwcÖq wec¶

1. hviv †L‡j Ñ †L‡jvqvo 2. mK‡ji wcÖq Ñ RbwcÖq 3. Ab¨ c¶ Ñ wec¶ 4. PZziZvi mv‡_ Ñ myPZzi 5. `ªæZZvi mv‡_ Ñ w¶cÖMwZ

c„ôv-34


evsjv

1|

2|

Z…Zxq †kªwY

kãv_©: fwel¨r †h․_ eva¨Zvg~jK A‣eZwbK wbweo •kke D`¨vb

Ñ AvMvgx, AbvMZ| Ñ GKm‡½| Ñ Avek¨Kxq| Ñ webv †eZ‡b| Ñ Nwbô| Ñ wkïKvj| Ñ evMvb|

evK¨ iPbv: fwel¨r †h․_ eva¨Zvg~jK A‣eZwbK wbweo •kke D`¨vb

Ñ mevB Pvq wkï‡`i fwel¨Z D¾¡j †nvK| Ñ MÖv‡g AvRKvj A‡bK †h․_ Lvgvi M‡o D‡V‡Q| Ñ GLb †`‡k eva¨Zvg~jK cÖv_wgK wk¶v Pvjy i‡q‡Q| Ñ MÖv‡g †g‡q‡`i Rb¨ Aóg †kªYx ch©šÍ A‣eZwbK wk¶v e¨e¯’v Pvjy n‡q‡Q| Ñ gv‡qi mv‡_ wkïi wbweo m¤úK© _v‡K| Ñ ‣kk‡e mevi Rb¨ †Ljvayjv `iKvi| Ñ evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq D`¨vb †`L‡Z Lye my›`i|

3| K)

cÖ‡kœi DËi: †hŠ_ cwiev‡i Kviv †e‡o I‡V? DËi: MÖvg evsjvi wkïiv †h․_ cwiev‡i †e‡o I‡V|

L)

Avw`evmx‡`i g‡a¨ D‡jøL‡hvM¨ Kviv? DËi: Avw`evmx‡`i g‡a¨ D‡jøL‡hvM¨ n‡‛Q- PvKgv, gwYcyix, Mv‡iv Ges muvIZvj|

M)

PvKgv‡`i fvlv †Kvb wjwc‡Z †jLv n‡q _v‡K? DËi: PvKgv‡`i fvlv ÔL‡gÕi wjwc‡Z †jLv n‡q _v‡K|

N)

Mv‡iv‡`i fvlvi bvg Kx? DËi: Mv‡iv‡`i fvlvi bvg Ôgvw›`fvlvÕ|

O)

wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Kv‡`i b„Z¨ †`‡L gy» n‡qwQ‡jb| DËi: wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi gwYcyix‡`i b„Z¨ †`‡L gy» n‡qwQ‡jb|

P)

fyUvwb wkï‡`i RvZxq †Ljv †KvbwU? DËi: fyUvwb wkï‡`i RvZxq †Ljv n‡‛Q abyK w`‡q Zxi †Quvov| c„ôv-35


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

Q)

fyUvwb‡`i we`¨vj‡q †Kvb fvlv Pvjy Av‡Q? DËi: fyUvwb wkï‡`i fvlvq •ewPÎ i‡q‡Q| ivóªfvlv ÔRsLvÕ fvlv we`¨vj‡q cÖPwjZ| Z‡e AvaywbK ¯‥zj ¸‡jv‡Z Bs‡iwR gva¨‡gI cov‡kvbv nq|

R)

†Kvb‡`‡ki wkï‡`i Kó K‡i fvlv wkL‡Z nq? DËi: Px‡bi wkï‡`i Kó K‡i fvlv wkL‡Z nq|

S)

†Kvb †`‡ki wkïiv `j †eu‡a wkï D`¨v‡b hvq? DËi: Rvcv‡bi wkïiv `j †eu‡a wkï D`¨v‡b hvq|

T)

Rvcv‡b RvZxq kixiPP©vi bvg Kx? DËi: Rvcv‡b RvZxq kixi PP©vi bvg nj ÔhyhyrmyÕ|

U)

†Kvb‡`‡k Pv evbv‡bvi Drme cvjb Kiv nq? DËi: Rvcv‡b Pv evbv‡bvi Drme cvjb Kiv nq| GwU Rvcvwb‡`i we‡kl Drme| Pv ce©‡K ejv nq Pv-‡bv-qy|

4|

Wvb cvk †_‡K Dchy³ kã G‡b k~b¨¯’vb c~iY Ki: K) Z‡e PvKgv wkïiv †jLvcovq Ab¨vb¨ A‡ji Awaevmx‡`i †P‡q AMÖmi| L) gqgbwmsn †Rjvi Mv‡iv A‡ji †QvU †Q‡j‡g‡qiv gv‡qi cwiP‡qB eo nq| M) cÖvYešÍ I D‛Qj ¯^fv‡ei Pxbv wkïiv k„•Ljvi wel‡q LyeB m‡PZb| N) †ewkifvM gv_v Kvgv‡bv wkïiv P‡j‡Q wkï D`¨v‡b| O) Pv-ce©‡K Rvcv‡b ejv nq Pv-‡bv-qy|

c„ôv-36


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

Rmxg D`&`xb Kwe cwiwPwZ: Kwe Rmxg D`&`xb 1903 mv‡j 30†k A‡±vei dwi`cyi †Rjvi Zv¤^yjLvbv MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| MÖvg evsjvi cÖK…wZ I mvaviY gvby‡li Rxeb wb‡q wZwb KweZv wj‡L‡Qb| Zuvi KweZvq cjøx Rxeb †ewk D‡V G‡m‡Q e‡j Zuv‡K ejv nq ÒcjøxKweÓ| Z‡e wZwb A‡bK my›`i M`¨ I iPbv K‡i‡Qb| Zuvi †jLv ågY KvwnYx I AvZ¥Rxebx AZ¨šÍ my›`i| wZwb †QvU‡`i Rb¨ A‡bK my›`i †jLv wj‡L‡Qb| Zuvi weL¨vZ KweZv ÒKeiÓ I weL¨vZ Kve¨MÖš’ ÒbKkx Kuv_vi gvVÓ Ges Ò†mvRb evw`qvi NvUÓ| †QvU‡`i Rb¨ Zuvi †jLv ÒWvwjg KzgviÓ, ÒnuvmyÓ I ÒGK cqmvi euvwkÓ| wZwb 1976 mv‡ji 14B gvP© XvKvq g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib| 1|

2|

kãv_©: ev‡iK euvKv Pvgi †m_vq KzwUi muvS Avexi bvIqv m‡e bvI ¯^cb KBe evK¨ iPbv: ivLvj ev‡iK euvKv Pvgi †m_vq KzwUi muvS Avexi bvIqv m‡e bvI ¯^cb KBe

ivLvj Ñ †h Miæ Pivq| Ñ GKevi| Ñ eµ, †mvRv bq Ggb| Ñ Pgix Miæi †j‡Ri †jvg w`‡q •Zwi cvLv| Ñ †mLv‡b| Ñ Kuy‡o Ni, †QvU evwo| Ñ mܨv| Ñ Nb †Mvjvwc i‡Oi Muy‡ov| Ñ †Mvmj Kiv, øvb Kiv| Ñ GBgvÎ| Ñ †b․Kv, wWwO| Ñ ¯^cœ| Ñ eje| Ñ ivLvj Miæi cvj j‡q hvq gv‡V| Ñ †Q‡j evev‡K ev‡iK †`‡LB P‡j †Mj| Ñ GB c_ euvKv n‡q euv w`‡K †M‡Q| Ñ †gjv †_‡K GKUv Pvgi wKb‡Z PvB| Ñ cvVK †m_vq e‡m cuyw_ co‡Qb| Ñ MÖv‡gi KzwUi¸‡jv †ek my›`i| Ñ Avgiv †ivR muv‡Si †ejvq `vw`i Kv‡Q Mí ïwb| Ñ AvKv‡ki is †hb Avexi i‡O ivOv n‡q Av‡Q| Ñ bvIqv-LvIqv †m‡i G‡mv Qwe AvuwK| Ñ m‡e mܨv nj| Ñ †fvi‡ejv bvI wb‡q †Kv_vq hv‡‛Qb? Ñ Avwg ¯^cb †`‡L AevK n‡qwQ| Ñ Avwg KBe K_v g‡b g‡b| c„ôv-37


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

3| K)

cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi: ivLvj ‡Q‡j KweZvwU †K wj‡L‡Qb? DËi: ivLvj ‡Q‡j KweZvwU Kwe RmxgD`&`xb wj‡L‡Qb|

L)

Rmxg D`&`x‡bi †jLv Av‡iv `ywU KweZvi bvg ewj I wjwL| DËi: RmxgD`&`x‡bi †jLv Av‡iv `ywU KweZv nj Ógvgvi evwoÓ I ÒKeiÓ|

M)

ivLvj †Q‡j †Kvb c_ w`‡q hv‡”Q? DËi: ivLvj †Q‡j MÖv‡gi euvKv c_ w`‡q hv‡‛Q|

N)

MÖvgwU †`L‡Z †Kgb? DËi: MÖvgwU †`L‡Z bxj mey‡R †Niv| Kjvi cvZv †mLv‡b Pvgi †`vjvq Ges wkwki cv ayB‡q †`q| †mLv‡b mܨv †ejvq AvKvk Avexi i‡O iwOb n‡q I‡V| MÖv‡gi †QvÆ KzwUi ¸‡jv †mvbvi cvZvq †Q‡q _v‡K| ivLvj †Q‡ji eY©bvq MÖv‡gi GgbB iƒc dz‡U I‡V‡Q|

O)

Kjvi cvZv I wkwki Kx Kx K‡i| DËi: Kjvi cvZv Pvgi †`vjvq Ges wkwki cv ayB‡q †`q|

P)

mܨv‡ejvq KzwUiwU‡K †`L‡Z †Kgb jv‡M? DËi: mܨv †ejvq †mvbvi cvZvq QvIqv KzwUiwU‡K †`‡L g‡b nq †hb mܨvq AvKv‡ki Qwo‡q cov Avexi i‡O iwOb n‡q Av‡Q|

Q)

ivLvj‡Q‡ji gv †Kv_vq _v‡Kb? DËi: ivLvj †Q‡ji gv MÖv‡gi †QvÆ KzwU‡i _v‡Kb|

R)

ivLvj †Q‡j †Kv_vq †h‡Z Pvq? DËi: ivLvj‡Q‡j‡K ‡fv‡ii nvIqv, mi‡l dz‡ji cuvcwo WvK‡Q gv‡V hvIqvi Rb¨| ZvB ivLvj †Q‡j gv‡V †Lj‡Z †h‡Z Pvq|

S)

Nyg †_‡K †R‡M ivLvj †Q‡j Kx †`‡L? DËi: ÒivLvj †Q‡jÓ KweZvi ivLvj †Q‡j Nyg †_‡K †R‡M †`‡L Nv‡mi Dci S‡i civ wkwki we›`y ¸‡jv mKv‡ji wgwó †iv‡` nvm‡Q †hb Zvi mviv iv‡Zi ¯^cœB mKv‡j mwZ¨Kvi fv‡e dz‡U D‡U‡Q|

T)

ivLvj †Q‡j‡K †Ljv Kivi Rb¨ †K WvK‡Q? DËi: ivLvj‡Q‡j‡K †Ljv Kivi Rb¨ †fv‡ii nvIqv Ges mi‡l dz‡ji cuvcwo WvK‡Q|

c„ôv-38


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

1| K)

cÖ‡kœi DËi: nvwjgv ¯‹zj †_‡K G‡m Kx Ki‡Z PvBj? DËi: weRq w`em Dcj‡¶ nvwjgv‡`i ¯‥z‡j Qwe AvuKv Avi n¯Íwk‡íi cÖwZ‡hvwMZv n‡e| ZvB nvwjgv cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq AskMÖn‡Yi Rb¨ KvMR †K‡U Qwe AvuK‡Z PvBj|

L)

nvwjgv KvMR †K‡U Kx Ki‡e? DËi: nvwjgv‡`i ¯‥z‡j weRq w`em Dcj‡¶ Qwe AvuKv Avi n¯Íwk‡íi cÖwZ‡hvwMZv n‡e| ZvB nvwjgv wVK K‡i‡Q †m cÖ_‡g gyw³hy‡×i Qwe AvuK‡e Zvici Zv‡Z is Ki‡e| is Kivi ci KuvwP w`‡q †K‡U KvMR †_‡K Qwe¸‡jv‡K Avjv`v Ki‡e|

M)

Qwe AvuKvq nvwjgv‡K †K mvnvh¨ Ki‡jb? DËi: Qwe AvuKvq nvwjgv‡K Zvi evev I eo‡evb bvwmgv mvnvh¨ Ki‡jb|

N)

evev Zv‡K Kx Kx Qwe AvuK‡Z ej‡jb? DËi: evev Zv‡K cÖ_‡g gyw³hy‡×i Qwe Zvici weR‡qi Qwe AvuK‡Z ej‡jb| GQvov cuwP‡k gvP© Mfxi iv‡Z cvwK¯Ívwb ‣mb¨iv evOvwj cywjk‡K ¸wj Ki‡Q Avi evOvwj cywjkiv i³v³ Ae¯’vq c‡o Av‡Q GB `„k¨, Zvici wZwb AvZ¥mgc©‡Yi Qwe Ges mevi †k‡l weR‡qi Qwe AvuK‡Z ej‡jb|

O)

weR‡qi Qwe AvuKvi Av‡M nvwjgv †Kvb QwewU G‡uKwQj| DËi: weR‡qi Qwe AvuKvi Av‡M nvwjgv AvZ¥mgc©‡Yi Qwe Gu‡KwQj|

2|

mwVK Dˇii Ic‡i wUK () wP‎‎ý `vI: K) gyw³hy‡×i Qwe Gu‡K nvwjgv Zv jvMvq  P‡Ui Kvc‡o/ wm‡éi Kvc‡o/ Zuv‡Zi Kvc‡o| L) nvwjgv cÖ_g QwewU Gu‡KwQj  25 †k gv‡P©i/ 16 wW‡m¤^‡ii/ exi‡kªô b~i †gvnv¤§` †k‡Li| M) nvwjgv †kl QwewU Gu‡KwQj  wcjLvbvi/ weRq w`e‡mi/ cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvevwnbxi AvZ¥mgc©‡Yi|

3|

weRq Djøv‡mi Qwe AvuKvi Av‡M nvwjgv Kx Kx Qwe Gu‡KwQj? DËi: weRq w`em Dcj‡¶ nvwjgv‡`i ¯‥z‡j Qwe AvuKvi I n¯Íwk‡íi cÖwZ‡hvwMZvi Av‡qvRb Kiv n‡qwQj| G cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq AskMÖn‡Yi Rb¨ nvwjgv cÖ_‡g Gu‡KwQj gyw³hy‡×i Qwe Zvici G‡K G‡K nvwjgv Gu‡KwQj cuwP‡k gvP© Mfxi iv‡Z cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvevwnbx wcjLvbvq ¸wj K‡iwQ‡j †mB QweUv, Iiv knx`wgbvi †f‡O †d‡jwQj †mB Qwe, ivRvievM cywjk jvB‡bi Qwe, AvZ¥mgc©‡Yi Qwe Ges mevi †k‡l Gu‡KwQj weR‡qi Qwe| c„ôv-39


evsjv

1|

4| K)

kãv_©: k„½ giæ †giæ Rwic Avwe®‥vi Awfhvb Kej Abykxjb `yM©g Aa¨emvq we‡klÁ mgMÖ kZel© c`‡¶c inm¨ Eli †K․Z~nj m‡e©v‛P cwigvc AwfhvÎx Dcvq Aw·‡Rb D`MÖxe ‡kicv AvcøyZ AMÖMwZ

Z…Zxq †kªwY

Ñ wkLi, ce©ZP~ov| Ñ Rj I Dw™¢`k~b¨ wekvj RvqMv| Ñ c„w_exi DËi-`w¶Y †K›`ª †iLvi cÖvšÍ| Ñ Rwgi cwigvc| Ñ ARvbv wel‡qi mÜvb jvf| Ñ †Kv‡bv wKQy Avwe®‥v‡i `j †eu‡a hvIqv| Ñ MÖvm| Ñ PP©v, Af¨vm| Ñ †hLv‡b hvIqv KóKi, `ytmva¨| Ñ Aweivg †Póv| Ñ we‡kl wel‡q AwfÁ| Ñ mg¯Í, AvMv‡Mvov| Ñ GKk eQi| Ñ cv †djv, K`g| Ñ ARvbv †Kv‡bv wKQy| Ñ Abye©i| Ñ Rvbvi AvMÖn| Ñ me‡P‡q DuPz| Ñ gvcv, cwigvY wbY©q Kiv| Ñ `ytmvnmx Avwe®‥v‡ii Rb¨ hvÎv| Ñ †K․kj, Afxó c_| Ñ †g․wjK M¨v‡mi bvg| Ñ e¨MÖ, Lye AvMÖnx| Ñ ce©Zv‡ivnx| Ñ wm³, cøvweZ| Ñ GwM‡q hvIqv, Dbœqb|

cÖ‡kœi DËi: gvbyl wPiw`b Kx Kx †P‡qwQj? DËi: gvbyl wPiw`b ARvbv‡K Rvb‡Z †P‡q‡Q| inm¨fiv c„w_ex‡K wPb‡Z †P‡q‡Q| cÖK…wZ‡K †`L‡Z †P‡q‡Q| ZvB D‛PZg ce©Z, MfxiZg mvMi, Eli giæ, kxZj †giæ m¤^‡Ü gvby‡li †K․Z~nj wQj Amxg| c„w_exi D‛PZg k„“L Rq Kivi evmbvI Zvi †mB †K․Z~n‡jiB Ask| c„ôv-40


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

L)

ivavbv_ wkK`vi Kx KvR K‡iwQj? DËi: 1852 mv‡j f~wg Rwi‡ci KvR K‡iwQ‡jb evOvwj Awdmvi ivavbv_ wkK`vi| wZwb wngvj‡qi me‡P‡q DuPz ce©Z k„½wU Avwe®‥vi K‡ib| wZwb GwUi D‛PZv cwigvc K‡iwQ‡jb 8,839 wgUvi|

M)

wngvj‡qi me‡P‡q DuPz ce©Z k„½wU †K Avwe®‹v‡ii K‡ib? DËi: wngvj‡qi me‡P‡q DuPz ce©Z k„½wU Avwe®‥vi K‡ib evOvwj Awdmvi ivabv_ wkK`vi|

N)

Kvi bvgvbymv‡i k„½wUi bvgKiY Kiv nq? DËi: weªwUk Avg‡j miKv‡ii Rwic wefv‡Mi cÖavb wQ‡jb m¨vi RR© Gfv‡i÷| Zvi bvgvbymv‡i GB k„½wUi bvgKiY nq Gfv‡i÷|

O)

wngvj‡qi me‡P‡q DuPz GB ce©ZwUi Ae¯’vb †Kv_vq? DËi: wngvj‡qi me‡P‡q DuPz GB ce©‡Zi Ae¯’vb †bcvj Avi wZeŸ‡Zi gvSvgvwS RvqMvq| wZeŸwZiv GB ce©Z‡K Kx e‡jb I †bcvwjiv GB ce©Z‡K Kx e‡jb? DËi: wZeŸwZiv GB ce©Z‡K e‡jb †P‡gvjsgv I †bcvwjiv e‡jb mvMigvZv|

P) Q)

Gfv‡i÷ k„‡½i D”PZv KZ? DËi: Gfv‡i÷ k„‡½i D‛PZv nj 8839 wgUvi|

R)

ce©Z k„½wU Kx w`‡q MwVZ Ges †Kb ce©ZwU ¶q nq bv? DËi: ce©Z k„½wU Pzbvcv_i w`‡q MwVZ| mviv eQi eid w`‡q XvKv _v‡K e‡j ce©ZwUi ¶q nq bv|

S)

Gfv‡i÷‡K Rq Ki‡Z gvby‡li KZ eQi †j‡M‡Q? DËi: Gfv‡i÷ Rq Ki‡Z gvby‡li GKk eQi †j‡M‡Q|

T)

Gfv‡i‡÷i m‡e©v”P P~ovq cÖ_g †K cv iv‡Lb? wZwb †Kvb †`‡ki Awaevmx? DËi: Gfv‡i÷ m‡e©v‛P P~ovq cÖ_g cv iv‡Lb †kicv †ZbwRs †bvi‡M| wZwb †bcv‡ji Awaevmx|

P)

gvby‡li GKwU †QvÆ c`‡¶c gvbeRvwZi R‡b¨ Kx? DËi: gvby‡li GKwU †QvÆ c`‡¶c gvbe RvwZi Rb¨ wekvj AMÖMwZ|

5|

mwVK Dˇii cv‡k wUK () wP‎‎ý `vI: K) wngvj‡qi me‡P‡q DuPz ce©Z k„½ Avwe®‹vi K‡ib†b‡cvwjqvb/ eª‡Rb `vm/ ivavbv_ wkK`vi/ m¨vi RR© Gfv‡i÷| L) Gfv‡i‡÷i D”PZv8,839 wgUvi/ 8,889 wgUvi/ 8,882 wgUvi| M) ce©Z k„½wU MwVZ n‡q‡QPzbvcv_i w`‡q/ jvj gvwU w`‡q/ Kv‡jv cv_i w`‡q| N) ce©Z k„‡½i m‡e©v”P P~ovq cÖ_g cv iv‡LbWv³vi/ Aw·‡Rb we‡klÁ/ †ZbwRs †bvi‡M/ GWgÛ wnjvwi| O) gvbyl Gfv‡i÷ Rq K‡i‡Q19 †k †g 1953/ 29 †k AvM÷ 1953/ 29 †k †g 1953| P) GWgÛ cviwmfvj wnjvwi wQ‡jbwbDwRj¨vÛ/ †bcvj/ Bsj¨vÛ/ evsjv‡`‡ki Awaevmx| c„ôv-41


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

Avnmvb nvexe Kwe cwiwPwZ: Kwe Avnmvb nvexe 1917 wLª÷v‡ã wc‡ivRcyi †Rjvi ksKi cvkv MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wkï wK‡kvi‡`i Rb¨ wZwb cÖPzi Qov I KweZv wj‡L‡Qb| Zuvi KweZvi Q›` I kã mn‡RB gb Kv‡o, wZwb wQ‡jb †ckvq mvsevw`K, `xN©w`b bvbv cwÎKvi mvwn‡Z¨i cvZvi m¤úv`‡Ki `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i‡Qb| Òe„wó c‡o Uvcyi UzcyiÓ I ÒQywUi w`b`ycy‡iÓ Zuvi wkï‡Zvl Kve¨MÖš’| 1|

2|

kãv_©: †LjvNi wSwKwgwK bMi QvDwb Wvbv

Ñ wkïiv †Ljvi Rb¨ †h Ni •Zwi K‡i| Ñ wSKwgK Kiv, Av‡jvi PÂj cÖfv| Ñ eo kni| Ñ N‡ii Pvj| Ñ cvLv|

evK¨ iPbv: †LjvNi wSwKwgwK bMi QvDwb Wvbv

Ñ wkïiv evwj w`‡q †LjvNi •Zwii Avb‡›` †g‡Z D‡V‡Q| Ñ iv‡Zi AvKv‡k Zviv¸‡jv wSwgwgwK K‡i R¡j‡Q| Ñ XvKv gnvbM‡i A‡bK †jvK evm K‡i| Ñ Kwjg PvPv Lo w`‡q N‡ii QvDwb w`‡q‡Qb| Ñ CMj cvwL Wvbv †g‡j AvKv‡k I‡o|

3| K)

cÖ‡kœi DËi: †Kv_vq †LjvNi cvZv Av‡Q? DËi: Kwe Avnmvb nvex‡ei ÔiƒcK_vÕ KweZvq KvíwbK ¯^‡cœi wSwKwgwK AvuKv Ny‡gi †`‡k †LjvNi cvZv Av‡Q|

L)

†LjvN‡ii QvDwbi is Kx iKg? DËi: †LjvN‡ii QvDwbi is AvKv‡ki gZ bxj|

M)

Kx w`‡q i~cK_vi †LjvN‡ii †`qvj •Zwi? DËi: i~cK_vi †LjvN‡ii †`qvj cix‡`i Wvbv w`‡q •Zwi|

N)

Rvbvjvi Rvj †`L‡Z †Kgb? DËi: Kwei †Pv‡L i~cK_vi †LjvNiwUi Rvbvjvi Rvj cÖRvcwZi iwOb cvLvi gZ iwOb|

c„ôv-42


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

O)

Ny‡gi †`‡ki c_ †`L‡Z †Kgb? DËi: †QvU wkïiv Zv‡`i g‡bi D¾¡j ¯^cœ w`‡q †LjvNi •Zwi K‡i| Avi ZvB †LjvN‡ii mewKQyB Zv‡`i Kv‡Q iwOb| Zv‡`i Ny‡gi †`‡ki c_I ZvB iv‡Zi AvKv‡ki wSwgwgwK Kiv Zviv w`‡q •Zwi|

P)

mvZ fvB P¤úv Kxfv‡e ivZ KvUvq? DËi: mvZ fvB P¤úv Zv‡`i †QvU †evb cviæ‡ji nv‡Z nvZ †i‡L ivZ KvUvq|

Q)

Kwe Kxfv‡e P¤úveZxi †`k †Nvivi K_v e‡j‡Qb? DËi: Ôi~cK_vÕ KweZvq Kwe †Nvovq P‡o nv‡Z Zxi wb‡q P¤úveZxi †`k †Nvivi K_v e‡j‡Qb|

R)

†Kv_vq wKQy gvbv †bB? DËi: i~cK_vi †`‡k †Kvb wKQy‡ZB †Kvb gvbv †bB| GLv‡b wkïiv Zv‡`i B‡‛QgZ Zv‡`i †LjvNi mvRv‡Z cv‡i| i~cK_vi †`‡k me wKQyB wb‡R‡`i B‛QvgZ Kiv hvq|

4|

`yw`‡Ki K_v¸‡jv wgwj‡q co: †Pv‡Li cvZvq Nyg AvKv‡ki bxj is cix‡`i Wvbv w`‡q Zviv wSwKwgwK c_ mvZ fvB P¤úvi cÖRvcwZi is gvLv DËi: †Pv‡Li cvZvq Nyg AvKv‡ki bxj is cix‡`i Wvbv w`‡q Zviv wSwKwgwK c_ mvZ fvB P¤úvi cÖRvcwZi is gvLv

5|

Rvbvjvi Rvj S‡i SiSi Ny‡gi †`‡ki ‡K‡U hvq ivZ ‣Zwi †`qvj QvDwb‡Z Gi Ny‡gi bMi

Ñ S‡i SiSi| Ñ QvDwb‡Z Gi| Ñ ‣Zwi †`qvj| Ñ Ny‡gi †`‡ki| Ñ ‡K‡U hvq ivZ| Ñ Rvbvjvi Rvj|

bx‡Pi k㸇jv w`‡q evK¨ •Zwi Ki: wSwgwgwK Ñ wSwgwgwK †RbvwKi Av‡jv R¡‡j| SiSi Ñ eilvi SiSi e„wó S‡i| wgwUwgwU Ñ AvKv‡ki Zviv¸‡jv wgwUwgwU R¡j‡Q| `i`i Ñ `i`i K‡i Nvg Si‡Q| wPKwPK Ñ mgy‡`ªi Zx‡i evwj wPKwPK Ki‡Q|

c„ôv-43


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

1|

k~b¨¯’vb c~iY Ki: K) gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi ewikvj †Rjvq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| L) Zuvi MÖv‡gi bvg iwngMÄ| M) gwnDwÏb Rvnv½x‡ii wcZvi bvg Ave`yj †gvZv‡je nvIjv`vi| N) wk¶‡Kiv gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi‡K LyeB †øn Ki‡Zb| O) gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi Zuvi evevi K‡É gywk©w`, gvidwZ, evDj Mvb ïb‡Zb| P) wZwb 1967 mv‡j cvwK¯Ívb mvgwiK GKv‡Wgx‡Z K¨v‡WU wn‡m‡e †hvM`vb K‡ib|

2|

mwVK Dˇii cv‡k wUK () wP‎‎ý `vI: K) c~e© cvwK¯Ívb Avi cwðg cvwK¯Ívb wg‡j wQjfviZ/ cvwK¯Ívb/ †bcvj/ fyUvb| L) cvwK¯Ív‡bi mvgwiK kvmbKZ©viv c~e© cvwK¯Ívb‡KKg/ †ewk/ mgvb ¸iæZ¡ w`‡Zb| M) cwðg cvwK¯Ív‡bi †mbvevwnbx c~e© cvwK¯Ív‡bi wbixn gvbyl‡K AvµgY K‡iwQ‡jb1971 mv‡ji 25 †k gvP©/ 21 †k †deªæqvwi/ 16 B wW‡m¤^i| N) gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi 1971 mv‡ji gvP© gv‡m wQ‡jbc~e© cvwK¯Ívb/ cwðg cvwK¯Ívb/ fvi‡Z| O) gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi gyw³hy‡× AskMÖnY K‡ib †gvU20 Rb/ 30 Rb/ 50 Rb †hv×v wb‡q|

3| K)

cÖ‡kœvËi: gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi †Kvb gv‡mi KZ Zvwi‡L fvi‡Z Av‡mb? DËi: gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi RyjvB gv‡mi 3 ZvwiL fvi‡Z Av‡mb|

L)

wZwb gyw³hy‡×i KZ b¤^i †m±‡i wQ‡jb? DËi: wZwb gyw³hy‡×i 7 b¤^i †m±‡i wQ‡jb|

M)

7bs †m±‡i wZwb Kx wQ‡jb? DËi: 7bs †m±‡i wZwb mve †m±i KgvÛvi wQ‡jb|

N)

Zuvi Awfhvb †Kv_vq wQj? DËi: Zuvi Awfhvb wQj PuvcvBbeveMÄ kn‡ii A`~‡i evi Nwoqvq|

]

c„ôv-44


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

4|

PuvcvBbeveMÄ kni `Lj Kivi NUbvwU wb‡Ri fvlvq ej I †jL| DËi: gyw³hy‡× gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi A‡bK¸‡jv mdj Awfhvb cwiPvjbv K‡iwQ‡jb| Zuvi †kl Awfhvb wQj PuvcvBbeveMÄ `Lj Kiv| wZwb G Awfhv‡bi †bZv wQ‡jb| gvÎ 50 Rb gyw³‡hv×v wb‡q wZwb G‡mwQ‡jb PuvcvBbeveM‡Äi A`~‡i evi Nwiqvq| 14B wW‡m¤^i mKvj AvUUvi mgq 20 Rb gyw³‡hv×v‡K mv‡_ wb‡q wZwb jovB ïiæ K‡iwQ‡jb| Zuviv †b․Kvq K‡i gnvb›`v b`x AwZµg K‡iwQ‡jb| cvwK¯Ívwb mvgwiK evwnbxi mv‡_ Zuv‡`i gy‡LvgywL hy× n‡qwQj| wZwb Zx¶èeyw× I †K․kj cÖ‡qvM K‡i cvwK¯Ívwb mvgwiK evwnbx‡K †K․YVvmv K‡iwQ‡jb| Zuvi evwnbxi mv‡_ Av‡iv 30 Rb †hv×v G‡m †hvM w`‡qwQ‡jb| PuvcvBbeveMÄ gy³ nIqvi w`bwU gyw³hy‡×i BwZnv‡m GKwU ¯§iYxq w`b| GB hy‡× cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvevwnbx civwRZ n‡qwQj|

5|

gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi Kxfv‡e knx` nb? DËi: gwnDwÏb Rvnv½x‡ii †kl Awfhvb wQj PuvcvBbeveMÄ `Lj Kiv| wZwb GB Awfhv‡bi †bZv wQ‡jb| gvÎ 50 Rb gyw³‡hv×v wb‡q wZwb G‡mwQ‡jb PuvcvBbeveMÄ kn‡ii A`~‡i evi Nwiqvq 14B wW‡m¤^i mKvj AvUUvq 20 Rb gyw³‡hv×v‡K mv‡_ wb‡q wZwb jovB ïiæ K‡iwQ‡jb| cvwK¯Ívwb mvgwiK evwnbxi mv‡_ Zuv‡`i gy‡LvgywL hy× n‡qwQj| Zvi evwnbxi mv‡_ Av‡iv 30 Rb †hv×v †hvM w`‡qwQj| GB hy‡× cvwK¯Ívwb †mbvevwnbx civwRZ n‡qwQj| hy‡×i †kl ch©v‡q G‡m k΂c‡¶i GKwU ¸wj gwnDwÏb Rvnv½x‡ii Kcvj †f` K‡i P‡j wM‡qwQj| mv‡_ mv‡_B Zvi g„Zz¨ nq| gyw³hy‡×i GB Amxg mvnmx exi †mB hy‡× knx` n‡qwQ‡jb|

6|

gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi‡K †Kv_vq Kei †`Iqv nq? DËi: gyw³hy‡×i Amxg mvnmx exi K¨v‡Þb gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi hy‡× knx` n‡qwQ‡jb| Zuv‡K †QvU †mvbv gmwR` cÖv½‡b Kei †`Iqv nq|

7|

evsjv‡`k miKvi gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi‡K †Kvb Dcvwa‡Z f~wlZ K‡i? DËi: K¨v‡Þb gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi wQ‡jb GKRb Amxg mvnmx exi gyw³‡hv×v| wZwb A‡bK¸‡jv mdj Awfhvb cwiPvjbv K‡iwQ‡jb| PuvcvBbeveM‡Ä hy× Kivi mgq wZwb knx` n‡qwQ‡jb| gyw³hy‡× Zuvi Ae`v‡bi Rb¨ evsjv‡`k miKvi K¨v‡Þb gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi‡K exi‡kªô Dcvwa‡Z f~wlZ K‡ib|

8|

gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi Qvov Av‡iv `yRb exi‡kª‡ôi bvg ej I †jL| DËi: gwnDwÏb Rvnv½xi Qvov Av‡iv `yRb exi‡kªô nj1) exi‡kªô nvwg`yi ingvb 2) exi‡kªô b~i †gvnv¤§`

c„ôv-45


evsjv

Avj gvngy` 1|

kãv_©: †gNbv wZZvm cvj cvUzbx fi `ycyi LvUzwb mL wej †evqvj †Pvqvj evwo bvI mvwi DRvb cvwR MvO-ïïK ¯^cœfiv kvjyK Rjwcwc cvwjk kxZj

2| evK¨ iPbv: †gNbv wZZvm cvj cvUzbx fi `ycyi LvUzwb mL wej †evqvj †Pvqvj evwo

Ñ evsjv‡`‡ki GKwU cÖavb b`x| Ñ GKwU b`xi bvg| Ñ †b․Kvi gv¯‘‡ji m‡½ jvMv‡bv Kvco| Ñ †Lqv †b․Kvi gvwS| Ñ wVK `ycyi †ejv| Ñ cwikªg| Ñ cQ‡›`i KvR| Ñ eo Rjvkq| Ñ †evqvj gvQ| Ñ gy‡Li †fZi †h A‡½ `uvZ _v‡K| Ñ AvNvZ| Ñ †b․Kv| Ñ †kªYx| Ñ †mªv‡Zi wecixZ w`K| Ñ `yóz| Ñ b`xi ïïK, ïïK gv‡Qi g‡Zv GK cÖKvi RjR cÖvYx| Ñ ¯^cœ w`‡q c~Y©, ¯^‡cœi| Ñ cÙ I kvcjv dz‡ji g~j Ñ eK RvZxq RjPi †QvU cvwL| Ñ gm„Y Ae¯’v| Ñ VvÐv| Ñ †gNbv evsjv‡`‡ki cÖavb b`x| Ñ wZZvm †gNbvi GKwU kvLv b`x| Ñ cvj Dwo‡q †b․Kv Pj‡Q| Ñ †m cvUzbxi KvR K‡i| Ñ Zviv fi `ycyi Avgv‡`i evwo‡Z G‡m‡Q| Ñ LvUzwb‡Z Zvi kixi †f‡O †M‡Q| Ñ gvQ aiv Avgvi mL| Ñ Avgiv we‡j gvQ ai‡Z hv‡ev| Ñ †R‡jiv GKwU †evqvj gvQ a‡i‡Q| Ñ ev‡Ni †Pvqvj Lye gReyZ| Ñ jvwVi evwo †L‡q KzKziwU cvwj‡q †Mj| c„ôv-46

Z…Zxq †kªwY


evsjv

bvI mvwi DRvb cvwR MvO-ïïK ¯^cœfiv kvjyK Rjwcwc cvwjk kxZj

Ñ †Zvgiv bvI fvwm‡q `vI| Ñ e‡Ki mvwi D‡o hv‡‛Q| Ñ DRv‡b †b․Kv Pvjv‡bv KóKi| Ñ †LvKbUv eo cvwR n‡q‡Q| Ñ b`xi cvwb‡Z MvO-ïïK gv_v †Zv‡j, Avevi Wy‡e hvq| Ñ Avgv‡`i †`k ¯^cœfiv| Ñ †Q‡j‡g‡qiv kvjyK Zzj‡Q| Ñ Rjwcwc `j †eu‡a †QvUvQywU Ki‡Q| Ñ cvwjk Kiv Lv‡U Avgiv Nygvw‛Q| Ñ †LvKb kxZj cvwU‡Z ï‡q Av‡Q|

2|

hy³eY© †f‡½ `yBwU K‡i kã •Zwi Ki: šÍ = b& + Z Ñ `šÍ, kvšÍ| ¤^ = g& + e Ñ j¤^v, wW¤^| ¯^ = m + e Ñ ¯^‛Q, ¯^i| cœ = c& + b Ñ ¯^cœ, ¯^cœxj|

3|

wecixZ kã †jL: g~j kã kvšÍ j¤^v DRvb Av`i kxZj

wecixZ kã AkvšÍ Lv‡Uv fvwU Abv`i Dò

5|

k~b¨ RvqMv c~iY Ki: K) Igv G-‡h KvRj we‡ji †evqv‡j cv‡ji `wo AvU‡K †i‡L †Pvqv‡j L) †m_vq bvwK kvjyK cvZvi Pv`‡i Rjwcwciv Nygvq gnv Av`‡i

6| K)

cÖ‡kœvËi: †Kvb b`xwU kvšÍ? DËi: Kwe Avj gvngy` iwPZ Ôfi`ycy‡iÕ KweZvq kvšÍ b`xwU nj wZZvm b`x|

L)

cvUzbx †K? DËi: Avj gvngy` iwPZ fi`ycy‡i KweZvi cvUzwb n‡‛Q †Lqv Nv‡Ui gvwS|

c„ôv-47

Z…Zxq †kªwY


evsjv

Z…Zxq †kªwY

M)

†m Kx Ki‡Q? DËi: †m fi`ycy‡i m‡Li LvUzwb LvU‡Q|

N)

†LvKb‡K †bŠKvq wb‡Z †K ej‡Q? DËi: †LvKb‡K Zvi gv †b․Kvq wb‡Z e‡j‡Q|

O)

†Kv_vq wb‡Z ej‡Q? DËi: †LvKb‡K †b․Kvq K‡i MvI ïï‡Ki ¯^cœfiv MÖv‡g‡Z wb‡Z e‡j‡Q|

P)

†m RvqMvwU †Kgb? DËi: †m RvqMvwU MvI ïï‡Ki ¯^cœ w`‡q fiv| †mLv‡b kvjyK cvZvi Pv`‡i Rjwcwci gnv Av`‡i Nygvq Avi Av‡Q kvcjv dz‡ji kxZj meyR cvwjk Kiv evwjk|

Q)

†LvKb †Kv_vq Nygv‡e? DËi: †LvKb kvcjv dz‡ji kxZj meyR cvwjk Kiv evwj‡k Nygv‡e|

c„ôv-48


wk¶v, †mev I RbKj¨vYgyLx ¯^wbf©i cÖwZôvb

Foundation

Cambrian School & College

Education for Peace, Self-Reliance & Global Opportunity Plot-2, Gulshan Circle-2, Dhaka,Tel: 9891919, 9881355 Fax : 9896317, M: 01720557160. 01720557170, 01720557190

E-mail : info@cambrianbd.com, www.cambrianbd.com

Metropolitan School & College,Dhaka 329/8, South Jatrabari, Dhaka

KA-40/2, Pragati Sarani, Baridhara, Dhaka

Cambrian Cultural Academy GA-37/1, Jamalpur Tower, Baridhara J Block (In front of American Embassy) Dhaka.

event & expo-management

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CAMBRIAN for International Studies excellence in cross border higher education

Digital -Cambrian CambrianLearning Program

D”P wk¶v †`k-we‡`k

Corporate Office

-Cambrian

E-Zone

eB‡gjv cÖwZw`b

Plot-22, Gulshan Circle-2, Dhaka, Bangladesh Tel: 8818816, 9885066, M: 01720557128, Fax :+88-02-9895772

E-mail : bsb@bsbbd.com, www.bsbbd.com O

M

T

H

The Organisation for Tourism and Hospitality Management

One Stop Solution for Higher Education at Home and Abroad


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