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23, cÖMwZ miwY, evwiaviv, XvKv| †dvb: 9891919, 01720557150/160/170/180


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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›` ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq (1838-1894)

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) wbay Zzwg wK wKQz †L‡Z PvI? bv| †Zvgvi wK wKQz ejvi Av‡Q? bv| g„Zz¨i ci †Zvgvi †Kvb evmbv...... bvn! Z‡e Ck¦‡ii bv‡g cÖv_©bv Ki| †n Ck¦i, Zzwg Avgv‡K ¶gv Ki| †m wK! Zzwg ej‡Qv bv| gyL Nywi‡q wb‡j †h! ej, †n gnvcÖfy! Avgvi fyj Zzwg ......... †`vnvB dv`vi, G †ejv Ck¦i bq| Zv‡K Avwg KL‡bv †`wL wb| ïay bvgUzKz ï‡bwQ| wZwbI nq‡Zv ZvB †f‡e _vK‡eb| dv`vi †`vnvB Avcbvi Avgvi QvÎ Kvbv nwi`vm‡K hw` GKwUev‡ii Rb¨I †`L‡Z †cZvg! Ii nvZUzKz ¯úk© K‡i †kl wbtk¦vm Z¨vM Ki‡Z cviZvg! cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Mi“ Pzwi †gvKÏgvi dwiqvw` †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : Mi“ Pzwi †gvKÏgvi dwiqvw` n‡”Q cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbx| cÖkœ : (L) ÔAvwg Bnvi Revbew›` KivB‡Z cvwie bv|Õ KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›` Kiv‡Z DwK‡ji A¯^xK„wZi KviY eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : AvcvZ`„wó‡Z KgjvKv‡š—i AvPiY I K_vevZ©v A‡bKUv cvMjvwgi mvwgj n‡jI Zv Avgv‡`i Pvicv‡ki bvbv i“wP I Am½wZ‡K Av½yj w`‡q †`wL‡q w`w”Qj; hv‡Z DwKj evey weeªZ †eva K‡ib| †mB m‡½ DwKjevey KgjvKv‡š—i eyw×`xß K_vi gg©v_© eyS‡Z bv cvi‡jI †h Zvi g~j¨evb mgq bó n‡”Q †m Zv Abyaveb Ki‡Z cv‡ib| d‡j †m w¶ß n‡q I‡V| DwKj ZLb nvj †Q‡o w`‡q Av`vjZ‡K e‡jb †h, Zvi c‡¶ KgjvKvš—‡K Revbew›` Kiv‡bv m¤¢e bq| cÖkœ : (M) wbayi m‡½ KgjvKv‡š—i Zzjbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ KgjvKvš—| Ck¦i fvebvi w`K †_‡K DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ PwiÎ wbay I KgjvKv‡›`i Pwi‡Îi gv‡S mv`„k¨ _vK‡jI ˆemv`„k¨I i‡q‡Q| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi PwiÎ KgjvKvš— †bkvMÖ¯—| †bkv‡Lvi I evwZKMÖ¯— †Pnviv I AmsjMœ K_v-evZ©vi Avov‡j i‡q‡Q Zvi m~² ch©‡e¶Ykxj Rxeb`„wó| Av`vjZ I Ck¦i fvebv m¤ú‡K© Zvi †k−lvZ¥K Dw³¸‡jv ev¯—e m‡Z¨i Av‡jvq Avgv‡`i †Pv‡L D¾¡j n‡q aiv c‡o| KgjvKvš— mywPwš—Zfv‡e e‡j‡Qb †h, Ôci‡gk¦i wVK cÖZ¨‡¶i welq bq|Õ †m m‡½ KgjvKv‡š—i ga¨ w`‡q cÖvewÜK †m mg‡qi mgvR-e¨e¯’v, mf¨Zv I ms¯‹…wZi Am½wZ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| wbay PwiÎwU KgjvKv‡š—i b¨vq eyw×`xß PwiÎ| †m mZ¨ K_v e‡j| †mI m~² Rxeb `„wói AwaKvix| DÏxc‡Ki ¶z`ª AvqZ‡b †m mf¨Zv-ms¯‹…wZ ag©‡eva m¤ú‡K© my®úó e³e¨ ivL‡Z bv cvi‡jI Ck¦i m¤ú‡K© Zvi †h fvebv Zv KgjvKv‡š—i K_v g‡b Kwi‡q †`q| g„Zz¨i mgq Ck¦i‡K bq; †m Zvi wcÖq QvÎ Kvbv nwi`vm‡K ¯úk© K‡i †kl wbtk¦vmUzKz Z¨vM Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb; G mZ¨evw`Zv, m~² ch©‡e¶Ykxj `„wófw½, Rxeb‡eva, Ck¦ifvebv cÖf„wZ ˆewkó¨ wbay PwiÎwUi m‡½ KgjvKv‡š—i mv`„k¨ cwijw¶Z nq| c„ôv-3


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (N) DÏxcKwU ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi m‡½ KZUv mv`„k¨c~Y©? we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvwU cÖPwjZ mgvR-e¨e¯’vi Am½wZ Zz‡j aivi cvkvcvwk ZË¡MZ welqI Zz‡j a‡i‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki ¯^í cwim‡iI G ZË¡MZ wel‡qi ewntcÖKvk Zvrch©gq n‡q D‡V‡Q| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq KgjvKvš—‡K †`wL cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii mv¶xiƒ‡c| AvcvZ`„‡ó †m †bkvMÖ¯—| Z‡e evwZKMÖ¯— †Pnviv I AmsjMœ K_vevZ©vi Avov‡j i‡q‡Q Zvi m~² ch©‡e¶Ykxj Rxeb `„wó| cwinv‡mi †fZi w`‡q Av`vjZ e¨e¯’v, mgKvjxb mgvR, mf¨Zv I ms¯‹…wZi Am½wZ Zz‡j aivi cvkvcvwk a‡g©i wel‡q †m wQj w¯’i wPš—vi AwaKvix| d‡j gyûwii evi evi ZvMv`v m‡Ë¡I †m nvwK‡gi `„wó AvKl©Y K‡i e‡j‡Q, Ôci‡gk¦i wVK cÖZ¨‡¶i welq bq|Õ DÏxc‡Ki msKxY© cwim‡i mgKvjxb mgvR Ifv‡e D‡V bv G‡jI GLv‡b mf¨Zv, ms¯‹…wZ I ag©‡eva h‡_ó cwijw¶Z n‡q‡Q| KgjvKv‡š—i agx©q ZË¡wU DÏxc‡KI cwijw¶Z n‡q‡Q| wbay evey g„Zz¨i c~e© gyn~‡Z© Ck¦i fvebvq KvZi n‡Z AbvMÖn cÖKvk K‡i Qv‡Îi ¯úk© jvf Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Q| Ck¦ifvebv, ¯úóevw`Zv, Rxeb`„wó, mgvR‡eva cÖfw„ Z wel‡qi w`K †_‡K ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi m‡½ DÏxcKwU †h mv`„k¨c~Y© I Zvrch©gq n‡q D‡V‡Q G K_v ejv hvq|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) Av”Qv †Mvcx, ZzB‡Zv Kvbv........ Avwg AÜ b‡ik| Rb¥vÜ| Avgvi †Kvb †Pv‡LB Av‡jv †bB| b‡ik, wKQz¶‡Yi †fZi Kx eo GKUv So e‡q †h‡Z cv‡i? AvKvk Kx AÜKviv”Qbœ n‡q Avm‡Q? Mv‡Qi cÖwZwU cvZvB wK w¯’i n‡q i‡q‡Q? b`xi ey‡K GKwUI †XD †bB, bv! ZzB eySwj Kx K‡i| †Pv‡L †Zv †`wLm bv| evZvm †h eo w¯’i n‡q eB‡Q| DòZv ‡eva n‡”Q| †Mvcx AvR †PŠayix evwo‡Z wekvj †fvR Drme n‡e| Avgv‡`i g‡Zv eû Mwie-wgmwKb Lv‡e †mLv‡b| hvwe! bv‡i| IivB eo Afvex| eo Mwie| †Kej bvB-bvB, LvB-LvB| ILv‡b †M‡j Iiv eis weeªZ †eva Ki‡Z cv‡i| cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ‘Theological Lecture’ Gi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : Theological Lecture Gi A_© n‡”Q ag©ZË¡xq e³…Zv| cÖkœ : (L) mv¶xi KvUvivq cy‡i †`qv n‡j KgjvKvš— g„`y g„`y †n‡mwQj †Kb? eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ KgjvKvš—| cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii mv¶¨ w`‡Z †m Av`vj‡Z G‡mwQj| ZLb KgjvKvš—‡K mv¶xi KvVMovq `uvo Kiv‡bv nj| KgjvKvš— G KvVMov‡K †Luvqvo Kíbv K‡i †n‡mwQj| A‡b¨i Rwgi avb †L‡j ev bó Ki‡j Mi“-QvMj‡K †hgb †Luvqv‡o †`Iqv nq, †Zgwb mv¶xi KvUvivq `uvwo‡q KvVMov‡K KgjvKvš— †Luvqvo Kíbv K‡i h‡_ó AcgvwbZ †eva K‡i| ¯^fveZB Zvi m¤ú‡K© mv¶xi e`‡j ÔMi“Õ K_vUvB g‡b Av‡m Ges KgjvKvš— g„`y g„`y nvm‡Z _v‡K| c„ôv-4


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡Ki ¯úóev`x I weP¶Y PwiÎ †Mvcxi m‡½ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi KgjvKv‡š—i Zzjbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq Gi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq ¯úóev`x I m~² ch©‡e¶Ykxj Rxeb`„wó m¤úbœ KgjvKvš— PwiÎwU‡K cvB| DÏxc‡Ki †Mvcx PwiÎI ev¯—eev`x Ges m~²ch©‡e¶Ykxj| Zvi e³‡e¨i †fZ‡i i‡q‡Q Aš—`„©wó| KgjvKv‡š—i AvPiY I K_vevZ©v D™¢U g‡b n‡jI Avgv‡`i Pvicv‡ki bvbv i“wP I Am½wZ‡K †m Zz‡j a‡i‡Q| Zvi e³‡e¨ Av`vj‡Zi `ye©j w`K¸‡jv D‡b¥vwPZ nevi m‡½ m‡½ mgvR ev¯—eZv, agx©q I mf¨Zvi m¼UI Avgv‡`i †Pv‡L c‡o| Zvi e³‡e¨i Aš—`w©„ ó‡Z mgv‡Ri cÖwZwôZ‡`i gy‡Lvk D‡b¥vwPZ n‡q‡Q | Ab¨w`‡K DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ Rb¥vÜ| Zx¶è Abyfw~ Z kw³ w`‡q mgvR, mgv‡Ri gvbyl I cÖK…wZi cUcwieZ©b‡K †m eyS‡Z cv‡i| KL‡bv G ¯úófvlv mgvR-mZ¨ cÖKv‡k Db¥yL n‡q I‡V| d‡j eÜz b‡ik †PŠayix evwo‡Z †Mvcx‡K wb‡q †L‡Z †h‡Z PvB‡j †Mvcx †PŠayix‡`iB eo `wi`ª I nZfvM¨ e‡j wPwýZ K‡i‡Q| AÜ n‡jI Mfxi Aš—`„©wó w`‡q G gy‡Lvkavix myweav‡fvMx‡`i mZ¨ cwiPq cÖKv‡k †Mvcx ¯úóev`x| Gfv‡e mgv‡R mZ¨ cÖKvk, mr mvnm cÖ`k©b I Mfxi Rxeb`„wó w`‡q Rxeb‡K †`Lvi gvbwmKZvq ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi PwiÎ KgjvKvš— I DÏxc‡Ki AÜ PwiÎ †Mvcxi gv‡S wbweo mv`„k¨ cwijw¶Z nq| cÖkœ : (N) ÔAvcvZ`„wó‡Z AcÖ‡qvRbxq g‡b n‡jI KgjvKvš— I †Mvcx PwiÎØq mgvR MV‡b Acwinvh© f~wgKv cvj‡b m¶g|ÕÑ Dw³wUi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq KgjvKvš— cÖPwjZ wePvi e¨e¯’v, ag© I Gi ev¯—e mZ¨ Zz‡j ai‡Z mn‡hvwMZv K‡i‡Q| Z`ª“c RxebmZ¨ Mfxi Rxeb`„wó w`‡q D‡b¥vPb Ki‡Z me©vZ¥K †Póv K‡i‡Q AÜ †Mvcx| mgv‡Ri cÖPwjZ msÁvq hviv weË-ˆef‡ei AwaKvix Zviv cÖK…Z A‡_© KZUv wb‡Ri A‡_© cÖwZwôZ, Zviv mgv‡Ri `kRb‡K Kx‡mi cÖ‡jvf‡b Nyiv‡”QÑ LvIqv‡”Q? Gi Aš— wb©wnZ mZ¨wU AÜ †Mvcxi Kv‡Q eo n‡q aiv w`‡q‡Q| nq‡Zv cÖPvi, RbwcªqZv, gvbwmK Akvwš— `~ixKiY, bq‡Zv ciKvjxb myL cÖvwßi Rb¨ Mwie LvIqv‡bvi G †jvK †`Lv‡bv Av‡qvRb| Zvn‡j cÖK…Z cÖvwßi cÖZ¨vkx †K? Afve Kvi †ewk? cÖPwjZ mgvR-m‡Z¨ ev¯—e bv n‡jI Aš—`©„wó w`‡q †`L‡j †PŠayix evwoi †jvKRbB eo Afvex| Giv LvIqv‡bvi wbgš¿Y K‡i‡Q mZ¨| wKš—y LvIqv‡Z wM‡q nq‡Zv GK mgq weeªZ †eva Ki‡e ev wKQz cÖZ¨vkv Ki‡e| G Rb¨B †Mvcx †PŠayix‡`i wgmwKb LvIqv‡bv Abyôv‡b AskMÖn‡Y AbvMÖnx| ZvB AvcvZ`„‡ó AcÖ‡qvRbxq g‡b n‡jI mgv‡Ri AmsMwZ D‡b¥vP‡b Ges Gi wei“c w`K cÖKv‡k KgjvKvš— I †Mvcxi f~wgKv Ab¯^xKvh©| mgv‡Ri mvaviY gvby‡li mv`v †Pv‡L †h mgvR mZ¨ aiv c‡o wb; ZvB Zviv D‡b¥vwPZ K‡i cÖwZwôZ Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) nwi ! nwi ! I‡i †bZvB, giv‡Zv gi‡jv Zv Avgv‡iI †h gvi‡jv| Ggb RvqMvq †KD g‡i| Zv †`L †`wL, Ii Mv‡q †h Avgvi c` ¯úk© n‡q‡Q| bv Rvwb †Kvb Rv‡Zi? Zv ûRyi! givi Avevi RvZ Kx? †kvb †bZvB, Ck¦i hv K‡ib fv‡ji Rb¨B K‡ib| bq‡Zv Kx| gievi c~‡e© Avcbvi gyL `k©b Ki‡Z n‡Zv| Awb”Qv m‡Ë¡I bZ g¯—‡K Avgvwi g‡Zv nvZ †Rvo K‡i `uvov‡Z n‡Zv| bq‡Zv Ck¦i wegyL n‡Zb| ¯^M© †h hvq hvq! Pzc, Pzc _vK| †eUv e`| †eqv‡°j| cvwcô| c„ôv-5


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (K) ‘Obstructive’ kãwUi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : ‘Obstructive’ kãwUi A_© n‡”Q evavm„wóKvix ev Sv‡gjvi| cÖkœ : (L) DwKj‡K KgjvKvš— Kx‡mi m‡½ Zzjbv K‡i‡Qb Ges †Kb? eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : DwKj evey‡K KgjvKvš— †Pv‡ii mnPi e‡j Bw½Z cÖ`vb K‡i‡Q| cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x KgjvKv‡š—i AvPiY I K_vevZ©v A‡bKLvwb cvMjvwgi mvwgj n‡jI Kgjv Kx K‡i Lvq, †m Kx K‡i DcvR©b K‡i? Pzwi K‡i wK bv Zv DwKj Rvb‡Z Pvq| Pzwii cÖkœ G‡j KgjvKvš— mvd Rvwb‡q †`q †h Zvn‡j Gi c~‡e©B Avcbvi (DwK‡ji) kiYvMZ n‡Z n‡Zv Ges DwKjI Pzwii wKQzUv fvM †c‡Zb| cÖkœ : (M) eªvþ‡Yi †h PvwiwÎK ˆewkó¨ cvIqv hvq Zvi m‡½ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi DwKj Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨ Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq Av`vj‡Zi AmsMwZi wPÎ I DwK‡ji bvKvj Ae¯’v Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| G DwK‡ji m‡½ DÏxc‡Ki eªvþY Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨ j¶Yxq| DÏxc‡Ki eªvþY Pwi‡Îi AnwgKv‡eva Avgv‡`i `„wó AvKl©Y K‡i| gvbyl n‡qI †m wb‡R‡K †`eZvi Avm‡b †`L‡Z Pvq| g„‡Zi Mv‡q Zvi cv ¯úk© Ki‡j †m Zvi RvZ wb‡q wPwš—Z n‡q c‡o| eªvþY n‡q Zvi cv hw` wbgœ †kªYx‡K ¯úk© K‡i Z‡e Zvi Avi evwK _v‡K Kx? KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›` wb‡Z Avmv DwKjI AvZ¥-AnsKv‡i †fv‡M| †m †h DwKj Ges gh©v`v m¤úbœ e¨w³Z¡ G K_v †m Avmvgx I mv¶xi Kv‡Q cÖwZwôZ Ki‡Z gwiqv n‡q I‡V| †m AKvi‡Y ivM cÖKvk K‡i Ges mv¶xi †ckv Kx? RvZ Kx? cÖf„wZ welq wb‡q G‡Ki ci GK cÖkœ Ki‡Z _v‡K| DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ eªvþY †hgb cÖZ¨vkv K‡i †h, mK‡j Zv‡K †`‡LB bZRvby n‡q nvZ †Rvo K‡i `uvwo‡q †_‡K Zv‡K m¤§vb cÖ`k©b Ki‡e; DwKj eveyI Z`ª“c| KgjvKv‡š—i eyw×`xß †k−lvZ¥K Dw³¸‡jv DwKj evey‡K c‡` c‡` bvKvj I weeªZ K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| mv¶xi G a„óZv DwKj‡K h‡_ó wei³ K‡i †Zv‡j Ges GK ch©v‡q DwKjevey nvwKg g‡nv`‡qi Kv‡Q mv¶xi cÖwZ AeÁv cÖ`k©b K‡i mv¶¨ MÖn‡Y Abxnv cÖKvk K‡ib| Gfv‡e Av`vj‡Zi wePvi Kvh©µg‡K wejw¤^Z I e¨_© Kivi cÖqv‡m Ges ag©‡K ¯^xq ¯^v‡_© e¨envi K‡i mgv‡R Ab¨vqfv‡e wb‡R‡K Zz‡j aievi †¶‡Î DÏxc‡Ki eªvþY PwiÎ Ges KgjvKv‡š—i DwKj Pwi‡Îi PvwiwÎK ˆewk‡ó¨i mv`„k¨ j¶Yxq| cÖkœ : (N) DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ eªvþ‡Yi ag©‡eva Ges ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi PwiÎ DwK‡ji †ckvMZ A`¶Zv wePvi Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq Av`vj‡Z DwK‡ji †ckvMZ A`¶Zv Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| GKBfv‡e eªvþY n‡qI ag©‡K ¯^xq ¯^v‡_© e¨env‡ii †¶‡Î eªvþ‡Yi ag©‡ev‡ai †h cwiPq cvIqv hvq Zv we¯§‡qi mxgv AwZµg K‡i| GKRb eªvþYI gvbyl; Zvi †_‡KI gvbexq AvPiY Kvg¨| gvbyl‡K ag© wel‡q wk¶v †`Iqvi †¶‡Î †m hw` wb‡R‡K †`eZvi Avm‡b emvq wKsev g„‡Zi †`‡n Zvi cv ¯úk© Ki‡j hw` Zvi RvZ hvq, A_ev †m hw` Ggb cÖZ¨vkv K‡i †h Zv‡K †`‡L †KD hw` bZg¯—‡K nvZ †Rvo K‡i bv `uvwo‡q _v‡K Z‡e †m biKMvgx n‡e| eªvþ‡Yi G ag©‡eva eis Aag©‡KB eo K‡i Zzj‡e| G‡Z gvbexq Am‡š—vl †`Lv w`‡e| gvbyl I a‡g©i `~iZ¡ †e‡o hv‡e| gvbyl ag©wegyL n‡q co‡e| †Zgwb ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi PwiÎ DwKjevey †ckvMZ `vwq‡Z¡i †P‡qI A_© DcvR©b‡K eo e‡j g‡b K‡i Ges mv¶xi cÖwZ `ye©¨envi K‡i wb‡Ri †kªôZ¡ Rvwni Ki‡Z Pvq| G AmsMwZ¸‡jv Øviv Av`vj‡Zi MwZc_ cwieZ©b n‡q _v‡K| †m m‡½ mv¶x KgjvKv‡š—i cÖwZ DwK‡ji weiw³ I iv‡Mi KviY wQj KgjvKvš— Øviv Zvi g~j¨evb mgq bó nIqv Ges †Rivi mgq KgjvKvš— Øviv evi evi weeªZ nIqv| c„ôv-6


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

GKRb `¶ DwKj †hgb myôz wePv‡ii c_ m„wó K‡i w`‡Z cv‡i, †Zgwb GKRb eªvþYI Zvi ag©‡eva Øviv gvbeZvi c_ cÖmvwiZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| hvi wecixZ Ae¯’vwU DwK‡ji †ckvMZ A`¶Zv I eªvþ‡Yi ag©‡eva †_‡K cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) Mvwje GKwU ˆ`wbK cwÎKvi m¤úv`K| wbtk¼ G †jLK mZ¨ cÖKv‡k `„p cÖwZÁ| K`vwPr AcÖK…wZ¯’ g‡b n‡jI PwKZ I eyw×`xß gš—‡e¨ Mvwje ev¯—eZv‡K Zvi †jLwb‡Z Zz‡j a‡i P‡j‡Qb| G Kvi‡Y GKwU gvgjvi Avmvgx n‡q Zv‡K Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq `uvov‡Z nq| G KvVMovq `uvov‡Z wM‡q wZwb h‡_ó A¯^w¯— †eva K‡ib| wb‡R‡K ZLb Zvi wPwoqvLvbvi LuvPvq e›`x Rxe e‡j g‡b nq|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq Gi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ †Kvb †kªYxi iPbv? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vqÑ Gi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ bKkvRvZxq iPbv| cÖkœ : (L) Ômv¶x eo †mi&Kk&|Õ Ô†mi&Kk&Õ kãwU e¨envi K‡i Av`vj‡Zi †Kvb w`KwU Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q? eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq Gi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq `uvov‡bv mv¶x‡K DwK‡ji †Riv Kivi GKwU wPÎagx© eY©bv dz‡U D‡V‡Q| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq gyûwi nvwK‡gi w`‡K ZvwK‡q KgjvKvš—‡K D‡Ïk¨ K‡i Ô†mi&Kk&Õ kãwU e¨envi K‡i| Ô†mi&Kk&Õ kãwUi A_© n‡”QÑ †eqvov, D×Z, GK‡ivLv, GK¸u‡q| G kãwU e¨envi K‡i ZrKvjxb Av`vj‡Zi cª_vMZ e¨e¯’vi Am½wZi w`KwU‡K Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ : (M) mv¶x Mvwj‡ei m‡½ KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›` iPbvi KgjvKv‡š—i `„wófw½i Zzjbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq Gi jNy nvm¨imvZ¥K bKkv RvZxq iPbv| G iPbvi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ KgjvKv‡š—i Revwb‡Z ZrKvjxb Av`vj‡Zi Am½wZ¸‡jv Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| mv¶x Mvwje I KgjvKvš— Pwi‡Îi gv‡S †ek wKQz wel‡q wgj i‡q‡Q| mv¶x Mvwje I KgjvKvš— AcÖK…wZ¯’, D`vmx, ¯úóev`x, mZ¨ cÖKv‡k `„p cÖwZÁ Ges eyw×`xß Pwi‡Îi AwaKvix| Avevi G PwiÎ؇qi gv‡S †ek wKQz wel‡q AwgjI i‡q‡Q| KgjvKvš— feNy‡i, msmviweevMx, †bkvMÖ¯—, Avwds‡Lvi n‡jI m¤úv`K Mvwje feNy‡i, msmviweevMx wKsev †bkvMÖ¯— †Kvb PwiÎ bq| Mvwje we‡eKevb Ges w¯’ieyw×m¤úbœ GKRb e¨w³Z¡| †m m‡½ KgjvKvš— w`e¨Ávb m¤úbœ n‡jI Mvwj‡ei wel‡q Giƒc †Kvb Bw½Z cvIqv hvq bv| DÏxc‡K Mvwje Avmvgx n‡jI KgjvKvš— GKRb mv¶x| m‡e©vcwi KgjvKvš— I Mvwje PwiÎ؇qi wgj-Awg‡ji wfZi w`‡q wePvi e¨e¯’vi Am½wZ cÖKvk Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ : (N) Ôwb‡R‡K ZLb Zvi wPwoqvLvbvi LuvPvq e›`x Rxe e‡j g‡b nq|ÕÑ Dw³wU ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi mgqwU wQj civaxb Bs‡iR kvm‡bi Kvj| DÏxc‡Ki Mvwje PwiÎwU mgKvjxb n‡jI Jcwb‡ewkK wePvi e¨e¯’vi wkKvi| Mvwj‡ei Kv‡ji Av`vjZ e¨e¯’v `yBkZ eQ‡ii cyi‡bv ev¯—eZv †_‡K †ewi‡q Avm‡Z cv‡i wb| DÏxcK †mB cÖgvYB enb K‡i| Mvwje wbfx©K, mvnmx, mZ¨ cÖKv‡k `„p cÖwZÁ n‡jI Av`vj‡Z `uvwo‡q mivmwi Av`vjZ‡K wPwoqvLvbv ejvi mvnm cvqwb; eis g‡b g‡b wPwoqvLvbv e‡j Kíbv K‡i‡Q gvÎ| GB A‡_© Mvwje KgjvKv‡š—i gZ mvnmx n‡jI wVK KgjvKv‡š—i mgK¶ bq| Bs‡iR kvm‡b civaxb evOvwj eyw×`xß KgjvKv‡š—i Kv‡Q h_v_© A‡_©B Bs‡iR m„ó Av`vj‡Zi KvVMov‡K Mi“i †Luvqv‡oi gZ g‡b n‡q‡Q| KgjvKv‡š—i GB g‡bvfve Zvi mvnwmKZvi cwiPvqK| Bs‡iR m„ó Av`vj‡Z `uvwo‡q Ggb `ytmvnmx e³e¨ KgjvKv‡š—i Pwi‡Îi ¯úóevw`Zv‡KB cÖKvk K‡i †hb| DÏxcKwU ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi Av`‡j †jLv n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki Mvwje PwiÎwU AvPvi-AvPiY, wek¦vm¯úóevw`Zv Ges mZ¨ cÖKv‡ki msK‡í KgjvKv‡š—iB Abyiƒc PwiÎ †hb| Avmvgx n‡q Av`vj‡Zi c„ôv-7


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

KvVMovq `uvov‡bv‡K Zvi Kv‡Q h‡_ó A¯^w¯—Ki welq e‡j g‡b n‡q‡Q; wb‡Ri Kv‡Q wb‡R‡K wPwoqvLvbvi LuvPvq e›`x Rxe e‡j g‡b n‡q‡Q| hv KgjvKv‡š—i K_v ¯§iY Kwi‡q †`q| Av`vj‡Zi KvVMov‡K KgjvKvš— †Luvqv‡oi m‡½ Zzjbv K‡iwQj| Kv‡RB welqfvebv I Pwi‡Îi AvPiYMZ w`K †_‡K DcwiD³ Av‡jvP¨ Dw³wU ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi Av‡jv‡K h_v_© I Zvrch©c~Y© n‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i †Kej weL¨vZ wkíxB wQ‡jb bv; wQ‡jb ZrKvjxb Bs‡iR kvm‡bi †WcywU g¨vwR‡÷ªU| ZrKvjxb KjKvZvi †h mKj evOvwj Zi“Y cÖwZfv Bs‡iR kvm‡bi PvKwPK¨ †`‡L gy» n‡qwQ‡jb Zv‡`i Ab¨Zg ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq| wKš—y Zvi A_© GB bq †h, B‡iR‡`i Kv‡Q wZwb Zuvi AvZ¥gh©v`v wewK‡q w`‡qwQ‡jb| eis ew¼‡gi Rxe‡b `„p PvwiwÎK ˆewkó¨B cvIqv hvq| enigcyi †mbvwbev‡mi Bs‡iR Kg©KZ©v K‡b©j Wwdb GKw`b Zv‡K Acgvb Ki‡j wZwb G †mbvKg©KZ©vi wei“‡× Av`vj‡Z gvgjv K‡ib| wewfbœ bvUKxqZvi ci GK ch©v‡q K‡b©j Wwdb eva¨ nj cÖKvk¨ Av`vj‡Z ew¼‡gi wbKU ¶gv PvB‡Z| Wwd‡bi AbyZvc cÖKv‡ki ciI msKxY© wePvi e¨e¯’vi cÖwZ ew¼‡gi we¯§‡qi mxgv _v‡K bv|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvwUi †jLK †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvwUi †jLK ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq| cÖkœ : (L) ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi †cQ‡b ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq-Gi †Kvb D‡Ïk¨ KvR K‡i‡Q? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i Ab¨Zg cÖavb †jLK ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq GKRb m‡PZb I cwiYvg`kx© †jLK| cÖwZwU iPbvi †cQ‡bB Zuvi we‡kl D‡Ïk¨ i‡q‡Q| ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq †ckvq wQ‡jb †WcywU g¨vwR‡÷ªU| cÖvq 32 eQi wZwb G †ckvq wb‡qvwRZ wQ‡jb| G QvovI e¨w³ Rxe‡b wZwb Bs‡iR †mbv Kg©KZ©v K‡b©j Wwdb KZ©„K AcgvwbZ n‡q ZrKvjxb wePvie¨e¯’vi †h Am½wZ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq cÖZ¨¶ K‡ib ZvB Zv‡K ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq DØy× K‡i †Zv‡j| cÖkœ : (M) ÔWwd‡bi AbyZvc cÖKv‡ki ciI msKxY© wePvi e¨e¯’vi cÖwZ ew¼‡gi we¯§‡qi mxgv _v‡K bv|Õ Dw³wU ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi KgjvKv‡š—i Pwi‡Îi Abyiƒc- e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ bKkv RvZxq iPbv| G iPbvi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq `uvov‡bv mv¶x KgjvKvš—| GLv‡b Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq `uvov‡bv mv¶x‡K DwK‡ji †Riv Kivi GKwU wPÎgq eY©bv dz‡U D‡V‡Q| cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x KgjvKvš—‡K †Riv Ki‡Z wM‡q DwKjevey c‡` c‡` weeªZ I bvKvj n‡q‡Qb, A_P AwePj †_‡K‡Qb KgjvKvš—| Zvi cÖ”Qbœ †k−lvZ¥K Dw³¸‡jvi ev¯—e m‡Z¨i Av‡jvq wew¯§Z bv n‡q cv‡i bv| Ôci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ †R‡bÕ; ÔZzwg Kx RvwZÕ, wKsev Ô†Zvgvi eqm KZÕ cÖfw„ Z wel‡q KgjvKv‡š—i `„p PvwiwÎK ˆewkó¨ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq| DÏxc‡K Zuvi LÊvwqZ Rxeb mZ¨‡K Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| wZwb Bs‡iR kvm‡bi †WcywU g¨vwR‡÷ªU n‡jI Zuvi gv‡S AvZ¥gh©v`v‡eva j¶ Kiv hvq| wZwb Bs‡iR Kg©KZ©v K‡b©j Wwd‡bi wei“‡× gvgjv K‡ib| G‡Z Wwdb AbyZvc cÖKvk Ki‡jI msKxY© wePvi e¨e¯’vi cÖwZ ew¼‡gi we¯§‡qi mxgv _v‡K bv| ew¼gP›`ª I KgjvKvš—‡K GLv‡b mgvš—ivj g‡b nq| Dfq PwiÎB cÖPwjZ Av`vjZ e¨e¯’vi cÖwZ ¶zä| Kv‡RB DcwiD³ Av‡jvP¨ Dw³wUi Av‡jv‡K ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq‡K KgjvKvš— Pwi‡Îi Abyiƒc ejv P‡j|

c„ôv-8


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (N) ew¼gP‡›`ªi RxebvwfÁZvB ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq wkíiƒc jvf K‡i‡QÑ Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq wQ‡jb miKv‡ii GKRb D”Pc`¯’ Kg©KZ©v| d‡j mgv‡Ri Pvicv‡ki wewfbœ Am½wZ wZwb cÖZ¨¶ K‡iwQ‡jb| we‡kl K‡i Av`vjZ e¨e¯’vi ΓwU-wePz¨wZ I K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZv Zv‡K ¶zä K‡iwQj| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq KgjvKvš— Pwi‡Îi ga¨ w`‡q ew¼gP›`ª g~jZ wbR¯^ RxebvwfÁZvB Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb wkwíZ cwim‡i| AvcvZ`„‡ó KgjvKvš— Avwds‡Lvi n‡jI Zvi e³e¨ †bkv‡Lv‡ii cÖjvc bq| d‡j DwKj, gyûwi †_‡K ïi“ K‡i wePviK ch©š— KgjvKv‡š—i e³‡e¨ weeªZ n‡q c‡o| †jLK †KŠk‡j Avwdg‡Lvi KgjvKv‡š—i Revwb‡Z Av`vjZ e¨e¯’vi Am½wZ‡K Ggbfv‡e Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb †h, GLv‡b wbg©g mgvR mZ¨ wkím‡Z¨i AvenvIqvq `y‡j I‡V‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki ew¼gP‡›`ªi †h Rxeb`k©b Avgiv cÖZ¨¶ Kwi KgjvKv‡š—i Pwi‡Î Zvi DrmviY j¶Yxq| ew¼gP›`ª †hgb cÖPwjZ wePvi-e¨e¯’vi cÖwZ ¶zä, KgjvKv‡š—i †¶‡ÎI Gi e¨wZµg N‡U wb| A_©vr mgvR I RxebvwfÁZvq F× ew¼gP›`ª ˆkwíK `¶Zvq Zuvi cÖZ¨¶Y‡K wfbœ gvÎvq iƒcvwqZ K‡i‡Qb mdjfv‡e|

“ wb‡Pi mviwYwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`

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ch©‡e¶Ykxj `„wófw½

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AvZ¥gh©v`v m¤úbœ ¯úóev`x

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cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq †ckvq Kx wQ‡jb? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq †ckvq †WcywU g¨vwR‡÷ªU wQ‡jb| cÖkœ : (L) ÔAv! †Kvb eY©?Õ msjv‡c eY© †Kvb A‡_© e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : KgjvKvš—‡K †Riv Kivi GK ch©v‡q DwKj Zvi eY© cwiPq m¤ú‡K© wRÁvmv K‡i| A_©vr wn›`y mgv‡Ri mvgvwRK †kªYx wefvM Abymv‡i KgjvKv‡š—i RvwZ m¤cÖ`vq Kx| GwU‡K KgjvKvš— eY© A‡_© is a‡i wb‡q Reve w`‡q‡Q †NviZi K…òeY©| c„ôv-9


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) mviwYwU ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi Abyiƒc| e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : DÏxcKwU †iLvwP‡Îi ga¨ w`‡q Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q| †iLvwP‡Î wZbwU wefvR‡b ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq welqe¯—y‡K wb‡q Avmv n‡q‡Q| Av`vj‡Zi gv‡S mv¶xi KvVMov, wjwLZ njdbvgv Ges DwKj‡K weeªZ n‡Z †`Lv hvq| KvVMov KgjvKv‡š—i †Pv‡L Mi“i †Luvqvo, wjwLZ njdbvgv KgjvKv‡š—i †Pv‡L Awek¦v‡mi Rb¥ w`‡q‡Q Ges KgjvKvš—‡K †Riv Ki‡Z wM‡q DwKjevey h‡_ó weeªZ n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K KgjvKvš—‡K †`‡LwQ m~²ch©‡e¶Ykxj, AvZ¥gh©v`vm¤úbœ I ¯úóev`x PwiÎ wn‡m‡e; hv wePvi e¨e¯’vi ΓwU Zz‡j a‡i‡Q| †m m‡½ DÏxc‡K †jLK GKwU bKkv RvZxq iPbv wj‡L‡Qb; hv †KŠZzK i‡mi ga¨ w`‡q mgKvjxb mgvR, ag©, mf¨Zv I ms¯‹…wZi msKU Zz‡j a‡i‡Q| mviwYwU ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi welqe¯—yi Av‡jv‡K A¼b Kiv n‡q‡Q; G w`K †_‡K DÏxcKwU ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi Abyiƒc| cÖkœ : (N) mviwYwU wePvi-e¨e¯’vi Am½wZ‡K cÖKU K‡i Zz‡j‡QÑ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ bKkv RvZxq Awfbe iPbv| GLv‡b Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq `uvov‡bv mv¶x KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`i gva¨‡g Av`vj‡Z mvRv‡bv †MvQv‡bv †h Mvjfiv Kvievi P‡j Zv A‡bKvskB †h K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZv gvÎ Zv †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ-i welqe¯—y Aej¤^‡b iwPZ DÏxcKwUI wePvi e¨e¯’vi Am½wZ‡K cÖKU K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| †iLvwP‡Îi gv‡S wZbwU wefvRb i‡q‡Q| GKwU‡Z Av`vjZÑ Av`vj‡Zi mgm¨v mv¶xi KvVMov, wjwLZ njdbvgv I weeªZKi DwKj‡K †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q| wØZxqwU‡Z †jLK Zvi bKkv RvZxq iPbv KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›` Ges G‡Z mgKvjxb mgvR, ag©, ms¯‹…wZ I mf¨Zvi msKU †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q| Z…ZxqwU‡Z ¯úóevw`Zv Ges AvZ¥gh©v`v‡eva ¯’vb †c‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki G welqe¯—wy U ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi welqe¯—y| DÏxcKwU A¼b Kiv n‡q‡Q wePvi e¨e¯’vi Am½wZ‡K Zz‡j aivi Rb¨| G cÖm‡½ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi Av‡jv‡K mviwYwU‡Z wePvi-e¨e¯’vi Am½wZÕ Zvrch©gq I h_v_© n‡q D‡V‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj) mvwn‡Z¨i GKwU we‡kl aviv n‡”Q bKkv RvZxq iPbv| Rxeb I mgv‡Ri bvbv ΓwU-wePz¨wZ I AmsMwZ‡K e¨½-we`ª“‡ci Øviv nvjKv mimZvq cvV‡Ki mvg‡b Dc¯’vcb KivB n‡”Q bKkv RvZxq iPbvi g~j| mvwnwZ¨K †hb K_v Øviv bKkv Avu‡Kb| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ GKwU RbwcÖq bKkv RvZxq iPbv|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ cÖ_g mv_©K Dcb¨vm †KvbwU? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Æcva¨vq iwPZ cÖ_g mv_©K Dcb¨v‡mi bvg n‡”Q Ô`y‡M©kbw›`bxÕ| cÖkœ : (L) KgjvKvš—‡K Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq `uvov‡Z n‡qwQj †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ kªx KgjvKvš— PµeZx© wQj GKRb Avwdg‡Lvi AcÖK…wZ¯’ e¨w³| cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvq mv¶x wn‡m‡e mv¶¨ cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ Zv‡K Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq `uvov‡Z n‡qwQj| iPbvwU cvV K‡i Avgiv eyS‡Z cwi †h, KgjvKvš— cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi cwiwPZ, GKB GjvKvq Zv‡`i emevm| †mB m~Î a‡iB cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvq KgjvKv‡š—i KvQ †_‡K Mi“ m¤ú‡K© Dchy³ Z_¨ cvIqv m¤¢e| Avi †m Kvi‡YB Mi“ Pzwii GB gvgjvq KgjvKvš—‡K mv¶¨ cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ Av`vj‡Zi KvV Movq `uvov‡Z n‡qwQj|

c„ôv-10


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq mgKvjxb wePvi e¨e¯’vi AmsMwZ¸‡jv bKkvKv‡i cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q|Ñ e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i mvwnZ¨ mgªvU L¨vZ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi Ab¨Zg RbwcÖq mvwnZ¨Kg© ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ| iPbvwU GKwU bKkv RvZxq iPbv| e¨½-we`ª“‡ci gva¨‡g Rxeb I mgv‡Ri ΓwUwePz¨wZ¸‡jv Dc¯’vc‡bi †KŠkjB n‡”Q bKkv RvZxq iPbv| Gi fvlv nj nvjKv mim| †jLK †ckvq wQ‡jb GKRb †WcywU g¨vwR‡÷ªU| ZvB wePvi e¨e¯’vi AmsMwZ¸‡jv m¤ú‡K© wZwb IqvwKenvj| d‡j ZrKvjxb wePvi e¨e¯’vi bvbv ΓwU¸‡jv Zuvi †jLvq AZ¨š— my›`ifv‡e I `¶Zvi mv‡_ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| Av‡jvP¨ iPbvq ZviB GKwU Lmov wPÎ Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB| cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvq mv¶x wn‡m‡e Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq `uvo Kiv‡bv n‡q‡Q kªx KgjvKvš— PµeZx©‡K| DwKj evey KgjvKvš—‡K Zvi bvg wR‡Ám Ki‡j KgjvKvš— Rvbvq Ôkªx KgjvKvš— PµeZx© Õ PµeZx© Dcvwa eªvþY‡`i Zv Rvbv m‡Ë¡I DwKj evey Zvi eY© wR‡Ám K‡i| GQvov KgjvKv‡š—i eqm, Kx K‡i Lvq, wbevm †Kv_vq BZ¨vw` AcÖvmw½K cÖkœ K‡i mgq bó K‡i| Mi“ Pzwii cÖm‡½ cÖkœ bv K‡i Ggb Aevš—i cÖkœ K‡i Av`vj‡Zi mgq bó Kiv nZ| DwKjevey Ggb AcÖvmw½K cª‡kœi DËi¸‡jv I KgjvKvš— Nywi‡q †cuwP‡q e¨v½vZ¥K fw½‡Z †`q| ZrKvjxb wePvi-e¨e¯’vi Ggb AmsMwZ¸‡jv ew¼gP›`ª ÔKgjvKvš— PµeZx© Õ Pwi‡Îi ga¨ w`‡q nvm¨ †KŠZzKc~Y© K_vi gva¨‡g cvV‡Ki mvg‡b Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| †jL‡Ki GB eY©bv †KŠkjwU †hb GKwU bKkvi gZ Avgv‡`i mvg‡b dz‡U D‡V‡Q| cÖkœ : (N) ÔnvjKv-PUzj fvlvi Abyl‡½ nvm¨-‡KŠZz‡Ki gva¨‡g bKkv RvZxq iPbvi m„wó nqÕ| ÑG Dw³i Av‡jv‡K ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi KgjvKvš— PµeZx©i PwiÎwU KZUzKz mdj Zv we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ GKwU RbwcÖq bKkv RvZxq iPbv| GLv‡b †jLK e¨½-we`ª“c I nvm¨-‡KŠZz‡Ki gva¨‡g ZrKvjxb wePvi e¨e¯’vi bvbvb AmsMwZ dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb| KgjvKvš— PµeZx© PwiÎ m„wó K‡i Zvi gyL w`‡q †jLK GB ΓwU-wePz¨wZi K_v¸‡jv ewj‡q‡Qb| KgjvKvš— ¯^vfvweK gvby‡li gZ bv, †m Avwdg‡Lvi| Zvi †Kvb ¯’vqx wbevm †bB| †Kvb Avq DcvR©bI †m K‡i bv ZvB fMevb Lv`¨ †RvUv‡j †Rv‡U, bB‡j †Rv‡U bv; wKš—y KgjvKvš— Pzwi K‡i bv| GB KgjvKvš—‡KB cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvq mv¶x wn‡m‡e Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq `uvov‡Z nq| KvVMovq `uvwo‡qB Zvi g‡b nq KvVMov †hb Mi“i †Luvqvo, Avi ZvB KgjvKvš— e‡j I‡Vb Ôevev Kvi †¶‡Z avb †L‡qwQ †h Avgv‡K Gi wfZi cywi‡j, ÔGi ci njdbvgv cov‡Z wM‡qI ev‡a wecwË| gyûwi Zv‡K e‡j, Ôej ci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ RvwbqvÕ ZLb KgjvKvš— Gi †Nvi we‡ivwaZv K‡i e‡j †h, †h‡nZz Ck¦i cÖZ¨‡¶i welq bq, Aš—Z †m wb‡R Ck¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ K‡ib wb ZvB ïi“‡ZB GB wg_¨v wZwb ej‡eb bv| Gici DwKj hLb Zvi bvg, eY© RvwZ Rvb‡Z Pvq ZLbI hyw³ev`x KgjvKvš— e‡jb, Ô†`wL‡Z‡Qb Avgvi Mjvq h‡ÁvcexZ bvg ewjqvwQ PµeZx©ÑBnv‡ZI †h DwKj ey‡Sb bvB †h Avwg eªvþY, Bnv Avwg Kx cÖKv‡i Rvwbe?Õ KgjvKv‡š—i G Reve Øviv DwKj‡`i Aš—tmvik~b¨Zv dz‡U D‡V‡Q| Avevi DwKj‡`i †ckvMZ `¶Zv I mZZv eyS‡Z ÔKgjvKvš—Õ Pzwi K‡i wK bvÑ G cÖ‡kœi Rev‡e KgjvKv‡š—i K_v¸‡jvB h‡_ó| KgjvKvš— e‡j †h, ÔZvnv nB‡j BwZ c~‡e©B Avcbvi kiYvMZ nB‡Z nBZ Ges Avcwb wKQz fvMI cvB‡Zb|Õ GQvov KgjvKvš— †Kvb e‡Y©i, wK RvwZ, Lvq Kx K‡i BZ¨vw` Aevš—i| AcÖvmw½K cÖ‡kœi gva¨‡g ïay mgqB bó nZ wKš—y g~j †gvKÏgv †_‡K `~‡i m‡i hvq| Gfv‡eB ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq KgjvKvš— PµeZx© †nuqvwjc~Y© wKš—y hyw³ev`x Reve Øviv ZrKvjxb wePvi e¨e¯’vi AmsMwZ¸‡jv AZ¨š— wbcybfv‡e cvV‡Ki mvg‡b Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb Avi GRb¨ wZwb gva¨g wn‡m‡e †e‡Q wb‡q‡Qb nvm¨-†KŠZzK| myZivs ejv hvq ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ GKwU bKkv RvZxq iPbv †hLv‡b e¨½ we`ª“‡ci Avov‡ji mgvR Z_v wePvi e¨e¯’vi ΓwU-wePz¨wZ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| c„ôv-11


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj) ingvb †PŠayix kn‡ii bvgKiv wPwKrmK| cÖwZw`b Zvi †P¤^v‡i AmsL¨ †ivMx Av‡mb wPwKrmv †mev wb‡Z| Lye Aí w`‡bB ingvb †PŠayix abvX¨ wPwKrmK wn‡m‡eI cwiwPwZ jvf K‡ib| GLb wPwKrmvi †P‡q A_© †ivRMviB Zvi g~j j¶ n‡q D‡V‡Q| ZvB †ivMx‡`i wZwb fv‡jv K‡i †`‡Lb bv, †`L‡jI wdÕi cwigvY †`L‡Z fy‡jb bv| KviY Zvi g~j¨evb mgq GLb wgwb‡U wgwb‡U UvKv cÖme K‡i|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ÔkvgjvÕ k‡ãi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : ÔkvgjvÕ k‡ãi A_© DwK‡ji †cvkvK wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ kv‡ji cvMwo| cÖkœ : (L) KgjvKvš—‡K njd cov‡Z wM‡q Kx mgm¨v n‡qwQj?Ñ Zv †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : kªx KgjvKvš— PµeZx© cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvq mv¶¨ w`‡Z G‡m Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq `uvovq| mv¶¨ MÖn‡Yi c~‡e© gyûwi KgjvKv‡š—i Kv‡Q njd cov‡Z hvq| gyûwi KgjvKvš—‡K Ôci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ †R‡bÕ njd ej‡Z ej‡j KgjvKvš— Zv‡Z Am¤§wZ Rvbvq| †m Rvbvq Ck¦i cÖZ¨‡¶i welq bq, Abyf‡ei welq| ZvB Av`vj‡Zi gZ cweÎ ¯’v‡b ïi“‡ZB wg_¨v w`‡q ïi“ Ki‡Z A¯^xK…wZ Rvbvq| d‡j kc_ cov wb‡q GKUv †Mvj‡hvM ïi“ n‡q hvq| cÖkœ : (M) ingvb †PŠayixi m‡½ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi DwKjeveyi †h PvwiwÎK mv`„k¨ j¶ Kiv hvq Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡Ki ingvb †PŠayix †ckvq wPwKrmK| wPwKrmv †ckvq kn‡i Zvi †ek bvg WvK n‡q hvq| bv‡gi m‡½ m‡½ nv‡Z A‡bK A_© mgvMgI N‡U| A‡_©i †bkvq ingvb †PŠayix Avi Av‡Mi gZ †ivMx‡`i cÖwZ g‡bv‡hvMx †bB| Kg mg‡q hZ †ewk †ivMx †`Lv hv‡e ZZB A_© cÖvßx n‡e GUvB †hb GLb Zvi g~jgš¿| ingvb †PŠayix †hb ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi DwKjeveyiB cÖwZ”Qwe| DwKj evey A‡_©i †jv‡f mv¶x‡K w`‡q mZ¨ wg_¨v ewj‡q gvgjv wRZ‡Z Pvq| wKš—y DwKj eveyi Aevš—i †Riv¸‡jvi hLb eyw×`xß DËi w`‡q †`q KgjvKvš— ZLb DwKjevey weeªZ nq| wZwb wei³ n‡q Rvbvb †h Zvi cÖwZwU mgq AZ¨š— g~j¨evb| wKš—y `wi`ª KgjvKv‡š—i Rb¨ Zv bó n‡”Q| g~jZ DwKj‡`i Kv‡Q aYvX¨ g‡°j AvmvB †hb ci‡gk¦i‡K †`L‡Z cvIqv| wPwKrmK ingvb †PŠayix Avi KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi DwKj evey‡K GKB Quv‡Pi ejv hvq KviY Df‡qB A_©‡jvfx| A‡_©i cÖwZ †gv‡ni Rb¨ Zviv Df‡q †mevi w`K †_‡K m‡i G‡m‡Q| A‡_©i cÖwZ †jvf, bxwZnxbZv, AmZZvi gZ ΓwU `ywU Pwi‡Îi gv‡SB Lyu‡R cvIqv hvq| cÖkœ : (N) ÔZvi g~j¨evb mgq hv wgwb‡U wgwb‡U UvKv cÖme K‡iÕÑ Dw³wU Øviv mvgvwRK ΓwUi w`KwU we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ GKwU bKkv RvZxq ig¨ iPbv| G iPbvq †jLK mvgvwRK bvbv Am½wZ‡K Zxh©K Dw³i ga¨ w`‡q e¨³ K‡i‡Qb| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq kªx KgjvKvš— PµeZx© cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvq mv¶¨ w`‡Z Av‡m| mv¶¨ w`‡Z G‡m cÖ_‡gB Zv‡K weo¤^bvq co‡Z nq| gyûwi Zv‡K hLb njd cov‡Z wM‡q e‡j Ôej, ci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ †R‡bÕÑ ZLb KgjvKvš— GwU co‡Z A¯^xK…wZ Rvbvq| Zvi g‡Z, ci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ Kiv hvq bv| Zvu‡K Abyfe Kiv hvq| wKš—y Av`vj‡Zi gZ cweÎ ¯’v‡b gvgjvi b¨vq wePvi Ki‡Z wM‡q hw` cÖ_‡gB wg_¨vi Avkªq †bqv nq Zv mwZ¨B nvm¨Ki| GQvov DwKjevey Aevš—i cÖkœ K‡i gvgjv‡K `xN©vwqZ K‡ib| DwKjevey‡`i g‡°j hZ _vK‡e ZZB UvKv Avm‡e| UvKvi †bkvq c‡o mgv‡Ri mf¨MY †mevi eªZ †_‡K wePz¨Z n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki ingvb †PŠayixI hLb †jv‡Ki Kv‡Q cwiwPZ Wv³vi n‡q hvb ZLb ïay bvg e¨envi K‡i A_© DcvR©b KivB Zvi g~j j¶¨ n‡q `uvovq| †ivMx‡`i mgq †`Iqv, Zv‡`i K_v g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q †kvbvi †Kvb cÖ‡qvRb Av‡Q e‡j wZwb g‡b K‡ib bv| eis hZ †ewk †ivMx wZwb †`L‡Z cvi‡eb ZZB jvf| KviY cÖwZwU wgwbU †hb ZLb UvKv cÖme c„ôv-12


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

K‡i| Gi d‡j mgvR, mgv‡Ri gvbyl ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡”Q| DwK‡ji Kv‡Q G‡m b¨vq wePvi cvevi e`‡j Avw_©K ¶wZi m¤§yLxb n‡”Q Avevi wPwKrm‡Ki Kv‡Q G‡m Avw_©K I kvixwiK ¶wZi m¤§yLxb n‡”Q| mgv‡Ri GB bxwZnxb iƒc, AmZZv Z_v mvgvwRK ΓwU¸‡jvB †jLK dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb Zvi †jLbx kw³ Øviv| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi g‡a¨ w`‡q ïay wePvi e¨e¯’vi Am½wZ Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q, Ggb A‡bK Am½wZ Avgv‡`i mgv‡R Qwo‡q Av‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj) mvwn‡Z¨i GKwU D¾¡jZg kvLv n‡”Q ig¨iPbv| ig¨ iPbv ej‡Z †evSv‡bv nq nvm¨ imvZ¥K fw½‡Z †Kvb welq‡K cvV‡Ki mvg‡b Dcw¯’Z Kiv| Z‡e nvm¨im Dc¯’vcb KivB ig¨iPbvi g~j D‡Ïk¨ bq| eis i½ e¨‡½i gva¨‡g mgKvjxb mgvR, wkí, mvwnZ¨ cÖf„wZ wel‡qi bvbv Am½wZ‡KÑ dzwU‡q †Zvjv nq| ig¨ iPbvi K_v evZ©vq _v‡K eyw×i PgK| ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i GKwU Ab¨Zg bKkv RvZxq ig¨ iPbv| evM&‰e`»c~Y© †k−lvZ¥K Dw³i ga¨ w`‡q wePvi e¨e¯’vi Am½wZ‡K cÖKvk Kiv n‡q‡Q G ig¨iPbvq|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ig¨ iPbv cÖ_g †Kvb cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ig¨iPbvwU me©cÖ_g Ôe½`k©bÕ cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq| cÖkœ : (L)

ÔZvunvi g~j¨evb mgq, hvnv wgwb‡U wgwb‡U UvKv cÖme K‡i, Zvnv GB `wi`ª mv¶x bó Kwi‡Z‡QÕDw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvq KgjvKvš— PµeZx© mv¶x| mv¶¨ cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ KvVMovq `uvwo‡q wZwb Abyaveb Ki‡jb †h, Av`vj‡Z g~j wel‡qi †P‡q K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZvB †ewk| Av`vj‡Zi DwKjeveyivI gvgjv †RZvi Rb¨ mv¶x‡K w`‡q mZ¨-wg_¨v wgwj‡q mv¶¨ cÖ`vb Kivq| DwKjiv mZ¨ wg_¨vi bvbv Dcv‡qB A_© DcvR©b K‡i wKš—y Av`vj‡Zi dwiqv`xi DwK‡ji cÖ‡kœ KgjvKvš— hLb eyw×`xß Dˇii ga¨ w`‡q DwKj‡K †nb¯—v KiwQj Zv‡Z DwKj weeªZ nw”Qj Ges eyS‡Z cviwQj `wi`ª mv¶x ïay DwK‡ji mgq bóB KiwQj bv m‡½ Avw_©Kfv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯—I KiwQj| `wi`ª KgjvKv‡š—i KvQ †_‡K cÖvwßi e`‡j ¶wZmvabB nw”Qj e‡j Av‡jvP¨ Dw³wU Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ : M) ig¨iPbvi ˆewkó¨mg~n e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : mvwn‡Z¨i Ab¨vb¨ kvLvi gZ ig¨iPbvI GKwU D¾¡jZg kvLv| nvjKv mim K_vevZ©vi gva¨‡g hLb mgvR, mf¨Zv, wkí, mvwnZ¨ cÖf„wZ wel‡qi bvbv ΓwU wePz¨wZ I mxgve×Zvi Zxeª mgv‡jvPbv Kiv ZLb Zv‡K ig¨ iPbv ejv nq| * ig¨ iPbvq Kvwnbxi ga¨ w`‡q †Kvb wel‡qi Dc¯’vcb Kiv nq| mvaviYZ mgv‡Ri ΓwU wePz¨wZ¸‡jvB †m Kvwnbxi g‡a¨ D‡V Av‡m Z‡e KvwnbxwU nq nvm¨ imvZ¥K| * ig¨ iPbvi msjvc, Dw³ ev K_vevZ©v¸‡jv nvjKv Pv‡ji iwmKZvc~Y© n‡jI Zv nq evM&‰e`» ev Wit mg„×| A_©vr nvjKv K_vi g‡a¨ _v‡K eyw×i PgK Ges †k−lvZ¥K| * †Kvb `vjvb †KvVv wbg©v‡Yi c~‡e© †hgb bKkv ev Lmov ˆZwi Kiv nq †Zgwb Mí-Dcb¨v‡mI KL‡bv KL‡bv Mfxi Zvrch©gq e³e¨ cÖKvk bv K‡i †Kvb wKQzi Lmov GKwU iƒc cÖKvk KivB n‡”Q mvwn‡Z¨i bKkv, KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`I GKwU bKkvRvZxq iPbv, ig¨ iPbvi GKwU Ask n‡”Q bKkv| * ig¨ iPbvq Mfxi Rxeb `k©b †`Lv bv †M‡jI mgvR-msmv‡ii Am½wZ¸‡jv‡K dzwU‡q †Zvjv nq| * ig¨ iPbv nvm¨ imvZ¥K K_vevZ©vi gva¨‡g ¯^í †iLvq Aw¼Z Kvwnbxi ga¨ w`‡q mgv‡Ri bvbv AmsMwZi ewntcÖKvk NUvq| c„ôv-13


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : N)

ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i GKwU Ab¨Zg bKkv RvZxq ig¨ iPbvÕÑ DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i AvaywbK Dcb¨v‡mi RbK, †Zgwb evsjv ig¨ iPwqZv wn‡m‡eI wZwb AMÖcw_K| wZwb ÔKgjvKv‡š—i `ßiÕ MÖ‡š’i iPbv¸‡jvi gva¨‡g evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ GK nvm¨ imvZ¥K i½ e¨½g~jK iPbvi cÖPjb K‡ib| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i `ßiÕ MÖ‡š’i me©‡kl iPbvi bvg n‡”Q ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ|cieZx©‡Z GwU ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ bv‡g cÖKvwkZ nq| evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i GKwU Ab¨Zg bKkv RvZxq iPbv GwU| evwoNi, `vjvb †KvVv wbg©v‡Yi c~‡e© Zvi GKwU Lmov bKkv AvuKv nq| mvwn‡Z¨I KL‡bv KL‡bv Mí Dcb¨v‡m †Kvb Zvrch©gq A_© cÖKvk bv K‡i hLb GKwU Lmov A¼b Kiv nq ZLb Zv nq bKkv RvZxq iPbv| KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›` evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i bKkv RvZxq iPbv| GLv‡b ¯^í wKQz †iLvq †jLK e³e¨ cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| KgjvKvš— PµeZx© PwiÎ m„wó K‡i Zvi gyL w`‡q †jLK g~j K_v¸‡jv cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| DwK‡ji †Riv Avi KgjvKv‡š—i Zxh©K K_vi Dˇii gva¨‡g GKwU wPÎagx© eY©bv dz‡U D‡V‡Q| †h wP‡Îi cUf~wg wePvi e¨e¯’vi ΓwUc~Y© w`K| ig¨ iPbvi Ab¨Zg ˆewkó¨ n‡”Q mim, nvjKv K_vi ga¨ w`‡q mgv‡Ri bvbv Am½wZ dzwU‡q †Zvjv| Z‡e GB mim K_vevZ©vi g‡a¨ _v‡K †k−lvZ¥K fw½ Ges eyw×i PgK| †hgb KgjvKv‡š—i msjv‡ci g‡a¨ Gi my®úóZv j¶Yxq| KgjvKvš—‡K DwKjevey Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvq mv¶¨ MÖn‡Y bvbv Aevš—i cÖkœ K‡i| KgjvKvš—I †mmme cÖ‡kœi euvKv DËi †`q| †hgbDwKj : ewj, evwo †Kv_vq? Kgjv : evwo `~‡i _vK| Avgvi GKUv KzVvwiI bvB| DwKj : Z‡e _vK †Kv_v? Kgjv : †hLv‡b †mLv‡b ................................................ ................................................. DwKj : ewj LvI Kx Kwiqv Kgjv : fv‡Zi m‡½ Wvj gvwLqv, `w¶Y n‡¯— MÖvm Zzwjqv, gy‡L cywiqv MjvatKiY Kwi| Gfv‡e nvm¨ imvZ¥K eY©bvi ga¨ w`‡q mgv‡Ri wePvi e¨e¯’vi ΓwU wePz¨wZ¸‡jv‡K †jLK dywU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb| Av`vj‡Z gvgjvi Rb¨ cÖvmw½K cÖkœ bv K‡i AcÖvmw½K cÖ‡kœvËi c‡e©i Dcw¯’wZ †h GKwU K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZviB Rb¥ †`q †mB w`KwU ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq dz‡U D‡V‡Q| Wit ev evM‰e`»c~Y© Gme Dw³ m„wó‡Z ew¼gP›`ªI h‡_ó eyw×i cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb| wb‡R †ckvq †WcywU g¨vwR‡÷ªU nIqvi myev‡` Av`vjZ Z_v wePvi e¨e¯’vi duvK †dvKi c~Y© ΓwU¸‡jv wZwb KgjvKv‡š—i Rev‡bi ga¨ w`‡q †Pv‡L Av½yj w`‡q †`wL‡q‡Qb| AvcvZ `„wó‡Z †Kvb Mfxi Rxeb `k©b cÖKvk bv †c‡jI mgvR, mf¨Zv, wkí-mvwnZ¨ cÖf„wZ wel‡qi Am½wZ ig¨iPbvq cÖKvk cvq| KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`‡ZI †Zgwb mgv‡Ri ΓwUc~Y© w`K AZ¨š— wbcybZvi m‡½ cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| ZvB ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i Ab¨Zg ig¨iPbv wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…Z|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI:( †gv: kvgQzj Avjg) msev`Kg©x kvnwiqvi †nv‡mb me mgq cywjk, _vbv, AvBb-Av`vjZ‡K fq cvb Ges Gwo‡q P‡jb| Zuv‡K I GKw`b Av`vj‡Z †h‡ZB n‡e Zv wZwb fve‡ZI cv‡ib wb| wKQyw`b Av‡M ZviB cv‡ki d¬¨v‡U Zuvi mvg‡bB mš¿vmxiv wgëb mv‡n‡ei evmvq AvµgY K‡i, Zv‡`i‡K gviai K‡i I A‡bK UvKvi m¤ú` jyU K‡i wb‡q hvq| wgëb mv‡ne Av`vj‡Z gvgjv K‡ib Ges mv¶x wn‡m‡e kvnwiqvi mv‡n‡ei bvg †`b| G gvgjvi mv¶x w`‡Z kvnwiqvi Av`vj‡Z hvb| Av`vj‡Zi KvR Kg© †`‡L Zvi Kv‡Q g‡b n‡q‡QÒGLv‡b AvB‡bi bv‡g P‡j Ab¨vq I AwePv‡ii †emvwZ|Ó c„ôv-14


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (K) ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvwU †Kvb MÖš’ †_‡K msKwjZ n‡q‡Q? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq Gi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvwU ÔKgjvKv‡š—i `ßiÕ MÖ‡š’i me‡kl iPbv| cÖk:œ (L) KgjvKvš— Av`vj‡Z †M‡jb †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i BwZnv‡m mvwnZ¨mgªvU Dcvwa‡Z L¨vZ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq Gi †kªô ig¨ e¨½vZ¥K cÖeÜ MÖš’ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i `ßiÕ Gi me©‡kl iPbv ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ| G iPbvi cÖavb PwiÎ kªx KgjvKvš— PµeZx© GKRb †bkvMÖ¯’, feNy‡i, ˆeivMx I w`e¨Ávbm¤úbœ e¨w³| KgjvKv‡š—i cwiwPZ cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x wn‡m‡eB KgjvKvš— Av`vj‡Z †M‡jb| KviY ew¼g G PwiÎwU‡K Av`vj‡Z wb‡q Zvi gyL w`‡qB e„wUk cÖewZ©Z wePvi e¨e¯’vi AmvoZv Zz‡j ai‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki kvnwiqvi †nv‡m‡bi fvebvi mv‡_ KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›` iPbvi g~j e³e¨ KZUv mv`„k¨c~Y©?- Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Avgv‡`i Av‡jvP¨ DÏxc‡Ki kvnwiqvi mv‡ne GKRb wkw¶Z, gvwR©Zi“wPi f`ª‡jvK| wbS©ÄvU kv‡n` mv‡ne me mgq _vbv, cywjk ev AvBb Av`vj‡Z fq cvb| cv‡ki d¬¨v‡Ui WvKvwZi gvgjvi m~‡Î Zv‡K I GKw`b mv¶x wn‡m‡e Av`vj‡Z †h‡Z nq| wZwb Av`vj‡Z wM‡q †`L‡jb GLv‡b mvRv‡bv †MvQv‡bv, dig¨vwjwU, DwKj, g~ûwi, †gv³vi‡`i KvimvwR‡Z I wbq‡gi gvic¨v‡P cÖK…Z mZ¨wUB Pvcv c‡o hvq| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`, iPbv‡Z I Avgiv †`wL KgjvKvš— hLb Av`vj‡Z †M‡jb Ges mv¶x wn‡m‡e KvVMovq `uvov‡jb GLb G‡Ki ci GK dig¨vwjwU I wbq‡gi Mu¨vovK‡j c‡ob KgjvKvš—| †m Av`vj‡Z G‡m‡Q cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x w`‡Z| †m welqwUB D‡cw¶Z nq| ZvB KgjvKv‡š—i fvebv Av`vj‡Z mvRv‡bv †MvQv‡bv Mvjfiv Kvievi P‡j| Avi DÏxc‡Ki ivnvZ mv‡n‡ei fvebvI GKB iKg| Gw`K †ePbvq ivnvZ mv‡n‡ei fvebvi mv‡_ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi g~j e³e¨ A‡bKvs‡kB mv`„k¨c~Y©| cÖkœ: (N) GLv‡b AvB‡bi bv‡g P‡j Ab¨vq I AwePv‡ii †emvwZ -ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wUi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Dwbk kZ‡Ki ev½vwji gxgve× beRvMi‡Yi gvbmcyÎ, evsjv Db¨v‡mi RbK, mvwnZ¨mgªvU DcvwaL¨vZ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ †kªô nvm¨imvZœK, ig¨e¨½g~jK cÖeÜ MÖš’ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i `ßiÕ| G MÖ‡š’i wewfbœ cÖe‡Üi gva¨‡g cÖvewÜK Dwbk kZ‡Ki e„wUk kvmbvg‡ji evsjvi Av_©- mvgvwRK, ivR‰bwZK Rxe‡bi wewfbœ Am½wZ‡KB Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i `ßiÕ MÖ‡š’i me©‡kl iPbv ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi wfZi w`‡q e„wUk cÖewZ©Z Av`vj‡Zi KvRK‡g©i wewfbœ Am½wZ‡KB wZwb Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ÔiPbvq Avgiv †`wL feNy‡i, †bkvMÖ¯— KgjvKvš— cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x wn‡m‡e Av`vj‡Z †M‡jb Ges †ek wKQz cwiw¯’wZi gy‡LvgywL n‡q cÖwZev` K‡ib| hvi wfZi w`‡q Av`vj‡Zi KvRK‡g©i Am½wZi wPÎ Avgv‡`i †Pv‡L aiv c‡o| KgjvKvš— Av`vj‡Z wM‡q †`‡Lb Mi“i †Luvqv‡oi gZ GKwU KvVMov †hLv‡b Avmvgx ev mv¶x, dwiqvw`‡K ivLv nq| nvwKg e‡mb gvPv‡bi Dci| ÒAvwg ci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ †R‡b cÖwZÁv Kwi‡ZwQÓ e‡j njd cov‡bv wKsev DwK‡ji wRÁvmvev` meB ïay mvRv‡bv dig¨vwjwU Qvov Avi wKQzB bq| DwKj KgjvKvš—‡K Zvi RvZ, esk, eY©, BZ¨vw` wb‡q G‡Ki ci GK cÖkœ K‡i weeªZ K‡i| wKš‘ †h gvgjvi mv¶x †`qvi Rb¨ †m Av`vj‡Z G‡m‡Q †m m¤ú‡K© Zv‡K wKQzB wRÁvmv Kiv n‡jvbv| Zv‡Z wePviKvh© `xN©m~wÎZv jvf K‡i Ges mgq‡¶c‡bi d‡j g~j wePviwU e¨vnZ nq| cÖK…Z dvwiqvw` b¨vqwePvi †_‡KB ewÂZ nq| ZvB ejv †h‡Z cv‡i Av`vj‡Zi mvRv‡bv †MvQv‡bv Mvjfiv Kviev‡ii bv‡g P‡j †e-AvB‡bi ev wePv‡ii bv‡g cÖnmb| G welqwUB DÏxc‡KI ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq dz‡U D‡V‡Q| c„ôv-15


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

” wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: ( †gv: kvgQzj Avjg) AvwRR mv‡n‡ei GKgvÎ †Q‡j Avwei| †QvU‡ejv †_‡KB †m Avi `kUv †Q‡ji †_‡K m¤ú~Y© Avjv`v| Zvi K_vevZ©vq Zv‡K KL‡bv KL‡bv cvMj e‡jB †eva nq| KviY feNy‡i, D`vmxbZv Avwe‡ii PvwiwÎK ˆewkó¨| wKš‘ cvMjvgxi Q‡jI Avwei †hme K_v e‡j Zv A‡bKUvB i“¶ ev¯—eZv wn‡m‡eB Avgv‡`i mgv‡R M„nxZ nq| Avwei Zvi cÖwZ‡ekxi GKwU Pzwi gvgjvi mv¶x w`‡Z Av`vj‡Z hvb, Av`vj‡Z wM‡q †m †`‡L kvgjv, gqjv Kvco civ GK e¨w³ hv‡K DwKj g‡b n‡jv| †m DwKj Zv‡K †h me †Riv Kiv ïi“ K‡i‡Q Zv‡Z Zvi g‡b n‡jv- Gfv‡e wRÁvmvev` Kiv n‡j g~j wePviKvh©B e¨vnZ n‡e| ZvB †m nvwKg‡K e‡j- ÒAvgvi, RvZ, esk e¨w³cwiPq w`‡q Avcbv‡`i Kx n‡e? nvwKg AevK n‡q Zvi w`‡K ZvwK‡q _v‡Kb| cÖkœ: (K) evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq Kx Dcvwa‡Z f~wlZ? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK evsjvmvwn‡Z¨ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨q ÔmvwnZ¨ mgªvUÕ Dcvwa‡Z f~wlZ| cÖkœ: (L) Òevev Kvi †¶‡Zi avb †L‡qwQ †h Avgv‡K Gi wfZi cywi‡j?Ó- Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: DwbkkZ‡Ki evsjvi beRvMi‡Yi gvbmcyÎ we¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨q iwPZ ig¨ e¨v½vZ¥K iPbv ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq Av`vj‡Zi KvR K‡g©i Am½wZ‡K Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| e„wUk cÖewZ©Z Avgv‡`i wePvi e¨e¯’vi ΓwU‡K Dc¯’vc‡bi D‡`‡k¨B ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ cÖeÜwU iwPZ| G cÖe‡Ü KgjvKvš— cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x w`‡Z Av`vj‡Z hvq| Av`vj‡Z Zv‡K Mi“i †Luvqv‡oi g‡Zv GKwU Kv‡Vi †NivI †`qv K‡¶ Ave× Kiv nq, hvi bvg KvVMov| Mi“ †hgb Kv‡iv †¶‡Zi avb †L‡j kvw¯— wn‡m‡e †Luvqv‡o †`qv nq †Zgwb Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq hLb Avmvwg, dwiqvw`, wKsev mv¶x‡K †`Lv‡bv nq Zv †`L‡Z A‡bKUv Mi“i †Luvqv‡oi g‡ZvB g‡b nq| Dwj−wLZ Dw³ Øviv G mZ¨wUB Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (M) ÔDc‡ii DÏxcKwU ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi mv‡_ Kx fv‡e mv`„k¨c~Y©|- e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ ÔmvwnZ¨ mgªvUÕ Dcvwa‡Z f~wlZ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq e¨w³Rxe‡b I Kg©Rxe‡b Bs‡iR miKv‡ii GKRb †WcywU g¨vwR‡÷ªU wQ‡jb| d‡j Zuvi c‡¶ mivmwi miKvix Kg©Kv‡Êi mgv‡jvPbv Kiv m¤¢e wQj bv| ZvB wZwb ÔKgjvKv‡š—i `ßiÕ bvgK MÖ‡š’i wewfbœ cÖe‡Üi gva¨‡g Bs‡iR Avg‡j evsjvi wewfbœ Av_© mvgvwRK I ivR‰bwZK Kg©Kv‡Êi mgv‡jvRbv K‡i‡Qb| Avgv‡`i Av‡jvP¨ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi wfZ‡i Dwbk kZ‡Ki wePvie¨e¯’v Z_v Av`vj‡Zi KvRK‡g©i Am½wZi wPÎ Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡Ki feNy‡i, AvavcvMj Avwei GKwU gvgjvi mv¶x wn‡m‡e Av`vj‡Z hvq Ges DwKj Zv‡K gvgjv wel‡q †Kvb cÖkœ bv K‡i Zvi e¨w³MZ I cvwievwiK cÖkœ evi evi Ki‡j Zvi wei“‡×I AevK n‡q nvwKg‡K Rvbvb| †Zgwb KgjvK‡š—i Revbew›`‡Z I KgjvKvš— cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x wn‡m‡e Av`vj‡Z †M‡j DwKj Zv‡K evi evi Zvi RvZ ev esk wcZ… cwiPq m¤ú‡K© wRÁvmv Ki‡j I g~j gvgjv m¤ú‡K© †Kvb cÖkœB K‡i bv| G w`‡Ki `„wófw½ wePv‡i ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ I Av‡jvP¨ DÏxcK GKB mgvš—iv‡j e¨wÄZ n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) eªvþY, Kvq¯’, ˆKeZ, wn›`yi bvbv cÖKvi RvwZ Av‡Q Rvb- ZvZzwg †Kvb RvwZi wfZiÓ?- Dw³i Zvrch© DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Avgv‡`i Av‡jvP¨ DÏxc‡Ki Avwei GKwU Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x wn‡m‡e Av`‡j‡Z hvb| wZwb AevK n‡q j¶ K‡ib KvVMovq `uvo Kwi‡q Zv‡K DwKj G‡Ki ci GK cÖkœ K‡iB hv‡”Qb| Zvi bvg, wcZv, gvZv, RvZ, esk, †ckv BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© G‡Ki ciGK cÖkœ K‡i Zv‡K weeªZ K‡i hv‡”Q| wZwb G ch©v‡q wei³ n‡q nvwK‡gi cÖwZ Av½yj †Zv‡jb| wZwb e‡jb gnvgvb¨ Av`vjZ, Avgvi RvZ, cwiPq, esk cwiPq w`‡q Avcbviv Kx Ki‡eb? KviY mv¶x wn‡m‡e Avwe‡ii Av`vj‡Z AvMgb gvgjvi b¨vqwePvi cÖvwßi mv‡_ mswk−ó| A_P Zv‡K gvgjv wKsev †h Pzwii wei“‡× mv¶x w`‡Z wZwb Av`vj‡Z G‡m‡Qb Zuv‡K †m wel‡q GKwU K_vI wRÁvmv bv K‡i DwKj G‡Ki ci GK Zvi RvZ, esk I e¨w³MZ cwiPq wb‡qB c„ôv-16


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

mgq †¶cb Ki‡Qb| GKB `„k¨ cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x w`‡Z Avmv ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Rbew›`Õ iPbvq KgjvKv‡š—i †¶‡ÎI N‡U‡Q| KgjvKvš— DwK‡ji cÖ‡kœi Dˇi D‡ëvcvëv DËi w`‡q cÖwZev` K‡i‡Q| KviY †m Rv‡b G cÖkœ¸‡jvi mv‡_ gvgjvi †Kvb m¤úK©B †bB| ZvB DwKj hLb Zv‡K e‡j- ÒZzwg Kx RvwZÓ| ZLb KgjvKvš— e‡j- Avwg wK GKUv RvwZ? DwKj- Zzwg †Kvb RvZxq K. Kv- wn›`y RvZxq| DwKj- †Kvb eY©? K. Kv- †NviZi K…òeY©| Gfv‡eB Av`vj‡Zi wRÁvmvev‡`i cÖwZev` Rvbvq KgjvKvš—|

” wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: ( †gv: kvgQzj Avjg) wek¦we`¨vjq coyqv QvÎ Zzlvi m½‡`v‡l GLb GKRb bvgKiv †bkv‡Lvi e¨w³| Zzlvi GK mg‡qi bvg Kiv †gavex QÎ wQj| mg‡qi e¨eav‡b Zzlvi GLb gvZvj I feNy‡i| g`, MuvRv, †n‡ivBb, Avwdg, Pvim, meB †m Lvq| †bkv K‡i Avi Ny‡i †eovq| GgbB †bkvi †Nv‡i GKw`b †m Av`vjZcvovq Xy‡K c‡o| †Kv‡Ui GKwU GRjv‡mi wcQ‡b e‡m †`L‡Z jvM‡jv wePvi KvR| †`L‡Z †`L‡Z GK mgq Zvi Dcjwä n‡jv- KvVMov, nvwKg, DwKj, gyûwi, †gv³vi, Pvcivwk, †Pqvi-†Uwej Gme mvRv‡bv, †MvQv‡bv Mvjfiv Kvievi gvÎ| Avm‡j GLv‡b wePv‡ii bv‡g P‡j cÖnmb| wePv‡ii evYx Kuv‡` wbi‡e, wbf„‡Z| cÖkœ: (K) Ôdwiqvw`Õ kãwUi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ôdwiqvw`Õ kãwUi A_© ev`x ev wePvicÖv_x©| cÖkœ: (L) KgjvKv‡š—i njd cov‡Z wM‡q †h mgm¨vi m„wó n‡qwQj Ges Zv †hfv‡e wg‡UwQj Zv ¸wQ‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x KgjvKvš— PµeZx© Av`‡j‡Z hvb| Zv‡K KvVMovq †XvKv‡bvi ci Av`vj‡Zi mvaviY wbqgvbyhvqx njd ev kc_ cov‡bv n‡q _v‡K| †m wbq‡gi Kvi‡YB gyûwi KgjvKvš—‡K njd cov‡Z †M‡j mgm¨vi m„wó nq| KviY ZrKvjxb Av`vj‡Z njd cov‡bv n‡Zv GB e‡j- ÒAvwg ci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ Rvwbqv cÖwZÁv Kwi‡ZwQ †h hvnv ewje mZ¨ ewje|Ó KgjvKvš— cÖwZev` K‡i KviY Zvi g‡Z ci‡gk¦i cÖZ¨‡¶i welq, ci‡gk¦i Abyfe I Abyfw~ Zi welq| Ae‡kl nvwKg gyûwi‡K mvaviY kc_ w`‡Z ej‡j wZwb KgjvKvš—‡K †m kc_ evK¨ c‡o †kvbv‡jB KgjvKvš— njd cvV K‡ib| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki Zzlv‡ii mv‡_ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`i KgjvKv‡š—i Pwi‡Îi †Kvbw`‡Ki mv‡_ mv`„k¨c~Y©?Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki Zzlvi wek¦we`¨vj‡q coyqv †gavex QvÎ| m½‡`v‡lB Zzlvi †bkvi RM‡Zi evwm›`v| †bkv Ki‡jI Zvi wfZ‡ii b¨vq Ab¨v‡qi †evaUv G‡Kev‡i webó n‡q hvq wb| ZvB †m GKw`b †bkvi †Nv‡iB Av`vj‡Z Xy‡K c‡o| GRjv‡mi wcQ‡b e‡m †m Av`vj‡Zi wePviKvR †`L‡Z _v‡K Ges Dcjwä K‡i Av`vj‡Zi mvRv‡bv †MvQv‡bv dig¨vwjwUi wfZ‡i wePv‡ii Avmj Kg©B Aš—iv‡j c‡o _v‡K| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq KgjvKvš— cÖmb¥ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“Pywi gvgjvi mv¶x wnmv‡e Av`vj‡Z G‡m‡Q| Av`vj‡Z G‡m †m G‡Ki ci GK ˆel‡g¨i gy‡LvgywL n‡Z _v‡K Ges †mI Dcjwä K‡i Av`vj‡Zi mvRv‡bv †MvQv‡bv Mvjfiv Kviev‡i Avov‡j cÖK…Z mZ¨ Pvcv c‡o hvq| Gw`K we‡ePbvq KgjvKvš— I Zzlvi GKB cv‡q cw_K| cÖk:œ (M) ÒAvm‡j GLv‡b wePv‡ii bv‡g P‡j cÖnmb| wePv‡ii evYx Kuv‡` bxi‡e wbf„‡Z-Ó ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wUi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ mvwn‡Z¨mgªvU Dcvwa‡Z f~wlZ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨q iwPZ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ GKwU nvm¨imvZœK, ig¨ e¨½g~jK bKkv RvZxq iPbv| G iPbvq cÖvewÜK g~jZ Dwbk kZ‡Ki Bs‡iR kvmbvg‡ji Av`vj‡Zi KvR K‡g©i ΓwU wePz¨wZ‡KB Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| c„ôv-17


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

e„wUk cÖewZ©Z Av`vjZ ev wePvie¨e¯’vq bvbv Am½wZ cwijw¶Z nq| we‡kl K‡i Av`vj‡Zi mvRv‡bv †MvQv‡bv wbqg I ixwZi †eovRv‡j e›`x cÖK…Z wePvie¨e¯’v| KviY nvwKg, DwKj, gyûwi, †gv³vi, Pvcivwk, GRjvm DwKj, ev`x, weev`x BZ¨vw` mvRv‡bv †MvQv‡bv wbq‡gi Avov‡j cÖK…Z b¨vqwePvi nq| KviY DwKjiv Avmvwg ev dwiqvw`‡K G mg¯— wRÁvmvev` K‡ib Zv‡Z †`Lv hvq cÖK…Z gvgjv ev wePv‡ii welqwUB _v‡K Abycw¯’Z| Zviv wRÁvmvev‡` Avmvwg mv¶x ev dwiqvw`i e¨w³MZ cvwievwiK, esk I eY© Ges †ckvMZ cÖkœB †ewk Kiv nq| G wRÁvmvev‡`i Kvi‡Y wePvi cÖwµqv `xN©m~wÎZv jvf K‡i| cÖK…Z gvgjv m¤úwK©Z †Kvb cÖkœB Zv‡`i wRÁvmvev‡` _v‡K bv| d‡j `xN©m~wÎZvi Kvi‡YB g~j wePvi cÖwµqv wfbœ Lv‡Z cÖevwnZ nq| Zv‡Z ewÂZ n‡jv wePvi cÖv_x© Amnvq I wbixn gvbyliv| A_P gvbyl b¨vqwePv‡ii cÖZ¨vkvq †kl fimv¯’j wn‡m‡eB Av`vj‡Z hvq| ZvB Av`vjv‡Zi KvRK‡g©i Gme Am½wZ `~i K‡i wePvie¨e¯’v‡K AviI †ewk MYgyLx I gvby‡li †`vi‡Mvovq wb‡q †h‡Z n‡e|

” wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: ( †gv: kvgQzj Avjg) Avgv‡`i †`‡ki wePvie¨e¯’v gvÜvZvi Avg‡ji| G e¨e¯’v mbvZb I cÖvPxb| †mB e„wUkiv †h AvBb, Av`vjZ cÖwZôv K‡i †M‡Q Zv GL‡bv cÖPwjZ| mg‡qi mv‡_ Zvj wgwj‡q mewKQzB cwiewZ©Z n‡jI Avgv‡`i wePvie¨e¯’vi †Kvb cwieZ©bB nq wb| †m Av‡Mi g‡ZvB nvwKg, DwKj, gyûwi, †gv³vi, Pvcivwk, Avmvwg dwiqvw` mevi AvPiYB mbvZb ixwZ‡Z Pj‡Q, we‡kl K‡i DwK‡ji Avmvwg, dwiqvw` I mv¶x‡`i wRÁvmvev‡` g~j wePviKv‡Ri welqwU GZB Ae‡nwjZ †h eQ‡ii ci eQi G‡KwU Sv‡gjv Sz‡j _v‡K| cÖkœ: (K) ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi dwiqvw` †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbx| cÖkœ: (L) ‘Simple affirmation’ Øviv Kx eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q- e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x KgjvKvš—‡K hLb ÒAvwg ci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ Rvwbqv....Ó e‡j njd cov‡Z hvq ZLb KgjvKvš— nj‡di G evK¨ †g‡b wb‡Z AvcwË Rvbvq| KviY Zvi g‡Z ci‡gk¦i cÖZ¨‡¶i welq bq| Dcjwäi welq| ZLb nvwKg gyûwi‡K wb‡`©k †`b Zv‡K Simple affirmation ev mvaviY ev‡K¨ njd cov‡bvi Rb¨| ZLb gyûwi Zv‡K nj‡di evK¨ c‡o †kvbv‡j †m njdbvgv cvV K‡i mv¶xi KvVMovq `uvovq| cÖkœ: (M) Dc‡ii DÏxcKwU ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi mv‡_ Kxfv‡e mv`„k¨c~Y©?- e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i Ab¨Zg iƒcKvi ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ| G iPbv‡Z Avgiv †`wL Avgv‡`i cÖPwjZ wePvi e¨e¯’v Z_v Av`vj‡Zi KvRK‡g©i Am½wZ‡K Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| we‡kl K‡i Av`vj‡Z DwKjiv wb‡R‡`i e¨emvwqK mvdj¨ jv‡fi D‡Ï‡k¨B gvgjv hv‡Z `ª“Z wb®úwË bv nq, †mfv‡eB gvgjv cwiPvjbv K‡ib KviY Zv‡Z G‡Z DwK‡jiB jvf| gvgjv hZ `xN© mgq Pj‡e †mI ZZ w`bB Avmvwg ev dwiqvw`i KvQ †_‡K UvKv wb‡eb| G Kvi‡YB GRjv‡m hLb gvgjv I‡V DwK‡ji Avmvwg, dwiqvw` ev mv¶x‡K gvgjv msµvš— cÖkœ bv K‡i Ab¨vb¨ cÖkœ K‡i GKw`‡K †hgb mgq `xN©vwqZ K‡ib Ab¨w`‡K gvgjvwUI `xN©m~wÎZv jvf K‡i| G welqwU DÏxc‡K Ges ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`‡ZÕ ¯úó n‡q D‡V‡Q| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`‡ZÕ Avgiv †`wL cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwi gvgjvi mv¶x w`‡Z KgjvKvš— Av`vj‡Z hvb| †mLv‡b DwKj Zv‡K Mi“ Pywii wel‡q †Kvb cÖkœB K‡ib bv, eis Zvi RvZ, esk, †ckv, ag©, eY© BZ¨vw` wel‡q cÖkœ K‡i mgq‡¶cb K‡ib| KviY KgjvKvš— e‡j‡Qb- Ò DwKj‡`i cÖwZ wgwbU mgq UvKv cÖme K‡i|Ó G w`KwU DÏxcK I ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ GKB mgvš—iv‡j Aew¯’Z| c„ôv-18


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (N) ÒDwK‡ji Avmvwg, dwiqvw` I mv¶x‡`i wRÁvmev‡` g~j wePv‡ii welqwU GZB Ae‡nwjZ †h eQ‡ii ci eQi G‡KKwU gvgjv Sz‡j _v‡KÓ- ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbv Aej‡¤^‡b Dw³wUi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ mvwnZ¨mgªvU DcvwaL¨vZ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ig¨ e¨v½vZ¡K, nvm¨imvZ¡K bKkv RvZxq iPbvÕ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ| G iPbvq cÖvewÜK Dwbk kZ‡K e„wUk cÖewZ©Z evsjvi Av`vjZ Z_v wePvi e¨e¯’vi bvbv Am½wZ I ΓwU wePz¨wZ‡K Dc¯’vb K‡i‡Qb| we‡kl K‡i gvgjvi `xN©m~wÎZvi Rb¨ cÖPwjZ wePvi e¨e¯’vi DwKj gyûwi, †gv³vi, I nvwKg‡`i‡KB cÖvwÜK `vqx K‡i‡Qb| cÖe‡Ü Avgiv †`wL †bkvMÖ¯—, w`e¨Ávb m¤úbœ, feNy‡i KgjvKvš— cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x wn‡m‡e Av`vj‡Z cÖ‡ek K‡ib| KvVMovq †XvKvi c‡i Zv‡K DwKj cÖkœ Ki‡Z ïi“ K‡ib| DwK‡ji K‡_vcK_‡bi ai‡Y g‡bB nq bv †h wZwb GKwU gvgjvi mv¶x‡K gvgjv msµvš— †Kvb cÖkœ Ki‡Qb| feNy‡i KgjvKvš— †g‡b wb‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvB †mI DwK‡ji cÖwZwU cÖ‡kœi G welqwU DËi w`‡q cÖwZev` Rvwb‡q‡Q| †hgb: DwKj: Zzwg Kx RvwZ| Kgjv- Avwg wK GKUv RvwZ? DwKj- Zzwg †Kvb RvZxq? Kgjv- wn›`y RvZxq| DwKj- Av: †Kvb eY©? Kgjv- †NviZi K…òeY©| DwKj- †Zvgvi †ckv Kx| Kgjv- Avgvi Avevi †ckv Kx? Avwg Kx DwKj †h, Avgvi †ckv Av‡Q? Dc‡iv³ K‡_vcK_‡b †`Lv hvq gvgjv msµv¯— †Kvb cÖkœB GLv‡b †bB| e¨w³MZ cÖkœ K‡i K‡i †mKvj †_‡K GKvj Aewa Avgv‡`i wePvie¨e¯’vq DwKjiv G‡KKwU gvgjv‡K eQ‡ii ci eQi Szwj‡q iv‡Lb| KviY gvgjv hZ Cl©vwqZ n‡e DwKj ZZ‡ewk jvfevb n‡eb| G Ae¯’vi D‡ËviY NUv‡bvB ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi g~j D‡Ïk¨|

” wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: ( †gv: kvgQzj Avjg) nvB‡Kv‡Ui cÖexY DwKj gnmxb mv‡ne, cvwK¯—vb Avgj †_‡KB wZwb AvBbe¨emvi mv‡_ RwoZ| †ckvMZ Rxe‡bi cÖ_‡g wZwb gvgjv cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z wM‡q Av`vj‡Z cwi‡ek I KvRK‡g© wew¯§Z n‡qwQ‡jb| KviY wZwb †`‡LwQ‡jb Av`vj‡Zi mvRv‡bv †MvQv‡bv Mvj fiv K_v evZ©vi Avov‡j †h wePvi KvR P‡jZv ïay K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZv gvÎ| GLb wZwb AevK nb †`k ¯^vaxb nIqvq GZeQi ciI Avgv‡`i Av`vj‡Zi cwi‡e‡ki †KvbB cwieZ©b nq wb| wZwb ¯^‡`‡ki wePvie¨e¯’vi Am½wZ †`‡L fv‡ebÓ- G Rb¨B Kx i³ w`‡q †`kUv ¯^vaxb K‡iwQjvg?Ó cÖkœ: (K) ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvwU cÖ_g †Kvb cwÎKv †_‡K cÖKvwkZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ôe½`k©bÕ cwÎKvq | cÖkœ: (L) KgjvKv‡š—i RvwZMZ cwiPq msµvš— cÖkœ K‡i DwKj Kx weo¤^bvi m¤§yLxb n‡qwQ‡jb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq KgjvKvš— PµeZx© cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x w`‡Z Av`vj‡Z hvb| Av`vj‡Zi Ab¨vb¨ digvwjwU †k‡l KgjvKvš— hLb KvVMovq `uvov‡jb DwKj Zv‡K Zvi e¨w³MZ cwiPq cÖm‡½ RvZ, eY© m¤ú‡K© cÖkœ K‡ib hv gvgjvi mv‡_ †Kvb fv‡eB m¤ú„³ bq| DwKj wRÁvm K‡ib Zzwg Kx RvwZÓ? KgjvKvš— e‡jb-ÒAvwg wK GKUv RvwZ? †kl ch©š— wn›`y RvZxq ¯^xK…wZ w`‡jb eY© cÖm‡½ KgjvKvš— e‡j- Avwg †NviZi K…òeY©| †k‡l nvwK‡gi ga¨¯’Zvq KgjvKvš— †h eªvþY Zv mve¨¯— nq| Avi DwKj ixwZgZ bvKvj I weeªZi Ae¯’vi m¤§yLxb †nvb| c„ôv-19


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ wePvi e¨e¯’vi mv‡_ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq Dwj−wLZ wePvie¨e¯’vi mv`„k¨ Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbw›`Õ iPbvwUi wfZi w`‡q gbbkxj cÖvewÜK ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq DwbkkZ‡Ki wePvi e¨e¯’vi bvbv ΓwU I Am½wZ‡K Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| †mLv‡b Avgiv †`wL cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvq mv¶x wn‡m‡e †bkvMÖ¯’ feNy‡i KgjvKvš— Av`vj‡Z hvb Ges G‡Ki ci GK mgm¨vi gy‡LvgywL nb I †m me mgm¨v‡K e¨½ we`ªƒ‡ci gva¨‡g Avgv‡`i mvg‡b Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| Avi †m me wPwýZ Am½wZ¸‡jvi gva¨‡g Avgv‡`i mvg‡b w`ev‡jv‡Ki gZ ¯úó †h Av`vj‡Zi Mvj fiv Kviev‡ii Aš—iv‡j †h me AbyôvwbKZv e‡j Zv ïaygvÎ K…wÎgZv Qvov Avi wKQzB bq| A_¨v©r Av`vj‡Zi G mvRv‡bv †MvQv‡bv K…wÎgZvi Avov‡j cÖK…Z wePv‡ii evYx Pvcv c‡o hvq| Avgv‡`i Dc¯’vwcZ DÏxc‡KI Avgiv †`wL nvB‡Kv‡Ui DwKj gnwmb mv‡ne Rxe‡b cÖ_gevi Av`vj‡Z gvgjv cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z wM‡q †h ˆel‡g¨i wkKvi n‡q‡Qb AvR ¯^vaxbZvi GZ¸‡jv eQi AwZµvš— nvevi ciI Avgv‡`i wePvie¨e¯’vi Ae¯’v GKB iKg Av‡Q| Av`vj‡Zi mvRv‡bv †MvQv‡bv Gme AvbyôvwbKZvi Kvi‡YB cÖKZ … wePvi wµqv e¨vnZ nq| G Pjgvb Ae¯’v †gv‡UB cÖZ¨vwkZ bq| cÖk:œ (N) DÏxc‡Ki gnwmb mv‡ne wPš—v †PZbvq Av`vj‡Zi †h †Pnviv cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q Zv GKv‡ji gvby‡li Kv‡Q cÖZ¨vwkZ bqÓ- Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq e„wUk cÖewZ©Z Dwbk kZ‡Ki Av`vj‡Zi KvRKg© Z_v wePvie¨e¯’vi bvbv ΓwU wePz¨wZ‡K Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q| G iPbvq Avgiv †`wL Av`vj‡Zi GRjvk, nvwKg DwKj, gyûwi, †gv³vi, Pvcivwk, njdbvgv, KvVMov GmeB K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZv cvjb gvÎ, Mvjfiv mvRv‡bv Gme K…wÎgZvi Aš—iv‡j XvKv c‡o cÖK…Z wePvi| KviY DwK‡jiv Avmvwg, dwiqvw` ev mv¶x‡K †hfv‡e wRÁvmvev` K‡ib, we‡klZ Zv‡`i e¨w³MZ cwiPq RvZ, eskI eY© cwiP‡qi wel‡q evi evi wRÁvmv K‡i wePviKvR‡K `xN©vwqZ K‡i| d‡j GKKRb dwiqvw`‡K eQ‡ii ci eQi Av`vj‡Zi Øv‡i Nyi‡Z nq| G Ae¯’v †mKvj †_‡K GKvj Aewa A_©vr GKwesk kZvãx‡Z G‡mI Avgiv Av`vj‡Zi G K…wÎgZv Mu¨vovKj n‡Z gy³ n‡Z cvwiwb| d‡j evi evi Avgv‡`i wePvie¨e¯’v n‡q‡Q cÖkwœ e×| Kv‡RB ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`‡ki wePvie¨e¯’v‡K AviI †ewk cÖv‡qvwMK I MYgyLx Ges Av¯’vkxj Ki‡Z n‡j Avgv‡`i wePvi wefvM‡K †X‡j mvRv‡bvi weKí †bB|

” DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb)

GKwU cÖMwZkxj mgvR Z_v iv‡óªi myôz cwiPvjbv, AvBb-k„•Ljv I mZ¨-b¨vq cÖwZôvi Rb¨ wePvi wefvM Ab¨Zg cÖavb nvwZqvi ev kw³| G‡¶‡Î wePvi wefvM‡K Aek¨¤¢vexiƒ‡c Ackw³i cÖfvegy³ n‡q ¯^vaxbfv‡e b¨vqwePv‡i eªZx n‡Z n‡e| b¨vq wePv‡ii Avkvq mvaviY gvbyl wePvi wefv‡Mi Avkªq †bq| wKš‘ Zviv A‡bK mgq Av`vj‡Zi kVZvi wkKvi nq| GKvi‡Y mvaviY gvbyl weo¤^bvq c‡o| GKwU mf¨ RvwZ ev iv‡óªi Rb¨ GwU AZ¨š— j¾vKi welq| cÖkœ: (K) ew¼g P›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq KZ mv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: 1838 mv‡j| cÖkœ: (L) ÔKx cÖwZÁv Kwi‡Z nB‡e, Zvnv bv Rvwbqv, cÖwZÁv Kiv Avi KvM‡R Kx †jLv nq, Zvnv bv †`wLqv `¯—LZ Kiv, GKB K_v|Õ-Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : Dw³wU ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ bvgK ig¨iPbv †_‡K msKwjZ| Dw³wU K‡i‡Q KgjvKvš—| KgjvKvš— cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwi gvgjvi GKRb mv¶x| †m KvVMovq `uvwo‡q Av`vj‡Zi bvbv Am½wZ wb‡q †k−lvZ¥K Dw³ K‡i| njdbvgv cov‡bvi Am½wZ cÖm‡½ Dch©y³ Dw³wU Kiv nq| KgjvKv‡š—i K_vq wei³ n‡q wePviK Zv‡K Simple Affairmation ev mnR njdbvgv †`qvi K_v e‡j| Gmgq gyûix KgjvKvš—‡K e‡j, ÔejÕ Avwg cÖwZÁv Kwi‡ZwQÓ-ZLb KgjvKvš— wew¯§Z nq cÖwZÁvi welq Rvb‡Z Pvq| Avi G cÖm‡½B Dw³wUi AeZviYv| †Kvb wKQz bv †R‡b cÖwZÁv KivUv KgjvKv‡š—i Kv‡Q mv`v KvM‡R `¯—LZ Kivi g‡Zv g‡b nq| c„ôv-20


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki mv‡_ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`iÕi wgj-Awgj Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K mgvR I ivóª e¨e¯’vcbvq wePvi wefv‡Mi ¸i“Z¡ Ges mZ¨ I b¨vq wePv‡ii cÖ‡qvRbxqZvi welqwU Av‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Q| Ab¨w`‡K, ew¼gP‡›`ªi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ bvgK ig¨ iPbvq mgKvjxb wePvi wefv‡Mi Am½wZ, Aš—:mvik~b¨Zv‡K Bw½Zen K‡i †Zvjv n‡q‡Q| KgjvKvš— bvgK Pwi‡Îi gva¨‡g ew¼gP›`ª ZrKvjxb wePvi Kvh©µ‡gi ΓwU-wePz¨wZ¸‡jv, wePvi wefv‡Mi mv‡_ m¤ú„³ mykxj e¨w³eM© Z_v DwKj‡`i A_©wjáv BZ¨vw` welq Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| cÖkœ: (N) Òb¨vq wePv‡ii Avkvq Av`vj‡Zi AvbyôvwbK kVZvi wkKvi nIqv mvaviY gvby‡li weo¤^bvi KviY wbtm‡›`‡nÓ-DÏxc‡Ki Dw³wUi Av‡jv‡K ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`i Aš—wb©wnZ Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki|Ó (&D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: myôz ivóªe¨e¯’vcbv GKwU iv‡óªi mvaviY RbM‡Yi AwaKvi mywbwðZ K‡i| wePvi wefv‡Mi b¨vq-bxwZ, mZ¨ I wbi‡c¶ wePvi mvaviY gvby‡li Rxe‡b wbivcËv, kvwš— I wbðqZv weavb K‡i| Ab¨_vq RbRxe‡b msK‡Ui m„wó nq| G Av‡jv‡K ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ bvgK ig¨ iPbvq ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq mgKvjxb wePvi e¨e¯’vi mxgve×Zv¸‡jv Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| wZwb wb‡R †h e³e¨ cÖZ¨¶fv‡e Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z cv‡ib wb †m¸‡jv iPbvi cÖavb PwiÎ KgjvKv‡š—i gva¨‡g Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x wn‡m‡e Av`vjZ K‡¶ Dcw¯’Z n‡q Av`vj‡Zi bvbv ΓwU-wePz¨wZ KgjvKvš—‡K cÖkœwe× K‡i| Av`vjZ K‡¶i Am½wZ, njdbvgvi mxgve×Zv I wg_¨vPvi, DwK‡ji wjáv cÖfw„ Z welq G iPbvq ¯úó n‡q D‡V‡Q| Gme Kvi‡Y mvaviY gvbyl b¨vqwePvi †Zv cvqB bv, Dciš‘ bvbv weo¤^bvi wkKvi nq| G welqwU Av‡jvP¨ iPbvi Aš—wb©wnZ welq hv Dchy³ © DׄwZ‡Z D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q|

” DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb)

e¨emvqx BKevj †nv‡mb gvgjvq †n‡i welYœ g‡b evwo wdi‡jb| cy‡iv‡bv XvKvi a~Z© e¨emvqx nhiZ Avjx `xN©w`‡bi †jvf wQj BKevj †nv‡m‡bi †`vKvbwUi Dci| nhiZ Avjx my‡KŠk‡j BKevj †nv‡m‡bi wei“‡× †Rvi `Lj K‡i Zvi †`vKvb wb‡q‡Q e‡j Av`vj‡Z wg_¨v gvgjv Vy‡K †`q| KvVMovq `uvwo‡h cweÎ a‡g©i bv‡g kc_ K‡i AbM©j wg_¨v mv¶x I DwK‡ji wg_¨vPv‡i mr e¨emvqx BKevj †nv‡mb nZwenej n‡q c‡o| b¨vq wePvi PvB‡Z wM‡q wePvi‡Ki bvUKxq wePvi Kv‡h©i cÖnmb Zv‡K evKi“× K‡i †`q| GKgvÎ Av‡qi Drm †`vKvbwU nvwi‡q BKevj †nv‡m‡bi cwiev‡i nZvkvi Qvqv †b‡g G‡m‡Q| cÖkœ: (K) ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ig¨ iPbvwU †Kv_v †_‡K msKjb Kiv n‡q‡Q? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔKgjvKv‡š—i `ßiÕ bvgK ig¨iPbv msKjb †_‡K| cÖkœ: (L) KgjvKvš—‡K njdbvgv cov‡Z wM‡q †h mgm¨vi m„wó n‡qwQj Ges †hfv‡e wg‡UwQj Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq mgKvjxb Av`vj‡Zi Am½wZ Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| G cÖm‡½ njdbvgv cov‡bvi g‡a¨ †h wg_¨v AvbyôvwbKZv Zv Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| Mi“ Pzwi gvgjvi mv¶x wn‡m‡e KgjvKvš—‡K KvVMovq wb‡q njdbvgv cov‡bvi cÖwµqv ïi“ nq| gyûwi KgjvKvš—‡K e‡j, Òej, Avwg ci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ RvwbqvÓ......| GK_v †kvbvgvÎ †Mvj‡hv‡Mi DrcwË N‡U| Avwds‡Lvi Dcjwäi AcÖK…wZ¯’ KgjvKvš— Zx²eyw× m¤úbœ weavq e‡j †h, ci‡gk¦i wVK cÖZ¨‡¶i welq bq, mZ¨ welq b¨vq wePv‡ii Rb¨ †h Av`vjZ †mLv‡b wePvi Kv‡h©i ïi“‡ZB wg_¨vPvi| G welqwU wePvi Kv‡h©i mv‡_ m¤ú„³ mykxj e¨w³e‡M©i `„wó Gwo‡q hvq| MÖv‡gi nZ`wi`ª KgjvKv‡š—i gva¨‡g G Dcjwä mgKvjxb wePvi wefvM‡K KlvNv‡Zi kvwgj| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki mv‡_ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ig¨iPbvi wgj-Awgj Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki mv‡_ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi wgj-Awgj `yB j¶Yxq| DÏxc‡Ki BKevj †nv‡mb mr e¨emvqx| R‰bK nhiZ Avjx, BKevj †nv‡m‡bi GKwU †`vKvb wg_¨v gvgjv `v‡qi K‡i wb‡Ri K‡i †bq| Av`vj‡Zi mg¯— Kvh©µg UvKv I kw³i e‡j GKwU wg_¨v‡K cÖwZwôZ K‡i †`q| BKevj †nv‡mb c„ôv-21


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

Av‡qi Drm †`vKvbwU nvwi‡q welYœ g‡b evmvq †d‡i| Zvi cwiev‡iI Gi i“p cÖfve c‡o| Ab¨w`‡K, ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ig¨ iPbvq ew¼gP›`ª mgKvjxb Av`vj‡Zi Am½wZ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi ¸i“ Pzwii gvgjvq MÖv‡gi nZ`wi`ª Avwds‡Lvi KgjvKvš—‡K †hfv‡e njdbvgv cov‡bvi cÖwµqv P‡j Zv‡Z bvbv Am½wZ, wg_¨vPvi wQj| KgjvKvš— †m welq¸‡jv Dcjwä K‡i Ges Zxeª KUv¶ K‡i †m¸‡jvi Reve †`q| KgjvKvš— Av`vj‡Zi K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZv, DwK‡ji †jvjyc g‡bve„wË cÖf„wZ welq †k−lvZ¥K fw½‡Z Zz‡j a‡i| ew¼gP›`ª e„wUk kvm‡b k„•LwjZ mgKvjxb Av`vj‡Zi Am½wZ nvm¨†KŠZz‡Ki gva¨‡g Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡K BKevj †nv‡mb Av`vj‡Zi wg_¨vPvi, nVKvwiZvq evKi“×, civwRZ| wKš‘ KgjvKvš— Av`vj‡Zi Am½wZ‡K DwKjmn Av`vj‡Zi mv‡_ m¤ú„³‡`i KUv¶ K‡i‡Q| GK mgq KgjvKv‡š—i KUv‡¶i Kvi‡Y DwKj evey Zvi mv¶¨ MÖn‡Y AcviMZv cÖKvk K‡i| `y‡Uv NUbvB Av`vj‡Zi n‡jI wfbœgLy x| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ig¨iPbvi g~j welq Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K eZ©gvb †cÖ¶vc‡U Av`vj‡Zi Am½wZ Z_v wg_¨vPvi Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| a~Z© e¨emvqx nhiZ Avjx, BKevj †nv‡m‡bi GKwU †`vKvb wg_¨v gvgjv K‡i nvwZ‡q †bq| mZ¨ I b¨v‡qi cÖwZôv †h Av`vj‡Zi gva¨‡g nIqvi K_v †mLv‡b Zvi D‡ëvUv n‡”Q| Ab¨w`‡K, ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ig¨ iPbvi mgKvjxb Av`vj‡Zi Am½wZ, wg_¨vPvi cÖf„wZ welq Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x KgjvKvš—‡K Av`vj‡Z †bqvi ci Zv‡K njdbvgv cov‡bv †_‡K cy‡iv wePviKvh©µ‡g †h me ΓwU wQj †m¸‡jv KgjvKv‡š—i Zx² KUv‡¶i gva¨‡g Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| †h ci‡gk¦i cÖZ¨‡¶i welq bq, Dcjwäi welq †mUv wePvi Kv‡h©i mv‡_ m¤ú„³ wewkó e¨w³eM© eyS‡Z bv cvi‡jI AcÖK…wZ¯’, Avwds‡Lvi KgjvKv‡š—i eyS‡Z Kó nq bv| A_©wjáy DwK‡ji AvbyôvwbK wePviKv‡h©i K…wÎgZv ew¼gP›`ª AZ¨š— wbcyYfv‡e Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb|

” DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb)

Avãyj gwZb fvB nZ¨vi wePvi cvq wb| ¶gZvkxj Avmvgxc¶ nZ¨vwU cvwievwiK Kjn †_‡K n‡q‡Q e‡j Av`vj‡Z cÖgvY K‡i| cÖZ¨¶`kx© †gv‡k©`‡K mv¶x K‡i Avãyj gwZb Av`vj‡Z gvgjv K‡iwQj| wKš‘, A_©‡jvfx DwKj A‡bK UvKvi wewbg‡q mZ¨‡K wg_¨v e‡j cÖgvY K‡i| wePv‡ii mgq mv¶x †gv‡k©`‡K bvbv AcÖvmw½K wel‡q †Riv Kiv nq| nZwenej n‡q †gv‡k©` Pzc K‡i _v‡K, mZ¨ cÖKv‡ki c_ cvq bv| fvB‡qi Lybx cÖKv‡k¨ Ny‡i †eovq| Avãyj gwZb AvZw¼Z|

cÖkœ: (K) evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i cÖ_g mv_©K Dcb¨v‡mi bvg Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ô`y‡M©k bw›`bx|Õ cÖkœ: (L) Ôevev, Kvi †¶‡Z avb †L‡qwQ †h, Avgv‡K Gi wfZ‡i cywi‡j?Ó-Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Dw³wU ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ig¨ iPbvi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ KgjvKvš— K‡i‡Q| cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x KgjvKvš—| mv¶¨ MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ Zv‡K Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq †bqv n‡j KgjvKvš— Dw³wU K‡i| Dw³wUi gva¨‡g Av`vjZK‡¶i Ae¨e¯’vcbv wb‡q KUv¶ Kiv nq| nZ`wi`ª, †bkv‡Lvi, AcÖK…wZ¯’ KgjvKvš— Av`vj‡Zi KvVMov‡K †Luvqv‡ii mv‡_ Zzjbv K‡i| wbgœ †kªYxi cÖvYx Mi“, QvMj A‡b¨i †¶‡Z avb LvIqvi gZ Aciva Ki‡j Zv‡`i †hLv‡b AvU‡K ivLv nq Zv‡K †Luvqvo e‡j| Av`vj‡Zi KvVMov‡K KgjvKv‡š—i Kv‡Q GiKg †Luvqvo g‡b nq| Gi gva¨‡g ZrKvjxb Av`vj‡Zi mxgve×Zv, msKxY©Zv‡K Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki †gv‡k©‡`i mv‡_ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi KgjvKvš— Pwi‡Îi wgj-Awgj Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K mv¶x †gv‡k©` nZ¨v gvgjvi mv¶x| msNwUZ nZ¨vKvÊwUi †m cÖZ¨¶`kx©| wKš‘ Av`vj‡Z mv¶¨ MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ †bqv n‡j †jvfx DwK‡ji AcÖmvw½K †Rivi gy‡L †m mZ¨ cÖKvk Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| Gi d‡j Avãyj gwZb fvB‡qi Ly‡bi b¨vqwePvi cvq bv| Gi gva¨‡g wePvi e¨e¯’vi msK‡Ui mv‡_ †gv‡k©‡`i mr mvn‡mi Afv‡ei w`KwU dz‡U I‡V| Ab¨w`‡K, ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ bvgK ig¨ iPbvq ew¼gP›`ª c„ôv-22


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

KgjvKvš— bvgK Pwi‡Îi gva¨‡g wePvi e¨e¯’vi AmsMwZ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| GLv‡b KgjvKvš— nZ`wi`ª MÖv‡gi †jvK| Avwds‡Lvi, AcÖK…wZ¯’ wKš‘ mZ¨ev`x I Zx² eyw×m¤úbœ| mv¶¨ MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ Zv‡K Av`vj‡Z †bqv n‡q Av`vj‡Zi bvbv Am½wZ wb‡q †m †k−lvZ¥K Dw³ K‡i| GK mgq wei³ n‡q DwKj Zvi mv¶¨ MÖn‡Y AcviMZv cÖKvk K‡i| myZivs ejv hvq, DÏxc‡Ki mv¶x †gv‡k©` I iPbvi mv¶x KgjvKvš— wecixZgyLx `ywU PwiÎ| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvi KgjvKv‡š—i PwiÎ Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K Avãyj gwZ‡bi fvB‡qi nZ¨vi gvgjvq †gv‡k©` GKRb mv¶x| Av`vj‡Z mv¶¨ MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ Zv‡K †bqv nq| DwK‡ji †Rivi gy‡L †gv‡k©` nZwenej n‡q c‡o| †m mZ¨ K_v ej‡Z cv‡i bv| GKvi‡Y gvgjvwUi myôz wePviKvh© e¨vnZ nq| Ab¨w`‡K ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ bvgK ig¨ iPbvq KgjvKvš— †K›`ªxq PwiÎ| cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvq †m GKRb mv¶x| KgjvKvš— nZ`wi`ª MÖv‡gi †jvK| Avwds‡Lvi, AcÖK„wZ¯’ n‡jI Zx² eyw×m¤úbœ Ges mZ¨ev`x| mv¶¨ MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ Zv‡K Av`vj‡Z †bqv n‡j Av`vj‡Zi bvbv Am½wZ Zvi †Pv‡L c‡o Ges †m¸‡jv †m AKc‡U D”PviY K‡i| Av`vj‡Zi KvVMov‡K Zvi Kv‡Q †Luvqv‡oi gZ g‡b nq| GQvovI njdbvgvi Am½wZi DwK‡ji AcÖvmw½K cÖkœ, A_©wjáv, cÖf„wZ welq KgjvKv‡š—i Zxh©K Dw³i gva¨‡g ¯úó n‡q I‡V| ew¼gP‡›`ªi m„ó KgjvKvš— Pwi‡Îi gva¨‡g ZrKvjxb Av`vj‡Zi Z_v wePvi e¨e¯’vi Am½wZ, K…wÎgZv cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q|

” DÏxcKwU co Ges wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb) Av`vjZ

myôz wePvi Kvh©µg

AvbyôvwbK, ΓwUc~Y© wePvi Kvh©µg

Av`vjZ K‡¶i myôz e¨e¯’vcbv

Av`vjZK‡¶i Ae¨e¯’vcbv

h_vh_ mv¶¨MÖnY cÖwµqv

njdbvgvi Am½wZ

mgv‡R b¨vq I mZ¨ cÖwZôv

mv¶¨MÖnY cÖwµqvi ΓwU wePvi e¨e¯’vi Aš—tmvik~b¨Zv RbRxe‡b †bwZevPK cÖfve

cÖkœ: (K) Ôe½`k©bÕ cwÎKvi m¤úv`‡Ki bvg Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq| cÖkœ; (L) ÒDwKj evey AwaKvix Avwg hvÎvi †Q‡j, hv ejvB‡eb, †Kej ZvB ewje, hv bv ejvB‡eb, Zv ewje bv|Ó-Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Dw³wU ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ bvgK ig¨ iPbv †_‡K msKwjZ n‡q‡Q G‡Z Av`vj‡Zi K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZvi welqwU Bw½Zen n‡q D‡V‡Q| Dw³wU K‡i‡Q D³ iPbvi cÖavb PwiÎ KgjvKvš—| GB iPbvi gva¨‡g ew¼gP›`ª mgKvjxb wePvi wefvM I wePvie¨e¯’vi wewfbœ Am½wZ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| mgKvjxb Av`vj‡Z K‡¶i msKxY©Zv, mbvZb ndjbvgv †`Iqvi Am½wZ, DwK‡ji mv¶x MÖn‡Yi bv‡g †kLv‡bv K_vi cybive„wË Kiv cÖf„wZ welq ¯úó n‡q D‡V‡Q| hvÎv-cvjvq Awf‡bZviv †hfv‡e AwaKvixi Dw³i cybive„wË K‡i †hfv‡e Av`vj‡ZI mv¶x DwK‡ji †kLv‡bv Dw³i Reve †`q| mwVK I mZ¨ ejvi GB cÖwZeÜKZv KgjvKvš—‡K AvnZ K‡i| †mKvi‡Y KUv¶ K‡i †m Dch©y³ Dw³wU K‡i| c„ôv-23


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki Dwj−wLZ Av`vj‡Zi mv‡_ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ‡Z wPwÎZ Av`vj‡Zi wgj-Awgj Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K Av`vj‡Zi `y‡Uv w`K Dc¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q| GKw`‡K ejv n‡”Q, Av`vjZ ev wePvi wefvM mgv‡R b¨vq I mZ¨ cÖwZôvi Rb¨| Gi mv‡_ m¤ú„³ e¨w³e‡M©i mZZv, wbôvi mv‡_ m‡Z¨i Rb¨, mgv‡Ri gvby‡li myôz wePv‡ii Rb¨ AvZ¥wb‡qvM Ki‡eb| G‡Z mgv‡Ri g½j wbwnZ| Ab¨w`‡K †`Lv‡bv n‡”Q †h, cÖK…Z wePviKvh© cwiPvwjZ bv n‡j mgvR Z_v mvaviY gvby‡li Rxe‡b Pig `y‡f©vM Awbevh©| Av`vj‡Zi wePvi e¨e¯’v hw` AvbyôvwbKZv me©¯^ nq, DwKj cÖgyL e¨w³eM© hw` A‡_©i †gv‡n mZ¨-wg_¨vi cÖ‡f` fy‡j hvq Zvn‡j Zv mvaviY gvby‡li Rxe‡b †bwZevPK cÖfve †d‡j| DÏxc‡Ki G welqwU ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq Zuvi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ bvgK ig¨ iPbvq Av‡jvKcvZ K‡i‡Qb| wZwb mgKvjxb wePvi wefv‡Mi AmsMwZ, K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZv, njdbvgvi ΓwU-wePz¨wZ DwKj‡`i A_©wjáv cÖf„wZ welq KgjvKvš— bvgK Pwi‡Îi †k−lvZ¥K Dw³i gva¨‡g ¯úó K‡i Zz‡j‡Qb| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq ew¼gP›`ª Av`vj‡Zi †h w`KwU Bw½Zen K‡i Zz‡j‡Qb Zv we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K wePvi wefv‡Mi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv I mZ¨-b¨v‡qi cÖwZôvi †¶‡Î Gi ¸i“‡Z¡i K_v Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| cvkvcvwk wePvi wefvM AvbyôvwbKZv me©¯^, b¨vqwePv‡i e¨_© n‡j mgvR Rxe‡b Gi †bwZevPK cÖfv‡ei K_v D‡j−L Kiv n‡q| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ig¨ iPbvq ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq mgKvjxb Av`vj‡Zi bvbvwea mxgve×Zv, AvPvi me©¯^ AvbyôvwbKZv, njdbvgv I mv¶¨ MÖn‡Yi Am½wZ cÖf„wZ welq Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| DwK‡ji A_©wjáv I wg_¨vPv‡ii welqwUI GLv‡b Dc¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q| cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvq KgjvKvš—‡K mv¶x wn‡m‡e Av`vj‡Z Dcw¯’Z Kiv nq| MÖv‡gi nZ`wi`ª, †bkv‡Lvi, AcÖK…wZ¯’ GKwU PwiÎ KgjvKvš—| Av`vj‡Zi KvVMov `uvwo‡qB KgjvKvš— e‡j I‡V- evev, Kvi †¶‡Z avb †L‡qwQ †h, Avgv‡K Gi wfZi cywi‡j?Ó wePvi K¶‡K †Luvqv‡oi mv‡_ Zzjbvi gva¨‡g Gi mxgve×Zv‡K D‡¤§vPb K‡i| Gfv‡e AcÖKw… Z¯’ KgjvKv‡š—i mv‡_ DwK‡ji ch©vqµwgK msjv‡ci gva¨‡g iPbvi g~j cÖwZcv`¨ welq wePvi e¨e¯’vi Am½wZ Zz‡j aiv nq| ¯^í cwim‡ii Kvwnbx‡Z AZ¨š— PgrKvifv‡e welqwU Rxeš— I mim n‡q cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q|

” DÏxcKwU co Ges wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb)

cÖevmx e`i“j Avjg evwo Ki‡eb e‡j GKwU Rwg wK‡b‡Qb| †`‡k wd‡i evwoi KvR ïi“ Ki‡eb fvewQ‡jb| Ggb mgq wZwb Rvb‡Z cvi‡jb Rwgi gvwjKvbv wb‡q Sv‡gjv i‡q‡Q| Zvi †Kbv RwgwU GKvwaKevi wewµ n‡q‡Q| e`i“j Avjg ev`x n‡q Av`vj‡Z gvgjv K‡ib| wKš‘ Rwgi g~j gvwjK, hvi KvQ †_‡K Rwg †Kbv n‡qwQj †m AZ¨š— cÖfvekvjx a~Z© †jvK; bvg Avãyj jwZd| DwKj‡K †gvUv A‡¼i UvKv w`‡q Avãyj jwZd gvgjvwU Ggbfv‡e Nywi‡q w`‡jb †h, e`i“j Avjg Rwg †Zv †c‡jb bv, Dciš‘ `xN© mgq †fvMvwš— †cvnv‡jb| cÖZvwiZ e`i“j mv‡ne Awfgvb K‡i AveviI †`k †Q‡o P‡j †M‡jb|

cÖkœ: (K) ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ e½`k©b cwÎKvq K‡e cÖKvwkZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: 1288 e½v‡ã| cÖk:œ (L) ÒAvwg Bnvi Revbew›` KivB‡Z cvwie bvÓ- †K, †Kb G ai‡bi gš—e¨ K‡i‡Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ig¨iPbvq Dw³wU Av`vj‡Zi A_©wjáy DwKj K‡i‡Q| G iPbvi g‡a¨ g~jZ mgKvjxb Av`vj‡Zi Am½wZ, K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZv BZ¨vw` welq Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi cÖavb PwiÎ KgjvKv‡š—i mv‡_ DwKj eveyi K‡_vcK_‡bi ga¨ w`‡h mgKvjxb wePvi e¨e¯’vi Am½wZ ev¯—e wP‡Îi gZ wPwÎZ n‡q‡Q| njdbvgv cov‡bvi g‡a¨ wg_¨vPvi I †Riv Kievi g‡a¨ †h KcUZv †m¸‡jv Zx²eyw×m¤úbœ KgjvKvš— eyS‡Z cv‡i| †mKvi‡Y DwK‡ji me K_vi †m Zxh©K †k−lvZ¥K Reve †`q| †kl ch©š— DwKj evey wei³ n‡q wePviK‡K wePviKvh© cwiPvjbv Kivi e¨vcv‡i AcivMZv cÖKvk K‡i D³ Dw³wU K‡i| c„ôv-24


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki e`i“j Avj‡gi NUbvi mv‡_ ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi NUbvi wgj-Awgj e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki cÖevmx e`i“i Avjg Rwg wK‡bwQ‡jb Ges †mLv‡b evwo Kivi K_vI fvewQ‡jb| Ggb mgq Rvb‡Z cv‡ib Zvi RwgwUi gvwjKvbvq †fRvj i‡q‡Q| Rwgi gvwjK Avãyj jwZd UvKvi †jv‡f GKB Rwg `yR‡bi Kv‡Q wewµ K‡i| e`i“j Avjg G wb‡q Av`vj‡Z gvgjv K‡i| wKš‘ cÖfvekvjx Avãyj jwZd UvKv w`‡q gvgjvwU Nywi‡q †`q| †kl ch©š— e`i“j Avjg Av`vj‡Zi KcU wePvi Kv‡h©i Kvi‡b, DwKj‡`i †jv‡fi KviY gvgjvq †n‡i hvq| cÖZvwiZ e`i“j Kó †c‡q AveviI cÖevmx n‡jb| Ab¨w`‡K, ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ ig¨iPbvq ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq mgKvjxb Av`vj‡Zi Am½wZ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| GLv‡b Av`vj‡Zi njdbvgv cov‡bvi Am½wZ, wePviKvh©µ‡gi K…wÎgZv, Avo¤^ifve, DwKj‡`i A_©wjáv cÖf„wZ welq KgjvKv‡š—i eyw×`xß Dw³ I Zx² KUv‡¶i gva¨‡g Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| KgjvKvš— Avwds‡Lvi, AcÖK…Z¯’ nIqv m‡Ë¡I wePvi wefv‡Mi Am½wZ, wg_¨vPvi wVKB ai‡Z cv‡i| g~jZ KgjvKv‡š—i ga¨ w`‡q ew¼gP‡›`ªi wPš—vi cÖKvk N‡U‡Q| DÏxcK I ig¨iPbv Dfq‡¶‡ÎB Av`vjZ msµvš— welq _vK‡jI Zv wfbœ †cÖ¶vc‡U wfbœ Avw½‡K Dc¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q| wKš‘ wePvi e¨e¯’vi msKUwU GKB| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi cÖwZcv`¨ welq we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K cÖevmx e`i“j Avj‡gi Rwg wb‡q cÖZvwiZ nIqvi Kvwnbx D‡V G‡m‡Q| eZ©gvb †cÖ¶vc‡U Av`vj‡Zi wg_¨vPvi, Ackw³i cÖfve Øviv Av”Qbœ K…wÎg wePviKvh© welqK mgvRe¨e¯’v ev¯—eZv cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q| Ab¨w`‡K, ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ Ôig¨ iPbvq ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq mgKvjxb Av`vj‡Zi Am½wZ, DwKj‡`i wg_¨vPvi, wePvi-e¨e¯’vi K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZv cÖf„wZ welq mywbcyYfv‡e Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| feNy‡i Avwds‡Lvi KgjvKvš— cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvq mv¶x w`‡Z G‡m DwKj‡K †hfv‡e KUv¶ K‡i K_v e‡j‡Q Zv‡Z Av`vj‡Zi Am½wZ †hgb cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q †Zgwb iPbvwU imgq n‡q D‡V‡Q| Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq `uvwo‡qB KgjvKvš— †m ¯’vbwU‡K †Luvqv‡oi mv‡_ Zzjbv K‡i| Gici njdbvgvq hLb Zv‡K ej‡Z nq Òej, Avwg, ci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ RvwbqvÓ-ZLb KgjvKvš— Avevi AvcwË K‡i| Zvi g‡Z, ci‡gk¦i cÖZ¨‡¶i welq bq, Dcjwäi welq| GQvovI, DwKj‡`i A_©wjáv, Av`vj‡Zi K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZv cÖf„wZ welq G iPbvi ga¨ w`‡q ¯úó n‡q D‡V‡Q| mvaviY gvbyl mwVK wePv‡ii cÖZ¨vkvq Av`vj‡Z hvq| †mLv‡b mwVK wePvi †Zv nq bv eis bvbvfv‡e weo¤^bvi wkKvi nq| myZivs ejv hvq,ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvq mgKvjxb wePvi wefv‡Mi Am½wZ dz‡U D‡V‡Q|

ˆbe©¨w³K cÖkœvewj KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›` ⎯ ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq (1838-1894)

†gv‡k©`yj Avjg (†gv‡k©`)

1| evsjv Dcb¨v‡mi †¶‡Î ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq‡K Kx ejv nq?

K RbK L K¬¨vwmK M mª÷v N c_ cÖ`k©K 2| evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i RM‡Z ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi Dcvwa Kx? K ¸i“ L RbK M mvwnZ¨ mgªvU N e½¸i“

4| evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i weKv‡k Ges kw³kvjx †jLK m„wó‡Z †Kvb cwÎKvi Ae`vb Amvgvb¨? K meyRe·

M a~g‡KZz N e½`k©b 5| ÔhyMÜiÕ k‡ãi A_© Kx?

3| ew¼gP›`ª †Kvb cwÎKvi cÖwZôvZv m¤úv`K wQ‡jb

K e½`k©b M w`K`k©b

L jvOj

L e½gvZv N mvg¨ c„ôv-25

K ayiÜi

L hy‡Mi AÜ

M hy‡Mi cÖwZwbwa

N hy‡Mi Abymvix


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

6| ew¼gP‡›`ªi Ô`y‡h©vMbw›`bxÕ KZmv‡j cÖKvwkZ nq? K 1865 L 1870 M 1866 N 1875 7| evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i cÖ_g cÖK…wZ evsjv Dcb¨vm †KvbwU? K Avjv‡ji N‡ii `yjvj L Ô`y‡M©kbw›`bx M Kcvj KÛjv N wele„¶ 8| ÔK…òKv‡š—i DBjÕ Kx ai‡bi Dcb¨vm? K kªxK…ò welqK L RwgRgv msµvš— M agx©q N mvgvwRK 9| Dcb¨v‡mi cvkvcvwk ew¼gP›`ª Avi †Kv_vq Abb¨ KzkjZvi cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb? K gbbkxj cÖeÜ iPbvi †¶‡Î L cÖmnb iPbvi †¶‡Î M miKvix I Kg©‡¶‡Î N Kve¨ iPbvi †¶‡Î 10| ew¼gP‡›`ªi Dcb¨vm I cÖeܸ‡jv n‡jv(i) ‡jvKinm¨, KgjvKv‡š—i `ßi (ii) KcvjKzÛjv, ivRwmsn (iii) Kve¨ iPbvi †¶‡Î wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i I iii. 11| Ôew¼gP›`ª AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i -----GKRbÕ- k~b¨¯’v‡b hv em‡e: K †miv‡`i L weL¨vZ Jcb¨vwmK‡`i M cÖ_g cÖavb m„wókxj †jLK‡`i N weL¨vZ 12| ew¼gP›`ª †Kv_vq †jLvcov K‡ib? K cvUbv wek¦we`¨vj‡q L KjKvZv wek¦we`¨vj‡q M XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡q N A·‡dvW© wek¦we`¨vj‡q 13| ew¼gP›`ª KjKvZv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi Kx wQ‡jb? K cÖ_g mœvZK‡`i GKRb L Aa¨vcK M wk¶K N cÖ‡dmi 14| ew¼gP›`ª †ckvq Kx wQ‡jb? K †WcywU g¨vwR‡÷ªU L Aa¨vcK M DwKj N wePviK 15| ew¼gP‡›`ªi Rb¥K cwðge‡½ L c~e©e‡½

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

M DËie‡½ N RjcvB¸uwo 16| ew¼gP‡›`ªi wbR †Rjv †KvbwU? K PweŸk ciMbv L †Ruvovmv‡Kv M SvoLÊ N RjcvB¸uwo 17| ew¼gP›`ª PweŸk ciMYv †Rjvi †Kvb MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? K NwlqvLvjx L KuvVvjcvov M SvDZjv N ARy©beni 18| ew¼gP‡›`ªi Rb¥-g„Zz¨? K 1738-1794 L 1828-1892 M 1838-1894 N 1894-1932 19| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvwU †Kvb MÖ‡š’i Aš—M©Z K †`bv cvIbv L AvBb-Av`vjZ M AvB‡bi KvVMov N KgjvKv‡š—i `ßi 20| Ô †jvKinm¨Õ Kx ai‡bi MÖš’? K cÖeÜMÖš’ L MíMÖš’ M bvU¨MÖš’ N ågYwelqK 21| Ômvg¨Õ Kx ai‡bi MÖš’? K Kve¨MÖš’ L cÖeÜMÖš’ M MíMÖš’ N Dcb¨vmMÖš’ 22| KgjvKvš— Kx ai‡bi †jvK wQ‡jb? K †bkv‡Lvi L Nyl‡Lvi M Avwds‡Lvi N gvZvj 23| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ †Kvb ai‡bi iPbv? K bKkv RvZxq L †QvU Kvwnbx M nvm¨ cwinvm RvZxq N Awfbe iPbv 24| AcvZ`„wó‡Z KgjvKv‡š—i AvPvi AvPiY †Kgb?

K Dëvcvëv L †emvgvj M cvMjvwgi kvwgj N AmsjMœ 25| KgjvKvš—‡K nVvr †Kv_vq †`Lv †M‡jv? K cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi evwo‡Z L KvVMovq M GRjv‡m N MvQZjvq 26| KgjvKvš— †PvL ey‡S Kx KqwQ‡jv? K †bkvq XyjyXyjy KiwQ‡jv L ZvgyK UvbwQ‡jv M †bkvq wSgyw”Q‡jv N Mfxi wPš—v KiwQ‡jv 27| KgjvKvš—‡K †`‡L †jLK Kx Ki‡jb K AevK n‡jb L `uvov‡jb bv M nvZ evwo‡q w`‡jb N cvwj‡q †M‡jb

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evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

28| KgjvKvš—‡K †`‡L †jLK `uvov‡jb bv †Kb? K cywj‡ki f‡q L UvKv †`qvi Rb¨ M Rvwgb nIqvi f‡q N e¨¯—Zvi Rb¨ 29| nvwKg †Kv_vq Ae¯’vb Ki‡Qb? K gvPv‡bi Ici L †Pqv‡i M wePvivj‡q N Av`vj‡Z 30| nvwKg c‡`I †MŠi‡_ Kx? K wePvicwZ L wWcywU M DwKj N wmwbqi AvBbRxex 31| dwiqvw` †K wQ‡jb K dwiqvw` L KgjvKv‡š—i GKRb AvZ¥xq M cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbx N kªx KgjvKvš— 32| KgjvKvš—‡K mv¶xi KvUvivq cy‡i w`‡j †m Kx Ki‡jv? K gv_v wbPz K‡i `uvwo‡q _vK‡jv L eKvewK ïi“ Ki‡jv M g„`y g„`y nvm‡Z jvM‡jv N weiw³ cÖKvk Ki‡jv| 33| ÔPvcivwkÕ KgivKvš—‡K agKv‡jv †K‡bv? K Pvcivwk‡K eKvewKi Rb¨ L nvwK‡gi cÖ‡kœi DËi h_vh_fv‡e bv †`Iqvi Rb¨

M nvmvi Rb¨ N †bkv Kivi Rb¨ 34| KgjvKvš—‡K KvUvivq †XvKv‡j wb‡R‡K Kvi mv‡_ Zzjbv K‡iwQ‡jv? K Mi“i mv‡_ L †Pv‡ii mv‡_ M †bkv‡Lvi gvZv‡ji mv‡_ N Mixe I Amnvq e¨w³ mv‡_ 35| KgjvKvš—‡K †K njd cwo‡qwQ‡jb K GKRb gyûwi L GKRb KcKwk M GKRb Ai`vwj N GKRb DwKj 36| gvPvb Kx? K DuyPz †ew` ev g L gvPv M Avmb N wePvi‡Ki Avmb 37| DwKj PU‡jb †Kb? K KgjvKv‡š—i GK¸‡ivwg Rb¨ L wVKg‡Zv UvKv bv †`Iqvi Rb¨ M g~j¨evb mgq b‡ói Rb¨ N mwVK DËi bv †`Iqvi Rb¨

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

38| DwK‡ji g~j¨evb mgq Kx K‡i? K †mªv‡Zi g‡Zv e‡q hvq L e¨_©Zvq ch©ewmZ nq M UvKvi Rb¥ †`q N wgwb‡U wgwb‡U UvKv cÖme K‡i 39| Theological lecture gv‡b Kx? K w_‡qUvi welqK Ávb L†_Iwi welqK Ávb M ag©ZË¡xq e³…Zv N AvBb Av`vjZ welqK Ávb 40| KgjvKvš— DwKj‡K Kxfv‡e wPb‡jv? K AvBwW KvW© †`‡L L Kv‡jv MvDb †`‡L M gqjv kvgjv †`‡L N j¤^v †Muvd †`‡L 41| KgjvKv‡š—i g‡Z DwKj KLb ci‡gk¦i‡K †`L‡Z cvb? K †bkvMÖ¯— Ae¯’vq L hLb g‡°j Av‡m M DwK‡ji †Wªm civ Ae¯’vq N mKv‡ji cÖv_©bvq 42| Ômv¶x eo †miKkÕ- GLv‡b Ô †miKkÕ ej‡Z Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q? K GK‡ivLv L †eiwmK M †eAv`c N Amf¨ 43| ‘Obstructive’ k‡ãi A_©K KwVb L ev¯—eev`x M Sv‡gjvi N Awkw¶Z 44| Iu gay gay gay- gv‡b Kx? K A‡bK gRv L e¨½v‡_© UvKvKwo M gaym~`b `‡Ëi msw¶ß iƒc N Av`vj‡Z w`‡jB gay cvIqv hvq 45| KgjvKvš— Kx Av‡`Š cÖwZÁv cvV K‡iwQ‡jv? K AvswkK K‡iwQ‡jv L bv M cv‡Vi fvm K‡iwQ‡jv N K‡iwQ‡jv 46| DwKj evey KgjvKv‡š—i bvg wR‡Ám Ki‡j Dˇi †m Kx e‡jwQ‡jv? K KgjvKvš— L kªx KgjvKvš— M kªxKgjvKvš— PµeZx©N KgjvKvš— PµeZx© 47| DwKjevey KgjvKv‡š—i ÔeY©Õ wel‡q Rvb‡Z PvB‡j †m Kx e‡jwQ‡jv? K †NviZi K…òeY© L wn›`y eY© M eªvþY eY© N D¾¡j eY©

c„ôv-27


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

48| KgjvKv‡š—i Mjvq Kx wQ‡jv? K eªvþ‡Yi gvjv L h‡ÁvcexZ M mv`v Puv`i N jvj Kvco 49| KgjvKv‡š—i eqm(i) 51 eQi `yB gvm †Zi w`b (ii) 53 eQi 3 gvm

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

56| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õi g~j wk‡ivbvg Kx wQ‡jv?

(iii) 57 eQi 7 gvm †Zi w`b Pvi N›Uv, cuvP wgwbU

wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i I iii. 50| KgjvKv‡š—i DcvR©b †Kgb? K ˆ`wbK 7 UvKv L ˆ`wbK 3 UvKv M 1 cqmvI bv N 2 cqmv 51| DwKj evey †k‡l wei³ n‡q Av`vjZ‡K Kx e‡jwQ‡jb (i) Avwg G mv¶x Pvwn bv (ii) ÔAvwg Ggb mv¶x Pvwn bvÕ (iii) Avwg Bnvi Revbew›` KivB‡Z cvwie bv| wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M i I iii N ii I iii. 52| ÔeªvþmgvRÕ Kx? (i) ivRv ivg‡gvnb ivq cÖewZ©Z G‡Kk¦iev`x ag©m¤cÖ`vq (ii) hviv we‡qi gš¿ covq (iii)gnwl© †`‡e›`ªbv_ VvKzi cÖPvwiZ ag©m¤cÖ`vq wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i I iii. 53| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq K‡e?

K 1312 e½v‡ãi dvêyb gv‡m L 1213 e½v‡ãi †cŠl gv‡m M 1288 e½v‡ãi dvêyb gv‡m N 1288 e½v‡ãi ˆekvL gv‡m

54| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ cÖ_g †Kv_vq cÖKvwkZ nq?

K ÔRwg`vi `c©b cwÎKvq L Ôe½`k©bÕ cwÎKvq M ÔKgjv`k©bÕ cwÎKvq N Ôbxj`k©bÕ cwÎKvq 55| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ †Kvb MÖš’ †_‡K msKwjZ? K KgjvKv‡š—i `ßi L ÔKgjvKv‡š—i cwiPq M Kgjve„Ëvš— N KgjvKv‡š—i †Rvevbew›`

K KgjvKv‡š—i †Rvevbew›` L Kgjve„Ëvš— M KgjvKv‡š—i `ßi N KgjvKv‡š—i BwZnvm 57| ew¼gP›`ª ÔKgjvKv‡š—i `߇iiÕ gva¨‡g evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ Kx‡mi cÖPjb NUv‡jb? K nvm¨‡KŠZz‡Ki L nvm¨imvZ¥K i½e¨½g~jK iPbvq M nvm¨ cwinv‡mi N nvwmZvgvkvi 58| ew¼gP›`ª Zuvi nvm¨imvZ¥K iPbvi gva¨‡g †Kvb w`KwU Zz‡j ai‡Z †P‡q‡Qb? K mgv‡Ri bvbv ΓwU-wePz¨wZ L Av`vj‡Zi bvbv ΓwU-wePz¨wZ M wePvie¨e¯’vi Awbqg N mgvR mvwnZ¨-ms¯‹…wZi bvbv ΓwU-wePz¨wZ 59| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ Kx RvZxq iPbv? K nvm¨imvZ¥K L ig¨iPbv M bKkv RvZxq N ig¨‡KŠZzK RvZxq 60| Av`vj‡Zi mvRv‡bv †MvQv‡bv cwi‡e‡k cÖK…Zc‡¶ †Kgb? K K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZv L wg_¨vPvi M cÖZviYvi Rvj N nvm¨Ki Kg©KvÊ 61| KgjvKvš— †Kgb †jvK? K †RvKvi UvB‡ci L †bkv‡Lvi M †KŠZzK wcÖq N wKQzUv AcÖK…wZ¯’ 62| KgjvKvš—‡K †Riv Ki‡Z wM‡q DwKj †Kvb cwiw¯’wZi gy‡LvgywL n‡q‡Qb? K c‡` c‡` weeªZ I bvKvj n‡q‡Qb L c‡` c‡` AcgvwbZ n‡q‡Qb M wZ³ AwfÁZvq gy‡LvgywL n‡q‡Qb N jvwÃZ n‡q‡Qb 63| DwKj eveyi `„wó‡Z KgjvKvš— †Kgb †jvK? K iwmK L Db¥v` MGK‡ivLv N †RuvKvi 64| KgjvKv‡š—i †k−lvZ¥K Dw³¸‡jvi gv‡S cÖKZ … c‡¶ Kx cvIqv hvq? K nvwmi Dcv`vb L nvm¨im M ev¯—e mZ¨Zv N †KŠZzK wcÖqZv

c„ôv-28


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

ˆngš—x iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi (1861-1941 wLª:)

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖk¸ œ ‡jvi DËi `vI : (bvRgv myjZvbv)

cwiev‡ii m¤§wZµ‡g MZ eQi Rvbyqvwii 13 Zvwi‡L Avdwib I ibxi `xN©w`‡bi †cÖ‡gi m¤úK©wU we‡q‡Z iƒcvš—wiZ nq| wKš‘ we‡qi ciB ibxi cwievi Avdwi‡bi cwiev‡ii Kv‡Q bvbviKg `vex `vIqv K‡i Avm‡Q| Zv‡`i `vex Abyhvqx Avdwi‡bi evev‡K 5 jvL bM` UvKv, 25 fwi ¯^Y© I nvwZ‡ji 15wU dvwY©Pvi `vex K‡i| wKš‘ Avdwi‡bi evevi c‡¶ GZ wekvj A‡¼i †hŠZzK †`qv m¤¢e bq| we‡q‡Z wZwb A‡bK Kó K‡i †g‡q‡K 5 fwi ¯^Y©vj¼vi w`‡qwQ‡jb| we‡qi 6 gv‡mi g‡a¨ †hŠZz‡Ki KvwO¶Z UvKv bv †c‡q ibxi evev, gv, fvB I †ev‡biv GgbwK ¯^qs ibxI Avdwi‡bi Dci kvixwiK I gvbwmK wbh©vZb Ki‡Z _v‡K| evevi Amnvq‡Z¡i K_v †f‡e Avdwib me †g‡b †bq|

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖkœ: (K) Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi wngvj‡qi wgZv †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ˆngš—xÕ M‡í wngvj‡qi wgZv ˆngš—xi wcZv ¯‹zj wk¶K †MŠixk¼i evey| cÖkœ: (L) Kb¨vi evc meyi Kwi‡Z cvwi‡Zb, wKš‘ e‡ii evc meyi Kwi‡Z Pvwn‡jb bv- †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK evsjv †QvUM‡íi cw_K…r wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ GKwU †kªô mvgvwRK mgm¨vg~jK Mí Ôˆngš—xÕ| G M‡í Avgiv †`wL †MŠixk¼ievey Zvi GKgvÎ †g‡q‡K wb‡q wngvj‡qi cv`‡`‡k †Kvb GK GjvKvq ¯‹j z gv÷vwi Ki‡Zb| wZwb j¶¨ K‡ib wb Zvi †g‡qi eqm w`b w`b †e‡o hv‡”Q| †m mgv‡R AvU eQ‡ii Kb¨v m¤cÖ`vb Kivi cÖ_v cÖPwjZ _vK‡jI ˆngš—xi eqm †m mxgvj•Nb K‡i †lvj‡Z DËxY© n‡q‡Q| G Kvi‡Y we‡qi D‡`¨vM c‡e© Acyi evev wej¤^ Ki‡Z ivwR nb wb| KviY Zvi aviYv ˆngš—xi eqm †ewk e‡j wZwb †hŠZz‡Ki UvKvI †ewk cv‡eb| wej¤^ Ki‡j Ab¨ †KD hw` ˆngš—xi mv‡_ Zv‡`i †Q‡ji we‡q †`b Zvn‡j wekvj †hŠZz‡Ki A¼ Zvi nvZQvov n‡q hv‡e| G Kvi‡YB e‡ii evc †`wi Ki‡Z Pvbwb| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki Avdwib I Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi ˆngš—x Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨ eY©bv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki Avdwib I iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi ˆngš—xi g‡a¨ †ewk wKQy wgj Av‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki Avdwi‡bi †hgb †hŠZzK †jvfx k¦ïi, kvïwo, ¯^vgx KZ©„K wbh©vwZZ n‡q‡Q| †Zgwb ˆngš—xi k¦ïi evwoi †jvKRbI Zv‡K †hŠZz‡Ki Rb¨ wbh©vZb K‡i‡Q| Avdwib‡K Zvi ei ibx wbh©vZb Ki‡jI ˆngš—x‡K Zvi ei Acy †Kvb wbh©vZb K‡i wb| ˆngš—x Zvi evevi cQ‡›` Ges evevi eÜz ebgvjxeveyi NUKvjx‡Z Acy‡K we‡q K‡i‡Q, wKš‘ DÏxc‡Ki Avdwib wb‡Ri cQ›` Abyhvqx ibx‡K we‡q K‡i‡Q| Avdwb‡K k¦ïievwoi †jvKRb kvixwiKfv‡e wbh©vZb K‡i‡Q| wKš‘ ˆngš—xi k¦ïievwoi †jvKRb Zv‡K kvixwiKfv‡e wbh©vZb bv K‡i gvbwmKfv‡e wbh©vZb K‡i‡Q| cwiYwZi w`K †_‡K ˆngš—x I Avdwib GKB c‡_i hvÎx| Avdwib‡K †`wL XvKv †gwW‡K‡j g„Zz¨i mv‡_ cvÄv jo‡Q Avi ˆngš—xi †¶‡Î †`wL Zvi evev, evevi eÜz mK‡j hLb Zvi Amy¯’Zvi wel‡q wbwðZ Ges Wv³vi evqy cwieZ©‡bi K_v e‡jb ZL‡bv Acyi evev Zv‡K †h‡Z †`qwb| eis D‡ëv ˆngš—xi evev‡K K_v ïwb‡q‡Q| Avdwib I ˆngš—xi G wbh©vZ‡bi g~j KviY n‡jv Zv‡`i evev‡`i A_©‰bwZK `yie¯’v| cÖk:œ (N) Ôevevi Amnvq‡Z¡i K_v †f‡e Avdwib me †g‡b wb‡qwQjÕ-ˆngš—x M‡íi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wUi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK evsjv †QvUM‡íi cw_K…r iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í Dwbk kZ‡Ki †klfvM I wek kZ‡Ki cÖ_g w`‡Ki KjKvZvi ¯^v_©ci wn›`y mgv‡Ri wPÎ ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| G mgv‡RiB †hŠZz‡Ki ejx n‡q‡Q ˆngš—x| ïay ˆngš—x GKv bb eis mgMÖ Dwbk kZ‡Ki evsjvi mgv‡R †g‡q‡`i G Acgvb wQjB| Ggb †Kvb Kb¨v`vqMÖ¯— wcZv †bB whwb Zvi †g‡q‡K we‡qi †¶‡Î †hŠZz‡Ki f‡iq kw¼Z wQ‡jb bv| c„ôv-29


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

GgbI †`Lv †M‡Q cÖwZw`b †hŠZz‡Ki `v‡q `yÕPviRb gwnjvI AvZ¥nywZ w`‡Z n‡q‡Q| mgv‡Ri G Acgv‡bi cÖwZev` wn‡m‡e Ôˆngš—x Mí †jLvi Aby‡cÖiYv jvf K‡ib| Dwbk kZ‡Ki Kb¨v`vqMÖ¯— GKRb wcZv †h KZUv Amnvq wQ‡jb mgv‡R cÖPwjZ AgvbweK †hŠZzK cÖ_vi Kv‡Q Zvi cÖgvY gvwR©Z i“wPi AwaKvix, gy³gb, gy³wPš—vI I gy³wek¦v‡mi AwaKvix †MŠixk¼i eveyi| wZwb Zvi GKgvÎ †g‡q ˆngš—x‡K fv‡jv Ni I fv‡jv ei †`‡L we‡q w`‡qwQ‡jb, †f‡ewQ‡jb †g‡q myLx n‡e| wKš‘ mgv‡Ri ms¯‹viMÖ¯— GK wbôzi mgvRcwZ Acyi evev †ewk UvKv †hŠZzK cvIqvi †jv‡f AwaK eq¯‹v ˆngš—xi mv‡_ Acyi we‡q w`‡qwQ‡jb| KviY wZwb †jvKgy‡L ï‡b‡Qb ˆngš—xi evev wngvj‡qi cv`‡`‡ki †Kvb GK GjvKvi ivRgš¿x| Zvi j¶ j¶ UvKv Av‡Q| wZwb gviv †M‡j G UvKvi gvwjK n‡e ˆngš—x| †m m~‡Î we‡qi ci G wekvj UvKv I m¤úwËi gvwjK Acy n‡e| ev¯—‡e ˆngš—xi evev †h 15 nvRvi UvKv †hŠZzK w`‡qwQ‡jb Zvi g‡a¨ `k nvRvi UvKvB KR© K‡i w`‡q‡Qb| Acyi evev hLb G Lei Rv‡bb ZLb †_‡K ˆngš—x I Zvi evevi Dci Acgv‡bi nvZ cÖmvwiZ K‡ib| ˆngš—xi evev me eyS‡jI Zvi c‡¶ †eqvB‡K A‡bK UvKv †hŠZzK †`qv m¤¢e wQj bv| d‡j wZwb ïay †P‡q †`L‡jb Avi wbi‡e †g‡qi I wb‡Ri Acgvb m‡q †M‡jb| Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi kZel© AwZµvš— n‡jI Avgiv AvRI †hŠZzK cÖ_vi wbôzi hvuZvKj †_‡K gy³ n‡Z cvwi wb| KviY ¯^v_© I †jvf, wejvmx Rxeb-hvc‡bi cÖwZ jvMvgnxb cÖZ¨vkv, cvwievwiK I mvgvwRK Aby`viZv †_‡K Avgiv AvRI gy³ n‡Z cvwi wb| evsjv‡`‡ki cÎ-cwÎKv wKsev B‡jKUªw· wgwWqvq cÖwZw`b Avdwib‡`i gZ A‡bK nZfvMv bvixi Ki“Y Rxeb Kvwnbx Dc¯’vwcZ nq| Gme wPÎ †`‡L mgv‡Ri m‡PZb gnj fxZ I kw¼Z nb| G Ae¯’vi D‡ËviY NUv‡Z bv cvi‡j evOvwji Av_©-mvgvwRK Dbœqb e¨vnZ n‡e|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖk¸ œ ‡jvi DËi `vI : (bvRgv myjZvbv)

†Rmwg‡bi ¯‹zj wk¶K evev Zvi GKgvÎ †g‡q‡K cov‡jLv †k‡l ZviB eÜzi †Q‡j gCby‡ji mv‡_ we‡q †`b| gCbyj GKwU †emiKvwi †Kv¤úvwb‡Z g¨v‡bRvi c‡` PvKwi K‡i| we‡qi mgq †Rmwg‡bi evev Zvi mva¨gZ avi KR© K‡i gCbyj‡`i‡K †hŠZzK wn‡m‡e ¯^Y©vj¼vi I dvwb©Pvi w`‡qwQ‡jb| wKš‘ Zv‡ZI gCbyj‡`i cwievi mš‘ó n‡Z cv‡ib wb| gBby‡ji gv, evev I gBbyj †Rmwgb‡K evevi evwo †_‡K †hŠZzK wn‡m‡e AviI UvKv Avbvi K_v ej‡j †Rmwgb A¯^xKvi K‡i| d‡j Zviv w`bfi Zvi Dci bvbvfv‡e kvixwiK wbh©vZb K‡i †g‡i †djvi †Póv K‡i e¨_© n‡q‡Q| Ae‡k‡l Avkcv‡ki †KD hv‡Z Rvb‡Z bv cv‡i †mRb¨ iv‡Zi AÜKv‡i g„Z g‡b K‡i †Rmwg‡bi †`nwU‡K MYfe‡bi mvg‡bi iv¯—vq †d‡j †i‡L P‡j Av‡m| iv‡Z UnjiZ mvsevw`K bvwmi Avj gvgyb †Rmwg‡bi Ae‡PZb †`n †`‡L Zv‡K XvKv †gwW‡K‡j wb‡q hvb Ges wZwb eZ©gv‡b †mLv‡b Rxeb-g„Zz¨i mwܶ‡Y `vuwo‡q Av‡Qb|

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖkœ: (K) Ôˆngš—xÕ MíwU KZmv‡j cÖKvwkZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ôˆngš—xÕ MíwU cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq ÔmeyRcÎÕ cwÎKvq 1321 e½v‡ã (1918 wLª:) msL¨vq| cÖkœ: (L) ˆngš—xi bvg wkwki ivLv n‡jv †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í MíKvi g~jZ DwbkZ‡Ki wbôzi †hŠZzK cÖ_vm¤^wjZ wn›`y mgv‡Ri wP·K Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| †hŠZzK cÖ_vi wbôzi hvuZvK‡j wb‡®úwlZ n‡q KZ †g‡qi Rxeb †h wecbœ n‡q‡Q ZviB cÖwZwbwaZ¡ K‡i‡Q ˆngš—x| wkwki †hgb ¶Y¯’vqx| mKv‡j †iv` DV‡jB Zvi Aw¯—Z¡ wejxb n‡q hvq| †Zgwb ˆngš—xi Rxe‡bI ¯^cœ c~iY nevi Av‡MB wbt‡kl n‡q hvq| Avevi wkwk‡ii nvwm-Kvbœv GKB iKg n‡q _v‡K e‡jB MíKvi Zvi bvg †i‡L‡Qb wkwki| KviY ˆngš—xi AKv‡j S‡i covUv AZ¨š— †e`bv`vqK| ZvB MíKvi Zvi bv †i‡L‡Qb wkwki|

c„ôv-30


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖk:œ (M) DÏxc‡Ki †Rmwg‡bi k¦ïi evwo I ˆngš—xi k¦ïievwoi g‡a¨ †h mv`„k¨ Av‡Q Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ wkí-mv_©K †QvUM‡íi mv_©K cÖwZôvZv iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ AmvaviY mvgvwRK mgm¨vg~jK Mí Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í GKwU msKxY©gbv Aby`vi, Kzms¯‹viv”Qbœ cPv `yM©Ügq, AvPvi I cÖ_v me©¯^ mgv‡ni wPÎ Dc¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q| G mgv‡Ri A‡bK¸‡jv AgvbweK AvPvi I cÖ_vi g‡a¨ GKwU n‡jv †hŠZzK cÖ_v| mgv‡Ri wkw¶Z, Awkw¶Z cÖvq me©ÎB G cÖ_v cÖPwjZ wQj| ˆngš—xÕ M‡í ˆngš—xi evev gvwR©Z i“wPi, gy³gb I gy³wPš—vi gvbyl †MŠixk¼i evey Zvi GKgvÎ †g‡q ˆngš—x‡K AvaywbK wk¶vq wkw¶Z Acy‡`i cwiev‡i Acyi mv‡_ we‡q †`b| wKš‘ k¦ïi evwoi A¯^v¯’¨Ki cwi‡e‡k, †hŠZz‡Ki gZ AgvbweK, wbôzi cÖ_vi Kvi‡Y ˆngš—xi Rxeb myL bvgK †mvbvi nwiY AaivB †_‡K †M‡jv| Acyi evevI wkw¶Z, wKš‘ wZwb †hŠZzK cÖ_vi c¶cvwZ wQ‡jb| wZwb fvewQ‡jb ˆngš—xi evev ivRgš¿x| Zvi GKgvÎ †g‡qi mv‡_ †Q‡j‡K we‡q w`‡j †gvUv A‡¼i †hŠZzK cv‡eb| hLbB Zvi †m Avkv †f‡¯— †M‡jv ZLbB wZwb Ges Zvi †MvUv cwievi ˆngš—xi Dci AgvbweK AZ¨vPvi ïi“ K‡i| DÏxc‡Ki †Rmwg‡bi k¦ïi evwoi mv`„k¨ Lye mn‡RB aiv c‡o| ˆngš—xi gZ †Rmwg‡bi k¦ïievwoi †jvKRb evi evi Zvi evevi evwo †_‡K UvKv Avb‡Z ZvMv`v w`‡q e¨_© n‡qB Zviv Zvi Dci kvixwiK wbh©vZb Pvjvq| evwoi mK‡j wg‡j Zv‡K †g‡i †dj‡Z †P‡qwQj, wKš‘ †kl ch©š— †Kvbµ‡g †Rmwgb †eu‡P hvb| GKB wPÎ ˆngš—xi †¶‡Î N‡U‡Q| ˆngš—x‡K Zvi k¦ïievwoi †jvK gvbwmK wbh©vZb K‡i Amy¯’ K‡i †d‡j‡Q| GgbwK ˆngš—xi evev Zv‡K Wv³vi †`Lv‡Z PvB‡j ev Wv³v‡ii civgk©µ‡g nvIqv cwieZ©‡bi Rb¨ wb‡Z PvB‡jI Zvi †Kvb gyw³ †g‡j bv| MíK_K Acyi fvlvq hv eySv hvq Zv‡Z Abygvb Kiv hvq nq‡Zv ˆngš—xi Rxe‡bi †kl cwiYwZ AZ¨š— fqveZ ev Ki“Y n‡Z cv‡i m‡›`n †bB| Avi DÏxc‡Ki †Rmwg‡bi cwiYwZ‡K hw` Avgiv mivmwi g„Zz¨ ewj Zv‡Z fyj n‡e bv| ZvB ejv hvq DÏxc‡K †Rmwgb I ˆngš—x cwiYwZi w`K †_‡K wKsev k¦ïievwoi cwi‡e‡ki w`K †_‡K GKB c‡_i hvÎx| cÖk:œ (N) ˆngš—x M‡íi kZel© AwZµvš— n‡jI Avgv‡`i mgvR †hŠZzK cÖ_vi Awfkvc †_‡K gy³ n‡Z cv‡iwbÕDÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Dw³wUi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK evsjv †QvUM‡íi mv_©K iƒcKvi iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Zvui ˆngš—x M‡í DwbkZ‡Ki AvPvi I cÖ_v me©¯^ Aby`vi, wbôzi I †Mvuov GK mgv‡Ri wPÎ Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| G mgvR g~jZ KjKvZvi wn›`ymgvR| G mgv‡Ri GKwU Awfkß I AgvbweK cÖ_v wQj †hŠZzK cÖ_v| Kb¨v`vqMÖ¯— A‡bK evevi †Pv‡Li R‡j wm›`y n‡q‡Q ey‡Ki Rwgb| Acgvb, jvÂbvq RR©wiZ bvixRxe‡bi GKgvÎ KviY wQj †hŠZzK| †m †hŠZz‡Ki Kvi‡Y Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi ˆngš—xi Rxe‡bi †h Ki“Y cwiYwZ Zv Avgv‡`i mgv‡R AvRI weivRgvb| nvRvi eQ‡ii evOvwji i‡³i †h cÖengvb aviv, †m avivi µgweeZ©‡bi Kvi‡YB Avgiv iex›`ªbv‡_i ewY©Z mgv‡Ri Awfkvc †_‡K AvRI †ei n‡q Avm‡Z cvwiwb| Av‡jvP¨ DÏxcKwU evsjv‡`‡ki GKwU msev`c‡Îi msev`| A_©vr mn‡RB Aby‡gq †h Avgv‡`i mgvR cvëv‡jI mgv‡Ri gvby‡li PwiÎ AvRI AcwieZ©bxqB Av‡Q| d‡j †Rmwgb, Avdwib‡`i gZ AmsL¨ †g‡qi Rxeb AvRI wecbœ n‡”Q| Zviv AvRI k¦ïievwoi cwi‡ek gv‡bB fq¼i †Kvb wKQy‡K Kíbv K‡i| Avgiv †`wL ˆngš—xi k¦ïi evwoi †jvKRb Zv‡K bvbvfv‡e Acgvb, Ac`¯— K‡i‡Q| GK kZvãx AwZµg K‡i G‡m Avgiv †`Ljvg †Rmwg‡bi k¦kyi evwoi †jvKRb Zv‡K Acgvb, Ac`¯— I kvixwiKfv‡e wbh©vZb K‡i †g‡iB †dj‡Z †P‡q‡Q| Zviv GKeviI fve‡jv bv †h, †Rmwgb‡K †g‡i †dj‡j Zv‡`i Av‡`Š †Kvb jvf †bB| †jv‡fi Kv‡Q AvR †_‡K kZel© c~‡e© †hgb ˆngš—xi gZ AmsL¨ †g‡q‡`i Rxeb wecbœ n‡q‡Q| gvbeZvi evYx †Ku‡`‡Q bxi‡e wbf„‡Z, †Zgwb AvRI Avgv‡`i mgv‡Ri †Rmwgb‡`i Rxeb wecbœ nIqv Avgv‡`i‡K g‡b Kwi‡q †`q Avgiv Avm‡j AvRb¥ ms¯‹viv”Qbœ, ¯^v_©ci, †jvfx I AgvbweK †ev‡ai AwaKvix|

c„ôv-31


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi wPÎwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Ôaª“eÕ kãwUi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ôaª“eÕ kãwUi A_© A¶q ev wbZ¨| cÖkœ : (L) Ô‡g‡qi eqm A‰ea iK‡g evwoqv †M‡Q e‡UÕ-Dw³wU‡Z ÔA‰ea iK‡g evwoqv †M‡QÕ ej‡Z Kx eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ZrKvjxb wn›`y mgv‡R AvU eQi eqmx Kb¨v‡K †MŠix, bq eQi eqmx Kb¨v‡K †ivwnYx I `k eQi eqmx Kb¨v‡K Kzgvix ejv nZ| †m mgv‡R `k eQi eq‡mi g‡a¨B Kb¨v‡K we‡q †`Iqvi wbqg wQj| †mB wn‡m‡e ˆngš—xi we‡qi eqm mvZ eQi Av‡MB cvi n‡q wM‡qwQj| G w`KwU wePvi K‡iB ejv n‡q‡Q †h, †g‡qi eqm A‰ea iK‡g †e‡o †M‡Q| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxcKwU cY cÖ_vi wkKvi ˆngš—x Pwi‡Îi cÖwZ”Qwe gvÎ e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Ô‰ngš—xÕ MíwU‡Z iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi †hŠZzK cÖ_vi h~cKv‡ô wbg©gfv‡e ewj nIqv GK bvix PwiÎ ˆngš—xi Kvwnbx Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| ü`qnxb I ¯^v_©vÜ k¦ïi-kvïwoi wbôzi AvPi‡Y †m Rxeb m¤ú‡K© cÖwZwbqZ wbivm³ n‡q c‡o‡Q| DÏxcKwU †h wPÎ w`‡q MwVZ n‡q‡Q Zv mn‡RB ¯úó n‡q I‡V| GLv‡b cvj−vi GKcv‡k GKwU †g‡qi Ges Aci cv‡k A‡bK¸‡jv UvKvi wPÎ A¼b Kiv n‡q‡Q| eyS‡Z Kó n‡”Q bv †h, †hŠZz‡Ki wewbg‡q †g‡qwU ¯^vgx msmvi †c‡Z hv‡”Q| †g‡q A‡c¶v UvKv fwZ© cvj−vwU wb‡Pi w`‡K †ewk Suy‡K‡Q| A_©vr UvKvi A¼ †ewk, G mg¯— wKQzB Kiv n‡”Q †g‡qwUi my‡Li Rb¨| K‡bwU †hb weevwnZ Rxe‡b ¯^vgxi msmv‡i gh©v`v jvf Ki‡Z cv‡i| wKš‘ GiciI cwiw¯’wZ D‡ëv n‡Z cv‡i| AwaKZi nv‡i †hŠZzK cvevi gvbwmKZvq k¦ïi evwo †_‡K wKsev ¯^vgxi Zid †_‡K nq‡Zv †g‡qwUi Ici Pvc Avm‡Z cv‡i| †g‡qwU kvixwiK ev gvbwmK wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡Z cv‡i| wKsev cwiw¯’wZ K‡bwUi Rb¨ G‡ZvB cÖwZK~j n‡Z cv‡i †h, †m ¯^vgxi msmv‡i Zvi Zz”Q Aw¯—ZU¡ K z z gy‡Q †dj‡Z AvZ¥nb‡bi c_I †e‡Q wb‡Z cv‡i| wPÎwU Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi ˆngš—x Pwi‡Îi Av`‡j Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q| ˆngš—xi evev †MŠixksKi evey ˆngš—xi we‡q‡Z bM` c‡b‡iv nvRvi UvKv Ges cuvP nvRvi UvKvi Mqbv w`‡qwQ‡jb| ZviciI AwaKZi nv‡i fwel¨‡ZI †hŠZzK cvevi evmbvq ˆngš—xi Dci k¦ïi-kvïwoi jvjmv e„w× †c‡Z _v‡K Ges ˆngš—xi Dci †b‡g Av‡m Ki“Y cwiYwZ| d‡j wb®‹j¼, mZ¨eªZx Ges †ZRw¯^bx n‡qI ˆngš—x‡K †e`bvweayi cwiYwZ †g‡b wb‡Z nq; hv cvV‡Ki gg©g~‡j AvNvZ K‡i| DcwiD³ G Av‡jvPbvi †cÖw¶‡Z wPÎwU‡K cY cÖ_vi wkKvi ˆngš—x Pwi‡Îi cÖwZ”Qwe ejv P‡j|

c„ôv-32


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (N) Ô†hŠZzK GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwaÕ-Ô ˆngš—xÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: me©‡ZvgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Gi Amvgvb¨ †QvUMí Ô‰ngš—xÕ| Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ ˆngš—x GK ¯^fve‡Kvgj jveY¨gqx †g‡q; †h †hŠZzKcÖ_vi h~cKv‡ô n‡q‡Q wbg©g ewj | †hŠZzK GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa| Dwbk kZ‡Ki †kl Ges wek kZ‡Ki †Mvovi w`‡K †hgb †hŠZz‡Ki cÖPjb wQj, †Zgwb eZ©gvb mg‡qI fqven iƒ‡c †hŠZz‡Ki cÖPjb i‡q‡Q| mgv‡Ri Pvicv‡k †PvL ivL‡j wKsev cwÎKvi cvZv †`L‡j A_ev †iwWI, †Uwjwfk‡bi msev` wk‡ivbvg n‡q Avm‡Q †hŠZz‡Ki Kvi‡Y NwUZ AmsL¨ g„Zz¨ msev`| wKsev †hŠZzK w`‡Z e¨_© n‡q †KD AvZ¥nZ¨v Ki‡Q, †KDev ¯^vgx msmvi Z¨vM Ki‡Q| Ô ˆngš—xÕ M‡íi ˆngš—x †hŠZzK cÖ_vi Ki“Y wkKv‡i cwiYZ n‡q‡Q| ˆngš—xi evev †MŠixksKi evey ˆngš—xi wbôzi k¦ïi-kvïwo‡K †g‡qi my‡Li Rb¨, k¦ïi evwo‡Z †g‡qi mvgvwRK gh©v`v cÖwZôvi Rb¨ bM` c‡b‡iv nvRvi UvKv I cuvP nvRvi UvKvi Mnbv w`‡jI ˆngš—xi msmv‡i myL wQj bv| gvbwmK wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡q †m cÖwZgyn~‡Z© m¼zwPZ wP‡Ë f‡q f‡q KvwU‡q‡Q| ïå I wb®‹j¼ n‡qI †e`bvweayi cwiYwZ eiY K‡i‡Q| hvi g~‡j KvR K‡i‡Q †hŠZz‡Ki cÖPjb I †hŠZzK cÖ_v‡K DrmvwnZ Kiv| DÏxc‡K GKwU K‡bi Qwe I wKQz bM` A‡_©i cÖwZ”Qwe Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q| A_©vr A‡_©i wewbg‡q †g‡qwU cvί’ n‡”Q| GLv‡bI cY cÖ_vi welqwU‡K Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| c‡Yi wewbg‡q `y‡PvL fiv ¯^cœ wb‡q GKwU †g‡q AwbwðZqZvi c‡_ AMÖmi n‡”Q| G †hŠZzK †h ¯^vgx-k¦ï‡ii msmv‡i Zv‡K wbwðZ Rxeb G‡b †`‡e G K_v †Rvi w`‡q ejv hv‡e bv| G mvgwqK †hŠZzK cÖvwßi d‡j fwel¨‡Z AwaKZi †hŠZzK cvIqvi †bkvq gË Zvi k¦ïi-kvïwo GgbwU ¯^vgx ch©šI — wbôzi wb`©q n‡q Zvi Ki“Y cwiYwZ KviY n‡Z cv‡i| cY cÖ_vi Av‡jv‡K †h wPÎwU Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q Zv Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi welqe¯‘‡K ¯úó K‡i †Zv‡j; G wP‡ÎI †hŠZzK cÖ`vb K‡i K‡b‡K AwbwðZ Rxeb ¯^vgxi msmvigyLx n‡Z †`Lv hv‡”Q| hvi cwiYvg fqvenI n‡Z cv‡i| Dwbk kZ‡Ki †kl Ges wek kZ‡Ki †Mvovi w`‡K iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi †h †hŠZzK cÖ_v‡K mvgvwRK e¨vwa wn‡m‡e wPwýZ K‡i ˆngš—xÕ MíwU wj‡LwQ‡jb Zv eZ©gvb mgvR e¨e¯’v‡ZB mvgvwRK e¨vwa wn‡m‡eB we`¨gvb i‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) †g‡qUv cÖwZ iv‡ZB cÖ_‡g wPrKvi K‡i, c‡i †MvOvq Ges gvS ivZ Aewa N‡ii wcovq `uvwo‡q duywc‡q duywc‡q Kuv‡`| nvwimUv gvbyl bv| cÖwZ iv‡ZB mvB‡Kj, wUwfi K_v Zz‡j †g‡qUv‡K wcUvq| gvi wK †hb †Zb gvi! gvi‡Z gvi‡Z nuvcv‡Z _v‡K| gvi †L‡q eDUv AÁvb n‡q co‡j nvwim `xN© mgq ûKv †U‡b Avagiv †g‡qwU‡K evB‡i †i‡L †fZi †_‡K N‡ii `iRv eÜ K‡i †`q|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Ô‰ngš—xÕ MíwU cÖ_‡g †Kvb cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ôˆngš—xÕ MíwU cÖ_g gvwmK ÔmeyR cÎÕ cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq| cÖkœ : (L) Ô†m Avgvi m¤úwË bq, †m Avgvi m¤ú`Õ- GLv‡b Dwj−wLZ Ôm¤úwËÕ I Ôm¤ú`Õ ej‡Z Kx †evS? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: GLv‡b m¤úwË ej‡Z Rwg-Rgv, welq-Avkq BZ¨vw`‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q; hv A_©g~‡j¨ wewµ Kiv P‡j| c¶vš—‡i, m¤ú` ej‡Z †MŠie I Hk¦h© evovq Ggb Ag~j¨ wKQz‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q| Acyi Kv‡Q ˆngš—x †fvM¨e¯‘ wQj bv, wQj h_v_© Rxebmw½bx; wQj m¤ú` ¯^iƒc †MŠi‡ei ab| cÖkœ : (M) nvwi‡mi eD Gi mvgvwRK Ae¯’vb ˆngš—xi Abyiƒc bq e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í GK mij, ïå I wb®‹j¼ †g‡q ˆngš—xi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| k¦ïi evwoi †hŠZz‡Ki Pvwn`v kZfvM c~iY Kivi ciI †h k¦ïi-kvïwoi wbôzi AvPi‡Yi wkKvi n‡q‡Q| gvbwmK wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡q †h †eu‡P _vKvi gv‡S †Kvb A‡_© Luy‡R cvq wb| †m m‡½ ˆngš—xi ¯^vgx Acyi f~wgKvI wQj Kó`vqK| †m ¯¿x ˆngš—xi cÖwZ ggZ¡ cÖKvk Ki‡jI Zv‡K i¶vq †Kvb f~wgKv cvjb K‡iwb| c„ôv-33


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ nvwi‡mi eD| †m ¯^vgxi msmv‡i G‡m‡Q ¯^cœfiv †PvL wb‡q| ¯^vgx G mKj welq eyS‡Z Pvq bv| †m †hŠZzK ¯^iƒc mvB‡Kj I, †Uwjwfkb Pvq| bv cvIqvi hš¿Yvq ¯¿xi Dci fqven wbh©vZb K‡i| mgv‡Ri gvbyl G wbôzi AvPi‡Yi Kvi‡Y nvwim‡K gvbyl ej‡Z Pvq bv| Zv‡K cïi mgvš—ivj K‡i fv‡e| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbvi †ik a‡i ejv hvq †h, Ôˆngš—xÕ I DÏxcK Dfq ¯’v‡b †hŠZz‡Ki N„wYZ welqwU Dc¯’vwcZ n‡jI ˆngš—xi ¯^vgxi msmv‡i ˆngš—xi Ae¯’vb Avi nvwi‡mi msmv‡i Zvi ¯¿xi Ae¯’vb GK bq| G †¶‡Î Df‡qi cvwievwiK, mvgvwRK, mvs¯‹…wZK I mf¨ZvMZ cv_©K¨I D‡j−L‡hvM¨ f~wgKv iv‡L| cÖkœ : (N) †hŠZz‡Ki h~cKv‡ô ewj n‡q‡Q DÏxc‡Ki bvix PwiÎwU- Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki bvix PwiÎwU nvwi‡mi ¯¿x| †hŠZz‡Ki Kvi‡Y G msmv‡i Zvi myL †bB| cÖwZ iv‡ZB nvwim Zvi ¯¿xi Kv‡Q mvB‡Kj, †Uwjwfkb `vex K‡i; cÖZ¨vkv K‡i ¯¿x Zvi evevi evwo †_‡K G¸‡jv wb‡q Avm‡e| G †hŠZzK cÖ`v‡bi e¨_©Zvi Kvi‡Y ¯^v_©vÜ, wbôzi ¯^vgx Zv‡K fqven iƒ‡c cÖnvi K‡i| †g‡qwUi wPrKv‡i Av‡k-cv‡ki mvaviY gvbylI `xN©k¦vm †d‡j| wKš‘ †g‡qwUi fv‡M¨i †Kvb cwieZ©b nq bv| †hŠZzK †jvfx ¯^vgxi g‡b G ïå, my›`i I wb®‹j¼ ¯¿xwU †Kvb Av‡e`b m„wó Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íI †hŠZz‡Ki Kvi‡Y jveY¨gqx †g‡q ˆngš—xi Rxe‡b †h Ki“Y cwiYwZ †b‡g G‡m‡Q †m K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| mij I mZ¨eªZx nevi c‡iI ü`qnxb k¦ïi-kvïwoi Kv‡Q Zvi RvqMv nq wb| †cŠi“lnxb ¯^vgx Zvi mn‡hvwMZvq GwM‡q Avm‡Z cv‡i wb| ˆngš—xi G †e`bvweayi cwiYwZ Avgv‡`i gg©g~‡j AvNvZ K‡i| DÏxcK I ˆngš—x Dfq Kvwnbxi Ki“Y cwiYwZi g~‡j i‡q‡Q N„wYZ †hŠZzK cÖ_vi cÖPjb| †hŠZzK cÖ_vi h~cKv‡ô Dfq bvix PwiÎ n‡q‡Q ewj| DÏxc‡Ki Kvwnbx Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi Av`‡j cÖ¯‘Z Kiv n‡q‡Q e‡j Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K †hŠZz‡Ki Kvi‡Y nvwi‡mi ¯¿xi Rxe‡b †h wbg©g cwiYwZ †b‡g G‡m‡Q Zv ˆngš—xi mgvR e¨e¯’v I ˆngš—x Pwi‡Îi K_v ¯§iY Kwi‡q †`q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) 27/03/2010

fvBqv fv‡jv †_‡Kv| Avi K‡Zv w`b wjL‡Z cvi‡ev Rvwb bv| kvixwiK I gvbwmK KlvNv‡Zi m‡½ bRi`vwii gvÎvI †e‡o‡Q| Iiv myg‡bi Rb¨ K‡b †`L‡Q| ¯¿x n‡qI Avgv‡K nvwm gy‡L G Kv‡R mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡Z nq| gv‡S gv‡S mªóv‡K cÖvYc‡Y ewj gvbyl bv evwb‡q wZwb Avgv‡K UvKvfwZ© †hŠZz‡Ki e¨vM K‡i †Kvb GK Kb¨v`vqMÖ¯— wcZvi nv‡Z Zz‡j †`b wb †Kb? G Rxeb eo Amnbxq| Õ BwZ w`qv

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ˆngš—xi cÖKZ … f³ †K wQj? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Acyi †QvU †evb bvivbx wQj ˆngš—xi cÖK…Z f³| cÖkœ : (L) ÔZvnvi bvg w`jvg wkwkiÕ-Dw³wU eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: wkwk‡ii ¯’vqxiƒc †fvi‡ejvq| m~‡h©v`‡qi m‡½ m‡½ †m wgwj‡q hvq| Acyi evevi †hŠZzK cÖvwßi Pvwn`v Zv‡`i evwo‡Z ˆngš—xi Ae¯’vb‡K eo ¶Y¯’vqx K‡i Zz‡jwQj| Acyi Rxe‡b ˆngš—xi G ¯’vwqZ¡UzKzi K_v wPš—v K‡i †m ˆngš—xi bvgKiY K‡iwQj wkwki|

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evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) Ôw`qv I ˆngš—xi Ki“Y cwiYwZi KviY GKB m~‡Î Muv_v|Õ e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Gi Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡í †hŠZzK cÖ_vi fqven w`KwU ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| Gi Kzdj Dcjwä n‡q‡Q ˆngš—xi Rxe‡b| mß`kel©x wkw¶Z ˆngš—x‡K Zvi evev c‡Yi wewbg‡q Acyi m‡½ we‡q w`‡qwQj| G †hŠZzK cÖvwßi ciI AwaKZi cvevi wjáv ˆngš—x‡K Rxeb wegyL K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| A_©wjáv Acyi cwievi‡KI G‡ZvUvB wbj©¾ K‡i Zz‡jwQj †h, ˆngš—xi Dcw¯’wZ‡ZI Zviv Acyi Rb¨ cvÎx †`L‡Z KzwÉZ nq wb| DÏxc‡KI †hŠZzK cÖ_vi Kzdj ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| ˆngš—xi m‡½ w`qvi RxebI †hŠZzK cÖvwßi Kivj MÖvm welv³ K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| w`qv ¯^vgx I ¯^vgxi msmv‡i AcÖ‡qvRbxq n‡q D‡V‡Q| †hŠZz‡Ki `vex †gUv‡Z bv cvivq w`qv Zvi cwiev‡ii m‡½I †hvMv‡hvM i¶v Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| w`qv‡K _vK‡Z nq bRi`vwii g‡a¨| mn¨ Ki‡Z nq kvixwiK I gvbwmK wbh©vZb| GgbwK ¯¿x wn‡m‡e eZ©gvb †_‡KI Zv‡K nvwm gy‡L ¯^vgxi Rb¨ cvÎx †LuvRvi Kv‡R mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡Z nq| ˆngš—x I w`qv `yB Rb `yB mg‡qi cÖwZwbwaZ¡ Ki‡jI Zv‡`i mvgvwRK Ae¯’vb GKB RvqMvq G‡m wg‡k‡Q| GKB Kvi‡Y `yR‡bB Rxeb wegyL n‡q‡Q| `yR‡bi Kv‡QB `v¤cZ¨ myL g„Zz¨mg hš¿Yvgq n‡q D‡V‡Q| Gi g~‡j i‡q‡Q †hŠZzK cÖ_vi wbôziZv| cÖkœ : (N) ÔAvw_©K A¶gZv Ges k¦ïi evwoi wbh©vZb w`qv‡K RxebwegyL K‡i Zz‡j‡Q|Õ-Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K D³wU we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ w`qv cÖvYeš— GK igYx| †m A‡bK ¯^cœ wb‡q ¯^vgxi msmv‡i G‡m‡Q| wKš‘ †hŠZzK †`Iqvi cvwievwiK A¶gZv, ¯^vgxi wbwj©ßZv Ges k¦ïi evwoi kvixwiK I gvbwmK wbh©vZb Zv‡K G‡ZvUvB Amnvq K‡i Zz‡j‡Q †h, †m Zvi cwiev‡ii m‡½I ¯^vfvweK †hvMv‡hvM i¶v Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| ch©vß †hŠZzK cÖ`v‡bi ¶gZv bv _vKvq ¯¿x n‡qI Zv‡K ¯^vgxi Rb¨ cvÎx LuyR‡Z mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡Z nq| d‡j †m gvbe Rxeb‡K wa°vi w`‡q mªóvi Kv‡Q wfbœ Rxeb cÖZ¨vkv Ki‡Q| ˆngš—x M‡í ˆngš—xi evev †MŠixksKi †hŠZzK w`‡q Acyi m‡½ †g‡qi we‡q w`‡qwQ‡jb| †hŠZz‡Ki mg¯— kZ© †gUv‡bvi ciI ˆngš—xi cwiev‡ii Avw_©K Am”QjZvi Kvi‡Y ˆngš—x‡K k¦ïi evwoi gvbwmK wbh©vZb mn¨ Ki‡Z n‡q‡Q| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ¯úó nq †h, mvgvwRK †hvM¨Zv, Ae¯’vbMZ m¶gZv I ms‡e`bkxj ü`‡qi AwaKvix nevi ciI †Kej Avw_©K A¶gZvi Kvi‡Y k¦ïi evwoi wbh©vZb ˆngš—x I w`qv‡K Rxeb wegyL I nZvkvMÖ¯— K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| `yRbB n‡q‡Q N„Y¨ cY cÖ_vi wkKvi|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

13 Rvbyqvwi, 2010| Avdwib iwbi `xN© w`‡bi †cÖ‡gi m¤úK© we‡q‡Z iƒcvš—wiZ nq| †hŠZz‡Ki `vwe †gUv‡Z bv cvivq iwbi evwo‡Z Avmvi ci †_‡KB Avdwib Zvi k¦ïi-kvïwo Øviv bvbv iKg wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi nq| we‡qi mgq iwbi cwiev‡ii `vwe wQj 5 jvL UvKv, 8wU dvwb©Pvi Ges 25 fwi ¯^Y©vjsKvi| G cwiw¯’wZ‡Z Avdwib Rxeb m¤ú‡K© µgvš^‡q welbœ I wbi“rmvwnZ n‡q c‡o‡Q| †hŠZz‡Ki Kvi‡YB mgvR Rxe‡b bvixiv n‡q‡Q D‡cw¶Z|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ÔReoROÕ kãwUi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ReoRO kãwUi A_© n‡”Q cwicvU¨nxb, †egvbvb, †eXc| cÖkœ : (L) Ôg‡b eywSjvg, Bnviv Ab¨ Rv‡Zi gvbyl|Õ-Dw³wU eywS‡q ej| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Av‡jvP¨ Dw³wU Øviv Acyi k¦ïi †MŠixksKi eveyi i“wP I gbbkxjZvi cwiPq cvIqv hvq| Kb¨v‡K we‡q w`‡q wd‡i Avmvi mgq ˆngš—xi evev †MŠixksKi Acyi nv‡Z †Mvc‡b GKwU GKk UvKvi †bvU ¸u‡R †`q| KviY ¯^iƒc †m e‡j‡Q †h, G Øviv Zvi †g‡q †hb eB wK‡b co‡Z cv‡i Ges AvwZ‡_qZvi kL †gUv‡Z cv‡i| †MŠixksKi Gi gš—‡e¨i †ik a‡i Acyi Dw³i ga¨ w`‡q Zvi fw³fiv Abyf~wZi cÖKvk N‡U‡Q|

c„ôv-35


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) Aby‡”Q‡`i e³e¨wU Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi m‡½ KZUzKz m½wZc~Y?© e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Aby‡”Q‡`i PwiÎ Avdwib| Avdwib iwbi `xN©w`‡bi †cÖ‡gi m¤úK© we‡q‡Z iƒc wb‡jI †hŠZz‡Ki `vex †gUv‡Z bv cvivq Avdwib k¦ïi evwo‡Z wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi nq| G cwiw¯’wZ‡Z Avdwib µgvš^‡q Rxeb m¤ú‡K© wbi“rmvwnZ n‡q c‡o| Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi ˆngš—x †MŠiksK‡ii †g‡q| wngvj‡qi cv`‡`‡k †m cvwjZ| †hŠZz‡Ki wjáv kZfvM PwiZv_© nevi ciI †m k¦ïievwo‡Z wbM„nxZ n‡q‡Q| GK ch©v‡q k¦ïi evwo‡Z †m Aw¯—Zn¡ xb n‡q c‡o| GK ch©v‡q cY cÖ_vi wel ev‡®úi fqven `n‡b †m Rxeb m¤ú‡K© nZvk n‡q c‡o| Ôˆngš—xÕ Mí I Aby‡”Q` Dfq As‡k †hŠZz‡Ki Kzdj ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| †hLv‡b my›`i I m¤¢vebvgq Rxeb AMÖmi n‡q‡Q web‡ói c‡_| G w`KwU‡K cÖvavb¨ w`‡q gš—e¨ Ki‡j mn‡RB ¯úó nq †h, Aby‡”Q‡`i e³e¨wU ˆngš—x M‡íi m‡½ m½wZc~Y©| cÖkœ : (N) Ô†hŠZz‡Ki Kvi‡YB mgv‡R bvixiv n‡q‡Q D‡cw¶Z|Õ-Dw³wU Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡í †hŠZzK cÖ_vi Kvi‡Y Dwbk kZ‡Ki Kb¨v `vqMÖ¯— wcZv I Kb¨vi Ae‡nwjZ Rxe‡bi Ki“Y `„k¨ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| c‡Y¨i A¼ †ewk-K‡gi m‡½ k¦ïi evwo‡Z Kb¨v †hgb Av`iYxq n‡q‡Q, †Zgwb n‡q‡Q D‡cw¶Z welq| ˆngš—xi evev kZfvM †hŠZz‡Ki wjáv PwiZv_© Kivi ciI ˆngš—x k¦ïi evwo‡Z †hgb gvbwmK wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡q‡Q, †mB mv‡_ ˆngš—xi evev n‡qI Kb¨vi k¦ïi evwo‡Z †MŠiksKi evey AcgvwbZ n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki Avdwib PwiÎI †hŠZz‡Ki Kivj MÖv‡m wbgw¾Z n‡q‡Q| †hŠZz‡Ki Ki“Y w`KwU Zvi Rxeb‡K Amvi K‡i‡Q | Zv‡K Rxeb m¤ú‡K© D`vmxb K‡i‡Q | k¦ïi evwoi `xN© †hŠZzK ZvwjKvi Pv‡c ˆngš—x‡K Ges Aby‡”Q‡`i Avdwib PwiÎ Dfq‡KB †hŠZz‡Ki Kvi‡Y nZvkvMÖ¯—fv‡e `v¤úZ¨Rxe‡b PvwjZ n‡Z †`wL| KviI AvPiY ev kvixwiK MV‡b †Pv‡L covi gZ we‡kl †Kvb ΓwU †`wL bv, Df‡qi ü`q h‡_ó ms‡e`bkxj| G‡`i †KD Zv‡`i Dci Av‡ivwcZ AwZwi³ †hŠZz‡Ki `vex wb‡q D”PvwKZ n‡q Gi cÖPvi ev cÖmvi NUvq wb| wKsev k¦ïi evwo‡Z G wel‡q cÖkœ K‡i KvD‡K weeªZ K‡i wb| ZviciI †hŠZz‡Ki KwVb `vex Zv‡`i‡KB c~iY Ki‡Z n‡e| Gi e¨wZµg n‡j ¯^vgx msmv‡i nq‡Zv G‡`i Rxeb w`‡Z n‡e; bq‡Zv D‡cw¶Z Rxe‡b Af¨¯— n‡q g„ZcÖvq gvby‡li g‡Zv K‡i msmv‡ii Nvwb Uvb‡Z n‡e| †hŠZz‡Ki Kvi‡Y ZrKvjxb mgvRRxe‡bi m‡½ eZ©gvb mgv‡Ri bvixivI mgvbfv‡e msmvi Rxe‡b Dcw¶Z n‡q Rxeb m¤ú‡K© wbivm³ n‡q D‡V‡Q| Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi b¨vq DÏxc‡KI G welqwU ¯úó n‡q D‡V‡Q| “ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) evev : mgv‡Ri †jv‡Kiv †h bvbv K_v ej‡Q| ej‡Q, †g‡q‡K †ewk eq‡m we‡q w`‡qI ¯^vgxi msmvi Kiv‡j bv| ¯^v_©ci †Kv_vKvi! gv Avi cvwi bv| Gme K_v fve‡Z em‡j ey‡Ki GKUv cv‡k e¨_v K‡i| wgby : evev, mgvR Avgv‡`i K_v e‡j mZ¨, wKš— mgvR Avgv‡`i `vwqZ¡ †bq bv| Zzwnb‡`i evwo‡Z †mvbv-`vbv-UvKv cqmv meB‡Zv †i‡L Gjvg| I‡`i Kv‡Q Avgvi cÖ‡qvRb dziv‡jI †Zvgvi Kv‡Q †h Avwg Ag~j¨|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ÔIuPvÕ kãwU Kx A‡_© e¨eüZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔIuPvÕ kãwU †nq, RNb¨ I wbK…ó A‡_© e¨eüZ nq| cÖkœ : (L) Ô†d«Â †i‡fvjy¨kbÕ ej‡Z Kx eyS? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Ô†d«Â †i‡fvjy¨kbÕ Bs‡iR ivRbxwZK, cÖvewÜK Ges myweL¨vZ e³v GWgÛ evK© (1729-1797) Gi †jLv GKwU MÖš’| AvVv‡iv kZ‡Ki †kl cÖv‡š— msNwUZ divwm wec−‡ei Dc‡i MÖš’wU wjwLZ n‡q‡Q| Gi cÖK…Z bvgKiY n‡”Q-Reflections on the Revolution in France| GwU 1790 wLª÷v‡ã cÖKvwkZ nq| c„ôv-36


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) ˆngš—xi Zzjbvq wgby wKQzUv e¨wZµg G cÖm‡½ †Zvgvi gZvgZ Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Ô‰ngš—xÕ GK ¯^fve‡Kvgj jveY¨gqx †g‡qi Kvwnbx; †h †hŠZzK cÖ_vi h~cKv‡ô wbg©g ewj n‡q‡Q| ü`qnxb I ¯^v_©vÜ k¦ïi-kvïwoi wbôzi AvPi‡Y †m cÖwZwbqZ gvbwmK wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡q‡Q| GK ch©v‡q wb®‹j¼ Ges mZ¨eªZx n‡qI ¯^vgxi wb‡ðó AmnvqZvi gy‡L †m Rxeb m¤ú‡K© nZvk n‡q c‡o‡Q ¯^vgxi msmv‡i Zvi g~j¨vqb nq wb| G w`K †_‡K wKQzUv e¨wZµg DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ wgby| †m wKQzUv cÖwZev`x; evwn¨K I g‡bvMZ Dfq w`K †_‡KB| ¯^vgxi msmv‡i †m Ae‡nwjZ n‡jI Zvi wcZv i‡q‡Q; i‡q‡Q wcZ…Mn„ | wgby Awfgv‡b, iv‡M, K‡ó ¯^vgx Zzwnb‡`i msmv‡i UvKv, Mnbv me †i‡L G‡m‡Q| ¯^vgx M„nB †h ¯¿xi me©‡kl Avkªq ev GKgvÎ Avkªq¯’j bq G K_v wgby Zvi AvPiY I B”Qv kw³i Øviv cÖKvk Ki‡Z m¶g n‡q‡Q| GLv‡bB DÏxc‡Ki wgby Pwi‡Îi ¯^vZš¿¨| cÖkœ : (N) ˆngš—x I wgby Df‡qB †hŠZzK cÖ_vi wbg©gZvi wkKvi Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Ô‰ngš—xÕ MíwU iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ ZrKvjxb Kzms¯‹viv”Qbœ I †hŠZz‡Ki h~cKv‡ô ewj nIqv GK mij, ïå, wb®‹j¼ †g‡qi Kvwnbx| †m wk¶K wcZvi Ni †_‡K A‡bK ¯^cœ wb‡q ¯^vgxi msmvi Ki‡Z G‡jI ü`qnxb ¯^v_©vÜ k¦ïi-kvïwoi wbôzi AvPiY Ges ¯^vgx Acyi wb‡ðó AmnvqZvi gy‡L Rxeb m¤ú‡K© D`vmxb n‡q c‡o‡Q| †hŠZz‡Ki wel ev‡®ú ˆngš—x-¯^vgx, ¯^vgxi msmvi I k¦ïi-kvïwo m¤ú‡K© †Kvb my›`i aviYv jvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| DÏxc‡Ki wgby wcZv‡K †Q‡o ¯^vgxi N‡i G‡jI AwaKZi †hŠZzK cvIqvi evmbvq k¦ïi-kvïwo, ¯^vgx Zv‡K Ni Ki‡Z †`q wb| wgby Aek¨ ˆngš—xi g‡Zv bM` A_© I Mnbv †hŠZzK w`‡q ¯^vgx I msmvi‡K AvuK‡o _v‡K wb; eis Mnbv, bM` A_© †hŠZzK w`‡qI euvPvi cÖ‡qvR‡b, wcZv‡K euvwP‡q ivLvi Avkvq †¯^”Qvq evevi Kv‡Q P‡j G‡m‡Q| `ytLRbK n‡jI mZ¨ †h, wgby I ˆngš—x Df‡qB ïå, wb®‹j¼, mZ¨eªZx I †ZRw¯^bx nIqv m‡Ë¡I, Mfxi mnvbyf~wZkxj I Aš—`„©wó m¤úbœ nIqv m‡Ë¡I †Kej †hŠZz‡Ki Kvi‡Y ¯^vgxi msmvi Ki‡Z cv‡i wb|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (Avb›` Kzgvi wek¦vm) cjvk ivq AMÖwY e¨vs‡Ki wmwbqi Awdmvi| wZwb wek¦we`¨vj‡q covi mgq cvwcqv miKv‡ii m‡½ †cÖg Ki‡Zb| GLb Zviv weevn Ki‡Z Pvb wKš‘ cjvk iv‡qi evev we‡q‡Z gZ w`‡”Qb bv| Zvi cÖavb KviY cvwcqvi eqm †ewk| G †ewk eqmB Zvi Kvj|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ :K) ˆngš—xi evevi bvg Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ˆngš—xi evevi bvg †MŠixksKi evey| cÖkœ : L) Acyi ÔwØZxq mxZv wemR©‡bi KvwnbxÕ gg©v_© †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: mgvwRK ixwZbxwZ gvb‡Z wM‡q Acy †h ¯^vgx wn‡m‡e Zvi `vwqZ¡ wVKgZ cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i wb; ÔwØZxq mxZv wemR©‡bi KvwnbxÕ K_vwU w`‡q g~jZ ZvB †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q| ivgvq‡Y ewY©Z ivgP‡›`ªi cZœx‡K iveY niY K‡i wb‡q hvq| ivg hLb Zv‡K D×vi K‡i wbRiv‡R¨ wb‡q Av‡mb ZLb cÖRviv Zvi mZxZ¡ wb‡q cÖkœ †Zv‡j| cÖRv Lywk Kivi Rb¨ ivg mxZv wemR©b †`q| wVK GKBfv‡e Acy ˆngš—x‡K i¶vi Rb¨ mvgvwRK ixwZbxwZi Kvi‡Y wcZvi wec‡¶ Ae¯’vb wb‡Z cv‡i wb| G Kvi‡Y GUv‡K ÔwØZxq mxZv wemR©‡bi KvwnbxÕ ejv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ : M) ÔG †ewk eqmB Zvi KvjÕ Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ †QvUM‡íi Awemsevw`Z †kªô iƒcKvi iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi (1861-1941) Zuvi ˆngš—x †QvUM‡í ZrKvjxb mgv‡R cÖPwjZ evj¨weev‡ni fqvj iƒc D‡b¥vPb K‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡K G w`KwU dz‡U D‡V‡Q| cÖ`Ë DÏxcKwU‡Z ZrKvjxb mgv‡R cÖPwjZ evj¨ weev‡ni wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| ZLb K‡bi eqm Aek¨B Kg n‡Z n‡Zv| fvj eskxq, mykªx I †hvM¨ nIqv m‡Ë¡I K‡bi eqm †ewk n‡jB eic¶ we‡q‡Z ivwR n‡Z PvBZ bv| GB gvbwmKZvi cÖKvk Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ ˆngš—xi †¶‡Î cwijw¶Z nq| †m mg‡q †MŠix`v‡bi A_©vr AvU eQ‡ii ˆngš—x mgv‡Ri †Pv‡L AvBey‡ov n‡q wM‡qwQj| G Kvi‡Y k¦ïi evwo‡Z Zv‡K gvbwmK wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡Z n‡q‡Q| c„ôv-37


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : N) DÏxc‡K Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi †h we‡kl w`K cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q Zv we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: mvwnZ¨‡K ejv n‡q _v‡K mgv‡Ri `c©Y| mgv‡R cÖPwjZ ixwZbxwZ, Am½wZ mewKQz †jLK mvwn‡Z¨ Zz‡j a‡ib| evsjv †QvUM‡íi RbK iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi (1861-1941) iwPZ Ôˆngš—xÕ Mí Ges cÖ`Ë DÏxc‡K D‡V G‡m‡Q evj¨ weevn I †hŠZzK cÖ_vi gZ `yBwU fqvbK mvgvwRK mgm¨v| DÏxc‡K ZrKvjxb mgv‡R cÖPwjZ evj¨ weev‡ni ¯^iƒc D‡b¥wPZ n‡q‡Q| Av‡MKvi w`‡K cYcÖ_v cÖPwjZ _vKvq, Kb¨vc¶‡K wbt¯^ n‡Z n‡Zv| ZvQvov eqm GKUz †ewk n‡jB GB c‡Yi UvKvi cwigvYI A‡bK †e‡o †hZ| DÏxc‡Ki mgvRev¯—eZvi G wPÎ Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íI Dc¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q| we‡q †`Iqvi ixwZ cÖPwjZ wQj| G Kvi‡Y eqm GKUz †ewk n‡jB c‡Yi UvKvi cwigvY I †e‡o †hZ| G Kvi‡Y m‡Z‡iv eQ‡ii ˆngš—xi we‡q nq A‡bK c‡Yi wewbg‡q| Zvic‡iI k¦ïievwo‡Z Zv‡K cÖwZwbqZ gvbwmK wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡Z n‡q‡Q| wn›`y mgvR AvRI G Kzms¯‹v‡ii E‡aŸ© DV‡Z cv‡i wb|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (Avb›` Kzgvi wek¦vm)

iweb GKwU †emiKvix ms¯’vq PvKzwi K‡i| †m fv‡jv‡e‡m we‡q K‡i‡Q jZv‡K| †m †hŠZzK cÖ_v‡K N„Yv K‡i| wKš‘ evev †hŠZz‡Ki Rb¨ cÖvqB jZv‡K Pvc †`q| jZvi cÖwZ gvbwmK wbh©vZb evwo‡q †`q Zvi evev| GKw`b iweb evev‡K Agvb¨ K‡i ¯¿x‡K wb‡q Avjv`v evmvq D‡Vb|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : K) Ô†k‡li KweZvÕ Kx ai‡bi MÖš’? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †k‡li KweZv GKwU Dcb¨vm MÖš’| cÖkœ : L) Ô†g‡qi eqm †ewk ewjqvB c‡Yi A¼UvI eoÕ-Dw³wU Øviv Kx eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Av‡M wn›`y mgv‡R †MŠix`vb A_©vr AvU eQ‡ii †g‡q‡K we‡q †`Iqvi ixwZ wQj| †g‡qi eqm GMvi cvi n‡jB Zv‡K we‡q †`Iqv Kó nZ| Avi †ewk eq‡mi †g‡q‡K we‡q w`‡Z cYI †ewk w`‡Z nZ| Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í ˆngš—xi eqm wQj m‡Z‡iv| ZvB Acyi m‡½ we‡q‡Z A‡bK †hŠZzK w`‡Z n‡qwQj| cÖkœ : M) Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi Acy PwiÎ DÏxc‡Ki iwe‡bi gZ cÖwZev`x bqÕ-e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: ïaygvÎ evsjv mvwnZ¨ bq wek¦mvwn‡Z¨i Ab¨Zg †kªô †QvUMíKvi iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi (1861-1941) iwPZ Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í ZrKvjxb wn›`y mgv‡Ri †hŠZzK cÖ_v m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖ`Ë DÏxc‡KI GKB welq m¤ú‡K© eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| †QvUMí Ô‰ngš—xÕ †Z ˆngi cÖwZ Acyi fv‡jvevmv Kg wQj bv| wKš‘ †hŠZz‡Ki †jv‡f Acyi evev-gv ˆngš—xi Dci gvbwmK wbh©vZb Ki‡Z ïi“ K‡i| ZLb Acy Gi wei“‡× †Kvb †Rviv‡jv cÖwZev` K‡i wb| ˆngš—xi Ki“Y cwiYwZ †`‡L †m ïay g‡b g‡b AvZ©bv` K‡i‡Q| Avevi KLbI mvgvb¨ cÖwZev` Rvbv‡Z wM‡qI evevi i³P¶zi mvg‡b †mUv Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| Aci w`‡K DÏxc‡Ki iweb †hŠZzK cÖ_v‡K N„Yv K‡ib| wZwb we‡q‡Z †Kvb †hŠZzK †bq wb Ges Zvi evev hLb Pvc cÖ‡qvM ïi“ K‡i ZLb wZwb Zvi ¯¿x‡K wb‡q Avjv`v evmvq I‡Vb| GUvB wQj Zvi cÖwZev‡`i fvlv| GLv‡b †`Lv hv‡”Q †h, Acyi gvbwmKZvi I iwe‡bi gvbwmKZvi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ j¶ Kiv hvq| Acyi gZ `ye©j g‡bi gvbyl bq iweb| cÖkœ : N) ÔAcy iwe‡bi gZ D‡`¨vMx n‡j ˆngš—xi Rxe‡bi cwiYwZ Ab¨iKg nZÕ-Dw³wU we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: wewkó †QvUMíKvi iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi (1861-1941) iwPZ Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡í †hŠZzK cÖ_vi h~cKv‡ô ewj nIqv GK jveY¨gqx †g‡qi Kvwnbx ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡KI †hŠZzK cÖ_vi wkKvi GK bvixi wPÎ Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki iweb †hŠZzK cÖ_v‡K N„Yv K‡ib| wZwb Zuvi we‡q‡Z †Kvb †hŠZzK †bb wb| wKš‘ Zvi evev wQ‡jb †hŠZzK‡jvfx| wZwb †hŠZz‡Ki Rb¨ iwe‡bi ¯¿x jZvi Dci bvbv AZ¨vPvi K‡ib| jZvi Dci gvbwmK AZ¨vPvi evwo‡q †`q Zvi k¦ïi| Z‡e Zvi Ici G wbh©vZb‡K †g‡b †bb wb iweb| wZwb cÖwZev` K‡i‡Qb Ges jZv‡K wb‡q Avjv`v msmvi mvwR‡q‡Qb| Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í ˆngš—xI †hŠZzK cÖ_vi wkKvi n‡q‡Q| Acyi evev-gv AwaK †hŠZzK cÖZ¨vkx n‡q ˆngš—x‡K bvbvfv‡e wbh©vZb K‡ib| GK mgq ˆngš—x gvbwmKfv‡e †f‡O c‡o Amy¯’ n‡q hvq| ˆngš—x wbh©vwZZ n‡jI Acy Zvi cÖwZKvi Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| Acy hw` iwe‡bi gZ c`‡¶c wbZ, Z‡e ˆngš—xi G Ki“Y cwiYwZ nZ bv| Zvi RxebI nq‡Zv A‡bK gaygq n‡Zv| c„ôv-38


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj)

†iev ga¨weË N‡ii wkw¶Z I e¨w³Z¡ m¤úbœ †g‡q| GKUz eqm n‡q we‡q nIqv‡Z k¦ïi evwo‡Z cÖ_g cÖ_g †ek K_v ïb‡Z n‡q‡Q Zv‡K wKš‘ eyw×gZx †iev G cwiw¯’wZ †ewkw`b Pj‡Z †`q wb| Zvi KvRKg© Avi fv‡jvevmv w`‡q me Rq K‡i †bq| †iev Rv‡b A_© m¤ú` w`‡q k¦ïievwoi gb Rq Kivi ¶gZv Zv‡`i †bB| †ievi G †KŠkj Aš—Z †Kvb Ki“Y cwiYwZ NUvq wb|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : K) iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi KZ mv‡j †bv‡ej cyi¯‹vi jvf K‡ib? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi 1913 mv‡j †bv‡ej cyi¯‹vi jvf K‡ib| cÖkœ : L) Acy ˆngš—x‡K wkwki bvg w`‡qwQj †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Acy cÖ_‡g ˆngš—xi bvg †Mvcb †i‡L wkwki QÙbvgwU e¨envi K‡i| Lye †fv‡i Nv‡mi Dci †h wkwki we›`y R‡g Zv mKv‡ji m~‡h©i Av‡jv‡ZB wgwj‡q hvq| wkwk‡i †hb nvwmKvbœv GK n‡q _v‡K| Sjg‡j wkwki we›`yi ¯’vwqZ¡ Lye Kg mg‡qi, Acyi Rxe‡bI ˆngš—xi Ae¯’vb ¶Y¯’vqx| wkwk‡ii ïåZv ˆngš—xi g‡a¨ weivRgvb| ˆngš—xi ¶Y¯’vqx Rxe‡b nvwmKvbœv wg‡jwg‡k GKvKvi n‡q Av‡Q| wbôziZv Avi hš¿Yv ey‡K wb‡q ˆngš—x Lye Aí mg‡qB nvwi‡q hvq G c„w_ex †_‡K ZvB Acy ˆngš—xi QÙbvg wn‡m‡e wkwki bvgwU †`q| cÖkœ : M) DÏxc‡Ki †iev Avi ˆngš—x M‡íi ˆngš—x Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨ I ˆemv`„k¨ e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: †iev I ˆngš—x M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ ˆngš—x `yR‡bB evOjvi bvix mgv‡Ri cÖwZwbwa| ZrKvjxb mgv‡Ri †cÖ¶vc‡U ˆngš—xi eqm A‰ea iK‡gi †e‡o hvIqvq A‡bK c‡Yi wewbg‡q ˆngš—xi we‡q n‡q hvq| wKš‘ k¦ïievwo‡Z cÖwZwbqZ AvZ¥xq ¯^R‡bi KvQ †_‡K Zv‡K eq‡mi †LvUv ïb‡Z nq| Avevi k¦ïievwoi †jvKRb hLb Rvb‡Z cv‡i ˆngi evev my‡` UvKv G‡b †g‡q‡K †hŠZzK w`‡q‡Q Ges Zvi evevi †Kvb Rgv‡bv UvKv †bB ZLb ˆngi Ici wbh©vZ‡bi gvÎv †e‡o hvq| ˆngi evevi m¤ú‡K© hLb KUz K_v ejv nq ZLb ˆng cÖwZev` Rvbv‡jI wb‡Ri Ici Pvjv‡bv AZ¨vPv‡ii wei“‡× †Kvb cÖwZev` K‡i bv| ˆngš—x wkw¶Z, mZ¨ev`x I ¯^”Q aviYvi †g‡q n‡jI mgvR msmv‡ii K~U †KŠkj eyw× w`‡q cÖwZnZ Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| wbôzi hš¿Yv mB‡Z bv †c‡i GKmgq ˆngš—xi Ki“Y cwiYwZ nq| Aciw`‡K DÏxc‡Ki †ieviI eqm n‡q we‡q nq wKš‘ wkw¶Zv †iev h‡_ó eyw×gZx I †KŠkjx| †h †h wel‡q †iev AcviM †mme wel‡q eyw× w`‡q k¦ïievwoi †jvK‡`i gb Rq K‡i †bq| †iev Rv‡b Zv‡`i †hŠZzK †`evi ¶gZv †bB| ZvB gy‡Li fvlv Avi KvR Kg© w`‡q msmv‡ii mK‡ji gb RywM‡q P‡j| †iev Avi ˆngš—x Df‡qB wkw¶Zv, ¯úófvlx wKš‘ ˆngš—xi †P‡q †iev mgvR msmvi m¤ú‡K© †KŠkjx ZvB k¦ïi evwo‡K KivqË Ki‡Z †c‡i‡Q| GLv‡bB ˆngš—x I †ievi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨| cÖkœ : N) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi Ô‰ngš—xiÕ Ki“Y cwiYwZi NUbvwU we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡í ZrKvjxb mgvR e¨e¯’vi iƒp AeqewU dz‡U D‡V‡Q| ZrKvjxb mgv‡R †hŠZzK cÖ_vi bMœ _vevq A‡bK bvix n‡q‡Q ¶Z-we¶Z| Zv‡`i Rxe‡b †b‡g G‡m‡Q Ki“Y GK cwiYwZ| Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í ˆngš—x ˆkk‡e gvZ…nxbv n‡q‡Q| wcZv †MŠixksKi eveyi PvKzwim~‡Î wngvj‡qi cv`‡`‡kB ˆngš—xi †e‡o IVv| A‡b‡Ki aviYv †MŠixksKi ivRKg©Pvix nIqvq A‡bK A_© m¤ú‡`i gvwjK, Avi †m †jv‡fB Acyi evev Acyi m‡½ ˆngš—xi we‡q w`‡Z AvMÖnx nq hw`I ZrKvjxb mg‡qi †cÖ¶vc‡U ˆngš—xi eqm A‰ea iK‡gi †e‡o wM‡qwQj wKš‘ eq‡mi †P‡qI c‡Yi UvKvi cwigvYUv †ewk nIqvi Kvi‡YB Acyi evevi GB AvMÖn| we‡qi ci cÖ_g wKQz w`b ˆngš—xi Av`i hZœ fv‡jvB wQj wKš‘ hLb Rvbv †Mj ˆngš—xi we‡q‡Z †h UvKv cY †`qv n‡q‡Q Zv ˆngš—xi evev avi K‡i w`‡q‡Q Ges wZwb ivR cwiev‡ii cÖavbgš¿x †Zv bqB eis wk¶v wefv‡Mi Aa¨¶ ZLb ˆngš—xi k¦ïievwoi cy‡iv †Pnviv cv‡ë †Mj| ˆngš—xi Ici †b‡g Gj bvbvgyLx wbh©vZb| cÖwZwbqZ P‡j eq‡mi †LvUv, c~‡Rvi _vjv mvRv‡Z bv cvivi Rb¨ KU~w³ c„ôv-39


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

wKš‘ hLb evev †MŠiksKi‡K wg_¨vev`x mve¨¯— Kiv nq ZLb ˆngš—x cÖwZev` K‡i Z‡e †mB cÖwZev` †Kvb mydj e‡q Av‡b bv| ¯^vgx Acy hw`I ˆngš—x‡K A‡bK fv‡jvev‡m wKš‘ cwiev‡ii wei“‡× †h‡q †Kvb cÖwZev` Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| ˆngš—x wQj ¯^”Q aviYvi, †Kvb wg_¨v‡K †m cÖkªq w`‡Z †k‡L wb| gvZ…nxbv nIqvq msmv‡ii KvRK‡g©I †hgb AcUz †Zgwb mvsmvwiK K~U †KŠkj m¤ú‡K©I AbwfÁ, ZvB †Zv DÏxc‡Ki †iev †h †KŠkj Aej¤^b K‡i Rxe‡bi Ki“Y cwiYwZi nvZ †_‡K wb‡R‡K i¶v K‡i‡Q ˆngš—x wkw¶Z n‡qI †m †KŠkj Aej¤^b Ki‡Z cv‡i wb, d‡j Zvi Rxe‡b †b‡g G‡m‡Q Ki“Y GK cwiYwZ|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj)

†mw`bB cÖ_g AwbK Rvb‡Z cvij mvwn‡Z¨ †QvUMí Kv‡K ejv nq| ˆngš—xi K¬vm Ki‡Z †h‡q m¨vi AwbK‡`i K¬v‡m ejwQj, †QvUM‡íi bvwK †ek wKQz kZ© Av‡Q, †hgb- †QvUMí n‡Z n‡j MíwU‡K Ggb AvKv‡ii n‡Z n‡e †hb 10-50 wgwb‡Ui g‡a¨ c‡o †djv hvq, Avevi †hLv‡b A‡bK PwiÎ, `xN© Kvwnbxi eY©bv _vKv Pj‡e bv| ¯^í Pwi‡Îi Dcw¯’wZ‡Z Rxe‡bi GKwU LwÊZ As‡ki eY©bvB bvwK †QvUMí| M‡íi †klUv‡ZI _vK‡Z n‡e PgK| M‡íi mgvw߇Z cvV‡Ki gb AZ…ß _vK‡e| Mí †kl K‡i cvV‡Ki g‡b GKUv AZ…wß †_‡K hv‡e, g‡b n‡e †kl n‡qI nBj bv †kl| eY©bvi QUv †bB, NUbvi NbNUv †bB, ZË¡ Dc‡`‡ki evjvB †bB Zey †QvU Mí mvwn‡Z¨i Ab¨Zg ¸i“Z¡c~Y© I AvaywbK kvLv, m¨v‡ii K_v ï‡b Awb‡Ki †QvUMí m¤ú‡K© †ek AvMÖn m„wó n‡q‡Q|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : K) Ôˆngš—xÕ †QvUMíwU Kvi †jLv? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ôˆngš—xÕ †QvUMíwU iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii †jLv| cÖkœ : L) Acy wØZxq mxZv wemR©‡bi Kvwnbx K_vwU w`‡q Kx †evSv‡Z †P‡q‡Q? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Acy Zvi ¯¿x ˆngš—x‡K h‡_ó fv‡jvevmZ| ZrKvjxb mgv‡Ri †cÖ¶vc‡U ˆngš—xi eqm †ewk n‡jI ˆngš—x wQj wkw¶Z d‡j Lye mn‡RB Acy Avi ˆngš—xi g‡a¨ fv‡jvevmvi m¤úK© ˆZwi nq| wKš‘ Z_vKw_Z wn›`y mgv‡Ri cY cÖ_v Avi Acyi evevi A_©‡jvjyc gvbwmKZvi cÖwZev` Acy Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| ZvB wcÖq ¯¿x‡K hLb †hŠZz‡Ki Rb¨ wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡Z nq Acy ZLb †fZ‡i †fZ‡i `yg‡i gyP‡o †M‡jI cÖwZev` Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| A‡hva¨vi ivRv ivg †hgb cÖRv‡`i g‡bvićbi Rb¨ Zv‡`i `vwei gy‡L AwMœcix¶vq DËxY© mZx ¯¿x mxZv‡K ebev‡m cvwV‡qwQj ZLb †mB cÖRv‡`i `‡j †hb AcyI wQj| ZvB Acyi cwievi Z_v wn›`y mgv‡Ri wbôzi AvPi‡Y Acy mg_©b w`‡q‡Q e‡jB wb®úvc ˆngš—x‡K i¶v Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| Avi †m Kvi‡Y ˆngš—xi Ki“Y cwiYwZ †hb Av‡iKevi mxZv wemR©‡bi Kvwnbxi Rb¥ w`‡q‡Q| cÖkœ : M) †QvUM‡íi ˆewk󨸇jv Kx Kx-e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: †QvUMí mvwn‡Z¨i Ab¨Zg ¸i“Z¡c~Y© I AvaywbK kvLv| †QvUM‡íi ˆewkó¨ m¤ú‡K© wewfbœ mg‡q wewfbœ mvwnwZ¨K, mgv‡jvPK bvbv gZvgZ cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| Z‡e mKj gZvgZ ch©v‡jvPbv Ki‡j K‡qKwU g~j ˆewkó¨ cvIqv hvq| †hgb• †QvUM‡íi AvKvi-AvqZb mxwgZ cwim‡ii n‡Z n‡e| A_©vr me©wbgœ `k wgwbU n‡Z m‡e©v”P cÂvk wgwb‡Ui g‡a¨ †QvUMí c‡o †djv m¤¢e| • †QvUM‡í A‡bK Pwi‡Îi mgv‡ek _vK‡e bv eis ¯^í Pwi‡Îi Dcw¯’wZ‡Z Kvwnbx ewY©Z n‡e| • †QvUM‡íi Kvwnbx `xN©vwqZ n‡e bv| †QvUM‡í mgMÖ Rxeb bq, eis Rxe‡bi GKwU LÊvs‡ki eY©bv _vK‡e| • †QvUM‡íi GKwU Ab¨Zg ˆewkó¨ n‡”Q G‡Z †hgb eY©bvi QUv †bB, NUbvi NbNUv †bB †Zgwb ZË¡ Dc‡`‡ki Dcw¯’wZI †bB| A_©vr †QvUM‡íi ga¨ w`‡q †Kvb ZË¡ ev Dc‡`k cvV‡Ki Rb¨ cÖ`vb Kiv n‡e bv| • †QvUM‡íi ïi“‡Z _vK‡e PgK Ges Gi mgvw߇Z cvV‡Ki g‡b GK AZ…wß RvMÖZ n‡e| cvV‡Ki g‡b n‡e †kl n‡qI nj bv †kl| Dchy©³ ˆewk󨸇jv †QvUM‡íi MVb web¨v‡mi Ab¨Zg kZ©| c„ôv-40


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : N) Ôˆngš—xÕ †QvUMíwU GKwU mv_©K †QvUMí-DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K eY©bv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ Ôˆngš—xÕ GKwU AmvaviY †QvUMí| welq I ˆewkó¨MZfv‡e †QvUM‡íi me ¸Yvewj Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi g‡a¨ we`¨gvb| ZvB evsjvmvwn‡Z¨i †QvUMí kvLvq GwU we‡kl ¯’vb `Lj K‡i Av‡Q| †QvUMí n‡Z n‡j MíwUi AvKvi Ggb n‡Z nq †hb Zv m‡e©v”P 50 wgwbU ev 1 NÈvi g‡a¨ mgvß Kiv hvq| Ô‰ngš—xÕ MíwUI AvKvi AvqZ‡b h_v_©| †QvUM‡íi Ab¨Zg ˆewkó¨ n‡jv M‡í ¯^í Pwi‡Îi Dcw¯’wZ‡Z Rxe‡bi GKwU LÊvsk ewY©Z n‡q _v‡K, ˆngš—x M‡íI ¯^í Pwi‡Îi Dcw¯’wZ, Ôˆngš—xÕi Rxe‡bi GKwU LÊ wPÎ AZ¨š— my›`ifv‡e iƒcvwqZ n‡q‡Q| M‡í `xN© mg‡qi †Kvb Kvwnbx †bB eis ˆngš—xi weevwnZ Rxe‡bi AíwKQz w`‡bi NUbvB GLv‡b ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í ˆngš—xi Rxe‡bi GKwU As‡ki eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| †jLK †Kv‡bv Mfxi ZË¡ Dc‡`k Av‡jvPbv K‡ib wb| Z‡e Kvwnbxi Aš—iv‡j mgv‡Ri cYcÖ_vi gvivZ¥K KzdjwU Avgv‡`i mvg‡b dz‡U D‡V‡Q| Kvwnbxi mgvw߇Z Avgiv ˆngš—xi Ki“Y cwiYwZi K_v Rvb‡Z cvwi| bvUKxq mgvw߇Z cvV‡Ki g‡b h‡_ó AZ…wßi Rb¥ †bq| cvV‡Ki g‡b GKwU wRÁvmvi Rb¥ w`‡q iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi AZ¨š— KzkjZvi m‡½ M‡íi cwimgvwß NUvb| eY©bvi ci eY©bv bq eis K_vi k³ eywbqv‡` ¯^í cwim‡i ˆngš—x M‡í ZrKvjxb mgv‡Ri cY cÖ_vi wbôzi wbg©g wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| Dchy©³ ˆewkó¨ mg~‡ni Av‡jv‡K ejv hvq †h, iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii ˆngš—x evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i Ab¨Zg GKwU †QvU Mí|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj) iv¯—vi av‡i `uvwo‡q Zcy Av‡Li im Lv‡”Q Avi im ˆZwii cÖwµqv wbweó wP‡Ë Ae‡jvKb Ki‡Q| GK mgq Zvi g‡b n‡Z jvMj imnxb Av‡Li †Qveov †hb Zvi ¯¿x wigv Avi im ˆZwii hš¿wU Zvi cwievi| cwiev‡ii wbôzi wb‡®úl‡Y myeY© Kvwš—i wigv AvR kªxnxb| Av‡Li †Qveovi gZ Zv‡K Qz‡o †djv n‡q‡Q| k¦ïi evwoi `vwe †gUv‡Z cv‡i wb, cv‡i wb †jv‡fi wRnŸv‡K Z…ß Ki‡Z| ZvB AvR wigvi GB gg©vwš—K cwiYwZ‡Z AvR‡Ki gZ †mw`bI Zcy ïay ZvwK‡q ZvwK‡q †`Lv Qvov wKQzB Ki‡Z cv‡i wb|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : K) Ôˆngš—xÕ †QvUMíwU cÖ_g †Kvb cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ôˆngš—xÕ †QvUMíwU cÖ_g ÔmeyRcÎÕ gvwmK cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq| cÖkœ L) : ÔˆR¨‡ô¨i Li‡iŠ`ªB Zv ˆR¨‡ôi AkÖ“k~b¨ †iv`bÕ- ej‡Z Kx eywS‡q‡Qb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Acyi Rxe‡b ˆngš—xi ¯’vwqZ¡ wkwki KYvi gZB ¶YKv‡ji| ZrKvjxb i¶Ykxj †Muvov wn›`y mgv‡Ri wbg©g ejx ˆngš—x| evevi KvQ †_‡K A_© cÖvwßi m¤¢vebv †bB †R‡b ˆngi k¦ïi evwoi †jvKRb Zvi Dci ïi“ K‡i AZ¨vPvi| AvaywbK wk¶vq wkw¶Z n‡qI Acy ZrKvjxb mgvR I cwiev‡ii wei“‡× †h‡q ¯¿xi cÖwZ Pvjv‡bv AZ¨vPv‡ii cÖwZev` Ki‡Z cv‡i wb, Acy cÖwZwbqZ Aš—`n© ‡b `» n‡q‡Q| ˆR¨‡ôi Li‡iŠ`ªB †hb Acyi wbtkã Kvbœv| ˆngš—xnxb Acyi Rxe‡bi Aš—wb©wnZ `nb‡KB †jLK ˆR¨‡ôi AkÖ“k~b¨ †iv`b e‡j‡Qb| cÖkœ: M) DÏxc‡Ki Zcy I Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi Acyi Pwi‡Îi g‡a¨ Kx wgj cvIqv hvq? Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡í ZrKvjxb i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgv‡Ri bMœ wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| gvZ…nxbv ˆngš—xi evev AwaK c‡Yi wewbg‡q Acyi m‡½ ˆngš—xi we‡q †`b| Acyi evevI A‡_©i †jv‡fB AvBey‡ov †g‡q‡K cyÎea~ wn‡m‡e MÖnY K‡i wKš‘ c‡i hLb Acyi evev Rvb‡Z cv‡i †h, ˆngš—xi we‡q‡Z †h UvKv c„ôv-41


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cY †`qv n‡q‡Q Zv Pov my‡` avi Kiv Avi wZwb ivRcwiev‡ii cÖavbgš¿x bb, eis wk¶v wefv‡Mi Aa¨¶ †mw`b †_‡KB ˆngš—xi m‡½ ïi“ nq wbôzi AvPiY| AvaywbK wk¶vq wkw¶Z n‡qI cwiev‡ii wei“‡× †h‡q Acy †Kvb cÖwZev` Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| Amy¯’ ˆngš—x‡K wb‡q Wv³v‡ii civg‡k© nvIqv e`‡j †h‡Z PvB‡jI evevi ag‡Ki Kv‡Q Acyi PvIqv _g‡K hvq| GK mgq ˆngš—xi Rxe‡b †b‡g Av‡m †e`bvweayi Ki“Y cwiYwZ| ˆngš—xwenxb Acyi Aš—`n© ‡b ˆR¨‡ôi Li‡iv‡`ªi gZ AkÖ“k~b¨| DÏxc‡Ki Zcy †hb ˆngš—xi M‡íi ˆngš—xi ¯^vgx AcyiB cÖwZg~wZ©| wigv k¦ïievwoi `vwe c~iY Ki‡Z cv‡i wb, Zv‡`i †jv‡fi wRnŸv‡K Z…ß Ki‡Z cv‡i wb A_©vr †hŠZz‡Ki A_© cwi‡kva Ki‡Z bv cvivq wigv k¦ïievwo †_‡K weZvwoZ nq| wigv Zvi me©¯^ w`‡q †Póv K‡i‡Q wKš‘ †kl i¶v Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| wbôzi mgvR I cwiev‡ii Pv‡c mykªx wigv n‡q‡Q kªxnxb, Av‡Li †Qveovi gZ †m n‡q‡Q Dw”Qó| ¯^vgx Zcy Zv‡K euvPv‡Z cv‡i wb| bxie `k©‡Ki f~wgKvq wb‡R‡K wbweó †i‡L‡Q| ZvB ejv hvq, Acy Ges Zcy Df‡qi gv‡SB Kvcyi“‡lvwPZ AvPiY j¶Yxq| cÖkœ: N) ÔAv‡Li †Qveovi gZ Zv‡K Qz‡o †djv n‡q‡QÕ-Dw³wUi Av‡jv‡K ˆngš—x M‡íi g~j e³e¨ we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii ˆngš—x M‡í †hŠZzK cÖ_vi fqvbK cwiYwZi K_v e¨³ n‡q‡Q| Acyi evev c‡Yi UvKvi †jv‡f AvBey‡ov ˆngš—x‡K †Q‡j Acyi m‡½ we‡q w`‡Z AvMÖnx nq| ZvQvov Acyi evevi aviYv ˆngš—xi evev †MŠixksKi evey ivRKg©Pvix| Zvi g„Zz¨i ci †Q‡j AcyB †m ¯’v‡b ¯’jvwfwl³ n‡eb| wKš‘ hLb Rvb‡Z cv‡ib †MŠixksKi evey cÖavbgš¿x bb eis wk¶v wefv‡Mi Aa¨¶ Ges m¤ú`nxb, GgbwK c‡Yi UvKvI Pov my‡` avi Kiv ZLb ˆngš—xi Dci bvbvgyLx wbh©vZb ïi“ nq, KL‡bv eqm wb‡q †LvUv, KL‡bv c~©Rvi _vjv mvRv‡Z bv cvivi Rb¨ Mvjg›` Kiv, KL‡bv †MŠixksKi evey‡K Dcnvm Kiv wbZ¨ ˆbwgwËK welq n‡q `uvovq, GK ch©v‡q ˆngš—x Amy¯’ n‡q c‡o| ˆngi ¯^vgx Acy cvwiev‡ii AZ¨vPv‡ii wei“‡× cÖwZev` Ki‡Z cv‡i bv, Wv³v‡ii civg‡k© Amy¯’ ¯¿x‡K wb‡q nvIqv e`‡j †h‡Z PvB‡j evevi ag‡Ki Kv‡Q Zv‡K civ¯— n‡Z nq| µ‡gB ˆngš—x Av‡iv Amy¯’ n‡q c‡o Ges GK mg‡q ¯^ívqy ea~Rxe‡bi cwimgvwß N‡U| AvaywbK wk¶vq wkw¶Z Acy mgvR msmv‡ii wei“‡× †h‡q cÖwZev` Ki‡Z cv‡i wb e‡j ˆng‡K fv‡jvevmv m‡Ë¡I †m fv‡jvevmv‡K nviv‡Z n‡q‡Q| ZrKvjxb i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgv‡R cY cÖ_vi gvivZ¥K Kzdj Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í AZ¨š— wbLuyZfv‡e cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| k¦ïievwo‡Z †g‡q‡`i hZœAvwË nZ c‡Yi UvKvi wewbg‡q| Z‡e Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi ZrKvjxb mgvR e¨e¯’vi Lye GKUv cwieZ©b eZ©gvb mgv‡RI cvIqv hvq bv| GL‡bv Avgv‡`i mgv‡R bvix‡`i g~j¨vqb nq †hb †hŠZz‡Ki A‡_©i gvcKvwV‡Z| wk¶v, †mŠ›`h©, i“wP †mLv‡b g~j welq nq bv| A_©vr cY Z_v †hŠZz‡Ki wbg©gZvi huvZvK‡j hy‡Mi ci hyM bvixiv wb‡®úwlZ n‡q Pj‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (†gvt ivqnvb Avjx) bvCgv †g‡qwU D”P wkw¶Zv, ms¯‹w… Zgbv Ges D`vi| gwn‡gi mv‡_ cvwievwiKfv‡e we‡q nq| we‡qi wKQzw`b ciB bvCgvi iƒc-‡mŠ›`h© wb‡q K_v DVj| gwng wb‡RI †mŠ›`h©‡K cÖvavb¨ w`‡q wbR ¯¿x‡K †nq Ki‡Z Qv‡o bv| bvCgv D”P wkw¶Zv n‡qI cÖwZØw›ØZvi hy‡× †n‡i wM‡q †eKvi Rxeb hvcb Ki‡Q| GB `yBB Zvi Rxe‡b Kvj n‡q Gj| k¦ïi-kvïwo, ¯^vgx mevB †hb Zv‡K †mŠ›`h© Avi A_©-weË Øviv cwigvc Kij| G †hb ¯^v_©‡jvjycZviB bvgvš—i|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í ˆngš—xi evevi bvg Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : ˆngš—xi evevi bvg †MŠixksKi|

c„ôv-42


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (L) Ôhvnv w`jvg Zvnv DRvo KwiqvB w`jvgÕ Dw³wUi Zvrch© †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í Av‡jvP¨ Dw³wU ˆngš—xi evev †MŠixksKi evey K‡iwQ‡jb| ˆngš—xi we‡qi ci ˆngš—x‡K Acyi nv‡Z Zz‡j †`Iqvi ci wZwb wbZvš— GKv n‡q c‡ob| GKv Rxe‡b Kó bv K‡i ˆngš—xi evmvi Av‡kcv‡k evmv fvov K‡i _vKvi cÖ¯—ve †`q ebgvjx evey| ZLbB ebgvjx evey‡K G K_v e‡jb †MŠixksKi evey| we‡q †`Iqvi ci †g‡qi Avkcv‡k _vKv gv‡b †g‡qi KvQ †_‡K †Kvb mvnvh¨ mn‡hvwMZv Avkv Kiv Avi G Kvi‡Y wZwb Kb¨vm¤cÖ`vb ¯^iƒc GK_v e‡jb| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡Ki bvCgv Pwi‡Îi mv‡_ ˆngš—x M‡íi Ôˆngš—xÕ Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨-ˆemv`„k¨ Zz‡j a‡iv| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡K bvCgv PwiÎwU †QvUM‡íi RbK iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ Ô‰ngš—xÕ bvgK M‡íi ˆngš—x Pwi‡Îi cÖwZiƒc| Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í ˆngš—x †hgb †hŠZzK cÖ_vi Kv‡Q bwZ ¯^xKvi K‡i Ki“Y cwiYwZ eiY K‡i‡Q| mgv‡Ri wKQz Awbqg, k¦ïi kvïwoi µzi`„wó, ¯^vgxi bxieZv G meB ˆngš—x Pwi‡Îi Ki“Y cwiYwZi KviY| DÏxc‡K ewY©Z bvCgv PwiÎI †Zgwb ¯^vgx, k¦ïi-kvïwo Øviv wbM„nxZ| ¯^vgx iƒc-‡mŠ›`h©‡K cÖvavb¨ †`Iqvi Rb¨ ¯¿xi D”P wk¶v, ms¯‹…wZ wPš—v, D`viZv‡K AeÁv K‡i‡Q Ab¨w`‡K PvKzwi bv cvIqvq A_© cÖvwßi AvkvI webvk n‡q‡Q| GZme Kvi‡Y bvCgv‡K †g‡b wb‡Z n‡q‡Q civRq| ˆngš—x M‡í ˆngš—xi we‡qi ci Zvi k¦ïi-kvïwo †hgb gv_vq Zz‡j ivLZ wKš—y hLb †`Lj †hŠZzK cÖvwßi Avi †Kvb Avkv †bB ZLb †_‡KB ïi“ nq gvbwmKfv‡e AZ¨vPvi| DÏxc‡K bvCgv Pwi‡Îi †¶‡ÎI bvCgv PvKzwi bv cvIqvq AwZwi³ A_© jv‡fi Avkv bm¨vr n‡q hvq Avevi iƒc-‡mŠ›`h© Kg _vKvq Zvi mv‡_ ïi“ nq AgvbwmK wbh©vZb| Gme wKQzB ˆngš—x PwiÎ Ges bvCgv PwiÎ `ywU‡K GKe„‡š—i dzj wn‡m‡e cwiPq Kwi‡q †`q| ˆngš—xi ¯^vgx Acy‡K †`Lv hvq bxie f~wgKvq| evev gv‡qi i³P¶z‡K D‡c¶v K‡i ¯¿x‡K i¶v Ki‡Z cv‡i bv e‡U; wKš—y gvbwmKfv‡e mvnvh¨ KiZ| Avi DÏxc‡K bvCgv Pwi‡Î †`Lv hvq ¯^vgx I k¦ïi-kvïwo `yBRbB Zv‡K gvbwmKfv‡e Amn‡hvwMZv K‡i‡Q| bvCgvi Rxe‡b †KDB mn‡hvMx nq wb| ˆngš—xi Rxe‡b mn‡hvMx Ges mn‡hvwMZv `yBB wQj| GLv‡b `yR‡bi gv‡S ˆemv`„k¨ j¶Yxq| cÖkœ : (N) ÔDÏxc‡Ki bvCgv Ges M‡íi ˆngš—x mgv‡Ri ¯^v_©‡jvjyc gvbwmKZvi wkKviÕ e¨vL¨v Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi cÖavb PwiÎ ˆngš—x| †hŠZzK cÖ_vi h~cKv‡ô hv‡K ewj n‡Z nq| Avevi DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ bvCgv PwiÎwU‡K k¦ïi-kvïwo Ges ¯^vgx gwn‡gi A_©‡jvjyc gvbwmKZvi wkKvi n‡Z nq| Ôˆngš—xÕ MíwU‡Z †hŠZzK cÖ_vi KzcÖfve Ges mvgvwRK ixwZ-bxwZi evûj¨ cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q| †hŠZz‡Ki Kvi‡Y ZrKv‡j KZ bvix‡K S‡i †h‡Z n‡q‡Q| mvgvwRK ixwZ-bxwZ †g‡b Pj‡Z wM‡q Ges k¦ïikvïwoi AeÁv Ae‡njv Avi ¯^vgxi wbieZv ˆngš—x‡K `» K‡i‡Q| wVK †Zgwbfv‡e DÏxc‡Ki bvCgv‡KI n‡Z n‡q‡Q `»| Acyi evev-gv‡qi aviYv wQj ˆngš—xi evevi A‡bK UvKv-cqmv Av‡Q Avi fwel¨‡Z mKj m¤úwËi gvwjK n‡e Zvi †Q‡j Acy| wKš—y c‡i hLb eyS‡Z cvi‡jb †h, ˆngš—xi evevi KvQ †_‡K UvKv-cqmv cvIqv hv‡e bv ZLbB ïi“ nq wbh©vZb| Ab¨w`‡K bvCgv‡K we‡qi mgq iƒc-†mŠ›`h© bv †`L‡jI cieZx©‡Z iƒc †mŠ›`h©‡K cÖvavb¨ †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| Avevi hLbB †`‡L‡Q bvCgv PvKzwi cv‡e bv ev cv‡”Q bv ZLbB bvCgvi mv‡_ Zvi ¯^vgx Ges k¦ïi-kvïwo wbh©vZb ïi“ K‡i| G †_‡KI `yRb‡K GKBiƒ‡c †`Lv hvq| Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi mgvRev¯—eZv ev ZrKvjxb mgv‡R bvix‡`i g~j¨vqb Kiv nZ A‡_©i gvcKvwV‡Z| †h Kvi‡Y mKj wKQzi mv‡_ Avw_©K welq Rwo‡q _vKZ| DÏxc‡K bvCgv Pwi‡Î †`Lv hvq Zvi D”P wk¶v, ms¯‹…wZ fvebv, D`viZv GmewKQz A‡_©i gvcKvwVi wbKU civwRZ n‡q‡Q| Avi ZvB ejv hvq ˆngš—x I bvCgv mgv‡Ri ¯^v_©‡jvjycZvi wkKvi| c„ôv-43


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (†gvt ivqnvb Avjx) iv‡k` †PŠayix Zuvi GKgvÎ †Q‡j myRvZ †PŠayix‡K we‡q †`b weËkvjx Kvgvj mv‡n‡ei GKgvÎ †g‡q i“wbi m‡½| we‡qi wKQzw`b ciB D”P wk¶vi Rb¨ myRvZ cvwo Rgvq A‡÷ªwjqvq| GiB g‡a¨ Kvgvj mv‡n‡ei g„Zz¨ nq| Kvgvj mv‡n‡ei mg¯— m¤úwË DBj Abyhvqx ÔKvgvj Uªv÷ dvD‡ÛkbÕ Gi AvIZvq P‡j hvq| DB‡ji msev` †c‡q iv‡k` †PŠayixi gv_vq AvKvk †f‡½ c‡o| w`‡b w`‡b i“wbi Dci †µva evo‡Z _v‡K Ges wbh©vZbI ïi“ nq| GK mgq myRvZI i“wbi m‡½ †hvMv‡hvM eÜ K‡i †`q|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) we‡qi mgq Acyi eqm KZ wQj? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : we‡qi mgq Acyi eqm wQj Dwbk eQi| cÖkœ : (L) ÔAvwg cvBjvg, Avwg Bnv‡K cvBjvgÕ Dw³wUi Zvrch© †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : ˆngš—xi mv‡_ we‡qi Av‡M Acy ˆngš—xi Qwe †`‡L g‡b g‡b ˆngš—x‡K ü`‡qi gwY‡KvVvq ¯’vb †`q| AZtci gš¿cv‡Vi ci ˆngš—x‡K ea~ wn‡m‡e cvIqvi ga¨ w`‡q Acyi g‡bi eû cÖwZw¶Z Avkv c~iY nq| ˆngš—xi †Kvgj nv‡Zi ¯úk© Acyi nv‡Z jvM‡j Av‡eMvc−yZ n‡q Acy Avcb g‡b G ai‡bi Dw³ K‡i| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡Ki myRv‡Zi m‡½ ˆngš—x M‡í Acy Pwi‡Îi m¤úK© Zz‡j a‡iv| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : MíKvi iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ ˆngš—x †QvUM‡íi bvqK PwiÎ Acy| DÏxc‡Ki myRvZ Pwi‡Îi mv‡_ M‡íi Acy Pwi‡Îi †ek wKQz w`K †_‡K wgj cvIqv hvq| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ myRvZ iv‡k` †PŠayixi GKgvÎ †Q‡j| hvi weevn nq Kvgvj mv‡n‡ei GKgvÎ †g‡q i“wbi mv‡_| we‡qi ci myRvZ D”P wk¶vi Rb¨ we‡`‡k cvwo Rgvq| wKš—y ˆngš—x M‡í Acy K‡j‡R covi Rb¨ evwo‡Z _vK‡jI †m ¯¿xi cÖwZ `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z e¨_© nq| Acy †hgb evev-gv Ges mgv‡Ri Kv‡Q wb‡R‡K mgc©Y K‡i, †Zgwb DÏxc‡K myRvZ evevi Kv‡Q bwZ ¯^xKvi K‡i| Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í Acyi evev †hgb ˆngš—xi evevi ab-m¤úwËi w`‡K bRi w`‡qwQj e‡jB Acy‡K evi evi kvmb K‡i Avi AcyI eva¨ †Q‡ji gZ evevi Av‡`k cvjb K‡i| wVK †Zgwb DÏxc‡K myRvZI Zvi evevi Av‡`k, wb‡la †g‡b Pj‡Z eva¨ nq| myRvZ Zvi evevi Bkvivq i“wbi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM eÜ K‡i †`q| KviY wn‡m‡e ejv hvq i“wbi evevi m¤úwË| G‡¶‡ÎI ejv hvq myRvZ Pwi‡Îi mv‡_ Acy Pwi‡Îi wgj i‡q‡Q| evOvwj bvixiv cÖwZwbqZB wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi| mvgvwRK m‡PZbZv I cÖwZ‡ivaB wbh©vZb †iv‡ai GKgvÎ Dcvq| cÖkœ : (N) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Acyi evevi PvwiwÎK ˆewkó¨ Zz‡j ai| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : MíKvi iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ Ôˆngš—xÕ Mí ZrKvjxb wn›`y mgv‡Ri mgvRev¯—eZvi GK wPÎ| G M‡íi bvqK Acyi evev †mB mgv‡Ri †hŠZzK †jvfx‡`i cÖwZwbwa| A_©, weË, cÖwZcwËi †bkv gvbyl‡K Agvbyl Ges wnsmª n‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í Acyi evevI A_©‡jv‡fi Kvi‡Y wnsmª n‡q I‡V| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ iv‡k` †PŠayix Zvi †Q‡j myRvZ‡K Kvgvj mv‡n‡ei †g‡qi mv‡_ we‡q †`b m¤úwËi †jv‡f| DËivwaKvi m~‡Î mg¯— m¤úwËi gvwjK n‡e Zvi †Q‡j| wKš—y Avkvq wbivkv n‡Z nj Kvgvj mv‡n‡ei g„Zz¨i Kvi‡Y| G †hb Acyi eveviB cÖwZg~wZ©| myRv‡Zi evev iv‡k` †PŠayix i“wbi Dci wbh©vZb ïi“ K‡i A_© cvIqvi Avkv †kl nIqvi ci| f`ªZvi gy‡Lvk c‡i Acyi evevi gZ iv‡k` †PŠayixI GKRb AZ¨vPvix k¦ïi iƒ‡c Avwef©~Z nb| ˆngš—xÕ M‡í D”P wkw¶Z n‡qI k¦ï‡ii Kv‡Q, Kzms¯‹v‡ii Kv‡Q civwRZ n‡q‡Q Acyi cZœx ˆngš—x| †hŠZzK †jvfx, A_©‡jvfx Acyi evev GZUvB ¯^v_©vÜ wQ‡jb †h, Amy¯’ cyÎea~‡K wPwKrm‡Ki Kv‡QI †h‡Z †`q wb| Avi Zvi A_©jvjmvB ˆngš—x‡K Ki“Y cwiYwZi w`‡K †V‡j w`‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki iv‡k` †PŠayix cyÎea~i mv‡_ AgvbweK AvPiY K‡i‡Q| GgbwK cyÎ myRv‡ZiI †hvMv‡hvM wew”Qbœ K‡i w`‡q‡Q| G‡¶‡ÎI myRv‡Zi evevi PvwiwÎK ˆewkó¨ Ges Acyi evevi PvwiwÎK ˆewkó¨ GKB m~‡Î Muv_v| AwaK A_© †jvf gvbyl‡K cïZ¡ `vb K‡i| gbyl¨Z¡ nvwi‡q gvbyl KvÊÁvbnxb n‡q hvq| c„ôv-44


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`) RbwcÖq K_vwkíx ‡mv‡nj Avn‡g` fv‡jv‡e‡m we‡q K‡iwQ‡jv Zvi Lvjv‡Zv †evb wicv‡K| we‡qi cÖvq eQiLv‡bK ci moK `yN©Ubvq gvivZ¥Kfv‡e AvnZ n‡q wicv gviv hvq| wicvi GB AvKw¯§K g„Zz¨ †mv‡nj‡K ¯—ä K‡i †`q| Gici GK hyM †K‡U †M‡jI †mv‡nj Avi we‡q K‡iwb| cwiev‡ii mevi Aby‡iva D‡c¶v K‡i †m wm×vš— wb‡q‡Q Rxe‡b Avi KL‡bv we‡q Ki‡e bv| wicvi ¯§„wZ‡K AvuK‡o a‡iB †m †eu‡P Av‡Q| †m Zvi bvbv †jLvi †fZi wicv‡K GL‡bv Rxeš— K‡i a‡i ivLvi †Póv Ki‡Q| (K) Acy Kvi mv‡_ wkwk‡ii Zzjbv K‡i‡Q? (L) ‰R¨‡ôi AkÖ“k~b¨ †iv`b ej‡Z Kx ‡evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q? (M) †mv‡nj Avn‡g‡`i mv‡_ Acyi ‡Kvb †Kvb wel‡q wgj i‡q‡Q e‡j Zzwg g‡b K‡iv, †Kb? (N) Ô†m Zvi †jLvi †fZi GL‡bv wicv‡K Rxeš— K‡i †i‡L‡QÕÑ Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wU we‡k−lY Ki| ...............................................................................................................................DËigvjv (K) Acy ˆngš—xi mv‡_ wkwk‡ii Zzjbv K‡i‡Q| (L) ¯¿x ˆngš—xi Rb¨ Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi K_K Acy Zvi weinKvZi Ae¯’vbwU Zz‡j ai‡Z wM‡qB ‰R¨‡ôi Li‡iŠ`ª I AkÖ“k~b¨ †iv`‡bi K_v D‡j−L K‡i‡Q| gvbyl †hgb Aí †kv‡K KvZi Ges AwaK †kv‡K cv_i n‡q hvq ˆngš—xi wei‡n Acyi Ae¯’vI wVK †ZgbwU n‡qwQ‡jv| ZvB G welqwU cÖKvk Ki‡Z wM‡qB Acy ˆR¨ô gv‡mi Li‡iŠ`ª‡K Zvi AkÖ“k~b¨ †iv`b e‡j AwfwnZ K‡i‡Q| (M) ‡mv‡nj Ges Acy `yRb `ywU c„_K mgq I mgv‡Ri gvbyl| ZviciI Zv‡`i g‡a¨ †ek wKQy wgj i‡q‡Q| Zviv `yRbB Zv‡`i ¯¿x‡K Mfxifv‡e fv‡jvevm‡Zv| wbôzi wbqwZ Zv‡`i `yR‡bi KvQ †_‡KB AKv‡j Zv‡`i ¯¿x‡`i †K‡o wb‡q‡Q| g„Zz¨i ciI Zviv Zv‡`i ¯¿x‡`i †Kvbfv‡eB Am¤§vb K‡iwb| GgbwK cwiev‡ii ZvwM` _vKvi ciI Zviv †KD wØZxq we‡qi e¨vcv‡i DrmvwnZ nqwb| K‡i Zviv Df‡qB ¯¿x‡`i cÖwZ Zv‡`i AK…wÎg fv‡jvevmv‡K gwngvwš^Z Kivi Rb¨ ûU K‡iB †d‡jb wb Ges ü`q †_‡K Zv‡`i ¯§„wZ‡K `~‡iI †V‡j w`‡Z cv‡ib wb| Zviv `yR‡bB Zv‡`i mvwnZ¨K‡g© ¯¿x‡`i Rb¨ GKwU Avjv`v ¯’vb K‡i w`‡q‡Qb| Avi Gi d‡jB Avgiv ˆngš—xi mv‡_ cwiwPZ n‡Z †c‡iwQ| Rvb‡Z †c‡iwQ ZrKvjxb i¶Ykxj mgvR e¨e¯’vi wKQy nuvwoi Lei| (N) iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii GKwU Amvgvb¨ KvjRqx †QvUMí Ô‰ngš—xÕ| MíK_K Acy Zvi Rxe‡bi GKwU Ki“Y Aa¨vq wee„Z Ki‡Z wM‡q G M‡í ZrKvjxb mgvR e¨e¯’vi wKQy †bwZevPK w`KI Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| ZrKvjxb mgvR e¨e¯’vq cÖPwjZ cY cÖ_v I †MŠix`vb cÖ_vi wbg©g ewj n‡q ¯¿x ˆngš—x Zvi Rxeb †_‡K nvwi‡q hvq| ZviciI †m Zvi fv‡jvevmvi GB gvbylwU‡K fy‡j wb| bZzb K‡i Avevi we‡qI K‡i wb| Z‡e we‡qi e¨vcv‡i cwiev‡ii c¶ †_‡K Zv‡K Pv‡c ivLv nq| Ggwb GK mwܶ‡Y †m Zvi fv‡jvevmvi gvbylwU‡K wb‡q †h Mí wj‡L †mUvB ˆngš—x| Zvi G M‡íi g~j †K›`ªwe›`y n‡q I‡V cwð‡gi GK cvnvwo A‡j A‡bKUv wbR©b cwi‡e‡k †e‡o IVv gvZ…nviv ˆngš—x| wcZv †MŠixksK‡ii †øn-fv‡jAevmv I Av`‡k© †e‡o IVv GB ˆngš—xi mvgvwRK ixwZ Abyhvqx we‡q nq wb| †MŠix`vb cÖ_vi bv‡g `k eQi eq‡mi g‡a¨ Kb¨v‡`i we‡q †`qvi †h ixwZ ZLb Pvjy wQj Zv j•Nb K‡i m‡Z‡iv eQi eq‡m ˆngš—xi we‡q nq Zvi †P‡q `yeQ‡ii eo †KvjKvZvi Acyi mv‡_| †g‡qi eqm †ewk e‡j Acyi evev ˆngš—xi wcZvi KvQ †_‡K A‡bK †ewk cY Av`vq K‡i †bq| Acyi evevi aviYv wQj ivRvi Aax‡b PvKwi Kiv ˆngš—xi wcZvi A‡bK ab-m¤ú`| wKš— GK mgq Zvi †m aviYv wg‡_¨ cÖZxqgvb n‡j Av`‡ii eDgv ˆngš—xi cÖwZ Zvi `„wófw½ I AvPiY cv‡ë hvq| bb` bvivbxi h‡_ó mnvbyf~wZ I ¯^vgx Acyi AMva fv‡jvevmv cvIqvi ciI k¦ïievwo‡Z ‰ngš—x bvbvfv‡e wbh©vwZZ n‡Z _v‡K| GiB GK ch©v‡q Zvi Rxe‡b †b‡g Av‡m Ki“Y cwiYwZ| Acyi KvQ †_‡K †m A‡bK `~‡i P‡j hvq| Zv‡K nvwi‡q Acy †kv‡K cv_i n‡q hvq| Avi †m welqwUB Acy Zvi wkwíZ K_vgvjv w`‡q ˆngš—x MíwU‡Z dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Q| wVK GKBfv‡e DÏxc‡K ewY©Z ‡mv‡nj Avn‡g`I ZvB K‡i‡Q| †m Zvi bvbv mvwnZ¨K‡g© ¯¿x wicvi RxebwP·K cÖwZdwjZ Kivi †Póv Ki‡Q| hw`I Zvi ¯¿x ˆngš— xi g‡Zv cvwievwiK wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡q Ki“Y cwiYwZi w`‡K avweZ nq wb; ivóªxq Ae¨e¯’vcbvi Kvi‡Y `yNU© bvi wkKvi n‡qB g„Z¨z eiY K‡i‡Q| Avi †mB g„Zz¨i ga¨ w`‡q Zvi KvQ †_‡K †m P‡j wM‡q‡Q A‡bK A‡bK `~‡i| †h `~iZ¡ AwZµg K‡i †KD Avi Kv‡iv Kv‡Q wd‡i Av‡m bv| c„ôv-46


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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

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“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`)

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

K‡ib Ges Zvi h‡_ó e¨vse¨vjvÝ i‡q‡Q| G Rb¨ we‡qi ci †_‡KB k¦ïi evwo‡Z ˆngš—xi Av`i h‡Zœi †Kvb KgwZ wQj bv| wKš‘ cieZx©‡Z Acyi evev hLb Rvb‡Z cvi‡jb Zvi G aviYv wg‡_¨ ZLb †_‡KB ˆngš—xi fvM¨ e`‡j hvq| Zvi Ici ïi“ nq bvbv wbh©vZb| G me wbh©vZ‡bi d‡j †m kvixwiK I gvbwmKfv‡e Amy¯’ n‡q c‡o| G fv‡e nuvwc‡q IV‡jI ¯^vgx Acy ev wcZv †MŠixksKi‡K †m G m‡ei wKQzB Rvbvq wb| DÏxc‡Ki cvi“‡ji †¶‡ÎI wVK GKB ai‡Yi NUbv N‡U‡Q| gv bv _vKvi Kvi‡Y ˆngš—x †hgb msmv‡ii A‡bK KvRB wk‡‡Z cv‡i wb †Zgwb eqm Kg nIqvi Kvi‡Y cvi“‡jiI A‡bK Kv‡R AbwfÁZv I `¶Zvi Afve wQj| Avi G m‡ei Rb¨ Zv‡K ‡h me AZ¨vPvi mB‡Z n‡Zv Zv wQj LyeB `ytmn| wbiš—ifv‡e mgv‡R Pj‡Z _vKv G ai‡bi welq¸‡jvB AZ¨š— `¶Zvi mv‡_ iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Zuvi ˆngš—x M‡í dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`) Qq mš—v‡bi RbK iwng Avjx GKRb `wi`ª K…lK| gvÎ GMv‡iv eQi eq‡mB †m Zvi eo †g‡q ‡kdvwj‡K GKyk eQi eqmx dwi‡`i mv‡_ we‡q †`q| we‡qi mgq K‡b c¶ †_‡K ei c¶‡K †hŠZzK wn‡m‡e bM` cuvP nvRvi UvKv Ges GKwU mvB‡Kj †`qv nq| dwi‡`i MuvRv LvIqvi Kivi Af¨vm wQj| gv‡Sg‡a¨ RyqvI †Lj‡Zv †m| G R‡b¨ ‡Kvb †Kvb w`b evwo wdi‡Z A‡bK ivZ n‡Zv Zvi| †bkv K‡i KL‡bv KL‡bv †m †kdvwj‡K AZ¨vPvi Ki‡Zv| Ryqv †Ljvq †n‡i Avm‡j G AZ¨vPv‡ii gvÎv †h‡Zv Av‡iv †e‡o| ‡kdvwj Zvi k¦ïi-kvïwo‡K G welqwU Rvbv‡jI Zvi †Kvb cÖwZKvi nq wb; eis dwi‡`i AZ¨vPv‡ii gvÎv G‡Z A‡iv e„w× cvq| GK mgq ev‡ci evwo †_‡K bZzb K‡i †hŠZyK Avbvi R‡b¨ †kdvwj‡K Pvc †`q †m| G Pvc mn¨ Ki‡Z bv †c‡i ‡kdvwj †kl ch©š— duvwm‡Z Sz‡j AvZ¥nZ¨v K‡i| (K) ‰ngš—xi wcZvi bvg Kx? (L) Ô‰ng‡K Avwg jBqv hvBeÕ Ñ G K_vi gva¨‡g Acyi Kx ai‡Yi g‡bve„wË cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q? (M) DÏxc‡K ewY©Z †kdvwji mv‡_ ˆngš—xi †Kvb †Kvb †¶‡Î wgj i‡q‡Q ? (N) Ô‡kdvwj I ˆngš—x GKB gy`ªvi GwcV IwcVÕÑ ‰ngš—x M‡íi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wU we‡k−lY Ki| ..............................................................DËigvjv (K) ‰ngš—xi wcZvi bvg †MŠixksKi| (L) Acyi K‡É D”PvwiZ Ò‰ng‡K Avwg jBqv hvBeÓ K_vwUi ga¨ w`‡q ZrKvjxb wn›`y mgv‡Ri i¶YkxjZvi wei“‡× GK ai‡Yi we‡`ªvnx g‡bve„wË cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| Wv³v‡ii civgk© Abyhvqx evqy cwieZ©‡bi Rb¨ ‡MŠixksKi Zvi GKgvÎ Kb¨v ˆngš—x‡K k¦ïievwo †_‡K wbR evwo wb‡q †h‡Z PvB‡j Acyi evev Zv‡Z evav †`b| KwVb Amy‡Li Avk¼v _vKv m‡Ë¡I wcZvi Ggb AvPi‡Y Acy AevK nq| G NUbv †`‡L †m Avi w¯’i _vK‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvB G‡Zvw`‡bi ms¯‹vi †f‡O †m Zvi evev‡K Av‡jvP¨ Dw³wU K‡i| (M) ˆngš—x M‡í ewY©Z mvgvwRK Kzc_Ö v¸‡jvi g‡Zv GL‡bv wfbœ cwiP‡q Avgv‡`i mgv‡R h‡_ó cÖfve we¯—vi K‡i Av‡Q| †MŠix`vb cÖ_vi cwie‡Z© evj¨weevn Ges cYcÖ_vi cwie‡Z© †hŠZzKcÖ_v Avgv‡`i mgvR‡K cÖwZwbqZ ¶Zwe¶Z K‡i Zzj‡Q| we‡kl K‡i cÖZ¨š— MÖvgv‡ji Awkw¶Z `wi`ª gvbylMy‡jv Gm‡ei wkKvi n‡”Q †ewk| kn‡ii wk¶Z gvby‡li GKvskI G †_‡K gy³ bq| miKvi I †ek wKQz GbwRI G e¨vcv‡i `xN©w`b †_‡K KvR K‡i Avm‡jI cwiw¯’wZi Avkvbyiƒc DbœwZ nq wb| msev` gva¨g †_‡K Avgiv cÖvqB G msµvš— A‡bK †jvgnl©K NUbv Rvb‡Z cvwi| †hŠZzK w`‡Z e¨_© n‡q A‡b‡K GwmW mš¿v‡miI wkKvi nq| †Kvb †Kvb M„nea~‡K Gme Kvi‡Y Mv‡q †K‡ivwmb †X‡j Av¸b jvwM‡q †`qvi NUbvI N‡U| ˆngš—x M‡í ewY©Z GKvbœeZx© cwievi e¨e¯’v A‡bKvs‡k wejyß n‡q †M‡jI M„nea~‡`i Dci wbh©vZ‡bi gvÎv GL‡bv Lye GKUv K‡g wb| ‰ngš—x gvbwmKfv‡e Zvi k¦ïi kvïwoi KvQ †_‡K wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡jI bb` bvivbx I ¯^vgx Acyi KvQ †_‡K mnvbyf~wZ †c‡q‡Q| wKš‘ ‡kdvwji g‡Zv M„nea~iv ¯^gxi KvQ †_‡KB †ewk wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡”Q| ZvB wbtm‡¼v‡P G K_v ejv hvq †h, ˆngš—x M‡íi mvgvwRK KzcÖ_v¸‡jv wfbœ bv‡g Ges wfbœ iƒ‡c GLbI Avgv‡`i mgv‡R we`¨gvb ‡_‡K Zvi Kz cÖfve we¯—vi K‡i Pj‡Q| c„ôv-48


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

(N) iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi Zvi Ô‰ngš—xÕ †QvUM‡í ZrKvjxb i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgv‡Ri †h we‡kl `ywU KzcÖ_vi K_v Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb Zvi GKwU n‡”Q †MŠix`vb Ges AciwU cY cÖ_v| NUbvµ‡g G M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ ˆngš—x G `ywU mvgvwRK `yó ¶Z ØvivB Avµvš— n‡qwQ‡jb| ˆngš—xi wcZv †MŠixksKi cwð‡gi GK ivRvi Aax‡b wk¶v wefv‡Mi cÖavb wn‡m‡e KvR Ki‡Zb| †mLvbKvi cvnvwo GjvKvq ‰kk‡e gvZ…nxb GKgvÎ †g‡q‡K wb‡q A‡bKUv wbR©b cwi‡e‡kB wZwb evm Ki‡Zb| ‡mLv‡b Zv‡`i †Kvb AvZ¥xq¯^Rb wQj bv| †`‡ki cÖPwjZ ag©K‡g©I Lye GKUv wek¦vm Ki‡Zb bv †MŠixksKi| ZvB agx©q I mvgvwRK ixwZ bxwZ m¤ú‡K© ˆngš—xi A‡bK wKQzB Rvbv nqwb| ZrKvjxb mgv‡Ri GKUv we‡kl ixwZ wQj AvU †_‡K `k eQ‡ii g‡a¨B †g‡q‡`i we‡q †`qv| GUv‡K ejv n‡Zv †MŠix`vb cÖ_v| wKš‘ †MŠixksK‡ii D`vmxbZvi Kvi‡Y †g‡qi eqm m‡Z‡iv eQi n‡q †M‡jI Zvi we‡qi welqwU KL‡bv Av‡jvwPZ nqwb| †MŠixksK‡ii eÜz ebgvjxeveyB ‰ngš—xi we‡qi e¨vcv‡i D‡`¨vM †bb| Zvi gva¨‡gB †KvjKvZvi GK i¶Ykxj cwiev‡ii wkw¶Z Zi“Y Acyi mv‡_ ˆngš—xi we‡q nq| ZrKvjxb mgv‡Ri Av‡iv GKwU we‡kl ixwZ wQj we‡qi Rb¨ †g‡q‡`i c¶ †_‡K †Q‡j‡`i cY †`qv| †h‡nZz †MŠix`vb cÖ_v Abyhvqx ˆngš—xi we‡qi eqm A‡bK Av‡MB cvi n‡q wM‡qwQj ‡m‡nZz Zvi we‡q‡Z c‡Yi cwigvYI wQj †ewk| we‡qi ci k¦ïi evwo‡Z ˆngš—xi Av`i h‡Zœi Afve bv _vK‡jI Acyi evevi A_© wjávi Kvi‡Y ˆngš—xi Rxe‡b GK mgq `y‡f©vM †b‡g Av‡m| cvi“‡ji †¶‡ÎI Gi Lye GKUv e¨wZµg nq wb| ˆngš—x I cvi“j `ywU mgvR I mg‡qi cÖwZwbwa n‡jI Zv‡`i fvM¨wjwc wQj A‡bKUv GKB iKg| `yR‡bB `ywU mvgvwRK `yó¶Z I Aby`vi cwievi e¨e¯’v Øviv ¶Zwe¶Z n‡q‡Q| Gw`K †_‡K Zviv †h‡bv GKB gy`ªvi GwcV IwcV| Zv‡`i g‡a¨ NUbvMZ cv_©K¨ _vK‡jI †gŠwjK RxebwP‡Îi †Kvb cv_©K¨ wQj bv|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`) wØZxq mxZv wemR©b ivRv ivgP›`ª mxZv

wØZxq mxZv

cÖRvmvaviY

Acy

ˆngš—x

cÖRv mš‘wó

wcZv-gvZv

mgvR e¨e¯’v

ivRv ivgP›`ª + cÖRvmvaviY

Acy + wcZv-gvZv

(K) Acy Kv‡K wØZxq mxZv e‡j AwfwnZ K‡i‡Q ? (L) Acy Zvi ¯¿xi cÖwZ h_vh_ `vwqZ¡ cvj‡b e¨_© n‡qwQj †Kb? (M) ‡Kvb †Kvb ‡¶‡Î mxZvi mv‡_ ˆngš—xi wgj wQj e‡j Zzwg g‡b Ki ? (N) Ôey‡Ki i³ w`qv Avgv‡K †h GKw`b wØZxq mxZv wemR©‡bi Kvwnbx wjwL‡Z nB‡e †m K_v †K RvwbZÕ Ñ DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi G Dw³wU we‡k−lY Ki| c„ôv-49


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

..............................................................................................................................DËigvjv (K) Acy Zvi ¯¿x ˆngš—x‡K wØZxq mxZv e‡j AwfwnZ K‡i‡Q| (L) ZrKvjxb i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgvR e¨e¯’vq †h mvgvwRK ixwZ-bxwZ I GKvbœeZx© cwievi cÖ_v Pvjy wQj Zvi Kvi‡YB Acy Zvi ¯¿xi cÖwZ h_vh_ `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z e¨_© n‡qwQj| Acy wQj GKRb QvÎ| Zvi wbR¯^ †Kvb Av‡qi Drm wQj bv| ¯¿xi fib‡cvlY I wb‡R Pjvi Rb¨ evevi Dc‡iB Zv‡K wbf©i Ki‡Z n‡Zv| ZvB Zvi A_©‡jvfx wcZv hLb Wv³v‡ii civgk© Abyhvqx ˆngš—x‡K evqy cwieZ©‡bi Rb¨ evB‡i †h‡Z evav †`q ZLb ¯^vgx wn‡m‡e †m Zvi ¯¿xi cÖwZ h_vh_ `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| GgbwK †evb bvivbxi KvQ †_‡K ˆngš—xi Ici cvwievwiK wbh©vZ‡bi K_v ï‡bI †m Zvi †Kvb cÖwZev` ev cÖwZKvi Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| (M) mxZv Ges ˆngš—xi mv‡_ wKQz wKQz †¶‡Î †ek wgj wQj| mxZv Ges ˆngš—x Df‡qiB e¨w³MZ gZ cÖKv‡ki †Kvb my‡hvM wQj bv; wKsev _vK‡jI Zviv †KDB †m my‡hvM MÖnY K‡i wb| Zviv Df‡qB ¯^gxf³ wQj| ¯¿x mxZv‡K mZx mvaŸx †R‡bI cÖRv‡`i `vexi gy‡L Zv‡`i Lywk Kivi Rb¨ ¯^vgx ivRv ivgP›`ª Zv‡K ebev‡m cvVvb| GKBfv‡e h‡_ó bgª, f`ª I fv‡jv gvbyl nIqv m‡Ë¡I Acy Zvi evevgvi B”Qvi wei“‡× wM‡q ¯^vgx wn‡m‡e ¯¿x ˆngš—xi cÖwZ h_vh_ `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| Dfq †¶‡ÎB mgv‡Ri Kv‡Q gvbeZv‡eva civwRZ n‡q‡Q| wbixn wbh©vwZZv evOvwj bvixi cÖZxK wn‡m‡e `ywU PwiÎB mgvbfv‡e mv_©K n‡q I‡V‡Q| ivgvq‡Yi Kvwnbx †_‡K Rvbv hvq, A‡hva¨vi ivRv `ki‡_i cyÎ ivgP›`ª ivRv wn‡m‡e Zvi Awf‡l‡Ki w`‡b mrgvZv ‰K‡Kqxi loh‡š¿ wcZ…mZ¨ cvjb I wcZvi m¤§vb i¶v‡_© ivRZ¡ Z¨vM K‡i †PŠÏ erm‡ii Rb¨ †¯^”Qvq ebev‡m P‡j hvb| G mgq Zvi ¯¿x Ges wgw_jvivR Rb‡Ki Kb¨v cÂmZxi Ab¨Zg mxZv Zvi m½x nb| j¼vi ivRv iv¶KmivR iveY mxZv‡K †gmLvb †_‡K niY K‡i wb‡q hvq Ges hy‡×i gva¨‡g ivRv ivg Zv‡K †mLvb †_‡K D×vi K‡i A‡×¨vq P‡j Av‡mb| G mgq cÖRviv mxZvi mZxZ¡ wb‡q cÖkœ Zzj‡j AwMœcix¶vi e¨e¯’v Kiv nq| AwMœ cix¶vq mxZv DËxY�� n‡jI cÖRv‡`i `vexi gy‡L ivRv ivg Zvi mZx mvaŸx ¯¿x‡K Avevi ebev‡m cvVvb| ‰ngš—x M‡íi K_K Acy g‡b K‡i †mI Zvi ¯¿x ˆngš—xi cÖwZ GKB ai‡bi AvPiY K‡i‡Q| †Kbbv, ˆngš—x GKRb cweÎ ü`q I my›`i g‡bi gvbyl nIqv m‡ËeI webv †`v‡l Zvi cÖwZ Zvi cwievi †h AgvbweK I wbôzi AvPiY K‡i‡Q ¯^vgx wn‡m‡e Zv †_‡K †m Zv‡K i¶v Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| eis †mI †h‡bv Ab¨‡`iB `jfy³ n‡q I‡VwQ‡jv| Avi G R‡b¨B GB msmvi Kvbb †_‡K AKv‡j ˆngš—xi g‡Zv GKwU cÖùzwUZ †Mvjvc‡K S‡i co‡Z n‡q‡Q| Avi †mB S‡i covi Kvwnbx wb‡qB Acy iPbv K‡i‡Q GB ˆngš—x| Avi G MíwU wjL‡Z wM‡qB †m e‡j‡Q, Ôey‡Ki i³ w`qv Avgv‡K †h GKw`b wØZxq mxZv wemR©‡bi Kvwnbx wjwL‡Z nB‡e †m K_v †K RvwbZ|Õ

ˆbe©¨w³K cÖkœvewj ˆngš—x wbZvB P›`ª †gvnš— Ávbg~jK cÖkœ1| evsjv †QvUM‡íi cw_K…r Kv‡K ejv nq? K wef~wZf~lY L Zviv k¼i M kirP›`ª N iex›`ªbv_ 2| wb‡Pi †KvbwU iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi iwPZ Dcb¨vm bq? K †Mviv L `y‡M©kbw›`bx M N‡i evB‡i N Pvi Aa¨vq

−iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi 3| Kb¨vi evc meyi Kwi‡Z cvwi‡Zb, wKš‘ ......... Kb¨vwU †K? K wkwki L Acy M wejvmx N cve©Zx 4| Ôweevn m¤^‡Ü Avgvi gZ hvPvB Kiv Abveek¨K wQjÕ-Kvi gZ? K Acyi L g„Zz¨Ä‡qi M iex›`ªbv‡_i N Zcyi

c„ôv-50


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

5| eq‡m ˆngš—x Acyi †P‡q KZ eQ‡ii †QvU wQj? K2 L3 M4 N5 6| †K wngvj‡qi wgZv? K Abœ`vk¼i L †MŠixksKi M ˆngš—x N Acyi 7| ˆngš—xi kL wQj ⎯ K eBcov I †jvK LvIqv‡bv L Mvb †kvbv M †mjvB Kiv N msMxZ PP©v I ivbœv Kiv 8| ˆngš—x m¤^‡Ü wb‡Pi †Kvb gš—e¨wU cÖ‡hvR¨? K m~‡h©i g‡Zv aª“e L Puv‡`i g‡Zv wgwó M cÖ`x‡ci b¨vq mnbkxj N m~‡h©i †Z‡Ri g‡Zv i“`ª 9| Ô†cvov Kcvj Avgvi! bvZ eD †h eq‡m Avgv‡K I nvi gvbvBjÕ-gš—e¨wU †K K‡iwQ‡jb? K Acyi VvKzi gv L Acyi wcwmgv M Acyi gvwmgv N Acyi `~i m¤ú‡K©i GK w`w`gv 10| ˆngš—xi kvïwo ˆngš—xi eqm KZ e‡j `vwe K‡iwQ‡jb? K 11 eQi L 12 eQi M 16 eQi N 17 eQi 11| †K ˆngi mv‡_ m‡Z¨i euva‡b euvav c‡owQj? K ˆngš—xi evev L ˆngš—xi ¯^vgx M ˆngš—xi k¦ïi N ˆngš—xi kvïwo 12| ˆngš—xi evev‡K Fwl ejvi KviY Kx? K kª×v cÖ`k©b L fv‡jvevmv cÖ`k©b M KUv¶ Kiv N N„Yv Kiv 13| ˆngi wbh©vZ‡bi Lei Acy Kvi KQ †_‡K †cZ? K ˆngi wcZv L ˆngi k¦ïi M ‰ngi kvïwo N bvivbx 14| evK© †K? K Bs‡iR ivRbxwZK L divwm cÖvewÜK M divwm evM¥x N Bs‡iR Kwe 15| iex›`ªbv‡_i †jLv cÖ_g Kve¨MÖ‡š’i bvg Kx? K ejvKv L ebdzj M †k‡li KweZv N N‡i-evB‡i

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

16| iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi KZ mv‡j †bv‡ej cyi®‹vi jvf K‡ib? K 1933 mv‡j L 1923 mv‡j M 1913 mv‡j N 1934 mv‡j 17| Ô‰ngš—xÕ MíwU K‡e cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq? K 1914 mv‡j L 1915 mv‡j M 1913 mv‡j N 1916 mv‡j 18| bvivbxi m‡½ Acyi m¤úK© Kx? K †evb L evÜex M gvwm N wcwm 19| Ô†`vl mg¯—B ˆngiÕ- †`vlUv Kx? K eq‡mi L ¯^fv‡ei M mgv‡Ri N wk¶vi 20| iex›`ªbv‡_i cÖ_g Kve¨ KZ eQi eq‡m cÖKvwkZ nq? K 14 eQi L 15 eQi M 16 eQi N 17 eQi 21| Gkxq‡`i g‡a¨ me©c_Ö g mvwn‡Z¨ †bv‡ej cyi®‹vi †K cvb? K Bqvmybvwi KvIqvevZv L MvI wRs wRqvb M †KÄvey‡iv I‡q N iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi 22| iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi †Kv_vq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? K XvKvq L KjKvZvq M Avmv‡g N ivRkvnx‡Z 23| ZrKvjxb mgvR e¨e¯’vq †MŠix`vb Kiv n‡Zv KZ eQ‡ii †g‡q‡K? K AvU eQi L bq eQi M evi eQi N mvZ eQi 24| Acyi hLb we‡q nq ZLb Zvi eqm KZ wQj? K AvVv‡iv L wek M m‡Z‡iv N Ewbk 25| we‡qi mgq ˆngš—xi eqm KZ wQj? K c‡b‡iv L †lvj M m‡Z‡iv N AvVv‡iv 26| ˆngš—xi evev ˆngš—x‡K Kx e‡j WvKZ? K wkwki L eywo M ˆng N ˆnwg 27| Acyi weev‡ni NUK †K? K ebgvjx L Kwig Avjx M my‡ik N KvRx Avjx

c„ôv-51


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

28| ˆngš—xi evev Acy‡K KZ UvKvi GKUv †bvU ¸u‡R w`‡qwQj? K cuvP UvKvi L GKkZ UvKvi M cuvPkZ UvKvi N GK nvRvi UvKvi 29| Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡í ˆngš—xi KqwU bvg wQj? K PviwU L cuvPwU M wZbwU N QqwU 30| KZ eQi eqmx Kb¨v‡K †ivwnYx ejv nZ? K `k L bq M AvU N evi Abyaveb g~jK: 31| weevn m¤^‡Ü Acyi gZvgZ hvPvB Kiv Abvek¨K wQj⎯ K Acy K_K e‡j L Acy ei e‡j M Acy †eKvi e‡j N Acy QvÎ e‡j 32| F.A-Gi m¤ú~Y© iƒc Kx nq? K Fine Arts L First Admission M First Air’s N First Audit 33| ÔwLowKÕ gv‡b Kx? K evwoi mvg‡bi w`‡Ki `iRv L evwoi `w¶Y w`‡Ki `iRv M evwoi †cQb w`‡Ki `iRv N evwoi cwðg w`‡Ki `iRv 34| eo eq‡mi †g‡qi m‡½ Acyi we‡q †`Iqv nj †Kb? K c‡bi A¼Uv eo e‡j L †g‡q my›`ix e‡j M †g‡q wkw¶Z e‡j N †g‡q wk¶‡Ki Kb¨v e‡j 35| ÔAvwg cvBjvg, Avwg Bnv‡K cvBjvgÕ-Acy †Kb G K_v e‡j‡Q? K ˆngš—x‡K we‡q Kivi Kvi‡Y L ˆngš—xi wkniY Abyfe K‡i M ‰ngš—x wkw¶Z †g‡q e‡j N ˆngš—xi gv †bB e‡j 36| Ô†LvÆvÕ kãwU w`‡q Kx eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q? K wb›`v‡_© wnw›`fvlx †jvKRb L wb›`v‡_© D`y©fvlx †jvKRb M wb›`v‡_© dviwmfvlx †jvKRb N wb›`v‡_© Bs‡iwR fvlx †jvKRb

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

37| ÔˆR¨‡ôi AkÖ“k~b¨ †iv`bÕ-K_vwU‡Z Kx cÖKvk cvq? K cÖPÊ `yt‡Li `n‡b Acyi †Pv‡Li Rj ïwK‡q †M‡Q L Acy `ytLfvivµvš— M Acy wPš—vMÖ¯— N Acy ˆngš—x‡K †c‡q w`‡knviv 38| ÔBnviv Ab¨Rv‡Zi gvbylÕ- Kviv? K Acyi evc-gv L Acyi w`w` gviv M ˆngš—x I Zvi evev N Acyi AvZ¥xqiv 39| ÔIuPvÕ gv‡b Kx? K fv‡jv L DrK…ó M wbK…ó N cPv 40| ˆngš—x‡K †`‡L mK‡ji KvbvKvwb c‡o †Mj †Kb? K ˆngš—x my›`ix e‡j L ˆngš—xi eqm †ewk e‡j M ˆngš—x wkw¶Z e‡j N ˆngš—x ¸Yx e‡j 41| ÔAvBey‡ovÕ †g‡q Kv‡K e‡j? K GMv‡iv eQ‡ii †ewk eqmx †g‡q‡K L †Z‡iv eQ‡ii †ewk eqmx †g‡q‡K M ev‡iv eQ‡ii †ewk eqmx †g‡q‡K N c‡b‡iv eQ‡ii †ewk eqmx †g‡q‡K 42| ÔcÂg ¯^iÕ K_vwU w`‡q Kx eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q? K †KvwK‡ji myijnwi L cuvPR‡bi myi M gayi aŸwb N wZ³ aŸwb 43| ÔivRLuvBÕ gv‡b Kx? K gayi aŸwb L KK©k aŸwb M evRbv N wZ³ aŸwb 44| Acyi †evb bvivbx‡K MÄbv mn¨ Ki‡Z n‡qwQj †Kb? K eDw`‡K fv‡jvev‡m e‡j L Acy‡K fv‡jvev‡m e‡j M ˆngš—xi K_v ï‡b e‡j N ¯^vgxi Ni K‡i bv e‡j 45| Ôgv_v LvIqvÕ evMavivi A_© Kx? K †ivM nIqv L wbj‡¾©i g‡Zv AvPiY Kiv M e¨v‡gv nIqv N gv_v bó nIqv

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46| ÔwkKvq †ZvjvÕ gv‡b Kx? K cvIqvi m¤¢vebv L `ygwK †`Iqv M gyjZwe ivLv N AvU‡K ivLv 47| ÔPzjvq †`IqvÕ evMavivwUi cÖKZ … A_© Kx? K †Mvj−vq †h‡Z †`Iqv L wPiZ‡i webó n‡Z †`Iqv M nvwi‡q hvIqv N cywo‡q †`Iqv

48| Ô`w¶Yvi †Rv‡iÕ K_vwU w`‡q Kx eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q?

K `w¶Y nv‡Zi †Rvi L UvKv-cqmv w`‡q M `w¶Y w`‡Ki evZvm N gwY-gy³vi †Rv‡i 49| ÔmxZv Õ †K? K K…‡òi fwMœ L `ki‡_i Kb¨v M ivgP‡›`ªi ¯¿x N †`ex 50| ÔPvcv †`IqvÕ gv‡b Kx? K cÖKvwkZ Kiv L †Mvcb Kiv M eÜ K‡i ivLv N Pvcv w`‡q ivLv 51| ÔKvbvKvwbÕ gv‡b Kx? K Kv‡b Kv‡b K_v L †Mvcb civgk© M †Mvc‡b weevn N †Mvcb mwÜ 52| Ô‰ngš—xÕ MíwU Kx‡mi cÖZxK? K cY cÖ_vi wbg©g Qwe L ZrKvjxb i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgv‡Ri wbôziZv M †hŠZz‡Ki h~cKv‡ó bvix‡`i ewj`vb N Dc‡ii me¸‡jv

cÖ‡qvMg~jK: 53| ˆngš—xi Ki“Y cwiYwZi Rb¨ `vqx ⎯ K Acyi wb‡ðó AvPiY L ü`qnxb k¦ïi-kvïwoi wbôyi AvPiY M ZrKvjxb wn›`y mgv‡Ri ¯^v_©‡jvjyc gvbwmKZv N Dc‡ii meKwU 54| evsjv‡`‡k †hŠZzKcÖ_v‡K wbi“rmvwnZ Ki‡Z GKwU ¸i“Z¡c~Y© e¨e¯’v wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i wb‡Pi †KvbwU? K AvBb Kiv L †Q‡ji evev‡K †evSv‡bv M ‰bwZK g~j¨‡eva m„wó Kiv N mywk¶v I m‡PZbZv m„wó

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

55|ÔKvbvKvwbÕ kãwU e¨vKi‡Yi †Kvb wbq‡g MwVZ n‡q‡Q? K mwÜ L mgvm M DcmM© N cÖZ¨q 56| Ôevevi eo Avkv wQjÕ k¦ïi AvR ev‡` Kvj Kv‡R Aemi jB‡eb ZLb AvwgB ivRgš¿x nB‡eÕ−Dw³wU‡Z ZrKvjxb mgv‡Ri †Kvb w`KwU dz‡U D‡V‡Q? K ivR kvmb L Bs‡iR kvmb M Rwg`vwi cÖ_v N Jcwb‡ewkK kvmb 57| Ôwngvj‡qi wZwb †hb wgZvÕ Acyi k¦ki m¤ú‡K© Acyi-Gi Dw³wUi †cÖw¶‡Z wb‡Pi †KvbwU‡K h_v‡hvM¨ ejv hvq? K cvnvwo GjvKvi gvbyl fv‡jv nq L cvnvwo evZvm ¯^v‡¯’¨i Rb¨ fv‡jv M cvwicvwk¦©K cwi‡ek gvby‡li Pwi‡Îi cÖfve we¯—vi K‡i Ncvnvo gvby‡li Pwi‡Î cÖfve we¯—vi K‡i 58| Ô‰ngš—xi Rb¨ evqy cwieZ©b cÖ‡qvRbÕ-G Dw³i †cÖw¶‡Z wb‡Pi †Kvb Dw³wU A‡c¶vK…Z AwaK MÖnY‡hvM¨? K evqy GK ai‡bi Jla L evqy ej‡Z cwi‡ek cwiw¯’wZ‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q M KjKvZv kn‡ii AvenvIqvi †P‡q Ab¨ RvqMvi AvenvIqv fv‡jv N gvbe kix‡ii Ici evqyi we‡kl cÖfve i‡q‡Q 59| mgv‡Ri bvixi ¶gZvqb ev gZvg‡Zi cÖwZ ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqvi cÖ‡qvRb i‡q‡Q †Kb? K bvixiv AwaK eyw×gvb L bvixiv Kg eyw×gvb M †`‡ki bvixi msL¨v cyyi“‡li A‡a©K N bvixiv mgv‡R wbM„nxZ 60| ZrKvjxb KjKvZvi mgvR e¨e¯’v m¤ú‡K© wb‡Pi †Kvb Dw³wU mZ¨ bq? K bvix‡`i wk¶vi AwaKvi wQj L mgv‡R †hŠZzK cÖ_vi cÖPjb wQj M mgv‡R evj¨ weev‡ni cÖPjb wQj N N‡i evB‡i bvixiv wQj wbM„nxZ

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61| c‡Yi Av‡cw¶K ¸i“Z¡ Kx‡mi †P‡q †ewk wQj? K eq‡mi †P‡q L my›`‡ii †P‡q M UvKv-cqmvi †P‡q N gvb-m¤§v‡bi †P‡q 62| wb‡Pi ï× evbvbwU wPwýZ Ki⎯ K †cŠbcywbK L †cŠibcywYK M †cŠbtcywbK N †cŠbtcywYK 63| wØav kãwUi mwVK mgv_©K kã †KvbwU? K mskq L `ywðš—v M Abf¨vm N wPš—v 64| ÔKvbvKvwbÕ kãwU †Kvb mgv‡mi D`vniY? K eûeªxwn L Ø›Ø M e¨wZnvi eûeªxwn N Zrcyi“l 65| Ô‰ng Zvi A_© eywSj bvÕ-Aw¯—evPK ev‡K¨ iƒcvš—i Ki|

K ‰ng Zvi A_© m¤ú‡KÕ AeyS iwnj L ˆng Zvi A_© eyS‡Z cvij M ˆng Zvnvi A_© eywS‡Z cvwij bv N ˆng Zvnvi A_© eyS‡Z A¶g 66| Ô†eIqvwikÕ kãwUi mwVK e¨vmevK¨ †KvbwU? K Iqvwikwenxb L hvi Iqvwik bvB M Iqvwik †bB hvi N hvi †Kvb Iqvwik †bB 67| ÔA¶ZÕ kãwU †Kvb mgv‡mi D`vniY? K bT eûeªxwn L bT& Zrcyi“l M wظ N Zrcyi“l 68| Ô†ivwnYxÕ m¤ú‡K© wb‡Pi †Kvb evK¨wU mg_©b‡hvM¨? K cuvP eQi eqmx Kb¨v L bq eQi eqmx Kb¨v M AvU eQi eqmx Kb¨v N `k eQi eqmx Kb¨v 69| ÔwekªxÕ k&ãwUi wecixZ kã †KvbwU? K kªx L my›`i M †mŠ›`h© N Agwjb 70| Ôweev`Õ kãwUi ÔweÕ †Kvb ai‡bi Dcm‡M©i D`vniY? K evsjv L wnw›` M Aviwe N Zrmg D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK: 71| Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡í ˆngš—x Kx‡mi ewj? K †hŠZzKcÖ_vi L mvgvwRK AZ¨vPv‡ii M ¯^vgxi AZ¨vPv‡ii N evevi wbgg©Zvi

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

72| Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡í cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q ⎯ K ZrKvjxb gymwjg mgv‡Ri wPÎ L ZrKvjxb wn›`y mgv‡Ri wPÎ M ZrKvjxb wn›`y i¶Ykxj mgv‡Ri wPÎ N ZrKvjxb eªvþ mgv‡Ri wPÎ 73| Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi mgqKvj KZ? K wek kZK L †lv‡jv kZK M AvVv‡iv kZK N Ewbk kZK 74| Ô†m Avgvi m¤úwË bq, †m Avgvi m¤ú`Õ| Dw³wU‡Z cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q ⎯ K ˆngš—xi gvnvZ¥¨ L ˆngš—xi cÖwZ fvjevmv M Acyi ¯^xKv‡ivw³ N m¤úwË I m¤ú‡`i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ 75| ZrKvjxb wn›`y mgv‡Ri bvix wQj ⎯ K cyi“‡li mnvqZvKvix L cyi“‡li †fv‡Mi mvgMÖx M cyi“‡li QvqvPix N cyi“‡li nvwmi cvÎx 76| ‰ngš—xi Pwi‡Î cvVK wK‡mi Qvqv j¶ K‡ib? K mie cÖwZev‡`i Qvqv L bxie cÖwZev‡`i Qvqv M AmnvqZv N wbôziZv 77| Acy ˆngš—x‡K fv‡jvevm‡jI †m wQj ⎯ K wb¯ú„n L cÖwZev`x M wbôzi N †hvM¨ ¯^vgx 78| Ô‰ngš—xÕ MíwUiDcRxe¨ ⎯ K Ô‰ngš—xÕ I Acyi fv‡jvevmvi wPÎ L ‰ngš—xÕi welv`Nb Ki“Y cwiYwZ M ‰ngš—xÕi cÖwZ mgv‡Ri wbôziZv N †hŠZzKcÖ_vi wbôziZv 79| iex›`ªbv‡_i AmvaviY †QvUMí ‰ngš—xi cÖwZcv`¨ welq Kx? K cYcÖ_vi gvivZ¥K Kzdj L k¦ïi-kvïwoi wbhv©Zb M ¯^vgxi A¶gZv N ‰ngš—xi cÖwZev`nxbZv 80| †QvUMí wn‡m‡e Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi mv_©KZv †Kv_vq? K M‡íi cÖvi‡¤¢ L M‡íi †k‡l M ‰ngš—xi Pwi‡Î N Acyi Pwi‡Î

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81| Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi †k‡l cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q ⎯ K ¯^vgxi wbhv©Z‡bi w`KwU L †hŠZzK cÖ_vi wbg©g †e`bv`vqK w`KwU M kvïwoi wbg©gZv N k¦ï‡ii wbg©gZv 82| ‰ngš—xi wcZvi cÖwZ AvNv‡Zi ci AvNvZ G‡m‡Q Kxfv‡e? K kvïwoi Am¤£g I AeÁvq L k¦ïievwoi †jv‡Ki wg_¨vPv‡i M k¦ïievwoi †jv‡Ki Acev‡` N Acyi ¯^xK‡ivw³‡Z 83| ÔFwY evevÕ K_vwU e¨env‡ii Zvrch© Kx? K ‰ngš—xi evev fv‡jv gvbyl L ‰ngš—xi evev wg_¨vi e¨vcv‡i Av‡cvlnxb M ‰ngš—x evev ivR Kg©Pvix N ˆngš—xi evev wg_y¨K

eûc`x mgvwß m~PK : 84| ÔcÖRvcwZi `yB c¶Õ ej‡Z eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q−[Abyaveb] (i) Kb¨vc¶ (ii) eic¶ (iii) NUb c¶ wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L iii M i I ii N ii 85| Ô‰ngš—xÕ bvgwU wb‡q Avk¼v †bB⎯ [cÖ‡qvMg~jK] (i) cÖZœZvwË¡K‡`i g‡a¨ weev‡`i (ii) gvgjv nIqvi (iii) evovevwoi wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M iii N ii I iii 86| ÔReoROÕ K_vwU w`‡q eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q⎯ [Abyavebg~jK] (i) cwicvU¨ wenxb (ii) †egvbvb (iii) †eXc wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M iii N i, iii I iii

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

87| cÖRvcwZ cÖZxK nj ⎯ [Abyavebg~jK] (i) eªþvi (ii) wn›`y cyivY Abymv‡i we‡qi †`eZv (iii) my›`‡ii wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L i I ii M i I iii N ii I iii 88| ‰ngš—xi kL wQj ⎯ [cÖ‡qvMg~jK] (i) eB cov‡Z (ii) †jvKRb‡K LvIqv‡Z (iii) hvÎv †`L‡Z wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M i I ii N ii I ii. 89| ÔcÖeÂbvÕ kãwUi gv‡b ⎯ (i) cÖZviYv (ii) wg_¨v Avk¦vm (iii) VKv‡bv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M i I ii N ii I iii. 90| ÔGWgÛ evK©Õ m¤ú‡K© cÖ‡hvR¨ we‡klYwU n‡jv⎯ (i) ivRbvxwZK (ii) cÖvewÜK (iii) e³v wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M iii N i, ii I iii. 91| Acyi cÖwZev`nxbZvi †nZz ⎯⎯ (i) Acy ciMvQv (ii) mvgvwRK mxgve×Zv (iii) ¯¿xi cÖwZ fv‡jvevmvi KgwZ wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M i I ii N i I iii. 92| evMaviv cÖKvkK kã nj ⎯ (i) XvK †cUv‡bv (ii) Pzjvq PvIqv (iii) e¨v‡gv nIqv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M i I ii N iii.

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93| Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡í e¨eüZ evMaviv¸‡jv n‡jv ⎯ (i) wkKvq †Zvjv (ii) gv_v LvIqv (iii) h‡gi Ai“wP wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L i I ii M i I iii N ii I iii. 94| ‰ngš—x M‡íi cÖwZcv`¨ welq nj ⎯ (i) ZrKvjxb mgv‡Ri AbvPvi (ii) ZrKvjxb cYcÖ_vi cÖv`yf©ve (iii) ZrKvjxb hy‡Mi ¯^vgxi A¶gZv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M iii N i, ii I iii. * Awfbœ Z_¨wfwËK: & wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co 95 †_‡K 97 b¤^i ch©š— cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI: iv‡njvi gv iv‡njv‡K †Kv‡j †i‡L gviv hvq| ZvB iv‡njv wcZvi †mœn-gvqv-ggZvq eo nq| wKš‘ gv nviv msmv‡i iv‡njvi eqm AvVv‡iv n‡jI we‡q †`Iqvi e¨vcv‡i †Kv‡bv bvg †bB| G‡K †Zv iv‡njvi gv †bB Zvi Ici Avevi Zvi evev `wi`ª| KviY †g‡q‡K we‡q w`‡j ei‡K UvKv †`Iqvi weavb cÖPwjZ Av‡Q| 95| Ôiv‡njvÕ †Zvgvi cwVZ †Kvb Pwi‡Îi cÖwZ”Qwe? K ˆngš—x L wejvmx M Acyi gv N ˆngš—xi gv 96| UvKv †`Iqvi e¨vcviUv‡K Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡í Kx ejv n‡q‡Q? K cYcÖ_v L †hŠZzKcÖ_v M wewbgq cÖ_v N weevn cÖ_v

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

97| iv‡njvi we‡q bv nIqvi Rb¨ `vqx nj ⎯ (i) ZrKvjxb mgvR (ii) wcZvi `wi`ªZv (iii) iv‡njvi Awb”Qv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M i I ii N ii I iii. & wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges 98 †_‡K 100 b¤^i ch©š— cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI: iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii Ô‰ngš—xÕ MíwU ZrKvjxb wn›`y mgv‡Ri `c©Y¯^iƒc| GLv‡b MíKvi Z`vbxš—b †Muvovcwš’ mgvRe¨e¯’vi bvbvwea AbvPvi, Drcxob, wbh©vZ‡bi wPÎ dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb| we‡kl K‡i bvix wQj ZrKvjxb wn›`y mgv‡Ri cyi“‡li †fv‡Mi mvgMÖx| evRv‡i †Kbv c‡Y¨i g‡Zv Zv‡`i‡K e¨envi Kiv n‡Zv| 98| DÏxc‡K †Kvb mgqKv‡ji K_v ejv n‡q‡Q? K Ewbk kZ‡Ki L wek kZ‡Ki M GKwesk kZ‡Ki N AvVv‡iv kZ‡Ki 99| Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡íi mgvRe¨e¯’vq Kvi Rxeb‡K wbt‡kl K‡i w`‡qwQj? K Acyi L ˆngš—xi M bvivbxi N ebgvjx eveyi 100| Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡í wbh©vZ‡bi wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q⎯ (i) k¦ïi-kvïwoi (ii) cvov cÖwZ‡ekxi (iii) AvZ¥x‡qi wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M iii N i, ii I iii.

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

mvwn‡Z¨ †Ljv cÖg_ †PŠayix (1868-1946) “ wb‡Pi mviwYwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) mvwn‡Z¨ †Ljv mvwnZ¨gyLx nIqv mvwnZ¨ AwaKv‡i m‡PZb nIqv g‡bvRM‡Z †Ljvi Avmi Mov Avb›` `vb Kiv g‡bviÄb bv Kiv Kve¨RM‡Zi Avb›` I †e`bvi Aemvb wk¶v I mvwn‡Z¨i Ae¯’vb wk¶K I mvwnwZ¨‡Ki Ae¯’vb mvwnZ¨ Abyf~wZ mv‡c¶; ZK© mv‡c¶ bq mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ †Ljv”Q‡j wk¶v †`Iqv

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖeÜwU me©cÖ_g †Kvb cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖeÜwU me©cÖ_g ÔmeyRcÎÕ cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq| cÖkœ : (L) Ôc„w_exi wkíx gv‡ÎB GB wk‡íi †Ljv †L‡j _v‡KbÕÑ ej‡Z cÖvewÜK Kx eywS‡q‡Qb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : cÖg_ †PŠayix Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü mvwnZ¨ I wk‡íi m‡½ †Ljvi wbweo m¤úK© Abyfe K‡ib| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi ïi“‡ZB †jLK divwm fv¯‹i †iv`¨uvÑi cÖm½ †U‡b e‡j‡Qb †h, mgq †c‡j G weL¨vZ wkíxI Av½y‡ji wU‡c gvwUi cyZzj ˆZwi Ki‡Z e‡mb| GwUB n‡”Q GKRb wkíxi wkí †PZbv| ïay †iv`u¨v bb; c„w_exi cÖwZwU wkíxB G †Ljvi †fZi w`‡q cÖwZfvi weKvk NwU‡q _v‡Kb| c„ôv-57


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) mviwY‡Z Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi KZUzKz cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q? hyw³mn Dc¯’vcb Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : PwjZ M`¨ixwZi cÖeZ©K cÖg_ †PŠayix Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ I Av`k© m¤ú‡K© AwfgZ e¨³ K‡i‡Qb| mviwYwU‡Z Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü cÖg_ †PŠayix mvwn‡Z¨i †h welq¸‡jvi Ici ¸i“Z¡ Av‡ivc K‡i‡Qb Zvi cÖwZwU w`KB ¯’vb †c‡q‡Q| mvwn‡Z¨ †Ljvq cÖ_gZ e¨w³‡K mvwnZ¨gyLx n‡q mvwn‡Z¨i mgAwaKvi m¤ú‡K© wbwðZ n‡Z n‡e| mvwn‡Z¨ †Ljv Ki‡Z n‡j g‡bvRM‡Z †Ljvi Avmi ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ †h Avb›` `vb Kiv; g‡bviÄb Kiv bq G welqwU me©v‡MÖ wbwðZ Ki‡Z n‡e| Kve¨RMZ †h Avb›`-†e`bvi mnAe¯’vb †m K_v fy‡j †M‡jI Pj‡e bv| †m m‡½ wk¶v I mvwn‡Z¨i cÖ‡f` m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb n‡Z n‡e| †Kbbv, g‡bvRM‡Z wk¶‡Ki KvR n‡”Q Kwei Kv‡Ri wVK wecixZ w`K| Ac‡ii g‡bi Afve c~i‡Yi Rb¨ wk¶‡Ki nv‡Z wk¶vi Rb¥ n‡jI Kwei g‡bi cwic~Y©Zv †_‡K mvwn‡Z¨i Rb¥ nq | mvwnZ¨ †h Abyfw~ Z mv‡c¶ Ges Z‡K©i welq bq G wel‡qi m‡PZbZv cÖ‡qvRb| Z‡e me Av‡jvPbvi E‡aŸ© †h K_vwU Zv n‡”Q mvwnZ¨ †Ljv”Q‡j wk¶v †`q| Kv‡RB wbwØ©avq ejv hvq, mviwYwU‡Z Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi meUzKz cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ : (N) mvwn‡Z¨i imv¯^v`v‡b mviwYi avc¸‡jv ch©v‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : cÖg_ †PŠayixi mvwnZ¨ `k©bg~jK mywjwLZ cÖeÜ Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ| Zuvi G iPbvq gbbkxjZvi m‡½ i‡q‡Q hyw³-Z‡K©i aviv‡jv cÖKvk| mviwYi avc¸‡jv ch©v‡jvPbv Ki‡j mvwn‡Z¨i imv¯^v`b Z…wßgq n‡q I‡V| cÖvewÜK GLv‡b mvwnZ¨ AbyivMx‡`i mvwnZ¨gyLx nevi AvnŸvb Rvwb‡q‡Qb| mvwn‡Z¨ abx-`wi`ª, DuP-z bxPz mK‡ji †h mgvb AwaKvi i‡q‡Q G wel‡q my®úó gZ e¨³ K‡i‡Qb| A_©vr mg AwaKvi wb‡q mKj‡K mvwnZ¨ iv‡R¨ Dcw¯’Z n‡Z n‡e| †m m‡½ mvwnZ¨ wccvmy‡`i g‡bvRM‡Z mvwn‡Z¨i Rb¨ `„p Ae¯’vbI ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| G †¶‡Î gnvRb‡`i c_ AbymiY KivB KZ©e¨| mvwnZ¨ iPbv Ki‡Z n‡e mK‡ji Rb¨; mKj‡K Avb›` †`Iqvi Rb¨| wKš—y KviI g‡bviÄb Kivi Rb¨ mvwnZ¨ iwPZ n‡j Zv m¯—v mvwn‡Z¨ cwiYZ n‡e| Kve¨RM‡Z †Kvb m„wóB `xN©Kvj cvV‡Ki g‡bviÄb Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| Kv‡RB mvwn‡Z¨ cvV‡Ki g‡bviÄb Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| mvwn‡Z¨ cvV‡Ki Avb›`-†e`bv mgfv‡e _vK‡e| mvwnZ¨ M‡o †jL‡Ki gbZzwó n‡j Pj‡e bv| bZzb mvwnZ¨ m„wói †cÖiYvq †jLK‡K DØy× n‡Z n‡e| mvwnZ¨ †h ¸i“i nv‡Zi †eZ bq, wKsev †Q‡ji nv‡Zi †LjbvI bq G welqwU fy‡j †M‡j Pj‡e bv| mvwn‡Z¨i wbR¯^ RMZ i‡q‡Q| mvwnZ¨ I wk¶‡Ki Ae¯’vb cvkvcvwk n‡jI GK bq| †Kbbv, g‡bvRM‡Z wk¶‡Ki f~wgKv wVK Kwei f~wgKvi wecixZ| Avi mvwnZ¨ h‡ZvUv bv hyw³-Z‡K©i welq; Zvi †P‡q AwaKZi Abyf~wZi welq| D‡j−L¨ †h, mvwnZ¨I †Ljv”Q‡j wk¶v w`‡q _v‡K| Gfv‡e mviwYi avc¸‡jv ch©v‡jvPbv Ki‡j mvwn‡Z¨i imv¯^v`b Kiv m¤¢e|

c„ôv-58


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

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cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) cÖg_ †PŠayixi QÙbvg Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : cÖg_ †PŠayixi QÙbvg exiej| cÖkœ : (L) mvwn‡Z¨ g‡bviÄb Kiv DwPZ bq †Kb? eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü cÖg_ †PŠayix mvwnZ¨PP©vi mywbw`©ó Av`k© m¤ú‡K© gZ e¨³ K‡i‡Qb| cÖvewÜK g‡b K‡ib mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q mKj‡K Avb›` `vb Kiv| wKš—y mvwnZ¨ Zvi Av`k© †_‡K m‡i wM‡q mKj‡KB Kvi‡Y-AKvi‡Y Lywk Ki‡Z †M‡j A_©vr g‡bviÄb Ki‡Z †M‡j wb‡RB ¯^ag©Pz¨Z n‡q c‡o| cÖkœ : (M) mviwY‡Z gnr wkíx I BZi wkíx‡`i †h w`K¸‡jv Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q Zvi m‡½ Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi mv`„k¨ Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : cÖg_ †PŠayixi Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖeÜwU bvbv ˆewk‡ó¨ Avgv‡`i mvg‡b D¾¡j n‡q D‡V‡Q| mviwY‡Z wkíxi wefvRb †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q| Gi m‡½ Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕi ïi“‡ZB cÖvewÜK †ivu`¨v-i cÖm‡½ †U‡b gnr wkíx I BZi wkíxi †h m~² cÖ‡f` Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb Zvi mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q| cÖg_ †PŠayix wb‡`©wkZ wkíx `yB cÖKvi| c„ôv-59


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

RvZ wkíx I BZi wkíx| gnr wkíx hv Lywk ZvB Kievi AwaKvi iv‡Lb| wZwb gnvRb‡`i c_ AbymiY K‡ib, Zuvi mvwnZ¨PP©vi D‡Ïk¨ gnr| c¶vš—‡i BZiwkíx wbw`©ó KvR cÖvqB Ki‡Z cv‡ib bv, wZwb mK‡ji gv‡S wb‡R‡K we‡kliƒ‡c Zz‡j ai‡Z e¨¯— _v‡Kb, Zvi mvwnZ¨PP©vi gv‡S e¨w³ D‡Ïk¨ KvR K‡i| Gfv‡e mviwY‡Z Dwj−wLZ w`K¸‡jvi m‡½ Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü wea„Z gnr wkíx I BZi wkíxi cÖm‡½i mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q| cÖkœ : (N) DׄZ Q‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖeÜ Aej¤^‡b gnrwkíx I BZi wkíxi ¸i“Z¡ we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : cÖg_ †PŠayix Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ Ki‡Z wM‡q ïi“‡ZB †iv`u¨vi cÖm½ †U‡b wkíxi ¸i“Z¡ e¨vL¨v K‡i‡Qb| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi ïi“‡Z cÖvewÜK mvwn‡Z¨i mªóv wkíx m¤ú‡K© msw¶ß Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| Zuvi g‡Z Av`k© mvwnZ¨ m„wó‡Z wkíxi ¸i“Z¡ h‡_ó| G‡`i gv‡S RvZwkíx‡`i K`i i‡q‡Q Zviv hv Ki‡Z Pvb ZvB m„wó Ki‡Z m¶g| gnr Ges gnvRb‡`i c_B Zviv AbymiY Ki‡Z Pvb| Guiv mK‡ji Rb¨ mvwnZ¨ m„wó K‡ib| G m„wói D‡Ïk¨ gnr| Aci w`‡K, cÖg_ †PŠayixi g‡Z mvwn‡Z¨ BZi wkíx‡`i RvqMv †bB| G‡`i Rb¨B m¯—v mvwn‡Z¨ evRvi †Qu‡q †M‡Q| Giv GK Ki‡Z wM‡q Avi GK K‡i †d‡jb| Giv wke Mo‡Z wM‡q euv`i M‡o †d‡jb| Giv mvavi‡Y¨ cÖvqB wb›`bxq n‡qI Wvbvq fi w`‡q †f‡m †eovb| Giv e¨w³ ¯^v‡_© D‡Ïk¨c~Y© mvwnZ¨ iPbv K‡i _v‡Kb| Gfv‡e Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü BZi wkíx‡`i wb›`v Kiv n‡jI gnr wkíx‡`i ¸i“Z¡ e¨vL¨v Kiv n‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) mvwn‡Z¨i GKwU `k©b _vK‡e| G `k©‡bi wfwˇZB mvwnZ¨ cvVKgyLx n‡e| mvwnwZ¨K wjL‡eb Ges cvVK co‡eb| DrK…ó mvwnZ¨‡K mgqB mv`‡i MÖnY Ki‡e| GUvB ¯^vfvweK| Z‡e cÖwZwU mvwn‡Z¨ GKUv Kgb welq _vK‡e| Avi Zv n‡”Q cvVK †hb G †_‡K Avb›` jvf K‡i| wKš—y KL‡bv cvVK g‡bvićb iwPZ mvwnZ¨ ¯^ag©Pz¨Z n‡q c‡o Ges m¯—v mvwn‡Z¨ evRvi †Qu‡q hvq|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ÔmeyR cÎÕ cwÎKvi cÖKvkKvj KZ? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : ÔmeyR cÎÕ cwÎKvi cÖKvkKvj 1914 wLª÷vã| cÖkœ : (L) evj¥xwKi cwiPq `vI| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : evj¥xwK ÔivgvqYÕ cÖ‡YZv, weL¨vZ Kwe I Fwl| wZwb cÖvPxb fviZxq mvwn‡Z¨i Avw` Kwe wn‡m‡eI m¤§vwbZ| †hŠe‡b Zvi †ckv wQj `my¨Zv| bvg wQj iZœvKi| Giƒc cÖPwjZ i‡q‡Q †h, wZwb eªþvi Dc‡`k `my¨e„wË †Q‡o Zcm¨vgMœ nb Ges bvi‡`i Dc‡`‡k ivgvqY iPbv K‡ib| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxcKwU‡Z Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi †Kvb w`KwU cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : cÖg_ †PŠayix Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü gbbkxj `„wófw½i Av‡jv‡K mvwnZ¨PP©vi D‡Ïk¨ e¨³ K‡i‡Qb| mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ n‡e mKj‡K Avb›` †`Iqv, KviI g‡bviÄb Kiv bq| cÖg_ †PŠayix Zvi Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü ¯úó K‡i e‡j‡Qb †h, mvwnZ¨ GKwU `k©b e¨³ Ki‡e| mvwnZ¨ †jLv n‡e gvby‡li Rb¨| Gi D‡Ïk¨ n‡e Avb›` `vb Kiv| g‡bvićbi Rb¨ mvwnZ¨ wjwLZ n‡e bv| mKj‡K Lywk Ki‡Z †M‡j mvwn‡Z¨i wbR¯^Zv _v‡K bv| mvwnZ¨ m¯—v n‡q I‡V| G‡Z mvwn‡Z¨i Av`k© bó nq| cÖvewÜK mnR fvlvq G wel‡q Zuvi wbR¯^ e³e¨ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| Aby‡”Q`wU‡ZI cÖg_ †PŠayix wb‡`©wkZ mvwn‡Z¨i bxwZgvjv Abym„Z n‡q‡Q Ges Zvi e³e¨B cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| Ômvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ mKj‡K Avb›` †`Iqv, KviI g‡bviÄb Kiv bq|Õ c„ôv-60


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (N) ÔcvVK g‡bvićb mvwnZ¨ ¯^ag©Pz¨Z n‡q c‡o Ges m¯—v mvwn‡Z¨ evRvi †Q‡q hvq|Õ Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : PwjZ M`¨ixwZi cÖeZ©K cÖg_ †PŠayix Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü mvwnZ¨PP©vi D‡Ïk¨ Ges mvwnZ¨PP©vq KiYxq w`K¸‡jv Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| cvVK g‡bviÄb Ki‡Z wM‡q mvwnZ¨ AvR cÖ‡kœi m¤§yLxb n‡q‡Q| cÖg_ †PŠayixi fvlvq Ômvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ mKj‡K Avb›` †`Iqv; KviI g‡bviÄb Kiv bq|Õ g‡bviÄb A_©vr AKvi‡Y cvV‡Ki g‡bi m‡š—vl`vb Ki‡Z †M‡j mvwnZ¨ ¯^ag©Pz¨Z n‡q c‡o| ÔAvb›` †`IqvÕ I Ôg‡bvićbiÕ gv‡S AvKvk cvZvj cÖ‡f` i‡q‡Q; GUv fy‡j wM‡qB †jLK wb‡R †Ljv bv K‡i c‡ii Rb¨ †Ljbv ˆZwi Ki‡Z e‡mb Ges cvVK g‡bviÄb Ki‡Z wM‡q m¯—v mvwn‡Z¨ evRvi fwi‡q Zz‡jb| cÖe‡Üi fvlvq ÔKv‡e¨i SzgSzwg, weÁv‡bi PzwlKvwV, `k©‡bi †ejyb, ivRbxwZi ivOvjvwV, BwZnv‡mi b¨vKovi cyZzj, bxwZi wU‡bi †fucy Ges a‡g©i RqXvKÑGB me wRwb‡m mvwn‡Z¨i evRvi †Qu‡q †M‡Q|Õ Kv‡RB mvwn‡Z¨ hZLywk Avb›` weZiY Kiv n‡jI G‡Kev‡iB g‡bviÄb Kiv hv‡e bv|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) eZ©gv‡b Kve¨vg„‡Z Avgv‡`i Ai“wP R‡b¥‡Q| †m Avgv‡`i †`v‡l bq| Avgv‡`i wk¶v-e¨e¯’vi †`v‡l| G wk¶v-e¨e¯’vi g~‡j i‡q‡Q G hy‡Mi ¯‹zj I Zvi wk¶‡Kiv| Kve¨ coevi Ges eySevi welq| A_P wk¶K covb Ges eySvb| d‡j Kwe-mvwnwZ¨‡Ki m‡½ cvV‡Ki `~iZ¡ n‡jI mZ¨ †h, Avgv‡`i g‡bvRM‡Z wk¶‡Ki f~wgKv Kwei f~wgKvi wVK wecixZ w`K cª`k©b K‡i|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) MjvatKiY kãwUi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : MjvatKiY kãwUi A_© n‡”Q f¶Y ev cvb Kiv| cÖkœ : (L) wk¶v I mvwn‡Z¨i ag©-Kg© GK bq †Kb? eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü cÖg_ †PŠayix wk¶v I mvwnZ¨‡K ¯úó K‡i e¨vL¨v K‡i‡Qb| wk¶v‡K gvbyl Awb”Qv m‡Ë¡ MjvatKiY Ki‡Z eva¨ nq| Ab¨w`‡K, Kve¨im Ag„Z; mK‡j mvb‡›` cvb K‡i| GQvov wk¶v gvby‡li gb‡K we‡k¦i Lei Rvbv‡jI mvwnZ¨ gvby‡li gb‡K RvMvq| Ac‡ii g‡bi Afve c~iY Kievi R‡b¨ wk¶‡Ki nv‡Z wk¶v Rb¥jvf Ki‡jI Kwei wb‡Ri g‡bi cwic~Y©Zv n‡Z mvwn‡Z¨i DrcwË N‡U‡Q| ZvB wk¶v I mvwnZ¨ GK bq| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡Ki e³e¨UzKy Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi m‡½ KZUzKz m½wZc~Y©? e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü cÖg_ †PŠayix mvwn‡Z¨i Av`k,© D‡Ïk¨ Ges KiYxq m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| †m m‡½ Kve¨vg„‡Z Avgv‡`i Ai“wP Rb¥v‡bvi KviYI e¨vL¨v K‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡Ki e³e¨UzKz Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi m‡½ m½wZc~Y©| DÏxc‡Ki mviK_v GB †h, Avgv‡`i †`v‡l Kv‡e¨ Avgv‡`i Ai“wP Rb¥vq wb| G Ai“wPi g~‡j i‡q‡Q Avgv‡`i cÖPwjZ wk¶v e¨e¯’v| Kve¨ coevi Ges c‡o eySevi welq| wk¶K covb Ges eySvb| d‡j GLv‡b cvVK I †jL‡Ki gv‡S Kwe weivR K‡ib| G‡Z KweI cvV‡Ki `~iZ¡ e„w× cvq| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡ÜI Kve¨im Av¯^v`‡b GB cÖwZeÜKZv‡K eo K‡i †`Lv n‡q‡Q| cÖvew܇Ki fvlvqÑÔGB ga¨¯’‡`i K…cvq Avgv‡`i m‡½ Kwei g‡bi wgjb `~‡i _vK, Pvi P¶zi wgjbI N‡U bv|Õ cÖvewÜK †¶v‡fi m‡½ e‡j‡Qb †h, UxKv-fv‡l¨i cÖmv‡` Avgiv Kv‡e¨i ZË¡ Rvwb wKš‘ Avm‡j Kve¨ Kx Avgiv ZvB Rvwb bv| DÏxcK I Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü Kve¨vg„‡Z Avgv‡`i Ai“wP Rb¥v‡bvi Rb¨ Awfbœ KviY- Avgv‡`i wk¶v-e¨e¯’v Ges G wk¶v-e¨e¯’vi g~‡j `Êvqgvb ¯‹zj I ¯‹zj wk¶K‡K `vqx Kiv n‡q‡Q| G wePv‡i DÏxc‡Ki e³e¨UzKz Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi m‡½ m½wZc~Y©| c„ôv-61


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (N) ÔAvgv‡`i g‡bvRM‡Zi wk¶‡Ki f~wgKv Kwei f~wgKvi wVK wecixZ w`K cª`k©b K‡i| Dw³wU Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : cÖg_ †PŠayix evsjv M`¨ mvwn‡Z¨ bZzb ixwZi cÖeZ©b K‡ib| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü mvwn‡Z¨i Av`k© I D‡Ïk¨ m¤ú‡K© wbR¯^ gZ cÖKv‡ki cvkvcvwk mvwnZ¨ PP©vi cÖwZeÜKZvi K_vI Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| cÖvewÜK cÖg_ †PŠayixi g‡Z mvwn‡Z¨ Ai“wP Rb¥v‡bvi †cQ‡b Avgv‡`i wk¶ve¨e¯’v †ek `vqx; Avi G wk¶v e¨e¯’vi g~‡j i‡q‡Q Avgv‡`i ¯‹zj I ¯‹z‡ji wk¶KMY| wk¶‡Ki KvR n‡”Q eB cov‡bv I eySv‡bv| A_P eB cvVK wb‡R co‡e I eyS‡e| wk¶K G `vwqZ¡ †bIqvi d‡j Zvi wbR¯^ gZvgZ wk¶v_x©‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i| d‡j mvwnZ¨ wccvmy‡`i m‡½ Kwei g‡bi wgjb N‡U bv| wUKvÑfv‡l¨i cÖmv‡` Kve¨ m¤^‡Ü mKj ZË¡ Rvb‡jI Kve¨ †h Kx e¯—y ZvB cvVK eyS‡Z cv‡i bv| Kwe Kve¨ m„wó Ki‡j wk¶‡Ki KvR n‡”Q Gi Pzj †Piv we‡k−lY Kiv| Gi ZË¡ Avwe®‹vi I we‡k−lY Kiv| G Rb¨B Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü cÖg_ †PŠayix e‡j‡Qb Ôg‡bvRM‡Z wk¶‡Ki KvR n‡”Q Kwei Kv‡Ri wVK D‡ëv|Õ Gfv‡e Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü DÏxc‡Ki e³e¨wUiB h_v_©Zv cÖgvwYZ n‡q‡Q|

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Kwei wb‡Ri g‡bi cwic~Y©Zv n‡Z mvwn‡Z¨i Rb¥

mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ Avb›` `vb Kiv

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Ô†KŠcxbÕ k‡ãi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : Ô†KŠcxbÕ k‡ãi A_© n‡”Q j¨vOU| cÖkœ : (L) †iv`¨uv-i cwiPq `vI| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : d«u¨v‡mvqv A¸¯— †iv`u¨v (1840 - 1917) wek¦weL¨vZ divwm fv¯‹i| Zuvi †kªô KxwZ©i g‡a¨ we‡klfv‡e D‡j−L‡hvM¨ n‡”QÑ Ôbi‡Ki `yqviÕ I ÔevNvm© Ae K¨v‡jÕ| Zuvi Abb¨ Awebk¦i KxwZ© n‡”QÑ ÔwPš—vwe`Õ, ÔAv`gÕ, ÔBfÕ| GQvovI wZwb wf±i û‡Mv, evjRvK, evb©vW k cÖgLy weL¨vZ mvwnwZ¨‡Ki cÖwZK…wZ wbg©vY K‡ib| cÖkœ : (M) mviwYwU Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi mv‡_ KZUzKz m½wZc~Y© e‡j Zzwg g‡b Ki? e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : cÖg_ †PŠayix evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i PwjZ M`¨ ixwZi AMÖcw_K| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü wZwb evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i wewfbœ w`K wb‡q gš—e¨ K‡i‡Qb| c„ôv-62


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

mviwYwU Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi welqe¯—yi Av‡jv‡K ˆZwi Kiv n‡q‡Q| mviwY‡Z wk¶v I mvwnZ¨‡K cvkvcvwk wb‡q Avmv n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b wk¶v I mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ I G‡`i cv_©K¨ wb‡`©k Kiv n‡q‡Q| wk¶v †jv‡K Awb”Qv m‡Ë¡ MjvatKiY Ki‡Z eva¨ n‡jI Kve¨im mvb‡›` cvb K‡i| wk¶v gvby‡li gb‡K we‡k¦i Lei Rvbv‡jI mvwnZ¨ gvby���li gb‡K RvwM‡q †Zv‡j| Ac‡ii g‡bi Afve c~i‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ wk¶vi Rb¥ n‡jI Kwei g‡bi cwic~Y©Zv n‡Z mvwn‡Z¨i DrcwË n‡q‡Q| Gi GKwU Ávb`vb Ki‡jI AciwU Avb›` `vb K‡i _v‡K| wk¶v I mvwn‡Z¨i msÁv Ges G‡`i D‡Ïk¨ eY©bvi w`K w`‡q mviwYwU Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi m‡½ m½wZc~Y©| cÖkœ : (N)

Ômvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ Avb›` `vb Kiv, wk¶v `vb Kiv bq|Õ Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK)

DËi : Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü cÖg_ †PŠayix mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ m¤ú‡K© gZvgZ cÖ`vb K‡i‡Qb| †h †Kvb ZË¡ I wb‡`©kbv‡K ¸i“Z¡ †`Iqvi cvkvcvwk Avb›` `vb KivB †h mvwn‡Z¨i cÖavb KvR G m¤ú‡K©I wZwb ¯úó gš—e¨ cÖ`vb K‡i‡Qb| cÖg_ †PŠayix Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü mvwn‡Z¨i bvbv w`K¸‡jv wb‡q w`K `k©bg~jK gZvgZ cÖKvk Ki‡Qb| †Kvb iƒc D‡Ïk¨ wb‡q mvwn‡Z¨ Avwef~©Z nIqv hv‡e bv e‡jI wZwb gZ cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| wZwb GgbI gš—e¨ K‡i‡Qb †h, mvwn‡Z¨ whwb dj jv‡fi Avkvq AskMÖnY K‡ib wZwb MxZ I MxZv‡K GK K‡i †d‡jb| †Kbbv, mvwnZ¨ n‡”Q GgbB wb®‹vg Kg© hvi ga¨ w`‡q gyw³ jvf m¤¢e| m½ZKvi‡YB mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨I n‡e mKj‡K Avb›` `vb Kiv; wk¶v `vb Kiv bq| hw`I Av‡jvPbv, mgv‡jvPbv, mvwnZ¨PP©v I mvwnZ¨ Dcjwäi ga¨ w`‡q Ávb jvf m¤¢e| Z_vwcI mivmwi wk¶v`vb Kiv mvwn‡Z¨i ixwZ wei“× KvR| mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ Avb›` `vb Kiv; wk¶v`vb Kiv bq| mviwYi G welqwU m¤ú‡K© Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü cÖg_ †PŠayixi ¯úó gš—e¨ÑÔmvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ mKj‡K Avb›` †`Iqv, KviI g‡bi IRb Kiv bq| gš—e¨wU mvwn‡Z¨ †Ljv cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Zvrch©gq n‡q D‡Q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) mvwnZ¨PP©v gvby‡li Ab¨Zg †kªô kL| G K_v gvgyb wek¦vm Ki‡jI †m KvD‡K KL‡bv eB Dcnvi †`q bv| mvwnZ¨ PP©v‡ZI DrmvwnZ K‡i bv| †m ¸i“Z¡ †`q cvV¨cy¯—Kfy©³ M`¨-KweZv‡K| †Kbbv cix¶v cv‡ki Rb¨ G cv‡Vi ¸i“Z¡ i‡q‡Q| A_P Gi evB‡iI gvbe Rxe‡b mvwnZ¨ PP©vi Kx cÖ‡qvRb _vK‡Z cv‡i Zv †m Abyaveb Ki‡Z cv‡i bv|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Ô†cjvÕ k‡ãi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : Ô†cjvÕ k‡ãi A_© n‡”QÑ cuvPvjx-KxZ©b BZ¨vw`i Avm‡i MvqKÑMvwqKv‡K †`Iqv †kªvZv‡`i cvwi‡ZvwlK| cÖkœ : (L) ÔKve¨ RM‡Z hvi bvg Avb›`, ZviB bvg †e`bvÕ- ej‡Z Kx eyS? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü mvwnZ¨ m¤úwK©Z mywbw`©ó wKQz `k©b e¨³ Ki‡Z wM‡q cÖg_ †PŠayix e‡j‡Qb †h, mvwnZ¨ iv‡R¨ †Ljbv †c‡q cvV‡Ki gbZzwó n‡jI Zv M‡o †hb †jL‡Ki gbZzwó bv nq| KviY cvVK mgvR †h †Ljbv AvR mv`‡i MÖnY K‡i Kvj †mwU‡K Qz‡o †d‡j †`q| cÖv‡P¨iB †nvK Avi cvðv‡Z¨iB †nvK †Kvb m„wóB `xN© mgq cvV‡Ki g‡bviÄb Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| eis cvVK‡K AvM evwo‡q Avb›` w`‡Z †M‡j Zviv †e`bv‡eva K‡i| †Kbbv, Kve¨ RM‡Z hvi bvg Avb›`, ZviB bvg †e`bv| c„ôv-63


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) gvgy‡bi e³e¨ Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi †Kvb w`KwU‡K Bw½Z K‡i‡Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : cÖg_ †PŠayix Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü bvbv wel‡qi AeZviYv K‡i mvwn‡Z¨i ¯^iƒc I Zvrch© e¨vL¨v K‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ gvgyb| mvwnZ¨PP©vi Av`k© gvgyb‡K DØy× K‡i bv| cvV¨cy¯—‡Ki evwn‡i mvwn‡Z¨i Kx Ae¯’vb? gvbe Rxe‡b mvwnZ¨ Kx f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡i?ÑG wel‡q gvgyb †f‡e cvq bv| d‡j †m †hgb KvD‡K mvwnZ¨ welqK eB Dcnvi †`q bv, †Zgwb KvD‡K mvwnZ¨ cv‡VI DrmvwnZ K‡i bv| DÏxcKwU Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ mvwnZ¨PP©vi Av`‡k© MwVZ nq wb| gvgy‡bi ü`q msev`x bq| mvwn‡Z¨ †m d‡ji Pvl Ki‡Z Pvq, mvwn‡Z¨ †m D‡Ïk¨ LyR u ‡Z Pvq| G Rb¨B †m mvwnZ¨ I Gi ¯^iƒc m¤ú‡K© †m AeMZ bq| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕÑi fvlvq gvgyb Mx‡Zi gg©I †ev‡S bv, MxZvi ag©I †ev‡S bv| cÖkœ : (N) DÏxcKwU Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi gvnvZ¥¨ dzwU‡q Zzj‡Z e¨_© n‡q‡Q- we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : cÖg_ †PŠayix Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ eY©bv K‡i‡Qb Ges wewfbœ †Ljvi Q‡j mvwn‡Z¨i Zvrch© Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| DÏxcKwU cÖg_ †PŠayixi Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü wea„Z mvwn‡Z¨i Av`k© m¤úKx©q gvnvZ¥¨ dzwU‡q Zzj‡Z e¨_© n‡q‡Q G K_v wbtm‡›`‡n ejv hvq| DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ gvgyb cvV¨cy¯K — Qvov e¨w³Rxe‡b mvwnZ¨ I mvwnZ¨PP©vi ¸i“Z¡ Abyaveb Ki‡Z Pvq bv| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi fvlvq ej‡Z †M‡j Kve¨i‡m Ai“wP Rb¥v‡bvi †cQ‡b nq‡Zv Avgv‡`i wk¶ve¨e¯’v g~j f~wgKv cvjb K‡i‡Q| G wk¶v e¨e¯’vi g~‡j i‡q‡Q Avgv‡`i wk¶v cÖwZôvb I Gi wk¶K| Kve¨ cvV‡Ki wb‡Ri covi I †evSvi welq| wKš—y Zv wk¶K covb I †evSvb| Gi d‡j Kwei m‡½ cvV‡Ki `~iZ¡ e„w× cvq| G Kvi‡YI nq‡Zv wk¶v_x©iv mvwnZ¨ wegyL n‡q _v‡K| Kve¨im Av¯^v`b Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ gvgy‡bi g‡Zv A‡b‡KB e¨w³ Rxe‡b mvwn‡Z¨i ¸i“Z¡ Abyaveb Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| d‡j gvgyb‡K †K›`ª K‡i iwPZ DÏxcKwU Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi gvnvZ¥¨ dzwU‡q Zzj‡Z e¨_© n‡q‡Q| †Kbbv Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü †jLK e‡j‡Qb mvwnZ¨ wk¶v`vb K‡ibv eis mKj‡K Avb›` `vb KivB mvwn‡Z¨i g~j D‡Ïk¨ hv gvgy‡bi wPš—vavivi wecixZ|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`) Kwe gywbi“¾vgvb †Kej †jLv‡jwL‡ZB bq e¨w³Rxe‡bI Lye Kve¨wcÖq| wZwb hLb Zvi eÜz-evÜe ev mnKgx©‡`i mv‡_ K_v e‡jb ZLb cÖvqB Zv‡Z Q›` Ry‡o †`b| A‡bK mvaviY K_vB KweZvi fw½gvq ejv Zvi GKwU Af¨v‡m cwiYZ n‡q‡Q| G Rb¨ A‡b‡KB Zv‡K ¯^fve Kwe e‡j Wv‡Kb| (O) †iv`u¨v ‡K ? (P) Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü †iv`u¨vi cÖm½ Uvbv n‡q‡Q †Kb? (Q) †iv`u¨vi mv‡_ gywbi“¾vgv‡bi Kx ai‡bi wgj i‡q‡Q? †Kb? (R) ÔA‡bK mvaviY K_vB KweZvi fw½gvq ejv Zvi GKwU Af¨v‡m cwiYZ n‡q‡QÕÑ Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wU we‡k−lY Ki| ..............................................................................................................................DËigvjv (O) †iv`u¨v RMwØL¨vZ GKRb divwm fv¯‹i| (P) hviv mwZ¨Kv‡ii mvwnwZ¨K Zviv mvwn‡Z¨ wk‡íi †Ljv †L‡j _v‡Kb| Gi Rb¨ we‡kl †Kvb mgq my‡hv‡Mi `iKvi nq bv| hLb ZLb g‡bi Avb‡›`B Zviv G KvRwU K‡ib| RMwØL¨vZ divwm fv¯^i †iv`u¨vI wQ‡jb GKRb RvZwkíx| hLb ZLb nv‡Zi Kv‡Q Kv`v †c‡jB Zv w`‡q wZwb gvwUi cyZzj ˆZwi K‡i †dj‡Zb| GUv wQj Zvi GK ai‡bi †Ljv| G †Ljv †Lj‡Z †Lj‡ZB wZwb A‡bK weL¨vZ fv¯‹h© wbg©vY K‡i RMwØL¨vZ n‡q I‡Vb| G R‡b¨B Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü Zuvi cÖm½wU †U‡b cÖK…Z mvwnwZ¨K‡`i GKwU we‡kl ˆewkó¨ Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| c„ôv-64


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

(Q) †iv`u¨v †hgb hLb ZLb nv‡Z Kv`v wb‡q cyZzj ˆZwi K‡i †dj‡Zb gywbi“¾vgvbI Zvi eÜz-evÜe ev mnKgx©‡`i mv‡_ K_v ejvi mgq hLb ZLb Q›` e¨envi K‡i GK ai‡bi Kve¨gqZv m„wó Ki‡Zb| †iv`¨uv wQ‡jb GKRb weL¨vZ fv¯‹i Avi gywbi“¾vgvb n‡”Qb GKRb Kwe| `yRb wk‡íi `ywU Avjv`v kvLvq wePiY Ki‡jI ¯^fveMZfv‡e Zv‡`i g‡a¨ h‡_ó wgj i‡q‡Q| g‡bi Avb‡›` A‡bKUv †Ljvi Q‡j Zviv Zv‡`i wkíKg©¸‡jv m„wó K‡ib| (R) hviv mwZ¨Kv‡ii wkíx Zviv Zv‡`i g‡bi Avb‡›` A‡bKUv †Ljvi Q‡jB wkíKg©¸‡jv wbg©vY K‡ib| G R‡b¨ we‡kl †Kvb mgq ev my‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ Zviv A‡c¶v K‡ib bv| Zv‡`i wkí m„wói †cQ‡b weL¨vZ nIqvi †Kvb AvKv•¶vI KvR K‡i bv| KvR Ki‡Z Ki‡ZB GK mgq Zviv mdjZv cvb ev weL¨vZ n‡q I‡Vb| Zv‡`i wkí m„wó A‡bKUvB mnRvZ welq| Avi G mnRvZ wkí‡evaB GK mgq Zv‡`i gnr wk‡íi mªóv K‡i †Zv‡j| Zviv mv_©K wkíx wn‡m‡e RM‡Z Agi n‡q _v‡Kb| cÖvewÜK cÖg_ †PŠayix Zvi Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü G mZ¨wUB Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`) RbwcÖq K_vwkíx Acy ivqnv‡bi AvR A‡bK K_vB g‡b co‡Q| wZwb hLb ¯‹z‡j covi mgq ¯‹zj g¨vMvwR‡bi Rb¨ GKwU Mí Rgv w`‡qwQ‡jb ZLb A‡b‡Ki †jLv Qvcv n‡jI ZviwU Qvcv nq wb| A_P AvR Zvi †jLv bv n‡j bvgx-`vgx KvMR¸‡jvi mvwnZ¨ m¤úv`K‡`i gbB f‡i bv| Zvi G mvdj¨ GK w`‡b Av‡m wb| Gi Rb¨ Zv‡K A‡bK mvabv Ki‡Z n‡q‡Q| A‡bK K‡ói c_ cvwo w`‡q mvg‡b G¸‡Z n‡q‡Q| (O) gvby‡li †`ng‡bi mKj cÖKvi wµqvi g‡a¨ †kªô †KvbwU? (P) mvwnZ¨ RM‡Z †Kvbiƒc D”P Avkv wb‡q cÖ‡ek Kiv DwPZ bq †Kb? (Q) Acy ivqnv‡bi mvwnZ¨ PP©vi welqwU Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü Kxfv‡e cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q ? (R) ÔAcy ivqnv‡bi †jLv bv n‡j bvgx-`vgx KvMR¸‡jvi mvwnZ¨ m¤úv`K‡`i gbB f‡i bvÕ Ñ Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wU we‡k−lY Ki| ...............................................................................................................................DËigvjv (O) gvby‡li †`ng‡bi mKj cÖKvi wµqvi g‡a¨ †kªô n‡”Q µxov| (P) mvwnZ¨ n‡”Q GKwU †Ljvi gvV| ZvB †Ljvi gv‡V †hgb Rq civRq _vK‡ZB cv‡i †Zgwb mvwn‡Z¨i †¶‡ÎI _vK‡Z cv‡i mdjZv ev e¨_©Zv| g‡bi Avb‡›` A‡bKUv †Ljvi Q‡jB mvwnZ¨ PP©v Kiv DwPZ| Zv‡Z nq‡Zv GK w`b mdjZv Avm‡Z cv‡i| wKš‘ †KD hw` D”P Avkv wb‡q mvwnZ¨ RM‡Z cÖ‡ek K‡i Z‡e †m †¶‡Î Zvi cZ‡bi h‡_ó Avk¼v _v‡K| †Kbbv, G ai‡bi D”PvKv•¶x Kv‡iv mvwnZ¨Kg© hw` cvVKwcÖqZv bv cvq Z‡e Zvi g‡bvej †f‡O hvq Ges Zv‡Z K‡i Zvi †fZ‡i jyKvwqZ m¤¢vebvI webó nq| d‡j Zvi c‡¶ Avi †Kvbw`bB ¯^vfvweK mvwnZ¨ PPuvUzKI z m¤¢e nq bv| ZvB G RM‡Z Kv‡iviB D”P Avkv wb‡q cÖ‡ek Kiv DwPZ bq| (Q) †jLK cÖg_ †PŠayix Zuvi Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü `y‡kªYxi mvwnwZ¨‡Ki K_v e‡j‡Qb| GK ‡kªYxi mvwnwZ¨K Av‡Qb hviv A‡bK D”P Avkv wb‡q mvwnZ¨ RM‡Z cÖ‡ek K‡ib| G‡`i ‡KD †KD mdj n‡jI A‡b‡KB ‡kl ch©š— e¨_© nb| Avevi Av‡iK mvwnwZ¨K gvbyl Av‡Qb, hviv †Kvbiƒc D”P Avkv bv wb‡q A‡bKUv †Ljvi Q‡jB mvwnZ¨ RM‡Z cÖ‡ek K‡ib| Kvjµ‡g †`Lv hvq, G‡`iB †KD †KD GK mgq weL¨vZ mvwnwZ¨K n‡q I‡Vb| cÖg_ †PŠayixi `„wófw½ Abyhvqx Acy ivqnvb n‡”Q †k‡lv³‡`i `‡j| Acy ivqnvb hLb ¯‹zj g¨vMvwR‡bi Rb¨ Mí Rgv †`b ZLb wKš‘ weL¨vZ †Kvb mvwnwZ¨K nIqvi Rb¨ wZwb Zv K‡ib wb| Avevi A‡b‡Ki †jLv Qvcv nIqvi ci wZwb †Kvb nZvkv‡ZI f~‡Mb wb| w`‡b w`‡b wZwb Zvi mvwnZ¨ PPuv Pvwj‡q †M‡Qb Ges Gfv‡eB GKw`b wZwb G‡¶‡Î cÖwZwôZ n‡q‡Qb| †jL‡Ki fvlvq wZwb ivRivRiv‡`i `‡j wg‡k †M‡Qb| (R) Ggb GKw`b wQj hLb Acy ivqnv‡bi †jLv Zvi ¯‹j z g¨vMvwR‡bB Qvcv n‡Zv bv| A_P `xN© mvabvi ci wZwb G‡Zv wbf©i‡hvM¨ I RbwcÖq GKRb †jLK n‡q I‡V‡Qb †h Zvi †jLv bv n‡j cÎ-cwÎKvi mvwnZ¨ m¤úv`Kiv Zv‡`i cwÎKvi we‡kl msL¨A¸‡jv‡K A‡bKUvB Ac~Y© g‡b K‡ib| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü cÖg_ †PŠayix Acy ivqnv‡bi g‡Zv †jLK‡`i cÖm‡½B e‡j‡Qb †Kvbiƒc D”P Avkv wb‡q mvwnZ¨ RM‡Z cÖ‡ek bv K‡i g‡bi Avb‡›` A‡bKUv †Ljvi Q‡j G RM‡Z cÖ‡ek Ki‡j GK mgq L¨vwZgvb n‡q IVv m¤¢e| AAi GUv †h m¤¢e Acy ivqnvb n‡”Qb ZviB GK D¾ej `„óvš—| Gw`K †_‡K Avgiv ej‡Z cvwi cÖg_ †PŠayix Zvi Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü AZ¨š— mywPwš—Z I e¯‘wbô wKQz welq Zzj a‡i‡Qb| c„ôv-65


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`) bCg †gv¯—dv GKRb cvVKwcÖq m„Rbkxj †jLK| Avw_©Kfv‡e wZwb wKQzUv Am”Qj n‡jI G wb‡q Zvi †Kvb gv_ve¨_v †bB| GKevi GK cÖfvekvjx cÖKvkbx ms¯’v †_‡K Zvi Kv‡Q beg †kªYxi evsjv MvBW eB †jLvi cÖ¯—ve Av‡m| msmv‡ii Avw_©K `yie¯’v jvN‡ei cÖZ¨vkvq Zvi ¯¿x G‡Z Lye Lywk n‡jI web‡qi mv‡_ wZwb Zv cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡ib| (K) Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi †jLK ‡K? (L) mvwnZ¨ ¯^ag©Pz¨Z n‡q c‡o †Kb ? (M) bCg †gv¯—dvi g‡Zv †jLK‡`i welqwU Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü Kxfv‡e Av‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Q ? (N) †jLv‡jwLi e¨vcv‡i bCg †gv¯—dvi `„wófw½wU Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| .............................................................................................................................DËigvjv (O) Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi †jLK n‡”Qb cÖg_ †PŠayix| (P) mgv‡Ri g‡bviÄb Ki‡Z †M‡jB mvwnZ¨ ¯^ag©Pz¨Z n‡q c‡o| †Kbbv, mvwnZ¨ n‡”Q Aš—ivZ¥vi ù’wZ©| Zvi GKgvÎ dj n‡jv Avb›`| ZvB wb‡Ri g‡bi Avb‡›` †Ljvi Q‡j †h mvwnZ¨ m„wó nq bv, Zv cÖKZ … mvwnZ¨ bq| Zv GK ai‡bi †Ljbv gvÎ| G †Ljbv †c‡q cvVK Z…ß n‡Z cv‡ib| wKš‘ GUv M‡o †Kvb †jLK Z…ß n‡Z cv‡ib bv| †jLK hw` ¯^vaxbfv‡e Zvi g‡bi K_v¸‡jv Zvi mvwnZ¨K‡g© Zz‡j ai‡Z bv cv‡ib Z‡e †mUv ‡Kvb Ae¯’v‡ZB mwZ¨Kv‡ii †Kvb mvwnZ¨ bq| (Q) †jLK cÖg_ †PŠayix Zuvi Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü `y‡kªYxi mvwnwZ¨‡Ki K_v e‡j‡Qb| GK ‡kªYxi mvwnwZ¨K Av‡Qb hviv mgv‡Ri g‡bvićbi Rb¨ ev wekl †Kvb dj jv‡fi Avkvq mvwnZ¨ m„wó K‡ib| Aci †kªYx mvwnZ¨ m„wó K‡ib g‡bi Avb‡›`| Zv‡`i Aš—ivZ¥vi ù’wZ©B Zv‡`i mvwn‡Z¨i g~j Dcv`vb| bCg †gv¯—dv n‡”Qb GB †k‡lv³‡`i `‡j| wZwb Zvi g‡bi Avb‡›` m„Rbkxj mvwnZ¨ iPbv K‡ib| ZvB cÖKvkbx ms¯’v †_‡K Zvi Kv‡Q hLb MvBW eB †jLvi cÖ¯—ve Av‡m ZLb Avw_©Kfv‡e h‡_ó jvfevb nIqvi my‡hvM _vKvi ciI web‡qi mv‡_ wZwb Zv cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡ib| (R) †jLv‡jwLi e¨vcv‡i bCg †gv¯—dv `„wófw½ n‡”Q GKRb cÖK…Z mvwnwZ¨‡Ki g‡Zv| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi †jLK cÖg_ †PŠayixi g‡Z ZvivB cÖKZ … mvwnwZ¨K hviv †Kvbiƒc d‡ji Avkvq Kv‡iv g‡bvićbi Rb¨ †jLbx aviY K‡ib bv| Zviv †jLbx aviY K‡ib g‡bi Avb‡›` A‡bKUv †Ljvi Q‡j| Zv‡`i mvwnZ¨Kg© mgvR ev e¨w³we‡k‡li g‡bvićbi Rb¨ e¨eüZ nq bv| Zv‡`i mvwnZ¨ e¨eüZ nq gvby‡li g‡b Acvi Avb›` `v‡bi Rb¨| G ai‡bi mvwnwZ¨Kiv A‡_©i †cQ‡b Qz‡Ub bv| wb‡Ri ¯^KxqZv‡K wemR©b w`‡q Kv‡iv we‡kl Pvwn`v c~i‡Yi R‡b¨I †jLbx aviY K‡ib bv| Gw`K †_‡K bCg †gv¯—dv wbtm‡›`‡n GKRb mdj I mv_©K mvwnwZ¨K|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`)

(O) (P) (Q) (R)

QvÎ Rxe‡b ivRbxwZ Kivi myev‡` cvk Kivi mv‡_ mv‡_B ewki Avn‡g‡`i GKwU fv‡jv PvKwi n‡q hvq| Rxe‡b †jLv‡jwL Kivi Af¨vm bv _vK‡jI miKvi‡K Lywk Kivi Rb¨ `jxq cÖav‡bi Dci wewfbœ cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ †jLv msMÖn K‡i wb‡Ri m¤úv`bvq †m GKwU eB cÖKvk K‡i| A‡b‡KB wb‡Ri ‡bZ…fw³ cÖgvY Kivi Rb¨ G eBwU wKb‡Z ûgwo †L‡q c‡o| ewki Avn‡g` ivZvivwZ wn‡iv e‡b hvb| wKš‘ K‡qK eQi ci †`‡ki miKvi cwieZ©b n‡j Zvi G eBwU Avi evRv‡i wewµ nq bv| †Kvbiƒc Kvh© D×v‡ii AwfcÖv‡q hviv †jLbx aviY K‡ib Zviv wK‡mi gg© †ev‡Sb bv ? Kv‡iv g‡bviÄb Kiv mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ bq †Kb? ewki Avn‡g` m¤úvw`Z eB‡qi e¨vcv‡i †jLK cÖg_ †PŠayix Zvi Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü Kx ai‡bi g‡bvfve cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb ? ÔG eBwU Avi evRv‡i wewµ nq bvÕ Ñ Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wU we‡k−lY Ki| c„ôv-66


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

..............................................................................................................................DËigvjv (O) †Kvbiƒc Kvh© D×v‡ii AwfcÖv‡q hviv †jLbx aviY K‡ib Zviv Mx‡Zi gg© †ev‡Sb bv| (P) GKRb mvwnwZ¨K †KvbiKg Afve‡eva †_‡K mvwnZ¨ m„wó K‡ib bv| wZwb Zvi g‡bi c~Y©Zv †_‡KB mvwnZ¨ m„wó K‡ib| ZvB †KD hw` Kv‡iv g‡bviÄb Kivi Rb¨ †Kvb mvwnZ¨ m„wó K‡ib Z‡e Zv mvwnZ¨ bv n‡q GK ai‡bi †Ljbv n‡q I‡V| Gme AcmvwnZ¨ `xN©w`b cvVK mgv‡R wU‡K _vK‡Z cv‡i bv| mg‡qi cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ GK mgq Zv Kv‡ji Ave‡Z© nvwi‡q hvq| ZvB KL‡bvB Kv‡iv g‡bviÄb Kiv †Kvb cÖK…Z mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ n‡Z cv‡i bv| (Q) mvwnZ¨ n‡”Q gvbevZ¥vi †Ljv| gvbyl Zvi g‡bi Avb‡›` †Ljvi Q‡jB G mvwnZ¨ m„wó K‡i _v‡Kb| mvwnwZ¨Kiv Rv‰MwZK †Kvb Afve‡eva ‡_‡K mvwnZ¨ m„wó K‡ib bv| wb‡Ri g‡bi c~Y©Zv †_‡KB Zv‡`i mvwnZ¨ m„wó nq| hviv †Kvb we‡kl e¨w³, †Mvôx ev mgv‡Ri g‡bviÄb Kivi Rb¨ mvwnZ¨ m„wó K‡ib Zv‡`i †m m„wó mvwnZ¨ bv n‡q †Ljbv n‡q I‡V| wkïiv †hgb `yw`b ci cyi‡bv †Ljbv †f‡O bZzb †Ljbv wb‡q †g‡Z I‡V G ai‡bi Acmvwn‡Z¨i fv‡M¨I wVK GKB NUbv N‡U| ewki Avn‡g` m¤úvw`Z eBwUi †¶‡ÎI wVK ZvB N‡U‡Q| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü †jLK cÖg_ †PŠayix AZ¨š— PgrKvifv‡e G welqwUB Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| (R) mvwnZ¨ n‡”Q Acvi i‡mi Avavi| mvwnZ¨ gvby‡li gb‡K RvwM‡q †Zv‡j Zv‡K Avb‡›` f‡i †`q| †h mvwnZ¨ G KvR Ki‡Z cv‡i bv Zv cÖK…Z mvwnZ¨ bq| †h mvwnZ¨ gvbyl‡K wbg©j Avb›` `v‡bi cwie‡Z© we‡kl †Kvb e¨w³ ev †Mvôxi g‡bviÄb K‡i Zv‡K Avi hvB †nvK mvwnZ¨ ejv hvq bv| whwb †Kvb we‡kl dj jv‡fi Avkvq KvD‡K Lywk Kivi Rb¨ †jLbx aviY K‡ib, Zvi nvZ w`‡q hv m„wó nq Zv mvwnZ¨ bq; †Ljbv| G me †Ljbv KL‡bv `xN©¯’vqx nq bv| cÖ‡qvRb dziv‡j `yw`b ci cvVK Zv Qu~‡o †d‡j| ewki Avn‡g` m¤úvw`Z eBwUi †¶‡ÎI wVK GKB NUbv N‡U‡Q| hv‡K †Zvlv‡gv` Kivi Rb¨ eBwU cÖKvk Kiv nq Zvi ¶gZv _vKvKv‡j eBwU cÖPzi wewµ n‡jI Zvi ¶gZv P‡j hvIqvi ci eBwUi Avi †Kvb †µZv cvIqv hvq bv| Z‡e G eBwUi hw` †Kvb mvwnZ¨g~j¨ _vK‡Zv Z‡e Gi fv‡M¨ G ai‡bi NUbv NU‡Zv bv| †K ¶gZvq _vK‡jv ev bv _vK‡jv Zv w`‡q wba©vwiZ n‡Zv bv Zvi wewµi msL¨v| cvVK †¯^”Qvq Gi mvwnZ¨ im cvb Kivi Rb¨ me mgq G eBwU †Kbvi e¨vcv‡i AvMÖn †`Lv‡Zv| ZvB Avgiv ej‡Z cvwi, G m¤ú‡K© †jLK cÖg_ †PŠayix †h AwfgZ e¨³ K‡i‡Qb Zv m¤ú~Y©fv‡eB ev¯—e I h_v_©|

ˆbe©¨w³K cÖkœvewj mvwn‡Z¨ †Ljv wbZvB P›`ª †gvnš—

1| evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ PwjZ M`¨ixwZi cÖeZ©K †K? K ûgvq~b Avn‡g` L iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi M cÖg_ †PŠayix N Ck¦i ¸ß 2| cÖg_ †PŠayix KZ mv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? K 1886 L 1968 M 1869 N 1868 3| cÖg_ †PŠayixi QÙbvg Kx? K KvjK~U L exiej M bxj‡jvwnZ N ebdzj 4| cÖg_ †PŠayix m¤úvw`Z cwÎKvi bvg Kx? K fviZx L c~e©vkv M meyRcÎ N msev` cÖfvKi

−cÖg_ †PŠayix 5| cÖg_ †PŠayixi M`¨‰kjxi wb`k©b i‡q‡Q †Kvb MÖ‡š’? K †Zj-byb-jKwo L m‡bU cÂvkr M Mí¸”Q N wngymgMÖ 6| cÖg_ †PŠayixi ˆcZ…K wbevm †Kv_vq? K Uv½vBj L cvebv M h‡kvi N Lyjbv 7| cÖg_ †PŠayix KZ wLªóv‡ã g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib? K 1846 L 1945 M 1946 N 1845 8| †iv`u¨v †K? K BZvwjqvb Kwe L divwm wPÎwkíx M divwm fv¯‹i N Bs‡iR fv¯‹i c„ôv-67


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj) 9| †Kvb iv‡R¨ gnvcyi“l‡`i hv Lywk ZvB Kivi AwaKvi Av‡Q? K Áv‡bi iv‡R¨ L AivRK iv‡R¨ M A_©iv‡R¨ N Kjviv‡R¨ 10| gZ©¨evmxi c‡¶ †Kv_vq Mgb KivUv wb›`bxq? K imvZ‡j L cvnv‡o M we‡`‡k N b`x‡Z 11| c„w_ex‡Z GKgvÎ eªvþY-k~‡`ªi cÖ‡f` †bB †Kv_vq? K ¯‹z‡j L mfvq M †Ljvi gq`v‡b N wbgš¿‡Y 12| †jLK‡`i g‡Z, ZuvivB n‡”Qb h_v_© mvgvwRK Rxe, ev`evwK mK‡j †KejgvÎ ⎯ K AmvgvwRK L cvwievwiK M e¨w³K N bvMwiK 13| Kve¨RM‡Z hvi bvg Avb›`, ZviB bvg ⎯ K welv` L nl© M nvZZvwj N †e`bv 14| mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q ⎯ K gvby‡li gb‡K wk¶v`vb Kiv L gvby‡li g‡b †cÖg `vb Kiv M gvby‡li gb‡K RvMv‡bv N gvby‡li gb‡K Nygv‡bv 15| cÖg_ †PŠayixi g‡Z †jLK I cvVK‡`i g‡a¨ GLb `Ûvqgvb⎯ K we‡µZv L jvB‡eªwi M wk¶K N Kw¤úDUvi 16| mvwnZ¨ †Q‡ji nv‡Zi †Ljbv bq, Mi“i nv‡Zi Kx bq? K Wv÷vi L †eZ M gvK©vi N eB 17| gvby‡li †`n-g‡bi mKj wµqvi g‡a¨ †kªô⎯ K Nygv‡bv L LvIqv M µxov N mvwnZ¨ 18| wk¶vi D‡Ïk¨ Kx? K PvKwi jvf L mvwU©wd‡KU AR©b M Nyl LvIqv N we‡k¦i Lei Rvbv‡bv 19| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü †Kvb gv‡Vi K_v D‡j−L Av‡Q? K cy‡ji gvV L †Ljvi gvV M M‡oi gvV N L‡oi gvV

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

20| me ï‡b †jLK‡`i wk¶vf³ eÜz †Kvb wm×v‡š— DcbxZ nb? K mvwnZ¨ Avb›` †`q L mvwnZ¨ †Ljv”Q‡j wk¶v †`q M mvwnZ¨ PvKwi †`q N mvwnZ¨ A_© †RvMvq 21| c„w_exi wkíx gv‡ÎB wk‡íi †Ljv †L‡jb⎯ K Avb›` jv‡fi Rb¨ L mybvg AR©‡bi Rb¨ M eo nIqvi Rb¨ N `ytL fy‡j _vKvi Rb¨ 22| †jL‡KivI Aek¨ `‡ki Kv‡Q nvZZvwji cÖZ¨vkv iv‡Lb ÔnvZZvwjÕ A_© ⎯ K wb‡R‡K cÖKvk Kiv L †cÖiYv †`Iqv M wb‡R‡K eo Kiv N ¯^xK…wZ jvf Kiv 23| †Ljvi D‡Ï‡k¨i m‡½ cÖvewÜK GK K‡i †`wL‡q‡Qb⎯ K wk¶v D‡Ïk¨‡K L Kv‡e¨i D‡Ïk¨‡K M mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨‡K N fv¯‹‡h©i D‡Ïk¨‡K 24| wk¶v I mvwnZ¨ ci¯úi ⎯ K mgvb L wecixZ M mgvš—ivj N eÜz 25| Kwei gwZMwZ wk¶‡Ki gwZMwZi wecixZ †Kb? K wk¶K UvKvi Avkvq covb e‡j L wk¶K PvKwi K‡ib e‡j M Kwei KvR KweZv †jLv e‡j N wk¶K †Rvi K‡i MjvatKiY Kivb e‡j 26| Ô`v-Kzgov m¤^ÜÕ evMavivwU Kx A‡_© e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q? K ˆeix m¤úK© A‡_© L wgj m¤ú‡K© A‡_© M wei“× AvPiY A‡_© N KvUvKvwU A‡_© 27| ÔWvbvq fi w`‡q _vKvÕ Kx wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q? K cÖev` L cÖePb M evMaviv N Qov 28| ÔDcwicvIqvÕ evMavivwU Kx A‡_© e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q? K Nyl L evowZ Avq M A_© mgvMg N Dcnvi 29| A‡b‡Ki c‡¶ wb‡R‡`i Avq‡Ëi ewnf~©Z D”P¯’v‡b DVevi †PóvUv ⎯ K cZ‡bi KviY L D”Pvkvi KviY M gnvcZ‡bi KviY N b‡ói KviY

c„ôv-68


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj) 30| mgv‡Ri g‡bviÄb Ki‡Z †M‡j mvwnZ¨ ¯^ag©Pz¨Z n‡q c‡o †Kb? K mvwnZ¨‡K mgvR MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i bv e‡j L g‡bviÄb mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ bq e‡j M mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ åó nq e‡j N cvVK mvwnZ¨ eyS‡Z cv‡i bv e‡j 31| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q ⎯ (i) mvwn‡Z¨i cÖK…Z D‡Ïk¨ (ii) mvwn‡Z¨i cÖK…Z ¸i“Z¡ (iii) mvwn‡Z¨i cÖK…Z iƒc wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M ii I iii N i I iii 32| wk¶v I mvwnZ¨K‡g©i j¶¨ ⎯ (i) GK bq (ii) GK (iii) wk¶v`vb wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L ii I iii M i N ii 33| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖeÜwU ⎯ (i) wk¶‡Ki D‡Ï‡k¨ iwPZ (ii) Qv‡Îi D‡Ï‡k¨ iwPZ (iii) mvwn‡Z¨i aviv wel‡q iwPZ wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I iii L ii I iii M i I ii N i, ii I iii 34| mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ ej‡Z cÖg_ †PŠayixi AwfgZ nj⎯

(i) Avb›` `vb Kiv (ii) g‡bviÄb Kiv bq (iii) wk¶v`vb Kiv bq wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii I iii M i I ii N i, ii I iii 35| cÖg_ †PŠayix wk¶v I mvwn‡Z¨i g‡a¨ †h cv_©K¨ wbY©q K‡i‡Qb Zv nj⎯ (i) wk¶vi D‡Ïk¨ gvby‡li gb‡K we‡k¦i Lei Rvbv‡bv (ii) mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ gvby‡li gb‡K RvMv‡bv (iii) wk¶vi D‡Ïk¨ Avb›` `vb Kiv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K ii I iii L i I ii M i I iii N i, ii I iii

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

36| g‡bi ˆewkó¨ cÖKvk Ki‡Z cÖg_ †PŠayix e‡j‡Qb⎯ (i) gb DuP‡z ZI DV‡Z Pvq (ii) wbPz‡ZI bvg‡Z Pvq (iii) gb wVK RvqMvq Ae¯’vb K‡i wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M i I ii N i, ii I iii 37| cÖg_ †PŠayix eo wkíxi cÖksmv K‡i‡Qb †h ev‡K¨i gva¨‡g ⎯ (i) Zuviv wkiI Mo‡Z cv‡ib (ii) Zuviv euv`iI Mo‡Z cv‡ib (iii) Zuviv ïay wki Mo‡Z cv‡ib wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L ii I iii M i I iii N i, ii I iii 38| ÔcvVK mgvR †h †Ljbv AvR Av`i K‡i, Kvj †mwU‡K †f‡O †d‡jÕ-Dw³wUi Zvrch© n‡jv ⎯ (i) cvV‡Ki i“wPi Dci M‡o IVv mvwnZ¨Kg© ¶Y¯’vqx (ii) cvV‡Ki i“wPi Dci mvwnZ¨Kg© M‡o D‡V‡Q (iii) mvwnZ¨ cvVK mgv‡Ri nv‡Zi †Ljbv bq wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L i M ii N i, ii I iii 39| Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü †Kvb †Kvb evMavivi D‡j−L Av‡Q? (i) `v-Kzgov m¤^Ü (ii) imvZ‡j Mgb (iii) AvKvk-cvZvj cÖ‡f` wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L i M ii N i, ii I iii 40| mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ Avb›` `vb Kiv n‡jI cÖK…Zc‡¶ mvwnwZ¨K‡`i D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv ⎯ (i) Avb›` m„wó Kiv (ii) Kwe g‡bi cwic~Y©Zv `vb (iii) †Ljbv ˆZwi Kiv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki M i I ii

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c„ôv-69

L ii N i, ii I iii


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

wejvmx kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq (1876-1938) “ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (Avey bCg †gv¯—dv)

ZgvwjKv hvÎv`‡ji Awf‡bÎx| Zvi GKgvÎ †g‡q m~Pbv| †m †g‡q‡K wb‡q †`kgq Ny‡i †eovq| GK ¯’v‡b Ae¯’vbKv‡j m~Pbvi gb †`qv-‡bqv nq gwbi bv‡g GK gymjgvb hye‡Ki mv‡_| gwbi m~Pbv‡K we‡q Ki‡j MÖv‡g †Zvjcvo ïi“ nq| gwb‡ii cwievi‡K GKN‡i Kiv nq| cwievi‡K evuPv‡Z GKw`b †m m~Pbv‡K wb‡q hvÎvi `‡j wg‡k hvq|

cÖkœ: (K) g„Zz¨Äq eivei †Kvb K¬v‡ki QvÎ wQj? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: g„Zz¨Äq ¯‹z‡j eivei _vW© K¬v‡mi QvÎ wQj| cÖk:œ (L) g„Z¨z ćqi wei“‡× `ybv© g iU‡bvi wcQ‡b Lyovi D‡Ïk¨ Kx wQj? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: g„Zz¨Ä‡qi ÁvwZ Lyov Qvov c„w_ex‡Z cwiRb ej‡Z Avi †KD wQj bv| wKš‘ Lyov wQj cÖPÊ †jvfx I bxPz gvbwmKZvi gvbyl| g„Z¨z ćqi cÖKvÊ Avg-KvuVv‡ji evMv‡bi cÖwZ Lyovi wQj `ywb©evi †jvf| ZvB †jv‡fi ekeZ©x n‡q Lyov g„Zz¨Ä‡qi wei“‡× MÖvggq wewfbœ ai‡bi `ybv© g iUbv K‡i †eovZ| †m bvwK MvuRv Lvq, †m ¸wj Lvq, Ggwb Av‡iv K‡Zv wK! wb‡Ri fvB‡cv m¤ú‡K© Lyovi G AccÖPv‡ii D‡Ïk¨ g„Zz¨Ä‡qi evMvbevwo `Lj| cÖk:œ (M) DÏxc‡Ki m~Pbv I gwbi Kxfv‡e ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi wejvmx-g„Zz¨Ä‡qi mv‡_ mv`„k¨c~Y© Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í Amg †cÖ‡gi Kvwnbx ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| D³ M‡í RvwZMZ we‡f‡`i msKxY© mxgv‡K AwZµg K‡i gvbe-gvbexi †cÖ‡gi gwngv Dc¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q| Av‡jvP¨ DÏxc‡KI ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Qvqv cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| wn›`y mgv‡Ri ixwZ‡Z wejvmx-g„Zz¨Äq wQj e¨wZµg ag©x gvbe-gvbex| gyZz¨Äq wQj wgwËi es‡ki †Q‡j A_©vr D”Peskxq| Aciw`‡K wejvmx wQj mvcy‡o Kb¨v A_©vr wbæe‡Y©i gvbyl| g„Zz¨Ä‡qi mv‡_ †cÖg I we‡qi dj Zvi Rxeb‡eva, †mevcivqYZv, mvnwm BZ¨vw` cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| wKš‘ cÖPwjZ i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgvR Zv‡`i G m¤úK© †g‡b †bq wb| ZvB g„Zz¨Äq wejvmx‡K wb‡q gv‡jvcvovq emevm ïi“ K‡i| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ m~Pbv I gwbi, wejvmx-g„Z¨z ćqi g‡Zv e¨wZµgx gvbyl| `yRb ci¯úi‡K fv‡jvev‡m we‡q K‡i| wKš‘ wn›`yi †g‡q‡K we‡q Kivi Aciv‡a gymwjg mgvR gwbi‡K GKN‡i K‡i iv‡L| mgv‡Ri G‡nb Kv‡R gwbi m~Pbv‡K wb‡q hvÎvi `‡j wg‡k hvq| myZivs wejvmx-g„Zz¨Ä‡qi mv‡_ gwbi-m~Pbvi Rxe‡bi G cwiw¯’wZi mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q| cÖk:œ (N) DÏxc‡Ki gwbi Gi mgvRZ¨v‡Mi KviY †Zvgvi cwVZ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i me‡P‡q RbwcÖq Jcb¨vwmK kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔwejvmxÕ GKwU KvjRqx †QvU Mí| D³ M‡í wejvmx I g„Zz¨Ä‡qi AmvaviY †cÖ‡gi gwngv dz‡U D‡V‡Q| g„Zz¨Äq wgwËi es‡ki A_©vr D”Pe‡Y©i mš—vb n‡qI wbæe‡Y©i gv‡jv Kb¨v wejvmx‡K we‡q K‡i| wbR MÖvg †Q‡o †m P‡j hvq gv‡jvcvovq| RvZcvZ wemR©b w`‡q †m mvcy‡o e„wË MÖnY K‡i| KviY g„Zz¨Äq Zvi mgv‡R D‡cw¶Z| Zvi Kv‡Q A‡b‡KB Avw_©K mnvqZv MÖnY Ki‡jI `ytmg‡q †KD GwM‡q Av‡m wb| G mgq e„× gv‡jv I Zvi Kb¨v wejvmx g„Zz¨Ä‡qi cv‡k G‡m `vuovq| wejvmxi cÖvYcY †Póvq †m g„Zz¨i `yqvi †_‡K wd‡i Av‡m| ev¯—eZvi AwfNv‡Z esk, eY©- m‡e©vcwi a‡g©i Aš—tmvik~b¨Zv Zvi mvg‡b ¯úó c„ôv-70


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

n‡q I‡V| wejvmxi AK…wÎg †cÖ‡g gbyl¨Z¡B eo n‡q I‡V| ZvB gvbweKZv‡K g~j¨vqb Ki‡Z wM‡q Zv‡K MÖvg Qvo‡Z nq, esk wemR©b w`‡Z nq Ges †ckv cwieZ©b Ki‡Z nq| DÏxc‡K g„Zz¨Ä‡qi g‡ZvGKB Kvi‡Y gwbi‡K Zvi ¯¿x m~Pbvmn MÖvg Qvo‡Z nq| gymjgvb gwbi I wn›`yi †g‡q m~Pbv ci¯úi‡K fv‡jv‡e‡m we‡q Ki‡j ag©vÜ, i¶Ykxj mgvR Zv‡`i‡K †g‡b †bq wb| Zviv gwb‡ii cwievi‡K mvgvwRK mKj my‡hvM-myweav †_‡K ewÂZ K‡i GKN‡i K‡i iv‡L| ZvB cwievi‡K G mvgvwRK AZ¨vPvi †_‡K i¶v Kivi Rb¨ Ges fv‡jvevmvi gh©v`v cÖwZôvi Rb¨ gwbi m~Pbv‡K wb‡q MÖvg †Q‡o P‡j hvq Ges hvÎvi `‡j wg‡k hvq|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (Avey bCg †gv¯—dv)

k¨vgjv‡ji GKwU Mi“i Lvgvi Av‡Q| mvZwU Mvfx †_‡K †m cÖwZw`b wek †KwR `ya cvq| wek †KwR `y‡ai mv‡_ cvuP †KwR cvwb wgwk‡q wewµ K‡i| G K_v Rvb‡Z †c‡i Zvi ¯¿x mijv Zv‡K G KvR Ki‡Z gvbv K‡i| mijv e‡j Ôm„wóKZ©v Avgv‡`i fv‡jvB †i‡L‡Qb- Ime K‡i jvf Kx?Õ

cÖkœ: (K) Kwj Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: wn›`y cyiv‡b ewY©Z Pvihy‡Mi †kl hyM| cyivb g‡Z, G hy‡M Ab¨vq, AmZ¨ I Aa‡g©i evovevwo NU‡e| cÖkœ: (L) wejvmx AvZ¥nZ¨v Ki‡jv †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ wejvmx| †m Zvi gbcÖvY w`‡q fv‡jv‡e‡mwQj g„Zz¨Äq‡K| Zv‡K †m g„Zy¨i nvZ †_‡K wdwi‡q G‡b ewm‡qwQj †cÖ‡gi ¯^Yv© m‡b| Zv‡K wb‡q wejvmx GK iwOb fwel¨‡Zi ¯^cœRvj ey‡bwQj| wKš‘ g„Zz¨Ä‡qi AvKw¯§K g„Zz¨‡Z Zvi †m ¯^cR œ vj wQu‡o hvq| g„Z¨z Äq wen‡b wb‡Ri Rxe‡bi ‡Kv‡bv A_©B †m Lyu‡R cvq wb| ZvB †m AvZ¥nZ¨v K‡i‡Q| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki e³e¨ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi †Kvb As‡ki mv‡_ mv`„k¨c~Y©- e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K ewY©Z PwiÎ k¨vgjvj †gvUvgywU ¯^”Qj Rxeb hvcb K‡i| Zvi GKwU Mi“i Lvgvi Av‡Q| †mLv‡b mvZwU Mvfx cÖwZw`b `ya †`q| wek †KwR `y‡ai mv‡_ AviI cvuP †KwR cvwb †gkv‡j gvbyl eyS‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvB k¨vgjvj cÖwZw`‡bi AwZwi³ jv‡fi Avkv Z¨vM Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| †m `y‡a cvwb wgwk‡q gvbyl‡K cÖeÂbv K‡i| Zvi ¯¿x mijv welqwU Rvb‡Z †c‡i e¨w_Z nq| †m Zvi ¯^vgx‡K G ai‡bi †jvK VKv‡bv e¨emv †_‡K weiZ _vK‡Z Aby‡iva Rvbvq| mijv Zvi ¯^vgx‡K Zv‡`i ¯^”QjZvi K_v ¯§iY Kwi‡q †`q| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq AZ¨š— wbcyYfv‡e gvbyl VKv‡bvi G iKg e¨emvi AeZviYv K‡i‡Qb| †mwU n‡”Q mvc †Ljv †`Lv‡bv I mvc bv Kvgov‡bvi ZvweR wewµ Kiv| GwU n‡”Q mvcy‡o‡`i RvZ e¨emv| g„Zz¨ÄqI G e¨emv iß K‡i‡Q| wKš‘ ÔwejvmxÕ G ai‡bi e¨emv cQ›` K‡i bv| ZvB ‡m g„Zz¨Äq‡K Gme e¨emv bv Kivi Rb¨ e‡j| KviY wejvmx-g„Zz¨Ä‡qi Lvev‡ii fvebv †bB| myZivs DÏxcKwU wejvmx M‡íi GKwU we‡kl As‡Ki mv‡_ mv`„k¨c~Y©| cÖkœ: (N) Ôm„wóKZ©v Avgv‡`i fv‡jvB †i‡L‡Qb- Ime K‡i jvf Kx?Õ DÏxc‡Ki Dw³wU ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Aciv‡Rq K_vwkíx kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í gvbyl VKv‡bvi e¨emvi K_v ej‡Z wM‡q wejvmx Zv‡`i ¯^”QjZvi cÖm½ AeZviYv K‡i‡Qb| G M‡í mvc aiv, †cvl gvbv‡bv Ges Zv‡K wb‡q †Ljv Kivi †KŠkj eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| mvc‡K a‡i `yB Pviw`b nvuwo‡Z †i‡L w`‡j Zvi wel`vuZ fv½vB †nvK Avi bvB †nvK †m Kvgov‡Z Pvq bv| dYv Zz‡j Kvgovevi fvb K‡i wKš‘ Kvgovq bv| Zvi Dci Zvi gy‡L Mig †jvnvi Q¨uvKv w`‡q w`‡j Zvici Zv‡K †jvnvi wkKB †`Lv‡bv †nvK Avi wkKoB †`Lv‡bv †nvK †m cvjvevi c_ ‡Luv‡R| G †KŠkj‡K cywu R K‡i mvcy‡o g„Z¨z Äq wkK‡oi e¨emv K‡i| wejvmx G iKg gvbyl VKv‡bvi c‡¶ bq| ZvB †m g„Z¨z Äq‡K G e¨emv bv Kivi Rb¨ Aby‡iva K‡i| me mvcy‡o G e¨emv Ki‡jI wejvmx Gi c‡¶ bq KviY wejvmx g„Zz¨Ä‡qi LvIqvi fvebv †bB Zviv †gvUvgywU m”Qj ZvB wgQvwgwQ †jvK VKv‡bv f‡jv bq| c„ôv-71


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

DÏxc‡K k¨vgjvj I mijv †gvUvgywU ¯^”Qj Rxeb hvcb K‡i| k¨vgjvj `y‡a cvwb wgwk‡q wewµ K‡i| G K_v Rvb‡Z †c‡i mijv k¨vgjvj‡K †evSv‡bvi G ch©v‡q Dw³wU mijv I wejvmx gvbeZv‡ev‡a DØy× PwiÎ| Zviv Zv‡`i ¯^vgx‡K Amr c_ cwinv‡ii AvnŸvb Rvwb‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (Avey bCg †gv¯—dv)

ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi cUf~wg‡Z i‡q‡Q wek kZ‡Ki cÖ_g w`KKvi cj−xMÖv‡gi wn›`y mgvR| M‡íi cÖavb PwiÎ wejvmx Kg©wbcyY, eyw×gZx I †meveªZx| †m †cÖ‡gi Rb¨ wbwØ©avq †e‡Q wb‡q‡Q †¯^”Qvg„Zz¨i c_| Avi Zvi gwngvgq Av‡jvq aiv c‡o‡Q mgv‡Ri Aby`viZv, i¶YkxjZv Ges mgvR Rxe‡bi wbôzi I Aïf †Pnviv| mgv‡Ri G wewa e¨e¯’v hyM hyM a‡i wU‡K Av‡Q| wKš‘ G wU‡K _vKvq †Kvb mv_©KZv †bB|

cÖkœ: (K) wejvmx MíwU cÖ_g †Kvb cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: wejvmx MíwU ÔfviZxÕ cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq| cÖkœ: (L) wejvmx‡K dzj`vwb‡Z wfwR‡q ivLv evmx dz‡ji mv‡_ Zzjbv Kiv n‡q‡Q †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: wejvmx M‡í g„Zz¨Ä‡qi Avcb ej‡Z wQj `~i m¤ú‡K©i GK Lyov| Lyov wQj ¯^v_©v‡š^lx; g„Zz¨Ä‡qi cÖwZ Zvi †Kvb `i` wQj bv| ZvB g„Zz¨Äq Amy¯’ n‡jI †m †`L‡Z ch©š— Av‡m wb| Zvi G wec‡`i w`‡b GwM‡q G‡mwQj A¯c„k¨ wejvmx| †m iv‡Zi Nyg nvivg K‡i, ivZ-w`b †mev K‡i g„Zz¨Äq‡K my¯’ K‡i †Zv‡j| AwZgvÎvq cwikªg I ivZ RvMvi d‡j Zvi kix‡i Avi wKQy †bB| Ggb GKiv‡Z b¨vov g„Zz¨Äq‡K †`L‡Z wM‡q wejvmxi Gi iƒc Zvi †Pv‡L c‡o| b¨vov wejvmxi Ae¯’v †`L Giƒc gš—e¨ ev Dcgv w`‡Z eva¨ nq| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki e³e¨ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi mv‡_ KZUv mv`„k¨c~Y©- e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxcKwU ÔwejvmxÕ Mí mgv‡jvPbvq †jLv fvebvi cÖKvk gvÎ| mgv‡jvPK wejvmx Mí, kir gvbwmKZv, ZrKvjxb mgvR Gme welq gv_vq wb‡q wj‡L‡Qb| myZivs DÏxcKwUi g~jK_v ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi mv‡_ mv`„k¨c~Y©| wejvmx Mí we‡k−l‡Y welqwU cÖZxqgvb n‡e| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB ¸i“Zi Amy¯’ Ae¯’vq g„Zz¨Äq hLb Zvi wbR©b †cvovevwo‡Z g„Zz¨i cÖnY ¸YwQj| ZLb Zvi †Kvb AvZ¥xq-¯^Rb, cvov-cÖwZ‡ekx †mevi nvZ cÖmvwiZ K‡i GwM‡q Av‡m wb| †m mgq i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgv‡Ri i³P¶z I †jvKj¾v‡K D‡c¶v K‡i Zvi †mevq GwM‡q G‡mwQj mvcy‡o Kb¨v wejvmx| †m g„Zz¨c_hvÎx g„Zz¨Äq‡K cÖvq †`ogvm †mev w`‡q my¯’ K‡i †Zv‡j| wewbg‡q g„Zz¨Äq wejvmxi AvZ¥Z¨vM I Mfxi fv‡jvevmv‡K g~j¨ w`‡Z RvZ¨wfgvb wemR©b w`‡q Zv‡K we‡q K‡i| wKš‘ eY©ev`x i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgvR G we‡q‡K mnRfv‡e †g‡b †bq wb| KviY g„Zz¨Äq ïay wejvmx‡K we‡qB K‡i wb Zvi nv‡Z fvZ †L‡q‡Q| Avi G Rb¨ Zviv g„Zz¨Äq‡K Abœcvcx e‡j `vqx K‡i mgvR Pz¨Z K‡i‡Q| gv‡jv cj−x‡Z my‡LB KvUwQj Zv‡`i Rxeb| wKš‘ fv‡M¨i wbg©g KlvNv‡Z mv‡ci Kvg‡o g„Zz¨Ä‡qi g„Zz¨ n‡j mgvR G‡K Abœcv‡ciB dj e‡j g‡b K‡i| G †kvK mB‡Z bv †c‡i wejvmxI AvZ¥nZ¨v K‡i| cÖkœ: (N) ÔwKš‘ G wU‡K _vKvq †Kvb mv_©KZv †bB|Õ- DÏxc‡Ki Dw³wU ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq wn›`ymgv‡Ri eY©cÖ_v I Zvi KzcÖfve wb‡q Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡KI wn›`y mgv‡Ri eY©cÖ_v, mvgvwRK ˆelg¨, Kzms¯‹vi hyM hyM a‡i we`¨gvb- Zv ejv n‡q‡Q| wn›`y mgv‡Ri mgvRcwZiv e‡jb, wn›`y mgvR Zvi wbf©j mgvR e¨e¯’vi †Rv‡iB hyM hyM a‡i wU‡K Av‡Q| wKš‘ †jLK g‡b K‡ib, wU‡K _vKvB Rxe‡bi mv_©KZv bq; g‡bi Avb‡›` †eu‡P _vKvi g‡a¨B Rxe‡bi mv_©KZv wbwnZ| Avi GKgvÎ weKvkkxj e¯‘B g‡bi Avb‡›` †eu‡P _vK‡Z cv‡i| †Kvb g‡Z †eu‡P †_‡K jvf †bB, msMÖvgnxfv‡e †eu‡P _vKv g„Zz¨iB bvgvš—i| AwZKvq nvwZ m‡MŠi‡e msMÖvg K‡i †jvc †c‡q‡Q| Aek¨ Gi d‡j nvwZi g~j¨ we›`ygvÎ n«vm cvq wb| GQvovI mf¨Zvi weeZ©b Av‡jvPbv Ki‡j Avgiv †`wL, weiƒc we‡k¦ Av‡Z¥vËiY NUv‡Z e¨_© n‡q WvB‡bvm‡ii gZ AwZKvq cÖvYxi wejywß N‡U‡Q| c¶vš—‡i †Zjv‡cvKv AZ¨š— nxbfv‡e c„w_ex‡Z †eu‡P Av‡Q- wKš‘ †m RxeRM‡Zi †Kvb DcKv‡i Av‡m bv| ZvB Zvi wU‡K _vKv ev †eu‡P _vKv wbtm‡›`‡n Agh©v`vKi| Kzms¯‹viv”Qbœ wn›`y mgvRI GB †Z‡j‡cvKvi g‡Zv AvRI wU‡K i‡q‡Q| †jL‡Ki g‡Z, Zvi GB wU‡K _vKv †MŠi‡ei bq, Kvg¨I bq| c„ôv-72


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

ûRyi, G Kx! Avcbvi †Kvgi Aewa Kv`v R‡j Wy‡e Av‡Q †h; Avi wKZve LvbvI †h R‡j wf‡R GKvKvi| ûRyi Avcwb Avgv‡`i gv_v, fve‡eb bv| Avwg GLbB Avcbv‡K -------- Lei`vi, Lei`vi L¨v`v; GK cvI G¸we bv| GZUzKzI ¯úk© Kwim bv Rj| †n Ck¦i! RvZ ivL| `v‡mi n¯— ¯ú‡k© Kzj-gvb †Lvqv‡bvi †P‡q Zzwg G Kvqv †_‡K Avgv‡K gyw³ `vI| gy³ Ki Ck¦i; †n RMr wcZv!

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) mvwnZ¨ K‡g©i ¯^xK…wZ wn‡m‡e XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq KZ mv‡j kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq‡K m¤§vbm~PK wW-wjU wWwMÖ cÖ`vb K‡ib? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: mvwnZ¨K‡g©i ¯^xK…wZ wn‡m‡e XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq 1936 mv‡j kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq‡K m¤§vbm~PK wW-wjU wWwMÖ cÖ`vb K‡ib| cÖkœ : (L) ÔcÖZœZvwË¡KÕ ej‡Z Kx eyS? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: cÖZœZvwË¡K n‡”Qb cyivZË¡we`| cÖvPxb aŸsmve‡kl, gy`ªvwjwc BZ¨vw` †_‡K HwZnvwmK Z_¨ wbY©‡qi we`¨vq cwÊZ e¨w³| cÖkœ : (M) eªvþYwU wejvmx M‡íi †Kvb PwiÎwUi cÖwZwbwaZ¡ Ki‡Q? (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í wek kZ‡Ki cÖ_gv‡a©i i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgv‡Ri wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ m¤£vš— e¨w³wU ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi g„Zz¨Ä‡qi Lyovi cÖwZwbwaZ¡ Ki‡Q| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ Kzjxb e¨w³wU eªvþY| †Wvevq c‡o wM‡q Kv`v R‡j Zvi †Kvgi ch©š— AvU‡K Av‡Q| GKK kw³‡Z †m bo‡Z cvi‡Qb bv| nv‡Zi wKZvewUi Ae¯’vI eo Ki“Y| G Ae¯’vq wbgœ †kªYxi L¨v`v Zv‡K Rj †_‡K DV‡Z mvnv‡h¨i Rb¨ G‡j RvZ-†MŠi‡ei †gv‡n AÜ eªvþYwU `vm‡K A¯ú„k¨ we‡ePbv K‡i Zv‡K RjUzKzI ¯úk© Ki‡Z wb‡la Ki‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎwUi g‡Zv ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi LyovI RvZ †MŠi‡ei †gv‡n AÜ| åvZz®úyÎ g„Zz¨Äq Aš—¨R †kªYxi wejvmx‡K we‡q Ki‡j G welqwU †m †g‡b wb‡Z cv‡i wb| Ggwb Rv‡Zi †MŠie †h g„Zz¨Äq‡K N‡i AvU‡K †i‡L MÖvgevmxi mnvqZvq wejvmx‡K cÖnvi K‡i †m MÖv‡gi evwn‡i †i‡L Av‡m| G †µva Zv‡K G‡Zv AÜ K‡i Zz‡jwQ‡jv †h Amnvq ¯¿x †jv‡Ki Mv‡q nvZ Zzj‡ZI Zvi ev‡a wb| GKBfv‡e wb‡R Ges wb‡Ri ag©xq MÖš’wU gqjv cvwb‡Z wf‡R †M‡jI eªvþYwU `v‡mi mn‡hvwMZv MÖn‡Y A¯^xK…wZ cÖKvk Ki‡Q| `v‡mi mn‡hvwMZvq wec`gy³ nIqvi †P‡q Zvi Kv‡Q g„Z¨z †ewk MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡q‡Q| †m Ck¦‡ii wbKU g„Zz¨ Kvgbv Ki‡Q| wg_¨v RvZ †MŠi‡ei †gvn I GK¸‡qwgi ˆewk‡ó¨i w`K †_‡K DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎwU ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Lyovi Pwi‡Îi cÖwZwbwaZ¡ Ki‡Q| cÖkœ : (N) Ô`v‡mi n¯—v¯ú‡k© Kzjgvb †Lvqv‡bvi †P‡q Zzwg G Kvqv †_‡K Avgv‡K gyw³ `vI| gy³ Ki Ck¦i; †n RMr wcZvÕ-ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Agi K_vwkíx kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgv‡Ri wPÎ Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| G M‡í RvZ †MŠi‡ei †gv‡n AÜ Lyovi wPÎ Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q| †h esk †MŠi‡ei †gv‡n c‡o åvZz®úyÎea~i Mv‡q nvZ Zzj‡ZI wØav K‡i wb| DÏxc‡Ki eªvþYwUi AvZ¥gh©v`v cÖPÊ| esk †MŠie Avi mvgvwRK Ae¯’v‡bi gh©v`v Zvi Kv‡Q Rxe‡bi †P‡qI †kªôZi n‡q Av‡Q| NUbvµ‡g R‡j c‡o Zvi Ae¯’v †kvPbxq n‡q G‡jI, wKZveLvbv cvwb‡Z wf‡R GKvKvi n‡jI †m wbgœ‡kªYxi L¨v`vi mn‡hvwMZvq Wv½vq DV‡Z ivwR bb| eis L¨v`vi ¯ú‡k© Rj AcweÎ n‡e G f‡q †m KvZi n‡q I‡V| Ck¦‡ii Kv‡Q GB e‡j KvZi wgbwZ Rvbvq †h, L¨v`v Rj¯úk© K‡i Zv‡K mn‡hvwMZv Kievi c~‡e©B †hb Zvi g„Zz¨ nq; ZeyI fv‡jv Zv‡K RxweZ †_‡K RvZ †Lvqv‡Z n‡e bv| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Lyov PwiÎwUi m‡½ DÏxc‡Ki eªvþYwUi PwiÎwUiI AvPiYMZ mv`„k¨ †`Lv hvq| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í ewY©Z Lyovi PwiÎ I AvPiY †`‡L Zvi e¨w³Z¡ I gh©v`vi GZUzKzI Aewkó Av‡Q e‡j g‡b nq bv| ZviciI Zv‡K me©`v Kz‡ji gwngv cÖPv‡i GKwbô _vK‡Z †`Lv hvq| åvZz®úyÎ g„Zz¨Äq wejvmx‡K we‡q c„ôv-73


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

Ki‡j †m ÔAbœcv‡ciÕ †`vnvB e‡j MÖvg †Zvjcvo K‡i Qv‡o| A_©vr wbPz Rv‡Zi †g‡q‡K we‡q Kiv jNy I ¶gvi‡hvM¨ Aciva n‡jI, wbPz Rv‡Zi †g‡qi nv‡Z fvZ LvIqv AgvR©bxq Aciva GB wQj Zvi e³e¨| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í I DÏxc‡K wn›`y a‡g©i Kzms¯‹viv”QbœZv‡K Zxeªe¨½ Kiv n‡q‡Q| bv‡g wPiš—b ev mbvZb n‡jI wn›`yag© †h †Kvb †Kvb †¶‡Î AvPvi me©¯^, ag©xq †Lvjm-me©¯^ I msKxY©Zv”Qbœ n‡q‡Q Zvi ¯^iƒcB ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K DÏxcKwU‡Z cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

12-10-10 evwRZcyi, wK‡kviMÄ

iv‡Rk †mœn iB‡jv| †`n gb †ewk fv‡jv †bB| MZ `yB AvovB gvm eo Amy¯’ wQjvg| gv‡S mßvn `yB ÁvbI wQj bv| AvZ¥xq-¯^Rb, cvov-cÖwZ‡ekx †KD Avgvi †LuvR †bIqvi dzmiZUzKI z cvq wb| wQiv‡gi †g‡q g„b¥qx Avgv‡K G hvÎvq euvwP‡q Zz‡j‡Q| Ggb ¸YeZx †g‡q RM‡Z `ywU †`wL bv| Ck¦i g„b¥qx‡K i¶v Ki“b| Kzjxb eªvþY n‡qI g„b¥qx‡K Avwg g‡b cÖv‡Y †Zvgvi Dchy³ e‡j MÖnY K‡iwQ| G‡Z wn›`y mgvR bvbv mgm¨v Ki‡e Ki“K| †Zvqv°v Kwi bv| Zzwg †hb Avgv‡K fyj ey‡S bv e‡mv| Zzwg Avgvi me©v‡c¶v wcÖqZg| †Zvgvi nv‡Z Ggb wKQz mgc©Y Ki‡Z cvwi bv hv †Zvgv‡K cÖwZ gyn~‡Z© cxov †`q; gbtK‡ói KviY nq| m¤§wZ Rvwb‡q Kb¨v`vqMÖ¯— wcZvwU‡K (g„b¥qx‡K ¯^xq Kb¨v †f‡e Mwe©Z nB) D×vi Ki| BwZ †Zvgvi wcZv we‡bv` PµeZx©

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ÔeBuwPÕ kãwUi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔeBuwUÕ kãwUi A_© n‡”Q KuvUvhy³ GK iKg †QvU MvQ I Zvi dj| cÖkœ : (L) _vW© K¬vm ej‡Z Kx eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í Ô_vW© K¬vmÕ kãwUi e¨envi i‡q‡Q| G Øviv eZ©gvb mg‡qi Aóg †kªYx‡K eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q| †mKv‡j gva¨wgK wk¶vi †kªYx wnmve Kiv n‡Zv Ici n‡Z wb‡Pi w`‡K| `kg †kªYx ZLb wQj dvó© K¬vm, beg †kªYx wQj †m‡KÊ K¬vm| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ we‡bv` PµeZ©xi e³e¨ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi welqe¯‘i m‡½ KZUzKz mv`„k¨c~Y©? e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Aciv‡Rq K_vwkíx kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í RvwZ‡f` cÖ_vi msKxY©Zv gvbyl‡K Kxfv‡e Agvbyl K‡i Zzj‡Q †m w`KwU Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ we‡bv` PµeZ©xi g‡bvfve wejvmx M‡íi welqe¯‘i evwn‡ii †Kvb Kvwnbx bq| wn›`y mgv‡Ri m¤£vš— †kªYxi GKRb we‡bv` PµeZ©x| RvwZ Kz‡ji †gv‡n Av”Qbœ wn›`y mgv‡Ri gv‡S †_‡KI wZwb msKxY©Zvi E‡aŸ© DV‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb| Zvi gv‡S KzjM‡e©i †P‡qI we‡eK eo n‡q KvR K‡i‡Q| d‡j wn›`y mgvR Zv‡K cvkKvwU‡q Pj‡e †R‡bI wZwb wbgœ †kªYxi †g‡q g„b¥qxi m‡½ cyÎ iv‡R‡ki we‡q w¯’i K‡i Zv‡K cÎ wj‡L‡Qb| Zvi g‡Z Ggb fvj †g‡q RM‡Z Avi `ywU nq bv| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgv‡Ri eY©bv †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| Kzms¯‹viv”Qbœ G mgvR RvwZ-M‡e©i †gv‡n AÜ| Giv GgbB †h, Kvi‡Y-AKvi‡Y ci bvixi Mv‡q nvZ Zzj‡ZI Giv kw¼Z bq|

c„ôv-74


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi K_K b¨vov †¶v‡fi m‡½ e‡j hv‡`i ¶zavi R¡vjv †bB Zviv Kx my‡L MÖvg †Q‡o cjvqb K‡i Zv †m Rv‡b bv| Guiv evm Ki‡j cj−xi GZ `y`k © v n‡Zv bv| GB †kªYx m¤£vš—, gvwR©Z| Giv Kzms¯‹v‡ii E‡aŸ© D‡V‡Q| Gu‡`iB cÖwZwbwaZ¡ Ki‡Q we‡bv` PµeZ©x I Zuvi †Q‡j iv‡Rk PµeZ©x| G wePv‡i we‡bv` PµeZ©xi e³e¨ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi welqe¯‘i m‡½ †ek mv`„k¨c~Y©| cÖkœ : (N) mvgvwRK gh©v`vc~Y© PwiÎ we‡bv` PµeZ©xi D`vi g‡bvfve Kzms¯‹vi”Qbœ wn›`y mgv‡Ri `„wófw½i cwieZ©‡b BwZevPK cÖfve †dj‡Z m¶g| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í wek kZ‡Ki cÖ_gv‡a©i i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgv‡Ri wPÎ Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q| A_P DÏxc‡K mvgvwRK gh©v`vm¤úbœ e¨w³ D`vi `„wófw½ cÖ”Qbœfv‡e ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi b¨vov Pwi‡Îi g‡bvMZ evmbv‡KB cÖKvk K‡i‡Q †hb| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgv‡Ri AnwgKv‡eva cÖKv‡k m¶g n‡q‡Qb| Kzms¯‹viv”Qbœ G mgvR RvwZ M‡e©i †gv‡n G‡ZvUvB AÜ wQ‡jv †h ci¯¿xi Mv‡q nvZ Zzj‡Z cvivUv‡K Zviv M‡e©i welq g‡b K‡i‡Q| g„Zz¨Äq mvcy‡o Kb¨v wejvmx‡K we‡q Ki‡j Zvi ÁvZx Lyov ÔAbœcv‡ciÕ `v‡q åvZz®úyÎea~‡K cÖnvi K‡i MÖvgQvov K‡i| mbvZb n‡jI wn›`y ag© †Kvb †Kvb †¶‡Î G‡ZvB AvPvi me©¯^, ag©xq †Lvjm me©¯^ I msKxY©Zv”Qbœ n‡q c‡owQ‡jv †h wbgœ‡kªYxi mvcy‡o Kb¨v‡K we‡q Kiv †MŠY Aciva wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡jI wbgœ‡kªYxi †g‡qwUi nv‡Z fvZ LvIqv ¶gvi A‡hvM¨ we‡ewPZ n‡qwQj| DÏxc‡Ki mvgvwRK gh©v`vc~Y© PwiÎ we‡bv`PµeZ©x kZ cÖwZK~jZv m‡Ë¡I cÖPwjZ Kzms¯‹v‡ii I bxwZ‡ev‡ai E‡aŸ© DV‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jb| wZwb RvZ †MŠi‡ei wg_¨v AnwgKvq gvbyl‡K wePvi Ki‡Z Pvb wb| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi b¨vovi g‡bvRM‡Zi evmbv Ggb wQj †h, hv‡`i ¶zavi R¡vjv bvB †Zgb me f`ª‡jvK MÖv‡g evm Ki‡Z _vK‡j cj−xi GZ `y`©kv nq bv| G Av`k© gvb‡ei `„óvš— ¯^iƒc DÏxc‡Ki we‡bv` PµeZ©x I Zvi cyÎ iv‡Rk PµeZ©xi K_v ejv hvq| †m m‡½ mvgvwRK gh©v`vc~Y© we‡bv` PµeZ©x I Zvi cyÎ iv‡Rk PµeZ©xi D`vi g‡bvfve Kzms¯‹viv”Qbœ wn›`y mgv‡Ri `„wófw½i cwieZ©‡b BwZevPK cÖfve †dj‡e G D‡Ï‡k¨ DÏxcKwU wjwLZ n‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) Zv †gRKZ©v Avgiv GZ KÕRb g`© Avcbvi wb‡`©‡k †g‡q gvbylwUi Mv‡q nvZ Zzjjvg| wbtm‡›`‡n fvj KvRwUB Kijvg| wKš‘ †Kb gviai Kijvg Zv eyS‡Z cvijvg bv| GZ Rb wg‡j G hy‡× Ask wbjvg †h †g‡qwUi Pzj KÕLvb wQo‡Z cvijvg gvÎ| ûRyi ex‡ii KvRUv cy‡iv †`Lv‡Z cvijvg bv| Zv †kvb, Mwi‡ei eD-†ewU‡K gvivi Avevi KviY Kx? G wb‡q GZ cÖkœ Ki‡Z †bB| Zv †g‡qwU †eu‡P Av‡Q †Zv †i! ûRyi Zv Kevi cvwi †b|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ÔwejvmxÕ MíwU cÖ_g †Kvb cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔwejvmxÕ MíwU cÖ_g ÔfviZxÕ cwÎKvq cÖKvwkZ nq| cÖkœ : (L) †ZvMjK Luv †K? eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í †ZvMjK Luv PwiÎwUi mÜvb cvIqv hvq| Z‡e fviZe‡l©i BwZnv‡m †ZvMjK Luv bv‡g †Kvb mgªvU wQ‡jb bv| BwZnv‡m †h wZbRb weL¨vZ †ZvMjK mgªv‡Ui bvg cvIqv hvq Zuviv n‡jb-wMqvmDwÏb †ZvMjK, gynv¤§` †ZvMjK Ges wd‡ivR †ZvMjK| c„ôv-75


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Lyovi mv‡_ †gRKZ©vi gvbwmKZvi Zzjbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: evsjv K_vmvwn‡Z¨i Ab¨Zg †kªô iƒcKvi kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq| wewPÎ PwiÎ wP·b wm×n¯— kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq Gi Lyov PwiÎwU wek kZ‡Ki cÖ_gv‡a©i RvZ †MŠi‡ei †gv‡n AÜ i¶Ykxj‡`i cÖwZwbwaZ¡ Ki‡Q| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Lyov GKvav‡i AvZ¥‡Kw›`ªK cikªxKvZi Ges wbR¯^ gZev` Mv‡qi †Rv‡i cÖwZwôZ Ki‡Z GKwbô| cy‡iv Mí Ry‡o Lyov‡K †`‡LwQ åvZz®úy‡Îi wei“‡× `yb©vg iUbv Ki‡Z Ges me©Î e‡j †eov‡Z †h G wekvj evMvb evwowUi A‡a©K Zvi| bvwjk K‡i AwaKvi MÖnY Kivi A‡c¶vq Av‡Q gvÎ| Kzj †MŠi‡ei †gv‡n Lyov G‡ZvUvB wb‡P †b‡g †Mj †h åvZz®úyÎea~i Mv‡q nvZ Zzj‡ZI KzwÉZ n‡jv bv| DÏxc‡Ki †gRKZ©vi wb‡`©‡k K‡qKRb cyi“l gvbyl wg‡j GKwU nxbRv‡Zi †g‡qi Mv‡q nvZ †Zv‡j| G‡`i GKRb †Kb Ges Kx Kvi‡Y †g‡qwUi Mv‡q nvZ Zzj‡jv G wel‡q †gRKZ©vi Kv‡Q Rvb‡Z PvB‡j †gRKZ©v e¨½ K‡i e‡j‡Q †h, Mwi‡ei eD-†ewU‡K cÖnv‡ii Avevi KviY Kx? G wb‡q G‡Zv cÖkœ Ki‡Z †bB| A_©vr G †hb cyi“lZvwš¿K mgv‡Ri GKwU cÖwZwôZ AwaKvi| G wePv‡i ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Lyovi mv‡_ †gRKZ©vi gvbwmKZvi wgj cvIqv hvq| cÖkœ : (N) ÔMwi‡ei eD-†ewU‡K gvivi Avevi KviY Kx?Õ gš—e¨wU ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í wn›`y mgv‡Ri eY© cÖ_v I Kzms¯‹vi wb‡q Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| G mgv‡R RvZ-ag©-eY© cÖvavb¨ †c‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K GKRb †gRKZ©v‡K cvB †h wn›`y mgv‡Ri eY© cÖ_v I Kzms¯‹vi‡K jvjb K‡i‡Q| cyi“lZvwš¿K mgv‡Ri GKRb n‡q mgv‡R †ckx kw³i cÖ‡qvM †`wL‡q‡Q| †jvKRb w`‡q GKwU †g‡q wcwU‡q wbwðZ †_‡K‡Q| G `‡ji GKRb G NUbvi KviY Rvb‡Z PvB‡j †gRKZ©v mnR I ¯^vfvweKfv‡e e‡j‡Q †h, Mwi‡ei eD-†ewU‡K Ggwb‡ZB cÖnvi Kiv hvq| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Lyov‡K Avgiv †`wL fvB‡cvi bvbvwea iUbv cÖPvi Ki‡Z Ges e‡j †eov‡Z †h, g„Zz¨Ä‡qi evMv‡bi A‡a©KUv Zvi| Kzj †MŠie Zv‡K GZ wb‡P bvgvq †h åvZz®úyÎeai Mv‡q nvZ Zzj‡ZI †m wØav K‡i bv| GLv‡bB †kl bq; g„Zz¨Ä‡qi g„Zz¨i ci †m e‡j †eovq Abœcv‡ci Kvi‡Y †m wbðq biKMvgx n‡e| A_©vr nxbRv‡Zi †g‡q we‡q Ki‡j Aciva †MŠY e‡j we‡ewPZ n‡Z cv‡i wKš‘ Zvi nv‡Z ivbœv fvZ †L‡j †h Aciva nq Zv gvR©bvi A‡hvM¨| Kv‡RB g„Zz¨Ä‡qi biK cÖvwß wbðq| DÏxc‡Ki †gRKZ©v Mwi‡ei eD-†ewUi Mv‡q nvZ †Zvjv †hgb ¯^vfvweK e‡j g‡b K‡ib ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Lyovi gv‡S G welqwU mnRZifv‡e weivR Ki‡Q| A_©vr wPiš—b ev mbvZb n‡jI wn›`yag© †h †Kvb †Kvb †¶‡Î AvPvi me©¯^, ag©xq †Lvjm me©¯^ I msKxY©Zv”Qbœ n‡q‡Q Zvi ¯^iƒcB DcwiD³ DÏxc‡Ki Dw³wU hv ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Kiv n‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) 11-10-10 g`b, †b·Kvbv fvBRvb mvjvg wb‡eb| fvj _vKzb| Avgvi cov-†jLvi msev` Rvb‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| Nyg D‡V †R‡M Mi“-QvMj ayB‡q, Lo-wePvwj LvB‡q, `ya `yB‡q evRv‡i wewµ K‡i ¯‹z‡j hvB| MÖv‡gi `yB-AvovB gvB‡ji gv‡S †Kvb ¯‹zj bvB| ¯‹z‡j hvevi c‡_ i‡q‡Q eBkvi wej| G meB Avcbvi Rvbv| AwR©Z we`¨vi eovB Kwi bv| fvBRvb, MÖv‡gi gvbyl¸‡jvi K_v †f‡e, wb‡Ri Rxe‡bi K_v wPš—v K‡i kn‡i Avm‡Z PvB| MÖvg †_‡K cvwj‡q euvPvi Rb¨ bq; gvbyl n‡q, cj−xi Dbœq‡bi †hvM¨ n‡q Muv‡qi †Q‡j Muv‡q wd‡i Avm‡Z PvB| BwZ †gvnb

c„ôv-76


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ÔKvbvPÕ kãwUi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔKvbvPÕ kãwUi A_© n‡”Q N‡ii †cQb w`KKvi jvMv‡bv RvqMv| cÖkœ : (L) ÔKvj Kwij †h H fvZ LvBqvÕ-ej‡Z Kx eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í mbvZb wn›`y mgv‡Ri Kzms¯‹vi cÖxwZ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| DwÏó Dw³ Øviv Zv-B ¯úó n‡q D‡V‡Q| wn›`y mgvR wbPz Rv‡Zi †g‡q we‡q Kiv‡K jNy I ¶gvi †hvM¨ Aciva e‡j MY¨ Ki‡jI AgvR©bxq e‡j MY¨ Kiv n‡q‡Q wbPz Rv‡Zi nv‡Z fvZ LvIqv‡K| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡Ki †gvnb Pwi‡Îi m‡½ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi b¨vov Pwi‡Îi wPš—vi mv`„k¨ Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í RvwZMZ we‡f‡`i msKxY©Zv, fv‡jvevmvi nvZQvwb Ges GiB m‡½ KzjM‡e©i †gv‡n AÜ wn›`y mgvR‡K D`vi gvbwmKZvi KíbvI cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki †gvnb PwiÎwU MÖv‡g emevm K‡i| cÖwZw`b Nyg †_‡K †R‡M Mi“-QvMj ayB‡q, G‡`i LowePvwj LvB‡q, `ya `yB‡q evRv‡i wewµ K‡i †m ¯‹z‡j hvq| MÖv‡g `yB AvovB gvB‡ji gv‡S †Kvb ¯‹zj †bB| c‡_ Avevi GK wej c‡o | G fv‡e eo Kó K‡i Zv‡K cov-†jLv Ki‡Z nq| d‡j †gvnb wb‡Ri K_v I Zvi MÖv‡gi gvby‡li K_v wPš—v K‡i Zvi eo fvB‡qi Kv‡Q kn‡i hvevi AvMÖn cÖKvk K‡i‡Q| †m eo n‡Z Pvq| Zvi B”Qv eo n‡q †m Zvi †`Lv MÖv‡gi Dbœqb Ki‡Z Pvq| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi b¨vov PwiÎwU MÖv‡g emevm K‡i| Giv `k-e‡ivRb wg‡j cvKv `yB‡µvk c_ †nu‡U ¯‹z‡j we`¨v AR©b Ki‡Z hvq| G fv‡e AwR©Z we`¨vi dj D‡j−L Kievi gZ bq| b¨vovi g‡Z, GB K…Zwe`¨v wkïi `j eo n‡q MÖv‡gB emyb Avi ¶yavi R¡vjvq Ab¨ÎB hvb, Zuv‡`i Pvi †µvk nuvUv we`¨vi †ZR cÖKvk Ki‡eB Ki‡e| Z‡e GLv‡b b¨vovi †¶vf †h, hv‡`i ¶zavi R¡vjv Av‡Q Zv‡`i K_v ev` w`‡jI hv‡`i †m R¡vjv †bB Zviv MÖv‡g evm Ki‡Z _vK‡j cj−xi GZ `y`k © v n‡Zv bv| b¨vovi cj−x †Kw›`ªK G myKzgvi g‡bve„wËi aviK iƒ‡c Avgiv DÏxc‡Ki †gvnb Pwi·K cvB| G w`K †_‡K DÏxc‡Ki †gvnb Pwi‡Îi m‡½ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi b¨vov Pwi‡Îi wPš—vi mvhyR¨ j¶bxq| cÖkœ : (N) Ôgvbyl n‡q, cj−xi Dbœq‡bi †hvM¨ n‡q Muv‡qi †Q‡j Muv‡q wd‡i Avm‡Z PvB|Õ Dw³wU ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í ¯^v_©vÜ AZ¨vPvix gvbwmKZvi mgvRcwZ‡`i gy‡Lvk D‡b¥vP‡bi cvkvcvwk cj−x‡K wb‡q, cj−xi gvby‡li `y`k © v `~i Kivi gvbwmKZv jvjb K‡i Giƒc PwiÎ b¨vov‡K Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z †`wL| DÏxc‡K †gvnb cj−x Muv‡qi †Q‡j| Nyg †_‡K †R‡M M„n¯’vwj bvbv KvR †m‡i cÖvq `yB gvBj c_ cvwo w`‡q ¯‹zj Ki‡Z nq| G hvÎvc‡_i gv‡S Zv‡`i eBkvi wej AwZµg Ki‡Z nq| Zvi g‡Z, G‡Z †h we`¨v AwR©Z nq Zv ejvi g‡Zv bq| MÖv‡gi wPÎUvB Ggb| GiciI †gvnb cov-†jLv wk‡L eo nIqvi ¯^cœ †`‡L| †m Zvi fvB‡qi Kv‡Q †jLv c‡Î kn‡i hvevi B”Qv cÖKvk K‡iQ| Zvi B”Qvi g~‡j i‡q‡Q †jLv-cov wk‡L Av`k© gvbyl n‡q MÖv‡g wd‡i G‡m cj−x I cj−xi gvby‡li Dbœq‡b AvZ¥ wb‡qvM Kiv| DÏxcKwU ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av`‡j †jLv n‡q‡Q| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íI cj−xi gvby‡li Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ KvZi cÖvY b¨vov‡K †`L‡Z cvB| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi ïi“‡ZB cj−xi mš—v‡`i AwZK‡ó Ávb AR©‡bi eY©bvi cvkvcvwk Zv‡`i MvdjwZi wPÎwUI b¨vovi Revwb‡Z wee„Z n‡q‡Q| GB b¨vov‡K †¶v‡fi m‡½ ej‡Z ïwb ¶zavi R¡vjvq ev cÖwZôvi ZvwM‡` gvbyl knigyLx n‡j `ytL †bB| wKš‘ hv‡`i †m R¡vjv †bB Zv‡`i kn‡i P‡j hvevi gvbwmKZv b¨vov‡K `ytL †`q| hš¿YvKvZi b¨vovi Dw³ ÔZuviv evm Kwi‡Z _vwK‡j †Zv cj−xi G‡Zv `y`©kv nq bv|Õ G DÏxcKwUi wejvmx M‡íi K_K b¨vovi g‡bi myß B”Qv‡K wb‡q iwPZ n‡q‡Q| cj−xi Dbœq‡b b¨vovi myß evmbv DÏxc‡Ki †gvnb Pwi‡Îi gv‡S cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q|

c„ôv-77


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi mviwYwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

cÖkœ I DËi:

i¶Ykxj mgvR ↓ mgvRcwZ‡`i cÖvavb¨ ↓ wk¶vi Afve ↓ eY©cÖ_vi RqRqKvi ↓ Kzms¯‹viv”QbœZv ↓ mvgvwRK I ag©xq Abykvm‡bi Afve ↓ gvbeZvi Aegvbbv ↓ ¯^v_©ciZv ↓ cikªxKvZiZv ↓ mbvZb a‡g©i Ace¨vL¨v ↓ ü`qe„wË wb›`bxq welq

cÖkœ : (K) ÔcÖvZt ¯§iYxqÕ kãwUi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔcÖvZt¯§iYxqÕ kãwUi A_© n‡”Q cÖvZtKv‡j ¯§iY Kivi †hvM¨ A_©vr AwZ kª‡×q| cÖkœ : (L) f~‡`eevey †K wQ‡jb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: f~‡`eP›`ª gy‡Lvcva¨vq (1825-1894) Dwbk kZ‡Ki evsjvi beRvMi‡Yi cw_K…r wQ‡jb| wZwb Awef³ evsjvi wk¶v wefv‡Mi cwiPvjK wQ‡jb| wn›`y mgv‡Ri bvbv Kzms¯‹v‡ii wei“‡× gZvgZ e¨³ K‡i AvaywbK gvbm MV‡bi j‡¶¨ wZwb A‡bK¸‡jv MÖš’ iPbv K‡ib| ÔcvwievwiK cÖeÜÕ, ÔmvgvwRK cÖeÜÕ, ÔAvPvi cÖeÜÕ-G wel‡q †jLv Zuvi weL¨vZ MÖš’| wZwb gvB‡Kj gaym`~ b `‡Ëi mncvVx wQ‡jb| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡K ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi KZUzKz cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: K_v mvwnwZ¨K kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔwejvmxÕ MíwU i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgvR-e¨e¯’vi GK wbLuZ y Qwe| G‡Z cj−x, cj−xi gvbyl I Zv‡`i Rxeb e¨e¯’v D‡V G‡m‡Q| mviwYwU‡Z i¶Ykxj mgvR, G mgv‡Ri mgvRcwZ‡`i cÖavb¨ I wk¶vi Afve cwijw¶Z n‡q‡Q| Gi gvbyl¸‡jv Kzms¯‹viv”Qbœ I eY©cÖ_vq Av”Qbœ| mviwY‡Z mvgvwRK I ag©xq Abykvm‡b A‡_©i e¨envi †h gvbeZv‡K Aegvbbv K‡i Zv †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q| †m m‡½ GLv‡b ¯^v_©ciZv, cikªxKvZiZv, mbvZb a‡g©i Ace¨e¯’v I ü`qe„wË †h wb›`bxq welq Zv D‡V G‡m‡Q| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íI cyi“lZvwš¿K mgvR e¨e¯’vi Rq RqKvi †NvwlZ n‡q‡Q| G M‡í Kzms¯‹vi I cikªxKvZiZv cvkvcvwk Ae¯’vb K‡i‡Q| GLv‡b ag©xq Abyôv‡b A‡_©i e¨envi gvbeZv‡K Pigfv‡e AcgvwbZ K‡i‡Q Ges ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í mbvZb a‡g©i Ace¨vL¨vi m‡½ wejvmx g„Zz¨Ä‡qi ü`qe„wËi welqwUI jvwÃZ n‡q‡Q | Gfv‡e DÏxcK I ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í Awfbœ myi aŸwbZ n‡q‡Q Ges mviwY‡Z ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi kZfvM cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| c„ôv-78


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (N) mviwY‡Z †h mgvRwPÎ Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q Zvi ¯^iƒc ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Aciv‡Rq K_vwkíx kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í Z`vbxš—b mgv‡Ri ev¯—e wPÎ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgv‡Ri K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| †hLv‡b a‡g©i bv‡g Aag© P‡j‡Q| Awkw¶Z Kzms¯‹viv”Qbœ wn›`y mgvR AvZ¥-¯^v‡_© wbgMœ _vKvi cvkvcvwk cibvixi Mv‡q nvZ Zzj‡ZI wØav K‡i bv| mvgvwRK I ag©xq Abykvm‡bI A‡_©i e¨envi NwU‡q Ab¨vq-AmvgvwRK Kvh©‡K wn›`y-mgvR ˆea e‡j RqXvK wcwU‡q mZ¨‡K AcgvwbZ K‡i‡Q | †m m‡½ cÖvPxb a‡g©i gvnvZ¥¨ cÖPv‡ii m‡½ m‡½ gvby‡li ü`qe„wËi welqwU n‡q c‡o D‡cw¶Z| mviwYwU ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av`‡j †jLv n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b i¶Ykxj wn›`y mgv‡R wk¶vi Afve I mgvR cwZ‡`i cÖvavb¨ cwijw¶Z n‡q‡Q| mviwY‡Z eY© cÖ_vi AvwaK¨, Kzms¯‹viv”QbœZv Ges mvgvwRK I ag©xq Abykvm‡b A‡_©i Ab¨vq e¨env‡i gvbeZvi Aegvbbv †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q| mbvZb a‡g©i Ace¨vL¨v †`wL‡q ü`q e„wËi Am¤§vb wPwÎZ n‡q‡Q | mviwY‡Z †h mgm¨v †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q Zv ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi mgm¨v| mviwY‡Z avc¸‡jv ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í wea„Z mgvR e¨e¯’vi ¯—i we‡kl| wejvmxi mgvR e¨e¯’vi cÖZxKx iƒcvqY mviwYwU| mviwYi wRÁvmvi gxgvsmv ÔwejvmxÕ MíwU| G †_‡K ejv hvq †h, mviwYwU ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi cUf~wg|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (Avb›` Kzgvi wek¦vm) gywjqv MÖv‡g evi gv‡m †Zi cve©‡Y wewPÎ Abyôvb AbywôZ nq| †m evi `yM©v c~Rvi mgq h‡kv‡ii gwbiivgcyi †_‡K ˆPZvwj A‡civ Av‡m| †mB hvÎv`‡ji gxiv bv‡gi †g‡qwU wQj LyeB my›`ix| †m bvP‡ZvI †ek| MÖv‡gi Aa¨vcK webqeveyi †Q‡j gvwbK gxivi †cÖ‡g c‡o hvq| K_vUv G Kvb †_‡K I Kv‡b hvq| hvÎvMvb †f‡O †`Iqv nq| KviY Aa¨vcK eveyi gv_v KvUvi fq| cieZx©‡Z †kvbv †Mj gvwbK gxiv‡K we‡q K‡i XvKv P‡j †M‡Q|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) kirP›`ª RxweKvi ZvwM‡` †Kv_vq wM‡qwQ‡jb? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq RxweKvi ZvwM‡` eg©vgyj−y‡K wM‡qwQ‡jb| cÖkœ : (L) g„Zz¨Äq mvcy‡o n‡qwQj †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : kirP‡›`ªi Agi m„wó †QvUMí ÔwejvmxÕi bvqK g„Zz¨Äq Amy¯’ n‡q co‡j wejvmx Zv‡K w`‡bi ciw`b, iv‡Zi ci ivZ †R‡M AKyÉ ggZvq †mev-ïkÖ~lv K‡i h‡gi nvZ †_‡K wdwi‡q G‡bwQj| bvix ü`‡qi gvayh© w`‡q †m g„Zz¨Ä‡qi wb¯—i½ ü`‡q So Zz‡j‡Q | wejvmxi `yR©q †cÖg‡mªv‡Z Z…‡Yi g‡Zv g„Zz¨Ä‡qi RvwZKyj †f‡m †M‡Q | g„Z¨z ćqi Lyov Abœcv‡ci `v‡q wejvmx‡K Ni †_‡K †U‡b †nuP‡o †ei K‡i †`q| eva¨ n‡q g„Zz¨Äq wejvmx‡K wb‡q gv‡jvcvovq I‡V Ges RxweKvi ZvwM‡` †m mvcy‡o Rxeb MÖnY K‡i| cÖkœ : (M) Ôgxiv hZ mn‡R gvwbK‡K †c‡q‡Q, wejvmx ZZ mn‡R g„Zz¨Äq‡K cvq wbÕÑe¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i Aciv‡Rq K_vwkíx kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi Agi m„wó ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ wejvmx A‡bK K‡ói c_ cvwo w`‡q g„Zz¨Äq‡K †c‡qwQj| DÏxc‡Ki gxivi gvwbK‡K †c‡Z Aek¨ wejvmxi gZ Kó †c‡Z nq wb| DÏxc‡Ki Dwj−wLZ PwiÎ ˆPZvwj A‡civi †g‡q gxiv †mŠ›`h© I bvP w`‡q gy» K‡iwQj gywjqv MÖv‡gi Aa¨vcK webq eveyi †Q‡j gvwbK‡K| gvwbK †cÖ‡g c‡o hvq my›`ix gxivi| K_vwU cÖKvk †c‡j hvÎv †f‡O †`Iqv nq| gvwbK GKw`b gxiv‡K wb‡q cvwj‡q XvKvq wM‡q my‡Li msmvi M‡o †Zv‡j| gxivi gZ GZ mn‡R ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi bvwqKv g„Zz¨Äq‡K cvq wb| `xN© w`b wbt¯^v_© †mev fv‡jvevmv w`‡qB c„ôv-79


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

g„Zz¨c_hvÎx g„Zz¨Äq‡K h‡gi nvZ †_‡K wdwi‡q Av‡b| wKš—y †mev Ki‡Z Ki‡Z †m n‡qwQj K¼vjmvi| b¨vovi eY©bvq ÔwVK †hb dzj`vwb‡Z Rj w`qv wfRvBqv ivLv evwmdz‡ji gZ| nvZ w`qv GZUzKz ¯úk© Kwi‡j, GZUzKz bvovPvov Kwi‡Z †M‡jB Swiqv cwo‡e|Õ wbPz Rv‡Zi †g‡q wejvmxi fv‡jvevmv mgvR †g‡b †bq wb| g„Z¨z ćqi weevwnZ ¯¿x †R‡bI Zviv wejvmx‡K kvixwiKfv‡e jvwÃZ K‡i MÖvg †_‡K †ei K‡i †`q| †kl ch©š— mgv‡Ri i³P¶z‡K D‡c¶v K‡iB g„Zz¨Äq wejvmxi wgjb nq| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ gxivi gZ mn‡R bq, eis RvwZMZ we‡f‡`i msKxY© mxgv‡K AwZµg K‡i A‡bK Z¨vM-wZwZ¶vi wewbg‡q wejvmx g„Z¨z Äq‡K jvf K‡iwQj | cÖkœ : (N) ÔgvwbK gy» iƒ‡c wKš—y g„Zz¨Äq gy» ¸‡YÕ Dw³wU we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : Aciv‡Rq K_vwkíx kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi hyMvš—Kvix †QvUMí ÔwejvmxÕi †Kw›`ªq PwiÎ wejvmx Zvi ïå ü`‡qi fv‡jvevmvq gy» n‡qwQj g„Zz¨Äq| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ PwiÎ gywjqv MÖv‡gi Aa¨vcK webqeveyi †Q‡j gvwbK hvÎv`‡ji †g‡q gxivi †cÖ‡g c‡owQj| bvPMv‡b cUz gxiv †mŠ›`‡h©i Rb¨ mycwiwPZ wQj| iƒceZx gxivi iƒc †Pv‡L ZvK jvwM‡q w`‡qwQj gvwb‡Ki| d‡j iƒceZx gxivi †cÖ‡g c‡o hvq iƒcgy» gvwbK| Aciw`‡K ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi bvwqKv wejvmx Aciƒc iƒ‡ci AwaKvwiYx bv n‡jI Zvi ü`q-†mŠ›`‡h©i Rb¨ †h g„Zz¨Ä‡qi nj cÖYwqbx Ges c‡i mnawg©bx| wejvmxi ü`‡q engvb wQj †mœn, †cÖg I fv‡jvevmvi GK Awgq aviv| ZvB mgv‡Ri mKj å“KzwU D‡c¶v K‡i wejvmx Zvi bvix-ü`‡qi gvayh© w`‡q, †mev w`‡q fv‡jvevmv w`‡q wbwðZ g„Z¨z i nvZ †_‡K g„Zz¨Äq‡K euvwP‡q Zz‡j‡Q | `yev© i †cÖ‡gi Uv‡b †h g„Z¨z ćqi wb¯—i½ ü`‡q Zz‡jwQj c−veb, hvi †mªv‡Z ﮋ Z…‡Yi g‡Zv †f‡m †M‡Q g„Zz¨Ä‡qi RvwZ-Kzj-gvb|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (Avb›` Kzgvi wek¦vm) nwini PµeZx© wbZvBM‡Äi Ae¯’vm¤úbœ †jvK| Zuvi GKgvÎ †Q‡j wegj PµeZx© gywPi †g‡q jZv‡K we‡q K‡i evwo‡Z Avbj| wKš—y Zuvi evev mgv‡Ri f‡q Zv‡`i evwo †_‡K †ei K‡i w`‡jb| wegj I jZv bvbv cÖwZK~jZvi ga¨ w`‡q Rxebhy‡× AeZx©Y nq| Zviv g‡b K‡i gvbe ag©B †miv|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Ô†`L, Agb K‡i gvbyl VKv‡qvbvÕÑDw³wU Kvi? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : Ô†`L, Agb K‡i gvbyl VKv‡qv bvÕÑ G Dw³wU K‡i‡Q ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ wejvmxi| cÖkœ : (L) ÔZvnvi eqm AvVv‡iv wK AvUvk Vvni Kwi‡Z cvwijvg bvÕÑ †Kb Vvni Kiv †Mj bv? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : g„Zz¨Ä‡qi Amy¯’Zvi msev` †c‡q MíK_K b¨vov GKw`b Zv‡K †`L‡Z hvq evwoi †fZ‡i Xy‡K cÖ`x‡ci Av‡jvq K¼vjmvi g„Zz¨Äq‡K kvwqZ †`L‡Z cvq| †mLv‡b g„Zz¨Ä‡qi wkq‡i cvLv nv‡Z wejvmx‡K †`‡L| w`b-ivZ g„Zz¨Äq‡K †mevhZœ K‡i Zv‡K my¯’ K‡i †Zv‡j wejvmx| Zv‡K my¯’ Ki‡Z wM‡q wb‡Ri ¯^v¯’¨nvwb N‡U| ZvB b¨vov hLb Zv‡K †`‡L‡Q wejvmxi eqm wb‡q †m weåvwš—‡Z c‡o‡Q| cÖkœ : (M) ÔDÏxc‡Ki wegj I jZvi cwiYwZ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi g„Zz¨Äq I wejvmxi gZÕÑ e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : nvRvi eQ‡ii eY©cÖ_v I ü`qnxb mvgvwRK wewa e¨e¯’vi †cl‡Y wcó µ›`biZ gvbevZ¥vi K_v aŸwbZ n‡q‡Q kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨v‡qi ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í| c„ôv-80


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

DÏxc‡Ki nwini PµeZx©i GKgvÎ †Q‡j wegj PµeZx© evev-gvi Ag‡Z gywPi †g‡q jZv‡K we‡q K‡i evwo‡Z Av‡b| wKš—y Zvi evev mgv‡Ri f‡q G we‡q †g‡b wb‡Z cv‡i wb| Zvi cwievi Zv‡`i‡K evwo †_‡K †ei K‡i †`q| G‡Z K‡i Zviv Pig mgm¨vq c‡o| bvbv cÖwZK~jZvi g‡a¨I Zviv Rxebhy‡× AskMÖnY K‡i| Ab¨w`‡K ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í g„Zz¨Äq wbPz Rv‡Zi †g‡q wejvmx‡K we‡q Ki‡j mgvR Zv †g‡b †bq bv| Zvi Lyov G KvR‡K AZ¨š— Mwn©Z g‡b K‡i ÔAbœcvcÕ AvL¨v w`‡q Zv‡K m¯¿xK evwo †_‡K †ei K‡i †`q| wKš—y G‡Z g„Zz¨Äq `‡g hvq wb| †m wejvmx‡K wb‡q bZzb msmvi ïi“ K‡i‡Q| wbR ag© Z¨vM K‡i n‡q‡Q mvcy‡o| kZ Kó mn¨ K‡iI wejvmx‡K †Q‡o hvq wb| †hgbwU †`Lv hvq DÏxc‡Ki wegj I jZvi g‡a¨| wKš—y eY©cÖ_vi Kvi‡Y Zv‡`iI KwVb cwiYwZi m¤§yLxb n‡Z n‡q‡Q| eY©cÖ_v GKwU mvgvwRK Awfkvc| GUv †_‡K mgvR‡K gy³ Kiv Avgv‡`i `vwqZ¡| cÖkœ : (N) Ôgvbe ag©B †mivÕÑ G Dw³i Zvrch© ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq ü`q w`‡q Lyu‡R‡Qb Amy›`‡ii gv‡S my›`i‡K| ZvB‡Zv Zuvi mvwn‡Z¨ VvuB wb‡q‡Q mgv‡Ri wPi Ae‡nwjZ, wPicwZZ Ges wPi Acvs‡³qiv, hv‡`i eyK dv‡U Zey gyL †dv‡U bv, hv‡`i wePv‡ii ivq bxi‡eÑwbf„‡Z Kuv‡`| Zuvi hyMvš—Kvix †QvUMí ÔwejvmxÕ‡Z G welq¸wj my›`ifv‡e Dc¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í g„Zz¨Äq wejvmx‡K fv‡jv‡e‡m we‡q K‡i wb‡Ri RvZ-ag©‡K wemR©b w`‡q‡Q| mgv‡Ri †Pv‡L g„Zz¨Äq ÔAbœcvcxÕ n‡jI gbyl¨‡Z¡i w`K w`‡q we‡ePbv Ki‡j Zvi ¯’vb A‡bK Dc‡i| KviY wejvmx‡K †m gvbyl wn‡m‡e fv‡jv‡e‡m‡Q| †mLv‡b RvZ-ag©-eY© wKQzB cÖvavb¨ cvq wb| DÏxc‡Ki wegj PµeZx© gv-evevi Ag‡Z gywPi †g‡q jZv‡K we‡q K‡i N‡i Av‡b| we‡qi ci i¶Ykxj mgv‡Ri f‡q Zvi gv-evev Zv‡`i evwo †_‡K †ei K‡i †`q| jZv‡K we‡q Kivi e¨vcv‡i wegj †Kv‡bv RvwZ ev e‡Y©i K_v fv‡e wb| †m jZv‡K fv‡jv‡e‡mB we‡q K‡i‡Q| Zv‡`i ü`q-RvZ fv‡jvevmv I gbyl¨‡Z¡i Kv‡Q RvZ-ag© mewKQz ¤−vb n‡q †M‡Q| †mLv‡b gvbweK †eva m‡e©v”P gh©v`v †c‡q‡Q | gvbe ag©B †kªô ag©| gbyl¨Z¡ e¨ZxZ gvbyl cïi mgvb|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI :

we Avn‡g` XvKv kn‡ii DcK‡Úi GKwU MÖv‡gi evwm›`v| wZwb wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K A_©bxwZ‡Z Gg.G wWwMÖ MÖnY K‡i evsjv‡`k e¨vs‡K †hvM w`‡q‡Qb| Zvi MÖvg AbybœZ, A_©vr iv¯—v-NvU, ¯‹zj-K‡jR †bB ej‡jB P‡j| ¯¿x-mš—vb wb‡q XvKv kn‡i Av‡qkx Rxe‡bi nvZQvwb _vK‡jI wZwb MÖv‡gB evm K‡ib| MÖv‡gi Dbœq‡b wZwb AMÖYx f~wgKv cvjb K‡ib| ZvB MÖv‡gi gvbyl Zv‡K ÔMÖv‡gi wgZvÕ e‡j Wv‡K| cÖkœ: (K) wejvmx M‡íi eY©bvKvix †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: wejvmx M‡íi eY©bvKvix b¨vov| cÖk:œ (L) g„Z¨z Äq RvZ wemR©b w`‡qwQj †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: g„Zz¨Äq KwVb Amy‡L c‡o AvZ¥xq cwiRbnxb Ae¯’vq kh¨vkvqx n‡q g„Z¨z i cÖni ¸YwQj| MÖv‡gi †KD Zvi mvnvh¨v‡_© GwM‡q Av‡m wb| †m Ae¯’vq GK mvcy‡o I Zvi Kb¨v wejvmx gvbeZvi Wv‡K mvov w`‡q GwM‡q Av‡m| †`o gvm wbijm cwikªg K‡i wejvmx g„Zz¨Äq‡K evuwP‡q †Zv‡j| wejvmxi G †mev g„Zz¨Ä‡qi wbivm³ ü`‡q †cÖ‡gi m„wó K‡i| g„Zz¨Äq wejvmx‡K we‡q Ki‡j mgvR Zv †g‡b bv wb‡q AZ¨vPvi ïi“ K‡i| †h mgvR gvbeZv‡ev‡a DØy× bq- †m mgv‡R _vKv hvq bv| d‡j g„Zz¨Äq RvZ wemR©b w`‡q mvcy‡o n‡q hvq| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki we Avn‡g` mv‡n‡ei MÖv‡gi cÖwZ fv‡jvevmvi mv‡_ wejvmx M‡íi Z_vKw_Z wkw¶Z‡`i ˆemv`„k¨ †`LvI| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: KvjRqx ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í wecixZ Ae¯’v‡b _vKv `yRb mvaviY gvbe-gvbexi AmvaviY fv‡jvevmvi m¤úK© ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| cÖm½µ‡g †jLK ZrKvjxb Av_©-mvgvwRK Ae¯’vbI eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| Z_vKw_Z wkw¶Z e¨w³MY wk¶v jvf K‡i kn‡i PvKwi K‡ib| Zviv kn‡iB emevm K‡ib| MÖv‡gi mv‡_ Zv‡`i Avi †Kvb m¤úK© _v‡K bv| d‡j MÖv‡gi iv¯—v-NvU, ¯‹zj-K‡jR †Kvb wKQyB M‡o I‡V bv| d‡j g„Zz¨Äq‡`i eû`~i c_ R‡j-Kv`vq wf‡R wM‡q ¯‹zj Ki‡Z nq| c„ôv-81


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

DÏxc‡K Avn‡g` MÖv‡gi †Q‡j| A‡bK K‡ó †jLvcov †kl K‡i PvKwi wb‡q‡Q evsjv‡`k e¨vs‡K| wZwb kn‡i _vKvi mKj myweav cvIqv m‡Ë¡I MÖv‡g _v‡Kb| KviY Zvi MÖvg‡K wZwb A‡bK fv‡jvev‡mb| MÖv‡gi Dbœq‡b AvZ¥wb‡qvM K‡i wZwb AvZ¥Z…ß nb| MÖv‡gi iv¯—v-NvU, ¯‹zj-K‡jR cÖwZôvi Rb¨ wZwb me©v‡MÖ GwM‡q Av‡mb| Dch©y³ Av‡jvPbvq ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Z_vKw_Z wkw¶Z mgvR I DÏxc‡Ki we Avn‡g` mv‡n‡ei mv‡_ ˆemv`„k my¯úó| cÖk:œ (N) Ôwkw¶Z mgvR MÖvg Dbœq‡b KZUv f~wgKv cvjb K‡iÕ- DÏxcK I wejvmx Mí Abymv‡i we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: K_vwkíx kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iwPZ ÔwejvmxÕ GKwU AmvaviY †cÖ‡gi Mí| D³ M‡í I DÏxc‡K wkw¶Z gvby‡li MÖv‡gvbœq‡b gvbwmKZvi ˆecixZ¨ cÖKvk N‡U‡Q| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi mgv‡R wkï‡`i we`¨vR©b Kivi Rb¨ AeY©bxq Kó mn¨ Ki‡Z n‡Zv| we`¨vR©‡bi Rb¨ wkï‡`i Pvi‡µvk c_ cwo w`‡Z n‡Zv| AwaKš‘ el©vi w`‡b gv_vi Ici †g‡Ni Rj, cv‡qi wb‡P nvuUz cwigvY Kv`v Ges MÖx‡®§i w`‡b R‡ji e`‡j Kov m~h© I Kv`vi e`‡j ay‡jvi mvMi cvwo w`‡q nq| G †nb KóKi we`¨v jvf cÖwµqv †k‡l Zviv eo PvKwi wb‡q kn‡i cvwo RgvZ| Avevi A‡b‡KB MÖv‡gi weiƒc cwi‡e‡k Ach©vß my‡hvM-myweav I †Q‡j-‡g‡q‡`i `xN©c_ †nu‡U we`¨vR©‡bi R¡vjvq MÖvg †Q‡o kn‡i cjvqb KiZ| †h MÖv‡gi `y‡h©vMgq cwi‡e‡ki mv‡_ Zviv msMÖvg K‡i gvbyl n‡q‡Q †mB MÖv‡gi Dbœq‡bi †Kvb cÖqvm Zv‡`i wQj bv| eis MÖv‡gi G ai‡bi cwi‡ek‡K Zviv VvÆvi DcKiY evbvZ| DÏxc‡Ki wPÎwU wejvmx M‡íi D‡ëviƒc| GLv‡b MÖv‡gi †Q‡j we Avn‡g` †jLvcov K‡i evsjv‡`k e¨vs‡K PvKwi cvq| ¯¿x-mš—vb wb‡q kn‡i _vKvi myweav _vKv m‡Ë¡I wZwb MÖv‡g _v‡Kb| MÖv‡gi Dbœq‡b AvZ¥wb‡qvM K‡ib| GRb¨ Zv‡K MÖv‡gi gvbyl ÔMÖv‡gi wgZvÕ e‡j m‡¤^vab K‡i| myZivs Z_vKw_Z wkw¶Z †jv‡Kiv MÖvg †Q‡o P‡j hvq kn‡i Avi cÖK…Z wkw¶Z †jv‡Kiv MÖv‡g †_‡K MÖv‡gi Dbœqb NUvb|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`)

Wv³vwi cvk Kivi ci evevi AvcwË AMÖvn¨ K‡i wjUb Zvi MÖv‡gi evwo imyjcyi wd‡i hvq| †mLv‡b wM‡q †m GKwU wWm‡cbmvwi Ly‡j e‡m| MÖv‡gi mvavib †ivMxiv G‡Z LyeB DcK…Z nq| wjU‡bi G D‡`¨v‡Mi d‡j G Mvu‡qi KvD‡K GLb Avi wPwKrmvi Afv‡e Kó Ki‡Z nq bv| (K) ¯‹z‡j †h‡Z Avm‡Z b¨vov‡K cÖwZw`b Kq †µvk c_ cvwo w`‡Z n‡Zv ? (L) Mªvg †_‡K kn‡i hvIqv †jvK¸‡jv Avi MÖv‡g wd‡i Avm‡Z PvB‡Zv bv †Kb? (M) wjU‡bi MÖv‡gi mv‡_ wejvmx M‡í ewY©Z Mªv‡gi cv_©K¨¸‡jA Zz‡j a‡iv| (N) ÔZviv evm Kwi‡Z _vwK‡j †Zv cj−xi GZ `y`©kv nq bvÕÑ Dw³wUi Av‡jv‡K wjU‡bi MÖv‡g wd‡i hvIqvi welqwU g~j¨vqY Ki| ..............................................................................................................................DËigvjv (K) ¯‹z‡j †h‡Z Avm‡Z b¨vov‡K cÖwZw`b cÖvq Pvi †µvk c_ cvwo w`‡Z n‡Zv| (L) kn‡i †h me bvMwiK myweav _v‡K MÖv‡g Zv bv _vKvi Kvi‡YB Mªvg †_‡K kn‡i hvIqv †jvK¸‡jv Avi MÖv‡g wd‡i Avm‡Z PvB‡Zv bv| ZrKvjxb mg‡q †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ fv‡jv iv¯—v-NvU, †jLvcovi Rb¨ fv‡jv ¯‹zj-K‡jR, wPwKrmvi Rb¨ fv‡jv nvmcvZvj, evRviNvU Kivi Rb¨ fv‡jv †`vKvbcvU I we`y¨Zmn ‡h mvgvwRK myweav¸‡jv kn‡i wQj MÖv‡g Zvi cÖvq †KvbwKQzB wQj bv e‡j G cwiw¯’wZi m„wó n‡Zv| (M) wejvmx M‡í ewY©Z mvgvwRK e¨e¯’vq gkvi R¡vjvq AwZô n‡q g¨v‡jwiqv †_‡K euvP‡Z ev mš—vb‡`i †jLvcov Kiv‡bvi Rb¨ MÖvg †_‡K hviv kn‡i †h‡Zb Zviv A‡b‡KB Avi MÖv‡g wd‡i Avm‡Zb bv| d‡j MÖv‡g wkw¶Z gvby‡li msL¨v wQj LyeB Kg| G Kvi‡Y †mLv‡b Awk¶v I Kzms¯‹vi k³fv‡e evmv †eu‡awQj| a‡g©i bv‡g †mLv‡b Pj‡Zv gvbeZvi Acgvb Avi wPwKrmvi bv‡g Pj‡Zv AcwPwKrmv| mvgvwRK wePv‡ii c„ôv-82


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

bv‡g †mLv‡b weivR Ki‡Zv Ab¨vq-AwePvi| wKš‘ wjU‡bi MÖv‡g †m ai‡bi †Kvb mgm¨v wQj bv| Avi Zv wQj bv e‡jB †m Wv³vwi cvk K‡i MÖv‡g wd‡i Avmvi g‡Zv cwi‡ek †c‡q‡Q| Zvi g‡Zv A‡bK wkw¶Z gvbylB nq‡Zv ‡m MÖv‡g evm K‡i| MÖv‡gi mvavib gvbyliv wjU‡bi g‡Zv Zv‡`i KvQ †_‡KI A‡bK myweav cvq| ZvB wjU‡bi MÖvgwU A‡bKvs‡kB Awk¶v, Kzms¯‹vi, AwePvi I AcwPwKrmvgy³ GKwU AvaywbK MÖvg n‡q I‡V| ZvB G MÖv‡gi cwi‡ek wejvmx M‡íi MÖvg¨ cwi‡ek †_‡K ¯^vfvweKfv‡eB A‡bK DbœZ I AvaywbK| (N) wejvmx M‡í ewY©Z MÖv‡gi gvbyl¸‡jvi g‡a¨ gkvi R¡vjvq AwZô n‡q g¨v‡jwiqv †_‡K euvP‡Z ev mš— vb‡`i †jLvcov Kiv‡bvi Rb¨ MÖvg †_‡K hviv kn‡i †h‡Zb Zviv mš—vb‡`i †jLvcov †k‡l A‡b‡KB Avi MÖv‡g wd‡i Avm‡Zb bv| Zv‡`i wkw¶Z mš—vbivI PvKwi wb‡q Ab¨Î P‡j †h‡Zv| G Kvi‡Y Zv‡`i MÖv‡g Awk¶v I Kzms¯‹vi k³fv‡e evmv euva‡Zv| †mLv‡b a‡g©i bv‡g Pj‡Zv gvbeZvi Aag© Avi wPwKrmvi bv‡g Pj‡Zv AcwPwKrmv| mvgvwRK wePv‡ii bv‡g †mLv‡b weivR Ki‡Zv Ab¨vq-AwePvi| wKš‘ wjU‡bi MÖv‡gi Ae¯’v wQj wfbœ| wejvmx M‡í ewY©Z mgvRe¨e¯’v bvbv weeZ©‡bi ga¨ w`‡q AvR A‡bKUB e`‡j †M‡Q| GLb MÖv‡gi iv¯—vNvU DbœZ n‡q‡Q| G‡Z †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vI fv‡jv n‡q‡Q| wkw¶Z nIqvi ci A‡b‡KB MÖv‡g evm Ki‡Q| G‡Z Kzms¯‹vi n«vm †c‡q‡Q; wePv‡ii bv‡g AwePviI K‡g †M‡Q| GQvov MÖv‡gi gvbyl GLb wPwKrmv I we`y¨Z †mevmn A‡bK bvMwiK myweavB ‡fvM Ki‡Q| G‡Z MÖv‡gi gvby‡li `„wófw½I cv‡ë †M‡Q| mvgvwRK I ivóªxq weeZ©‡bi avivq MÖv‡gi GB †h DbœwZ Zvi g~‡j wKš‘ i‡q‡Q wkw¶Z gvby‡li Dcw¯’wZ| Avi Wv. wjUb n‡”Qb MÖv‡g evm Kiv Gme wkw¶Z gvby‡liB GKRb mv_©K cÖwZwbwa|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`)

cÖwZw`b `xN© hvbRU cvi n‡q Avmvi d‡j Avwei Zvi cÖ_g K¬vmwU‡Z ‡gv‡UI g‡bvhvMx n‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvB Ab¨vb¨ wel‡q fv‡jv dj jvf Ki‡jI evsjv wel‡q †m †dj K‡i‡Q| Zvi G A™¢yZ djvd‡j mevB nZevK n‡jI †KD Zvi cªK…Z KviY ‡LuvRvi †Póv K‡i wb| (K) i¤¢v kãwUi A_© Kx ? (L) cª‡gvk‡bi w`b gyL fvi K‡i evwo G‡m b¨vov Zvi gv÷vi‡K V¨vOv‡bvi gZje Ki‡Zv †Kb? (M) b¨vovi mv‡_ Avwe‡ii †Kvb †Kvb †¶‡Î wgj i‡q‡Q? (N) Ô`xN© hvbRU cvi n‡q Avmvi d‡j Avwei Zvi cÖ_g K¬vmwU‡Z ‡gv‡UI g‡bvhvMx n‡Z cv‡i bvÕ ÑÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wU we‡k−lY Ki| ..............................................................................................................................DËigvjv (K) i¤¢v kãwUi A_© n‡”Q Kjv| (L) mKvj AvUUvq evwo †_‡K †ei n‡q b¨vov hLb Zvi Ab¨vb¨ mncvVxi mv‡_ `yB †µvk c_ cvwo w`‡q ¯‹z‡j †h‡Zv ZLb iv¯—vq A‡bK `yózwg Ki‡Zv| G `xN© c_ nuvUvi K¬vwš— Avi `yóywgi bvbv dw›`i Kvi‡Y K¬v‡m †m g‡bv‡hvMx n‡Z cvi‡Zv bv e‡j cix¶vi LvZvq fyj DËi wjL‡Zv| Avi Gi Awbevh© cwiYwZ wn‡m‡e cÖ‡gvk‡bi w`b Zv‡K gyL fvi K‡i evwo wdi‡Z n‡Zv| Avi †mw`bB Ab¨vb¨ eÜz‡`i mv‡_ wg‡j †m gv÷vi‡K V¨vOv‡bvi ev Agb wekªx ¯‹zj †Q‡o †`qvi wPš—v Ki‡Zv| (M) b¨vov †hgb mKvj AvUUvq evwo †_‡K †ei n‡q `yB †µvk c_ cvwo w`‡q ¯‹z‡j wM‡q K¬vš— n‡q co‡Zv AvweiI †Zgwb `xN© hvbR‡Ui Kvi‡Y ¯‹z‡j hvIqv c‡_ K¬vš— n‡q co‡Zv| G Kvi‡Y b¨vov †hgb covq g‡bv‡hvMx n‡Z cvi‡Zv bv, †Zgwb AvweiI Zvi cÖ_g K¬vmwU‡Z g‡bv‡hvMx n‡Z cvi‡Zv bv| Gi d‡j cÖ‡gvk‡bi w`b b¨vov‡K †hgb gyL fvix K‡i evwo wdi‡Z n‡Zv; †Zgwb Avwe‡i‡KI gvÎ GKwU wel‡q †dj Kivi Rb¨ cix¶vi dj cÖKv‡ki w`b gb Lvivc K‡i evwo wdi‡Z n‡Zv| Gw`K †_‡K NUbv wfbœ n‡jI Zv‡`i g‡a¨ h‡_ó wgj i‡q‡Q| c„ôv-83


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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

(N) †jLvcovq fv‡jv djvd‡ji Rb¨ QvÎ-QvÎx‡`i g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q †jLvcov Kiv `iKvi| Avi G Rb¨ `iKvi GKwU myôz I my›`i cwi‡ek| A‡b‡KB weiƒc cwi‡e‡ki Kvi‡Y ‡jLvcovq g‡bv‡hvMx n‡Z cv‡i bv| fv‡jv †gav _vKvi ciI cix¶vq Kvw•¶Z djvdj AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi K_K b¨vov I DÏxc‡Ki Avwei G ai‡biB Ae¨e¯’vi wkKvi| G‡`i `yR‡bi †¶‡ÎB Avgiv GKB ai‡bi ev¯—eZv j¶ Kwi| mKvj AvUUvq evwo †_‡K †ei n‡q `yB †µvk c_ cvwo w`‡q ¯‹z‡j wM‡q b¨vov hLb K¬vš— n‡q co‡Zv ZLb covq Zvi gb em‡Zv bv| wVK GKBfv‡e `xN© hvbRU AwZµg K‡i Avwei hLb K¬vš— n‡q ¯‹z‡j hvq ZLb †m Zvi cÖ_g K¬vmwU‡Z g‡bv‡hvMx n‡Z cv‡i bv| d‡j `yR‡bi cix¶vi djB Lvivc nq| b¨vov I Avwe‡ii g‡Zv hviv weiƒc cwi‡e‡ki Kvi‡Y Zv‡`i †gav Abyhvqx djvdj AR©‡b e¨_© nq Zv‡`i Rb¨ myôz I my›`i cwi‡ek m„wó Kiv GKvš— `iKvi| Avi G cwi‡ek wbg©v‡Yi Rb¨ e¨w³ I cwiev‡ii cvkvcvwk mgvR I ivóªhš¿‡KI GwM‡q Avm‡Z n‡e|

ˆbe©¨w³K cÖkœvewj wejvmx †gv‡k©`j y Avjg (†gv‡k©`) 1| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í Kx ewY©Z n‡q‡Q? K RvwZMZ we‡f` L †cÖ‡gi wPÎ M wn›`y mgv‡Ri wPÎ N cwj− mgv‡Ri wPÎ 2| KZ mv‡j ÔwejvmxÕ MíwU cÖKvwkZ nq? K 1919 mv‡j L 1920 mv‡j M 1921 mv‡j N 1918 mv‡j 3| ÔwejvmxÕ MíwU cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq? K fviZel© cwÎKvq L hgybv cwÎKvq M fviZx cwÎKvq N wewPÎv cwÎKvq 4| kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq KZ wLª÷v‡ã Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? K 1876 wLª÷v‡ã L 1877 wLª÷v‡ã M 1878 wLª÷v‡ã N 1879 wLª÷v‡ã 5| cwðge‡½i ûMjx †Rjvi †Kvb MÖv‡g kirP›`ª Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? K nwikcyi MÖv‡g L †`evb›`cyi MÖv‡g M jvwnbxcvov MÖv‡g N KuvVvjcvov MÖv‡g 6| kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq KZ wLª÷v‡ã g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib? K 1938 wLª÷v‡ã L 1939 wLª÷v‡ã M 1940 wLª÷v‡ã N 1941 wLª÷v‡ã 7| kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq ci‡jvK MgY K‡ib ⎯ K KjKvZvq L ûMjx‡Z M Avmv‡g N RjcvB¸wo‡Z

−kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq 8| kirP›`ª evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i me‡P‡q RbwcÖq ⎯ K bvU¨Kvi L Jcb¨vwmK M Kwe N †QvUMíKvi 9| KZ eQi eq‡m kirP›`ª g‡bi †Suv‡K mbœ¨vmx n‡q M„nZ¨vM K‡iwQ‡jb? K PweŸk eQi eq‡m L cuwPk eQi eq‡m M QvweŸk eQi eq‡m N mvZvk eQi eq‡m 10| kirP›`ª RxweKvi ZvwM‡` †`k †Q‡o †Kv_vq wM‡qwQ‡jb? K fvi‡Z L †bcv‡j M cvwK¯—v‡b N evg©vq 11| wb‡Pi †KvbwU kirP‡›`ªi cÖKvwkZ cÖ_g Mí? K wejvmx L Qwe M we›`yi †Q‡j N gw›`i 12| Ôgw›`iÕ M‡íi R‡b¨ kirP›`ª †Kvb cyi®‹vi jvf K‡ib? K RMËvwibx ¯^Y©c`K L wWwjU Dcvwa M Kzš—jxb cyi¯‹vi N evsjv GKv‡Wgx cyi®‹vi 13| †Kvb w`KwU kirP‡›`ªi Dcb¨v‡m D¾¡jfv‡e iƒcvwqZ n‡q‡Q? K mgvRRxe‡bi cÖwZ”Qwe L bxPzZjvi gvby‡li cÖwZ”Qwe M evsjvi gvby‡li Rxe‡bi cÖwZ”Qwe N fvi‡Zi gvby‡li Rxe‡bi cÖwZ”Qwe

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14| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í e¨eüZ Kvg¯‹vUKv n‡jv ⎯ K Øxc L DcØxc M mvMi N gnvmvMi 15| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í Dwj−wLZ ÔgbmvÕ wK‡mi †`ex? K a‡bi †`ex L mv‡ci †`ex M we`¨vi †`ex N m¤ú‡`i †`ex 16| g„Z¨z Äq KZ gvm †_‡K kh¨vMZ? K GK gvm †_‡K L †`o gvm †_‡K M AvovB gvm †_‡K N `yB gvm †_‡K 17| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í Ôwelnwii †`vnvBÕ e¨eüZ n‡q‡QK mv‡ci kw³ A‡_© L †`‡ni kw³ A‡_© M gš¿kw³ A‡_© N mªóvi kw³ A‡_© 18| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í Dwj−wLZ ÔKvgvL¨vÕ †Kv_vq Aew¯’Z? K Avmv‡g L wgqvbgv‡i M wÎcyivq N wg‡Rviv‡g 19| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í evOvwji wel †Kvb A‡_© e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q? K evOvwji Avb›` L evOvwji †µva M evOvwji `ytL N evOvwji Kó 20| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í †K g„Zz¨Äq‡K wPwKrmv K‡i? K wejvmx L Lyov M eyov gv‡jv N b¨vov 21| KZ mv‡j mvwnZ¨ K‡g©i ¯^xK…wZ wn‡m‡e XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq kirP›`ª‡K wWwjU wWwMÖ cÖ`vb K‡ib? K 1933 mv‡j L 1934 mv‡j M 1935 mv‡j N 1936 mv‡j 22| ÔfviZxÕ cwÎKvi †Kvb msL¨vq ÔwejvmxÕ MíwU cÖKvwkZ nq? K ‰ekvL msL¨vq L ‰R¨ô msL¨vq M Avlvp msL¨vq N kªveY msL¨vq 23| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi Ôb¨vovÕ PwiÎwUi m‡½ K‡i mv`„k¨ cvIqv hvq? K GK hye‡Ki L kirP‡›`ªi M GK e„‡×i N wejvmxi 24| Ôwelnwii †`vnvB eywS ev Avi Lv‡U bvÕÔwejvmxÕ M‡í KLb Zv †evSv †Mj? K g„Zz¨Ä‡qi g„Zz¨i ci L g„Zz¨Äq hLb ewg Kij M g„Z¨z Äq‡K mv‡c Kvgov‡j N g„Zz¨Äq wbtk¦vm †dj‡j

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

25| Kx bv‡g Kvg¯‹vU&Kv cwiwPZ? K m¨vgb gv‡Qi †`k L wmj gv‡Qi †`k M Wjwd‡bi †`k N †c½yB‡bi †`k 26| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í Dwj−wLZ mgqKv‡j `kg †kªwY wQj ⎯ K †dv_© K¬vm L dv÷© K¬vm M †m‡KÛ K¬vm N _vW© K¬vm 27| welKÈ g‡nk¦‡ii Ab¨ bvg Kx? K abÄq L g„Zz¨Äq M wbiÄq N mÄq 28| g„Zz¨Ä‡qi KZUzKz evMvb wQj? K AvVv‡iv wek weNv L Kzwo evBk weNv M Kzwo-cuwPk weNv N cuwPk QvweŸk weNv 29| Kvi †MvLiv mvc a‡i †cvlvi kL wQj? K g„Z¨z ćqi L b¨vovi M wejvmxi N Ly‡ovi 30| ÔGKjv †h‡Z fq Ki‡e bv †Zv? GKUz GwM‡q w`‡q Avme?- ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í Dw³wU Kvi? K b¨vovi L Lyovi M wejvmxi N gv‡jvi 31| †KvbwU mvcy‡o‡`i me‡P‡q jvfRbK e¨emv? K mvc wewµ Kiv L mv‡ci wel Svov M wkKo wewµ Kiv N gv`ywj wewµ Kiv 32| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í ewY©Z g„Zz¨Ä‡qi AgvR©bxq Aciva wQj ⎯ K jywP LvIqv L m‡›`k LvIqv M cvVvi gvsm LvIqv N wejvmxi nv‡Zi fvZ LvIqv 33| g„Zz¨Äq †Kvb es‡ki †Q‡j? K eªvþY L Kvq¯’ M ‰ek¨ N k~`ª 34| g„Zz¨Äq Kx mvc wgwbU `‡k‡Ki g‡a¨ aij? K †MvLiv L cÙ †MvLiv M Lwik †MvLiv N RvZ †MvLiv 35| †KvbwU mvc aivi g‡š¿i †kl jvBb? K gbmv †`ex Avgvi gv L IjU cvjU cvZvj †duvo M Kvi AvÁv wel nwii AvÇv N `yaivR, gwbivR

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

44| ÔAvwg GKjv _vK‡Z cvie bvÕ- GLv‡b ÔAvwgÕ †K?

36| Kxfv‡e wejvmxi g„Zz¨ nq? K Mjvq `wo w`‡q L b`x‡Z Wy‡e M wel †L‡q N Qv` †_‡K jvwd‡q 37| Ôexbv cvwbÕ †Kvb †`exi Aci bvg? K `yM©vi L j²xi M mi¯^Zxi N gbmvi 38| bxPyRv‡Zi †g‡q‡K we‡q Kiv ⎯ K ¸i“ Aciva L jNy Aciva M ¶gvi †hvM¨ Aciva N ¶gvi A‡hvM¨ Aciva 39| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi g„Zz¨Ä‡qi Lyovi KvR wQj ⎯ K fvB‡cvi mybvg Kiv L fvB‡cvi `yb©vg Kiv M fvB‡cvi m‡½ SMov Kiv N fvB‡cvi †mev Kiv 40| ÔwVK †hb dzj`vwb‡Z Rj w`qv wfRvBqv ivLv evwk dz‡ji g‡ZvÕ-Dw³wU Kvi m¤ú‡K© ejv n‡q‡Q? K g„Z¨z Äq L wejvmx M b¨vov N Ly‡ov 41| g„Zz¨Ä‡qi g„Zz¨i c‡i wejvmx KZw`b †eu‡P wQj? K 10 w`b L 9 w`b M 7 w`b N 8 w`b 42| †Kvb w`b mvc ai‡Z hvIqv eviY? K g½jevi L eyaevi M e„n¯úwZevi N iweevi 43| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í †K wbZvš—B GKUv Zz”Q gvbyl wQj? K g„Z¨z Äq L wejvmx M b¨vov N wejvmxi evev

K b¨vov L g„Zz¨Ä‡qi Lyov M b¨vovi AvZ¥x‡qi weaev ¯¿x N wejvmx 45| Kvi gv_v g„Zz¨Ä & ‡qi g„Z¨z ‡Z †nuU n‡q †Mj? K wejvmxi L b¨vovi M wejvmxi ev‡ci N Ly‡ovi 46| †Kvb KvRwU g„Zz¨Ä‡qi eo Aciva? K Abœcvc L we‡q M mvcaiv N RvZ wemR©b 47| Ômi¯^ZxÕ wK‡mi †`ex? K a‡bi L we`¨vi M mv‡ci N A‡bœi 48| wejvmx M‡íi cUf~wg Kx? K cwj−MvÖ ‡gi gv‡jv mgvR L cwj− MÖv‡gi wn›`y mgvR M cwj− MÖv‡gi bxPz RvwZ N cwj− MÖv‡gi DuPz RvwZ 49| KZ c_ AwZµg K‡i b¨vov ¯‹z‡j we`¨v AR©b Ki‡Z hvq? K `y‡µvk c_ †nu‡U L Pvi †µvk c_ †n‡U M cuvP †µvk c_ †nu‡U N Qq †µvk c_ †n‡U 50| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í MÖv‡gi ev‡ivqvwi c~Rveve` †QvU evey Zuvi ¯^vfvweK J`v‡h© KZ UvKv `vb K‡ib? K Pvik UvKv L wZbk UvKv M `yBk UvKv N GKk UvKv Abyaveb g~jK: 51| g„Zz¨Ä‡qi †Kvb ai‡bi cwieZ©b †`‡L b¨vov AevK n‡qwQj? K †ekf~lvi cwieZ©b L PvjPj‡bi cwieZ©b M RvZ wemR©b N K_vevZ©vq cwieZ©b

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

Aa©v½x †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb (1880-1932) “ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (IwjDj AvRg) GjvKvi me‡P‡q kvš—-wkó, bg&ª-f`ª †g‡q ZvbwRgv| A‡bK †QvU eq‡mB gv‡K nvwi‡q‡Q| mßg †kªYx‡Z covi mgq †_‡KB Zvi evev Zv‡K we‡q †`qvi Rb¨ D‡V-c‡o †j‡M hvb| ZvbwRgv †Kvb fv‡eB evev‡K †evSv‡Z cv‡i wb †h, †m †jLvcov wk‡L Wv³vi n‡e| Ae‡k‡l Aóg †kªYx‡Z covi mgq ZvbwRgvi we‡q wVK K‡ib| cÂv‡kva© GK †jv‡Ki mv‡_| we‡q †VKv‡Z e¨_© n‡q ZvbwRgv GjvKvi Bgvg mv‡n‡ei Kv‡Q hvq| Bgvg mv‡ne evj¨ weev‡ni Kzdj I bvixi wk¶v we¯—v‡ii f~wgKv m¤ú‡K© ZvbwRgvi evev‡K †evSvb| Ae‡k‡l ZvbwRgv fvjfv‡e †jLvcvovi Rb¨ Dce„wË †c‡q eZ©gv‡b Abvm© cÖ_g e‡l© Aa¨qb Ki‡Q|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Ônv‡dRÕ Kv‡K e‡j? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: m¤ú~Y© †KviAvb kixd hvi gyL¯’ Av‡Q Zv‡K nv‡dR e‡j| cÖkœ : (L) wk¶v I Kg©Rxe‡b bvixi cðv`c`Zvi mgm¨v ej‡Z wK eyS? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: wesk kZvãxi cÖvi‡¤¢ evOvwj mgv‡R bvixiv wQj Ae‡nwjZ, ewÂZ I jvwÃZ| bvix wQj cyi“‡li µxobK, †Ljvi cyZj z | bvix‡`i D”Pwk¶v jvf wQj cvcZzj¨ e¨vcvi| cyi“‡li e¨vcK wk¶vi my‡hvM _vK‡jI bvix wk¶vi my‡hvM wQj mxwgZ| mf¨Zvi cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ cyi“l‡`i Kg©‡¶‡Îi e¨vcK we¯—w… Z NU‡jI bvix‡`i Kg©‡¶Î mxgve× _v‡K iÜbkvjvq, m~wPK‡g© wKsev mjgvPzgwKi Kvi“Kv‡h© D‡ji †gvRvgvdjvi ey‡bvwb‡Z| ZrKvjxb mgv‡R Kg©Rxe‡b bvixiv Zv‡`i †gav m¤^‡Ü Am‡PZb _vKvq m„wókxj †Kvb Kv‡R wb‡R‡`i wb‡qvwRZ Ki‡Z cviZ bv| cyi“‡liv hLb MÖn †_‡K MÖnvš—‡i `~iZ¡ cwigv‡c e¨¯— wQj, ZLb bvixiv evwj‡ki Kfvi cwigv‡c e¨¯— wQj| cÖkœ : (M) D”Pwk¶v jv‡fi †¶‡Î ZvbwRgvi AvMÖn‡K ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖeÜwU‡Z bvix mgvR‡K AvZ¥kw³‡Z DØy× Kivi Awfj‡¶¨ wk¶vi ¸i“‡Z¡i K_v e¨³ K‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡K Avgiv †`wL †h ZvbwRgvi g‡a¨ I wk¶vjv‡fi Rb¨ cÖej AvMÖn cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| mywkw¶Z †jvK gv‡ÎB ¯^wkw¶Z| wk¶vi Av‡jv gvby‡li Aš—wb©wnZ kw³ I m¤¢vebv‡K RvwM‡q †Zv‡j| hvi g‡a¨ cÖKZ … Áv‡bi Av‡jv †bB †h KLbB wk¶vi Aš—wb©wnZ welq m¤ú‡K© AeMZ n‡Z cvi‡e bv| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki bvix mgvR cÖK…Z wk¶v jv‡fi my‡hvM †_‡K ewÂZ n‡q Avm‡Q eûw`b a‡i| bvixiv †hLv‡b mgv‡Ri Aa©vsk †mLv‡b Zv‡`i wk¶vi Av‡jv †_‡K ewÂZ †i‡L mgv‡Ri mwVK Kj¨vY m¤¢e bq| cyi“lZvwš¿K G mgv‡R †hLv‡b wbqgZvwš¿K fv‡e bvixwk¶vi welqwU ¯^xK…Z, †mLv‡b bvix‡`i‡K wk¶vi Av‡jv †_‡K ewÂZ ivLv m¤ú~Y© A‡hŠw³K| †b‡cvwjqvb e‡j‡Qb- Avgv‡K GKUv wkw¶Z gv `vI, Avwg GKUv wkw¶Z RvwZ Dcnvi †`e| AvR bvix Zvi †gav, Aa¨emvq, cwikªg I wk¶vi Øviv mgv‡Ri kxl©c‡` Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q| ZvbwRgvI ˆah© I wk¶vi AvMÖn wb‡q cigyLv‡c¶x bv †_‡K AvMvgxi ¯^cœ ev¯— evqb Kivi j‡¶¨ `„pmsKí| DÏxc‡K ZvbwRgvi g‡a¨ Avgiv A`g¨ Drmvn I DÏxcbv †`L‡Z cvB| †m AvZ¥wbf©ikxj nIqvi ¯^cœ †`‡L| Zvi wcZvi c¶ †_‡K cÖ_‡g evav Avm‡jI cieZx©‡Z ZvbwRgv GjvKvi Bgvg mv‡ne Gi Kv‡Q Drmvn I DÏxcbv wd‡i cvq| ZvbwRgvi wk¶v MÖn‡Yi G cÖej AvKl©Y Zv‡K cieZx©‡Z wek¦we`¨vj‡q covi my‡hvM ˆZwi K‡i †`q| wk¶vi g~j D‡Ïk¨ gvbwmK cÖew„ × NUv‡bv, gbyl¨‡Z¡i weKvk NUv‡bv hv gvbyl‡K wbg©j Avb›` `vb K‡i| c„ôv-87


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (N) DÏxc‡K ZvbwRgvi mywkw¶Z nIqvi †¶‡Î Zvi wcZvi my`„wó‡K ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb mgv‡R bvixi ¸i“Z¡‡K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb wb‡iU `¶Zvq| wZwb bvix mgv‡Ri Ae`wgZ Ae¯’v‡K AZ¨š— wm× `¶Zvq Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb GB cÖe‡Ü| DÏxc‡K ZvbwRgvi evevi g‡bi g‡a¨ Kyms¯‹vi, RivRxY©Zv Avi cðv`c`Zvi a¨vb-aviYv Rwo‡q wQj| wk¶vjv‡fi †¶‡Î bvix‡`i cðv`c`Zvi mgm¨v wn‡m‡e †jwLKv me©v‡MÖ bvix‡`i wk¶vMÖn‡Yi my‡hv‡Mi †h evav Zv wPwýZ K‡i‡Qb| cyi“lkvwmZ mgv‡R bvix‡`i wk¶vjvf Kiv‡K fvj †Pv‡L †`‡L wb| Zviv g‡b KiZ bvixiv wkw¶Z n‡j mgv‡R wek„•Ljv †ewk n‡e, kvwš— bó n‡e, GgbwK mgvR aŸsm n‡q hv‡e Gme K_v †f‡eB †Kvb AwffveK Drmvnx n‡Zb bv †h Zuv‡`i Kb¨v mš—v‡biv wkw¶Z †nvK, Zv‡`i B”Qv wQj †g‡qiv A¶iÁvb wkL‡jB h‡_ó| Zviv ivbœv-evbœv, NiKbœvi KvR Avi ¯^vgx, msmvi mš—vb †`Lvïbv Ki‡e GUvB h‡_ó| bvix †h cyi“‡li g‡Zv Awdm-Av`vjZ, e¨emv-evwYR¨, †ijPvjK, wegvbPvjK, cywjk mycvi, RR-e¨vwi÷vi n‡Z cv‡i| Zv cyi“lZvwš¿K mgvR Kíbv Ki‡Z cviZ bv| wKš‘ eZ©gv‡b Gi A‡bK cwieZ©b n‡q‡Q| ZvbwRgvi evev I cÖ_‡g †Muvovcš’x wQj| cieZ©x‡Z ZvbwRgvi †jLv-covi cÖwZ AvMÖn Avi Bgvg mv‡n‡ei Aby‡iv‡a Zvi evevi c~e©eZx© a¨vb-avibv cwieZ©b nq| wewfbœ †cª¶vc‡Ui K_v †f‡e wZwb †g‡q‡K D”Pwk¶vq wkw¶Z Kivi g‡bvfve e¨³ K‡ib| m‡e©vcwi ejv hvq †h, wk¶v gvby‡li g‡a¨ gbyl¨Z¡‡eva RvwM‡q †Zv‡j, gvbweK¸Yvewj AR©‡b mnvqZv K‡i| gvbweK ¸Yvewj Qvov gvbyl wb‡R ï× I cwic~Y© gvbyl wn‡m‡e ˆZwi Ki‡Z cv‡i bv|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (IwjDj AvRg)

wkw¶Z bvix mgv‡Ri †evSv bq; GB mZ¨wU cyi“lkvwmZ mgvR‡K †evSv‡jI eyS‡Z Pvq bv| Zv‡`i g‡Z, †g‡q‡`i cov-†jLv Kivi Kx cÖ‡qvRb| Zviv ivbœv Ki‡e, Ni †`L‡e, †Q‡j-†g‡q †`Lv-†kvbv Ki‡e, Avi bvgvR-Kvjvg co‡e, wKš‘ Zv‡`i RxebUv‡K Zey ivbœv N‡iB mxgve× ivLv DwPZ bq| KviY, Aejvi nv‡ZI mgv‡Ri Rxeb-gi‡Yi KvwV Av‡Q|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Av‡gwiKv Avwe®‹v‡i †K K…ZmsKí nb? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Av‡gwiKv Avwe®‹v‡i Kj¤^vm K…ZmsKí nb| cÖkœ : (L) Ôcy·`i we`¨vj‡qi msL¨v Kiv hvq bv, evwjKv‡`i we`¨vjq msL¨v cvIqv hvq bvÕ- Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb (1880-1932) Zuvi mgmvgwqK mgv‡R evOvwj bvixi e›`xRxe‡bi Ki“Y cwiYwZi K_v e‡j‡Qb| bvix wk¶v cÖmv‡i Avgv‡`i mgv‡R †Rviv‡jv f~wgKv `„k¨gvb bq| cyi“l‡`i Rb¨ ch©vß wk¶v½b _vK‡jI bvix‡`i †ejvq nv‡Z †Mvbv| cyi“l I bvix‡K GK m‡½ wkw¶Z K‡i †Zvjv †M‡j †`k I RvwZi AMÖMwZ n‡e| cyi“l I bvixi ˆelg¨ gv‡bB mgv‡Ri AMÖMwZi PvKv †_‡g hvIqv| bvixwk¶vi cÖwZ ¸i“Z¡ cÖ`vb Kiv Ri“wi| cÖkœ : (M) ÔRxebUv‡K ïay ivbœvN‡iB mxgve× ivLv DwPZ bqÕ- Dw³wU ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü bvix wk¶vi cÖwZ †Rvi Av‡ivc K‡i‡Qb| wZwb bvix‡`i ivbœvN‡ii Pvi †`qv‡ji MwʇZ mxgve× bv _vKvi Rb¨ AvnŸvb Rvwb‡q‡Qb| mviv we‡k¦i bvixmgvR †hLv‡b cÖMwZi c‡_ ¯^gwngvq bvixmËv‡K weKwkZ Ki‡Q, evsjvi bvixmgvR ZLb Kvj hvcb Ki‡Q ivbœvN‡i| bvix‡`i ivbœv I †mjvB Kiv GKwU wk¶Yxq e¨vcvi| ZvB e‡j Zv‡`i wb‡R‡`i‡K ïay ivbœvN‡i mxgve× ivLv hyw³hy³ bq| kvixwiK MVbMZ ˆewk‡ó¨ bvix I cyi“l DfqB mgvb| bvix‡`i I Av‡Q gw¯—®‹ weKv‡ki ¶gZv| ZvB Zv‡`i AZ¨vek¨K mewKQz ev` w`‡q ivbœvN‡i c‡o _vKv mgxPxb bq| evOvwj bvixiv wk¶vi Afv‡e Dbœq‡bi g~j †mªvZaviv †_‡K ewÂZ| Gi Rb¨ cyi“livB †h GKKfv‡e `vqx Zv bq, eis mgvbfv‡e `vqx| †jwLKv g‡b Ki‡Zb, RvZxq DbœwZi Rb¨ bvixwk¶vi †Kvb weKí †bB| †`k I RvwZi Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ RvZxq DbœwZ‡Z bvix‡`i‡K GKxf~Z Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| c„ôv-88


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (N) ÔAejvi nv‡Z I mgv‡Ri Rxeb gi‡Yi KvwV Av‡QÕ DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: bvix RvMi‡Yi Ab¨Zg cw_K…r †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb iwPZ ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü mgvR Rxe‡b bvixivI †h ewjô f~wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K †m m¤ú‡K© DÏxc‡Ki gva¨‡g Rvb‡Z cvwi| RvZxq DbœwZ‡Z I mgvR MV‡b bvixivI ¸i“Z¡c~Y© Ae`vb ivL‡Z cv‡i | bvix‡`i Dbœq‡b †`k I RvwZi Dbœqb wbf©ikxj| Dchy³ wk¶vi gva¨‡g bvix mgvR‡K hw` Zv‡`i †gav I gb‡bi ¯^v¶i ivLvi my‡hvM †`qv nq, Zvn‡j Zviv I Ae‡ivaevwmbx bv †_‡K gyw³i Av‡jvq cv ivL‡Z cvi‡e| bvixiv hw` Zv‡`i mš—vb‡`i Dchy³ K‡i M‡o †Zv‡j Zvn‡j †m mš—vbB M‡o Zzj‡Z cv‡i †`‡ki D¾¡j fwel¨r| myZivs mgv‡Ri Rxeb I gi‡bi KvwV i‡q‡Q bvix mgv‡Ri nv‡Z| cyi“‡li fxi“Zv wKsev †ZRw¯^Zv wbf©i K‡i Rbbxi B”Qv I Awb”Qvi Dci, cyi“liv ïaygvÎ kvixwiK e‡ji †`vnvB w`‡qB †kªô‡Z¡i `vwe K‡i hv Av‡`Š wVK bq| ZvB mgvR Dbœq‡b bvix‡`i‡K h_v‡hvM¨ f~wgKv ivL‡Z n‡e|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvwcqv RvbœvZ) cwiev‡ii Ag‡Z wkgyj Zvi cQ‡›`i cvÎx wgby‡K we‡q K‡i| wgby †gavex QvÎx| †m Zvi †gav w`‡q mgv‡Ri Dbœq‡bi Kv‡R wb‡qvwRZ †_‡K wb‡R‡K I cwievi‡K ¯^vej¤^x Ki‡Z Pvq, wKš‘ wkgyj wgby‡K †KvbiKg ¯^vaxbZv w`‡Z bvivR| wgby wkw¶Z bvix n‡q I Zvi wb‡Ri gZ‡K cÖvavb¨ w`‡Z cv‡i bv| ¯^vgxi mKj wm×vš—B wgby‡K gyL ey‡R †g‡b wb‡Z nq|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Üi iPwqZv †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Üi iPwqZv †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb| cÖkœ : (L) ÔgvbwmK `vmZ¡Õ ej‡Z †jwLKv Kx eywS‡q‡Qb? e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: bvix RvMi‡Yi cw_K…r †eMg †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü bvix RvwZ‡K gvbwmK `vm‡Z¡i wkKvi e‡j AwfwnZ K‡i‡Qb| d‡j hyM hyM a‡i bvixi Aš—i-evwni, ü`q-gb meB `vmx n‡q c‡o‡Q| wk¶vi Afv‡e Zviv cyi“‡li Zzjbvq mKj †¶‡ÎB wcwQ‡q c‡o‡Q| Zviv Ab¨vq fv‡e cyi“‡li mKj wb‡`©k‡K †g‡b wb‡q e¨w³Z¡nxb I Amvo Rxeb-hvcb Ki‡Z Af¨¯— n‡q c‡o‡Q| wkw¶Z bvixiv I c`©vbkxj Rxeb hvcb Kivi Kvi‡Y cyi“‡li ¶gZv AR©‡b e¨_© n‡q‡Q| ZvB bvixi gvbwmK `vmZ¡, Awk¶v I Awek¦vm‡K ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü bvixi mgm¨vi ¯^iƒc wn‡m‡e wPwýZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| ÔgvbwmK `vmZ¡Õ ej‡Z bvixi e¨w³nxbZv I gy³wPš—vi A¶gZv‡K eywS‡q‡Qb| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ wkgy‡ji m‡½ ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Üi †Kvb Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q- e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ wkgy‡ji m‡½ ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ ivgP‡›`ªi m‡½ mv`„k¨ cvIqv hvq| †iv‡Kqv ¯^vgx‡`i cÖfy‡Z¡i welqwU ¯úó Kivi Rb¨ ivgvq‡Yi ivg I mxZvi NUbvwU Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| ivg I mxZvi g‡a¨ fv‡jvevmvi KgwZ wQj bv wKš‘ fv‡jvevmv m‡Ë¡I ivg-mxZv‡K m¤ú~Y© ¯^vaxbZv w`‡Z cv‡i wb| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ wkgyj Gi g‡a¨I Avgiv iv‡gi Qvc j¶¨ Kwi| wkgyj cwiev‡ii Ag‡Z wgby‡K fv‡jv‡e‡m we‡q K‡i| Zv‡`i g‡a¨I fv‡jvevmvi KgwZ wQj bv wKš‘ wkgyj Zvi ¯¿xi ¯^vaxbZv w`‡Z bvivR| wkgyj Zvi ¯¿x wgbyi cÖwZ ¯^vwg‡Z¡i †lvjAvbv eRvq ivL‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| †Zgwb ivgP›`ª Zvi ¯^vwg‡Z¡i †lvjAvbv eRvq †i‡L‡Q mxZvi B”Qvi wei“‡× ebev‡m cvwV‡q‡Qb| †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb G cÖm‡½ e‡j‡Qb, ivgP›`ª mxZv‡K ebev‡m cvwV‡q AcgvwbZ K‡i ¯^vwg‡Z¡i †lvjAvbv cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb| ivg-mxZvi Agb cweÎ ü`q‡K Awek¦v‡mi c`vNv‡Z P~Y© Ki‡Z cvi‡Zb bv| ivg mxZvi m‡½ cyZz‡ji g‡ZvB AvPiY K‡i‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki wkgyj wkw¶Z bvix wgbyi mgv‡Ri Dbœq‡bi Kg©Kv‡Ê RwoZ n‡e GB B”Qv‡K cÖZ¨vL¨vb K‡i ¯^vwg‡Z¡i †lvj Avbv cwiPq w`‡q‡Q Ges Zvi mv‡_ cyZz‡ji g‡Zv AvPiY K‡i‡Q| ZvB ejv hvq DÏxc‡Ki wkgy‡ji m‡½ cÖe‡Üi ivgP‡›`ªi mv`„k¨ Av‡Q| c„ôv-89


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (N) bvixi cÖwZ cyi“‡li `„wó fw½ Kxiƒc- DÏxcK I Aa©v½x cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: bvix RvMi‡Yi AMÖ`~Z †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü my¯úó fv‡e e‡j‡Qb, bvix mgv‡Ri ÔAa©v½Õ| bvix‡K ev` w`‡q mgv‡Ri mvwe©K Kj¨vY ev AMÖMwZ m¤¢e bq| bvix cyi“‡li †hŠ_ cÖ‡Póv‡ZB mgv‡Ri Kj¨vY mvwaZ n‡Z cv‡i| wKš‘ Avgv‡`i mgv‡R bvixi cÖwZ cyi“‡li i‡q‡Q mxgvnxb ˆelg¨g~jK `„wófw½ hv DÏxc‡KI cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| bvixi cÖwZ cyi“‡li `„wófw½ nj msKxY©, ¯^v_©ci, AvwacZ¨Kvgx| †iv‡Kqv ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü cyi“l ivgP‡›`ªi msKxY© `„wófw½i cÖZviYv K‡i cyi“‡li ¯^v_©ciZv I ¯^vwg‡Z¡i M‡e©i welqwU‡K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| ivgP›`ª ¯^vwg‡Z¡i †lvjAvbv cwiPq w`‡Z †c‡iwQj mxZvi cweÎ ü`qLvwb Awek¦v‡mi AvNv‡Z P~Y© K‡iwQj| A_P ivg hw` mxZvi cÖwZ D`vi gvbwmKZvi cwiPq w`‡Z cviZ Zvn‡j mxZvi mgZzj¨ mnPi n‡Z cviZ| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ wkgyj Gi g‡a¨I Avgiv ivgP‡›`ªi mv`„k¨ cvB| wkgyj Zvi ¯¿x wgby‡K ¯^vej¤^x nIqvi `vex †g‡b wb‡Z cv‡i wb| Dwbk kZ‡Ki †kl Ges wek kZ‡Ki †Mvovi w`‡K fviZ e‡l© cyi“lkvwmZ mgvR e¨e¯’vq me©‡¶‡Î bvix we‡kl K‡i gymwjg bvixiv wQj cyi“‡li AvwacZ¨ Kvgx| cyi“l G mgv‡R bvix‡K Zvi b¨vh¨ wk¶v `x¶vi AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ Ki‡Q| Zviv g‡b Ki‡Q bvixiv wkw¶Z n‡q DV‡j mgvR bó n‡q hv‡e| cyi“‡li msKxY© gvbwmKZvi Kvi‡Y bvixi wcZvi m¤úwË I Acvw_©e m¤úwË †_‡K G ewÂZ nq| GB mgvR e¨e¯’vi Kvi‡Y ivgP›`ª Zvi ¯¿x mxZv‡K wemR©b w`‡qwQj| DÏxc‡Ki wkgyj I cyi“lZvwš¿K gbgvbwmKZvi Kvi‡Y wgby‡K mvej¤^x n‡Z w`‡Z cv‡iwb|

“ wb‡Pi mviwYwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvwcqv RvbœvZ) bvixi cðvrc`Zvi mgm¨v

cyi“lZvwš¿K mgvRe¨e¯’v

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cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ‘Sultana’s Dream’ MÖš’wU Kvi †jLv? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: (K) Sultana’s Dream MÖš’wU †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡m‡bi †jLv| cÖkœ : (L) ÔZvB ewjqv cyi“l ÔcÖfyÕ nB‡Z cv‡i bvÕ- Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: DׄZ Dw³wUi gva¨‡g †jwLKv cyi“l I bvixi m¤ú‡K©i aiY †Kgb nIqv DwPZ Zv eySv‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| kvixwiK `ye©jZvekZ bvixRvwZ cyi“‡li mvnv‡h¨i Dci wbf©ikxj| bvixi cÖwZ cyi“lkvwmZ mgv‡Ri ˆelg¨g~jK AvPiY Zv‡`i †KvYVvmv K‡i †i‡L‡Q| wk¶vi Afv‡e Zviv gvbwmK fv‡e mej n‡Z cvi‡Q bv| wKš‘ ZvB e‡j cyi“‡li DwPZ bq Zv‡`i Ici cÖfZ y ¡ NUv‡bv| RMrRy‡o cÖwZwU RxeB †Kvb bv †Kvb fv‡e G‡K A‡b¨i Ici wbf©ikxj n‡jI Iiv †KD KviI ¯^vgx ev cÖfy bq| A_P cyi“l bvixi ¯^vgx n‡q bvixi Ici cÖfyZ¡ K‡i| bvix-cyi“‡li g~j m¤úK© cwic~iK| g~jZ GB welqwU †evSv‡Z †jwLKv Zuvi cÖe‡Ü DׄZ Dw³wU e¨³ K‡i‡Qb| c„ôv-90


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) wk¶v I Kg©Rxe‡b bvixi cðvrc`Zvi †h mgm¨v DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ n‡q‡Q ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü †jwLKv I welqwU‡K Kxfv‡e Zz‡j ai‡Qb- Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: bvix RvMi‡Yi cw_K…r †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb Zuvi ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü bvix‡`i cðvrc`Zvi wPÎ mywbcyY fv‡e wPÎvwqZ K‡i‡Qb| wk¶v I Kg©Rxe‡b bvixi cðvrc`Zvi mgm¨v‡K e¯‘wbô fv‡e Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb †iv‡Kqv| GB cðvrc`Zvi mgm¨v wn‡m‡e cyi“‡li msKxY© `„wófw½ I bvix‡`i wk¶vMÖn‡Yi my‡hv‡Mi ¯^íZv‡K wPwýZ K‡i‡Qb| cyi“l kvwmZ mgvR bvix‡K wk¶vi Av‡jvq Av‡jvwKZ Ki‡Z Pvq bv| Zv‡`i aviYv bvixiv wkw¶Z n‡j mgvR bó n‡q hv‡e| ZvB wcZvgvZv Zv‡`i Kb¨vmš—v‡bi wk¶v MÖn‡Y DrmvwnZ bv n‡q wbi“rmvwnZ nq| Avevi Kg©Rxe‡b GB GKB iƒc cwijw¶Z nq| cyi“‡liv bvixi Kg©Rxeb‡K ¯^xK…wZ w`‡Z Pvq bv| Zv‡`i aviYv bvixiv Aš—tcy‡ii †mev`vmx gvÎ| Kg©Rxe‡b bvixi cðvrc` Zvi mgm¨v wn‡m‡e †jwLKv cyi“l mgv‡Ri †bwZevPK `„wófw½ I nxbgb¨Zv‡K wPwýZ K‡i‡Qb| ZvB wZwb bvixi wk¶v I Kg©Rxe‡b cðvrc`Zvi mgm¨v‡K cyi“‡li msKxY© `„wófw½i Av‡jv‡K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| cÖkœ : (N) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ Ôbvixi cðvrc`Zvi mgm¨vÕ mgvav‡b ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü †jwLKvi gZvgZ we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: bvix RvMi‡Yi cw_K…r †iv‡Kqv ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü fviZe‡l© we‡kl K‡i gymjgvb bvixiv cyi“lZvwš¿K mgvR e¨e¯’vi huvZvK‡j wcó n‡q‡Q ZviB ¯^iƒc D‡b¥vwPZ n‡q‡Q D³ cÖe‡Ü| bvixi cðvrc`Zvi mgm¨v mgvav‡b wZwb †Kvb ˆec−weK c_ †e‡Q bv wb‡q hyw³wbôfv‡e eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| bvixiv wkw¶Z n‡e, gvbwmK `vmZ¡ †_‡K gy³ n‡q †R‡M DV‡Z n‡e| Avi G †R‡M DVvi gv‡SB Zv‡`i mgvavb wbwnZ| ZvQvov wZwb cyi“l‡K Zvi msKxY© gvbwmKZvi E‡aŸ© D‡V bvixi wk¶vi c_‡K Db¥y³ Kivi Rb¨ D`vË AvnŸvb Rvwb‡q‡Qb| †iv‡Kqv ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü †`wL‡q‡Qb bvixiv Ae‡ivaevwmbx, cyi“‡li B‡”Qi wei“‡× wKQz Kivi mvnm Zv‡`i †bB| Zv‡`i GB gvbwmK `vm‡Z¡i Rb¨ wZwb bvix‡`i‡KB `vqx K‡i‡Qb, mgv‡Ri ÔAa©v½Õ bvixiv ZvB mgv‡Ri Dbœq‡bi †Kvb f~wgKv bv †i‡L †evSvB i‡q †Mj| ZvB †jwLKv bvix‡`i wk¶vi Av‡jvq Av‡jvwKZ n‡q wb‡Ri Z_v mgv‡Ri Dbœq‡b f~wgKv ivL‡e GB Kvgbv K‡i‡Qb| cyi“l kvwmZ mgv‡R bvix Zv‡`i wbR AwaKvi Av`vq Ki‡Z †mv”Pvi n‡e| gvbwmK `vmZ¡ †gvPb K‡i GwM‡q Avm‡e| cyi“l Zv‡`i †RŠjym †_‡K †ewi‡q G‡m bvixi cÖwZ mn‡hvwMZvi nvZ cÖmvwiZ Ki‡e Zvn‡jB Avgiv DbœZ ne| bvix wkw¶Z n‡e| †R‡M DV‡e| Avi G †R‡M DVvi gv‡SB mgvavb wbwnZ|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (Avb›` Kzgvi wek¦vm) Avãyj Kv‡`i †nv‡mbcyi MÖv‡gi GKRb mvaviY K…lK| wZb †g‡q I `yB †Q‡jmn mvZ m`m¨ Zuvi cwiev‡i| ¯¿x MÖv‡gi mvjvg †k‡Li evwo‡Z KvR K‡i| †g‡q wZbwU cov‡kvbvi duv‡K duv‡K evwoi KvR K‡i| †Q‡j `yBwU wkw¶Z Kivi Rb¨ wZwb AvcÖvY †Póv K‡ib| wZwb †g‡q‡`i cov‡bvi cÖwZ bRi Kg †`b| wZwb g‡b K‡ib Zv‡`i we‡q w`‡jB Zvi KvR †kl| I‡`i cwo‡q Kx jvf!

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ bRg-Dj-IjvgvÕ A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ ÔbRg-Dj-IjvgvÕ A_© Ávbx‡`i g‡a¨ b¶Î| cÖkœ : (L) Ô¯¿x‡`i we`¨vi †`Šo mPivPi †ev‡av`q ch©š—|ÕÑ Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü bvix wk¶v cÖm‡½ cyi“l I bvixi g‡a¨ †h ˆelg¨ i‡q‡Q Zv Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb G Dw³i gva¨‡g| hLb cyi“l we`¨v PP©vi m‡e©v”P ch©v‡q g‡bvwb‡ek K‡i, ZLb ¯¿x RvwZi we`¨vi †`Šo †Kej Ck¦iP›`ª we`¨vmvMi iwPZ wkï wk¶vi Z…Zxq fvM Ô†ev‡av`qÕ ch©š—| cyi“l hLb evB‡ii RM‡Zi ÁvbweÁv‡bi mKj kvLvq wePiY K‡i ZLb bvix †Kej mywPKg© I bvbv cÖKvi ivbœvi †KŠkj wb‡q e¨³ _v‡K| cyi“l kvwmZ mgv‡R cyi“‡liv bvix wk¶vi cÖwZ Lye GKUv bRi †`q bv| Zviv g‡b K‡i bvixiv wkw¶Z n‡jI mgv‡Ri †Zgb †Kvb Kj¨vY n‡e bv| c„ôv-91


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) ÔI‡`i cwo‡q Kx jvf!ÕÑ Dw³wUi m‡½ ÔAa©v½x cÖe‡Üi mv`„k¨ Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb bvix wk¶vi Dci ¸i“Z¡v‡ivc K‡i‡Qb bvix wk¶vi †envj Ae¯’v †`‡L| DÏxc‡Ki Avãyj Kv‡`‡ii g‡a¨I bvix wk¶vi cÖwZ Abxnv †`Lv hvq| Avgv‡`i mgv‡R bvix wk¶vi cðv`c`Zvi g~j KviY bvix‡`i wk¶v MÖn‡Yi my‡hv‡Mi ¯^íZv| cyi“l kvwmZ mgvR bvix‡`i‡K wkw¶Z K‡i Zzj‡Z Pvq wb| Zviv g‡b KiZ bvixiv wkw¶Z n‡j mgvR KjywlZ n‡e| ZvB AwffveKiv Kb¨v‡`i wk¶vMÖn‡Y wbi“rmvwnZ Ki‡Zb| Zviv g‡b Ki‡Zb †g‡qiv †Kvb g‡Z wjL‡Z co‡Z Rvb‡jB‡Zv P‡j| DÏxc‡Ki Avãyj Kv‡`i GKRb K…lK| Zvi ¯¿x c‡ii evmvq wS‡qi KvR K‡i| Zvi aviYv Kb¨vivI eo n‡q gv‡qi gZ KvR Ki‡e| Zv‡`i cwo‡q jvf †bB| bvix wk¶vq Abxnvi ¯^iƒc D‡b¥vP‡b DÏxcKwU cÖe‡Üi m‡½ cy‡ivcywi m½wZc~Y©| cÖkœ : (N) Ô†Q‡j `ywU‡K wkw¶Z Kivi †Póv _vK‡jI †g‡q wZbwUi cÖwZ bRi †bB|Õ Dw³wU ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü bvix RvMi‡Yi cw_K…r †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb bvix cyi“‡li wk¶vi g‡a¨ ˆelg¨ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡K K…lK Avãyj Kv‡`‡ii g‡a¨I G ai‡Yi gvbwmKZv †`Lv hvq| cyi“lkvwmZ mgv‡R cyi“‡li KZ©Z „ ¡ Ges bvixi gvbwmK `vm‡Z¡i Kvi‡Y bvixiv wcwQ‡q Av‡Q| Avgv‡`i G mgv‡R bvixiv cyi“‡li nv‡Zi cyZzj| Ab¨w`‡K cyi“‡li mvnvh¨cÖv_x© n‡q Pjvi Kvi‡Y bvixi gvbwmK `vm‡Z¡i g‡bvfve m„wó nq| Avi Gi KviY wn‡m‡e `vqx wk¶vi ˆelg¨, mvgvwRKfv‡e bvixi AwaKvi niY, m‡PZbZvi Afve, bvix‡`i ci wbf©ikxjZv Ges Zv‡`i AvZ¥cÖZ¨qnxb g‡bvfve bvixiv mgAwaKv‡ii `vwe`vi n‡jI Zviv cyi“‡li Zzjbvq my‡hvM myweav cvq mvgvb¨B| GKRb wcZv mš—vb‡K †jLvcov Kiv‡Z hZUv AvMÖn †`Lvb †g‡q‡`i †ejvq ZZUv †`Lvb bv| DÏxc‡K Avgiv †`wL †h, K…lK Avãyj Kv‡`i †Q‡j `ywU‡K wVKB wkw¶Z K‡i Zz‡j‡Qb wKš—y †g‡q‡`i e¨vcv‡i wZwb ¸i“Z¡B †`b bv| g~jZ DÏxc‡Ki fvebvB ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü D‡b¥vwPZ i‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (Avb›` Kzgvi wek¦vm) meyR I bxwjgv `k eQi a‡i msmvi Ki‡Q| wKš—y †Kvbw`b meyR msmv‡ii Dbœq‡b bxwjgvi m‡½ civgk© K‡i wb| †m g‡b K‡i †g‡qiv ¯^íeyw× m¤úbœ nq| bxwjgvI G wb‡q Zuvi ¯^vgx‡K wKQz e‡j bv| gvbevwaKvi Kgx© iv‡eqv g‡b K‡ib, Ômgv‡Ri bvixi Aeg~j¨vq‡bi Rb¨ bxwjgvi gZ bvixivI `vqx| wb‡Ri AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb bq e‡jB cyi“l Zv‡`i Dci KZ©„Z¡ K‡i|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) evOvwj gymwjg mgv‡R bvix RvMi‡Yi cw_K…r †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : evOvwj gymwjg mgv‡R bvix RvMi‡Yi cw_K…r n‡jb †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb| cÖkœ : (L) ÔgvZ…ü`‡q c¶cvwZZv bvBÕÑ Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : Ôgn¤§`xqÕ AvB‡b ÔˆcwÎK m¤úwˇZ Kb¨v cy‡Îi A‡a©K fvM cvB‡e, G wbqg _vK‡jI gvZ…‡mœ‡n cyÎKb¨vi g‡a¨ †Kv‡b e¨eavb ev c¶cvwZZ¡ †bB| gv‡qi wbKU cyÎ-Kb¨v mevB mgvb †mœnjv‡fi AwaKvix| wKš—y Avgv‡`i mgv‡R wcZv‡K wKQzUv e¨eavb Ki‡Z †`wL| wcZv cy‡Îi Rb¨ hZUv my‡hvMmyweav K‡i †`b, Kb¨vi Rb¨ ZZUv K‡ib bv| gvZ…ü`q wbi‡c¶| gv‡qi KvQ †_‡K cyÎ-Kb¨v mgvb †mœn I fv‡jvevmv †c‡q _v‡K| c„ôv-92


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡Ki bxwjgvi g‡bvfve ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb (1880-1932) bvixi AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© wb‡R‡`i D`vmxbZvi m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡KI †`Lv hvq bvixiv wb‡R‡`i AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb bq e‡j cyi“‡liv Zv‡`i Dci KZ…©Z¡ K‡i| A‡bK c~e© †_‡K Avgv‡`i †`‡ki bvixiv mew`K w`‡q wQj ewÂZ| Dwbk kZ‡Ki ïi“‡Z †mUv AviI cÖKU AvKvi aviY K‡i| cyi“lkvwmZ G mgv‡R A‡bK Av‡M †_‡K ev¯—weK wk¶v-`x¶v, evB‡ii Av‡jvevZvm I Áv‡bi Abykxjb †_‡K ewÂZ ivLv n‡qwQj| Avi G Rb¨B DÏxc‡Ki bxwjgv `k eQi a‡i mey‡Ri msmvi Ki‡jI meyR msmv‡ii Dbœq‡b bxwjgvi †Kvb gZvgZ MÖnY K‡i wb| Avi bxwjgvI G wb‡q ¯^vgx‡K wKQz e‡j bv| Gi g~j KviY bxwjgv Zvi AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb bq| Am‡PZb nIqvq Zvi ¯^vgx Zvi KZ©„Z¡ K‡i| cÖkœ : (N) Ôwb‡Ri AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb bq e‡jB cyi“l Zv‡`i Dci KZ©„Z¡ K‡i|ÕÑ Dw³wU Aa©v½x cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : evOvwj gymwjg bvix RvMi‡Yi cw_K…r †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü mgv‡R bvixi ¸i“Z¡‡K `¶Zvi mv‡_ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| †mm‡½ wZwb bvix RvwZ‡K †R‡M IVvi AvnŸvb Rvwb‡q‡Qb| DÏxc‡Ki bxwjgvi gvbwmKZv mgv‡R bvixi Aeg~j¨vq‡bi Ab¨Zg KviY| ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb †`wL‡q‡Qb †h, Avgv‡`i †`‡k bvixiv hyMhyM a‡i †kvwlZ jvwÃZ I Ae‡nwjZ| gymwjg bvixiv mgv‡Ri A`„k¨ e܇b Ave×| Avgv‡`i cyi“lkvwlZ mgv‡R Mv‡qi †Rv‡i Zv‡`i‡K b¨vh¨ wk¶v-`x¶vi AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ ivLv n‡q‡Q| Zv‡`i †gav I B”Qv kw³‡K Kv‡R bv jvMv‡Z jvMv‡Z AvR Zviv GK iK‡gi gvbwmK `vm‡Z¡i g‡bvfvevcbœ| DÏxc‡Ki bxwjgvI Zvi AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb bq| `k eQi Av‡M mey‡Ri m‡½ Zvi we‡q nq| wKš—y msmv‡ii Dbœq‡b Zvi ¯^vgx meyR †Kvbw`b Zvi m‡½ †Kvb civgk© K‡i wb| bxwjgv hw` GKUz m‡PZb nZ Zvn‡j Zv‡K GB ˆel‡g¨i wkKvi n‡Z n‡Zv bv| Avi G Rb¨B ejv n‡q‡Q †h, Ôwb‡Ri AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb bq e‡jB cyi“l Zv‡`i Ici KZ…Z © ¡ K‡i|Õ

“

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (bvRgv myjZvbv) mgvR cyi“l

bvix

wk¶v

Awk¶v

m‡PZbZv I m¤¢vebv cwievi I mgv‡R DbœZ Ae¯’v

Am‡PZbZv I nxbZv cwievi I mgv‡R AebZ Ae¯’v

cÖkœ: (K) evOvwj bvix RvMi‡Yi cw_K„r †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: evOvwj gymwjg bvix-RvMi‡Yi cw_K…r n‡jb- †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb| cÖkœ: (L) wk¶v gvby‡li Aš—©wbwnZ kw³ I m¤¢vebv‡K RvMÖZ K‡i Kxfv‡e? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: bvix-RvMi‡Yi AMÖ`~Z †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb| Zuvi ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü bvix wk¶vi ¸i“Z¡v‡ivc K‡i‡Qb| KviY wk¶v gvbyl‡K Kzms¯‹vi, RoZv I nxbZv †_‡K gy³ K‡i| wk¶v gvby‡li gvbweK ¸Yvewj‡K weKwkZ K‡i Ges Zvi gv‡S myKzgvi cÖe„wËi ù‚iY NUvq| ZvB bvix cyi“l cÖ‡Z¨K gvbyl‡K cªK…Z gvbyliƒ‡c M‡o IVvi Rb¨ wk¶vi ¸i“Z¡ Abw¯^Kvh©| KviY GKgvÎ wk¶vB gvby‡li Af¨š—ixY kw³ I m¤¢vebv‡K RvwM‡q Zzj‡Z cv‡i| c„ôv-93


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (M) cÖ‡qvMg~jK: bvix RvwZ‡K GB nxb Ae¯’v †_‡K †ewi‡q Avm‡Z n‡e-Aa©v½x cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| DËi: †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb Zvi AmvaviY cÖeÜ ÔAa©v½x'‡Z bvix‡`i wKQ~ mgm¨v wPwýZ K‡i bvix RvMi‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv we‡k−lY K‡i‡Qb| Zuvi g‡Z bvix gvbwmK `vmZ¡, Awk¶v, AÜwek¦vm I wbf©ikxjZv KvwU‡q DV‡Z bv cvi‡j bvixi gvbweK AwaKvi KL‡bvB m¤¢e bq| †eMg †iv‡Kqv Zvi cÖe‡Ü AZ¨š— e¨w_ZwP‡Ë bvixi GB gvbwmK `vmZ¡ I AÜwek¦vm‡K Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| wZwb g‡b K‡ib bvix‡K wk¶v-`x¶v I Áv‡bi Abykxj‡bi gva¨‡g ¯^Kxq eyw× we‡ePbvi D‡b¥l NUv‡Z n‡e Ges `xN©w`‡bi APjvqZb e›`x`kv †_‡K gyw³ AR©b Ki‡Z n‡e| ïay cÖvY bq; gbB gvbyl‡K gvbyl wn‡m‡e wPwýZ K‡i| Avi †m gb‡K RvMv‡Z n‡j wk¶vi cÖ‡qvRb, wk¶vB gvby‡li gvbweK ¸Yvewj‡K weKwkZ K‡i| AvengvbKvj †_‡K evOvwj bvixmgvR cyi“‡li Dci wbf©ikxj Ges cyi“‡li cÖf~Z¡ ¯^xKvi Kiv Zv‡`i mnRvZ cÖe„wË| bvix Zvi k„•LwjZ Rxeb‡K Ck¦i cÖ`Ë wbqwZ e‡j hy‡M hy‡M †g‡b G‡m‡Q| wKš‘ bvix‡K wk¶vi gva¨‡g GB nxb Ae¯’v †_‡K †ewi‡q Avm‡Z n‡e| Zvn‡jB bvix Z_v cwiei I mgv‡Ri cÖK…Z Dbœqb m¤¢e n‡e| cÖkœ: (N) D”PZi `¶Zv: bvixivB Avgv‡`i mgv‡Ri A‡a©K Ask ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Gi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| DËi: evOvwj gymwjg bvix RvMi‡Yi cw_K…r †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb wk¶vi Av‡jv ewÂZ evOvwj gymwjg †g‡q‡`i k„•LwjZ Rxeb-hvc‡b †e`bvZ© n‡q‡Qb| mgv‡Ri A‡a©K Ask bvix| mgv‡Ri GB Aa©-Ask‡K mxgvnxb ˆelg¨g~jK AvPi‡Yi gv‡S †i‡L mgv‡Ri Dbœqb KL‡bvB m¤¢e bq| wk¶v-`x¶v I ÁvbPP©vq mgKvjxb bvix‡`i cðv`c`Zv †jL‡Ki g‡Z †MvUv mgvR weKv‡kiB Aš—ivq, cyi“‡li †hgb D”P ü`qe„wË Av‡Q; bvix‡`iI †Zgwb D”P ü`qe„wË Av‡Q| †mB ü`qe„wËi Abykxj‡bi gva¨‡g mgv‡Ri eû Kj¨vY nIqv m¤¢e| G‡¶‡Î bvix Qvov ïay cyi“l DbœwZi wkL‡i Av‡ivnb Ki‡j mgv‡Ri GKvs‡ki DbœwZ nq wKš‘ Ab¨ Ask wcwQ‡qB c‡o| †eMg †iv‡Kqv g‡b K‡ib mgMÖ gvbe mgv‡Ri AMÖMwZi Rb¨ cyi“‡li cv‡k bvix‡K G‡m `uvov‡Z n‡e| bvix‡`i‡K Avcb kw³‡Z †R‡M DV‡Z n‡e| wZwb ag© I †cŠivwYK Kvwnbxi D`vniY †U‡b cÖgvY Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb †h bvix-cyi“l mgvbfv‡e weKwkZ n‡e Ges GB mgweKvk gvbRvwZi mvgwMÖK Kj¨vY‡K Z¡ivwš^Z Ki‡e|

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (bvRgv myjZvbv) Avgiv cyi“‡li b¨vq mywk¶v Abykxj‡bi mg¨K myweav bv cvIqvq cðv‡Z cwoqv AvwQ| mgvb myweav cvB‡j AvgivI wK †kªôZ¡ jvf Kwi‡Z cviZvg bv? A‰kke AvZ¥wb›`v ïb‡ZwQ| ZvB GLb Avgiv AÜfv‡e cyi“‡li †kªôZ¡ ¯^xKvi Kwi| ÔnvRvi †nvK e¨vUv †Q‡jÕ ewjqv e¨vUv †Q‡j‡`i †`vl ¶gv Kwiqv Ab¨vq cÖksmv Kwi GUvB †Zv fyj|

cÖkœ: (K) †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb KZ mv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡i‡Qb? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb 1880 mv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡i‡Qb| cÖkœ: (L) bvixiv cðv‡Z cwoqv Av‡Q †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : Dwbk kZ‡K evOvwj bvixi †PZbv RvMi‡Yi †cÖ¶vc‡U †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb bvix‡`i bvbv mgm¨vi K_v Zvi †jLwb‡Z Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| wZwb bvixi wPš—v I AvPiYMZ RoZvi K_v ej‡Z wM‡q e‡j‡Qb bvixiv g~jZ gvbwmK `vm‡Z¡i Kvi‡YB `xN©w`b a‡i wb‡Ri Aš—i I evwni `vm‡Z¡i k„•L‡j Ave× K‡i †i‡L‡Q| Awk¶v, AÜKzms¯‹vi bvix‡K Av”Qbœ K‡i †i‡L‡Q| wk¶vi Afv‡eB g~jZ bvix ü`‡qi ¯^Kxq eyw× we‡ePbvi D‡b¥l N‡U wb| hvi djkÖ“wZ‡Z bvix AvZ¥RvMiY NUv‡Z cvi‡Q bv| ZvB bvix mgvR mKj w`K †_‡K cðv‡Z c‡o i‡q‡Q| c„ôv-94


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (M) nvRvi †nvK e¨vUv †Q‡j-Aa©v½x cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: bvix RvMi‡Yi AMÖ`~Z †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb Zuvi Aa©v½x cÖe‡Ü bvix‡`i cðv`c` gvbwmKZvi K_v e¨³ Ki‡Z wM‡q Av‡jvP¨ Dw³wU K‡i‡Qb| wk¶vi Afv‡e bvix mgvR AvR AebZ Ae¯’vq cwZZ n‡q‡Q Ges G‡¶‡Î cyi“l mgv‡Ri c¶cvZg~jK `„wófw½i K‡Vvi mgv‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb †jwLKv| wZwb e‡jb bvix ‰kke AvZ¥wb›`v ïb‡Z ïb‡Z wb‡R‡K wb‡RB cyi“‡li Zzjbvq Zz”Q fv‡e| Ab¨w`‡K AÜfv‡e cyi“‡li †kªôZv ¯^xKvi K‡i| †jwLKv bvix‡`i GB nxb Ae¯���vi Rb¨ bvixi gvbwmK `vmZ¡‡KB `vqx K‡i‡Qb| KviY bvix wb‡RB wb‡Ri †hvM¨Zv I ¶gZv‡K A¯^xKvi K‡ib Ab¨vqfv‡e cyi“l bvix‡K `yej © fv‡e, bvix Zv AebZ wP‡Ë †g‡b †bq GgbwK †Q‡j‡`i Ab¨vq KvR‡K bvixB ¯^qs e¨vUv †Q‡j e‡j ¶gv K‡i w`‡q D‡ëv cÖksmvKxZ©b K‡i| cÖkœ: (N) Avgiv AÜfv‡e cyi“‡li †kªôZ¡ ¯^xKvi Kwi| Dw³wUi Av‡jv‡K Aa©v½x cÖe‡Ü ewY©Z bvix mgv‡Ri mgm¨vi ¯^iƒc we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: evOvwj gymwjg bvix RvMi‡Yi AMÖ`~Z †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb wk¶vi Av‡jv ewÂZ evOvwj gymwjg †g‡q‡`i k„•LwjZ Rxeb hvc‡b †e`bvZ© n‡q‡Qb| wZwb Aa©v½x cÖe‡Ü G †`‡ki bvix mgvR‡K Avcb kw³‡Z †R‡M IVvi AvIevb Rvwb‡q‡Qb| hy‡M hy‡M evOvwj bvix mgvR cyi“‡li Ici wbf©ikxj Rxebhvcb K‡i Avm‡Q| cyi“‡li cÖwZ cÖf~Z¡ ¯^xKvi Kivi cÖeYZv bvix‡`i mnRvZ cÖK…wZ| †jwLKv bvix RvwZi mgm¨vi ¯^iƒc wn‡m‡e gvbwmK `vmZ¡‡K `vqx K‡i‡Qb| GQvov Awk¶v I AÜwek¦vm bvix‡K gvbwmKfv‡e wcwQ‡q †i‡L‡Q| gvbwmK `vm‡Z¡i Kvi‡YB `xN©w`b a‡i bvixi Aš—i I evwni `vm‡Z¡i k„•L‡j Ave× n‡q Av‡Q| cyi“lkvwmZ G mgv‡R bvix‡K eûKvj a‡iB ev¯—weK wk¶v-`x¶v I Áv‡bi Abykxjb †_‡K weiZ ivLvq bvix n‡q c‡o‡Q cyi“‡li GKvš— †mev`vmx| cÖ_vme©¯^ I APjvqZ‡b e›`x _vKvq bvix ü`‡qi m„RbkxjZv webó n‡q‡Q| bvix mgvR‡K AÜKv‡i †i‡L mgMÖ mgv‡Ri Dbœqb KL‡bvB m¤¢e bq| mgv‡Ri mylg, mwVK I mve©Rbxb DbœwZi Rb¨ bvix RvMi‡Yi †Kvb weKí bvB| wKš‘ bvix mgvR wKQz AÜwek¦v‡mi Kvi‡Y Zvi cwiPvjK kw³ wn‡m‡e cyi“l‡K MY¨ K‡i‡Q| bvix Zvi k„•LwjZ Rxeb‡K Ck¦i cÖ`Ë wbqwZ e‡j g‡b K‡i| GB nxb Ae¯’vi g‡a¨ †_‡K bvix wb‡R‡K cyyi“‡li `vmx wn‡m‡e AvZ¥wb‡qvM Kivi gv‡S myL Lyu‡R †bq| Gme n‡”Q g~jZ bvixi wbR¯^ mgm¨v| Giƒc nxb Ae¯’v †_‡K bvix‡K †ewi‡q Avm‡Z n‡e| mgvR Rxe‡bi AMÖMwZ I Kj¨vY mva‡bi Rb¨ bvixi m‡PZb AskMÖnY Z_v bvix RvMiY GKvš— Ri“ix|

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (bvRgv myjZvbv)

Avgv‡`i mgv‡R cyi“‡li Zzjbvq bvix bvbv w`K †_‡K AbMÖmi| wk¶vi †¶‡Î Zviv cyi“‡li eû¸Y wcwQ‡q Av‡Q| d‡j Zviv RxweKvi †¶‡Î GKvš—fv‡e cyi“‡li Dci wbf©ikxj| G wbf©ikxjZv Zv‡`i g‡a¨ GK ai‡Yi `vm g‡bvfv‡ei Rb¥ w`‡q‡Q| G Ae¯’v bvix RvwZi Rb¨ AegvbbvKi| bvix RvwZ‡K GB nxb Ae¯’v †_‡K †ewi‡q Avm‡Z n‡e|

cÖkœ: (K) bvix RvwZi `vm‡Z¡i K_v ejv n‡q‡Q †Kvb cÖe‡Ü? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: bvix RvwZi `vm‡Z¡i K_v ejv n‡q‡Q ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü| cÖkœ: (L) Aejvi nv‡Z I mgv‡Ri Rxeb gi‡Yi KvwV Av‡Q-Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Dwbk kZ‡Ki †kl I wek kZ‡Ki ïi“i w`‡K evOvwj gymjgvb bvix mgv‡Ri Ae¯’v LyeB †kvPbxq wQj| †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb Zvi Aa©v½x cÖe‡Ü cðv`c` bvix mgv‡Ri RvMiY I Zvi Dcvq m¤ú‡K© AwfgZ e¨³ Ki‡Z wM‡q Dw³wU K‡i‡Qb| e¯‘Z †mB Avw`Kvj †_‡KB bvix-cyi“‡li †hŠ_ †Póvq mf¨Zvi PvKv Ny‡i‡Q| myZivs bvix mgvR‡K D‡c¶v K‡i ev wk¶vi Av‡jv †_‡K ewÂZ K‡i mgv‡Ri Dbœqb KL‡bv m¤¢e bq| cÖkœ: (M) bvix‡i` wkw¶Z nIqvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Aa©v½x cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: bvix RvMi‡Yi cw_K…r †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb wk¶vi Av‡jv ewÂZ evOvwj gymwjg Z_v bvix mgvR‡K Avcb kw³‡Z †R‡M DVvi Avnevb Rvwb‡q‡Qb| Avi G‡¶‡Î †R‡M DVvi GKgvÎ gva¨g nj wk¶v| c„ôv-95


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

mgv‡Ri A‡a©K Ask bvix mgvR‡K mxgvnxb ˆelg¨g~jK AvPi‡Yi gv‡S †i‡L mgv‡Ri Dbœqb KL‡bvB m¤¢e bq| wk¶v-`x¶v I ÁvbPP©vq mgKvjxb bvix‡`i cðv`c`Zv †jL‡Ki g‡Z †MvUv mgvR weKv‡ki Aš—ivq| bvixivI cyi“‡li g‡Zv mgvR msmvi I cwiev‡i ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡i ZvB bvix mgvR‡K Aek¨B wk¶vi Av‡jvq Av‡jvwKZ n‡Z n‡e| cÖkœ: (N) bvix mgvR‡K GB nxb Ae¯’v †_‡K †ewi‡q Avm‡Z n‡e| †Kvb nxb Ae¯’v †_‡K †ewi‡q Avm‡Z n‡e? Aa©v½x cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: bvix RvMi‡Yi AMÖ`~Z †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb Zvi Aa©v½x bvgK cÖe‡Ü bvix‡`i AebZ Ae¯’vi †¶‡Î wKQz mgm¨vi ¯^iƒc I KviY Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| Zvi g‡Z wk¶vi AfveB bvix mgv‡Ri AebwZi Ab¨Zg cÖavb KviY| cyi“l kvwmZ G mgv‡R c`©vcÖ_vi h~cKv‡ó ewj †`Iqv n‡q‡Q bvixi AvKv•¶v‡K| Zv‡K Kiv n‡q‡Q Ae‡ivaevwmbx| GB bvix gyw³i K_v ej‡Z wM‡q †jwLKv bvixi mshZ I cwikxwjZ Rxe‡bi Dc‡hvwMZv KL‡bvB A¯^xKvi K‡ib wb; eis AZ¨š— `„pZvi m‡½ mvgvwRK k„•Ljv I agx©q Abykvmb¸‡jv h_vh_iƒ‡c AbymiY K‡i bvixiv GB e›`x`kv †_‡K wb‡R‡`i gyw³ NUv‡Z cv‡i| Avi Gi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb gvbwmK `vmZ¡ †_‡K gyw³ †bIqv| bvixi GB nxb Ae¯’vi K_v D‡j−L Ki‡Z wM‡q cvwm© gwnjv‡`i cÖm½ G‡b e‡j‡Qb, Ôcvwm©cyi“lMY †Kej AÜfv‡e wejvZx mf¨Zvi AbyKiY Kwi‡Z hvBqv ¯¿xw`M‡K c`©vi evwn‡i Avwbqv‡Q| Bnv‡Z Aejv‡`i Rxebxkw³ †Zv wKQy cwiPq cvIqv hvq bv| Zuvnviv †h Ro c`v_©, †mB Ro c`v_©B Av‡Qb|Õ A‡b‡Ki g‡Z ¯¿xi D”P wk¶vi cÖ‡qvRb †bB| †g‡qiv Lvevi`vevi ˆZwi Ki‡e, m~wPK‡g© cvi`kx© n‡e Zvn‡jB bvixi c~Y©Zv cv‡e| Ggb nxb wPš—v †_‡K bvix‡K †ewi‡q Avm‡Z n‡e| KviY GKRb wkw¶Z gvB wkw¶Z mš—vb Rb¥ w`‡Z cv‡ib| ZvB †jwLKv bvix‡K gvbwmK `vm‡Z¡i e›`x Ae¯’v †_‡K gyw³ jv‡fi R‡b¨ GwM‡q Avm‡Z e‡j‡Qb| KviY Avgv‡`i †`‡ki bvix‡`i gvbwmK `vmZ¡ †gvPb bv n‡j mgv‡Ri DbœwZ I AMÖMwZ m¤¢e n‡e bv|

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (bvRgv myjZvbv)

we‡qi 4 eQ‡ii gv_vq iv‡eqvi ¯^vgx moK `yN©Ubvq gviv hvq| `yB eQ‡ii GKwU mš—vb‡K wb‡q Zv‡K evevi evwo‡Z P‡j †h‡Z nq| evevi evwo‡ZI Zv‡K bvbv MÄbvi ¯^xKvi n‡Z nq| Zvi gv I Zv‡K KL‡bv KL‡bv Mvj-g›` K‡i| Amn¨ n‡q iv‡eqv fvB‡`i Kv‡Q evevi m¤úwË `vex K‡i| hv‡Z K‡i mš— vb‡K wb‡q evKx RxebUv †Kvb iKg †K‡U hvq| wKš‘ mevB wew¯§Z Ggb K_v †m Kx K‡i ej‡Z cvi‡jv? Zvi Rxe‡b MÄbv †hb Av‡iv †e‡o †Mj| cÖkœ: (K) ˆcwÎK m¤úwˇZ Kb¨v cy‡Îi A‡a©K fvM cv‡e| GB weavb †Kvb AvB‡b i‡q‡Q? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †gvnv¤§`xq AvB‡b| cÖkœ: (L) c`v© †gvPb A_© bvix‡K N‡ii evwni Kiv bq-e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Aa©v½x cÖe‡Ü †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb †Muvov c`©vwcÖq bvix‡`i c`©v welqK wKQz civgk© †`Iqvi cÖqvm †c‡q‡Qb| wZwb e‡j‡Qb-Avwg c`©vcÖ_vi wei“‡× `Êvqgvb nB bvB| wZwb ïay ej‡Z †P‡q‡Qb c`v©bkxj n‡q wb‡R‡K evB‡ii Av‡jv †_‡K ewÂZ K‡i `ywe©ln Rxeb-hvcb bv Ki‡Z| c`v©‡gvP‡bi mv‡_ bvix gyw³i †Kvb m¤úK© †bB| gvbwmK `vmZ¡ †gvPbB bvix gyw³i cÖavb c_| c`v©i gv‡S †_‡KI mgv‡Ri Dbœq‡b bvixiv AskMÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i hw` Zviv gvbwmK `vmZ¡ †_‡K gyw³ cvq| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡K ewY©Z iv‡eqv Kxfv‡e mvgvwRK ˆel‡g¨i ¯^xKvi n‡q‡Q Zv Aa©v½x cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: bvix RvMi‡bi AMÖ`~Z †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb Zvi ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü Lªxóvb I gymjgvb mgv‡Ri bvix‡`i AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ Ki‡Z wM‡q mgv‡Ri mgMÖ bvixRvwZi Ae¯’vb ¯úó Kivq cÖqvm †c‡q‡Qb| DÏxc‡K ewY©Z iv‡eqv PwiÎwU cvwievwiK I mvgvwRK ˆel‡g¨i Pig ¯^xKvi| ¯^vgx gviv hvIqvi ci iv‡eqv evm¯’vb msK‡U cwZZ nq| evevi evwo‡ZI †m AwaKvi wb‡q _vK‡Z cviwQj bv| G mgv‡R AwaKvsk †g‡qB me©‡¶‡Î ewÂZ| †eMg †iv‡Kqv Zuvi ÔAa©v½xÕ cÖe‡Ü e‡j‡Qb-gymjgvb‡`i g‡Z Avgiv c„ôv-96


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`)

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evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`)

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evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (eyjeyj Avn‡g`)

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N Dc‡ii me¸‡jvB 12| Av‡gwiKv Avwe¯‹vi K‡ib †K?

K Kzms¯‹vi `~i Kivi j‡¶¨

K fv‡¯‹v-`v-Mvgv

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L bvix‡K mgv‡R cÖwZôv Kivi j‡¶¨

M Kj¤^vm

N RR© IqvwmsUb

M mgvR‡K RvMv‡bvi j‡¶¨ N Dc‡ii †KvbwU bq 5| †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡m‡bi †jLv cÖKvwkZ nZ Kx bv‡g? K Avi.Gm. †nv‡mb bv‡g L wg‡mm Avi.Gm. †nv‡mb bv‡g M †eMg †iv‡Kqv †nv‡mb bv‡g N †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb bv‡g 6| †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb KZ wLª÷v‡ã Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? K 1824 wLª÷v‡ã

L 1836 wLª÷v‡ã

M 1880 wLª÷v‡ã

N 1881 wLª÷v‡ã

13| wµ‡÷vdvi Kj¤^vm †Kvb †`‡ki bvweK wQ‡jb? K Bsj¨vÛ

L Av‡gwiKv

M †¯úb N BZvwj 14| Kj¤^vm Av‡gwiKv gnv‡`‡ki †Kvb †`kwU cÖ_g Avwe¯‹vi K‡ib? K wKDev L R¨vgvBKv M wÎwb`v` N †Uvev‡Mv 15| Av‡gwiKv Avwe®‹v‡ii msK‡íi K_v ï‡b †jv‡K Kj¤^vm‡K evZzjv ev cvMj g‡b K‡iwQj †Kb? K Kj¤^v‡mi Pwi‡Î cvMjvgxi ‰ewkó¨ wQj L †jv‡Ki aviYv wQj Av‡gwiKv bv‡gi †Kvb ivóª c„w_ex‡Z †bB

c„ôv-100


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj) M †jv‡K‡`i aviYv wQj Rjc‡_ Av‡gwiKv Avwe®‹vi Kiv Am¤¢e N Dc‡ii †Kv‡bv DËiB mwVK bq 16| ¯¿xRvwZi cÖwZ cyi“lMY hZUzKz m¤§vb cÖ`k©b K‡ib, Zv‡Z †jwLKv m¤ú~Y© Z…ß n‡Z cv‡ib bvB †Kb? K Zv‡Z cyi“‡li kª×v bvB L Zv‡Z cyi“‡li AeÁv bvB M Zv‡Z cyi“‡li N„Yv bvB N Dc‡ii †KvbwU bq 17| mxZv m¤ú‡K© †Kvb K_vwU mZ¨? (i) mxZv c`©vbkxj wQ‡jb bv (ii) mxZv ivgP‡›`ªi Aa©v½x I ivbx wQ‡jb (iii) mxZv ivgP‡›`ªi cÖYwqbx I mnPix wQ‡jb wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK?

22| ÔivmfÕ kãwUi A_© Kx? K QvMj

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K cyZz‡ji m‡½ evj‡Ki m¤úK© L ¯¿xi m‡½ ¯^vgxi m¤úK©

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L Mi“

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

L iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi M KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg N mywdqv Kvgvj 26| Avgv‡`i mgv‡R bvix‡`i cðv`c`Zv, `ye©n Rxeb I AwaKvinxb nIqvi KviY Kx? (i) cyi“‡li wb`vi“b ¯^v_©cZv (ii) cyi“‡li AvwacZ¨Kvgx gvbwmKZv (iii) bvix‡`i AbvMÖn I gvbwmK `vmZ¡ wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M i I ii N ii I iii. 27| ÔWv³v‡ii g‡Z ¯¿x‡jvK‡`i D”P wk¶vi cÖ‡qvRb Av‡Q|Õ-cÖ‡qvRbUv _vKvi KviY Kx? (i) gv‡qi †`vl-¸Y wb‡qB cy‡Îi Rb¥ (ii) mš—v‡bi mywk¶v jv‡f gv‡qi f~wgKv Acwinvh© (iii) wkw¶Z †g‡qiv cywóKi Pe©‡Pvl¨ ivua‡Z cv‡i wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M i I iii N ii I iii. 28| ÔcqRviÕ k‡ãi A_© Kx?

M wZb PvKv wewkó Mvoxi m‡½ N Pvi PvKv wewkó Mvoxi m‡½ c„ôv-101

K cvqRvgv

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evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj) 29| wLªw÷qvb mgv‡RI ¯^vgx hLb FYRv‡j RwoZ n‡q †f‡e †f‡e gi‡b gi‡Qb, ZLbI ¯¿x-¯^vgx mgm¨v bv ey‡S GKUv b~Zb Uzwci wPš—v Ki‡Qb| Zvi KviY n‡jv⎯ (i) wZwb ¯^vgxi Ae¯’v eyS‡Z A¶g (ii) wZwb wkw¶Z n‡jI Zvi gb `vmZ¡ n‡Z gy³ nqwb (iii) Zv‡K †Kej g~wZ©gZx KweZv n‡Z wk¶v †`qv n‡q‡Q wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L ii I iii M i I iii N i, ii I iii. 30| gymjgvb mgv‡R `yBwU åvZv I GKwU fwMbx GKÎ nB‡j Avgvi AvovBRb nBÕ-Dw³wUi Zvrch© Kx/†Kb? K `yBRb bvix GKRb cyi“‡li mgZzj¨ L bvixiv cyi“‡li mgvb AwaKvi †fvM K‡i M `yBRb cyyi“l GKRb bvixi mgZzj¨ N cyi“‡liv bvixi Aeg~j¨vqb K‡i e‡j 31| wb‡Pi †KvbwU cvw_©e m¤úwË D`vniY⎯ K wcZvi †mœn L cy‡Îi mywk¶vi e¨e¯’v M gvZvi hZ¥ N Rwg`v‡ii m¤úwË 32| Ôkvgm-Dj-IjvgvÕ-k‡ãi A_© Kx? K Ávbx‡`i g‡a¨ P›`ª L Ávbx‡`i g‡a¨ m~h© M Ávbx‡`i g‡a¨ b¶Î N Dc‡ii †KvbwU bq 33| Ck¦iP›`ª we`¨vmvMi iwPZ Ô†ev‡av`qÕ MÖš’wU cÖ_g KZ wLª÷v‡ã cÖKvwkZ nq? K 1851 wLª÷v‡ã

L 1852 wLª÷v‡ã

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M 1864 wLª÷v‡ã N 1865 wLª÷v‡ã 34| bvix RvwZ Aci RvwZi (cyi“l) RvwZi Dci wbf©ikxj †Kb? K bvixiv Awkw¶Z e‡j

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

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c„ôv-102

L bvixiv wb‡Riv N Kzms¯‹vi


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L ii I iii

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L bvixi

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L PvZzh©c~Y©

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L cy‡Îi A‡a©K

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K i L ii M iii N i, ii I iii.

c„ôv-103

K `„wófw½i cv_©K¨

L Kb¨v‡K VKv‡bvi Rb¨

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evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

†hŠe‡bi Mvb KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg (1899-1976) “

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvwcqv RvbœvZ) G eqm †R‡bv, fxi“ Kvcyi“l bq c_ Pj‡Z G eqm hvq bv †_‡g G eq‡m ZvB †bB †Kvb mskq G †`‡ki ey‡K AvVv‡iv AvmyK †b‡g|

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evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

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“

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvwcqv RvbœvZ)

26 †k gvP© 1971 mvj| mviv‡`‡k hy‡×i `vgvgv| XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi QvÎ Zzwnb I Zvi eÜziv nvbv`vi evwnbxi AvµgY‡K cÖwZnZ Ki‡Z Svuwc‡q c‡o hy‡×| civaxbZvi k„•Lj †f‡½ †`k‡K ¯^vaxb Ki‡Z cÖvY †`q Zzwnb| Zzwn‡bi gZ j¶ Zi“‡Yi cÖv‡Yi wewbg‡q AwR©Z G †`k Ôevsjv‡`kÕ| Zzwnb AvRI †eu‡P Av‡Q evsjvi ¯^vaxb gvby‡li gv‡S|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg KZ mv‡j †mbvevwnbx‡Z †hvM †`b? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg 1917 mv‡j †mbvevwnbx‡Z †hvM‡`b| cÖkœ : (L) Ôeva©K¨‡K me mgq eq‡mi †d«‡g evuav hvq bvÕ- e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü Zi“Y‡`i RqMvb Ki‡Z wM‡q eva©‡K¨i AwaKvix‡`i ¯^iƒc D‡b¥vPb K‡i‡Qb| Kwei g‡Z, Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨ m¤ú~Y© g‡bi e¨vcvi| wZwb eva©K¨‡K †Kvb eq‡mi gvcKvwV‡Z wePvi K‡ib wb| Zvui g‡Z, Ôe„× ZvnvivB hvnviv Kzms¯‹vi‡K, wg_¨v‡K AvK‡o c‡o _v‡K|Õ Zviv beRxe‡bi Avwef©ve‡K ¯^vMZ Rvbv‡Z cv‡i bv| hyM cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ Zvj wgwj‡q Pj‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvB †jLK e‡j‡Qb †h, Ôeva©K¨‡K memgq eq‡mi †d«‡g evuav hvq bv|Õ cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ Zzwn‡bi mv‡_ Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Zi“Y‡`i g‡bvfv‡ei mv`„k¨- e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Ô †hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †hŠeb Z_v Zvi“‡Y¨i RqMvb †M‡q‡Qb| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ Zzwn‡bi mv‡_ cÖe‡Üi Zi“Y‡`i Kv‡h©vÏxcbvi mv`„k¨ j¶Yxq| gvby‡li Rxe‡bi me‡P‡q ¸i“Z¡c~Y© mgq n‡”Q †hŠeb ev Zvi“Y¨| Kwe g‡b K‡ib †`‡ki cÖwZwU Zi“Y hw` †`k‡mevq wKQy mgq e¨q K‡i Zvn‡j †`‡ki e¨vcK Kj¨vY n‡Z cv‡i| Zi“Yiv mgv‡Ri Awe‡”Q`¨ Ask| Zi“YivB cv‡i Zv‡`i †gav I gbb w`‡q mgvR‡K Zv‡`i wb‡Ri gZ K‡i M‡o Zzj‡Z| DÏxc‡Ki Zzwnb Zi“Y hyeK| hy‡×i `vgvgv Zvi Aš—i‡K bvov †`q| ZvB‡Zv †m Suvwc‡q c‡o nvbv`vi evwnbx‡`i civ¯— Ki‡Z hy‡× cÖvY nvivq Zzwnb| Zzwn‡bi gZ j¶ Zi“Y‡`i cÖv‡Yi wewbg‡q Avgiv †c‡qwQ ¯^vaxbZv| Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Zi“Y‡`i g‡a¨I Avgiv †`‡LwQ Zviv wbf©xK, mvnmx| Zviv `y`©kvMÖ¯—‡`i cv‡k `vuovq ej n‡q| ke enb K‡i wb‡q hvq k¥kvb Nv‡U| eÜznxb †ivMxi kh¨vcv‡k ivwÎi ci ivwÎ †R‡M †mev K‡i| DÏxc‡Ki Zzwnb †hgb †`k‡K ¯^vaxb Kivi g‡š¿ wb‡R‡K DrmM© K‡i‡Q †Zgwb cÖe‡Üi Zi“YivI †`‡ki g½‡j wb‡R‡`i‡K wb‡qvwRZ †i‡L‡Q| cÖkœ : (N) ÔZzwn‡bi gZ j¶ cÖv‡Yi wewbg‡q AwR©Z G †`k Ôevsjv‡`kÕ- DÏxc‡Ki GB jvBbwU Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) 4 DËi : KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †hŠeb Z_v Zvi“Y¨ kw³i RqMvb K‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ Zzwn‡bi g‡a¨I †mB Zvi“‡Y¨i DÏvgZv j¶¨ Kiv hvq| DÏxc‡Ki Zzwnb Zvi“Y¨ kw³i AwaKvix hyeK| ZvB‡Zv †m †`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv i¶vq Svwc‡q c‡o hy‡×| KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Zvui c„ôv-105


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü `yiš—-`ye©vi †hŠe‡bi e›`bv K‡i‡Qb| †hŠeb n‡”Q Adziš— cÖvY kw³i Avavi| Zv gvby‡li Rxeb‡K K‡i MwZkxj I cÖZ¨vkvgq| `ye©vi DÏxcbv, K¬vwš—nxb D`¨g, Acwimxg J`vh©, Adziš— cÖvYPvÂj¨ I Ae¨_© mvabvi cÖZxK †hŠeb g„Zz¨‡K Zz”Q K‡i ms¯‹v‡ii †eovRvj wQbœ K‡i mKj evav wQbœ K‡i GwM‡q hv‡e mvg‡b| DÏxc‡Ki Zzwn‡bi gZ Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Zi“Yiv I mgvR Z_v †`‡ki g½‡j wb‡R‡`i‡K wb‡qvwRZ †i‡L‡Q me©`v| Zviv ke enb K‡i wb‡q hvq k¥kvb Nv‡U| eb¨vZ©‡`i ÎvY weZiY K‡i| eÜznxb †ivMx‡K †mev Ki‡e GUvB Zv‡`i ˆewkó¨ Zi“Y‡`i GB ˆewk󨸇jv Avgiv Zzwn‡bi g‡a¨ cvB| Zzwnb Zvi“‡Yv”Qj hyeK| Zvi“‡Y¨i Db¥v`bvq DÏxß n‡q †`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv wQwb‡q Avb‡Z wb‡Ri Rxeb‡K evRx †i‡L‡Q Ges cÖv‡Yi wewbg‡q wQwb‡q Avb‡Z m¶g n‡q‡Q †mB ¯^vaxbZv| GKgvÎ Zvi“Y¨ kw³i Kvi‡YB Avgiv ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`k †c‡Z m¶g n‡qwQ|

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvwcqv RvbœvZ) N~wY©So ÔAvBjvÕq †`‡ki GKvs‡ki e¨vcK ¶q-¶wZ nq| GKv`k †kªYxi QvÎ Zgvj Dc`ª“Z GjvKvi Rb¨ ÎvY msMÖn K‡i weZiY Kivi cÖ¯‘wZ †bq| Zvi G Kv‡R mnvqZv Kivi Rb¨ †m Zvi eÜz bvwmi‡K AvnŸvb K‡ib| wKš‘ bvwmi Zgv‡ji GB KvR‡K cvMjvwgi kvwgj e‡j g‡b K‡ib| Zgv‡ji g‡b nq; bvwm‡ii g‡Zv ¯^v_©ci, AvZ¥‡Kw›`ªK gvby‡li Kvi‡YB G ‡`‡ki gvbyl GZUv Ae‡nwjZ|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖeÜwU KZ wLª÷v‡ã †jLv nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †hŠe‡bi Mvb cÖeÜwU 1932 wLª÷v‡ã †jLv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ : (L) ÔZi“Y-Ai“‡Yi g‡ZvB †h Zvi“Y¨ wZwgi we`vix, †m †h Av‡jvi †`eZvÕ- Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: †hŠebB n‡”Q gvbe Rxe‡bi PvwjKv kw³| mgvR, RvwZ I †`‡ki cÖMwZi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb †hŠeb kw³| cÖfv‡Z m~‡h©v`q Gi m‡½ m‡½ †hgb c„w_ex Av‡jvwKZ nq †Zgwb mgvR I iv‡óªi RivRxY©Zv‡K gy‡Q w`‡Z cv‡i GKgvÎ †hŠeb kw³| ZvB cÖvewÜK †hŠeb kw³‡K m~h©kw³i m‡½ Zzjbv K‡i‡Qb| ïay ZvB bq, †hŠeb kw³‡K wZwb Av‡jvi †`eZvi m‡½ Zzjbv K‡i‡Qb| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki Zgv‡ji mv‡_ Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Zi“Y‡`i K‡g©vÏxcbvi mv`„k¨ Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg †hŠe‡bi RqMvb K‡i‡Qb| †hŠeb nj Adziš— cÖvYkw³i Avavi| †hŠeb wg_¨v‡K, g„Zz¨‡K Zz”Q K‡i mvg‡bi w`‡K GwM‡q hv‡e GUvB j¶¨| DÏxc‡K ewY©Z Zgv‡ji g‡a¨I Avgiv †mB ˆewkó¨ j¶ Kwi| Zgvj GKv`k †kªYxi QvÎ| eq‡m Zi“Y Avi GB eq‡mB Zvi g‡a¨ DÏvgZv _vKv ¯^vfvweK| ZvB‡Zv †mB N~wY©So AvBjvq hLb †`‡ki GKvs‡ki e¨vcK ¶wZ nq| ZLb Zgv‡ji g‡b nq ¶wZMÖ¯— gvbyl‡`i‡K mnvqZv Kiv DwPZ| ZvB‡Zv †m mevi mn‡hvwMZvq ÎvY msMÖn K‡i weZiY Kivi D‡`¨vM †bq| Zvi K‡g©vÏxcbv mwZ¨B cÖksmbxq| cÖe‡Ü cÖvewÜK Zvi“‡Y¨i †h ¯^iƒc D‡b¥vPb K‡i‡Qb Zvi mv‡_ Zgv‡ji mv`„k¨ hyw³m½Z| †hŠeb kw³i AwaKvix Zi“Yiv ke enb K‡i wb‡q hv‡e k¥kvb Nv‡U; eb¨vZ©‡`i mnvqZv Ki‡e; eÜznxb †ivMxi kh¨vcv‡k¦© †_‡K ivwÎi ci ivwÎ †mev Ki‡e GUvB Zi“Y‡`i ag©| KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Gi g‡Z GB Zvi“Y¨kw³ m¤ú~Y© g‡bi Dci wbf©ikxj| GLv‡b eqm †Kvb e¨vcvi bq| †h †Kvb eq‡mi gvbylB Zvi“Y¨ kw³i AwaKvix n‡Z cv‡i| DÏxc‡Ki Zgv‡ji K‡g©vÏxcbv Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Zi“Y‡`i mv‡_ mv`„k¨c~Y©| cÖkœ : (N) DÏxc‡Ki bvwmi eq‡m Zi“Y n‡jI Zvi wPš—v‡PZbv ÔAvZ¥‡Kw›`ªKÕ K_vwUi Zvrch© †hŠe‡bi Mvb cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) 4 DËi : KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †hŠe‡bi RqMvb K‡i‡Qb| Zv‡`i cvkvcvwk wZwb eva©‡K¨i ¯^iƒcI mywbcyYfv‡e Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡K ewY©Z Zgv‡ji eÜz bvwmi eva¨©‡K¨i cÖZxK| Zvi wPš—v †PZbv AvZ¥‡Kw›`ªK| ZvB‡Zv †m N~wY©So ÔAvBjvÕ weaŸ¯— gvby‡li cÖwZ mn‡hvwMZvi nvZ cÖmvwiZ Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü cÖvewÜK GB eva©K¨‡K †Kvb eq‡mi gvc KvwV‡Z wePvi K‡ib wb| Zvi g‡Z GUv m¤ú~Y© g‡bi e¨vcvi| c„ôv-106


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

eq‡m Zi“Y n‡qI GKRb e¨w³ Kzms¯‹vi, RoZv, AÁZv‡K Rwo‡q _vK‡Z cv‡i Avi GUvB nj eva©K¨| Aciw`‡K GKRb lvU eQi eq‡mi e¨w³I Zvi K‡g©vÏxcbv, mvnm, I Avš—wiKZvi Kvi‡Y Zi“Y nIqvi `vex`vi| DÏxc‡Ki bvwmi eq‡mi w`K †_‡K Zi“Y wKš‘ gvbwmK w`K †_‡K †m Zi“Y bq| ZvB †m Zvi eÜzi KvR‡K ¯^fvweKfv‡e †g‡b wb‡Z cv‡i wb| cÖe‡Ü cÖvewÜK Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨‡K wePvi K‡i‡Qb gvbwmK w`K †_‡K| eq‡mi w`K †_‡K bq| DÏxc‡Ki bvwmi eq‡m Zi“Y n‡jI Zvi wPš—v †PZbv AvZ¥‡Kw›`ªK| ZvB †m Zi“Y bv‡gi AwaKvix n‡jI eva©‡K¨ RovMÖ¯—|

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (Avb›` Kzgvi wek¦vm)

ivwKe nvmvb Lyjbvi †Q‡j| †m `yeQi Av‡M Rvnv½xibMi wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K Gg.G. cvm K‡i‡Q| Kxfv‡e GKUv fvj PvKwi cvIqv hvq GB †Póvq †m m`ve¨¯—| N~wY©So AvBjvq ¶wZMÖ¯—‡`i Rb¨ Zvi eÜziv ÎvY msMÖn K‡i Dc`ª“Z GjvKvq †h‡Z Pvq| wKš‘ †m eÜz‡`i mgq †`q bv| Zvi aviYv miKviB me †`L‡e|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) KvRx bRiyj Bmjv‡gi g„Z¨z KZ mv‡j? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: KvRx bRiyj Bmjv‡gi g„Zz¨ 1976 mv‡j| cÖkœ : (L) †jLK Kxfv‡e †hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒc cÖZ¨¶ K‡i‡Qb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Zvi“‡Y¨i c~Rvix KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Zvui Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ Awffvl‡Y †hŠe‡bi i“`ª I †Z‡Rv`xß iƒ‡ci cvkvcvwk GK ai‡bi †mevcivqY iƒ‡ci eY©bv K‡i‡Qb; hv nj †hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒc| wZwb Giƒc cÖZ¨¶ K‡ib hLb hye‡Kiv `ywf©¶ ZvwoZ I eb¨v cxwoZ‡`i gy‡L Abœ †hvMvq, eÜznxb †ivMxi kh¨vcv‡k¦© ivwÎ †R‡M cwiPh©v K‡i| wf¶zK †m‡R `y`©kvMÖ¯—‡`i Rb¨ wf¶v K‡i, `ye©j I nZvkvMÖ¯—‡`i ey‡K mvnm I Avkv RvMvq, keenb K‡i k¥kv‡b Ges †Mvi¯’v‡b hvq| †hŠeb G ‡¶‡Î gv‡qi f~wgKv MÖnY K‡i| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxcKwU‡Z Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi †Kvb w`KwU cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q- Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ Awffvl‡Y Zvi“Y¨ I eva©‡K¨i ˆewkó¨ I ¯^iƒc wb‡q Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| DÏxcKwUi g‡a¨I G `yBwU w`‡Ki cÖwZdjb N‡U‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki iwKe nvmvb Gg. G cvm Kiv hyeK nIqv m‡Ë¡I Zvi g‡a¨ †Kvb Zvi“‡Y¨i ˆewkó¨ †`Lv hvq bv| †m AvZ¥‡Kw›`ªK| wb‡Ri Rb¨ Qvov Kv‡iv Rb¨ fveevi mgq Zvi †bB| wKš‘ Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ Awffvl‡Y Avgiv †`‡LwQ ‡h, Zvi“Y¨B †hŠe‡bi ag©| hv‡`i g‡a¨ cÖvYkw³ Adziš—, `yiš— hv‡`i mvnm, hv‡`i †ZR m~‡h©i gZ, MwZ‡eM S‡oi gZ ZvivB Zvi“‡Y¨I cÖZxK| DÏxc‡K ivwKe nvmv‡bi g‡a¨ Avgiv GB ¸Y †`L‡Z cvB bv| †m AvBjvq ¶wZMÖ¯—‡`i mvnv‡h¨ GwM‡q bv wM‡q wb‡Ri Kv‡R e¨¯—| Zvi aviYv †`‡k miKvi Av‡Q Zv‡`i †`Lvi `vwqZ¡ miKv‡ii| Zvi G g‡bvfve eva©‡K¨ wb‡`©k K‡i| wKš‘ Zvi eÜziv wVKB ÎvY msMÖn K‡i Dc`ª“Z GjvKvq hvIqvi cÖ¯‘wZ †bq| Zvi eÜziv †hŠeb-kw³i AwaKvix, ZvB Zviv gvbeZvi †mevq wb‡R‡`i wb‡qvwRZ K‡i‡Q| DÏxcKwU‡Z Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ Awffvl‡Yi `yBwU w`KB cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ : (N) ÔDÏxc‡Ki ivwKe nvmvb eq‡m hyeK n‡jI Zvi wPš—vavivq eva©‡K¨i mvwgjÕ- we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ KvRx bRiyj Bmjv‡gi GKwU weL¨vZ cÖeÜ| G cÖe‡Ü wZwb Zvi“Y¨ I eva©‡K¨i ¯^iƒc we‡k−lY K‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡Ki ivwKe nvmv‡bi g‡a¨ eva©‡K¨i iƒc dz‡U D‡V‡Q| mvaviYfv‡e Avgiv eq‡mi gvcKvwV‡Z Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨‡K wePvi Kwi| hvi eqm †ewk Zv‡K Avgiv eva©‡K¨i `‡j †dwj| wKš‘ †hŠe‡bi c~Rvix bRiyj Giƒc eqm wbf©i c×wZ‡Z wek¦vmx bb| Zvui g‡Z, mwZ¨Kvi †hŠeb I eva©K¨ eq‡mi Dci wbf©ikxj bq| DÏxc‡Ki ivwKe nvmvb eq‡m Zi“Y n‡jI gvbwmKZvq cÖex‡Yi gZ| Zvi i“wP I gvbwmKZvq eva©‡K¨i wgj Lyu‡R cvIqv hvq| KviY †m †`‡ki †Kvb KvR Ki‡Z Pvq bv| Zvi g‡Z, Gme KvR miKv‡ii| g‡b K‡i †`‡ki KvR Ki‡Z †M‡j Zvi wb‡Ri ¶wZ n‡e| eqm gvbyl‡K e„× K‡i bv; e„× K‡i Zvi gb| c„ôv-107


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj) [wcZv I cy‡Îi K‡_vcK_b] ceb: evev, GB eq‡m Zzwg åg‡Y †ei n‡e? bv bv GUv wVK n‡e bv| ZvQvov †Zvgvi kixiUvI †Zv fv‡jv bv| evev: †kvb&, eqm wKsev kixi †KvbwUB Avgvi Rb¨ evav bq; evav nw”Qm ZzB| ceb: GZUv c_ ågY Kiv wKš‘ hv-Zv K_v bq evev; Avi ILv‡b hv‡e me Zi“Y †Q‡j-†g‡qiv| evev: Zvn‡j ZzB-I Pj| bZzb A‡bK wKQy Rvbv hv‡e, †kLv hv‡e| ceb: gv_v Lvivc! Avgvi †Zv ï‡bB fq Ki‡Q| †bŠKvq P‡o †eov‡bv Avgvi c‡¶ m¤¢e bv| evev: ûg&| ZzB ïay 22 eQ‡ii GKUv †LvjmgvÎ| †Zvi †fZiUv Ny‡Y aiv, mnR fvlvq ejv hvq, ZzB e„× n‡q †MwQm| †kvb& Ôeva©K¨‡K eq‡mi †d«‡g evav hvq bvÕ K_vUv kZfvM mwZ¨ Zv †Zv‡K †`‡L eySjvg|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg KZ wLª÷v‡ã Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg 1899 wLª÷v‡ã 25 †g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| cÖkœ: (L) Ô†hŠeb m~h© h_vq A¯—wgZ, `yt‡Li wZwgi Kzš—jv wbkxw_bxi †mB †Zv jxjvf~wgÕ- Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: †hŠeb Adziš— cÖvYkw³i Avavi| †hŠe‡bi kw³B gvby‡li Rxeb‡K K‡i MwZkxj I cÖZ¨vkvgq| wKš‘ †mB †hŠebkw³i m~h© †hLv‡b A¯— hvq †mLv‡b AÜKvi, Kzms¯‹vi Avi RxY©Zv weivR K‡i| AÜKviv”Qbœ, RxY©-kxY© Rxeb KL‡bv my›`i n‡Z cv‡i bv| †jLK ZvB †hŠe‡bi Acwi‡gq kw³‡K m~‡h©i †Z‡Ri m‡½ Zzjbv K‡i e‡j‡Qb m~h©nxb mgq †hgb AÜKvigq, †Zgwb †hŠebnxb RxebI wb®cÖvY, AÜKviv”Qbœ| †hŠeb MwZgq, PÂj Av‡jvKgq| ZvB †jLKI GB †hŠe‡bi c~Rvwi| cÖkœ:

(M) DÏxc‡Ki ceb PwiÎwUi ga¨ w`‡q Ô†hŠe‡bi Mvb cÖe‡Üi †Kvb w`KwU cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q? Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: we‡`ªv‡ni Kwe, mvg¨ev‡`i Kwe KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg cÖvewÜK wn‡m‡eI L¨vZ| KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg iwPZ Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü eva©K¨ I Zvi“‡Y¨i ˆewkó¨mg~n AZ¨š— PgrKvifv‡e eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡Ki ceb 22 eQi eq‡mi GK Zi“Y| wKš‘ ceb Avm‡j eq‡m Zi“Y n‡jI gvbwmKfv‡e G‡Kev‡i e„×| ce‡bi †cÖŠp evev hLb mg¯— evav AwZµg K‡i gvme¨vcx GK †bŠ åg‡Y hvevi B”Qv e¨³ K‡i ZLb ceb Zv‡K evav †`q| evev Zv‡KI m‡½ †h‡Z ej‡j ceb Rvbvq GB `xN© ågY, ARvbv Mš—‡e¨i hvÎvq †m fq cvq| ARvbv Avk¼vq ceb AvZw¼Z| ce‡bi GB fxi“Zv, mvnmnxbZv, AvZ¼ †`‡L ce‡bi evev Zv‡K e„× e‡j| KvRx bRiyj Bmjgv‡gi Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †jLK e‡j‡Qb †h, hviv cyivZb‡K AvuK‡o _v‡K, hviv mvg‡b G¸‡Z Pvq bv, hviv bZzb wKQy Rvb‡Z, wkL‡Z I wPb‡Z Pvq bv ZvivB g~jZ e„×| cÖvewÜK eq‡mi gvcKvwV‡Z Zvi“Y¨ ev eva©‡K¨i †kªYxwefvM K‡ib wb| Zvui g‡Z Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨ wbf©i K‡i i“wP I gvbwmKZvi Dci| Ggb A‡bK‡K †`Lv hvq, †m eq‡m bexb n‡qI wPš—v †PZbvq cðv`Mvgx, mskqcivqY, fxi“, Kvcyi“l| G RvZxq gvby‡li kvixwiK eqmUv GKUv †LvjmgvÎ, †m Avm‡j eva©‡K¨ Avµvš—| DÏxc‡Ki ceb PwiÎwUI wVK †Zgwb| eq‡m bexb ceb gvbwmKZvq cÖexY, eva©‡K¨i `ye©jZvq †m Avµvš—| c„ôv-108


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (N) Ôeva©K¨‡K eq‡mi †d«‡g evav hvq bvÕ-Dw³wUi Av‡jv‡K cÖgvY Ki †h, DÏxcKwU Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi mgMÖ w`K‡K cÖKvk K‡i‡Q| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü AZ¨š— PgrKvifv‡e †hŠeb I eva©‡K¨i ¯^iƒc we‡k−lY K‡i‡Qb| Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨ †evSv‡Z bRiyj Bmjvg eq‡mi gvcKvwV‡K ¸i“Z¡ †`b wb| Zvui g‡Z Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨ wbY©q Kiv nq gvbwmKZv I B”Qvkw³ w`‡q| Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü Zvi“Y¨ I eva©‡K¨i cwiPq w`‡Z wM‡q wZwb g~jZ †hŠe‡bi RqMvbB †M‡q‡Qb| †hŠeb‡K †jLK m~‡h©i gZ Acwi‡gq kw³i Avavi e‡j‡Qb| Zvui g‡Z, †hŠeb m~h© †hLv‡b A¯— †M‡Q †mLv‡bB Rxe‡bi AÜKvigq c‡_i ïi“| ïay eq‡m bexb n‡jB †h e¨w³i g‡a¨ †hŠeb _vK‡e Zv fyj| cÖvew܇Ki g‡Z Zvi“Y¨ ZvB hv bZzb‡K ¯^vMZ Rvbvq, fq‡K Rq Ki‡Z cv‡i| K¬vwš—nxb D`¨g, Adziš— cÖvYkw³, Acwimxg J`vh© Avi AUj mvabvq hviv g„Z¨z ‡K Zz”Q K‡i Kzms¯‹v‡ii †eovRvj wQbœ K‡i mKj evav †cwi‡q ¯^cœgq gy³ Rxe‡bi c‡_ cv evovq ZvivB Zi“Y| DÏxc‡K ce‡bi †cÖŠp evevi Kv‡Q eqm Ges kvixwiK Amy¯’Zv †Kvb evav n‡q `uvovq bv| wZwb mvn‡mi Wvbvq fi K‡i †bŠåg‡Y hvÎv Kivi B”Qv cÖKvk K‡i| wKš‘ Zvi cyÎ ceb bvbv ARvbv AvZ‡¼ fxZ| `xN© †bŠhvÎv Zvi Kv‡Q Am¤¢e g‡b nq| D`¨gnxb, fxi“ ce‡bi eqm 22 eQi n‡jI †m †hb e„× Avi †cÖŠp evevi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q Zvi“Y¨| ce‡bi gZ hviv fxZz, mvnmnxb, hviv bZzb‡K ¯^vMZ Rvbv‡Z fq cvq, hviv Kzms¯‹v‡i RivRxY© ZvivB e„×| ÔAvm‡j eva©K¨‡K eq‡mi †d«‡g evav hvq bvÕ|- GB Dw³wU Øviv GUvB cÖgvwYZ nq †h, Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨ n‡”Q e¨w³i gvbwmKZvi e¨vcvi| eq‡m bexb n‡jI A‡b‡Ki †fZi †hgb i‡q‡Q eva©‡K¨i K¼vj g~wZ© †Zgwb eq‡m cÖexY n‡qI A‡b‡Ki gv‡S i‡q‡Q m~‡h©i gZ cÖLi †ZR| Dch©y³ DÏxc‡KI welqwU my¯úófv‡e cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| ZvB ejv hvq †h, DÏxcKwU Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi mgMÖ w`K‡KB cÖKvk K‡i‡Q|

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj) Aebx QvÎ Rxeb †_‡KB ÔDËiYÕ msMV‡bi m‡½ RwoZ| DËi e‡½i g½v cxwoZ gvby‡li Rb¨ A_©msMÖn, kxZe¯¿ msMÖn, eb¨vcxwoZ GjvKvq m¨vjvBb I Lvevi †cŠuQv‡bv, Kv‡iv cov‡kvbvi A_©-†RvMvo Kiv, KL‡bv Amy¯’ eÜzi Rb¨ Znwej msMÖn Kivi ga¨ w`‡qB Aebx †hb Rxe‡bi A_© Lyu‡R cvq| Zvi GB Kv‡Ri Rb¨ Aebx †hgb mn‡hvwMZv cvq †Zgwb KL‡bv KL‡bv gvby‡li `ye¨©enviI Zvi fv‡M¨ †Rv‡U| wKš‘ Aebx †_‡g _v‡K bv eis `ygy©‡Li Mvwj Aebx nvwm gy‡L †g‡b wb‡q wظY Drmv‡n gvbe Kj¨v‡Y Svwc‡q c‡o| AvR Aebx Zvi msMV‡bi n‡q †`‡ki evB‡i my`v‡bi GBWm& †ivMx‡`i †mevi Kv‡R hv‡”Q| D”QvwmZ Aebxi gy‡L AvR ej‡Z †kvbv hvq- GUvB‡Zv Zvi“Y¨, hvi †`k Kv‡ji mxgv †bB, a‡g©i e¨eavb †bB| Zvi“Y¨ mKj †`‡ki mKj RvwZi|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg wb‡R‡K Kv‡`i `jfy³ g‡b K‡ib? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg wb‡R‡K a¨vbx‡`i `jfy³ g‡b K‡ib| cÖkœ: (L) Ô†jwbbÕ †K? Zvi cwiPq `vI| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Ô†jwbbÕ bvgwU QÙbvg| f−vw`wgi BwjP Dwjqv‡bvd wec−ex Kv‡R RwoZ _vKv Kv‡j Ô†jwbbÕ QÙbvgwU e¨envi K‡ib| 1870 mv‡j Rb¥MÖnYKvix †jwbb i“k wec−‡ei msMVK, cwiKíK I †bZv| Zvui †bZ…‡Z¡ 1917 mv‡j i“k wec−‡ei mvd‡j¨ Rv‡ii ivRZ‡š¿i cZb N‡U Ges c„w_exi cÖ_g mgvRZvwš¿K iv‡óªi Rb¥ nq| Avg„Zz¨ wZwb wQ‡jb †mvwf‡qZ iv‡óªi ivóªcÖavb| wZwb wQ‡jb cÖ_g mdj gvK©mev`x wec−ex| gvK©mev`x `k©‡bi cÖ_g KvZv‡ii ZvwË¡K| Zvui iwPZ MÖš’vewj BwZnvm, `k©b, A_©bxwZ I mgvRZË¡ m¤ú‡K© cÖMvp Ávb I we‡k−lY kw³i cwiPq enb K‡i| c„ôv-109


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki ÔAebxÕ Pwi‡Îi ga¨ w`‡q †hŠe‡bi †Kvb we‡kl w`KwU cÖwZfvZ n‡q I‡V?- Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Zvi“‡Y¨i Kwe, mv‡g¨i Kwe KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg iwPZ Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ GKwU AwffvlY| G Awffvl‡Y bRiyj Bmjvg Zvi“‡Y¨i RqMvb †M‡q‡Qb| Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü bRiyj Bmjvg Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨‡K wbY©q K‡i‡Qb gvbwmKZvi gvcKvwV‡Z| Zvi“‡Y¨i ˆewkó¨ cÖKvk Ki‡Z †h‡q wZwb e‡j‡Qb, hv cyivZb‡K, wg_¨v‡K, RoZv‡K g„Z¨z fq‡K Zz”Q K‡i bZz‡bi c‡_ cv evovq| ZvB Zvi“Y¨ GKw`‡K †hgb i“`ª, K‡Vvi Aciw`‡K gvZ…iƒ‡ci g‡Zv †Kvgj, Zvi“Y¨ KL‡bv S‡oi g‡Zv Zxeª, PÂj, KL‡bv wecyj Avkvev`x, J`vh©c~Y©| †hŠeb iO Qov‡Z Qov‡Z D`q nq Avevi i‡Oi †Ljv †Lj‡Z †Lj‡Z Zvi A¯—| ceb-MwZ‡K cðv‡Z †d‡j K¬vwš—nxb Drmvn wb‡q Zi“Y GwM‡q hvq| `yiš— Zvi“‡Y¨i Aci wc‡V i‡q‡Q †Kvgj ü`q| †h ü`q `ywf©¶ Avi eb¨v cxwoZ‡`i gy‡L Abœ Zz‡j †`q, eÜznxb †ivMxi kh¨vcv‡k¦© iv‡Zi ci ivZ †R‡M cwiPh©v K‡i, c‡_ c‡_ Mvb †M‡q wfLvix †m‡R `y`©kvMÖ¯—‡`i Rb¨ wf¶v K‡i| `ye©‡ji cv‡k ej n‡q `vuovq, nZvkvi ey‡K Avkv RvMvq| Avi Zvi“‡Y¨i G iƒcB n‡”Q gvZ…iƒc| DÏxc‡Ki Aebx Pwi‡Îi ga¨ w`‡q Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ †hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒc Gi w`KwUB D™¢vwmZ n‡q‡Q| Aebx Zvi msMVb †_‡K g½v cxwoZ gvbyl‡`i I kxZvZ© gvbyl‡`i Rb¨ Abœ, e‡¯¿i ms¯’vb K‡i, KL‡bv eb¨v cxwoZ gvbyl‡`i Rb¨ m¨vjvBb, Lvevi ÎvY cvVvq| KL‡bv Amy¯’ eÜzi Rb¨ A_© msMÖn K‡i, A_©vr gv †hgb K‡i mš—vb‡K hZœ K‡i AebxI gvby‡li Rb¨ Zvi ü`q w`‡q fv‡jvevmv cÖ`k©b K‡i, mn‡hvwMZv K‡i| ZvB GwU Abvqv‡m ejv hvq †h, Aebx Pwi‡Îi ga¨ w`‡q †hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒcwU my¯úófv‡e cÖwZfvZ n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) ÔGUvB‡Zv Zi“Y¨, hvi †`k Kv‡ji mxgv †bB, a‡g©i e¨eavb †bB, Zvi“Y¨ mKj †`‡ki mKj RvwZiÕDw³wUi Av‡jv‡K †hŠe‡bi wek¦we¯—vix iƒc we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: †cÖ‡gi Kwe Zvi“‡Y¨i Kwe KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg cÖeÜ iPbv‡Z I wm×n¯—| Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü bRiyj Bmjvg ZvB Zvi“Y¨ I eva©‡K¨i cv_©K¨ †`Lv‡Z †h‡q Zvi“‡Y¨i ¯—eMvb †M‡q‡Qb| Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg †`wL‡q‡Qb †h, Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨ eq‡mi gvcKvwV‡Z wbwY©Z nq bv| Zvi“Y¨ ZvB hv cyivZ‡K, wg_¨v‡K, fq‡K RoZv‡K, g„Zz¨‡K Zz”Q K‡i be Rxe‡bi mÜv‡b c_ P‡j| ceb MwZ‡K cðv‡Z †d‡j hviv S‡oi gZ Zxeª, m~‡h©i gZ cÖLiZv wb‡q GwM‡q hvq ZvivB Zi“Y| Zvi“Y¨ KL‡bv eRªKwVb Avevi KL‡bv gv‡qi †mœ‡ni gZ †Kvgj| Zvi“‡Y¨i †Kvb mxgv‡iLv †bB| Pvi †`qv‡ji gv‡S Zvi“Y¨e›`x bq eis Zvi“Y¨ wek¦we¯—vix| Adziš— cÖvYkw³i Avavi Zi“Y mgvR †h †Kvb mgq †h †Kvb Kv‡R gvby‡li Rb¨ mn‡hvwMZvi nvZ evwo‡q †`q Avi G Rb¨ †`k, Kvj, RvwZ a‡g©i †Kvb evuavB Zviv gv‡b bv| m~‡h©i Av‡jvi gZ, AvKv‡ki bx‡ji gZB Zi“Yiv wek¦ gv‡S e¨vc„Z| DÏxc‡Ki Aebx ÔDËiYÕ msMVb †_‡K my`v‡b hvq GBWm& †ivMx‡`i †mevi Rb¨| G Rb¨ Zv‡K A‡b‡Ki KvQ †_‡K KUz K_v ïb‡Z nq| wKš‘ †hŠe‡bi kw³‡Z ejxqvb Aebx e‡j ÔGUvB‡Zv Zvi“Y¨, hvi †`k Kv‡ji mxgv †bB, a‡g©i e¨eavb †bB| Zvi“Y¨ mKj †`‡ki, mKj RvwZi| Aebxi G wek¦we¯—vix †PZbv g~jZ Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ Zvi“‡Y¨i wek¦ we¯—vix iƒ‡ciB ewntcÖKvk|

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

gvLb wgqv ev‡m P‡o †ivR XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡q hvZvqvZ K‡i| wgZfvlx I fvjQvÎ wn‡m‡e gvL‡bi L¨vwZ i‡q‡Q| wek¦we`¨vj‡qi ev‡m wd« hvZvqv‡Zi e¨e¯’v _vK‡jI gvLb wgqvi cÖ¯v— ‡e mK‡j 1 UvKv K‡i evm fvov w`‡Z m¤§Z nj| `yw`©‡b G A_© w`‡q ev‡mi PvjK I †njcvi‡`i mn‡hvwMZv Kiv hv‡e| evm i“‡U KL‡bv M¨vm, KL‡bv cvwb, KL‡bv we`y¨r, KL‡bv wUGÛwU jvB‡bi cvBc emv‡bvi KvR Pj‡j iv¯—vq PjvPj Kiv KwVb n‡q c‡o| G wb‡q gvLb wgqv XvKv wmwUK‡c©v‡ik‡bi †gq‡ii m‡½ mv¶vr K‡i GKB mg‡q mKj Lbb Kvh© ïi“ Kiv m¤¢e wKbv G wel‡q cÖ¯—ve iv‡Lb| G QvovI †h †Kvb `y‡h©v‡M †m QvÎ-QvÎx‡`i wb‡q wUg MVb K‡i `yM©Z‡`i †mevq Zv‡`i cv‡k wM‡q `vuovq| gvL‡bi fvebv GLb †h `k I †`‡ki †mevq wbgMœ _vKvB n‡”Q Zvi“‡Y¨i mvabv| c„ôv-110


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) Ôgywi`Õ k‡ãi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ôgywi`Õ k‡ãi A_© n‡”Q wkl¨| cÖkœ: (L) Ô†hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒcÕ ej‡Z Kx eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒcÕ ej‡Z AvZ¥gvbeZvi †mevq wb‡ew`Z Zvi“Y¨‡K eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q| ke enb K‡i †m hLb k¥kvb Nv‡U I †Mvi¯’v‡b hvq, Abvnv‡i †_‡K †m hLb `ywf©¶ I eb¨vcxwoZ‡`i gy‡L Lvevi Zz‡j †`q, eÜznxb †ivMxi kh¨vcv‡k¦© wewb`ª iRbx hvcb K‡i, `y`©kvMÖ¯—‡`i Rb¨ mvnvh¨ msMÖn K‡i, `ye©‡ji cv‡k ej n‡q `vuovq ZLb Zvi gv‡S †hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒc D™¢vwmZ n‡q I‡V| A_©vr †hŠe‡bi AwaKvix Zi“‡Yiv hLb gv‡qi g‡Zv †mevcivqbZvi ga¨ w`‡q gvby‡li Kj¨vY mvab K‡i ZLb Zv‡K Ô†hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒcÕ e‡j AwfwnZ Kiv nq| cÖk:œ (M) Aby‡”Q‡` ewY©Z PwiÎ gvLb wgqvi m‡½ Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Zvi“Y¨ kw³i †Kvb w`K¸‡jvi wgj i‡q‡Q| e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ gvLb wgqv GKRb a¨vbx I Kg©x| †m evm PvjK I †njcvi‡`i mn‡hvwMZvi Rb¨ GKwU Znwej MVb Kivi cÖ¯—ve iv‡L Ges ev¯—evqb K‡i| XvKvi ivRc_¸‡jv KL‡bv Iqvmv, KL‡bv †Wmv, KL‡bv wUGÛwU Lbb Ki‡j gvLb wgqv XvKv wmwU K‡c©v‡ik‡bi †gq‡ii m‡½ mv¶vr K‡i GKwU mg‡q Lbb Kvh© m¤¢e wKbv Ggb GKwU RbwnZKi cÖ¯—ve iv‡L| gvLb wgqv QvÎ-QvÎx‡`i wb‡q wUg MVb K‡i| †m wewb`ªiRbx hvcb K‡i eÜznxb `yM©Z‡`i cv‡k Ae¯’vb K‡i| Zvi g‡Z Zvi“‡Y¨i mvabvB n‡”Q `k I †`‡ki †mev Kiv| Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü cÖvewÜK KvRx bRiyj BmjvgI Zvi“‡Y¨i AwaKvix‡`i Kg©x I a¨vbx GB `yB c‡e© wefvRb K‡i‡Qb| Giv †KD kw³ w`‡q, †KD eyw× w`‡q, †KD Dfq cÖKvi kªg w`‡q bvbv evav wWwO‡q gvbe †mev K‡i _v‡Kb| Zvi“‡Y¨i AwaKvixMY `yM©Z‡`i cv‡k eÜzi nvZ cÖmvwiZ K‡i w`‡q †hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒc cÖ`k©b K‡ib| Aby‡”Q‡`i PwiÎ gvLb wgqvi wPš—v I Kvh©vewji m‡½ Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü ewY©Z DcwiD³ Zvi“Y¨ kw³i wgj i‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) gvL‡bi fvebv Ggb †h `k I †`‡ki †mevq wbgMœ _vKvB n‡PQ Zvi“‡Y¨i mvabv- Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖeÜ Abymi‡Y Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: cÖvewÜK KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †hŠeb kw³i e›`bv K‡i‡Qb gvbeZvev`x `„wófw½ w`‡q| Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K wjwLZ DÏxc‡KI Zvi“Y¨ kw³i †mevcivqYZvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| gvLb wgqv Pvq mK‡ji mn‡hvwMZvq mK‡ji Pjvi c_ gm„Y †nvK| †hŠeb Zvi“‡Y¨ mK‡j mK‡ji cÖ‡qvR‡b GKwU cÖwZK~j cwi‡ek‡KI gvbe cÖ‡qvRbxq K‡i M‡o Zzj‡Z cv‡i| gvLb wgqvI wek¦vm K‡i †h, †h †Kvb Kg© m¤úv`‡bi g~‡j _vK‡e gvbe †mev| Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †hŠeb kw³‡K kvk¦Z, my›`i I wPiKj¨vYKi e‡j wb‡`©k Kiv n‡q‡Q| gvbeZvB n‡”Q †hŠe‡bi ag©| †`k-Kvj-RvwZi E‡aŸ© †hŠebkw³i Ae¯’vb| Giv mKj †`‡ki, mKj RvwZi, mKj a‡g©i, mKj Kv‡ji| Giv †hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒc cÖ`k©b K‡ib gvbe †mevq| KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg wb‡`©wkZ †hŠeb kw³i G w`K¸‡jv DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ gvLb wgqvi gv‡S i‡q‡Q| †m wek¦vm K‡i Zvi“‡Y¨i mvabv ev¯—evq‡b Zi“Y‡`i Aby‡cÖiYv w`‡q, mvnm w`‡q, eyw× w`‡q gvbe Kj¨v‡Y DØy× Ki‡Z n‡e| `k I †`‡ki †mev KivB Zvi“‡Y¨i mvabv| G Av‡jvPbv †_‡K DÏxc‡Ki gvLb Pwi‡Îi fvebv‡K Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K h_v_© I Zvrch©c~Y© ejv hvq| c„ôv-111


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

“

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) mˇii KvQvKvwQ eqm Kwjwgqvi| Zvi wPËPvÂj¨ bvwZ meyR Avjx‡K wPwš—Z K‡i †Zv‡j| `v`vi Kvi‡Y G m‡Z‡iv eQi eq‡m †m †ek weeªZKi Ae¯’vq c‡o| †m †f‡e cvq bv †h GKUz †`wi‡Z Nyg †_‡K RvM‡j Kx nq? cwÎKvcv‡V †`‡ki msev` †R‡b †K KZUv jvfevb n‡q‡Q? gvbeRxe‡b weÁv‡bi GZ evovevwo †Kb? †QvU fvB‡qi wPrKvi-†PPv‡gwP‡Z Zvi cÖvYUvI †hb IôvMZ| `v`vfvB wmW‡i Avµvš—‡`i ¯^P‡¶ †`L‡Z hvevi cÖ¯—ve Ki‡j meyR Avjx mKvj †_‡KB R¡‡i Avµvš— nIqvi fvb K‡i| eq‡mi wfwˇZ `v`v-bvwZi Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨ wbY©q eo Kómva¨ welq n‡q `vuwo‡q‡Q|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) Ôˆ`eÕ k‡ãi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ôˆ`eÕ k‡ãi A_© nj AvKw¯§K| cÖkœ: (L) Ô†jwbbÕ †K wQ‡jb? eywS‡q ej| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: f−vw`wgi BwjP Dwjqv‡bvd (1870-1942) wQ‡jb i“kwec−‡ei cwiKíK, msMVK I †bZv| †jwbb Zvi QÙ bvg| Zvui †bZ…‡Z¡ 1917 mv‡j i“k wec−‡ei mvd‡j¨ Rv‡ii ivRZ‡š¿i cZb N‡U Ges c„w_exi cÖ_g mgvRZvwš¿K iv‡óªi Rb¥ nq| Avg„Zz¨ wZwb wQ‡jb †mvwf‡qZ iv‡óªi ivóªcÖavb| wZwb wQ‡jb cÖ_g gvK©mev`x wec−ex Ges gvK©mev`x `k©‡bi cÖ_g KvZv‡ii ZvwË¡K| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ meyR Avjx‡K Kx Zvi“Y¨ kw³i AwaKvix ejv hvq? Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖeÜ Abymv‡i e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg `yiš—, `ye©vi I `ytmvnmx Zvi“‡Y¨i RqMvb K‡i‡Q| cÖvew܇Ki g‡Z, Zi“Y bv‡gi Rq gyKzU ïay Zvi R‡b¨ hvi kw³ Acwi‡gq, MwZ‡eM SÅvi b¨vq, wecyj hvi Avkv, K¬vwš—nxb hvi Drmvn, weivU hvi J`vh©, Adziš— hvi cÖvY, AUj hvi mvabv Ges g„Zz¨ hvi gywVZ‡j| Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K DÏxc‡Ki Pwi·K Zvi“Y¨kw³i AwaKvix ejv P‡j bv| eq‡m Zi“Y n‡jI bvwZ meyRAvjx DÏvgnxb| `v`vi †KŠZ~nj I wPËPvÂj¨ Zv‡K Aw¯’i K‡i †Zv‡j| †`k I weÁvb m¤^Üxq msev‡` †m AvMÖnx bq| wkïi †Kvjvn‡j †m weiw³‡eva K‡i| m~‡h©v`q †`L‡ZI †m cÖZ¨vkx bq| Gfv‡e eva©‡K¨i ˆewk󨸇jv Zvi gv‡S †`Lv hvq| d‡j Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi wePv‡i DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ meyR Avjx‡K Zvi“Y¨kw³i AwaKvix ejv hv‡e bv| cÖkœ: (N) Ôeq‡mi wfwˇZ `v`v-bvwZi Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨ wbY©q eo Kómva¨ welq n‡q `vuwo‡q‡Q|Õ- gš—e¨wU Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: cÖvewÜK KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü Zvi“Y¨ I eva©‡K¨i my¯úó w`K wb‡`©kbv K‡i‡Qb| Zvui g‡Z, Zvi“Y¨ I eva©‡K¨i Ae¯’vb gvbe †`‡n bq; gvby‡li g‡b| gvbwmK wPË Pv‡j¨i R‡b¨, AMÖmieZ©x wPš—vi R‡b¨, AbymwÜrmy g‡bi R‡b¨, mvn‡mi Kvi‡Y I `vwqZ¡kxjZvi cwiP‡q eq¯‹ e¨w³I Zvi“‡Y¨i cÖZxK wn‡m‡e MY¨ n‡Z cv‡ib| DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ meyR Avjxi `v`v Gi cÖKó… D`vniY| wZwb cðv`c` bb; eis eZ©gvb mgvR-e¨e¯’vi m‡½ GKxf~Z n‡q `yt¯’‡`i Kó jvN‡e mngg©x nb Ges weÁv‡bi RqhvÎvq Avb›` wjáy n‡q I‡Vb| wZwb Rxeb‡K Dc‡fvM K‡i wb‡Ri g‡Zv K‡i †`L‡Z Pvb| Avevi eq‡m Zi“Y n‡qI †KD hw` eZ©gvb mg‡qi m‡½ GKxf~Z n‡Z bv cv‡i, bZzb‡K MÖn‡Y Amg_© nq, wb‡R‡K weÁv‡bi mnhvÎx fve‡Z wcwQ‡q _v‡K wKsev ˆbivk¨ev`x ev mskqcivqY nq Z‡e eq‡m Zi“Y n‡jI Zv‡K †hŠeb kw³i AwaKvix ejv hv‡e bv| DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ meyR Avjxi gv‡S Zvi“‡Y¨i G ˆewkó¨ cwijw¶Z nq| eq‡mi w`K †_‡K Zi“Y n‡jI †PZbvi w`K †_‡K Zv‡K †hŠeb kw³i AwaKvix ejv P‡j bv| KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg iwPZ Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi G wek¦v‡m DÏxc‡Ki DcwiD³ gš—e¨wU h_v_© I Zvrch©c~Y© n‡q‡Q| c„ôv-112


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

“

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) m~h©Uv Avgvi| AvKvkUv Avgvi| AvKv‡ki wb‡Pi c„w_exUvI Avgvi| G AwaKvi cÖwZôvi `ytmvnm i‡q‡Q GKv Zi“‡Yi| So Avgvi| mgy‡`ªi DËvj Zi½gvjv Avgvi| ag© Avgvi| G‡K Avgvi g‡bi g‡Zv mvRv‡ev| Avgvi cÖv‡Yi ag©B †h Zvi“Y¨|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ÔevqmÕ k‡ãi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔevqmÕ k‡ãi A_© KvK| cÖkœ : (L) Ô†hŠebÕ ej‡Z cÖvewÜK Kx eywS‡q‡Qb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü Ô†hŠebÕ ej‡Z GK ai‡bi †PZbv‡eva‡K eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q| †hŠeb gvbyl‡K cÖvYPvÂj¨ `vb K‡i, A`g¨ mvnmx K‡i †Zv‡j, ceb MwZ‡K †cQ‡b †d‡j m¤§y‡L AMÖmi n‡Z Drmvnx K‡i, hv K¬vwš—nxb I Avkvwš^Z K‡i †Zv‡j, A‡Rq‡K Rq Ges `yj©f‡K jvf Ki‡Z †kLvq| cÖkœ : (M) Aby‡”Q‡` `yiš—-`ye©vi †hŠe‡bi cÖkw¯— D”PvwiZ n‡q‡Q hv Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi †hŠeb PvÂj¨‡K ¯§iY Kwi‡q †`q| e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: wmivRM‡Äi gymwjg hye mgv‡Ri Awfb›`‡bi Dˇi Zv‡`i D‡Ï‡k¨ KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg †h fvlY w`‡qwQ‡jb ZviB gvwR©Z wjwLZ iƒc Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ AwffvlY| G Awffvl‡Y cÖvewÜK `yiš—-`ye©vi †hŠe‡bi cÖkvwš— D”PviY K‡i‡Qb| Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü wee„Z †hŠeb n‡”Q Adziš— cÖvYkw³i Avavi| †hŠeb gvby‡li Rxeb‡K MwZkxj I cÖvYgq K‡i †Zv‡j| `ye©vi DÏxcbv, K¬vš—nxb D`¨g, Acwimxg I`vh©, Adziš— cÖvYPvÂjZv Avwe®‹v‡ii †bkvq gË, †mevcivqbZvq GKwbô, AUj mvabvi cÖZxK †hŠeb wecbœ gvbeZvi cv‡k ej n‡q `uvovq| DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎwU AvZ¥cÖZ¨qx, †hŠeb kw³i AwaKvix I cÖvY Pv‡j¨ ficyi| †m wek¦-eªþvÊ wePiY Ki‡Z Pvq| m~h©, AvKvk Ges c„w_ex‡K †m Zvi“‡Y¨i e‡j wb‡Ri `vex K‡i| †hŠeb D`¨gZvq mgy`ª, mgy‡`ªi †XD me wKQzi Dci wb‡Ri wbqš¿Y cÖwZwôZ Ki‡Z Pvq| G‡`i cÖv‡Yi ag© Zvi“Y¨| †m wb‡Ri ag©‡K I wb‡Ri c„w_ex‡K wb‡Ri g‡Zv K‡i M‡o wb‡Z Pvq| G fv‡e DÏxc‡K †h †hŠeb PvÂj¨ j¶ Kwi Zv Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡ÜiB Abyiƒc iƒcvqY gvÎ| cÖkœ : (N) ÔAvgvi cÖv‡Yi ag© Zvi“Y¨Õ-Dw³wU Ô†hŠe‡bi Mvb cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg †hŠeb kw³i RqMvb K‡i‡Qb| cÖvew܇Ki g‡Z †hŠeb GKwU kw³, `ye©vi DÏxcbv, K¬vš—nxb D`¨g, Acwimxg J`vh© I Adziš— cÖvYPv‡j¨ c~Y©; Giv wecbœ gvbeZvi cv‡k †meveªZx f~wgKv wb‡q `uvovq| Giv ms¯‹v‡ii †eovRvj wQbœ K‡i GwM‡q hvq gy³ Rxe‡bi c‡_| GwUB †hŠeb| Gi ag©B Zvi“Y¨| G‡`i ag© Bmjvg n‡jI cÖv‡Yi ag© Zvi“Y¨| DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎwUI Zvi“Y¨ kw³i AwaKvix| m~h©, AvKvk, c„w_ex, So G¸‡jvi Dci wb‡Ri AwaKvi cÖwZwôZ Ki‡Z wM‡q †m †hŠeb kw³i cwiPq w`‡q‡Q| †hŠeb Zvi“‡Y¨i †`k-Kvj RvwZi E‡aŸ© wb‡Ri Ae¯’vb †NvlYv K‡i‡Q| GK ch©v‡q †m ag©‡K Rxeb Dc‡hvMx K‡i M‡o †Zvjvi evmbv e¨³ K‡i‡Q| †Kbbv, Zvi cÖv‡Yi ag©B n‡”Q Zvi“Y¨| DÏxcK I Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ Dfq ¯’v‡b †hŠeb Pv‡j¨i K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K †hŠe‡bi Mvb cÖe‡Üi cÖv_wgK myi aŸwbZ n‡q‡Q Ges DÏxc‡K †h Zvi“‡Y¨i Bw½Z †`Iqv n‡q‡Q GiB weKwkZ I cwic~Y© iƒc Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖeÜwU| G w`K †_‡K ÔAvgvi cÖv‡Yi ag© Zvi“Y¨ÕDw³wU Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Zvrch©gq n‡q D‡V‡Q| c„ôv-113


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi mviwYwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) †hŠe‡bi Mvb

Zvi“Y¨ ↓

eva©K¨ ↓

hvi kw³ Acwi‡gq, MwZ SÅvi b¨vq, K¬vwš—nxb hvi Avkv, Adziš— hvi cÖvY

cyivZb, wg_¨v I g„Zz¨‡K AvK‡o c‡o _v‡K

eq‡mi gvcKvwV‡Z Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨ Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨‡K eq‡mi gvcKvwV‡Z gvcv m¤¢e bq| GwU g‡bvMZ Dcjwäi welq D‡Ïk¨

c„w_ex‡K Zv‡`i g‡bi g‡Zv K‡i M‡o †Zv‡j

AUj ms¯‹v‡ii cvlvY¯‘c AvuK‡o †eu‡P _vKv

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) Ôgywi`Õ kãwUi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ôgywi`Õ kãwUi A_© n‡”Q wkl¨| cÖkœ: (L) Ô†hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒcÕ ej‡Z Kx eyS? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒc ej‡Z Zvi“‡Y¨i †mevcivqYZv‡K eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q| mnR K_vq Zi“Yiv hLb gvZ…‡mevi gva¨‡g gvbeZvi Kj¨vY mvab K‡i _v‡Kb ZLb Zv‡K †hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒc ejv n‡q _v‡K| A_©vr hLb †m ke enb K‡i k¥kvb Nv‡U hvq, wb‡R Abvnv‡i †_‡K hLb †m `ywf©¶ eb¨vcxwoZ‡`i gy‡L Abœ Zz‡j †`q, eÜznxb †ivMxi cv‡k iv‡Zi ci ivZ †R‡M cwiPh©v K‡i, `ye©‡ji cv‡k ej n‡q `uvovq Ges nZvkvi ey‡K Avkv RvMvq ZLbB †mB †hŠe‡bi gv‡S gvZ…iƒc †`Lv †`q| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü wee„Z Zvi“‡Y¨i ¯^iƒc e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: 1932 wLª÷v‡ã wmivRM‡Äi gymwjg hye mgv‡Ri Awfb›`‡bi Dˇi Zv‡`i D‡Ï‡k¨ KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg †h cÖv‡Yv”Qj fvlY w`‡qwQ‡jb ZviB cwigvwR©Z wjwLZ iƒc Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖeÜwU| G Awffvl‡Y Kwe `yiš—-`yev© i †hŠe‡bi cÖkw¯— D”PviY K‡i‡Qb| c„ôv-114


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

DÏxcKwU Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K †jLv n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K Zvi“‡Y¨i AwaKvix Zv‡KB ejv n‡q‡Q hvi kw³ Acwi‡gq, MwZ‡eM SÅvi b¨vq, K¬vwš—nxb hvi Avkv, Adziš— hvi cÖvY| Giv G‡`i c„w_ex wb‡Ri g‡Zv K‡i M‡o wb‡Z Pvq| mg¯— RxY© I cyivZb ms¯‹vi‡K aŸsm K‡i Giv cÖMwZi c‡_ GwM‡q P‡j| DÏxcKwU †h‡nZz Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K †jLv n‡q‡Q, †m‡nZz G‡Z Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ †hŠe‡bi ¯^iƒc D‡b¥vwPZ n‡q‡Q| G wePv‡i DÏxcKwU †_‡K Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü wee„Z †hŠe‡bi ¯^iƒc Abyaveb Kiv hvq| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡K Zvi“Y¨ I eva©‡K¨i †h ¯^iƒc cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q Zv Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖ‡eÜi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ Awffvl‡Y cÖvewÜK KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg `yiš—-`ye©vi †hŠe‡bi cÖkw¯— D”PviY Ki‡jI Zvi“Y¨ I eva©‡K¨i mxgv‡iLv wb‡`©k K‡i‡Qb| KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü Zvi“Y¨ I eva©‡K¨i mxgv‡iLv eq‡mi g‡a¨ w`‡q wb‡`©k bv K‡i G‡K GKwU gvbwmK ¯—i e‡j wPwýZ K‡i‡Qb| cÖvew܇Ki g‡Z `ye©vi DÏxcbv, K¬vwš—nxb D`¨g, Acwimxg J`vh©, Adziš— cÖvYPÂjZv I AUj mvabvi cÖZxK Zvi“Y¨ kw³i cwiPvqK n‡jI i¶YkxjZv, RoZv, ms¯‹viv”QbœZv I cðv`c`Zv eva©‡K¨i j¶Y| DÏxc‡K G m‡PZb cÖqvmwU iw¶Z n‡q‡Q| GLv‡bI †NvwlZ n‡q‡Q †h, Zvi“Y¨ kw³i AwaKvixMY c„w_exUv‡K wb‡Ri g‡bi g‡Zv K‡i M‡o wb‡Z Pvb| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbvi †cÖw¶‡Z DÏxc‡K wb‡`©wkZ Zvi“Y¨ I eva©‡K¨i ¯^iƒc Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Zvrch©gq n‡q D‡V‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI : (kviwgb myjZvbv) gymv Beªvnx‡gi bvgwU Avgv‡`i mevi Rvbv| cÖ_g evsjv‡`kx wn‡m‡e we‡k¦i m‡e©v”P ce©Z Gfv‡i‡÷i P~ovq D‡V‡Qb gymv Beªvnxg| Zvi“Y¨`xß gymvi G †MŠi‡e †`kevmxI †MŠievwš^Z| A_P Gfv‡i‡÷i c‡_ Zuvi AwfhvÎv mnR wQj bv| A‡b‡KB Zuv‡K wbi“rmvwnZ K‡i‡Qb| A_©‰bwZK cÖwZeÜKZvI wQj| wKš—y †Kvb wKQzB Zuv‡K wcQz nUv‡Z cv‡i wb| wZwb GLb evsjv‡`‡ki Zi“Y‡`i Kv‡Q A`g¨ Zvi“‡Y¨i cÖZxK|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖeÜwU g~jZ †Kv_v †_‡K †bIqv n‡q‡Q? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖeÜwU g~jZ KvRx bRiyj Bmjv‡gi GKwU AwffvlY †_‡K †bIqv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ : (L) KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg †hŠe‡bi cÖwZ kª×v †cvlY K‡i‡Qb †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : cÖvYcÖvPz‡h©i AwaKvix KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg †hŠe‡bi cÖwZ kª×v †cvlY K‡i‡Qb| KviY †hŠeb cÖMwZi aviK I evnK| †hŠe‡bi e‡j ejxqvb n‡q †hŠe‡bi AwaKvixiv be be m„wó m¤¢v‡i c„w_ex‡K mw¾Z K‡i Ges cyivZb RxY© mgvR‡K †f‡O bZzb K‡i M‡o †Zv‡j| mgvR I †`‡ki DbœwZi †cQ‡b †hŠebkw³ AbyNU‡Ki KvR K‡i| ZvB KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg †hŠe‡bi cÖwZ Aš—‡ii kª×v wb‡e`b K‡i‡Qb| cÖkœ : (M) ÔAdziš— cÖvYkw³B gymv Beªvnxg‡K Gfv‡i÷ R‡q mvnvh¨ K‡i‡Q|ÕÑ Dw³wU Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡Ki gymv Beªvnxg Adziš— cÖvYkw³i Kvi‡YB Gfv‡i÷ Rq Ki‡Z m¶g n‡q‡Q| Gfv‡i‡÷i c_ wQj eÜzi| eY©bvZxZ Kó ¯^xKvi K‡i Zv‡K Gfv‡i‡÷i c‡_ cv evov‡Z n‡q‡Q| A‡b‡K Zv‡K wbi“rmvwnZ Kivi †Póv K‡i‡Q| wKš—y wKQz‡K fq bv K‡i wZwb Zuvi j‡¶¨ †cŠuQv‡bvi c_ †e‡Q wb‡q‡Qb| A_©‰bwZK Am”QjZvI Zvi c_ †iva Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| c‡_i mKj evav‡K Zz”Q Ávb K‡i c„ôv-115


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

j‡¶¨ †cuŠQv‡bvi Uv‡b mvg‡b GwM‡q wM‡q‡Qb wZwb Ges cÖgvY K‡i‡Qb †h Zvi“‡Y¨i kw³‡Z kw³gvb n‡q gvbyl A‡Rq‡K Rq Ki‡Z cv‡i| KvRx bRiyj Bmjv‡gi g‡Z, †hŠe‡bi AwaKvixiv e× N‡i Ave× n‡q _vK‡Z Pvq bv, RMZUv‡K Zviv fv‡jvfv‡e †`L‡Z Pvq| †hŠeb Adziš— I Aeva| ZvB †Zv Zi“Yiv AKz‡Zvfq| Zv‡`i kw³ Acwi‡gq| Zv‡`i MwZ‡eM SÅvi b¨vq, †ZR AwgZ| Zi“‡Yiv c‡_i evav‡K Zz”Q Ávb K‡i mvg‡bi w`‡K GwM‡q hvq| †Kvb Ackw³B Zv‡`i MwZ‡iva Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| †a‡q PjvB Zv‡`i Rxe‡bi ag©| g„Zz¨f‡q fxZ hviv Zviv KL‡bvB Kvw•¶Z j‡¶¨ †cŠuQv‡Z cv‡i bv| Kvw•¶Z j‡¶¨ †cŠuQv‡Z n‡j †hŠeb kw³‡Z wek¦vmx n‡q GwM‡q †h‡Z n‡e| cÖkœ : (N) ÔDÏxc‡Ki gymv Beªvnxg AvMvgx cÖR‡b¥i †cÖiYvi DrmÕÑ Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K GB Dw³wUi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : f~wgKv: KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg iwPZ Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü gvbwmKZvi gvcKvwV‡Z Zvi“Y¨ I eva©¨‡Ki cv_©K¨ wbY©q K‡i‡Qb| Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Zvi“Y¨ ej‡Z eywS‡q‡Qb gvby‡li †PZbv‡eva I cÖvYkw³‡K| †hŠe‡bi ag© nj bZzb bZzb Avwe®‹v‡ii †bkvq wb‡R‡K gË ivLv| hvi g‡a¨ †hŠeb Av‡Q Zvi kw³ Acwi‡gq; MwZ SÅvi b¨vq; Zvi Avkv wecyj; Drmvn K¬vwš—nxb; J`vh© weivU; Adziš— Zvi cÖvYkw³; g„Z¨z Zvi gywVZ‡j| GB ag© hv‡`i ZvivB †hŠe‡bi AwaKvix| DÏxc‡Ki gymv Beªvnx‡gi g‡a¨ Zvi“‡Y¨i ˆewkó¨ we`¨gvb| wZwb cÖvYa‡g© ejxqvb n‡q †KvwU †KvwU AvnŸv‡bi mvov wb‡q GwM‡q hvIqvi ¯ú„nv †_‡KB Gfv‡i÷ weR‡q m¶g n‡q‡Qb| fxi“, Kvcyi“liv Zv‡K wbi“rmvwnZ Kivi †Póv K‡i‡Q wKš—y mdj n‡Z cv‡i wb| ïay gvby‡li cÖ‡ivPbv‡KB wZwb D‡c¶v K‡ib wb; `vwi‡`ªi KlvNvZ‡KI D‡c¶v K‡i‡Qb| mKj evav AwZµg K‡i wZwb Zuvi j‡¶¨ †cŠu‡Q‡Qb| hv AvMvgx cÖR‡b¥i †cÖiYvi Drm n‡Z cv‡i| gymv Beªvnxg †h Kó ¯^xKvi K‡i Kvw•¶Z j‡¶¨ †cŠu‡Q‡Qb Zvi Abymvix AvMvgx cÖRb¥ n‡j †`k I RvwZi Rb¨ Zv †MŠie e‡q Avb‡e Ges †`k I RvwZ‡K DbœwZi w`‡K wb‡q hv‡e| †hŠeb kw³B Am¤¢e‡K m¤¢e Ki‡Z cv‡i| RvwZ‡K w`‡Z cv‡i bZzb c‡_i wVKvbv|

“ wb‡Pi QKwU ch©‡e¶Y Ki Ges cÖk¸ œ ‡jvi DËi `vI : (kviwgb myjZvbv) eva©K¨

mvaviY `„wó‡Z

KvRx bRi“j Bmjv‡gi `„wó‡Z

eq‡mi gvcKvwV

gvby‡li †PZbv‡eva I cÖvYkw³

50 eQi †_‡K g„Zz¨ ch©š—

†Kvb eqm mxgv †bB

kvixwiK MVb cwieZ©b, MZvbyMwZK ixwZ-bxwZ‡Z wek¦vmx

cyivZb‡K, wg_¨v‡K, g„Zz¨‡K AvuK‡o c‡o _v‡K| c„ôv-116


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg‡K †Kv_vq mvgwiK gh©v`vq mgvwnZ Kiv nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg‡K XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi †Kw›`ªq gmwR` msjMœ cÖv½‡b mvgwiK gh©v`vq mgvwnZ Kiv nq| cÖkœ : (L) eva©K¨ ej‡Z KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Kx eywS‡q‡Qb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : eva©K¨ ej‡Z KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg eywS‡q‡Qb, hviv wg_¨v I g„Zz¨‡K, RxY©Zv I cyivZb‡K AvuK‡o _v‡K; wPš—v-†PZbvq hviv ms¯‹v‡ii cvlvY¯—~c AvuK‡o c‡o _v‡K| †mB RxebB eva©‡K¨i fv‡i AebZ, †h Rxeb be m~‡h©v`‡qi Av‡jv‡K Nyg †f‡O hvIqvi f‡q Øvi i“× K‡i iv‡L| cÖK…Zc‡¶ eva©K¨ ZvB hvi g‡b I wPš—vq ¯’weiZv G‡m‡Q; eqm G ‡¶‡Î we‡eP¨ welq bq| cÖkœ : (M) Ôeva©K¨ ZvnvB hvnv cyivZb‡K, wg_¨v‡K, g„Zz¨‡K AvuKwoqv cwoqv _v‡KÕ- Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg e‡j‡Qb, e„× ZvivB hviv cyivZb‡K, wg_¨v‡K, g„Zz¨‡K AvuK‡o c‡o _v‡K| cªvewÜK Zvi“Y¨ I eva©K¨‡K eq‡mi gvcKvwV‡Z wePvi K‡ibwb| wZwb wePvi K‡i‡Qb gvby‡li †PZbv‡eva I cªvYkw³i gva¨‡g| cÖvYPv‡j¨i mRxe †PZbvi AfveB eva©K¨| A‡b‡K eq‡m hyeK n‡jI wg_¨v I RxY©Zv‡K Z¨vM Ki‡Z Pvq bv| Zviv hyeK n‡qI Rxebxkw³i Afv‡e e„×| Kv‡RB eq‡mi Ici eva©K¨ ev Zvi“Y¨ †KvbUvB wbf©i K‡i bv| e„×iv i¶Ykxj ¯’wei| gvby‡li bZzb I Awfbe RqhvÎvi †¶‡Î Zviv GKwU weivU †evSv| kZvãxi be hvÎxi Pjvi Q‡›` Q›` wgwj‡q Zviv Pj‡Z cv‡i bv| Zviv Rxe n‡qI Ro| Zviv AUj ms¯‹v‡ii cvlvY¯—c y AvuK‡o c‡o _v‡K| Av‡jvK wcqvmx cÖvY PÂj wkï‡`i Kj‡Kvjvn‡j Zviv wei³ n‡q Awfm¤úvZ Ki‡Z _v‡K| RxY© cywu _i wb‡P Pvcv c‡o Zv‡`i k¦vm eÜ nevi Dcµg| gvby‡li n‡Zv`¨g, Kg©wegyL, wb¯ú„n, fxi“ mËvB n‡jv eva©K¨| hviv gvbwmKfv‡e RivRxY©, Kzms¯‹vi‡K Avkªq K‡i Kvq‡K¬‡k wbtk¦vm †U‡b Rxeb cÖ`xcUv‡K R¡vwj‡q †i‡L‡Q, kvixwiK w`K †_‡K myMwVZ n‡jI cÖK…Z cÖ¯—v‡e ZvivB e„×| cÖkœ : (N) Ôeva©K¨‡K me mgq eq‡mi †d«‡g †eu‡a ivLv hvq bvÕÑ Dw³wU Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü eva©K¨‡K eq‡mi gvcKvwV‡Z wePvi K‡ib wb| Zuvi g‡Z, eva©K¨ gvby‡li †`‡n bq, g‡b| e„× e¨w³I AMÖmigvb wPš—vi Rb¨, gvbwmK mvn‡mi Rb¨, A`g¨ AbymwÜrmvi Kvi‡Y Zvi“‡Y¨i cÖZxK wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡Z cv‡ib| Avevi Agb †jvKI †`Lv hvq hviv eq‡m bexb n‡jI wPš—v-†PZbvq cðv`Mvgx, Kzms¯‹viv”Qbœ, wbivkvev`x I mskqKvZi| Avevi A‡bK e„× Av‡Q hv‡`i eva©‡K¨i RxY©vei‡Yi Z‡j †gNjyß m~‡h©i g‡Zv cÖ`xß †hŠeb| †Zgwb A‡bK hyeK Av‡Q hv‡`i Dw`©i wb‡P eva©‡K¨i K¼vj g~wZ©| cÖK…Zc‡¶ †hŠeb cÖvYcÖvPzh© Ges cÖvYkw³‡ZB wbwnZ| mvaviYZ eq‡mi gva¨‡g Avgiv Avgv‡`i kvixwiK Ae¯’v cÖKvk K‡i _vwK| wKš—y KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg eq‡mi †d«g‡K †g‡b wb‡Z ivwR bb| Ô†d«gÕ kãwUi A_© n‡”Q LuvPv| wKš—y GLv‡b eva©K¨ wbY©‡q GB LuvPv ev MwʇK gv‡bb wb cÖvewÜK| wZwb eva©K¨‡K we‡k−lY K‡i‡Qb gb¯—vwË¡K w`K †_‡K| cÖKZ … e„× Zv‡KB ejv DwPZ hvi wPš—v I †PZbvq RoZ¡ G‡m‡Q| †`n ev eqm G ‡¶‡Î cÖavb we‡eP¨ bq| c„ôv-117


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

” wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt Aveyj evkvi) ÔAvVv‡iv eQi eq‡mi bvB fq c`vNv‡Z Pvq fvO‡Z cv_i evav, G eq‡m †KD gv_v †bvqvevi bqAvVv‡iv eQi eqm Rv‡b bv Kuv`v| cÖk:œ K) Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †jLK wb‡R‡K Kv‡`i `jfy³ e‡j D‡j−L K‡i‡Qb? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †jLK wb‡R‡K Zuv‡`i `jfy³ e‡j D‡j−L K‡i‡Qb, huviv Kgx© bb, a¨vbx| cÖkœ: L) Ô†hŠeb-m~h© h_vq A¯—wgZ, `yt†Li wZwgi-Kzš—jv wbkxw_bxi †mB †Zv jxjvf~wgÕ-e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: †hŠeb ev Zvi“Y¨B n‡”Q gvbeRxe‡bi cÖavb m¤ú`| †hŠeb m~‡h©i gZB cÖ`xß| d‡j †hŠe‡bi †hLv‡b mgvwß `yt†Li m~Pbv †mB mxgvbv †_‡KB| †hŠeb gvbyl‡K †`q Kg©¯ú„nv, D`¨g, Rxebv‡eM I Am¤¢e‡K m¤¢e Kivi g~jgš¿| ZvB †hŠebnxb Rxeb A_©nxb| cÖkœ: M) DÏxc‡K Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi †Kvb w`KwU cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q? Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: AvVv‡iv eQi eqm gvbeRxe‡bi GKwU ¸i“Z¡c~Y© mgq-cwimi| G mg‡q †hŠeb ev Zvi“‡Y¨i ˆewk󨸇jv cÖejfv‡e cÖKvwkZ nq| Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡�� †jLK e‡j‡Qb- Zi“Y bv‡gi Rq-gyKUz ïay ZvnviB, hvnvi kw³ AcwigvY, MwZ‡eM SÅvi b¨vq, †ZR wb‡g©N Avlvp ga¨v‡ýi cÖvq, wecyj hvnvi Avkv, K¬vwš—nxb hvnvi Drmvn, weivU hvnvi J`vh©, Adziš— hvnvi cÖvY, AUj hvnvi mvabv, g„Zz¨ hvnvi gywVZ‡j| DÏxc‡K Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi GB w`KwU cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q| †hŠeb me evav‡K †f‡O w`‡q, me cÖwZeÜKZv‡K AwZµg K‡i mvg‡b GwM‡q †h‡Z Drmvn †`q| G-eq‡m Kv‡iv Kv‡Q gv_v bZ Kivi ev civwRZ nIqvi cÖkœB Av‡m bv| cÖkœ: N) ÔG eq‡m †KD gv_v †bvqvevi bqÕ- Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: †hŠeb gvbyl‡K †`q †cÖiYv, DÏxcbv I Am¤¢e‡K m¤¢e Kivi gš¿Yv| Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg †hŠe‡bi †h ˆewkó¸‡jv Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb Zvi g‡a¨ D‡j−L‡hvM¨ n‡jv AvZ¥‡eva, AZ¥‡PZbv I GK ai‡bi J×Z¨ hv `y‡R©q‡K Rq Kivi †cÖiYv †hvMvq| DÏxc‡Ki csw³wUi ga¨ w`‡q I GKB †eva cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q| †hŠeb ev Zvi“Y¨ †Kv‡bv eÜb gv‡b bv, Kv‡iv Kv‡Q gv_v bZ K‡ibv, GgbwK civRqI ¯^xKvi K‡i bv| d‡j Zi“YivB cv‡i mgvR‡K e`‡j w`‡Z| APj cÖ_v I Kzms¯‹v‡ii wei“‡×B Zv‡`i Ae¯’vb|

” wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt Aveyj evkvi) wgZzj GKv`k †kªYxi GKRb QvÎ| †jLvcovi cvkvcvwk wewfbœ mgvR‡mevg~jK Kv‡RI †m RwoZ| Amnvq I `y¯’ gvbyl‡`i †m †hgb mvnvh¨ K‡i, †Zgwb cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡M ¶wZMÖ¯— GjvKvq wbijmfv‡e KvR K‡i hvq| ïay ZvB bq GjvKvi AviI wKš‘y D`¨gx hyeK‡K mv‡_ wb‡q †m e„¶‡ivcb Kg©m~wPi ga¨ w`‡q cy‡iv MÖvg‡K meyR K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| cÖkœ: K) Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖeÜwUi †jLK †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖeÜwUi †jLK KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg| cÖk:œ L) Ô†hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒcÕ ej‡Z †jLK Kx eywS‡q‡Qb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: †hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒc ej‡Z †jLK †hŠe‡bi †Kvgj †mevcivqY w`K‡K wb‡`©k K‡i‡Qb| hviv ke enb K‡i wb‡q hvq k¥kvbNv‡U, Abvnv‡i †_‡K hviv Abœ cwi‡ekb K‡i `ywf©¶ eb¨v-cxwoZ‡`i gy‡L, eÜynxb †ivMxi kh¨vcv‡k© hviv ivwÎ †R‡M cwiPh©v K‡i, hviv `ye©‡ji cv‡k ej n‡q `uvovq, nZv‡ki ey‡K Avkv RvMvq, Zv‡`i g‡a¨ †jLK †hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒc cÖZ¨¶ K‡i‡Qb| c„ôv-118


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: M) Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †jLK hv‡`i RqMvb †M‡q‡Qb, wgZzj‡K wK Zv‡`i GKRb wn‡m‡e fvev hvq? †Zvgvi DËi‡i mc‡¶ hyw³ `vI| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †jLK hv‡`i RqMvb †M‡q‡Qb wgZzj‡K wbtm‡›`‡n Zv‡`i GKRb wn‡m‡e fvev hvq| KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg Zv‡`i‡KB Zi“Y wn‡m‡e AwfwnZ K‡i‡Qb hviv me evav, Kzms¯‹vi, wg_¨v, g„Z¨z ‡K wWwO‡q mvg‡b GwM‡q hvq hviv wb‡Ri Rxeb‡K wecbœ K‡i Ab¨‡K mnvqZv K‡i| DÏxc‡Ki wgZz‡ji g‡a¨I Avgiv GB ¸Y¸‡jv j¶ Kwi| wgZzj cov‡kvbvi cvkvcvwk wewfbœ mgvR‡mevg~jK Kv‡R I AvZ¥wb‡ew`Z| cÖkœ: N) Ô†hŠe‡bi m¤¢vebvgq w`K¸‡jv wgZz‡ji ga¨ w`‡q cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡QÕ Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: †hŠeb gvbeRxe‡bi Ggb GKwU DËvj mgq, hLb gvbyl ïf I Aïf †h †Kv‡bv w`‡KB avweZ n‡Z cv‡i| †hŠeb gvbyl‡K †`q kw³, mvnm I Am¤¢e‡K m¤¢e Kivi †cÖiYv| Ô‡hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †jLK †hŠe‡bi †h gvZ…iƒ‡ci K_v e‡j‡Qb, Zv Avgiv wgZz‡ji g‡a¨ j¶ Kwi| wgZzj Amnvq I `y¯’ gvbyl‡`i mnvqZvq GwM‡q hvq| GgbwK cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡M ¶wZMÖ¯— GjvKvq wbijmfv‡e KvR K‡i hvq| Ab¨w`‡K wgZzj mgvR‡K e`‡j †`qvi cÖZ¨‡qI AvZ¥wb‡ew`Z| GjvKvi †ek wKQy D`¨gx hyeK‡K m‡½ wb‡q wgZzj †h e„¶‡ivcb Awfhvb ïi“ K‡i Zv‡ZI Zvi“‡Y¨i D¾¡jZv cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| d‡j †hŠe‡bi m¤¢vebvgq w`K¸‡jv wgZz‡ji g‡a¨ w`‡q cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q, GK_v wbtm‡›`‡n ejv hvq|

” wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt Aveyj evkvi)

Mni Avjx mËi eQ‡ii GKRb e„×| wKš‘ g‡bi w`K †_‡K wZwb GL‡bv Zi“Y| mgv‡Ri AgvbweK Kzms¯‹vi¸‡jv‡K wZwb g‡bcÖv‡Y N„Yv K‡ib| †h †Kv‡bv ai‡bi †kvlb-eÂbvi wei“‡× wZwb gv_v Zz‡j `uvovb, AskMÖnY K‡ib cÖwZev`x wgwQ‡j| A‡bK wb®cÖvY Zi“Y I Zv‡K †`‡L DrmvwnZ nq|

cÖkœ: (K) Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü Mv‡bi cvwL‡K Zvov K‡i †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü eqm-wd‡O Mv‡bi cvwL‡K Zvov K‡i| cÖkœ: (L) Ô†h, Puv` mvM‡i †Rvqvi RvMvq, †m nqZ Zvnvi kw³ m¤^‡Ü AvRI bv-IqvwKdÕ- eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †jLK wb‡Ri m¤ú‡K© gš—e¨ Ki‡Z wM‡q GK_v e‡j‡Qb| Kwe KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg †hŠe‡bi c~Rvix| Zvi“‡Y¨i RqMvbB Zvi ag©| Zvi †mB RqMvb Ab¨‡`i‡K ¯^vfvweKfv‡e cÖfvweZ K‡i| wKš‘ Kwe Zuvi †mB ¶gZv m¤ú‡K© D`vmxb| cÖkœ: (M) Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Mni Avjx‡K wK GKRb Zi“Y wn‡m‡e AvL¨vwqZ Kiv hvq? †Zvgvi Dˇii mc‡¶ hyw³ `vI| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †jLK †hŠe‡bi †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó eqmmxgv †eu‡a †`b wb, eis Zuvi we‡ePbvq †hŠeb wVK eq‡mi Ici wbf©i K‡i bv, wbf©i K‡i g‡bvfw½i Ici| DÏxc‡Ki Mni Avjx‡K ZvB GKRb Zi“Y wn‡m‡e AvL¨vwqZ Kiv hvq| KviY Mni Avjx eq‡mi w`K †_‡K e„× n‡Z cv‡i, wKš‘ g‡bi w`K †_‡K Zi“Y| wZwb Kzms¯‹vi‡K AvuK‡o _v‡K bv, GgbwK cÖwZev`x wgwQ‡j Ask wb‡ZI wØav K‡ib bv, hv Zvi“‡Y¨iB ˆewkó¨ wb‡`©kK| cÖkœ: (N) Ôeva©K¨‡K me mgq eq‡mi †d«‡g euvav hvq bvÕ- DÏxcK I Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †jLK e‡j‡Qb, Ôeva©K¨‡K me mgq eq‡mi †d«‡g euvav hvq bvÕ| KviY A‡bK hye‡Ki g‡a¨ eva©‡K¨i RxY© K¼vj j¶ Kiv hvq| Avevi A‡bK e„‡×i g‡a¨I _v‡K Zvi“Y¨| ZvB †hŠeb ev Zvi“Y¨ wVK eqm wbf©i bq eis gbgvbwmKZv I `„wófw½ wbf©i| DÏxc‡K Mni Avjxi g‡a¨ I Zvi“‡Y¨i A‡bK ˆewkó¨ cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| Mni Avjx eq‡mi w`K †_‡K e„× n‡jI g‡bi w`K †_‡K wZwb GKRb Zi“Y| wZwb †h †Kv‡bv Ab¨vq AwePv‡ii wei“‡× gv_v Zz‡j `uvovb, Ask †bb cÖwZev`x wgwQ‡j, GgbwK mgv‡Ri AgvbweK Kzms¯‹vi¸‡jv‡KI wZwb g‡bcÖv‡Y N„Yv K‡ib| G¸‡jv Zvi“‡Y¨iB ˆewkó¨-ZvB Ôeva¨K¨‡K me mgq eq‡mi †d«‡g euvav hvq bvÕ- GK_v wbtm‡›`‡n ejv hvq| c„ôv-119


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

ˆbe©¨w³K cÖkœvewj †hŠe‡bi Mvb †gv‡k©`j y Avjg (†gv‡k©`) 1. KvRx bRi“j Bmjv‡gi Rb¥ KZ mv‡j? K 1789 wLªóv‡ãi 1jv †g L 1799 wLªóv‡ãi 20†k †g M 1899 wLªóv‡ãi 25 †k †g N 1891 wLªóv‡ãi 15B †g 2. KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg †Kvb †Rjvq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? K ûMjx †Rjv L ea©gvb †Rjv M †gw`bxcyi †Rjv N PweŸk MiMbv †Rjv 3. KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg KZ mv‡j evOvwj cë‡b †hvM †`b? K 1917 mv‡j L 1916 mv‡j M 1915 mv‡j N 1914 mv‡j 4. KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg KZ eQi eq‡m †iv‡M Avµvš— nb? K 40 eQi L 41 eQi M 42 eQi N 43 eQi 5. †KvbwU KvRx bRi“j Bmjv‡gi Kve¨ bq? K AwMœexYv √L wPÎv M QvqvbU N PµevK 6. Kv‡K ÔRvZxq Kwei gh©v`vq f~wlZ Kiv nq? K iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi L KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg M gvB‡Kj gaym~`b `Ë N kvgmyi ivngvb 7. ‡KvbwU KvRx bRi“j Bmjv‡gi Dcb¨vm? K bqbPviv L †`bvcvIbv M Pvi Aa¨vq N g„Zz¨¶zav 8. †KvbwU KvRx bRi“j Bmjv‡gi cÖeÜMÖš’? K KgjvKv‡š—i `ßi L `yw`©‡bi hvÎx M myjZvbvi ¯^cœ N exie‡ji nvjLvZv 9. KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg KZ mv‡j B‡š—Kvj K‡ib? K 1975 mvj L 1976 mvj M 1977 mvj N 1987 mvj 10. KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg Bmjvg KZ Zvwi‡L B‡š—Kvj K‡ib? K 23 †g L 29 AvM÷ M 15 AvM÷ N 20 RyjvB 11. †K e³…Zvq w`wM¦Rqx? K ZzNjK Luv L j²Y‡mb M ew³qvi wLjwR N Clv Luv

− KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg

12. Kv‡K Mv‡bi cvwL ejv nq? K †KvwKj L KvK M KeyZi N evqm 13. KvRx bRi“j Kvi Awm‡Z Zvi“Y¨ †`‡L‡Qb? K Kvgv‡ji L Kvjvcvnv‡oi M Kwi‡gi N †jwj‡bi 14. †Kvb MwZ‡K cðv‡Z †d‡j Zi“Yiv D‡o †h‡Z Pvq? K we`y¨r MwZ L Rvnv‡Ri MwZ M wegv‡bi MwZ N cebMwZ 15. †hŠe‡bi wfbœ iƒcwU Kx? K i“`ªiƒc L gvZ…iƒc M SÅvviƒc N wcZ…iƒc 16. kw³i wcQ‡b Kvi f~wgKv _v‡K? K e„wó aviv L i“wai aviv M AkÖ“ aviv N Av›`aviv 17. KvRx bRi“j Bmjv‡gi MÖv‡gi bvg Kx wQj? K wÎkvj L `wiivgcyi M KvRxiwkgjv N Pzi“wjqv 18. KvRx bRi“j Bmjv‡gi Mv‡bi `‡ji bvg Kx? K evDj `j L †j‡Uv `j M Uàv `j N hvÎv`j 19. Kwei mvwnZ¨ Rxe‡bi ïi“ nq †Kv_vq? K KivwP L KjKvZv M XvKv N Pi“wjqv 20. ÔPÂzÕ K_vwUi A_© wK? K †VuvU L bvK M Kvb N Mjv 21. mvM‡i †Rvqvi RvMvq †K? K Puv` L m~h© M mybvwg N f~wgK¤ú 22. ÔZvi“Y¨Õ wK‡mi †`eZv? K †g‡Ni †`eZv L kw³i †`eZv M mg~‡`ªi †`eZv N Av‡jvi †`eZv 23. Ôi“wai avivÕ K_vwUi A_© wK? K i‡³i cÖevn L AkÖ“ aviv M SY©v aviv N Rjaviv

c„ôv-120


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

24. ÔgvZ©ÊÕ K_vwUi A_©? K gv_v L c„w_ex M gi“f~wg N m~h© 25. Kvgvj cvkv †Kvb †`‡ki †bZv? K Zzi¯‹ L wgki M wdwjw¯—b N RW©vb 26. gy‡mvwjwb †Kvb †`‡ki †bZv? K Av‡gwiKv L BZvwj M Rvg©vb N ivwkqv 27. mvb Bqvr †Kvb †`‡ki †bZv? K fviZ L cvwK¯—vb M AvdMvwb¯—vb N Pxb 28. †jwbb †Kvb †`‡ki †bZv? K Av‡gwiqv L ivwkqv M e„‡Ub N d«vÝ 29. KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg †Kv_vq fvlYwU w`‡qwQ‡jb? K PÆMÖvg L Kzwgj−v M XvKv N wmivRMÄ 30. †Lv`v nvZ w`‡q‡Qb †Kb? K wµ‡KU †Ljvi Rb¨ L gvivgvwi Kivi Rb¨ M Zvk †Ljvi Rb¨ N †e‡nkZ I †e‡nkwZ wPR AR©b Kivi Rb¨ 31. bRi“j Bmjvg evsjv‡`‡ki †Kvb †Rjvq cov‡kvbv K‡i‡Qb? K XvKv L gqgbwmsn M Lyjbv N Kzwgj−v 32. Ô†gvnwb`ªvÕ mgv‡mi †Kvb e¨vmevK¨wU mwVK? K †gvn I wb`ªv L †gv‡ni wb`ªv M †gv‡ni wbwg‡Ë wb`ªv N †gvn iƒc wb`ªv 33. Ôe¨_vi `vbÕ bRi“‡ji †Kvb ai‡bi MÖš’? K Dcb¨vm L Kve¨MÖš’ M bvUK N MíMÖš’ 34. ÔhyMevYxÕ bRi“‡ji †Kvb ai‡bi MÖš’? K cÖeÜ L Mí M bvUK N Dcb¨vm 35. bRi“j Bmjvg‡K †Kv_vq Kei †`Iqv nq? K Pzi“wjqvq L XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi †K›`ªxq gmwR‡`i cv‡k M ivRkvnx wek¦we`¨vj‡qi gmwR‡`i cv‡k N PÆMÖvg wek¦we`¨vj‡qi gmwR‡`i cv‡k 36. j²Y †mb †K? K cvj es‡ki ivRv L †mb es‡ki ivRv M †mb es‡ki †kl ivRv N weL¨vZ Kwe

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

37. Kvjv cvnvo †K? K wn›`y ivRv L gymwjg †hv×v M Bûw` †hv×v N wLªóvb †hv×v 38. Kv‡K AvaywbK Zzi‡¯‹i RbK ejv nq? K †jwbb L mvb-Bqvr M Kvjvcvnvo N Kvgvjcvkv 39. i“k wec−e KZ mv‡j msNwUZ nq? K 1917 mv‡j L 1918 mv‡j M 1919 mv‡j N 1920 mv‡j 40. KZ wLª: bRi“j AwffvlYwU w`‡qwQ‡jb? K 1928 mv‡j L 1930 mv‡j M 1932 mv‡j N 1934 mv‡j 41. †jwb‡bi cÖK…Z bvg Kx? K f−vw`wgi †jwbb L f−vw`wgi Bwjqv‡bvW M f−vw`wgi BwjP Dwjqv‡bvd N f−vw`wgi BwjP 42. j²Y †mb cvwj‡qwQj †Kb? K AvZ¥i¶vi Rb¨ L ivR¨ R‡qi Rb¨ M hy× Kivi Rb¨ N m¤ú` Pzwi K‡i 43. bRi“j Bmjvg‡K KZ mvj bvMwiKZ¡ †`qv nq? K 1972 mv‡j L 1974 mv‡j M 1975 mv‡j N 1976 mv‡j 44. †K AvZZvqxi nv‡Z wbnZ nb? K gy‡mvwjwb L Kvgvj cvkv M mvb-Bqvr N †jwbb 45. ÔDw`©Õ kãUv Kx A‡_© e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q? K Rvgv A‡_© L we‡kl †cvkvK A‡_© M BDwbdg© N Uzwc 46. Ôgywi`Õ k‡ãi A_© wK? K wk¶v_x© L wk¶K M ¸i“ N wkl¨ 47. wb‡Pi †Kvb evbvbwU mwVK? K wbtk¦vk L wbtk¦vm M wbk¦vk N wbtmvk 48. cwic~Y© k‡ãi ÔcwiÕ DcmM©wU †Kvb †kªYxi ? K Zrmg L Aa© Zrmg M Aviwe N dviwm 49. Ôw`wM¦RqxÕ kãwU e¨vKi‡Yi †Kvb wbq‡g MwVZ n‡q‡Q? K mgvm‡hv‡M L DcmM©‡hv‡M M mw܇hv‡M N cÖZ¨q‡hv‡M 50. ÔAwff~ZÕ k‡ã ÔAwfÕ DcmM©wU †Kvb A‡_© e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q? K m¤§yL A‡_© L †cQb A‡_© M Mgb A‡_© N mg¨K A‡_©

c„ôv-121


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

51. ÔARvbvÕ k‡ãi ÔAÕ DcmM©wU Kx A‡_© e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q? K Afve A‡_© L wbw›`Z A‡_© M µgvMZ A‡_© N Acwic~Y© A‡_© 52. ÔevwbÕ k‡ãi e¨envwiK A_© †KvbwU? K K_v L Dw³ M evYx N Mqbv ˆZwii gRywi 53. Ô†gvnwb`ªvÕ mgv‡mi mgm¨gvb iƒc †KvbwU? K †gv‡ni wb`ªv L †gvn iƒc wb`ªv M †gvn Øviv wb`ªv N †gv‡ni Rb¨ wb`ªv 54. Ôbec„w_exÕ †Kvb mgv‡mi D`vniY? K Ø›Ø L wظ M Zrcyi“l N Kg©aviq 55. Ômwjj mgvwaÕ mgv‡mi mgm¨gvb iƒc †KvbwU? K mwj‡j mgvwa L mwj‡j Dci mgvwa M `wjj mgvwa hvi N mwjj iƒc mgvwa 56. ÔggZvimÕ mgv‡mi mgm¨gvb iƒc †KvbwU? K ggZvi im L ggZvi Rb¨ im M ggZv wgwkªZ im N ggZv I im 57. †Kvb iPbvq Avie †e`yCb‡`i cÖm½ Av‡Q? K ˆngš—x L †hŠe‡bi Mvb M wejvmx N mvwn‡Z¨ †Ljv 58. KvRx bRi“‡ji cÖ_g iPbv †KvbwU? K we‡`ªvnx L Avwg ˆmwbK M evD‡Ê‡ji AvZ¥Kvwnbx N PµevK 59. ÔgvZ©ÛcÖvqÕ kãwU w`‡q Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q? K m~‡h©i gZ L b¶‡Îi g‡Zv M cvnv‡oi gZ N MÖ‡ni gZ 60. bRi“j‡K Ôwe‡`ªvnx KweÕ ejv nq †Kb? i. mvgvwRK AwePv‡ii wei“‡× †jLwb avi‡Yi Rb¨ ii. civaxbZvi wei“‡× †jLwb avi‡Yi Rb¨ iii. RvZxq Kwei gh©v`vq f~wlZ nIqvi Rb¨ wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M i I iii N iii 61. eva©‡K¨i ˆewkó¨ n‡jvi. cyivZb‡K AuvK‡o aiv ii. wg_¨v‡K AuvK‡o aiv iii. g„Zz¨‡K AuvK‡o aiv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M i, ii I iii N iii

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

62. KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg‡K XvKvq G‡bi. bvMwiKZ¡ †`Iqv nq ii. RvZxq Kwei gh©v`vq f~wlZ Kiv nq iii. g„Zz¨‡K AuvK‡o aiv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M i I ii N ii I iii 63. †hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒc n‡jvi. ke enb K‡i wb‡q hvq k¥kvb Nv‡U ii. Abœ cwi‡ekb K‡i `ywf©¶ I eb¨vcxwo‡Z‡`i gy‡L iii. nZvkvi ey‡K Avkv RvMvq wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M i, ii I iii N ii I iii 64. ÔAwMœgv›`¨Õ kãwUi e¨envwiK A_©i. ARxY©Zv ii. ¶zavg›`v iii. Wvqwiqv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L i I ii M ii I iii N i, ii I iii 65. KvRx bRi“j Bmjv‡gi Ôwe‡`ªvnx KweÕ L¨vwZ Qwo‡q c‡o †Kvb Kve¨MÖ‡š’i gva¨‡g? K cÖjq wkLv L we‡li euvwk M AwMœexYv N wm›ay wn‡›`vj 66. KvRx bRi“j hye‡Ki g‡a¨ †hgb eva©K¨ †`‡L‡Qb †Zgwb e„‡×i g‡a¨ Kx †`‡L‡Qb? K m~‡h©i Av‡jv L †hŠe‡bi iƒc M hy‡×i Wvgv‡Wvj N †hŠe‡bi Avfvm 67. Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü ÔKvjvcvnvoÕ †K wK‡mi cÖZxK wn‡m‡e Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q? K ˆekvLx S‡oi L weL¨vZ †hv×vi M gnvcivµgkvjxi N fq¼i I cÖjq¼i aŸs‡mi 68. Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi mdjZvi cÖavb KviY, Lyu‡R cvIqv hvqK bvKKi‡Yi g‡a¨ L fvlv‰kjx I Dcgv cÖ‡qv‡M M eva©‡K¨i ˆewkó¨ cÖKv‡k N †hŠe‡bi ˆewkó¨ cÖKv‡k

c„ôv-122


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

69. Kwe KvRx bRi“j Bmjv‡gi iwPZ K‡qKwU MÖš’ n‡jvi. AwMœexYv, we‡li euvwk, QvqvbU ii. e¨_vi `vb, wi‡³i †e`b, wkDwjgvjv iii. hyM-evYx, `yw`©‡bi hvÎx, i“`ª-g½j wb‡Pi †Kvb ¸”QwU Kwei Kve¨MÖš’? Ki L ii M iii N ii I iii 70. KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg‡K †`qv me‡P‡q eo m¤§vb †KvbwU? K bvMwiKZ¡ L we‡`ªvnx Kwe L¨vwZ M wW.wjU wWwMÖ cÖ`vb N RvZxq Kwei gh©`v 71. ÔAvwg Kg e³vi `‡jÕ-GLv‡b ÔKg e³vÕ †K? K hviv a¨vbx L eLwZqvi wLjwR M hviv Kgx© bq N nhiZ LvRvLvbRvnvb (iv.) 72. `y`©kvMÖ¯—‡`i R‡b¨ cÖvYc‡b KvR Kiv n‡jvK †hŠe‡bi wcZ…iƒc L †hŠe‡bi Ki“biƒc M †hŠe‡bi gvZ…iƒc N †hŠe‡bi mvnmxiƒc 73. Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi welqe¯‘ n‡jvK †hŠe‡bi DÏxcbv L †hŠe‡bi cÖkw¯— M eva©¨‡Ki ¯^iƒc N Ab¨v‡qi cÖwZev` 74. †hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †`wL‡q‡Qbi. †hŠe‡bi ˆewkó¨ ii. eva©‡K¨i ˆewkó¨ iii. `yiš— `ye©vi †hŠe‡bi cÖkw¯— wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M iii N i, ii I iii 75. eva¨©K¨ ej‡Z †jLK eywS‡q‡Qbi. cyivZb‡K ii. wg_¨v‡K iii. Kzms¯‹vi‡K wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M iii N i, ii I iii 76. kw³i †cQ‡b i“wai avivi g‡Zv †Mvcb _v‡Kb Kviv? i. huviv gvbe RvwZi Kj¨vY K‡ib ii. huviv Kgx© bb a¨vbx iii. huviv †hŠe‡bi c~Rvwi wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L i I ii M ii I iii N i, ii I iii

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

77. wb‡gœv³ †Kvb ¸”QwU KvRx bRi“j Bmjv‡gi Dcb¨vm MÖš’? K wi‡³i †e`b, e¨_vi `vb, wkDjxgvjv L QvqvbU, PµevK, we‡li euvwk M Kz‡njxKv, euvabnviv, g„Zz��-¶zav N hyM-evYx, `yw`©‡bi hvÎx, i“`ª-g½j 78. Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †jLK †hŠe‡bi cÖkw¯— †M‡q‡Qb| Zvi KviYi. †hŠe‡bi `yiš— `ye©vi ii. †hŠe‡bi MwZ‡eM SÅvi b¨vq iii. †hŠeb nZv‡ki ey‡K Avkv RvMvq wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M iii N i, ii I iii 79. RvwZ-agx© Kvj‡K AwZµg Kivi A_©i. AvZ¥‡Kw›`ªK bv nIqv ii. hy‡Mi nvIqvq cÖfvweZ bv nIqv iii. wek¦gvbeZvi †mev Kiv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i, ii I iii 80. Ôevqm-wd‡O †ePviv Mv‡bi cvwL‡K Zvov K‡iÕ-GLv‡b ÔevqmÕ n‡jvi. †hŠe‡bi cÖZxK ii. eva©‡K¨i cÖZxK iii. Zvi“‡Y¨i cÖZxK wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i I ii 81. c„w_exi cÖ_g ÔmgvRZvwš¿KÕ ivóª †KvbwU? K ivwkqv L BZvwj M Bsj¨vÛ N Pxb 82. Kwe‡`i evYx e‡q P‡jK cÙv-fvMxi_xi g‡Zv L ¶xY fxi“ Sibvavivi g‡Zv M cÖRvcwZi g‡Zv N Li‡mªvZv b`xi g‡Zv 83. Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q †jL‡Kii. Bmjvwg †PZbv ii. mvg¨ev`x †PZbv iii. we‡`ªvnx †PZbv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N ii I iii 84. ÔAvgiv mKj †`‡ki, mKj RvwZi, mKj a‡g©i, mKj Kv‡ji|Õ-Dw³wU‡Z dz‡U D‡V‡QK gvbweKZv L agx©q †PZbv M wek¦RbxbZv N mv¤cÖ`vwqKZv c„ôv-123


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb (1919-1988) ”

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (Avey bCg †gv¯—dv) mš¿vmx Kg©Kv‡Êi Kvi‡Y wmivR‡K MÖv‡gi mevB GK bv‡g †P‡b| gyw³hy× ïi“ n‡j wmivR cvK evwnbx‡K mnvqZv ïi“ K‡i| gyw³‡hv×v‡`i Ae¯’vb wbY©q, N‡ii eD-wS‡`i a‡i †bqv, cvKevwnbxi Lvev‡ii e¨e¯’v Kiv BZ¨vw` KvR i“wUb n‡q `uvovq Zvi| GKw`b gyw³‡hv×viv Zv‡K a‡i wb‡q hvq Ges GKwU nvZ I `ywU Kvb †K‡U †`q| wmivR‡K †`L‡j AvRI mevB ÔKvbKvUvÕ wmivR e‡j|

cÖkœ: K) †Kv›`v Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ‡Kv›`v ZvjMvQ †_‡K ˆZwi GK we‡kl ai‡bi †bŠKv| cÖkœ: L) LZibvK NUbvUv Kx?-e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: nwigwZ I mygwZ gv I †g‡q| b`xi NvU †_‡K †divi mgq cvK‡mbviv Zv‡`i avIqv K‡i| avIqv †L‡q Zviv GKwU ¯‹zj N‡i ‡Xv‡K| wKQy¶Y gv I †g‡qi wPrKvi †kvbv hvq; Zvici me bxie| cvK‡mbviv wdi‡Z ïi“ Ki‡j gyw³ evwnbxi ¸wj‡Z GKR‡bi gv_vi Lywj D‡o hvq| Av‡iKR‡bi Di“ †f` K‡i ¸wj †ewi‡q hvq| cvK evwnbxi G‡nb Kg© I Zvi dj‡KB LZibvK NUbv ejv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: M) DÏxc‡Ki wmiv‡Ri Pwi‡Îi mv‡_ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi KwjgwÏi Pwi‡Îi ˆemv`„k¨ †`LvI| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í KwjgwÏ †`k‡cÖwgK PwiÎ| miKvwi PvKwiRxex wn‡m‡e †m hLb †h miKvi ZLb Zvi ûKzg cvjb K‡i| wKš‘ Zvi ü`‡q ¯’vwcZ ¯^‡`‡ki ¯^cœ f½ †nvK †mUvI †m †g‡b wb‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvB cÖKv‡k¨ cvK evwnbx‡K mnvqZv Ki‡jI wfZ‡i wfZ‡i †m gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mv‡_ m¤úK© iv‡L| Ab¨w`‡K DÏxc‡K wmivR GKRb mš¿vmx| cvK evwnbxi KvQ †_‡K myweav Av`vq Kivi Rb¨ †m bvbv ai‡bi AcK‡g©i mv‡_ Rwo‡q c‡o| eD-wS‡`i a‡i †bqv, gyw³ wbab, nvbv`vi‡`i Lvev‡ii e¨e¯’v Kiv BZ¨vw` Lvivc KvR wmiv‡Ri wbZ¨Kvi i“wUb| AvcvZ `„wó‡Z KwjgwÏ I wmiv‡Ri g‡a¨ mv`„k¨ j¶ Kiv †M‡jI cÖK…Z `„wó‡Z GKRb †`k‡cÖwgK Ab¨Rb †`k‡`ªvnx| cÖk:œ N) DÏxcK I KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Mí Aej¤^‡b gyw³hy× mgqKvjxb cvKevwnbxi AZ¨vPv‡ii ¯^iƒc we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í ewY©Z n‡q‡Q evsjv‡`‡ki MÖvgv‡j cvwK¯—vwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi wbôzi ee©iZvi Qwe| gyw³hy‡×i `xN© bq gvm AZ¨vPvi, wbh©vZb, AwMœms‡hvM I nZ¨vi aŸsm¯Z~c †cwi‡q G‡m‡Q Kvw•¶Z ¯^vaxbZv| cvKevwnbxi wbh©vZ‡bi GKwU we‡kl wPÎ KwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡í I DÏxc‡K dz‡U D‡V‡Q| GKvˇi msNwUZ hy‡× cvKevwnbx ee©iZvq Ab¨me fqvenZv‡K nvi gvbvq| DÏxc‡K wmiv‡Ri g‡Zv GKRb mgvRwe‡ivax e¨w³‡K w`‡q cvKevwnbx bvbv AcKg© mvab K‡i| cvKevwnbxi bvix wjáv c~i‡Y wmivR MÖv‡gi eD-wS‡`i a‡i Av‡b| MÖvg †_‡K nvm, gyiwM, Lvwm a‡i wb‡q †m cvK evwnbxi imbvi Zw…ß NUvq| gyw³evwnbxi Ae¯’vb Rvwb‡q †`kgvZ…Kvi civaxbZv‡K cÖjw¤^Z K‡i| Avi G meB N‡U‡Q cvKevwnbxi cÖZ¨¶ g`‡`| KwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡í cvKevwnbx nwigwZ I mygwZi k−xjZvnvwb K‡i| MÖv‡gi ci MÖvg AwMœms‡hvM K‡i| mvaviY ivLvj evjK‡K gyw³ e‡j ¸wj K‡i nZ¨v K‡i| gyw³ wba‡bi Rb¨ `~i `~iv‡š— Unj w`‡q †eovq| myZivs DÏxcK I KwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡í cvK evwnbxi AZ¨vPvi wbg©g w`KwU dz‡U D‡V‡Q GK_v ejv hvq| c„ôv-124


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (Avey bCg †gv¯—dv)

W. wknve lv‡Ui `k‡Ki GKRb eyw×Rxex| †m mg‡q Zvi e³e¨ I †jLv c‡o mvaviY gvbyl e¨w_Z nZ| KviY wZwb evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZvKvgx gvby‡li wec‡¶ ej‡Zb I wjL‡Zb| G‡Z K‡i wZwb cvwK¯— vwb‡`i my`„wó cvb I Kv‡Q P‡j Av‡mb| ¯^vaxbZv hy× ïi“ n‡j cvKevwnbxi wbg©g AZ¨vPv‡i Zvi wPš—vq Avg~j cwieZ©b Av‡m| ¯^vaxbZvi ci Zv‡K gyw³evwnbxi GK mfvq cÖavb e³v wnmv‡e †`Lv hvq| cÖkœ: (K) `dv`vi Kv‡`i m`©vi? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †PŠwK`vi‡`i m`©vi `dv`vi| cÖkœ: (L) gyw³ wbab Awfhv‡b eyaev‡ii NUbvq †K wbnZ nq? wKfv‡e? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: †ejv GMv‡ivUv PKP‡K †iv`| ivB‡dj †i‡Äi g‡a¨ MvgQv civ GK wK‡kvi Mi“ Zvwo‡q wb‡q hv‡”Q| KwjgwÏ cvK †mbv‡`i †evSv‡bvi †Póv K‡i †m gyw³‡dŠR bq; mvaviY ivLvj gvÎ| wKš‘ cvKevwnbxi ¸wj‡Z †Q‡jwU gvwU‡Z jywU‡q c‡o| KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii evj¨Kv‡ji cvZv‡bv †`v¯— mvBRwÏ Lwjdvi †Q‡j †m| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki W. wknve I ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í KwjgwÏi Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨ †`LvI| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU evsjv‡`‡ki gnvb gyw³hy‡×i cUf~wg‡Z iwPZ| gyw³hy‡× AmsL¨ gvby‡li mvnmx c`‡¶c ¯^vaxbZvi c_‡K Z¡ivwš^Z K‡iwQj| DÏxcKwU KwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡íiB fve enb K‡i| DÏxc‡K W. wknve GKRb ‡`k‡cÖwgK gvbyl| KviY †`kgvZ…Kvi AmnvqZ¡ I cvKevwnbxi wbg©g AZ¨vPvi Zvi g‡a¨ cwieZ©b m~Pbv K‡i| †m gyw³ msMÖv‡g mivmwi Ask wb‡Z cv‡i wb| wKš‘ †KŠk‡j gy³ msMÖv‡gi msMVK‡`i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM †i‡L‡Q| AvcvZ `„wó‡Z Zv‡K cvKevwnbxi †`vmi e‡j g‡b n‡jI cÖK…Z c‡¶ †m c‡iv¶ gyw³ msMÖvgx| GRb¨B gyw³hy‡×i c‡i Zv‡K gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mfvq cÖavb e³v Kiv n‡q‡Q| KwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡í KwjgwÏ miKvix PvKz‡i| d‡j Zv‡K hLbKvi miKvi ZLbKvi ûKzg Zvwgj Ki‡Z nq | wKš‘ KwjgwÏ cÖKvk¨ w`ev‡jv‡K cvKevwnbxi c¶vej¤^b Ki‡jI †Mvc‡b gyw³ evwnbx‡K mnvqZv K‡i‡Q| hvi d‡j cvKevwnbx gyw³hy‡× civRq eiY K‡i‡Q| myZivs W. wknve I KwjgwÏ mv`„k¨c~Y-© PwiÎ| cÖkœ: (N) W. wknve‡K gyw³evwnbxi GK mfvq cÖavb e³v wn‡m‡e †`Lv hvq|Õ DÏxc‡Ki Dw³wU KwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ gyw³hy×wfwËK GKwU KvjRqx †QvUMí| G M‡í KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii gva¨‡g gyw³hy‡× c‡iv¶fv‡e AskMÖnYKvix AMwYZ gvbyl‡K Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki W. wknveI c‡iv¶ gyw³ msMÖvgx| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í KwjgwÏ GKRb RbwcÖq gvbyl Zvi ¯^fve ˆewkó¨ I RxebvPiY Gi Kvi‡Y †m e¨wZµgx gvbyl| 1971 mv‡j gyw³hy× ïi“ n‡j cvKevwnbx Ab¨vb¨ GjvKvi g‡Zv Zvi GjvKv‡ZI NuvwU M‡o †Zv‡j| Zvici ïi“ K‡i AZ¨vPvi I wbh©vZb| †`k‡cÖwgK KwjgwÏ `dv`vi G ZrciZv‡K KL‡bv †g‡b wb‡Z cv‡i wb| Zvic‡iI eqm, †ckv I cwiev‡ii Rb¨ Zv‡K cvKevwnbxi mv‡_B _vK‡Z nq| wKš‘ cÖKv‡k¨ †m cvwK¯—v‡bi c¶ wb‡jI †Mvc‡b gyw³evwnbxi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM iv‡L| cvwK¯—vbx evwnbxi MwZwewa m¤ú‡K© gyw³‡hv×v‡`i Z_¨ †`q| d‡j gyw³evwnbxi Avµg‡Y cvKevwnbx civwRZ nq| †`k ¯^vaxb nIqvi ciw`b KwjgwχK †`Lv hvq evRv‡i-gyw³ evwnbxi mv‡_ Pv cvbiZ Ae¯’vq| DÏxc‡K W. wknve‡KI †`wL QÙ‡ek Aej¤^b K‡i gyw³evwnbxi c¶vej¤^b Ki‡Z| †h †Kvb Kvi‡bB †nvK Zvi c‡¶ cÖKv‡k¨ gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mg_©b m¤¢e wQj bv| ZvB †Mvc‡b †m gyw³‡hv×v‡`i msMVK‡`i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM ivLZ| ZviB cÖwZ`v‡b †`k ¯^vaxb nevi ci gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mfvq Zv‡K cÖavb e³v Kiv nq|

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (Avey bCg †gv¯—dv)

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (Avey bCg †gv¯—dv) 1971 mv‡j gyw³hy× ïi“ n‡j kxZjevey mcwievi †`k †Q‡o cvjv‡Z D`¨Z nq| cw_g‡a¨ cvKevwnbx Zv‡`i‡K a‡i †d‡j| kxZj eveymn cwiev‡ii mevB‡K nZ¨v Ki‡jI cvKevwnbx kxZjeveyi wek ermi eqmx Kb¨v wibv‡K nZ¨v K‡i wb| Zviv Zv‡K Zv‡`i K¨v‡¤ú wb‡q hvq| gyw³hy‡×i c‡i wibv‡K K¨v¤ú †_‡K D×vi Kiv n‡jI †m gvbwmK fvivmvg¨ nvwi‡q †d‡j|

cÖkœ: (K) nwigwZ I mygwZi cvi¯úwiK m¤úK© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: gv I †g‡q cÖkœ: (L) muv‡Kv I cyj¸‡jv cvi nevi Rb¨ †Uªwbs Gi cÖ‡qvRb †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í ewY©Z muv‡Kv I cyj¸‡jv Kv‡Vi ˆZwi| eQ‡ii ci eQi Mi“-QvMj, gvbyl Gi Ici w`‡q cvi nq| G‡Z cyj I muv‡Kv¸‡jv boe‡o n‡q hvq| gvbyl G‡Z DV‡jB Kuvc‡Z _v‡K| Kuvcv‡j AviI Kuv‡c| myZivs AcwiwPZ ev Abf¨¯— †Kvb †jvK G‡Z DV‡Z mvnm cvq bv| G Rb¨B ejv n‡q‡Q †h, muv‡Kv I cyj¸‡jv cvi nevi Rb¨ †Uªwbs cÖ‡qvRb| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki wibvi ga¨ w`‡q ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi †h we‡kl w`K AvfvwmZ n‡q‡Q Zvi weeiY `vI| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki wibv 1971 mv‡j evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy‡×i mgq m¤£g nviv‡bv `yB j¶ gv-‡ev‡bi cÖwZ”Qwe| cvwK¯—vwb bicïiv Avw`g Kvgbv PwiZv_© Kivi Rb¨ kxZjeveyi cwiev‡ii mevB‡K nZ¨v Ki‡jI Zvi wek eQi eqmx Kb¨v wibv‡K euvwP‡q iv‡L| K¨v‡¤ú AvU‡K †i‡L w`‡bi ci w`b cvkweK wbh©vZbwbcxob Pvjvq| gyw³hy‡×i ci wibv‡K D×vi Kiv n‡jI cwievi nviv‡bv I m¤£g nviv‡bvi hš¿Yv mB‡Z bv †c‡i †m gvbwmK fvimvg¨ nvwi‡q †d‡j| DÏxc‡Ki NUbvi ga¨ w`‡q ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi GKwU we‡kl w`K AvfvwmZ n‡q‡Q| M‡í cvwK¯— vwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi Øviv `yB Amnvq PwiÎ nwigwZ I Zvi †g‡q mygwZi cvkweK wbh©vZ‡bi gg©š‘` Kvwnbx ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| weaev nwigwZ I Zvi ‡g‡q mygwZ øvb †m‡i †divi c‡_ nvbv`vi evwnbxi bR‡i c‡o| gv-‡g‡q wec` ey‡S †`ŠoI †`q| wKš‘ †kl i¶v nq wb| †Kbbv †fRv Kvc‡o gvBj Lv‡bK †`Šov‡bvi ci kw³ wbt†kl n‡q Av‡m Zv‡`i | d‡j Zviv iv¯—vi Wvbw`‡K GKwU ¯‹zj N‡i Avkªq †bq| ¯‹z‡j Xy‡K Amnvq bvix `ywUi Ici exfrm wbh©vZb Pvjvq cvK‡mbviv| bicïiv Zv‡`i wnsmªZv PwiZv_© Kivi ci gv-‡g‡q‡K AÁvb I i³v³ Ae¯’vq †d‡j hvq| myZivs †`Lv hvq 1971 mv‡j gnvb gyw³hy‡×i mgq cvwK¯—vwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi nv‡Z †h AmsL¨ bvix m¤£g nvwi‡qwQj †mB b„ksm ee©iZvi wPÎB DÏxcK I M‡í dz‡U D‡V‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) Ô`yB jvL gv-‡ev‡bi B¾‡Zi wewbg‡q Avgv‡`i ¯^vaxbZv|Õ Dw³wU DÏxcK I KwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: RbwcÖq K_vmvwnwZ¨K Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb weiwPZ KwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ gyw³hy×wfwËK Kv‡jvËxY© GKwU †QvUMí| cvwK¯—vwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi cvkweK I b„ksm AZ¨vPv‡ii wPÎ D³ M‡í wPwÎZ n‡q‡Q| Av‡jvP¨ DÏxc‡KI bicï‡`i †mB cvkweKZvB dz‡U D‡V‡Q| cvKevwnbxi GB cvkweKZvi ewj n‡q‡Q jv‡Lv evOvwj bvix| 1971 mv‡ji 25 gv‡P©i Kv‡jvivZ †_‡K ïi“ nq cvKevwnbxi aŸsmhÁ| Ni-evwo‡Z AwMœms‡hvM, binZ¨v I bvix wbh©vZb cÖf„wZ RNb¨ K‡g© Zviv †g‡Z I‡V| Zviv gv-‡evb‡`i evwo †_‡K a‡i wb‡q wM‡q Zv‡`i Ici cvkweK wbh©vZb Pvjvq Ges PwiZv_© K‡i Zv‡`i Avw`g Kvgbv| DÏxc‡K wibv Ges M‡í ewY©Z nwigwZ I mygwZ †mBme wbh©vwZZ gv-‡evb‡`iB cÖwZ”Qwe| gyw³hy‡×i †mB w`b¸wj‡Z G‡`i‡K g„Zz¨i †P‡qI wefxwlKvgq cwiw¯’wZi gy‡LvgywL n‡Z nq| gyw³hy‡× nvbv`vi evwnbxi GB N„Y¨ AcK‡g© cÖvq `yB j¶ gv-‡evb B¾Z nvivq| Avgv‡`i gnvb gyw³hy‡× m¤£g nviv‡bv G exiv½bv‡`i evsjv‡`k AvRxeb g‡b ivL‡e| c„ôv-127


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (ZvwiKzj Bmjvg)

AvwZK GKwU eûRvwZK †Kv¤úvbx‡Z D”P ‡eZ‡b PvKwi K‡i| †ckvMZ Kvi‡Y bvbv †`‡ki gvby‡li mv‡_ Zv‡K wgk‡Z nq| wKš—y ûU K‡iB GKw`b †m PvKwiUv †Q‡o †`q| †Kbbv Zvi Dc‡ii mvwii GKRb Kg©KZv evsjv‡`k‡K wb‡q Dcnvm K‡iwQj| AvwZK Zv mn¨ Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| GKRb gyw³‡hv×vi mš—vb wn‡m‡e †`k Zvi Kv‡Q mewKQzi Dc‡i| †`‡ki Acgvb mn¨ K‡i ïay UvKvi Rb¨ PvKwi Kivi †P‡q g„Zz¨I Zvi Kv‡Q †kªq| cÖkœ: (K) KwjgwÏ †ckvq Kx wQ‡jb? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: KwjgwÏ †ckvq Ô`dv`viÕ wQj| cÖk:œ (L) ÒZvi m½xiv mevB gyw³Ó⎯ Dw³wUi KviY e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: 1971 mv‡ji gnvb gyw³hy‡×i cUf~wg‡Z iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ KwjgwÏ gyw³hy‡×i †PZbvq wek¦vmx †`k‡cÖwgK GKRb gvbyl| mnR-mij I ùzwZ©evR KwjgwÏ miKvwi PvKwii myev‡` DaŸ©Zb cvK-cÖkvm‡bi wb‡`©k †g‡b Pj‡Z eva¨ nq| hvi djkÖ“wZ‡Z cvwK¯—vwb †mbvevwnbxi ûKzg Abyhvqx †m Zv‡`i mvnvh¨ K‡i| GRb¨ A‡b‡K Zv‡K ivRvKvi ev †`k‡`ªvnx wn‡m‡e g‡b K‡i| wKš—y cÖK…Zc‡¶ †m GKRb LvuwU †`k‡cÖwgK wn‡m‡e mevi ARv‡š— gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mvnvh¨ K‡i‡Q| Avi GRb¨ †`k ¯^vaxb nIqvi ci gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mv‡_ Avevi ¯^iƒ‡c Zv‡K †`Lv hvq| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki AvwZ‡Ki m‡½ KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii †PZbvMZ mv`„k¨ wbiƒcY Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: KwjgwÏ `dv`vi miKvwi PvKz‡i| †m Kvi‡Y †m ÔcvKevwnbxÕ bvgK miKv‡ii †h †Kvb ûKzg Zvwgj Ki‡Z eva¨| 1971 mv‡ji gyw³hy‡× cvKevwnbx hLb e¨vcKnv‡i MY¨nZ¨v Pvjvq ZLb †`k‡cÖ‡g RvMÖZ KwjgwÏ Zv gb †_‡K †g‡b wb‡Z cv‡i wb| †Kbbv †ckvMZ `vwqZ¡ cvj‡bi cvkvcvwk †m GKRb †`k‡cÖwgKI e‡U| ZvB miKvwi `vwqZ¡ cvj‡bi m‡½ m‡½ †Mvc‡b †m gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mv‡_I †hvMv‡hvM i¶v K‡i| †m PvZz‡h©i m‡½ cwiKíbv K‡i MÖv‡gi boe‡o Kv‡Vi cy‡ji Dci Lvb‡mbv‡`i wb‡q gyw³evwnbxi mnvqZvq †g‡i †d‡j| Gfv‡e A¯¿ nv‡Z bv wb‡qI KwjgwÏ `dv`vi gyw³hy‡× c‡iv¶fv‡e AskMÖnY K‡i Zvi †`k‡cÖ‡gi ¯^v¶i iv‡L| Aciw`‡K DÏxc‡KI Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB, gyw³hy‡×i A‡bK c‡iI Zvi ¯^‡`k‡K wb‡q D”Pc`¯’ Kg©KZ©vi KUv¶ ev Dcnvm AvwZK mn¨ Ki‡Z cv‡iwb| ZvB wbwðZ fwel¨r Rxe‡bi myL-kvwš—‡K GK jngvq wemR©b w`‡q †m B¯—dv w`‡ZI wØav‡eva K‡iwb| gyw³hy× cieZ©x cÖRb¥ Ges GKRb gyw³‡hv×vi mš—vb wn‡m‡e m‡e©vcwi GKRb m‡PZb †`k‡cÖwgK bvMwiK wn‡m‡e †m ¯^‡`‡ki Acgvb nRg Ki‡Z cv‡iwb| GLv‡b AvwZ‡Ki †`kvZ¥‡ev‡ai Ac~e© cwiPq cvIqv hvq| myZivs ejv †h‡Z cv‡i, KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Ges DÏxc‡Ki AvwZ‡Ki g‡a¨ wbt¯^v_© †`k‡cÖ‡gi †PZbvMZ mv`„k¨ j¶¨ Kiv hvq| cÖkœ: (N) ÒA_© bq, L¨vwZ bq mevi Av‡M †`kÓ⎯ DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: gvby‡li cÖavb cwiPq †m gvbyl-AvZ¥gh©v`vkxj gvbyl| AvZ¥gh©v`vkxj gvbyl e‡jB †m wb‡R‡K wewµ Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| G Kvi‡Y KwjgwÏ `dv`vi miKvwi PvKwi Kiv m‡Ë¡I †KŠk‡j cvKevwnbx ch©`y¯— Ki‡Z wØav‡eva K‡iwb| G‡Z †hgb Zvi gnr¸Yvejx dz‡U I‡V †Zgwb cÖKvk cvq cÖej †`k‡cÖg| †`k‡cÖg‡K wewK‡q w`‡q †m ivRvKvi cwiP‡q cwiwPZ n‡Z Pvqwb| ZvB SzwK _vKv m‡Ë¡I †m †Mvc‡b gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mv‡_ civgk© K‡i Lvb †mbv‡`i nZ¨v Ki‡Z wcQcv nqwb| Av‡jvP¨ DÏxc‡KI †`Lv hvq, AvwZK GKwU eûRvwZK †Kv¤úvbxi D”P †eZbf~³ PvKzwiRxex| wKš—y †m Zvi Dc‡ii mvwii KZ©KZ©vi evsjv‡`‡ki cÖwZ KUv¶ mn¨ Ki‡Z cv‡iwb| GKRb gyw³‡hv×vi mš—vb wn‡m‡e Ges m‡PZb bvMwiK wn‡m‡e Zvi c‡¶ †`‡ki Acgvb †g‡b †bqv Kó Ki| A_©, hk, L¨vwZ wKsev wbwðZ fwel¨‡Zi myL”Qwei nvZQvwbi †P‡q †`k Zvi Kv‡Q A‡bK eo| ZvB †m PvKwiUv †Q‡o w`‡Z we›`ygvÎ wØav‡eva K‡iwb| †Kbbv †`‡ki Acgvb mn¨ K‡i e¨w³jv‡fi Avkvq gyL ey‡R m‡q hvIqvi †P‡q Zvi Kv‡Q g„Zz¨I †kªq| DÏxc‡Ki AvwZK †hgb wbR ¯^v‡_©i K_v wPš—v bv K‡i ¯^‡`‡ki Acgv‡bi cÖwZev‡` PvKwi‡Z B¯—dv w`‡q Zvi wbt¯^v_© †`k‡cÖ‡gi cwiPq †i‡L‡Q †Zgwb KwjgwÏ `dv`viI PvKwi‡Z SzwK _vKv m‡Ë¡I †m †Mvc‡b gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM †i‡L Lvb †mbv‡`i P~ovš— civRq f~wgKv †i‡L‡Q| GwUI Zvi †`k‡cÖ‡gi Abycg `„óvš—| c„ôv-128


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (ZvwiKzj Bmjvg)

ingZ Avjx LyeB kvwš— wcÖq gvbyl| eqm lv‡Ui †KvVvq| gyw³hy‡×i mgq GKw`b Lvb †mbviv G‡m ZviB evmvq Av¯—vbv Mv‡o| eva¨ n‡qB Zv‡K Lvb †mbv‡`i Z`viwK Ki‡Z nq| wKš—y wZwb wQ‡jb GKRb LvuwU †`k‡cÖwgK| ZvB †Mvc‡b wZwb gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mv‡_ civgk© K‡ib Kx K‡i kΓ‡`i LZg Kiv hvq| cÖkœ: (K) Kvi Ici †evW© Awdm †Lvjvi fvi c‡o‡Q? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii Ici †evW© Awdm †Lvjvi fvi c‡o‡Q| cÖk:œ (L) ÔiwmKZvi RvnvR Zvi gw¯—®‹Õ⎯ KwjgwÏ m¤ú‡K© GK_v ejv n‡q‡Q †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: KwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ KwjgwÏ MÖvgv‡ji †PŠwK`vi‡`i mi`vi Ô`dv`viÕ wn‡m‡e mK‡ji Kv‡Q cwiwPZ| e¨w³MZ Rxe‡b mnR, mij I Av‡gv`wcÖq gvbyl KwjgwÏ `dv`vi †QvU-Lv‡Uv †h †Kvb welq wb‡qB iwmKZv K‡i mevB‡K Avb›` w`Z| Zvi msmv‡i Afve-AbUb †j‡M _vK‡jI nvwmgy‡L Pv‡qi †`vKv‡b mevi mv‡_ nvwm-VvÆvq †g‡Z DV‡Zv| Zvi GB ¯^fvewcÖq ˆewk‡ó¨i Kvi‡Y †jLK KwjgwÏ m¤ú‡K© e‡j‡Qb, ÒiwmKZvi RvnvR Zvi gw¯—®‹|Ó cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki ingZ Avjxi m‡½ KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii mv`„k¨ wbY©q Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i AMÖMY¨ K_v mvwnwZ¨K AveyRvdi kvgmyÏxb (19919-1988) Gi GK Abe`¨ m„wó ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ| M‡í 1971 mv‡j gnvb gyw³hy‡×i †MŠie Mv_v mywbcyYfv‡e dz‡U D‡V‡Q| M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ KwjgwÏ `dv`vi wQ‡jb GKRb ¯^vaxb‡PZv gyw³Kvgx gvbyl| miKvwi PvKzwi Kivi Kvi‡Y Awb”Qv m‡Ë¡I Zv‡K cvK miKv‡ii wb‡`©k cvjb Ki‡Z nq| 1971 mv‡ji gyw³hy‡×i mgq Zv‡K cvK-nvbv`vi evwnbxi wb‡`©kbv Abyhvqx Ôgyw³wba‡bÕ c_ cÖ`k©K wn‡m‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z n‡q‡Q| wKš—y KwjgwÏ g‡b g‡b Zv †g‡b wb‡Z cv‡i wb| M‡íi †k‡l Avgiv eyS‡Z cvwi †m †Mvc‡b gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM i¶v K‡i‡Q Ges KwjgwÏi †KŠk‡ji Kvi‡Y cvK-evwnbxi A‡bK m`m¨ wbnZ nq| DÏxc‡Ki ingZ AvjxI ¯^vaxb‡PZv I gyw³Kvgx GKRb gvbyl| †m cvK-nvbv`vi evwnbx‡K N„Yv Ki‡jI eva¨ n‡q Zv‡`i‡K Avkªq w`‡Z n‡q‡Q| cieZ©x‡Z KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii gZ †mI †Mvc‡b gyw³evwnbxi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM i¶v K‡i cvwK¯—vwb evwnbx‡K LZg Kivi cwiKíbv K‡i‡Q| DcwiD³ `yBwU PwiÎ KwjgwÏ `dv`vi I ingZ Avjxi g‡a¨ †ckvMZ cv_©K¨ _vK‡jI Df‡qB cwiw¯’wZi Kvi‡Y eva¨ n‡q cvK-evwnbx‡K mnvqZv K‡ib| Avevi †PZbvMZ mv`„k¨ _vKvq Df‡qB cvK-evwnbx wba‡b ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡ib| cÖkœ: (N) gyw³hy‡× ingZ Avjx‡`i g‡Zv mvaviY gvby‡li Ae`vb ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ Mí Abymv‡i g~j¨vqb Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ gyw³hy× wfwËK GKwU AmvaviY †QvUMí| G M‡í KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii gva¨‡g gyw³hy‡× c‡iv¶ f~wgKv ivLv AmsL¨ gvby‡li cÖwZwbwaZ¡ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki ingZ AvjxI †mB mvaviY gvbyl hv‡`i bvg gvbyl Rv‡b bv; Zv‡`i cÖwZwbwa| XvKv †Rjvi kxZj¶¨v b`xi ZxieZ©x GK `yMg© A‡ji evwm›`v KwjgwÏ `dv`vi| mnR, mij, wb‡j©vf I Av‡gv`wcÖq GKRb gvbyl KwjgwÏ `dv`vi| GjvKvq Zvi bvg I cwiPq Av‡Q| 1971 mv‡j gyw³hy× ïi“ n‡j H A‡jI cvK-evwnbx Av¯—vbv Mv‡o| miKvwi PvKwii myev‡` eva¨ n‡q Zv‡K cvK-evwnbxi mKj wb‡`©k gvb¨ Ki‡Z nq| cÖKv‡k¨ †m cvK-evwnbxi nZ¨v I jɇb c_-cÖ`k©‡Ki KvR Ki‡jI †Mvc‡b gyw³evwnbxi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM i¶v K‡i Pj‡Zv| †m cvK-evwnbxi MwZwewa m¤úwK©Z msev` gyw³evwnbx‡K AewnZ KiZ| gyw³evwnbx †m msev‡`i wfwˇZ †Mwijv Avµg‡Y cvK-evwnbx‡K e¨¯— K‡i Zzj‡Zv| GgbwK my‡KŠk‡j †m cvK-evwnbx‡K nZ¨v Kivi cÖwµqvq gyw³evwnbxi gy‡LvgywLI K‡i‡Q| Gw`‡K DÏxc‡Ki ingZ AvjxI MÖv‡gi GK kvwš—wcÖq gvbyl| gyw³hy‡× †m mivmwi AskMÖnY K‡iwb| wKš—y gyw³hy‡× cvK-evwnbx wba‡b Zvi h‡_ó f~wgKv i‡q‡Q| Ab¨ A‡b‡Ki gZ eva¨ n‡q Zv‡KI cvK-evwnbx‡K _vK‡Z w`‡Z n‡q‡Q Ges wb‡`©kI gvb‡Z n‡q‡Q| wKš—y cvK-evwnbxi cÖwZ cÖPÊ N„Yv I †`kvZ¥‡ev‡ai †PZbvq DØy× c„ôv-129


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

n‡q †m gyw³evwnbxi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM i¶v K‡i evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡g ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i‡Q| mvwe©K Av‡jvPbvq †`Lv hvq, KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii gZ ingZ AvjxI GKRb †`k‡cÖgx gvbyl| Df‡qB gyw³hy‡× mivmwi AskMÖnY bv Ki‡jI c‡iv¶fv‡e gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mn‡hvwMZv K‡i †`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv AR©‡b ¸i“Z¡c~Y© Ae`vb †i‡L‡Q|

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (ZvwiKzj Bmjvg)

evsjv‡`‡ki AwaKvsk MÖvg¸‡jvi Ae¯’v †gv‡UB fvj bq| we‡kl K‡i el©vKv‡j MÖv‡gi †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v †Kgb nq-Zv ¯^P‡¶ bv †`L‡j wek¦vm Kiv KwVb| gvndzR kn‡i eo n‡q‡Q| MÖvg m¤ú‡K© Zvi aviYv ¯úó bq| MÖv‡g el©v-hvcb Lye gRvi-eB c‡o Ggb aviYv n‡qwQj e‡j †m GB el©vq gvgvi evwo †eov‡Z hv‡”Q| iv¯—v-Nv‡Ui `yie¯’v †`‡L gvSc‡_B kn‡i wd‡i †h‡Z B‡”Q K‡i| boe‡o evu‡ki mvu‡Kv cvi n‡Z wM‡q †m cvwb‡Z c‡o hvq| fvwM¨m †m mvuZvi Rvb‡Zv, ZvB †Kvb ANUb N‡Uwb| Kv`v cvwb‡Z gvLvgvwL n‡q gvndz‡Ri Ae¯’v nq wK¤¢~Z-wKgvKvi| cÖkœ (K) mvu‡Kv Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †QvU †QvU Lvj ev bvjv cvi nIqvi Rb¨ evuk w`‡q evbv‡bv cvivcv‡ii e¨e¯’v‡K mvu‡Kv e‡j| cÖkœ (L) MÖv‡g †h LZibvK NUbvwU N‡UwQj Zvi eY©bv `vI| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: KwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡í 1971 mv‡ji gyw³hy‡×i NUbv cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| M‡í XvKv †Rjvi kxZj¶¨v b`xi ZxieZ©x GKwU evRv‡ii cv‡k BDwbqb †ev‡W©i cv‡k cvwK¯—vwb nvbv`vi evwnbx QvDwb †c‡Z‡Q| evRv‡ii cwðg-`w¶Y cv‡k K‡qKNi MÜewYK evo–B m¤cÖ`v‡qi nwigwZ I mygwZi evm| gv I †g‡q wbZ¨ w`‡bi cÖ‡qvRb †gUv‡Z b`xi Nv‡U mœvb Ki‡Z hvq| wKš—y `yf©vM¨ Zviv åvg¨gvY UnjiZ cvK †mbv‡`i bR‡i c‡o hvq| djvdj cvK‡mbv KZ…©K gv I †g‡qi k−xjZvnvwb N‡U| ci¶‡YB AZwK©‡Z gyw³‡mbv‡`i Avµg‡Y AvnZ n‡q cvK‡mbv‡`i QvDwb‡Z cÖZ¨veZ©b| MÖv‡g N‡U hvIqv G NUbv‡KB LZibvK NUbv ejv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ (M) DÏxc‡K MÖv‡gi †h wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q Zv KwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡í ewY©Z MÖv‡gi wP‡Îi Abyiƒc-eY©bv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: L¨vwZgvb MíKvi AveyRvdi kvgmyÏxb Zvui ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í Avengvb MÖvg evsjvi wPÎ AZ¨š— wbcyY fv‡e dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb| M‡í MÖv‡gi cwi‡ek, iv¯—v NvU, b`x-bvjv, Lvj-wej, cvivcv‡ii mvu‡Kv I cy‡ji eY©bv M‡í my›`ifv‡e dz‡U D‡V‡Q| MÖv‡gi cwi‡ek hZB †mŠ›`h©gq †nvK bv †Kb, el©vq MÖv‡gi iv¯—v-Nv‡Ui Ae¯’v LyeB Ki“Y| MÖv‡g cÖ‡ek Ki‡Z bvI-†Kv›`v jv‡M| †QvU LvU Lvj cvi nIqvi Rb¨ †Kv_vI cyj‡mivZmg GK euv‡ki muv‡Kv, Avevi †Kv_vI ev cPv Z³vi boe‡o cyj| cvivcv‡ii mgq G¸‡jv ey‡ov gvby‡li `uv‡Zi gZ bo‡Z _v‡K d‡j Av‡ivnx‡K cvi nIqvi Rb¨ †Uªwbs‡qi cÖ‡qvRb nq| gv‡S gv‡S †QvU †QvU `yN©Ubv N‡U Z‡e muvZvi Rvbv bv _vK‡j mg~n wec‡`i m¤¢vebv _v‡K| Av‡jvP¨ DÏxc‡Ki gvndzR kn‡i eo n‡q‡Q| eB c‡o MÖv‡g el©vi †mŠ›`h© Dc‡fv‡Mi Rb¨ †m gvgvi evwo‡Z †eov‡Z hvq| hvevi c‡_ Kv`vhy³ iv¯—v-NvU †`‡L gvSc‡_B †m wd‡i Avm‡Z Pvq| Dciš‘ †m euv‡ki muv‡Kv cvi n‡Z wM‡q Kv`vcvwb‡Z c‡o GKvKvi n‡q hvq| DcwiD³ NUbvi †cÖ¶vc‡U †`Lv hvq, DÏxc‡K MÖv‡gi †h wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q Zv Av‡jvwPZ M‡íi MÖvg¸‡jvi cwiwPZ wP‡Îi mv‡_ mv`„k¨c~Y©| cÖkœ (N) Ôevsjv‡`‡ki AwaKvsk MÖvg¸‡jvi Ae¯’v †gv‡UB fv‡jv bqÕ⎯ Dw³wU KwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i L¨vwZgvb K_vmvwnwZ¨K AveyRvdi kvgmyÏxb mgvR I ivRbxwZ m‡PZb †jLK| wZwb gnvb gyw³hy‡×i cUf~wg‡Z evsjv‡`‡ki cÖZ¨š— A‡ji wPÎ AZ¨š— PgrKvifv‡e A¼b K‡i‡Qb| M‡í kxZj¶¨v b`xi ZxieZ©x `yMg© cÖZ¨š— AÂj hv el©vKv‡j A‡bKUv Øx‡ci gZ g‡b nq, †mB MÖv‡gi eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| †h MÖvg el©vKv‡j GKwU wew”Qbœ Øxc g‡b nq| iv¯—v Nv‡Ui Ae¯’v Kv`vcvwb‡Z GKvKvi Ges bvI †Kv›`v Qvov MÖvgwU‡Z cÖ‡ek Kiv hvq bv| GQvov †QvU †QvU Lvj c„ôv-130


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cvivcv‡ii Rb¨ evu‡ki mvu‡Kv I Kv‡Vi cyj i‡q‡Q| †h¸‡jv †givg‡Zi Afv‡e cÖvqkB Av‡ivnxmn †f‡½ c‡o †QvU LvU `yN©Ubv N‡U _v‡K| Gfv‡eB MÖvgevmx AeY©bxq Kó ¯^xKvi K‡i †mLv‡b emevm K‡i| Ab¨w`‡K Av‡jvwPZ DÏxc‡K gvndzR eB c‡o el©vKv‡j MÖv‡gi †h †mŠ›`‡h©i mv‡_ cwiwPZ n‡q MÖv‡g †eov‡Z hvq, MÖv‡g cÖ‡e‡ki c~‡e©B Zvi aviYv fyj cÖgvwYZ nq| Kv`vgvLv iv¯—v-NvU Avi boe‡o evu‡ki mvu‡Kv cvi n‡Z wM‡q Mv‡q Kv`v cvwb †g‡L †m Dcjwä K‡i, MÖv‡gi Ae¯’v †gv‡UB fv‡jv bq| Av‡jvP¨ DÏxc‡K ewY©Z el©vKv‡ji MÖv‡gi `y`©kvi wPÎ Ges KwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡í ewY©Z el©vKv‡ji MÖv‡gi wPÎ we‡k−lY K‡i ejv hvq †h, evsjv‡`‡ki AwaKvsk MÖvg¸‡jvi Ae¯’v †gv‡UB fv‡jv bq|

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI:

ivR‰bwZK welq wb‡q wjL‡Z wM‡q mv_©K MíKv‡ii j¶¨ _v‡K gvbeü`‡qi MfxiZg mËv‡K dzwU‡q †Zvjv| Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í ivR‰bwZK msK‡Ui †h wPÎ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb Zv‡Z †bB †bZ…¯’vbxq †Kv‡bv gvby‡li ûsKvi| †bB †Kv‡bv exi‡hv×v‡`i evnv`ywi| Av‡Q cvcx cvwK¯—vwb‡`i ee©iZvi wkKvi wKQz gvby‡li Ki“Y AvZ©bv`, `ytLMv_v, Av‡Q mvnmx gyw³‡hv×v‡`i cÖej cÖwZ‡iva| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`v‡iiÕ Aš—‡ii Mfx‡i wbwnZ AcÖKvk¨ †`k‡cÖg| †jLK ivR‰bwZK NUbvi Aš—iv‡j gvbeRxe‡bi msMÖvgx †PZbv‡K wkíi~c w`‡q‡Qb|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) ÔfvIqvj M‡oi DcvL¨vbÕ MÖš’wU †K iPbv K‡i‡Qb? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔfvIqvj M‡oi DcvL¨vbÕ MÖš’wU iPbv K‡i‡Qb Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb| cÖkœ: (L) ÔZvi c`hyMj wbcyY Awf‡bZvi g‡Zv VKVK Kvu‡cÕ Kvi c`hyMj Ges †Kb Kvu‡c? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: KwjgwÏ `dv`vi BDwbqb cwil‡` PvKwi K‡i e‡jB Zv‡K miKv‡ii wb‡`©k †g‡b Pj‡Z nq| †m Rb¨ cvKevwnbx‡K c_NvU †`wL‡q †`Iqvi `vwqZ¡ c‡o Zvi Ici| `vwqZ¡ cvjbKv‡j †m g‡b g‡b †`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv Kvgbv K‡i e‡jB MÖv‡gi GK Lvj cvi nIqvi mgq wbcyY Awf‡bZvi gZ Zvi cv `ywU Kvuc‡Z _v‡K| boe‡o Kv‡Vi cyjwU‡Z IVvi ci ciB GZ †ewk Kvuc‡Z _v‡K †h Rb¨ cyjwU †f‡O mevB wb‡P c‡o hvq| KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii †KŠk‡ji Kv‡Q civwRZ nq cvK †mbviv| gyw³evwnbx G‡m cvKevwnbx‡K aivkvqx K‡i| gyw³evwnbx‡K mnvqZv Kivi G †KŠk‡ji Rb¨B KwjgwÏ m¤ú‡K© G ai‡bi gš—e¨ Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (M) Ômv_©K †jLK ivR‰bwZK welq wb‡q wjL‡jI Zvui j¶¨ gvbeü`‡qi MfxiZg mËv‡K dzwU‡q †ZvjvÕDw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: K_vmvwnwZ¨K Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ gyw³hy×wfwËK AmvaviY †QvUMí ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í †K›`ªxq PwiÎ KwjgwÏ `dv`vi| M‡íi Kvwnbx‡Z cvIqv hvq AvRb¥jvwjZ ¯^vaxbZv KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii Aš—‡i wPi¯’vqx Avmb †M‡o wb‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy‡× MÖvgv‡j cvK‡mbv‡`i wbôyi ee©iZv gyw³‡hv×v‡`i cÖwZ‡iva mewKQzB M‡íi g~j Av‡jvP¨ welq n‡q D‡V‡Q| G me‡K Qvwc‡q KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Pwi‡Îi Mfxi †`k‡cÖg‡K †jLK M‡íi gva¨‡g cvVKwP‡Ëi RvMiY NUv‡Z †Póv K‡i‡Qb| eq‡mi fv‡i hy‡× mk¯¿ AskMÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| Avevi miKvwi PvKzwi Kivq †m mivmwi gyw³hy‡×i c‡¶ Ges cvK evwnbxi wec‡¶ K_v ej‡Z cv‡i wb| wKš‘ Zvi Aš—i‡K †Zv †KDB AvU‡K ivL‡Z cv‡i wb| Zvi eyw×, Zvi †KŠkj G ¸‡jv‡K †Zv †KD `gv‡Z cv‡i wb| ZvB †m g‡bi Mfx‡i Kvgbv K‡i‡Q †`‡ki I †`‡ki gvby‡li gyw³| KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii eyw× I mvn‡mi Kvi‡Y gyw³‡hv×viv cvK‡mbv‡`i wei“‡× mdj Acv‡ikb Pvjv‡Z cv‡i| Avi G Rb¨B †jLK ivR‰bwZK NUbvi Aš—iv‡j GKRb gvby‡li Aš—‡ii kw³, †`k‡cÖg, Avjv`v Aw¯—‡Z¡i K_v Zz‡j ai‡Z m¶g n‡q‡Qb| MíKvi G fv‡eB KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Pwi‡Îi †MŠiegq f~wgKvi K_v cÖKvk Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| 1971 mv‡ji gyw³hy‡× A‡b‡KB G fv‡e mivmwi hy‡× AskMÖnY bv K‡iI hy‡× ¸i“Z¡cY© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i‡Q| hv gyw³‡hv×v‡`i AbycvÖ wYZ I DrmvwnZ K‡i‡Q| c„ôv-131


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (N) ÔAvey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb mv_©K †QvUMíKviÕ Dw³wU ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki|(D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ GKRb mdj †QvUMíKvi n‡”Qb Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU Zvui AmvaviY †QvUMí| GLv‡b wZwb ¯^í cwim‡i gyw³hy‡×i Rxeš— wPÎ A¼‡bi †Póv K‡i‡Qb| Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb mdj †QvUMíKvi Ges ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ GKwU mdj †QvUMí| M‡íi Kvwnbx, fvlvi e¨envi, PwiÎ wbgv©Y, cUf~wg me wKQz‡ZB MíKvi mdjZvi cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb| M‡íi cUf~wgKvq ¯’vb †c‡q‡Q evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy×| gyw³hy‡× cvKevwnbxi ee©iZv, gyw³‡hv×v‡`i `yiš— cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Kvwnbx cÖKv‡ki †KŠkj MíwU‡K `vb K‡i‡Q wkí mylgv| PwiÎ wP·Yi †¶‡Î KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii eyw×gËv, †`k‡cÖg †hb nvRvi nvRvi ev jvL jvL gvby‡li g‡bi Mfx‡ii Ae¯’v| nwigwZ, mygwZ, ivLvj evj‡Ki Ki“Y cwiYwZ G meB †hb ga¨hyMxq ee©iZvi kvwgj, hv cvK evwnbxi K…ZKvh©| †QvUM‡íi ˆewkó¨ Abyhvqx PwjZfvlvi e¨envi Ges PwiÎ Abyhvqx, ¯’vb-Kvj-cvÎ Abyhvqx fvlvi e¨envi Gme wKQzB cvVK‡K AvK…ó K‡i| †QvUM‡íi cwimi we‡k−l‡Y †`Lv hvq MíKvi gyw³hy‡×i wek` eY©bv, hy‡×i wPÎ we¯—vwiZfv‡e K‡ib wb| ZeyI MícvVK hy×Kvjxb b„ksmZv, fqvenZv Lye mn‡RB Abygvb Ki‡Z m¶g n‡q‡Q †jL‡Ki cwiwgZ fvlvq Kvwnbx eY©bvi Rb¨| m‡ev©cwi M‡íi Kvwnbx wbgv©Y, PwiÎ wPÎY, fvlvixwZi mdj cÖ‡qvM hv wKbv Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb‡K mv_©K MíKvi ej‡Z mnvqZv K‡i| wkímdj †QvUMí iPbv K‡i †QvUM‡íi fvÊvi‡K mg„× K‡i‡Qb †h KRb mvwnwZ¨K Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb Zvu‡`i g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg|

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wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt ivqnvb Avjx)

ARcvovMuv‡qi †QvU LvjwU cvi nIqvi Rb¨ MZ eQi nK mv‡ne GKwU evu‡ki mvu‡Kv ˆZwi K‡i w`‡q‡Qb| mvu‡Kvi wbP w`‡q e‡q †M‡Q wR. †K †mP cÖK‡íi eo GKwU Lvj| elv© †gŠmy‡g GB LvjwU‡KB g‡b nq †QvU Lv‡Uv GKUv b`x, GKevi GK`j WvKvZ MÖv‡g nvbv †`q| MÖv‡gi †jvKRb GK n‡q Zv‡`i avIqv K‡i| WvKvZ‡`i †KD †KD R½‡j jyKvq Avevi †KD †KD H evu‡ki mvu‡Kv cvi n‡q cvjv‡Z †P‡qwQj; wKš‘ `yfv©M¨, mvu‡Kv †f‡O mevB coj Lv‡j| evKxiv RbM‡Yi nv‡Z aiv c‡o MY‡avjvB †L‡q g„Zy¨eiY Kij|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii eZ©gvb eqm KZ? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii eZ©gvb eqm cÖvq (60) lvU eQi| cÖkœ: (L) Ô`dv`vi fvB Avc‡bIÕ K_vwU Øviv Kx eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Ô`dv`vi fvB Avc‡bI, K_vwU w`‡q Lvb †mbv‡`i mv‡_ KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii m¤ú„„³Zvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| MÖvg GjvKvq cvK‡mbviv G‡j KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Zv‡`i ûKzg cvjb K‡i| Zv‡`i‡K nvwmgy‡L c_ †`wL‡q †`q| cvK‡mbv‡`i mv‡_ KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii G ai‡bi mL¨ †`‡L MÖvgevmx mskq cÖKvk K‡i Aby‡hv‡Mi my‡i Zv‡K Av‡jvP¨ Dw³wU K‡i| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í Avengvb MÖvg evsjvi eY©bv `vI| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: ¯^bvgL¨vZ K_vmvwnwZ¨K Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ivR‰bwZK Mí ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ| G M‡í b`xgvZ…K evsjv‡`‡ki MÖvg evsjvi †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vi wPÎ dz‡U I‡V‡Q| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ GjvKvwU b`x‡ewóZ| elv©i cvwb‡Z Pviw`K c−vweZ n‡q MÖvg evsjvi ¯’j †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v cÖvq †f‡O c‡o‡Q| b`x-bvjv, Lvj, †Wvev cvi nIqvi Rb¨ `iKvi †mZz| wKš‘ G GjvKvi gvby‡li Rb¨ DËg †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v n‡”Q evu‡ki mvu‡Kv| Avw_©K m½wZ bv _vKvq wbqwgZ ms¯‹v‡ii Afv‡e evu‡ki ˆZwi Gme cyivZb muv‡Kv A‡bK †¶‡ÎB giYduv‡` cwiYZ nq| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í MÖvg evsjvi AbybœZ c_Nv‡Ui cwiPq cvIqv hvq| elv© Kv‡j kxZj¶¨v b`xi ZxieZx© MÖvg¸‡jv Øx‡ci gZ g‡b nq| †QvU Lv‡Uv Lvj cvi nIqvi Rb¨ evuk wKsev Kv‡Vi ˆZwi cyj c„ôv-132


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

Ges mvu‡Kv ¸‡jvB MÖvgevmxi GKgvÎ fimv| ey‡ov gvby‡li `vuZ †hgb boe‡o, evu‡ki mvu‡Kv Ges Kv‡Vi cyj¸‡jvi Ae¯’vI cÖvq †m iKg| MÖvgevmx‡`i Avw_©K Ae¯’vI A‡bKUv H mvu‡Kvi gZ boe‡o| evsjv‡`‡ki MÖvg evsjvi iv¯—vNvU Z_v †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v KZUv bvRyK Ges AbybœZ KwjgwÏ `dv`vi MíwU Zvi cwiPq enb K‡i| elv©Kv‡j Zv Av‡iv †ewk e¨env‡ii Abyc‡hvMx n‡q I‡V| cÖkœ: (N) ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ Mí Aej¤^‡b DÏxcKwUi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: mgqm‡PZb †jLK Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU 1971 mv‡ji gyw³hy‡×i NUbv‡K †K›`ª K‡i †jLv| G M‡í b`xgvZ…K evsjv‡`‡k cvKevwnbxi `y‡fv©‡Mi wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| Av‡jvP¨ M‡í kxZj¶¨v ZxieZx© MÖv‡g elv© Kv‡ji wPÎ Zz‡j ai‡Z †jLK †Póv K‡i‡Qb| cvKevwnbx GgbB GK elv© †gŠmy‡g MÖvg-evsjvq G‡m wec‡` c‡o hvq| Rjc_ cwinvi K‡i ¯’jc‡_ cvKevwnbx hy× Ki‡Z †P‡qwQj wKš‘ Zv cv‡i wb| elv© †gŠmy‡g MÖvg¸‡jv cÖvq Øxc n‡q hvq| cvK †mbviv cvwb‡K GKUz fq K‡i| †h Kvi‡Y Zviv cvwbi iv¯—v cwinvi Ki‡Z ‡P‡qwQj| wKš‘ †m my‡hvM Zviv cvq wb weavq wec‡` co‡Z n‡q‡Q| `wi`ª MÖvgevmxi cvivcv‡ii mvu‡Kv I Kv‡Vi cyj cvKevwnbxi Rb¨ GK mgq fqsKi n‡q I‡V| d‡j Zviv Zv‡`i Kvw•¶Z j‡¶¨ †cuŠQv‡Z wngwmg †L‡q hvq| gyw³evwnbx wbab Awfhv‡b †ei n‡q ZvB Zviv wec‡` c‡o| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ WvKvZ‡`i avIqv LvIqv Ges cÖv‡Y evuPvi Avkvq R½‡j ¯’vb †bIqvi mv‡_ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Lvb‡mbv‡`i mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q| ms¯‹v‡ii Afv‡e boe‡o Kv‡Vi cyj ev mvu‡Kv cvi nIqvi mgq cvK †mbviv cvwb‡Z c‡o hvq| Ab¨w`K †_‡K gyw³ evwnbx Zv‡`i ¸wj K‡i Nv‡qj K‡i| DÏxc‡Ki Dwj−wLZ WvKvZ‡`i civRq Ges ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í cvKevwnbxi civR‡qi KviY cÖvq GKB| cÖwZK‚j †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vi my‡hvM wb‡q cvK‡mbv‡`i ch©y`¯— Kivi †h wPÎ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í cvIqv hvq cÖvq †mB GKB wPÎ cvIqv hvq DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ WvKvZ‡`i civR‡qi †¶‡ÎI| b`xcÖavb evsjv‡`‡k elv© FZz gvby‡li Rxe‡b KL‡bv KL‡bv †fvMvwš— e‡q Av‡b Zv ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í cÖwZdwjZ|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖk¸ œ ‡jvi DËi `vI : (IwjDj AvRg)

KvgviLvwj MÖv‡gi ¯‹zj wk¶K gwZb wgqv| wZwb mv`vwm‡a I avwg©K †jvK wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ| Lvb †mbviv MÖv‡g Xy‡KB Zuv‡K a‡i †d‡jb| A‡¯¿i gy‡L c‡o wZwb cvK‡mbv‡`i MÖv‡gi c_-NvU †`Lvb| wKš‘ MÖv‡gi †jvKR‡bi eo ¶wZ nq G ai‡bi KvR wZwb Ki‡Zb bv| †Mvc‡b wZwb mKj msev` gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mieivn Ki‡Zb|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) `g †bIqvi Av‡M Kviv Lvb †mbv‡`i ey‡Ui `vcU ïb‡Z cvq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : `g †bIqvi Av‡M weaev nwigwZ I Zvi hyeZx †g‡q mygwZ Lvb †mbv‡`i ey‡Ui `vcU ïb‡Z cvq| cÖkœ : (L) Ô`dv`vi fvB Avc‡bIÕÑ K_vwU w`‡q Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : Ô`dv`vi fvB Avc‡bIÕ G Dw³i gva¨‡g Lvb †mbv‡`i m‡½ KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii mswk−óZv †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q| c−vweZ A‡j cÖwZwU ûKzg miKvwi PvKwi Kivi Kvi‡Y KwjgwχK cvjb Ki‡Z nq| Zv‡`i f‡q gyw³‡mbv‡`i evwo †m †`wL‡q †`q| Lvb †mbv‡`i m‡½ Zvi GB fve †`‡L evRv‡ii †jvK Zv‡K Aby‡hvM K‡i Av‡jvP¨ Dw³wU K‡i‡Q|

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GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) ÔDÏxc‡Ki †PZbv Ges KwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi †PZbv GKBÕÑe¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í D‡V G‡m‡Q gyw³hy‡×i PvjwPÎ| G gnvbhy‡× e¨w³MZ cÖ‡Póvq †`‡ki gyw³ Kvgbv I †`k‡K kΓgy³ Kivi cÖZ¨q e¨³ n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K gwZb wgqv Pwi‡Îi ga¨ w`‡qI GKB wel‡qi ewntcÖKvk N‡U‡Q| Df‡qi †PZbvMZ wgj GB †h, ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í KwjgwÏ Pwi‡Îi ga¨ w`‡q 1971 mv‡ji gnvb gyw³hy‡× e¨w³MZ cÖwZ‡iva e¨e¯’v m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| PvKwii LvwZ‡i cvwK¯—vwb evwnbx‡K m½ w`‡Z n‡qwQj Zuvi| G‡Z K‡i wZwb Zv‡`i m¤ú‡K© A‡bK wKQy Rvb‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb| Avi †Mvc‡b wZwb Zv gyw³evwnbxi Kv‡Q †cŠu‡Q w`‡Zb| †`‡ki cÖwZ cÖPÊ fv‡jvevmv _vKvq wZwb K‡qKRb cvwK¯—vwb ˆmb¨‡K boe‡o cy‡j Zz‡j †`b| cwiKíbv Abyhvqx Zuvi mn‡hvwMZvq gyw³evwnbx †mLv‡b mdj Acv‡ikb †kl K‡i| Aciw`‡K DÏxc‡K ¯‹zj wk¶K gwZb wgqvi †`k‡cÖ‡gi cÖKvk N‡U‡Q wfbœgvÎvq| wZwb cvK evwnbx‡K mn‡hvwMZv K‡ib eva¨ n‡q, wKš—y Zuvi Aš—‡i Lvb‡mbv nZ¨vi myßevmbv †_‡KB hvq Ges GK mgq wZwb mdjI nb| cvKevwnbx mvaviY evOvwji e¨w³‡Kw›`ªK eyw×i Kv‡Q †hgb civwRZ nq, †Zgwb RvZxqfv‡eI Zv‡`i‡K civRq‡K †g‡b wb‡Z nq| †`k †cÖ‡gi †PZbvB KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Ges gwZb wgqvi gv‡S HK¨ ˆZwi K‡i‡Q| cÖkœ : (N) KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii †`k‡cÖ‡gi m‡½ gwZb wgqvi †`k‡cÖ‡gi ¯^iƒc we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Pwi‡Îi ga¨ w`‡q GKRb bxie gyw³‡hv×vi †`k‡cÖg cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡KI ¯‹zj wk¶K gwZb wgqvi †`k‡cÖg †eva Mfxifv‡e cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| gv, gvwU I gvby‡li cÖwZ Mfxi ggZ¡‡eva Ges †`‡ki g½j KvgbvB †`k‡cÖg| Avgv‡`i gnvb ¯^vaxbZv hy‡× mevB GKBfv‡e AskMÖnY K‡ib wb| cÖZ¨¶ I c‡iv¶ fv‡e gvbyl G hy‡× Ask †bq| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í KwjgwÏ Pwi‡Îi ga¨ w`‡q gvZ…f~wgi cÖwZ Mfxi fv‡jvevmv cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| wKš—y GB cÖKvk wQj wfbœgvÎvq| gyw³hy‡× A‡b‡K m¤§yL hy‡× Ask †bq; Avevi A‡b‡K KwjgwÏi g‡Zv wfbœZi c×wZ Aej¤^b K‡iwQ‡jb| †jLK Zuvi M‡í Ggb GKRb LuvwU †`k‡cÖwg‡Ki e¨wZµgagx© Ae`v‡bi K_v Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb whwb cÖZ¨¶ hy‡× AskMÖnY bv K‡iI c‡iv¶fv‡e †`‡ki R‡b¨ KvR K‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡Ki ¯‹zj wk¶K gwZb wgqv mv`vwm‡a avwg©K †jvK| cvK evwnbx Zuv‡K w`‡q †Rvi K‡i ivRvKv‡ii KvR Kwi‡q †bq| wKš‘ wZwb wQ‡jb GKRb gyw³Kvgx gvbyl| ZvB wZwb jywK‡q gyw³ evwnbxi Kv‡Q cvKevwnbxi mKj Z_¨ †cuŠ‡Q w`‡Zb| †`‡ki cÖwZ AK…wÎg fv‡jvevmv _vKvq KwjgwÏ I gwZb wgqv Rxe‡bi SzuwK wb‡q gyw³evwnbx‡K mnvqZv K‡i †`k‡K ¯^vaxb K‡i‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (Avb›` Kzgvi wek¦vm)

gvBRcvov BDwbq‡bi †Pqvig¨vb Avãym QvËvi| wZwb KvRjv b`xi cv‡oi †jvKRb‡K †W‡K GKwU euv‡ki muv‡Kv wbg©vY Kivb| †QvU b`xwU elv©q †eMevb n‡q I‡V| GKiv‡Z gyw³‡hv×viv Lvb †mbv‡`i K¨v¤ú `Lj Kivq Zviv R½‡j cvwj‡q _v‡K| hLb Zviv R½j †_‡K †ewi‡q b`x cvi nIqvi Rb¨ muv‡Kvq DVj, Avi ZLwb muv‡Kv †f‡O coj| mvZR‡bi g‡a¨ PviRbB cvwb‡Z Wy‡e gij| evwK wZbRb MY‡avjvB‡Z g„Zz¨eiY Kij|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU †Kvb& cUf~wg‡Z †jLv? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU 1971 mv‡ji gnvb gyw³hy‡×i cUf~wg‡Z †jLv|

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cÖkœ : (L) ÔkZKiv Avwk Rb MÖvgevmxi Avw_©K w¯’wZi gZ muv‡Kvi w¯’wZI eo boe‡oÕ-Dw³wUi Zvrch© Kx? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í MÖv‡gi gvby‡li A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’vi K_v eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| G M‡í `ye©j muv‡Kvi Ae¯’vi K_v Rvbv‡Z wM‡q ejv n‡q‡Q †h, `ye©j LyuwU I fvOv Z³vi Dci ¯’vwcZ †mZz †hgb ey‡ov gvby‡li `uv‡Zi gZ LULU K‡i b‡o, †ZgbB `wi`ª Amnvq G †`‡ki gvbylI A_©‰bwZK ˆ`‡b¨ memgq boe‡o Ae¯’vq _v‡K| MÖv‡gi G e„nr Rb‡Mvôxi gvby‡li Rxe‡b A_©‰bwZK AwbivcËvB me‡P‡q eo ûgwK| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡Ki m‡½ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í Avengvb MÖvgevsjvi c_Nv‡Ui †h mv`„k¨ cvIqv hvq Zv eY©bv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb Zuvi ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í b`xgvZ…K evsjv‡`‡ki †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vi GK Abycg eY©bv w`‡q‡Qb| el©v‡gŠmy‡g Avengvb G evsjvi †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v cy‡ivcywi †f‡O c‡o| G mg‡qi †envj `kv D‡b¥vwPZ n‡q‡Q ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ Mí Ges DÏxc‡K| DÏxc‡K ewY©Z gvBRcvov BDwbqb KvRjv b`x Øviv `yBfv‡M wef³| el©vKv‡j Pviw`K c−vweZ n‡q G A‡ji †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v cÖvq APj n‡q c‡o| Lvj, †Wvev Ges b`x cvi nIqvi R‡b¨ G A‡ji gvby‡li GKgvÎ Aej¤^b euv‡ki mvu‡Kv| Avw_©K ˆ`b¨`kvi Kvi‡Y wbqwgZ ms¯‹vi mva‡bi Afv‡e euv‡ki ˆZwi G me cyi‡bv muv‡Kv A‡bK †¶‡ÎB giYduv‡` cwiYZ nq| DÏxc‡Ki gZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íI Avengvb MÖvg evsjvi AbybœZ c_-Nv‡Ui cwiPq cvIqv hvq| G M‡í Dwj−wLZ kxZj¶¨v b`xZxieZx© MÖvg¸‡jv el©vKv‡j b`x †ewóZ Øx‡c cwiYZ nq| d‡j ¯’j c_-NvU ej‡Z Avi wKQzB Aewkó _v‡K bv| †Wvev, Lvj, b`x-bvjv cvivcv‡i Rb¨ euv‡ki muv‡Kv wKsev Kv‡Vi ˆZwi cyi‡bv cyj MÖvgevmxi GKgvÎ Aej¤^b nq| Aek¨ ey‡ov gvby‡li `uv‡Zi gZ boe‡o muv‡Kv Ges cyj cÖvqkB cyj †miv‡Zi g‡Zv g‡b nq| el©vq MÖvg evsjvq PjvPj mwZ¨Kvi A‡_©B K‡ói Ges †fvMvwš—i| cÖkœ : (N) ÔDÏxc‡K cvK‡mbviv †h mgm¨vi m¤§yLxb n‡qwQj ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í wVK ZvB n‡q wQjÕwe‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏx‡bi ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í Ges DÏxcKwU‡Z 1971 mv‡ji gnvb gyw³hy‡×i mgq gyw³‡hv×v‡`i cvkvcvwk cvKevwnbx‡KI G ‡`‡ki cÖwZK‚j cwi‡e‡ki gy‡LvgywL n‡Z n‡qwQj| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í el©v †gŠmy‡g kxZj¶¨v b`xZxieZx© A‡ji BDwbqb †ev‡W© Ae¯’vbiZ cvK‡mbv‡`i †fvMvwš—i wPÎ AswKZ n‡q‡Q| Lvb †mbviv cvwb‡ewóZ evsjv‡`‡k G‡m gnvwec‡` c‡o| Zviv ¯’j c‡_ gyw³evwnbxi ‡gvKv‡ejv Ki‡Z m‡Pó wQj| wKš‘ el©vKv‡j Zv‡`i c‡¶ †mUv Am¤¢e wQj| G ‡`‡ki A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’vi gZ boe‡o cyj I muv‡Kv Zuv‡`i KvR‡K KwVbZi K‡i Zz‡jwQj| Gi d‡j KwjgwÏi †`wL‡q †`Iqv c‡_ gyw³wba‡b wM‡q boe‡o muv‡Kvq D‡V Zv‡`i K‡qKRb‡K gi‡Z nq| DÏxc‡KI Avgiv j¶ Kwi Lvb †mbv‡`i RjfxwZ| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ Lvb †mbv‡`i K¨v¤ú `Lj n‡j Zviv R½‡j Avkªq †bq| c‡i cvjv‡Z wM‡q MY †avjvB‡qi wkKvi n‡q gviv hvq| ‰eix †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’vi my‡hvM wb‡q Lvb‡mbv‡`i Nv‡qj Kivi †h †KŠkj ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í †jLK Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb DÏxc‡KI †mB GKB NUbvi cÖwZdjb cwijw¶Z nq|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (Avb›` Kzgvi wek¦vm)

cvU e¨emvqx ivRy Avn‡g` GKRb a~Z© †jvK| gyw³hy‡×i mgq wZwb Lvb †mbv‡`i wewfbœ MÖv‡g c_ †`wL‡q wb‡q wM‡q mvnvh¨ Ki‡jI g‡b cÖv‡Y wZwb wQ‡jb GKRb gyw³Kvgx gvbyl| GKw`b Lvb‡mbv‡`i gyw³‡hv×v‡`i K¨v‡¤ú wb‡q hvIqvi K_v e‡j wZwb Zv‡`i GK `yMg© c‡_ wb‡q wM‡qwQ‡jb Ges Av‡M †_‡K gyw³evwnbx‡K Rvwb‡q †i‡LwQ‡jb| gyw³‡mbv‡`i nv‡Z H w`b A‡bK Lvb †mbv cÖvY †`q| welqwU RvbvRvwb n‡q †M‡j ivRy Avn‡g`‡K Gi †LmviZ fv‡jvfv‡eB w`‡Z nq|

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evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) Uzqv Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Uzqv n‡”Q N‡ii Pv‡ji kxl© Ae¯’v| cÖkœ: (L) Kv‡Vi cyj †_‡K KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii cvwb‡Z c‡o hvIqvi KviY Kx? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ KwjgwÏ †ek PvjvK †jvK| Zuvi †`Iqv Z‡_¨i wfwˇZ Lvb‡mbviv gyw³evwnbxi wei“‡× Acv‡ik‡b hvq| wKš‘ wbw`©ó hyׯ’‡j hvIqvi Rb¨ cyj †miv‡Zi g‡Zv wec¾bK Kv‡Vi cyj cvi nIqvi cÖ‡qvRb †`Lv w`‡j Zviv KwjgwχKB mvg‡b GwM‡q †`q †mB cy‡ji ev muv‡Kvi w¯’wZ Rvbvi Rb¨| KwjgwÏi KvQ †_‡K cvIqv Z_¨ wb‡q gyw³ †mbviv c~‡e©B cy‡ji wecixZ w`‡K AvZ¥‡Mvcb K‡iwQj| Lvb †mbv‡`i gyw³‡hv×v‡`i ivB‡d‡ji AvIZvq G‡b †Mvjv¸wj ïi“i c~‡e©B AvZ¥i¶vi Rb¨ wZwb †¯^”Qvq Lv‡ji Li‡mªvZv cvwb‡Z c‡o hvb| cÖk:œ (M) DÏxc‡Ki ivRy Avn‡g‡`i m‡½ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi KwjgwÏi PvwiwÎK ˆewkó¨MZ m¤úK© wbY©q Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: 1971 mv‡ji gnvb ¯^vaxbZv hy‡×i mgq A‡b‡KB cvKevwnbxi Z_¨vw` gyw³‡hv×v‡`i wbKU †cuŠ‡Q †`Iqvi Rb¨ †KŠk‡j cvKevwnbxi m‡½ Nwbô m¤úK© M‡o Zz‡jwQj| M‡í Dwj−wLZ KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Ges DÏxc‡Ki ivRy Avn‡g` †m iKg `ywU PwiÎ| cÖ`Ë DÏxc‡Ki ivRy Avn‡g` Lvb‡mbv‡`i GKRb mn‡hvMx| A‡bK mvnv‡h¨i gva¨‡g wZwb Zv‡`i wbKU wek¦¯— nb| wKš‘ AZ¨vwaK PvjvK ivRy Avn‡g` Lvb‡mbv‡`i G wek¦vm I Av¯’v‡K cyuwR K‡i Zv‡`i mKj †Mvcb Z_¨ gyw³evwnbxi wbKU †cuŠ‡Q w`‡Zb| Zuvi †`Iqv Z‡_¨i wfwˇZ gy‡LvgywL hy‡× cvKevwnbxi e¨vcK ¶wZmvab Ki‡Z m¶g nq gyw³‡hv×viv| †h †Kvb mgq Lvb‡mbv‡`i nv‡Z aiv covi m¤¢vebv _vKv m‡Ë¡I †`‡ki cÖwZ Mfxi fv‡jvevmv _vKvq ivRy Avn‡g` G `ytmvnmx KvR Ki‡Zb| ivRy Avn‡g‡`i Mfxi †`k‡cÖg Zuv‡K ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi KwjgwÏ Pwi‡Îi mv‡_ m¤úK©hy³ K‡i‡Q| KwjgwÏ `dv`viI ivRy Avn‡g‡`i gZ Aš—‡i jvjb Kiv †`k‡cÖ‡gi Kvi‡Y gyw³evwnbxi wbKU Lvb‡mbv‡`i †Mvcb Z_¨ duvm K‡i w`‡Zb| gyw³‡hv×v‡`i m‡½ ivRy Avn‡g` Ges KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii g‡Zv Av‡iv A‡bK †`k‡cÖwg‡Ki c‡iv¶ mnvqZvq ¯^í mg‡q GZeo weRq AR©‡b Avgiv m¶g n‡qwQjvg | cÖkœ: (N) ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi cUf~wg‡Z DÏxcKwU KZUzKz mv_©K-Zv wePvi Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: 1971 mv‡ji gnvb gyw³hy× Avgv‡`i RvZxq Rxe‡bi GK †MŠi‡ev¾¡j Aa¨vq| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í Ges cÖ`Ë DÏxc‡K GB hy‡×iB cUf~wg D‡b¥vwPZ n‡q‡Q| Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi cUf~wg iwPZ n‡q‡Q 1971 Gi gyw³hy‡×i mvwe©K wPÎ wb‡q| G M‡í cvK‡mbviv wbwe©Pv‡i MYnZ¨v, AwMœms‡hvM, bvixi Dci cvkweKZv, gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mÜvb Rvb‡Z mvaviY gvby‡li Dci wbh©vZb, jyUcvU, wkïnZ¨v cÖf„wZ AcKg©¸wj KiZ| cvKevwnbxi AZ¨vPvi I AgvbweK wbh©vZ‡bi wPÎ D‡b¥vP‡bi m‡½ M‡íi Kvwnbx‡Z gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mvnmx cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Bw½Zgq Dc¯’vcbv j¶Yxq| cÖZ¨¶ AskMªnY QvovI c‡iv¶fv‡e cvwK¯—vwb evwnbxi wei“‡× bvbvfv‡e mvnvh¨Kvix mvaviY †`k‡cÖwgK bvMwi‡Ki AmvaviY Ae`vb G M‡íi cÖavb welq wn‡m‡e D‡V G‡m‡Q| Aciw`‡K DÏxc‡K gyw³hy‡×i cUf~wg D‡V G‡jI we¯—…Z cwim‡i Zv Av‡m wb| DÏxc‡Ki ivRy Avn‡g` GKw`‡K Lvb‡mbv‡`i wek¦vmfvRb, Ab¨w`‡K gyw³evwnbxi Z_¨`vZv| M‡íi gZ mvwe©K w`K D‡V bv G‡jI mvaviYZ †`k †cÖwgK RbZv KZ…K © bvbvfv‡e gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mnvqZvi Kvi‡Y Aí mg‡q Avgiv ¯^vaxbZv AR©b Kwi †m welqwU D‡V G‡m‡Q|

c„ôv-136


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi mviwYwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖk¸ œ ‡jvi DËi `vI : (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) KwjgwÏ `dv`vi 1971

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cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU †Kvb MÖš’ †_‡K msKwjZ n‡q‡Q? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU Ôgyw³hy‡×i MíÕ MÖš’ †_‡K msKwjZ n‡q‡Q? cÖkœ : (L) Ô`dv`vi fvB Avc‡bI? Dw³wU eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: evRv‡i wgwjUvwi †XvKvi ci †_‡KB KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii Ici †evW© Awdm †Lvjvi `vwqZ¡ c‡o| KwjgwÏ G Kv‡Ri Rb¨ evRv‡i Av‡m| Lvb‡mbviv Zv‡KB Zv‡`i Awfhv‡bi m½x K‡i †bq| d‡j †mw`b †_‡K `dv`vi w`‡bi †ejvq evwo †h‡Z cv‡i bv| evRv‡iB †L‡Z nq Zv‡K| †m Avo-KvwVi g‡Zv cvKevwnbx‡K Av‡M Av‡M c_ †`wL‡q wb‡q hvq| GwU Zvi `vwqZ¡ n‡q `uvovq| evRv‡ii †jvKRb G w`KwU fvj †Pv‡L †`‡L bv| d‡j Zviv Aby‡hv‡Mi ¯^‡i e‡j Ô`dv`vi fvB Avc‡bI?Õ| cÖkœ : (M) mviwY‡Z Dwj−wLZ gyw³evwnbxi exiZ¡c~Y© msMÖvg I cÖwZ‡iv‡ai welqwU ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU gyw³hy‡×i †cÖ¶vc‡U iwPZ| G iPbvq MíKv‡ii ¯^‡`k‡cÖg I gyw³‡hv×v‡`i cÖwZ kÖ×v‡eva cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K 1971-G evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv hy‡× AskMÖnYKvix gyw³evwnbxi exiZ¡c~Y© msMÖv‡gi K_vi D‡j−L i‡q‡Q| MíKvi Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í gyw³evwnbxi exiZ¡c~Y© msMÖv‡gi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| nwigwZ I mygwZ jvwÃZ nevi ci gyw³‡hv×viv K‡qKRb nvbv`vi nZ¨v K‡i G RNb¨ NUbvi cÖwZev` Rvwb‡q‡Q| †m m‡½ Kv‡Vi cy‡ji Ici gyw³evwnbxi Zxeª AvµgY I cÖwZ‡iva cvKnvbv`vi evwnbxi civRq Zivwš^Z Kivi cvkvcvwk †`k i¶vq gyw³evwnbxi Ae`vb‡K Aek¨¤¢vex K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| c„ôv-137


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi NUbvmg~n gyw³hy‡×i mgq evsjv‡`‡ki cÖwZwU kni, cÖwZwU MÖv‡gi †¶‡ÎI mgvbfv‡e mZ¨| Dc‡ii fvl¨ †_‡K wbwØ©avq ejv hvq †h, DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ gyw³evwnbxi exiZ¡cY~ © msMÖvg I cÖwZ‡iv‡ai welqwU ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K Zvrch©gq n‡q D‡V‡Q| cÖkœ : (N) Ô71-Gi gyw³hy× evOvwji Rxe‡b wPivqZ weRqÕ- ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU 1971-Gi gyw³hy‡×i cUf~wg‡Z iwPZ n‡q‡Q| gyw³hy× Avgv‡`i RvZxq Rxe‡b GK gnvb HwZnvwmK I ivR‰bwZK Zvrch©gq NUbv| DÏxc‡K gyw³evwnbxi exiZ¡c~Y© msMÖvg I `ye©vi cÖwZ‡iv‡ai K_v Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| hvi m¤cÖmvwiZ iƒcwU ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í cvIqv hvq| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í kxZj¶¨v b`xi ZxieZx© GKwU MÖvg cvKevwnbx KZ…K © Avµvš— nq| G MÖv‡gi mš—v‡biv me©kw³ w`‡q G nvbv`vi‡`i wei“‡× cÖwZ‡iva M‡o †Zv‡j Ges mgvb Zv‡j exiZ¡c~Y© msMÖvg cÖ`k©b K‡i; hv nvbv`vi evwnbx‡K wecbœ Aw¯—‡Z¡i m¤§yLxb K‡i †Zv‡j| D‡j−L †h, G M‡í `Lj`vi evwnbxi wei“‡× mk¯¿ gyw³evwnbxi `ye©vi cÖwZ‡iva ZrciZv ¯úó n‡q D‡V‡Q| 1971-Gi gyw³hy‡× me©¯—‡ii gvby‡li cvkvcvwk MÖvg GjvKvi Avbmvi-‡PŠwK`v‡iivI †h cÖZ¨¶ I c‡iv¶ †KŠk‡j cvwK¯— vwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi wei“‡× exiZ¡c~Y© msMÖvgx Ae`vb †i‡LwQj ZviB wkí-mZ¨ cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í GiB avivevwnKZvi c_ a‡i ¯^vaxb mve©‡fŠg evsjv‡`‡ki Afy¨`q N‡U| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K Ô71-Gi gyw³hy× evOvwji Rxe‡b wPivqZ weRqÕ-K_vwU e¨Äbvagx© I Zvrch©gq n‡q I‡V|

“ wb‡Pi wPÎwU †`L Ges cÖk¸ œ ‡jvi DËi `vI : (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔfvIqvj M‡oi DcvL¨vbÕ Kx RvZxq iPbv? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔfvIqvj M‡oi DcvL¨vbÕ GKwU Dcb¨vm| cÖkœ : (L) Ô`ye©j LyuwUi Ici ¯’vwcZ Gme Kv‡Vi cy‡j PovgvÎ ey‡ov gvby‡li `uv‡Zi g‡Zv LULU K‡i b‡oÕgš—e¨wU eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: MÖv‡gi muv‡Kv¸‡jvi g‡Zv Kv‡Vi cy‡ji Ae¯’vI eo boe‡o| Mi“-QvMj cvivcvi nIqvi d‡j GK eQ‡ii g‡a¨B cy‡ji ev‡ivUv ev‡R| G‡Z K‡i cv‡qi wb‡Pi Pvi Z³v †f‡O ` yZ³v GgbwK GK Z³vI n‡q hvq| Avevi †Kv_vI Z³v A`„k¨ n‡q hvq| cvkvcvwk `y LÊ euvk ¯’vcb K‡i GLv‡b ms‡hvM ¯’vcb Kiv nq| d‡j `ye©j LyuwUi Ici ¯’vwcZ Gme Kv‡Vi cy‡j PovgvÎ ey‡ov gvby‡li `uv‡Zi gZ LULU K‡i bo‡Z _v‡K| c„ôv-138


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (M) Dc‡i Aw¼Z wPÎwUi Av‡jv‡K ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi MÖv‡gi cwi‡ek eY©bv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K Ô71-Gi cvKevwnbx Avµvš— GKwU MÖv‡gi wPÎgq Ae¯’vb j¶Yxq| AmvaviY cÖvK…wZK †mŠ›`‡h©i Avavi G MÖvgwU| MÖv‡gi evRv‡i wekvj Mv‡Qi wb‡P GKwU Pv‡qi †`vKvb| Pv we‡µZv †`vKv‡b emv Ges Pv‡qi †`vKv‡bi mvg‡bi †e‡Â Pv cvbiZ Ae¯’vq †jv‡KRb e‡m i‡q‡Q| evRv‡ii †fZi w`‡q GKRb gvbyl cvKevwnbx‡K c_ †`wL‡q wb‡q hv‡”Q| AwZ wbK‡UB MÖv‡gi Zi“Y‡`i †PvL †eu‡a cvKevwnbx K¨v‡¤ú wb‡q hv‡”Q| G wPÎ gyw³hy× PjvKvjxb evsjv‡`‡ki †Kvb GK MÖv‡gi kvk¦Z wPÎ| gyw³hy‡×i †cÖ¶vc‡U iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwUi Kvwnbx msNwUZ n‡q‡Q kxZj¶¨v b`xi ZxieZx© GKwU MÖv‡g| evRv‡ii Pv †`vKv‡b e‡m KwjgwÏ mK‡ji g‡Zv iwmKZv K‡i Ges evRv‡i Ae¯’vbiZ wgwjUvwi‡`i Av‡M Av‡M c_ †`wL‡q wb‡q hvq| gyw³ wbab Awfhvb GwM‡q P‡j| GB n‡”Q MíKvi Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `d`viÕ M‡íi MÖv‡gi Ae¯’v| G‡K †K›`ª K‡i gyw³hy× PjvKvjxb cvKevwnbx Avµvš— MÖv‡gi QwewU‡K ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi ewY©Z MÖvgwUi Abyiƒc ejv P‡j| cÖkœ : (N) DÏxc‡K gyw³ wbab Awfhv‡bi †h wPÎ Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K Gi ¯^iƒc we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: 1971-Gi gyw³hy× PjvKvjxb cvKevwnbx Avµvš— GKwU MÖv‡gi `„k¨ DÏxcK wn‡m‡e Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q| †QvU K¨vbfv‡m GKwU fxwZcÖ` MÖvgxY Rbc_ I evRv‡ii `„k¨ †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b RbRxeb ûgwKi m¤§yLxb n‡q‡Q| QwewU‡Z MÖvgxY evRviwU cÖvq Rbk~b¨, b`x‡Z †bŠKv †bB| †`Lv hv‡”Q †h GKwU gvbyl †h G †`‡kiB mš—vb †m cvKevwnbx‡K c_ †`wL‡q mvg‡b GwM‡q wb‡q hv‡”Q Ges nvbv`vi evwnbx G †`‡ki mš—vb‡`i KvD‡K †PvL †eu‡a, KvD‡K nvZ †eu‡a GwM‡q wb‡q Pj‡Q| DÏxcKwU nvbv`vi Avµvš— GKwU fqvZ© MÖvgxY mgv‡Ri cÖwZ”Qwe gvÎ| gyw³hy‡×i †cÖ¶vc‡U Aw¼Z DÏxcKwUi m¤cÖmvwiZ Ges mvwe©K iƒc wn‡m‡e ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU‡K cvB| †hLv‡b gyw³ wba‡bi welqwU my¯úó iƒc jvf K‡i‡Q| M‡í nwigwZ I mygwZi m¤£gnvwbi ci †_‡K nvbv`vi evwnbx gyw³ †dŠR wba‡bi KvR ïi“ K‡i| G Kv‡R mn‡hvwMZvi Rb¨ Lvb‡mbviv KwjgwÏ `dv`vi‡K m½x K‡i †bq| Lvb †mbv‡`i cwðggyLx Awfhv‡bi msev` ï‡b †jvKRb Ni-evwo †d‡j †h †hLv‡b cv‡i cvjv‡Z ïi“ K‡i| GK ch©v‡q Kv‡Vi cy‡ji Ici nvbv`vi evwnbx DV‡j gyw³evwnbxi Avµg‡Yi `„k¨ eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| Kv‡RB DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K G K_v wbtm‡›`‡n ejv hvq †h, DÏxc‡K gyw³ wba‡bi †h wPÎ Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q-ZviB c~Y©v½ I cwiYZ iƒc ewY©Z n‡q‡Q ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖk¸ œ ‡jvi DËi `vI : (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

ZvjZjv gv‡K©‡Ui Pvj we‡µZv ûgvqyb wgqv mvaviY wbe©vPb †_‡K ïi“ K‡i gv‡K©‡Ui ewYK mwgwZi wbe©vPb †h †Kvb cwiw¯’wZ‡Z †m GKRb ù~wZ©evR gvbyl| gv‡K©‡Ui mwgwZ‡Z hLb-ZLb hvZvqvZ Kiv Zvi Rb¨ GKwU mvaviY welq| †m m‡½ gv‡K©‡Ui mfvcwZi m‡½ ûgvqyb wgqvi †gjv‡gkv mKj‡K wPwš—Z K‡i †Zv‡j| GK mgq †ek wKQz mywbw`©ó Awf‡hv‡Mi wfwˇZ gv‡K©‡Ui mfvcwZ‡K †MÖdZvi K‡i wb‡q hvIqvi mgq Iwm K„ZÁwP‡Ë ûgvqyb wgqvi w`‡K ZvKvb|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) Ô†Kv›`vÕ kãwUi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ô†Kv›`vÕ kãwUi A_© n‡”Q ZvjMvQ w`‡q ˆZwi †bŠKv| cÖkœ: (L) Ô`dv`viÕ k‡ãi Øviv Kx eySvq? †jL? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Ô`dv`viÕ kãwUi A_© †PŠwK`vi‡`i mi`vi| †PŠwK`vi‡`i ga¨ †_‡K c‡`vbœwZ jvf K‡i `dv`vi nq| miKv‡ii AZ¨š— AbyMZ `dv`vi MÖvgv‡j GKwU gh©v`vevb c`| miKvi Av‡ivwcZ `vwqZ¡ Zvi Kv‡Q cQ‡›`i bv n‡jI wbwØ©avq Zv‡K miKv‡ii wb‡`©k cvjb Ki‡Z nq| c„ôv-139


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ ûgvqyb wgqvi m‡½ KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Pwi‡Îi PvwiwÎK mvhyR¨ i‡q‡Q- e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ ûgvqyb wgqv †ckvq GKRb Pv we‡µZv| Pig `yw`©‡bI †m ù~wZ©evR gvbyl| †m avwg©K| gv‡K©‡Ui mvaviY gvbyl †_‡K ïi“ K‡i mfvcwZ ch©š— mK‡ji m‡½ Zvi Avš—wiK m¤úK© i‡q‡Q| gv‡K©‡Ui ewYK mwgwZi mfvcwZi wei“‡× `ybx©wZi Awf‡hvM _vK‡jI NUbvi eY©bvq eySv hvq †hûgvqyb wgqv `ybx©wZMÖ¯— mfvcwZ‡K †MÖdZv‡i mn‡hvwMZv K‡i‡Q| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íI KwjgwÏ GKRb mvaviY gvbyl| iwmKZvq Zvi Rywo †bB| mK‡ji m‡½ Zvi Avš—wiK m¤úK© i‡q‡Q| MÖv‡g cvKevwnbx Avmvi ci Zvi Ici †evW© Awdm †Lvjvi `vwqZ¡ c‡o| †m m‡½ nvbv`vi evwnbx Zv‡K Zv‡`i Awf‡hv‡Mi m½x K‡i wb‡j Zvi Ici MÖvgevmxi Awfgv‡bi myi I‡V| GK ch©v‡q ¯úó nq †h, ZviB mn‡hvwMZvq gyw³‡hv×viv nvbv`vi evwnbxi AvµgY e¨_© Ki‡Z m¶g nq| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K cÖZxqgvb nq †h, ûgvqyb wgqv Ges KwjgwÏ `dv`vi DfqB †`k †cÖwgK| cÖk:œ (N) Ôûgvqyb wgqv GKRb †`k †cÖwgK I m‡PZb bvMwiKÕ- gš—e¨wU ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: MíKvi Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi ivR‰bwZK cUf~wg n‡”Q Õ71-gyw³hy×| MÖv‡gi mvaviY gvbyl A_©vr GKRb †PŠwK`viI †h c‡iv¶fv‡e †`k-gvZ…Kvi mn‡hvwMZvq GwM‡q Avm‡Z cv‡i G w`KwUB ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ KwjgwÏi ga¨ w`‡q ¯úó n‡q D‡V‡Q| KwjgwÏ †ckvq GKRb `dv`vi| MÖv‡g cvK evwnbxi AvMgb NU‡j †m Zv‡`i AbyMvgxiƒc aviY Ki‡Z eva¨ nq| G‡Z MÖvgevmx Zvi cÖwZ Aby‡hvM K‡i| A_P c‡iv¶fv‡e †m gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mn‡hvwMZv K‡i‡Q; bm¨vr K‡i‡Q cvK evwnbxi wewfbœ Acv‡ikb| Gfv‡e KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii gv‡S †`k‡cÖg dz‡U D‡V‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ Pv we‡µZv ûgvqyb wgqv GKRb mnR-mij gvbyl| gv‡K©‡Ui mfvcwZi m‡½ Zvi Avš—wiKZv‡K gv‡K©‡Ui A‡b‡KB mnRfv‡e MÖnY bv Ki‡jI `ybx©wZevR mfvcwZ‡K †MÖdZvi Ki‡Z †m mn‡hvwMZv K‡i‡Q| djkÖ“wZ‡Z cywjk `ybx©wZevR gv‡K©U mfvcwZ‡K †MÖdZvi Ki‡Z m¶g nq| Kv‡RB ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ Pv we‡µZv ûgvqyb wgqv‡K GKRb †`k‡cÖwgK I m‡PZb bvMwiK ejv P‡j|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖk¸ œ ‡jvi DËi `vI : (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) gyw³:

KgvÊvi Avi mn¨ nq bv| G †`‡kiB GK mš—v‡bi eyK ey‡j‡Ui AvNv‡Z cywo‡q QvB K‡i w`‡Z PvB| e¨vUv ivRvKvi| KvgvÊvi: Lei`vi! G †`‡ki †Kvb mš—v‡bi eyK SuvSiv Ki‡Z n‡j Avgvi P~ovš— wb‡`©‡ki Rb¨ A‡c¶v Ki‡e| gyw³: GKUv Pv‡qi †`vKvb`vi byi“| evwo‡Z jvMv‡bv Kjv-g~jv †eu‡P Lvq| euvPvi Rb¨ `wR©-bvwc‡Zi KvRI K‡i| Gi Rb¨ Avcbvi GZ `i`! KgvÊvi: K‡qKw`b †Zvgv‡K †`wLwb| gyw³: KgvÊvi g„Z¨z i gyL †_‡K wd‡i G‡mwQ| Ávb wdi‡ZB †`Ljvg nvZ-cv euvav Ae¯’vq cvKevwnbxi K¨v‡¤ú| Avgvi cv‡k `uvov‡bv AvavgyL XvKv GKUv gvbyl| gvbylUv‡K eo cwiwPZ g‡b nj| (K_v ejvi AeKv‡k m¤§y‡L `Êvqgvb Pv‡qi †`vKvwb byi“‡K †`‡L gyw³ wew¯§Z nq| †Kv_vq †hb †m Zv‡K †`‡L‡Q| AvR Zz”Q Pv we‡µZvi w`‡K †PvL co‡ZB K…ZÁZvq gyw³i gv_v bZ n‡q Avm‡Z Pvq|)

c„ôv-140


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) KwjgwχK Avevi KLb evRv‡ii Pv ÷‡j †`Lv hvq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: KwjgwχK †lvjB wW‡m¤^i mܨvq evRv‡ii Pv ÷‡j †`Lv hvq| cÖkœ : (L) KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii evwoi cwi‡ek eY©bv Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii evwo ej‡Z GKUv Q‡bi Ni| ZvjcvZvi QvDwb †`Iqv GKwU GKPvjv cvKNi| Zvi evwoi mvg‡b cuvPKvVv cwigvY RvqMv i‡q‡Q| G RvqMvwU‡Z †m ÔAv¸Bbv wPZvÕi Pvl K‡i| †m K‡qKwU Avg, KuvVvj, †cu‡ci MvQ jvwM‡q‡Q| G¸‡jv Zvi AwZwi³ Av‡qi Drm| Avi Av‡Q GKwU †QvU Mvfx, GKwU QvMj I `yÕPviwU nuvm †gviM| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ byi“ wgqvi m‡½ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi KwjgwÏ Pwi‡Îi Zzjbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ byi“ wgqv GKRb Pv we‡µZv| Avw_©Kfv‡e Zvi Ae¯’v `ye©j| evwo‡Z jvMv‡bv Kjv-g~jv wewµ K‡i †m P‡j| euvPvi cÖ‡qvR‡b †m `wR©-bvwc‡Zi KvRI K‡i| †m cÖZ¨¶fv‡e gyw³hy‡× AskMÖnY K‡i wb| wKš‘ c‡iv¶fv‡e †m gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mn‡hvwMZv K‡i P‡j‡Q| gyw³i Rxeb euvPv‡Z †m cÖZ¨¶f~wgKv cvjb K‡i‡Q| KwjgwÏ `dv`vi GKRb †PŠwK`vi| evwo‡Z †m †flRDw™¢` Av¸Bbv wPZvi Pvl K‡i| evwo‡Z Mi“-QvMj cv‡j| †mI c‡iv¶fv‡e gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mn‡hvwMZv K‡i‡Q| M‡íi †k‡l Zv eySv hvq| byi“wgqv Ges KwjgwÏ c‡iv¶fv‡e gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡jI Df‡qi gv‡S †`k‡cÖg AUzU wQj| Df‡q Rxe‡bi wewbg‡q †`‡ki Kj¨v‡Y AvZ¥wb‡qvM K‡i‡Q| G w`K †_‡K Giv exi gyw³‡hv×v| G‡`i mvgwMÖK Kvh©vewj we‡ePbv K‡i byi“wgqv Ges KwjgwÏ Pwi‡Îi gv‡S mv`„k¨ j¶ Kiv hvq| cÖkœ : (N) ÔZz”Q Pv we‡µZvi w`‡K †PvL cov‡ZB K…ZÁZvq Zvi gv_v bZ n‡q Avm‡Z PvqÕ- ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K gš—e¨wUi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ gyw³‡hv×v Pv we‡µZv byi“‡K ivRvKvi g‡b K‡i| †m Zv‡K nZ¨v Ki‡Z Pvq| wKš‘ gyw³ Rv‡b bv †h Pv we‡µZv byi“ GKRb gyw³‡hv×v; c‡iv¶fv‡e †m gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mn‡hvwMZv K‡i P‡j‡Q| G welqwU cÖgvwYZ nq hLb cvK K¨v‡¤ú gyw³ byi“ wgqv‡K Zvi Rxeb euvPv‡Z †`‡L| d‡j byi“ wgqv‡K †`‡L kª×vq Zvi gv_v bZ n‡q Av‡m| gyw³hy‡×i cUf~wgKvq iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íI †PŠwK`vi KwjgwχK c‡iv¶fv‡e gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡Z †`Lv hvq| wb‡Ri Rxeb wec‡`i gy‡L †d‡jI †m wcQcv nq bv| hvi cÖgvY M‡íi †k‡l cvIqv hvq| G‡Z MÖvgevmxi fyj fv‡O| DÏxc‡Ki byi“ wgqvi cwiPq †c‡q kª×vq gyw³i gv_v †hgb bZ n‡q Av‡m, †Zgwb ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í KwjgwÏi f~wgKv ¯úó n‡q G‡j MÖvgevmx KwjgwÏi cÖwZ kª×vebZ nq| DcwiD³ weei‡Yi Av‡jv‡K ÔZz&”Q Pv we‡µZvi w`‡K †PvL co‡ZB K…ZÁZvq Zvi gv_v bZ n‡q Avm‡Z PvqÕ-gš—e¨wU ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K Zvrch©gq n‡q D‡V‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖk¸ œ ‡jvi DËi `vI : (cvwcqv RvbœvZ)

25 gvP© iv‡Z evsjvi Awemsevw`Z †bZv e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingvb‡K †MÖdZvi Kiv nq Ges Mfxi iv‡Z cvwK¯—vwb nvbv`vi evwnbx Suvwc‡q c‡o Nygš— evOvwji Ici| MYnZ¨v ïi“ nq evsjv‡`‡k| evOvwjiv i“‡L `uvovq; nvbv`vi evwnbxi wei“‡× ïi“ nq gyw³hy×| GB gyw³hy‡×i mgq kwdK miKvwi Kg©Pvix nIqvq Zv‡K cvKevwnbxi ûKzg gvb‡Z n‡Zv| wKš—y G Kv‡R kwd‡Ki †Kvb mg_©b wQj bv|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb †Kvb c`‡K f~wlZ nb? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb ÔGKz‡ki c`‡KÕ f~wlZ nb| c„ôv-141


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (L) wgwjUvwiiv Kv‡`i nv‡Z Ges Kxfv‡e wbnZ nb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í wgwjUvwiiv eyaev‡ii Awfhv‡b mvBRwÏ Lwjdvi †lvj eQ‡ii †Q‡jwU‡K ¸wj K‡i nZ¨v K‡i| MÖv‡gi gvbyl Av‡MB MÖvg †Q‡o AvZ¥‡Mvcb Ki‡j wgwjUvwiiv MÖv‡g Avi KvD‡K cvq bv| Zv‡`i Pjvi c‡_ GKwU cyj †`‡L Zviv `uvwo‡q hvq Ges KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii Kv‡Q Ab¨ †Kvb weKí c_ Av‡Q wKbv Rvb‡Z Pvq| KwjgwÏ †KŠk‡j Av‡MB cy‡j D‡V †M‡j wgwjUvixiv Zv‡K AbymiY K‡i| nVvr KwjgwÏ gyw³ gyw³ e‡j wPrKvi K‡i cPv Z³v †f‡O cvwb‡Z c‡o hvb| Avi m‡½ m‡½ c~e© †_‡K IZ †c‡Z _vKv gyw³evwnbx ¸wjel©Y K‡i| cwRkb †bIqvi Av‡MB `y wZb Rb wgwjUvwi ¸wjwe× n‡q wbnZ nq| G fv‡eB wgwjUvwiiv gyw³evwnbxi nv‡Z wbnZ nq| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ kwd‡Ki m‡½ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕÑ Gi mv`„k¨ Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡Ki kwd‡Ki m‡½ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii miKvwi PvKzwiMZ Ae¯’v‡bi mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q| KwjgwÏ †ckvq `dv`vi A_©vr †PŠwK`vi‡`i m`©vi| mßv‡n GKw`b †ckvMZ Kvi‡Y Zv‡K _vbvq †h‡Z nq wi‡cvU© Ki‡Z| wek-evBk eQi eq‡m †m PvKzwi‡Z †hvM`vb K‡i| ¯¿x-cyÎ-Kb¨v wb‡q cuvPR‡bi msmvi, †eZb mvgvb¨| wKš—y †`‡k gyw³hy× ïi“ n‡j cvwK¯—vwb evwnbxi ûKzg Zv‡K Kovq MÊvq gvb‡Z eva¨ _vK‡Z n‡Zv| †m miKvwi Kg©Pvix e‡j Zv‡K miKv‡ii ûKz‡g Zv‡`i mv‡_ Acv‡ik‡b †h‡Z n‡Zv| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ kwdK mv‡ne I GKRb miKvwi Kg©Pvix| †ckvMZ Kvi‡Y Zv‡K cvKevwnbxi ûKzg cvjb Ki‡Z nq| Awb”Qv m‡Ë¡I Zv‡K miKvwi wb‡`©k cvjb Ki‡Z n‡Zv| KwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡íi `dv`vi I DÏxc‡K ewY©Z kwdK mvn‡ei PvKzwiMZ Ae¯’vb GK I Awfbœ| Zviv `yR‡bB gyw³hy‡× cvKevwnbxi mnPi wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i‡Q| g~jZ Zviv cvwK¯—vwb‡`i mv‡_ †_‡K gyw³‡hv×v‡`i bvbvfv‡e mnvqZv K‡iwQj| 1971 mv‡j gyw³hy‡× MÖvg GjvKvq Avbmvi I †PŠwK`viiv †h KLbI cÖZ¨¶, KLbI c‡iv¶fv‡e `Lj`vi evwnbxi wei“‡× gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mnvqZv K‡iwQj KwjgwÏ I kwdK G‡`iB cÖwZwbwa| cÖkœ : (N) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ MYnZ¨vi weeiY ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : cÖL¨vZ MíKvi Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU gyw³hy‡×i cUf~wg‡Z †jLv| GB M‡í cvKevwnbxi ee©‡ivwPZ MYnZ¨vi K_v Av‡Q| 1971 mv‡ji gvP© gv‡m evsjvi Awemsevw`Z †bZv e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingvb‡K †MÖdZvi K‡i, cvwK¯—vwb evwnbx Mfxi iv‡Z wbi¯¿ evOvwji Ici †h ee©i MYnZ¨v Pvjvq Zvi wPÎ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| gvP© gv‡mi †kl mßv‡ni g‡a¨B Zviv Qwo‡q c‡o evsjvi Avbv‡P Kvbv‡P| AvaywbK mgih‡š¿i mvnv‡h¨ Zviv eo eo kni Ges GgbwK _vbv m`i `Lj K‡i †bq| ivRavbx kn‡ii ci MÖvgv‡jI ïi“ nq wbwe©Pv‡i MYnZ¨v| Zi“Y-hyeK‡`i a‡i jvB‡b `uvo Kwi‡q nZ¨v Kiv nq| cvkweK wbh©vZ‡bi ci nZ¨v Kiv nq bvix‡`i‡K| wkïivI Zv‡`i G ee©‡ivwPZ nZ¨vhÁ †_‡K ev` hvq wb| evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy× GK ch©v‡q fqven iƒc aviY K‡i Ges G hy‡× gyw³evwnbxi AskMÖnY evo‡Z _v‡K Ges †mB mv‡_ evo‡Z _v‡K nvbv`vi evwnbxi ZrciZv I gyw³wbab Awfhvb| kxZj¶¨v b`x ZxieZx© Awfhv‡b BDwbqb †ev‡W©i `dv`vi KwjgwχKI mv‡_ iv‡L| wn›`y cÖavb MÖvg‡K j¶¨ K‡i Zviv GwM‡q hvq| m‡½ fvix A¯¿k¯¿ I Av¸b †`Iqvi ik`| Pjvi c‡_ Nv‡mi †evSv gv_vq enb K‡i wb‡q hvIqv mvBRwÏ Lwjdvi mš—vb‡K Zviv ¸wj K‡i nZ¨v K‡i| cvwK¯—vwb evwnbx G †`kxq †`vmi‡`i mnvqZvq kni †_‡K MÖvg ch©š— †h binZ¨v Pvjvq Zvi cy•Lvbycy•L cwiPq cvIqv hvq ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í| c„ôv-142


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi QKwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖk¸ œ ‡jvi DËi `vI : (cvwcqv RvbœvZ) KwjgwÏ `dv`vi

`vwqZ¡kxj

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mr e¨w³

mš—vbermj

†mŠwLb gvbyl

gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mvnvh¨Kvix

mnR-mij AvÇvevR gvbyl

cÖkœ I DËi: cªkœ :(K) KwjgwÏ †ckvq Kx wQ‡jb? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : KwjgwÏ †ckvq BDwbqb †ev‡W©i GKRb `dv`vi| cªkœ :(L) †cvqvZx †g‡qiv µ›`biZ wkïi gyL †P‡c a‡i †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : 1971 mv‡ji †Kvb GK eyaev‡i cvwK¯—vwb nvbv`vi‡`i Awfhvb cwiPvwjZ nq †Kv‡bv GKwU MÖvg‡K D‡Ïk¨ K‡i| hvIqvi c‡_ mvBRwÏ Lwjdvi †Q‡j‡K Zviv nZ¨v K‡i| e›`yK Kuv‡a cuvPRb Lvb‡mbv moK c‡_ `w¶Y w`K †_‡K G‡m Dcw¯’Z nq †PŠiv¯—vi ms‡hvM ¯’v‡b| G mg‡q MÖv‡gi nwigwZ I mygwZ cvwb fwZ© Kjm Kuv‡L wb‡q evwo wdiwQj| Lvb †mbv‡`i †`‡L gvwUi Kjm †d‡j w`‡q cwðg w`‡K Qy‡U cvjvq| GB `„k¨ †`‡L Av‡k cv‡ki †jvKRb evwoNi †Q‡o †Sv‡c R½‡j AvZ¥‡Mvcb K‡i| Lvb †mbviv bvix‡`i Dci cvkweK wbh©vZb K‡i‡Q| G wbh©vZ‡bi f‡q †cvqvZx †g‡qiv µ›`biZ wkïi gyL †P‡c a‡i| cªkœ :(M) Q‡K Dwj−wLZ KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii †`k‡cÖ‡gi welqwU ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : 1971 mv‡j evsjv‡`‡ki gnvb gyw³hy‡× GjvKvi Avbmvi †PŠwK`viiv KLbI cÖZ¨¶ Avevi KLbI c‡iv¶ †KŠk‡j AZ¨š— †Mvc‡b cvwK¯—vwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi wei“‡× jovB‡q gyw³‡hv×v‡`i bvbvfv‡e mnvqZv K‡iwQj| KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Zv‡`iB GKRb| M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ KwjgwÏ `dv`vi| Zvi Rxeb cÖev‡ni gva¨‡g †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q gyw³hy‡×i mgq kxZj¶¨v Zx‡ii wKQy ü`qwe`viK NUbv| KwjgwÏ †`k †cÖwgK gvbyl| †mI gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mnvqZv K‡i‡Q| wKš—y miKvwi Kg©Pvix e‡j Zv‡K cvKnvbv`vi evwnbxi K_v gZ Pj‡Z n‡q‡Q| †m gyw³evwnbx‡K mnvqZv K‡i‡Q c‡iv¶fv‡e| KwjgwÏ `dv`vi‡K wb‡q cvKevwnbx GKw`b Acv‡ik‡b †ei nq| c_ †`Lv‡Z wM‡q KwjgwÏ fvOv cy‡ji Kv‡Q wM‡q _v‡g| wKš—y fvOv cy‡ji Dci †h‡Z mvnm bv †c‡q KwjgwÏ Av‡¯— Av‡¯— cv wU‡c cy‡ji Dci I‡V Ges wPrKvi K‡i fvOv Z³v mn cvwb‡Z c‡o hvq| mv‡_ mv‡_ gyw³evwnbxiv ¸wj †Qv‡o Ges cvwK¯—vwb wgwjUvwiiv wbnZ nq| G‡Z †evSv hvq KwjgwÏ cvwK¯—vwb‡`i civR‡q c‡iv¶fv‡e mnvqZv K‡iwQj| Zv Qvov †`k‡cÖ‡g DØy× n‡qwQj e‡jB gnvb gyw³hy‡× GZ KwVb I SzuwKc~Y© Kv‡Ri `vwqZ¡ gv_v †c‡Z wb‡qwQj| DÏxc‡K KwjgwÏi †h †`k‡cÖ‡gi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q Zv ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ KwjgwÏi Pwi·K Av‡jvwKZ K‡i‡Q| c„ôv-143


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cªkœ :(N) ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í `dv`v‡ii PwiÎ ˆewkó¨ Q‡Ki Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡Ki evg cv‡ki Q‡K Dwj−wLZ mKj ˆewkó¨ KwjgwÏi PvwiwÎK ‰ewkó¨‡K cÖZxKvwqZ K‡i| KwjgwÏ †ckvq `dv`vi| mßv‡n GKw`b Zv‡K _vbvq nvwRiv w`‡Z nq| wek-evBk eQi eq‡m †m `dv`vwi‡Z Xy‡K‡Q| gyw³hy‡×i mgq †m Zvi `vwqZ¡ h_vh_fv‡e cvjb K‡i‡Q| †m KL‡bv Kv‡R duvwK †`q wb| KL‡bvB Zv‡K Amr Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ †`Lv hvq wb| †m Zvi Kv‡R memgq `vwq‡Z¡i cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb| DÏxc‡K evg I Wvb cv‡ki Q‡K Dwj−wLZ ˆewk󨸇jv KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii †¶‡Î cÖ‡hvR¨| KwjgwÏ mnR mij †kŠwLb gvbyl| KwjgwÏ eqmKv‡j jvwV †LjZ| HwZn¨iƒ‡c †m GL‡bv evewi Pzj iv‡L| KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii Av‡iKwU ˆewkó¨ nj, †m `vi“Y AvÇvevR| evRv‡i Pv‡qi †`vKv‡b AvÇvq †g‡Z DVZ †m| hvi cwiPq cvB 16 wW‡m¤^i Pv‡qi †`vKv‡b eÜz‡`i mv‡_ AvÇvq| Zvi eÜziv mevB gyw³‡mbv, wKš—y KwjgwÏ ïay cyiv‡bv †cvkv‡K mK‡ji cwiwPZ `dv`vi| Q‡K Dwj−wLZ KwjgwÏi PvwiwÎK ˆewk󨸇jv KwjgwÏi Pwi·K cÖZxKvwqZ K‡i| †m `vwqZ¡kxj, mre¨w³| mnR-mij, †kŠwLb gvbyl †m| KwjgwÏ †`k‡cÖ‡g DØy× LuvwU gvbyl| cvKevwnbx‡K civ¯— Ki‡Z †m gyw³evwnbx‡K c‡iv¶fv‡e mnvqZv K‡i‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖk¸ œ ‡jvi DËi `vI : (cvwcqv RvbœvZ)

1971 mvj| gyw³hy‡×i mgq Rxeb euvPv‡bvi Rb¨ Av‡qkv Zvi †g‡q Av‡gbv‡K wb‡q evevi evwo hvw”Qj| †nv‡mbcyi MÖvg †cwi‡q PievK‡ii cÖk¯— mo‡K DV‡Z nq| cÖk¯— mo‡K DV‡ZB cvK nvbv`vi evwnbxi GKUv wRc Zv‡`i mvg‡b G‡m `uvovq| cvK evwnbx‡K †`‡L gv-†g‡q cÖvY f‡q EaŸ©kv¦ ‡m †`uŠov‡Z ïi“ K‡i| wKš—y wbôzi cvK evwnbxi nvZ †_‡K i¶v cvq wb Zviv| cvkweK wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡q gv-†g‡q i³v³ Ae¯’vq c‡o _v‡K cvU †¶‡Zi cv‡k|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ :(K) ÔAv¸Bbv wPZvÕ Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : ÔAv¸Bbv wPZvÕ nj †flR Dw™¢`| cÖkœ :(L) ÔwKQy¶Y gv-†g‡qi AvZ©bv` I‡V| c‡i wbtkã n‡q hvq ¯‹j z Ni|ÕÑ Dw³wUi Zvrch© e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í Mwie weaev nwigwZ I Zvi †g‡q mygwZ GK `ycy‡i NvU †_‡K Kjwm‡Z K‡i cvwb Avb‡Z wM‡qwQj| Nv‡Ui cv‡k Lvb‡mbv‡`i K¨v¤ú wQj ZvB Lvb‡mbv‡`i MwZwewa I Ae¯’v‡bi †LuvR Lei wb‡qB Zviv Nv‡U wM‡qwQj| wKš—y wewa evg| Kjwm Kuv‡L Av`ª© e‡¯¿ b`xi Zx‡i D‡V Zviv evwoi c_ a‡i‡Q| wVK ZLbB cuvPRb Lvb‡mbvi †jvfvZzi wnsmª †PvL I‡`i Ici we× nq| Rxeb euvPv‡Z gv-†g‡q Kjwm †d‡j cÖvY f‡q cwðg w`‡K †`Šuov‡Z _v‡K| wKš—y AvwkªZ ¯‹zj N‡iB gv-†g‡q bicï‡`i wkKvi nb| wKQy¶Y gv-†g‡qi AvZ©bv` †kvbv †M‡jI c‡i wbtkã n‡q hvq ¯‹zj Ni| Av‡jvP¨ Dw³‡Z cvKnvbv`vi‡`i ee©iZvi wPÎ Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ :(M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ Av‡qkv I Av‡gbvi m‡½ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í Kv‡`i wgj Lyu‡R cvIqv hvqÑe¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡K Av‡qkv I Av‡gbvi m‡½ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í nwigwZ I mygwZi mv`„k¨ cvIqv hvq| DÏxc‡K Av‡qkv I Zvi †g‡q Av‡gbv bicï‡`i nv‡Z †hfv‡e wbh©vwZZ n‡qwQj M‡í nwigwZ I mygwZI GKB wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡q‡Q| 1971 mv‡ji gyw³hy‡×i mgq wekvj RvqMv Ry‡o N‡U‡Q MYnZ¨v| wVK †Zgwb evsjv‡`‡ki nvRvi nvRvi gv-†ev‡bi Ici cvkweK wbh©vZ‡bi NUbvI i‡q‡Q| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í nwigwZ I mygwZ Nv‡U øvb †k‡l fiv Kjwm Kuv‡L †divi c‡_ Zviv cuvPRb bicï‡`i Là‡i c‡o| B¾Z euvPv‡Z fiv Kjmx Kuv‡L Av`ª© e‡¯¿ ¯‹zj N‡i Avkªq †bq| †mB ¯‹zj N‡iB gv-†g‡q‡K i³v³ Ae¯’vq †i‡L nvbv`vi evwnbxiv P‡j hvq| wVK GKB wPÎ Avgiv cvB DÏxc‡K| gv†g‡q Rxeb euvPv‡Z evevi evwo hvIqvi c‡_ bicï‡`i Là‡i c‡o Ges i³v³ Ae¯’vq Zv‡`i‡K cvU †L‡Z †i‡L P‡j hvq| gyw³hy‡×i mgq gv-†ev‡biv †h jvÃbvi wkKvi n‡qwQj Zv G DÏxcK I M‡í cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| c„ôv-144


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ :(N) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ Av‡qkv I Av‡gbv †h cvkweK wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡qwQj Zvi ¯^iƒc ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : GKvˇii gyw³hy× Avgv‡`i AnsKvi I exi‡Z¡i BwZnvm| Gi Rb¨ Avgv‡`i A‡bK Z¨vM ¯^xKvi Ki‡Z n‡q‡Q| Rxeb w`‡Z n‡q‡Q AMwYZ gvbyl‡K| nviv‡Z n‡q‡Q gv-†ev‡bi B¾Z| wÎk j¶ gvby‡li Rxe‡bi wewbg‡q I `y j¶ gv †ev‡bi B¾‡Zi wewbg‡q AwR©Z n‡q‡Q Avgv‡`i ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`k| DÏxc‡K Av‡qkv I Av‡gbv gyw³hy‡×i mgq Rxeb euvPv‡Z evevi evwo‡Z hvIqvi c‡_ nvbv`vi evwnbxi Ke‡j c‡o Ges wbôzi wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi n‡q i³v³ Ae¯’vq cvU †¶‡Zi cv‡k c‡o _v‡K| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í nwigwZ I mygwZ nvbv`vi evwnbxi MwZwewa j¶ Kivi Rb¨ b`xi Zx‡i hvq| øvb †k‡l fiv Kjwm Kuv‡L wb‡q †divi c‡_ nvbv`vi evwnbxi Ke‡j c‡o Avkªq †bq ¯‹zj N‡i| ¯‹zj N‡i wbcxwoZ nq gv I †g‡q Ges i³v³ Ae¯’vq c‡o _v‡K| KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii nwigwZ I mygwZ I DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ Av‡qkv I Av‡gbvi g‡Zv evsjv‡`‡ki eû bvix Zv‡`i B¾Z nvwi‡q‡Q| Zv‡`i AvZ¥Z¨v‡M Avgiv †c‡qwQ ¯^vaxbZv| mgvR m‡PZb K_v mvwnwZ¨K Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb Avcvgi Rbmvavi‡Yi K_v Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb Zvi ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í| ZvB ejv hvq, DÏxc‡Ki Av‡qkv I Av‡gbv Avi Av‡jvP¨ M‡íi nwigwZ I mygwZ G‡`‡ki gyw³hy‡× m¤£g nviv‡bv gv-†ev‡bi cÖZxK|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖk¸ œ ‡jvi DËi `vI : (cvwcqv RvbœvZ)

bvwmi gyw³‡hv×v| Zvi mÜv‡b cvK‡mbviv G‡m Zv‡K bv †c‡q Zvi evevi ey‡K ¸wj Pvjvq| Zvi mš—vb m¤¢ev ¯¿x dv‡Zgvi Ici Pvjvq cvkweK wbh©vZb| cvK‡mbv‡`i wbh©vZ‡bi Kvi‡Y Zvi ¯¿x dv‡Zgv g„Z mš—vb cÖme K‡i| g„Z mš—v‡bi Kó ey‡K †i‡L AvRI dv‡Zgv ¯^vgxi cÖZx¶vq cÖni ¸b‡Q|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ :(K) ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii eqm GLb KZ? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii eqm GLb lvU eQi| cÖkœ :(L) Ôevuab LyeB k³| Zey †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv iv‡Î ¸wj wewbgq nqÕÑ Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : 1971 mv‡ji fv`ª gv‡mi †Kvb GK mgq cvKevwnbx XvKvi A`~ieZx© kxZj¶¨v b`xi Zx‡i Aew¯’Z MÖv‡g K¨v¤ú ¯’vcb K‡i| ¯’vwcZ QvDwbi euvab LyeB k³| QvDwbi Ae¯’vb Ggb ¯’v‡b †hLvb †_‡K b`xi Gcvi-Icv‡i Aew¯’Z wgj KviLvbvi bRi`vwi Kiv hvq| ZviciI gv‡S g‡a¨ †Mvjv¸wji kã nq| gyw³‡mbviv †Kvb c_ w`‡q Av‡m, AvµgY K‡i, Avevi gyn~‡Z©B DavI n‡q hvqÑ Gi inm¨ †f` Kiv cvKevwnbxi c‡¶ KwVb n‡q hvq| cÖkœ :(M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ dv‡Zgv Pwi‡Îi m‡½ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi mygwZ Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨ Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : gyw³hy× PjvKv‡j cvK‡mbv‡`i wbôzi ee©iZvi wkKvi n‡q‡Q G ‡`‡ki bvixiv| DÏxc‡Ki dv‡Zgv I ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi mygwZI gg©vwš—K ev¯—eZvi wkKvi n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ dv‡Zgv gyw³‡hv×vi ¯¿x| gyw³‡hv×v bvwmi‡K ai‡Z G‡m bv †c‡q nvbv`vi evwnbxiv Zvi evev‡K ¸wj †Qv‡o Ges Zvi mš—vb m¤¢ev ¯¿x dv‡Zgvi Ici Pvjvq cvkweK wbh©vZb| cvkweK wbh©vZ‡bi Kvi‡Y Zvi M‡f©i mš—vb gviv hvq wKš—y ZviciI †m bicï‡`i nvZ †_‡K i¶v cvq wb| dv‡Zgvi g‡Zv A‡bK `yej © I Amnvq bvixiv cvKevwnbxi `vbexq Lywki †Lviv‡K cwiYZ n‡qwQj| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í mygwZ‡K †`wL nvbv`vi evwnbx‡`i MwZwewa j¶ K‡i Pjv‡div Ki‡Z| GKw`b b`xi Zx‡i mygwZ hvq cÖwZw`‡bi g‡Zv wKš—y øvb †k‡l fiv Kjmx wb‡q †divi c‡_ †m nvbv`vi evwnbxi Là‡i c‡o Ges wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi nb| DÏxc‡Ki dv‡Zgv I ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi mygwZ Giv Df‡q nvbv`vi evwnbx Øviv wbh©vwZZ bvix| wÎk j¶ knx` Avi `y j¶ gv-†ev‡bi m¤£g nvwbi gva¨‡gB Avgiv †c‡qwQ ¯^vaxbZv| mygwZ I dv‡Zgv †mB `y-j¶ bvixi cÖZxK| GLv‡bB Zv‡`i PwiÎMZ mv`„k¨ j¶ Kiv hvq|

c„ôv-145


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ :(N) DÏxc‡K ewY©Z cvK‡mbv‡`i wbh©vZ‡bi wPÎ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕÑ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb Zuvi ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í gyw³hy‡×i mgq cvKevwnbxi wbg©g, wbôzi I ee©iZvi wPÎ AZ¨š— mywbcyYfv‡e Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| gyw³‡hv×v‡`i cÖwZ‡iv‡ai gy‡L hLb cvKevwnbx wech©¯— ZLb †Mwijv †hv×v‡`i m¤ú‡K© Z_¨ Av`v‡qi Rb¨ Zviv mvaviY gvbyl‡`i Ici AgvbweK wbh©vZb Pvjvq | ZviB wPÎ Avgiv j¶ Kwi DÏxc‡K| bvwmi gyw³‡hv×v| Zv‡K ai‡Z G‡m bv †c‡q nvbv`vi evwnbx Zvi evev‡K ¸wj K‡i nZ¨v K‡i Ges Zvi ¯¿x dv‡Zgv wQj Aš—tmË¡v wKš—y ZviciI nvbv`vi evwnbxi nvZ †_‡K i¶v cvq wb †m| wbh©vZ‡bi Kvi‡Y dv‡Zgvi M‡f©i mš—vb gviv hvq| Zvi m¤£gnvwbi mv‡_ mv‡_ ¯^cI œ aywjmvr n‡q hvq| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í nwigwZ I Zvi †g‡q mygwZI bicï‡`i Ke‡j c‡o m¤£g nvivq| nvbv`vi evwnbx 1971 mv‡j 9 gvm G ‡`‡ki mvaviY gvby‡li Ici †h wbh©vZb Pvwj‡qwQj Zvi wPÎ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í my¯úó| wbwe©Pv‡i nZ¨v, AwMœms‡hvM, jyÉb, al©Ymn bvbv iKg wbh©vZ‡bi fqvj iƒ‡ci wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í| nvbv`vi evwnbxiv †h wbôzi, wbg©g wbh©vZb, wbcxob K‡iwQj Zvi wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q DÏxcK I ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖk¸ œ ‡jvi DËi `vI : (cvwcqv RvbœvZ)

14 wW‡m¤^i 1971| cvK nvbv`vi evwnbxi †Zv‡ci Ke‡j c‡ob G ‡`‡ki eyw×Rxexiv| cvK nvbv`vi evwnbxi †`vmi Avje`‡ii m`m¨MY knx`yj−vn Kvqmvi‡K Zvi wbR evmfeb †_‡K AcniY K‡i wb‡q hvq| Gici Zuvi Avi †Kv‡bv mÜvb cvIqv hvq wb| Zuvi ¯¿x cvbœv Kvqmv‡ii wek¦vm, knx`‡`i i³ e„_v hv‡e bv|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb Gi Rb¥ KZ mv‡j? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb Gi Rb¥ 1911 mv‡j| cÖkœ : (L) Ôaivkvqx †`nUv †_‡K Avi †Kv‡bv aŸwb Kv‡b Av‡m bv|ÕÑ Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Lvb †mbv‡`i m½x| eyaevi †ejv GMv‡ivUvq KwjgwÏi evj¨eÜz mvBRwÏ Lwjdvi †lvj eQ‡ii †Q‡j Nv‡mi †evSv gv_vq wb‡q evwo wdiwQj| Zv‡K †`‡L GKRb Lvb‡mbv gyw³ e‡j nuvK †`q| KwjgwÏ e‡j †m gyw³ bq| wKš—y gyw³ e‡j ¸wj †Quv‡o| †Q‡jwU GKevi gvÎ gv e‡j| Zvici aivkvqx †`nUv †_‡K Avi †Kvb aŸwb Kv‡b Av‡m bv Kv‡iv| cÖkœ : (M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ G †`‡ki eyw×Rxexiv †h wbh©vZ‡bi wkKvi Zv ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb gyw³hy× PjvKv‡j cvKevwnbx †h wbôzi wbh©vZb Pvwj‡qwQj wbi¯¿ evOvwji Dci †mB b„ksmZvi my®úó D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K ewY©Z 14 wW‡m¤^i 1971 mvj| nvbv`vi evwnbxi †Zv‡ci Ke‡j c‡ob G †`‡ki eyw×Rxexiv| knx`yj−vn Kvqmvi mvsevw`K I mvwnwZ¨K| nvbv`vi evwnbxiv Zv‡K Zz‡j wb‡q hvq G ‡`‡ki †gav‡K aŸsm K‡i †`evi Rb¨| 1971 mv‡j 25 gvP© Kv‡jv iv‡Z nvbv`vi evwnbx wbi¯¿, wbiciva evOvwji Dci cvkweK wbh©vZb Pvjvq| nZ¨v, al©Y Pvjvq wbwe©Pv‡i| ZviciI ¶vš— nq wb| Zviv wbiciva knx`yj−vn Kvqmvi‡K wb‡q hvq| Avi †Kvb mÜvb cvIqv hvq wb| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íI Avgiv †mB b„ksmZvi eY©bv cvB| cvKevwnbx KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii eÜz mvBRwÏ Lwjdvi †lvj eQ‡ii wb®úvc †Q‡jwUi ey‡K ¸wj Pvjvq| GB NUbv Avgiv DÏxcK I ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í †`L‡Z cvB|

c„ôv-146


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : (N) Ôknx`‡`i i³ e„_v hv‡e bvÑ Dw³wU ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb iwPZ ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í gyw³hy‡×i GKwU mvgwqK wPÎ D‡b¥vwPZ n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡KI gyw³hy‡×i GKwU NUbvi cwiPq cvIqv hvq| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ 14 wW‡m¤^i 1971 mvj| mvsevw`K, mvwnwZ¨K knx`yj−vn Kvqmvi‡K nvbv`vi evwnbxi m`m¨iv AcniY K‡i wb‡q hvq| wKš—y Avi †Kvb mÜvb cvIqv hvq wb| evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy‡× G iKg AmsL¨ gvbyl cvwK¯—vwb‡`i nv‡Z cÖvY w`‡q‡Q| Zv‡`i i‡³ iwÄZ n‡q‡Q ivRc_| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í mvBRwÏ Lwjdvi †lvj eQ‡ii †Q‡j‡K wbg©gfv‡e nZ¨v Kiv n‡q‡Q| nwigwZ I mygwZi gZ nvRvi nvRvi bvix Zv‡`i `vbexq Lywki †Lviv‡K cwiYZ n‡qwQj| 1971 mv‡j 9 gvm gyw³hy‡×i ci Avgiv †c‡qwQ ¯^vaxbZv| GB ¯^vaxbZvi †cQ‡b i‡q‡Q knx`yj−v Kvqmv‡ii gZ j¶ j¶ cÖv‡Yi AvZ¥Z¨vM| nwigwZ I mygwZi gZ j¶ j¶ gv †ev‡bi m¤£g nvwbi NUbv| Zv‡`i GB AvZ¥Z¨v‡M Avgv‡`i meyR gvwU i‡³ iwÄZ n‡q‡Q| ZvB knx`yj−vn Kvqmv‡ii ¯¿xi wek¦vm, knx`‡`i i³ e„_v hv‡e bv| hv‡`i Z¨v‡Mi wewbg‡q Avgiv †c‡qwQ ¯^vaxbZv; †mB ¯^vaxbZv i¶vq GwM‡q Avm‡Z n‡e mKj‡K|

ˆbe©¨w³K cÖkœvewj KwjgwÏ `dv`vi †gvnv¤§` Avãyj ReŸvi

Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb

6| Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb KZ mv‡j g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib? K 1985 mv‡j L 1987 mv‡j M 1988 mv‡j N 1989 mv‡j 7| KwjgwÏ `dv`vi KZ eQi eq‡m `dv`vwi‡Z Xy‡KwQj? K wek-evBk eQi eq‡m L wek-cuwPk eQi eq‡m M cuwPk-QvweŸk eQi eq‡m N cuwPk-wÎk eQi eq‡m 8| †K †hŠe‡b ivZ †R‡M cuyw_ coZ? K KwjgwÏ `dv`vi L nwigwZ M mygwZ N mvBRwÏ 9| evwoi mvg‡bi w`‡K KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii KZ KvVv cwigvY RvqMv wQj? K wZb KvVv L Pvi KvVv M cuvP KvVv N Qq KvVv 10| KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii Pv‡li Rwg‡Z Kq gv‡mi †LvivwK nq? K gvm-`y‡q‡Ki L gvm-wZ‡b‡Ki M gvm-Pv‡i‡Ki N gvm-cuv‡P‡Ki 11| KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii ‡evW© Awdm †Kv_vq wQj? K kxZj¶¨vi Zx‡i evRv‡i L ‡gNbvi Zx‡i evRv‡i M eywoM½vi Zx‡i evRv‡i N ˆfi‡ei Zx‡i evRv‡i

1| Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb KZ eQi mvwnZ¨ mvabvq eªZx wQ‡jb? K cÂvk eQ‡ii †ewk Kvj a‡i L wÎk eQ‡ii †ewk Kvj a‡i M cuwPk eQ‡ii †ewk Kvj a‡i N Pwj−k eQ‡ii †ewk Kvj a‡i 2| Ô†kl ivwÎi ZvivÕ Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏx‡bi Kx ai‡bi MÖš’? K Dcb¨vm L MíMÖš’ M bvUK N ågYKvwnbx 3| Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb wb‡Pi †Kvb mvwnZ¨ cyi¯‹vi jvf K‡i‡Qb? K AvjvIj mvwnZ¨ cyi¯‹vi L wkï GKv‡Wgx mvwnZ¨ cyi¯‹vi M Av`gRx mvwnZ¨ cyi¯‹vi N evsjv GKv‡Wgx mvwnZ¨ cyi¯‹vi 4| Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb KZ mv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? K 1911 mv‡j L 1917 mv‡j M 1918 mv‡j N 1919 mv‡j 5| Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb †Kvb †Rjvq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? K XvKv †Rjvq L gyÝxMÄ †Rjvq M MvRxcyi †Rjvq N beveMÄ †Rjvq c„ôv-147


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12| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í MÜewYK evo–B RvZxq wn›`yi evmK evRv‡ii Dˇi L evRv‡ii cwðg-`w¶‡Y M evRv‡ii c~e©-`w¶‡Y N evRv‡ii DËi-c~‡e© 13| ÔIiv ivZfi †XuwK‡Z wPov Kz‡U, w`‡b gywo fv‡RÕ- Kviv? K KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii †eŠ, †g‡q L weaev nwigwZ I Zvi †g‡q mygwZ M MÖv‡gi †eŠwSiv N Avengvb MÖvgevsjvi †g‡qiv 14| nwigwZ I Zvi †g‡q mygwZ‡K KZRb Lvb †mbv cðv×veb

22| Ô†Kv›`vÕ A_©K ZvjMvQ w`‡q ˆZwi †bŠKv L †QvU †bŠKv we‡kl M GK ai‡bi nvwZqvi N GK ai‡bi gvQ wkKv‡ii A¯¿ 23| Ôfv½ybwZÕ A_©K boe‡o †mZz L Kv‡Vi ˆZwi fvOv †mZz M b`xZx‡ii fvObkxj Ask N NifvOv †jvK 24| Lvb †mbviv Awfhv‡b †b‡g †h cyj cvi n‡Z hvw”Qj †m

K wZb Rb L Pvi Rb M cuvP Rb N Qq Rb 15| nwigwZ I mygwZ ¯‹zjN‡i D‡V `g †bIqvi Av‡MB Kx ïb‡Z cvq? K Lvb †mbv‡`i ¸wji kã L Lvb †mbv‡`i ey‡Ui `vcU M Lvb †mbv‡`i Mvwoi kã N Lvb †mbv‡`i AvZ©wPrKvi 16| nwigwZ I mygwZ cÖvYf‡q ¯‹zjN‡i XyK‡j Kx cvwj‡q hvq? K GKwU †eovj L GKwU Quy‡Pv Bu`yi M GKwU Kv‡jv KzKzi N GKwU Kv‡jv ev`yo 17| nwigwZ mygwZ‡K ¯‹zjN‡i †Kvb Ae¯’vq cvIqv hvq? K jvk wn‡m‡e L i³v³ g„Z Ae¯’vq M i³v³ AÁvb Ae¯’vq N wQbœwfbœ Ae¯’vq 18| Lvb †mbv‡`i m‡½ KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii wWDwU c‡o KqUvq? K mKvj bqUvq L mKvj `kUvq M mKvj AvUUvq N mKvj mv‡o mvZUvq 19| Lvb †mbv‰`i nv‡Z wbnZ mvBRwÏ Lwjdvi †Q‡ji eql KZ wQj? K †PŠÏ eQi L c‡bi eQi M †lvj eQi N m‡Zi eQi 20| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í Dwj−wLZ MÖvgevmx MÖvg †_‡K cÖvgvš—‡i hvIqvi R‡b¨ avb‡¶‡Zi Ici w`‡q Kx e¨envi KiZ? K bvI`uvov L DuPz c_ M Kjv Mv‡Qi †fjv N ‡mvRv `uvov 21| ÔAv¸Bbv wPZvÕ- A_© Kx? K †flR Dw™¢` we‡kl L wec¾bK e¯‘ M MÜ`ªe¨ N GK iKg avb

25|

cyjwU wQj-

K‡iwQj?

26|

27|

28|

K `yB Z³vi L wZb Z³vi M Pvi Z³vi N GK Z³vi Ô†QvU †QvU †Q‡j-‡g‡qiv cy‡ji Ici †_‡K jvwd‡q c‡o Lv‡ji R‡j Suvcywo †L‡jÕ- GwU †Kvb cyjK wZb Z³vi cyj L `yB Z³vi cyj M Pvi Z³vi cyj N GK Z³vi cyj ÔB‡q eKwi eûZ Lyem~iZ AvIi ZvRv, Iqvcm Rv‡b †K IqvKZ ....... mg‡SÕ G Dw³‡Z Lvb †mbv‡`i †Kvb welqwU aiv c‡o? K †jvfvZziZv L wbôziZv M cvMjvwg N wnsmªZv †mbviv gv‡S gv‡S LZibvK Ae¯’vq c‡o †Kb? K c_-Nv‡Ui `yie¯’vq L Lv`¨ msK‡U I cvwbi Afv‡e M gyw³‡hv×v‡`i AvKw¯§K Avµg‡Y N MÖv‡gi bvix-cyi“‡li we‡ivwaZvq ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwUi cUf~wg †Kvb HwZnvwmK NUbv?

K 1757 mv‡ji cjvkxi hy× L 1857 mv‡ji wmcvwn we‡`ªvn M 1947 mv‡j ‡`k wefvM N 1971 mv‡ji gyw³hy× 29| ÔPzc ivI mv‡j Kv‡di Kv ev”Pv Kv‡diÕ- DׄZvskUzKz †Kvb fvlvi?

K PwjZ fvlv L mvay fvlv M D`y© fvlv N wnw›` fvlv 30| Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb Rb¥MÖnY K‡i‡Qb 1911 wLª÷v‡ã- G mgqUv †Kvb kvmbvgj‡K wb‡`©k K‡i? K AvKei ev`kvni kvmb Avgj L myjZvwb kvmb Avgj M weªwUk kvmb Avgj N cvwK¯—vwb kvmb Avgj c„ôv-148


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

40| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í Ôhg`~ZÕ ej‡Z Kv‡`i eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q? K cvwK¯—vwb nvbv`vi‡`i L ivRvKvi‡`i M Avje`i‡`i N Avjkvgm‡`i 41| el©vKv‡j MÖvg¸‡jv Kx‡mi g‡Zv ‡`Lvq? K Aa©- P‡›`ªi g‡Zv L Îfy‡Ri g‡Zv M Øx‡ci g‡Zv N civwg‡Wi g‡Zv 42| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU‡Z KqwU fvlvi e¨envi j¶¨ Kiv hvq? K 2wU L 3wU M 4wU N 5wU 43| euv‡ki muv‡Kv I Kv‡Vi cyj cvi nIqvi Rb¨ Kx‡mi `iKvi nq e‡j M‡í wea„Z n‡q‡Q? K mvn‡mi L eyw×i M †Uªwbs-Gi N nvZ‡ji 44| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwUi Kvwnbx †Kvb A‡ji? K ivRkvnx †Rjvi Pjbwej A‡ji L wm‡jU †Rjvi nvIo A‡ji M XvKv †Rjvi evrmwiK c−veb A‡ji N PÆMÖv‡gi cve©Z¨ A‡ji 45| KwjgwχK Avevi †`Lv hvq †lvjB wW‡m¤^i mܨvqK †evW© Awd‡m L evRv‡ii Pv ÷‡j M gyw³evwnbxi m‡½ N †÷wWqv‡gi KzPKvIqv‡R 46| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í KwjgwÏ `dv`vi‡K †jLK iwmKZvi RvnvR ejvi KviYi. Pig `yw`©‡bI KwjgwÏ ù~wZ©evR gvbyl ii. `yt‡Li w`‡bI `dv`vi Ab¨‡`i g‡Zv iwmKZv K‡i iii. KwjgwÏi iwmKZvi †Kv‡bv m_vb-Kvj-cvÎ wQj bv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L ii I iii M i I iii N i I ii 47| cvK evwnbxi QvDwb `ywUi Ae¯’vb wQji. evRvimsjMœ nvB¯‹z‡j ii. evRvimsjMœ cÖv_wgK ¯‹z‡j iii. wg‡ji †i÷ nvD‡m wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L i I iii M ii I iii N i, ii I iii

31| nwigwZ I mygwZ wPovgywo evwb‡q w`b Pvjvq†`‡k G iKg `wi`ª †g‡qiv mvaviYZ AviI †hme KvR K‡i †mme n‡”QK Kuv_v †mjvB, cvwU †evbv L wiKkv-U¨vw· Pvjv‡bv M Kv‡Vi AvmevecÎ evbv‡bv N `v-Qzwi evbv‡bv

32| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í ÔwkímZ¨Õ †KvbwU? K GKRb mvaviY Mwie `dv`v‡ii †`k‡cÖg L KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii cÖvY `vb M gyw³hy‡×i mgq mvavi‡Yi AmvaviY fvebv N KwjgwÏi Rxebhvcb 33| KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii Lvb †mbv‡`i m‡½ Pjvi KviYK mvnwmKZv L miKvwi PvKwi M myweav Av`vq Kiv N gyw³‡hv×v‡`i mn‡hvwMZv Kiv 34| ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi gyw³evwnbxiK Acv‡ik‡bi wPÎ Av‡Q L cÖwZ‡iv‡ai wPÎ Av‡Q M weR‡qi wPÎ Av‡Q N civR‡qi wPÎ Av‡Q 35| ÔLZibvKÕ kãwUi A_© Kx? K weij L wec¾bK M eÜzi N †_eov bvK 36| †evW© Awdm †Lvjvi fvi KLb †_‡K KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii Ici b¨¯— nq? K wgwjUvwi Avmvi ci L Zvi c‡`vbœwZi ci M hy× ïi“i ci N Zvi PvKwi MÖn‡Yi ci 37| bvI`uvov Kx? K †bŠKv Pjvi Rb¨ Lv‡ji g‡Zv †QvU c_ L †bŠKv ivLvi ¯’vb M †bŠKv wfov‡bvi ¯’vb N †h †bŠKvi `uvo Uv‡b 38| cvwbi `y cv‡k Kx av‡bi †¶Z? K evIqv L weª-28 M AvDk N †ev‡iv 39| ÔcÙ †gNbv hgybvÕ †Kvb ai‡bi mvwnZ¨Kg©? K †QvUMí L bvUK M cÖeÜ N Dcb¨vm

c„ôv-149


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj) 48| KwjgwÏ `dv`vi †h ÔAv¸Bbv wPZvÕi Pvl K‡i G iKg AviI †flR Dw™¢‡`i bvg n‡”Qi. N„ZKzgvix ii. AvK›` iii. kZgyjx wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L ii I iii M i I iii N i, ii I iii 49| gyw³hy‡×i mgq ÔivRvKvi evwnbxÕi g‡Zv cwðg cvwK¯—vwb‡`i mnvqZvKvix AviI evwnbxi bvgi. Avj-e`i ii. Avj-wnZvev iii. Avj-kvgm wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L ii I iii M iii N i I iii wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU c‡ov Ges 50 I 51 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI: nvi“b †kL w`bgRyi wQ‡jb| 1971 mv‡j gyw³hy‡×i WvK G‡j hy‡× †hvM †`b| wewfbœ GjvKvq gyw³‡hv×v‡`i m‡½ Ny‡i 16B wW‡m¤^‡ii Kw`b Av‡M Lvb †mbv‡`i m‡½ m¤§yLhy‡× GKwU cv nvivb| wZwb GLb GKRb c½y gyw³‡hv×v| 50| DÏxc‡Ki nvi“‡bi m‡½ KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii cv_©K¨i. gyw³hy‡× nvi“b KwjgwÏi †P‡q AMÖMvgx ii. gyw³hy‡× nvi“‡bi Z¨vM KwjgwÏi †P‡q eû¸Y †ewk iii. gyw³hy‡× nvi“b I KwjgwÏi Ae`vb cÖvq mgvb wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M iii N i, ii I iii 51| KwjgwÏ `dv`vi I DÏxc‡Ki nvi“b †kL cÖgvY K‡ii. mvaviY gvbylI gyw³hy‡× eo Z¨vM ¯^xKvi K‡i‡Q ii. mvaviY gvbyl gyw³hy‡× mwµq wQj iii. mvaviY gvbyl gyw³hy‡× Ask wb‡qwQj wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M iii N i, ii I iii

c„ôv-150

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

GKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Kvwnbx ‰mq` IqvjxDj−vn& (1922-1971) “ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (IwjDj AvRg)

1947 Gi †`k wefv‡Mi ci hZxb miKvi Zvi mg¯— ¯’vei-A¯’vei m¯úwË wewµ K‡i w`‡q fvi‡Z P‡j hvb| wKš‘ Rb¥f~wg †Q‡o Ab¨Î P‡j hvIqvi d‡j Zvui ü`‡q ¯^‡`‡ki cÖwZ fv‡jvevmv I wei‡ni Ki“Y myi me mgq ev‡R| ¯^‡`‡ki †Lvjv‡gjv RvqMv Avi my›`i cwi‡ek †Q‡o wZwb AvR mcwievi GKwU wNwÄ GjvKvq †QvU evwo‡Z D‡V‡Qb| †h Ni w`‡q KLbI Av‡jv evZvm cÖ‡ek K‡i bv, Pvicv‡k ïay †bvsiv AveR©bvi MÜ| AvR Zvi evievi g‡b co‡Q, Ô‡Kb Avwg †kKo †Q‡o P‡j Gjvg|Õ

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖk:œ (K) Kvu‡`v b`x Kvu‡`v Dcb¨v‡mi iPwqZv †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔKvu‡`v b`x Kvu‡`vÕ Dcb¨v‡mi iPwqZv ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn&| cÖkœ: (L) ÔZLb Mfxi Qvqv †b‡g Av‡m me©Î| †Kv_vq hv‡e Zviv?Õ-e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: 1947 Gi †`k wefv‡Mi Wvgv‡Wv‡j wKQz D`åvš— DØv¯—y gv_v †MuvRvi VuvB wn‡m‡e GKwU cwiZ¨³ cyivZb wn›`y evwo‡Z Avkªq †bqvi ci cywjk evwo Qvovi ZvwM` †`q| GiciB Zv‡`i g‡bi Dci nZvkv fi K‡i Ges †c‡q nviv‡bvi fq Zvov K‡i, Zv‡Z GZeo GKwU evwo‡Z †hLv‡b ch©vß Av‡jv-evZv‡mi †Ljv wQj Zv wKbv †Q‡o P‡j †h‡Z n‡e| `yt‡Li GKwU kxZj Qvqv Zv‡`i mg¯— Avkv AvKv•¶v‡K MÖvm K‡i| Zviv fv‡e Avevi †Kv_vq hv‡e, †Kv_vq VvuB cv‡e| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki hZxb miKv‡ii m‡½ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi †Kvb Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨ Av‡Q-e¨vL¨v Ki|(cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn iwPZ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ †QvUM‡í mxwgZ cwim‡i Rxe‡bi Mfxi Zvrch©‡K e¨Äbvgq Kiv n‡q‡Q| GiB cÖwZdjb N‡U‡Q DÏxc‡Ki hZxb miKv‡ii Pwi‡Îi g‡a¨| mgvR m‡PZb mvwnZ¨wkíx ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn iwPZ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi DØv¯‘ gwZ‡bi KwíZ M„nKΩxi m‡½ DÏxc‡Ki hZxb miKv‡ii Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨ j¶ Kiv hvq| 1947 mv‡j †`kfv‡Mi d‡j hZxb miKvi evsjv‡`‡ki ¯’vei-A¯’vei m¤úwË wewµ K‡i w`‡q fvi‡Z P‡j hvb| wVK †ZgbB †`kf‡½i ûRy‡M wb‡Ri evm¯’vb †_‡K weZvwoZ n‡q nq‡Zv Icvi evsjvq DØv¯‘ Rxeb hvcb Ki‡Qb M„nKÎx©| †h M„nKÎx© cÖwZ w`bv‡š— ivbœvN‡ii †cQ‡b Zzjmx Mv‡Qi wb‡P cÖ`xc R¡vwj‡q c~Rv Ki‡Zb, M„‡ni g½j Kvgbv Ki‡Zb| hZxb miKv‡ii g‡Zv nq‡Zv M„nKÎx©iI wb‡Ri evwoi K_v g‡b co‡Q ¶‡Y ¶‡Y| gwZb fv‡e M„nKÎx© nq‡Zv Ab¨ †Kv_vI Avkªq wb‡q‡Q A_ev †Kv‡bv PjwZ †Uª‡bi Rvbvjvi cv‡k †hb e‡m Av‡Qb| hLb AvKv‡k w`bv‡š—i Qvqv Nwb‡q I‡V ZLb cÖwZw`b Zzjmx Zjvi K_v g‡b c‡o Avi †PvL Qj Qj K‡i I‡V| wbR Rb¥f~wg †Q‡o Avmvi Kó hZxb miKv‡ii ü`q‡K RR©wiZ K‡i| DÏxc‡Ki hZxb miKvi Avi ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi M„nKΩx †hb GKB m~‡Î Muv_v| cÖkœ: (N) Ô†Kb Avwg †kKo †Q‡o P‡j GjvgÕ-DÏxc‡Ki hZxb miKv‡ii G wcQzUvb ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K cÖwZcbœ Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn iwPZ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í Rb¥f~wgi cÖwZ e¨w³i myMfxi ggZv I fv‡jvevmvi ewnt cÖKvk N‡U‡Q| gvZ…mg Rb¥f~wg cÖ‡Z¨K gvby‡li Kv���Q cig kª×vi ¯’vb| Rxeb RxweKvi cÖ‡qvR‡b Rb¥f~wg Z¨vM Ki‡jI Rb¥f~wgi cÖwZ gvby‡li _v‡K myMfxi ggZ¡‡eva| wKš‘ fv‡M¨i Ki“Y cwiYwZ‡Z gvbyl hLb Rb¥f~wg †Q‡o Ab¨Î P‡j Av‡m ZLb Zvi Rxeb n‡q I‡V `ywe©ln| G Ki“Y welv`gqZvi wkKvi DÏxc‡Ki hZxb miKvi Avi ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi DØv¯‘ Zi“Y`j| c„ôv-151


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

1947 mv‡j †`kwefv‡Mi ûRy‡M c‡o eû gvbyl wb‡Ri Rb¥¯’vb Z¨vM K‡i eva¨ n‡q‡Q DØv¯‘ Rxeb †e‡Q wb‡Z| Awb”Qvq Rb¥f~wg Z¨vMx gvbyl c„w_ex‡Z wb‡R‡K wb‡q AZ¨š— KzwÉZ _v‡K| ciev‡m AvwkªZ Rxe‡bi M−vwb Zv‡K Av”Qbœ K‡i iv‡L memgq| gv‡qi KvQ †_‡K mš—vb‡K †K‡o wb‡j mš—v‡bi †h `y‡fv©M nq; Rb¥f~wg Z¨vMx gvbylI †m iKg `y‡fv©M Avi wbivcËvnxbZvq †fv‡M| DÏxc‡Ki hZxb miKv‡ii I wcQzUvb _v‡K ¯^‡`‡ki cÖwZ| wZwb 1947 Gi ‡`k wefv‡Mi ci ¯’vei-A¯’vei mg¯— m¤úwË wewµ K‡i fvi‡Z P‡j Avm‡jI wkK‡oi Uvb Zvi ü`‡q evievi AbyiwYZ nq| ¯^‡`‡ki †Lvjv †gjv cwi‡ek AvR Zvi G `ywe©ln Rxeb hvc‡b ïay ¯§„„wZ n‡q _v‡K| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi ivR‰bwZK N~Y©ve‡Z©i wkKvi n‡q AmsL¨ gvbyl Rb¥f~wg †_‡K weZvwoZ n‡q DØv¯‘‡Z cwiYZ n‡q‡Q| AvR ZvB‡Zv DÏxc‡Ki hZxb miKv‡ii hLbB ¯^‡`‡ki K_v g‡b c‡o, ZLbB Zvi g‡b †R‡M DV‡Q †Kb Avwg †kKo †Q‡o P‡j Gjvg| ivR‰bwZK Aw¯’iZv gvby‡li Rxeb‡K wecbœ K‡i †Zv‡j| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í †m K_vB dz‡U D‡V‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj)

wØZxq ev‡ii gZ b`x fvO‡bi wkKvi nq †Rvrmœv †eMg| eQi cuv‡PK Av‡MI b`xi fvO‡b Zvi my›`i †MvQv‡bv msmvi cÙvi ey‡K wejxb n‡q †M‡Q| Gev‡ii AvkªqUzKz †RŠjymc~Y© bv n‡jI Gi cÖwZI GK Zxeª fv‡jvevmv R‡b¥ wM‡qwQj| b`xi ey‡K evievi me nvwi‡q wbt¯^ †Rvrmœv AvR D`qv¯— kn‡ii ey‡K Nyi‡Q GKUz Avkª‡qi wVKvbvq| mßvn a‡i Ny‡i Ny‡i Ae‡k‡l †R¨vrmœvi Avkªq nq †÷k‡bi cv‡k Qvcov ew¯— N‡i| wKš‘ GUvB GLb Zvi ¯^‡M©i gZ g‡b n‡”Q| Aek¨ GKUv Pvcv AvZ¼ KvR K‡i Zvi g‡a¨ KLb bv Rvwb ew¯—wUI †f‡O †`Iqv nq|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) ÔjvjmvjyÕ Dcb¨vmwU †Kvb †Kvb fvlvq Ab~w`Z nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn iwPZ ÔjvjmvjyÕ Dcb¨vmwU divwm I Bs‡iwR fvlvq Ab~w`Z nq| cÖkœ: (L) ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi gwZb PwiÎwUi cwiPq `vI| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: 1947 mv‡j wØ-RvwZ Z‡Ë¡i Dci wfwË K‡i wn›`y I gymjgv‡bi g‡a¨ †h `v½v n‡qwQj Zv‡Z fvi‡Zi gymjgvbiv evsjv‡`‡k Avi evsjv‡`‡ki wn›`yiv fvi‡Z cvwo Rgvq| fviZ †_‡K Avmv K‡qKRb gymjgvb DØv¯‘ hye‡Ki GKRb n‡”Q gwZb| gwZb GK mgq †ijI‡q‡Z KvR KiZ| ¯^cœevR G hyeK ¯^cœ †`LZ cÖKvÊ †`vZjv evwoi †cQ‡bi evMv‡b dz‡ji MvQ jvMv‡e| mܨvi ci Awdm †_‡K wd‡i mevB wg‡j †mLv‡b Mí¸Re Ki‡e| GB gwZb Avevi G evwoi M„nKΩxi mRj †Pv‡Li K_v †f‡e n‡q c‡o `ytL fvivµvš—| A_©vr gwZb PwiÎwU ¯^cœ Avi fv‡jvevmvc~Y© ü`q wb‡q m„wó n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (M) Ô‡Rvrmœv PwiÎwU M‡íi hyeK‡`i K_vB g‡b Kwi‡q †`qÕ- Kxfv‡e Zv Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: 1947 mv‡ji wn›`y gymjgv‡bi g‡a¨ †h mv¤cÖ`vwqK `v½v n‡qwQj †m mgq mevi g‡a¨ †`Lv †`q Aw¯—‡Z¡i msKU| †h msK‡Ui d‡j mevB n‡q c‡o wew”Qbœ| †m Aw¯—Z¡ msK‡Ui MíB n‡”Q ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn iwPZ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í gwZb, BDbym, †gv`v‡eŸi, Gbv‡qZ, gKmy`mn †ek KÕRb hye‡Ki cwiPq cvIqv hvq hviv †`k wefv‡Mi d‡j Rb¥f~wg fviZ †Q‡o evsjv‡`‡k Av‡m| DØv¯‘ G Zi“Y`j D`qv¯— †NvivNywii ci GKwU cwiZ¨³ evwo‡Z Avkªq jvf K‡i| evwowUi gvwjKI †`kcjvZK| d‡j Zviv mn‡RB evwowU‡Z Avkªq †c‡q hvq wKš‘ mßvn Lv‡bK †h‡Z bv †h‡ZB cywjk Av‡m welqwU Z`š— Kivi Rb¨| cywjk G‡m P‡jI hvq| Gi wKQzw`b ci Avevi cywjk Av‡m Ges Rvbvq miKvi evwowU wiKzBwRkb K‡i‡Q| Zv‡`i `k w`b mgq †`Iqv nq evwowU †Q‡o †`Iqvi Rb¨| gwZb, BDbym, †gv`v‡eŸiiv Avevi AvkªqnxbZvq †fv‡M| Aw¯—‡Z¡i msK‡U DØv¯‘ Zi“Y`‡ji g‡Zv Aw¯—Z¡ msK‡U wech©¯— DÏxc‡Ki †Rvrmœv †eMg| `yBevi b`x fvO‡b †Rvrmœv ev¯‘nxb n‡q c‡o| A‡bK K‡ói ci †ij‡÷k‡bi cv‡k Qvcov N‡i Zvi Avkªq nq| nq‡Zv miKvwi †jvKRb †h †Kvb mgq ew¯—wU †f‡O w`‡Z cv‡i| ZvB Zvi g‡bI Avkªqnxb n‡q covi fq me mgq KvR K‡i| †Rvrmœv‡K ZvB ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi DØv¯‘ Zi“Y‡`i g‡ZvB g‡b nq| c„ôv-152


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖk:œ (N) ÔAvkªqnxbZv gvby‡li Rxe‡b Aw¯—Z¡ msKU ˆZwi K‡iÕ Dw³wUi mZ¨Zv hvPvB Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK Rxeb‡eva I mgvR m‡PZb mvwnwZ¨K ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í 1947 mv‡ji ivR‰bwZK †cÖ¶vc‡U gvbeRxe‡bi Aw¯—Z¡ msK‡Ui wPÎ Gu‡K‡Qb| gvbeRxe‡bi QqwU †gŠwjK Pvwn`vi g‡a¨ evm¯’vb GKwU| gvbyl hLb Avkªqnxb n‡q c‡o ZLb Zvi Rxe‡bi meUzKz m‡ZRZv ¤−vb n‡q hvq| meyR m‡ZR cÖvYgq Rxeb n‡q c‡o weeY©| e¨w³MZ, mvgvwRK, cÖvK…wZK ev ivR‰bwZK †h †Kvb Kvi‡YB gvbyl Zvi Avkªq nviv‡Z cv‡i| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í †jLK 1947 mv‡ji wØ-RvwZ Z‡Ë¡i wfwˇZ †h fviZel© wef³ n‡q wM‡qwQj Ges Zvi d‡j gvbeRxe‡b †h PigZg msKU m„wó n‡qwQj Zv Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| gwZb, BDbym, †gv`v‡eŸi, e`i“wÏb, gKmy`, Gbv‡qZ cÖgyL Zv‡`i Rb¥f~wg fviZ †_‡K evsjv‡`‡k P‡j Av‡m, Zv‡`i `xN©w`‡bi Avkªq Zviv Z¨vM K‡i G ‡`‡k Av‡m DØv¯‘ n‡q| A‡bK †Póvi ci Zviv GKwU evwoi mÜvb cvq| †h evwoi gvwjK †`kcjvZK| evwoi Zvjv †f‡O ˆn ˆn i‡e Zviv evwowU `Lj K‡i, Avkªqnxb wew”Qbœ GB Zi“Y‡`i H gyn~‡Z© evwo `L‡ji e¨vcviwU Aciva e‡j g‡b nq bv| gv_v †MuvRvi VuvB †c‡q Zviv †hb ¯^M© nv‡Z cvq, bZzbfv‡e ¯^cœ †`‡L| euvPevi Avb‡›` Zviv we‡fvi| wKš‘ G Avb›` Zv‡`i ¯’vqx nq bv| cywjk G‡m evwowU miKvi wiKzBwRkb K‡i Ges mßvn Lv‡b‡Ki g‡a¨ Zv‡`i evwo Qvovi †bvwUk †`q ZLb G hyeK¸‡jv Avevi AvkªqnxbZvq †fv‡M| Zv‡`i Aw¯—Z¡ Avevi wech©¯— n‡q c‡o| DÏxc‡Ki †Rvrmœv †eMgI AvkªqnxbZvi `i“b wech©¯—| †Rvrmœv †eMg †Kvb ivRbxwZi wkKvi bb| cÖvK…wZK Kvi‡Y wZwb `yÕ`yevi Zvi wf‡U gvwU nvivb| wbR Rb¥¯’vb †_‡K wew”Qbœ n‡q †Rvrmœv †eMg kn‡i P‡j Avm‡Z eva¨ nb| GKUz Avkª‡qi Rb¨ mvivw`b Ny‡i †eovq, Ae‡k‡l †÷k‡bi cv‡k ew¯—‡Z Avkªq wg‡j| GB ¶z`ª †bvsiv evm¯’vbwU‡KB Zvi ¯^M© g‡b nq| wKš‘ hw` ew¯—wU †f‡O †`Iqv nq Z‡e †m Avevi Avkªqnxb n‡q co‡e GB wPš—v Zv‡K AvZw¼Z K‡i iv‡L| gvby‡li Aw¯—Z¡‡K euvwP‡q ivL‡Z Avkªq AZ¨š— ¸i“Z¡c~Y©| DÏxc‡Ki Kvwnbx Avi ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi †cÖ¶vcU wfbœ wfbœ n‡jI `y‡Uv NUbv‡ZB gvby‡li Aw¯—Z¡ msK‡Ui welqwU gyL¨ n‡q D‡V‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj) MÖvg R¡wjj, Ni cywoj, †`k nj QviLvi, wKev bgy gymjgv‡bi ûuk bvwnK Avi. -------------------mKj gvbyl nÏ †eûk cZ‡½wi gZ Avcb nv‡Z R¡vjvj Av¸b Avcwb n‡Z nZ|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) ÔwiKzBwRkbÕ kãwUi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔwiKzBwRkbÕ k‡ãi A_© n‡”Q †Kvb wKQz †P‡q wjwLZ digvk ev Zje Kiv| cÖkœ: (L) ÔGLv‡b †Kvb wn›`yqvbxi wPý mn¨ Kiv n‡e bvÕ- Dw³wU †K Ges †Kb K‡iwQ‡jb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔGLv‡b †Kvb wn›`yqvwbi wPý mn¨ Kiv n‡e bvÕ-Dw³wU fviZ †_‡K Avmv DØv¯‘ Zi“Y`‡ji GK m`m¨ †gv`v‡eŸi K‡iwQj| †gv`v‡eŸi I Zvi m½xiv †h evwo‡Z Avkªq wb‡qwQj †m evwoi Avw½bv‡ZB GK †iveevi †gv`v‡eŸi Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Dcw¯’wZ Avwe®‹vi K‡i Ges m‡½ m‡½ û¼vi †Q‡o MvQwU Dc‡o †dj‡Z e‡j| evwo‡Z †gv`v‡eŸi †Kvb wn›`yqvwbi wPý ivL‡e bv| g~jZ †gv`v‡eŸi mv¤cÖ`vwqK g‡bvfvevcbœ ûRy‡M gvbyl| ZvB †m GB wn›`y a‡g©i ¯§viK Zzjmx MvQwU Dc‡o †dj‡Z Pvq| GwUi Dcw¯’wZ †m mn¨ Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki KweZvi m‡½ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi mv`„k¨ I ˆemv`„k¨ Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Rxeb mÜvbx mgvR m‡PZb †jLK ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn 1947 mv‡ji mv¤cÖ`vwqK `v½vi d‡j m„ó Aw¯—Z¡msKU wb‡q ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU iPbv K‡i‡Qb| c„ôv-153


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

Dch©y³ DÏxc‡Ki KweZvwU n‡Z †evSv hvq †h, wn›`y I gymwjg‡`i g‡a¨ m„ó msNvZ Ges Gi cÖwZwµqv ¯^iƒc kn‡i, MÖv‡g Av¸‡b cyo‡Q| GKB Rb¥f~wgi mš—vb n‡qI wn›`y I gymjgv‡bi g‡a¨ ag© wb‡q †h jovB Zv‡Z mvaviY gvbyl¸‡jv KxUcZ‡½i gZ aŸsm n‡q‡Q| cÖ‡Z¨‡K †hb Zv‡`i ûuk nvwi‡q †d‡jwQj| wb‡RivB wb‡R‡`i nZ¨v Kivi †bkvq gË n‡q wM‡qwQj| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi cUf~wg I 1947 mv‡ji mv¤cÖ`vwqK `v½v| †`kfv‡Mi d‡j wn›`y gymwjg wefvwRZ n‡q c‡o| fvi‡Zi gymjgvbiv evsjv‡`‡k Avi evsjvi wn›`yiv fvi‡Z P‡j hvq| ev¯‘wfUv cwiZ¨v‡Mi Kvi‡Y A‡b‡KB DØv¯‘ n‡q c‡o| Dfq m¤cÖ`v‡qi GB wew”QbœZvi Rb¨ m„wó nq Aw¯—Z¡ msKU| Z‡e ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn ïay e¨w³i AvkªqnxbZv Z_v Aw¯—Z¡ msKU‡KB M‡íi g~j DcRxe¨ wn‡m‡e Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| DÏxcK I ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í 1947 mv‡ji †`k wefv‡Mi mgqKvi mv¤cÖ`vwqK `v½v Z_v Aw¯’i ivR‰bwZK cwiw¯’wZ I gvbweK wech©‡qi cÖm½wU D‡V G‡m‡Q| `y‡Uv NUbvi g~j †K›`ªwe›`y GK Z‡e DÏxcK I M‡íi g‡a¨ welq Dc¯’vcb fw½ wfbœ Ges DÏxc‡K mv¤cÖ`vwqK `v½vi aŸsmhÁ ewY©Z n‡q‡Q Avi ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í `v½vi d‡j m„ó e¨w³i g‡bvRvMwZK Ø›Ø, wew”QbœZv‡eva I Aw¯—Z¡ msK‡Ui K_v e¨³ n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi mgvRev¯—eZvi wPÎ Zz‡j ai| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Avš—R©vwZK L¨vwZm¤úbœ †jLK ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í 1947 Gi mv¤cÖ`vwqK `v½vi cUf~wg‡Z w`‡knviv gvby‡li K_v e¨³ K‡i‡Qb| Dchy©³ DÏxc‡K †`Lv hvq wn›`y gymwjg `v½vi d‡j kni I MÖvg cÖ¾w¡ jZ| GKB MÖv‡g †h wn›`y I gymwjgiv åvZ…‡Z¡i euva‡b evav wQj ZvivB Avevi wØ-RvwZ Z‡Ë¡i cÖfv‡e wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ i³viw³ K‡i, ¶z`ª cZ‡½i gZ Zviv ci¯úi‡K nZ¨v K‡i, †hb mevi gvS †_‡K ûuk‡eva nvwi‡q †M‡Q| wb‡RB †hb R¡‡j cy‡o givi Rb¨ wb‡Ri nv‡Z Av¸b awi‡q †`q| DÏxc‡Ki NUbviB cybive„wË ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í cvIqv hvq| †`k fv‡Mi d‡j wn›`y I gymwjg wef³ n‡q hvq| ivRbxwZi N~Y©ve‡Z© c‡o GKB f~wg‡Z Rb¥ †bqv wn›`y I gymwjg Zv‡`i åvZ…Z‡¡ eva fy‡j hvq| †`k fv‡Mi d‡j A‡b‡KB Avkªqnxb n‡q c‡o| Z‡e hLb Aw¯—‡Z¡i Pig msKU Dcw¯’Z nq ZLb Kv‡iv Kv‡iv gv‡S gvbweK‡eva DuwK w`‡q I‡V, †hgb ûRy‡M †gv`v‡eŸ‡ii wecix‡Z gwZ‡bi ¯^cvœ jy †Pv‡L †f‡m I‡V wn›`y M„nea~i mRj †Pv‡Li K_v| gvbeZv‡eva I kvk¦Z g½j wPš—v †h G‡Kev‡i wejyß nqwb ZviB cwiPq cvIqv hvq Zzjmx Mv‡Qi cÖwZ hZœ †bqvi gva¨‡g| Avevi wb‡R‡K euvwP‡q ivLvi Rb¨ gvbyl KL‡bv KL‡bv ¯^v_©ci n‡q I‡V| †`kfv‡Mi ci beMwVZ miKvi mvaviY gvby‡li Avkª‡qi †Kvb e¨e¯’v‡Zv wb‡Z cv‡iB wb Avevi cwiZ¨³ evwo¸‡jv‡K wiKzBwRkb K‡i wb‡q †bq| ivRbxwZi wbôzi huvZvK‡j me mgq mvaviY gvbylB wb‡®úwlZ nq GB wPiš—b mZ¨wU †hb G M‡í dz‡U D‡V‡Q| ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi gva¨‡g ZrKvjxb mgvRev¯—eZvi bMœ wPÎ AZ¨š— gywÝqvbvq A¼b K‡i‡Qb|

c„ôv-154


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi QKwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj) GKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Kvwnbx

KviY

djvdj

wn›`y gymwjg we‡f`

gvby‡li wew”QbœZv

1947 mv‡ji †`k wefvM

gvby‡li Aw¯—Z¡ msKU

ﮋ, weeY©, L‡qwi i‡Oi Zzjmx MvQ

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn KZ mv‡j g„Z¨z eiY K‡ib? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn 1971 mv‡ji 10 A‡±vei g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib| cÖk:œ (L) BDby‡mi c~‡e©i evm¯’vbwUi cwiPq `vI| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: †ivMvcUKv BDbym bZzb evwo‡Z Avmvi Av‡M KjKvZvi g¨vKwjIW w÷ª‡U _vK‡Zv| MwjUv †hb mKvj †ejvi AveR©bv fiv Wv÷web| †m Mwj‡ZB boe‡o ai‡bi GKUv Kv‡Vi †`vZjv evwo‡Z ivbœvN‡ii cv‡k mu¨vZ mu¨v‡Z GKwU Kvgivq K”Q‡`kxq Pvgov e¨emvqx‡`i m‡½ †m Pvi eQi emevm K‡i‡Q| cvovwU Pvgovi DrKU M‡Ü me©¶Y Ggb ficyi n‡q _vK‡Zv †h iv¯—vi †Wª‡bi cuPv `yM©Ü bv‡K †cuŠQv‡Zv bv, N‡ii †Kv‡Y Bu`yi, weovj g‡i c‡P _vK‡jI Zvi Lei cvIqv †hZ bv| Ggb A¯^v¯’¨Ki cwi‡e‡kB BDbym evm KiZ| cÖkœ: (M) QKwU ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi welqe¯‘‡K Bw½Z K‡i-Dw³wU wePvi Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: ivR‰bwZK N~Y©ve‡Z© wech©¯— gvby‡li Aw¯—Z¡ msK‡Ui Kvwnbx ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Q KvwnbxÕ M‡íi welqe¯‘| ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vni wbcyY n‡¯—i gywÝqvbv MíwU‡K AviI Rxeš— K‡i †Zv‡j| Dc‡i wb‡`©wkZ QKwU Øviv †`k wefv‡Mi KviY I djvdj cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| Dch©©y³ Q‡K GKcv‡k †`Lv hvq †h, 1947 mv‡j wØ-RvwZ Z‡Ë¡i wfwˇZ fviZel© wØLwÊZ n‡q c‡o Ges wn›`y I gymjgvb Avjv`v iv‡óª wefvwRZ n‡q hvq| Av‡iK cv‡ki Q‡K †`Lv hvq mv¤cÖ`vwqK `v½vq †h mvaviY gvbyl wew”Qbœ n‡q c‡o Ges Aw¯—Z¡ msK‡U wech©¯— nq, Zvi m‡½ m‡½ Zzjmx MvQ Z_v cwi‡e‡kI Gi cÖfve my¯úó n‡q I‡V| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn 1947 mv‡ji mv¤cÖ`vwqK `v½vi d‡j m„ó Aw¯’i ivRbxwZi wbg©g wkKvi GK`j Zi“‡Yi AvkªqnxbZvi wbg©g hvZbvi K_v Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| Aw¯’i KjywlZ ivRbxwZ gvby‡li Aw¯—Z‡¡ K wecbœ K‡i †Zv‡j Avi Gi cÖfve †_‡K cÖK…wZI ev` hvq bv| evwoi DVv‡bi Zzjmx MvQwU GK mgq m‡ZR wQj wKš‘ h‡Zœi Afv‡e †m g„Z cÖvq Avevi H evwo‡Z hLb c„ôv-155


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

gwZb‡`i Avkªq nq ZLb ûRy‡M gvby‡li ûRy‡Mcbv j¶ Kiv †M‡jI evwK‡`i g‡a¨ ggZ¡‡eva cwijw¶Z nq| Avevi wKQzw`b c‡i gwZbiv Avkªqnxb n‡q co‡e †R‡b MvQwUI hZœ cvq bv| d‡j cybivq weeY© n‡q c‡o| g~jZ ivR‰bwZK N~Y©ve‡Z© gvby‡li wecbœZv‡K ZzjmxMv‡Qi gva¨‡g M‡í dzwU‡q †Zvjv n‡q‡Q| QKwUI †mK_vB wb‡`©k K‡i| cÖkœ: (N) ÔivR‰bwZK Aw¯’iZv gvbeRxe‡bi g‡Zv Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Rxe‡bI cÖfve †d‡j‡QÕ-ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ Aej¤^‡b Dw³wU we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn mgvR m‡PZb I AvaywbK Rxeb‡ev‡ai †jLK| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi gva¨‡g †jL‡Ki Rxeb`k©b AZ¨š— my›`i fv‡e dz‡U D‡V‡Q| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU 1947 mv‡ji †`k wefvM Z_v mv¤cÖ`vwqK `v½vi †cÖ¶vc‡U iwPZ| †`k fv‡Mi d‡j fvi‡Zi GK`j gymwjg Zi“Y evsjv‡`‡k Av‡m| DØv¯‘ Zi“Y`j D`qv¯— cwikªg K‡i GKwU cÖKvÊ †`vZjv evwo Luy‡R cvq| Zi“Yiv evwoi Zvjv †f‡O cÖ‡ek K‡i| Avkªqnxb Zi“Yiv GKUv Avkªq †c‡q †hb ¯^M© nv‡Z cvq| GiB g‡a¨ GK †iveevi mKv‡j †gv`v‡eŸi evwoi DVv‡bi cÖv‡š— GKwU Zzjmx MvQ †`L‡Z cvq| mv¤cÖ`vwqK g‡bvfvevcbœ †gv`v‡eŸi MvQwU Dc‡o †djvi Rb¨ û¼vi Qv‡o| wKš‘ evwoi evwK m`m¨‡`i g‡a¨ Kv‡iv nvZB G KvRwU Kivi Rb¨ GwM‡q Av‡m bv| eis GK mgq †gv`v‡eŸi j¶ K‡i ﮋ, weeY©, g„Z cÖvq Zzjmx Mv‡Qi L‡qwi cvZv Avevi meyR n‡q D‡V‡Q| GwU wbtm‡›`n †h †KD MvQwUi hZœ wb‡”Q| Avkªqnxb hyeKiv †hgb GKUv Avkªq †c‡q bZzb K‡i euvPvi ¯^cœ †`‡L †Zgwb cig hZœ †c‡q Zzjmx MvQwUI Avevi cÖvY wd‡i cvq| wKš‘ wKQzw`b c‡iB Avevi hLb cywjk G‡m Rvbvq evwowU miKvi wiKzBwRkb K‡i‡Q Ges GK mßv‡ni wfZi Zv‡`i G evwo †Q‡o w`‡Z n‡e ZLb Zi“Y‡`i gv‡S Avevi Aw¯—Z¡ msKU †R‡M D‡V| Zviv Avevi DØv¯‘ n‡q co‡e G `ywðš—v Zv‡`i wech©¯— K‡i †`q| Zzjmx MvQwUi hZœ wb‡ZI Zviv fy‡j hvq| d‡j Zzjmx MvQwU cybivq g„Z cÖvq, ﮋ I weeY© n‡q c‡o| ivR‰bwZK Aw¯’iZvq hLb gvbyl wb‡Ri Aw¯—Z¡‡K euvwP‡q ivLvi AvcÖvY †Póv K‡i ZLb Av‡k cv‡ki cwi‡e‡ki w`‡K Avgiv j¶ Ki‡Z fy‡j hvB| ivRbxwZi wbôzi huvZvK‡j gvbyl I cwi‡ek Df‡qB wecbœ n‡q c‡o| GLv‡b †jLK g~jZ ïay cwi‡e‡ki wecbœZvi K_v e‡jwb Av‡jvP¨ M‡í Zzjmx Mv‡Qi cÖZx‡K gvbe Rxe‡bi Aw¯—Z¡ msK‡Ui K_v Ges gvby‡li wew”QbœZv‡ev‡ai K_v e‡j‡Qb|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) 3iv gvP© 1972 ‡gvnv¤§`cyi, XvKv wgivR, ï‡f”Qv iB‡jv| GB cÖ_g †Zvgv‡K wjLjvg| †Kbbv evwoUv e`j Ki‡Z n‡”Q| wVKvbvI e`jv‡”Q| †`k ¯^vaxb nevi ci †gvnv¤§`cy‡i wenvix‡`i †d‡j hvIqv G evwowU‡K wb‡Ri g‡b K‡i GZ w`b †ek wQjvg| GjvKvi A‡b‡K GwU‡K Avgvi evwo e‡jB Rvb‡Zv| miKvi evwoUv wiKzBwRkb K‡i‡Q| evwo‡Z GKUv AvgMvQ jvwM‡q wQjvg| evwoi m‡½ AvgZjv‡KI †Q‡o †h‡Z eo Kó n‡”Q| BwZ nvweeyj−vn

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn& iwPZ ÔjvjmvjyÕ Dcb¨vmwU KZmv‡j cÖKvwkZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn iwPZ ÔjvjmvjyÕ Dcb¨vmwU 1948 mv‡j cÖKvwkZ nq| c„ôv-156


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (L) M„nKΩxi wel‡q gwZ‡bi fvebvwU ¸wQ‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: gwZb GK mg‡q †ijI‡q‡Z KvR KiZ| M„nKÎx©i K_v Zvi g‡b c‡o| AKvi‡Y Zvi †Pv‡Li mvg‡b wewfbœ †ijI‡q cwÆi Qwe †f‡m I‡V| fv‡e nq‡Zv Avmvb‡mvj, ˆe`¨evwU, wjjyqv ev nvIovq †ijI‡q cwƇZ †m gwnjv †Kvb AvZ¥x‡qi N‡i Avkªq wb‡q‡Q| wekvj Bqv‡W©i cv‡k †iv‡` ïKv‡Z _vKv M„nKÎx©i jvj cv‡oi GKwU gm„Y Kv‡jv kvwo †m †hb †`L‡Z cvq| A_ev gwnjvwU †hb †Kvb PjwZ †Uª‡bi Rvbvjvi cv‡k e‡m i‡q‡Q| Zvi `„wó w`M‡š—i Icv‡iI wKQz †Luv‡R| AvKv‡k hLb w`bv‡š—i Qvqv Nwb‡q I‡V ZLb cÖwZw`b G Zzjmx Zjvi K_v g‡b nq e‡j Zvi †PvL nq‡Zv QjQj K‡i I‡V| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki nvweeyj−vn Pwi‡Îi m‡½ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi gwZb Pwi‡Îi Zzjbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki nvweeyj−vn PwiÎwU AvZ¥‡Kw›`ªK| †m cÖ‡qvRb Qvov †Kvb KvR K‡i bv| mKj Kv‡Ri †cQ‡b Zvi myweav cÖvwßi welqwU eo n‡q †`Lv †`q| †`k ¯^vaxb nevi ci ciB †gvnv¤§`cyi GjvKvq wenvix‡`i †d‡j hvIqv GKwU evwo †m `Lj K‡i †bq| G evwo‡Z bvbv MvQ-MvQvwji m‡½ †m GKwU AvgMv‡Qi PvivI †ivcY K‡i| miKvi `LjK…Z evwowU wiKzBwRkb Ki‡j evwoi m‡½ AvgZjv †Q‡o †h‡Z Zvi eo Kó nq| ‰mq` IqvjxDj−vn& iwPZ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi eY©bvq cvIqv hvq †h, †`k wefv‡Mi ciciB KjKvZv †_‡K AvMZ K‡qKRb DØv¯‘ Kg©Pvix XvKvi GKwU evwo `Lj K‡i| evwowU‡K wb‡q G‡`i ¯^‡cœi †kl †bB| G‡`iB GKRb gwZb| wn›`y cwiZ¨³ evwo‡Z Zzjmx MvQwU‡K †`‡LI Zvi gv‡S ggZ¡‡eva †R‡M I‡V| evgcš’x gKmy‡`i gZ Zzjmx MvQwU‡K i¶vi Rb¨ †m Pov Mjvq K_v bv ej‡jI †fZ‡i †fZ‡i Zzjmx MvQwU‡K, MvQwUi Aw¯—Z¡‡K †m ¯^xKvi K‡i †bq| KjKvZv †_‡K AvMZ gwZb PwiÎ Ges DÏxc‡Ki nvweeyj−vn PwiÎwU c~e©ci Aw¯—‡Z¡i m¼‡U fy‡M‡Q| wbivwkªZ DØv¯‘ Rxe‡bi D‡ØM Avi DrKÉv Zv‡`i cÖwZwbqZ MÖvm K‡i‡Q| d‡j gwZb‡K XvKvi †Lvjv‡gjv evwo Ges nvweeyj−vn‡K †gvnv¤§`cy‡ii evwo †_‡K miKvwi wb‡`©‡k DØv¯‘ n‡q co‡Z nq| DcwiD³ PwiÎ `ywUi Zzjbvg~jK Av‡jvPbvi ciI ejv hvq †h, G‡`i Rxe‡bi me‡P‡q eo mZ¨ n‡”Q wbivwkªZ DØv¯‘ Rxe‡bi D‡ØM Avi DrKÉv| cÖkœ: (N) DØv¯‘ nvweeyj−vni Rxeb Dcjwäi Av‡jv‡K ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í Aw¯—Z¡ m¼‡Ui †h cwiPq cvIqv hvq Zv Zz‡j ai| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn †`k wefvM, mv¤cÖ`vwqKZv cÖfw„ Z wel‡qi cvkvcvwk wb‡Ri Mfxi Rxeb‡eva M‡íi Pwi‡Îi ga¨ w`‡q cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb| Avi Zv n‡”Q DØv¯‘ Rxe‡bi Aw¯—Z¡ msKU| DÏxc‡Ki nvweeyj−vn PwiÎwU †`k ¯^vaxb nevi ciciB †gvnv¤§`cyi GjvKvq GKwU evwo `Lj K‡i wbwðš— Rxeb KvUv‡Z ïi“ K‡i| GK mgq miKvwi ûKz‡g G `LjK…Z evwowU Qvo‡Z n‡j Zvi gv‡S Aw¯—‡Z¡i m¼U eo n‡q †`Lv †`q| †m DØv¯‘ n‡q c‡o| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íI †`k wefv‡Mi ci gwZb, Kv‡`i, BDbym, Gbv‡qZ cÖf„wZ PwiÎ KjKvZv †_‡K G‡m XvKvi GKwU cwiZ¨³ evwo `Lj K‡i †bq| mve B݇c±i evwowU cwi`k©b K‡i P‡j hvq Ges cieZ©x‡Z miKvi evwowU wiKzBwRkb Ki‡j Zviv m`jej evwo Z¨vM K‡i iv¯—vq †b‡g Av‡m| DÏxc‡Ki DØv¯‘ nvweeyj−vn PwiÎwUi KóKi Rxeb DcjwäB †hb ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í h_v_© cwiYwZ jvf K‡i‡Q|

c„ôv-157


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi QKwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) GKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Kvwnbx

‡`k wefvM

fvM¨vnZ gvbe‡Mvôx

KjKvZvi wNwÄRxeb

XvKvi †Lvjv‡gjv evwo

GKwU Zzjmx MvQ

cwiZ¨³ wn›`y evwo

miKvwi wb‡`©k

A¶Z ZzjmxMvQ

ivR‰bwZK N~Y©ve‡Z© Aw¯’i-Akvš— RbRxeb cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) †`k wefv‡Mi Ae¨ewnZ ciciB XvKvi GKwU cwiZ¨³ evwo Kviv `Lj K‡i †bq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †`k wefv‡Mi Ae¨ewnZ ciciB XvKvi GKwU cwiZ¨³ evwo KjKvZv †_‡K AvMZ K‡qKRb DØv¯‘ Kg©Pvix `Lj K‡i †bq| cÖkœ: (L) ÔA¶Z †`‡n Zzjmx MvQwU weivR Ki‡Z _v‡K|Õ-gš—e¨wU eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Zzjmx MvQwU cÖ_‡g †gv`v‡eŸ‡ii bR‡i co‡j †m MvQwU Dc‡o †djvi Rb¨ gwiqv n‡q I‡V| wn›`y ixwZbxwZ mK‡ji fv‡jv Rvbv bv _vKvq †KD ¯úó fv‡e †gv`v‡eŸ‡ii K_vq mvq †`q bv| Z‡e cÖwZ w`bv‡š— wn›`y evwo‡Z Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Zjvq mܨv cÖ`xc R¡vwj‡q, Mjvq AvuPj w`‡q cÖYv‡gi †h ixwZ i‡q‡Q G wel‡q Zviv wKQzUv n‡jI AeMZ i‡q‡Q| Zviv fv‡e N‡i `yw`©‡bi So G‡m‡Q, nq‡Zv Kv‡iv Rxeb cÖ`xc wb‡fI †M‡Q, Avevi nvwm Avb‡›`i †dvqvivI Qz‡U‡Q myL mg‡q wKš‘ G cÖ`xc †`qv Abyôvb GKw`‡bi Rb¨I eÜ _v‡K wb| †gv`v‡eŸi Qvov mK‡jB MvQwUi cÖwZ ggZ¡ cÖKvk K‡i| Ab¨ w`‡K mw`© †j‡M _vKv BDbymI MvQwUi DcKv‡ii K_v e‡j| mK‡jiB †hb GgbB gZ| Gbv‡qZ †gŠjwf ai‡bi gvbyl †m ch©š— Pzc K‡i _v‡K| M„nKÎx©i mRj †Pv‡Li `„k¨wU Zvi g‡bI nq‡Zv jv‡M| d‡j A¶Z‡`‡n MvQwU Ae¯’vb Ki‡Z _v‡K| c„ôv-158


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (M) ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K QKwU Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q-e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxcKwU ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K †`kwefvM I Gi d‡j DØv¯‘ Kg©Pvix Z_v fvM¨vnZ gvbe †Mvôxi K_v G‡m‡Q| GLv‡b KjKvZvi wNwÄRxeb I XvKvi †Lvjv‡gjv evwoi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b GKwU Zzjmx MvQ I cwiZ¨³ wn›`y evwoi D‡j−L i‡q‡Q| me©‡k‡l miKvwi wb‡`©‡k DØv¯‘ n‡q hvIqv gvbyl I evwoi Avw½bvq i‡q hvIqv A¶Z Zzjmx Mv‡Qi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| G w`K †_‡K ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi g~j aviYv DÏxcKwU‡Z cvIqv hvq| ‰mq` IqvjxDj−vn ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í †`k wefv‡Mi ciciB DØv¯‘ n‡q hvIqv wKQz Pwi‡Îi K_v e‡j‡Qb, e‡j‡Qb Zv‡`i `ywe©ln Rxebhvc‡bi K_v, Zv‡`i DØv¯‘ Rxe‡bi DrKÉvi K_v| KjKvZvi wNwÄRxeb †d‡j G‡m Zviv XvKvq GK †Lvjv‡gjv evwo †c‡q nuvd †Q‡o †hb euv‡P| GiB gv‡S GKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Aw¯—Z¡ G evwowU‡Z wn›`y evwoi cwiwPwZ `vb K‡i| Zzjmx MvQwU Dc‡o †djvi cÖ¯—ve K‡i G‡`iB GKRb| A‡b‡K g‡b g‡b MvQwU‡K i¶v Ki‡Z Pvq| GK mgq miKvi evwowU wiKzBwRkb Ki‡j fvM¨vnZ gvbyl¸‡jv AveviI DØv¯‘ n‡q c‡o| A_©vr ivR‰bwZK N~Y©ve‡Z©i wkKvi AmsL¨ gvby‡li kvš—Rxe‡bi Avevi Akvwš—i Qvqv †b‡g Av‡m| Kv‡RB DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K †`Lv hvq †h DÏxcK I ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í GKB Rxeb mZ¨ cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q| Gw`K †_‡K ejv hvq †h DÏxcKwU ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Kvwnbx M‡íi Av‡jv‡K Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) QKwU‡Z ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í wea„Z mgvR ev¯—eZvi cÖwZdjb N‡U‡Q|-we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn& iwPZ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í ivR‰bwZK N~Y©ve‡Z©i Kvi‡Y †h gvbyl Aw¯—Z¡ msK‡U co‡Q Ges Gi cÖfve †h cvwicvwk¦©K cwi‡e‡kI co‡Q †m mgvRev¯—eZvB D‡V G‡m‡Q| ‰mq` IqvjxDj−vn& iwPZ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í †`kwefvM, mv¤cÖ`vwqK †PZbv Ges G †_‡K AmsL¨ DØv¯‘ gvby‡li Akvš— Rxe‡bi K_v D‡V G‡m‡Q| KjKvZvi wNwÄ Rxeb †_‡K †ewi‡q G‡m Zviv XvKvi GKwU †Lvjv‡gjv evwo‡Z Avkªq †bq| wKQz w`‡bi gv‡SB GKwU Zzjmx MvQ AvwkªZ‡`i gv‡S Av‡jvob m„wó K‡i| Zv‡`i gv‡S mv¤cÖ`vwqK †PZbv Rb¥ †bq| GK mg‡q miKvwi ûKz‡g Zviv Avevi iv¯—vq †b‡g Av‡m| ïi“ nq Zv‡`i DØv¯‘ Rxeb| DØv¯‘ Rxe‡bi D‡ØM Avi DrKÉv †b‡g Av‡m Zv‡`i Rxe‡b| QKwU‡Z †`k wefvM, fvM¨vnZ gvbe †Mvôx, KjKvZvi wNwÄ Rxeb, XvKvi †Lvjv‡gjv evwo, GKwU Zzjmx MvQ Avwe®‹vi Ges Avkªq¯’j‡K wn›`y evwo wn‡m‡e wPwýZKiY I evwo Qvovi miKvwi wb‡`©k †c‡q AvwkªZ Kg©Pvix‡`i DØv¯‘ n‡q hvevi Kvwnbx Dwj−wLZ n‡q‡Q| G QKwUi avc¸‡jv AbymiY Ki‡j †h avivevwnK Kvwnbx cvIqv hvq Ges G †_‡K †h cwiYwZ jvf Kiv hvq Zv‡Z ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕi mgvR ev¯—eZvi cwiPq †g‡j| Dch©y³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq †h, ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕi mgvR ev¯—eZvi cÖwZ”Qwe iƒ‡cB QKwU ˆZwi Kiv n‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) `„k¨-1 eyg-g-g| cÖPÊ k‡ã g~Q©v hvq Po–B cvwL| ------- †m wejvc Ki‡Z Ki‡Z mw½bx I Qvbv `y‡Uvi KZ K_vB bv Bwb‡q wewb‡q e‡j hvq| ------- N„Yvi ¯^‡i †m †W‡K hvq wQt wQt wQt wQt wQt| G wQt wQt wK‡mi Rb¨? G wa°vi Kv‡`i Rb¨? G wbðq Zv‡`i Rb¨ hviv wW¤^eZx gnvcZw½bxi †c‡U P‡o D‡o †eovq, Avi Akvwš—‡K †W‡K Av‡b| `„k¨-2 DVv‡bi †k‡l Zzjmx MvQUv Avevi ïwK‡q D‡V‡Q| Zvi cvZvq L‡qwi is| †m w`b cywjk Avmvi ci †_‡K †KD Zvi †Mvovq cvwb †`q wb| †mw`b †_‡K M„nKΩxi Qj Qj †Pv‡Li K_vI Avi Kv‡iv g‡b c‡o wb| ‡Kb c‡o wb †m K_v Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Rvbevi K_v bq, gvby‡liB Rvbevi K_v| c„ôv-159


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í evgcš’x e‡j ¯^xK…Z PwiÎ †KvbwU? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í evgcš’x wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…Z PwiÎwU n‡”Q gKmy`| cÖkœ: (L) ÔAek¨ G-me civnZ evwo mÜvbx‡`i Kv‡Q weler g‡b nq|Õ -Dw³wU eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: †`k wefv‡Mi ci KjKvZv †_‡K AvMZ DØv¯‘iv GKwU evwo `Lj Ki‡j ciw`b kn‡i LeiUv Qwo‡q co‡j `LjK…Z evwowU‡Z AbvwkªZ‡`i AvMgb ïi“ nq| AvwkªZ‡`i gv‡S AbvwkªZiv Avkªq jv‡fi †Póv K‡i| wKš‘ AvwkªZiv weR‡qi Dj−vm †X‡K AbvwkªZ‡`i cÖwZ †mœn gvLv‡bv K‡É Zv‡`i g›` fv‡M¨i K_v e‡j| e‡j †h, Av‡M G‡jB Giv Avkªq †cZ| wKQz c~‡e©I wb‡Pi Zjvi iv¯—vi av‡ii NiUv Lvwj wQj| NÈv `y‡qK Av‡M G‡jB Ab¨‡K Kjv †`wL‡q Zviv NiUvi `Lj wb‡Z cvi‡Zb| NiUvq †Zgb Av‡jv bv _vK‡jI Rvbvjvi cv‡kB miKvwi Av‡jv| †Kvb iv‡Z B‡jKwUªwmwU †dj Ki‡jI iv¯—vi Av‡jv‡ZB w`we¨ P‡j †hZ| G mKj K_vq AbvwkªZ‡`i hš¿Yv AviI †e‡o hvq| mwVK mg‡q Avm‡Z bv cvivi AcviMZvq Zviv †fZ‡i †fZ‡i Avc‡mvm K‡i g‡i| d‡j Gme K_v civnZ evwo mÜvbx‡`i Kv‡Q we‡li g‡Zv g‡b nq| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki `„k¨ `ywU‡Z gvbe m„ó fqvenZvi Zzjbvg~jK Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DׄZvs‡k gvbe m„ó fqvenZvi Pig wb`k©b cvIqv hvq| `„k¨-1 G MíKvi Avey BmnvK iwPZ ÔgnvcZ½Õ M‡í gvbe m„ó `y‡h©v‡Mi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| gvbyl Kvi‡Y-AKvi‡Y hy× K‡i| gvbyl gvbyl‡K aŸsm K‡i; aŸsm nq gvby‡li ¯^cœ; gvbyl Aw¯—Z¡ m¼‡Ui gy‡L c‡o| gvbe m„ó G `y‡h©v‡M †Kej gvbylB bq; Zvi cvwicvwk¦©K cwi‡ekI ¶wZMÖ¯— nq| cÖvYx RM‡ZI Gi cÖfve c‡o| d‡j evev Po–B mš—vb Po–B I Zv‡`i gv Po–B‡K nvwi‡q hviv G `y‡h©v‡Mi m„wó K‡i †mB gvbe RvwZi cÖwZ Aweivg wQt wQt wQt wQt wQt wQt-G waK¡vi aŸwb †NvlYv Ki‡Q| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íI gvbem„ó ivR‰bwZK Aw¯’iZvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| ivR‰bwZK Aw¯’iZvq m¤úbœ n‡q‡Q †`k wefvM| gvbyl DØv¯‘ n‡q †`k †Q‡o‡Q| gvbyl `Lj K‡i‡Q gvby‡li evwo| gvby‡l-gvby‡l †f`v‡f` m„wó K‡i‡Q gvbyl| gvbe m„ó mv¤cÖ`vwqKZvi welev‡®ú †Kej gvbylB bq; G †_‡K GKwU Zzjmx MvQI i¶v cvq wb| Z‡e †Kb G wefvRb, †Kb Zzjmx MvQUv ïwK‡q hvq, †Kb M„nKÎx©i †PvL QjQj Zv gvby‡liB Rvbvi K_v| DÏxc‡Ki 1g `„k¨ I 2q `„‡k¨ c~e©vci gvbem„ó `y‡h©v‡Mi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| hvi g~‡j i‡q‡Q gvbyl| hvi wkKvi n‡”Q cÖvwYRMr †_‡K Dw™¢`RMr ch©š—| gvbe m„ó fqvenZvi w`K †_‡K DׄZvs‡ki wgj h_v_©| cÖkœ : (N) DÏxc‡Ki cÖ_g `„‡k¨ cvwLi Rxe‡bi ga¨ w`‡q gvbe Rxe‡bi nvnvKviB e¨³ n‡q‡Q- ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: `„k¨: 1-G MíKvi Avey BmnvK gvbe m„ó fqvenZvi Pig wb`k©b ¯^iƒc ÔgnvcZ½Õ MíwU wj‡L‡Qb| GLv‡b gnvcZ½ ej‡Z hy× wegvb‡K eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q| gvbe m„ó ivR‰bwZK wek„•Ljv hy‡×i m„wó K‡i| hvi fqven cwiYvg †Kej gvbe mgv‡RB mxgve× _v‡K bv, Zv cÖvYx RM‡ZI cÖfve †d‡j| d‡j ¯¿x I Qvbv nviv‡bvi hš¿Yv †_‡K evev Po–BwU evi evi wQt wQt wa°v‡ii ga¨ w`‡q G aŸsmh‡Ái g~‡j †h gvbyl¸‡jv i‡q‡Q Zv‡`i cÖwZ N„Yv †cvlY K‡i| GKUz Mfxi Rxebvbyf~wZ w`‡q wePvi Ki‡j G K_v eyS‡Z Kó nq bv †h, iƒcK A‡_© cvwLi Rxe‡bi ga¨ w`‡q GLv‡b gvbe Rxe‡bi nvnvKviB aŸwbZ n‡q‡Q| †Kb hy× nq, †Kb Av‡jvPbv †f‡O hvq, †Kb gvby‡l gvby‡l mgZv cÖwZwôZ nq bv, †Kb gvbem„ó fqven Kg©Kv‡Êi dj wek¦ gvbe‡K fvevwš^Z K‡i †Zv‡j| Avi G w`KwUB cÖwZwôZ Kievi Rb¨ Avey BmnvK †hgb Po–B cvwLi Avkªq wb‡q‡Qb, ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn †Zgwb GKwU Zzjmx MvQ‡K Aej¤^b K‡i‡Qb| gvbylB †h gvby‡li Rxeb‡K wecbœ K‡i †Zv‡j DÏxc‡Ki 1 I 2bs `„‡k¨ †m mZ¨B dz‡U D‡V‡Q, hv ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K Zvrch©gq n‡q D‡V‡Q| c„ôv-160


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvwcqv RvbœvZ)

Av‡bvqv‡ii k¦vm Kó †ivM| Zvi `v`x Zv‡K e‡j, ARy©b MvQ Rwo‡q a‡i k¦vm wb‡j Zvi GB †ivM fv‡jv n‡q hv‡e| Zvi evmvi cv‡kB gqjv AveR©bvi ¯Z‚‡ci Kv‡Q ARy©b MvQwUi Ae¯’vb| gqjv-AveR©bvi wekªx M‡Ü †mLv‡b _vKv LyeB KóKi| wKš‘ Av‡bvqvi `v`xi K_v‡K cÖvavb¨ w`‡q †mLv‡b wM‡q cÖwZw`b mKvj-weKvj H MvQwU‡K Rwo‡q k¦vm-cÖk¦vm †bq| Ae¯’vi DbœwZ bv †`‡L evmv cwieZ©b K‡i| bZzb evmv Zvi Kv‡Q ¯^M© g‡b nq| †mLv‡bI †ewkw`b _vK‡Z cv‡i wb| evwo fvov evwo‡q w`‡j bZzb evmvwU †Q‡o w`‡Z eva¨ nq|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖk:œ (K) †ivMvcUKv BDbym †Kv_vq _vKZ? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †ivMvcUKv BDbym g¨vKwjIW w÷ª‡U _vKZ| cÖk:œ (L) ÔivZvivwZ miMig n‡q I‡V cÖKvÊ evwoUvÕ-e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: 1947 Gi †`k wefvM fviZ I cvwK¯—vb `ywU ¯^vaxb iv‡óªi Rb¥ †`q| d‡j evOvwj wn›`yiv cvwK¯—v‡bi c~e©vÂj evsjv‡`k †Q‡o fvi‡Z, Avi fviZ †_‡K gymjgvbiv evsjv‡`‡k Av‡m| XvKvq AvMZ DØv¯‘iv cwiZ¨³ wn›`y evwo `Lj K‡i †bq| gv_v †MuvRvi VuvB †c‡q Zv‡`i g‡a¨ ˆekv‡Li AvgKzov‡bvi w¶cÖ Db¥v`bv P‡j| e¨vcviwU Zv‡`i Kv‡Q w`‡b `ycy‡i WvKvwZi g‡Zv g‡b nq bv| evwowU Zv‡`i Kv‡Q †e‡n¯— Lvbv e‡j g‡b nq| ‡Kvb Aciv‡ai †PZbv hw` ev g‡b RvMvi cÖqvm cvq Zv weR‡qi Dj−v‡m wb‡g‡l Zz‡jvay‡bv n‡q D‡o hvq| GB cÖm‡½B MíKvi evwoi eY©bv Ki‡Z wM‡q Dw³wU K‡i‡Qb| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡bvqv‡ii mv‡_ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi BDby‡mi mv`„k¨ Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi ga¨ w`‡q ivR‰bwZK N~Yv© e‡Z©i wkKvi gvby‡li wecbœ Rxe‡bi K_v e‡j‡Qb| ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn Zuvi ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í 1947 Gi †`k wefv‡Mi d‡j D×v¯‘ Pwi‡Îi GKRb †ivMvcUKv BDbym| BDbym c~‡e© KjKvZvi g¨vKwjIW w÷ª‡U _vKZ| MwjwU wQj m¨uvZmu¨v‡Z| †m Mwj‡ZB boe‡o ai‡bi Kv‡Vi †`vZjv evwo‡Z ivbœv N‡ii cv‡k m¨uvZmu¨v‡Z GKwU Kvgivq †`kxq Pvgov e¨emvqx‡`i m‡½ Pvi eQi emevm K‡i‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki Av‡bvqvi †hgb A¯^v¯’¨Ki cwi‡e‡k emevm K‡i‡Q †Zgwb M‡íi BDbymI emevm KiZ A¯^v¯’¨Ki cwi‡e‡k| cvovwU Pvgovi DrKU M‡Ü me©¶Y Ggb ficyi _vKZ †h, iv¯—vi †Wª‡bi cPv `yM©Ü bv‡K †cuŠQvZ bv, N‡ii †Kv‡Y Bu`iy , weovj g‡i c‡P _vK‡jI Zvi Lei cvIqv `y®‹i wQj| Zey cvovwU †m Qv‡o wb Zvi KviY Pvgovi MÜ bvwK h²vi RxevYy aŸsm K‡i| `yMÜ©Uv ZvB †m A¤−vb e`‡b mn¨ KiZ| DÏxc‡Ki Av‡bvqvi I `v`xi K_v‡K cÖvavb¨ w`‡q gqjv AveR©bvi cv‡k ARy©b MvQwU‡K Rwo‡q a‡i _v‡K Zvi k¦vm Kó †ivM fvj n‡e GB Kvi‡Y| DÏxc‡Ki Av‡bvqvi M‡íi BDby‡mi g‡Zv A¯^v¯’¨Ki cwi‡e‡k emevm KiZ| wKš‘ Zv‡`i ¯^v‡¯’¨i †Kvb DbœwZ nq bv| `yR‡bi g‡a¨ A¯^v¯’¨Ki cwi‡e‡k emev‡mi mv`„k¨ cvIqv hvq| ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í wewfbœ Pwi‡Îi Avov‡j Rxe‡bi bvbvw`K eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡K ewY©Z ÔAv‡bvqvi Am^”QjZvi Kvi‡Y bZzb evwo †Q‡o w`‡Z eva¨ n‡q‡QÕ-Dw³wU ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í ivR‰bwZK Aw¯’iZvi cvkvcvwk A_©‰bwZK ˆ`‡b¨i wkKvi wKQz gvby‡li KóKi Rxe‡bi K_v Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡Ki Av‡bvqvi Am”QjZvi Kvi‡Y evwo †Q‡o w`‡Z eva¨ nq| Av‡bvqv‡ii A¯^v¯’¨Ki cwi‡e‡ki mv‡_ M‡íi BDby‡mi c~‡e©i Ae¯’v‡bi cwi‡e‡ki mv`„k¨ Av‡Q| BDbym gqjv AveR©bvi Wv÷we‡bi cv‡k emevm KiZ| BDby‡mi aviYv h²v †iv‡Mi Rb¨ H cwi‡ek DcKvix| ZvB H cwi‡ek †m Qvo‡Z Pvq wb| mvZPwj−‡ki †`k wefv‡Mi ûRy‡M fviZ †_‡K AvMZ DØv¯‘‡`i GKRb BDbym| Zviv †h evwo‡Z Avkªq †bq miKvi †h evwowU `L‡ji Lei †c‡q Zv‡`i‡K evwo Qvovi †bvwUk †`q| evwowU Zv‡`i Kv‡Q †e‡n¯—Lvbv e‡j g‡b nq| XvKvq G‡m GKUv cwiZ¨³ evwo‡Z Avkªq MÖnY K‡i ¯^w¯—i wbtk¦vm †d‡j| wKš‘ miKvi evwowU wiKzBwRkb Ki‡j Zviv evwo †Q‡o w`‡Z eva¨ nq| DÏxc‡Ki Av‡bvqvi evwo Qvo‡Z eva¨ nq evwo fvov evov‡bvi Kvi‡Y| H evwowUI Zvi Kv‡Q ¯^M© g‡b n‡qwQj| wKš‘ Am^”QjZvi Kvi‡Y ¯^v¯’¨Ki evmvq Av‡bvqvi _vK‡Z cv‡i wb| M‡íi BDbym I ¯^v¯’¨Ki evwowU †Q‡o w`‡Z eva¨ nq miKvwi wiKzBwRkb Gi Kvi‡Y| c„ôv-161


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvwcqv RvbœvZ) cÙvi ey‡K Pi †R‡M‡Q| b`x fvOv A‡bK gvbyl †mLv‡b Avkªq wb‡q‡Q| RxweKvi ZvwM‡` Zviv MvQ jvwM‡q‡Q, Pvlvev` ïi“ K‡i‡Q| wbt¯^, Amnvq gvbyl¸‡jv †eu‡P _vKvi Aej¤^b Luy‡R †c‡q‡Q| AfveAbU‡bi gv‡SI PiRxe‡bi gvbyl¸‡jvi g‡a¨ cÖkvwš—i nvIqv eB‡Q| wVK ZLbB gnvR‡bi jvwVqvjiv Zvi wb‡`©‡k wbixn Pievmx‡`i D‡”Q` Kij| gyLi Pi Avevi wb_i n‡q coj|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU KZ wLª÷v‡ã cÖKvwkZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU 1965 wLª÷v‡ã cÖKvwkZ nq| cÖkœ: (L) Ônv‡Z e›`yK _vK‡j wbixn gvby‡liI `„wó c‡o cï c¶xi w`‡KÕ-Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: †`kwefv‡Mi ci fviZ †_‡K AvMZ DØv¯‘iv cwiZ¨³ wn›`y evwo `Lj K‡i Aviv‡g emevm Ki‡Z _v‡K| miKvwi evwo `L‡ji Lei †c‡q cywjk Av‡m DØv¯‘‡`i D‡”Q` Kivi Rb¨| cywj‡ki Kuv‡a e›`yK wQj| Zviv evwoi Qv‡` †Lv‡ci g‡a¨ KeyZ‡ii w`‡K ZvKvq| cywjk `yRb‡K wbixn g‡b n‡jI Zv‡`i G KeyZ‡ii w`‡K ZvKv‡bv m¤ú‡K© MíKvi gš—e¨ K‡i‡Qb| wbixn gvby‡li wbi¯¿ Ae¯’vq kvš— _vKvUvB ¯^vfvweK| wKš‘ nv‡Z A¯¿ _vK‡j Zvi g‡b cwieZ©b Av‡m| †m A‡¯¿i kw³ cÖ‡qv‡Mi Rb¨ PÂj n‡q I‡V| wbixn gvbyl n‡jI cywj‡ki g‡b cvwL wkKv‡ii AvMÖn Rv‡M, †hb Zvi †fZ‡ii wkKvwi mËvwU †R‡M I‡V| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡K ewY©Z b`xfvOv gvby‡li mv‡_ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi DØv¯‘‡`i mv`„k¨ Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn iwPZ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í gvby‡li wew”QbœZv I Aw¯—Z¡ msK‡Ui K_v ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K ewY©Z b`xfvOv gvby‡li mv‡_ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi DØv¯‘ Pwiθ‡jvi mv`„k¨ cvIqv hvq| DÏxc‡K ewY©Z b`xfvOv gvbyl¸‡jv cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi Kvi‡Y wb‡R‡`i evm¯’vb Qvo‡Z eva¨ nq| Aciw`‡K fviZ †_‡K AvMZ DØv¯‘‡`i `LjK…Z evwowU Qvo‡Z nq miKvwi wiKzBwRkb Gi Kvi‡Y| mvZPwj−‡ki †`k wefv‡Mi d‡j DØv¯‘‡`i g‡a¨ evm¯’vb msKU Zxeª n‡q I‡V| Aciw`‡K DÏxc‡K b`xfvOv gvbyl¸‡jv cÙvi ey‡K A‡bK Avkvq Ni-evwo wbg©vY K‡i emevm ïi“ K‡i wKš‘ gnvRb‡`i †Zv‡ci gy‡L c‡o Zv‡`i‡K †mB Pi †Q‡o w`‡Z nq| DÏxc‡K `wi`ª, Amnvq gvbyl¸‡jvi mv‡_ M‡íi DØv¯‘, Amnvq gvby‡li mv`„k¨ cvIqv hvq| cÖkœ: (N) ÔgyLi Pi Avevi wb_i n‡q cojÕ-DÏxc‡Ki e³e¨wU ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ-M‡íi Av‡jv‡K Zz‡j ai| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn iwPZ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í gvby‡li wew”QbœZv I Aw¯—Z¡ msK‡Ui K_v ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K ewY©Z b`xfvOv gvbyl¸‡jv Avkª‡qi Rb¨ cÙvi ey‡K †R‡M IVv P‡i Ni evwo wbg©vY Ki‡j wbie, wb¯—ä Pi gyLwiZ n‡q I‡V| wKš‘ Amnvq gvbyl¸‡jv gnvRb‡`i †Zv‡ci gy‡L co‡j Pi †_‡K Zv‡`i‡K D‡”Q` Ki‡j gyLi Pi Avevi wb_i n‡q c‡o| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í 1947 mv‡ji †`kwefv‡Mi d‡j fviZ †_‡K AvMZ DØv¯‘iv gv_v ¸u‡R _vKvi Rb¨ D`qv¯— Nyi‡Q| Ae‡k‡l Zviv GKwU cwiZ¨³ wn›`y evwo‡Z Avkªq †bq| wKš‘ Zv‡`i †mB Avkªq `xN©w`b ¯’vqx nqwb| miKvwi wiKzBwRk‡b Zviv `kg w`‡b evwo Qvo‡Z eva¨ nq| DÏxc‡K cÙvi Amnvq gvbyl¸‡jv cÙvi P‡i Ni evwo wbg©vY K‡i, RxweKvi ZvwM‡` MvQ cvjv jvMvq| wKš‘ gnvR‡bi ûKz‡g Zv‡`i‡K Pi †Q‡o w`‡Z nq| DÏxc‡K Amnvq gvbyl¸‡jv hLb cÙvi cv‡o evwo Ni †Q‡o w`‡j gyLi Pi wb_i n‡q c‡o wVK †Zgwb DØv¯‘ m`jej evwowU `L‡ji ci †Q‡o w`‡j H evwowUiI bxie, wb¯—ä n‡q hvq| DÏxc‡Ki gyLi Pi wb_i n‡q cov Ges `LjK…Z evwowU †Q‡o †`Iqvi d‡j m„ó bxieZv †hb GKB my‡i euvav| c„ôv-162


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (i‡gb ivq) 47-Gi †`kwefv‡Mi ci AvwRR mv‡ne XvKvq Avm‡Z eva¨ n‡jb| mvZPwj−k mv‡ji AvM÷ gv‡mi `v½vi K_v g‡b n‡j AvRI Zvi Mv wkD‡i I‡V| ZvB ¯¿x-cy‡Îi nvZ a‡i wZwb cÖvq wbt¯^ Ae¯’vq XvKvq G‡m wZwb Avkªq wb‡q‡Qb GK cyi‡bv, wNwÄ I mu¨vZm¨uv‡Z N‡i| AvwRR mv‡ne cÖvqB D`vm n‡q fv‡eb, †Kb GiKg n‡jv? cÖkœ: (K) ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU †jL‡Ki †Kvb MÖš’ †_‡K msKwjZ? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: GKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Kvwnbx MíwU ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vni Ô`yB Zxi I Ab¨vb¨ MíÕ bvgK MíMÖš’ †_‡K †bIqv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (L) †gv`v‡eŸi PwiÎwUi cwiPq `vI| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: GB M‡íi GKwU Ab¨Zg cÖvYeš— PwiÎ †gv`v‡eŸi| †m wQj mv¤cÖ`vwqK g‡bvfvem¤úbœ msKxY© g‡bi AwaKvix| ûRy‡M ¯^fv‡ei e‡j mvgvb¨ e¨vcv‡i ˆn‰P-nv½vgv Kiv wQj Zvi Af¨vm| ZvB `LjK…Z evwo‡Z Zzjmx MvQ †`‡L †m ˆn-‰P K‡i‡Q| mv¤cÖ`vwqK g‡bvfv‡ei Kvi‡Y evwoi mKj wPý †m gy‡Q †dj‡Z †P‡q‡Q| Avi †`kwefv‡Mi Rb¨ GKZidvfv‡eB †m wn›`y‡`i `vqx K‡i‡Q| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki mv‡_ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi wgj †Kv_vq? (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: RxebmÜvbx K_vmvwnwZ¨K ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn Zuvi ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ kxl©K M‡í 1947 Gi †`k wefv‡Mi †cÖw¶‡Z GK`j DØv¯—y Kg©Pvixi GKwU cwiZ¨³ evwo `L‡ji NUbv AZ¨š— PgrKvifv‡e Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| †`k wefv‡Mi Kvi‡Y wecyjmsL¨K gvby‡li †`kZ¨vM I DØv¯—y‡`i AvMg‡b mgvRRxe‡b bvbv RwUjZvi m„wó n‡qwQj| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í fviZ †_‡K AvMZ DØv¯—y gwZb I Zvi Ab¨vb¨ m½xiv Ô†`k wefv‡Mi ûRy‡MÕ P‡j Av‡m XvKv kn‡i| AbvwkªZ gvby‡li G `jwU gv_v ¸uRevi GKUv wVKvbvi mÜv‡b w`‡bi ci w`b Gw`K †mw`K NyivNywi K‡i‡Q| Ae‡k‡l GKw`b m`i iv¯—vi cv‡k GKwU g¯— eo †`vZjv evwo Zviv †`L‡Z cvq| evwowUi m`i `iRvq g¯— eo GKwU Zvjv SzjwQj| d‡j mK‡ji Avi wPb‡Z Amywe‡a nq bv †h, †mwU Avm‡j cwiZ¨³ evwo| GK mܨvq gwZb I Zvi `jej G‡m †Kv‡bv cÖKvi msNl©, evav-wecwË QvovB `iRvi Zvjv †f‡O ˆn ˆn ˆi ˆi AvIqvR Zz‡j evwoUv `Lj K‡i †djj| cÖkœ: ( N) ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ †QvUMí wn‡m‡e KZUzKz mv_©K- Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: K_vmvwnZ¨K ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í gvbe Rxe‡bi LÊvs‡ki wPÎ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| †`kwefv‡MvËi wn›`y-gymjgvb DØv¯—y‡`i Aw¯—Z¡msKU M‡íi Kvwnbx‡Z Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q| †`k wef³ nIqvq A‡bK wn›`ycwievi Zv‡`i mewKQy †d‡j P‡j wM‡qwQj fvi‡Z, †Zgwb fviZ †_‡KI nvRvi nvRvi gymjgvb DØv¯—y P‡j Av‡m c~e©evsjvq| XvKvq Avmv wKQy gymjgvb DØv¯—y GKwU wn›`ycwiev‡ii cwiZ¨³ †`vZjv evwo `Lj K‡i| GB evwo `Lj‡K †K›`ª K‡iB ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi m~ÎcvZ| evwo `L‡ji wKQyw`‡bi g‡a¨B bvUKxqfv‡e evwo‡Z Avwe®‹Z … nq GKwU g„ZcÖvq Zzjmx MvQ| mv¤cÖ`vwqK †gv`v‡eŸi MvQwU Avwe®‹vi K‡i Zv Dc‡o †dj‡Z Pvq, GgbwK evwo †_‡K mKj wn›`yqvwb wPýI gy‡Q †dj‡Z Pvq| wKš—y Ab¨ DØv¯—yiv G‡Z evav`vb K‡i| DØv¯—‡y `i my‡Li Rxeb †ewkw`b _v‡K wb| GKw`b nVvr K‡iB cywjk Av‡m Zv‡`i‡K D‡”Q` Ki‡Z| KviY evwowU miKvi wiKzBwRkb K‡iwQj| DØv¯—yiv A‡bK Abybq-webq Ki‡jI cywjk Zv †kv‡b bv| Ae‡k‡l `kw`b ci DØv¯—iy v evwo †Q‡o w`‡Z eva¨ nq| Avevi Zv‡`i AwbwðZ Rxeb ïi“ nq| d‡j Zzjmx MvQwUi Rxe‡bI †b‡g Av‡m wech©q| cÖZxKx bvgKi‡Yi gva¨‡g †jLK †`kwefv‡MvËi mgMÖ gvbe Rxe‡bi gg©vwš—K NUbvi LÊwP·K AZ¨š— ¯^ícwim‡i GB M‡í Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb, hv GKwU mv_©K †QvUM‡íi Ab¨Zg kZ©| M‡íi fvlv‰kjxI AZ¨š— PgrKvi| †hgb- ÔAvPgKv aiv c‡o wM‡q ﮋcÖvq g„ZcÖvq bMY¨ Zzjmx MvQwU nVvr †m evwoi A›`‡ii K_v cÖKvk K‡i‡Q †hb|Õ c„ôv-163


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

MíwU‡Z bvUKxqZv G‡m‡Q G‡Ki ci GK| evwoi eY©bv, evwo `Lj, Zzjmx MvQ Avwe®‹vi, cywj‡ki AvMgb, DØv¯—y‡`i evwo †Q‡o hvIqv BZ¨vw` me wel‡qB i‡q‡Q bvUKxqZv| PwiÎ-wP·YI †jLK `¶Zvi cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb| cÖ‡Z¨KwU PwiÎ Zvi wbR¯^ ˆewk‡ó¨ mgy¾¡j| MíwU AvKv‡i †QvU| G‡Z †Kvb ZË¡ ev Dc‡`k †bB| MíwUi KvwnbxI Bw½Zgq I e¨Äbvmg„×| †QvUM‡íi msÁv, ˆewkó¨, MVbixwZ mew`K †_‡KB MíwU GKwU mv_©K †QvUMí| AvqZb, fvlv, msjvc, wbg©vY‡KŠkj me‡¶‡ÎB †jLK †QvUM‡íi ˆewk‡ó¨i mv_©K cÖ‡qvM NwU‡q‡Qb| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ GKwU mv_©K †QvUMí|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (i‡gb ivq) evwl©K cix¶v †kl nIqv gvÎB wgZzj GK gv‡mi QywU‡Z gvgv evox †eov‡Z hvq| wgZz‡ji kL evMvb Kivi| wKš—y gvgvevox hvIqvi Avb‡›` †m evMv‡bi hZœ †bIqvi `vwqZ¡ KvD‡K w`‡Z fy‡j hvq| GKgvm ci wd‡i G‡m †`‡L Zvi evMv‡bi me wKQy cvwbi Afv‡e ïwK‡q †M‡Q| wgZz‡ji Lye gb Lvivc nq| cÖkœ: (K) ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU KZ mv‡j cÖKvwkZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU 1965 mv‡j cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq| cÖkœ: (L) gwZb PwiÎwUi cwiPq `vI| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í gwZ‡bi kL GKUv evMvb Kivi| wKš—y RvqMvi Afv‡e †m kL KíbvB †_‡K †M‡Q| †m Kíbv K‡i Zvi evMv‡b †gŠmywg dzj jvMv‡e| mܨvq Awdm †_‡K wd‡i †mLv‡b Avivg †Pqv‡i e‡m wekªvg †b‡e ev Mí¸Re Ki‡e| GLv‡b gwZ‡bi ¯^vwcœK g‡bi cwiPq cvIqv hvq| cwiZ¨³ evwowU‡Z Kíbvq †m GKUv evMvb †`L‡Z cvq| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki m‡½ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi †PZbvMZ mv`„k¨ wbiƒcY Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: wn›`y‡`i cwiZ¨³ GK evwo‡Z emevm Kivi mgq DØv¯—y‡`i g‡a¨ †gv`v‡eŸi wgqv †`L‡Z cvq Zzjmx MvQwU| cwiPh©vi Afv‡e MvQwU †Kgb †hb ïwK‡q weeY© n‡q hvw”Qj| †Kbbv, Pig `yM©wZi mgq G Zzjmx Mv‡Qi cwiPh©vKvwibx †`k Z¨vM K‡i P‡j hvq| d‡j G MvQwUi cwiPh©v Kivi gZ †Kvb †jvK wQj bv| cvwbi Afv‡e MvQwUi cvZv L‡qwi eY© aviY K‡iwQj Ges G Mv‡Qi Zjvq Nvm MwR‡q D‡VwQj| wKš—y nVvr †hb k~b¨‡`‡n cÖv‡Yi mÂvi nj| DØv¯—y‡`i g‡a¨ †K †hb †Mvc‡b MvQwUi †Mvovq cvwb w`Z| G‡Z MvQwU mRxe n‡q D‡VwQj| nVvr Avevi So †b‡g Av‡m| cywjk DØv¯—y‡`i cwiZ¨³ evwo †_‡K †ei K‡i †`q| Zzjmx MvQwUi cwiPh©v Kivi gZ Avi †KD wQj bv| cwiPh©vi Afv‡e MvQwU Avevi ïwK‡q hvq Ges Gi cvZv L‡qix is aviY K‡i| DÏxc‡K wgZzj hLb gvgvevwo‡Z †eov‡Z hvq ZLb gvgvevwo‡Z Zvi evMv‡bi K_v g‡b K‡i gbUv Lvivc n‡q hvq| Zvi †mLv‡b fv‡jv jv‡M bv| GLv‡b Dfq M‡íi gv‡S †PZbvi mv`„k¨ cvIqv hvq| cÖkœ: (N) ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í mgKvjxb mgvRev¯—eZvi †h wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q Zvi cwiPq `vI| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: 1947 mv‡j †`k wefw³i ci mv¤cÖ`vwqKZvi So D‡V me©Î| G So wn›`y-gymjgv‡bi eûw`‡bi wgj‡bi AvLovq AvNvZ nv‡b| m¤cÖxwZi †gi“`Ê `yej © n‡q †M‡j A‡bK †jvK wbR †`k Z¨vM K‡i ¯^a‡g©i AvuP‡j gv_v ¸Rvi VuvB †Luv‡R| ZviB djkÖ“wZ‡Z evsjv‡`k †_‡K eû wn›`y P‡j hvq fvi‡Z Ges fviZ †_‡K eû wbt¯^ gymjgvb P‡j Av‡m evsjv‡`‡k| Ggwbfv‡e ev¯—ynviv n‡q hvq gwZb, BDbym, AvgRv`, Kv‡`i, nvweeyj−v, gKmy`, †gv`v‡eŸi I Gbv‡qZ †gŠjfxi gZ nvRv‡iv gvbyl| Avkª‡qi mÜv‡b Giv n‡b¨ n‡q Ny‡i| cwi‡k‡l Zviv m`i iv¯—vi cv‡k wn›`y gvwjKvbvi GK cwiZ¨³ evwo‡Z Zvjv †f‡½ Avkªq †bq| DØv¯—‡y `i emevmiZ evwowU‡Z nVvr Zviv GKw`b Avwe®‹vi K‡i GKwU Zzjwm MvQ| G‡Z Zviv eyS‡Z cv‡i †h Zv‡`i emevmiZ cwiZ¨³ G evwowU wn›`y gvwjKvbv| Ôwn›`y‡`i wPýÕ G Zzjmx MvQwU mv¤cÖ`vwqK cÖfv‡ei KviY n‡q `uvovq| ZvB DØv¯—y‡`i g‡a¨ †gv`v‡eŸi G MvQwU Dc‡o †dj‡Z Pvq| c„ôv-164


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (i‡gb ivq)

wekvj †`vZjv cÖvmv`| cÖvmv‡`i cÖ‡ekgy‡LB GKUv evMvb| evMv‡b n‡iK iK‡gi dzj MvQ| wKš—y GKbRi †`L‡jB †evSv hvq| A‡bKw`b a‡iB †KD evMv‡bi hZœ †bq bv| †hw`b †_‡K evoxi gvwjK gwj−K mv‡n‡ei GKgvÎ †Q‡jwU `yN©Ubvq gviv hvq †mw`b †_‡KB evoxwU †hb k¥kvb| evMv‡bi hZœ †bqvi K_v Kv‡iv g‡bB Av‡m bv|

cÖkœ: (K) Kvi evMvb Kivi kL wQj? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: evMvb Kivi kL wQj gwZ‡bi| cÖkœ: (L) Gbv‡qZ PwiÎwUi cwiPq `vI| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Gbv‡qZ avwg©K Ges GKRb †gŠjfx gvbyl| Zvi gyLfwZ© `vwo Ges †m cuvP Iqv³ bvgvR c‡o| †KviAvb wZjvIqvZ Kiv Zvi cÖwZ mKv‡ji Af¨vm| Gbv‡qZ ag©fxi“ wKš—y mv¤cÖ`vwqK bq| mv¤cÖ`vwqK †PZbvq DØy× Gbv‡qZ g‡bcÖv‡Y GKRb avwg©K †jvK| wn›`ywe‡Ølx †gv`v‡eŸi Zzjmx MvQ Dc‡o †dj‡Z PvB‡j †m Pzc †_‡K‡Q| ZvB Gbv‡qZ PwiÎwU wQj gvbweK Av‡e`‡b mnvbyf~wZkxj PwiÎ| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki evox Ges ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í Dwj−wLZ evoxi Zzjbvg~jK Ae¯’vb Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi evwowU †`k wefv‡Mi Av‡M wn›`y‡`i wQj| †`k wefv‡Mi ci gwZb, AvgRv`, Kv‡`i, BDbym Ges Gbv‡qZmn A‡bK evwowU Avwe®‹vi K‡i| evwoUv †ek eo Ges †`vZjv| evwoi mvg‡b mvgvb¨ RvqMvI Lvwj ivLv nq wb; m`i iv¯—vi wVK Ic‡i Aew¯’Z| wKš—y †cQ‡b i‡q‡Q A‡bK RvqMv, Avg-Rvg-KuvVv‡ji evMvbmn duvKv RvqMv| G M‡íi evwowU XvKv kn‡iB Aew¯’Z| aby‡Ki gZ euvKv Kswµ‡Ui cy‡ji c‡iB| G evwo‡Z A‡bK w`b †Kvb †jvK emevm bv Kivq GK ai‡Yi f¨vcmv MÜ m„wó n‡q‡Q| Avi evwowU cyi‡bv auv‡Pi| DÏxc‡Ki evwoi gvwj‡Ki bvg gwj−K mv‡ne| evwoi mvg‡b dz‡ji evMvb| evMvbwU AhZœ I Ae‡njvq bó n‡q hv‡”Q| G evwowUI M‡íi evwoi gZB †`vZjv, Z‡e †ek eo| evwoi †cQb w`‡K aby‡Ki gZ euvKv b`x‡Z †bŠKv Pj‡Z †`Lv hvq| M‡í Dwj−wLZ evwo I DÏxc‡Ki evwoi g‡a¨ KZ¸‡jv mv`„k¨ Av‡Q| `ywU evwoB †`vZjv| GKwU evwoi mvg‡b Avg, Rvg, KuvVv‡ji evMvb, Ab¨wUi dy‡ji evMvb| cÖkœ: (N) ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi cUf~wg †Zvgvi wb‡Ri fvlvq Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: L¨vwZgvb †jLK ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn mgvR m‡PZb mvwnZ¨wkíx| RxebmÜvbx G †jLK e¨w³Rxeb I mgvR mgm¨v‡K K‡i‡Qb Zuvi m„RbK‡g©i cÖavb DcRxe¨| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ Zuvi iwPZ GKwU D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Mí| 1947 mv‡ji †`kwefv‡Mi cUf~wg‡Z MíwU wjwLZ| 1947 mvj, Bs‡iR kvmb I †kvl‡Yi nvZ †_‡K gy³ n‡q Afy¨`q NUj `ywU bexb †`k-fviZ I cvwK¯— v‡bi| 1947 c~e©eZx© mg‡q eZ©gvb evsjv‡`k I fvi‡Zi cwðge½ GKB iv‡R¨i Aš—f~©³ wQj| †MvUv AÂj ZLb ÔevsjvÕ bv‡g cwiwPZ nq| 1947 mv‡j wØRvwZZ‡Ë¡i wfwˇZ cvwK¯—vb bvgK ivóª m„wói †cÖw¶‡Z evsjv‡K wef³ K‡i c~e© cvwK¯—vb I fvi‡Zi cwðge½ bv‡g `ywU wfbœ A‡j wef³ Kiv nq| d‡j wbR †`‡k cievmx n‡q hvq A‡bK gvbyl| KjKvZv knimn cwðge‡½i wewfbœ A‡j Ae¯’vbiZ gymjgvb m¤cÖ`v‡qi A‡bK gvbyl Zv‡`i Ni-evwo †Q‡o c~e© cvwK¯—v‡b P‡j Av‡m| Ab¨w`‡K XvKvmn c~e© cvwK¯—v‡bi wewfbœ ¯’v‡b emevmiZ A‡bK wn›`y cwievi me©¯^ nvwi‡q KjKvZv knimn cwðg cvwK¯—v‡b wewfbœ GjvKvq Qwo‡q c‡o| d‡j ev¯—ynviv gvby‡li wgwQj P‡j c~e© cvwK¯—vb I cwðge‡½i c‡_ c‡_, bM‡i-e›`‡i| msK‡Ui Ave‡Z© NyicvK Lvq mvaviY Gme gvby‡li Rxeb I RxweKv| ivR‰bwZK wm×v‡š—i d‡j nvRvi nvRvi wn›`y-gymjgv‡bi Rxe‡b †b‡g Av‡m fqven wech©q| Ggwb GKwU msK‡Ui ü`q †Quvqv Av‡jL¨ wb‡q M‡o D‡V‡Q ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vni ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU| mvgvb¨ GKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Kvwnbxi Aš—iv‡j XvKv _v‡K eû †e`bv I eÂbvi Kvwnbx, eû e¨_© evmbvi bMœ wee„wZ| Zzjmx Mv‡Qi gZB ïwK‡q †M‡Q ARvbv GK M„wnbxi †Pv‡Li Rj| ¯^c¸ œ ‡jv nvwi‡q †M‡Q ev¯—yPz¨Z nIqvi mv‡_ mv‡_| mv¤cÖ`vwqK †f`eyw×i Dc‡i D‡V gvbweK Av‡e`‡b mg„× G M‡í MíKv‡ii gywÝqvbvi cwiPq cvIqv hvq| c„ôv-165


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (i‡gb ivq)

mvZPwj−‡ki †`kfv‡Mi ci gvneye Avjg XvKvq P‡j Avm‡Z eva¨ n‡jb| wKš—y XvKvq c~e©cwiwPZ †Zgb †KD bv _vKv‡Z cwievimn †Kv_vq DV‡eb Zv wb‡q fxlY `ywðš—vq co‡jb| Ae‡k‡l cyivb XvKvi jvjev‡M GKwU wUb‡mW N‡i Avkªq wb‡jb| mviv¶Y KviLvbvi kã I `yM©‡Ü ewg Avmvi Dcµg nq| KviY Zv‡`i †KvjKvZvi evoxwU wQj A‡bK eo Avi †Lvjv‡gjv| Av‡jv evZv‡mi †Kvb Afve wQj bv| †m Zzjbvq jvjev‡Mi G evoxwU ew¯—Zzj¨|

cÖkœ: (K) ‰mq` IqvjxDj−vn KZmv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ‰mq` IqvjxDj−vn 1922 mv‡j Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| cÖk:œ (L) gwZb mv‡ne I Zvi m½x‡`i †kl ch©š— evwo Qvo‡Z n‡jv †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: 1947-G †`kwefv‡Mi ci gwZb mv‡ne I Zvi m½xiv XvKvq P‡j Av‡m| GKUv cwiZ¨³ evwo‡Z Zviv Avkªq †bq| wKš—y miKvi G evwowU wiKzBwRkb K‡i| AvwkªZ‡`i `Ljgy³ Kivi Rb¨ miKvi cywjk cvVvq| cywjk cywjk gwZb, mv‡ne‡`i Rvbvq, PweŸk NÈvi g‡a¨ evwowU †Q‡o w`‡Z n‡e| G K_v ï‡b mK‡ji g‡a¨ nZvkvi Rb¥ †bq| Ae‡k‡l Zviv evwowU †Q‡o w`‡Z eva¨ nq| cÖkœ: (M) ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ Mí Aej¤^‡b DØv¯—y‡`i `y‡f©v‡Mi eY©bv `vI| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i L¨vwZgvb †jLK ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn GKRb RxebmÜvbx mgvRm‡PZb mvwnZ¨wkíx| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU 1947 mv‡ji †`k wefv‡Mi cUf~wg‡Z iwPZ| †`kwefv‡Mi ci wewfbœ †jv‡Ki ¯^‡`k Z¨vM I ev¯—ynviv Ae¯’vi eY©bv i‡q‡Q G MíwU‡Z| 1947 mv‡j †`kwefv‡Mi Kvi‡Y fviZ I cvwK¯—v‡bi DØv¯‘‡`i †fvMvwš—i Aš— wQj bv| †gŠwjK AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ G me gvbyl Amnv‡qi gZ Rxebhvcb Ki‡Z _v‡K| A‡bK †LuvRvLyuwRi ci GKwU cwiZ¨³ evwo Zviv `L‡j †bq| wKš—y miKwi wb‡`©‡k cywj‡ki Zvov †L‡q Zviv Avevi iv¯—vq iv¯—vq †b‡g Av‡m| Ni-evwo nvwi‡q Zviv wbt¯^ n‡q c‡_ c‡_ Ny‡i †eovq| G iKg nvRvi nvRvi DØv¯—y Pig `y‡f©vM Avi `y`©kvi ga¨ w`‡q gvb‡eZi Rxebhvcb Ki‡Z _v‡K| GKUzLvwb gv_v †MvuRvi VuvB cvIqvi Rb¨ Zviv c‡_ c‡_ KvOv‡ji gZ Nyi‡Z _v‡K| wKš—y †g‡j wb †Kvb Avkªq| A_P GKw`b G‡`i me wQj| evwo, Mvwo, PvKwi, wQj wbR¯^ wVKvbv| AvR Gme fvM¨vnZ gvby‡li cwiPq Zviv DØv¯—,y Avkªqnxb gvbyl| Gme gvby‡li `y‡f©v‡Mi wPÎ cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q Av‡jvP¨ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU‡Z| cÖkœ: (N) ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í G‡Ki ci GK †h bvUKxq NUbv N‡U‡Q ms‡¶‡c Zvi eY©bv `vI| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: evsjv K_vmvwn‡Z¨i AmvaviY Rxeb ev¯—eZvi iƒcKvi ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn| wZwb Zuvi ms‡e`bkxj wkífvebvq †`kwefvM-cieZx© bvUKxq NUbvi mgv‡ek NwU‡q‡Qb ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í| ivR‰bwZK we‡ePbvq †`k wefv‡Mi d‡j nvRvi nvRvi gvbyl KjKvZv †Q‡o XvKvq P‡j Av‡m| G‡`i cÖvq mevB mnvq-m¤^j nvwi‡q AvR DØv¯—y| Avkª‡qi †Luv‡R Zviv GKwU cwiZ¨³ wn›`y evwo‡Z bvUKxqfv‡e cÖ‡ek K‡i| gwZb I Zvi m½xiv KjKvZvq Av‡M wNwÄ I †bvsiv cwi‡e‡k _vKZ| eo G evwowU †c‡q Zviv nuvc †Q‡o euv‡P| evwowUi †fZi w`‡K A‡bK †Lvjv RvqMv, Avg, Rvg I KuvVv‡ji evMvb| evwowU‡K Zv‡`i Kv‡Q †e‡nk‡Zi gZ g‡b nq| K‡qKw`b ci i¶Ykxj †gv`v‡eŸi evwoi DVv‡bi cÖv‡š— ivbœvN‡ii †cQ‡b GKwU Zzjmx MvQ Avwe®‹vi K‡i| ˆn‰P K‡i mevB‡K R‡ov K‡i †m| MvQwU †`‡L mevB eyS‡Z cv‡i GKwU wn›`y evwo| MvQwU †gv`v‡eŸi Dc‡o †dj‡Z PvB‡j mevB evav †`q| †kl ch©š— i¶v cvq MvQwU| nVvr GKw`b †gv`v‡eŸi j¶ K‡i †KD †hb MvQwUi cwiPh©v ïi“ K‡i‡Q| Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Pvicv‡ki AvMvQv cwi®‹vi n‡q †M‡Q| cvwbi Afv‡e ïwK‡q hvIqv Zzjmx MvQwU A`„k¨ nv‡Zi cwiPh©vq meyR-m‡ZR n‡q I‡V| Gici GKw`b evwo‡Z bvUKxqfv‡e cywjk G‡m nvwRi nq| cywjk Zv‡`i PweŸk NÈvi g‡a¨ evwo Qvovi †bvwUk †`q| AZtci `kg w`‡b Zv‡`i evwo Qvo‡Z nq| †hfv‡e Zviv S‡oi MwZ‡Z G‡mwQj, †Zgwb Avevi AÜKv‡i wgwj‡q hvq| mvgwqK emev‡mi wPý wn‡m‡e †_‡K hvq Le‡ii KvM‡Ri †Quov cvZv, cyi‡bv `wo, wewo-wmMv‡i‡Ui UzK‡iv, GKUv RyZvi †Mvovwj| Ah‡Zœ-Abv`‡i cwiPh©vi Afv‡e Zzjmx MvQwU Avevi ïwK‡q hvq| †KD Avi Zvi †Mvovq cvwb Xv‡j bv| Gfv‡eB †km nq M‡íi bvUKxq me Kvwnbx¸‡jv| †h ivR‰bwZK N~Y©ve‡Z©i wkKvi n‡q‡Q AmsL¨ gvby‡li kvš— Rxeb, Zzjmx MvQwUI ZviB Amnvq wkKvi| c„ôv-166


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (i‡gb ivq) ivq mv‡n‡ei kvixwiK Ae¯’v Lye GKUv fvj bq| †ivMv-cvZjv kixi| wZwb _v‡Kb U¨vbvwi †gv‡oi AvavcvKv GKwU evox‡Z| cv‡kB U¨vbvwi KviLvbv| U¨vbvwi wk‡íi e‡R©¨i DrKU MÜ, †Lvjv †Wª‡b gkvi DrcvZ- Gme Kvi‡Y ivq mv‡n‡ei ¯^v‡¯’¨i DbœwZi †Kvb j¶Y †bB| ZvB †f‡ewP‡š— wZwb evmv cvëv‡bvi wm×vš— wb‡jb| cÖkœ: (K) Ô¸o¸woÕ kãwUi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ô¸o¸woÕ k‡ãi A_© Avj‡evjv ev divk| cÖkœ: (L) †gv`v‡eŸi Zzjmx MvQwU Dc‡o †dj‡Z †P‡qwQj †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: 1947 mv‡j wØRvwZZ‡Ë¡i wfwˇZ fviZ I cvwK¯—vb bvgK iv‡óªi Rb¥ nq| d‡j evOvwj wn›`yiv Zv‡`i mewKQy †Q‡o fvi‡Z †h‡Z eva¨ nq| Avi gymjgv‡biv c~e© cvwK¯—v‡b wd‡i Av‡m| KjKvZv †_‡K AvMZ gymjgvb hyeK‡`i K‡qKRb XvKvi GKwU cwiZ¨³ wn›`y evwo‡Z Avkªq †bq| Zv‡`i g‡a¨ i¶Ykxj †gv`v‡eŸi GKw`b mKv‡j H evwo‡Z GKwU Zzjmx MvQ †`‡L ˆn‰P ïi“ K‡i †`q| MvQwU wn›`y‡`i c~Rbxq e‡j †m Zv Dc‡o †dj‡Z Pvq| cÖkœ: (M) ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ Mí Aej¤^‡b DØv¯—y‡`i `y‡f©v‡Mi eY©bv `vI| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i L¨vwZgvb †jLK ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn GKRb RxebmÜvbx mgvRm‡PZb mvwnZ¨wkíx| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU 1947 mv‡ji †`k wefv‡Mi cUf~wg‡Z iwPZ| †`kwefv‡Mi ci wewfbœ †jv‡Ki ¯^‡`k Z¨vM I ev¯—ynviv Ae¯’vi eY©bv i‡q‡Q G MíwU‡Z| 1947 mv‡j †`kwefv‡Mi Kvi‡Y fviZ I cvwK¯—v‡bi DØv¯‘‡`i †fvMvwš—i Aš— wQj bv| †gŠwjK AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ G me gvbyl Amnv‡qi gZ Rxebhvcb Ki‡Z _v‡K| A‡bK †LuvRvLyuwRi ci GKwU cwiZ¨³ evwo Zviv `L‡j †bq| wKš—y miKwi wb‡`©‡k cywj‡ki Zvov †L‡q Zviv Avevi iv¯—vq iv¯—vq †b‡g Av‡m| Ni-evwo nvwi‡q Zviv wbt¯^ n‡q c‡_ c‡_ Ny‡i †eovq| G iKg nvRvi nvRvi DØv¯—y Pig `y‡f©vM Avi `y`©kvi ga¨ w`‡q gvb‡eZi Rxebhvcb Ki‡Z _v‡K| GKUzLvwb gv_v †MvuRvi VuvB cvIqvi Rb¨ Zviv c‡_ c‡_ KvOv‡ji gZ Nyi‡Z _v‡K| wKš—y †g‡j wb †Kvb Avkªq| A_P GKw`b G‡`i me wQj| evwo, Mvwo, PvKwi, wQj wbR¯^ wVKvbv| AvR Gme fvM¨vnZ gvby‡li cwiPq Zviv DØv¯—,y Avkªqnxb gvbyl| Gme gvby‡li `y‡f©v‡Mi wPÎ cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q Av‡jvP¨ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU‡Z| cÖkœ: (N) ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ †QvUM‡í Zyjmx MvQwUi `y`k © vi Rb¨ †K ev Kviv `vqx? Kxfv‡e? (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: mgvR I ivRbxwZm‡PZb GKRb MíKv‡ii bvg ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn| Zuvi Av‡jvP¨ M‡í 1947 G †`k wefv‡Mi d‡j m„ó mgm¨vi K_v wPwÎZ n‡q‡Q| †`kwefvM I mv¤cÖ`vwqK `v½vq `yÕUzK‡iv n‡q hvq| fviZ wn›`y‡`i Ges cvwK¯—vb gymjgvb‡`i Rb¨ wbw`©ó nq| djkÖ“wZ‡Z Dfq †`‡kB DØv¯—y mgm¨v fqven iƒc aviY K‡i| wn›`y-gymjgvb mv¤cÖ`vwqK `v½v, †`kwefvM, nvRvi nvRvi gvby‡li Rxeb msKU BZ¨vw` Bs‡iR kvmK‡Mvôxi Pµv‡š—i dmj| Zviv wn›`y-gymwjg‡`i g‡a¨ we‡f` ˆZwi ¶gZvq _vK‡Z †P‡qwQj| wKš—y cv‡i wb| M‡í DØv¯—y gwZbiv wn›`y cwiZ¨³ GKwU evwo‡Z GKwU Zzjmx MvQ Avwe®‹vi K‡i| †h MvQwU Dc‡o †dj‡Z Pvq| Kv‡iv Kv‡iv g‡b MvQwUi Rb¨ gvqv Rb¥vq| †KD †KD G evwoi M„nKÎx©i K_v Kíbv K‡i| d‡j †m hvÎv i¶v cvq| cvwbi Afv‡e MvQwU ïwK‡q cvZv L‡qwi is a‡iwQj| †mB MvQwU A`„k¨ nv‡Zi cwiPh©vq Avevi mRxe I meyR n‡q I‡V| †hb cÖvY wd‡i cvq MvQwU| wKš—y miKvi KZ©„K cywj‡ki gva¨‡g DØv¯—y D‡”Q` n‡j Avevi MvQwU msK‡U c‡o| †KD Avi Zvi †Mvovq cvwb Xv‡j bv| ZvB MvQwU Avevi ïwK‡q hvq| Zvi meyR cvZv¸‡jv AveviI L‡qwi n‡q DV‡Z _v‡K| Zzjmx MvQwUi gZB nvRvi nvRvi gvby‡li Rxe‡b †b‡g Av‡m Pig Aw¯’iZv I fqven wech©q| Avi G Rb¨ `vqx ¶gZv‡jvfx Bs‡iR I Zv‡`i G †`kxq `vjvjiv| †Kej Zzjmx MvQwUi bq, gvby‡li Rxe‡bI †b‡g G‡mwQj †`kwefv‡Mi d‡j m„ó GK AwbðqZv| c„ôv-167


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

ˆbe©¨w³K cÖkœvewj GKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Kvwnbx − ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn

wbZvB P›`ª †gvnš— 1| ‰mq` IqvjxDj−vn& KZ wLªóv‡ã Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? K 15 AvM÷ 1922 L 15 RyjvB 1922 M 16 wW‡m¤^i 1921 N 15 Ryb 1922 2| ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn& Kx wn‡m‡e Kg©Rxeb ïi“ K‡iwQ‡jb? K ivóª`~Z L wk¶K M mvsevw`K N miKvwi Kg©KZ©v 3| †Kvb MÖš’wUi gva¨‡g ‰mq` IqvjxDj−vn& RvZxq I Avš—R©vwZK ch©v‡q L¨vwZ AR©b K‡ib? K bqb Zviv L jvjmvjy M `yB Zxi N Puv‡`i Agvek¨K 4| wb‡Pi †KvbwU ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn iwPZ bvUK? K 420 L †Kv_vI †KD †bB M myo½ N i‡Oi gvbyl 5| ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn& KZ wLªóv‡ã g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib? K 16 wW‡m¤^i 1980 L 5 †deª“qvwi 1981 M 10 A‡±vei 1971 N 14 †deª“qvwi 1971 6| ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn& g„Zz¨eiY K‡i ⎯ K †iv‡g L †R‡bfvq M XvKvq N c¨vwi‡m 7| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ KZ wLªóv‡ã cÖKvwkZ nq?

K 1965 wLªóv‡ã L 1966 wLªóv‡ã M 1970 wLªóv‡ã N 1914 wLªóv‡ã 8| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ MíwU †Kvb MÖš’ †_‡K msKwjZ n‡q‡Q? K `yB cxi I Ab¨vb¨ Mí L `yB exi I Ab¨vb¨ Mí M `yB Zxi I Ab¨vb¨ Mí N bqb Zviv 9| cwiZ¨³ wn›`y evwoUv Kq Zjv wQj? K GKZjv L wZb Zjv M Pvi Zjv N `yB Zjv 10| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í evMvb Kivi mL wQj Kvi? K †gv`v‡eŸ‡ii L gKmy‡`i M gwZ‡bi N Kv‡`‡ii

11| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ-M‡í ûKvi Af¨vm Kvi?

K Gbv‡q‡Zi M Kv‡`‡ii

L AvgRv‡`i N gwZ‡bi

12| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi Mí‡cÖwgK †K? K Kv‡`i L gwZb M gKmy` N AvgRv` 13| M‡í †gvU A¨vKvD›Um-Gi bvg Kx? K gwZb L BDbym M e`i“wÏb N Kv‡`i 14| Zzjmx MvQwU Kx evi-G Avwe®K…Z nq? K †mvgev‡i L iweev‡i M kwbev‡i N ïµev‡i 15| Zzjmx MvQwU †K Avwe®‹vi K‡i? K gwZb L †gv`v‡eŸi M gKmy` N Kv‡`i 16| M‡í nvi‡gvwbqvg evRvq †K? K Kv‡`i L BDbym M gwZb N nvweeyj−v 17| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í ûRy‡M ai‡Yi †jvK †K? K †gv`v‡eŸi L gKmy` M gwZb N Kv‡`i 18| gwZb GKmgq †Kv_vq KvR KiZ? K †nv‡U‡j L Awd‡m M †ijI‡q‡Z N _vbvq 19| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í GKUz †gŠjfx ai‡Yi gvbyl⎯ K BDbym L Gbv‡qZ M †gv`v‡eŸi N gKmy` 20| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ-M‡íi DØv¯—y gvbyl¸‡jv †Kv_v †_‡K G‡mwQj? K jv‡nvi L gvqvbgvi M XvKv N KjKvZv 21| †`kwefvM n‡qwQj wK‡mi wfwˇZ? K wn›`y‡`i Rb¨ L wØRvwZZ‡Ë¡i Kvi‡Y M gymjgvb‡`i Rb¨ N wLªóvb‡`i Rb¨ 22| †`kgq GKUv †Nvi cwieZ©‡bi Av‡jvob m„wó n‡qwQj †Kb? K †`kwefv‡Mi Rb¨ L Rwg `Lj Kivi Rb¨ M hvÎvcvjv †`Lvi Rb¨ N Avkªq MÖnY Kivi Rb¨

c„ôv-168


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj) 23| †gv`v‡eŸi û¼vi w`‡qwQj †Kb? K mvc †`‡LwQj e‡j L evN †`‡LwQj e‡j M Zzjmx MvQUv Dc‡o †djvi Rb¨ N †gv`v‡eŸi e` †eRvwR wQj e‡j 24| †gv`v‡eŸi wew¯§Z n‡qwQj †Kb? K Zzjmx MvQUvi L‡qwi is †`‡L L Zzjmx MvQUvi Ae¯’vi DbœwZ n‡Z †`‡L M Zzjmx MvQUv g‡i †h‡Z †`‡L N Zzjmx MvQUv A`„k¨ n‡q‡Q e‡j 25| gwZb c~‡e© evMvb ˆZwi Ki‡Z cv‡iwb †Kb? K kL wQj bv L wec‡`i Rb¨ M Kv‡`‡ii Rb¨ N Rwg wQj bv 26| †Kvb LeiUv kn‡i Qwo‡q c‡o? K Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Lei L evwo Qvovi Lei M evwo `L‡ji Lei N †`k fv‡Mi Lei 27| Ômve B݇c±‡ii wØZxq eD Avgvi GKiKg AvZ¥xqvÕ-Kv‡`‡ii G Dw³wU ⎯ K AvswkK mZ¨ L wfwËnxb M ¸i“Z¡cY~ © N cy‡iv mZ¨ 28| Zzjmx MvQ g~jZ ⎯ K wn›`y‡`i e„¶ L ebR M Jlwa N djR 29| M„nKÎx©i Kvi K_v g‡b co‡Z cv‡i? K †`‡ki L evwoi M kvwoi N Zzjmx Mv‡Qi 30| Zzjmx Mv‡Qi †Mvovq eûw`b cvwb bv covi KviY Kx? K gvwjK bv _vKv L Abve„wó M wb‡lavÁv N cvwbi Afve 31| Ôgv_vi Dci Qv` cvevi Avkvq Zviv `‡j `‡j Av‡m'-GLv‡b ÔQv`Õ ej‡Z †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q ⎯ K QvZv L emevm M ivZhvcb N Avkªq 32| ÔZv‡`i bxPZv nxbZv †Muvovwgi Rb¨B †Zv †`kUv fvM n‡jvÕ-†gv`v‡eŸi Kv‡`i‡K eywS‡q‡Q? K †bZv‡`i L wn›`y‡`i M Bs‡iR‡`i N gymjgvb‡`i 33| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í ÔAbvwkªZÕ ej‡Z Kv‡`i‡K eySv‡bv n‡q‡Q? K f~wgnxb‡`i L AwZw_‡`i M DØv¯—y‡`i N cywjk‡K 34| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi bvgKiY Kiv n‡q‡Q⎯

K †cÖ¶cU Abyhvqx L Aš—wb©wnZ Zvrch© Abyhvqx M NUbv¯’j Abyhvqx N agx©q ixwZbxwZ Abyhvqx

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

35| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í wn›`ywe‡Ølx ejv hvqK Kv‡`i‡K L gwZb‡K M gKmy`‡K N †gv`v‡eŸi‡K 36| wbRxe© Zyjmx MvQwU nVvr m‡ZR n‡q D‡V †Kb? K c~Rv Kivi Rb¨ L cwiPh©vi Rb¨ M mvi †`Iqvi Rb¨ N gvby‡li Dcw¯’wZi Rb¨ 37| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ‡Z Ôevwo Lvbv‡K Zv‡`i Kv‡Q g‡b nj †e‡kkZÕ-GiKg g‡b nIqvi KviY⎯ (i) evwoi `LjKvixiv wQj DØv¯—y (ii) KjKvZvi wNwÄ GjvKvq `ywe©ln Rxeb wQj Zv‡`i (iii) †e‡nkZ Lvbvi g‡ZvB evwowU wQj ZvB wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M ii I iii N i I ii 38| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi †cÖ¶vcU ⎯ (i) wØRvwZZ‡Ë¡i djvdj (ii) fviZ cvwK¯—v‡bi Rb¥ (iii) 1947-Gi †`kfvM wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii I iii M i, ii I iii N i I iii. 39| Ôg›`fv‡M¨i K_v gvbv hvq wKš‘ mn¨ Kiv hvq bvÕDw³wU cÖ‡hvR¨ wQj⎯ (i) hviv RvqMv cvqwb Zv‡`i †¶‡Î (ii) hviv evwo‡Z D‡V‡Q Zv‡`i †¶‡Î (iii) hviv Awf‡hvMKvix Zv‡`i †¶‡Î wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L ii I iii M i I iii N i, ii I iii. 40| Ôevgcš’xÕ kãwU w`‡q mPivPi eySv‡bv nq ⎯ (i) Ab¨vqKvix (ii) cÖMwZev`x (iii) mvg¨ev`x wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L i I ii M i I iii N ii I iii. 41| †eAvBwbfv‡e evwo `Lj eZ©gv‡b Zzjbxq n‡jv ⎯ (i) miKvwi Rwg `L‡j (ii) iv¯—vNvU `L‡j (iii) b`x-Rjgnvj `L‡j wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M iii N i, ii I iii.

c„ôv-169


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj) 42| Ô†mw`b †_‡K M„nKÎx©i QjQj †Pv‡Li K_vI Avi Kv‡iv g‡b c‡owbÕ-KviY ⎯ (i) G evwoi gvqvZ¨vM Ki‡Z n‡e e‡j (ii) cywj‡ki AvMg‡b mK‡ji gvbwmK cwieZ©b (iii) wb‡Ri `ytL A‡b¨i `ytL‡K `~‡i †i‡L‡Q wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L iii I ii M i, ii I iii Ni. 43| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í Zzjmx MvQwU †h cÖZx‡K D™¢vwmZ ⎯ (i) Aw¯—‡Z¡i (ii) mv¤cÖ`vwqKZvi (iii) gvbweKZvi wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii I iii M i I ii N i, ii I iii.

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

44| ÔZzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í †jLK dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb ⎯ (i) DØv¯—y msKU (ii) Avw_©K msKU (iii) Aw¯—‡Z¡i msKU wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L i I iii M ii I iii N i, ii I iii. 45| ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ‡Z j¶ Kiv hvq ⎯ (i) Rxe‡bi Bw½Zgq I e¨Äbvmg„× w`K (ii) Rxe‡bi mij I ¯^vfvweK Mí (iii) Rxe‡bi Mfxi Zvrch© wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L i M ii N i I iii.

c„ôv-170


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

GKz‡ki Mí Rwni ivqnvb (1933-1972) “ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb)

e„×v †nvm‡b Aviv †Q‡ji Kuv‡a fi w`‡q ¸wU ¸wU cv‡q knx` wgbv‡i dzj w`‡q G‡jb| kixi fv‡jv †bB Zvi, fv‡jv †bB gbUvI| ¯^vgxi K_v g‡b co‡Q Zvi| †mB KZ eQi Av‡Mi K_v| Zey g‡b nq GB †Zv †mw`b| Qv·bZv AvkdvK †nv‡mb evsjv‡K ivóªfvlv Kivi `vwe‡Z RbgZ ˆZwi K‡i fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi WvK †`b| †nvm‡b Aviv GKgvÎ †Q‡ji K_v †f‡e ¯^vgx AvkdvK †nv‡mb‡K Av‡›`vjb †_‡K m‡i `uvov‡Z e‡jb| wKš‘ wZwb D‡ËwRZ n‡q ¯¿x‡K D‡c¶v K‡i cy‡Îi gv_vq nvZ w`‡q e‡jwQ‡jb-ÔevsjvB n‡e Avgvi mš—v‡bi ivóªfvlvÕ Gici w¶cÖ MwZ‡Z †ewi‡q hvb| Avi wd‡i Av‡mbwb| 21 †deªqvwii fvlv knx`‡`i A‡b‡Ki jvk cvIqv hvqwb| ‡nvm‡b Aviv Rxe‡bi `yg©i c_¸‡jv †Q‡ji nvZ a‡i cvwo w`‡q‡Qb|

cÖkœ: (K) Rwni ivqnv‡bi Avmj bvg Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †gvnv¤§` Rwni“j−vn| cÖkœ: (L) ÔZcy‡K Avevi wd‡i cv‡ev, GK_v fy‡jI fvwewb †Kv‡bv w`b, Zcy †h Avevi wd‡i G‡m‡Q Avgv‡`i gv‡SÕ-Kxfv‡e e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Dw³wU Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ †QvUMíwU 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †cÖ¶vc‡U iwPZ| M‡íi wZb eÜz †gwW‡Kj K‡j‡Ri QvÎ|evqvbœi fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi wgwQ‡j wZb eÜzB Ask †bq| wgwQ‡j Zcy Kcv‡j ¸wjwe× n‡q knx` nq| wgwjUvwiiv Zvi jvk wb‡q hvq| Pvi eQi ci bevMZ †gwW‡Kj QvÎ †nv‡÷‡j GKwU K¼vj wb‡q Av‡m| K¼vjwUi ¯‹v‡j GKwU dz‡Uv I cv‡qi nv‡oi Am½wZ †`‡L Zcyi eÜz ivnvZ eyS‡Z cv‡i K¼vjUv Zv‡`i wcÖq eÜz Zcyi| Zcyi eÜziv D‡ËwRZ, Av‡eMcÖeY n‡q c‡o| Zv‡`i AwZ wcÖq, nvwm Lywk eÜzwU Pvi eQi ci Zv‡`i gv‡S wd‡i G‡m‡Q K¼vj n‡q| Dw³wU‡Z †mB welqwU Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| cÖk:œ (M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ †nvm‡b Avivi mv‡_ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ G Zcyi gv‡qi Pwi‡Îi wgj Awgj e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki †nvm‡b Aviv ¯^vgx 1952 Gi fvlv Av‡›`vj‡b knx` n‡q‡Q| Zvi ¯^vgxi jvk cvIqv hvqwb| GKgvÎ cy‡Îi K_v †f‡e ¯^vgx‡K Av‡›`vjb †_‡K m‡i Avm‡Z e‡jwQj| wKš‘ fvlv knx` ¯^vgx AvkdvK †nv‡mb Zvi K_v D‡c¶v K‡i mš—v‡bi Rb¨ ivóªfvlv wn‡m‡e evsjvi weRq wQwb‡q Avb‡Z wM‡qwQ‡jb| evsjvfvlv I evOvwji Rq G‡m‡Q wKš‘ wd‡i Av‡mbwb AvkdvK †nv‡mb| ¯^vgxi ¯§„wZ ey‡K wb‡q cy‡Îi nvZ a‡i †nvm‡b Aviv Rxe‡bi `yM©g c_ cvwo w`‡q‡Q| AvR eq‡mi fv‡i by‡q co‡jI ¯^vgxi ¯§„wZ Zvi Aš—‡i A¤−vb n‡q Av‡Q| Ab¨w`‡K, Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ fvlv knx` Zcyi gv‡K cvB| M‡í Zvi Dcw¯’wZ ¯^í n‡jI D¾¡j| †gwW‡Kj QvÎ Zcyi g„Zz¨i ci Zvi gv G‡m †nv‡÷‡j MovMwo w`‡q †Ku‡`wQ‡jb| wZwb e‡jwQ‡jb Zcy bv g‡i wZwb gi‡jB fv‡jv n‡Zv, mš—vb nviv gv‡qi †mw`‡bi †m AvZ©bv` mevB‡K Av‡e‡M wenŸj K‡i †`q| Pvi eQi ci Zcy K¼vj n‡q wd‡i Av‡m wKš‘ ZLb Zvi gv gviv †M‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki gv †nvm‡b Aviv fvlv knx‡`i ¯¿x| mš—v‡bi w`‡K †P‡q †eu‡P Av‡Q| Ab¨w`‡K, GKz‡ki M‡íi fvlv knx` Zcyi gv| mš—v‡bi knx` nIqvi Pvi eQ‡ii g‡a¨ ZviI g„Z¨z n‡q‡Q| Dfq †¶‡Î wgj n‡jv Dfq gvÕB fvlv knx‡`i mv‡_, fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi BwZnv‡mi mv‡_ m¤ú„³| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki †PZbvi Av‡jv‡K ÔGKz‡ki M‡íiÕ g~j †PZbv we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki †nvm‡b Avivi RxebMv_v fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi BwZnv‡mi mv‡_ m¤ú„³| ¯^vgx AvkdvK †nv‡mb ZrKvjxb mg‡qi QvÎ †bZv wQ‡jb| evsjv‡K ev` w`‡q D`y©‡K evOvwji ivóªfvlvi Kivi wm×vš—‡K Agvb¨ K‡i evOvwjiv †h Av‡›`vjb M‡o †Zv‡j AvkdvK †nv‡mb Zvi cÖZ¨¶ Kgx©| ¯¿xi wb‡la D‡c¶v K‡i c„ôv-171


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

mš—v‡bi Rb¨ evsjv‡K ivóªfvlv Kivi cÖZ¨‡q Av‡›`vj‡b Suvwc‡q c‡ob| wgwjUvwiiv Zv‡`i ¸wjwe× K‡i Av‡›`vjb cÖwZnZ Ki‡Z †P‡qwQj, cv‡iwb| Avkdv‡Ki Rxeb I jv‡ki wewbg‡q evsjv ivóªfvlvi gh©v`vq Awfwl³ nq| 21†k †deª“qvwi †PZbv`xß G †MŠiegq BwZnvm Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕI g~Z© n‡q D‡V‡Q| G M‡í KwíZ Zcyi gv‡S bvg bv Rvbv fvlv knx`‡`i †PZbv D¾xweZ n‡q D‡V‡Q| †gwW‡Kj K‡j‡Ri wZb †gavex Zi“‡Yi cÖvYgq Kvwnbx| evqvbœi BwZnvm‡K Kv‡jvËxY© gwngv `vb K‡i‡Q| me mg‡qi cvV‡Ki g‡b Zcy fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †PZbv‡K engvb K‡i †i‡L‡Q| myZivs wbtm‡›`‡n ejv hvq †h, †PZbv cÖev‡ni w`K †_‡K DÏxcK I GKz‡ki Mí GK Awfbœ c‡_i Z_v evOvwji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †eva‡K RvMÖZ †i‡L‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb)

g‡bvqvi †nv‡mb †mwgbv‡i e³„Zv †k‡l K¬vš— †eva K‡ib| Ôevsjv fvlvi BwZnvm I HwZn¨Õ welqK e³„Zv Zv‡K Avev‡iv 1952 Gi fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi i³¶qx ¯§„wZ g‡b Kwi‡q w`‡q‡Q| eq‡mi fv‡i by‡q cov g‡bvqvi †nv‡mb ¯^fv‡e `„p‡PZv| wZwb fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi mv‡_ cÖZ¨¶fv‡e m¤ú„³ wQ‡jb| 21 †k †deª“qvwii †mB i³¶qx w`bwU AvRI Zvi ¯§„wZ‡Z A¤−vb| Ôivóªfvlv evsjv PvBÕ †¯−vMv‡b wgwQjwU ïi“ n‡q cywj‡ki Avµg‡Y QvÎRbZv QÎf½ n‡q c‡o| A‡b‡Ki g‡Zv g‡bvqvi †nv‡mbI AvZ¥i¶vi Rb¨ †`Šov‡Z _v‡K| ¸wjwe× †Lvov cvÕwU GLbI †m wPý enb K‡i P‡j‡Q| GK mgq Nvo wdwi‡q eÜz m‡ivR‡K LyuR‡Z wM‡q †`‡Lb `~‡i Zvi i³v³ kixi gvwU‡Z c‡o Av‡Q| Ny‡i `uvov‡Z wM‡qI cv‡ibwb| AvRI c‡o _vKv eÜzi †mB jv‡ki ¯§„wZ Zv‡K hš¿Yvwe× K‡i|

cÖkœ: (K) Rwni ivqnvb †Kv_vq Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †dbx †Rjvi gRycyi MÖv‡g| cÖkœ: (L) †iYy †K? †Kvb `ytmn †e`bvq †m wb_i n‡q wM‡qwQj? e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: K_v mvwnwZ¨K Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕ fvlv knx` Zcyi ¯¿x †iYy| G M‡íi ¯^ímsL¨K Pwi‡Îi g‡a¨ †iYy Ab¨Zg GKRb| †gwW‡Kj K‡j‡R fwZ©i eQi Lv‡bK ci Zcy fv‡jv‡e‡m AvZ¥xqv †iYy‡K we‡q K‡i| †`vnviv Mob, wQcwQ‡c KwU Avi Av‡cj i‡Oi †iYy cÖvqB Zcyi mv‡_ †`Lv Ki‡Z †gwW‡Ki K‡j‡Ri QvÎvev‡m Avm‡Zv| evsjv‡K ivóªfvlv Kivi `vwe‡Z Zcy wgwQ‡j †h‡Z PvB‡j †iYy evav †`q| wKš‘ Zv‡K D‡c¶v K‡i Zcy eÜz‡`i wb‡q wgwQ‡j †hvM †`q| c‡i wgwjUvwii ¸wj‡Z Zcy knx` nq| ¯^vgxi G AKvj g„Zz¨‡Z `ytmn †e`bvq †iYy wb_i n‡q wM‡qwQj| Zvi cjKnxb †PvL‡Rvov w`‡q AkÖ“i †dvqviv †b‡gwQj †hb| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ g‡bvqvi †nv‡m‡bi mv‡_ ÔGKz‡ki M‡íiÕ Zcy Pwi‡Îi wgj Awgj Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki g‡bvqvi †nv‡mb 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi mv‡_ cÖZ¨¶fv‡e m¤ú³ wQ‡jb| Ôivóªfvlv evsjv PvBÕ †¯−vMvb gyLi wgwQ‡j eÜz‡`i mv‡_ wZwbI wQ‡jb| AK¯§vr wgwjUvwii ¸wj‡Z wgwQjwU †f‡O hvq| g‡bvqvi †nv‡m‡bi cv‡q ¸wj jv‡M| Zvi eÜz m‡ivR D³ wgwQ‡j ¸wjwe× n‡q knx` nq| g‡bvqvi †nv‡mb eÜzi jvkwU Avb‡Z †P‡qI cv‡ibwb| AvRI wZwb eÜzi K_v †f‡e Kó cvb| evsjv fvlvi BwZnvm I HwZn¨ welqK †mwgbv‡ii e³…Zvi ci eq‡mi fv‡i by‡q cov g‡bvqvi †nv‡mb fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †mB w`b ¸‡jv Ges eÜzi K_v g‡b K‡ib| Ab¨w`‡K, Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕ fvlv knx` Zcyi †e`bvweayi Kvwnbx me mg‡qi cvVK‡K fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi K_v ¯§iY Kwi‡q †`q| †gwW‡Kj K‡jR QvÎ Zcy Ges Zvi eÜziv Ôivóªfvlv evsjv PvBÕ wgwQ‡j ¯^Z:ù‚Z© fv‡e †hvM †`q| Zcy beweevwnZv ¯¿xi K_v AMÖvn¨ K‡i fvlvi `vwe‡Z Qy‡U hvq wgwQ‡ji m¤§yLfv‡M| AK¯§vr wgwjUvwi‡`i ¸wj Ges Zcy jvk n‡q c‡o _v‡K| wgwjUvwiiv Zcyi jvk ¸g K‡i †`q| bvUKxqfv‡e Pvi eQi ci bevMZ †gwW‡Kj Qv‡Îi K¼vjwU Zcyi K¼vj wn‡m‡e mbv³ Kiv hvq Zcyi G wfbœgvwÎK wd‡i Avmv Zvi eÜz‡`i Av‡eMvc−yZ K‡i| DÏxc‡Ki g‡bvqvi †nv‡mb Ges M‡íi Zcy Df‡qB fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi RxweZ mv¶x, Ab¨w`‡K Zcy fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi gnvKvwjK mv¶x| c„ôv-172


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ i †cÖ¶vcU we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: DÏxcK I K_v mvwnwZ¨K Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕi †cÖ¶vcU GK I Awfbœ| DÏxc‡Ki g‡bvqvi †nv‡mb eÜz‡`i mv‡_ 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi mv‡_ m¤ú„³ wQ‡jb| 21 †k †deª“qvwii Ôivófvlv evsjv PvBÕ wgwQ‡j Zviv mvwgj n‡qwQj| nVvr wgwjUvwi‡`i ¸wj‡Z eÜz m‡ivR knx` nq| cv‡q ¸wjwe× n‡q g‡bvqvi †nv‡mb †eu‡P hvq| AvRI cv‡q ¸wji wPý, ey‡K fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †PZbv wb‡q †eu‡P Av‡Qb g‡bvqvi †nv‡mb| c¶vš—‡i, Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †cÖ¶vc‡U iwPZ| †gwW‡Kj QvÎ Zcy Zvi eÜz ivnvZ I Mí K_‡Ki Rxe‡bi KwíZ Kvwnbx fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi BwZnvm‡K cvVK ü`‡q me©Kv‡ji K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| Zcy ¯¿x †iYyi wb‡la D‡c¶v K‡i wgwQ‡j hvq Ges Kcv‡j ¸wjwe× n‡q knx` nq| wgwjUvwiiv Zvi jvk ¸g K‡i †`q| Pvi eQi ci bevMZ †gwW‡Kj Qv‡Îi Aa¨q‡bi Abyl½x K¼v‡ji ¯‹vjwUi dz‡Uv I Amgvb `ywU cv‡qi nvo †`‡L ivnvZ I MíK_K eyS‡Z cv‡i K¼vjwU Zv‡`i wPi‡Pbv, wcÖq eÜz Zcyi| welv‡`i Qvqv Zv‡`i ü`q‡K AvíyZ K‡i| Gfv‡eB DÏxcK I M‡í 1952 mv‡ji 21 †k †deª“qvwii fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †MŠiegq BwZnvm be Avw½‡K D™¢vwmZ n‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb)

evOvwji GK i³¶qx †MŠi‡ev¾¡j BwZnvm 1952 Gi fvlv Av‡›`vjb| ZrKvjxb cvwK¯—vwb kvm‡Kiv D`y©‡K ivóªfvlv Kivi †NvlYv †`q| evsjvi †`k‡cÖgx gvbyl evsjv‡K ivóªfvlv Kivi `vwe‡Z Av‡›`vj‡b bv‡g| G †cÖw¶‡Z ZrKvjxb miKvi XvKvq 144 aviv Rvwi K‡i| msMÖvgx evOvwj 1952 Gi 21 †deª“qvwi 144 aviv Agvb¨ K‡i ivRc‡_ wgwQj †ei K‡i| cywjk wgwQ‡j evav w`‡j msNl© ïi“ nq| GK ch©v‡q wgwQ‡j ¸wjel©Y nq Ges A‡bK ZvRv cÖvY S‡i c‡o| iwdK, mvjvg, eiKZmn A‡b‡K knxb nb| †mB fvlv knx‡`iv AvRI ¯§„wZ‡Z A¤−vb, Agi|

cÖkœ: (K) Zcyi ¯¿xi bvg Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †iYy| cÖkœ: (L) Ômgy`ª Mfxi RbZv ax‡i ax‡i Pj‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡QÕ- Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Dw³wU‡Z gvZ…fvlv evsjv‡K ivóªxq gh©v`v `v‡bi `vwe‡Z we¶zä RbZvi wgwQ‡ji `„k¨ eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| Dw³wU Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ †_‡K msKwjZ| evOvwji evsjv fvlv‡K ev` w`‡q D`y©‡K ZrKvjxb c~e© cvwK¯—v‡bi ivóªfvlv Kivi Pµvš— K‡iwQj cvwK¯—vbx kvmK‡Mvôx| Gi cÖwZev‡` evOvwj RvwZ we‡¶v‡f †d‡U c‡o| GB DËvj cwiw¯’wZ‡Z †Kvb GK mgq †gwW‡Kj K‡jR †nv‡÷‡ji evB‡i meyR gv‡V mg‡eZ n‡qwQj AMwYZ RbZv| RbZvi GB mgv‡ek Rbmgy‡`ª iƒcvš—wiZ nq| RbZvi wekvj Xj Zcyi g‡bI †`k‡cÖg RvMÖZ K‡i| †m eÜz‡`i mv‡_ H wgwQ‡j †hvM †`q Ges wgwjUvwii ¸wj‡Z knx` nq| cÖk:œ (M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ fvlv knx` iwdK, mvjvg, eiK‡Zi mv‡_ GKz‡ki M‡íi ‡gwW‡Kj QvÎ Z_v Zcy, ivnvZ I Mí K_‡Ki Pwi‡Îi wgj Awgj e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: evOvwji cÖv‡Yi fvlv evsjv‡K ev` w`‡q D`y©‡K evOvwj Z_v cvwK¯—v‡bi ivóªfvlv Kivi Pµv‡š— we¶zä evOvwj msMwVZ n‡q Av‡›`vj‡b bv‡g| 1952 mv‡ji 21 †k †deª“qvwi cvwK¯—vwb kvm‡Ki 144 aviv Agvb¨ K‡i Zviv XvKvi ivRc‡_ wgwQj †ei K‡i| D³ wgwQ‡j wgwjUvwiiv ¸wjel©Y Ki‡j iwdK, mvjvg, eiKZmn A‡b‡K knx` nb| Ab¨w`‡K, ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕ †gwW‡Kj QvÎ Zcy, ivnvZ Ges Zv‡`i eÜz MíK_K Ôivóªfvlv evsjv PvBÕ †k−vMvb gyLi mgy`ª Mfxi RbZvi wgwQ‡j Suvwc‡q c‡o| †mB wgwQ‡jI wgwjUvwii ¸wji AvNv‡Z Kcv‡j ¸wjwe× n‡q Zcy knx` nq| MíK_K I ivnvZ cvwj‡q †eu‡P hvq| Zcyi jvk wgwjUvwiiv ¸g K‡i †d‡j| Pvi eQi ci Zcyi K¼vj bexb Qv‡Îi Kv‡Q ‡c‡q Zcyi eÜziv Av‡eMvc−yZ n‡q c‡o| DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ Ges M‡íi Zcy DfqB fvlv knx` ivnvZ I MíK_K fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi mv‡_ m¤ú„³ wQj| GKz‡ki M‡íi Zcyi gv‡S iwdK, mvjv‡gi gZ fvlv knx‡`i †PZbv Ly‡u R cvIqv hvq| c„ôv-173


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (N) Ô†mB fvlv knx‡`iv AvRI ¯§„wZ‡Z A¤−vb, AgiÕ-DÏxc‡Ki Dw³wUi Av‡jv‡K ÔGKz‡ki M‡íiÕ g~jK_v / fve we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: fvlv Av‡›`vjb evOvwji GK †MŠi‡ev¾¡j Mv_v| 1952 mv‡ji GKz‡k †deª“qvwi evsjv‡K ivóªfvlv Kivi `vwe‡Z wgwQj †ei nq | cvwK¯—vwb wgwjUvwiiv †mB wgwQ‡j ¸wj Pvwj‡q A‡bK ZvRv cÖvY Swi‡q †`q| Zv‡`i g‡a¨ iwdK, mvjvg, eiKZmn A‡b‡K wQ‡jb| GB fvlv knx`‡`i ex‡ivwPZ g„Z¨z evsjvi BwZnv‡m A¤−vb n‡q Av‡Q| K_v mvwnwZ¨K Rwni ivqnvb BwZnv‡mi G †MŠiegq †cÖ¶vc‡U ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ iPbv K‡i‡Qb| G M‡íi NUbv †jL‡Ki KíbvcÖmZ ~ | mgKvjxb mg‡q †gwW‡Kj QvÎ Zcy, ivnvZ I MíK_K G M‡íi ewY©Z fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi KwíZ PwiÎ| G‡`i gva¨‡g fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi bvg bv Rvbv knx‡`i cÖZxKx fveg~wZ© e¨³ n‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb) K_v mvwnwZ¨K BKevj †nv‡mb mvwnZ¨cvovq GLb Av‡jvPbvi ga¨gwY| Zvi me©‡kl Dcb¨vmwU G Av‡jvPbvi KviY| fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi BwZnvm Zvi G †jLvq bZzb Avw½‡K Dc¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q| eÜz cÖwZg †jLK Avwei nvmvb Zvi †jLvi D”Q¡vwmZ cÖksmv K‡ib| Zvi g‡Z, BKevj †nv‡m‡bi Dcb¨v‡mi KvwnbxwU Awfbe, AvKl©Yxq| BKevj †nv‡m‡bi †jLvq evOvwji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †MŠi‡ev¾¡j BwZnvm Awfbe wkím‡Z¨ D™¢vwmZ n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (K) ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ †QvU MíwU †Kvb MÖš’ †_‡K msKwjZ? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Rwni ivqnvb iPbvejx, wØZxq LÊ| cÖkœ: (L) ÔcjKnxb †PvLRvov w`‡q AkÖ“i †dvqviv †b‡gwQj ZviÕ-Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕ Dw³wU‡Z Zcyi g„Z¨z ‡Z Zvi ¯¿x †iYyi gvbwmK Ae¯’v Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| K‡j‡R fwZ©i eQiLv‡bK ci Zcy fv‡jv‡e‡m we‡q K‡i AvZ¥xqv †iYy‡K| nvwm, Avb‡›` Zv‡`i `v¤úZ¨ Rxeb gyLwiZ wQj| ¯¿xi wb‡la D‡c¶v K‡i Zcy fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi wgwQ‡j †hvM †`q Ges ¸wjwe× n‡q knx` nq| g„Zz¨i ci wgwjUvwiiv Zvi jvk ¸g K‡i †d‡j| AvKw¯§K G NUbvq ¯¿x †iYy wbe©vK, wb®újK †Pv‡L ïay AkÖ“aviv| Dw³wU‡Z wcÖqRb nviv‡bvi e¨_v dz‡U D‡V‡Q| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ BKevj †nv‡m‡bi Dcb¨v‡mi †cÖ¶vcU I Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki M‡íi †cÖ¶vc‡Ui wgj-Awgj e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ BKevj †nv‡m‡bi Dcb¨v‡mi †cÖ¶vc‡U 1952 mv‡ji 21 †k †deª“qvwi evOvwji fvlv Av‡›`vjb| BwZnv‡mi G †MŠiegq †cÖ¶vcU‡K D³ iPbvq bZzb Kvwnbx I Avw½‡K Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q e‡j D‡j−L Kiv nq| c¶vš—‡i, wewkó K_vwkíx Rwni ivqnv���bi ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕi †cÖ¶vcUI fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi BwZnvm| Rwni ivqnv‡bi M‡í mgKvjxb mg‡qi †gwW‡Kj K‡j‡Ri wZb QvÎ-Zcy, ivnvZ I MíK_K fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi wgwQ‡j †hvM ‡`q| Zcy D³ wgwQ‡j ¸wjwe× n‡q knx` nq| `xN© Pvi eQi ci bZzb GK †gwW‡Kj Qv‡Îi gva¨‡g K¼vj n‡q Kvwnbx‡Z cÖZ¨veZ©b K‡i| Zcyi eÜzi eY©bvq Kvwnbx ewY©Z nq| MíKv‡ii KwíZ Kvwnbxi gva¨‡g GLv‡b fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi BwZnvm Awfbe I Rxeš— iƒ‡c Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q| myZivs ejv hvq, Dfq †¶‡ÎB †cÖ¶vcU GK I Awfbœ| cÖkœ: (N) ÔevOvwji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †MŠi‡ev¾¡j BwZnvm Awfbe wkí m‡Z¨ D™¢vwmZ n‡q‡QÕ| -Dw³wUi Av‡jv‡K Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki M‡íiÕ wkí mZ¨ Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: mvwnwZ¨K BwZnv‡mi NUbv wb‡q mvwnZ¨ m„wó Ki‡jI †mLv‡b BwZnvm ûeû Zz‡j bv a‡i KL‡bv KL‡bv Kíbvi Avkªq †bb| †jL‡Ki g‡bvRvMwZK Kíbv, Abyfw~ Zi wgkª‡Y BwZnvm bZzb Avw½‡K cÖKvk cvq| Zvi GB Kíbv cÖm~Z m„wóI GK ai‡bi mZ¨ cÖKvk K‡i| G‡K mvwn‡Z¨i fvlvq Ôwkí mZ¨Õ e‡j| mdj ev mv_©K mvwnZ¨ cvV‡Ki Kv‡Q Ggbfv‡e mgv`„Z nq †h KL‡bv Zv Kv‡jvËxY© gwngv cvq| mv_©K mvwnZ¨ K‡g© Av¶wiK A‡_©i cvkvcvwk cÖZxKx Zvrch©I Zz‡j a‡i, hv wkí m‡Z¨i bvgvš—i| DÏxc‡Ki Dw³wU †mB welqwU‡K Bw½Zen K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki BKevj †nv‡m‡bi RbwcÖqZvi KviY, wZwb Zvi †jLvq fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi BwZnvm Awfbe wkím‡Z¨ D™¢vwmZ ev Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Qb| Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki c„ôv-174


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

M‡íi †cÖ¶vcU I 1952 Gi fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi BwZnvm| BwZnvm‡K ûeû mvwn‡Z¨ Dc¯’vcb bv K‡i MíKvi Kíbvi Avkªq wb‡q‡Qb| Awfbœ ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕi †Kw›`ªq PwiÎ Zcy I Zvi eÜziv fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi KwíZ PwiÎ| G‡`i mv‡_ ev¯—‡ei †Kvb wgj †bB| wKš‘ Zcyi gva¨‡g fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi bvg bv Rvbv knx`‡`i cÖZxKx fveg~wZ© e¨³ n‡q‡Q| GB cÖZxKx Dc¯’vcbv GK ai‡bi wkímZ¨| Gm„wó ¯’vwbK, KvwjK gwngv‡K AwZµg K‡i‡Q| me mg‡qi cvV‡Ki g‡b Zcy Rxeš— GKwU bvg, hv‡`i Z¨vM fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi mZ¨‡K ¯§iY Kwi‡q †`q| M‡íi Kvwnbx KvíwbK, bvUKxq fv‡e Zcyi cÖZ¨veZ©b cvVK‡K Av‡jvwoZ, wknwiZ, e¨w_Z K‡i †Zv‡j gva¨‡g fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi ‡e`bvweayi M‡íi AeZviYv nq| GK_v wbtm‡›`‡n ejv hvq †h, ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕ fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi BwZnvm Awfbe wkím‡Z¨ D™¢vwmZ| GM‡íi wkímZ¨ †`k I Kv‡ji gwngv‡K AwZµg K‡i wPiš—b mËvi iƒcvwqZ n‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb) AvaywbK evsjv mvwnZ¨aviv

Dcb¨vm

†QvUMí

bvUK

KweZv

GKz‡ki Mí

1952 Gi fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †cÖ¶vcU D`y©‡K ivóªfvlv wn‡m‡e †NvlYv

iPbv ‰kjx bvUKxqZv

fvlvi cÖvÄjZv Kvwnbxi MwZgqZv

wkí mZ¨ Zcy, ivnvZ cÖgLy †gwW‡Kj Qv‡Îi Rxe‡bi KwíZ Kvwnbx

fvlv Av‡›`vj‡b Zcyi knx` nIqvi NUbv

Kv‡jvËxY© gwngvjvf

evOvwji Av‡›`vjb 144 aviv f½ K‡i wgwQj; iwdK, mvjvg, eiKZmn A‡b‡Ki g„Z¨z Ô evsjv fvlv ÔivóªfvlvÕ wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…Z cÖkœ: (K) ÔnvRvi eQi a‡iÕ †Kvb ai‡bi iPbv? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Dcb¨vm |

cÖkœ: (L) Pvi eQi ci †h Zcy wd‡i G‡m‡Q Zv‡K wb‡q Kx ai‡Yi cÖwZwµqv n‡qwQj mncvVx gn‡j?-e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ evqvbœi fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †cÖ¶vc‡U iwPZ| fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi wgwQ‡j †hvM w`‡q ey‡jUwe× n‡q Zcy knx` nq| Pvi eQi ci hLb †m wd‡i Av‡m ZLb Zvi eÜziv Av‡eMvc−yZ n‡q c‡o| Zvi G wd‡i Avmv AZ¨š— bvUKxq| †gwW‡Kj K‡j‡Ri bevMZ Qv‡Îi e¨eüZ K¼vj n‡q †m wd‡i c„ôv-175


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

G‡m‡Q| K¼vjwUi ¯‹v‡ji dz‡Uv I cv‡qi Ask †`‡L Zviv eyS‡Z cv‡i †mwU Zcyi K¼vj| `xN©w`b ci mncvwVi K¼vj n‡q wd‡i Avmv wbtm‡›`‡n mxgvnxb hš¿Yv`vqK I †e`bv`vqK| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕi fvlv Av‡›`vj‡b cÖwZwbwaZ¡Kvix Pwiθ‡jv e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ QKwU Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕi Abyiƒc ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕ †gwW‡Kj K‡jR QvÎ Zcy, ivnvZ I MíK_K GB wZb Zi“‡Yi KwíZ Kvwnbx fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †cÖ¶vc‡U Dc¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q| wZb mncvVx †gwW‡Kj K‡jR †nv‡÷‡ji GKB i“‡gi AvevwmK QvÎ| cov‡jLv, AvÇv, †eov‡bv me wKQy‡ZB Zviv G‡K Ac‡ii m½x| M‡íi ivRv Zcy, nvwmLywk| ivnvZI Zvi m‡½ †hvM w`Z| ‰n-û‡j−vo, Mí AvÇv Zcyi mn‡hvMx wQj ivnvZ I MíK_K| †gavex GB wZb Zi“‡Yi gv‡S †`k‡cÖg‡eva GKBiKg| GKw`b wZb eÜz I †iYy nuvU‡Z nuvU‡Z c−¨vKvW© nv‡Z, i³gvLv Rvgv wb‡q AMwYZ RbZvi †k−vMvbgyLi wgwQj †`L‡Z cvq| Ôivófvlv evsjv PvBÕ †k−vMv‡b gyLwiZ wgwQ‡j Zcy ¯¿x †iYyi wb‡la D‡c¶v K‡i GwM‡q hvq| ivnvZ I MíK_K G wgwQ‡j kvwgj nq| nVvr wgwjUvwii ey‡j‡U Zcy knx` nq, ivnvZ I MíK_K cvwj‡q euv‡P| Pvi eQi ci bevMZ †gwW‡Kj Qv‡Îi e¨eüZ K¼vjwU †`‡L ivnvZ MíK_K mbv³ K‡i †h GB K¼vjwU Zv‡`i fvlv knx` eÜz Zcyi| Gfv‡eB G M‡í fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi mv‡_ m¤ú„³ wZb Zi“‡Yi Rxeb wPÎ cvIqv hvq| hv DÏxc‡Ki mv‡_ mvgÄm¨c~Y©| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K †QvUMí wn‡m‡e ÔGKz‡ki M‡íiÕ mv_©KZv wePvi Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: AvaywbK mvwnZ¨avivi GKwU Ab¨Zg M`¨ixwZ Ô‡QvUMíÕ| †QvUM‡íi ˆewk󨸇jvi g‡a¨ D‡j−L‡hvM¨ wKQy ˆewkó¨ n‡jv, Rxe‡bi GKwU ¯^í‰`N©¨, LwÊZ Kvwnbx, AímsL¨K Pwi‡Îi gva¨‡g mnR mij fvlvq MwZkxj Dc¯’vcbv| †QvUM‡í Kvwnbxi Abvek¨K we¯Z…wZ _vK‡e bv| M‡íi ïi“ I †kl n‡Z cv‡i bvUKxq| M‡íi cwimgvwß cvVK‡K Ggb fv‡e AvK…ó Ki‡e †h, AviI wKQy Rvbvevi AvMÖn cvV‡Ki gb‡K AvíyZ K‡i ivL‡e| Dwj−wLZ ˆewk󨸇jvi Av‡jv‡K Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Av‡jvPbv Ki‡j Ô†QvUMíÕ wn‡m‡e MíwUi mdjZv wbi“cY Kiv mnR n‡e| 1952 Gi fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †cÖ¶vc‡U wZb †gwW‡Kj Qv‡Îi Rxe‡bi Ki“Y Kvwnbx GLv‡b wea„Z n‡q‡Q| Zcy Ges Zvi `yB eÜz fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi wZb KwíZ PwiÎ| ¯^í msL¨K Pwi‡Îi Dcw¯’wZ‡Z G M‡íi Kvwnbx mnR-mij, bvUKxq| G‡Z Abvek¨K kvLv-cÖkvLv †bB, †bB `xN©m~wÎZv, fvlv mnR, MwZkxj I welqvbyM| M‡íi †k‡l †QvUM‡íi e¨Äbv, A_©vr †kl n‡qI nBj bv †klÕ †evawU mwµq i‡q‡Q| KwíZ PwiÎ I Kvwnbxi gva¨‡g HwZnvwmK †cÖ¶vcU‡K AmvaviY wkí ˆewkó¨ Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q| myZivs, ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ †QvUMí wn‡m‡e mdj m„wó ejv hvq|

“ wb‡Pi wPÎwU †`L Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (kviwgb myjZvbv)

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) Rwni ivqnv‡bi cÖK…Z bvg Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Rwni ivqnv‡bi cÖK…Z bvg †gvnv¤§` Rwni“j−vn| c„ôv-176


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (L) Zcy‡K †`L‡Z Ii gv ev ¯¿x †KD G‡jv bv †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Zcy Pvi eQi Av‡M nvB‡Kv‡U©i Kv‡Q GKz‡k †deª“qvwii wgwQ‡j wgwjUvwii ¸wj‡Z knx` n‡qwQj| Zcy Avi Zvi mncvVxiv wQj †gwW‡Kj K‡j‡Ri QvÎ| GKw`b Zcyi i“g‡gUiv Zvi K¼vj kbv³ Kij| ZLb Zviv Zcyi gv Ges ¯¿x‡K Lei w`‡Z PvBj| I‡`i †Luv‡R Zcyi eÜz ivnvZ †Mj| w`bfi GLv‡b ILv‡b Lyu‡R Luy‡R we‡K‡j ivnvZ wd‡i G‡m Lei w`j Zv‡`i KvD‡K cvIqv hvq wb| Zcyi gv gviv wM‡q‡Qb Avi Zvi ¯¿xi Ab¨ RvqMvq we‡q n‡q †M‡Q| ZvB Zcy‡K †`L‡Z Ii gv ev ¯¿x †KD G‡jv bv| cÖkœ: (M) Ômgy`ª Mfxi RbZv ax‡i ax‡i Pj‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡QÕ- ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| [cÖ‡qvMg~jK] DËi: evsjv‡`‡ki RbRxe‡bi †MŠi‡ev¾¡j Aa¨vq fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi cUf~wg‡Z Rwni ivqnvb Gi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ kxl©K iPbvwU iwPZ| gvZ…fvlv evsjv‡K wPiZ‡i gy‡Q †djv Ges D`©y‡K ZrKvjxb c~e© cvwK¯—v‡bi ivóªfvlv Kivi †h N„Y¨ Pµvš— ZrKvjxb cwðg cvwK¯—vwb kvmK‡Mvôx K‡iwQj Zvi cÖwZev‡` evOvwj RvwZ we‡¶v‡f †d‡U c‡o| ZvB DËvj mg‡qi †Kvb GK mwܶ‡Y †gwW‡Kj K‡jR †nv‡÷‡ji evB‡i meyR gv‡V mg‡eZ n‡qwQj AMwYZ gvbyl| GK mgq RbZvi mgv‡ek Rbmgy‡`ª iƒcvš—wiZ nq| evsjv fvlv gv‡qi fvlv| G fvlvi m‡½ Rwo‡q Av‡Q evOvwj RvwZi nvRvi eQ‡ii BwZnvm| GB gvZ…fvlvi cÖwZ myMfxi ggZ¡‡ev‡a ejxqvb n‡q DËvj RbZv †b‡g Av‡m ivRc‡_| RbZvi wekvj Xj †`‡L †mw`b Zcyi g‡bI RvMÖZ n‡qwQj †`k‡cÖg| †hvM w`‡qwQj DËvj RbZvi wgwQ‡j †`kgvZ…Kv‡K i¶vi ZvwM‡`| †`kgvZ…Kvi cÖwZ myMfxi ggZ¡‡ev‡ai Kvi‡YB AwaKvi cÖwZôvi Av‡›`vj‡b mgy`ª †mªv‡Zi g‡ZvB RbZv DËvj AcÖwZ‡iva¨ n‡q D‡V| cÖkœ: (N) ÔG Ae¯’vq †KD KvD‡K wPb‡Z cv‡i bvÕ- e³e¨wU ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| [D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK] DËi: evsjv‡`‡ki RbRxe‡bi †MŠi‡ev¾¡&j Aa¨vq fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi cUf~wg‡Z Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ kxl©K iPbvwU iwPZ| ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ Zcy| fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi GK wgwQ‡j Zcy ¸wjwe× nq| Ii Kcv‡j wVK ga¨Lv‡b GKwU ¸wj Xy‡K hvq| Zcy ZLb iv¯—vq jywU‡q c‡o| Zvi i“g‡gU `yR‡bi †Pv‡Li mvg‡b †_‡K Zcy‡K wgwjUvwiiv Zz‡j wb‡q hvq| Gici Zcyi Avi †LuvR cvIqv hvq wb| Zcy wPiZ‡i nvwi‡q †M‡Q GB ¯^vfvweK mZ¨UvB mK‡j †g‡b wb‡qwQj| Zcyi K‡¶ Lvwj wm‡U bZzb QvÎ Av‡m| †gwW‡K‡ji Qv·`i ÔGbvUwgÕ welqwU eB‡qi Z‡_¨i m‡½ gvbe kix‡ii K¼v‡ji wewfbœ Ask wgwj‡q co‡Z nq| ZvB cÖ‡Z¨K Qv·KB GKwU K‡i K¼vj †RvMvo Ki‡Z nq| bevMZ QvÎwUI GKwU K¼vj †RvMvo K‡iwQj| GKw`b mKv‡j ÔGbvUwgÕ co‡Z wM‡q QvÎwU GKwU gv_vi Lywji m‡½ cov wgwj‡q †`LwQj| nVvr †m †`Lj LywjwUi Kcv‡ji ga¨Lv‡b GKUv dz‡Uv| welqwU †m Ab¨ `yB i“g‡gU‡K Rvbvj| Ab¨ i“g‡gUiv Zcyi i“g‡gU wQj| GK i“g‡gU ivnvZ D‡V G‡m LywjwU wb‡q m‡›`nvKzj n‡jv| Zv‡`i aviYv, GwU Zcyi gv_vi Lywj| Zcyi evg cvUv `yÕBw Lv‡Uv wQj, G Rb¨ †m Lywu o‡q nuvUZ| Iiv ZLb Szwo †_‡K m¤ú~Y© K¼vjUv †ei K‡i wgwj‡q †`Lj evg cv‡qi nvowUI `yÕBw Lv‡Uv| Iiv wbwðZ n‡jv GwUB Zcy| wKš‘ Zcyi G cwiYwZ; Ggwbfv‡e wd‡i Avmv †KD Kvgbv K‡i wb| i³gvs‡m Mov jveY¨gq UMe‡M Zi“Y G Zcy bq, G K¼vj Zcy| I‡K †`‡L ZvB Kv‡iv †Pbvi Dcvq †bB|

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evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi wPÎwU †`L Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj)

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) †nvrKv †gvUv ‡jvKUvi m‡½ Zcyi †Kv_vq †`Lv n‡qwQj? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †nvrKv †gvUv †jvKwUi m‡½ Zcyi K¨vwcUv‡j †`Lv n‡qwQj| cÖk:œ (L) Ômgy`ª Mfxi RbZv ax‡i ax‡i Pj‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡QÕ- ej‡Z †jLK Kx †evSv‡Z †P‡q‡Qb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: 1952 mvjwU wQj evOvwji BwZnv‡mi GK we‡kl mgq| G mgq Ôivóª fvlv evsjv PvBÕ †¯−vMv‡b mviv †`k gyLwiZ wQj| G Av‡›`vjb PjvKvjxb GK mKv‡j Zcy, ivnvZ I MíK_K †`L‡Z †cj †nv‡÷‡ji evB‡i meyR Qov‡bv gv‡V AMwYZ †jv‡Ki mgv‡ek| †fvi n‡ZB mK‡j Rgv nw”Qj| Kv‡iv nv‡Z c−¨vKvW©, Kv‡iv nv‡Z †¯−vMvb †`evi Pz‡½v, KviI nv‡Z j¤^v jvwV‡Z †Svjv‡bv K‡qKwU i³v³ Rvgv| mevB wgwQ‡j hvIqvi Rb¨ cÖ¯‘Z nw”Qj| AmsL¨ cÖwZev`x RbZvi mgv‡e‡k ivRc_ †hb Rbmgy‡`ª cwiYZ n‡qwQj| GK GKRb cÖwZev`x gvbyl †hb GK GKwU DËvj Zi½| mK‡ji mw¤§wjZ wgwQjwU hLb Pj‡Z ïi“ K‡i ZLb †`‡L g‡b nq RbZvi mgy`ª Pj‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡Q| ZvB †jLK Rbeûj wgwQj‡KB Ômgy`ª Mfxi RbZv ax‡i ax‡i Pj‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡QÕ e‡j eywS‡q‡Qb| cÖkœ: (M) ÔZcy‡`i g‡Zv mvnmx ˆmwb‡Ki AvZ¥Z¨v‡MB Avgiv †c‡qwQ Avgv‡`i knx` wgbviÕ- Dw³wUi e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Rwni ivqnvb iwPZ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ- Gi cUf~wg 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vjb| G M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ Zcy mKj mvgvwRK I cvwievwiK eÜb wQbœ K‡i gvZ…fvlv evsjv‡K ivóªfvlv Kivi `vwe‡Z Av‡›`vjb K‡i| Zcy wQj mncvVx‡`i g‡a¨ mevi †QvU I AZ¨š— wcÖq| m`v cÖvYeš—, DÏvg I ü`qevb| G Zi“Y wQj †gwW‡K‡ji QvÎ| GKw`b mKv‡j Zcy, ivnvZ I Mí K_K †`L‡Z cvq Zv‡`i †nv‡÷‡ji evB‡i meyR Qov‡bv gv‡V nvRvi nvRvi gvby‡li mgv‡ek| †fvi n‡ZB mevB †mLv‡b R‡ov nw”Qj| G‡`i Kv‡iv nv‡Z wQj c−¨vKvW©, Kv‡iv nv‡Z †¯−vMvb †`evi Pz‡½v Avevi Kv‡iv nv‡Z wQj jvwV‡Z †Svjv‡bv K‡qKwU i³v³ kvU©| Ôivóª fvlv evsjv PvBÕ †¯−vMv‡b Pvicvk gyLwiZ n‡q I‡V| Zcy Ges Zvi eÜzivI †hvM †`q mgy`ª Mfxi RbZvi wgwQ‡j| Zcy‡`i wgwQjwU hLb nvB‡Kv‡U©i †gv‡o G‡m †cuŠQvq †m mgq wgwjUvwii †Qvov GKwU ¸wj G‡m jv‡M Zcyi Kcv‡ji wVK gvSLvbUvq| Kcv‡ji †mB MZ© †_‡K wbS©‡ii g‡Zv i³ Si‡Z _v‡K| ivRc_ iwÄZ K‡i Zcy jywU‡q c‡o| ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ- Gi Zcy PwiÎwU ev¯—e bv n‡jI 1952 mv‡j mviv‡`k e¨vcx evsjv‡K ivóªfvlv Kivi Rb¨ †h Av‡›`vjb ïi“ nq Zv‡Z Zcyi g‡Zv A‡bK QvÎ, mvaviY RbZv Ask †bq Ges fvlvi Rb¨ jovB K‡i knx` nb| †jLK Zcyi gva¨‡g A‡bK bvg bv Rvbv fvlv knx`‡`i cÖZxKx fveg~wZ© M‡o †Zv‡jb| mvjvg, iwdK, ReŸvi, eiK‡Zi cvkvcvwk Zcyi g‡Zv bvg bv Rvbv A‡b‡KB 52Õi 21†k †deª“qvwii w`b fvlvi Rb¨ wb‡Ri Rxeb wemR©b w`‡q‡Q| mvjvg, iwdK, eiKZ, ReŸv‡iiB Av‡iK cÖwZiƒc Rwni ivqnv‡bi m„wó Zcy PwiÎwU| Z‡e Zcyi g‡Zv Ggb mvnmx c„ôv-178


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

ˆmwbK‡`i Rb¨B AvR Avgiv †c‡qwQ Avgv‡`i gvZ…fvlv evsjv‡K| Zv‡`i cÖwZ mkª× m¤§v‡bB wbwg©Z n‡q‡Q Avgv‡`i knx`wgbvi| g~jZ M‡e©i GB knx` wgbvi †mB mvnmx fvlv ˆmwbK‡`i AvZ¥Z¨v‡MB †c‡qwQ| fvlv knx`iv †h Agi †m K_vB Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕ dz‡U D‡V‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) Dch©y³ wPÎwUi Av‡jv‡K ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ- Gi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: cÖL¨vZ Pjw”PÎKvi I mvwnwZ¨K Rwni ivqnvb iwPZ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ evsjv‡`‡ki †QvUM‡íi kvLvq GK Abb¨ ms‡hvRb| 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †cÖw¶‡Z iwPZ MíwUi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ Zcy Avgv‡`i g‡bi c`©vq GZUv Rxeš— n‡q I‡V †h Zv ev¯—e mZ¨‡KI Qvwo‡q hvq| 1948 mv‡j hLb cvwK¯—vb miKvi †NvlYv †`q †h D`y©B n‡e cvwK¯—v‡bi ivóª fvlv ZLb Av‡›`vjb `vbv euva‡Z ïi“ K‡i| Gici 1952 mv‡j cybivq hLb †NvlYv †`qv nq D`©yB mgMÖ cvwK¯—v‡bi GKgvÎ ivóªfvlv n‡e ZLb mKj evOvwj cÖwZev` K‡i iv¯—vq †b‡g Av‡m| wgwjUvwi Avi cywj‡ki jvwVPv‡R© cÖvY nvivq mvjvg, iwdK, eiKZ, ReŸvimn bvg bv Rvbv A‡b‡KB| AvZ¥Z¨vMx †mB fvlv knx`ivB wQwb‡q G‡b‡Q Avgv‡`i gvZ…fvlv evsjv‡K| Rwni ivqnvb iwPZ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi cUf~wg‡ZB †jLv| †gwW‡K‡ji QvÎ Zcy, ivnvZ I MíK_KI wgwQ‡j hvq| c−¨vKvW© nv‡Z Zcy †¯−vMvb †`q Ôivóªfvlv evsjv PvBÕ wKš‘ wgwjUvwii ¸wj jv‡M Ii| †mLvb †_‡K Si‡Z _v‡K wbS©‡ii g‡Zv i³aviv| Zcy mevi gvS †_‡K nvwi‡q hvq| wKš‘ Pvi eQi ci Avevi wd‡i Av‡m ZcyiB †nv‡÷‡ji wm‡U Avmv Av‡iK Qv‡Îi Kv‡Q _vKv biK¼v‡ji ga¨ w`‡q| mvjvg, eiKZ, iwdK, ReŸvimn bvg bv Rvbv AmsL¨ knx`‡`i AvZ¥Z¨v‡Mi wewbg‡q Avgiv †c‡qwQ Avgv‡`i knx` wgbvi| GB wgbv‡i cÖwZeQi 21 †deª“qvwi dyj w`‡q knx`‡`i cÖwZ mkª× m¤§vb cÖ`k©b Kiv nq| knx` wgbv‡ii ga¨ w`‡q fvlv knx`iv evi evi Avgv‡`i ü`‡q Dcw¯’Z nq| fvlv knx`iv Agi, Zuv‡`i g„Z¨z †bB, Zviv nvRvi evi nvRvi iƒ‡c Avgv‡`i gv‡S wd‡i Av‡m| †jLK Rwni ivqnvb ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi Zcy Pwi‡Îi K¼vj n‡q wd‡i Avmvi gva¨‡g g~jZ Zcyi g‡Zv ARvbv knx`‡`i cÖwZ †hgb kª×v cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb †Zgwb fvlv knx`iv †h Agi †mUvB dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb| Zcyi K¼vjB †hb Av‡iK knx` wgbvi n‡q mK‡ji mvg‡b Dcw¯’Z nq|

3| wb‡Pi wPÎwU †`L Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj)

c„ôv-179


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) Ô÷c †R‡bvmvBWÕ I Ô†jU †`qvi we jvBUÕ Pjw”PÎ `ywUi wbg©vZv †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ô÷c †R‡bvmvBWÕ I Ô†jU †`qvi we jvBUÕ Pjw”PÎ `ywUi wbg©vZv n‡jb evsjv‡`‡ki cÖL¨vZ Pjw”PÎKvi Rwni ivqnvb| cÖkœ: (L) ÔcjKnxb †PvL‡Rvov w`‡q AkÖ“i †dvqviv †b‡gwQj ZviÕ- Dw³wU Øviv Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Rwni ivqnvb iwPZ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ- Gi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ Zcy hLb evsjv fvlvi `vwe‡Z Ab¨‡`i m‡½ wgwQ‡j †hvM w`‡Z hvq ZLb Zvi ¯¿x †iYyy Qz‡U G‡m Zcy‡K evav †`q| †iYyiy G AvPi‡Y †hgb Zcy †i‡M hvq †Zgwb Zcyi eÜz ivnvZI †¶‡c I‡V| ivnvZ †i‡M D‡V †iYy‡K evwo P‡j †h‡Z e‡j| †iYy wd‡i hvq| Gi ci Zcy‡`i wgwQj nvB‡Kv‡U©i †gv‡o Avmv gvÎB wgwjUvwii ¸wj‡Z Zcy gvwU‡Z jywU‡q c‡o| Zcyi g„Z¨z i ci hLb †iYy Lei †c‡q Qz‡U Av‡m ZLb Zvi †PvL †Rvov w`‡q ïay AkÖ“ SiwQj| †m GKeviI ivnv‡Zi w`‡K ZvKvq wb| cjKnxb †PvL †Rvov w`‡q AkÖ“i †dvqviv †b‡gwQj ZviÕ Øviv †jLK A‡Svi avivq AkÖ“ Sivi K_vB †evSv‡Z †P‡q‡Qb| cÖk:œ (M) wP‡Îi wkïwUi m‡½ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ- Gi Zcy Pwi‡Îi wgj I Awgj¸‡jv Kx Kx? (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Rwni ivqnvb iwPZ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ evsjv‡`‡ki †QvUM‡íi kvLvq GK D¾¡j b¶Î| ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ- Gi g~j PwiÎ Zcyi wgwQj wb‡q hvevi mgq wgwjUvwii ey‡j‡Ui AvNv‡Z g„Z¨z Avi DÏxc‡Ki wkïwUi g„Z¨z GKB my‡Zvq Muv_v| 1952 mv‡j hLb mviv †`ke¨vcx PjwQj ivóªfvlvi Av‡›`vjb| G Av‡›`vj‡bi gva¨‡g ZrKvjxb cvwK¯—vb miKv‡ii wei“‡×I evOvwj cÖwZev` Rvbvq| G mgq Av‡›`vj‡b †Q‡j, ey‡ov, wK‡kvi I wkï mK‡jB Ask MÖnY K‡i| DÏxc‡Ki wkïwUI †Zgwb wgwQ‡j G‡m †hvM †`q Ges cvwK¯—vb miKv‡ii wei“‡× †¯−vMvb w`‡Z _v‡K| GiB g‡a¨ †Kv‡Ì‡K GKwU ey‡jU G‡m jv‡M Zvi kix‡i| †¯−vMvb w`‡Z w`‡ZB Zvi g„Zz¨ nq| Rwni ivqnv‡bi m„ó Zcy PwiÎwUI fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi wgwQj wb‡q hLb nvB‡Kv‡U©i †gv‡o G‡m †cuŠQvq ZLb wgwjUvwii ey‡j‡Ui AvNv‡Z Kcv‡ji gvSLvbUv dz‡Uv n‡q i³ Si‡Z _v‡K| c−¨vKvW© nv‡Z Zcy ivRc‡_ jywU‡q c‡o| Zcy Ges wkïwU †`‡ki Rb¨, fvlvi Rb¨ AvZ¥wemR©b †`q| Zcyi m‡½ wkïwUi i‡q‡Q †PZbvMZ mv`„k¨| Z‡e wKQz ˆemv`„k¨I Av‡Q| †gwW‡K‡ji QvÎ Zcy Avi wP‡Îi wkïwUi gv‡S i‡q‡Q eq‡mi we¯—i e¨eavb| A‡c¶vK…Z wbgœweË N‡ii GB wkï mš—vb nq‡Zv A‡bKUv bv ey‡SB wgwQ‡j †hvM w`‡qwQj wKš‘ Zcy wkw¶Z, me †R‡b ey‡SB cwievi‡K D‡c¶v K‡i †`‡ki Rb¨, fvlvi Rb¨ Av‡›`vj‡b †hvM w`‡qwQj| Z‡e Awgj hvB _vKzK Zcy I DÏxc‡Ki wkïwUi g‡Zv exi mš—vbivB †`‡ki Rb¨, fvlvi Rb¨ knx` n‡jI Zviv wPi Agi| nvRvi iƒ‡c nvRvi evi fvlv knx`iv Avgv‡`i gv‡S wd‡i wd‡i Av‡m| ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ- wU‡ZI GK_v dz‡U D‡V‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) Ôfvlvknx`iv Agi, Zuv‡`i ¯’vb Avgv‡`i ü`‡qi Aš—¯’‡jÕ- wP‡Îi Av‡jv‡K ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ- Gi †PZbvMZ Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: RxebgyLx I mgvR m‡PZb †jLK Rwni ivqnv‡bi GK Abb¨ m„wó ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ| 52Õi fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †cÖ¶vc‡U †jLv GB M‡íi wkímZ¨ ev¯—e mZ¨‡KI Qvwo‡q hvq| G M‡í Zcy PwiÎwUi ga¨ w`‡q fvlv knx`‡`i Agi‡Z¡i K_vB e¨³ n‡q‡Q| Dchy©³ wPÎwU GK ¶z‡` knx‡`i| wgwQ‡ji G‡Kev‡i mvg‡b G‡m wkïwU †¯−vMvb w`‡Z _v‡K| mKj fq‡K Rq K‡i wkïwU †¯−vMvb w`‡Z w`‡Z wgwQ‡ji mvg‡b GwM‡q hvq wKš‘ AvKw¯§K GKwU ey‡jU G‡m jv‡M †Q‡jUvi Mv‡q| wkïwUi i‡³ iwÄZ nq ivRc_| †h †PZbvq n‡q wkïwU AvZ¥wemR©b w`‡qwQj †mB GKB †PZbv DØy× cÖevwnZ n‡q‡Q Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕ| G M‡íi g~j PwiÎ Zcy †gwW‡K‡ji QvÎ| mncvVx‡`i g‡a¨ mevi †QvU Zcy AZ¨š— cÖvYeš—, ü`qevb I nv‡m¨v¾¡j| †mw`b mKv‡j Zcy I Zvi mncvVxiv †`Lj †nv‡÷‡ji gv‡V AMwYZ RbZv c−¨vKvW©, †¯−vMvb †`evi Pz‡½v Avi jvwV‡Z †Svjv‡bv i³v³ kvU© wb‡q Rgv‡qZ n‡”Q| ZLwb Zcy wm×vš— †bq I‡`i mv‡_ Av‡›`vj‡b hv‡e Ges fvlvi Rb¨ wgwQj Ki‡e| ZvB †Zv ¯¿x †iYyi kZ evav D‡c¶v K‡i wgwQ‡j hvq Zcy| wKš‘ wgwQj wb‡q nvB‡Kv‡U©i †gv‡o Avmv gvÎB wgwjUvwii ¸wji AvNv‡Z Zcy ivRc_ iwÄZ K‡i jywU‡q c‡o| Pvi eQi ci †gwW‡K‡ji QvÎvev‡m K¼v‡ji m‡½ wgwj‡q kixiwe`¨v covi mgq Avwe®K…Z nq G K¼vj fvlv c„ôv-180


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

Av‡›`vj‡bi wgwQ‡j wbnZ ZcyiB K¼vj| KviY G K¼vjwUiI Kcv‡ji gvSLvbUvq GKUv MZ© Avi ev cv‡qi wUweqv‡deyjv `yB Bw †QvU| A_©vr Zcy Avevi Avgv‡`i gv‡S wd‡i G‡m‡Q Z‡e wfbœ GK iƒ‡c| Dch©y³ wP‡Îi ga¨ w`‡q †hgb ¶z‡` knx` wPiKvj †eu‡P _vK‡e, †eu‡P _vK‡e Avgv‡`i ü`‡q, ÔGKz‡ki M‡íiÕ ZcyI †Zgwb Agi| †jLK g~jZ Zcy PwiÎwUi ga¨ w`‡q †hgb bvg bv Rvbv A‡bK knx‡`i cÖZxKx fveg~wZ© ˆZwi K‡i‡Qb †Zgwb K¼vjiƒ‡c wd‡i Avmvi gva¨‡g †evSv‡Z †P‡q‡Qb knx`iv Agi| Zviv g‡iI †eu‡P _v‡K Avgv‡`i ü`‡q, Zviv ev‡i ev‡i wd‡i Av‡m bvbvb iƒ‡c| GKz‡ki †PZbv wPi Agwjb †jL‡Ki iPbvq †mUvB ¯úófv‡e cÖZxqgvb nq|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj) mvwn‡Z¨i mZ¨ ûeû mZ¨ bv n‡jI †jLK mvwn‡Z¨ GK ai‡bi mZ¨‡K Zz‡j a‡ib, G‡K wkí mvwn‡Z¨ wkí mZ¨ ev Kve¨ mZ¨ ejv nq| ev¯—e NUbvi wfwˇZ †jL‡Ki Kíbv, bZzb Kvwnbx, PwiÎ BZ¨vw` m„wó K‡i †h wkí mZ¨ wbg©vY K‡i Zv KLbI KLbI ev¯—e mZ¨‡KI Qvwo‡q, ¯’vb I Kv‡ji MwÊ †cwi‡q mve©Rbxb n‡q I‡V| Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ †Zgwb GKwU Mí| †QvUM‡íi mKj ˆewkó¨‡K aviY Kiv Qvov Pjw”P‡Îi gZ d¬¨vke¨vK c×wZ AbymiY K‡i Rwni ivqnvb ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ †K Avjv`v gvÎv`vb K‡i‡Qb| d‡j ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ evsjv‡`‡ki †QvUM‡íi AvKv‡k GK D¾¡j b¶Î|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) Ô†¯‹wjUbÕ k‡ãi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ô†¯‹wjUbÕ k‡ãi A_© K¼vj| cÖkœ: (L) Zcy †Kgb ¯^cœ †`LZ? eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Zcy wQj me©`v nv‡m¨v¾¡j GKwU †Q‡j| †hgb nvm‡Z cvi‡Zv †Zgwb Mí Kivi e¨vcv‡iI wQj I¯—v`| mncvVx‡`i g‡a¨ mePvB‡Z †QvU Zcy mevi Kv‡QB wQj wcÖq| Ab¨‡`i Mí Ki‡Z Ki‡Z gv‡S gv‡S wb‡Ri ¯^‡cœi K_vI †m eÜz‡`i RvbvZ| Zcy ¯^cœ †`LZ Wv³vwiUv cvk Ki‡j †m MÖv‡g P‡j hv‡e| †mLv‡b †QvÆ GKUv Ni euva‡e Avi †m N‡i †Kv‡bv RuvKRgK _vK‡e bv, G‡Kev‡i mvaviY GKwU Ni| Z‡e †QvÆ GKwU wWm‡cbmvwi _vK‡e Zvi, Gi †ewk wKQz bv| cÖv‡Yv”Qj Zcy Ggwb mv`vgvUv ¯^cœ †`Lvq Af¨¯— wQj| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K wbY©q Ki †h ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi wkímZ¨ ev¯—emZ¨‡KI Qvwo‡q †M‡Q| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: RxebgyLx I mgvRm‡PZb K_vmvwnwZ¨K Rwni ivqnvb iwPZ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ evsjv‡`‡ki †QvUM‡íi fvÊv‡i GK Abb¨ ms‡hvRb| 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †cÖ¶vc‡U †jLv GB M‡í †gwW‡Kj K‡j‡R Aa¨qbiZ GK cÖvYeš—, DÏvg I ü`qevb Zi“‡Yi Qwe Gu‡K‡Qb †h knx` nq fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi wgwQ‡j| †Kv‡bv mwZ¨ ev HwZnvwmK NUbv hLb ûeû cÖKvk Kiv nq ZLb Zv nq BwZnvm Avi hLb †Kvb †jLK †mB NUbvi m‡½ wbR¯^ wKQz Kvwnbx, PwiÎ I NUbv m„wó K‡ib ZLb Zv nq mvwnZ¨| †jL‡Ki GB Kíbv cÖm~Z Kvwnbx, Pwi‡Îi ˆewkó¨ I wµqvKjvc hZUv M‡íi Kvwnbxi m‡½ m½wZ c~Y© n‡q I‡V, ZZUv ev¯— ‡ei m‡½ bq| mvwn‡Z¨i cÖ‡qvR‡b †jLK †h mZ¨ ˆZwi K‡i Zv‡K ejv nq wkí mZ¨| wkí m‡Z¨i ¸‡Y mvwnZ¨ n‡q I‡V mve©Rbxb| ÔGKz‡ki MíÕI wkím‡Z¨i ¸‡YB ¸Yvwš^Z| G M‡íi cUf~wg 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vjb hv evsjv‡`‡ki BwZnv‡mi Ab¨Zg ¸i“Z¡c~Y© NUbv| ev¯—‡e ev BwZnv‡m fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †h BwZnvm ev NUbvi weeiY Avgiv cvB Zv‡Z Zcyi g‡Zv †Kvb PwiÎ Avgv‡`i g‡bi c`©vq †f‡m D‡V bv wKš‘ G M‡íi Zcy Avgv‡`i g‡bi c`©vq GK`g Rxeš— n‡q I‡V| †jL‡Ki †jLbx †KŠk‡j ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi Kvwnbx Ges †K›`ªxq PwiÎ Zcy GZUv Rxeš— n‡q dz‡U D‡V‡Q †h ev¯—e Kvwnbx mZ¨‡KI Qvwc‡q †M‡Q| mwZ¨B †hb †gwW‡K‡ji DÏvg, cÖvYeš— Zcy fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi wgwQ‡j ¸wj †L‡q g„Zz¨ eiY K‡iI Pvi eQi ci Avevi K¼vjiƒ‡c wd‡i G‡m‡Q| ZvB ejv hvq ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi wkí mZ¨ ev¯—e mZ¨‡KI Qvwo‡q †M‡Q| Rwni ivqnvb iwPZ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Kvwnbx I iPbv †KŠk‡ji ¸‡Y Abb¨ GK †QvUMí| c„ôv-181


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (N) ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ evsjv‡`‡ki †QvUM‡íi AvKv‡k GK D¾¡j b¶ÎÕ-Dw³wUi Av‡jv‡K †QvUMí wn‡m‡e ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi mv_©KZv Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: RxebgyLx mgvRm‡PZb †jLK Rwni ivqnvb iwPZ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ evsjv‡`‡ki †QvUM‡íi AvKv‡k GK D¾¡j b¶Î, 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi cUf~wg‡Z MíwU iwPZ| †gwW‡K‡ji QvÎ Zcy, ivnvZ Avi Mí K_K| Gi g‡a¨ Zcy eq‡m mevi †QvU Ges weevwnZ| cÖvYeš—, nv‡m¨v¾¡j I ü`qevb ZcyB M‡íi †K›`ªxq PwiÎ| M‡íi Kvwnbx‡Z †`Lv hvq Zcy, ivnvZ I Mí K_‡Ki w`b fv‡jvB KvUwQj wKš‘ GiB g‡a¨ fvlv Av‡›`vjb ïi“ nq Ges †m Av‡›`vj‡b ZcyI †hvM †`q| ¯¿x †iYyi kZ eviY D‡c¶v K‡i Zcy †hvM †`q wgwQ‡j| wKš‘ †mLv‡b wgwjUvwii ¸wj‡Z ivRc_ i‡³ iwÄZ K‡i jywU‡q c‡o Zcy| ¸wjwU Zcyi Kcv‡ji wVK gvSLvbUvq jv‡M| †mB MZ© †_‡K wbS©‡ii gZ i³ Si‡Z _v‡K| Zcy‡K Pvi eQi ci Avevi wd‡i cvIqv hvq| Z‡e Rxeš— bq, GK Qv‡Îi Kv‡Q _vKv K¼v‡ji gv‡S| A_©vr ZcyB K¼vj n‡q wd‡i Av‡m| M‡íi Kvwnbx cvV‡Ki ü`q Qzu‡q hvq| Zv Qvov Zcyi wd‡i Avmvi welqwU †jLK AZ¨š— bvUKxq fv‡e Dc¯’vcb K‡ib| †jLK Kvwnbx ïi“ K‡ib eZ©gvb †_‡K| Gici d¬¨vke¨v‡K P‡j hvb Ges cy‡iv Kvwnbx eY©bv K‡i Avevi eZ©gv‡b G‡m Kvwnbxi mgvwß NUvb| Z‡e ïi“‡Z cvV‡Ki g‡a¨ †h PgK ˆZwi K‡ib Zv G‡Kev‡i †kl ch©š— envj iv‡Lb AZ¨š— `¶Zvi m‡½| †jL‡Ki Kíbv cÖm~Z KvwnbxwU †jLbxi ¸‡Y ev¯—e mZ¨‡K Qvwo‡q †M‡Q| bvg bv Rvbv knx`‡`i cÖZxK Zcy PwiÎwU cvV‡Ki g‡b G‡Kev‡i Rxeš— n‡q I‡V †jL‡Ki eY©bv †KŠk‡j| †QvUM‡íi mKj ˆewk‡ó¨i mdj iƒcvqY ÔGKy‡ki MíÕ ZvB evsjv‡`‡ki †QvU M‡íi AvKv‡k mwZ¨B GK Abb¨ `„óvš—| Kvwnbx, PwiÎ, ˆ`N©¨, mgvwß Ges wkí m‡Z¨i GK Af~Z c~e© mswgkª‡Y †hb ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ evsjv‡`‡ki mvwnZ¨‡K Av‡iK avc GwM‡q wb‡Z ¸i“Z¡c~Y© ms‡hvRb| “

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (Avb›` Kzgvi wek¦vm) 1952 mv‡ji K_v| XvKv †m mgq Av‡›`vj‡b DËvj| k¨vgj H mgq XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi QvÎ| fv‡jvQvÎ nIqvq †Kvb Sv‡gjvq †m Rovq bv| wKš‘ 52Õi GKz‡k †deª“qvwi †m e‡m _v‡K wb| mevi mv‡_ †mI †¯−vMvb w`‡Z w`‡Z GwM‡q hvq| Zv‡K Avi Lyu‡R cvIqv hvqwb|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ‡Z Zcy‡K †klevi ‡Kv_vq †`Lv wM‡qwQj? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ‡Z Zcy‡K †klevi nvB‡Kv‡U©i †gv‡o †`Lv wM‡qwQj? cÖkœ: (L) Kxfv‡e Zcyi eÜziv Zcy‡K kbv³ Kij? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: GKw`b mKv‡j MíK_‡Ki bZzb i“g‡gU GbvUwgi cvZv Dëv‡bvi mgq †PŠwKi wb‡P ivLv †¯‹wjU‡bi ¯‹vj †ei K‡i wgwj‡q †`Lvi mgq †`‡L †h, ¯‹v‡ji Kcv‡ji gvSLv‡b GKwU MZ©| ivnvZ GK_v ï‡b e‡j, Ôevu cv‡qi nvoUv `yÕBw †QvU wQj Ii|Õ GKUz c‡iB ivnvZ D‡ËwRZ n‡q e‡j ev cv‡qi wUweqv †deyjvUv `yÕBw †QvU|Õ Gfv‡eB Zcyi eÜziv Zcy‡K kbv³ K‡i| cÖk:œ (M) DÏxc‡Ki k¨vgj Pwi‡Îi m‡½ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi Zcy Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨ ˆemv`„k¨ wbY©q Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: mgvR m‡PZb K_v mvwnwZ¨K Rwni ivqnvb Zuvi ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕ evqvbœi fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi DËvj wPÎ Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| †mw`‡bi †mB Av‡›`vj‡b fvlvi `vwe‡Z cÖvY w`‡qwQj DÏxc‡Ki k¨vgj Ges M‡íi Zcy| 1952 mv‡j evsjvi gvbyl nviv‡Z e‡mwQj Zv‡`i cÖv‡Yi fvlv, gvZ…fvlv evsjv‡K| Gi Av‡M 1948 mv‡j †gvnv¤§` Avwj wRbœvn †NvlYv K‡ib, ÔD`y©B n‡e cvwK¯—v‡bi GKgvÎ ivóªfvlv|Õ Zvi GB †NvlYv G ‡`‡ki QvÎmgvR cÖZ¨vLvb K‡i| gvZ…fvlv i¶vi `vwe‡Z ZLb QvÎRbZv Av‡›`vjb ïi“ K‡i| XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi QvÎ k¨vgjI kvwgj nq †m Av‡›`vj‡b| M‡íi Zcyi g‡Zv †mI cov‡kvbv K‡i mgq KvUv‡Zv| wKš‘ gvZ…fvlv i¶vi `vwe‡Z mevB hLb †mv”Pvi, ZLb k¨vgj †gwW‡Kj K‡j‡Ri QvÎ Zcyi g‡Zv GKz‡ki wgwQ‡j Ask †bq| wgwQ‡j ¸wj el©Y ïi“ n‡j †mI Zcyi g‡Zv g„Zz¨i †Kv‡j X‡j c‡o| c„ôv-182


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

G `ywU Pwi‡Îi g‡a¨ gvZ…fvlv i¶vi `vwe‡Z Zv‡`i †h †PZbv Zv GKB iKg| Zviv GKBfv‡e wgwQ‡j AskMÖnY K‡i‡Q Ges fvlvi Rb¨ cÖvY w`‡q‡Q| `ywU Pwi‡Îi g‡a¨ mv`„k¨ _vK‡j wKQz ˆemv`„k¨I i‡q‡Q| Zcy †gwW‡Kj K‡j‡Ri QvÎ Avi k¨vgj XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi QvÎ| GKz‡ki wgwQ‡j Ask wb‡qwQj nvRviI QvÎRbZv| hv‡`i AvZ¥Z¨v‡Mi gva¨‡g Avgiv i¶v K‡iwQ Avgv‡`i gvZ…fvlv‡K| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki k¨vgj‡K Lyu‡R bv cvIqvi Av‡jv‡K ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi ivR‰bwZK ev¯—eZvi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: mgvRm‡PZb ev¯—eev`x K_vmvwnwZ¨K Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi †cÖ¶vcU 1952 Gi fvlv Av‡›`vjb| gvZ…fvlv evsjv‡K ivóªfvlv Kivi G Av‡›`vj‡b cÖvY w`‡qwQj k¨vgj I Zcyi g‡Zv Zi“‡Yiv| k¨vgj wQj XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi †gavex QvÎ| fv‡jv QvÎ nIqvq †Kvb Sv‡gjvq †m Rov‡Zv bv, Zv m‡Ë¡I gvZ…fvlv i¶vi `vwe‡Z 21 †deª“qvwii wgwQ‡j †hvM †`q †m| wKš‘ wgwQ‡j wgwjUvwiiv ¸wj Pvjv‡j †m knx` nq| ÔGKz‡ki M‡íiÕ ZcyI eÜz‡`i wb‡q ¯¿x †iYyi mKj Abybq webq‡K D‡c¶v K‡i wgwQ‡j AskMÖnY K‡i| KvR©b n‡ji KvQvKvwQ wgwQjwU GwM‡q †M‡j wgwjUvwiiv wgwQ‡ji Dci ¸wj el©Y K‡i| G ¸wj Zcyi Kcvj wQ`ª K‡i †ewi‡q hvq| g‡i hvq Zcy| wgwjUvwi Zvi jvk ¸g K‡i †d‡j| G Rb¨ Zcyi eÜziv Zcyi jvk wb‡q †h‡Z cv‡i wb| DÏxc‡Ki k¨vg‡jiI wd‡i bv Avmvi KviY H GKwUB| k¨vgj‡K Lyu‡R bv cvIqvi GUvB ivR‰bwZK ev¯—eZv| GKz‡ki wgwQ‡j wM‡q bvg Rvbv-ARvbv A‡b‡KB Avi wd‡i Av‡m wb| Zuv‡`i ¯§„wZi cÖwZ iBj Avgv‡`i webgª kª×v|

“ wb‡Pi mviwYwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸wji DËi `vI: (Avb›` Kzgvi wek¦vm) 52Õi fvlv Av‡›`vjb 23 †deª“qvwi 1948 evsjv Ab¨Zg ivóªfvlvi `vwe ax‡i›`ª bv_ `‡Ëi 24 gvP© 1948 †Rbv‡ij wRbœvni `vwe cÖZ¨vLvb 21 †deª“qvwi 1952 wLª: 144 aviv Rvwi 144 aviv †f‡O Ôivóªfvlv evsjv PvBÕ †¯−vMvb cvK wgwjUvwii ¸wjelY© iwdK, kwdK, mvjvg, eiKZ AviI A‡b‡K knx` nq jvk ¸g Kiv nq

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) Rwni ivqnv‡bi cÖK…Z bvg Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Rwni ivqnv‡bi cÖK…Z bvg ‡gvnv¤§` Rwni“j−vn| c„ôv-183


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖk:œ L) NUbv eY©bvi GK ch©v‡q ivnv‡Zi Mjv a‡i Gj †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ iPbvq Zcyi g„Zz¨i eQi Pv‡iK ci Zcyi wm‡U bZzb GKRb i“g‡gU I‡V| GKw`b †PŠwKi wb‡Pi e¨v‡M ivLv †¯‹wjU‡bi ¯‹vjUv †ei K‡i cvV¨eB‡qi m‡½ wgwj‡q covi mgq †m Avwe®‹vi K‡i ¯‹v‡ji Kcv‡ji gvSLv‡b GKwU MZ©| †m ivnvZ‡K Gi KviY wR‡Ám K‡i| ivnvZ Pg‡K wM‡q ¯‹vjUv nv‡Z †bq Ges Avwe®‹vi K‡i GUv Zcyi| KviY Zvi Kcv‡ji gvSLvbUvq ¸wj †j‡MwQj| ivnvZ AviI wbwðZ nq hLb †m †g‡c †`‡L euv cv‡qi wUweqv †deyjvUv `y Bw †QvU| GB Ae¯’vq †mwU nv‡Z wb‡q ÔZcyÕ ej‡ZB ivnv‡Zi Mjv a‡i Gj| cÖkœ: M) mviwYwU‡Z ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi †Kvb ˆewk‡ó¨i cwiPq †g‡j- Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: ev¯—eev`x K_vwkíx Rwni ivqnvb ÔGKz‡ki MíÕwU iPbv K‡i‡Qb GKwU we‡qvMvš—K NUbv‡K Aej¤^b K‡i| DÏxc‡KI we‡qvMvš—K NUbvi AeZviYv †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q| mgvR m‡PZb K_v mvwnwZ¨K Rwni ivqnvb Zuvi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ iPbvq KíbvwkªZ Pwi‡Îi gva¨‡g GKz‡ki Awbe©vY †PZbv‡K dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb| g~jZ G †PZbv‡K dzwU‡q †Zvjvi Rb¨B ÔGKz‡ki MíÕwU‡Z Avbylw½K wel‡qi AeZviYv K‡i‡Qb †jLK| gnvb fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi HwZnvwmK cUf~wg‡Z iwPZ n‡jI MíKvi bvg bv Rvbv knx`‡`i GKRb‡K iƒcvwqZ K‡i‡Qb wkím‡Z¨i wekvjZvq| gvZ…fvlvi gvb ivL‡Z GKz‡ki wgwQ‡j mncvVx‡`i m‡½ †hvM †`q Zcy| wKš‘ Zvi Avi †div nq wb| Aci w`‡K DÏxc‡K me©Rb cwiwPZ iwdK, kwdK, mvjvg, eiKZ, ReŸv‡ii cÖm½ D‡V G‡m‡Q| wKš‘ Zcyi gZ G‡`i A‡b‡KiB jvk ¸g K‡i †d‡j cvwK¯—vwb wgwjUvwiiv| †gvUK_v Ab¨v‡qi cÖwZev` DÏxcK I MíwU‡Z mgfv‡e `„k¨gvb| cÖkœ: N) mviwYwUi Av‡jv‡K ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi ivR‰bwZK ev¯—eZvi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: mgvR m‡PZb Rxebev`x K_vmvwnwZ¨K Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi †cÖ¶vcU evqvbœi fvlv Av‡›`vjb| gvZ…fvlv i¶vi G Av‡›`vj‡b cÖvY w`‡qwQj M‡íi Zcy Ges DÏxc‡Ki iwdK, kwdK, mvjvg, eiKZ Ges bvg bv Rvbv AviI A‡b‡K| M‡í ewY©Z †gwW‡Kj K‡j‡Ri Zcy gvZ…fvlv i¶vi `vwe‡Z ¯¿x †iYyi kZ evav Agvb¨ K‡i †hvM w`‡qwQj GKz‡ki wgwQ‡j| wKš‘ wgwQ‡ji Dci wgwjUvwii ¸wj Pj‡j Zcyi Kcvj †f` K‡i GKwU ¸wj †ei n‡q hvq| wPi Z‡i nvwi‡q hvq Zcy| DÏxc‡K Avgiv ev¯—em‡Z¨i cÖKvk †`wL| 144 aviv f½ K‡i QvÎRbZv wgwQj wb‡q GwM‡q P‡j| wgwjUvwi ¸wj Pvjvq wgwQ‡ji Dci| G‡Z knx` nq mvjvg, eiKZ, iwdK, kwdK, ReŸvi Ges bvg bv Rvbv AviI A‡b‡K| Mí Ges DÏxc‡Ki Pwiθ‡jvi wd‡i bv AvmvB ivR‰bwZK ev¯—eZv| GKz‡ki wgwQ‡j cÖvY w`‡qwQj Rvbv-ARvbv A‡bK gvbyl| Zuv‡`i ¯§„wZi cÖwZ Avgv‡`i mK‡ji kª×v Rvbv‡bv DwPZ|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (IwjDj AvRg) weaev gv‡qi GKgvÎ mš—vb Avmv`| gv‡qi ¯^cœ †Q‡j eo n‡q msmv‡ii nvj ai‡e| msmviUv Av‡jvq Av‡jvwKZ Ki‡e| GjvKvq Avmv‡`i fxlY mybvg| †gav, gvbeZv I †`k‡cÖgg~jK wewfbœ Kv‡R Avmv` Av‡jvwKZ gvbyl| XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡q Aa¨qbKv‡j Zvi mybvg AviI Qwo‡q c‡o| wKQzw`b ci ïi“ nq cvwK¯—vwb‡`i evsjv fvlvi cÖwZ lohš¿| Zviv Pvq D`y©B n‡e cvwK¯—v‡bi GKgvÎ ivóªfvlv| Avmv`I Avevj-e„×-ewYZvi mv‡_ Suvwc‡q c‡o cvwK¯—vwb‡`i wei“‡×| 1952 mv‡ji 21 †deª“qvwi gvZ…fvlv evsjv i¶v‡_© Avmv` knx` nb| cyÎ nviv‡bvi †kv‡K wbe©vK gv‡qi K‡É D”PvwiZ nq-ÔA, Av K, LÕ Avi cjKnxb †PvL †Rvov w`‡q AkÖ“i †dvqviv bv‡g|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) Ô†jU †`qvi we jvBUÕ Pjw”P‡Îi wbg©vZv †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ô†jU †`qvi we jvBUÕ Pjw”P‡Îi wbg©vZv Rwni ivqnvb| c„ôv-184


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (L) Ô†`vnvB †Zvgvi, evwo P‡jvÕ Dw³wUi gg©v_© †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Rwni ivqnvb Zuvi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ-G evqvbœi fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi m‡½ hvwcZ Rxe‡bi mRxe ms‡e`b‡K g~Z© K‡i‡Qb| 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi Pig D‡ËRbvKi gyn~‡Z© hLb cvwK¯—vwb wgwjUvwii gy‡LvgywL `uvwo†q evsjvi exi RbZv 144 aviv f½ Kivi Rb¨ GwM‡q hvw”Qj, ZLb Zcyi ¯¿x G Dw³wU K‡iwQj| evqvbœi GKz‡k †deª“qvwii †m gynZ ~ w© U wQj mwZ¨B fqvbK| ZvB †iYy Zvi ¯^vgx Zcy‡K wbivc‡` wdwi‡q †bIqvi Rb¨ G Dw³wU K‡iwQj| cÖk:œ (M) ÔcjKnxb †PvL †Rvov w`‡q AkÖ“i †dvqviv †b‡gwQj ZviÕ- DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: mgvR m‡PZb M`¨ mvwnwZ¨K Rwni ivqnv‡bi GKwU Abe`¨ iPbv ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ| G M‡í Zcyi Avb›`Nb mvwbœa¨ †iYyi Rxe‡b e‡q G‡bwQj cÖmbœ nvwm Avi mxgvnxb D”QjZv| wKš‘ Zcyi g„Z¨z Zvi Rxe‡bi hveZxq Avb›` †K‡o †bq| Zcyi g„Zz¨i Lei †c‡q Zcyi gv‡qi m‡½ QvÎvev‡m Qz‡U Av‡m †iYy| wKQz ejvi kw³I †m nvwi‡q †d‡j‡Q| †fZ‡ii mKj hš¿Yv, e¨_v I K_v AkÖ“ n‡q cÖevwnZ nw”Qj| Zcy wQj †iYyi GKgvÎ Aej¤^b| †mB ¯^vgx‡K nvwi‡q †kv‡K `yt†L cv_i n‡q wM‡qwQj †iYy| ZvB Zvi gy‡L †Kvb K_v wQj bv| †Kej Zvi †PvL w`‡q cvwb Mwo‡q cowQj| DÏxc‡KI Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB †h, Avmv` wQj Zvi weaev gv‡qi GKgvÎ mš—vb| gv‡qi eo ¯^cœ wQj †Q‡j eo n‡q msmv‡i nvj ai‡e| Afvex msmv‡ii `ytL NyP‡e| Mwi‡ei ¯^cœ mwZ¨ nIqvi †cQ‡b A‡bK evav Av‡m| Avi ZvB‡Zv Avmv‡`i XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K cvV †kl Kiv Avi nq bv| ivóªfvlv evsjvi `vex‡Z Avmv` cvK nvbv`vi evwnbxi Dci Suvwc‡q c‡o| cywj‡ki ¸wj‡Z Avmv` aivkvqx nq igbvi ivRc‡_| eÜz‡`i gva¨‡g jvk hLb MÖv‡gi evwo‡Z Zvi gv‡qi Kv‡Q Avbv n‡j gv‡qi cjKnxb †PvL‡Rvov w`‡q AkÖ“i †dvqviv †b‡g Av‡m| gv evKi“× n‡q c‡o| GKvš— wcÖq Aej¤^b hw` wPiw`‡bi Rb¨ nvwi‡q hvq Z‡e ¯^vfvweK fv‡eB gvbyl Amn¨ †e`bvq gyl‡o c‡o, Av‡jvP¨ Dw³‡Z †m Ki“Y †e`bv-wenŸj I gg©¯úkx© wPÎB dz‡U D‡V‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) Aby‡”Q‡`i mv‡_ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ †Z †h ¯^vZš¿¨ j¶ Kiv hvq Zvi ¯^iƒc cÖK…wZ we‡k−lY K‡iv| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Rxeb wkíx Rwni ivqnvb Gi Abe`¨ GK iPbv ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ| G M‡íi †cÖ¶vcU 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vjb| ivóªfvlv evsjvi R‡b¨ Ges ¯^vaxbZv cÖwZôvi R‡b¨ cÖvY w`‡qwQj Zcy Ges Avmv`| ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ- Gi Zcy gvZ…fvlvi R‡b¨ Rxeb †`q| Pvi eQi c‡i Zv‡K Avwe®‹vi K‡i Zvi `yB eÜz I i“g‡gU| Zcy‡K Avwe®‹vi K‡i Zviv †gv‡UI Avbw›`Z nq bv; eis fxZ n‡q c‡o| KviY G Zcy i³gvs‡mi Rxeš— Zcy bq, Zcyi K¼vj| G K¼vjwU †`‡L fxZ I mš¿¯— eÜziv e¨w_Z n‡q c‡o Zvi R‡b¨| Zv‡`i g‡b †h Zcyi emevm wQj Zv †hb A‡bKUvB ¤−vb n‡q c‡o K¼vj Zcyi AvMg‡b| DÏxc‡Ki m‡½ GLv‡bB ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ-Gi ¯^vZš¿¨ j¶ Kiv hvq| KviY Avmv`‡K Zvi gv Kíbv K‡ib| Zvui `„wó weå‡g aiv c‡o KwíZ Avmv‡`i kvixwiK Dcw¯’wZ| Avmvv‡`i gv cÖwZwU gyn~‡Z© Abyfe K‡ib, †`‡Lb Zuvi nviv‡bv cy·K| Zcyi Dcw¯’wZ Zvi eÜz‡`i ¯^w¯— ‡`q bv †hgb †Zgwb Avmv‡`i Rb¨ Zuvi gv‡K evievi Kz‡i Kz‡i Lvq| AvRI ZvB cÖwZeQi †deª“qvwi wd‡i G‡jB Avmv‡`i gv AkÖ“nxb n‡q c‡o| gb‡K mvš—¡bv †`b GB‡f‡e †h gvZ…fvlv evsjvi gv‡S Avmv` †eu‡P Av‡Q| Avi ZvB‡Zv DÏxc‡K †`Lv hvq Avmv‡`i gv‡qi evKi“× K‡É GK mgq †f‡m Av‡m A-Av, K-L| DÏxc‡Ki Avmv` Ges ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ-Gi Zcyi g‡Zv bvg Rvbv-bvRvbv A‡bK knx‡`i i‡³B AwR©Z n‡q‡Q Avgv‡`i ivóªfvlv evsjv|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI:

iv‡Kk wcZv-gvZvi GKgvÎ mš—vb| wek¦we`¨vj‡q cov‡kvbvi cvkvcvwk †Ljvayjv Avi eÜz‡`i mv‡_ Mí¸R‡e Zvi Rywo †gjvfvi| evev-gv‡K †QvULv‡Uv A‡bK Kv‡R mvnvh¨-mn‡hvwMZvI K‡i †m| nVvr K‡iB GKw`b evev-gv‡qi K_v Agvb¨ K‡i evwo †Q‡o P‡j †Mj| †Q‡ji A‡c¶vq gv AvRI c_ †P‡q Av‡Q| iv‡K‡ki eÜziv e‡j, Ôiv‡Kk bvwK wek¦we`¨vj‡qi GK †Mvjgv‡j wb‡LuvR n‡q‡Q|Õ c„ôv-185


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ iPbvq Zcyi ¯¿xi bvg Kx wQj? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔGKz‡ki MíÕwU‡Z Zcyi ¯¿xi bvg wQj †iYy| cÖkœ: (L) Ôevwo †h‡Z nq Avcwb hvb, I hv‡e bvÕ- ivnvZ †Kb G K_v e‡jwQj? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ iPbvq 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †cÖ¶vcU ¯’vb †c‡q‡Q| †h Av‡›`vj‡b AskMÖnY K‡iwQj XvKv gnvbMixi m‡PZb QvÎ RbZv| XvKv †gwW‡Kj K‡j‡Ri QvÎ wn‡m‡e H Av‡›`vj‡b Ask MÖnY K‡iwQj Zcy I Zvi eÜz ivnvZ| wgwQ‡j Ask †bIqvi mgq Zcyi ¯¿x †iYy Zcy‡K wgwQj †_‡K wb‡q hvIqvi K_v ej‡j ivnvZ cÖ_‡g †iYy‡KI wgwQ‡j AskMÖnY Ki‡Z e‡j| GiciI †iYy hLb Zcy‡K wb‡q †h‡Z Pvq ZLb ivnvZ ¶zä n‡q †iYy‡K G Dw³ K‡i| cÖkœ: (M) iv‡Kk Pwi‡Îi mv‡_ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ iPbvi Zcy Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨-ˆemv`„k¨ wbY©q Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: wewkó K_vmvwnwZ¨K ÔRwni ivqnvbÕ iwPZ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ-G 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi GKwU DËvj wPÎ Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| †mB Av‡›`vj‡b fvlvi `vwe‡Z cÖvY w`‡qwQj Zcyi g‡Zv A‡bK ZvRv cÖvY| †hgbwU iv‡Kk wek¦we`¨vj‡qi †Mvjgv‡j cÖvY nvwi‡q‡Q| 1952 mv‡j evsjvi gvbyl Zv‡`i gv‡qi fvlv i¶vi Rb¨ Av‡›`vj‡b †b‡gwQj| cvwK¯—vwb kvmK‡Mvôx Ab¨vq fv‡e Zv‡`i fvlv Pvwc‡q w`‡qwQj G †`‡ki gvby‡li Dci wKš‘ G‡`‡ki D”Q¡j Zi“Yiv Zv gvb‡Z wQj bvivR| ZvB Zviv wb‡Ri Rxe‡bi wewbg‡q gvZ…fvlv i¶v K‡i‡Q| M‡íi Zcy †hgb wQj cov‡kvbvq g‡bv‡hvMx, eÜz‡`i mv‡_ Mí ¸R‡e m`v Drmvnx DÏxc‡Ki iv‡KkI †Zgwb| Zcy †hgb †iYyi K_v Agvb¨ K‡i wgwQ‡j AskMÖnY K‡iwQj iv‡KkI evev gv‡qi K_v Agvb¨ K‡i †Mvjgv‡j hvq| Zcy I iv‡Kk Pwi‡Îi mv`„k¨ GLv‡bB| ˆemv`„k¨ n‡”Q Zcy‡K KL‡bv †Ljvayjvq AskMÖnY Kivi wPÎ Avgiv cvB bv wKš‘ iv‡Kk †Ljvayjvq AskMÖnY K‡i| iv‡Kk fvlv Av‡›`vj‡b AskMÖnY K‡i wb| †m wek¦we`¨vj‡qi †Mvjgv‡j Ask wb‡qwQj| fvlv Av‡›`vj‡b hviv AskMÖnY K‡iwQj Zuviv Avgv‡`i Me©| Zuv‡`i AvZ¥Z¨v‡MB Avgiv gvZ…fvlvq g‡bi fve cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvwi| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡K iv‡K‡ki wd‡i bv Avmvi mv‡_ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ Gi ivR‰bwZK †cÖ¶vcU e¨vL¨v Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Rwni ivqnvb iwPZ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ GK AmvaviY Mí| G M‡íi welqe¯‘ fvlv Av‡›`vjb| wek¦we`¨vj‡q co–qv iv‡Kk wcZvgvZvi GKgvÎ mš—vb| wek¦we`¨vj‡q QvÎ msN‡l© †m wb‡LuvR n‡q‡Q| QvÎ msNl© PjvKv‡j Zvi cÖwZc¶ nq‡Zv Zvi jvk ¸g K‡i‡Q| M‡íi eY©bvq cvIqv hvq Zcy †hgb wgwQ‡j AskMÖnY K‡i Ges Zvi jvkI wgwjUvwiiv ¸g K‡i| ZrKvjxb cvwK¯—vwb kvmK‡Mvôx evOvwj‡K `wg‡q ivL‡Z mKj ai‡bi cš’v Aej¤^b K‡iwQj| gvbyl nZ¨vi ci jvk ¸g K‡iwQj hv‡Z jvk †`‡L evOvwj| †h Kvi‡Y Zcyi jvk Zcyi eÜz Ges cwievi cvq wb| GLv‡b ivR‰bwZK dvq`v jy‡U wb‡Z †P‡qwQj cvwK¯—vwbiv| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ iv‡Kk wb‡LuvR n‡q‡Q| iv‡K‡ki eÜzivI Zuvi jvk cvq bv| nq‡Zv cÖwZc¶ Zv‡KI ¸g K‡i‡Q| QvÎ ivRbxwZi mv‡_ ivóªbxwZi m¤úK© _v‡K| †h Kvi‡Y we‡ivax c¶ hv‡Z Av‡iv †ewk D‡ËwRZ bv nq †mRb¨B nq‡Zv iv‡K‡ki jvk Acic¶ †Mvcb K‡i‡Q, GUvB ivR‰bwZK ev¯—eZv| DÏxc‡Ki NUbvi gZ Ggb A‡bK QvÎ-RbZv fvlv Av‡›`vj‡b knx` n‡q‡Q| huv‡`i Rb¨ Avgiv GLb evsjv fvlvfvlx Zuv‡`i mK‡ji cÖwZ Avgv‡`i kª×v cÖ`k©b Kiv DwPZ|

c„ôv-186


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

ˆbe©¨w³K cÖkœvewj GKz‡ki Mí − Rwni ivqnvb

gyn¤§` nvmvb gvngy` AvK›` 1|

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8| Rwni ivqnv‡bi Rb¥ †Kvb †Rjvq ?

K †gvnv¤§` Rwni ivqnvb

K XvKv

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M ‡dbx N ewikvj Rwni ivqnvb KZ Zvwi‡L wb‡LuvR nb?

9|

M †gvnv¤§` Rwniyj nK 2|

K 1971 mv‡ji 30 Rvby:

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L 1973 mv‡ji 30 Rvby: M 1972 mv‡ji 30 Rvby:

L ‡QvU Mí iPbv

M Dcb¨vm iPbvq N Kve¨ iPbvq 3| Rwni ivqnv‡bi L¨vwZi m~Pbv n‡qwQj Kx wn‡m‡e? K Pjw”PÎKvi wn‡m‡e L MíKvi Jcb¨vwmK wn‡m‡e M cÖvewÜK wn‡m‡e N Kwe wn‡m‡e 4| mgvR Rxe‡bi bvbv ˆelg¨ Ab¨vq-AwePv‡ii wei“‡× Rwni ivqnvb Kjg a‡iwQ‡jb-

N 1974 mv‡ji 30 Rvby: 10| Zcy‡K KZ eQi Av‡M †`Lv wM‡qwQj? K `yB eQi

L Pvi eQi

M wZb eQi N cuvP eQi 11| Zcyi eÜziv Zcy‡K Rxe‡b Avevi wd‡i cvevi K_v ¯^‡cœI Kíbv K‡iwb †Kb? K Zcy Awfgvb K‡i P‡j wM‡qwQj L Zcy G‡Kev‡i we‡`k P‡j wM‡qwQj

K bxwZ‡eva †_‡K

M Zcyi Avi wd‡i Avmvi K_v wQj bv

L cÖwZev`x †PZbv †_‡K M wkíxi `vwqZ¡‡eva †_‡K N msMÖvgx †PZbv †_‡K 5| wb‡Pi †KvbwU Rwni ivqnv‡bi Dcb¨vm?

6|

L gvwbKMÄ

N Zcy gviv wM‡qwQj 12| Zcy cybivq wd‡i Avmvq AÜKv‡i nVvr Ii w`‡K †PvL co‡j Zcyi eÜz‡`i nvZ cv f‡q wkD‡i I‡V †Kb?

K Rxeb †_‡K †bqv L Av‡iK dvêyb

K cÖK…Zc‡¶ Zcy wd‡i G‡mwQj K¼vj n‡q

M wbiš—i N ÷c †R‡bvmvBW evsjv‡`‡ki Pjw”PÎ A½‡b Rwni ivqnvb ¯§iYxq n‡q‡Qb †Kvb †Kvb Pjw”P‡Îi Rb¨? i. ÷c †R‡bvmvBW ii. ‡jU †`qvi we jvBU iii. Rxeb †_‡K †bqv ‡KvbwU mwVK?

L Zcyi †Pnviv weK…Z n‡q wM‡qwQj

K i Ges iii

L ii Ges iii

M i Ges ii N i, ii I iii 7| Rwni ivqnv‡bi Rb¥ KZ wLª÷v‡ã? K 1930 wLª÷v‡ã

L 1931 wLª÷v‡ã

M 1933 wLª÷v‡ã

N 1936 wLª÷v‡ã

M Zcyi AvPi‡Yi cvMjvgx wQj N Zcy fqsKi me K_v ejwQj 13| Zcy KZ eQi ivnvZ‡`i mv‡_ wQj? K GK eQi L wZb eQi M `yB eQi N Pvi eQi 14| Zcyi gv I eD‡K Zcyi cybiv½‡gi Lei †K w`‡Z wM‡qwQj? K Zcy wb‡R L ivnvZ M bvwRg N mvby 15| Zcy Kv‡K we‡q K‡iwQj? K i“wb‡K L gwb‡K M ‡eby‡K N ‡iby‡K c„ôv-187


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj) 16| Zcy †iYy‡K we‡q K‡iwQj?

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

25| ‡Kvb welqwU‡Z Zcyi eyw×gËvi cwiPq cvIqv hvq?

K K‡j‡R fwZ© nIqvi eQi Lv‡bK ci L K‡j‡R fwZ© nIqvi eQi Lv‡bK ci

K Wv³vwi cov †kl K‡i MÖv‡g hvIqvi B”Qv cÖKvk Kivq

M K‡j‡R fwZ© nIqvi eQi `y‡qK ci

L euv Ry‡Zvi wnjUv GKUz DPz K‡i ˆZix K‡i †bqvq

M wgwjUvwi‡Z hvIqvi B”Qv cÖKvk Kivq

N K‡j‡R fwZ© nIqvi eQi wZ‡bK ci 17| ‡Kvb Z_¨wU †iby m¤ú‡K© mwVK?

N Mí ejvq cUz nIqvq 26| Zcy I Zvi eÜziv KLb weQvbv †Q‡o DV‡Zv?

K †`vnviv Moj, wQcwQ‡c KwU

K †fv‡i

L Mv‡qi is wQj Av‡cj i‡½i M m¤ú‡K© †iby Zcyi AvZ¥xqv n‡Zv N Dc‡ii me Z_¨B mwVK 18| ‡h †jvKwU evb©vW `v n‡Z †P‡qwQj, †m Kxfv‡e gviv hvq? K AvZ¥nZ¨v K‡i

L Mvwoi Zjvq c‡o

M ‡Uª‡bi Zjvq c‡o N Uªv‡gi Zjvq c‡o 19| ‡h †g‡qwU kn‡ii †miv bvwP‡q wQj, †m AvRKvj ivRbxwZ Ki‡Q, †m †g‡qwUi bvg Kx? K †iby

L ‡eby

M i“bx N ebx 20| Zcy †Kv_vq cov‡jLv Ki‡Zv? K wek¦we`¨vj‡q

L ‡gwW‡Kj K‡j‡R

M K‡j‡R N ¯‹z‡j 21| Zcy Kx ai‡bi hvc‡b ¯^cœ †`L‡Zv? K RuvKRgKc~Y© Rxeb L AwfRvZ Rxeb M mvaviY Rxeb N e‡bw` Rxeb 22| Wv³vwi cvm K‡i Zcy †Kv_vq hvevi/Rxeb hvcb Kivi ¯^cœ †`L‡Zv? K MÖv‡g M kn‡i 23| Zcyi mL Kx wQj? K Wv³vi nIqvi

L we‡`‡k N Dc‡ii †KvbwU bq L wk¶K nIqv

M we‡`k hvevi N wgwjUvwi‡Z hvevi 24| Zcy wgwjUvwi‡Z †h‡Z cv‡iwb †Kb? i. †m wQj Rb¥‡Luvov ii. Zvi Wvb cv euv cv †_‡K `yB Bw eo wQj iii. Zvi Wvb cv euv cv †_‡K `yB Bw ‡QvU wQj ‡KvbwU mwVK? Ki M i Ges ii

L ii N i Ges iii

L dR‡ii bvgv‡Ri mgq

M KvK WvKv †fv‡i N mKvj 9 Uvq 27| Zcy I Zvi eÜziv KqUv bvMv` K¬v‡m †h‡Zv? K 8 Uv

L 10 Uv

M 9 Uv N 11 Uv 28| we‡KjUv Zcy‡`i †Kgb/Kxfv‡e KvU‡Zv? K e¨¯—Zvq

L Avj‡mgx‡Z

M welbœZvq N Av‡gv` dzwZ©‡Z 29| ‡jLK, Zcy I ivnvZ †Kvb †Kvb we‡K‡j †eov‡Z †h‡Zvi. B¯‹vU‡b ii. eywoM½vi Icv‡i iii. avbgwÛ‡Z ‡KvbwU mwVK? K i Ges iii

L ii Ges iii

M i Ges ii N i, ii Ges iii 30| Zcy I Zvi eÜziv AvwRgcy‡ii cvk w`‡q nuvU‡Z nuvU‡Z `~i Muv‡qi †fZi nvwi‡q †h‡Zv, †hw`bK ‡iby m‡½ _vK‡Zv bv L ‡iby m‡½ _vK‡Zv M mevi gb Lvivc _vK‡Zv N mevi gb fvj _vK‡Zv 31| Zcy I Zvi eÜz‡`i ¯^vfvweK Rxe‡b AK¯§vr †Q` co‡jv †Kb? K †ibyi we‡q nIqvq L Zcyi g„Zz¨‡Z M ivnvZ †gm †Q‡o †`Iqvq N K‡jR QzwU nIqvq 32| A¸wYZ †jv‡Ki fxo R‡gwQj †mw`b-‡Kvb w`‡bi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q? K 14 AvM÷, 1947 L 21 †deª“qvwi, 1952 M 7 gvP©, 1971 N 26 gvP©, 1971

c„ôv-188


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

40| Ôivóªfvlv evsjv PvBÕ †jLv g¯— c−vKvW©wU Kvi n‡Z wQj?

33| †mw`b †Kv_vq A¸wbZ †jv‡Ki fxo R‡gwQj? i. †nv‡÷‡ji evB‡i ii. ‡gwW‡Kj K‡j‡R iii. meyR Qov‡bv gvVwU‡Z ‡KvbwU mwVK?

K †jL‡K

K Kcv‡ji Wvb cv‡k L Kcv‡ji wVK gv‡S Lv‡b M ey‡Ki evg cv‡k N ey‡Ki wVK Wvb cv‡k 42| Ô`yRb wgwjUvwi Qz‡U G‡m Zcyi g„Z‡`nUv Zz‡j wb‡q †Mj Avgv‡`i mvg‡b †_‡KÕ| Dw³wU Kx‡mi Bw½Z †`q? K wgwjUvwi‡`i KvRB nj jvk wb‡q hvIqv L wgwjUvwiiv ¸‡b †`L‡Z †P‡qwQj KZRb †jvK gviv †M‡Q

L ii Ges iii

M i Ges ii N i, ii Ges iii 35| Ômgy`ª Mfxi RbZv ax‡i ax‡i Pj‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡QÕ| †Kvb cÖm‡½ K_vwU ejv n‡q‡Q? K Zcy‡K †`L‡Z Avmv RbZv cÖm‡½

M cÖK…Z g„‡Zi msL¨v †Mvcb Ki‡Z N wgwjUvwiiv jvk †`wL‡q Ab¨‡`i fq †`Lv‡Z †P‡qwQj 43| ‡jLK weg~‡pi g‡Zv `uvwo‡q wQ‡jb †Kb? †`nUv †hb ei‡di g‡Zv R‡g wM‡qwQj †Kb?

L Zcy‡`i ˆeKvwjK ågY cªm‡½ M we¶zã RbZvi wgwQj cÖm‡½ N QvÎ-QvÎx‡`i K¬v‡m hvIqv cÖm‡½ 36| ‡iby nuvcv‡Z nuvcv‡Z Qz‡U G‡mwQj †Kb? K Zcy‡K wgwQ‡j hvIqv †_‡K weiZ ivL‡Z L Zcy‡K gv‡qi g„Zz¨i Lei Rvbv‡Z M A‡bKw`b ci Zcy‡K †`L‡Z G‡m‡Q, ZvB N Zcy‡K gv‡qi Kvbœvi Lei Rvbv‡Z 37| ‡iby ivnv‡Z w`‡K µz× `„wó‡Z ZvwK‡qwQj †Kb? K ivnvZ Zcy‡K wgwQ‡j wb‡q wM‡qwQj L ivnvZ †iby‡K evav w`w”Qj M ivnvZ Zcy‡K wgwQ‡j ‡h‡Z w`w”Qj N ivnvZ †ibyi cÖwZ Ak−xj AvPiY K‡iwQj 38| ‡k−vMvb w`w”Qj †K? K ivnvZ L ‡jLK M Zcy N Ab¨ †KD 39| †iby Zcy‡K wgwQ‡j hvIqv †_‡K weiZ ivL‡Z cv‡iwb †Kb? K Zcy wQj QvÎ †bZv, †m wgwQ‡j bv †M‡jB Pj‡e bv L wgwQj-wgwUs‡q Zcy Af¨¯— n‡q c‡owQj M Zcyi Kv‡Q gvZ…fvlv I gvZ…f~wg mevi Av‡M

L Zcyi

M ivnv‡Zi N ‡ibyi 41| Zcyi kix‡ii †Kv_vq ¸wj †j‡MwQj?

Ki L ii M i Ges ii N ii Ges iii 34| ‡fvi n‡Z †h µz× †Q‡jey‡oviv G‡m Rgv‡qZ n‡qwQj Zv‡`i nv‡Z Kx wQj? i. c−¨vKvW© ii. ‡¯−vMvb †`evi Pz‡½v iii. jvwV‡Z †Svjv‡bv i³v³ Rvgv ‡KvbwU mwVK? K i Ges iii

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

K cywj‡ki AvKw¯§K ¸wj Pvjv‡bvq fq †c‡q L m½xiv cvwj‡q hvIqvq fq †c‡q M ¸wjwe× nIqvq N ivnv‡Zi Mv‡q ¸wj jvMvq 44| ÔZcy bv g‡i Avwg gi‡jB fv‡jv n‡Zv? K_vwU †K e‡jwQj? K ivnvZ

L bvwRg

M ‡jLK N mvby 45| Zcyi Kx Kx gvjcÎ wQj? K myU‡Km, Avjbv, eB‡qi Uªv¼ L myU‡Km, eB‡qi Uªv¼, †ewWs M †ewWs, Uªv¼, covi †Uwej N †ewWs, Avjbv, covi †Uwej 46| Zcyi Mig †KvUUv †Kv_vq wQj? K †jL‡Ki my¨U‡K‡m L ivnv‡Zi my¨U‡K‡m M bvwR‡gi my¨U‡K‡m N ZcyiB my¨U‡K‡m 47| Zcyi wm‡U †h †Q‡jwU GmwQj, †m KZw`b wQj?

N Zcyi Kv‡Q †ibyi †Kvb f~wgKv wQj bv c„ôv-189

K 2 eQi

L 4 eQi

M 3 eQi

N 5 eQi


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj) 48| ivnvZ‡`i bZzb i“g‡gU †jvKwU †Kgb ¯^fv‡ei? K nvwmLywk

L ‡Mvgiv

M e`‡gRvRx N ‡R`x 49| Zcy‡K cÖ_g †K wPb‡Z †c‡iwQj? K †jLK

L bvwRg

M mvby N ivnvZ 50| RR© evbv©W© `v KZ mv‡j †bv‡ej cyi®‹vi cvb? K 1856

L 1950

M 1925 N 1952 51| Ôg¨vb GÛ mycvi g¨vbÕ bvwUKvwUi bvU¨Kvi †K? K ‡k·cxqi

L RR© evb©vW© `v

M GwjqU N wgëb 52| Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ KZ wLª÷v‡ã iwPZ nq? K 1952 mv‡j

L 1981 mv‡j

M 1953 mv‡j N 1982 mv‡j 53| ÔGKz‡k M‡íÕi †cÖ¶vcU Kx? K 1947 mv‡ji †`kfvM L 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vjb M 1969 Gi MY Av‡›`vjb

55| ÔAvgiv GZUzKzI bojvg bv, evav w`‡Z cvijvg bv|Õ-G K_vi ga¨ w`‡q GKvk †c‡q‡QK weg~pZv

L ev¯—e mZ¨

M KwíZ mZ¨

N A‡jŠwKK mZ¨

L AvKw¯§KZv

M AcviMZv N ¸i“Z¡nxb 56| ÔcjKnxb †PvL †Rvov w`‡q AkÖ“i †dvqviv †b‡gwQj Zvi|Õ G K_vUvi g‡a¨ Aš—kxb i‡q‡Qi. ¯^cœf‡½i cÖPÛ AvZ©bv` ii. we¶zä ü`‡qi AvZ©bv` iii. e¨_©Zvi mKi“Y nvnvKvi ‡KvbwU mwVK? Ki L ii M iii N i Ges iii Aby‡”Q`UzKz co Ges 57 I 58 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI: Szwo †_‡K nvo¸‡jv Zz‡j wbj ivnvZ| nvZ †Rvov VK&VK& K‡i KuvcwQj Ii| GKUz c‡i D‡ËwRZ Mjvq wPrKvi K‡i ej‡jv, euv cv‡qi wUweqv †deyjv `yÕBw †QvU| 57| ÔwPweqv †deyjvÕ Kx? K A½ e¨e‡”Q`

L R½vw¯’

M c„_K `y‡Uv bvf© N R½vw¯’ I AbyR½vw¯’ 58| ÔnvZ‡Rvov VK&VK& K‡i KvucwQj Zvi|Õ †Kb? K cÖej D‡ËRbvq

N 1971 mv‡ji ¯^vaxbZv hy× 54| ‡jLK mvwn‡Z¨ GK ai‡bi mZ¨‡K Zz‡j a‡ib Zv‡K e‡j? K wkí mZ¨

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

L eÜz‡K wd‡i cvIqvi Avkvq M Zvr¶wYK Av‡e‡M N ivM I †¶v‡f

c„ôv-190


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_ “ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (bvwejv Rvgvb) cÖwZeQi G †`‡k m„ó cÖvK…wZK `y‡hv©M Z_v N~wY©So, R‡jv”Q¡vm cÖf„wZ‡Z ¶wZMÖ¯— GjvKvi Rb¨ miKvix I †emiKvixfv‡e cÖPzi ÎvYmvgMÖx eivÏ Kiv nq| Avd‡mv‡mi welq GB, hv‡`i Rb¨ GB eivÏ †mB Mixe, `yt¯’‡`i †ewki fvMB Gi †_‡K ewÂZ nq| eivÏK…Z Îv‡Yi wmsnfvMB P‡j hvq mgv‡Ri cÖfvekvjx‡`i `L‡j|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) †`‡k AvB‡bi kvmb cÖwZôv n‡j Kx n«vm cv‡e? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †`‡k AvB‡bi kvmb cÖwZôv n‡j `yb©xwZ n«vm cv‡e| cÖkœ: (L) ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZv ej‡Z Kx †evS?- e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ¯^”QZv ev Transparency n‡”Q wbfy©jZv, m‡›`nvZxZfv‡e mwVKZv I mnR‡eva¨Zv| Av‡jvK‡f`x ¯^”Q KvM‡Ri g‡Zv iv‡óªi mKj Kg©KvÊ `„wó MÖvn¨, †evaMg¨ nIqv‡K ¯^”QZv †evSvq| Revew`wnZv ej‡Z †evSvq `vqe×Zvi cÖwZkÖ“wZ I `vq-`vwq‡Z¡i ¯^xKv‡ivw³| AvaywbK MYZvwš¿K mgvRe¨e¯’vq Revew`wnZv _vKv Acwinvh©| KviY Revew`wnZv _vK‡j `ybx©wZ n«vm cvq| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki NUbvi mv‡_ cvV¨fy³ `ybx©wZ welqK cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ `ybx©wZi mv`„k¨ D‡j−L Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: we‡k¦i me †`‡kB Kg †ewk `yb©xwZ Av‡Q| `yb©xwZ‡K mgvR †_‡K cy‡ivcywi wbg~©j Kiv bv †M‡jI Aš—Z mnbxq ch©v‡q ivLv hvq| wKš‘ Avgv‡`i †`‡ki g‡Zv Dbœqbkxj †`‡ki †¶‡Î `ybx©wZi we¯—vi w`‡b w`‡b AcÖwZ‡iva¨ n‡q D‡V‡Q| cÖvK…wZK `y‡hv©M Avgv‡`i †`‡k Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ Ab¨Zg Aš—ivq| G `y‡h©v‡Mi Ae¨ewnZ c‡i Avµvš— gvbyl‡`i mvnvh¨ Z_v mvwe©K Îv‡Yi cÖ‡qvRb nq| Z‡e `yt‡Li welq GB, G †¶‡ÎI `ybx©wZ‡Z G †`k wcwQ‡q †bB| †`‡ki mvwe©K ¶gZv †h e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi nv‡Z Zv‡`i‡K hw` AwaK cwigvY m‡PZb Kiv hvq Z‡e G ai‡bi `yb©xwZ †iv‡a K‡qK avc GwM‡q hvIqv hv‡e| Amvay Dcvq Aej¤^b K‡i ¶wZMÖ¯— gvbyl‡K ewÂZ Kivq †Kvb K…wZZ¡ †bB| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ mgv‡Ri weËevb, ¶gZvkxj, ivR‰bwZK cÖfvehy³ gvbyl‡`i `yb©xwZ m¤ú‡K© cvV¨fy³ cÖe‡ÜI D‡j−L Av‡Q| mvgvwRK I A_©‰bwZK †¶‡Î cÖkvm‡bi cÖvq me©¯‡— i `ybx©wZevR †jvK‡`i Ly‡u R cvIqv hvq| ¯^vaxb `yb©xwZ `gb Z_v K‡Vvi kvw¯— weavb K‡i Gme cÖkvmwbK I ivR‰bwZK myweav‡fvMx `ybx©wZevR‡`i cÖwZnZ Kiv m¤¢e| Z‡eB wbt¯^, `yt¯’ gvby‡liv Zv‡`i AwaKvi wd‡i cv‡e| cÖkœ: (N) ÔmiKv‡ii `vwqZ¡kxjZvi cvkvcvwk mvgvwRK m‡PZbZv `ybx©wZ‡iv‡a AMÖYxf~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i|Õ DÏxcK I Ô`ybx©wZ Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: miKv‡ii `vwqZ¡kxjZvi cvkvcvwk mvgvwRK m‡PZbZv `ybx©wZ †iv‡a Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i e‡j cvV¨-fy³ cÖe‡Ü D‡j−L Av‡Q| DÏxc‡K ewY©Z `ybx©wZ Z_v Awbq‡gi Z_¨ AbymÜvb Kiv Ges Zv Rbmg‡¶ cÖKvk Kivi †¶‡Î bvMwiK msMVb¸‡jv‡K `vwqZ¡evb nIqv PvB| MYgva¨gI m‡Pó f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| `ybx©wZi Rb¨ kvw¯—i AcÖZj z Zv Z_v ivZvivwZ weËkvjx nIqvi cÖeYZv cwiZ¨vM Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b K‡Vvi kvw¯—i weavb Ki‡Z n‡e| c„ôv-191


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

RbM‡Yi AwaKvi I iv‡óªi ïfvïf wb‡q fvweZ ïf eyw×m¤úbœ mykxj mgvR miKv‡ii Kg©Kv‡Êi †hŠw³K mgv‡jvPbv K‡i wKsev Drmvn cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| Zviv RvwZi we‡eK wn‡m‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡ib| m‡e©vcwi mK‡ji mgwš^Z cÖqvmB cv‡i `ybx©wZ bvgK mvgvwRK e¨vwa †_‡K †`k‡K gy³ Ki‡Z|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (bvwejv Rvgvb)

`ªe¨g~‡j¨i EaŸ©MwZ mvaviY RbMY Z_v miKvix, †emiKvix-mKj ¯—‡ii gvby‡li ¯^vfvweK Rxebhvcb e¨vnZ K‡i| Av‡qi mv‡_ e¨‡qi AmvgÄm¨ZvB G †¶‡Î g~j KviY n‡q `vuovq| G welqwU‡K A‡b‡KB `ybx©wZi Rb¨ `vqx KviY¸‡jvi g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg e‡j we‡ePbv K‡ib| Z‡e GUvI mwZ¨ †h, GLbI mgv‡Ri A‡b‡KB G cwiw¯’wZ‡ZI mrfv‡e Rxeb AwZevwnZ Ki‡Z m‡Pó|

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖkœ: (K) †`‡ki Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ Acwinvh© Dcv`vb Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: †`‡ki Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ Acwinvh© Dcv`vb n‡”Q MYZš¿ I mykvmb| cÖkœ: (L) wmwÛ‡KU ej‡Z Kx †evSvq? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: wmwÛ‡KU-Gi AvwfavwbK A_© n‡”Q mvgwqK c‡Î cÖeÜ-wbeÜ, e¨½wPÎ BZ¨vw` mieivnKvix evwYwR¨K mwgwZ ev msev` mwgwZ| wKš‘ eZ©gv‡b †Kvb †Kvb †¶‡Î kãwU †bwZevPK A‡_© e¨eüZ nq| GLb wmwÛ‡K‡Ui Av‡iK A_© n‡jv †mB Aïf e¨emvwqK †Mvôx hviv mg‡eZ fv‡e †Kvb c‡Y¨i `vg evwo‡q K…wÎg msKU m„wó K‡i| cÖkœ: (M) Ô`ybx©wZ msNU‡bi Ab¨Zg Av_©-mvgvwRK KviY n‡”Q Avq-e¨‡qi AmvgÄm¨Zv|Õ- cvV¨fy³ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K DÏxc‡Ki welqwU e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: `ybx©wZ msNU‡b †ek wKQz KviY cÖfveK wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| e¨w³MZ Kvi‡Yi cvkvcvwk c×wZMZ wKQz KviYI `ybx©wZi we¯—vi NUv‡Z ¸i“Z¡cY~ © f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| Ô`ybx©wZÕ msNU‡b Av_©-mvgvwRK KviY¸‡jvi g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg n‡”Q Avq-e¨‡qi AmvgÄm¨Zv| G †`‡ki AwaKvsk miKvwi, †emiKvwi cÖwZôvbmg~‡n Kvh©iZ bvbv †kªYx †ckvi gvby‡li Av‡qi mv‡_ e¨‡qi h‡_ó Kvi‡Y mvaviY RbMY Z_v ¯^í Av‡qi gvbyl‡`i c‡¶ Zv‡`i ¯^vfvweK Av‡q RxebhvÎvi e¨q wbe©vn Kiv KwVb n‡q c‡o‡Q| cwievi cwiRb‡`i hveZxq Pvwn`v †gUv‡bvI gykwK‡ji e¨vcvi n‡q `uvwo‡q‡Q| G welqwU AZ¨š— my¯úófv‡e D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q Av‡jvP¨ DÏxc‡K| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki g~j e³e¨ Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: evsjv‡`k GKwU `ybx©wZMÖ¯— †`k|Ô `ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü Dbœqbkxj †`k wn‡m‡e evsjv‡`‡ki `ybx©wZi wewfbœ KviY ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| Zvi g‡a¨ Av_©-mvgvwRK KviY Ab¨Zg| DÏxc‡Ki g~j e³e¨ Z_v `ªe¨g~‡j¨i EaŸ©MwZ GB Av_©-mvgvwRK KviY¸‡jvi g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg| †Kvb iv‡óªi cÖ‡Z¨K bvMwi‡Ki †eu‡P _vKvi Rb¨ RxweKv, ag©, ms¯‹…wZ, wk¶v, wPwKrmv, wbe©vP‡b Ask †bIqv, wbe©vwPZ nIqv, m¤úwË †fvM, PvKwi cvIqv cÖfw„ Zi AwaKvi i‡q‡Q| wKš‘ `ybx©wZ Gme AwaKvi‡K e¨vnZ K‡i| †jv‡fi ekeZx© n‡q ¯^v_©vÜ ¶gZvevb e¨w³ b¨vq-Ab¨vq we‡ePbv bv K‡i Zvi ¶gZv e¨envi K‡i| d‡j cÖwZ †¶‡ÎB mr I bxwZevb K‡i| d‡j cÖwZ †¶‡ÎB mr I bxwZevb gvbyl Pig fv‡e ¶wZMÖ¯— nq| †`‡ki Ab¨vb¨ Lv‡Zi g‡Zv wbZ¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq `ª‡e¨i †¶‡ÎI Ggb `ybx©wZ we`¨gvb ¸wUKZK Amvay e¨emvqx Zv‡`i nxb ¯^v_© PwiZv_© Ki‡Z wM‡q `ª‡e¨i g~j¨ nVvr evwo‡q w`‡q evRv‡i K„wÎg msKU m„wó K‡i| G welqwU wmwÛ‡K‡Ui AvIZvfy³| ZvQvov GKw`‡K ¶gZvevb †kªYxi gvbyl AZ¨š— Aí mg‡q `ybx©wZi Kvi‡Y m¤ú‡`i cvnvo M‡o| d‡j Ab¨vqfv‡e g~j¨ e„w× †c‡jI †h †Kvb cÖKvi `ªe¨ µq Kiv Zv‡`i Kv‡Q mnRmva¨| `wi`ª †kªYxi gvby‡li Avq bv evovi Kvi‡Y Zv‡`i Kv‡Q cÖ‡qvRbxq `ªe¨vw` AaivB †_‡K hvq| Gfv‡e abx-`wi‡`ªi ˆelg¨ †e‡oB P‡j| ZvB h_v_©B ejv hvq, DÏxcKwU cvV¨fy³ `ybx©wZ welqK cÖe‡Üi mv‡_ h_v_©B m¤úK©hy³|

c„ôv-192


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (bvwejv Rvgvb)

mygb MÖv‡gi GK `wi`ª K…lK cwiev‡ii †Q‡j| †m †gav I gbb w`‡q miKvix wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K K…wZ‡Z¡i mv‡_ Abvm©mn gv÷vm© ce© m¤úbœ K‡i| Zvici cÖ_g †kªYxi miKvix PvKz‡i nevi ¯^‡cœ G‡Ki ci GK wjwLZ I †gŠwLK cix¶vq Ask wb‡q fv‡jv djvdjI K‡i‡Q| wKš‘ wewa evg PvKwi Zvi †Rv‡U wb| A_P ZviB mncvVx gvgyb Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e Lvivc †iRvë Kiv m‡Ë¡I Zvi evev mgv‡Ri cÖfvekvjx e¨w³ nevi Kvi‡Y cÖ_g Pv‡ÝB †m PvKwi †c‡q hvq|

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖkœ: (K) ¯^”QZv k‡ãi AvwfavwbK A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ¯^”QZv k‡ãi AvwfavwbK A_© n‡jv wbf©yjZv, m‡›`nvZxZfv‡e mwVKZv I mnR‡eva¨Zv| cÖkœ: (L) eZ©gvb mg‡q `ybx©wZi mv‡_ RwoZ e¨w³‡`i mvgvwRK Ae¯’vb †Kv_vq?- e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: eZ©gvb mg‡q `ybx©wZi mv‡_ RwoZ e¨w³‡`i mvgvwRK Ae¯’vb †ek `„p| †ek K‡qK eQi hveZ evsjv‡`k `ybx©wZi Kvi‡Y we‡k¦ e¨vcKfv‡e mgv‡jvwPZ n‡q Avm‡Q| †KD †KD aviYv K‡ib, `ybx©wZevR †jvK mgv‡R cÖvqk wbw›`Z †Zv nbB bv eis m¤§vb cvb Ges Zv‡`i K…Z `ybx©wZ avgvPvcv c‡o _v‡K| Gi Rb¨ `vqx AcÖZzj kvw¯—| `ybx©wZi GZ e¨vcK we¯—v‡ii Kvi‡Y `ybx©wZ †h GKwU eo mvgvwRK Ab¨vq ZvB-B gvbyl GLb Lye KgB ¯^xKvi Ki‡Z Pvq| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki myg‡bi Rxe‡bi mv‡_ Ô`ybx©wZÕ Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi †Kvb wel‡qi mv‡_ wgj i‡q‡Q- e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki myg‡bi Rxe‡bi mv‡_ Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ abx`wi‡`ªi ˆel‡g¨i welqwUi wgj cvIqv hvq| `ybx©wZ mvgvwRK ˆelg¨ m„wó K‡i| mykvmb cÖwZôvi †¶‡Î Ab¨Zg evav n‡”Q `ybx©wZ| `ybx©wZi A_©B n‡”Q ¶wZ ev aŸsm mvab| RvwZmsN cÖYxZ g¨vby‡qj Ab G¨vw›UKivckb cwjwm (Manual on AntiCorruption policy) Abyhvqx e¨w³MZ ¯^v‡_©v×v‡ii Rb¨ ¶gZvi Ace¨envi KivB n‡”Q `ybx©wZ| Gi d‡j eû miKvwi, †emiKvwi Kg©KZ©v, Kg©Pvix Zv‡`i Ges Zv‡`i ¯^Rb‡`i A‰bwZKfv‡e †hvM¨Zv bv _vKv m‡Ë¡I mgv‡Ri EaŸ©Zb Ae¯’v‡b Avmxb K‡ib| d‡j DÏxc‡Ki myg‡bi g‡Zv A‡bK †gavex gvbyl Zvi †hvM¨ ¯’vbwU KLbB cvq bv| hvi Kvi‡Y Zviv Rxeb †_‡K A‡bK `~‡i m‡i hvq| g~jZ GLv‡b Nyl I cÖkvmwbK cÖfv‡ei gva¨‡g m„ó `ybx©wZ Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki g~j e³e¨ Ô`ybx©wZÕ Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: UvKv Ges cÖkvmwbK ¶gZvi Ace¨envi gvbyl‡K AwZ Aí mg‡qB mgv‡R GKwU `„p Ae¯’vb K‡i †`q| ivóª cwiPvjbvq me©Î AvB‡bi kvmb, ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZv wbwðZ bq e‡jB G Ae¯’vi m„wó nq| MYZš¿ I mykvmb cÖwZwôZ n‡j e¨w³ ¯^v‡_© bvbv cÖKvi c¶cvZg~jK AvPiY jvNe n‡e| RbcÖkvmb‡K ¯^”Q I Revew`wnZvg~jK `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z n‡e hv DÏxc‡Ki myg‡bi Rxe‡b N‡U wb| mgv‡Ri mKj gvbyl hw` Zvi †hvM¨Zv Abyhvqx Ae¯’vb †cZ Zvn‡j AvR Avi GZ gvivgvwi, nvbvnvwb PjZ bv| g~jZ cÖkvmwbK `ye©jZvi Kvi‡YB myg‡bi PvKwi nq wb| DÏxc‡Ki myg‡bi †gav _vK‡jI AwaK cwigvY UvKv †bB| c¶vš—‡i, gvgy‡bi evevi UvKv I ¶gZv DfqB Av‡Q| mgv‡Ri cÖfvekvjx e¨w³ nIqvq gvgy‡bi evev Zvi ¶gZvi Ace¨envi K‡i gvgy‡bi PvKwii e¨e¯’v K‡i †`q| G‡Z mvwe©K fv‡e †`‡kiB ¶wZ nq| mygb mgv‡Ri Rb¨ Zvi †gav‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q hv Ki‡Z cviZ gvgy‡bi c‡¶ KLbB Zv m¤¢e bq| eis †mI Zvi evevi gZ wbR ¶gZvi Ace¨envi Ki‡e GUvB ¯^vfvweK| hw`I †`‡k `ybx©wZ †iv‡a `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgkb (`y`K) ˆZwi n‡q‡Q Zey G cÖwZôvb mwZ¨B KZUv `ybx©wZgy³ Zv-I †f‡e †`Lvi welq| †`‡ki cÖwZwU gvbyl hw` ag©, eY©, RvwZ wbwe©‡k‡l cÖK…Z †gŠwjK AwaKviUzKz †cZ Zvn‡j myg‡bi Rxe‡b GB `kv n‡Zv bv| c„ôv-193


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (bvwejv Rvgvb)

Rqbyj mv‡ne‡K †`L‡j †K ej‡e †h, gvÎ mvZ eQi Av‡MI wZwb cÖvq wbt¯^ wQ‡jb| mgvRcwZ‡`i Ab¨Zg GB fu~B‡dvuo e¨w³wU GLb `vwg Mvwo nvuKvb, wekvj Wy‡c−Kª evwo‡Z _v‡Kb| GK †Q‡j, GK †g‡qi `yRb‡KB G †j‡fj m¤úbœ Kwi‡q †`‡ki evwn‡i cvwV‡q w`‡q‡Qb| Zvi g‡Z, G †`‡ki cwi‡ek †bvsiv, Zvi mš—vb‡`i evm‡hvM¨ bq|

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖkœ: (K) `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iva AvBb KZ mv‡j cÖYxZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: 1947 mv‡j `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iva AvBb cÖYxZ nq| cÖkœ: (L) Ôkvw¯—i AcÖZj y Zv `ybx©wZ‡K DrmvwnZ K‡i|Õ - †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: `ybx©wZ welqK msKwjZ cÖe‡Ü evsjv‡`‡k `ybx©wZ cÖmv‡ii KviY Av‡jvPbv Ki‡Z wM‡q kvw¯—i AcÖZzjZvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| mgv‡Ri †h †Kvb AcivaB kvw¯—‡hvM¨| Zvi g‡a¨ `ybx©wZ Ab¨Zg Aciva| evsjv‡`‡ki `ybx©wZwe‡ivax wewfbœ AvB‡b `ybx©wZ kvw¯—‡hvM¨ e‡j we‡ewPZ n‡q‡Q| wKš‘ Gme AvBb †Kej eB‡qi mxgve× _vKvq G‡`‡k `ybx©wZi cÖmvi †iva Kiv m¤¢e n‡PQ bv| evsjv‡`‡k `ybx©wZi cÖmv‡ii Kvi‡Y AvBb cÖ‡qvMKvix ms¯’v ev wePvi e¨e¯’v wKQz‡ZB Kvh©Ki n‡Z cvi‡Q bv| `ybx©wZ K‡i kvw¯— bv cvIqv ev kvw¯—i Rb¨ we‡ewPZ n‡j Avevi `ybx©wZ K‡iB Zv †_‡K wb‡R‡K euvwP‡q wb‡q Avmv-BZ¨vw` GLb NU‡Q| d‡j Acivaxiv DrmvwnZ n‡”Q Av‡iv `ybx©wZ Kivi †¶‡Î| Gfv‡eB `ybx©wZ mgv‡Ri i‡Ü« i‡Ü« wg‡k hv‡”Q| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki Rqbyj mv‡ne `ybx©wZi cÖfv‡e Aí mg‡qi g‡a¨ f~Bu ‡dvuo n‡q D‡V‡Qb| - cvV¨fy³ cÖe‡Üi mv‡_ G g‡Zi mv`„k¨ †`LvI| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: `ybx©wZi ¶wZKi cÖfve me©we¯—vwi| `ybx©wZ ïay MYZš¿, AvB‡bi kvmb mvgvwRK b¨vq wePvi‡KB w¯—wgZ K‡i bv, eis e¨w³ gvbylI e¨vcK ¶gZvai I cÖfvekvjx n‡q I‡V| miKvwi cÖwZôvb¸‡jv‡Z †Zv e‡UB; †emiKvwi ev cÖvB‡fU cÖwZôvb¸‡jv‡ZI Gi e¨Z¨q N‡U bv| DÏxc‡Ki Rqbyj mv‡n‡ei †¶‡ÎI Gi e��wZµg N‡U wb| Rqbyj mv‡ne Zvi Rxe‡bi cÖ_g ch©v‡q cÖvq wbt¯^B wQ‡jb| wKš‘ `ybx©wZi e¨vcK cÖfv‡e mgvRcwZ‡`i GKRb n‡q D‡V‡Qb| Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü Ggb `ybx©wZevR †jvK‡`i K_v D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q| wbR Kv‡Ri Revew`wnZv bv _vKvi Kvi‡Y `ybx©wZcÖeY gvbyl Kv‡iv c‡ivqv K‡i bv| d‡j A_© ev ¶gZvi Ace¨envi K‡i ivZvivwZ Av‡iv †ewk ¶gZvai n‡q I‡V| Zv‡K mvnvh¨ K‡i Avevi Ab¨vb¨ `ybx©wZevRiv Gfv‡eB `ybx©wZi cÖfv‡e ivóªxq my‡hvM myweav wbR ¯^v‡_© e¨envi AwZwi³ A_© A‰eafv‡e AvZ¥mvr K‡i †`k I `‡ki ¶wZ K‡i Rqbyj mv‡n‡ei gZ †jv‡Kiv Aí mg‡qB f~Bu ‡duvo n‡q I‡V| cÖkœ: (N) evsjv‡`k‡K Kvh©Ki iv‡óª cwiYZ Kivi †¶‡Î Ab¨Zg evav n‡”Q `ybx©wZ| - DÏxc‡Ki PwiÎ Ges Ô`ybx©wZÕ Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_, kxl©K cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: `ybx©wZ GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa| G e¨vwa GLb evsjv‡`‡ki i‡Ü« i‡Ü« Qwo‡q c‡o‡Q| hvi Av‡Q †m Av‡iv Pvq| Gfv‡e `ybx©wZ gvby‡li cÖvZ¨wnK K‡g©i gv‡S Xy‡K †M‡Q| d‡j ax‡i ax‡i evsjv‡`k AKvh©Ki iv‡óª cwiYZ n‡Z P‡j‡Q| j¨vwUb kã Corruptus ‡_‡K `ybx©wZ k‡ãi D™¢e hvi A_© ¶wZ ev aŸsm mvab| RvwZmsN cÖYxZ g¨vby‡qj Ab G¨vw›UKivckb cÖkvmb cwjwm (Manual on Anti-Corruption policy) Abyhvqx e¨w³MZ ¯^v‡_©v×v‡ii Rb¨ ¶gZvi Ace¨envi KivB n‡”Q `ybx©wZ| Avi G e¨vcviwU miKvwi †emiKvwi Dfq †¶‡ÎB cÖ‡hvR¨| DÏxc‡Ki Rqbyj mv‡ne K‡qK eQi Av‡MI A_©-weËnxb wQ‡jb| A_P `ybx©wZi cÖfv‡e AvR wZwb GZUvB ¯^”Qj †h Zvi mš—vb‡`i wk¶v, Kg© ms¯’vb BZ¨vw`i Rb¨ evsjv‡`‡ki cwi‡ek‡K †hvM¨ e‡j g‡b K‡ib bv| A_P wZwb Ges Zvi gZ `ybx©wZevR †jv‡Kiv ˆbwZK g~j¨‡eva‡K GKUz Dcjwä Ki‡Zv Zvn‡j AvR Zv‡K wb‡Ri †`‡ki Ae¯’v wb‡q GZUv fvweZ n‡Z n‡Zv bv| c„ôv-194


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

†`‡k AvB‡bi kvmb cÖwZôv n‡j Ggb `ybx©wZ †iva m¤¢e| G Rb¨ mvgvwRK, e¨w³K m‡PZbZv m„wói cvkvcvwk ¯^vaxb wePvi e¨e¯’v, Kvh©Ki msm`, wbi‡c¶ `ybx©wZ `gb ms¯’v, ivRbxwZi my¯’ PP©v-BZ¨vw`i f~wgKvI ¸i“Z¡cY~ |© ZvQvov `ybx©wZevR‡`i `ybx©wZ hw` MYgva¨‡g mwVK fv‡e cÖPvwiZ nq Zvn‡j Ab¨ `ybx©wZevR †jv‡Kiv cieZx© `ybx©wZ‡Z wbi“rmvwnZ n‡e| d‡j GKUz GKUz K‡i `ybx©wZ †iva n‡e| Zv bv n‡j G †`k mwZ¨B GKw`b AKvh©Ki iv‡óª cwiYZ n‡e|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (bvwejv Rvgvb)

wbR¯^ cÖwZ‡e`K, XvKv: `ybx©wZi `v‡q wZZvm M¨v‡mi GK Kg©Pvwi‡K mvgwqKfv‡e eiLv¯— Kiv n‡q‡Q| G NUbv Z`‡š—i Rb¨ `yB m`m¨wewkó GKwU KwgwU MVb Kiv n‡q‡Q| NUbvi weei‡Y cÖKvk, PZz_© †kªYxi †mB Kg©Pvix Pvi eQi c~‡e© wgUvi wiWvi wn‡m‡e wb‡qvM cÖvß nq| Zvici †_‡K G ch©š— ivZvivwZ †m XvKvq `ywU cvPuZjv evwo Ges cÖPzi A‡_©i gvwjK n‡q D‡V‡Q| G e¨vcv‡i _vbvq Zvi wei“‡× gvgjv `v‡qi Kiv n‡q‡Q|

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖkœ: (K) `ybx©wZ kãwU †Kv_v †_‡K G‡m‡Q? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Corruptus kã ‡_‡K `ybx©wZ k‡ãi D™¢e hvi A_© Ô¶wZÕ ev ÔaŸsm mvabÕ| cÖkœ: (L) Kx Kx Dcv‡q `ybx©wZ nq? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: evsjv‡`k `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgkb AvBb 2004 Gi 2(3) aviv Abyhvqx `ybx©wZ bvbv Dcv‡q nq| †hgb: Nyl MÖnY I Nyl cÖ`vb, miKvwi Kg©Pvix‡K Aciv‡a mnvqZv Kiv, miKvwi Kg©KZ©v/Kg©Pvix KZ…©K †Kvb e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi wbKU n‡Z g~j¨evb e¯‘ webvg~‡j¨ MÖnY, †Kvb miKvwi Kg©KZ©v/Kg©Pvix KZ©K „ †eAvBbxfv‡e †Kvb c¶cvZg~jK AvPiY cÖ`k©b, Amr D‡Ï‡k¨ fyj bw_cÎ cÖ¯‘Z, Amvay D‡Ï‡k¨ m¤úwË AvZ¥mvr ev bw_ Rvj Kiv BZ¨vw`| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡K ewY©Z Kg©Pvix Kx Kvi‡Y `ybx©wZ K‡i‡Q?- `ybx©wZ welqK cÖeÜ Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ Aej¤^‡b we‡k−lY Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Ô`ybx©wZÕ Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_ kxl©K, cÖe‡Ü `ybx©wZ msNU‡bi `ywU KiY- 1) AvBbMZ I cÖkvmwbK KviY, 2) Av_©-mvgvwRK KviY D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K ewY©Z Kg©Pvixi g~jZ ˆbwZK Ae¶q N‡U‡Q| Av_©-mvgvwRK †cÖ¶vc‡Ui Kvi‡Y †m bxwZåó n‡q‡Q| eZ©gvb cuwy Rev`x mgvR e¨e¯’vq gvby‡li g‡a¨ †fvMev`x cÖeYZv evo‡Q| d‡j gvbyl †jvf-jvjmvi wkKvi n‡”Q| d‡j ¶z`ª ¯^v_© PwiZv_© Ki‡Z wM‡q e„nr ¯^v_©‡K Zz”Q Ávb Kiv n‡”Q| ZvQvov eZ©gvb mg‡q Avq-e¨‡qi AmvgÄm¨ZvI GKwU ¸i“Z¡cY~ © welq| `ªe¨g~‡j¨i EaŸ©MwZi Kvi‡Y GB Kg©Pvixi c‡¶ mr Dcv‡q ¯^vfvweK Rxeb hvcb KwVb n‡q c‡o| d‡j †m `ybx©wZi wkKvi nq| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki Pwi‡Îi Av‡jv‡K †Zvgvi cvV¨fy³ `ybx©wZ welqK cÖe‡Ü ewY©Z RvZxq cÖwZôvb¸‡jvi `ybx©wZ chv©‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: myôz MYZš¿ I mykvmb cwic~Yf © v‡e cÖwZwôZ n‡j †`‡ki mKj bvMwi‡Ki AwaKvi cÖwZwôZ n‡e| wKš‘ G mvgwMÖK myôz cwi‡ek ZLbB m¤¢e n‡e hLb `ybx©wZ‡K `~‡i miv‡bv hv‡e| GKRb mvgvb¨ †eZbfy³ miKvwi Kg©Pvix n‡qI Aí mg‡q cÖPzi A_© m¤ú‡`i gvwjK n‡Z DÏxc‡Ki GB PwiÎ Zvi Kg©Kv‡Ê `ybx©wZi Avkªq wb‡q‡Q| Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü miKvwi Kvh©vj‡qi `ybx©wZ m¤ú‡K© mwe¯—v‡i Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| MYZš¿ I RvZxq mZZv e¨e¯’vi Aš—f©y³ cÖwZôvb¸‡jv- †hgb: RvZxq msm`, wePvi wefvM, Rbcªkvmb, MYgva¨g BZ¨vw`i Ab¨Zg cÖavb f~wgKv n‡”Q ¯^vaxb I wbi‡c¶fv‡e KvR Kiv Ges Ab¨vb¨ cÖwZôv‡b ¯^”QZv I wbi‡c¶Zv Ges Revew`wnZv wbwðZ Kivi gZ cwi‡ek m„wó Kiv| Gme cÖwZôv‡b ¯^vaxbZv I wbi‡c¶Zv cÖvqkB wewNœZ nq e‡j `ybx©wZi gvÎv e„w× cvq| ZvQvov G cÖwZôvb¸‡jv‡Z ivR‰bwZK cÖfve, `vwq‡Z¡ Ae‡njv, Nyl MÖnY I cÖ`vbmn hveZxq A‰bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ê wb‡qvwRZ Kg©KZ©v, Kg©Pvix‡`i Kvi‡YI `ybx©wZi gvÎv †e‡o hvq|

c„ôv-195


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

evsjv‡`‡k eZ©gvb mvgvwRK †cª¶vc‡U cÖkvm‡b e¨vcK ivR‰bwZK cÖfve j¶ Kiv hvq| cÖkvmwbK Kg©PvixK…Z `yb©xwZ‡Z KLbI KLbI EaŸ©Zb Kg©KZ©v‡`i c‡iv¶ AskMÖnY cwijw¶Z nq| miKvwi Z_v ivR‰bwZK `‡ji gyLv‡c¶x Gme †jvK‡`i Kvi‡Y AvgjvZvwš¿K `ybx©wZ ¯^vfvweKfv‡e e„w× cvq| RvZxq cÖwZôvb¸‡jv‡Z msNwUZ `ybx©wZi †Kvb mg¨K wePvi bv nIqvq ev Revew`wnZv bv _vKvq `vwq‡Z¡ Ae‡njv ev KviPzwc ev‡o| Avi Gme `ybx©wZ RbM‡Yi gv‡S Z_¨wfwËKfv‡e Zz‡j aivi Rb¨ †h wbi‡c¶Zv cÖ‡qvRb Zv-I KLbI †`Lv hvq bv| G me Kvi‡YB RvZxq cÖwZôvb¸‡jv‡Z `ybx©wZ msNwUZ nq Ges Zv †e‡o hvq|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (bvwejv Rvgvb)

m~Pxw¯§Zv D”Pwk¶vi Rb¨ hy³ivR¨ wM‡q‡Q| †`kwUi AvKl©Yxq cvwicvU¨ I g‡bvig cwi‡ek m¤ú‡K© wewfbœ †jv‡Ki Kv‡Q †R‡b I eB c‡o Av‡M †_‡KB †m ¯^‡cœ we‡fvi wQj| me‡P‡q eo welq n‡”Q, †m †`‡ki cÖvq mevB hvi hvi `vwqZ¡ m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb| e¨w³¯^v‡_©i †P‡q mvgwóK ¯^v_©B Zv‡`i Kv‡Q MÖnY‡hvM¨| miKviI me †¶‡Î Zv‡`i mvnvh¨v‡_© wb‡ew`Z| G me †`‡L m~Pxw¯§Zv Avc‡mvm K‡i, fv‡e-Zvi †`kUv GZ cÖvK…wZK m¤ú‡` ficyi| G †`‡ki bvMwiKiv hw` mevB Ggb m‡PZb n‡Zv|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) MYZš¿ cÖwZôvi cÖavb Aš—ivq Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: MYZš¿ cÖwZôvi cÖavb Aš—ivq `ybx©wZ| cÖkœ: (L) wbR `vwqZ¡ h_vh_fv‡e cvjb Ki‡jI Avgv‡`i †`‡k `vwi‡`ªi nvi †ewk †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: †`‡k AwaKvsk bvMwiK mZZvi mv‡_ wbR wbR `vwqZ¡ cvjb Ki‡Z PvB‡jI ¸wUKZK gvby‡li Ae‡njvi Kvi‡Y †`‡k `wi`ªZvi nvi †e‡oB P‡j‡Q| ¶gZvai gvby‡liv `ybx©wZi cÖfv‡e m¤ú‡`i cvnvo M‡o| Aci w`‡K `wi`ª gvby‡li `vwi`ª¨ ev‡o| cÖkœ: (M) ÔAvgv‡`i †`‡ki bvMwiKiv DÏxcK‡K ewY©Z iv‡óªi g‡Zv cÖ‡qvRbxq myweav cvq bvÕ KviY eY©bv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Avgv‡`i †`‡ki miKvwi, †emiKvwi cÖwZôv‡bi wKQz msL¨K Kg©KZ©v/Kg©Pvix Ges mvaviY RbM‡Yi wKq`s‡ki ˆbwZK Ae¶‡qi Kvi‡Y †MvUv mgvR AvR myweavewÂZ| DbœZ we‡k¦i †`k¸‡jvi RbMY wbR wbR Kv‡R mr Z_v †`k‡cÖ‡g DØy× nevi Kvi‡Y †m me †`k myLx, mg„×| evsjv‡`‡ki Dbœqb, my-kvmb, `vwi`ª¨ we‡gvPb BZ¨vw`i Rb¨ gyL¨ f~wgKv cvjbKvix `ybx©wZi Kvi‡Y AvR Avgiv A‡bK wcwQ‡q AvwQ| `ybx©wZi d‡j RxebhvÎvi gv‡b A‡bK †f`v‡f` m„wó n‡q‡Q| wbgœ Av‡qi gvby‡liv ¶gZv nviv‡”Q| d‡j Zviv w`‡b w`‡b Av‡iv `wi`ª n‡”Q| Avi abxiv weËkvjx Rxechvcb Ki‡Q| G fv‡eB Avgv‡`i †`‡ki bvMwiKiv cÖwZwbqZB myweavewÂZ n‡”Q| cÖkœ: (N) Ôe¨w³¯^v‡_©i †P‡q mvgwóK ¯^v_©B Zv‡`i Kv‡Q MÖnY‡hvM¨Õ Dw³i Av‡jv‡K mykvmb cÖwZôvq Rbm‡PZbZvi f~wgKv m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: e¨w³ gvbyl †_‡K ïi“ K‡i mgvR I iv‡óªi Rb¨ `ybx©wZ KZUv Awfkvc e‡q Ab‡Z cv‡i Zv Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖK…Z MYZš¿ I mykvmb cÖwZôvi Ab¨Zg Aš—ivq n‡”Q `ybx©wZ| c„w_exi DbœZ †`k¸‡jvi w`‡K ZvKv‡j †`Lv hv‡e, †m †`‡ki miKvi †_‡K ïi“ K‡i Avcvgi RbmvaviY e¨w³¯^v‡_©i †P‡q mvgwóK ¯^v_©‡KB eo K‡i †`‡L| d‡j ¶z`ª ¯^v_© †mLv‡b ¤−vb n‡q c‡o| ZvQvov †m me †`‡k mykvmb I MYZ‡š¿i ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Kvi‡Y ZvivI mZK© n‡q hvq| d‡j AwaKvsk †¶‡ÎB `ybx©wZ n«vm cvq| c„ôv-196


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

MÖxK `vk©wbK GwcwKDivm †fvMev` bvgK GKwU gZev‡`i cÖe³v| G gZev` Abymv‡i †gŠj AvKv•¶v †h‡nZz myL jvf †m‡nZz G `k©‡bi cÖavb KvRB nj `ytL cwinvi K‡i gvbyl Kx K‡i AwaK my‡Li mÜvb †c‡Z cv‡i Zv †`wL‡q †`Iqv| GB †fvMev‡` wek¦vmx n‡q GLb G ‡`‡ki AwaKvsk gvbyl `ybx©wZ‡Z Rwo‡q co‡Q| G Ae¯’v Pj‡Z _vK‡j mwZ¨Kvi A‡_©B G †`k GKw`b cÖK…ZB `ybx©wZevR‡`i †`k n‡q co‡e| `ybx©wZ †iva K‡i mykvmb cÖwZôv Ki‡j G Ae¯’v †_‡K DËiY m¤¢e| G †¶‡Î ïay GKv miKvi‡K KvR Ki‡jB Pj‡e bv, RbMY‡KI GwM‡q Avm‡Z n‡e|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (bvwejv Rvgvb) `ybx©wZi cÖfve

A_©‰bwZK cÖfve

RxebhvÎvi e¨q e„w×

Dbœqb e¨vnZ nIqv

ivR‰bwZK cÖfve

ivóªxq m¤ú‡`i AcPq

mvgvwRK ˆelg¨ m„wó

mvgvwRK cÖfve

g~j¨‡ev‡ai Ae¶q

RvwZ w`Kwb‡`©kbvnxb n‡q cov

†gŠwjK AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ nIqv

gvbe Dbœqb e¨vnZ nIqv

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖkœ: (K) `ybx©wZ we‡ivax mb‡` KZwU †`k AskMÖnY K‡i‡Q? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: `yb©xwZ we‡ivax mb‡` 150wU †`k AskMÖnY K‡i‡Q| cÖkœ: (L) `ybx©wZi cÖfv‡e GK mg‡q RvwZ w`K-wb‡`©kbvnxb n‡q c‡o-†Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: cÖkœ: (M) RxebhvÎvi e¨q e„wׇZ `ybx©wZi f~wgKv i‡q‡Q|-cvV¨fy³ `ybx©wZ welqK cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K DÏxc‡Ki Q‡K ewY©Z welqwU e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: cÖkœ: (N) `ybx©wZi my`yicÖmvix cÖfve gvbe Dbœqb e¨vnZ K‡i †Kb?-cvV¨fy³ cÖe܇K †K›`ª K‡i we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi:

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (bvwejv Rvgvb)

`ybx©wZ GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa| `ybx©wZ cÖwZKv‡ii Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb ivóªxq D‡`¨v‡Mi cvkvcvwk mvaviY gvby‡li ¯^Ztù~Z© cÖwZ‡iva| 1948 †_‡K 52-Gi fvlv Av‡›`vjb, 62-Gi wk¶v Av‡›`vjb, 6 `dv, 11 `dv n‡q 1969 Gi MY Afy¨Ìvb, AZtci 71-Gi gyw³hy×- mKj ch©v‡q ewÂZ, wbcxwoZ RvwZ‡K gyw³i c_ †`wL‡q‡Q G †`‡ki hye mgvR| †`‡ki cÖwZ Zv‡`i `vwqZ¡‡eva G ‡`k †_‡K `ybx©wZ mg~‡j DrcvU‡b Kvh©Ki f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡i|

c„ôv-197


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgkb K‡e cÖwZwôZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: cÖkœ: (L) `ybx©wZ GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa-‡Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: cÖkœ: (M) Ô`ybx©wZ `g‡b miKv‡ii cvkvcvwk mvaviY gvby‡li ¯^Ztù‚Z© cÖwZ‡iva Kvh©Ki f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡iÕ| DÏxcK I cvV¨fy³ `yb©xwZ welqK cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki mvi e³e¨ Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi:

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb) †mw`b mKv‡j AvwRRyj nK mv‡ne cwÎKvi cvZvq †PvL eyjv‡ZB welYœ n‡q co‡jb| cÖwZ eQi †ivRvi gv‡m `ªe¨g~‡j¨i AvKw¯§K EaŸ©MwZ, wPwbi `vg f~Z †`Lvi g‡Zv †e‡o hvIqvq mvaviY gvby‡li Rxeb msKUvcbœ n‡q c‡o| MYgva¨g¸‡jv G wb‡q bvbv iK‡gi wi‡cvU© K‡i; wmwÛ‡K‡Ui cÖfv‡ei K_v e‡j, Pvu`vevwRi K_v e‡j| wKš‘ cÖK…Z Ae¯’v AcwieZ©bxqB i‡q hvq| GKwU ¯^vaxb †`k ax‡i ax‡i A¯^”Q, bxwZweewR©Z ivóªe¨e¯’vi wQ`ª w`‡q `ybx©wZ bvgK e¨vwai †Qve‡j aŸs‡mi w`‡K AMÖmigvb| G Rb¨ Kx evsjvi gvbyl `xN© bq gvm msMÖvg K‡iwQj! ¶zä g‡b cwÎKvUv eÜ K‡i k~b¨ `„wó‡Z AvwRRyj nK mv‡ne Rvbvjvi evB‡i ZvKvb|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) MYZš¿ Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : RbM‡Yi B”Qvbyhvqx †`k kvmb| cÖk:œ (L) Ô¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Afv‡e `ybx©wZ DrmvwnZ nqÕÑ Dw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Dw³wU Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖeÜ †_‡K msKwjZ| ¯^”QZv (Transparency) k‡ãi AvwfavwbK A_© wbf©yjZv, m‡›`nvZxZfv‡e mwVKZv I mnR‡eva¨Zv| ivóª cwiPvjbvq ¶z`ª ¶z`ª cÖwZôvb †_‡K ïi“ K‡i m‡e©v”P ch©vq ch©š— wewa-weav‡b I AvBb-Kvby‡b ¯^”QZv †hgb _vKv `iKvi †Zgwb Zv cÖ‡qv‡MI ¯^”QZv _vKv cÖ‡qvRb| Av‡jvK‡f`x ¯^”Q KvM‡Ri g‡Zv iv‡óªi mKj Kg©KvÊ `„wóMÖvn¨, †evaMg¨ nIqv †evSv‡ZB GB kãwU e¨envi Kiv nq| Gi m‡½ wbf©i‡hvM¨Zv (Reliability) I h_v_©Zv (Validity) RwoZ| Revew`wnZv ej‡Z †evSvq `vqe×Zvi cÖwZkÖ“wZ I `vq-`vwq‡Z¡i ¯^xKv‡ivw³| GKgvÎ GKbvqKZš¿ I ˆ¯^iZvwš¿K ivóª e¨e¯’vq `vqe×Zv I Revew`wnZvi welq _v‡K bv| wKš‘ GKwU AvaywbK mgvR-e¨e¯’vq Revew`wnZv _vKv Acwinvh©| Revew`wnZv _vK‡j `ybx©wZ n«vm cvq| Revew`wnZv `¶Zv I mZZv‡K DrmvwnZ K‡i| Revew`wnZv e¨w³ I cÖwZôv‡bi h_v_©Zv I MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv evovq| c„ôv-198


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki mv‡_ Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi †Kvb w`KwU mv`„k¨c~Y©? -e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡K `ybx©wZi cÖfv‡e `ªe¨g~‡j¨i EaŸ©MwZ, wmwÛ‡K‡Ui cÖfve, MYgva¨‡gi f~wgKv G welq¸‡jvi cÖwZ Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| AvwRRyj nK mv‡ne cwÎKv Ly‡j `ªe¨g~‡j¨i EaŸ©MwZ, wmwÛ‡K‡Ui Kvi‡Y wPwbi `vg e„w× BZ¨vw` Lei c‡o gg©vnZ nb| evsjvi gvbyl ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ hy× K‡iwQj GKwU ¯^vaxb †`‡k fv‡jvfv‡e †eu‡P _vKvi Rb¨| wKš‘ ¯^vaxbZvi my`xN© mgq ciI evsjvi gvby‡li A_©‰bwZK gyw³ Av‡mwb| Afve-AbU‡bi mv‡_ GLbI Zviv hy× K‡i P‡j‡Q| `ybx©wZi cÖfv‡e mgv‡R AvBb k„•Ljvi AebwZ I gvbweK g~j¨‡ev‡ai Ae¶q †`Lv w`‡q‡Q| Ab¨w`‡K, Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡ÜI `ybx©wZ Kx, Gi KviY, mgv‡R Gi cÖfve I DËi‡Yi wewfbœ w`K Av‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Q| Dbœqbkxj †`k wn‡m‡e evsjv‡`‡k `ybx©wZ cÖKU AvKvi aviY K‡i‡Q| ivóªxq cÖwZôvb¸‡jv ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Afv‡e `ybx©wZMÖ¯— n‡q c‡o‡Q| Gi d‡j RbRxeb wewNœZ n‡”Q| mgv‡Ri wbæ Av‡qi gvby‡li Avq AviI K‡g hv‡”Q, `ªe¨g~‡j¨i EaŸ©MwZi Kvi‡Y Zv‡`i µq¶gZv K‡g hv‡”Q| Ab¨w`‡K, ¶gZvevb gvby‡liv `ybx©wZ K‡i A‡_©i cvnvo M‡o Zzj‡Q; evo‡Q †kªYx‰elg¨, Ae¶wqZ n‡”Q gvbweK g~j¨‡eva| myZivs, ejv hvq DÏxcK I cÖe‡Üi welq mv`„k¨c~Y©, GK I Awfbœ| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi †cÖ¶vcU Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : mf¨Zvi Dbœq‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ gvby‡li RxebhvÎvi gvb †hgb DbœZ n‡q‡Q, e¨qI ZZ †e‡o‡Q| Ab¨w`‡K, cwiewZ©Z n‡q‡Q gvbweK g~j¨‡ev‡ai MwZaviv| Dbœqbkxj †`k¸‡jvi g‡Zv evsjv‡`‡kI G msKU j¶ Kiv hvq| evsjv‡`k my`xN© mgq a‡i `ybx©wZ bvgK mvgvwRK e¨vwa‡Z Avµvš—| RvwZmsN cÖYxZ g¨vbyqvj Ab G¨vw›U Kivckb cwjwm Abyhvqx e¨w³MZ ¯^v‡_©v×v‡ii Rb¨ ¶gZvi Ace¨envi n‡jv `ybx©wZ| ivóªxq I cÖkvmwbK †¶‡Î ¯^”QZv, Revew`wnZvi Afve, AvBbk„•Ljvi AebwZ, ivR‰bwZK cÖfve, gvbweK g~j¨‡ev‡ai Ae¶q BZ¨vw` bvbv Kvi‡Y G ‡`‡k `ybx©wZi wkKo †cÖvw_Z n‡q‡Q `„pg~jfv‡e| Gi Kvi‡Y †f‡O c‡o‡Q AvBb-k„•Ljv, e„w× †c‡q‡Q †kªYx‰elg¨, Aciva cÖeYZv BZ¨vw`| kvw¯—weav‡bi AcÖZzjZv G `ybx©wZ‡K AviI cÖKU K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| G me eûgyLx Kvi‡Y wk¶v_x©‡`i m‡PZb Kivi j‡¶¨ Av‡jvP¨ cÖeÜwU iwPZ n‡q‡Q| `ybx©wZ Kx, Gi KviY, mgv‡R Gi my`~icÖmvix ¶wZKi cÖfve, cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Dcvq cÖf„wZ welq PgrKvifv‡e Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| fwel¨Z cÖRb¥‡K m‡PZb K‡i `ybx©wZgy³ mgvR MV‡bi gvb‡mB G cÖeÜ iwPZ| DÏxc‡KI mgv‡R `ybx©wZi fqven cÖfv‡ei welqwU Bw½Zen K‡i Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb) 1971 G ¯^vaxbZv jv‡fi my`xN© mgq ciI evsjvi gvbyl Afve, `vwi‡`ª¨i mv‡_ msMÖvg K‡i P‡j‡Q| evsjvi gvby‡li A_©‰bwZK gyw³ GLbI my`~i civnZ| Gi bvbvwea Kvi‡Yi g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg GKwU n‡jv `ybx©wZ| 2001-2005 ch©š— `ybx©wZMÖ¯— †`‡ki ZvwjKvq evsjv‡`‡ki Ae¯’vb kx‡l© wQj; GLbI cwiw¯’wZ Lye †ewk AMÖmi nqwb| evo‡Q D”Pwkw¶‡Zi nvi, wKš‘ Ae¶wqZ n‡”Q gvbweK g~j¨‡eva| G msKUgq cwiw¯’wZ DËi‡Yi Rb¨ GLbB myôz I MYZvwš¿K ivóªe¨e¯’vi ev¯—evqb Awbevh©|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) RbM‡Yi miKvi wbe©vwPZ nq Kxfv‡e? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: RbM‡Yi cÖZ¨¶ †fv‡U|

c„ôv-199


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (L) `ybx©wZ †iv‡a mykxj mgv‡Ri f~wgKv e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : RbM‡Yi AwaKvi I iv‡óªi ïfvïf wb‡q fvweZ ïf eyw×m¤úbœ cÖ‡Z¨K bvMwiKB mykxj mgv‡Ri m`m¨| GKwU †`‡ki †h m‡PZb I †`k‡cÖwgK Rb‡Mvôx ivóªcwiPvjbvq miKvi‡K †hŠw³K mgv‡jvPbv K‡i wKsev Drmvn cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g mn‡hvwMZv K‡i †mB Rb‡Mvôx‡K mykxj mgvR e‡j| ïay miKviB bq, †`‡ki me©¯— ‡ii Kg©KvÊ wb‡qB Giv K_v e‡jb Ges w`Kwb‡`©kbv †`b| Giv RvwZi we‡eK wn‡m‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡ib| d‡j `ybx©wZMÖ¯— ivóª e¨e¯’vi mykxj mgvR msMÖvgx f~wgKv cvjb K‡i Ges KL‡bv KL‡bv miKv‡ii †ivlvb‡j c‡o| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `ybx©wZMÖ¯— †`k wn‡m‡e evsjv‡`‡ki Ae¯’vb wbY©q Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡K `ybx©wZMÖ¯— †`k wn‡m‡e evsjv‡`‡ki msKUvcbœ Ae¯’v‡K Bw½Zen K‡i Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q| ¯^vaxbZv cieZx© evsjv‡`‡ki gvby‡li A_©‰bwZK gyw³ †g‡jwb| ¶zav, `vwi`ª¨ Zv‡`i wbZ¨m½x| Gi g~j KviY `ybx©wZ| `ybx©wZ bvgK mvgvwRK e¨vwa‡Z evsjv‡`k fqvenfv‡e Avµvš— AvBbMZ I cÖkvmwbK RwUjZv, ivR‰bwZK cÖfve, bvbvwea Av_©mvgvwRK Kvi‡Y †fvMev`x gvby‡liv `ybx©wZi mv‡_ Rwo‡q co‡Q| ¶gZvevb †kªYxi gvby‡liv m¤ú‡`i cvnvo M‡o Zzj‡Q, Avi `wi`ª †kªYxi gvby‡liv AviI `wi`ª n‡q co‡Q| mxwgZ m¤ú‡`i AmgeÈb `ybx©wZi Rb¨ `vqx| Ab¨w`‡K, Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `ybx©wZi welqwU Zz‡j ai‡Z wM‡q `ybx©wZMÖ¯— †`k wn‡m‡e evsjv‡`‡ki gZ Dbœqbkxj †`‡ki eZ©gvb cwiw¯’wZ wKi~c †m wel‡q Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki g‡Zv Dbœqbkxj †`k¸‡jv‡Z bvbv Kvi‡Y `ybx©wZ Aev‡a we¯—vi jvf K‡i| Dbœqbkxj †`‡ki cÖkvm‡b ivR‰bwZK cÖfv‡ei d‡j `ybx©wZ we¯—v‡ii my‡hvM cvq Ges AvgjvZvwš¿K `ybx©wZ e„w× cvq| GQvov, evsjv‡`k Z_v Dbœqbkxj †`k¸‡jv‡Z cyuwRev`x mgvRe¨e¯’vq gvby‡y li g‡a¨ †fvMev`x cÖeYZv †e‡o hv‡”Q| gvby‡li †jvf-jvjmvI †e‡o hv‡”Q| GKw`‡K Av‡qi AcÖZzjZv, Ab¨w`‡K RxebhvÎvi e¨q e„w×, G `y‡qi Kvi‡Y `ybx©wZ e„w× cv‡”Q| myZivs ejv hvq, DÏxcK I Av‡jvP¨ cÖe‡Ü `ybx©wZ I `ybx©wZMÖ¯— †`k wn‡m‡e evsjv‡`‡ki Ae¯’v‡bi welqwU Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ `ybx©wZi KviYmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡K `ybx©wZMÖ¯— †`k wn‡m‡e evsjv‡`‡ki fqvenZv Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| GKwU ¯^vaxb mve©‡fŠg ivóª `ybx©wZi Kvi‡Y A_©‰bwZK Dbœq‡b e¨_© n‡q‡Q| cÖkvmwbK RwUjZv, g~j¨‡ev‡ai Ae¶q BZ¨vw` bvbvwea Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`‡ki gZ Dbœqbkxj †`k `ybx©wZ bvgK e¨vwa‡Z Avµvš—| cvkvcvwk Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_ cÖe‡Ü `ybx©wZi wewfbœ KviY Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| `ybx©wZi KviYmg~n wbæiƒc: 1) AvBbMZ I cÖkvmwbK KviY : K) RvZxq cÖwZôvb¸‡jvi AKvh©KvwiZv: msm`, wePvi e¨e¯’v, Rb cÖkvm‡b ¯^”QZv, wbi‡c¶Zv, Revew`wnZvi Afv‡e `ybx©wZ †`Lv †`q| L) ivR‰bwZK cÖfve : cÖkvm‡b ivR‰bwZK cÖfv‡ei d‡j `ybx©wZ we¯—vi jvf K‡i| 2) Av_©-mvgvwRK KviY: eZ©gv‡b Dbœqbkxj †`k¸‡jv‡Z cyuwRev`x mgvRe¨e¯’vq gvby‡li g‡a¨ †fvMev`x cÖeYZv †e‡o hv‡”Q| Av‡qi AcÖZzjZv I e¨q e„w×i Kvi‡Y `ybx©wZ e„w× cv‡”Q| 3) ˆbwZK Ae¶qRwbZ KviY : Dbœqbkxj †`k¸‡jv‡Z gvby‡li †gŠwjK Pvwn`v Am¤ú~Y© i‡q hvq| G Kvi‡Y gvbyl `ybx©wZi w`‡K Sz‡u K c‡o| c„ôv-200


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb) `ybx©wZ AvBbMZ I cÖkvmwbK KviY

RvZxq cÖwZôv‡bi AKvh©KvwiZv

Av_©mvgvwRK KviY

ivR‰bwZK cÖfve

¯^”QZv, Revew`wnZvi Afve

µgea©gvb †fvMev`x cÖeYZv I ˆbwZK g~j¨‡ev‡ai Ae¶q

cÖfve A_©‰bwZK cÖfve

`vwq‡Z¡ Ae‡njv

ivR‰bwZK cÖfve

Z‡_¨ AwaKv‡ii Afve Avq-e¨‡qi AmvgÄm¨Zv

mvgvwRK cÖfve †iv‡ai Dcvq

ivR‰bwZK mw`”Qv

mwµq `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgkb

MYgva¨‡gi Kvh©Ki f~wgKv

mylg †eZb KvVv‡gv

Kvh©Ki msm`

¯^vaxb wePvi wefvM I AvB‡bi kvmb cÖwZôv `ybx©wZwe‡ivax mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb m„wó Kiv

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖkœ: (K) Ô`y`KÕ A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgkb| cÖkœ: (L) wmwÛ‡KU Kx? e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : AvwfavwbK w`K †_‡K ÔwmwÛ‡KUÕ A_© n‡jv, mvgwqKc‡Î cÖeÜ-wbeÜ, e¨½wPÎ BZ¨vw` mieivnKvix evwYwR¨K mwgwZ ev msev` mwgwZ| eZ©gv‡b †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv †¶‡Î kãwUi A‡_©i †bwZevPK cwieZ©b N‡U‡Q| GLb ÔwmwÛ‡KUÕ ej‡Z †evSvq, GKwU Aïf e¨emvwqK †Mvôx hviv mg‡eZfv‡e †Kvb c‡Y¨i `vg evwo‡q †`q wKsev `vg evov‡bvi Rb¨ †Kvb c‡Y¨i K…wÎg msKU m„wó K‡i| G ai‡bi `ybx©wZi m‡½ eo eo e¨emvqx cÖwZôv‡bi wewfbœ ch©v‡qi Kg©KZ©v, Kg©Pvix RwoZ _v‡K| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iv‡ai e¨e¯’vmg~n KZUv mv`„k¨c~Y©Ñ e¨vL¨v| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Dcvqmg~n Ges Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Abyiƒc| DÏxcK I cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iv‡ai e¨e¯’vmg~n wbæiƒc : 1) ivR‰bwZK mw`”Qv 2) Kvh©Ki msm` 3) ¯^vaxb wePvi wefvM I AvB‡bi kvmb cÖwZôv c„ôv-201


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

4) 5) 6) 7)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

mwµq `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgkb mylg †eZb KvVv‡gv `ybx©wZwe‡ivax mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb MYgva¨‡gi Kvh©Ki f~wgKv BZ¨vw`|

`ybx©wZ GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa| ZvB `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a ivóªxq D‡`¨v‡Mi cvkvcvwk mvaviY RbM‡Yi ¯^Ztù‚Z© cÖwZ‡iva cÖ‡qvRb| `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a bvMwiK mgvR, hye mgvR‡K mwµq f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ cÖK…Z MYZš¿ I mykvmb cÖwZôvi †¶‡Î Ab¨Zg Aš—ivq `ybx©wZÕ| -G wel‡q †Zvgvi AwfgZ e¨³ Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ Q‡K `ybx©wZ Kx, Gi KviY, `ybx©wZi cÖfve I DËi‡Yi Dcvq m¤úwK©Z w`KwU QK AvKv‡i Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| GKB welq Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü we¯Z…Zfv‡e Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| D³ cÖe‡Ü MYZš¿ I `ybx©wZi fqvenZvi w`KwUI Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| MYZš¿ I mykvmb cÖwZôvi †¶‡Î Ab¨Zg Aš—ivq `ybx©wZ| MYZš¿ n‡jv RbM‡Yi B”Qvbyhvqx †`k kvmb| RbM‡Yi Rb¨, RbM‡Yi Øviv, RbM‡Yi wbe©vwPZ miKviB MYZvwš¿K miKvi| msweavb Øviv wbqwš¿Z I AvB‡bi kvm‡bi Aax‡b RbM‡Yi me ai‡bi ¯^vaxbZv I AwaKvi wbwðZ KivB MYZ‡š¿i g~jbxwZ| Ab¨w`‡K, `ybx©wZ GB mvgwMÖK cwiw¯’wZi cwicš’x| `ybx©wZ kãwUi A_© n‡jv, ¶wZmvab| RvwZmsN cÖYxZ g¨vbyqvj Ab G¨vw›U Kivckb cwjwm Abyhvqx e¨w³MZ ¯^v‡_©v×v‡ii Rb¨ ¶gZvi Ace¨envi KivB n‡jv `ybx©wZ| GB ¶gZvi Ace¨envi miKvwi I †emiKvwi Dfq‡¶‡ÎB cÖ‡hvR¨| MYZš¿ AvBbMZ I cÖkvmwbK †¶‡Î ¯^vaxb I wbi‡c¶Zv, ¯^”QZv, Revew`wnZvi K_v e‡j| wKš‘ `ybx©wZ G welq¸‡jvi wecixZaviv‡K mwµq K‡i †Zv‡j| `ybx©wZi Kvi‡Y RbRxe‡b wech©q †b‡g Av‡m| †kªYx‰elg¨ e„w× cvq, mvgvwRK g~j¨‡ev‡ai Ae¶q †`Lv †`q| AvBb k„•Ljvi AebwZ N‡U| myZivs ejv hvq †h, cÖK…Z MYZš¿ I mykvmb cÖwZôvi †¶‡Î Ab¨Zg Aš—ivq `ybx©wZ| “

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb) ewki Avn‡g` miKvwi Kg©KZ©v| mrfv‡e Rxebhvcb K‡ib| Zvi †QvU fvB kvnRvnvb mv‡neI miKvwi Kg©KZ©v| wKš‘ †m eo fvB‡qi g‡Zv bq| kvnRvnvb mv‡ne eQi `‡k‡Ki gv_vq AwfRvZ GjvKvq evwo wK‡b‡Q, Mvwo wK‡b‡Q| Dcwi DcvR©‡bi Kvi‡Y Zvi Rxe‡bi ev¯—eZv AvR Ab¨iKg| A‡_©i kw³‡Z, ivRbxwZ I mgv‡R †m AvR cÖfvekvjx e¨w³| `ybx©wZ wb‡q mfv †mwgbv‡i e³„ZvI †`b| ewki Avn‡g‡`i Uvbv‡cv‡o‡bi Rxe‡b mZZvB GKgvÎ m¤^j| †QvU fvB‡qi KxwZ© wZwb †`‡Lb, wKš‘ wKQyB Ki‡Z cv‡ib bv|

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖkœ: (K) Ô`ybx©wZ `gb KwgkbÕ (`y`K) KZ mv‡j cÖwZwôZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgkb (`y`K) 2004 mv‡j cÖwZwôZ nq| cÖkœ: (L) Ôkvw¯—i AcÖZj z Zv `ybx©wZ‡K DrmvwnZ K‡i|ÕÑDw³wU e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : `ybx©wZ evsjv‡`‡ki me‡P‡q ¶wZKi mvgvwRK e¨vwa¸‡jvi Ab¨Zg| e¨w³MZ ¯^v‡_©v×v‡ii Rb¨ ¶gZvi Ace¨envi KivB n‡jv `ybx©wZ| e¨w³MZ Kvi‡Yi cvkvcvwk c×wZMZ wKQy KviYI `ybx©wZi we¯—vi NUv‡Z ¸i“Z¡cY~ © f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| RvZxq cÖwZôvb¸‡jvi AKvh©KvwiZv, ivR‰bwZK cÖfve, mvgvwRK I ivóªxq wewfbœ ch©v‡q ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Afve, ¯^ ¯^ `vwqZ¡ cvj‡b Ae‡njv, µgea©gvb †fvMev`x cÖeYZv, Avq-e¨‡qi AmvgÄm¨Zv BZ¨vw` Kvi‡Y `ybx©wZ msNwUZ nq| `ybx©wZ Kivi c‡i Awfhy³ e¨w³i Rb¨ kvw¯—i h_vh_ weavb bv _vKvq `ybx©wZi cÖeYZv †e‡oB P‡j‡Q| Avevi kvw¯—i weavb _vK‡jI Zvi h_vh_ cÖ‡qvM NU‡Q bv| †`‡k AvB‡bi kvmb cÖwZôv n‡j `ybx©wZ n«vm cv‡e| Gi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb ¯^vaxb wePvi wefvM| wePvi wefvM‡K cÖkvmb I msm‡`i cÖfvegy³ n‡Z n‡e| `ybx©wZMÖ¯— e¨w³i wei“‡× h_vh_ AvBbMZ e¨e¯’v wb‡Z n‡e| AvB‡bi †Pv‡L mevB mgvb- G bxwZ mgv‡R cÖwZôv Ki‡Z n‡e| Ab¨_vq `ybx©wZ `gb Am¤¢e n‡q co‡e|

c„ôv-202


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ `ybx©wZi mv‡_ Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ `ybx©wZi cÖfve KZUv mv`„k¨c~Y© e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡Ki ewki Avn‡g` miKvwi Kg©KZ©v| mrfv‡e Rxeb-hvcb K‡i‡Qb | Ab¨w`‡K, Zvi †QvUfvB kvnRvnvb mv‡neI miKvwi Kg©KZ©v| †m RxebUv‡K †`‡L‡Qb wfbœfv‡e| g~j¨‡eva weewR©Z n‡q kvnRvnvb mv‡ne Amr c_ Aej¤^b K‡i Rxe‡b evwo-Mvwo me K‡i‡Q| mgv‡R UvKvi wewbg‡q †m m¤§vb I kw³ `y‡UvB †c‡q‡Q| gvbweK g~j¨‡evam¤úbœ ewki mv‡n‡ei Rxeb †QvU fvB‡qi wVK wecixZ| gvbweK g~j¨‡eva weewR©Z n‡q `ybx©wZi Avkª‡q kvnRvnvb mv‡n‡ei cÖfvekvjx n‡q IVvi w`KwU ev¯—eZvi mv‡_ m½wZc~Y|© Aciw`‡K, Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `ybx©wZ Kx, `ybx©wZi KviY, mgv‡R Gi cÖfve I cÖwZKv‡ii Dcvq wb‡`©k Kiv n‡q‡Q| `ybx©wZi cÖfve †h KZ fqven †mUv D³ cÖe‡Ü ¯úó Kiv n‡q‡Q| `ybx©wZi d‡j mgv‡Ri wbæ Av‡qi gvby‡li Avq Av‡iv K‡g hvq| `ªe¨g~j¨ †e‡o hvIqvi d‡j Zv‡`i µq ¶gZvI K‡g hvq| d‡j, RbMY wk¶v, ¯^v¯’¨, b¨vqwePvi I Ab¨vb¨ †gŠwjK AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ nq Ges A_©‰bwZK ˆel‡g¨i wkKvi nq| †hgbwU N‡UwQj DÏxc‡Ki `yB fvB‡qi gv‡S| `ybx©wZi Kvi‡Y ¯^vfvweK MYZvwš¿K cÖwµqv I cÖkvmwbK cÖwµqv evavcÖvß nq, RbM‡Yi Av¯’v bó nq| `ybx©wZi d‡j mvgvwRK ˆelg¨ m„wó nq| ¶gZvevb †kªYxi gvby‡liv m¤ú‡`i cvnvo M‡o †Zv‡j Ges `wi`ª †kªYxi gvby‡li Avq bv evovi d‡j abx-`wi‡`ªi ˆelg¨ †e‡o hvq| mvgvwRK b¨vqwePvi cÖwµqv e¨vnZ nq Ges my‡hvM mxwgZ nIqvi Kvi‡Y ˆbwZK g~j¨‡ev‡ai Ae¶q N‡U| G welq¸‡jv DÏxc‡Ki g~j wel‡qi mv‡_ mv`„k¨c~Y©| cÖkœ: (N) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi `ybx©wZi cÖfve m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡K `yB wfbœ fvev`‡k©i `yB miKvwi Kg©KZ©vi Rxeb ev¯—eZv Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| eo fvB ewki Avn‡g` mZZvi mv‡_ Rxebhvcb K‡i Rxe‡b wKQy Ki‡Z cv‡iwb| Aciw`‡K, Zvi †QvU fvB kvnRvnvb Dcwi DcvR©‡bi c_ a‡i Rxe‡b A_©, weË, m¤§vb me †c‡q‡Q| `ybx©wZi Kvi‡Y †kªYxweb¨v‡mi GB Amg weKvk m¤¢e n‡q‡Q| Av‡jvP¨ cÖeÜ Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ-G welqwUi cÖwZ Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| D³ cÖe‡Ü `ybx©wZi bvbvwea cÖfv‡ei K_v D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q| †hgbÑ 1) A_©‰bwZK cÖfve 2) ivR‰bwZK cÖfve 3) mvgvwRK cÖfve ivóªxq ev cÖvwZôvwbK myweavw` wb‡Ri ¯^v‡_© e¨envi Ki‡Z wM‡q me©‡¶‡Î `ybx©wZi e¨vcK we¯—vi N‡U‡Q| `ybx©wZi d‡j RxebhvÎvi e¨q ev‡o, ivóªxq m¤ú‡`i AcPq nq| wbæ Av‡qi gvby‡li Avq Av‡iv K‡g hvq| Ab¨w`‡K, `ªe¨g~j¨ †e‡o hvIqvi d‡j Zv‡`i µq¶gZv K‡g hvq| d‡j mvaviY RbMY †gŠwjK AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ nq Ges A_©‰bwZK ˆel‡g¨i wkKvi nq| `ybx©wZi d‡j mvgvwRK ˆelg¨ m„wó nq| ¶gZvevb †kªYxi gvby‡liv `ybx©wZi Kvi‡Y m¤ú‡`i cvnvo M‡o †Zv‡j| Ab¨w`‡K, `wi`ª †kªYxi gvby‡li Avq bv evovi Kvi‡Y abx `wi‡`ªi Av‡qi ˆelg¨ †e‡o hvq| †`‡ki mvaviY RbMY mgv‡Ri myweav †_‡K ewÂZ nq Ges ˆbwZK g~j¨‡ev‡ai Ae¶q N‡U| “

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (wRbœvZ ivqnvb) Aveyj Kv‡kg Am`ycv‡q e¨emv K‡i, eû gvbyl VwK‡q UvKvi cvnvo M‡o‡Qb| mgv‡Ri D”Pc`¯— e¨w³e‡M©i mv‡_ IVv-emv _vKvq aiv‡K miv Ávb K‡ib| wKš‘ mgq e`‡j‡Q| MYZvwš¿K mgvRe¨e¯’vi Kvi‡Y Aveyj Kv‡kg‡K GK mgq Zvi m¤úwËi wnmve w`‡Z nq, n‡Z nq `y`‡Ki gy‡LvgywL| fvM¨vnZ gvby‡liv Aveyj Kv‡k‡gi `„óvš—gj ~ K kvw¯— Pvq|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) mykvmb Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi : AvB‡bi kvmb| cÖkœ: (L) `ybx©wZi m‡½ abx `wi‡`ªi ˆelg¨ Kxfv‡e RwoZ e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi : evsjv‡`‡ki g‡Zv Dbœqbkxj †`‡k GKw`‡K A‡Xj m¤ú`kvjx e¨w³ Ab¨w`‡K weËnxb †kªYxi nvnvKvi mgv‡R `ybx©wZ we¯—v‡ii my‡hvM K‡i †`q| ¶gZvevb †kªYxi gvby‡liv `ybx©wZi Kvi‡Y m¤ú‡`i cvnvo M‡o †Zv‡j Ges `wi`ª †kªYxi gvby‡li Avq mxwgZB i‡q hvq| d‡j abx `wi‡`ªi Avq e¨‡qi ˆelg¨ †e‡o hvq| `ybx©wZi d‡j c„ôv-203


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

mgv‡Ri wbæ Av‡qi gvby‡li Avq Av‡iv K‡g hvq| Ab¨w`‡K, `ªe¨g~j¨ †e‡o hvIqvi Kvi‡Y Zv‡`i µq¶gZv K‡g hvq| d‡j mvaviY RbMY wk¶v, ¯^v¯’¨, b¨vqwePvi I Ab¨vb¨ †gŠwjK AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ nq Ges A_©‰bwZK ˆel‡g¨i wkKvi nq| ivZvivwZ weËkvjx nIqvq wQbœg~j gvbwmKZv †_‡K `ybx©wZi D™¢e Ges Zv mgv‡Ri Dci ¶wZKi cÖfve †d‡j| myZivs ejv hvq, mxwgZ m¤ú‡`i Amg eȇbi Rb¨ `ybx©wZ `vqx| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki Aveyj Kv‡k‡gi `ybx©wZMÖ¯— nIqvi KviY Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi `ybx©wZi Kvi‡Yi mv‡_ KZUzKz wgj i‡q‡QÑ e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡Ki Aveyj Kv‡kg gvbweK g~j¨‡eva weewR©Z, †jvf I ¶gZvi wjáv †_‡K Am`ycv‡q A_© DcvR©‡b Amr ev e¨emvi c‡_ cv evovq| Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `ybx©wZi K‡qKwU Kvi‡Yi K_v ejv nq| †hgbÑ 1) AvBbMZ I cÖkvmwbK KviY 2) Av_©mvgvwRK KviY 3) ˆbwZK Ae¶qRwbZ KviY ivóªxq cÖkvm‡b ivR‰bwZK cÖfve co‡j †mLv‡b `ª“Z `ybx©wZ Qwo‡q c‡o| gvby‡li gv‡S †fvMev`x cÖeYZv, ¶gZvi wjáv †e‡o †M‡j `ybx©wZ e„w× cvq| DÏxc‡Ki Aveyj Kv‡kg cÖe‡Üi wØZxq Kvi‡Y A_©vr †fvMev`x cÖeYZv I ¶gZvi wjáv †_‡K `ybx©wZi mv‡_ Rwo‡q c‡o| gvbeZv weewR©Z, †jvf-jvjmvc~Y© gvbwmKZvi Kvi‡Y `ybx©wZi fqvenZv e„w× †c‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) ÔAveyj Kv‡kg‡K GK mgq Zvi m¤úwËi wnmve w`‡Z nq, n‡Z nq `y`‡Ki gy‡LvgywLÕÑDw³wUi Av‡jv‡K Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ `y`‡Ki Kvh©µg Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi : DÏxc‡Ki Aveyj Kv‡kg ˆbwZKZv I g~j¨‡eva weewR©Z e¨w³| e¨w³¯^v_©, †jvf, ¶gZvi wjáv †_‡K †m Am`ycv‡q e¨emv K‡i m¤ú`kvjx nq| wKš‘ GK mgq `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgkb Z_v `y`‡Ki Kv‡Q Zv‡K m¤ú‡`i wnmve w`‡Z nq| c¶vš—‡i, Ô`ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `ybx©wZ Kx, Gi KviY, cÖwZKv‡ii Dcvq cªm‡½ `y`‡Ki Kvh©KvwiZvi welqwU Av‡jvwPZ nq| `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a 1947 mv‡j `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iva AvBb cÖYqb Kiv nq| 2003 mv‡j M„nxZ `ybx©wZ `gb AvB‡bi Dci wfwË K‡i 2004 mv‡j `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgkb (`y`K) cÖwZwôZ nq| 2007 mv‡j G‡K cybM©Vb Kiv nq| mgv‡Ri gvby‡li Avq-e¨‡qi Am½wZ cwijw¶Z n‡j `y`K Z_v `ybx©wZ `gb Kwgkb mvwe©K Z‡_¨i wfwˇZ Am½wZi KviY LwZ‡q †`‡L G wel‡q AvBbvbyM e¨e¯’v wb‡Z cv‡i| DÏxc‡Ki Aveyj Kv‡k‡gi e¨vcv‡i Giƒc N‡U‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

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cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ : (K) weMZ 35 eQ‡i evsjv‡`‡k KZ †KvwU UvKvi `ybx© wZ n‡q‡Q? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: weMZ 35 eQ‡i evsjv‡`‡k 50-60 nvRvi †KvwU UvKvi `yb©xwZ n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ : (L) mykxj mgvR ej‡Z Kx eyS? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: RbM‡Yi AwaKvi I iv‡óªi ïfvïf wb‡q fvweZ ïfeyw× m¤úbœ cÖ‡Z¨K bvMwiKB mykxj mgv‡Ri m`m¨| A_©vr GKwU †`‡ki †h m‡PZb I †`k‡cÖwgK Rb‡Mvôx ivóª cwiPvjbvq miKv‡ii †hŠw³K mgv‡jvPbv K‡ib wKsev Drmvn cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g mn‡hvwMZv K‡ib †mB Rb‡Mvôx‡KB mykxj mgvR e‡j| ïay miKvi‡KB bq- †`‡ki me©¯—‡ii Kg©KvÊ wb‡qB Guiv K_v e‡jb Ges w`Kwb‡`©kbv cÖ`vb K‡ib| Giv RvwZi we‡eK wn‡m‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡ib| c„ôv-204


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ : M) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü ewY©Z `yb©xwZi ¯^iƒc e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ n‡q‡Q †h, `yb©xwZ GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa I Avš—R©vwZK mgm¨v| `yb©xwZi Kvi‡Y Av_©mvgvwRK fvimvg¨ webó nq I ¶gZv †K›`ªxf~Z nq| GB `yb©xwZ ax‡i ax‡i we¯—vi jvf K‡i| Z‡e mvgvwRK, ivR‰bwZK I A_©‰bwZKfv‡e hviv ¶gZvevb Zv‡`i cÖZ¨¶ Ask MÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g `ybx© wZ we¯—vi jvf K‡i| `yb©xwZi Avš—R©vwZK cÖfve Dcjwä K‡i RvwZmsN mvaviY cwil` 9 wW‡m¤^i‡K `yb©xwZ we‡ivax w`em wn‡m‡e †NvlYv w`‡q‡Q| Ô`ybx© wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `yb©xwZ‡K msÁvwqZ Kivi cvkvcvwk †Kb `yb©xwZ n‡”Q GB `yb©xwZi cÖfve I `yb©xwZ we‡ivax D‡`¨vM m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| Dwj−wLZ n‡q‡Q †h, weMZ K‡qK eQi a‡i `yb©xwZi Awf‡hv‡M Avgv‡`i †`k wecyjfv‡e mgv‡jvwPZ n‡”Q| wk¶v_©x‡`i gv‡S `yb©xwZi ¯^iƒc D‡b¥vP‡bi Rb¨B cÖeÜwU wjwLZ n‡q‡Q| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq †h, DÏxcK I Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `yb©xwZi ¯^iƒc e¨vL¨v Kiv n‡q‡Q; e¨vL¨v Kiv n‡q‡Q `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Dcvq I KiYxq wel‡q hye mgv‡Ri f~wgKv m¤ú‡K©| cÖkœ : N) Ô`yb©xwZ cÖwZKv‡ii Rb¨ ivóªxq D‡`¨v‡Mi cvkvcvwk mvaviY RbM‡Yi ¯^Ztù~Z© cÖwZ‡iva cÖ‡qvRbÕ- Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K gš—e¨wUi h_v_©Zv we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: `yb©xwZ GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa I Avš—R©vwZK mgm¨v| `yb©xwZi Kvi‡Y Av_©-mvgvwRK fvimvg¨ webó nq I ¶gZv †K›`ªxfyZ nq| ivR‰bwZK, A_©‰bwZK I mvgvwRKfv‡e hviv ¶gZvevb Zv‡`i cÖZ¨¶ AskMÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g `yb©xwZ we¯—vi jvf K‡i| `yb©xwZi Avš—R©vwZK cÖfve j¶ K‡i RvwZmsN mvaviY cwil` 9 wW‡m¤^i‡K Avš—R©vwZK `yb©xwZ we‡ivax w`em wn‡m‡e †NvlYv K‡i‡Q| `ybx© wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivqI DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü ewY©Z n‡q‡Q †h, weMZ K‡qK eQi a‡i Avgv‡`i †`k `yb©xwZi Awf‡hv‡M wecyjfv‡e mgv‡jvwPZ n‡q G‡m‡Q| ejv nw”Qj †h, `yb©xwZcivqY †jvK GLb Avi mgv‡R Am¤§vwbZ bq Ges `yb©xwZ‡K Aciva wn‡m‡e wPwýZ Kivi cÖeYZvI w`b w`b †jvc cv‡”Q| G‡Z `yb©xwZ cÖvq AwjwLZ ˆeaZvi ch©v‡q G‡m `uvwo‡qwQj| Avš—R©vwZKfv‡eI `yb©xwZ GKwU fxwZKi mgm¨v n‡q `uvwo‡q‡Q| G‡K †K›`ª K‡i RvwZmsN mvaviY cwil` eQ‡ii GKwU wbw`©ó w`b‡K `yb©xwZ we‡ivax w`em wn‡m‡e †NvlYv K‡i‡Q| Gi GKwUB D‡Ïk¨ ivóª I RbMY‡K `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a m‡PZb K‡i †Zvjv| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K mn‡RB cÖZxqgvb nq †h, `yb©xwZ cÖwZKv‡ii Rb¨ ivóªxq D‡`¨v‡Mi cvkvcvwk mvaviY RbM‡Yi ¯^Ztù~Z© cÖwZ‡iva cÖ‡qvRb|

“ wb‡Pi wPÎwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) RvZxq ivR¯^ †ev‡W©i g‡Z evsjv‡`‡k A‰ea Av‡qi cwigvY †gvU RvZxq Av‡qi KZ fvM? (Ávbg~jK)

DËi: RvZxq ivR¯^ †ev‡W©i g‡Z evsjv‡`‡k A‰ea Av‡qi cwigvY †gvU RvZxq Av‡qi 30-40 fvM| c„ôv-205


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (L) `yb©xwZ we‡ivax mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb ej‡Z Kx eyS? (Abyavebg~jK)

DËi: mgv‡Ri mKj ¯—‡ii gvbyl †Kvb bv †Kvb fv‡e `yb©xwZi d‡j ¶wZi wkKvi nq| G `ybx© wZi wei“‡× Rbm‡PZbZv m„wó‡Z bvMwiK mgvR ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| ¯’vbxq ch©v‡qi bvMwiK msMVb ¸‡jvi `yb©xwZi wei“‡× Av‡›`vjb M‡o †Zvjv‡K `yb©xwZi wei“‡× mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb e‡j| `ybx© wZ cÖwZKv‡ii Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb ivóªxq D‡`¨v‡Mi cvkvcvwk mvaviY RbM‡Yi ¯^Ztù~Z© cÖwZ‡iva| GB ¯^Ztù~Z© cÖwZ‡ivaB n‡”Q mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb| cÖkœ: (M) wP‡Î Dwj−wLZ `yb©xwZi KviY¸‡jv Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡ÜI Av‡jvwPZ

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“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

A‰ea c‡_ †¯ú‡b cvwo Rgv‡bvi ci †m †`‡ki cywj‡ki nv‡Z aiv c‡o †Rj †L‡U evsjv‡`‡k wd‡i G‡m‡Q 48 hyeK| GKwU we‡kl wmwÛ‡KU bZzb cÖRb¥‡K weåvš— K‡i A‰ea c‡_ we‡`‡k cvwV‡q‡Q| miKvwifv‡e G welqwU LwZ‡q †`Lv n‡”Q| Z‡e GKwU Dbœqbkxj †`‡k mK‡ji mw¤§wjZ cÖ‡Póvq me©cK Ö vi `ybx© wZ †iva m¤¢e| c„ôv-206


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

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“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

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evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) Demos k‡ãi A_© Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Demos k‡ãi A_© n‡”Q RbMY| cÖkœ: (L) †gŠwjK AwaKvi ej‡Z Kx eyS? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: †Kvb iv‡óªi cÖ‡Z¨K bvMwi‡Ki euvPvi AwaKvi, a‡g©i AwaKvi, ms¯‹…wZi AwaKvi, wk¶v jv‡fi AwaKvi, wPwKrmv jv‡fi AwaKvi, gZvgZ I msMV‡bi AwaKvi, wbe©vwPZ Kivi AwaKvi I wbe©vwPZ nIqvi AwaKvi, m¤úwËi AwaKvi, Pzw³i AwaKvi, we‡qi AwaKvi, AvB‡bi AwaKvi- BZ¨vw` AwaKvi‡K †gŠwjK AwaKvi e‡j| Avgv‡`i msweav‡bi Z…Zxq fvMwU A_©vr 26Zg aviv †_‡K 47(K) aviv ch©š— wewaweavb¸‡jv bvMwiK‡`i †gŠwjK AwaKvi wbwðZ Kivi A½xKvi cÖ`vb K‡i| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡K ivR‰bwZK BwZevPK †h w`KwU dz‡U I‡V‡Q Zv Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Ô`yb©xwZÕ mgvR Rxe‡bi GK gvivZ¥K e¨vwa| `yb©xwZi d‡j mgv‡Ri mKj gvbyl †Kvb bv †Kvb fv‡e ¶wZi wkKvi nq| `ybx© wZi d‡j mgv‡Ri GKwU †kªYxi gvbyl ¶gZvevb I weËevb nq, †Zgwb Ab¨ GKwU †kªYx AwZ `wi`ª nq| d‡j mgv‡R †kªYx- ˆelg¨ m„wó nq| Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `yb©xwZi KviY, Gi we¯—vi I `yb©xwZ `g‡b GKwU MYZvwš¿K iv‡óª ivR‰bwZK `j¸‡jvi mw`”Qvi †NvlYv e¨³ n‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki eZ©gvb mvgvwRK †cÖ¶vc‡U cÖkvm‡b e¨vcK ivR‰bwZK cÖfve j¶Yxq| cÖkvmwbK Kg©KZ©viv wb‡R‡`i ¯^v‡_© ivR‰bwZK `‡ji gyLv‡c¶x n‡q _v‡K| Z‡e ivR‰bwZK cÖfve BwZevPK n‡j ivóªxq cÖkvmbI kw³kvjx nq| G‡Z K‡i ivóª mywbw`©ó wbqg-bxwZ, AvBb Kvbyb I wewa-weav‡bi AvIZvq †_‡K mn‡R `vq-`vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i _v‡K| G QvovI MYZvwš¿K kvmb e¨e¯’vq RbM‡Yi †fv‡U wbe©vwPZ `jB miKvi MVb K‡i ivóª cwiPvjbvi `vwqZ¡ MÖnY K‡i| myZivs, ivR‰bwZK g~j¨‡eva †_‡K ivR‰bwZK `j mr I Avš—wiK n‡j `yb©xwZ †iva K‡i mykvmb cÖwZôvi gva¨‡g †`‡ki Dbœqb Kiv m¤¢e| A_©vr BwZevPK ivR‰bwZK c`‡¶‡cB `ybx© wZ cÖwZ‡iva m¤¢e| cÖkœ : (N) ÔBwZevPK †NvlYvq ivR‰bwZK `j¸‡jvi cÖwZ Rb Av¯’v wd‡i Gj|Õ Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ- cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv���K Dw³wUi h_v_©Zv wePvi KiÕ| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: DÏxcKwU †`‡ki kxl©¯v’ bxq ivR‰bwZK `j¸‡jvi BwZevPK `„wófw½ I †NvlYvi Dci wfwË K‡i ˆZwi n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K ivR‰bwZK `j¸‡jv `yb©xwZevR‡K ivR‰bwZK c` bv †`Iqvi †NvlYv K‡i‡Q Ges m`m¨iv †hb Av‡qi Drm m¤ú‡K© `j‡K AewnZ K‡i †m e¨e¯’v MÖnY K‡i‡Q| G BwZevPK †NvlYvq ivR‰bwZK `j¸‡jvi cÖwZ RbAv¯’v wd‡i Avm‡Z †`Lv hvq| Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `yb©xwZ we‡ivax D‡`¨vM cÖf„wZ m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| G‡K mvgvwRK e¨vwa AvL¨vwqZ K‡i `ybx© wZ †iv‡a bvMwiK mgvR Z_v Zi“Y‡`i mwµq fywgKv cvjb Ki‡Z ejv n‡q‡Q| †Rvi †`Iqv n‡q‡Q `ybx© wZi wei“‡× `„wófw½ cwieZ©‡bi| `yb©xwZ we‡ivax †RvUe× mvgvwRK Av‡›`vj‡bi cÖ‡qvRbxqZvi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| †Rvi †`Iqv n‡q‡Q wbt¯^v_© I `ytmvnmx Zvi“‡Y¨i ewjô f~wgKvi cÖwZ| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbvi w`K we‡ePbv K‡i Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wU‡K h_v_© I Zvrch©gq ejv P‡j|

c„ôv-208


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi wPÎwU †`L Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) ÔAvš—R©vwZK `yb©xwZ we‡ivaxÕ mb‡` KZwU †`k ¯^v¶i K‡i‡Q? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔAvš—R©vwZK `yb©xwZ we‡ivaxÕ mb‡` 150wU †`k ¯^v¶i K‡i‡Q| cÖkœ: (L) ÔmykvmbÕ ej‡Z Kx eyS? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ivóª cwiPvjbvq me©Î AvB‡bi kvmb, ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZv wbwðZ Kivi bvgB mykvmb| GB mykvmb cÖwZôv Ki‡Z n‡j e¨w³MZ ¯^v_©, `jxq `„wófw½, bvbv c¶cvZ I jvfvjv‡fi c_ cwinvi K‡i GKwU ¯^”Q I Revew`wng~jK Ae¯’vb MÖnY Ki‡Z nq| Gfv‡e ivóªe¨e¯’vi Aš—M©Z cÖwZôv‡b ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZv wbwðZ Kivi bvgB mykvmb| cÖkœ: (M) wPÎwU Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi cÖwZ”Qwe gvÎ|Õ e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: GKwU PZzfy©‡Ri gv‡S Aw¼Z wPÎwU `yb©xwZi GKwU LÊ wP·K Dc¯’vcb K‡i‡Q| wP‡Î evsjv‡`‡ki A‡_©i cvkvcvwk Wjvi, `wjj, Kv‡jvnvZ ¯’vb †c‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K `ybx© wZ‡K cÖwZ‡iv‡ai †¯−vMvb †hgb D”PvwiZ n‡q‡Q, †Zgwb mvgvwRK e¨vwai cvkvcvwk `ybx© wZ GKwU Avš—R©vwZK mgm¨v G Z_¨wUI †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K `yb©xwZi mvi K_v D‡V G‡jI Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `yb©xwZ, `yb©xwZ †Kb msNwUZ nq, `yb©xwZi e¨vcK cÖfve I we¯—vi, `yb©xwZ †iva Kivi Dcvq Ges `yb©xwZ we‡ivax D‡`¨vM MVb I mdj Kivi Dcvq ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| cÖe‡Ü `yb©xwZi fqvenZv ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| ejv n‡q‡Q †h, ¯^vaxbZvi GZ eQi c‡iI Avgv‡`i Kvw•¶Z ¯^cœ ev¯—evwqZ nq wb †Kej mxgvnxb `ybx© wZi Kvi‡Y| cÖe‡Ü AwaKZi †Rvi w`‡q ejv n‡q‡Q †h, `ybx© wZ GLb GKwU Avš—R©vwZK mgm¨v| d‡j 9 wW‡m¤^i‡K RvwZmsN mvaviY cwil` ÔAvš—R©vwZK `yb©xwZ we‡ivax w`emÕ wn‡m‡e †NvlYv K‡i‡Q| RvZxq I Avš—R©vwZKfv‡eB `yb©xwZ †h GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa I mgm¨v Zv Av‡jvP¨ cÖe‡Üi b¨vq wPÎwU‡ZI D‡V G‡m‡Q| G Kvi‡YB wPÎwU‡K Ô`ybx© wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi cÖwZ”Qwe ejv hvq|

c„ôv-209


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: (N) Ô`yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a mvgvwRK Av‡›`vj‡bi weKí †bB|Õ Ô`ybx© wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K gš—e¨wUi h_v_©Zv wePvi Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: wPÎwU‡Z †`wk-we‡`wk gy`ªv, `wjj, Kv‡jv nvZ cÖf„wZ Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q| `yb©xwZi Qvc my¯úó| `yb©xwZ GLb ïay GKwU Av‡jvwPZ welqB bq evsjv‡`k I Avš—Rv© wZK mgm¨vi †¶‡ÎI GwU Ab¨Zg| `yb©xwZ GKvav‡i †hgb GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa, †Zgwb GKwU Avš—R©vwZK mgm¨v| ïi“‡Z `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iva Kiv bv †M‡j GwU e¨vcK AvKvi aviY K‡i Ges ax‡i ax‡i cy‡iv kvmb e¨e¯’v `yb©xwZMÖ¯— n‡q c‡o| wPÎwU‡Z `yb©xwZi fqvenZv Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| Ô`yb©xwZ Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `yb©xwZ‡K GKwU mvgvwRK I Avš—R©vwZK mgm¨v wn‡m‡e wPwýZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| `yb©xwZi Kvi‡Y Av_©-mvgvwRK fvimvg¨ webó nq I ¶gZv †K›`ªxf~Z nq| `yb©xwZ cÖwZKv‡ii Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb ivóªxq D‡`¨v‡Mi cvkvcvwk mvaviY RbM‡Yi ¯^Ztù~Z© cÖwZ‡iva| `yb©xwZ‡iv‡a bvMwiK mgvR, we‡kl K‡i Zi“Y mgvR‡K mwµq f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z n‡e| `ybx© wZi wei“‡× mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb M‡o Zzj‡Z wbt¯^v_© I mvnmx Zvi“‡Y¨i ewjô f~wgKvi weKí †bB| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbvi m~Î a‡i ejv hvq †h, `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a mvgvwRK Av‡›`vj‡bi weKí †bB| Dw³wU Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K h_v_© I Zvrch©c~Y© n‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi wPÎwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

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c„ôv-210


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: (K) evsjv‡`k KZ mv‡j RvwZmsN mvaviY cwil` cÖYxZ ÔAvš—R©vwZK `yb©xwZ we‡ivax mb`ÕG ¯^v¶i K‡i‡Q? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: evsjv‡`k 2007 mv‡ji 27 †deª“qvwi RvwZmsN mvaviY cwil` cÖYxZ ÔAvš—Rv© wZK `yb©xwZ we‡ivax mb`ÕG ¯^v¶i K‡i‡Q| cÖk:œ (L) Kvh©Ki msm` ej‡Z Kx eyS? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: mykvmb cÖwZôvi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb Kvh©Ki msm`| G Rb¨ msm‡` cÖ‡kœvËi ce©, g‡bv‡hvM AvKl©Y, Rb¸i“Z¡c~Y© wel‡q Av‡jvPbv, wewfbœ wewa‡Z e³e¨ cÖ`vb, kw³kvjx KwgwU e¨e¯’vi welq¸‡jv ¸i“Z¡c~Y©| G cwµqvq we‡kl K‡i msm‡`i miKvwi m¤úwK©Z ¯’vqx KwgwU `yb©xwZ‡iva I mykvmb cÖwZôvi †¶‡Î ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| cÖk:œ (M) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K Ô`ybx© wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü ewY©Z `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡ai welq e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxcKwU‡Z RbZv mg‡eZ n‡q‡Q| Zviv `yb©xwZi wei“‡× c−¨vKvW© enb Ki‡Q| AmsL¨ c−¨vKv‡W© †jLv i‡q‡Q- `yb©xwZ _vgvb; GLbB `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iva Ki“b| Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `yb©xwZ †iv‡ai welq- ivR‰bwZK mw`”Qv, mwµq `yb©xwZ `gb Kwgkb I `yb©xwZ we‡ivax mvgvwRK Av‡›`vj‡bi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K `yb©xwZ we‡ivax mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjbwU D‡V G‡m‡Q| G mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb `yb©xwZ we‡ivax cÖwZev`‡K ¯úó K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| `yb©xwZ †h GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa Ges mvaviY RbMY †h Zv ¯^Ztù~Z©fv‡e cÖwZ‡iva Ki‡Q Zv wPÎwU †_‡K ¯úó n‡q I‡V| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K ejv hvq †h, DÏxcKwU Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü ewY©Z `yb©xwZ we‡ivax mvgvwRK Av‡›`vj‡K ¯úó K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) Ô`yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a mvgvwRK Av‡›`vj‡bi weKí †bB|Õ `ybx© wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wUi ¯^iƒc we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: wPÎwU‡Z GKwU wgwQj `„k¨gvb n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b cÖwZev‡`i KvZv‡i RbZv mg‡eZ n‡q‡Q| A_©vr, GLv‡b mvgvwRK Av‡›`vj‡bi Ici †Rvi †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| wgwQ‡j hviv G‡m‡Q Zv‡`i nv‡Z i‡q‡Q c−¨vKvW©| c−¨vKv‡W© Ô`yb©xwZ _vgvb; Ô`yb©xwZ _vgvb GLbBÕ- K_v¸‡jv †jLv i‡q‡Q| Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `yb©xwZ‡K GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa wn‡m‡e AvL¨vwqZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b GI ejv n‡q‡Q †h, `ybx© wZ cÖwZKv‡ii Rb¨ ivóªxq D‡`¨v‡Mi cvkvcvwk mvaviY RbM‡Yi ¯^Z:ù~Z© cÖwZ‡iva cÖ‡qvRb| G `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a bvMwiK mgvR, we‡kl K‡i hye mgvR‡K mwµq f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z n‡e| G †`‡ki hye mgvR evievi cÖgvY K‡i‡Q Avgiv nvwiwb, Avgiv †c‡iwQ, Avgiv cvi‡ev| Gfv‡e `yb©xwZ we‡ivax mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb M‡o Zzj‡Z n‡e| DcwiD³ cÖ‡kœi Av‡jv‡K Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi eY©bvi cÖm½ a‡i ejv hvq †h, Ô`yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a mvgvwRK Av‡›`vj‡bi weKí †bBÕ|

c„ôv-211


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi wPÎwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

`yb©xwZ GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) KZ mv‡j MYAfy¨Ìvb msNwUZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: 1969 mv‡j MYAfy¨Ìvb msNwUZ nq| cÖkœ: L) RbcÖkvmb ej‡Z Kx eyS? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: iv‡óªi †h cÖkvmb e¨e¯’v RbM‡Yi †mevq cÖZ¨¶fv‡e KvR K‡i Zv‡K RbcÖkvmb (Public administration) e‡j| wbgœZg †_‡K D”PZg ch©vq ch©š— µgwef³ KZ…©‡Z¡i wfwˇZ msMwVZ RbcÖkvmb GKwU ivóªh‡š¿i PvwjKv kw³ wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| cÖkœ: M) wPÎwU Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi †h w`KwU‡K wb‡`©k K‡i‡Q Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxcKwU‡Z GKwU `yb©xwZMÖ¯— e¨w³i Qwe Aw¼Z n‡q‡Q| gvbylwU A‰ea c‡_ cÖPzi A_© Avq Ki‡Q Ges Dov‡”Q| Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `yb©xwZ, `yb©xwZi KviY, `yb©xwZi cÖfve, `ybx© wZ‡iv‡ai Dcvq Ges `ybx© wZ we‡ivax D‡`¨vM Av‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Q| e¨w³MZ ¯^v‡_©v×v‡ii Rb¨ ¶gZvi Ace¨enviB nj `yb©xwZ| Nyl MÖnY I Nyl cÖ`vb, miKvwi Kg©Pvix‡K Aciv‡a mnvqZv Kiv, †eAvBwbfv‡e †Kvb e¨emv‡q m¤ú„³ nIqv- G w`K¸‡jv `yb©xwZMÖ¯— e¨w³gvÎB msNwUZ K‡i _v‡K| wP‡Îi PwiÎwU‡K Giƒc Kg©Kv‡Ê KjywlZ g‡b nq| A_© DcvR©b Ges A_©e¨q DfqB Zvi Kv‡Q Zvgvkv e‡j g‡b nq| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K cÖZxqgvb nq †h wPÎwU Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü ewY©Z `yb©xwZ I `yb©xwZMÖ¯— e¨w³‡K wb‡`©k K‡i‡Q| N)

Ô`yb©xwZ GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwaÕ- Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wUi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: wPÎwU‡Z GKwU `yb©xwZMÖ¯— e¨w³‡K Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| †jvKwU A‰ea c‡_ DcvwR©Z A_© cÖ`k©b Ki‡Q| †m m‡½ gvbylwU‡K myweavRbKI g‡b n‡”Q bv| Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `ybx© wZ, `ybx© wZi KviY, `ybx© wZi cÖfve, `ybx© wZ cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Dcvq, `yb©xwZ we‡ivax D‡`¨vM cÖf„wZ Av‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Q| cÖeÜwU‡Z `yb©xwZ‡K GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa wn‡m‡e AvL¨vwqZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| †m m‡½ `yb©xwZ †h GKwU mvgvwRK mgm¨v G K_vI Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| `yb©xwZMÖ¯— n‡q co‡j GKwU ivóª Zvi Dbœq‡bi ¯^vfvweK MwZ nvwi‡q †d‡j| GKwU †`k‡K mg„w×i c‡_ GwM‡q wb‡Z n‡j mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb M‡o †Zvjv n‡j †`kwUi cÖwZwU †¶‡Î `yb©xwZ †iv‡ai Dcvq †ei K‡i `yb©xwZ †iva Ki‡Z n‡e| †Kbbv, my‡hvM †c‡jB `yb©xwZ fvBiv‡m Avµvš— n‡q GKwU RvwZ I †`k m¤¢vebvi c_ †_‡K wQU‡K co‡Z cv‡i| wPÎwU G cÖZxKx iƒc n‡q aiv w`‡q‡Q| c„ôv-212


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

wPÎwU `yb©xwZi cÖZxK gvÎ| G wePv‡i `yb©xwZ †h GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa Zv Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K ev¯—e m‡Z¨ cwiYZ n‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi †iLvwPÎwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (kviwgb myjZvbv)

kw³kvjx ¯’vbxq miKvi e¨e¯’vi Afve

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) Ô`yb©xwZÕ kãwU †Kv_v †_‡K G‡m‡Q? [Ávbg~jK] DËi: `yb©xwZ ev Corruption kãwU j¨vwUb kã ‘Corruptus’ †_‡K G‡m‡Q| cÖkœ: L) RbcÖkvmb ej‡Z Kx †evS? [Abyavebg~jK] DËi: iv‡óªi †h cÖkvmb e¨e¯’v RbM‡Yi †mevi Rb¨ cÖZ¨¶fv‡e KvR K‡i hvq ZvB RbcÖkvmb| mywbw`©ó wbqgbxwZ, AvBb Kvbyb I wewaweav‡bi AvIZvq RbcÖkvmb ivóªh‡š¿i g‡a¨ †_‡K `vq-`vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡i| AvwacZ¨ ci¤úi AbymiY K‡i h_vh_fv‡e cÖRvZ‡š¿i †mev cÖ`vbB RbcÖkvm‡bi KvR| A_©vr wbgœZg †_‡K D”PZg ch©vq ch©š— µgwef³ KZ…©‡Z¡i wfwˇZ msMwVZ RbcÖkvmb GKwU ivóªh‡š¿i PvwjKv kw³ wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| mKj ¯—‡ii miKvwi Kg©Pvix| Kg©KZ©vMY RbcÖkvm‡bi m`m¨| cÖkœ: M) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K `yb©xwZi AvBbMZ I cÖkvmwbK KviY¸‡jv e¨vL¨v Ki| [cÖ‡qvMg~jK] DËi: `ybx© wZ msNU‡b †ek wKQz KviY cÖfveK wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| e¨w³MZ Kvi‡Yi cvkvcvwk c×wZMZ wKQz KviY I `yb©xwZi we¯—vi NUv‡Z ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| Z‡e mvaviYfv‡e wb‡gœv³ welq¸‡jv‡K `yb©xwZi g~j KviY wn‡m‡e wPwýZ Kiv hvq, †hgbAvBbMZ I cÖkvmwbK KviY1) RvZxq cÖwZôvb¸‡jvi AKvh©KvwiZv `yb©xwZi Ab¨Zg KviY| G me cÖwZôv‡bi ¯^vaxbZv I wbi‡c¶Zv wbwðZ bv n‡j †`‡k `yb©xwZi gvÎv e„w× cvq| 2) evsjv‡`‡ki eZ©gvb mvgvwRK †cÖ¶vc‡U cÖkvm‡b e¨vcK ivR‰bwZK cÖfve j¶Yxq| ivR‰bwZK cÖwµqv `yb©xwZMÖ¯— Ges RbcÖkvm‡b Gi h‡_ó cÖfve _vKvi Kvi‡Y AvgjvZvwš¿K `yb©xwZ ¯^vfvweKfv‡eB e„w× cvq| 3) mgvR I iv‡óªi wewfbœ ¯—‡i `yb©xwZ we¯—v‡ii GKwU Ab¨Zg KviY n‡jv cÖkvm‡b ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Afve| 4) wbw`©ó `vwq‡Z¡ AwawôZ e¨w³‡`i `vwqZ¡ cvj‡b Ae‡njvI `yb©xwZi Ab¨Zg KviY| 5) wewfbœ †mev msµvš— Ges ivóªxq Z‡_¨ mvaviY RbM‡Yi AwaKvi bv _vKvi Kvi‡Y `ybx© wZ Kivi my‡hvM †e‡o hvq| c„ôv-213


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: N) e¨w³ I mgvR Rxe‡b `yb©xwZi †h cÖfve †`Lv hvq Zv Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| [D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK] DËi: Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖeÜwU‡Z `yb©xwZi ¯^iƒc, Gi KviY I cÖwZKvi Ges e¨w³, mgvR I ivóªxq Rxe‡b `yb©xwZi cÖfve wb‡q we¯—vwiZ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| mgv‡R `yb©xwZi cÖfve my`~i cÖmvix| Gi ¶wZKi cÖfve cwigvc K‡i †kl Kiv hv‡e bv| `ybx© wZi d‡j GKRb e¨w³ ¯^vfvweK Rxeb †_‡K wQU‡K c‡o| `yb©xwZ Ggb GKwU mvgvwRK mgm¨v hv Av‡iv A‡bK mgm¨vi cÖfveK wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| ¶zav, `vwi`ª¨ I †eKviZ¡ g~jZ `yb©xwZ I mvgvwRK Aw¯’wZkxjZvi Rb¨B m„wó nq| `yb©xwZi d‡j A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK I ivR‰bwZK AivRKZv m„wó nq| †Kvb GKwU †`‡k we`¨gvb `ybx© wZi Kvi‡Y ¶gZvmxb I `vwqZ¡cvÖ ß e¨w³ivB ivóªxq my‡hvM-myweav cÖ`vb, wmwʇK‡Ui gva¨‡g `ªe¨g~j¨ evwo‡q AwaK gybvdv AR©b, miKvwi A_© I Aby`vb AvZ¥mvr mn bvbv Awbq‡g Rwo‡q c‡o| iv‡óªi †mev cÖ`vbKvix cÖwZôvb, †hgb: cywjk, Kv÷gm, we`y¨r, M¨vm, †Uwj‡dvb cÖf„wZ Lv‡Z e¨vcK Ny‡li †jb‡`b I KviPzwc †`Lv hvq| d‡j mvaviY RbMb ewÂZ nIqv QvovI bvbviKg nqivwbi wkKvi nq ninv‡gkvB| `ybx© wZi d‡j gvby‡li RxebhvÎvi e¨q ev‡o, Dbœqb e¨vnZ nq I ivóªxq m¤ú‡`i AcPq nq| K…wl I wkíLv‡Z Drcv`b e¨vnZ nq gvivZ¥Kfv‡e| `yb©xwZi d‡j wbgœ Av‡qi gvby‡li Avq AviI K‡g hvq| `ªe¨g~j¨ †e‡o hvIqvi d‡j µq¶gZv K‡g hvq| d‡j RbMY wk¶v, ¯^v¯’¨ b¨vqwePvi I Ab¨vb¨ †gŠwjK AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ nq Ges A_©‰bwZK ˆel‡g¨i wkKvi nq| Dch©y³ Av‡jvPbvq †`Lv hvq, `yb©xwZi d‡j ivóªxq Rxe‡b MYZvwš¿K cÖwµqv I cÖkvmwbK cÖwµqv evavcÖvß nq| `yb©xwZi d‡j m„ó mvgvwRK ˆelg¨ wek„•Ljv I Aw¯’wZkxj cwi‡e‡ki m„wó nq| abx `wi‡`ªi Av‡qi ˆelg¨ †e‡o hvq|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (kviwgb myjZvbv)

10 Rvbyqvwi- 2011mvj AvR Avgvi wb‡Ri Rb¨ wb‡Ri Me© n‡”Q| `yb©xwZ Ki‡j Zvi kvw¯— AeavwiZ| G K_vB AvR cÖgvwYZ n‡q‡Q| Avgvi mnKg©x Avn‡g` mv‡ne †ek wejvm eûj Rxeb hvcb KiwQ‡jb| Zvi eY©vX¨ Rxeb-hvcb Avgv‡K cÖwZ gyn~‡Z© AvnZ KiZ| wKQz‡ZB eyS‡Z cviwQjvg bv Kxfv‡e wZwb Ggb Rxeb-hvcb Ki‡Zb| Zvi RxebhvÎv GZB eY©vX¨ wQj †h cÖwZwbqZ Avgv‡K Avgvi ¯¿x-cy‡Îi bvbv KUv‡¶i gy‡LvgywL n‡Z nZ| wb‡R‡K Ac`v‡_©i g‡Zv g‡b nZ| wKš‘ ˆbwZKZv wemR©b †`q wb KL‡bvB| cywjk G‡m hLb Avn‡g` mv‡n‡ei nv‡Z nvZKov civj ZLb Zvi wejvmeûj Rxe‡bi †Mvcb inm¨ cÖKvk †cj| Avn‡g` mv‡ne Nyl †L‡q AvR abx e‡b †M‡Qb| Avm‡j Ggbfv‡e Rxeb-hvc‡bi Rb¨ Nyl †bIqv GKwU RNb¨ Aciva| AvR Zvi cwiYwZ mwZ¨B j¾vRbK| Kv‡iv †hb Ggb ˆbwZK Ae¶q bv N‡U| †h ¯¿x GKmgq Avgv‡K KUv¶ KiZ, Avn‡g` mv‡n‡ei G cwiYwZ †`‡L †mI Avgvi Rb¨ Me©‡eva Ki‡Q| c„ôv-214


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) †Kvb AvB‡bi Ici Ô`y`KÕ cÖwZwóZ nq? [Ávbg~jK] DËi: 2003 mv‡j M„nxZ `ybx© wZ `gb AvB‡bi Ici wfwË K‡i 2004 mv‡j `y`K (`yb©xwZ `gb Kwgkb) cÖwZwôZ nq| cÖkœ: L) mykxj mgvR ej‡Z Kx eyS? [Abyavebg~jK] DËi: RbM‡Yi AwaKvi I iv‡óªi ïfvïf wb‡q fvweZ ïf eyw× m¤úbœ cÖ‡Z¨K bvMwiKB mykxj mgv‡Ri m`m¨| A_©vr GKwU †`‡ki †h m‡PZb I †`k‡cÖwgK Rb‡Mvôx ivóª cwiPvjbvq miKvi‡K †hŠw³K mgv‡jvPbv K‡i wKsev Drmvn cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g mn‡hvwMZv K‡i †mB Rb‡Mvôx‡KB e‡j mykxj mgvR| ïay miKvi‡KB bq; †`‡ki me©¯—‡ii Kg©KvÊ wb‡qB Guiv K_v e‡jb I w`Kwb‡`©kbv cÖ`vb K‡ib| Guiv RvwZi we‡eK wn‡m‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡ib| d‡j `yb©xwZMÖ¯— ivóªe¨e¯’vq mykxj mgvR msMÖvgx f~wgKv cvjb K‡i Ges AwaKvsk †¶‡Î miKv‡ii †ivlvb‡j cwZZ nq| cÖkœ: M) DÏxc‡K Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi e³‡e¨i †h cÖwZdjb N‡U‡Q Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| [cÖ‡qvMg~jK] DËi: Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖeÜwU‡K `yb©xwZi KviY I Zvi cÖwZKvi m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡K `yb©xwZi d‡j GKRb e¨w³i Ae¯’v KZ fqven n‡Z cv‡i Zv Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| `yb©xwZ GKwU fqven mvgvwRK e¨vwa| DÏxc‡Ki Avn‡g` mv‡ne `ybx© wZ K‡i A_©‰bwZK my‡hvM-myweav †fvM K‡i‡Qb| Zvi `yb©xwZi Kvi‡Y GKB c‡` Kg©iZ Wv‡qwi †jL‡Ki m‡½ Zvi A_©‰bwZK ˆelg¨ cÖKU n‡q‡Q| Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi g~j cÖwZcv`¨ wel‡qi cÖwZdjb †`Lv hvq DÏxc‡K `ybx© wZi gva¨‡g m¤ú‡`i cvnvo M‡o Zzj‡j Zv mvgwqK w¯’wZ cvq| Avn‡g` mv‡ne bxwZˆbwZKZv I g~j¨‡eva RjvÄwj w`‡q A‰ea m¤ú‡`i cvnvo M‡o‡Qb| wKš‘ Zvi †kli¶v nqwb| `yb©xwZi `v‡q Avn‡g` mv‡n‡e‡K cywjk AvUK K‡i wb‡q hvq| Zv‡K wePv‡ii gy‡LvgywL n‡Z n‡e| †Kbbv †KD AvB‡bi E‡aŸ© bq, Revew`wnZvi E‡aŸ© bq- cÖe‡Üi GB welqwU DÏxc‡K ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: N) Avn‡g` mv‡n‡ei Kg©gq Rxeb I cwiYwZ Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I Dbœq‡bi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| [D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK] DËi: Ô`ybx© wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü `yb©xwZi KviY I Zvi cÖwZKvi m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki Wv‡qwi †jLK I Avn‡g` mv‡ne `yRbB GKB Awd‡m GKB c‡` Kg©iZ n‡jI `yR‡bi gvbwmKZv I e¨w³‡Z¡i AvKvk cvZvj cv_©K¨ cwijw¶Z nq| Wv‡qwi †jLK K‡Vvi ˆbwZKZv I g~j¨‡ev‡ai AwaKvix| mZZv I ˆbwZKZv wemR©b †`Iqv Zuvi c‡¶ m¤¢e nqwb| wZwb Zuvi mnKg©xi `ybx© wZi K_v eyS‡Z cvi‡jI KLbI bxwZ wei“× Kv‡R wb‡R‡K KjywlZ Kivi †Póv K‡ib wb| †eZ‡bi UvKvq Kó K‡i msmvi Pvwj‡q‡Qb| Ab¨w`‡K Avn‡g` mv‡ne bxwZ-ˆbwZKZv wemR©b w`‡q `yb©xwZi Avkªq wb‡q m¤ú`kvjx n‡q‡Qb| wZwb Lye mn‡R mZZv I ˆbwZKZv wemR©b w`‡q‡Q| Wv‡qwi †jLK I Avn‡g` mv‡n‡ei gvbwmKZvi ¯úó cv_©K¨ cwijw¶Z nq| †kl ch©š— Avn‡g` mv‡ne‡K `yb©xwZi `v‡q cywjk AvUK K‡i| Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi ¯úó cÖwZdjb N‡U‡Q DÏxc‡K| G cÖe‡Üi D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q `ybx© wZ †iva Kiv Ges `ybx© wZ m¤ú‡K© Rbm‡PZbZv e„w× K‡i G‡K mnbxq ch©v‡q ivLv| DÏxc‡Ki Avn‡g` mv‡n‡ei AvB‡bi gy‡LvgywL nIqvB cÖgvY K‡i ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi h_v‡hvM¨ cÖ‡qvM _vK‡j †Kv‡bv e¨w³ `yb©xwZMÖ¯— n‡e bv|

c„ôv-215


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (kviwgb myjZvbv) Kz‡ei†kZjeveyKz‡ei†kZj-

Kx Kb? (ivMvwš^Z ¯^‡i) Kx Kb? Kx Rvbm bv? gvQ jBqv Avq| wZbWv Avwbm| gvQ Z bvB †kZjevey| bvB wK †i, bvB? †ivR Avgv‡i gvQ †`I‡bi K_v bv Zi? wb‡q Avq Mv, hv| eo †`BLv Avwbm| Kz‡eiAvBR cvi“g bv †kZjevey| AvRvb Lyov wm`v †gvi w`‡K PvBqv iB‡Q †`L bv? evRv‡i †K‡bv Mv AvBR| †kZjevey- (wgbwZ K‡i) wZbWv gvQ AvBR ZzB †` Kz‡ei| Ggb Kim K¨vb? cqmv bq KqWv †ewkB jBm, AvuB? Kz‡eiZvwj LvwbK `uvovI †kZjevey|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) Kx Kvi‡Y ivóªxq m¤ú‡`i AcPq nq? [Ávbg~jK] DËi: `yb©xwZi Kvi‡Y ivóªxq m¤ú‡`i AcPq nq| cÖkœ: L) ¯^”QZv ej‡Z Kx †evS? [Abyavebg~jK] DËi: ¯^”QZv k‡ãi AvwfavwbK A_© wbfyj © Zv, m‡›`nvZxZfv‡e mwVKZv I mnR‡eva¨Zv| ivóª cwiPvjbvq ¶z`ª ¶z`ª cÖwZôvb †_‡K ïi“ K‡i m‡e©v”P ch©vq ch©š— wewa-weav‡b I AvBb- Kvby‡b ¯^”QZv †hgb _vKv `iKvi †Zgwb Zv cÖ‡qv‡MI ¯^”QZv _vKv cÖ‡qvRb| Av‡jvK‡f`x ¯^”Q Kuv‡Pi g‡Zv iv‡óªi mKj Kg©KvÊ `„wóMÖvn¨ I †evaMg¨ nIqv †evSv‡ZB GB kãwU e¨envi Kiv nq| Gi m‡½ wbf©i‡hvM¨Zv I h_v_©Zv RwoZ| cÖkœ: M) DÏxc‡K Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi †h e³‡e¨i cÖwZdjb N‡U‡Q Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| [cÖ‡qvMg~jK] DËi: Ô`ybx© wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖeÜwU‡Z `yb©xwZi KviY I Zvi cÖwZKvi m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡KI `yb©xwZi wKQz KviY Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| `yb©xwZ GKwU fqven mvgvwRK e¨vwa| GwU †hb mgv‡Ri i‡Ü« i‡Ü« †cuŠ‡Q †M‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki `ywU Pwi‡Îi g‡a¨ GKRb `yb©xwZ K‡i‡Q Ges Ab¨Rb Zv‡K DrmvwnZ K‡i‡Q| Kz‡ei Zvi gvwjK‡K duvwK w`‡q gvQ wewµ K‡i‡Q kxZj eveyi Kv‡Q| Avi kxZj evey Zv‡K gvQ wewµ Ki‡Z DrmvwnZ K‡i‡Q †ewk UvKvi cÖ‡jvfb †`wL‡q| GLv‡b Kz‡e‡ii `yb©xwZi g~‡j i‡q‡Q Zvi Avq e¨‡qi AmvgÄm¨Zv| Zvi Av‡qi †P‡q e¨q †ewk| †h Kvi‡Y Dcwi Av‡qi my‡hvM †m nvZ Qvov Ki‡Z Pvq bv| d‡j †m `yb©xwZ Ki‡Q| Zvi †bŠKvi gvwjK Zv‡K h_vh_ cvwikªwgK w`‡”Q bv e‡jB †m `yb©xwZi Avkªq wb‡”Q| Ab¨w`‡K kxZj evey Zvi KvQ †_‡K †Mvc‡b gvQ wK‡b wb‡R †hgb `yb©xwZ K‡i‡Q| †Zgwb Kz‡ei‡K †ewk `vg †`qvi cÖ‡jvfb †`wL‡q Zv‡K `yb©xwZi w`‡K †V‡j w`‡q‡Q| gvby‡li †jvf-jvjmv w`b w`b e„w× cvIqvi d‡j `yb©xwZ cÖKU AvKvi aviY K‡i‡Q| `yb©xwZi †hme KviY cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ Av‡Q Zvi wKQz wKQz KviY DÏxc‡KI cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: N) Ô¶zav I `vwi`ª¨ `yb©xwZ‡K DrmvwnZ K‡iÕ- Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| [D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK] DËi: mgv‡Ri mKj †kªYxi gvbyl †Kvb bv ‡Kvbfv‡eB `yb©xwZi wkKvi| ¶zav I `vwi`ª¨ `ybx© wZ‡K DrmvwnZ K‡i DÏxc‡K G welqwU ¯úó n‡q D‡V‡Q| `yb©xwZi d‡j wbgœ Av‡qi gvby‡li Avq K‡g hvq| Aciw`‡K `ªe¨ g~j¨ e„w× cvq, d‡j Zv‡`i µq ¶gZv bvMv‡ji g‡a¨ _v‡K bv| wbgœ Av‡qi gvby‡li Avq K‡g hvIqvq Zviv Av‡iv `wi`ª n‡q c‡o| Avi ZLb wb‡Ri Ges cwievie‡M©i ¶zavi R¡vjv †gUv‡Z `yb©xwZi Avkªq †bq| DÏxc‡KI G welqwU ¯úó n‡q c„ôv-216


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

D‡V‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki Kz‡ei Afve AbU‡bi g‡a¨ eo n‡q‡Q Ges cwievi wb‡q †m GLbI `wi`ª Rxeb hvcb Ki‡Q| ZvB hLbB †m wKQz UvKv †ivRMv‡ii my‡hvM †cZ Zv nvZ Qvov Ki‡Zv bv| Zv `yb©xwZ n‡jI bv| `vwi‡`ª¨i Kvi‡YB †m kxZj evey‡K gvQ Pzwi K‡i †`qvi g‡Zv `yb©xwZ K‡i‡Q| Zvi A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’v hw` m”Qj _vKZ Zvn‡j nqZ †m Gfv‡e `yb©xwZ‡Z Rwo‡q coZ bv| Pzwi K‡i gvQ wewµ K‡i K‡qKwU UvKv DcvR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡j nqZ †m Zvi cwiev‡ii m`m¨‡`i wb‡q GK‡ejv †cUcy‡i †L‡Z cvi‡e| ZvB †m GB A‰bwZK Kv‡Ri mv‡_ Rwo‡q c‡o‡Q| m‡e©vcwi ejv hvq †h, ¶zav I `vwi`ª¨ `yb©xwZ‡K DrmvwnZ K‡i| GwU `yb©xwZi GKwU KviY|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt ivqnvb Avjx) †`‡ki `wi`ª gvby‡li Rb¨ miKvi b¨vh¨g~‡j¨ Pvj wewµ ïi“ K‡i‡Q| GKRb gvbyl m‡e©v”P 5(cuvP) †KwR Pvj wKb‡Z cvi‡e| wWjviiv G me Pvj wbw`©ó wKQz ¯’v‡b wewµi e¨e¯’v K‡i‡Q| wKš‘ †mLv‡bI mvgvb¨ cuvP †KwR Pvj †_‡K IR‡b Kg †`Iqvmn A‡bK iKg `yb©xwZ mvaviY gvby‡li †Pv‡L c‡o‡Q| Pvj gvcvi cvÎ wQ`ª K‡i ivLv nq hv †_‡K Pvj c‡o Ges H Pvj cieZ©x‡Z wewµ Kiv nq| Ggbfv‡e mvgvb¨ mvgvb¨ `yb©xwZ †_‡KB eo ai‡bi `yb©xwZ Kivi mvnm cvq gvbyl| Avi GB `ybx© wZ hw` †iva Kiv bv hvq Z‡e RvwZi Kj‡¼i †evSv Av‡iv fvix n‡q DV‡e|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) iv‡óªi Av‡qi cÖavb Drm Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: iv‡óªi Av‡qi cÖavb Drm n‡jv RbM‡Yi †`Iqv Ki| cÖkœ: L) Ô`yb©xwZ GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwaÕ ms‡¶‡c eY©bv Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `yb©xwZ wel‡q we¯—vwiZ Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| hv mvgvwRK e¨vwa wn‡m‡e wPwýZ n‡q‡Q| hv GK gvbyl n‡Z Av‡iK gvby‡li g‡a¨ msµwgZ nq| m„wó nq mvgvwRK ˆelg¨, abxiv m¤ú‡`i cvnvo M‡o †Zv‡j, `wi`ªiv Av‡iv †ewk `wi`ª n‡q c‡o| ˆbwZKZvi Pig Ae¶q N‡U| G me Kvi‡Y `yb©xwZ‡K mvgvwRK e¨vwa ejv hvq| cÖkœ: M) DÏxc‡K ÔPvj wewµi mgq †h `yb©xwZ Zv †hb evsjv‡`‡ki mKj †¶‡Î `yb©xwZi GK ev¯—ewPÎÕ K_vwU e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü evsjv‡`‡ki mKj †¶‡Î `yb©xwZi Kivj _vev KZUv fqsKi n‡q D‡V‡Q Zv eY©bv Kiv n‡q‡Q| `yb©xwZ mgv‡Ri gvbyl‡K KZUv cÖfvweZ Ki‡Z †c‡i‡Q Zv Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| †`‡ki e„nËg Rb‡Mvôx `wi`ª| †mB `wi`ª gvbyl¸‡jv‡K b¨vh¨g~‡j¨ Pvj †`Iqv n‡”Q miKvwi D‡`¨v‡M| †mB gnr D‡`¨vM‡KI KjywlZ Ki‡Q wKQz Amvay e¨emvqx| Amvay e¨emvqxiv mvaviY gvby‡li mv‡_ bvbvfv‡e cÖZviYv Ki‡Q| Pv‡ji IRb Kg †`Iqv GwU AvcvZ`„wó‡Z †QvU-Lv‡Uv `ybx© wZ e‡j g‡b n‡jI Ggb †QvU †QvU `yb©xwZB gvbyl‡K eo eo `yb©xwZ Ki‡Z Drmvnx K‡i †Zv‡j| Pvj gvcvi cvÎ wQ`ª K‡i †i‡L Zviv Awfbe Kvq`vq gvbyl VKv‡”Q| GB gvbyl VKv‡bv Zv‡`i Kv‡Q Lye mvaviY welq e‡jB g‡b nq| mvgvb¨ GKUz fyj, ¶z`ª ¯^v_© wmw×i Rb¨ gvbyl gvby‡li mv‡_ cÖZviYv K‡i| G welqwU‡K †KDB mg_©b Ki‡e bv| eZ©gvb cuywRev`x mgvRe¨e¯’vq gvby‡li g‡a¨ †fvMev`x cÖeYZv †e‡oB P‡j‡Q| d‡j gvby‡li †jvf-jvjmv w`b w`b e„w× cv‡”Q| mvaviY gvbyl Zv‡`i b¨vh¨ AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ n‡”Q| G‡Z †`‡ki mvgwMÖK Dbœqb evavMÖ¯— nq Ges AeKvVv‡gv †f‡O c‡o| ZvB `yb©xwZ‡K mK‡j mw¤§wjZfv‡e bv ej‡Z n‡e| `yb©xwZevR gvbyl mgvR, ivóª I †`‡ki kΓ| G‡`i nvZ †_‡K †`k‡K i¶v Kiv `iKvi|

c„ôv-217


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: N) Ô`yb©xwZ hw` †iva Kiv bv hvq Z‡e RvwZi Kj‡¼i †evSv Av‡iv fvix n‡q DV‡eÕ Dw³wU †Zvgvi cvV¨eB Gi Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü mgv‡Ri bvbv `ybx© wZi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| DÏxc‡KI G ai‡bi Bw½Z cvIqv hvq| `yb©xwZi nvi evsjv‡`‡k AKíbxq| `yb©xwZMÖ¯— gvbyl mgv‡R GLb Avi Am¤§vwbZ e¨w³ bq eis m¤§vwbZ| `yb©xwZ †h mvgvwRK e¨vwa Ges GwU Aciva Zv gvb‡Z A‡b‡KB bvivR| G gvbwmKZv `yb©xwZ‡K DrmvwnZ K‡i| mgv‡Ri mKj ¯—‡i `yb©xwZcivqY gvbyl ¯^v_© nvwm‡ji †Póvq m`v e¨¯—| `yb©xwZevR‡`i kvw¯—i weavb _vK‡jI Kvh©KvwiZv †bB Avi †mRb¨B `yb©xwZ Av‡iv †e‡o `yb©xwZi Wvbv GZ`~i we¯—…Z hv wbqš¿Y Kiv cÖvq Am¤¢e n‡q co‡Q| `yb©xwZ w`‡bi ci w`b †e‡oB P‡j‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki Ggb †Kvb †¶Î †bB hv `yb©xwZgy³| `yb©xwZ GLb Rv‡ji g‡Zv wN‡i †d‡j‡Q Avgv‡`i| GLb †_‡KB hw` G Rvj †_‡K †ei n‡Z bv cvwi Z‡e Avgiv Av‡iv †ewk Avµvš— n‡ev †mRb¨ mKj ¯—‡i m‡PZbZv evov‡Z n‡e Ges ‰bwZK wk¶v w`‡Z n‡e| †`‡ki mKj m‡PZb bvMwi‡Ki cvkvcvwk Zi“Y-hyemgvR hw` G `yb©xwZ †iv‡a GwM‡q Av‡m Zvn‡jB m¤¢e bB‡j Avgiv `ybx© wZi mvM‡i Wy‡e hv‡ev| evsjv‡`‡ki ivR‰bwZK BwZnv‡m 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vjb, 1962 Gi wk¶v Av‡›`vjb, 1969 Gi MY Afy¨Ìvb, 1971 Gi gyw³hy× mewKQzB m¤¢e n‡q‡Q m‡PZb I msMÖvgx †PZbvi Rb¨| hw` eZ©gvb mgq‡K we‡ePbvq G‡b Ggb m‡PZb I msMÖvgx †PZbvq D¾xweZ n‡q GwM‡q Avmv hvq Z‡e †`k †_‡K `ybx© wZ wbg©~©j Kiv m¤¢e| `yb©xwZ wbg©~j Kiv bv †M‡j Avgv‡`i gv_vq †hgb F‡Yi †evSv w`b w`b fvix n‡”Q †Zgwb `yb©xwZi †evSvI fvwi n‡q DV‡e| ZvB Avgv‡`i‡K mw¤§wjZfv‡e `yb©xwZi wei“‡× i“‡L `uvov‡Z n‡e|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI| ( †gvt ivqnvb Avjx)

cÖ_g ce©: Avwgb mv‡n‡ei evwoi mvg‡b RbZvi wfo| A‡bK¶Y ci †evSv †Mj, †mLv‡b cywj‡ki mvg‡b Avwgb mv‡n‡ei †Q‡j wK †hb ej‡Z PvB‡Qb| wKQz‡ZB wKQz nj bv †kl ch©š— Avwgb mv‡ne‡K cywj‡ki Mvwo‡Z Zz‡j wb‡q †Mj| cÖm½Z D‡j−L¨ Avwgb mv‡ne GKRb miKvwi Kg©KZ©v| wØZxq ce©: kwn` we‡`k‡diZ GK hyeK| †`‡k G‡m we‡q K‡i mš—v‡bi RbK n‡q‡Qb| mš—vb‡K Wv³vi wewfbœ cix¶v wbix¶v K‡i eyS‡Z †c‡i‡Qb Zvi kix‡i GK NvZK e¨vwa evmv †eu‡a‡Q| mš—v‡bi evev-gv I GKB NvZK e¨vwa‡Z Avµvš—| GLb wZbR‡biB cwiYwZ GK| G †hb kwn‡`i ˆbwZK Ae¶q I Am‡PZbZvi dj|

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖk:œ K) evsjv‡`‡ki cÖkvmb †Kvb Avg‡ji? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: evsjv‡`‡ki cÖkvmb Jcwb‡ewkK Avg‡ji| cÖk:œ L) ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Afv‡e `yb©xwZ DrmvwnZ nq Av‡jvPbv Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ msKwjZ iPbvq `yb©xwZ we¯—v‡ii Rb¨ mKj †¶‡Î ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Afve‡K `vqx Kiv n‡q‡Q| ivóª cwiPvjbv †_‡K ïi“ K‡i mKj †¶‡Î ¯^”QZvi Afve, Revew`wn Kivi e¨e¯’v bv KivB `yb©xwZ‡K cÖmvwiZ Ki‡Q| miKvwi †emiKvwi GgbwK gvwjKvbvaxb cÖwZôv‡bI Revew`wnZv bv _vKvq `yb©xwZ DrmvwnZ n‡”Q| mKj Kv‡R ¯^”QZv bv _vKvq `yb©xwZ AviI †e‡o hv‡”Q| ZvB ejv hvq, ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Afv‡e `ybx© wZ DrmvwnZ nq| cÖkœ: M) Avwgb mv‡ne I kwn` PwiÎ `ywU †hb GKB Mv‡Qi `ywU dzj| Zzjbvg~jK Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K msKwjZ iPbvq `yb©xwZi A‡bK ¸‡jv Kvi‡Yi g‡a¨ Ab¨Zg GKwU ˆbwZK Ae¶q| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ Avwgb mv‡n‡ei cwiYwZ Ges kwn‡`i Ki“Y cwiYwZ †hb GKB m~‡Î Muv_v| DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ kwn` PwiÎwU‡Z †`Lv hvq Am‡PZbZv I ˆbwZK Ae¶‡qi Rb¨ kwn`, Zvi ¯¿x I Zvi mš—v‡bi Rxeb †hb Ki“Y cwiYwZi c‡_| c„ôv-218


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

Avwgb mv‡ne `yb©xwZ Ki‡Z wM‡q cywj‡ki nv‡Z aiv c‡o‡Q| Avi kwn` GK NvZK e¨vwa‡Z Avµvš— n‡q ¯¿x mš—vb‡KI Avµvš— K‡i‡Q| Avi GB cwiYwZ `ywUB †hb Am‡PZbZv I ˆbwZK Ae¶‡qi dj| Avwgb mv‡ne Rxeb‡K wejvmeûj Kivi Rb¨ `yb©xwZ K‡i‡Q| `yb©xwZi d‡j Zvi gvb-m¤§vb mewKQzB hvq| Ab¨w`‡K kwn` we‡`k †_‡K kix‡i e‡q G‡b‡Q NvZK e¨vwai RxevYy hv cieZ©x‡Z Zvi ¯¿x I mš—vb‡KI g„Zz¨gy‡L †V‡j w`‡q‡Q| Avi GB `yB ai‡bi Aciva‡K GKBfv‡e we‡ePbv Kiv hvq| ZvB ejv hvq Avwgb mv‡ne I kwn` PwiÎ `ywU †hb GKB Mv‡Qi `ywU dzj| cÖkœ: N) ÔˆbwZK Ae¶q I D”Pvwfjvl `yb©xwZi MwZ‡K Z¡ivwš^Z K‡iÕ `ybx© wZ welqK cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ kxl©K cÖe‡Ü `ybx© wZi bvbvwea KviY Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| `ybx© wZi Ab¨Zg KviY n‡”Q e¨w³MZ myL-¯^v”Q›`, †fvM-wejvm Avi cÖfve-cÖwZcwË| `yb©xwZi MwZ GLb jvMvgnxb| jvMvg †U‡bI Zv‡K _vgv‡bv m¤¢e n‡”Q bv| `yb©xwZi MwZ‡K Z¡ivwš^Z K‡i ˆbwZK Ae¶q I D”Pvwfjvl| gvbyl hLb Zvi bxwZ †_‡K m‡i hvq ZLbB †m `ybx© wZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| bxwZ åó e¨w³B `ybx© wZMÖ¯— gvbyl| bxwZi †Ljvq †n‡i †M‡jB gvbyl `ybx© wZ Ki‡Z mvnm cvq| cvkvcvwk mgv‡Ri Ab¨ gvby‡li mv‡_ cvj−v w`‡Z wM‡q Ges mgv‡R cÖfve cÖwZcwË AR©b Ki‡Z wM‡qI gvbyl `yb©xwZMÖ¯— n‡q c‡o| Avi ZLbB `yb©xwZi PvKv Av‡iv `ª“ZMwZ‡Z m¤§y‡L GwM‡q P‡j| mvaviY Rxeb-hvcb Ki‡Z bv PvB‡jB nq‡Zv Ggb `ybx© wZi welq D‡V Av‡m| AmvaviY ev †fvMwejvmx Rxeb-hvcb Ki‡Z †M‡jB `yb©xwZ MwZ cv‡e| `yb©xwZ‡K †Kvb fv‡eB AvUKv‡bv hv‡ebv hw` gvby‡li ˆbwZK Ae¶q †iva Kiv bv hvq| gvby‡li ˆbwZK Ae¶q I D”Pvwfjvl `yb©xwZi MwZ‡K Z¡ivwš^Z Ki‡Q G K_v wb:m‡›`‡n ejv hvq|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvwcqv RvbœvZ)

16gvP©, 2011 wbR¯^ cÖwZ‡e`K, eªvþYevwoqv: `yb©xwZi `v‡q wZZvm M¨vm wdì Gi GK Kg©KZ©v PvKzwiPz¨Z| H Kg©KZ©vi Ici Awf‡hv‡Mi †cÖw¶‡Z 8 m`m¨ wewkó Z`š— KwgwU MVb Kiv nq| GB Z`š— KwgwU MZKvj Zv‡`i cÖwZ‡e`b Rgv †`q Ges Awf‡hvM mZ¨ nIqvq Zv‡K PvKzwi n‡Z Ae¨vnwZ †`Iqv nq| Z_¨m~‡Î Rvbv hvq H Kg©KZ©v wZb Pvi Rb m½x wb‡q `xN© 5 eQi hveZ KZ…©c‡¶i †PvL‡K duvwK w`‡q Avm‡Q| Dchy³ cÖgvbvw` bv cvIqvq GZ w`b Zv‡K Awfhy³ Kiv m¤¢e nqwb|MZ gv‡mi 15 Zvwi‡L wbw`©ó cÖgvYvw`i wfwˇZ Zv‡K Awfhy³ Kiv nq| ïay M¨vm Lv‡ZB bq, evsjv‡`‡ki me Lv‡ZB Pj‡Q bxie `yb©xwZ| ZvB `yb©xwZ †iv‡a mevB‡K GwM‡q Avm‡Z n‡e| [m~Î: ˆ`wbK wZZvm KÉ]

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖkœ: K) KZ mv‡j `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iva AvBb cÖYqb Kiv nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iva AvBb 1947 mv‡j cÖYqb Kiv nq| cÖkœ: L) Ôkvw¯—i AcÖZzjZv `yb©xwZ‡K DrmvwnZ K‡iÕ- e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: AZx‡Z †`Lv †M‡Q `yb©xwZi `v‡q Awfhy³‡`i Aciva cÖgvwYZ n‡jI bvggvÎ kvw¯— ev `‡Ê `wÊZ nZ| d‡j mvgvb¨ kvw¯—‡Z Zv‡`i Aciva cÖeYZv Kg‡Zv bv| Aciva Abyhvqx kvw¯— bv nIqvB A_©vr kvw¯—i AcÖZzjZvi Kvi‡Y `yb©xwZ DrmvwnZ nq| `„óvš—g~jK kvw¯— cÖ`vb bv Kivq `yb©xwZi cÖmvi e¨vcK nv‡i e„w× †c‡q‡Q| cÖk:œ M) DÏxc‡Ki wZZvm M¨vm wdì- Gi Kg©KZ©vi e¨vcK `yb©xwZi KviY Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Afv‡e wZZvm M¨vm Gi Kg©KZ©v e¨vcKfv‡e `ybx© wZ‡Z Rwo‡q c‡o| mgvR I iv‡óªi wewfbœ ¯—‡i `ybx© wZ we¯—v‡ii GKwU Ab¨Zg I cÖavb KviY nj cÖkvm‡b ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Afve| ¯^”QZv I Revevw`wnZv bv _vK‡j wKsev Gi Afve _vK‡j `ybx© wZ AviI DrmvwnZ nq| c„ôv-219


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

Revew`wnZv ej‡Z †evSvq `vqe×Zvi cÖwZkÖ“wZ Ges `vq-`vwq‡Z¡i ¯^xKv‡ivw³| AvaywbK MYZvwš¿K mgvR e¨e¯’vq Revew`wnZv _vKv Acwinvh©| Revew`wnZv _vK‡j `yb©xwZ n«vm cvq Ges Revew`wnZv Kg©`¶Zv I mZZv‡K AbycÖvwYZ K‡i| wZZvm M¨vm Gi Kg©KZ©vi e¨vcK `yb©xwZi †cQ‡b ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi AfveB `vqx| wZZvm M¨vm Gi Kg©KZ©v‡K hw` wVKg‡Zv Revew`wn Kiv n‡Zv Zvn‡j †m `yb©xwZi e¨vcv‡i GZUv †ec‡ivqv n‡Z cviZ bv Ges †m Ggb fv‡e `yb©xwZi Awf‡hv‡M Awfhy³ n‡q PvKzwiPz¨Z nZ bv| cÖkœ: N) Ô`yb©xwZ †iv‡a mevB‡K GwM‡q Avm‡Z n‡eÕ- Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Dcvqmg~n we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: `ybx© wZ GKwU fqven mvgvwRK e¨vwa| we‡k¦i me‡`‡kB Kg‡ewk `yb©xwZ n‡”Q| ZvB `yb©xwZ †iv‡a mevB‡K GwM‡q Avm‡Z n‡e| Zv bv n‡j AwP‡iB `yb©xwZ gv_v Pvov w`‡q DV‡e `ye©vi MwZ‡Z| ivR‰bwZK mw`”Qv †`‡ki Dbœqb I AMÖMwZ‡Z mnvqZv Ki‡e| mykvmb cÖwZôvi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb Kvh©Kix msm`| msm`xq c×wZ‡Z MYZš¿‡K kw³kvjx Kivi Rb¨ MwZkxj msm‡`i cÖ‡qvRb| msm‡` cÖ‡kœvËi ce©, g‡bv‡hvM AvKl©Y, Rb¸i“Z¡c~Y© wel‡q Av‡jvPbv, kw³kvjx KwgwU MV‡bi welq¸‡jv ¸i“Z¡c~Y©| †`‡k AvB‡bi kvmb cÖwZwôZ n‡j `yb©xwZ n«vm cv‡e| Gi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb ¯^vaxb wePvi wefvM| wePvi wefvM‡K cÖkvmb I msm‡`i cÖfvegy³ n‡Z n‡e| `yb©xwZMÖ¯— e¨w³i wei“‡× h_vh_ AvBbMZ e¨e¯’v wb‡Z n‡e| ÔAvB‡bi `„wó‡Z mevB mgvb Ges †KD AvB‡bi E‡aŸ© bqÕ- mgv‡R Zv cÖwZwôZ Ki‡Z n‡e| `ybx© wZ cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Rb¨ `j wbi‡c¶, ¯^vaxb I mwµq `yb©xwZ `gb Kwgkb cÖ‡qvRb| `yb©xwZi wei“‡× Rbm‡PZbZv m„wó‡Z bvMwiK mgvR ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| ¯’vbxq ch©v‡q bvMwiK msMVb ¸‡jv hw` `yb©xwZi wei“‡× mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb M‡o †Zv‡j Zvn‡j `yb©xwZ †iva I mykvmb cÖwZôv mnR n‡e| mgv‡R `yb©xwZ I Awbq‡gi AbymÜvb Ges Zv Rbmg‡¶ cÖKvk K‡i MYgva¨g `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i|

“ wb‡Pi QKwU †`L Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvwcqv RvbœvZ) `ybx© wZ ivR‰bwZK cÖfve ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Afve kvw¯—i AcÖZj z Zv AKvh©Ki MYgva¨g Avq-e¨‡qi AmvgÄm¨Zv ˆbwZK g~j¨‡ev‡ai Ae¶q

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) ÔAvš—R©vwZK `yb©xwZ we‡ivax w`emÕ K‡e cvwjZ nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Avš—R©vwZK `yb©xwZ we‡ivax w`em cvwjZ nq 9 wW‡m¤^i| c„ôv-220


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: L) `yb©xwZ †iv‡a MYgva¨‡gi f~wgKv e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: `yb©xwZ Ab¨Zg mvgvwRK e¨vwa| `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a MYgva¨‡gi f~wgKv Acwimxg| MYgva¨g mgv‡Ri `c©Y ¯^iƒc| `yb©xwZevR‡`i KzKxwZ©, Awbq‡gi bvbv Z_¨vw` K¨v‡give›`x K‡i mgv‡Ri mvg‡b Zz‡j ai‡Z cv‡i| Gfv‡e mgv‡R `yb©xwZ I Awbq‡gi Z_¨ AbymÜvb I Rbmg‡¶ cÖKvk K‡i MYgva¨g `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| cÖkœ: M) Ô¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Afv‡e `yb©xwZ e„w× cvqÕ DÏxcK I Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Afv‡e `yb©xwZ e„w× cvq DÏxcK I `yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_ cÖe‡Ü GB welqwU ¯úó cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡k `yb©xwZ `gb Kwgkb 2004 Gi aviv 2(3) Abyhvqx `yb©xwZ ej‡Z Nyl MÖnY, Nyl cÖ`vb, miKvwi Kg©Pvix‡K Aciv‡a mnvqZv, miKvwi Kg©KZ©v- Kg©Pvix †Kvb e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi wbKU n‡Z g~j¨evb e¯‘ webvg~‡j¨ MÖnY, †Kvb e¨w³i kvw¯— ev m¤úwË ev‡Rqvß †_‡K euvPv‡bvi Rb¨ miKvwi Kg©KZ©v-Kg©Pvix KZ…K © AvBb Agvb¨ BZ¨vw` welq‡K eySvq| ¯^”QZv k‡ãi AvwfavwbK A_© wbf©j y Zv| m‡›`nvZxZfv‡e mwVKZv I mnR‡eva¨Zv| ivóª cwiPvjbvq ¶z`ª ¶z`ª cÖwZôvb †_‡K ïi“ K‡i m‡e©v”P ch©vq ch©š— wewa-weav‡b I AvBb-Kvby‡b ¯^”QZv †hgb _vKv cÖ‡qvRb †Zgwb Zv cÖ‡qv‡MI ¯^”QZv _vKv cÖ‡qvRb| ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZv bv _vKvi Kvi‡Y `ybx© wZ w`b w`b Zvi mxgv j•Nb K‡i hv‡”Q| mgvR Ges iv‡óªi wewfbœ ¯—‡i cÖkvm‡bi ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZv _vK‡j `yb©xwZ †iva Kiv m¤¢e| bZzev `yb©xwZ †iva Amva¨ n‡q hv‡e| ZvB cÖkvm‡b `vwqZ¡ cÖvß e¨w³‡`i cÖkvmwbK ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZv cÖ‡qvRb bZzev †`k †_‡K `yb©xwZ †iva Kiv m¤¢e bq| cÖk:œ N) Ô`ybx© wZ gvby‡li ˆbwZK g~j¨‡ev‡ai Ae¶q NUvqÕ DÏxcK I Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K Ae¶‡qi KviY ¸‡jv we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: cÖKZ … MYZš¿ I mykvmb cÖwZôvi cÖavb Aš—ivq `ybx© wZ| mvgvwRK e¨vwa¸‡jvi Ab¨Zg e¨vwa nj `ybx© wZ| `ybx© wZi Kvi‡Y gvby‡li †h ˆbwZKZvi Ae¶q N‡U Zv DÏxcK I Av‡jvP¨ cÖe‡Ü dz‡U D‡V‡Q| eZ©gvb cuwy Rev`x mgvR e¨e¯’vq gvby‡li g‡a¨ †fvMev`x cÖeYZv †e‡o hv‡”Q, d‡j gvby‡li †jvf-jvjmv w`b w`b e„w× cv‡”Q| `ªe¨g~‡j¨i Ea©MwZi Kvi‡Y mvaviY RbMY, we‡kl K‡i miKvwi Kg©KZ©v Kg©Pvix‡`i Avqe¨‡qi AmvgÄm¨Zvi Kvi‡Y wRwbmcÎ µq¶gZvi evB‡i _v‡K weavq Zviv `yb©xwZ‡Z Rwo‡q c‡o| Amvay e¨emvqxiv `ªe¨g~j¨ wmwÛ‡KU K‡i ivLvq mvaviY RbMY Zv‡`i Rxeb hvÎv ¯^vfvweKfv‡e wbe©vn Ki‡Z cvi‡Q bv| wKš‘ mvgvb¨ †jv‡fi ekeZ©x n‡q Zviv gbyl¨Z¡‡K wewK‡q w`‡Z KzÉv‡eva K‡ibv| cÖkvmwbK `ye©jZv, ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZvi Afve, MYgva¨‡gi f~wgKv bv _vKv, Avq- e¨‡qi AmvgÄm¨Zvi Kvi‡Y Zviv `yb©xwZ‡Z DrmvwnZ n‡”Q Ges Zv‡`i ˆbwZKZvi öjb N‡U| ZvB cÖkvmb I mykxj mgvR MV‡b `yb©xwZi wei“‡× i“‡L `uvov‡Z n‡e|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvwcqv RvbœvZ)

miKvi `yt¯’, Amnvq eq¯‹ †jvK‡`i Rb¨ Ôeq¯‹fvZvÕ Pvjy K‡i‡Q| gvwmK †h nv‡i fvZv eivÏ Av‡Q Zv w`‡q Zviv fv‡jvfv‡e Pj‡Z cvivi K_v wKš‘ GjvKvi cÖfvekvjx e¨w³‡`i Amvay Dcv‡qi Kvi‡Y Zviv b¨vh¨fvZv †_‡K ewÂZ n‡”Q| eq¯‹‡`i `y`k © v †`‡LI †KD m‡PZbfv‡e GB welqwU cÖwZ‡iv‡a GwM‡q Avm‡Q bv| mgv‡Ri RbM‡Yi DwPZ cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kiv hv‡Z eq¯‹iv Zv‡`i b¨vh¨ fvZv cvq|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) Kx Kvi‡Y ivóªxq m¤ú‡`i AcPq nq? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: `ybx© wZi Kvi‡Y ivóªxq m¤ú‡`i AcPq nq| cÖkœ: L) `yb©xwZi m‡½ abx-`wi‡`ªi ˆelg¨ RwoZ e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: `yb©xwZ‡K cuywR K‡i ivR‰bwZK cÖfve LvwU‡q GK †kªYxi Amvay †jvK w`b w`b abx †_‡K AviI abx n‡”Q| A_©, m¤ú`, hk, gvb mew`K w`‡q Zviv mgv‡Ri wkL‡i Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q| c¶vš—‡i `yb©xwZi Kvi‡Y `wi`ª †kªYxi Avq AviI K‡g hv‡”Q, Ab¨ w`‡K `ªe¨g~j¨ e„w× cvIqvq Zv‡`i µq¶gZv K‡g hv‡”Q| d‡j `wi`ªiv wk¶v, ¯^v¯’¨, b¨vqwePvi I Ab¨vb¨ †gŠwjK AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ n‡”Q Ges A_©‰bwZK ˆel‡g¨i wkKvi n‡”Q| c„ôv-221


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: M) DÏxc‡K ewY©Z ÔcÖfvekvjx e¨w³‡`i Amvay Dcv‡qi mvaviY gvbyl Kvi‡Y b¨vh¨ AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ n‡”QÕ- Ô`ybx© wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi †h mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K ewY©Z cÖfvekvjx e¨w³‡`i Amvay Dcvq Aej¤^‡bi Kvi‡Y `yt¯’, Amnvq gvbyl Zv‡`i b¨vh¨ AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ n‡”Q| Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü †`wL kvw¯—i AcÖZzjZv `yb©xwZ‡K DrmvwnZ K‡i‡Q| DÏxc‡K †`wL cÖfvekvjx e¨w³iv `yb©xwZ K‡i mvaviY RbMY‡K Zv‡`i b¨vh¨ AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ Ki‡Q Aci w`‡K Dchy³ kvw¯— bv cvIqvq Zv‡`i Aciva mxgv j•Nb Ki‡Q| Rbm‡PZbZvB cvi‡e Gme `ybx© wZevR‡`i wei“‡× i“‡L `uvov‡Z| cÖe‡Üi D‡Ïk¨ mvgvwRK I A_©‰bwZK †¶‡Î cÖkvm‡bi me©¯‡— i `ybx© wZevR‡`i Lu‡y R †ei K‡i Revew`wnZvi AvIZvq G‡b kvw¯— weavb Kiv| †Kbbv `yb©xwZevR †jvK‡`i h‡_vchy³ kvw¯—i Kvh©KvwiZv bv _vK‡j mgvR †_‡K `yb©xwZ‡iva Kiv m¤¢e bq| `ybx© wZ `gb Kwgk‡bi gva¨‡g Kvh©Ki e¨e¯’v MÖn‡Yi †¶‡Î cÖkvmwbK I ivR‰bwZK mw`”Qv _vK‡j `yb©xwZevRiv wbiyrmvwnZ n‡e Ges mgvR †_‡K `yb©xwZ wbg©~j n‡e| cÖk:œ N) Ômgv‡Ri RbM‡Yi Am‡PZbZvi Kvi‡Y `ybx© wZ e„w× cv‡”QÕ- DÏxcK I Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Ô`yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_Õ cÖe‡Ü `yb©xwZi bvbvgyLx KviY I `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Dcvq mg~n ewY©Z n‡q‡Q| mgv‡R RbM‡Yi Am‡PZbZvi Kvi‡Y `ybx© wZ e„w× cv‡”Q| mgvR †_‡K `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iva KivB n‡”Q GB cÖe‡Üi g~j cÖwZcv`¨ welq| G KvRwU me©vwaK mnR n‡Z cv‡i mvgvwRK m‡PZbZv e„w×i gva¨‡g| RvZxq Dbœq‡bi cÖavb Aš—ivq `ybx© wZ| mgvR †_‡K `yb©xwZ G‡Kev‡i wbg©~j Kiv miKv‡ii GKvi c‡¶ m¤¢e bq, ZvB cÖ‡qvRb mK‡ji mw¤§wjZ cÖ‡Póv| G cÖ‡Póvi me©v‡MÖ i‡q‡Q RbM‡Yi m‡PZbZv| DÏxc‡K `yt¯’ Amnvq gvbyl¸‡jv mgv‡Ri Amvay e¨w³‡`i cÖ‡ivPbvi wkKvi n‡q b¨vh¨ cvIbv †_‡K ewÂZ| wKš‘ RbMY G `y`©kv †`‡LI †KD Gi cÖwZ‡iv‡a GwM‡q Avm‡Q bv| MÖvgevmx hw` cÖwZev` KiZ Zvn‡j `yt¯’, Amnvq gvbyl ¸‡jv Zv‡`i b¨vh¨ cvIbv †_‡K ewÂZ nZ bv| ¯’vbxq ch©v‡qi bvMwiK msMVb ¸‡jv `yb©xwZi wei“‡× mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb M‡o Zzj‡j `yb©xwZ †ivaI mykvmb cÖwZôv Kiv m¤¢e| `yb©xwZ evsjv‡`‡ki eZ©gvb cwiw¯’wZ‡Z cÖavb mvgvwRK e¨vwa| Rbm‡PZbZvi gva¨‡gB `yb©xZ cÖwZ‡iva m¤¢e|

ˆbe©¨w³K cÖkœvewj `yb©xwZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_ †gv‡k©`j y Avjg (†gv‡k©`) 1. GKwU †`‡ki Dbœq‡bi Acwinvh© Dcv`vb Kx? K mykxj mgvR L kw³kvjx A_©bxwZ M ivR‰bwZK mw`”Qv N MYZš¿ I mykvmb 2. mykvm‡bi ˆewkó¨ n‡jv ⎯ (i) wm×vš— MÖn‡Y bvix cyi“‡li mgvb my‡hvM cÖ`vb (ii) Z‡_¨i Aeva cÖevn (iii) miKv‡ii Revew`wnZv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N Dc‡ii me¸‡jv

3. RbMY Kxfv‡e MYZvwš¿K miKvi wbe©vwPZ K‡i? K cÖZ¨¶ †fv‡Ui gva¨‡g L †Mvcb †fv‡Ui gva¨‡g M mw¤§wjZ †fv‡Ui gva¨‡g N B‡j±ªwbK †fv‡Ui gva¨‡g 4. †`‡ki Av_© mvgvwRK Ae¯’vi Dbœqb Kx‡mi Dci wbf©i K‡i? (i) RbcÖkvm‡bi Avš—wiKZvi Dci (ii) RbcÖkvm‡bi my¯’ I mr PP©vi Dci (iii) RbM‡Yi Avw_©K Dbœq‡bi Dci

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wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i I ii 5. bvMwi‡Ki AwaKvi cÖwZôv Kxfv‡e m¤¢e n‡Z cv‡i? K †eKviZ¡ `~i n‡j L MYZš¿ I mykvm‡bi cÖwZôv †c‡j M we‡`wk BbKvg evo‡j N mevB wkw¶Z n‡j 6. MYZš¿ I mykvm‡bi cÖavb Aš—ivq Kx? K †eKviZ¡ L `vwi`ª M `yb©xwZ N `ye©j †bZ…Z¡ 7. evsjv‡`‡ki me‡P‡q ¶wZKi mvgvwRK e¨vwa †KvbwU? K `ybx©wZ L wf¶ve„wË M Awk¶v N BfwUwRs 8. Ô`ybx©wZÕ kãwUi DrcwË †Kv_v ‡_‡K? K j¨vwUb Corruptus †_‡K L MÖxK Corruptus †_‡K M Bs‡iRx Corruption †_‡K N Ô`yt + bxwZÕ †_‡K 9. ‘Corruptus’- kãwUi A_© Kx? (i) ¶wZ (ii) aŸsm (iii) Lvivc KvR wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i I ii. 10. RvwZmsN cÖYxZ `ybx©wZ we‡ivax welqK g¨vbyqvj/cwjwmwUi bvg Kx? K Anti Corruption Policy L Anti Corruptus Policy M Manual On Anti Corruption Policy N Manual On Anti Corruption 11. evsjv‡`‡ki Ô`yb©xwZ `gb Kwgkb AvBbÕ K‡Zv mv‡j cÖYxZ nq? K 2003 mv‡j L 2004 mv‡j M 2005 mv‡j N 2006 mv‡j

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

12. AvB‡bi K‡Zv avivq `yb©xwZ wel‡q my¯úó aviYv †`qv n‡q‡Q? K 2004 Gi aviv 2(3)-G L 2004 Gi aviv 3(3)-G M 2006 Gi aviv 2(3)-G N 2009 Gi aviv 9-G 13. e¨w³MZ Kvi‡Yi cvkvcvwk Avi Kx `ybx©wZ NUv‡Z cv‡i? K AvgjvZvwš¿K mgm¨v L ivR‰bwZK mgm¨v M c×wZMZ wKQz mgm¨v N A_©‰bwZK mgm¨v 14. RvwZms‡Ni g¨vbyqvj Abyhvqx ⎯ K e¨w³MZ mv‡_©v×v‡ii Rb¨ ¶gZvi Ace¨envi KivB nj `ybx©wZ L e¨w³MZ †jvf-jvjmv KivB nj `ybx©wZ M cwiev‡ii mv‡_©v×vi KivB nj `ybx© wZ N RbM‡Yi ¶wZ KivB n‡jv `yb©xwZ 15. MYZvwš¿K ivóª e¨e¯’vq `ybx©wZi cÖfve¸‡jv n‡jv(i) A_©‰bwZK (ii) ivR‰bwZK (iii) mvgvwRK wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N me¸‡jv 16. `ybx©wZi gvÎv KLb e„w× cvq? K RbmsL¨v e„w× †c‡j L `vwi`ª e„w× †c‡j M ¯^vaxbZv I wbi‡c¶Zv wbwðZ bv n‡j N wk¶vi nvi bv evo‡j 17. `ybx©wZi g~j KviY¸‡jv n‡jv ⎯ (i) AvBbMZ I cÖkvmwbK (ii) Av_©-mvgvwRK (iii) ivR‰bwZK I AvgjvZvwš¿K wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i I ii

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18. ÔMYZš¿Õ n‡”Q ⎯ K RbM‡Yi B”Qvbyhvqx †`k kvmb L iv‡óªi B”Qvbyhvqx †`k kvmb M Ggwc‡`i B”Qvbyhvqx †`k kvmb N Zvwš¿K Dcv‡q †`k kvmb 19. evsjv‡`‡ki cÖkvmb †Kvb Avg‡ji? K †gvNj Avg‡ji L Jcwb‡ewkK Avg‡ji M †mb Avg‡ji N cvwK¯—vb Avg‡ji 20. weMZ 35 eQ‡i evsjv‡`‡k Kx cwigvY `yb©xwZ n‡q‡Q? K 20-30 nvRvi †KvwU UvKvi L 30-40 nvRvi †KvwU UvKvi M 40-50 nvRvi †KvwU UvKvi N 50-60 nvRvi †KvwU UvKvi 21. MYZ‡š¿i cÖe³v †K? K Gwi÷Uj L Aveªvnvg wjsKb M †c−‡Uv N m‡µwUm 22. `ybx©wZi g~j KviY KwU? K 2wU L 3wU M 4wU N 5wU 23. Public Administration Gi evsjv Kx? K Rb kvmb L RbcÖkvmb M RbKj¨vY N Rb cÖwZwbwa 24. `ybx©wZi mvgvwRK cÖfv‡e Kx nq? K mgv‡R Aw¯’iZv †e‡o hvq L abx-`wi‡`ªi Av‡qi ˆelg¨ †e‡o hvq M Pzwi-WvKvwZ †e‡o hvq N `vwi`ª †e‡o hvq 25. `ybx©wZi `i“Y we`y¨r I Ab¨vb¨ †mev LvZ †_‡K †`k eQ‡i Kx cwigvb ivR¯^ †_‡K ewÂZ n‡”Q? K 5−7 nvRvi †KvwU UvKv L 8−10 nvRvi †KvwU UvKv M 10 −12 nvRvi †KvwU UvKv N 10 − 15 nvRvi †KvwU UvKv

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

26. `ybx©wZi AvBbMZ I cÖkvmwbK KviY KqwU? K 5wU L 6wU M 7wU N 8wU 27. ‘Democracy’ kãwU G‡m‡Q ⎯ K wMÖK kã Demos I Kartos †_‡K L j¨vwUb kã Demos I Kartos †_‡K M wMÖK kã Demo I Curse †_‡K N j¨vwUb kã Demo I Acracy †_‡K 28. `ybx©wZi AvBbMZ I cÖkvmwbK KviY¸‡jv Kx? (i) RvZxq cÖwZôv‡bi AKvh©KvwiZv (ii) ivR‰bwZK cÖfve, ¯^”QZvi Afve (iii) `vwq‡Z¡ Ae‡njv, Z_¨ mwVK bv _vKv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N me¸‡jv 29. e¨w³MZ Kvi‡Yi cvkvcvwk Avi †Kvb ai‡bi KviY `yb©xwZi we¯—vi NUvq? K c×wZMZ KviY L ˆbwZK KviY M cvwievwiK KviY N mgwóMZ KviY 30. `yb©xwZcÖavb †`‡k wbgœ Av‡qi gvby‡li µq¶gZv n«vm cvIqvi KviY n‡jv ⎯ (i) b¨vh¨ gRyix bv cvIqv (ii) `ªe¨g~‡j¨i EaŸ©MwZ (iii) m¤ú‡`i Amg eÈb wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L i I ii M iii N ii I iii. 31. `ybx©wZi cÖfve¸‡jv ⎯ (i) A_©‰bwZK (ii) ivR‰bwZK (iii) mvgvwRK wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i, ii I iii. 32. Aveªvnvg wjsK‡bi g‡Z MYZvwš¿K miKvi n‡jv ⎯ (i) RbM‡Yi Rb¨ (ii) RbM‡Yi Øviv wbe©vwPZ (iii) RbM‡Yi miKvi wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L ii I iii M ii N Dc‡ii me¸‡jv

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33. `ybx©wZi Av_©-mvgvwRK KviY¸‡jv Kx Kx? (i) µgea©gvb †fvMev`x cÖeYZv (ii) ˆbwZK g~j¨‡ev‡ai Ae¶q (iii) Avq-e¨‡qi AmvgÄm¨Zv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i, ii I iii. 34. RbM‡Yi †gŠwjK AwaKv‡ii welq¸‡jv msweav‡bi KZ avivq Av‡Q? K 27 avivq L 32 (K) avivq M 26 Zg aviv †_‡K 47 K avivq N 71 Gi 3 avivq 35. Ô`yb©xwZÕ kãwU MwVZ n‡q‡Q Gfv‡e ⎯ (i) `yi& + bxwZ (ii) `yt + bxwZ (iii) `y + bxwZ wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L ii M ii I iii N i I iii. 36. †gvU RvZxq Av‡qi kZKiv KZ fvM `ybx©wZevR‡`i c‡K‡U hvq? K 30−34 fvM L 30−35 fvM M 30−40 fvM N 20−30 fvM 37. GwcwKDivm †K? K GK ai‡bi Ilya L GK ai‡bi fvBivm M wMÖK `vk©wbK N wMÖK weÁvbx 38. `ybx©wZ Kxfv‡e †iva Kiv hvq? (i) ivR‰bwZK mw`”Qv I Kvh©Ki msm` (ii) ¯^vaxb wePvi wefvM I mwµq `yb©xwZ `gb Kwgkb (iii) mylg †eZb KvVv‡gv I Kvh©Ki MYgva¨g wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N Dc‡ii me¸‡jv 39. `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a mw`”Qv cÖgv‡Yi Rb¨ ivR‰bwZK `j¸‡jvi Rb¨ KZ¸‡jv mycvwik cÖYqb Kiv n‡”Q? K 5wU L 6wU M 7wU N 8wU 40. MYZvwš¿K ivóªe¨e¯’vq `ybx©wZi cÖfve cÖavbZ KqwU? K 2wU L 3wU M 4wU N 5wU

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

41. ÔwmwÛ‡KUÕ k‡ãi AvwfavwbK A_© Kx? (i) evwYwR¨K mwgwZ (ii) Amr‡Mvôx (iii) msev` mwgwZ wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i I iii. 42. `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a ivR‰bwZK `j¸‡jv‡K Kx Kx c`‡¶c wb‡Z n‡e? (i) `yb©xwZevR‡`i m`m¨c` bv †`qv (ii) msMV‡bi †fZi Revew`wnZv e„w× Kiv (iii) Zi“Y Kgx©‡`i AwaK ¸i“Z¡ †`qv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i I ii. 43. ‘Validity’ k‡ãi A_© ⎯ K h_v_©Zv L wbfy©jZv M ˆeaZv N g~j¨evb 44. iv‡óªi cÖavb Avq †Kv_v ‡_‡K DcvwR©Z nq? K RbM‡Yi †`qv Ki †_‡K L ˆe‡`wkK FY M ißvwb evwYR¨ N we‡`wk UvKv 45. `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iva AvBb K‡e cÖwYZ nq? K 1939 mv‡j L 1947 mv‡j M 1952 mv‡j N 1972 mv‡j 46. Avq-e¨‡qi Am½wZ‡K †Kvb AvB‡b kvw¯—‡hvM¨ Aciva wn‡m‡e wPwýZ Kiv nq? K 1957 mv‡ji `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iva AvBb L 1552 mv‡ji cÖwZ‡iva AvBb M 1972 mv‡ji `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iva AvBb N 2004 mv‡ji `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iva AvBb 47. Ô`ybx©wZ `gb KwgkbÕ Ô`y`KÕ KLb cÖwZwôZ nq? K 2004 mv‡j L 2006 mv‡j M 1972 mv‡j N 1996 mv‡j 48. Ô`y`KÕ KZ mv‡j cybMwVZ nq? K 2006 mv‡j L 1992 mv‡j M 2007 mv‡j N 1983 mv‡j

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49. ‘Reliability’ k‡ãi A_© ⎯ K wbf©i‡hvM¨Zv L ciwbf©iZv M cybt ¶gZv N †ewk ¶gZv 50. gyw³hy× KLb msMwVZ nq? K 1947 mv‡j L 1952 mv‡j M 1971 mv‡j N 1969 mv‡j 51. `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a Kvi f~wgKv me©vwaK e‡j g‡b Kiv nq? (i) bvMwiK mgvR (ii) Zi“Y mgvR (iii) MÖvgxY mgvR wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L i I ii M iii N i I iii. 52. `yb©xwZ cÖwZKv‡ii Rb¨ iv‡óªi cvkvcvwk Avi Kx cÖ‡qvRb? K RbM‡Yi ¯^Ztù~Z© cÖwZ‡iva L we‡`wk mvnvh¨ M ¯^vaxb `y`K N mr I `¶ miKvi 53. `ybx© wZi cÖfve †Kvb ai‡bi †`‡k †ewk †`Lv hvq? K DbœZ †`‡k L ivRZvwš¿K †`‡k M Dbœqbkxj †`‡k N MYZvwš¿K †`‡k 54. Avš—R©vwZK `ybx©wZwe‡ivax w`em K‡e? K 8B gvP© L 9B wW‡m¤^i M 8B GwcÖj N 5B A‡±vei 55. wmwÛ‡KU k‡ãi cÖPwjZ A_© Kx? K c‡Y¨i K…wÎg msKU m„wóKvix e¨emvqx †Mvôx L kw³kvjx e¨emvqx †Mvôx M gybvdv‡Lvi N fqsKi 56. `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a MYgva¨g Kxfv‡e f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡i? K `ybx©wZi wei“‡× †k−vMvb w`‡q L `ybx©wZi K_v †Mvcb K‡i M `ybx©wZi wPÎ RbM‡Yi mvg‡b Zz‡j a‡i N `ybx©wZi KviY AbymÜvb K‡i

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

57. Kviv evievi cÖgvY K‡i‡Q Avgiv nvwiwb? K evsjv‡`‡ki RbMY L QvÎ mgvR M G ‡`‡ki hye mgvR N †`k‡cÖwgK †bZviv 58. Avgv‡`i †`‡ki ivR‰bwZK †bZ…e„‡›`i gv‡S `ybx© wZi g~j KviY ⎯ (i) wk¶vi Afve (ii) AvB‡bi cÖwZ kª×vnxbZv (iii) †`k‡cÖ‡gi Afve wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L ii I iii M i N i I iii. 59. `ybx©wZ we‡ivax mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb‡K Kxfv‡e †eMevb Kiv hvq? K Zi“Y‡`i AK…wÎg fv‡jvevmv I `vwqZ¡‡eva L miKvix Kg©KZ©v‡`i mZZv M `y`‡Ki mwµq f~wgKv N DbœZ †eZb KvVv‡gv 60. `ybx©wZwe‡ivax mb‡` KwU †`k ¯^v¶i K‡i‡Q? K 150wU L 155wU M 205wU N 167wU 61. Transparency k‡ãi A_© ⎯ K ¯’vbvš—i L ¯^”QZv M †cÖiY N Av`vb-cÖ`vb 62. mykvmb n‡jv ⎯ (i) me©Î AvB‡bi kvmb cÖwZôv Kiv (ii) iv‡óªi cÖwZwU cÖwZôv‡b ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZv wbwðZ Kiv (iii) RbMY‡K my›`ifv‡e kvmb Kiv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i I ii L i I iii M iii N ii I iii. 63. fvlv Av‡›`vjb KLb msMwVZ nq? (i) 1952 mv‡j (ii) 1969 mv‡j (iii) 1948 †_‡K 1952 Aewa wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i I iii. 64. ¶z`ª¯^v_© PwiZv_© Ki‡Z wM‡q gvbyl w`b w`b Kx fy‡j hv‡”Q? K †`‡ki K_v L Ac‡ii K_v M e„nr ¯^v‡_©i K_v N cwiev‡ii K_v

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65. AvB‡bi kvmb cÖwZôvi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbK ¯^vaxb wePvi wefvM L Kvh©Ki msm` M ¯^vaxb cÖPvi gva¨g N ivR‰bwZK mZZv 66. evsjv‡`k KZ mv‡j RvwZmsN `ybx©wZwe‡ivax mb`-Gi m`m¨c` jvf K‡i? K 21 †k †deª“qvwi, 2000 L 27 †k wW‡m¤^i, 2007 M 2iv gvP© 1983 N 5 wW‡m¤^i 2009 67. `ybx©wZ `~ixKi‡Y †Kvb D‡`¨vMwU me‡P‡q †ewk Kvh©Ki| K Kvh©Ki msm` L ¯^vaxb wePvi wefvM M mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb M‡o †Zvjv N Revew`wnZv wbwðZ Kiv 68. `ybx©wZ GKwUK mvgvwRK mgm¨v L mvgvwRK e¨vwa M RvZxq mgm¨v NPwiÎMZ mgm¨v 69. 1947 mv‡j `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iva AvBbwU Kiv nq g~jZK miKvix Kg©Pvix‡`i Nyl I `ybx©wZ †_‡K `~‡i ivLvi Rb¨ L myôz †eZb KvVv‡gv cÖvwßi j‡¶¨ M Kg©Pvix‡`i cvwK¯—v‡b hvIqv †VKv‡bvi Rb¨ N Kg©Pvix‡`i Awbqg I `ybx©wZ †Mvcb Kivi Rb¨ 70. RvwZmsN mvaviY cwil` `ybx©wZ we‡ivax mb` cÖYqb K‡iK 2003 mv‡ji 31†k A‡±vei L 2007 mv‡j 3iv †deªqvwi M 1992 mv‡ji 22†k GwcÖj| N 1993 mv‡ji 1jv †g 71. Z_¨ bv cvIqvi m‡½ †hme welq RwoZ(i) Revew`wnZv (ii) ¯^”QZv (iii) GKbvqKZš¿ wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L i I ii M iii N i I iii.

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

72. wk¶v Av‡›`vjb KLb msMwVZ nq? K 1952 mv‡j L 1962 M 1971 mv‡j N 1990 mv‡j 73. Ô`ybx©wZ cÖwZKv‡ii Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq mvaviY RbM‡Yi ¯^Ztù‚Z© cÖwZ‡ivaÕ-K_vwUi Zvrch© n‡jv(i) mKj‡K Avš—wiK n‡Z n‡e (ii) bvMwiK mgvR‡K D‡`¨vMx n‡Z n‡e (iii) hyemgvR‡K mwµq n‡Z n‡e| wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii I iii. N i I iii. 74. `Kartos’ k‡ãi A_©K ¶gZv L kw³ M RbMY N cÖwZwbwa 75. msm‡`i †Kvb KwgwU `ybx©wZ †iva I mykvmb cÖwZôvi †¶‡Î ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i? K Af¨š—ixY m¤ú` welqK ¯’vqx KwgwU L miKvwi wnmve m¤úwK©Z ¯’vqx KwgwU M ‰e‡`wkK evwYR¨ msµvš— ¯’vqx KwgwU N `ybx©wZ cÖwZ‡iva welqK ¯’vqx KwgwU 76. MYAfy¨Ìvb KLb msMwVZ nq? K 1969 L 1952 M 1971 N 1757 77. Dcm‡M©i KvR n‡jv(i) bZzb kã MV‡b mvnvh¨ Kiv (ii) Q›` m„wó Kiv (iii) k‡ãi A_© cv‡ë †`qv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i I iii. 78. eZ©gvb hyM‡K ejv nq? K Kw¤úDUvi hyM L Z_¨wec−‡ei hyM M weÁv‡bi hyM N wWwRUvj hyM 79. DcmM© k‡ãi †Kv_vq e‡m? K k‡ãi gv‡S L k‡ãi c~‡e© M k‡ãi c‡i N k‡ãi †k‡l 80. eZ©gvb mg‡qi cÖavb m¤ú‡`i GKwU n‡”QK ¶gZv L A_© M Z_¨ N wk¶v

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81. Stakeholder’i A_© Kx? K †kqvi MÖnxZv L †kqvi †Kbv‡ePv M Askx`vi N AskxR‡biv 82. Ôh-djviÕ e¨envi wbgœiƒc(i) e¨vwa, e¨emv, e¨q, e¨vKiY, e½ (ii) e¨w³, e¨_©, e¨›`, e¨e‡”Q`, e¨Z¨q (iii) e¨emv, e¨envi, e¨¯—, e¨q, e¨mb wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N ii I iii. 83. Ôh-djv Av-Kv‡ii e¨envi wbgœiƒc(i) e¨vcK, e¨vL¨v, e¨vKzj, e¨vNvZ, e¨vnZ (ii) e¨vcb, e¨vivg, e¨vmva©, e¨vO, e¨vNÖ (iii) e¨Mœ, e¨Äb, e¨wZµg, e¨vcK, e¨v`vb wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i I ii. 84. †Zvgvi cvV¨ Ô`ybx©wZÕ welqK cÖeÜwUi bvg Kx? K `ybx©wZ I Zvi cÖwZKvi L `ybx©wZ I Zvi cÖwZKv‡ii Dcvq M `ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_ N `ybx©wZ I Zvi DËi‡Yi c_ 85. Ô`ybx©wZÕ Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_ cÖeÜwUi cÖvewÜK †K? (i) †gv: myjZvb Avn¤§` wkK`vi (ii) ‰mq` †gvKv‡¤§j †nvmvBb (iii) †gv : nvweeyi ingvb wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N Dc‡ii †Kv‡bvwU bq| wb‡Pi cÖwZ‡e`bwU co Ges 87,88,89, I 90 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI: ‡fRvj I wbgœgv‡bi Ilya Drcv`b Ges evRviRvZKi‡Yi Awf‡hvM `v‡qi nIqv gvgjvq eªvþYevwoqvi wiW dvg©vwmDwUK¨vjm& wjwg‡U‡Wi e¨e¯’vcbv cwiPvjK wgRvbyi ingvb I Zvi ¯¿x

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†eMg wkDwj ingvbmn 5 R‡bi wei“‡× MZKvj Awf‡hvM (PvR©) MVb Kiv n‡q‡Q| 2009 mv‡ji 11B AvM÷ Awfhy³‡`i wei“‡× gvgjvwU `v‡qi n‡qwQj| IB mgq wiW dvg©vi †Ug‡mW wmivc (c¨vivwmUvgj) Ges wiWv‡c−· wmivc †me‡b mviv‡`‡k 28 wkï gviv wM‡qwQj| cÖm½Z, 1990-91 mv‡j †gmvm© A¨vW‡d«g dvg©vwmDwUK¨vj‡mi c¨vivwmUvgj wmivc †meb K‡i mviv‡`‡k 76 wkï gviv hvq| 86. wgRvbyi ingvb I †eMg wkDwj ingv‡bi wei“‡× gvgjv Kiv n‡q‡Q †h Kvi‡Y(i) `ybx©wZi Kvi‡Y (ii) †fRvj Ilya Drcv`‡bi Kvi‡Y (iii) wkïnZ¨vi `v‡q wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M iii N i I iii 87. wgRvbyi ingvb †Kvb ai‡bi Kv‡Ri mv‡_ RwoZ? K Lvivc L e¨w³¯^v_© PwiZv_© Kiv M AgvbweK N †`k‡`ªvn 88. wgRvbyi ingv‡bi G ai‡bi Kv‡Ri dj Kx n‡Z cv‡i? K †`‡ki weivU ¶wZ L wkïi †gavweK…wZ I Rxebnvbx M miKv‡ii fveg~wZ© ¶zYœ N RbM‡Yi ¯^v¯’¨nvbx| 89. DÏxc‡Ki `ybx©wZ we¯—v‡ii g~j KviY(i) Kzwk¶v (ii) miKvix wbqš¿Y cÖwZôv‡bi D`vmxbZv (iii) AvB‡bi kvm‡bi `ye©jZv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K i L ii M ii I iii N i I ii

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Aciv‡nèi Mí ûgvq~b Avn‡g` (1948-) “ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) GBWm giYe¨vwa| GBPAvBwf (HIV) G †iv‡Mi RxevYy| DbœZ I AbybœZ me †`‡kB h‡_ó AvZ¼RbK msL¨vi GBWm †ivMx cvIqv hv‡”Q| 1982 mv‡j GBWm Gi RxevYy kbv³ Kiv nq| 1985 mv‡j Avwd«Kv‡Z cÖ_gev‡ii gZ GBWm †ivMx cvIqv hvq| Avwd«Kvi †`kmg~‡n GBWm gvivZ¥K AvKvi aviY K‡i‡Q| eZ‡mvqvbvi 40% Gi †ewk cÖvß eq¯‹ I mvnvivi †`k mg~‡ni 20% Gi †ewk †jvK GBWm †iv‡M Avµvš—| c„w_exi me‡P‡q †ewk GBWm †ivMxi †`k wR¤^vey‡q| eZ©gvb c„w_ex‡Z cÖwZw`b 14 nvRvi gvbyl GBPAvBwf‡Z Avµvš— n‡”Q| fviZ, †bcvj, gvqvbgvi, Pxb, wf‡qZbvg, B‡›`v‡bwkqv I _vBj¨v‡Û `ª“Z GBWm Qov‡”Q| 2010 mv‡j evsjv‡`‡k 13 nvRvi GBWm †ivMx Av‡Q e‡j miKvwi Z‡_¨ Rvbv hvq| Z‡e evsjv‡`‡k AviI fq¼ifv‡e GBWm †ivMx i‡q‡Q e‡j †emiKvwi g‡Z Rvbv hvq| we‡k¦i gvbyl‡K m‡PZb K‡i †Zvjvi Rb¨ RvwZmsN 1 wW‡m¤^i‡K Ôwek¦ GBWm w`emÕ †NvlYv K‡i‡Q|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) Jcb¨vwmK ûgvq~b Avn‡g` iwPZ cÖ_g Dcb¨v‡mi bvg Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Jcb¨vwmK ûgvq~b Avn‡g` iwPZ cÖ_g Dcb¨v‡mi bvg n‡”Q Ôbw›`Z bi‡KÕ| cÖkœ: L) ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ-i Av¶wiK A_© I MíKvi wb‡`©wkZ A_© Kx? eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ Gi Av¶wiK A_© n‡”Q weKv‡ji Mí| wKš‘ ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ†Z †jLK G Av¶wiK A‡_© mxgve× _v‡Kb wb| MíKvi ûgvq~b Avn‡g` weKvj ej‡Z Rxe‡bi coš— †ejv A_©vr Rxe‡bi †kl cwiYwZ‡K Bw½Z K‡i‡Qb| cÖkœ: M) DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ GBWm Gi fqvenZv ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ- Gi Av‡jv‡K Zz‡j ai| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: GBWm giYe¨vwa| DbœZ I AbybœZ me †`‡kB h‡_ó AvZ¼RbK msL¨vi GBWm †ivMx cvIqv hv‡”Q| DÏxc‡Ki eY©bv Abyhvqx Avwd«Kvi †`kmg~‡n GBWm gvivZ¥K AvKvi aviY K‡i‡Q| eZ‡mvqvbvi 40% Gi †ewk cÖvßeq¯‹ I mvnvivi †`k mg~‡ni 20% Gi †ewk †jvK GBWm †iv‡M Avµvš—| c„w_exi me‡P‡q †ewk GBWm †ivMxi †`k wR¤^vey‡q| eZ©gv‡b c„w_ex‡Z cÖwZw`b 14 nvRvi gvbyl GBPAvBwf-†Z Avµvš— n‡”Q| fviZ, †bcvj, gvqvbgvi, Pxb, wf‡qZbvg, B‡›`v‡bwkqv I _vBj¨v‡Û `ª“Z GBWm Qov‡”Q| †m m‡½ 2010 mv‡j evsjv‡`‡k 13 nvRvi GBWm †ivMx Av‡Q e‡j miKvwi Z_¨ g‡Z Rvbv hvq| ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ-Gi Av‡jv‡K ejv hvq Avgv‡`i cv‡ki †`k¸‡jvi GBWm †ivM wec`mxgv AwZµg K‡i‡Q| G me †`‡ki m‡½ Avgv‡`i †hvMv‡hvM i‡q‡Q| Avb›` wccvmyiv †mme †`‡k hv‡”Qb| wfb‡`‡ki †hŠbKgx©‡`i m‡½ Zv‡`i †hvMv‡hvM n‡”Q| Zviv †`‡k wdi‡Qb GBPAvBwf fvBivm wb‡q| †m m‡½ eo ai‡bi SzuwKi g‡a¨ Av‡Q G †`‡ki †g‡qiv| Zv‡`i †hŠb wk¶v †bB ej‡jB P‡j| KviY †hŠbZv welqK mg¯— e¨vcviUvB G †`‡k GK cÖKvi wbwl× n‡qB i‡q‡Q| mgv‡R †g‡q‡`i Ae¯’vbI `ye©j| Awbivc` †hŠb m¤ú‡K© evav †`evi ¶gZvI G‡`i †bB| d‡j RvwZ AMÖmi n‡”Q fwel¨rnxb AÜKv‡ii w`‡K| G w`KwU AwZ fxwZcÖ`| Gfv‡e DÏxc‡K Dwj−wLZ GBWm Gi fqvenZv ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ Gi Av‡jv‡K h_v_© I ¯úóiƒc jvf K‡i‡Q| cÖkœ: N) Ôwe‡k¦i gvbyl‡K m‡PZb K‡i †Zvjvi Rb¨ RvwZmsN 1 wW‡m¤^i‡K Ôwek¦ GBWm w`emÕ †NvlYv K‡i‡Q|Õ gš—e¨wU ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ-i Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: DÏxcKwU GBWm I Gi fqvenZv Ges Gi cÖwZ‡iva m¤ú‡K© wjwLZ n‡q‡Q| 1981 mv‡j GBWm Gi RxevYy kbv³ Kiv m¤¢e n‡jI eZ©gvb mg‡q we‡k¦i me‡P‡q fxwZKi †ivM wn‡m‡e GBWm wPwýZ n‡q‡Q| we‡kl K‡i `w¶Y Avwd«Kvi †`kmg~‡n GBWm gvivZ¥K AvKvi aviY K‡i‡Q| c„ôv-229


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cÖvewÜK ûgvq~b Avn‡g` ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ-†Z AZ¨š— mnR K‡i GBWm, GBWm- Gi cÖfve, GBWm Gi fqvenZv Ges wek¦e¨vcx GBWm Gi we¯—vi I Avš—Rv© wZKfv‡e Gi cÖwZ‡iv‡ai welqwU Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| GBWm GKwU NvZK e¨vwa| GLbI Gi Ilya Avwe®‹vi nq wb| GBWm nIqv gv‡bB g„Zz¨| A_P m‡PZbZvi Afv‡e Aeva †gjv‡gkvq Zi“Y-Zi“Yxiv G †iv‡M Avµvš— n‡”Q| wk¶v ev Áv‡bi Afv‡e bvixiv KbWg wenxb Awbivc` †hŠb wgj‡b AcviMZv cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡Q bv, wKsev i‡³i Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi d‡jI †KD †KD GBWm Gi fvBivm GBPAvBwf enb Ki‡Q| we‡k¦i gvbyl‡K GBWm Gi fqvenZv m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb K‡i Zzj‡Z RvwZms‡N MwVZ n‡q‡Q GBWm welqK ms¯’v (UNAIDS)| 1 wW‡m¤^i‡K Ôwek¦ GBWm w`emÕ †NvlYv Kiv n‡q‡Q| G Zvwi‡L we‡k¦ AZ¨š— Avo¤^‡ii m‡½ bvbv Kg©m~wPi gva¨‡g w`emwU cvjb Kiv nq we‡k¦i gvbyl‡K GBWm wel‡q m‡PZb K‡i †Zvjvi Rb¨|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) eZ©gvb c„w_exi fqvenZg msµvgK †ivM n‡”Q GBWm (AIDS)| GBPAvBwf GB †iv‡Mi RxevYy| 1981 mv‡j GBWm Gi RxevYy GBPAvBwf kbv³ Kiv nq| 1985 mv‡j Avwd«Kv‡Z cÖ_g ev‡ii gZ GBWm †ivMx cvIqv hvq| GLb c„w_exi Ggb †Kvb †`k †bB †hLv‡b GBWm †ivMx †bB| evsjv‡`‡kI bZzb bZzb GBWm †ivMx kbv³ n‡”Q| evsjv‡`‡k 1989 mv‡j GKRb we‡`wki i‡³ cÖ_g GBPAvBwf kbv³ Kiv nq| evsjv‡`‡k 2003 mv‡j 363 Rb †jv‡Ki †`‡n GBPAvBwf cvIqv hvq| 2009 mv‡j evsjv‡`‡k 109 Rb GBWm-G Avµvš— n‡q gviv hvq| Avi 2010 mv‡j miKvi evsjv‡`‡k 13 nvRvi GBWm †ivMx Av‡Q e‡j †h Z_¨ w`‡q‡Q Zvi m‡½ GKgZ †cvlY K‡i bv †Kqvi bvgK Gb.wR.I| Zviv evsjv‡`‡k AviI AwaK msL¨K GBWm †ivMx i‡q‡Q e‡j `vex Ki‡Q|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) RvwZmsN †Kvb w`bwU‡K Ôwek¦ GBWm w`emÕ wn‡m‡e †NvlYv K‡i‡Q? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: RvwZmsN 1 wW‡m¤^i‡K Ôwek¦ GBWm w`emÕ wn‡m‡e †NvlYv K‡i‡Q| cÖkœ: L) RvwZmsN ej‡Z Kx eyS? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: RvwZmsN Gi Bs‡iwR kã iƒcwU n‡”Q-United Nations Organization- UNO. GwU †`‡k †`‡k kvwš—, wbivcËv Ges we‡k¦i mKj iv‡óªi g‡a¨ eÜzZ¡c~Y© m¤úK© ¯’vc‡bi j‡¶¨ MwVZ GKwU Avš—Rv©wZK ms¯’v| 1945 mv‡ji 24 †k A‡±vei mvbd«vwÝm‡Kv‡Z gvÎ 50wU m`m¨ ivóª wb‡q RvwZmsN MwVZ nq| eZ©gv‡b Gi m`m¨ ivóª msL¨v 132 wU| cÖkœ: M) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ-†Z Dwj−wLZ GBWm Avµvš— evsjv‡`wk‡`i Z_¨ cÖ`vb Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K eZ©gvb c„w_exi fqvenZg †ivM GBWm Gi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| 1985 mv‡j `w¶Y Avwd«Kvq cÖ_g ev‡ii g‡Zv GBWm †ivMx cvIqv †M‡jI GLb c„w_exi Ggb †Kvb †`k †bB, †hLv‡b GBWm †ivMx †bB| evsjv‡`‡kI bZzb bZzb GBWm †ivMx kbv³ n‡”Q| evsjv‡`‡k 1989 mv‡j GKRb we‡`wki i‡³ cÖ_g GBPAvBwf kbv³ Kiv nq| ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ- Gi weeiY Abyhvqx- UNAIDS Gi cwimsL¨v‡b evsjv‡`‡k AIDS †ivMxi msL¨v wQj 134, GBWm †_‡K g„Zz¨i msL¨v 74 Ges GBPAvBwf cwRwUf gvby‡li msL¨v 658 Rb| GB cwimsL¨vb fqvenfv‡e e„w× cv‡”Q| †Kbbv, GiB g‡a¨ evsjv‡`‡k GBPAvBwf GBWm Avµv‡š—i msL¨v GK eQ‡i 658 †_‡K †e‡o 874 R‡b `uvwo‡q‡Q| Gi g‡a¨ GBWm Avµvš— n‡q‡Q 240 Rb Ges gviv †M‡Q 109 Rb| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbv †_‡K wbwØ©avq ejv hvq †h, GBWm Avµvš— I GBPAvBwf cwRwUf gvby‡li msL¨v †h †Kvb mg‡qB jvMvg Qvov n‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e ewnwe©‡k¦i Zzjbvq GBWm †iv‡Mi w`K †_‡K Avgiv GL‡bv fv‡jv Ae¯’v‡b i‡qwQ| c„ôv-230


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cÖkœ: N) Ôevsjv‡`‡k AviI †ewk msL¨vq, AviI fq¼ifv‡e GBWm weivR Ki‡Q|Õ- ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ- Gi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wUi Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: AIDS GKwU fvBivm NwUZ e¨vwa| †h fvBivm †_‡K G †ivMUv nq Zvi msw¶ß bvg n‡”Q HIV| G †iv‡Mi GLbI †Kvb Ilya Avwe®‹„Z nq wb| GBWm nIqv gv‡bB g„Z¨z | 1981 mv‡j GBWm Gi RxevYy kbv³ Kiv n‡jI 2009 mv‡j evsjv‡`‡k 109 Rb GBWm-G Avµvš— n‡q gviv hvq| G †¶‡Î evsjv‡`kI wec`mxgvi gv‡S Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q| 2009 mv‡j evsjv‡`‡k 13 nvRvi GBWm †ivMx Av‡Q e‡j miKvwi wn‡m‡e cÖKvk Kiv n‡jI GbwRI Ô†KqviÕ Gi g‡Z GBWm †ivMxi msL¨v AviI AwaK| GBWm Gi e¨vcKZv j¶ K‡i ûgvq~b Avn‡g` Zuvi wjwLZ ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ†Z †h cwimsL¨vb w`‡q‡Qb Zv‡Z †`Lv hvq †h eZ©gvb c„w_ex‡Z cÖwZw`b 14 nvRvi gvbyl GBPAvBwf†Z Avµvš— n‡”Q| Am‡PZbZvi Kvi‡Y HIV †Z Avµvš— n‡q cÖwZw`b 8200 gvbyl g„Zz¨eiY Ki‡Q| cvk¦e© Z©x †`k fviZ, †bcvj, gvqvbgvi, Pxb, wf‡qZbvg, B‡›`v‡bwkqv Ges _vBj¨v‡Û GBWm `ª“Z Qov‡”Q| G Av‡jv‡K evsjv‡`kI `ª“Z wec`mxgvi w`‡K avweZ n‡”Q, hv ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ- iPbv‡Z ¯úó n‡q D‡V‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`) iv‡mj e`‡gRvwR| Av‡gwiKvq hvevi c~‡e©I Zvi D”Q„•Lj Rxeb-hvcb wb‡q GjvKvq †ek iUbv wQj| eQi bv †h‡ZB Av‡gwiKv †_‡K wd‡i G‡m we‡qi KvRwU m¤úbœ K‡i AveviI †m Av‡gwiKvq P‡j hvq| Zvi GKgvÎ †g‡qwU w`‡b w`‡b wb‡¯—R n‡Z _v‡K Ges nv K‡i wbtk¦vm Uv‡b| †g‡qwU cÖvqB Wvqwiqv I R¡‡i Avµvš— _v‡K| Wv³viMY wPwKrmvi ci Ii †`‡n GBPAvBwf fvBivm kbv³ K‡i|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) HIV Gi c~Y©iƒc Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Human Immune Deficiency Virus. cÖkœ: L) ÔGB AwZ mvaviY j¶‡Yi AmyL GK mgq msnviK g~wZ© aviY K‡i|Õ eywS‡q †jL| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: †h fvBivm †_‡K GBWm †ivMUv nq Zvi bvg Human Immune Deficiency Virus; ms‡¶‡c HIV. GBPAvBwfi cÖavb KvR n‡”Q gvby‡li kix‡ii ¯^vfvweK †ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv bó K‡i †`Iqv| d‡j `ye©jZv, R¡i, Wvqwiqv, jwmKvMÖwš’ dz‡j hvIqvi gZ mvaviY j¶‡Yi AmyLI GK mgq msnviK g~wZ© aviY K‡i _v‡K| cÖkœ: M) DÏxc‡K ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ- Gi †Kvb w`KwU dz‡U D‡V‡Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K GKwU †QvU wkïi GBWm-G Avµvš— nevi Kvwnbx D‡j−L Kiv n‡q‡Q| wkïwUi evev cÖ_‡g GBWm- G Avµvš— nq; Zvici wkïwUi gv Ges Gici gv‡qi `ya cvb K‡i wkïwUI GBWm G Avµvš— nq| d‡j `yiš— wkïwU µgvš^‡q wb‡¯—R n‡Z _v‡K Ges `xN©¯’vqx R¡i I Wvqwiqvq Avµvš— nq| DÏxc‡K ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ iPbvq ewY©Z GBWm Gi fqvenZv wb‡`©k Kiv n‡q‡Q| Awbivc` †hŠb wgj‡bi d‡j GBWm †iv‡Mi Rb¥ nq| exh©, i³ I gv‡qi `y‡ai ga¨ w`‡q gvbe †`‡n GBP AvBwf fvBivm cÖ‡ek Ki‡Z cv‡i| Avgv‡`i cv‡ki †`k¸‡jv GBWm †ivM wec`mxgv AwZµg K‡i‡Q| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki Avb›` wccvmyiv †m mKj †`‡k hv‡”Q Ges wfb‡`wk †hŠbKgx©‡`i m‡½ Zv‡`i †hvMv‡hvM NU‡Q| Zviv †`‡k wdi‡Q GBPAvBwf fvBivm wb‡q| wKsev `wi`ª †`‡k cwZZve„wËi Aeva wePiY A_ev wkw¶Z AvaywbK Zi“Y-Zi“Yx‡`i Aeva †gjv‡gkv †_‡K AwZ`ª“Z gvbe †`‡n GBPAvBwf-i we¯—vi N‡U‡Q| Ab¨w`‡K Avgv‡`i †`‡ki †g‡q‡`i †hŠb wk¶v †bB ej‡jB P‡j| d‡j mn‡RB †g‡qiv HIV-†Z Avµvš— nq| Avevi G gv‡qi `ya cv‡b beRvZ wkïwUI GBWm †iv‡M Avµvš— n‡”Q| Gfv‡e DÏxc‡K ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ iPbvq ewY©Z GBWm Gi m¤cÖmviY I Ki“Y cwiYwZi w`KwU dz‡U D‡V‡Q| c„ôv-231


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: N) DÏxc‡Ki wkïwUi cwiYwZi `„k¨wU ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ- Gi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K iv‡m‡ji D”Q„•Lj Rxeb-hvcb, iv‡mj I Zvi ¯¿x Ges Zv‡`i †g‡qwUi GBPAvBwf fvBiv‡m msµwgZ nevi K_v ejv nq‡Q| ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ g‡Z HIV UvBc Iqvb †_‡K GBWm Gi m„wó| GBPAvBwfi cÖavb KvR n‡”Q gvby‡li kix‡ii ¯^vfvweK †ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv bó K‡i †`Iqv| exh©, i³ I gv‡qi `ya G wZb RvZxq Zij c`v‡_©i gva¨‡g gvbe‡`‡n GBPAvBwf fvBivm Qov‡Z cv‡i| GBPAvBwf Avµvš— e¨w³i m‡½ †hŠb wgjb, GBPAvBwf Avµvš— †ivMxi i³ kix‡i cÖ‡ek Ki‡j wKsev GBPAvBwf fvBivm Avµvš— gv‡qi `ya cv‡b wkïivI GBWm †iv‡M Avµvš— n‡Z cv‡i| G ‡`‡k †g‡q‡`i †hŠbZv welqK cy‡iv e¨vcviUvB GK cÖKvi wbwl× _vKvq †g‡qiv G †¶‡Î eo ai‡bi SzuwKi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q| G Qvov Awbivc` †hŠbwgj‡b evav †`Iqvi ¶gZvI AwaKvsk †g‡qi †bB| Z_vKw_Z AvaywbKZvi d‡jI GBPAvBwf fvBivm msµwgZ n‡”Q; hvi cwiYvg AKvj g„Zz¨| DÏxc‡Ki wkïi cwiYwZi `„k¨wUI DcwiD³fv‡e ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ iPbvq we‡k−wlZ n‡q‡Q|

“ wb‡Pi wPÎwU j¶ Ki Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (†gvt †mv‡nj Avn‡g`)

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cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) Ôk•Lbxj KvivMviÕ mvwnZ¨Kg©wUi iPwqZv †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Ôk•Lbxj KvivMviÕ mvwnZ¨Kg©wUi iPwqZv n‡”Qb ûgvq~b Avn‡g`| cÖkœ: L) ÔjwmKv MÖwš’Õ (Lymph Gland) ej‡Z Kx eyS? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔjwmKv MÖwš’Õ n‡”Q Ggb GK ai‡bi MÖwš’ hv kixi‡K wewfbœ RxevYy I ¶wZKi †Kv‡li nvZ †_‡K i¶v K‡i| mvaviYZ gvby‡li Nv‡o, eM‡j I KzuPwK‡Z jwmKv MÖwš’ †ewk _v‡K| cÖkœ: M) ÔwP‡Îi Kv‡jv_vevi gv‡SB GBWm cÖwZ‡iv‡ai welqwU wbwnZ i‡q‡QÕ- ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ- Gi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: GBWm NvZK e¨vwa| †h fvBivm †_‡K †ivMUv nq Zvi bvg Human Immune Deficiency Virus| ms‡¶‡c HIV | exh©, i³ I gv‡qi `ya- GB wZb RvZxq Zij c`v‡_© GBPAvBwf fvBivm _v‡K| GB c„ôv-232


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

wZb RvZxq Zi‡ji Av`vb cÖ`v‡b G †ivM Qovq| GBPAvBwf Avµvš— †ivMxi m‡½ Awbivc` †hŠb wgj‡b, GBPAvBwf Avµvš— †ivMxi i³ kix‡i wb‡j Ges GBPAvBwf Avµvš— gv‡qi `ya cv‡b GBWm †iv‡Mi Rb¥ nq| wP‡Îi Kv‡jv _vevwU GBWm Gi fqvenZv wb‡`©k Ki‡jI Gi gv‡S AvuKv jvj i‡Oi wieb wPý Øviv GBWm cÖwZ‡iv‡ai w`KwU Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| NvZK e¨vwai GBWm Gi GLb ch©š— †Kvb Ilya Avwe®‹vi nq wb| Avgv‡`i cv‡ki †`k¸‡jv‡Z GBWm †ivM wec`mxgv AwZµg K‡i‡Q| Avgv‡`i †`‡ki †g‡q‡`i Ae¯’vb `ye©j| Zv‡`i †hŠb wk¶v †bB ej‡jB P‡j| GBWm cÖwZ‡iv‡ai †¶‡Î G wel‡q bvix cyi“l me©¯—‡ii †Lvjv‡gjv Av‡jvPbvi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e Ges Rbm‡PZbZv e„w× Ki‡Z n‡e| G ‡¶‡Î GBWm welqK †mwgbvi I cÖPviYvi gva¨‡g GBWm Gi fqvenZv m¤ú‡K© mKj‡K m‡PZb Ki‡Z n‡e| Z‡eB GB NvZK e¨vwa‡K cÖwZ‡iva Kiv m¤¢e| †m m‡½ wP‡Îi Kv‡jv _vevi gv‡SB jvj i‡Oi wieb Øviv GBWm cÖwZ‡iv‡ai welqwU n‡q‡Q Zv ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ †Z Dwj−wLZ GBWm cÖwZ‡iv‡ai welqwU‡K ¯§iY Kwi‡q †`q| cÖkœ: N) ÔmgvR m‡PZbZvi gva¨‡g GBWm cÖwZ‡iva m¤¢e|Õ ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ iPbvi Av‡jv‡K Dw³wUi h_v_©Zv we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: cÖvewÜK ûgvq~b Avn‡g` iwPZ ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ- GBWm welqK Rbm‡PZbZvg~jK GKwU cÖeÜ| G cÖe‡Ü GBWm Gi e¨vcKZv Ges GBWm cÖwZ‡iv‡a KiYxq f~wgKv m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| DÏxcKwU GKwU Ôn¯—wPÎÕ gvÎ bq| Kv‡jv nvZ Øviv GBWm Gi fqvenZv Ges nv‡Zi gv‡S AvuKv wieb Øviv GBWm cÖwZ‡iv‡ai welqwU ¯úó Kiv n‡q‡Q| wPÎwUi wb‡P †jLv i‡q‡Q Rbm‡PZbZvi gv‡S GBWm cÖwZ‡iv‡ai welqwU wbwnZ i‡q‡Q| Aciv‡nèi M‡í evsjv‡`‡ki evwn‡i GBWm Gi fqven we¯—vi Ges evsjv‡`‡k Gi Ae¯’vb wb‡`©k Kiv n‡q‡Q| G †`‡k GBWm welqK cÖPvi †Zgbfv‡e n‡q I‡V wb| Avi me‡P‡q eo K_v †h Avgv‡`i †`‡k G welqK Av‡jvPbv U¨vey n‡q i‡q‡Q| d‡j †g‡qiv me‡P‡q SzuwKc~Y© Ae¯’vq i‡q‡Q| GgbwK Awbivc` wKsev KbWgwenxb †hŠb wgj‡b AcviMZv cÖKvk Ki‡ZI Giv A¶g n‡q i‡q‡Q| hvi †cQ‡b i‡q‡Q me©¯—‡ii m‡PZbZvi Afve| G m‡PZbZvi Afv‡e Zviv giYe¨vwai fqvenZv m¤ú‡K© kZfvM wbwðZ n‡Z cvi‡Q bv| DcwiD³ Av‡jvPbvi †ik a‡i ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ-Gi Av‡jv‡K ÔmgvR m‡PZbZvi gva¨‡g GBWm cÖwZ‡iv‡a m¤¢eÕ Dw³wUi h_v_©Zv cÖgvwYZ nq| “ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvwcqv RvbœvZ) Ôgvbyl wb®úvc c„w_ex‡Z Av‡m| KvD‡K w`I bv †`vl wcZvi †`v‡l gv e‡j‡Qb, gvbyl hw` n‡Z PvI cvc‡K N„Yv Ki, cvcx‡K bq| gvbyl wb®úvc c„w_ex‡Z Av‡m|Õ - Mv‡bi K_v¸‡jvi mv‡_ gwR‡`i Rxe‡bi mv`„k¨ †Kv_vq? eis GKvwKZ¡B Zv‡K AvuK‡o a‡i‡Q A‡±vcv‡mi g‡Zv| AvR Avgiv kw¼Z| †cÖ¶vcU e`‡j wM‡q‡Q| KviY; ÔeuvP‡Z n‡j Rvb‡Z n‡e|Õ

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖk:œ K) Avãyj gwR` †Kv_vq KvR KiZ? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: Avãyj gwR` B‡›`v‡bwkqvq KvR KiZ| cÖkœ: L) Ô†ivM‡K N„Yv Kiv hvq, †ivMx‡K bqÕ- †Kb?- e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: gvbyl m‡PZb ev Am‡PZ‡b bvbvwea †ivMRxevYy Øviv Avµvš— n‡Z cv‡i GUv A¯^vfvweK wKQz bq| ZvB e‡j Avµvš— e¨w³‡K A_©vr †ivMx‡K N„Yv Kivi †Kvb †hŠw³KZv †bB| Avµvš— †ivMx‡K †`L‡Z n‡e cig ggZvq, hv‡Z Zvi g‡bvej evo‡e hv Zvi my¯Z ’ vi Rb¨ AZ¨š— mnvqK| †ivM Rxeb msnviK ZvB Avgiv †ivM‡K N„Yv Kie| wKš‘ †ivMx‡K bq| c„ôv-233


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: M) ÔeuvP‡Z n‡j Rvb‡Z n‡eÕ- Aciv‡nèi Mí Aej¤^‡b †¯−vMvbwUi †hvw³KZv wbY©q Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: GBWm GKwU fqven †ivM, G †iv‡M g„Zz¨ AeavwiZ| ÔevuP‡Z n‡j, Rvb‡Z n‡eÕ †¯−vMvbwU Aciv‡nèi Mí Gi Av‡jv‡K †hŠw³K I mZ¨ e‡j cÖgvwYZ n‡q‡Q| ûgvq~b Avn‡g` GBWm G Avµvš— nIqvi wewfbœ †¶Î D‡j−L K‡i‡Qb| †Zgwb GKwU †¶Î Aeva I Awbivc` †hŠbvPvi, hv evsjv‡`‡ki GK †kªYxi Zi“Y-Zi“Yx‡`i gv‡S Pj‡Q| GBWm †_‡K euvP‡Z n‡j Aek¨B G m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z n‡e| GB wel‡q AÁvbZvi Kvi‡Y Avgv‡`i mgv‡R I c„w_exi wewfbœ †`‡k gvbyl Rxe‡b fqven wech©q †W‡K G‡b‡Q| ZvB G †ivM m¤ú‡K© cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki m‡PZb nIqv Ri“wi| Aciv‡nèi M‡í gwR‡`i Rxe‡b fqven `yM©wZ G‡mwQj AÁvbZvi Rb¨| B‡›`v‡bwkqvq _vKvKvjxb GBWm m¤ú‡K© wVKg‡Zv bv Rvbvi Kvi‡Y AvR Zvi GB fqven cwiYwZ| †jLK gwR`‡K †`L‡Z cvb †QvÆ GKwU N‡i K¼vj Ae¯’vq kxZj cvwU‡Z ï‡q Av‡Q| nv K‡i wbtk¦vm wb‡”Q; †KD Zvi Kv‡Q Av‡m bv| Zv‡K Lvevi †`Iqv nq Rvbvjv w`‡q| Zvi N‡i GKUv gvÎ Rvbvjv, †mUvI eÜ _v‡K| Zvi ¯¿x †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i wb‡q ev‡ci evwo P‡j †M‡Q| †jLK Zv‡K GB †ivM m¤ú‡K© wR‡Ám Ki‡j wZwb e‡jb, Ôwe‡`k †_‡K wbqv AvmwQ, Lvivc †g‡q gvby‡li mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM wQj|Õ gwR‡`i GB Ki“Y cwiYwZ GBWm m¤ú‡K© my¯úó aviYv bv _vKvi Kvi‡Y| ZvQvov Zvi cwievi Zvi mv‡_ †h AvPiY K‡i‡Q ZvI AÁvbZvi Kvi‡Y| ZvB ejv hvq-ÔevuP‡Z n‡j, Rvb‡Z n‡e|Õ †¯−vMvbwU †hŠw³K I mZ¨| cÖk:œ N) DÏxc‡K MvbwUi gg©K_vi wfwˇZ gwR‡`i Ki“Y cwiYwZi wPÎ we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K MvbwUi gg©v_© nj- Ôcvc‡K N„Yv Ki, cvcx‡K bq|Õ A_©vr gwR‡`i GBWm †ivMUv‡K N„Yv Ki wKš‘ gwR`‡K bq| ÔAciv‡nèi M‡íÕ gwR` NvZK e¨vwa‡Z Avµvš—| †m g„Zz¨i cÖni ¸b‡Q| cwiev‡ii mevB Rv‡b G †ivM fqvbK †Quvqv‡P| †ivMxi mv‡_ IVvemv Ki‡j; GKB cyKz‡i †Mvmj Ki‡j; GKB _vjvevmb e¨envi Ki‡j GBWm Qovq bv| G åvš— aviYvq wek¦vmx n‡q gwR‡`i ¯¿x †Q‡j- †g‡q‡K wb‡q ev‡ci evwo P‡j hvq| Zv‡`i fq, Avµvš— e¨w³i ms¯ú‡k© _vK‡j Zviv I GBWm G Avµvš— n‡e| DÏxc‡Ki MvbwUi g~j K_v n‡”Q- Ôcvc‡K N„Yv Ki, cvcx‡K bq|Õ GB gvbweK `„wófw½ ïay cvcx bq, †ivMxi †¶‡ÎI mgfv‡e cÖ‡hvR¨| GBWm Gi †h‡nZz Ilya Avwe®‹vi nq wb †m‡nZz Gi cwiYwZ wbwðZ g„Zz¨| †h‡nZz GUv †Quvqv‡P bq †m‡nZz †ivMvµvš— e¨w³‡K N„Yv Kiv DwPZ bq| †iv‡Mi Drm ev KviY hvB †nvK bv †Kb| †h †Kvb †ivMvµvš— e¨w³‡K N„Yv Kiv gvbeZvi AwePvi, Am¤§vbI| ZvB G NvZKe¨vwai msµgY I we¯—…wZ †iv‡a †hgb Avgv‡`i mKj‡K mRvM I mwµq n‡Z n‡e, †ZgbB AvZ©cxwoZ †ivMvµvš—‡`i‡KI Rxe‡bi Awš—gj‡Mœ cig ggZvq Avcb K‡i wb‡Z n‡e|

“

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvwcqv RvbœvZ) Rxeb euvPv‡Z GwM‡q Avmyb

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evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) ûgvq~b Avn‡g` †Kvb wel‡qi QvÎ wQ‡jb? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ûgvq~b Avn‡g` imvqb wel‡qi QvÎ wQ‡jb| cÖkœ: L) ÔAe¯’v hv `uvwo‡q‡Q Zv‡Z †¯úW‡K †¯úW ejvB evÃbxqÕ- e¨vL¨v Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ GBWm m‡PZbg~jK GKwU cÖeÜ| GB wel‡qi me‡P‡q j¾vi Ges †Mvcbxq welq nj bi-bvixi Awbqwš¿Z †hŠbvPvi| G welq¸‡jv †LvjvLywj ej‡Z A¯^w¯— I j¾v jv‡M; hvi Kvi‡Y wk¶Yxq welqwU cvk KvUv‡Z wM‡q mgv‡Ri ¶wZi KviY n‡q `uvwo‡q‡Q| ZvB j¾vi welqwU cwinvi K‡i mevB‡K euvPvi Rb¨ mZ¨‡K Rvb‡Z n‡e| cÖkœ: M) DÏxc‡Ki iwbi mv‡_ ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ- Gi †Kvb PwiÎwUi mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Q Zv wbY©q Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K ewY©Z iwbi mv‡_ ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ Gi gwR‡`i wgj Av‡Q| Aciv‡nèi M‡í gwR` RxweKvi ZvwM‡` B‡›`v‡bwkqvq wM‡q Aeva †hŠbvPv‡i wjß nb Ges †`‡k Avmvi ci HIV †Z Avµvš— n‡q AvZ¥xq-cwiRb mevB‡K †Q‡o ci‡jv‡K Mgb K‡i‡Qb| GUv wQj Zvi cv‡ci kvw¯—| wKš‘ DÏxc‡Ki iwb gv`Kvm³| hLb weÁvc‡b gyg~l©y †ivMx‡K i³ w`‡Z AvMÖnx nb ZLbB cix¶vi ci Zvi kix‡i HIV fvBivm aiv c‡o| eÜz‡`i mv‡_ †bkv Ki‡Z wM‡q AvR †m g„Zz¨gy‡L cwZZ n‡q‡Q| GKB muyP w`‡q eÜziv wg‡j gv`K MÖnY K‡i †bkvi RM‡Z Wy‡e wM‡q‡Q| wKš‘ AvR G Ki“Y cwiYwZi Rb¨ †m wb‡RB wb‡R‡K `vqx Ki‡Q| DÏxc‡Ki iwb eÜz‡`i mv‡_ †bkv Ki‡Z wM‡q GBWm G Avµvš— n‡q‡Q Avi ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕi gwR` we‡`‡k wM‡q A‰ea †hŠbvPv‡ii Kvi‡Y GBWm G Avµvš— n‡q‡Q| Zv‡`i `yR‡bi mv`„k¨ GB †h Zviv `yR‡bB GKB e¨vwa‡Z Avµvš—, `yR‡bB Am‡PZb| gwR‡`i cwiYwZ g„Z¨z , iwbI Zvi Rxeb wb‡q kswKZ| KviY GBWm n‡j g„Z¨z AeavwiZ| cÖkœ: N) Ôiwb †bkvi RMZ †_‡K gyw³ †c‡jI wb‡R‡K i¶v Ki‡Z cvi‡eb bvÕ- Aciv‡nèi Mí Aej¤^‡b Zv we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: Rxeb m‡PZbg~jK cÖe‡Üi iPwqZv ûgvq~b Avn‡g` Zuvi ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ Gi gwR‡`i †h Ki“Y cwiYwZ Zv RbMY‡K m‡PZb K‡i †Zvjvi j‡¶ iwPZ n‡q‡Q GB cÖeÜwU| DÏxc‡K gyg~ly© †ivMxi Rb¨ i‡³i cÖ‡qvRb GB weÁvcb c‡o iwb hLb i³ w`‡Z AvMÖnx n‡q nvmcvZv‡j hvb ZLbB Zvi i‡³ HIV fvBivm aiv c‡o| eÜz‡`i mv‡_ GKB myuP w`‡q gv`K kix‡i cÖ‡ek Kwi‡q wb‡R‡K †bkvi RM‡Z Wywe‡q †i‡LwQ‡jb| wKš‘ hLb HIV fvBivm aiv coj ZLb wb‡R‡K wdwi‡q Avbvi †Kvb c_B Zvi †Lvjv †bB| Aciv‡nèi M‡í gwR`‡K †`wL Am‡PZbZvi Kvi‡Y Aeva †hŠbvPv‡i wjß n‡q Ae‡k‡l g„Zz¨ gy‡L cwZZ nb| DÏxc‡KI Avgiv iwb‡K †`wL †m GLb wPwš— Z| KviY GBWm gvivZ¥K e¨vwa; Gi cwiYwZ fqven| wZwb GLb fve‡Qb †h †bkvi RMZ †_‡K wb‡R‡K gy³ Ki‡Z cvi‡jI wb‡R‡K GBWm Gi gZ e¨vwa †_‡K Kxfv‡e gy³ Ki‡e| GBWm NvZK e¨vwa| ZvB m‡PZbZvB GB e¨vwa †_‡K gyw³i Dcvq, bZzev g„Zz¨ AeavwiZ|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj) Ôwek¦ GBWm w`emÕ †K mvg‡b †i‡L cwci K‡j‡R GBWm welqK GK †mwgbv‡ii Av‡qvRb Kiv nq| †mB †mwgbv‡i Ask †bb GBWm cÖwZ‡iv‡a KvR Kiv wewfbœ GbwRI, GBWm welqK D”PZi cÖwk¶Y cÖvß wPwKrmK, wewfbœ mgvR‡mevg~jK cÖwZôvb Ges K‡j‡Ri wk¶v_©xiv| cÖ_‡g QvÎQvÎxiv A¯^w¯— †eva Ki‡jI Av‡jvPbvi GK ch©v‡q cwc I Zvi eÜziv GBWm Gi fqvenZv m¤ú‡K© †R‡b AvZw¼Z n‡q c‡o| Zv‡`i †evSv‡bv nq ag©xq wewa wb‡la †g‡b Pj‡j Ges m‡PZb _vK‡j GBWm nq bv wKš‘ Am‡PZb n‡j GBWm bvgK cvMjv †Nvov †h †Kvb mgq jvMvgQvov n‡Z cv‡i| c„ôv-235


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖk:œ K) ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ iPbvwUi †jLK †K? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ iPbvwUi †jLK ûgvq~b Avn‡g`| cÖkœ: L) evsjv‡`‡k GBWm †iv‡Mi Avµv‡š—i cwimsL¨vb D‡j−L Ki| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: mvnviv gi“f~wgi Pvicv‡ki AvUPwj−kwU †`‡k g„Zz¨i cÖavb KviY GBWm| evsjv‡`‡ki cÖwZ‡ekx ivóªm ª g~n †hgb- fviZ, †bcvj, gvqvbgvi, Pxb, _vBj¨vÛ, wf‡qZbvg, B‡›`v‡bwkqv‡ZI GBWm `ª“Z Qwo‡q co‡Q| †m Zzjbvq evsjv‡`‡ki Ae¯’v fv‡jv| Z‡e GK_vI mZ¨ †h bvbv Kvi‡Y evsjv‡`‡kI GBWm †ivMxi msL¨v †e‡o Pj‡Q| ÔUNAIDSÕi cwimsL¨vb Abyhvqx evsjv‡`‡k GBWm †ivMxi msL¨v wQj 134, GBWm †iv‡M g„‡Zi msL¨v 74, HIV c‡RwUf gvby‡li msL¨v 658| GKeQi ci GB wn‡me †e‡o wM‡q HIV Avµv‡š—i msL¨v 658 †_‡K `uvwo‡q‡Q 874 R‡b| GBWm †iv‡M Avµv‡š—i msL¨v n‡q‡Q 240 Ges gviv †M‡Q 109 Rb| 2008 m‡bi cwimsL¨vb Abyhvqx GBWm †ivMxi msL¨v 1144| A_©vr evsjv‡`‡kI GBWm †ivMxi msL¨v †e‡o P‡j‡Q hv mwZ¨B AvZ‡¼i welq| cÖkœ: M) ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ iPbvwU‡Z DÏxcKwU Kxfv‡e cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: eZ©gvb we‡k¦i GBWm †iv‡Mi cwiwPwZ giYe¨vwa wn‡m‡e| mvnviv gi“f~wgi Pvicv‡ki AvUPwj−kwU †`k Ges fviZ, gvqvbgvi, Pxb, B‡›`v‡bwkqv, _vBj¨vÛ, †bcvj, wf‡qZbv‡g GBWm AZ¨š— `ª“Z Qwo‡q co‡Q| cÖwZw`b cÖvq 15 nvRvi †jvK G ‡iv‡M Avµvš— n‡”Q hv wek¦evmxi Kv‡Q GK fqvbK ûgwK| GBWm Gi Kivj MÖv‡mi mvg‡b gvbe mgvR GL‡bv Amnvq| G †iv‡Mi g~‡j n‡”Q GK we‡kl ai‡bi fvBivm| G †iv‡Mi wei“‡× jovB Kivi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq Ilya GL‡bv Avwe®‹„Z nq wb| G iKg GKwU fqven wel‡q Rbm‡PZbZv m„wói j‡¶ RbwcÖq mvwnwZ¨K ûgvq~b Avn‡g` ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ iPbvwU wj‡L‡Qb| G cÖe‡Ü †jLK GBWm †iv‡Mi KviY I cwiYvg D‡j−L Ki‡Z wM‡q Avãyj gwR` bv‡gi GK e¨w³i Rxe‡bi Ki“Y Kvwnbx Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| Z‡e ïay cwiYv‡gi fqvenZvB wZwb †`Lvb wb cvkvcvwk Kxfv‡e GBWm cÖwZ‡iva Kiv hvq, G †iv‡Mi RxevYy kix‡ii †Kvb †Kvb ¯’v‡b Ae¯’vb K‡i Ges evsjv‡`‡k GB †iv‡Mi GKwU cwimsL¨vbI Zz‡j a‡i‡Qb| G mKj wel‡qi my¯úó eY©bvi gva¨‡g †jLK Avm‡j mvaviY RbMY‡K m‡PZb K‡i †Zvjvi cÖqvm †c‡q‡Qb| Av‡jvP¨ DÏxc‡KI Avgiv †`wL cwci K‡j‡R GBWm welqK GK †mwgbv‡ii Av‡qvRb Kiv n‡q‡Q †hLv‡b GBWm welqK wPwKrmK, GBWm cÖwZ‡iv‡a Kg©iZ GbwRI Ges wewfbœ mgvR †mevg~jK cÖwZôvb AskMÖnY K‡i QvÎQvÎx‡K m‡PZb K‡i †Zvjvi c`‡¶c MÖnY K‡i‡Q| GLv‡b †iv‡Mi KviY, cwiYwZ I cÖwZ‡iv‡a KiYxq KvR m¤ú‡K© QvÎQvÎx‡K Ávb `vb Kiv nq| myZivs ejv hvq ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ iPbvi g~j e³e¨ Av‡jvP¨ DÏxc‡K I cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: N) ÔcvMjv †Nvov †h †Kvb mgq jvMvgQvov n‡Z cv‡iÕ- Dw³wUi Av‡jv‡K GBWm cÖwZ‡iv‡a KiYxq KvR m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: RbwcÖq mvwnwZ¨K ûgvq~b Avn‡g` iwPZ ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ GKwU GBWm welqK Rbm‡PZbZvg~jK iPbv| G‡Z †jLK GBWm †iv‡Mi KviY, cwiYwZ I cÖwZ‡iv‡a KiYxq welqmg~n wb‡q Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| eZ©gvb we‡k¦ GBWm AZ¨š— fqven GKwU †ivM| G‡K giYe¨vwaI ejv n‡q _v‡K| we‡k¦ cÖwZw`b cÖvq 14000 †jvK GB‡iv‡Mi fvBivm HIV- †Z Avµvš— n‡”Q Ges 8200 †jvK gviv hv‡”Q| mvnviv gi“f~wgi Pvicv‡ki 48wU †`kmn fviZ, †bcvj, gvqvbgvi, Pxb, _vBj¨vÛ, B‡›`v‡bwkqvq †ivM `ª“Z Qwo‡q co‡Q| evsjv‡`‡k GBWm †ivMxi msL¨v Zzjbvg~jK Kg n‡jI cÖwZwbqZ G msL¨v evo‡Q| d‡j we‡klÁ‡`i g‡Z ÔcvMjv †Nvov †h †Kvb mgq jvMvgQvov n‡Z cv‡iÕ A_©vr Am‡PZbZvi Kvi‡Y †h‡Kvb mgq evsjv‡`‡k Gi cÖfve we¯—vi Ki‡Z cv‡i e‡j Gi Rb¨ GLb cÖwZ‡iva M‡o Zzj‡Z n‡e| Avi GBWm bvgK fq¼i Kv‡jv _vev †_‡K †invB †c‡Z RbMY‡K h‡_ó m‡PZb n‡Z n‡e| †`k n‡Z gv`Kvm³‡`i msL¨v wbg~©j Ki‡Z n‡e, i³ cÖ`vbKvix Ges MÖnYKvix‡K i³ cix¶v K‡i wb‡Z n‡e| GKevi e¨eüZ myP wØZxqevi e¨envi Kiv †_‡K weiZ _vK‡Z n‡e, AvaywbKZvi bv‡g Aeva †hŠbvPvi Ges Awbivc` †hŠbvPvi †_‡K weiZ _vK‡Z n‡e Ges m‡ev©cwi ag©xq Abykvmb †g‡b P‡j Rxeb hvcb Ki‡j GBWm bvgK cvMjv †Nvovi cv‡q †eox evav m¤¢e| Dchy³ wel‡q hw` m‡PZb _vKv bv nq Zvn‡jB GBWm bvgK cvMjv †Nvovi Awbqwš¿Z Qz‡U Pjvq †`k Z_v wek¦ gvivZ¥K fqven cwibv‡gi gy‡L cwZZ n‡e| c„ôv-236


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj) gwj−Kv †ckvq †hŠbKgx©, wKš‘ Ab¨ †g‡q‡`i †P‡q †m h‡_ó m‡PZb| †hŠb‡ivM mg~n QvovI we‡kl fv‡e GBWm †ivM m¤ú‡K© Zvi my¯úó aviYv mwZ¨B cÖksmbxq, gwj−Kvi Kv‡Q Avmv L‡Ïi‡`i †m eywS‡qmywS‡q wbivc` Dcv‡q ˆ`wnKfv‡e wgwjZ nq| d‡j G †ckvq †_‡KI GBWm bvgK giYe¨vwai nvZ †_‡K gwj−Kv gy³| ZvB ïay gwj−Kv bq mevB‡K G wel‡q m‡PZb n‡Z n‡e|

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖk:œ K) †Kvb w`bwU‡K Ôwek¦ GBWm w`emÕ wn‡m‡e †NvlYv †`qv n‡q‡Q? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: 1 wW‡m¤^i‡K Ôwek¦ GBWm w`emÕ wn‡m‡e †NvlYv †`qv n‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: L) Ôgvbe kix‡i HIVÕi Ae¯’vb †Kv_vq? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: ÔGBWmÕ eZ©gvb we‡k¦ giYe¨vwa bv‡g cwiwPZ, GB †iv‡Mi Rb¥ HIV †_‡K| HIV ev GBWm †iv‡Mi fvBivm gvbe kix‡ii 3wU Zi‡ji g‡a¨ Ae¯’vb K‡i, Zij 3wU n‡”Qi. i³ ii. exh© iii. gvZ…`» y HIV Avµvš— e¨w³i i³ †Kvbfv‡e ¯^vfvweK e¨w³i kix‡i cÖ‡ek Ki‡j, Avµvš— e¨w³i m‡½ Awbivc` †hŠb wgj‡b Ges gvZ…`y» cvb Kivi gva¨‡g wkïi kix‡iI HIVi msµgY N‡U| cÖkœ: M) DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K GBWm †iv‡Mi KviYmg~n Av‡jvPbv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: RbwcÖq mvwnwZ¨K ûgvq~b Avn‡g` ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ iPbvwU‡Z giYe¨vwa ÔGBWmÕ m¤ú‡K© wek`fv‡e Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| GB cÖe‡Ü †jLK GBWm †iv‡Mi KviY, cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Dcvq, GBWm †ivMxi mvgvwRK Ae¯’vbmn wewfbœ wel‡q †Lvjv‡gjv Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| NvZK e¨vwa GBWm †ek wKQz Dcv‡q gvby‡li kix‡i evmv euv‡a| GBWm †iv‡Mi g~j KviY¸‡jv n‡”Q• HIV Avµvš— e¨w³i m‡½ Awbivc` †hŠb wgj‡b GBWm †iv‡Mi msµgY N‡U| • Avµvš— e¨w³i i³ Ab¨ †Kvb e¨w³i †`‡n cÖ‡ek Ki‡j| • Avµvš— e¨w³i e¨eüZ myP Ab¨ e¨w³i †`‡n cÖ‡ek Ki‡j GBWm †iv‡Mi we¯—vi N‡U| mvaviYZ gv`Kvm³iv GKB myP A‡b‡KB e¨envi K‡i| d‡j gv`Kvm³‡`i gv‡S `ª“Z G †ivM Qwo‡q c‡o| • GBWm Avµvš— gv‡qi `y» cv‡b wkïi kix‡iI G †iv‡Mi msµgY N‡U| GBWm †iv‡Mi fvBivm gvbe kix‡ii i³, exh© I gvZ…`y»- GB wZb ai‡bi Zi‡j Ae¯’vb K‡i| d‡j GB wZb ai‡bi Zi‡ji Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡gB Avµvš— e¨w³i kixi †_‡K my¯’ kix‡i GBWm †ivM Qwo‡q c‡o| cÖkœ: N) Ôm‡PZbZv e„w×B cv‡i GBWm †iv‡Mi wei“‡× cÖwZ‡iva M‡o Zzj‡ZÕ- DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K GBWm cÖwZ‡iv‡a KiYxq KvR m¤ú‡K© Av‡jvPbv Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: eZ©gvb we‡k¦i fqvenZg e¨vwa n‡”Q GBWm| GB †iv‡Mi cwiYvg wbwðZ g„Zz¨| wKš‘ GKUy m‡PZbZvB cv‡i GB †iv‡Mi wei“‡× k³ cÖwZ‡iva M‡o Zzj‡Z| RbwcÖq mvwnwZ¨K ûgvq~b Avn‡g` iwPZ ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ iPbvq GBWm m¤ú‡K© c~Y©v½ wPÎ cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| giYe¨vwa GBWm †iv‡Mi evnK HIV n‡”Q GK we‡kl ai‡bi fvBivm| GB fvBivm gvbe kix‡i i³, exh© I gvZ…`y» G wZb ai‡bi Zi‡j Ae¯’vb K‡i| d‡j G wZb ai‡bi Zi‡ji Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g my¯’ e¨w³i kix‡i GBWm fvBivm Qwo‡q c‡o| mvaviYZ gv`Kvm³iv GKB myP e¨envi K‡i gv`K MÖnY K‡i Ges cÖvqkB Zviv gv`‡Ki UvKv †RvMv‡oi Rb¨ i³ wewµ K‡i| GB i³ Qwo‡q c‡o wewfbœ nvmcvZv‡ji †ivMx‡`i kix‡i| d‡j `~wlZ i³ MÖnY K‡i †mB i³ MÖnYKvix e¨w³I GBWm-G Avµvš— nq| Avevi Awbivc` †hŠb wgj‡bi d‡j G‡Ki kixi †_‡K Ac‡ii kix‡i GBWm Qwo‡q c‡o| GBWm †iv‡M Avµvš— gv‡qi `ya cvb K‡i c„ôv-237


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

beRvZK wkïI G †iv‡M Avµvš— nq| Z‡e GKUz m‡PZb n‡j G †ivM cÖwZ‡iva Kiv m¤¢e nq| †hgb: evB‡ii i³ MÖnY Kivi mgq Aek¨B Zv cix¶v K‡i †bIqv DwPZ| myP, wmwiÄ GKevi e¨envi Kivi ci Zv bó K‡i †djv DwPZ| †hŠb wgj‡bi mgq KbWg e¨envi Kiv DwPZ, m‡ev©cwi ag©xq Abykvmb †g‡b eûMvwgZv cwinvi K‡i my¯’ ¯^vfvweK Rxebhvcb Ki‡j Lye mn‡RB GBWm n‡Z `~‡i _vKv m¤¢e| myZivs m‡PZbZv GBWm †iv‡Mi SzuwK Kgv‡Z AZ¨š— ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| ZvB cÖ‡Z¨‡KB GBWm Gi fqvenZv Abyaveb K‡i m‡PZb _vKv KZ©e¨|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj) wcÖq kvš—v, †Zvgv‡K hLb G wPwVwU wjLwQ evB‡i ZLb NyUNy‡U AÜKvi| G AÜKvi ïay evB‡iB bq; G AÜKvi GLb Avgvi Rxe‡bI †b‡g G‡m‡Q| †Zvgv‡K wb‡q my‡L Rxeb KvUv‡bvi AvkvqB Avgvi cÖevm Rxeb †e‡Q †bqv| w`b¸‡jv fv‡jvB PjwQj wKš‘ cÖev‡mi iwObRxeb Avgv‡K µ‡gB gš¿gy» K‡i †`q| AvaywbKZv Avi Aeva †gjv‡gkv Avgv‡K µgvš^‡q ewn©gyLx K‡i‡Q| bvixm½ Avi gv`‡Ki †bkvq Avwg mewKQz fy‡j wM‡qwQjvg| wKš‘ wKQzw`b Av‡M Avwg Rvb‡Z cvijvg Avgvi HIV cwRwUf| gyn~‡Z© Avgvi mewKQz †f‡O c‡o| Kx Kie Rvwb bv Z‡e GUzKz ej‡Z cvwi †Zvgvi Rxe‡bI Avwg AÜKvi Avb‡Z PvB bv| bZzb Av‡jvq Sjg‡j †nvK †Zvgvi Rxeb| Zzwg fv‡jv †_‡Kv| kv‡n`

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) AIDS-Gi c~Y© iƒc Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: AIDS Gi c~Y© iƒc n‡”Q Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. cÖk:œ L) Ô¯^vfvweK †gjv‡gkvi d‡j AIDS Qovq bvÕ- †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: AIDS GK ai‡bi fvBivmNwUZ †ivM| fvBivmNwUZ G‡R›U HIV UvBc Iqvb †_‡KB AIDS e¨vwai m„wó, Z‡e G †ivM Ab¨vb¨ †Quvqv‡P †iv‡Mi gZ bq| AIDS Avµvš— †ivMxi m‡½ ¯^vfvweK †gjv‡gkvq G †ivM Qovq bv| GKB weQvbvq †kvqv, †ivMxi m‡½ IVv emv Kiv, GKB †MvmjLvbv e¨envi Kiv, GKB _vjv-evmb e¨envi Kiv, †ivMx †h M−v‡m cvwb Lvq †m M−v‡m cvwb LvIqv †Kvb wKQzB AIDS Qovq bv| KviY AIDS ïay i³, exh© I gvZ…`» y GB wZb RvZxq Zij Øviv Aci kix‡i we¯—vi jvf K‡i| myZivs ¯^vfvweK †gjv‡gkvq AIDS Qovq GwU GKwU åvš— aviYv| cÖkœ: M) ÔAvaywbK cÖevm Rxeb kv‡n‡`i AIDS Avµvš— nIqvi KviYÕ- DÏxc‡Ki Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: evsjv‡`‡ki Ab¨Zg RbwcÖq K_v mvwnwZ¨K ûgvq~b Avn‡g` ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ iPbvwU‡Z eZ©gvb c„w_exi me‡P‡q fqvenZg †ivM AIDS m¤ú‡K© we¯—vwiZ Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| DÏxc‡Ki kv‡n` K‡qK eQi a‡iB cÖev‡m emevm Ki‡Q| Avw_©K m”QjZvi Avkvq cÖev‡m emevm Ki‡jI GKvwKZ¡ Avi cÖev‡mi evafvOv AvaywbKZvq µgvš^‡q Mv fvwm‡q †`q kv‡n`| µ‡g bvixm½ I gv`‡Ki cÖwZ `ye©j n‡q c‡o| cÖev‡m GKv emev‡mi d‡j Zvi ¯^vaxb Pjv‡divi †KD evav †`qvi wQj bv| d‡j gymwjg n‡qI Bmjvgx Rxeb weavb cwiZ¨vM K‡i kv‡n` cvðv‡Z¨i DÏvgZvq AÜ n‡q c‡o| Aeva †hŠb AvPi‡Y †m KL‡bv HIV fvBiv‡mi K_v g‡bI Av‡b wb Avevi GKm‡½ gv`K MÖn‡Yi mgq †m fv‡e wb †h G‡Z AIDS Gi g‡Zv †iv‡Mi SuzwK evwo‡q w`‡Z cv‡i| fy‡ji g~j¨ mKj‡KB w`‡Z nq| kv‡n`I Gi evB‡i bq| AwZ AvaywbK Rxeb hvcb c×wZi †LmviZ Zv‡K w`‡Z n‡q‡Q| GK mgq kv‡n` Amy¯’ n‡q c‡o Ges ZLb †m RvbZ cv‡i †h AIDS Gi g‡Zv NvZK e¨vwa Zvi kix‡i evmv †eu‡a‡Q| Aeva ¯^vaxb Rxeb avivq Zvj wgjv‡Z wM‡q kv‡n` Am‡PZb AvPiY K‡i Ges gvivZ¥K GB †iv‡M Avµvš— nq| myZivs, kv‡n‡`i AIDS †ivM nevi †cQ‡b cÖev‡mi AvaywbK Rxeb‡K `vqx Kiv †M‡jI Zvi Am‡PZb c`‡¶cI wKQzUv `vqx| c„ôv-238


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ: N) ÔDÏxc‡Ki kv‡n` I ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ-Gi gwR` G‡K Ac‡ii cÖwZ”QweÕ- we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: AIDS eZ©gvb we‡k¦i me‡P‡q fqven GKwU e¨vwa AIDS †iv‡M Avµvš— e¨w³i cwiYvg wbwðZ g„Zz¨| G †iv‡Mi Ilya GLbI Avwe®‹„Z nq wb e‡j m‡PZbZvB cv‡i G †iv‡Mi wei“‡× cÖwZ‡iva M‡o Zzj‡Z| Avi †m j‡¶B RbwcÖq mvwnwZ¨K ûgvq~b Avn‡g` ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ bvgK iPbvwU wj‡L‡Qb| ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ- Gi Avãyj gwR` RxweKvi ZvwM‡` `xN©w`b B‡›`v‡bwkqvq emevm K‡i‡Qb| †m mgq wZwb Avb›` jv‡fi Rb¨ Lvivc †g‡q‡`i m‡½ †hŠb AvPi‡Y wjß n‡q‡Qb| Zvi AmZK© gyn‡~ Z©i Avb›` Zvi Rxe‡b †W‡K Av‡b giYe¨vwa AIDS-†K| Avãyj gwR` †`‡k wd‡i Av‡m| cÖ_g cÖ_g cwiev‡ii †jvKRb G¸‡jv wbQK iUbv e‡j Dwo‡q w`‡jI GK mgq Zvi cwiev‡ii †jv‡KivB Zv‡K Z¨vM K‡i| GKvKx gwR` A‡c¶v K‡i g„Zz¨i| Aci w`‡K DÏxc‡Ki kv‡n` Pwi·KI †`wL `xN©w`b cÖev‡m emevmKvix wn‡m‡e| cÖev‡mi iwOb Rxe‡bi nvZQvwb Zv‡K AvK…ó K‡i| Aeva bvixm½ Avi gv`K Zv‡K wb‡q hvq AIDS bvgK g„Zz¨cyix‡Z| Z‡e kv‡n` hLb Rvb‡Z †c‡i‡Q †h †m AIDS Avµvš— ZLb †m wm×vš— †bq †`‡k wd‡i bv Avmvi| GB Ki“Y cwiYwZi Rb¨ †h‡nZz †m wb‡RB `vqx ZvB GKvKx Rxeb‡KB †e‡Q †bq| Ges ¯¿x kvš—v †hb Av‡jv‡Kv¾¡j Rxeb M‡o wb‡Z cv‡i †m B”Qv †cvlY K‡i| Z‡e ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ Gi gwR` ïay bvixm‡½B †g‡Z wQj Avi DÏxc‡Ki kv‡n` Aeva †hŠb Rxeb QvovI gv`Kvm³I wQj | Avgiv Rvwb i³, exh©, Acwi‡kvwaZ myP meB AIDS Gi cwievnK, kv‡n` `y‡Uv welq‡KB MÖnY K‡i‡Q| Zvic‡iI gwR` Ges kv‡n` `yRb‡KB G‡K Ac‡ii cÖwZ”Qwe ejv hvq|

“ wb‡Pi wPÎwU †`L Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (cvifxb Av³vi Rwj)

c„ôv-239


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖkœ: K) jwmKv MÖwš’ Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: jwmKv MÖwš’ n‡”Q Ggb GK ai‡bi MÖwš’ hv kixi‡K RxevYy I ¶wZKi †Kv‡li nvZ †_‡K i¶v K‡i| cÖkœ: L) G ‡`‡ki †g‡qiv eo ai‡bi SzwKi g‡a¨ Av‡Q †Kb? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: evsjv‡`‡k AIDS we¯—v‡ii †¶‡Î †g‡qiv A_©vr bvix mgvR me‡P‡q †ewk SuzwKc~Y© Ae¯’v‡b Av‡Q| G ‡`‡ki mvgvwRK †cÖ¶vc‡U †hŠbwk¶v wbwl× welq| †hŠb wel‡qi m‡½ GBWm †iv‡Mi m¤ú„³Zv Av‡Q| wKš‘ †hŠb wk¶v †hgb wbwl× †Zgwb GBWm welqK †Lvjv‡gjv Av‡jvPbvI GLv‡b nq bv| d‡j †g‡qiv Dfq wel‡qB AÁ †_‡K hvq| GQvov †g‡q‡`i GL‡bv ¯^vaxbfv‡e wm×vš— MÖnY Kivi AwaKvi †bB d‡j cyi“l‡`i Øviv †g‡qiv bvbvfv‡e †hŠb wbcxo‡bi wkKvi nq| AÁZv I wbcxob G ‡`‡ki †g‡q‡`i eo ai‡bi SzwKi g‡a¨ †dj‡Q| cÖk:œ M) DÏxc‡Ki AIDS Avµvš— e¨w³ †_‡K Kxfv‡e beRvZK wkïwUi g‡a¨ AIDS Qwo‡q c‡o‡Q Zv †`LvI| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡K †h wPÎ e¨envi Kiv n‡q‡Q †mLv‡b GKRb HIV cwRwUf cyi“l, GKRb HIV cwRwUf bvix Ges HIV cwRwUf GKwU wkïi wPÎ †`L‡Z cvB, g~jZ e¨w³wUi g‡a¨ cÖ_‡g HIV fvBivm cvIqv hvq Ges Zvi Kv‡Q fvBivmwU msµwgZ nq ¯¿xi g‡a¨ Ges gv †_‡K †kl ch©š— wkïwUI Avµvš— nq| Avgiv Rvwb HIV fvBivmwU gvbe kix‡ii 3wU Zij RvZxq c`v‡_© Ae¯’vb K‡i| Zij 3wU n‡”Q- i³, exh© I gvZ…`y»| †h‡nZz Avgv‡`i †`‡k GL‡bv bvixiv m¤ú~Y© ¯^vwaKvi cvq wb ZvB ¯^vgxi B”Qvi wei“‡× †h‡Z cv‡i bv| ¯¿x‡`i eva¨ Kiv nq kvixwiK wgj‡b| Avevi B”Qvc~e©K Avb›` jv‡fi Rb¨ Am‡PZb c×wZ Aej¤^‡bi d‡j Avµvš— e¨w³ †_‡K Ab¨ kix‡i GB †iv‡Mi RxevYy cÖ‡ek K‡i| Avevi gv hw` HIV cwRwUf nq Zvn‡j Zvi †_‡K beRvZ‡Ki kix‡iI GB fvBivm cÖ‡ek K‡i| gvZ…`» y cv‡bi gva¨‡gI wkï HIV fvBiv‡m Avµvš— n‡Z cv‡i| DÏxc‡Ki wPÎwU †mB Bw½ZB cÖKvk Ki‡Q| cwiev‡ii KZ©v AIDS †ivMx nIqvq wkïwUI AIDS †ivMx wn‡m‡eB †e‡o I‡V| DÏxc‡Ki wP‡Îi beRvZK mš—vbwUI AIDS Avµvš— n‡q‡Q Zvi gv‡qi Kvi‡Y Avi gv Avµvš— n‡q‡Q evevi Kvi‡Y| cÖkœ: N) DÏxc‡Ki AIDS Avµvš— cyi“l e¨w³wUi cwiYvg Avi ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ- Gi Avãyj gwR‡`i cwiYvg GKB- †Zvgvi gZvgZ we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: evsjv‡`‡ki RbwcÖq K_v mvwnwZ¨K ûgvq~b Avn‡g` ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ iPbvwUi gva¨‡g cÖvYNvZx e¨vwa AIDS Gi KviY, Ae¯’vb, cÖwZ‡iva KiYxq Kvh©mg~n Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| Dchy³ © DÏxc‡K 3wU wP‡Îi mgv‡ek j¶ Kiv hvq| Abygvb Kiv hvq †h, 3wU PwiÎ GKwU cwievi‡K Bw½Z K‡i| cÖ_g wPÎwU Avµvš— e¨w³i| e¨w³wUi kix‡i †h †Kvb Dcv‡qB †nvK HIV fvBivm cÖ‡ek K‡i‡Q wKš‘ Zvi Am‡PZbZvi wbg©g wkKvi Zvi ¯¿x Ges Zvi †_‡K mš—vb| GLv‡b D‡j−L¨ †h DÏxc‡Ki 3wU PwiÎB †h‡nZz AIDS Avµvš— ZvB wZbR‡biB cwiYvg wbwðZ g„Zz¨| Aciw`‡K ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕGi gwR` B‡›`v‡bwkqvq _vKvKvjxb cwZZv cj−x‡Z hvZvqvZ KiZ| GLv‡bI gwR‡`i AmZK©Zvi Kvi‡Y Zvi kix‡i HIV cÖ‡ek K‡i| Z‡e †`‡k †diZ Avmvi ciI gwR` GKvKx Rxeb hvcb K‡i| AIDS nevi Kvi‡Y gwR‡`i ¯¿x I mš—vb `~‡i m‡i hvq| d‡j G M‡í gwR` Qvov cwiev‡ii Ab¨ †KD Avµvš— n‡Z cv‡i wb| DÏxc‡Ki AIDS Avµvš— e¨w³ I gwR` PwiÎ Df‡q AIDS †ivMx nIqv‡Z Gi cwiYvg wbwðZ g„Zz¨|

“ wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (IwjDj AvRg)

†`ŠjZw`qv, †Mvqvj›`, bvivqYMÄ Ges h‡kv‡i cwZZvcj−x Av‡Q| Z‡e Av‡Mi Zzjbvq cwZZvcj−x‡Z †jvKR‡bi Avbv‡Mvbv A‡bK K‡g †M‡Q| KviY wewfbœ kn‡ii bvwg-`vwg AvevwmK †nv‡Uj¸‡jv‡Z GLb igigv †`n e¨emv P‡j| miKvi Av‡`Š GUv eÜ Ki‡Z cvi‡e wKbv Ggb wbðqZv †bB| Avi G Kvi‡YB A‰ea †hŠbwgj‡bi d‡j gvbyl GBPAvBwf‡Z Avµvš— n‡”Q| A`~i fwel¨‡Z GUv †iva Kivi j‡¶¨ Rbm‡PZbvi Rb¨ `~i`k©b, ev‡qv‡¯‹vc, wej‡evW,© †eZvimn mg¯— MYgva¨‡gi mnvqZv Kv‡R jvMv‡bv DwPZ| mKj‡K RvwM‡q †Zvjvi Rb¨ †`kRy‡o e¨vcK cwigv‡Y cÖPv‡ii e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e| c„ôv-240


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi: cÖk:œ K) ÔAv¸‡bi cikgwYÕ ûgvq~b Avn‡g` cwiPvwjZ †Kvb ai‡bi Pjw”PÎ? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: ÔAv¸‡bi cikgwYÕ ûgvq~b Avn‡g` cwiPwjZ gyw³hy× wfwËK Pjw”PÎ| cÖkœ: L) ÔAeva †gjv‡gkv‡K GLb A‡b‡KB AvaywbKZvi Ask g‡b Ki‡QÕ- e¨vL¨v K‡iv| (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: GBWm GKwU mvgvwRK e¨vwa| evsjv‡`k GBWm msµg‡Yi w`K †_‡K cvk¦e© Z©x‡`k¸‡jvi Zzjbvq A‡bKUv wbivc‡` Av‡Q| wKš‘ cvMjv †Nvoviƒcx GBWm Am‡PZbZvi Kvi‡Y †h †Kvb mgq jvMvg Qvov n‡Z cv‡i| evsjv‡`k Avmbœ SzuwKi g‡a¨ co‡Z cv‡i †h welq¸‡jvi Kvi‡Y, Zvi g‡a¨ GKwU n‡”Q wkw¶Z Zi“Y-Zi“Yx‡`i Awbqwš¿Z I Aeva †gjv‡gkv| evOvwj Zi“Y-Zi“Yxiv cvðv‡Z¨i Aeva †gjv‡gkvi wPÎ †`‡L AbycÖvwYZ n‡q G KvR K‡i _v‡K| KviY G Aeva †gjv‡gkv‡K Zviv AvaywbKZvi Ask g‡b K‡i| cÖkœ: M) RbMb‡K m‡PZbZvi Rb¨ †hme e¨e¯’v wb‡Z n‡e Zv ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ- Gi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v K‡iv| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: NvZK e¨vwa GBWm mviv c„w_exi gvby‡li Rb¨ wec`RbK| GBWm n‡jv fvBivmNwUZ †ivM| GBWm †ivM m¤ú‡K© mgMÖ †`‡ki gvby‡li Am‡PZbZvi wPÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q ûgvq~b Avn‡g` Gi ÔAciv‡nèi M‡íÕ| Awbivc` †hŠbwgjb AvR †Kej †`ŠjZw`qv, †Mvqvj›`, bvivqbMÄ Ges h‡kv‡ii cwZZvj‡qB mxgve× †bB| kn‡ii wewfbœ AvevwmK †nv‡Uj¸‡jv‡ZI GB iƒc †`Lv hvq| G¸‡jv †_‡K cwiÎvY cvevi Rb¨ Avgv‡`i †`‡ki RbmvaviY‡K RvwM‡q Zzj‡Z n‡e| gvby‡li Am‡PZbZv Avi Awbqwš¿Z Rxebhvcb †_‡K G gnvNvZK GBWm me©Î Qwo‡q c‡o| gvby‡li kix‡i HIV fvBiv‡mi msµg‡Y GBWm †ivM nq| G †iv‡Mi †Kvb IlyaI †bB| G †iv‡Mi KviY we¯—vi †iv‡a mevB hLb †mv”Pvi ZLbI A‡b‡K G †ivMwU‡K gvby‡li cvcK‡g©i dj wn‡m‡e g‡b Ki‡Q| GBPAvBwf fvBivm Qov‡bvi cÖavb gva¨g n‡jv Awbivc` †hŠb m¤úK©| evsjv‡`k Z…Zxq we‡k¦i GKwU Dbœqbkxj †`k| wk¶v-`x¶vq †Zgb †Kvb Ávb bv _vKvi `i“Y Ges Afv‡ei Kvi‡Y cwZZve„wË MÖnY K‡i RxweKv wbe©vn Ki‡Q A‡bK bvix| wkw¶Z Zi“Y mgvR wKsev w`bgRyiI GB Awbivc` †hŠb m¤ú‡K© wgwjZ n‡”Q| hvi d‡j evsjv‡`‡kI GBWm †iv‡Mi SzuwK †e‡oB P‡j‡Q| GB m¤úK© hw` cwZZvj‡qB mxgve× _vKZ Zvn‡j nq‡Zv GBWm †ivM cÖwZ‡iva m¤¢e n‡Zv| RvwZ‡K m‡PZb K‡i †Zvjvi Rb¨ wewfbœ cÖKvi cÖPv‡ii e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e, Zv bv n‡j G fqsKi †iv‡Mi _vevq AwP‡iB AviI A‡bK my›`i gyL bó n‡q hv‡e| cÖkœ: N) ÔAciv‡nèi MíÕ- Gi Av‡jv‡K DÏxcKwUi h_v_©Zv cÖwZcbœ K‡iv| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: evsjv‡`‡ki Ab¨Zg gvivZ¥K NvZK e¨vwa GBWm Gi msµg‡Yi e¨vcv‡i GLbI A‡b‡KB m‡PZb bv| DÏxcKwU‡ZI G †ivM m¤ú‡K© m‡PZbZv I cÖPv‡ii e¨e¯’v Kivi K_v D‡j−L Av‡Q| giYe¨vwa GBWm Qovq bvix-cyi“‡li Awbqwš¿Z †hŠb msmM© †_‡K| GBWm Gi Kivj _vev Avgv‡`i Avkcv‡ki A‡bK †`‡ki g‡ZvB Avgv‡`i †`‡kI AvµgY Ki‡Q| GLbB Dchy³ mgq G †_‡K mveavb nIqvi| cÖ‡qvRbxq wk¶v Avi m‡PZbZvB †Kej G gvivZ¥K cwiw¯’wZi nvZ †_‡K i¶v Ki‡Z cv‡i| Awk¶v, RxweKv wbe©v‡ni †¶‡Î Avw_©K AbUb, AmshZ RxebvPiY GBWm‡K gvby‡li gv‡S `ª“Z Qwo‡q w`‡Z cv‡i| Avgv‡`i AvaywbK hy‡Mi Zi“Y mgv‡Ri g‡a¨ ˆbwZKZvi Abykvmb †Zgb GKUv ¸i“Z¡ cvq bv| mgMÖ we‡k¦i g‡Zv evsjv‡`‡kI GBWm †ivM we¯—…Z n‡”Q| Z‡e hw` cwZZvjq bv †_‡K AvevwmK †nv‡Uj _vKZ Zvn‡j nq‡Zv A‡bKUvB wbqš¿‡Y ivLv †hZ| wKš‘ G welqwU GLb mgv‡Ri cÖwZwU ¯—‡i Xy‡K c‡o‡Q| cwZZviv †hgb cwZZvjq Z_v †Mvqvj‡›`, †`ŠjZw`qv, bvivqYMÄ, h‡kv‡ii g‡Zv RvqMv‡Z Qwo‡q Av‡Q, †ZgwbB Zi“Y mgvRI AvaywbKZvi †`vnvB w`‡q Awbivc` †hŠb m¤ú‡K© Rwo‡q co‡Q| GLb Avi Av‡Mi g‡Zv †hŠb m¤úK© wbw`©ó ¯’v‡b Ave× bv †_‡K mgv‡Ri wewfbœ ¯—‡i Xy‡K c‡o‡Q| G m¤ú‡K© `~i`k©b, ev‡qv‡¯‹vc, wej‡evW©, †eZvimn mg¯— MYgva¨‡gi gva¨‡g m‡PZb K‡i Zzj‡Z n‡e| Zv bv n‡j evsjv‡`‡ki RbMY ax‡i ax‡i AÜKvi RM‡Z nvwi‡q hv‡e| Dchy³ welqwU DÏxcK I Av‡jvP¨ M‡íi gva¨‡g dz‡U D‡V‡Q| c„ôv-241


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

“

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (bvwejv Rvgvb)

eQi cuv‡PK Av‡M gvj‡qwkqv cÖevmx GK my`k©b †jv‡Ki mv‡_ kvqjvi we‡q nq | ¯^vgx Kg©m~‡Î we‡`‡k _v‡K-we‡qi mgq G fvebv Zv‡K wgkÖ Abyfw~ Z †`q| `yB eQ‡ii gv_vq Zvi GKwU cyÎ mš—vb nq| R‡b¥i ci †_‡KB Zvi †Q‡jwUi cÖvqkB Aí Aí R¡i Avi Wvqwiqv nq| GjvKvi †QvULvU Wv³vi †`wL‡q Lye GKUv KvR bv nIqvq †m eo Wv³vi †`Lvq| bvbv cix¶v-wbix¶vi ci †m Rvb‡Z cv‡i Zvi I Zvi mš—vb giYe¨vwa GBW‡m Avµvš— Avi GB †ivM G‡m‡Q Zvi ¯^vgxi KvQ †_‡K| G NUbvq nZevK kvqjv fv‡e, Kx †`vl Zvi wQj †h Zvi Rxe‡b Ggb n‡jv!

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖkœ: (K) GBWm wK? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: GBWm GK cÖKvi fvBivm NwUZ †ivM hvi cwiYvg AKvjg„Zz¨| cÖkœ: (L) wkïiv GBWm †iv‡M Kxfv‡e Avµvš— nq? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: GBWm ‡ivM mvaviYZ wZb fv‡e Qovq gv‡qi `ya, exh©, Avµvš— e¨w³ KZ…©K e¨eüZ m~P ev wmwiÄ e¨envi Ki‡j| wkï‡`i †¶‡Î mPivPi gv‡qi `ya †_‡K GBWm Qovq| ZvQvov wkï Amy¯’ n‡j GBWm †ivMvµvš— e¨w³i m~uP ev wmwiÄ ARv‡š— Zvi kix‡i e¨envi Ki‡jI wkïi GBWm n‡Z cv‡i| cÖkœ: (M) ÔAciv‡ýi Mí-Gi Avãyj gwR` Avi kvqjvi ¯^vgx Df‡q GKB c‡_i cw_KÕ-GB e³‡e¨i Zvrch© we‡k−lY Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: DÏxc‡Ki kvqjvi ¯^vgx Avi ÔAciv‡ýi MíÕ cÖe‡Üi Avãyj gwR` Df‡qiB GBWm †ivM n‡q‡Q| ÔAciv‡ýi Mí cÖe‡Üi Avãyj gwR` RxweKvi A‡š^l‡b †`k †Q‡o we‡`‡k hvb| D‡Ïk¨ wewbg‡q A_© DcvR©b| DÏxc‡Ki kvqjvi ¯^vgxi †¶‡ÎI ZvB N‡U‡Q| kvqjv I Zvi ev”Pv G ‡`‡k emevm Ki‡jI Zvi ¯^vgx Zv‡`i mvwe©K fiY †cvlY Z_v RxweKvi Rb¨ gvj‡qwkqv emevm K‡i| Avãyj gwR`‡K wbR GjvKvi gvbyl ci‡nRMvi †jvK wn‡m‡e Rvb‡jI we‡`‡k wM‡q †m mvgwqKfv‡e †gvnvm³ n‡q c‡o| d‡j wec_Mvgx nq| Aciw`‡K, DÏxc‡Ki kvqjvi ¯^vgxI we‡`‡k wM‡q cibvix‡Z Avm³ nq| Zv‡`i Df‡qiB eûMvgx ¯^fv‡ei Kvi‡Y GBWm †ivM nq| Avãyj gwR` I kvqjvi ¯^vgxi g‡Zv evsjv‡`‡ki eû †jvK we‡`‡k kªwgK wn‡m‡e Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q| ˆe‡`wkK gy`ªv Av‡qi cvkvcvwk mvgwqKfv‡e †gvnvm³ n‡q Zviv wec_Mvgx nq| h_vh_ wk¶vi gva¨‡g Zv‡`i‡K Gme AcKg© †_‡K cÖwZnZ Kiv m¤¢e| cÖkœ: (N) Kx †`vl Zvi wQj †h Zvi Rxe‡b Ggb n‡jv! ÔAciv‡ýi MíÕ cÖeÜ Aej¤^‡b DÏxcK †_‡K †bIqv Dw³wUi e¨vL¨v Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: evsjv‡`‡k mrfv‡e Rxebhvcb Kiv bvix cyi“‡li msL¨v †bnvZ Kg bq| Zviv my¯’ I ¯^vfvweK fv‡e †eu‡P _vK‡Z Pvq| Z_vwc †mªv‡Z engvb ¸wU KZK gvby‡li AcKg© Zv‡`i‡K mgvbfv‡e †fvMvq| ûgvq~b Avn‡g` iwPZ ÔAciv‡ýi MíÕ g~jZ GBWm msµvš— GKwU cÖeÜ G cÖe‡Üi g~j PwiÎ gwR` my‡Li Rb¨, GKUz m”QjZvi Rb¨, RxweKv A‡š^l‡Y †m B‡›`v‡bwkqv wM‡qwQj| †`‡ki †jv‡Kiv Zv‡K bvgvwR gvbyl wn‡m‡e Rvbv‡jI we‡`‡k wM‡q †m eû bvix‡Z Avm³ nq| d‡j GBPAvBwf‡Z Avµvš— nq Gi cwiYvg Aek¨¤¢vex AKvj g„Zz¨| GBWm †ivM wb‡q †`‡k Avmvi ci †KD Zv‡K fv‡jv bR‡i †`‡L bv| †h cwiev‡ii Rb¨ †m we‡`‡k wM‡qwQj †mB cwiev‡ii †jvKI Zv‡K †Q‡o P‡j hvq| GKBfv‡e DÏxc‡Ki kvqjvi ¯^vgxI we‡`k †_‡K GBWm enb K‡i wb‡q Av‡m| Zvi gva¨‡g Zvi ¯¿x kvqjvi I GBWm nq Ges kvqjvi ey‡Ki `ya cv‡bi gva¨‡g Zvi †QvÆ mš—vbwUiI GBWm †ivM nq| my¯’, ¯^vfvweK Rxeb hvcb K‡iI kvqjv Zvi ¯^vgxi Kvi‡Y g„Z¨z i gy‡L `uvwo‡q Av‡Q| AÁZvi Kvi‡Y mgv‡Ri A‡b‡KB GBWm‡K cv‡ci kvw¯— g‡b K‡i| kvqjvi DØ„Z Dw³i gva¨‡g Gi AmZ¨Zv Dcjwä Kiv hvq|

“

wb‡Pi DÏxcKwU co Ges cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi `vI: (bvwejv Rvgvb)

XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi mgvR Kj¨vY wefv‡Mi Z…Zxq e‡l©i QvÎx bymvBev| Zv‡K wdì Iqv‡K©i Rb¨ †h‡Z nq mvfv‡ii GKwU cwZZvcj−x‡Z| †mLvbKvi Rwic wb‡q †m AvuZ‡Z D‡V| †mLvbKvi †ek K‡qKRb †hŠb Kgx© GBP AvB wf fvBiv‡m Avµvš—| Zv‡`i g‡a¨ †KD †KD Wv³v‡ii kiYvcbœ n‡jI A‡b‡KB G e¨vcv‡i AvMÖn †cvlY K‡ib bv| Rxe‡bi cÖwZ exZkª× Gme bvix g„Zz¨i cÖni ¸b‡Z ¸b‡Z RxweKv Pvwj‡q hvq| c„ôv-242


evsjv cÖ_g cÎ (m„Rbkxj)

GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYx

cÖkœ I DËi:

cÖkœ: (K) U¨vey Kx? (Ávbg~jK) DËi: hv wKQy mgv‡R wbwl×, Aj•Nbxq ZvB U¨vey| cÖkœ: (L) GBWm Kxfv‡e we¯—vi jvf K‡i? (Abyavebg~jK) DËi: GBWm wZb Dcv‡q we¯—vi jvf K‡i| wZb ai‡bi Zij G Rb¨ `vqx| G¸‡jv n‡jv- (1) exh© (2) i³ (3) gv‡qi `ya| cÖkœ: (M) DÏxc‡Ki NUbvi mv‡_ ÔAciv‡ýi MíÕ cÖe‡Üi Kx m¤úK©?-eY©bv Ki| (cÖ‡qvMg~jK) DËi: GBWm †iv‡Mi fqvenZv m¤ú‡K© AÁZv Ges Rxeb m¤ú‡K© Am‡PZbZv gvbyl‡K †Kv_vq wb‡q †h‡Z cv‡i Zv AZ¨š— PgrKvifv‡e dzwU‡q †Zvjv n‡q‡Q ûgvq~b Avn‡g` iwPZ ÔAciv‡ýi MíÕ cÖe‡Ü| ÔAciv‡ýi MíÕ cÖe‡Ü †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q Awbivc` †hŠb m¤úK© wKfv‡e GKRb gvbyl‡K `ª“Z wbt‡kl K‡i †`q| DÏxc‡K ewY©Z cwZZvjq Awbivc`, h‡_”Q †hŠbPv‡ii GKwU †gv¶g RvqMv| GLv‡b Am‡PZb I Awbivc` †hŠbvPv‡ii Kvi‡Y A‡bK gvbyl AKv‡j S‡i hvq| GLv‡b Avmv-hvIqv Kiv cyi“‡liv cÖe‡Ü Dwj−wLZ gwR‡`iB cÖwZiƒc| eZ©gvb we‡k¦ GBPAvBwf fvBiv‡mi gva¨‡g Qov‡bv GBWm GKwU giY e¨vwa| (HIV, Human Immune difficieacy virus) GgbB fqven †h Gi †Kvb cÖwZ‡laK, cÖwZ‡ivaK †bB| Gi d‡j gvbyl Zvi †ivM cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv nvivq| wZb Dcv‡q GBWm Qovq-ex‡h©i gva¨‡g, gv‡qi `y‡ai gva¨‡g Ges e¨eüZ m~uP ev wmwiÄ e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g| DÏxc‡Ki bvixiv Avi Aci w`‡K gwR`-Df‡qiB AKvj Rxebvemvb GB Awbivc`, h‡_”Q †hŠbPv‡ii gva¨‡g| ZvQvov G ‡`‡ki bvixiv cÖK…Z †hŠbwk¶v †_‡K A‡bK wcwQ‡q| d‡j Zviv wKQy ey‡S DVvi Av‡MB †ivMvµvš— nq| Ab¨w`‡K cÖev‡m wbtm½ Rxe‡bi GKvwKZ¡ fyj‡Z ˆbwZK I agx©q Abykvmb‡K Qvwc‡q kvixwiK cÖ‡qvRbUvB eo n‡q `uvovq d‡j cÖevmx cyi“liv GBWm G Avµvš— nq| ZvB h_v_©B ejv hvq, DÏxc‡Ki NUbvi mv‡_ cvV¨fy³ cÖe‡Üi m¤úK© i‡q‡Q| cÖkœ: (N) ÔRxe‡bi cÖwZ exZkª× Gme bvix g„Zz¨i cÖni ¸b‡Z ¸b‡Z RxweKv Pvwj‡q hvqÕ Dw³wU ÔAciv‡ýi MíÕ cÖe‡Üi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki| (D”PZi `¶Zvg~jK) DËi: GBWm †ivM m¤ú‡K© m‡PZbZv m„wói j‡¶ ûgvq~b Avn‡g` ÔAciv‡ýi MíÕ cÖeÜwU iPbv K‡i‡Qb| eZ©gvb wek¦ GBWm Gi Kivj MÖv‡m RR©wiZ| evsjv‡`k G †_‡K wcwQ‡q †bB| GBWm †iv‡Mi g~j n‡”Q HIV fvBivm| GB HIV fvBivm Qov‡bvi cÖavb gva¨g n‡jv Awbivc` †hŠb wgjb hv Av‡M ïay G †`‡ki cwZZvcj−x¸‡jv‡Z wQj| wKš‘ GLb mg¯— †`‡k Qwo‡q c‡o‡Q| Avevi †`‡ki gvby‡li GKwU D‡j−L‡hvM¨ Ask cÖevmx| RxweKvi ZvwM‡` wfb †`‡k wbtm½ Rxeb hvcb KóKi weavq A‡bK cÖevmx ag© I ˆbwZKZvi D‡aŸ© E‡V Aeva †hŠbvPv‡i wjß nq| d‡j Zviv GBWm Avµvš— nq| Zviv †`‡k †divi mgq G †ivM e‡q Av‡b Ges cieZx©‡Z Zv ¯¿xi kix‡i Qwo‡q †`q| GLb ch©š— †h‡nZz G †iv‡Mi †Kvb wPwKrmv Avwe®K…Z nq wb, †m‡nZz G †iv‡M AKvj g„Z¨z wbwðZ| cwZZvcj−xi bvixiv RxweKvi ZvwM‡` cÖwZwbqZ bvbv †kªYx †ckvi cyi“‡li mv‡_ †hŠb m¤úK© ¯’vcb K‡i| d‡j wKQy ey‡S DVvi Av‡MB nq‡Zv Zv‡`i A‡b‡KB HIV fvBiv‡m Avµvš— nq| DÏxc‡Ki gwR` cÖev‡m emevm Kv‡j Ggb bvix‡`i ms¯ú‡k© Av‡m| d‡j †mI GBWm †iv‡M Avµvš— nq| Aciv‡ýi Mí ej‡Z †jLK ûgvq~b Avn‡g` Rxe‡bi coš— †ejv ev †kl cwiYwZi cÖwZ Bw½Z K‡i‡Qb| cÖe‡Üi g~j PwiÎ Avãyj gwR` NvZK e¨vwa GBWm Avµvš— n‡q g„Zz¨i †Kv‡j X‡j c‡o| DÏxc‡Ki bvix‡`i A‡b‡KB †c‡Ui `v‡q fqven Kg