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RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯—K †evW© KZ…©K cÖYxZ m„Rbkxj I eûwbe©vPwb cÖ‡kœi Av‡jv‡K iwPZ GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYxi evsjv cvV¨cy¯—K|

D”P gva¨wgK

evsjv msKjb [GKv`k I Øv`k †kªYxi Rb¨]

msKjb I iPbv

W. gvneyeyj nK mnKvix Aa¨vcK, evsjv wefvM PÆMÖvg wek¦we`¨vjq

m¤úv`bv Ave`yj gvbœvb ˆmq`

cwigvwR©Z ms¯‹iY

W. miKvi Ave`yj gvbœvb

RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯—K †evW©, XvKv


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯—K †evW©, XvKv 69-70, gwZwSj evwYwR¨K GjvKv, XvKv KZ…©K cÖKvwkZ|

[cÖKvkK KZ…©K me©¯^Z¡ msiw¶Z] cÖ_g gy`ªY : RyjvB, 1998 ms‡kvwaZ I cwigvwR©Z ms¯‹iY : AvMó, 2001 ms‡kvwaZ I cwigvwR©Z ms¯‹iY : Ryb, 2007 c~Y©gy`ª©Y -Ryb 2008 ms‡kvwaZ I cwigvwR©Z ms¯‹iY : RyjvB, 2011

Kw¤úDUvi K‡¤úvR cvidg© Kvjvi MÖvwd· (cÖvt) wjt cÖ”Q`

bRi“j Bmjvg `yjvj wWwRUvj ms¯‹iY K¨vgweªqvb cvewj‡KkÝ ZË¡veavqK eyjeyj Avn‡g`

g~j¨ : 70.80 (mËi UvKv Avwk cqmv) gvÎ| evsjv msKjb

gy`ª‡Y : †`vnvi wcÖw›Us †cÖm, 34 Avi. Gg. `vm †ivW

2


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

cÖm½ K_v mywkw¶Z RvwZ MV‡b mvwnZ¨cvV AZxe Ri“wi| mvwnZ¨ Aa¨q‡b wk¶v_x©i g‡a¨ ax‡i ax‡i Rb¥ †bq i“wP‡eva, gbbkxjZv I Rxe‡bi cÖwZ Mfxi ggZ¡‡eva| GQvov wk¶v_x©i m„Rbkxj †gav I gb‡bi weKv‡kI mvwnZ¨ AbyNU‡Ki f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| Gme D‡Ïk¨ mvg‡b †i‡L 2007−2008 wk¶vel© †_‡K D”P gva¨wgK †kªYxi wk¶v_x©‡`i Rb¨ msw¶ß K‡je‡ii GB evsjv msKjbwU cÖKvwkZ nj| G MÖš’wU‡K mnRjf¨, enb‡hvM¨ I e¨envi Dc‡hvMx Kivi Rb¨ c~e©eZx© MÖš’ †_‡K cvV¨m~wP wb‡`©wkZ 11wU Mí−cªeÜ Ges 10wU KweZv Aš—fy©³ Kiv n‡q‡Q| GB ¯^í cwim‡ii g‡a¨B ai‡Z †Póv Kiv n‡q‡Q Avgv‡`i BwZnvm−HwZn¨, ms¯‹vi−ms¯‹…wZ Ges Avgv‡`i Rxe‡bi wewPÎ web¨vm I e¨vwß| cvkvcvwk mvwnZ¨cv‡V wk¶v_©x‡`i Avb›` jv‡fi welqwUI ¸i“‡Z¡i m‡½ we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| evsjv Avgv‡`i gvZ…fvlv, ivóªfvlv I RvZxq fvlv| 52-i fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †cÖw¶‡Z G fvlv‡K †K›`ª K‡i 21†k †deªyqvwi Avš—Rv©wZK gvZ…fvlv w`em wn‡m‡e †NvwlZ n‡q‡Q| d‡j evsjv fvlvi ghv©`v GLb wek¦cwim‡i e¨vß| myZivs GLb G fvlvi e¨envwiK w`‡K ey¨rcwË AR©b †hgb cÖ‡qvRb †Zgwb m„wókxjZvq `¶Zv I KzkjZv AR©bI ¸i“Z¡c~Y©| Gme we‡ePbvq †i‡L msKjbwU‡Z we¯—…Z cwim‡i evsjv fvlvi Mob-†mŠôe I e¨envwiK wewaweavb Aš—fy©³ Kiv n‡q‡Q| G Qvov QvÎQvÎx‡`i †KŠZ~njx I wRÁvmy K‡i †Zvjvi Rb¨ mvwn‡Z¨i wewPÎ kvLv−cÖkvLvi ¯^iƒccÖK…wZI cÖm½µ‡g Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q| gyw³hy× Avgv‡`i †MŠie, Avgv‡`i †cÖiYv| wk¶v_x©‡`i gyw³hy‡×i G †MŠiegq †PZbvq DØy× Kivi Rb¨ msKjbwU‡Z Aš—fy©³ Kiv n‡q‡Q †ek K‡qKwU Mí-KweZv| G Qvov M`¨vs‡k GBWm I `ybx©wZ welqK mgm¨v I mgvav‡bi wb‡`©kbv wb‡q `ywU iPbv Aš—fy©³ Kiv n‡q‡Q| wk¶v_x©‡`i myweav‡_© msKjbwU‡Z cvV¨m~wP, gvbeÈb I cÖkœcÎ cÖYq‡bi bxwZgvjv mshy³ Kiv n‡q‡Q| G eB‡qi msKjK, m¤úv`K Ges mswk−ó Kg©KZv©MY eBwU‡K mev©½ my›`i Kivi Rb¨ †h Avš—wiK cÖ‡Póv Pvwj‡q‡Qb †m Rb¨ Zvu‡`i ab¨ev` RvbvB| cwi‡k‡l hv‡`i Rb¨ ÔD”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjbÕ eBwU cÖKvk Kiv nj Zviv DcK…Z n‡jB Avgv‡`i mg¯— cÖqvm mv_©K n‡e| cÖ‡dmi W. †gvt gwQi DwÏb †Pqvig¨vb RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯—K †evW© XvKv| evsjv msKjb

3


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

m~wPcÎ M`¨ µwgK 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

welq KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›` ˆngš—x mvwn‡Z¨ †Ljv wejvmx Aa©v½x †hŠe‡bi Mvb KwjgwÏ `dv`vi GKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Kvwnbx GKz‡ki Mí `ybx©wZ, Dbœq‡bi Aš—ivq I DËi‡Yi c_ Aciv‡nèi Mí

†jLK ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi cÖg_ †PŠayix kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq †iv‡Kqv mvLvIqvZ †nv‡mb KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn Rwni ivqnvb msKwjZ iPbv ûgvq~b Avn‡g`

c„ôv b¤^i 6 14 35 43 64 76 85 96 109 118 128

KweZv µwgK 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

KweZvi wk‡ivbvg e½fvlv †mvbvi Zix Rxeb-e›`bv evsjv‡`k Kei Zvnv‡iB c‡o g‡b cv‡Äwi Avgvi c~e© evsjv AvVv‡iv eQi eqm GKwU d‡UvMÖvd

evsjv msKjb

Kwe gvB‡Kj gaym~`b `Ë iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi KvRx bRi“j Bmjvg Awgq PµeZ©x RmxgD`&`xb mywdqv Kvgvj dii“L Avng` ˆmq` Avjx Avnmvb myKvš— fÆvPvh© kvgmyi ivngvb

c„ôv b¤^i 136 143 149 155 162 176 183 189 196 203

4


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

cÖ‡kœi aib I gvbeÈb evsjv : cÖ_g cÎ 1. M`¨ = 44 (K) m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 3 wU †_‡K 2 wUi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| (L) eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 24 wU, cÖ‡Z¨KwUi DËi w`‡Z n‡e|

2¯10=20 1¯24=24 †gvU = 44

2. KweZv = 36 (K) m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 3 wU †_‡K 2 wUi DËi w`‡Z n‡e| (L) eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 16 wU, cÖ‡Z¨KwUi DËi w`‡Z n‡e|

2¯10=20 1¯24=16 †gvU = 36

3. Dcb¨vm = 20 (K) m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 3 wU †_‡K 2 wUi DËi w`‡Z n‡e|

evsjv msKjb

2¯10=20 me©‡gvU = 100

5


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›` ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq

†jLK cwiwPwZ evsjv Dcb¨v‡mi RbK I evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i †kªô †jLK ew¼gP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq ÔmvwnZ¨ mgªvUÕ wn‡m‡eI AwfwnZ n‡q _v‡Kb| Ôe½`k©bÕ bv‡g †h weL¨vZ mvwnZ¨ cwÎKvi wZwb cÖwZôvZv m¤úv`K wQ‡jb evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i weKv‡k Ges kw³kvjx †jLK m„wó‡Z Zvi Ae`vb Amvgvb¨| hyMÜi GB mvwnZ¨−mªóvi weL¨vZ Dcb¨vm¸‡jvi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q Ô`y‡M©kbw›`bxÕ, ÔKcvjKyÊjvÕ, Ôwele„¶Õ, ÔK…òKv‡š—i DBjÕ, ÔivRwmsnÕ BZ¨vw`| Ô`y‡M©kbw›`bxÕ (1865) cÖ_g cÖK…Z evsjv Dcb¨vm| gbbkxj cÖeÜ iPbvqI ew¼gP‡›`ªi Abb¨ KzkjZvi cwiPq i‡q‡Q| Zuvi weL¨vZ cÖeÜMÖ‡š’i g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q Ô†jvKinm¨Õ, ÔKgjvKv‡š—i `ßiÕ, Ôwewea cªeÜÕ I Ômvg¨Õ| ew¼gP›`ª AvaywbK evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i cÖ_g cÖavb m„wókxj †jLK‡`i GKRb| ew¼gP›`ª wQ‡jb KjKvZv wek¦we`¨vj‡qi cÖ_g mœvZK‡`i GKRb| †ckvq wZwb wQ‡jb †WcywU g¨vwR‡÷ªU| ew¼gP‡›`ªi Rb¥ 1838 wLªóv‡ã cwðge‡½i PweŸk ciMYv †Rjvi KuvVvjcvovq Ges Zuvi g„Zz¨ 1894 wLªóv‡ã| †mB Avwds‡Lvi KgjvKv‡š—i A‡bKw`b †Kv‡bv msev` cvB bvB| A‡bK mÜvb KwiqvwQjvg| AK¯§vr m¤cÖwZ GKw`b Zvnv‡K †dŠR`vwi Av`vj‡Z †`wLjvg| †`wL †h, eªvþY GK MvQZjvq ewmqv, Mv‡Qi ¸uwo‡Z †Vmvb w`qv, P¶z eywRqv Wvevq ZvgvKz Uvwb‡Z‡Qb| g‡b Kwijvg, Avi wKQz bv eªvþY †jv‡f cwoqv Kvnvi wWweqv nB‡Z Avwds Pzwi Kwiqv‡Q−Ab¨ mvgMÖx KgjvKvš— Pzwi Kwi‡e bv−Bnv wbwðZ Rvwb| wbK‡U GKRb Kv‡jv‡KvZ©v Kb‡÷ejI †`wLjvg| Avwg eo `uvovBjvg bv−wK Rvwb hw` KgjvKvš— Rvwgb nB‡Z e‡j| Zdv‡Z _vwKqv †`wL‡Z jvwMjvg †h, KvÊUv Kx nq| wKQzKvj c‡i KgjvKv‡š—i WvK nBj| ZLb GKRb Kb‡÷ej i“j NyivBqv Zvnv‡K m‡½ Kwiqv GRjv‡m jBqv †Mj| Avwg wcQz wcQz †Mjvg| `uvovBqv `yB GKwU K_v ïwbqv, e¨vcviLvbv eywS‡Z cvwijvg| GRjv‡m, cª_vgZ gvPv‡bi Dci nvwKg weivR Kwi‡Z‡Qb| nvwKgwU GKRb †`kx ag©veZvi−c‡` I †MŠi‡e wWcywU| KgjvKvš— Avmvgx b‡n−mv¶x| †gvKÏgv Mi“ Pzwi| dwiqvw` cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbx| KjgvKvš—‡K mv¶xi KvUvivq cywiqv w`j| ZLb KgjvKvš— g„`y g„`y nvwm‡Z jvwMj| Pvcivwk agKvB‡jb−Ònvm †Kb?Ó KgjvKvš— †RvonvZ Kwiqv ewjj, Òevev, Kvi †¶‡Z avb †L‡qwQ †h, Avgv‡K Gi wfZi cywi‡j ?Ó Pvcivwk gnvkq K_vUv eywS‡jb bv| `vwo NyivBqv ewj‡jb, ÒZvgvkvi RvqMv G bq−njd co|Ó KgjvKvš— ewjj, ÒcovI bv evcy|Ó evsjv msKjb

6


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb GKRb gynywi njd covB‡Z Avi¤¢ Kwij| ewjj, Òej, Avwg ci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ Rvwbqv ...........Ó KgjvKvš—| (mwe¯§‡q) Kx ewje? gynywi| ïb‡Z cvI bv−Òci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ †R‡b−Ó Kgjv| ci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ †R‡b! Kx me©bvk! nvwKg †`wL‡jb, mv¶xUv Kx GKUv MʇMvj evavB‡Z‡Q| wRÁvmv Kwi‡jb, Òme©bvk Kx?Ó Kgjv| ci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ †R‡bwQ−G K_vUv ej‡Z n‡e? nvwKg| ¶wZ Kx? nj‡di dvigB GB| Kgjv| nyRyi mywePviK e‡U| wKš—y GKUv K_v ewj wK, mv¶¨ w`‡Z w`‡Z `yB GKUv †QvU iKg wg_¨v ewj, bv nq ewjjvg−wKš—y †Mvov‡ZB GKUv wg_¨v ewjqv Avi¤¢ Kwie, †mUv wK fvj? nvwKg| Gi Avi wg_¨v K_v Kx? KgjvKvš— g‡b g‡b ewjj, ÒGZ eyw× _vwK‡j †Zvgvi wK G c`e„w× nBZ?Ó cÖKv‡k¨ ewjj, Òag©veZvi, Avgvi GKUz GKUz †eva nB‡Z‡Q wK †h, ci‡gk¦i wVK cÖ‡Z¨‡¶i welq bq| Avgvi †Pv‡Li †`vlB nDK Avi hvB nDK, KLbI Z G ch©š— c‡ik¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ †`wL‡Z cvBjvg bv| Avwg hLb Zuvnv‡K G N‡ii wfZi cvB‡ZwQ bv−ZLb †Kgb Kwiqv ewj−Avwg ci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ †R‡b−Ó dwiqvw`i DwKj PwU‡jb- Zuvnvi g~j¨evb mgq, hvnv wgwb‡U wgwb‡U UvKv cÖme K‡i, Zvnv GB `wi`ª mv¶x bó Kwi‡Z‡Q| DwKj ZLb Mig nBqv ewj‡jb, Òmv¶x gnvkq! Theological Lecture Uv eªvþmgv‡Ri Rb¨ ivwL‡j fvj nq bv? GLv‡b AvB‡bi g‡Z Pwj‡Z gb w¯’i Ki“b|Ó KgjvKvš— Zuvnvi w`‡K wdwij| g„`y nvwmqv ewjj, ÒAvcwb †eva nB‡Z‡Q DwKj|Ó DwKj| (nvwmqv) wK‡m wPwb‡j? Kgjv| eo mn‡R| †gvUv †Pb Avi gqjv kvgjv †`wLqv| Zv, gnvkq! Avcbv‡`i Rb¨ G Theological Lecture bq| Avcbviv ci‡gk¦i‡K cÖZ¨¶ †`‡Lb ¯^xKvi Kwi−hLb †gvqv‡°j Av‡m| DwKj m‡iv‡l DwVqv nvwKg‡K ewj‡jb, “I ask the protection of the Court against the insults of this witness.” †KvU© ewj‡jb, “O Baboo! the witness is your own witness, and you are at liberty to send him away if you like.” GLb KgjvKvš—‡K we`vq w`‡j DwKjeveyi †gvKÏgv cÖgvY nq bv−myZivs DwKjevey Pzc Kwiqv ewmqv cwo‡jb| nvwKg MwZK †`wLqv, gynywi‡K Av‡`k Kwi‡jb †h, ÒI‡_i cÖwZ mv¶xi objection Av‡Q−Dnv‡K simple affirmation `vI|Ó ZLb gynywi KgjvKvš—‡K ewjj, ÒAv”Qv, I †Q‡o `vI−ej, Avwg cÖwZÁv Kwi‡ZwQ−ej|Ó evsjv msKjb

7


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Kgjv| Kx cÖwZÁv Kwi‡ZwQ, †mUv Rvwbqv cÖwZÁvUv Kwi‡j fvj nq bv? gynywi nvwK‡gi w`‡K Pvwnqv ewjj, Òag©veZvi! mv¶x eo †mi&Kk&|Ó DwKjevey nuvwK‡jb, “Very obstructive.” KgjvKvš—| (DwK‡ji cÖwZ) mv`v KvM‡R `¯—LZ Kwiqv jIqvi cÖ_vUv Av`vj‡Zi evB‡i P‡j Rvwb−wfZ‡iI Pwj‡e wK? DwKj| mv`v KvM‡R †K †Zvgvi `¯—LZ jB‡Z‡Q? Kgjv| Kx cÖwZÁv Kwi‡Z nB‡e, Zvnv bv Rvwbqv, cÖwZÁv Kiv, Avi KvM‡R Kx †jLv nq, Zvnv bv †`wLqv `¯—LZ Kiv, GKB K_v| nvwKg ZLb gynywi‡K Av‡`k Kwi‡jb †h, ÒcÖwZÁv Av‡M Bnv‡K ïbvBqv `vI−†Mvjgv‡j KvR bvB|Ó gynywi ZLb ewj‡jb, Ò†kvb, †Zvgv‡K ewj‡Z nB‡e †h, Avwg cÖwZÁv Kwi‡ZwQ †h, Avwg †h mv¶¨ w`e, Zvnv mZ¨ nB‡e, Avwg †Kv‡bv K_v †Mvcb Kwie bv−mZ¨ wfbœ Avi wKQz nB‡e bv|Ó Kgjv| Iu gay gay gay| gynywi| †m Avevi Kx? Kgjv| covb, Avwg cwo‡ZwQ| KgjvKvš— ZLb Avi †Mvj‡hvM bv Kwiqv cÖwZÁv cvV Kwij| ZLb Zuvnv‡K wRÁvmvev` Kwievi Rb¨ DwKjevey Mv‡ÎvÌvb Kwi‡jb, KgjvKvš—‡K †PvL iv½vBqv ewj‡jb, ÒGLb Avi e`gv‡qwk KwiI bv−Avwg hv wRÁvmv Kwi, Zvi h_v_© DËi `vI| ev‡R K_v Qvwoqv `vI|Ó Kgjv| Avcwb hv wRÁvmv Kwi‡eb, ZvB Avgv‡K ewj‡Z nB‡e? Avi ewj‡Z cvBe bv? DwKj| bv| KgjvKvš— ZLb nvwK‡gi w`‡K wdwiqv ewj‡jb, ÔA_P Avgv‡K cÖwZÁv KivB‡jb †h, †Kv‡bv K_v †Mvcb Kwie bv|Õ ag©veZvi †eAv`we gvd nq| cvovq AvR GKUv hvÎv nB‡e, ïwb‡Z hvBe B”Qv wQj; †m mva GBLv‡bB wgwUj| DwKjevey AwaKvix−Avwg hvÎvi †Q‡j, hv ejvB‡eb, †Kej ZvB ewje; hv bv ejvB‡eb; Zv ewje bv| hv bv ejvB‡eb, Zv Kv‡RB †Mvcb _vwK‡e| cÖwZÁvf‡½i Aciva jB‡eb bv|Ó nvwKg| hvnv Avek¨K we‡ePbv Kwi‡e, Zvnv bv wRÁvmv nB‡jI ewj‡Z cvi| KgjvKvš— ZLb †mjvg Kwiqv ewjj, Òenr Lye|Ó DwKj ZLb wRÁvmvev` Avi¤¢ Kwi‡jb Ò†Zvgvi bvg Kx? Kgjv| kªxKgjvKvš— PµeZ©x| DwKj| †Zvgvi ev‡ci bvg Kx? KgjvKvš— wcZvi bvg ewjj| DwKj ZLb wRÁvmv Kwi‡jb, ÒZzwg Kx RvwZ|Ó Kgjv| Avwg wK GKUv RvwZ? DwKj| Zzwg †Kvb& RvZxq? Kgjv| wn›`y RvZxq| evsjv msKjb

8


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb DwKj| Avt! †Kvb eY©? Kgjv| †NviZi K…òeY©| DwKj| `~i †nvK QvB! Ggb mv¶xI Av‡b! ewj †Zvgvi RvZ Av‡Q? Kgjv| gv‡i †K? nvwKg †`wL‡jb, DwK‡ji K_vq nB‡e bv| ewj‡jb, ÒeªvþY, Kvq¯—, ˆKeZ©, wn›`yi bvbv cÖKvi RvwZ Av‡Q Rvb Zv−Zzwg Zvi †Kvb& RvwZi wfZi?Ó Kgjv| ag©veZvi! G DwK‡jiB a„óZv! †`wL‡Z‡Qb Avgvi Mjvq h‡ÁvcexZ, bvg ewjqvwQ PµeZ©x − Bnv‡ZI †h DwKj ey‡Sb bvB †h, Avwg eªvþY, Bnv Avwg Kx cÖKv‡i Rvwbe? nvwKg wjwL‡jb, ÒRvwZ eªvþY|Ó ZLb DwKj wRÁvmv Kwi‡jb, Ò†Zvgvi eqm KZ?Ó GRjv‡m GKUv K¬K wQj−Zvnvi cv‡b Pvwnqv wnmve Kwiqv KgjvKvš— ewjj, ÒAvgvi eqm 51 ermi, `yB gvm, †Ziw`b, Pvwi NÈv, cuvP wgwbU−Ó DwKj| Kx R¡vjv! †Zvgvi NÈv wgwbU †K Pvq? Kgjv| †Kb, GB gvÎ cÖwZÁv KivBqv‡Qb †h, †Kv‡bv K_v †Mvcb Kwie bv| DwKj| †Zvgvi hv B”Qv Ki! Avwg †Zvgvq cvwi bv| †Zvgvi wbevm †Kv_vq? Kgjv| Avgvi wbevm bvB| DwKj| ewj, evwo †Kv_vq? Kgjv| evwo `~‡i _vK&, Avgvi GKUv KzVvwiI bvB| DwKj| Z‡e _vK †Kv_vq? Kgjv| †hLv‡b †mLv‡b| DwKj| GKUv AvÇv Z Av‡Q? Kgjv| wQj, hLb bmxevey wQ‡jb, GLb Avi bvB| DwKj| GLb AvQ †Kv_vq? Kgjv| †Kb GB Av`vj‡Z| DwKj| Kvj wQ‡j †Kv_vq? Kgjv| GKLvbv †`vKv‡b| nvwKg ewj‡jb, ÒAvi eKvewK‡Z KvR bvB−Avwg wjwLqv jB‡ZwQ, wbevm bvB| Zvi ci?Ó DwKj| †Zvgvi †ckv Kx? Kgjv| Avgvi Avevi †ckv Kx? Avwg wK DwKj †h, Avgvi †ckv Av‡Q| DwKj| ewj LvI Kx Kwiqv? Kgjv| fv‡Zi m‡½ Wvj gvwLqv, `w¶Y n‡¯— MÖvm Zzwjqv, gy‡L cywiqv MjvatKiY Kwi| DwKj| †m Wvj fvZ †Rv‡U †Kv_v †_‡K? Kgjv| fMevb †RvUv‡jB †Rv‡U, bB‡j †Rv‡U bv| DwKj| wKQz DcvR©b Ki? evsjv msKjb

9


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Kgjv| GK cqmvI bv| DwKj| Z‡e wK Pzwi Ki? Kgjv| Zvnv nB‡j BwZc~‡e©B Avcbvi kiYvMZ nB‡Z nZ| Avcwb wKQz fvMI cvB‡Zb| DwKj ZLb nvj Qvwoqv w`qv, Av`vjZ‡K ewj‡jb, ÒAvwg G mv¶x Pvwn bv| Avwg Bnvi Revbew›` KivB‡Z cvwie bv|Ó kãv_© I UxKv †dŠR`vwi Av`vjZ

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Drm I cwiwPwZ ew¼gP‡›`ªi ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq Ôe½`k©bÕ cwÎKvi 1288 e½v‡ãi dvM−yb msL¨vq| GwU ew¼‡gi weL¨vZ ig¨e¨½ iPbv msKjb ÔKgjvKv‡š—i `ßiÕ−Gi me©‡kl iPbv| iPbvi wbev©wPZ Askwe‡kl GLv‡b m¤úvw`Zfv‡e msKwjZ n‡q‡Q| cÖm½Z D‡j−L‡hvM¨, ew¼gP‡›`ªi GB iPbvwUi g~j wk‡ivbvg wQj: ÔKgjvKv‡š—i †Rvevbew›`Õ| ew¼gP›`ª Zvui ÔKgjvKv‡š—i `ßiÕ-Gi iPbv¸‡jvi gva¨‡g evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ GK ai‡bi nvm¨imvZ¥K i½e¨½g~jK iPbvi cÖPjb K‡iwQ‡jb, hvi †fZi w`‡q wZwb cwinv‡mi ga¨ w`‡q mgKvjxb mgvR, ag©, mf¨Zv Ges mvwnZ¨−ms¯‹…wZi bvbv ÎywU−wePy¨wZ I mxgve×Zvi Zxeª mgv‡jvPbv K‡iwQ‡jb| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ iPbvwU bKkv RvZxq Awfbe iPbv| GwU ew¼g mvwn‡Z¨i Ab¨Zg PgKcÖ` m¤ú`| GLv‡b Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq `vuov‡bv mv¶x KgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`i gva¨‡g ew¼gP›`ª †`wL‡q‡Qb Av`vj‡Z mvRv‡bv−†MvQv‡bv †h Mvjfiv Kvievi P‡j Zv A‡bKvs‡kB K…wÎg AvbyôvwbKZv gvÎ| cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbxi Mi“ Pzwii gvgjvi mv¶x Avwds-Gi †bkvq wKQzUv AcÖK…wZ¯’ KgjvKvš—‡K †Riv Ki‡Z wM‡q DwKj †hfv‡e c‡` c‡` weeªZ I bvKvj n‡q‡Qb, Zv‡Z Avgiv wew¯§Z bv n‡q cvwi bv| DwKj evey KgjvKvš—‡K hZB Db¥v` g‡b Ki“b bv †Kb, Zvi cÖ”Qbœ †k−lvZ¥K Dw³¸‡jv ev¯—e m‡Z¨i Av‡jvq Avgv‡`i †Pv‡L D¾¡j n‡q aiv c‡o| AvcvZ`„wó‡Z KgjvKv‡š—i AvPiY I K_vevZv© A‡bKLvwb cvMjvwgi mvwgj| †m Avwds Lvq, e‡m e‡m wSgvq, bvbv D™¢U K_v e‡j| wKš‘ †bkv‡Lvi I evwZKMÖ¯— †Pnviv I AmsjMœ K_vevZv©i Avov‡j i‡q‡Q m~² ch©‡e¶Ykxj Rxeb`„wó| Zv Avgv‡`i Pvicv‡ki bvbv i“wP I Am½wZ‡KB Avgv‡`i †Pv‡L Av½yj w`‡q †`wL‡q †`q| GB iPbvq ew¼gP›`ª †KŠZzKim m„wó‡Z †h `¶Zvi cwiPq w`‡q‡Qb Zv AZzjbxq| Abykxjbg~jK KvR mvwnZ¨‡eva ‰ bKkv GKUv `vjv‡bi Qwe hLb K¨v‡givq aiv c‡o ZLb Zv‡K ewj Av‡jvKwPÎ| Avi bKkvKvi hLb M„nwbgv©‡Yi cÖv_wgK Lmov †iLvw¼Z K‡i ˆZwi K‡ib ZLb Zv‡K ejv nq bKkv| †Zgwb Mí−Dcb¨v‡mi g‡Zv we¯—Z … I Mfxi Zvrch©gq Qwe bv Gu‡K †jLK hLb Zvi Lmov GKUv Qwe Auv‡Kb ¯^í wKQz †iLvq, ZLb Zv‡K ejv nq bKkv| ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`ÕI G ai‡bi bKkv RvZxq nvjKv mim iPbv| GLv‡b Av`vj‡Zi KvVMovq `vuov‡bv mv¶x‡K DwK‡ji †Rivi GKUv PvjwPÎ ev wPÎagx© eY©bv dz‡U D‡V‡Q| AvcvZ`„wó‡Z GLv‡b †Kv‡bv Mfxi−`k©b †`Lv hvq bv| wKš‘ nvjKv imv‡jv K_vevZv©i †fZi w`‡q ZrKvjxb Av`vj‡Zi wePvi e¨e¯’vi Am½wZi w`KwU‡K GLv‡b Zz‡j aiv n‡q‡Q|

mvwnZ¨‡eva ‰ evM&‰e`» (Wit)

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11


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fvlv Abykxjb ‰ ev‡K¨i cÖKvi cwieZ©b

GK cÖKvi evK¨‡K g~j A‡_©i cwieZ©b bv NwU‡q Ab¨ cÖKv‡ii ev‡K¨ cwiYZ Kiv‡K ejv nq ev‡K¨i cÖKvi cwieZ©b ev evK¨ cwieZ©b| †hgb: mij evK¨ : dwiqvw` cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbx| RwUj evK¨ : †h dwiqvw`, †m cÖmbœ †Mvqvwjbx| mij evK¨ : mv¶xUv Kx GKUv MʇMvj evavB‡Z‡Q| RwUj evK¨ : †h mv¶x †m GKUv MʇMvj evavB‡Z‡Q| mij evK¨ : Avgvi wbevm bvB| RwUj evK¨ : hv wbevm, Zv Avgvi bvB| mij evK¨ : †Zvgvi ev‡ci bvg Kx? RwUj evK¨ : †Zvgvi whwb evc, Zvi bvg Kx? mij evK¨ : Avwg G mv¶x PvB bv| RwUj evK¨ : †h mv¶x G iKg, Zv‡K Avwg PvB bv| wePvi−Kv‡Ri m‡½ hy³ kã wb‡Pi (K) ¸‡”Q k㸇jvi Bs‡iwR cwifvlv (L) ¸”Q †_‡K †e‡Q bvI| K. †dŠR`vwi Av`vjZ, Av`vjZ, Rvwgb, GRjvm, nvwKg, Avmvwg, dwiqvw`, mv¶x, njd, gyûwi,DwKj, Revbew›`| L. The court-room, bail, compleainant, criminal court, legal, statement, judge, witness, court, accused, oath, clerk, lawyer. evbvb mZK©Zv eªvþY, mvgMÖx, mv¶x, mv¶¨, cÖZ¨¶, eªvþ|

‰ eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1.

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb 3. Ô†hB mv¶x GB iKg, Zvnv‡K Avwg Pvwn bvÕ-GB RwUj evK¨wUi mij Ges PwjZ iƒc †KvbwU? K. †h mv¶x GiKg Zv‡K Avwg Pvwn bv| L. Avwg G iKg mv¶x PvB bv| M. Avwg GB mv¶x Pvwn bv| N. Avwg I mv¶x PvB bv| 4. Aby‡”Q`wU co 4 Ges 5 b¤^i cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI: eb¨vc−vweZ GjvKvi ÎvYcÖv_x© †jvK‡`i ˆah© aivi Rb¨ ¯’vbxq †mevms¯’vi cwiPvj‡Ki j¤^v-PIov e³e¨ †kl nj| eq¯‹ ¯‹zj wk¶K ¶zäK‡É D”P¯^‡i ej‡jb, ÒAvcbvi iPbvg„Z Avgv‡`i RVivwMœ ev †Zóv †Kv‡bvwU †gUv‡Z mg_© bq| Ggwb wK ïK‡bv Dc‡`‡ki wPov †fRv‡bvi g‡Zv cvwbi eÇ Afve| 5. Aby‡”Q‡`i wk¶‡Ki msjv‡c KgjvKv‡š—i K‡_vcK_‡bi †Kvb w`KwU cÖavbfv‡e dz‡U D‡V‡Q? K. †KŠZzK L. †k−l M. PgK N. †nuqvwj 6. ÔKgjvKv‡š—i Revbew›`Õ Gi †h e³e¨ Aby‡”Q`wU‡Z dz‡U D‡V‡Q Zv nji. mgv‡Ri AmsMwZ ii. wePvi e¨e¯’vi AmviZv iii. Abyôvb me©¯^Zv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii

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13


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iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi †jLK cwiwPwZ wek¦Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi wQ‡jb AZzjbxq I me©‡ZvgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix| KweZv QvovI †QvUMí, Dcb¨vm, bvUK, cÖeÜ, mgv‡jvPbv, cÎmvwnZ¨, ig¨iPbv, ågY Kvwnbx, msMxZ−cÖwZwU wefv‡MB i‡q‡Q Zvui Amvgvb¨ cÖwZfvi weij`„ó cwiPq| GQvovI wZwb wQ‡jb Abb¨ wPÎwkí; mvwnZ¨−cwÎKvi m¤úv`K I `¶ wk¶v msMVK| Ôkvwš—wb‡KZbÕ I wek¦fviZxÕ ZvuiB Ae`vb| gvÎ c‡bi eQi eq‡m Zvui cÖ_g Kve¨ ÔebdzjÕ cÖKvwkZ nq| Avi 1913 wLªóv‡ã we‡k¦i †kªô Kwei ghv©`v wb‡q wZwb Gkxq‡`i g‡a¨ me©cÖ_g mvwn‡Z¨ Ô†bv‡ej cyi¯‹viÕ cvb| evsjv †QvUM‡íi cw_K„r wZwb| Zvui AmvaviY †QvUMí¸‡jv cÖavbZ msKwjZ n‡q‡Q ÔMí¸”QÕ MÖ‡š’i PviwU L‡Ê I ÔMímíÕ MÖ‡š’| Ô†mvbvi ZixÕ, ÔwPÎvÕ, ÔejvKvÕ, gvbmxÕ, ÔKíbvÕ, BZ¨vw` weL¨vZ Kve¨MÖš’mn Zvui ARmª MÖ‡š’i g‡a¨ AviI D‡j−L‡hvM¨ n‡”Q Ô†bŠKvWyweÕ, Ô†MvivÕ, ÔN‡i evB‡iÕ, ÔPvi Aa¨vqÕ, Ô†k‡li KweZvÕ BZ¨vw` Dcb¨vm, Ôi³ KiexÕ, ÔivRvÕ, ÔwPÎv½`vÕ, ÔWvKNiÕ, ÔwPiKzgvi mfvÕ, ÔwemR©bÕ, BZ¨vw` bvUK I cÖnmb; ÔwewPÎÕ ÔcÖeÜÕ,ÔKvjvš—iÕ, ÔcÂf~ZÕ, Ômf¨Zvi msKUÕ BZ¨vw` cÖeÜ: Ôevsjv fvlv cwiPqÕ, Ô†jvKmvwnZ¨Õ, ÔmvwnZ¨Õ fvlv, mvwnZ¨ I wk¶v BZ¨vw` m¤úwK©Z Av‡jvPbv MÖš|’ iex›`ªbv‡_i Rb¥ KjKvZvi †Rvovmuv‡Kvi weL¨vZ VvKzi cwiev‡i 1861 wLªóv‡ãi 7B †g, evsjv 25†k ˆekvL 1268 e½v‡× Ges g„Z¨z 1941 wLªóv‡ãi 7B AvM÷, evsjv 22 †k kªveY, 1348 e½v‡ã| Kb¨vi evc meyi Kwi‡Z cvwi‡Zb, wKš‘ e‡ii evc meyi Kwi‡Z Pvwn‡jb bv| wZwb †`wL‡jb, †g‡qwUi weev‡ni eqm cvi nBqv †M‡Q, wKš‘ Avi wKQzw`b †M‡j †mUv‡K f`ª ev Af`ª †Kv‡bv iK‡g Pvcv w`evi mgqUvI cvi nBqv hvB‡e| †g‡qi eqm A‰ea iK‡g evwoqv †M‡Q e‡U, wKš‘ c‡Yi UvKvi Av‡cw¶K ¸i“Z¡ GL‡bv Zvnvi †P‡q wKwÂr Dc‡i Av‡Q, †mRb¨B Zvov| Avwg wQjvg ei| myZivs, weevn m¤^‡Ü Avgvi gZ hvPvB Kiv Abvek¨K wQj| Avgvi KvR Avwg KwiqvwQ, Gd. G. cvk Kwiqv e„wË cvBqvwQ| ZvB cÖRvcwZi `yB c¶, Kb¨vc¶ I eic¶, Nb Nb wePwjZ nBqv DwVj| Avgv‡`i †`‡k †h-gvbyl GKevi weevn Kwiqv‡Q weevn m¤^‡Ü Zvnvi g‡b Avi †Kv‡bv D`&‡eM _v‡K bv| bigvs‡mi ¯^v` cvB‡j gvby‡li m¤^‡Ü ev‡Ni †h `kv nq, ¯¿x m¤^‡Ü Zvnvi fveUv †miƒc nBqv D‡V| Ae¯’v †hgwb I eqm hZB nDK, ¯¿xi Afve NwUevgvÎ Zvnv c~iY Kwiqv jB‡Z Zvnvi †Kv‡bv wØav _v‡K bv| hZ wØav I `ywðš—v †m †`wL Avgv‡`i bexb Qv·`i| weev‡ni †cŠbtcywbK cÖ¯v— ‡e Zvnv‡`i wcZ…c‡¶i cvKv Pzj Kj‡ci Avkxe©v‡` cybtcybt KuvPv nBqv D‡V, Avi cÖ_g NUKvwji Avu‡PB Bnv‡`i KuvPv Pzj fvebvq GKiv‡Î cvwKevi Dcµg nq| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb mZ¨ ewj‡ZwQ, Avgvi g‡b Ggb welg D`&‡eM R‡b¥ bvB| ei weev‡ni K_vq Avgvi g‡bi g‡a¨ †hb `w¶‡Y nvIqv w`‡Z jvwMj| †KŠZ~njx Kíbvi wKkjq¸wji g‡a¨ GKUv †hb KvbvKvwb cwoqv †Mj| hvnv‡K ev‡K©i †d«Â †i‡fvjy¨k‡bi †gvU cuvP−mvZ LvZv gyL¯’ Kwi‡Z nB‡e, Zvnvi c‡¶ G fveUv †`v‡li| Avgvi G †jLv hw` †UK÷eyK−KwgwUi Aby‡gvw`Z nBevi †Kv‡bv Avk¼v _vwKZ Z‡e mveavb nBZvg| wKš‘, G Kx Kwi‡ZwQ| G wK GKUv Mí †h Dcb¨vm wjwL‡Z ewmjvg| Ggb my‡i Avgvi †jLv ïi“ nB‡e G Avwg wK RvwbZvg| g‡b wQj, Kq erm‡ii †e`bvi †h †gN Kv‡jv nBqv Rwgqv DwVqv‡Q, Zvnv‡K ˆekvL mܨvi †Sv‡ov e„wói gZ cÖej el©‡Y wbt‡kl Kwiqv w`e| wKš‘, bv cvwijvg evsjvq wkïcvV¨ eB wjwL‡Z, KviY ms¯‹…Z gy»‡eva e¨vKiY Avgvi cov bvB; Avi bv cvwijvg Kve¨ iPbv Kwi‡Z, KviY gvZ…fvlv Avgvi Rxe‡bi g‡a¨ Ggb cyw®úZ nBqv D‡V bvB hvnv‡Z wb‡Ri Aš—i‡K evwn‡i Uvwbqv Avwb‡Z cvwi| †mBR‡b¨B †`wL‡ZwQ, Avgvi wfZiKvi k¥kvbPvix mbœ¨vmxUv AÆnv‡m¨ Avcbv‡K Avcwb cwinvm Kwi‡Z ewmqv‡Q| bv Kwiqv Kwi‡e Kx? Zvnvi †h AkÖ“ ïKvBqv †M‡Q| ˆR¨‡ôi Li‡iŠ`ªB †Zv ˆR¨‡ôi AkÖ“k~b¨ †iv`b| Avgvi m‡½ hvnvi weevn nBqvwQj Zvnvi bvgUv w`e bv| KviY, c„w_exi BwZnv‡m Zvnvi bvgwU jBqv cÖZZ œ vwË¡K‡`i g‡a¨ weev‡`i †Kv‡bv Avk¼v bvB| †h Zvgªkvm‡b Zvnvi bvg †Lv`vB Kiv Av‡Q †mUv Avgvi ü`qcU| †Kv‡bvKv‡j †m cU Ges †m bvg wejyß nB‡e, Ggb K_v Avwg g‡b Kwi‡Z cvwi bv| wKš‘, †h Ag„Z‡jv‡K Zvnv A¶q nBqv iwnj †mLv‡b HwZnvwm‡Ki Avbv‡Mvbv bvB| Avgvi G †jLvq Zvnvi †hgb nDK GKUv bvg PvB| Av”Qv, Zvnvi bvg w`jvg wkwki| †Kbbv, wkwk‡i Kvbœvnvwm G‡Kev‡i GK nBqv Av‡Q, Avi wkwk‡i †fvi‡ejvUzKzi K_v mKvj‡ejvq Avwmqv dzivBqv hvq| wkwki Avgvi †P‡q †Kej `yB eQ‡ii †QvU wQj| A_P, Avgvi wcZv †h †MŠix`v‡bi c¶cvZx wQ‡jb bv Zvnv b‡n| Zuvnvi wcZv wQ‡jb DMÖfv‡e mgvRwe‡`ªvnx; †`‡ki cÖPwjZ ag©K‡g© wKQz‡ZB Zuvnvi Av¯’v wQj bv; wZwb Kwlqv Bs‡iwR cwoqvwQ‡jb| Avgvi wcZv DMÖfv‡e mgv‡Ri AbyMvgx; gvwb‡Z Zuvnvi ev‡a Ggb wRwbm Avgv‡`i mgv‡R, m`‡i ev A›`‡i, †`Dwo ev wLowKi c‡_ LuywRqv cvIqv `vq, KviY BwbI Kwlqv Bs‡iwR cwoqvwQ‡jb| wcZvgn Ges wcZv Df‡qiB gZvgZ we‡`ªv‡ni `yB wewfbœ g~wZ©| †Kv‡bvUvB mij ¯^vfvweK b‡n| Zey e‡ov eq‡mi †g‡qi m‡½ evev †h Avgvi weevn w`‡jb Zvnvi KviY, †g‡qi eqm eo ewjqvB c‡bi A¼UvI eo| wkwki Avgvi k¦ï‡ii GKgvÎ †g‡q| evevi wek¦vm wQj, Kb¨vi wcZvi mg¯— UvKv fvex RvgvZvi fwe‡l¨i Mf© c~iY Kwiqv Zzwj‡Z‡Q| Avgvi k¦ï‡ii we‡kl †Kv‡bv GKUv g‡Zi evjvB wQj bv| wZwb cwð‡gi GK cvnv‡oi †Kv‡bv ivRvi Aax‡b eo KvR Kwi‡Zb| wkwki hLb †Kv‡j ZLb Zvnvi gvi g„Zz¨ nq| †g‡q ermi−A‡š— GK−GK eQi Kwiqv eo nB‡Z‡Q, Zvnv Avgvi k¦ï‡ii †Pv‡LB c‡o bvB| †mLv‡b Zuvnvi mgv‡Ri †jvK Ggb †KnB wQj bv †h Zuvnv‡K †Pv‡L AvOyj w`‡q †`LvBqv w`‡e| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb wkwk‡ii eqm h_vmg‡q †lv‡jv nBj; wKš‘ †mUv ¯^fv‡ei †lv‡jv, mgv‡Ri †lv‡jv b‡n| †Kn Zvnv‡K Avcb eq‡mi Rb¨ mZK© nB‡Z civgk© †`q bvB, †mI Avcb eqmUvi w`‡K wdwiqvI ZvKvBZ bv| K‡j‡R Z…Zxq erm‡i cv w`qvwQ, Avgvi eqm Dwbk, Ggb mgq Avgvi weevn nBj| eqmUv mgv‡Ri g‡Z ev mgvR ms¯‹vi‡Ki g‡Z Dchy³ wK bv Zvnv jBqv `y c¶ jovB Kwiqv i³viw³ Kwiqv gi“K, wKš‘ Avwg ewj‡ZwQ, †m eqmUv cix¶v cvk Kwievi c‡¶ hZ fvj nDK, weev‡ni m¤^Ü Avwmevi c‡¶ wKQzgvÎ Kg fvj bq| weev‡ni Ai“‡Yv`q nBj GKLvwb d‡UvMÖv‡di Avfv‡m| cov gyL¯’ Kwi‡ZwQjvg| GKRb VvÆvi m¤ú‡K©i AvZ¥xq Avgvi †Uwe‡ji Dc‡i wkwk‡ii QweLvbv ivwLqv ewj‡jb, ÒGBevi mwZ¨Kvi cov c‡ov−G‡Kev‡i Nvo‡gvo fvwOqv|Ó †Kv‡bv GK Rb Avbvwo KvwiM‡ii †Zvjv Qwe| gv wQj bv, myZivs †Kn Zvnvi Pzj Uvwbqv euvwaqv †Luvcvq Rwi RovBqv, mvnv ev gwj−K †Kv¤úvwbi ReoRO R¨v‡KU civBqv eic‡¶i †PvL fyjvBevi Rb¨ RvwjqvwZi †Póv K‡i bvB| fvwi GKLvwb mv`vwmav gyL, mv`vwmav `ywU †PvL Ges mv`vwmav GKwU kvwo| wKš‘, mg¯—wU jBqv Kx †h gwngv †m Avwg ewj‡Z cvwi bv| †hgb †Zgb GLLvwb †PŠwK‡Z ewmqv, wcQ‡b GKLvbv †Wviv `vM−KvUv kZiÄ †Svjv‡bv, cv‡k GKUv wUcvB‡qi Dc‡i dzj`vwb‡Z dz‡ji †Zvov| Avi, MvwjPvi Dc‡i kvwoi euvKv cvowUi wb‡P `yLvwb Lvwj cv| c‡Ui QwewUi Dci Avgvi g‡bi †mvbvi KvwV jvwM‡ZB Avgvi Rxe‡bi g‡a¨ RvwMqv BVj| †mB Kv‡jv `ywU †PvL Avgvi mg¯— fvebvi gvSLv‡b †Kgb Kwiqv Pvwnqv iwnj| Avi, euvKv cv‡oi wb‡PKvi `yLvwb Lvwj cv Avgvi ü`q‡K Avcb cÙvmb Kwiqv jBj| cwÄKvi cvZv DëvB‡Z _vwKj; `y‡Uv-wZbUv weev‡ni jMœ wcQvBqv hvq, k¦ky‡ii QzwU Avi †g‡j bv| Iw`‡K mvg‡b GKUv AKvj Pvi-cuvPUv gvm Rywoqv Avgvi AvBeo eq‡mi mxgvbvUv Dwbk eQi nB‡Z Ab_©K wek eQ‡ii w`‡K †Vwjqv w`evi Pµvš— Kwi‡Z‡Q| k¦ï‡ii Ges Zuvnvi gwb‡ei Dci ivM nB‡Z jvwMj| hv nDK, AKv‡ji wVK c~e©jMœUv‡Z Avwmqv weev‡ni w`b †VwKj| †mw`bKvi mvbvB‡qi cÖ‡Z¨K ZvbwU †h Avgvi g‡b cwo‡Z‡Q| †mw`bKvi cÖ‡Z¨K gynZ ~ w© U‡K Avwg Avgvi mg¯— ˆPZb¨ w`qv ¯úk© KwiqvwQ| Avgvi †mB Dwbk eQ‡ii eqmwU Avgvi Rxe‡b A¶q nBqv _vK| weevnmfvq Pvwiw`‡K nƇMvj; ZvnviB gvSLv‡b Kb¨vi †Kvgj nvZLvwb Avgvi nv‡Zi Dci cwoj| Ggb Avðh© Avi Kx Av‡Q| Avgvi gb evievi Kwiqv ewj‡Z jvwMj, ÔAvwg cvBjvg, Avwg Bnv‡K cvBjvg|Õ Kvnv‡K cvBjvg| G †h `yj©f, G †h gvbex, Bnvi in‡m¨i wK Aš— Av‡Q ! Avgvi k¦ï‡ii bvg †MŠixksKi| †h wngvj‡q evm Kwi‡Zb, †mB wngvj‡qi wZwb †hb wgZv| Zuvnvi Mv¤¢x‡h©i wkLi‡`‡k GKwU w¯’i nvm¨ ïå nBqvwQj| Avi, Zuvnvi ü`‡qi wfZiwU‡Z †mœ‡ni †h GKwU cÖmªeY wQj Zvnvi mÜvb hvnviv RvwbZ Zvnviv Zuvnv‡K Qvwo‡Z PvwnZ bv| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Kg©‡¶‡Î wdwievi c~‡e© Avgvi k¦ïi Avgv‡K WvwKqv ewj‡jb, Òevev, Avgvi †g‡qwU‡K Avwg m‡Z‡iv eQi awiqv Rvwb, Avi †Zvgv‡K GB KÕwU w`b gvÎ Rvwbjvg, Zey †Zvgvi nv‡ZB I iwnj| †h ab w`jvg Zvnvi g~j¨ †hb eywS‡Z cvi, Bnvi †ewk Avkxe©v` Avi bvB|Ó Zuvnvi †envB †envb mK‡jB Zuvnv‡K evievi Kwiqv Avk¦vm w`qv ewj‡jb, Ò‡envB, g‡b †Kv‡bv wPš—v ivwL‡qv bv| †Zvgvi †g‡qwU †hgb evc‡K Qvwoqv Avwm‡Z‡Q, GLv‡b †Zgwb evc gv Dfq‡KB cvBj|Ó Zvnvi c‡i k¦ïigkvq †g‡qi Kv‡Q we`vq jBevi †ejv nvwm‡jb; ewj‡jb, Òeywo, Pwjjvg| †Zvi GKLvwb gvÎ evc, AvR nB‡Z Bnvi hw` wKQz †Lvqv hvq ev Pzwi hvq ev bó nq Avwg Zvnvi Rb¨ `vqx bB|Ó †g‡q ewjj, ÒZvB eB-wK| †Kv_vI GKUz hw` †jvKmvb nq †Zvgv‡K Zvi ¶wZc~iY Kwi‡Z nB‡e|Ó Ae‡k‡l wbZ¨ Zuvnvi †hme wel‡q weåvU N‡U evc‡K †m m¤^‡Ü †m evievi mZK© wKiqv w`j| Avnvi m¤^‡Ü Avgvi k¦ï‡ii h‡_ó mshg wQj bv; ¸wUK‡qK Ac_¨ wQj, Zvnvi cÖwZ Zuvnvi we‡kl Avmw³−evc‡K †mB mg¯— cÖ‡jvfb nB‡Z h_vm¤¢e †VKvBqv ivLv †g‡qi GK KvR wQj| ZvB AvR †m ev‡ci nvZ awiqv D`&‡e‡Mi mwnZ ewjj, Òevev, Zzwg Avgvi K_v †i‡Lv−ivL‡e?Ó evev nvwmqv Kwn‡jb, Ògvbyl cY K‡i fvwOqv †dwjqv nuvd Qvwoevi Rb¨| AZGe K_v bv †`Iqv me‡P‡q wbivc`|Ó Zvnvi c‡i evc Pwjqv Avwm‡j N‡i KcvU cwoj| Zvnvi c‡i Kx nBj †Kn Rv‡b bv| evc I †g‡qi AkÖ“nxb we`vq e¨vcvi cv‡ki Ni nB‡Z †KŠZ~njx Aš—tcywiKvi `j †`wLj I ïwbj| AevK KvÊ! †LvÆvi †`‡k _vwKqv †LvÆv nBqv wMqv‡Q! gvqv ggZv& G‡Kev‡i bvB! Avgvi k¦ï‡ii eÜz ebgvjxeveyB Avgv‡`i weev‡ni NUKvwj KwiqvwQ‡jb| wZwb Avgv‡`i cwiev‡ii cwiwPZ| wZwb Avgvi k¦ïi‡K ewjqvwQ‡jb, Òmsmv‡i †Zvgvi †Zv H GKwU †g‡q| GLb Bnv‡`iB cv‡k evwo jBqv GBLv‡bB RxebUv KvUvI|Ó wZwb ewj‡jb, Òhvnv w`jvg Zvnv DRvo KwiqvB w`jvg| GLb wdwiqv ZvKvB‡Z †M‡j `ytL cvB‡Z nB‡e| AwaKvi Qvwoqv w`qv AwaKvi ivwL‡Z hvBevi g‡Zv Ggb weo¤^bv Avi bvB|Ó me †k‡l Avgv‡K wbf„‡Z jBqv wMqv Acivaxi g‡Zv mms‡Kv‡P ewj‡jb, ÒAvgvi †g‡qwUi eB cwoevi kL, Ges †jvKRb‡K LvIqvB‡Z I eo fv‡jvev‡m| GRb¨ †envB‡K wei³ Kwi‡Z B”Qv Kwi bv| Avwg gv‡S gv‡S †Zvgv‡K UvKv cvVvBe| †Zvgvi evev Rvwb‡Z cvwi‡j wK ivM Kwi‡eb?Ó cÖkœ ïwbqv wKQz Avðh© nBjvg| msmv‡i †Kv‡bv GKUv w`K nB‡Z A_©mgvMg nB‡j evev ivM Kwi‡eb, Zuvnvi †gRvR GZ Lvivc †Zv †`wL bvB| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb †hb Nyl w`‡Z‡Qb Ggwbfv‡e Avgvi nv‡Z GKLvbv GK‡kv UvKvi †bvU MuywRqv w`qvB Avgvi k¦ïi `ª“Z cÖ¯’vb Kwi‡jb; Avgvi cÖYvg jBevi Rb¨ meyi Kwi‡jb bv| wcQb nB‡Z †`wL‡Z cvBjvg, GBevi c‡KU nB‡Z i“gvj evwni nBj| Avwg ¯—ä nBqv ewvmqv fvwe‡Z jvwMjvg| g‡b eywSjvg, Bnviv Ab¨ Rv‡Zi gvbyl| eÜz‡`i A‡bK‡KB †Zv weevn Kwi‡Z †`wLjvg| gš¿ covi m‡½ m‡½B ¯¿xwU‡K G‡Kev‡i GK MÖv‡m MjvatKiY Kiv nq| cvKh‡š¿ †cuŠwQqv wKQz¶Y ev‡` GB c`v_©wUi bvbv ¸Yv¸Y cÖKvk nB‡Z cv‡i Ges ¶‡Y ¶‡Y Avf¨š—wiK D`&‡eM Dcw¯’Z nBqvI _v‡K, wKš‘ iv¯—vUzK‡z Z †Kv_vI wKQzgvÎ ev‡a bv| Avwg wKš‘ weevn mfv‡ZB eywSjvg, `v‡bi g‡š¿ ¯¿x‡K †hUzKz cvIqv hvq Zvnv‡Z msmvi P‡j, wKš‘ c‡b‡iv−Avbv evwK _vwKqv hvq| Avgvi m‡›`n nq, AwaKvsk †jv‡K ¯¿x‡K weevngvÎ K‡i, cvq bv Ges Rv‡bI bv †h cvq bvB; Zvnv‡`i ¯¿xi Kv‡QI Avg„Zz¨Kvj G Lei aiv c‡o bv| wKš‘, †m †h Avgvi mvabvi ab wQj; †m Avgvi m¤úwË bq, †m Avgvi m¤ú`| wkwki−bv, G bvgUv Avi e¨envi Kiv Pwjj bv| G‡K †Zv GUv Zvnvi bvg bq, Zvnv‡Z GUv Zvnvi cwiPqI b‡n| †m m~‡h©i gZ aª“e; †m ¶YRxwebx Elvi we`v‡qi AkÖ“we›`ywU bq| Kx nB‡e †Mvcb ivwLqv, Zvnvi Avmj bvg ˆngš—x| †`wLjvg, GB m‡Z‡iv eQ‡ii †g‡qwUi Dc‡i †hŠe‡bi mg¯— Av‡jv Avwmqv cwoqv‡Q, wKš‘ GL‡bv ˆK‡kv‡ii †Kvj nB‡Z †m RvwMqv D‡V bvB| †hb ˆkjP~ovi ei‡di Dci mKv‡ji Av‡jv wVKwiqv cwoqv‡Q, wKš‘ eid GL‡bv Mwjj bv| Avwg Rvwb, Kx AKj¼ ïå †m, Kx wbweo cweÎ! Avgvi g‡b GKUv fvebv wQj †h, †jLvcov Rvbv e‡ov †g‡q, Kx Rvwb †Kgb Kwiqv Zvnvi gb cvB‡Z nB‡e| wKš‘ AwZ Aíw`‡bB †`wLjvg, g‡bi iv¯—vi m‡½ eB‡qi †`vKv‡bi iv¯—vi †Kv‡bv RvqMvq †Kv‡bv KvUvKvwU bvB| K‡e †h Zvnvi mv`v gbwUi Dc‡i GKUz is awij, †Pv‡L GKUz †Nvi jvwMj, K‡e †h Zvnvi mg¯— kixi gb †hb DrmyK nBqv DwVj, Zvnv wVK Kwiqv ewj‡Z cvwie bv| G †Zv †Mj GK w`‡Ki K_v| Avevi Ab¨ w`‡KI Av‡Q, †mUv we¯—vwiZ ewjevi mgq Avwmqv‡Q| ivRmsmv‡i Avgvi k¦ï‡ii PvKwi| e¨v‡¼ †h Zuvnvi KZ UvKv Rwgj †m m¤^‡Ü RbkÖ“wZ bvbvcÖKvi A¼cvZ Kwiqv‡Q, wKš‘ †K‡bv A¼UvB jv‡Li wb‡P bvB| Bnvi dj nBqvwQj GB †h, Zvnvi wcZvi `i †hgb−†hgb evwoj, ˆngi Av`iI †Zgwb evwo‡Z jvwMj| Avgv‡`i N‡ii KvRKg© ixwZc×wZ wkwLqv jBevi Rb¨ †m e¨MÖ, wKš‘ gv Zvnv‡K AZ¨š— †mœ‡n wKQz‡ZB nvZ w`‡Z w`‡jb bv| Ggb wK, ˆngi m‡½ cvnvo nB‡Z †h `vmx AvwmqvwQj hw`I Zvnv‡K wb‡R‡`i N‡i XywK‡Z w`‡Zb bv, Zey Zvnvi RvZ m¤^‡Ü cÖkgœ vÎ Kwi‡jb bv, cv‡Q wekªx GKUv DËi ïwb‡Z nq| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Ggwbfv‡eB w`b Pwjqv hvB‡Z cvwiZ, wKš‘ nVvr GK w`b evevi gyL †Nvi AÜKvi †`Lv †Mj| e¨vcviLvbv GB− Avgvi weev‡n Avgvi k¦ïi c‡b‡iv nvRvi UvKv bM` Ges cuvP nvRvi UvKvi Mnbv w`qvwQ‡jb| evev Zuvnvi GK `vjvj eÜzi Kv‡Q Lei cvBqv‡Qb, Bnvi g‡a¨ c‡b‡iv nvRvi UvKvB avi Kwiqv msMÖn Kwi‡Z nBqv‡Q, Zvnvi my`I wbZvš— mvgvb¨ b‡n| jvL UvKvi ¸Re †Zv G‡Kev‡iB duvwK| hw`I Avgvi k¦ï‡ii m¤úwËi cwigvY m¤^‡Ü Avgvi evevi m‡½ †Kv‡bvw`bB †Kv‡bv Av‡jvPbvB nq bvB, Zey evev Rvwb bv †Kvb hyw³‡Z wVK Kwi‡jb, Zuvnvi †envB Zuvnv‡K B”Qvc~e©K cÖeÂbv Kwiqv‡Qb| Zvi c‡i, evevi GKUv aviYv wQj, Avgvi k¦ïi ivRvi cÖavbgš¿x †Mv‡Qi GKUv-wKQz| Lei jBqv Rvwb‡jb, wZwb †mLvbKvi wk¶vwefv‡Mi Aa¨¶| evev ewj‡jb, A_©vr B¯‹z‡ji †nWgvóvi-msmv‡i f`ª c` hZ¸‡jv Av‡Q Zvnvi g‡a¨ me‡P‡q IuPv| evevi eo Avkv wQj, k¦ïi AvR ev‡` Kvj Kv‡R Aemi jB‡eb ZLb AvwgB ivRgš¿x nBe| Ggb mgq ivm-Dcj‡¶ †`‡ki KzUz¤^iv Avgv‡`i KwjKvZvi evwo‡Z Avwmqv Rgv nB‡jb| Kb¨v‡K †`wLqv Zuvnv‡`i g‡a¨ GKUv KvbvKvwb cwoqv †Mj| KvbvKvwb µ‡g AùzU nB‡Z ùzU nBqv DwVj| `~i m¤ú‡K©i †Kv‡bv GK w`w`gv ewjqv DwV‡jb, Ò‡cvov Kcvj Avgvi! bvZeD †h eq‡m Avgv‡KI nvi gvbvBj|Ó Avi−GK w`w`gv‡kªYxqv ewj‡jb, ÒAvgv‡`iB hw` nvi bv gvbvB‡e Z‡e Acy evwni nB‡Z eD Avwb‡Z hvB‡e †Kb?Ó Avgvi gv Lye †Rv‡ii m‡½ ewjqv DwV‡jb, ÒIgv, †m wK K_v| eDgvi eqm m‡e GMv‡iv eB †Zv bq, GB Avm‡Q dvêy‡b ev‡ivq cv w`‡e| †LvÆvi †`‡k Wvji“wU LvBqv gvbyl, ZvB Agb evoš— nBqv DwVqv‡Q|Ó w`w`gviv ewj‡jb, ÒevQv, GL‡bv †Pv‡L GZ Kg †Zv †`wL bv| Kb¨vc¶ wbðqB †Zvgv‡`i Kv‡Q eqm fuvovBqv‡Q| gv ewj‡jb, ÒAvgiv †h †Kvwô †`wLjvg|Ó K_vUv mZ¨| wKš‘ †Kvwô‡ZB cÖgvY Av‡Q, †g‡qi eqm m‡Z‡iv| cÖexYviv ewj‡jb, Ò†Kvwô‡Z wK Avi duvwK P‡j bv|?Ó GB jqBqv †Nvi ZK©, GgbwK, weev` nBqv †Mj| Ggb mgq †mBLv‡b ˆng Avwmqv Dcw¯’Z| †K‡bv GK w`w`gv wRÁvmv Kwi‡jb, ÒbvZeD, †Zvgvi eqm KZ e‡jv †Zv?Ó gv Zvnv‡K †PvL wUwcqv Bkviv Kwi‡jb| ˆng Zvnvi A_© eywSj bv| ewjj, Òm‡Z‡iv|Ó gv e¨¯— nBqv ewjqv DwV‡jb, ÒZzwg Rvb bv|Ó evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb ˆng Kwnj, ÒAvwg Rvwb, Avgvi eqm m‡Z‡iv|Ó w`w`gviv ci¯úi Mv-†Ucv‡Uwc Kwi‡jb| ea~i wbe©yw×Zvq ivwMqv DwVqv gv ewj‡jb, ÒZzwg †Zv me Rvb! †Zvgvi evev †h ewj‡jb, †Zvgvi eqm GMv‡iv|Ó ˆng PgwKqv Kwnj, Òevev ewjqv‡Qb? KL‡bv bv|Ó gv Kwn‡jb, ÒAevK Kwij| †envB Avgvi mvg‡b wb‡Ri gy‡L ewj‡jb, Avi †g‡q e‡j ÔKL‡bv bvÕ|Ó GB ewjqv Avi GKevi †PvL wUwc‡jb| Gevi ˆng Bkvivi gv‡b eywSj| ¯^i Av‡iv `„p Kwiqv ewij, Òevev Ggb K_v KL‡bvB ewj‡Z cv‡ib bv|Ó gv Mjv PovBqv ewj‡jb, ÒZzB Avgv‡K wg_¨vev`x ewj‡Z Pvm?Ó ˆng ewjj, ÒAvgvi evev †Zv KL‡bvB wg_¨v e‡jb bv|Ó Bnvi c‡i gv hZB Mvwj w`‡Z jvwM‡jb, K_vUvi Kvwj ZZB MovBqv QovBqv Pvwiw`‡K †jwcqv †Mj| gv ivM Kwiqv evevi Kv‡Q Zuvnvi ea~i g~pZv Ges Z‡ZvwaK GKMuy‡qwgi K_v ewjqv w`‡jb| evev ˆng‡K WvwKqv ewj‡jb, ÒAvBeo †g‡qi eqm m‡Z‡iv, GUv wK Lye GKUv †MŠi‡ei K_v, ZvB XvK wcwUqv †eovB‡Z nB‡e? Avgv‡`i GLv‡b Gme Pwj‡e bv, ewjqv ivwL‡ZwQ|Ó nvq †i, Zuvnvi eDgvi cÖwZ evevi †mB gaygvLv cÂg ¯^i AvR G‡Kev‡i Ggb evRLuvB Lv‡` bvwej †Kgb Kwiqv| ˆng e¨w_Z nBqv cÖkœ Kwij, Ò†Kn hw` eqm wRÁvmv K‡i, Kx ewje?Ó evev ewj‡jb, Òwg_¨v ewjevi `iKvi bvB, Zzwg ewjI Avwg Rvwb bv, Avgvi kvïwo Rv‡bb|Ó †Kgb Kwiqv wg_¨v ewj‡Z bv nq †mB Dc‡`k ïwbqv ˆng Ggbfv‡e Pzc Kwiqv iwnj †h evev eywS‡jb, Zuvnvi m`yc‡`kUv G‡Kev‡i ev‡R LiP nBj| ˆngi `yMw© Z‡Z `ytL Kwie Kx, Zvnvi Kv‡Q Avgvi gv_v †nuU nBqv †Mj| †mw`b †`wLjvg, kircÖfv‡Zi AvKv‡ki g‡Zv Zvnvi †Pv‡Li †mB mij D`vm `„wó GKUv Kx msk‡q ¤−vb nBqv †M‡Q| fxZ nwiYxi g‡Zv †m Avgvi gy‡Li w`‡K Pvwnj| fvwej, ÔAvwg Bnvw`M‡K wPwb bv|Õ †mw`b GKLvbv †kŠwLb euvavB Kiv Bs‡iwR KweZvi eB Zvnvi Rb¨ wKwbqv AvwbqvwQjvg| eBLvwb †m nv‡Z Kwiqv jBj Ges Av‡¯— Av‡¯— †Kv‡ji Dci ivwLqv w`j, GKevi LywjqvI †`wLj bv| Avwg Zvnvi nvZLvwb Zzwjqv awiqv ewjjvg, Òˆng, Avgvi Dci ivM Kwi‡qv bv| Avwg †Zvgvi m‡Z¨ KL‡bv AvNvZ Kwie bv, Avwg †h †Zvgvi m‡Z¨i euva‡b euvav|Ó evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb ˆng wKQz bv ewjqv GKUzLvwb nvwmj| †m nvwm weavZv hvnv‡K w`qv‡Qb Zvnvi †Kv‡bv K_v ewjevi `iKvi bvB| wcZvi Avw_©K DbœwZi ci nB‡Z †`eZvi AbyMÖn‡K ¯’vqx Kwievi Rb¨ b~Zb Drmv‡n Avgv‡`i evwo‡Z c~RvP©bv Pwj‡Z‡Q| G ch©š— †m mg¯— wµqvK‡g© evwoi ea~‡K WvK c‡o bvB| b~Zb ea~i cÖwZ GKw`b c~Rv mvRvBevi Av‡`k nBj; †m ewjj, Ògv, ewjqv `vI Kx Kwi‡Z nB‡e?Ó Bnv‡Z KvnviI gv_vq AvKvk fvwOqv cwoevi K_v bq, KviY mK‡jiB Rvbv wQj, gvZ…nxb Kb¨v cÖev‡m gvbyl| wKš‘ †KejgvÎ ˆng‡K jw¾Z KivB GB Av‡`‡ki †nZz| mK‡jB Mv‡j nvZ w`qv ewjj, ÒIgv, G Kx KvÊ! G †Kvb bvw¯—‡Ki N‡ii †g‡q| Gevi G msmvi nB‡Z j²x Qvwoj, Avi †`wi bvB|Ó GB Dcj‡¶ ˆngi ev‡ci D‡Ï‡k¨ hvnv−bv ewjevi Zvnv ejv nBj| hLb nB‡Z KUz K_vi nvIqv w`qv‡Q, ˆng G‡Kev‡i Pzc Kwiqv mg¯— mn¨ Kwiqv‡Q| GKw`‡bi Rb¨ KvnviI mvg‡b †m †Pv‡Li RjI †d‡j bvB| AvR Zvnvi eo eo `yB †PvL fvmvBqv w`qv Rj cwo‡Z jvwMj| †m DwUqv `uvovBqv ewjj, ÒAvcbviv Rv‡bb−†m †`‡k Avgvi evev‡K mK‡j Fwl e‡j?Ó Fwl e‡j! fvwi GKUv nvwm cwoqv †Mj| Bnvi c‡i Zvnvi wcZvi D‡j−L Kwi‡Z cÖvqB ejv nBZ, †Zvgvi Fwlevev! GB †g‡qwUi mK‡ji †P‡q `i‡`i RvqMvwU †h †Kv_vq Zvnv Avgv‡`i msmvi eywSqv jBqvwQj| e¯‘Z, Avgvi k¦ïi eªvþI bb, wLªóvbI bb, nq‡Zv ev bvw¯—KI bv nB‡eb| †`evP©bvi K_v †Kv‡bvw`b wZwb wPš—vI K‡ib bvB| †g‡q‡K wZwb A‡bK covqv‡Qb-ïbvBqv‡Qb, wKš‘ †Kv‡bvw`‡bi Rb¨ †`eZv m¤^‡Ü wZwb Zvnv‡K †Kv‡bv Dc‡`k †`b bvB| ebgvjxevey G jBqv Zuvnv‡K GKevi cÖkœ KwiqvwQ‡jb| wZwb ewjqvwQ‡jb, ÒAvwg hvnv eywS bv, Zvnv wkLvB‡Z †M‡j †Kej KcUZv †kLv‡bv nB‡e|Ó Aš—tcy‡i ˆngi GKwU cÖK…Z f³ wQj, †m Avgvi †QvU †evb bvivbx| eDw`w`‡K fv‡jvev‡m ewjqv Zvnv‡K A‡bK MÄbv mwn‡Z nBqvwQj| msmvihvÎvq ˆngi mg¯— Acgv‡bi cvjv Avwg Zvnvi Kv‡QB ïwb‡Z cvBZvg| GKw`‡bi Rb¨I Avwg ˆngi Kv‡Q ïwb bvB| G me K_v ms‡Kv‡P †m gy‡L Avwb‡Z cvwiZ bv| †m ms‡KvP wb‡Ri Rb¨ b‡n| ˆng Zvnvi ev‡ci KvQ nB‡Z hZ wPwV cvBZ mg¯— Avgv‡K cwo‡Z w`Z| wPwV¸wj †QvU wKš‘ i‡m fiv| †mI evc‡K hZ wPwV wjwLZ mg¯— Avgv‡K †`LvBZ| ev‡ci m‡½ Zvnvi m¤^ÜwU‡K Avgvi m‡½ fvM Kwiqv bv jB‡j Zvnvi `v¤úZ¨ †h c~Y© nB‡Z cvwiZ bv| Zvnvi wPwV‡Z k¦ïievwo m¤^‡Ü †K‡bv bvwj‡ki BkvivUzKzI wQj bv| _vwK‡j wec` NwU‡Z cvwiZ| bvivbxi Kv‡Q ïwbqvwQ, k¦ïievwoi K_v Kx †j‡L Rvwbevi Rb¨ gv‡S gv‡S Zvnvi wPwV †Lvjv nBZ| wPwVi g‡a¨ Aciv‡ai †Kv‡bv cÖgvY bv cvBqv DciIqvjv‡`i gb †h kvš— nBqvwQj Zvnv b‡n| †eva Kwi Zvnv‡Z Zuvnviv Avkvf‡½i `ytLB cvBqvwQ‡jb| welg wei³ nBqv Zuvnviv ewj‡Z jvwM‡jb, ÒGZ Nb Nb wPwVB ev wK‡mi Rb¨? evcB †hb me, Avgiv wK †Kn bB?Ó evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb GB jBqv A‡bK AwcÖq K_v Pwj‡Z jvwMj| Avwg ¶zä nBqv ˆng‡K ewjjvg, Ò†Zvgvi evevi wPwV AviKvnv‡KI bv w`qv Avgv‡KB w`‡qv| K‡j‡R hvBevi mgq Avwg †cv÷ Kwiqv w`e|Ó ˆng wew¯§Z nBqv wRÁvmv Kwij, Ò†Kb?Ó Avwg j¾vq Zvnvi DËi w`jvg bv| evwo‡Z GLb mK‡j ewj‡Z Avi¤¢ Kwij, ÒGBevi Acyi gv_v LvIqv nBj| we. G, wWwMÖ wkKvq †Zvjv iwnj| †Q‡jiB ev †`vl Kx?Ó †m †Zv e‡UB| †`vl mg¯—B ˆngi| Zvnvi †`vl †h Zvnvi eqm m‡Z‡iv| Zvnvi †`vl †h Avwg Zvnv‡K fv‡jvevwm, Zvnvi †`vl †h weavZvi GB wewa, ZvB Avgvi ü`‡qi i‡Üª i‡Üª mg¯— AvKvk AvR euvwk evRvB‡Z‡Q| we. G, wWwMÖ AKvZiwP‡Ë Avwg Pzjvq w`‡Z cvwiZvg wKš‘ ˆngi Kj¨v‡Y cY Kwijvg, cvk KwieB Ges fv‡jv KwiqvB cvk Kwie| G cY i¶v Kiv Avgvi †m Ae¯’vi †h m¤¢eci †eva nBqvwQj Zvnvi `yBwU KviY wQj−GK †Zv ˆngi fv‡jvevmvi g‡a¨ Ggb GKwU AvKv‡ki we¯—vi wQj †h, msKxY© Avmw³i g‡a¨ †m gb‡K RovBqv ivwLZ bv, †mB fv‡jvevmvi Pvwiw`‡K fvwi GKwU ¯^v¯’¨Ki nvIqv ewnZ| wØZxq, cix¶vi Rb¨ †h eB¸‡jv covi cÖ‡qvRb Zvnv ˆngi m‡½ GK‡Î wgwjqv cov Am¤¢e wQj bv| cix¶v cv‡ki D`&‡hv‡M †Kvgi euvwaqv jvwMjvg| GKw`b iweevi ga¨v‡ý evwn‡ii N‡i ewmqv gvwU©‡bvi PwiÎZË¡ eBLvwbi we‡kl jvB‡bi ga¨c_¸‡jv dvwoqv †dwjqv bxj †cw݇ji jvOj PvjvB‡ZwQjvg, Ggb mgq evwn‡ii w`‡K nVvr †PvL cwoj| Avgvi N‡ii m¤§y‡L AvwObvi DËi w`‡K Aš—tcy‡i DwVevi GKUv wmuwo| ZvnviB Mv‡q Mv‡q gv‡S gv‡S Miv‡`−†`Iqv GK GKUv Rvbvjv| †`wL ZvnviB GKUv Rvbvjvq ˆng Pzc Kwiqv ewmqv cwð‡gi w`‡K Pvwnqv| †mw`‡K gwj−K‡`i evMv‡b KvÂbMvQ †Mvjvwc dz‡j Av”Qbœ| Avgvi ey‡K aK& Kwiqv GKUv av°v w`j; g‡bi g‡a¨ GKUv AbeavbZvi AveiY wQuwoqv cwoqv †Mj| GB wbtkã Mfxi †e`bvi iƒcwU Avwg GZw`b Ggb ¯úó Kwiqv †`wL bvB| wKš‘ bv, Avwg †Kej Zvnvi ewmevi fw½UzKz †`wL‡Z cvB‡ZwQjvg| †Kv‡ji Dc‡i GKwU nv‡Zi Dci Avi GKwU nvZ w¯’i cwoqv Av‡Q, gv_vwU †`qv‡ji Dc‡i †njv‡bv, †Lvjv Pzj evg Kuv‡ai Dci w`qv ey‡Ki Dci Szwjqv cwoqv‡Q| Avgvi ey‡Ki wfZiUv û û Kwiqv DwVj| Avgvi wb‡Ri RxebUv Ggwb Kvbvq Kvbvq fwiqv‡Q †h, Avwg †KvLvI †Kv‡bv k~b¨Zv j¶ Kwi‡Z cvwi bvB| AvR nVvr Avgvi AZ¨š— wbK‡U AwZ e„nr GKUv ˆbiv‡k¨i Mnei †`wL‡Z cvBjvg| †Kgb Kwiqv Kx w`qv Avwg Zvnv c~iY Kwie? Avgv‡K †Zv wKQzB Qvwo‡Z nq bvB| bv AvZ¥xq, bv Af¨vm, bv wKQz| ˆng †h mg¯— †dwjqv Avgvi Kv‡Q Avwmqv‡Q| †mUv KZLvwb Zvnv Avwg fv‡jv Kwiqv fvwe bvB| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Avgv‡`i msmv‡i Acgv‡bi KÈKkq‡b †m ewmqv; †m kqb AvwgI Zvnvi m‡½ fvM Kwiqv jBqvwQ| †mB `yt‡L ˆngi m‡½ Avgvi †hvM wQj, Zvnv‡Z Avgvw`M‡K c„_K K‡i bvB| wKš‘, GB wMwibw›`bx m‡Z‡iv ermi-Kvj Aš—‡i evwn‡i KZ eo GKUv gyw³i g‡a¨ gvbyl nBqv‡Q| Kx wbg©j m‡Z¨ Ges D`vi Av‡jv‡K Zvnvi cÖK…wZ Ggb FRy ïå I mej nBqv DwVqv‡Q| Zvnv nB‡Z ˆng †h Kxiƒc wbiwZkq I wbôziiƒ‡c wew”Qbœ nBqv‡Q GZw`b Zvnv Avwg m¤ú~Y© Abyfe Kwi‡Z cvwi bvB, †Kbbv †mLv‡b Zvnvi m‡½ Avgvi mgvb Avmb wQj bv| ˆng †h Aš—‡i gyn‡~ Z© gyn~‡Z© gwi‡ZwQj| Zvnv‡K Avwg me w`‡Z cvwi wKš‘ gyw³ w`‡Z cvwi bv−Zvnv Avgvi wb‡Ri g‡a¨ †Kv_vq? †mB Rb¨B KwjKvZvi Mwj‡Z H Miv‡`i duvK w`qv wbe©vK AvKv‡ki m‡½ Zvnvi wbe©vK g‡bi K_v nq; Ges GK GK w`b iv‡Î nVvr RvwMqv DwVqv †`wL, †m weQvbvq bvB; nv‡Zi Dci gv_v ivwLqv AvKvk-fiv Zvivi w`‡K gyL Zzwjqv Qv‡` ïBqv Av‡Q| gvwU©‡bv cwoqv iwnj| fvwe‡Z jvwMjvg, Kx Kwi! wkïKvj nB‡Z evevi Kv‡Q Avgvi ms‡Kv‡Pi Aš— wQj bv, KL‡bv gyLvgywL Zuvnvi Kv‡Q `ievi Kwievi mvnm ev Af¨vm Avgvi wQj bv| †mw`b _vwK‡Z cvwijvg bv| j¾vi gv_v LvBqv Zuvnv‡K ewjqv ewmjvg, ÒeD‡qi kixi fv‡jv bq, Zvnv‡K GKevi ev‡ci Kv‡Q cvVvB‡j nq|Ó evev †Zv G‡Kev‡i nZeyw×| g‡b †jkgvÎ m‡›`n iwnj bv †h, ˆngB GBiƒc Af~Zc~e© ¯úa©vq Avgv‡K cÖewZ©Z Kwiqv‡Q| ZLbB wZwb DwVqv Aš—tcy‡i wMqv ˆng‡K wRÁvmv Kwi‡jb, Òewj, eDgv, †Zvgvi AmyLUv wK‡mi?Ó ˆng ewjj, ÒAmyL †Zv bvB|Ó evev fvwe‡jb, G DËiUv †ZR †`LvBevi Rb¨| wKš‘, ˆng kixi †h w`‡b w`‡b ïKvBqv hvB‡ZwQj Zvnv Avgiv cÖwZw`‡bi Af¨vmekZB eywS bvB| GKw`b ebgvjxevey Zvnv‡K †`wLqv PgwKqv DwV‡jb, ÒAu¨v, G Kx! ˆngx, G †Kgb †Pnviv †Zvi! AmyL K‡i bvB †Zv?Ó ˆng Kwnj, Òbv|Ó GB NUbvi w`b `‡kK c‡iB ejv bvB, Knv bvB, nVvr Avgvi k¦ïi Avwmqv Dcw¯’Z| ˆngi kix‡ii K_vUv wbðq ebgvjxevey Zuvnv‡K wjwLqvwQ‡jb| weev‡ni ci ev‡ci Kv‡Q we`vq jBevi mgq †g‡q Avcbvi AkÖ“ Pvwcqv wbqvwQj| Gevi wgj‡bi w`b evc †hgwb Zvnvi wPeyK awiqv gyLwU Zzwjqv awi‡jb Agwb ˆngi †Pv‡Li Rj Avi gvbv gvwbj bv| evc GKwU K_v ewj‡Z cvwi‡jb bv; wRÁvmv ch©š— Kwi‡jb bv, Ô†Kgb AvwQm|Õ Avgvi k¦ïi Zuvnvi †g‡qi gy‡L Ggb GKUv wKQz †`wLqvwQ‡jb hvnv‡Z Zuvnvi eyK dvwUqv †Mj| ˆng evevi nvZ awiqv Zuvnv‡K †kvevi N‡i jBqv †Mj| A‡bK K_v †h wRÁvmv Kwievi Av‡Q| Zvnvi eveviI †h kixi fv‡jv †`LvB‡Z‡Q bv| evsjv msKjb

23


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb evev wRÁvmv Kwi‡jb, Òeywo, Avgvi m‡½ hvwe?Ó ˆng KvOv‡ji g‡Zv ewjqv DwVj, Òhve|Ó evc ewj‡jb, ÒAv”Qv, me wVK Kwi‡ZwQ|Ó k¦ïi hw` AZ¨š— D`&weMœ nBqv bv _vwK‡Zb Zvnv nB‡j G evwo‡Z XywKqvB eywS‡Z cvwi‡Zb, GLv‡b Zuvnvi Avi †mw`b bvB| nVvr Zuvnvi Avwef©ve‡K Dc`ªe g‡b Kwiqv evev †Zv fv‡jv Kwiqv K_vB Kwn‡jb bv| Avgvi k¦ï‡ii g‡b wQj Zuvnvi †envB GK`v Zuvnv‡K evievi Avk¦vm w`‡qwQ‡jb †h, hLb Zuvnvi Lywk †g‡q‡K wZwb evwo jBqv hvB‡Z cvwi‡eb| G m‡Z¨i Ab¨_v nB‡Z cv‡i bv †m K_v wZwb g‡bI Avwb‡Z cv‡ib bvB| evev ZvgvK Uvwb‡Z Uvwb‡Z ewj‡jb, Ò†envB, Avwg †Zv wKQz ewj‡Z cvwi bv| GKevi Zvn‡j evwoi g‡a¨−Ó evwoi-g‡a¨i Dci eivZ †`Iqvi A_© Kx Avgvi Rvbv wQj| eywSjvg, wKQz nB‡e bv| wKQz nBjI bv| eDgvi kixi fv‡jv bvB| GZ eo Acev`| k¦ïigkvq ¯^qs GK Rb fv‡jv Wv³vi Avwbqv cix¶v KivB‡jb| Wv³vi ewj‡jb, Òevqy cwieZ©b Avek¨K, bwn‡j nVvr GKUv k³ e¨v‡gv nB‡Z cv‡i|Ó evev nvwmqv Kwn‡jb, ÒnVvr GKUv k³ e¨v‡gv †Zv mK‡jiB nB‡Z cv‡i| GUv wK Avevi GKUv K_v|Ó Avgvi k¦ïi Kwn‡jb, ÒRv‡bb †Zv Dwb GKRb cÖwm× Wv³vi, Dnvi K_vUv wK−?Ó evev Kwn‡jb, ÒAgb †Xi Wv³vi †`wLqvwQ| `w¶Yvi †Rv‡i mKj cwʇZiB Kv‡Q me weavb †g‡j Ges mKj Wv³v‡iiB Kv‡Q me †iv‡Mi mvwU©wd‡KU cvIqv hvq|Ó GB K_vwU ïwbqv Avgvi k¦ïi G‡Kev‡i ¯—ä nBqv †M‡jb| ˆng eywSj, Zvnvi evevi cÖ¯—ve Acgv‡bi mwnZ AMÖvn¨ nBqv‡Q| Zvnvi gb G‡Kev‡i KvV nBqv †Mj| Avwg Avi mwn‡Z cvwijvg bv| evevi Kv‡Q wMqv ewjjvg, Òˆng‡K Avwg jBqv hvBe|Ó evev MwR©qv DwV‡jb, Òe‡U †i−Ó BZ¨vw` BZ¨vw`| eÜziv †Kn †Kn Avgv‡K wRÁvmv Kwiqv‡Qb, hvnv ewjjvg Zvnv Kwijvg bv †Kb| ¯¿x‡K jBqv †Rvi Kwiqv evwni nBqv †M‡jB †Zv nBZ| †Mjvg bv †Kb? †Kb! hw` †jvKa‡g©i Kv‡Q mZ¨ag©‡K bv †Vwje, hw` N‡ii Kv‡Q N‡ii gvbyl‡K ewj w`‡Z bv cvwie, Z‡e Avvgvi i‡³i g‡a¨ eû hy‡Mi †h wk¶v Zvnv Kx Kwi‡Z Av‡Q| Rvb †Zvgiv? †hw`b A‡hva¨vi †jv‡Kiv mxZv‡K wemR©b w`evi `vwe KwiqvwQj Zvnvi g‡a¨ AvwgI †h wQjvg| Avi †mB wemR©‡bi †MŠi‡ei K_v hy‡M hy‡M hvnviv Mvb Kwiqv Avwmqv‡Q AvwgI †h Zvnv‡`i g‡a¨ GKRb| Avi, AvwgI †Zv †mw`b †jvKićbi Rb¨ ¯¿x cwiZ¨v‡Mi ¸Y eY©bv Kwiqv evsjv msKjb

24


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb gvwmKc‡Î cÖeÜ wjwLqvwQ| ey‡Ki i³ w`qv Avgv‡K †h GKw`b wØZxq mxZv−wemR©‡bi Kvwnbx wjwL‡Z nB‡e †m K_v †K RvwbZ| wcZvq Kb¨vq Avi GKevi we`v‡qi ¶Y Dcw¯’Z nBj| GBev‡iI `yBR‡biB gy‡L nvwm| Kb¨v nvwm‡Z nvwm‡Z fr©mbv Kwiqv ewjj, Òevev, Avi hw` KL‡bv Zzwg Avgv‡K †`Levi Rb¨ Ggb QzUvQzwU Kwiqv G evwo‡Z Avm Z‡e Avwg N‡i KcvU w`e|Ó evc nvwm‡Z nvwm‡Z ewj‡jb, Ò†di hw` Avwm, Z‡e wmuaKvwU m‡½ KwiqvB Avwme|Ó Bnvi c‡i ˆngi gy‡L Zvnvi wPiw`‡bi †mB wmœ» nvwmUzKz Avi GKw`‡bi Rb¨I †`wL bvB| ZvnviI c‡i Kx nBj †mK_v Avi ewj‡Z cvwie bv| ïwb‡ZwQ gv cvÎx mÜvb Kwi‡Z‡Qb| nq‡Zv GK w`b gvi Aby‡iva AMÖvn¨ Kwi‡Z cvwie bv, BnvI m¤¢e nB‡Z cv‡i| KviY−_vK& Avi KvR Kx! kãv_© I UxKv †g‡qi eqm A‰ea iKg evwoqv †M‡Q

ZrKvjxb wn›`y mgv‡R AvU eQi eqmx Kb¨v‡K †MŠwi, bq eQi eqmx Kb¨v‡K †ivwnYx, `k eQi eqmx Kb¨v‡K Kzgvix ejv nZ| `k eQi eq‡mi g‡a¨B Kb¨v‡K we‡q †`Iqvi wbqg wQj| †mB wn‡m‡e †g‡qwUi we‡qi eqm mvZ eQi Av‡MB cvi n‡q wM‡qwQj| Av‡cw¶K ¸i“Z¡ − Zzjbvg~jK MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv| Gd.G. − †m mg‡q eZ©gvb D”P gva¨wgK chv©q‡K Gd. G. ev First Arts ejv nZ| cÖRvcwZ − eªþv| wn›`y cyivY Abymv‡i we‡qi †`eZv| †cŠbtcywbK − evievi N‡U Ggb| GLv‡b evi evi DÌvwcZ| Kjc − cvKv, mv`v Pzj Kv‡jv Kivi is| welg − `viyY, `ytmn| `w¶‡Y nvIqv w`‡Z jvwMj − g‡bi g‡a¨ emš— −evZv‡mi wn‡j−vj eB‡Z _vKj| Avb‡›` we‡qi Rb¨ PÂj n‡q DVj| evK© − GWgÛ evK© (1729 −1797) Bs‡iwR ivRbxwZK, cÖvewÜK wec−‡ei Dc‡i †jLv GWgÛ ev‡K©i MÖš− ’ ÔReflections on the Revolution if France|Õ wLª÷v‡ã cÖKvwkZ nq| †d«Â †i‡fvjy¨kb − AvVv‡iv kZ‡Ki †kl cÖv‡š— msNwUZ HwnZvwnm divwmi wec−‡ei Dc‡i †jLv GWgÛ ev‡K©i MÖš’| Reflections on the Revolution in France' GwU 1970 wLªóv‡ã cÖvKwkZ nq| †UK÷ eyK KwgwU − cvV¨cy¯—K Aby‡gv`b K‡i Ggb ms¯’v| evsjv msKjb

25


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb gy»‡eva e¨vKiY

k¥kvbPvix − ˆR¨‡ôi Li‡iŠ`ªB †Zv ˆR¨‡ôi AkÖyk~b¨ †iv`b −

cÖZœZvwË¡K

Zvgªkvmb †MŠix`vb

− −

Kwlqv wLowK mgvR-ms¯‹viK

− − −

Avbvwo − ReoRO − wUcvB − MvwjPv − cÙvmb − AKvj − wngvj‡qi wZwb †hb wgZv −

cÖmªeY Aš—tcywiKv †LvÆv wbf„Z MjvatKiY cvKhš¿ Avf¨š—wiK D‡ØM evsjv msKjb

− − − − − − −

†evc‡`e †Mv¯^vgx iwPZ ms¯‹…Z fvlvq weL¨vZ e¨vKiY−Ôgy»‡evas e¨vKiYg&|Õ k¥kv‡b wePiY K‡i Ggb| ˆR¨ô gv‡mi cÖPÊ †iv`‡K †jLK AkÖ“wenxb Kvbœv wn‡m‡e Kíbv K‡i‡Qb| G Dcgvi †fZi w`‡q †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q †h cÖPÊ `yt‡Li `n‡b Acyi †Pv‡Li Rj ïwK‡q †M‡Q| Zvi GB Kvwnbx eY©bv ZvB AkÖynxb †iv`‡bi bvgvš—i| cÖvPxb aŸsmve‡kl, gy`ªvwjwc BZ¨vw` †_‡K HwZnvwmK Z_¨ wbY©‡qi we`¨v ev cÖZœZ‡Ë¡ cwÊZ e¨w³ archaeologistc cyivZË¡we`| Zvgvi cv‡Z †Lv`vB Kiv cÖvPxb Kv‡ji ivRvÁv ev Abykvmb| †g‡q‡`i eqm m¤ú‡K© cÖvPxb wn›`y kv¯¿we`‡`i weavb Abymv‡i AvU eQi eqmx Kb¨v‡K we‡q †`Iqv| c~‡Y©v`¨‡g| Lye K‡i| evwoi †cQ‡bi w`K ev †cQ‡bi w`‡Ki `iRv| hvuiv mgv‡Ri AMÖMwZi c‡_ evav wn‡m‡e _vKv bvbv-†`vl ÎywU, cðv`&c`Zv, cÖ_v BZ¨vw` `~i K‡i mgv‡Ri DbœwZ mvab K‡ib| AwbcyY| cvwicvU¨nxb| †egvbvb| †eXc| wZb cvqvIqvjv †QvU †Uwej| Bs‡iwR `Tripod' kãRvZ| cyiy divk| Kv‡c©U| `yB cv gy‡o emvi we‡kl fw½| c‡Ùi Avmb| we‡q BZ¨vw` ïfKv‡Ri Abychy³ e‡j we‡ewPZ mgq| wngvj‡qi GKwU k„‡½i bvg †MŠwiksKi| Acyi k¦ï‡ii bvgI †MŠixksKi| wZwb _vK‡Zb wngvj‡q| Zvui Pwi‡ÎI wQj wngvj‡qi ˆewkó¨| Gme we‡ePbvq Acy Zvi k¦ïi‡K wngvj‡qi wgZv e‡j‡Q| Sibv| A›`i gn‡ji gwnjv| wb›`v‡_© wnw›`fvlx †jvKRb| wbR©b RvqMv| wM‡j †djv| cvK¯’jx BZ¨vw` nR‡gi A½| †fZ‡ii A¯^w¯—| 26


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb †m Avgvi m¤úwË bq, †m Avgvi m¤ú`

aªye ¶YRxwebx ixwZc×wZ RbkÖywZ cÖeÂbv IuPv ivm †Kvwô g~pZv GK¸u‡qwg AvBeo cÂg ¯^i evRLuvB bv`

− − − − − − − − − − − − −

`yM©wZ mskq †mŠwLb AvKvk fvwOqv cwoevi K_v bq

− − − −

bvw¯—K cÖevm j²x Qvwoj, Avi †`wi bvB KUzK_v Fwl †`evP©bv MÄbv ¶zä i‡Ü« i‡Ü« AKvZi wP‡Ë evsjv msKjb

− − − − − − − − − −

GLv‡b m¤úwË ej‡Z RwgRgv, welq-Avkq BZ¨vw`‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q hv A_©g~‡j¨ wewµ Kiv P‡j| c¶vš—‡i m¤ú` ej‡Z †MŠie I Hk¦h© evovq Ggb Ag~j¨ wKQz‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q| Acyi Kv‡Q ˆngš—x †fvM¨e¯‘ wQj bv, wQj h_v_© Rxebmw½bx I †MŠi‡ei ab| A¶q, wbZ¨| ¯^í¯’vqx| Kvq`vKvbyb| †jvKgy‡L †kvbv hvq Ggb Rbie| cÖZviYv, VKv‡bv| †nq, RNb¨, wbK…ó| kªxK…‡òi ivmjxjv msµvš— Drme| Rb¥cwÎKv, Rxe‡bi ïfvïf wbi~wcZ _v‡K Ggb cÎ| AbwfÁZv, †evKvwg| GK‡ivLv fve| AweevwnZ, GLv‡b wb›`vm~PK e¨envi N‡U‡Q| †KvwK‡ji myijnix, ivMwe‡kl| KK©k aŸwb, evR Luv ev evR evnv`yi Luv bv‡g GKRb Mvq‡Ki gvayhn© xb KK©k Kɯ^i ev my‡ii Abyi~c aŸwb| `y‡fv©M, `y`©kv, `yie¯’v| wØav‡eva, AwbðqZv, Avk¼v| g‡bvig, wejvmx| ÔAvKvk †f‡O covÕ-K_vwU wewkó cÖ‡qvM| A_©-AvKw¯§K wec‡` w`‡knviv nIqv| Ck¦‡i wek¦vmx bq Ggb| we‡`‡k emevm| `yie¯’v †b‡g Avm‡Z †`wi n‡e bv| wZi¯‹vi, MvwjMvjvR| kv¯¿Á Zc¯^x| †`eZvi Avivabv, c~Rv| hvZbv, fr©mbv, jvÂbv| gbt¶zYœ, †¶v‡f Av‡jvwoZ| wQ‡`ª wQ‡`ª| A‡K¬‡k, wbwØ©avq| 27


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Pzjvq w`‡Z cvwiZvg Avmw³ gvwU©‡bv Miv‡` †`Iqv AbeavbZv û û Kwiqv DwVj ïb¨Zv ˆbiv‡k¨i MnŸi KÈKkqb wMwibw›`bx

− − − − − − − − − −

gvwU©‡bv cwoqv iwnj ¯úa©v Avwef©ve Dc`ªe evwoi g‡a¨i eivZ †`Iqv k³ e¨v‡gv `w¶Yvi †Rv‡i KvV nBqv †Mj Pvcv †`Iqv KvbvKvwb Kwlqv †Pv‡L AvOyj w`‡q †`Lv‡bv gb cvIqv KvbvKvwb cwoqv hvIqv evoš— Mv †Ucv‡Uwc Kiv XvK †cUv‡bv evRLuvB

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evsjv msKjb

cwiZ¨vM Ki‡Z ev wemR©b w`‡Z cviZvg| Zxeª wjáv, Mfxi AbyivM| Bs‡iR †jLK| †jvnv ev Kv‡Ui †gvUv wkK jvMv‡bv| g‡bv‡hv‡Mi Afve, Ag‡bv‡hvwMZv| Mfxi `yt‡L f‡i †Mj| wi³Zv, dvuKv fve| wbivkvi Mfxi MZ©| KuvUvi weQvbv| ce©Z`ywnZv, ˆngš—x wngvj‡qi D`vi gy³ cwi‡e‡k eo n‡q‡Q e‡j Zv‡K GB we‡kl‡Y f~wlZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| †jLK gvwU©‡bvi †jLv ÔPwiÎZË¡Õ eB c‡o iBj| `ytmvnm, J×Z¨| nVvr AvMgb| A‡nZzK DrcvZ| A›`i gn‡ji| A‡b¨i Ici `vq-`vwqZ¡ Ac©Y, GLv‡b ARynvZ †`Iqv| KwVb AmyL, `yiv‡ivM¨ e¨vwa| UvKv cqmv w`‡q| Kv‡Vi g‡Zv Abo I ¯ú›`bnxb n‡q †Mj| †Mvcb Kiv| †Mvcb civgk©| g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q, D`¨‡gi m‡½, fv‡jvg‡Zv| cÖZ¨¶ cÖgvY w`‡q eywS‡q †`Iqv ev m‡›`n `~i Kiv| m¤§wZ ev cÖxwZ jvf Kiv| †Mvc‡b wb›`v iUv‡bv| †e‡o D‡V‡Q Ggb| Ab¨‡K jywK‡q Mv‡q nvZ w`‡q †Kv‡bv wKQzi cÖwZ Bkviv ev Bw½Z Kiv| mM‡e© cÖPvi Kiv| KK©k I DuPz| 28


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb gv_v †nuU nIqv AvKvk fvwOqv cov gv_v LvIqv wkKvq †Zvjv Pzjvq †`Iqv Kvbvq Kvbvq fwiqv IVv j¾vi gv_v LvIqv eyK dvwUqv hvIqv

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AcgvwbZ ev jw¾Z nIqv| − AvKw¯§K wec‡` w`‡knviv n‡q hvIqv| weM‡o †`Iqv, me©bvk Kiv| ¯’wMZ ivLv, gyjZwe ivLv| †Mvj−vq †h‡Z †`Iqv| cy‡ivcywi fiv| wbj©‡¾i g‡Zv AvPiY Kiv| †kv‡K n„`q we`xY© nIqv|

Drm I cwiwPwZ iex›`ªbv‡_i Ôˆngš—xÕ MíwU cÖg_ †PŠayix m¤úvw`Z ÔmeyRcÎÕ gvwmK cwÎKvq ˆR¨ô 1321 e½v‡ã (1914 wLªt) cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq| GwU cÖ_‡g ÔMí mßKÕ MÖ‡š’ (1916 wLªt) msKwjZ n‡qwQj| c‡i ÔMí¸”QÕ Z…Zxq L‡Ê (1926 wLªt) mwbœ‡ewkZ nq| Ôˆngš—xÕ GK ¯^fve‡Kvgj cweÎ gvayh©gq jveY¨gqx †g‡qi Kvwnbx, †h †hŠZzK cÖ_vi h~cKv‡ô n‡q‡Q wbg©g ewj| n„`qnxb ¯^v_v©Ü k¦ïi-kvïwoi wbôzi AvPi‡Y Avi Zvi ¸Ygy» †cŠiylnxb ¯^vgxi wb‡ðó AmnvqZvi gy‡L mij ïå wb®‹j¼ mZ¨eªZx Ges GKB m‡½ †ZRw¯^bx ˆngš—xi †e`bvweayi cwiYwZ Avgv‡`i gg©g~‡j AvNvZ K‡i| wbZvš— mvaviY GK cvwievwiK cwigʇji AmvaviY Qwe AvuKvi `¶Zv Ges PwiÎ wP·Y m~² Aš—`„©wó, Mfxi mnvbyf~wZ I Ac~e© g‡bvwe‡k−l‡Yi cwiPq i‡q‡Q iex›`ªbv‡_i GB Avðh© wkí‰bcyY¨gq †QvUM‡í|

Abykxjbg~jK KvR mvwnZ¨‡eva ˆ †QvUMí Avgiv Mí ï‡b ev c‡o Avb›` cvB| †h‡Kv‡b M‡íB Avgiv AvK…ó nB NUbvi NbNUvq| G †_‡K Avgiv cvB (1) c−U ev Kvwnbx| NUbvi m‡½ hy³ bvbv Kvwnbxi m~‡Î bvbv gvbe e¨w³‡Z¡i m‡½ Avgv‡`i cwiPq N‡U| Giv nj M‡íi (2) PwiÎ| M‡íi Kvwnbxi †fZi w`‡q Avgiv gvbe-fvM¨ m¤ú‡K© nq‡Zv A‡bK aviYv †c‡q hvB Ges Zv‡Z K‡i M‡íi (3) gg©evYx Avgv‡`i mvg‡b g~Z© n‡q I‡V| Gfv‡e Kvwnbx, PwiÎ Ges gg©evYxi †fZi w`‡q Avgiv cwiwPZ nB MíKvi Rxeb I RMr m¤ú‡K© †h (4) `„wófw½i Av‡jv‡K NUbv, PwiÎ BZ¨vw` mvwbœ‡ek MíwU Avgv‡`i †Kgb †j‡M‡Q? Gici Avgiv `„wócvZ Kie Gi MVb I wbgv©Y‰kjxi w`‡K| Zv h_vh_fv‡e Abyaveb Kivi †¶‡Î Avgiv wKQz cÖ‡kœi mvnvh¨ wb‡Z cvwi: Kx N‡U‡Q? Kvi †¶‡Î N‡U‡Q? †Kb? Kxfv‡e? GB cÖ‡kœi Rev‡e Avgiv †c‡q hvB M‡íi (1) Kvwnbx ev NUbvavivi wbg©vY KvVv‡gv| Kvi †¶‡Î N‡U‡Q? GB cÖ‡kœi Rev‡e dz‡U evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb I‡V M‡íi wewfbœ (2) PwiÎ †Kb? GB cÖ‡kœi Reve AbymÜv‡bi †Póvq Avgiv †c‡q hvB M‡íi (3) welqe¯‘ ev gg©evYx hv wKbv Pwi‡Îi wµqvKjvc wbqš¿Y I g~Z© K‡i| Avi Gme cÖ‡kœi Rev‡e Kxfv‡e †jLK Rxe‡bi Zvrch©‡K dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb M‡í, †mUvB n‡”Q †jL‡Ki (4) `„wófw½| mvwnZ¨‡eva ‰ AvZ¥wRÁvmv mvwnZ¨ Dcjwä Kivi GK ai‡bi Dcvq n‡”Q wb‡R wb‡R cÖkœ K‡i DËi †LuvRv| Z‡e G‡¶‡Î †Kvb ai‡bi cÖ‡kœi gva¨‡g mvwnZ¨Kg© cix¶v Kiv hvq Zv Rvbv `iKvi| Mí-Dcb¨vm BZ¨vw` mvwnZ¨Kg© eyS‡Z n‡j cÖavbZ cÖkœ Ki‡Z nq PwiÎ, Zv‡`i Ae¯’v, Zv‡`i D‡Ïk¨, ؇›Øi KviY, Zv‡`i cÖZ¨vkv, Ab¨vb¨ Pwi‡Îi m‡½ Zv‡`i m¤úK© m¤ú‡K©| †h cwi‡e‡k Zviv Ae¯’vb K‡i †m m¤ú‡K©I cÖkœ Ki‡Z n‡e| ZvQvov Zv‡`i wµqvKjvc I msNwUZ NUbvq Zv‡`i f~wgKv I ¸i“Z¡ Ges †m m¤úwK©Z cÖ‡kœi ReveI Luy‡R †`L‡Z nq| Ôˆngš—xÕ m¤úwK©Z wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi †h me Reve †Zvgvi g‡b Av‡m wj‡L †dj| Zvn‡j MíwU †h ïay fv‡jvfv‡e eyS‡e Zv bq, †Zvgvi †MvQv‡bv DËi ˆZwi Kivi R‡b¨I Zv Kv‡R jvM‡e| 1. (K) ˆngš—xi wb‡Ri evwoi cwi‡ek †Kgb wQj? (L) we‡qi ci bZzb RvqMvq cwi‡e‡k †m Kx ai‡bi e¨envi †c‡q‡Q? (M) †mB cwi‡e‡ki AcÖZ¨vwkZ cwieZ©b NUj †Kb? (N) G‡Z †m Kx ai‡bi cÖwZwµqv e¨³ K‡i‡Qb? 2. ˆngš—xi eqm KZ wQj? GB M‡í Zvi eqm †Kv‡bv mgm¨vi m„wó K‡i‡Q Kx? 3. Acyi †Pv‡L ˆngš—xi †Kvgj I g„`yfvlx| wKš‘ †Kvb cwiw¯’wZ‡Z †m AZ¨š— `„pZvi cwiPq w`‡q‡Q? 4. ˆngš—xi evev †Kgb †jvK wQ‡jb? †g‡qi m‡½ Zvui m¤ú‡K©i †h †h Qwe GB M‡í i‡q‡Q Zv Gu‡K Gu‡K D‡j−L Ki| 5. (K) ˆngš—xi evevi m‡½ Acyi evevi Pwi‡Îi Kx cv_©K¨ j¶¨ Kiv hvq? (L) Ac~i evev ˆngš—xi evev‡K cÖ_‡g Kxfv‡e MÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb? (M) ˆngš—x‡K evwo‡Z wb‡Z G‡m wZwb cÖZ¨vL¨vZ n‡jb †Kb? 6. k¦ïi evwoi wbg©g AvPi‡Y ˆngš—xi †fZ‡i Kx ai‡bi cÖwZwµqv N‡UwQj? †m me‡P‡q `vi“Y AvNvZ †c‡q‡Q wK‡m? G‡¶‡Î M‡í ÔFwlevevÕ K_vwU e¨env‡ii Zvrch© Kx? 7. (K) Acy †Kvb ai‡bi †jvK? (L) ˆngš—x Zv‡K KZUv fv‡jvevmZ? (M) †m-B ev ˆngš—x‡K KZUv fv‡jvevmZ? 8. ˆngi cÖwZ wcZvgvZvi i~p wbg©g AvPi‡Yi gy‡L Acyi AmnvqZvi KviY Kx? GB AmnvqZv KZUzKz m½Z? 9. Acy ÔwØZxq mxZv−wemR©‡bi KvwnbxÕ K_vwU w`‡q Kx †evSv‡Z †P‡q‡Q? 10. (K) ˆngš—xi †kl cwiYwZ Kx n‡qwQj? (L) H cwiYwZi Rb¨ †K ev Kviv `vqx? evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

PwiÎ wPÎY I we‡k−lY †Kv‡bv PwiÎ wPÎY ev we‡k−lY mvaviYfv‡e wb‡Pi QK Abymv‡i n‡Z cv‡i: 1. 2.

3.

1| 2|

3|

m~Pbv: †h PwiÎ Av‡jvPbv ev we‡k−lY Ki‡Z hv‡”Q Zvi D‡j−L K‡i Zvi Pwi‡Îi Avmj ev †gŠwjK K_vwU †jL| ga¨fvM: Pwi‡Îi e¨w³Z¡ I ˆewk‡ó¨i wewfbœ w`‡Ki Ic‡i Av‡jvKcvZ K‡iv‡b ivL‡e Pwi‡Îi cwiPq dz‡U I‡V cÖ_gZ, PwiÎ hv e‡j, fv‡e I K‡i Zvi gva¨‡g; wØZxqZ, H PwiÎ m¤ú‡K© Ab¨vb¨ PwiÎ hv e‡j I fv‡e Zvi gva¨‡g; Z…ZxqZ, M‡íi K_K H Pwi·K †hfv‡e dzwU‡q †Zv‡jb Zvi gva¨‡g| mgvwß : †Zvgvi wb‡Ri `„wófw½i msw¶ßmvi †jL Ges M‡íi welqe¯‘ ev gg©evYx dzwU‡q †Zvjvi †¶‡Î Pwi‡Îi f~wgKvi ¸i“Z¡‡K †Rviv‡jvfv‡e †`Lv‡Z †Póv Ki| GB Lmov QK-Gi Av`‡j ˆngš—x Pwi‡Îi g~j ˆewkó¨ m~ÎvqZ Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i Gfv‡e: m~Pbv: †Kvgj, D`vi, mij, ïå, ˆngš—x‡K ¯^v_©wK¬ó msmv‡ii wbg©g wbôziZvi welev‡®ú wZ‡j wZ‡j Ki“Y cwiYwZ eiY K‡i wb‡Z n‡q‡Q| ga¨fvM : K) ¯^vgx Acyi ¯^xK…wZ‡Z ˆngš—xi †Kvgj gvayh© I PwiÎ mylgv| L) ¯^v_©wK¬ó msmv‡ii wbôziZvi gy‡L ˆngš—xi evM¨weo¤^bvgq cwiw¯’wZi wPÎ GiKg: (GK) Acy·K †envB-Gi AvRxeb mwÂZ j¶vwaK UvKv N‡i Avm‡e Ges cyÎ k¦ï‡ii mvnv‡h¨ eo PvKwi cv‡e Acyi wcZvi GB Avkv f½ n‡j ˆngš—xi Ici wbôziZvi ïi“| (`yB) i~p wbg©g wbôziZvq ˆngš—xi †`ngb ïwK���q‡Q wKš‘ †Kv‡bv cÖwZev` we‡¶vf †m K‡i wb| (wZb) `vi“YZg AvNvZ G‡m‡Q wcZvi cÖwZ k¦ïi evwoi †jv‡Ki Am¤£g I AeÁvq| (Pvi) wcÎ-wbf©iZvi eÜb wkw_j wew”Qbœ n‡q hvIqv‡Z mg¯— Rxeb n‡q‡Q we¯^v` I A_©nxb| (cvuP) ggv©wš—K AvNvZ G‡m‡Q ¯^vgxi wb‡ðóZv I A¶gZvq| mgvwß: ˆngš—xi †e`bvweayi wbg©g cwiYwZi ga¨ w`‡q mgvR Rxe‡b †hŠZzK cÖ_vi wbg©g †e`bv`vqK w`KwUB Avgv‡`i gg©g~j ¯úk© K‡i|

mgv‡jvPbvg~jK Av‡jvKm¤úvZ PwiÎ wP·Yi gZ g~j¨vqbag© †jLvi mg‡q †Kej Kvwnbx m¤úvZ bv KivB fv‡jv| eis Kvwnbxm~Î h_vm¤¢e g~j¨vqbg~jK gš—e¨−mg„× nIqv DwPZ| K_vUv ¯úó n‡e Kvwnbx ¯úv‡Zi m‡½ wb‡Pi mgv‡jvPbvg~jK gš— ‡e¨i Zzjbv j¶¨ Ki‡j : Kvwnbx m¤úvZ : Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡íi bvwqKv ˆngš—x| mgv‡jvPbvg~jK gš—e¨ : Ôˆngš—xÕ MíwUi DcRxe¨ welq Ô†hŠZz‡KiÕ ewj wn‡m‡e bvwqKv ‰ngš—xi welv`Nb Ki“Y cwiYwZ| evsjv msKjb

31


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Kvwnbx m¯úvZ : ˆngi cªwZ Acyi fvjevmvi NvUwZ wQj bv| g~j¨vqbagx© : ˆngi cÖwZ Acyi fv‡jvevmvi NvUwZ bv _vK‡jI Acyi“ K¬xeZ¡ I A¶gZv Awbevh©fv‡e ˆngš—x‡K ggv©wš—K cwiYwZi w`‡K †V‡j w`‡q‡Q| Gfv‡e hZUv m¤¢e †Zvgvi †jLv g~j¨vqbagx© n‡j fv‡jv| GB Av‡jv‡K Gevi ˆngš—xi Pwi‡Îi f~wgKv Ask wjL‡Z †Póv K‡i| Zzwg nq‡Zv Gfv‡e ïi“ Ki‡Z cvi : ˆngš—x iex›`ªbv‡_i GKwU AmvaviY †QvUMí| Gi †P‡q m¤¢eZ GUv fv‡jv, hw` Zzwg †jL: iex›`ªbv‡_i AmvaviY †QvUMí Ôˆngš—x'i cÖwZcv`¨ welq cYcÖ_vi gvivZ¥K Kzdj| AviI fv‡jv Kivi Rb¨ ïi“Uv Gfv‡eI Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| iex›`ªbv‡_i AmvaviY †QvUMí Ôˆngš—x'†Z cYcÖ_vi gvivZ¥K Kzdj dz‡V D‡V‡Q ¯^v_©vÜ msmv‡ii wbg©g wbôyiZvq M‡íi bvwqKv ˆngš—xi KiyY cwiYwZ‡Z| wKsev Zv GiKgI n‡Z cv‡i : iex›`ªbv‡_i AmvaviY †QvUMí Ôˆngš—xÕ†Z cYcÖ_vi gvivZ¥K Kzd‡ji w`KUv dz‡U D‡V‡Q ˆngš—x Pwi‡Îi †e`bvNb cwiYwZi gva¨‡g, †hLv‡b ¯^v_©vÜ msmv‡ii wbg©g wbôyiZvi hvuZvK‡j ˆngš—xi ¯^ívqy ea~-Rxe‡bi cwiYwZ AkÖywe›`yi g‡Zv RgvU †eu‡a‡Q| wb‡Ri †jLv wb‡RB Gfv‡e AviI DbœZ Ki‡Z cv‡iv †Zvgiv| Z‡e Gi Rb¨ †Póv Ki‡Z nq| mgq w`‡Z nq|

fvlv Abykxjb ‰ wb‡`©kK evK¨ wb‡`©kK ev‡K¨ †Kv‡bv Z_¨, msev` ev NUbvi eY©bv ev wee„wZ wb‡`©wkZ nq| G ai‡bi evK¨ `y‡Uv fv‡M wef³| K) m`_©K ev Aw¯—evPK : G‡Z †Kv‡bv wb‡`©k, NUbvi msNUb ev nIqvi msev` _v‡K| †hgb: wek¦Kv‡c kªxj¼v wR‡Z‡Q| AvR †`vKvbcvU eÜ _vK‡e| L) †bwZevPK ev bT_©K : G ai‡bi ev‡K¨ †Kv‡bv wKQz nq bv ev NU‡Q bv−wb‡la, AvKv•Lv, A¯^xK…wZ BZ¨vw` msev` wKsev fve cÖKvk Kiv hvq| †hgb: AvR †Uªb Pj‡e bv| Avcwb Avgvi m‡½ K_v ej‡eb bv| ˆ ev‡K¨i i~cvš—i evK¨ i~cvš—‡ii †¶‡Î †gŠwjK A_© AcwiewZ©Z ivL‡Z nq| cÖ‡qvR‡b k‡ãi wKQzUv cwieZ©b, bZzb kã †hvM wKsev kã AR©b Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| evsjv msKjb

32


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Aw¯—evPK evK¨‡K †bwZevPK Aw¯— : weevn m¤^‡Ü Avgvi gZ hvPvB Kiv Abvek¨K wQj: †bwZ : weevn m¤^‡Ü Avgvi gZ hvPvB Kiv Avek¨B wQj bv| Aw¯— : cwÄKvi cvZv DëvB‡Z _vwKj| †bwZ : cwÄKvi cvZv Dëv‡bv eÜ iwnj bv| Aw¯— : k¦ï‡ii I Zvnvi gwb‡ei Dci ivM nBj| †bwZ : k¦ky‡ii I Zvi gwb‡ei Dci ivM bv nBqv cvwijvg bv| †bwZevPK evK¨‡K Aw¯—evPK †bwZ : †`‡ki cÖPwjZ ag©K‡g© Zvunvi Av¯’v wQj bv| Aw¯— : †`‡ki cÖPwjZ ag©K‡g© Zvunvi Abv¯’v wQj| †bwZ : Avgvi cÖYvg jvBevi Rb¨ meyi Kwi‡jb bv| Aw¯— : Avgvi cÖYvg jBevi c~‡e©B cÖ¯’vb Kwi‡jb| †bwZ : wKš‘ ied Mwjj bv| Aw¯— : wKš‘ eid AMwjZ iwnj|

‰ eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1. Ôˆngš—xÕ M‡í Acyi Rxe‡b KZ eQi eqmwU A¶q n‡qwQj? K. †lvj L. m‡Zi M. AvVvi N. Dwbk 2. ˆngš—xi †lvj eQi eqmwU wQji. mg‡qi †lvj ii. cÖK…wZi †lvj iii. wbq‡gi †lvj wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii wb‡Pi msjvc¸‡jv co Ges 3 I 4 b¤^i cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| Av‡jv : evev, Avgvi wdi‡Z mܨv n‡e| Lvevi nUc‡U †i‡L †Mjvg, mgqgZ †L‡q wbI| AvdZve : wVK Av‡Q| wPwbi †KŠ‡UvUv †Kv_vq †i gv? Av‡jv : IUv Avwg mwi‡q †i‡LwQ| wPwb †c‡j Zzwg mvivw`b wZb Kvc Pv‡q Q-PvgP wPwb Lv‡e| AvdZve : †`wLm †Zvi jyK‡bv wPwbi †KŠUvi g‡Zv bv AvwgI Rxeb †_‡K jyKvwqZ nB! nv nv nv! 3. †MŠixksKi I ˆngš—xi K‡_vcK_‡bi m‡½ msjvc¸‡jvi mv`„k¨ i‡q‡Qi. fv‡e ii. mvwnZ¨ ai‡Y iii. fvlv ˆkjx‡Z evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii 4. Ô ˆngš—xÕ M‡íi wcZv-cyÎxi †Kvb welqwU msjvc¸‡jvi g~jfv‡ei m‡½ AwaK mvgÄm¨c~Y©? K. m¤ú‡K©i MfxiZv L. D`vi g‡bvfve M. wPš—vi ¯^vaxbZv N. evKcUzZv

‰ m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1| i‡gb evey GKgvÎ Kb¨v `xcvi we‡q‡Z k¦ïi evwoi Pvwn`v †gUv‡Z `kfwi ¯^Y©vjsKvi I j¶ UvKv w`‡q‡Qb| `xcv wk¶KZv K‡ib; KweZv cvV I Zvi Av‡jvPbvq Zuvi Aemi Kv‡U| msmv‡ii Kv‡RI †m cvi`kx©| mrcv‡Î Kb¨v`vb n‡q‡Q †f‡e i‡gb evey g„Zz¨i Av‡M Zuvi welq m¤úwË mgvR †mevg~jK cÖwZôv‡b `vb K‡ib| K. iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi KZ mv‡j †bv‡ej cyi¯‹vi cvb? L. ÔAvBeoÕ †g‡q ej‡Z ˆngš—x M‡í Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q? M. ˆngš—x Pwi‡Îi †Kvb ˆewkó¨ `xcvi g‡a¨ j¶ Kiv hvq? eywS‡q `vI| N. †MŠixk¼i evey I i‡gb eveyi Pwi‡Îi GKwU Zzjbvg~jK Av‡jvPbv Ki| 2| NUbv-1 ÔMv‡qMZ‡i GKUz evo‡jB n¹‡ji P¶z UvUvq, ¯‹‡z j hvB‡Z cv‡i bv| †Lj‡Z cv‡i bv| gvZeŸi KqwK, gvBqv‡i weqv w`ev bv? N‡i ivLb `vq ZLb| gvBqviv hZ eo nBe UvKv ZZ †ewk jvMe| GZ UvKv KB cvgy KbÕ- mvdzj−¨v MÖv‡gi nvwRi evwoi D‡Vv‡b `uvwo‡q ejwQ‡jb cÂv‡kva© `yjy wgqv| NUbv-2 nvUvB‡ji Avovwjqv MÖv‡gi cvifx‡bi we‡q nq nvwd‡Ri m‡½| GK eQi Av‡M we‡qi K_v cvKvcvwKi mg‡q wba©vwiZ UvKv nv‡Z cvIqvi `yB wZb w`b ci Kv‡Ri K_v e‡j Ni Qv‡o nvwdR| cvifxb‡K ev‡ci evwo cvwV‡q †`Iqv nq| eZ©gv‡b Zvi K_v I AvPi‡Y AmsMwZ †`Lv w`‡q‡Q| K. ˆngš—xi cÖK…Z f³ †K wQj? L. Ôcvk KwieB Ges fv‡jv KwiqvB cvk KwieÕ- Acyi GB cY Kivi KviY e¨vL¨v Ki| M. DÏxc‡Ki NUbv-1 G Ô ˆngš—xÕ M‡í dz‡U IVv welqwU e¨vL¨v Ki| N. ÔDÏxc‡Ki NUbv `ywU cwiewZ©Z mg‡qi c‡U Ô ˆngš—xÕ †QvU M‡í dz‡U IVv mgvR wP‡Îi cÖKvk‡f` gvÎ Ñ G e³‡e¨i †cÖw¶‡Z †Zvgvi gZvgZ Dc¯’vcb Ki|

evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

mvwn‡Z¨ †Ljv cÖg_ †PŠayix

†jLK cwiwPwZ evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i PwjZ M`¨ixwZi cÖeZ©K cÖg_ †PŠayix wQ‡jb cwikxwjZ evM‰e`»gq ig¨iPbvq wm×n¯—| Zvui eû iPbv cÖKvwkZ n‡q‡Q ÔexiejÕ QÙbv‡g| evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ fvlvixwZi cÖ_g gyLcÎ ÔmeyRcÎÕ (cÖ_g cÖKvk: 1914) cwÎKvwU wQj ZvuiB m¤úvw`Z Ges iex›`ªbv_mn mgKvjxb weL¨vZ gbbkxj †jLK‡`i A‡b‡KB wQ‡jb GB cwÎKvi †jLK| Zvi M`¨‰kjxi wb`k©b i‡q‡Q ÔPvi Bqvix K_vÕ Ôexie‡ji nvjLvZvÕ Ôivq‡Zi K_vÕ, Ô†Zj -byb-jKwoÕ BZ¨vw` MÖ‡š’| Zvui MíMÖš’¸‡jv I Ôm‡bU cÂvkrÕ Kve¨MÖš’ h_vµ‡g MíKvi I m‡bUKvi wn‡m‡eI evsjv mvwn‡Z¨ Zvu‡K wewkó Avmb w`‡q‡Q| cÖg_ †PŠayixi ˆcwÎK wbevm cvebv †Rjvi nwicyi MÖv‡g| wZwb 1868 wLªóv‡ã h‡kv‡i Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zvui g„Zz¨ 1964 wLªóv‡ã| RMr-weL¨vZ divwm fv¯‹i †iv‡`u¨v, whwb wbZvš— Ro cÖ¯‡— ii †`n †_‡K AmsL¨ RxweZcÖvq †`e`vbe †K‡U evi K‡i‡Qb wZwbI ïb‡Z cvB, hLb ZLb nv‡Z Kv`v wb‡q, AvOy‡ji wU‡c gvwUi cyZzj ZÕ†qi K‡i _v‡Kb| GB cyZzj Mov n‡”Q Zuvi †Ljv| ïay †i‡`u¨v †Kb, c„w_exi wkíx gv‡ÎB GB wk‡íi †Ljv †L‡j _v‡Kb| whwb Mo‡Z Rv‡bb, wZwb wkeI Mo‡Z cv‡ib, euv`iI Mo‡Z cv‡ib| Avgv‡`i m‡½ eoeo wkíx‡`i ZdvZ GBUzKz †h Zuv‡`i nv‡Z GK Ki‡Z Ki‡Z Avi nq bv| m¤¢eZ GB Kvi‡Y Kjviv‡R¨i gnvcyi“l‡`i hv-Lywk ZvB Kievi †h AwaKvi Av‡Q, BZi wkíx‡`i †m AwaKvi †bB| ¯^M© n‡Z †`eZviv g‡a¨ g‡a¨ f~Z‡j AeZxY© nIqv‡Z †KD AvcwË K‡ib bv, wKš‘ gZ©evmx‡`i c‡¶ imvZ‡j Mgb KivUv we‡kl wb›`bxq| A_P GK_v A¯^xKvi Kievi †Rv †bB †h, hLb G RM‡Z `kUv w`K Av‡Q ZLb †mB me w`‡KB MZvqvZ Kievi cÖe„wËwU gvby‡li c‡¶ ¯^vfvweK| gb ¯^fveZB †hLv‡b Av‡Q ZviB Pvicv‡k Ny‡i †eov‡Z Pvq, Do‡ZI Pvq bv Wye‡ZI Pvq bv| wKš‘ mvaviY †jv‡K mvaviY †jvK‡K wK ag©, wK bxwZ, wK Kve¨, mKj iv‡R¨B Anin Wvbvq fi w`‡q _vK‡ZB civgk© †`q| GKUz DuPz‡Z bv Po‡j Avgiv `k©K Ges †kªvZ…gÊjxi bqb gb AvKl©Y Ki‡Z cvwi †b| †e`x‡Z bv em‡j Avgv‡`i Dc‡`k †KD gv‡b bv, i½g‡Â bv Po‡j Avgv‡`i Awfbq †KD †`‡L bv, Avi Kvôg‡Â bv `uvov‡j Avgv‡`i e³…Zv †KD †kv‡b bv| myZivs Rbmvavi‡Yi †Pv‡Li m¤§y‡L _vKevi †jv‡f AvgivI AMZ¨v PweŸk NÈv U‡O P‡o _vK‡Z PvB, wKš‘ cvwi †b| A‡b‡Ki c‡¶ wb‡R‡`i Avq‡Ëi ewnf©~Z D”P¯’v‡b IVevi †PóvUvB gnvcZ‡bi KviY nq| Gme K_v ejevi A_© GB †h, KóKi n‡jI Avgv‡`i c‡¶ Aek¨ gnvRb‡`i c_ AbymiY KivB KZ©e¨| wKš‘ WvB‡b-euv‡q †QvULvU MwjLuywR‡Z †Ljv”Q‡j cÖ‡ek Kievi †h AwaKvi Zv‡`i Av‡Q, †m AwaKvi Avgiv †Kb ewÂZ ne| Mvb Ki‡Z †M‡jB †h myi Zvivq Pwo‡q ivL‡Z n‡e, KweZv wjL‡Z n‡jB †h g‡bi ïay Mfxi I cÖLi fve cÖKvk Ki‡Z n‡e, Ggb †Kv‡bv wbqg _vKv DwPZ bq| wkíiv‡R¨ †Ljv K‡ievi cÖe„wË b¨vq AwaKviI eo-†QvU mK‡ji mgvb Av‡Q| GgbwK, GK_v ej‡jI AZy¨w³ nq bv †h, G c„w_ex‡Z GKgvÎ †Ljvi gq`v‡b eªvþYk~‡`ªi cÖ‡f` †bB| ivRvi †Q‡ji m‡½ `wi‡`ªi †Q‡jiI †Ljvq †hvM †`evi AwaKvi Av‡Q| Avgiv hw` GKevi mvnm K‡i †KejgvÎ †Ljv Kievi Rb¨ mvwnZ¨RM‡Z cÖ‡ek Kwi, Zvn‡j wbwe©ev‡` †m RM‡Zi ivR-ivRovi `‡j wg‡k hve| †Kv‡bviƒc D”P Avkv wb‡q †m †¶‡Î Dcw¯’Z n‡jB wbgœ‡kªYx‡Z c‡o †h‡Z n‡e| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb †jL‡KivI Aek¨ `‡ki Kv‡Q nvZZvwji cÖZ¨vkv iv‡Lb, evnev bv †c‡j gbt¶zYœ nb| †Kbbv ZuvivBy n‡”Qb h_v_© mvgvwRK Rxe, ev`evwK mK‡j †KejgvÎ cvwievwiK| wek¦gvb‡ei g‡bi m‡½ wbZ¨ b~Zb m¤^Ü cvZv‡bvB n‡”Q Kweg‡bi wbZ¨‰bwgwËK Kg©| GgbwK, Kwei Avcb g‡bi †Mvcb K_vwUI MxwZKweZv‡Z i½f~wgi ¯^M‡Zvw³ ¯^iƒ‡cB D”PvwiZ nq, hv‡Z K‡i †mB gg©K_v nvRvi †jv‡Ki Kv‡bi wfZi w`‡q gi‡g cÖ‡ek Ki‡Z cv‡i| wKš‘ D”Pg‡Â Av‡ivnY K‡i D”Pt¯^‡i D”PevK¨ bv Ki‡j Rbmvavi‡Yi bqb-gb AvKl©Y Kiv hvq bv Ggb †Kv‡bv K_v †bB| mvwnZ¨RM‡Z huv‡`i †Ljv Kievi cÖe„wË Av‡Q, mvnR Av‡Q, ¶gZv Av‡Q, gvby‡li bqb−gb AvKl©Y Kievi my‡hvM we‡kl K‡i Zuv‡`i Kcv‡jB N‡U| gvbyl †h †Ljv †`L‡Z fv‡jvev‡m Zvi cwiPq †Zv Avgiv GB eo mgv‡RI wbZ¨ cvB| UvDbn‡j e³…Zv ïb‡ZB ev K Rb hvq Avi M‡oi gv‡V dzUej †Ljv †`L‡ZB ev K Rb hvq| A_P G K_vq mZ¨ †h, UvDbn‡ji e³…Zvi D‡Ïk¨ AwZ gnr, Avi M‡oi gv‡Vi †L‡jvqvo‡`i Qz‡UvQzwU, †`Šov‡`Šwo AvMv‡Mvov A_©k~b¨ Ges D‡Ïk¨nxb| Avmj K_v GB †h, gvby‡li †`ng‡bi mKj cÖKvi wµqvi g‡a¨ µxov †kªô, †Kbbv Zv D‡Ïk¨nxb| gvby‡l hLb †Ljv K‡i, ZLb †m GK Avb›` e¨ZxZ Aci †Kv‡bv d‡ji AvKv•¶v iv‡L bv| †h †Ljvi Avb›` wbi_©K A_©MZ bq, †m Kvi‡Y Zv KviI wbR¯^ n‡Z cv‡i bv| G Avb‡›` mK‡jiB AwaKvi mgvb| myZivs mvwn‡Z¨ †Ljv Kievi AwaKvi †h Avgv‡`i Av‡Q, ïay ZvB bq, ¯^v_© Ges civ_© G `y‡qi hyMcr mva‡bi Rb¨ g‡bvRM‡Z †Ljv KivB n‡”Q Avgv‡`i c‡¶ me©cÖavb KZ©e¨| †h †jLK mvwnZ¨ †¶‡Î d‡ji Pvl Ki‡Z eªZx nb, whwb †K‡bviƒc Kvh©−D×v‡ii AwfcÖv‡q †jLbx aviY K‡ib, wZwb Mx‡Zi gg©I †ev‡Sb bv, MxZvi ag©I †ev‡Sb bv| †Kbbv †Ljv n‡”Q RxeRM‡Z GKgvÎ wb®‹vg Kg©, AZGe †gv¶jv‡fi GKgvÎ Dcvq| ¯^qs fMevb e‡j‡Qb, hw`P Zuvi †Kv‡bvB Afve †bB Zey wZwb GB wek¦ m„Rb K‡i‡Qb, A_©vr m„wó Zuvi jxjvgvÎ| Kwei m„wóI GB wek¦ m„wói Abyiƒc, †m m„R‡bi g~‡j †Kv‡bv Afve `~i Kievi AwfcÖvq †bB−†m m„wói g~j Aš—ivZ¥vi ù~wZ© Ges Zvi dj Avb›`| GK K_vq mvwnZ¨ m„wó RxevZ¥vi jxjvgvÎ Ges †m jxjv wek¦jxjvi Aš—f©~Z; †Kbbv RxevZ¥v cigvZ¥vi A½ Ges Ask| mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ mKj‡K Avb›` †`Iqv, KviI g‡bviÄb Kiv bq| G `y‡qi wfZi †h AvKvk-cvZvj cÖ‡f` Av‡Q, †mBwU fy‡j †M‡jB †jL‡Kiv wb‡R †Ljv bv K‡i c‡ii Rb¨ †Ljbv ˆZwi Ki‡Z e‡mb| mgv‡Ri g‡bviÄb Ki‡Z †M‡j mvwnZ¨ †h ¯^ag©Pz¨Z n‡q c‡o, Zvi cÖgvY evsjv‡`‡k AvR `yj©f bq| Kv‡e¨i SzgSzwg, weÁv‡bi PzwlKvwV, `k©‡bi †ejyb, ivRbxwZi ivOvjvwV, BwZnv‡mi b¨vKovi cyZzj, bxwZi wU‡bi †fucy Ges a‡g©i RqXvK−GBme wRwb‡m mvwn‡Z¨i evRvi †Q‡q †M‡Q| mvwnZ¨iv‡R¨ †Ljbv †c‡q cvV‡Ki gbZzwó n‡Z cv‡i, wKš‘ Av M‡o †jL‡Ki gbZzwó n‡Z cv‡i bv| KviY cvVK mgvR †h †Ljbv AvR Av`i K‡i, Kvj †mwU‡K †f‡O †d‡j| †m cÖvP¨B †nvK Avi cvðvZ¨B †nvK, KvkxiB †nvK Avi Rvg©vwbiB †nvK `yw`b a‡i Zv KviI g‡bviÄb Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| Avwg Rvwb †h, cvVK mgvR‡K Avb›` w`‡Z †M‡j Zuviv cÖvqkB †e`bv †eva K‡i _v‡Kb| wKš‘ G‡Z fq cvevi wKQzB †bB; †Kbbv Kve¨RM‡Z hvi bvg Avb›`, ZviB bvg †e`bv| evsjv msKjb

36


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Aci c‡¶ G hyM cvVK n‡”Q RbmvaviY, myZivs Zv‡`i g‡bviÄb Ki‡Z n‡j Avgv‡`i AwZ m¯—v †Ljbv Mo‡Z n‡e, bB‡j Zv evRv‡i KvU‡e bv| Ges m¯—v Kivi A_© †L‡jv Kiv| ˆek¨ †jL‡Ki c‡¶B k~`ª cvV‡Ki g‡bviÄb Kiv msMZ| AeGe mvwn‡Z¨ Avi hvB Ki-bv †Kb cvVK mgv‡Ri g‡bviÄb Kievi †Póv †Kv‡iv bv| Z‡e wK mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ †jvK‡K wk¶v †`Iqv? Aek¨ bq| †Kbbv Kwei gwZMwZ wk¶‡Ki gwZMwZi m¤ú~Y© wecixZ| ¯‹zj bv eÜ n‡j †h †Ljvi mgq Av‡m bv, G †Zv mK‡jiB Rvbv K_v| wKš‘ mvwnZ¨ iPbv †h AvZ¥vi jxjv, G K_v wk¶‡Kiv ¯^xKvi Ki‡Z cÖ¯Z ‘ bb| myZivs wk¶v I mvwn‡Z¨i ag©Kg© †h GK bq, G mZ¨wU GKUz ¯úó K‡i †`wL‡q †`Iqv Avek¨K| cÖ_gZ wk¶v R‡”Q †mB e¯‘ hv †jv‡K wbZvš— Awb”Qv m‡Ë¡I MjvatKiY Ki‡Z eva¨ nq, Aci c‡¶ Kve¨im †jv‡K ïay †¯^”Qvq bq, mvb‡›` cvb K‡i; †Kbbv kv¯¿g‡Z †m im Ag„Z| wØZxqZ wk¶vi D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q gvby‡li gb‡K we‡k¦i Lei Rvbv‡bv, mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ gvby‡li gb‡K RvMv‡bv; Kve¨ †h msev`cÎ bq, GK_v mK‡jB Rv‡bb| Z…ZxqZ Ac‡ii g‡bi Afve c~Y© Kievi D‡Ï‡k¨B wk¶‡Ki n‡¯— wk¶v Rb¥jvf Ki‡Q, wKš‘ Kwei wb‡Ri g‡bi cwic~Y©Zv n‡ZB mvwn‡Z¨i DrcwË| mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ †h Avb›``vb Kiv, wk¶v`vb Kiv bq−GKwU D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ Zvi AKvU¨ cÖgvY †`Iqv †h‡Z cv‡i| evj¥xwK Avw`‡Z gywb−Fwl‡`i Rb¨ ivgvqY iPbv K‡iwQ‡jb, RbM‡Yi Rb¨ bq| GK_v ejv evûj¨ †h, eo eo gywb-Fwl‡`i wKwÂr wk¶v †`Iqv Zvi D‡Ïk¨ wQj bv| wKš‘ ivgvqY kªeY K‡i gnwl©ivI †h KZ`~i Avb‡›` AvZ¥nviv n‡qwQ‡jb Zvi cÖgvY Zuviv Kzkxje‡K Zuv‡`i h_vme©¯^, GgbwK †KŠcxb ch©š— †cjv w`‡qwQ‡jb| ivgvqY Kve¨ wn‡m‡e †h Agi Ges RbmvaviY AvRI †h Zvi kªe‡Y-cV‡b Avb›` Dc‡fvM K‡i Zvi GKgvÎ KviY, Avb‡›`i ag©B GB †h Zv msµvgK| Aci c‡¶ jv‡L GKRbI †h †hvMewkô ivgvq‡Yi Qvqv gvovb bv Zvi KviY, †m e¯‘ †jvK‡K wk¶v †`evi D‡Ïk¨ iwPZ n‡qwQj, Avb›` †`evi Rb¨ bq| Avmj K_v GB †h, mvwnZ¨ Kw¯§bKv‡jI ¯‹zjgv÷vwii fvi †bq wb| G‡Z `ytL Kievi †K‡bv KviY †bB| `yt‡Li welq GB †h, ¯‹zjgv÷v‡iiv GKv‡j mvwn‡Z¨i fvi wb‡q‡Qb| Kve¨im bvgK Ag„‡Z †h Avgv‡`i Ai“wP R‡b¥‡Q, Zvi Rb¨ `vqx G hy‡Mi ¯‹zj Ges Zvi gv÷vi| Kve¨ coevi I †evSevi wRwbm, wKš‘ ¯‹zjgv÷v‡ii KvR n‡”Q eB cov‡bv I †evSv‡bv| †jLK Ges cvV‡Ki g‡a¨ GLb ¯‹zjgv÷vi `Êvqgvb| GB ga¨¯’‡`i K…cvq Avgv‡`i m‡½ Kwei g‡bi wgjb `~‡i _vK, Pvi P¶zi wgjbI N‡U bv| ¯‹zjN‡i Avgiv Kv‡e¨i iƒc †`L‡Z cvB wb, ïay Zvi ¸Y ïwb| UxKv−fv‡l¨i cÖmv‡` Avgiv Kve¨ m¤^‡Ü mKj wbM~p ZË¡ Rvwb, wKš‘ †m †h Kx e¯‘ Zv wPwb‡b| Avgv‡`i wk¶K‡`i cÖmv‡` Avgv‡`i G Ávb jvf n‡q‡Q †h, cv_y‡i Kqjv nxivi meY© bv n‡jI m‡MvÎ: Aci c‡¶ nxiK I KvP hgR n‡jI m‡nv`i bq| Gi G‡Ki Rb¥ c„w_exi M‡f©, AciwUi gvby‡li nv‡Z; Ges G Df‡qi wfZi G `v−Kzgovi m¤^Ü e¨ZxZ Aci †Kv‡bv m¤^Ü †bB| A_P GZ Ávb m‡Ë¡I Avgiv mvwn‡Z¨ KvP‡K nxiv Ges nxiv‡K KvP e‡j wbZ¨ fyj Kwi, Ges nxiv I Kqjv‡K GK‡kªYxfy³ Ki‡Z wZjgvÎ wØav Kwi‡b, †Kbbv Iiƒc Kiv †h msMZ Zvi ˆeÁvwbK cÖgvY Avgv‡`i gyL¯’ Av‡Q| mvwnZ¨ wk¶vi fvi †bq bv, †Kbbv g‡bvRM‡Z wk¶‡Ki KvR n‡”Q cÖ_‡g Zv ea Kiv, Zvic‡i Zvi ke‡”Q` Kiv, Ges H Dcv‡q Zvi ZË¡ Avwe®‹vi Kiv I cÖPvi Kiv| GB me Kvi‡Y wbf©‡q ejv †h‡Z cv‡i †h, KviI g‡bviÄb KivI mvwn‡Z¨i KvR bq| KvD‡K wk¶v †`IqvI bq| mvwnZ¨ †Q‡ji nv‡Zi †LjbvI bq, ¸i“i nv‡Zi †eZI bq| evsjv msKjb

37


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb wePv‡ii mvnv‡h¨ GB gvÎB cÖgvY Kiv hvq| Z‡e e¯‘ †h Kx, Zv Ávb Abyf~wZmv‡c¶, ZK©mv‡c¶ bq| mvwn‡Z¨i gvbevZ¥v †Ljv K‡i Ges †mB †Ljvi Avb›` Dc‡fvM K‡i| G K_vi A_© hw` ¯úó bv nq Zvn‡j †Kv‡bv my`xN© e¨vL¨vi Øviv Zv ¯úk©óZi Kiv Avgvi Amva¨| GB me K_v ï‡b Avgvi R‰bK wk¶vf³ eÜz GB wm×v‡š— DcbxZ n‡q‡Qb †h, mvwnZ¨ †Ljv”Q‡j wk¶v †`q| kãv_© I UxKv †iv`u¨v

d«u¨v‡mvqv A¸¯— †iv`u¨v (1840-1917) wek¦weL¨vZ divwm fv¯‹i| Zuvi †kªô KxwZ©i g‡a¨ we‡klfv‡e D‡j−L‡hvM¨ n‡”Q−Ôbi‡Ki `yqviÕ I ÔevNvm© Ae K¨v‡j| Ab¨vb¨ Awebk¦i KxwZ©−ÔwPš—vwe`Õ, ÔAv`gÕ ÔBfÕ,| wZwb wf±i û‡Mv, evjRvK, evb©vW© k cªgLy weL¨vZ mvwnwZ¨‡Ki cÖwZK…wZ wbgv©Y K‡ib|

wke BZi KjvivR¨ AeZxY© gZ©evmx imvZj MZvqvZ cÖe„wË AMZ¨v myi Zvivq Pwo‡q ivL‡Z n‡e MxwZKweZv i½f~wg ¯^M‡Zvw³ ¯^v_© civ_© wb®‹vg Kg© †gv¶jvf RxevZ¥v cigvZ¥v g‡bviÄb ¯^ag©Pz¨Z

− − − − − − − − −

gnv‡`e, g½jKvix †`eZv| bxP, Aag| GLv‡b bMY¨ A‡_© e¨en„Z| wkíKjvi cwigÊj| AeZvi wn‡m‡e gvby‡li g~wZ©‡Z †b‡g‡Q Ggb ev †b‡g Avmv| gvwUi c„w_exi Awaevmx| cyiv‡Y ewY©Z lô cvZvj, AatcvZ aŸsm| hvZvqvZ| Awfi“wP, B”Qv, †SuvK, Avmw³| Ab¨ Dcvq bv _vKvq, wbiycvq ev eva¨ n‡q, Awb”Qv m‡Ë¡I|

− − − − − − − − − − − −

myi D”P m߇K a‡i ivL‡Z n‡e| AvZ¥fvecÖavb KweZv we‡kl, wjwiK, Lyric| Av‡gv`-cÖ‡gv‡`i RvqMv| Awfbq cÖ`k©‡bi ¯’vb| Avcb g‡b wb‡R wb‡R K_v ejv, A‡b¨i D‡Ï‡k¨ ejv nqwb Ggb Dw³| wb‡Ri D‡Ïk¨ wmw×| A‡b¨i wnZ, c‡ivcKvi| djjv‡fi Kvgbv Kiv nqwb Ggb KvR| feeÜb †_‡K gyw³ jvf, AvZ¥vi gyw³ AR©b| cÖvYxi †`‡n Ae¯’vbKvix AvZ¥v| cig eªþ, Ck¦i, m„wóKZv©| g‡bi m‡š—vl mvab| wbR¯^ ˆewkó¨ †_‡K wePz¨Z|

evsjv msKjb

38


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb †L‡jv Kiv ˆek¨ k~`ª gwZMwZ evj¥xwK

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Kzkxje − h_vme©¯^ − †KŠcxb − †cjv − †hvMewkô ivgvqY− Kw¯§bKv‡jI UxKvfvl¨ wbM~p ZË¡ meY© m‡MvÎ ke‡”Q` Abyf~wZmv‡c¶ ZK©mv‡c¶

− − − − − − − − −

¸i“Z¡nxb ev Amvi Kiv| cÖvPxb Avh©mgv‡Ri PZze©‡Y©i Z…Zxq ¯—i−hviv K…wlKvR ev e¨emv-evwYR¨ KiZ| cÖvPxb Avh©mgv‡R PZze©‡Y©i wbgœZg †kªYx ev eY©, Abvh©| B”Qv I cÖeYZv| ÔivgvqYÕ cÖ‡YZv weL¨vZ Fwl I Kwe| cÖvPxb fviZxq mvwn‡Z¨i Avw` Kwe wn‡m‡e m¤§vwbZ| †hŠe‡b Gui bvg wQj iZœvKi Ges †ckv wQj `my¨Zv| RbkÖ“wZ Abymv‡i wZwb eªþvi Dc‡`‡k `my¨e„wË †Q‡o Zcm¨vgMœ nb Ges bvi‡`i Dc‡`‡k ivgvqY iPbv K‡ib| bU, Awf‡bZv| mg¯— wKQz| j¨vOU| cuvPvjx KxZ©b BZ¨vw`i Avm‡i MvqK−MvwqKv‡K †`Iqv †kªvZv‡`i cvwi‡ZvwlK| ivgP‡›`ªi cÖwZ ewjô gywbi Dc‡`k msewjZ ms¯‹…Z ivgvqY| G‡Z †hvM I AvZ¥vÁvb m¤úwK©Z wewfbœ welq DcvL¨vbmn Dc‡`kvKv‡i Av‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Q| †Kv‡bv mg‡qB, KLbI| gš—e¨mn e¨vL¨v I gš—e¨| `y‡Á©q, Mfxi I cÖ”Qbœ| †Kv‡bv welq m¤ú‡K© Ávb ev we`¨v, gZev`, Theory| mg is wewkó| GKB †MvÎfy³| ke‡`n †K‡U cix¶v Kiv, gov KvUv| Abyfw~ Zi mvnv‡h¨ Dcjwä Ki‡Z nq Ggb| Z‡K©i gva¨‡g wePvi we‡ePbv Ki‡Z nq Ggb|

Drm I cwiwPwZ cÖg_ †PŠayixi Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖeÜwU me©cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq ÔmeyRcÎÕ cwÎKvi kªveY 1322 e½vã (1915 wLªóvã msL¨vq| c‡i Zv Zuvi ÔcÖeÜmsMÖnÕ (1952) msKwjZ nq| GB cÖe‡Ü mvwnZ¨PPv©i Av`k© I D‡Ïk¨ m¤ú‡K© †jL‡Ki gZvgZ I `„wófw½i my¯úó cwiPq dz‡U D‡V‡Q| cÖg_ †PŠayixi g‡Z, mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q, mKj‡K Avb›` `vb Kiv, KviI g‡bviÄb Kiv bq| mgv‡Ri g‡bviÄb Ki‡Z †M‡j mvwnZ¨ n‡q co‡e ¯^ag©P¨z Z| Ab¨w`‡K mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ wk¶v `vb KivI bq| KviY cvV¨welq gvbyl c‡o Awb”Qvq Ges eva¨ n‡q| c¶vš—‡i mvwn‡Z¨i imv¯^v`b K‡i gvbyl †¯^”Qvq I Avb‡›`| Zv Qvov wk¶vi D‡Ïk¨ Áv‡bi welq Rvbv‡bv; c¶vš—‡i mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ gvby‡li g‡b mvov RvMv‡bv| evsjv msKjb

39


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb †jL‡Ki g‡Z, mvwn‡Z¨i m‡½ Zzjbv P‡j †Ljvayjvi| †Ljvayjvq †hgb wbQK Avb›`B cÖavb, mvwn‡Z¨I ZvB| †Ljvayjvq †hgb Avb›` Qvov Ab¨ †Kv‡bv D‡Ïk¨ †bB, mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨I †Zgwb-GKgvÎ Avb›` `vb Kiv| ‰ cÖev`, cÖePb I evMaviv imvZ‡j Mgb - Aatcv‡Z hvIqv| Wvbvq fi w`‡q _vKv - k~b¨‡jv‡K fvmv| Dcwi cvIqv - evowZ Avq DcvR©b| AvKvk-cvZvj cÖ‡f` - we¯—i cv_©K¨| evRv‡i KvUv - wewµ nIqv| gwZMwZ - fveMwZK, g‡bi fve| `v-Kzgov m¤^Ü - wb`viyY kÎyZvi m¤úK©, ˆeix m¤úK©| Abykxjbg~jK KvR fvlv‰kjx ‰ cÖg_ †PŠayixi M`¨‰kjx evsjv M‡`¨i cÖ_g hy‡M mvayixwZB cÖPwjZ wQj| Avgiv †h GLb M‡`¨ PwjZ ixwZi e¨envi KiwQ Zvi cÖ_g cÖe³v, mg_©K I Av‡›`vjbKvix wQ‡jb cÖg_ †PŠayix| Zuvi Av‡›`vj‡bi cÖfv‡e, c‡i iex›`ªbv‡_i g‡Zv †jLKI PwjZ M`¨ixwZ‡Z wjL‡Z ïi“ K‡iwQ‡jb| evsjv M‡`¨ cÖg_ †PŠayix wbR¯^ Avjv`v ÷vBj ˆZwi K‡i †M‡Qb| A‡bK RwUj I ¸i“M¤¢xi welq wZwb Ggb gRwjwm X‡O Av‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb †h, Zv‡Z welqe¯‘ ¸i“Z¡ nvjKv nqwb A_P Zv n‡q‡Q `xwßgq I AvKl©Yxq| Zuvi iPbvq j¶Yxq ˆewkó¨ n‡”Q Zv‡Z gbbkxjZvi m‡½ i‡q‡Q hyw³Z‡K©i aviv‡jv cÖKvk| Avi e³‡e¨i Zx¶èZvi m‡½ hy³Z‡K©i aviv‡jv cÖKvk| Avi e³‡e¨i Zx¶èZvi m‡½ hy³ n‡q‡Q e¨‡½i SuvR| fv‡jvfv‡e j¶¨ Ki‡j cÖ_g †PŠayixi M`¨‰kjx ev ÷vB‡ji wKQz ˆewkó¨ †Zvgv‡`i †Pv‡L co‡e| †hgb|: 1.

K_¨ evMfw½ cÖ‡qvM : ÔGK Ki‡Z Avi nq bvÕ, Ôhv Lywk ZvB KieviÕ, ÔU‡O P‡o _vK‡Z PvBÕ, Ômyi Zvivq Pwo‡qÕ, Ôevnev bv †c‡jÕ, ÔAvi hvB Ki bv †KbÕ, Ô`v-Kzgov m¤^ÜÕ BZ¨vw`| 2. cÖev` RvZxq evK¨ e¨envi : K) whwb Mo‡Z Rv‡bb, wZwb wkeI Mo‡Z cv‡ib, euv`iI Mo‡Z cv‡ib| L) Kv‡bi wfZi w`‡q gi‡g cÖ‡ek| 3. myfvwlZ Dw³ ˆZwi: K) mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ mKj‡K Avb›` †`Iqv, KviI g‡bviÄb Kiv bq| L) wk¶vi D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q gvby‡li gb‡K we‡k¦i Lei Rvbv‡bv, mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ gvby‡li gb‡K RvMv‡bv| M) mvwnZ¨ †Q‡ji nv‡Zi †LjbvI bq, ¸i“i nv‡Zi †eZI bq| 4. AbycÖvmgwÊZ K‡i Zi½vwqZ I aŸwbgq fvlv m„wó : 1. wZwb Mx‡Zi gg©I †ev‡Sb bv, MxZvi ag©I †ev‡Sb bv| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb 2. cv_y‡i Kqjv nxivi meY© bv n‡jI m‡MvÎ| 3. †jL‡Kiv wb‡R †Ljv bv K‡i c‡ii Rb¨ †Ljbv ˆZwi K‡i e‡mb| 5. ev‡K¨i `ywU As‡k wecix‡Zi mwbœ‡ek: 1. gb DuPz‡ZI DV‡Z Pvq, wbPz‡ZI bvg‡Z Pvq| 2. Kwei KvR n‡”Q Kve¨ m„wó Kiv, Avi wk¶‡Ki KvR n‡”Q cÖ_‡g Zv ea Kiv| 3. ZvivB n‡”Qb h_v_© mvgvwRK Rxe, ev`evwK mK‡j †KejgvÎ cvwievwiK| 4. cvVK mgvR †h †Ljbv AvR Av`i K‡i, Kvj †mwU‡K †f‡½ †d‡j| 5. Kve¨ RM‡Z hvi bvg Avb›`, ZviB bvg †e`bv|

‰ eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1.

Ôciv_©Õ k‡ãi A_© †KvbwU? K. cvwi‡ZvwlK L. g‡bvRMr M. c‡ivcKvi N. g‡bviÄb 2. †jL‡Ki g‡Z mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ †KvbwU? K. mgv‡Ri g‡bviÄb Kiv L. A‡b¨i g‡bi Afve c~Y© Kiv M. gvby‡li gb‡K RvMv‡bv N. gb‡K we‡k¦i Lei Rvbv‡bv 3. mvwnZ¨ Ô¯^ag©Pz¨ZÕ nq ZLb, hLb mvwnZ¨ PP©v nqK. djjv‡fi AvKvO¶v k~b¨ L. Rbmvavi‡Yi mš‘wói Rb¨ M. Rbmvavi‡Yi g½‡ji Rb¨ N. wkíxwP‡Ëi m¤ú~Y©Zvi j‡¶¨ wb‡Pi Aby‡”Q`wU co Ges 4 I 5 b¤^i cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI: 4. Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖe‡Ü Aby‡”Q`wUi ÔÁv‡bi K_vÕi mgv_©K fve nji. Lei cÖ`vb ii. cvV‡Ki gbZzwó iii. gyL¯’we`¨v wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i L. i I ii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii 5. Ômvwn‡Z¨ †LjvÕ cÖeÜwU Abymv‡i wb‡Pi †KvbwU Aby‡”Q‡`i g~jfv‡ei m‡½ AwaK m½wZc~Y©? K. g‡bi k~b¨Zv c~Y© KivB mvwn‡Z¨i j¶¨ L. Kj¨vY mvab Kiv mvwn‡Z¨i cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ M. cÖksmv AR©‡bi Rb¨ mvwn‡Z¨i m„wó N. g‡bi m‡½ m¤úK© iPbv mvwn‡Z¨i ˆewkó¨

‰ m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1| Áv‡bi K_v Rvbv n‡q †M‡j Avi Rvb‡Z B‡”Q K‡i bv-Zv †R‡b g‡b Avb›`I R‡b¥ bv| m~h© c~e©vKv‡k I‡VGB Z_¨ Avgv‡`i gb Uv‡b bv| wKš‘ m~‡h©v`‡q †h †mŠ›`h© I †`Lvi Avb›` Zv m„wóKvj †_‡K AvRI we`¨gvb| GB †mŠ›`h© I Avb›`vbyf~wZ cvVK ü`‡q RvwM‡q †ZvjvB mvwn‡Z¨i KvR| cvV I Abyave‡bi

evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb gva¨‡g iwmK cvV‡Ki ü`‡q Zv mÂvwiZ nq| im MÖn‡Y Amg_© †jvKB mvwn‡Z¨ †mŠ›`h© Avb›`vbyf~wZi cwie‡Z© AvZ¥wnZ I mš‘wó †Luv‡R| mvwn‡Z¨ wbwg©Z †mŠ›`h©-Abyf~wZ hw` †jvKwnZ mvab K‡i, Zv‡Z mvwn‡Z¨i Kzjj¶Y bó nq bv| ïay †jvKwnZv‡_© I mš‘wói Rb¨ cÖ‡Póv mvwnZ¨‡K KzjZ¨vMx K‡i, mvwnwZ¨K wk¶‡K iƒcvš—wiZ nb|Õ K. ÔivgvqYÕ †K iPbv K‡i‡Qb? L. ÔAwZ m¯—v †LjbvÕ ej‡Z Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. Ômvwn‡Z¨i ¯^ag©Py¨ZÕ nIqvi welqwU Dc‡ii Aby‡”Q‡` Kxfv‡e cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q eywS‡q `vI| N. Ôwk¶v I mvwn‡Z¨i D‡Ïk¨ †h wfbœagx©Õ- e³e¨wU Dc‡ii Aby‡”Q` KZLvwb cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q e‡j Zzwg g‡b Ki- Dˇii c‡¶ hyw³ `vI| 2| gvby‡li GKwU Avkv-AvKvO¶v n‡”Q wb‡Ri Abyf~wZ, Dcjw× A‡b¨i Kv‡Q cÖKvk Kiv| Rqbyj Av‡e`x‡bi g‡Zv Qwe Gu‡K, iex›`ªbv‡_i g‡Zv KweZv Mvb wj‡L wbR ü`qvbyfw~ Z I iƒc‡PZbv †m Ab¨ g‡b Qwo‡q w`‡Z Pvq| Gfv‡e †m RM‡Zi mKj gvby‡li m‡½ m¤úK© ¯’vcb Ki‡Z Pvq| Pvq j¶ ü`‡qi g‡a¨ _vK‡Z| GKvR ZLbB mdj nq, hLb, i‡O, X‡O, AvKvi-cÖKv‡i, fvlvq-my‡i, Q‡›` Bw½‡Z wbLyuZ iƒc ev Abyf~wZ Ab¨g‡b cÖwZdwjZ I mÂvwiZ Kiv hvq| G KvR †h cv‡e, wkíiv‡R¨i †mB ivRv, mgvR a‡g©i RvZcvZ, eY©‡f` †mLv‡b GKvKvi| K. †iv`¨uvi GKwU †kªô fv¯‹‡h©i bvg D‡j−L Ki| L. gvby‡li †`ng‡bi mKj wµqvi g‡a¨ µxov †kªô †Kb? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. cÖe‡Ü ewY©Z ÔeªvþYk~‡`ªiÕ mgvbvwaKvi Dc‡ii Aby‡”Q‡`i †Kvb e³‡e¨ cÖZxqgvb nq? Av‡jvPbv Ki| N. Dc‡ii Aby‡”Q‡`i Ôj¶ ü`‡qi g‡a¨ †eu‡P _vKvi AvKvO¶vÕ- cÖe‡Ü ewY©Z Ôwek¦gvb‡ei m‡½ m¤^Ü cvZv‡bviB bvgvš—iÕ- †Zvgvi gZvgZ Dc¯’vcb Ki|

evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

wejvmx

kirP›`ªª P‡Ævcva¨vq †jLK cwiwPwZ evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i me‡P‡q RbwcÖq Jcb¨vwmK kirP‡›`ªi †Q‡j‡ejv Kv‡U `vwi‡`ª¨i g‡a¨| D”P gva¨wgK ch©v‡qi †ewk wZwb †jLvcov Ki‡Z cv‡ibwb| PweŸk eQi eq‡m g‡bi †Suv‡K mb¨vmx n‡q M„nZ¨vM K‡iwQ‡jb| msMxZÁ wn‡m‡e L¨vwZi m~‡Î NUbvP‡µ GK Rwg`v‡ii eÜz n‡qwQ‡jb| RxweKvi ZvwM‡` †`k †Q‡o wM‡qwQ‡jb eg©v gyj−y‡K| kirP›`ª Zuvi Rxe‡bi bvbv AwfÁZv I wewPÎ me gvby‡li PwiÎ dzwU‡q Zz‡j‡Qb Zuvi ARmª Dcb¨v‡m| we‡kl K‡i mgv‡Ri bxPz Zjvi gvbyl Zuvi m„ó Pwi‡Îi Ac~e© gvbe-gwngv wb‡q wPwÎZ n‡q‡Q| kirP‡›`ªi cÖ_g gyw`ªZ iPbv Kzš—jxb cyi¯‹vicÖvß Ôgw›`iÕ bv‡g GKwU Mí| Zuvi weL¨vZ Dcb¨vm¸‡jvi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q: Ô†`e`vmÕ, Ôcj−xmgvRÕ, ÔPwiÎnxbÕ, ÔkªxKvš—Õ, Ô†`bvcvIbvÕ BZ¨vw`| Gme Dcb¨v‡m evOvwj bvixi cÖwZK…wZ A¼‡b wZwb Amvgvb¨ `¶Zv †`wL‡q‡Qb| Zuvi eû Dcb¨vm fviZe‡l©i wewfbœ fvlvq Ab~w`Z I Pjw”PÎvwqZ n‡q‡Q| Zuvi K‡qKwU Dcb¨vm we‡`wk fvlvqI Ab~w`Z n‡q‡Q| Zuvi mvwnZ¨K‡g©i ¯^xK…wZ wn‡m‡e XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq 1936 mv‡j Zuv‡K m¤§vbm~PK wW. wjU. wWwMÖ cÖ`vb K‡i| kirP‡›`ªi Rb¥ 1876 wLª÷v‡ã cwðg e‡½i ûMwj †Rjvi †`evb›`cyi MÖv‡g| Zuvi g„Z¨z KjKvZvq 1938 wLª÷v‡ã| cvKv `yB †µvk c_ nuvwUqv ¯‹z‡j we`¨v AR©b Kwi‡Z hvB| Avwg GKv bB−`k ev‡ivRb| hvnv‡`iB evUx cj−xMÖv‡g, Zvnv‡`iB †Q‡j‡`i kZKiv AvwkRb‡K Ggwb Kwiqv we`¨vjvf Kwi‡Z nq| Bnv‡Z jv‡fi A‡¼ †kl ch©š— G‡Kev‡i k~b¨ bv cwo‡jI, hvnv c‡o, Zvnv‡Z wnmve Kwievi c‡¶ GB KqUv K_v wPš—v Kwiqv †`wL‡jB h‡_ó nB‡e †h, †h †Q‡j‡`i mKvj AvUUvi g‡a¨ evwni nBqv hvZvqv‡Z Pvi †µvk c_ fvwO‡Z nq-Pvi †µvk gv‡b AvU gvBj bq, †Xi †ewk−el©vi w`‡b gv_vi Dci †g‡Ni Rj cv‡qi wb‡P GK nuvUz Kv`v Ges MÖx‡®§i w`‡b R‡ji e`‡j Kov m~h© Ges Kv`vi e`‡j a~jvi mvMi muvZvi w`qv ¯‹zj-Ni Kwi‡Z nq, †mB `yf©vMv evjK‡`i gv−mi¯^Zx Lywk nBqv ei w`‡eb wK, Zvnv‡`i hš¿Yv †`wLqv †Kv_vq †h wZwb jyKvB‡eb, fvweqv cvb bv| Zvic‡i GB K…Zwe`¨v wkïi `j eo nBqv GKw`b MÖv‡gB emyb, Avi ¶zavi R¡vjvq Ab¨ÎB hvb−Zuv‡`i Pvi †µvk nuvUv we`¨vi †ZR AvZ¥cÖKvk Kwi‡eB Kwi‡e| †Kn †Kn e‡jb ïwbqvwQ, Av”Qv, huv‡`i ¶zavi R¡vjv, Zuv‡`i K_v bv nq bvB awijvg wKš‘ huv‡`i †m R¡vjv bvB, †Zgb me f`ª‡jvKB ev Kx my‡L MÖvg Qvwoqv cjvqb K‡ib? Zuviv evm Kwi‡Z _vwK‡j †Zv cj−xi GZ `y`©kv nq bv| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb g¨v‡jwiqv K_vUv bv nq bvB cvwojvg| †m _vK, H Pvi †µvk nuvUvi R¡vjvq KZ f`ª‡jv‡KB †h †Q‡j-cy‡j jBqv MÖvg Qvwoqv kn‡i cvjvb Zvnvi msL¨v bvB| Zvic‡i GKw`b †Q‡j−cy‡ji covI †kl nq e‡U, ZLb wKš‘ kn‡ii myL-myweavi i“wP jBqv Avi Zv‡`i MÖv‡g wdwiqv Avmv P‡j bv| wKš‘ _vK G-mKj ev‡R K_v| ¯‹‡z j hvB- `y †µv‡ki g‡a¨ Ggb AviI †Zv `y wZbLvbv MÖvg cvi nB‡Z nq| Kvi evMv‡b Avg cvwK‡Z ïi“ Kwiqv‡Q, †Kvb e‡b euBwQ dj Ach©vß dwjqv‡Q, Kvi Mv‡Qi KuvVvj GB cvwKj ewjqv, Kvi gZ©gvb i¤¢vi Kuvw` KvwUqv jBevi A‡c¶v gvÎ, Kvi Kvbv‡P †Sv‡ci g‡a¨ Avbvi‡mi Mv‡q is awiqv‡Q, Kvi cyKzicv‡oi †LRyi‡gwZ KvwUqv LvB‡j aiv cwoevi m¤¢vebv Aí, GB me Lei jB‡ZB mgq hvq, wKš‘ Avm‡j hv we`¨v-Kvg¯‹vUKvi ivRavbxi bvg Kx Ges mvB‡ewiqvi Lwbi g‡a¨ iƒcv †g‡j, bv †mvbv †g‡j-G mKj `iKvwi Z_¨ AeMZ nBevi dzimZB †g‡j bv| Kv‡RB GKRvwg‡bi mgq G‡Wb Kx wRÁvmv Kwi‡j ewj cviwkqvi e›`i, Avi ûgvq~‡bi ev‡ci bvg Rvwb‡Z Pvwn‡j wjwLqv w`qv Avwm †ZvMjK Luv Ges AvR Pwj−‡ki †KvVv cvi nBqvI †`wL, I mKj wel‡qi aviYv cÖvq GKigKB Av‡Q-Zvic‡i cÖ‡gvk‡bi w`b gyL fvi Kwiqv evwo wdwiqv Avwmqv KL‡bv ev `j †eu‡a gZje Kwi, gv÷vi‡K V¨vOv‡bv DwPZ, KL‡bv ev wVK Kwi, Agb wekªx ¯‹zj Qvwoqv †`IqvB KZ©e¨| Avgv‡`i MÖv‡gi GKwU †Q‡ji m‡½ gv‡S gv‡SB ¯‹z‡ji c‡_ †`Lv nBZ| Zvnvi bvg wQj g„Z¨z Äq| Avgv‡`i †P‡q †m eq‡m A‡bK eo| _vW© K¬v‡m cwoZ| K‡e †m †h cÖ_g _vW© K¬v‡m DwVqvwQj, G Lei Avgiv †KnB RvwbZvg bv-m¤¢eZ Zvnv cÖZZ œ vwË¡‡Ki M‡elYvi welq-Avgiv wKš‘ Zvnvi H _vW© K¬vmUvB wPiw`b †`wLqv AvwmqvwQ| Zvnvi †dv_© K¬v‡m covi BwZnvm KL‡bv ïwb bvB, †m‡KÛ K¬v‡m DwVevi LeiI KL‡bv cvB bvB| gyZz¨Á‡qi evc-gv, fvB-†evb †KnB wQj bv, wQj ïay MÖv‡gi GK cÖv‡š— GKUv cÖKvÊ Avg-KuvVv‡ji evMvb, Avi Zvi g‡a¨ GKUv cÖKvÊ †cvovevwo, Avi wQj GK ÁvwZ Lyov| Lyovi KvR wQj fvB‡cvi bvbvwea `yb©vg iUbv Kiv-†m MuvRv Lvq, †m ¸wj Lvq, Ggwb AviI KZ wK! Zuvi Avi GKUv KvR wQj ewjqv †eov‡bv, H evMv‡bi A‡a©KUv Zuvi wb‡Ri Ask, bvwjk Kwiqv `Lj Kivi A‡c¶v gvÎ| Aek¨ `Lj GKw`b wZwb cvBqvwQ‡jb e‡U, wKš‘ †m †Rjv-Av`vj‡Z bvwjk Kwiqv bq-Dc‡ii Av`vj‡Zi ûKz‡g| wKš‘ †m K_v c‡i nB‡e| g„Zz¨Äq wb‡R iuvwaqv LvBZ Ges Av‡gi w`‡b H Avg-evMvbUv Rgv w`qvB Zvnvi mviv erm‡ii LvIqv-civ PwjZ Gesc fv‡jv KwiqvB PwjZ| †hw`b †`Lv nBqv‡Q, †mw`bB †`wLqvwQ †Quov-‡Luvov gwjb eB¸wj eM‡j Kwiqv c‡_i GK avi w`qv bxi���e Pwjqv‡Q| Zvnv‡K KL‡bv KviI mwnZ hvwPqv Avjvc Kwi‡Z †`wL bvB-ei DchvPK nBqv K_v KwnZvg AvgivB| Zvnvi cÖavb KviY wQj GB †h, †`vKv‡bi Lvevi wKwbqv LvIqvB‡Z MÖv‡gi g‡a¨ Zvnvi †Rvov wQj bv| Avi ïay †Q‡jivB bq| KZ †Q‡ji evc KZevi †h †Mvc‡b †Q‡j‡K w`qv Zvnvi Kv‡Q ¯‹‡z ji gvwnbv nvivBqv †M‡Q, eB Pzwi †M‡Q BZ¨vw` ewjqv UvKv Av`vq Kwiqv jBZ, Zvnv ewj‡Z cvwi bv| wKš‘ FY ¯^xKvi Kiv †Zv `~‡ii K_v, †Q‡j Zvnvi mwnZ GKUv K_v Kwnqv‡Q, G K_vI †Kv‡bv evc f`ª mgv‡R Keyj Kwi‡Z PvwnZ bv- MÖv‡gi g‡a¨ g„Z¨z ćqi wQj Ggwb mybvg| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb A‡bK w`b g„Zz¨Ä‡qi †`Lv bvB| GKw`b †kvbv †Mj †m gi-gi| Avi GKw`b †kvbv †Mj, gv‡jvcvovi GK ey‡ov gv‡jv Zvnvi wPwKrmv Kwiqv Ges Zvnvi †g‡q wejvmx †mev Kwiqv gZ…y¨Äq‡K h‡gi gyL nB‡Z G hvÎv wdivBqv Avwbqv‡Q| A‡bK w`b Zvnvi wgóv‡bœi mبq KwiqvwQ- gbUv †Kgb Kwi‡Z jvwMj, GKw`b mܨvq AÜKv‡i jyKvBqv Zvnv‡K †`wL‡Z †Mjvg| Zvnvi †cvovevwo‡Z cÖvPx‡ii evjvB bvB| ¯^”Q‡›` wfZ‡i XywKqv †`wL, N‡ii `iRv †Lvjv, †ek D¾¡j GKwU cÖ`xc R¡wj‡Z‡Q, Avi wVK mygy‡LB Z³‡cv‡li Dci cwi®‹vi aea‡e weQvbvq g„Zz¨Äq ïBqv Av‡Q, Zvnvi K¼vjmvi †`‡ni cÖwZ Pvwn‡jB eySv hvq, ev¯—weK hgivR †Póvi ΓwU wKQz K‡ib bvB, Z‡e †h †kl ch©š— myweav Kwiqv DwV‡Z cv‡ib bvB, †m †Kej H †g‡qwUi †Rv‡i| †m wkq‡i ewmqv cvLvi evZvm Kwi‡ZwQj, AK¯§vr gvbyl †`wLqv PgwKqv DwVqv `uvovBj| GB †mB eyov mvcy‡oi †g‡q wejvmx| Zvnvi eqm AvVv‡iv wK AvVvk Vvni Kwi‡Z cvwijvg bv| wKš‘ gy‡Li cÖwZ PvwnevgvÎB †Ui cvBjvg, eqm hvB †nvK, LvwUqv LvwUqv Avi ivZ RvwMqv Bnvi kix‡i Avi wKQz bvB| wVK †hb dzj`vwb‡Z Rj w`qv wfRvBqv ivLv evwm dz‡ji g‡Zv| nvZ w`qv GZUzKz ¯úk© Kwi‡j, GZUzKz bvovPvov Kwi‡Z †M‡jB Swoqv cwo‡e| g„Z¨z Äq Avgv‡K wPwb‡Z cvwiqv ewjj, Ò†K, b¨vov?Ó ewjjvg, Òûu|Ó g„Zz¨Äq Kwnj, Òe‡mv|Ó †g‡qUv Nvo †nuU Kwiqv `uvovBqv iwnj| g„Zz¨Äq `yB-PviwU K_vq hvnv Kwnj, Zvnvi gg© GB †h, cÖvq †`ogvm nB‡Z Pwjj †m kh¨vMZ| g‡a¨ `k-c‡bi w`b †m AÁvb A‰PZb¨ Ae¯’vq cwoqvwQj, GB K‡qKw`b nBj †m †jvK wPwb‡Z cvwi‡Z‡Q Ges hw`P GL‡bv †m weQvbv Qvwoqv DwV‡Z cv‡i bv, wKš‘ Avi fq bvB| fq bvB _vKzK| wKš‘ †Q‡jgvbyl nB‡jI GUv eywSjvg, AvRI hvnvi kh¨vZ¨vM Kwiqv DwVevi ¶gZv nq bvB, †mB †ivMx‡K GB e‡bi g‡a¨ GKvKx †h †g‡qwU euvPvBqv Zzwjevi fvi jBqv‡Qb, †m KZ eo ¸i“fvi| w`‡bi ci w`b, ivwÎi ci ivwÎ KZ Zvnvi †mev, KZ ïkÖ“lv, KZ ˆah©, KZ ivZRvMv| †m KZ eo mvn‡mi KvR! wKš‘ †h e¯‘wU GB Amva¨-mvab Kwiqv ZzwjqvwQj Zvnvi cwiPq hw`P †mw`b cvB bvB, wKš‘ Avi GKw`b cvBqvwQjvg| wdwievi mgq †g‡qwU Avi GKwU cÖ`xc jBqv Avgvi Av‡M Av‡M fvOv cÖvPx‡ii †kl ch©š— Avwmj| GZ¶Y ch©š— †m GKwU K_vI K‡n bvB, GBevi Av‡¯— Av‡¯— ewjj, iv¯—v ch©š— †Zvgvq †i‡L Avme wK? eo eo AvgMv‡Q mg¯— evMvbUv †hb GKUv RgvU AÜKv‡ii g‡Zv †eva nB‡ZwQj, c_ †`Lv †Zv `~‡ii K_v, wb‡Ri nvZUv ch©š— †`Lv hvq bv| ewjjvg, Ò‡cuŠ‡Q w`‡Z n‡e bv, ïay Av‡jvUv `vI|Ó †m cÖ`xcUv Avgvi nv‡Z w`‡ZB Zvnvi DrKwÉZ gy‡Li †PnvivUv Avgvi †Pv‡L cwoj| Av‡¯— Av‡¯— †m ewjj, ÒGKjv †h‡Z fq Ki‡e bv †Zv? GKUz GwM‡q w`‡q Avme?Ó evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb †g‡qgvbyl wRÁvmv K‡i, fq Ki‡e bv †Zv! myZivs g‡b hvB _vK, cÖZz¨Ë‡i ïay GKUv ÔbvÕ ewjqvB AMÖmi nBqv †Mjvg| †m cybivq Kwnj, ÒNb R½j c_, GKUz †`‡L Kcv †d‡j †h‡qv|Ó me©v‡½ KuvUv w`qv DwVj, wKš‘ GZ¶‡Y eywSjvg, D‡ØMUv Zvnvi wK‡mi Rb¨ Ges †Kb †m Av‡jv †`LvBqv GB e‡bi c_ cvi Kwiqv w`‡Z Pvwn‡ZwQj| nq‡Zv †m wb‡la ïwbZ bv, m‡½B hvBZ, wKš‘ cxwoZ g„Zz¨Äq‡K GKvKx †dwjqv hvB‡ZB †eva Kwi Zvnvi †kl ch©š— gb mwij bv| Kzwo-cuywPk weNvi evMvb| myZivs c_Uv Kg bq| GB `vi“Y AÜKv‡ii g‡a¨ cÖ‡Z¨K c`‡¶cB †eva Kwi fq cvBevi Avi mgq cvBjvg bv| †Kej g‡b nB‡Z jvwMj, GKUv g„ZKí †ivMx jBqv _vKv KZ KwVb| g„Zz¨Äq †Zv †h-‡Kv‡bv gyn~‡Z©B gwi‡Z cvwiZ, ZLb mg¯— ivwÎ GB e‡bi g‡a¨ †g‡qwU GKvKx Kx KwiZ| †Kgb Kwiqv Zvnvi †m ivZUv KvwUZ| GB cÖm‡½ A‡bKw`b c‡ii GKUv K_v Avgvi g‡b c‡o| GK AvZ¥x‡qi g„Zz¨Kv‡j Avwg Dcw¯’Z wQjvg| AÜKvi ivwÎ- evUx‡Z †Q‡j-cy‡j, PvKi-evKi bvB, N‡ii g‡a¨ ïay Zvi m`¨weagv ¯¿x Avi Avwg| Zvi ¯¿x †Zv †kv‡Ki Av‡e‡M `vcv`vwc Kwiqv Ggb KvÊ Kwiqv Zzwj‡jb †h, fq nBj ZvnviI cÖvYUv eywS evwni nBqv hvq ev! Kuvw`qv Kuvw`qv evievi Avgv‡K cÖkœ Kwi‡Z jvwM‡jb, wZwb †¯^”Qvq hLb mngi‡Y hvB‡Z Pvwn‡Z‡Qb, ZLb miKv‡ii Kx? Zuvi †h Avi wZjva© euvwP‡Z mva bvB, G wK Zvnviv eywS‡e bv? Zvnv‡`i N‡i wK ¯¿x bvB? Zvnviv wK cvlvY? Avi GB iv‡ÎiB MÖv‡gi cvPRb hw` b`xi Zx‡ii †Kv‡bv GKUv R½‡ji g‡a¨ Zuvi mngi‡Yi †hvMvo Kwiqv †`q †Zv cywj‡ki †jvK Rvwb‡e Kx Kwviqv? Ggwb KZ wK| wKš‘ Avgvi †Zv Avi ewmqv ewmqv Zuvi Kvbœv ïwb‡jB P‡j bv| cvovq Lei †`Iqv PvB-A‡bK wRwbm †hvMvo Kiv PvB| wKš‘ Avgvi evwn‡i hvBevi cÖ¯—ve ïwbqvB wZwb cÖK…wZ¯’ nBqv DwV‡jb| †PvL gywQqv ewj‡jb, ÒfvB, hv nevi †m †Zv nBqv‡Q, Avi evB‡i wMqv Kx nB‡e? ivZUv KvUzK bv|Ó ewjjvg, ÒA‡bK KvR, bv †M‡jB †h bq|Ó wZwb ewj‡jb, Ò†nvK KvR, Zzwg e‡mv|Ó ewjjvg, Òem‡j Pj‡e bv, GKevi Lei w`‡ZB nB‡eÓewjqv cv evovBevgv‡ÎB wZwb wPrKvi Kwiqv DwV‡jb, ÒI‡i evc‡i| Avwg GKjv _vK‡Z cvie bv|Ó Kv‡RB Avevi ewmqv cwo‡Z nBj| KviY, ZLb eywSjvg, †h ¯^vgx R¨vš— _vK‡Z wZwb wbf©‡q cuwPk ermi GKvKx Ni Kwiqv‡Qb, Zuvi g„Zz¨Uv hw`-ev m‡n Zuvi g„Z‡`nUv GB AÜKvi iv‡Î cuvP wgwb‡Ui Rb¨I mwn‡e bv| eyK hw` wKQz‡Z dv‡U †Zv †m GB g„Z ¯^vgxi Kv‡Q GKjv _vwK‡j| wKš‘ `ytLUv Zvnvi Zz”Q Kwiqv †`LvbI Avgvi D‡Ïk¨ b‡n| wKsev Zvnv LuvwU bq G K_v ejvI Avgvi AwfcÖvq b‡n| wKsev GKR‡bi e¨env‡iB Zvnvi P~ovš— gxgvsmv nBqv †Mj ZvnvI b‡n| wKš‘ Ggb AviI A‡bK NUbv Rvwb, hvnvi D‡j−L bv KwiqvI Avwg GB K_v ewj‡Z PvB †h, ïay KZ©e¨Áv‡bi †Rv‡i A_ev evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb eûKvj awiqv GKm‡½ Ni Kivi AwaKv‡iB GB fqUv‡K †Kv‡bv †g‡qgvbylB AwZµg Kwi‡Z cv‡i bv| Bnv Avi GKUv kw³, hvnv& eû ¯^vgx-¯¿x GKk ermi GK‡Î Ni Kivi c‡iI nq‡Zv Zvnvi †Kv‡bv mÜvb cvq bv| wKš‘ mnmv †m kw³i cwiPq hLb †Kv‡bv bibvixi gv‡S cvIqv hvq, ZLb mgv‡Ri Av`vj‡Z Avmvwg Kwiqv Zvnv‡`i `Ê †`Iqvi Avek¨K hw` nq †Zv †nvK, wKš‘ gvby‡li †h e¯‘wU mvgvwRK bq, †m wb‡R Bnv‡`i `yt‡L †Mvcb AkÖ“ wemR©b bv Kwiqv †Kv‡bv g‡ZB _vwK‡Z cv‡i bv| cÖvq gvm `yB g„Zz¨Ä‡qi Lei jB bvB| huvnviv cj−xMÖvg †`‡Lb bvB, wKsev IB †ijMvwoi Rvbvjvq gyL evovBqv †`wLqv‡Qb, Zuvnviv nq‡Zv mwe¯§‡q ewjqv DwV‡eb, G †Kgb K_v? G wK KL‡bv m¤¢e nB‡‡Z cv‡i †h, AZ eo AmyLUv †Pv‡L †`wLqv AvwmqvI gvm-`yB Avi Zvi Lei bvB| Zvnv‡`i AeMwZi Rb¨ ejv Avek¨K †h, G ïay m¤¢e bq, GB nBqv _v‡K| GKR‡bi wec‡` cvovï× SuvK euvwaqv Dcyo nBqv c‡o, GB †h GKUv RbkÖ“wZ Av‡Q, Rvwb bv Zvnv mZ¨hy‡Mi cj−xMÖv‡g wQj wK bv, wKš‘ GKv‡j †Zv †Kv_vI †`wLqvwQ ewjqv g‡b Kwi‡Z cvwi bv| Z‡e Zvnvi givi Lei hLb cvIqv hvq bvB, ZLb †m †h euvwPqv Av‡Q G wVK| Ggwb mg‡q nVvr GKw`b Kv‡b †Mj, g„Zz¨Ä‡qi †mB evMv‡bi Askx`vi Lyov †Zvjcvo Kwiqv †eovB‡Z‡Qb †h, †Mj †Mj, MÖvgUv Gevi imvZ‡j †Mj| bvj‡Zi wgwËi ewjqv mgv‡R Avi Zuvi gyL evwni Kwievi †hv iwnj bv- AKvjKz¯§vÊUv GKUv mvcy‡oi †g‡q wbKv Kwiqv N‡i Avwbqv‡Q| Avi ïay wbKv bq, ZvI bv nq Pzjvq hvK, Zvnvi nv‡Z fvZ ch©š— LvB‡Z‡Q| MÖv‡g hw` Bnvi kvmb bv _v‡K †Zv e‡b wMqv evm Kwi‡jB †Zv nq| †Kv‡ovjv, nwicy‡ii mgvR GK_v ïwb‡j †h-BZ¨vw` BZ¨vw`| ZLb †Q‡j ey‡ov mK‡ji gy‡LB H GK K_v-Au¨v G nBj Kx? Kwj wK mwZ¨B Dëv‡Z ewmj| Lyov ewjqv †eovB‡Z jvwM‡jb, G †h NwU‡e wZwb A‡bK Av‡MB Rvwb‡Zb| wZwb ïay Zvgvkv †`wL‡ZwQ‡jb; †Kv_vKvi Rj †Kv_vq wMqv c‡o| bB‡j ci bq, cÖwZ‡ekx bq, Avcbvi fvB‡cv| wZwb wK evwo jBqv hvB‡Z cvwi‡Zb bv? Zuvnvi wK Wv³vi-‰e`¨ †`LvBevi ¶gZv wQj bv? Z‡e †Kb †h K‡ib bvB, GLb †`Lyb mevB| wKš‘ Avi †Zv Pzc Kwiqv _vKv hvq bv| G †h wgwËi es‡ki bvg Wyweqv hvq| MÖv‡gi †h gyL †cv‡o| ZLb Avgiv MÖv‡gi †jvK wgwjqv †h KvRUv Kwijvg, Zvnv g‡b Kwi‡j AvwgI j¾vq gwiqv hvB| Lyov Pwj‡jb bvj‡Zi wgwËi es‡ki AwffveK nBqv, Avi Avgiv `k-ev‡ivRb m‡½ Pwjjvg MÖv‡gi e`b `» bv nq GB Rb¨| g„Z¨z ćqi †cvovevwo‡Z wMqv hLb Dcw¯’Z nBjvg ZLb m‡egvÎ mܨv nBqv‡Q| †g‡qwU fvOv eviv›`vq GKav‡i i“wU Mwo‡ZwQj| AK¯§vr jvwV‡mvUv nv‡Z GZ¸wj †jvK‡K DVv‡bi Dci †`wLqv f‡q bxjeY© nBqv †Mj| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Lyov N‡ii g‡a¨ DuwK gvwiqv †`wL‡jb, g„Zz¨Äq ïBqv Av‡Q| PU Kwiqv wkKjUv Uvwbqv w`qv †mB f‡q g„ZcÖvq †g‡qwU m¤¢vlY ïi“ Kwi‡jb| ejv evûj¨, RM‡Zi †Kv‡bv Lyov †Kv‡bv Kv‡j †eva Kwi fvB‡cvi¯¿x‡K Iiƒc m¤¢vlY K‡i bvB| †m Ggwb †h †g‡qwU nxb mvcy‡oi †g‡q nBqvI Zvnv mwn‡Z cvwij bv, †PvL Zzwjqv ewjj, evev Avgv‡i eveyi mv‡_ wbKv w`‡q‡Q Rv‡bv? Lyov ewj‡jb, Z‡e †i! BZ¨vw` BZ¨vw` Ges m‡½ m‡½B `k-ev‡ivRb exi`‡c© ûsKvi w`qv Zvnvi Nv‡o cwoj| †Kn awij Pz‡ji gywV, †Kn awij Kvb, †Kn awij nvZ-`y‡Uv Ges hvnv‡`i †m my‡hvM NwUj bv ZvnviI wb‡ðó nBqv iwnj bv| KviY, msMÖvg¯’‡j Avgiv Kvcyi“‡li b¨vq Pzc Kwiqv _vwK‡Z cvwi, Avgv‡`i wei“‡× GZ eo `yb©vg iUbv Kwi‡Z †eva Kwi bvivq‡Yi KZ…©c‡¶iI P¶zj¾v nB‡e| GBLv‡b GKUv Aevš—i K_v ewjqv ivwL| ïwbqvwQ bvwK wejvZ cÖf„wZ †g”Q‡`‡k cyi“l‡`i g‡a¨ GKUv Kzms¯‹vi Av‡Q, ¯¿x‡jvK `yej © Ges wbi“cvq ewjqv Zvnvi Mv‡q nvZ Zzwj‡Z bvB| G Avevi GKUv Kx K_v mbvZb wn›`y G Kzms¯‹vi gv‡b bv| Avgiv ewj hvnviB Mv‡q †Rvi bvB, ZvnviB Mv‡q nvZ Zzwj‡Z cviv hvq| Zv †m bibvix hvB †nvK bv †Kb| †g‡qwU cÖ_‡gB †mB hv GKevi AvZ©bv` Kwiqv DwVqvwQj, Zvici G‡Kev‡i Pzc Kwiqv †Mj| wKš‘ Avgiv hLb Zvnv‡K MÖv‡gi evwn‡i ivwLqv Avwmevi Rb¨ wnuPovBqv jBqv Pwjjvg, ZLb wgbwZ Kwiqv ewj‡Z jvwMj, Òeveyiv, Avgv‡K GKwUevi †Q‡o `vI Avwg i“wU¸‡jv N‡i w`‡q Avwm| evB‡i wkqvj-KzKz‡i †L‡q hv‡e- †ivMv gvbyl mg¯— ivZ †L‡Z cv‡e bv|Ó g„Z¨z Äq i“× N‡ii g‡a¨ cvM‡ji g‡Zv gv_v KzwU‡Z jvwMj, Øv‡i c`vNvZ Kwi‡Z jvwMj Ges kªve¨-Akªve¨ eûwea fvlv cÖ‡qvM Kwi‡Z jvwMj| wKš‘ Avgiv Zvnv‡Z wZjva© wePwjZ nBjvg bv| ¯^‡`‡ki g½‡ji Rb¨ mg¯— AKvZ‡i mn¨ Kwiqv Zvnv‡K wnowno wKiqv Uvwbqv jBqv Pwjjvg| Pwjjvg ewj‡ZwQ, †Kbbv, AvwgI eivei m‡½ wQjvg, wKš‘ †Kv_vq Avgvi g‡a¨ GKUzLvwb `ye©jZv wQj, Avwg Zvi Mv‡q nvZ w`‡Z cvwi bvB| ei †Kgb †hb Kvbœv cvB‡Z jvwMj| †m †h AZ¨š— Ab¨vq Kwiqv‡Q Ges Zvnv‡K MÖv‡gi evwni KivB DwPZ e‡U, wKš‘ GUvB †h Avgiv fv‡jv KvR Kwi‡ZwQ †mI wKQz‡ZB g‡b Kwi‡Z cvwijvg bv| wKš‘ Avgvi K_v _vK| Avvcvbviv g‡b Kwi‡eb bv, cj−xMÖv‡gi D`viZvi GKvš— Afve| †gv‡UBbv| ei eo †jvK nB‡j Avgiv Ggb me J`vh© cÖKvk Kwi †h, ïwb‡j Avcbviv Aeve nBqv hvB‡eb| GB g„Z¨z ÄqUvB hw` bv Zvnvi nv‡Z fvZ LvBqv AgvR©bxq Aciva KwiZ Zvnv nB‡j †Zv Avgv‡`i GZ ivM nBZ bv| Avi Kv‡q‡Zi †Q‡ji m‡½ mvcy‡oi †g‡qi wbKv- G †Zv nvwmqv DovBevi K_v| wKš‘ Kvj Kwij †h H fvZ LvBqv| †nvK bv †m AvovB gv‡mi †ivMx, †nvK bv †m kh¨vkvqx wKš‘ ZvB ewjqv fvZ! jywP bq, †m›`k bq, cuvVvi gvsm bq| fvZ LvIqv †h Abœ-cvc| †m †Zv Avi mZ¨ mZ¨B gvc Kiv hvq bv| Zv bB‡j cj−xMuv‡qi †jvK msKxY©wPË bq| Pvi †µvk nuvUv we`¨v †hme †Q‡ji †c‡U, ZvivB †Zv GKw`b eo nBqv mgv‡Ri gv_v nq| †`ex exYvcvwYi e‡i msKxY©Zv Zvnv‡`i g‡a¨ Avwm‡e Kx Kwiqv| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb GB †Zv BnviB wKQzw`b c‡i, cÖvZt¯§iYxq, ¯^M©xq gy‡Lvcva¨vq gnvk‡qi weaev cyÎeay g‡bi ˆeiv‡M¨ eQi `yB Kvkxevm Kwiqv hLb wdwiqv Avwm‡jb, ZLb wb›`y‡Kiv KvbvKvwb Kwi‡Z jvwMj †h, A‡a©K m¤úwË H weaevi Ges cv‡Q Zvnv †envZ nq GB f‡qB †QvUevey A‡bK †Póv, A‡bK cwikª‡gi ci †eŠVvb‡K †mLvb nB‡Z wdivBqv Avwbqv‡Qb, †mUv KvkxB e‡U| hvB †nvK, †QvUevey Zvnvi ¯^vfvweK J`vh© MÖv‡gi ev‡ivqvix c~Rveve` `yBkZ UvKv `vb Kwiqv cuvPLvbv MÖv‡gi eªvþ‡Yi m`w¶Yv DËg djvnv‡ii ci, cÖ‡Z¨K eªvþ‡Yi nv‡Z hLb GKUv Kwiqv Kuvmvi †Mjvm w`qv we`vq Kwi‡jb, ZLb ab¨ ab¨ cwoqv †Mj| GgbwK, c‡_ Avwm‡Z A‡b‡KB `‡ki Kj¨v‡Yi wbwgË Kvgbv Kwi‡Z jvwM‡jb, Ggb me hviv eo‡jvK Zv‡`i evwo‡Z evwo‡Z, gv‡m gv‡m Ggb m`vbyôv‡bi Av‡qvRb nq bv †Kb? wKš‘ hvK| gn‡Ë¡i Kvwnbx Avgv‡`i A‡bK Av‡Q| hy‡M hy‡M mwÂZ nBqv cÖvq cÖ‡Z¨K cj−xevmxi Øv‡iB ¯‘cvKvi nBqv DwVqv‡Q| GB `w¶Y e‡½i A‡bK cj−x‡Z A‡bKw`b Nywiqv †MŠie Kwievi g‡Zv A‡bK eo eo e¨vcvi cÖZ¨¶ KwiqvwQ| Pwi‡ÎB ej, a‡g©B ej, mgv‡RB ej, Avi we`¨v‡ZB ej, wk¶v GKev‡iB cyiv nBqv Av‡Q; GLb ïay BsivR‡K Kwlqv MvwjMvjvR Kwi‡Z cvwi‡j †`kUv D×vi nBqv hvq| ermi-Lv‡bK MZ nBqv‡Q| gkvi Kvgo Avi mn¨ Kwi‡Z bv cvwiqv m‡egvÎ mbœ¨vmxwMwi‡Z B¯—dv w`qv N‡i wdwiqvwQ| GKw`b `ycyi‡ejv †µvk `yB `~‡ii gv‡jvcvovi wfZi w`qv PwjqvwQ, nVvr †`wL, GKwU KzwU‡ii Øv‡i ewmqv g„Zz¨Äq| Zvnvi gv_vq †Mi“qv cvMwo, eo eo `vwo-Pzj, Mjvq i“`ªv¶ I cuwy Zi gvjv‡K ewj‡e G Avgv‡`i †mB g„Z¨z Äq| Kvq‡¯’i †Q‡j GKUv eQ‡ii g‡a¨B RvZ w`qv G‡Kev‡i cyiv`¯‘i mvcy‡o nBqv wMqv‡Q| gvbyl KZ kxNÖ †h Zvnvi †PŠÏ cyi‡li RvZUv wemR©b w`qv Avi GKUv RvZ nBqv DwV‡Z cv‡i, †m GK Avðh© e¨vcvi| eªvþ‡Yi †Q‡j †g_ivwb weevn Kwiqv †g_i nBqv †M‡Q Ges Zvnv‡`i e¨emv Aej¤^Y Kwiqv‡Q, G †eva Kwi Avcbviv mevB ïwbqv‡Qb| Avwg m`eªvþ‡Yi †Q‡j‡K G›UªvÝ cvk Kivi c‡iI †Wv‡gi †g‡q weevn Kwiqv †Wvg nB‡Z †`wLqvwQ| GLb †m ayPzwb Kz‡bv eywbqv weµq K‡i, ïqvi Pivq| fv‡jv Kvq¯’ mš—vb‡K KmvB‡qi †g‡q weevn Kwiqv KmvB nBqv hvB‡ZI †`wLqvwQ| AvR †m ¯^n‡¯— Mi“ KvwUqv weµq K‡i- Zvnv‡K †`wLqv Kvnvi mva¨ e‡j, †Kv‡bv Kv‡j †m KmvB wfbœ Avi wKQz wQj| wKš‘ mK‡jiB IB GKB †nZz| Avgvi ZvB †Zv g‡b nq, Ggb Kwiqv GZ mn‡R cyi“l‡K hvnviv Uvwbqv bvgvB‡Z cv‡i Zvnviv wK GgwbB Aejxjvµ‡g Zvnv‡`i †Vwjqv Dc‡i Zzwj‡Z cv‡i bv? †h cj−xMÖv‡gi cyi“l‡`i myL¨vwZ‡Z AvR cÂgyL nBqv DwVqvwQ, †MŠieUv wK GKv ïay Zvnv‡`iB? ïay wb‡R‡`i †Rv‡iB GZ `ª“Z wb‡Pi w`‡K bvwgqv Pwjqv‡Q| A›`‡ii w`K nB‡Z wK GZUzKz Drmvn, GZUzKz mvnvh¨ Av‡m bv? wKš‘ _vK| †Suv‡Ki gv_vq, nq‡Zv ev AbwaKviPP©v Kwiqv ewme| wKš‘ Avgvi gykwKj nBqv‡Q †h Avwg †Kv‡bvg‡ZB fywj‡Z cvwi bv, †`‡ki beŸB Rb bibvixB H cj−xMÖv‡giB gvbyl Ges †mBRb¨ wKQz GKUv Avgv‡`i Kiv PvB-B| hvK| ewj‡ZwQjvg †h, †`wLqv †K ewj‡e G †mB g„Z¨z Äq| wKš‘ Avgv‡K †m LvwZi evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Kwiqv emvBj| wejvmx cyKz‡ii Rj Avwb‡Z wMqvwQj, Avgv‡K †`wLqv †mI fvwi Lywk nBqv evi evi ewj‡Z jvwMj, ÒZzwg bv AvMjv‡j †m ivw·Z Avgv‡K †g‡iB †djZ| Avgvi Rb¨ bv Rvwb KZ gvb Zzwg †L‡qwQ‡j|Ó K_vq K_vq ïwbjvg, ciw`bB Zvnviv GLv‡b DwVqv Avwmqv µgk Ni euvwaqv evm Kwi‡Z‡Q Ges my‡L Av‡Q| my‡L †h Av‡Q GK_v ejvi cÖ‡qvRb wQj bv, ïay Zvnv‡`i gy‡Li cv‡b PvwnqvB Avwg Zvnv eywSqvwQjvg| ZvB ïwbjvg AvR †Kv_vq bvwK Zvnv‡`i mvc aivi evqbv Av‡Q Ges Zvnviv cÖ¯‘Z nBqv‡Q, AvwgI Agwb m‡½ hvBevi Rb¨ jvdvBqv DwVjvg| †Q‡j‡ejv nB‡ZB `yUv wRwb‡mi Dci Avgvi cÖej kL wQj| GK wQj †MvL&‡iv mvc awiqv †cvlv, Avi wQj gš¿-wm× nIqv| wm× nIqvi Dcvq ZLbI LuywRqv evwni Kwi‡Z cvwi bv| wKš‘ g„Zz¨Äq‡K I¯—v` jvf Kwievi Avkvq Avb‡›` Drdzj− nBqv DwVjvg| †m Zvnvi bvgRv`v k¦ï‡oi wkl¨, myZivs g¯— †jvK| Avgvi fvM¨ †h AK¯§vr Ggb cÖmbœ nBqv DwV‡e Zvnv †K fvwe‡Z cvwiZ? wKš‘ k³ KvR Ges f‡qi KviY Av‡Q ewjqv cÖ_‡g Zvnviv Df‡qB AvcwË Kwij, wKš‘ Avwg Agwb bv‡Qviev›`v nBqv DwVjvg †h, gvm Lv‡b‡Ki g‡a¨ Avgv‡K mvM‡i` Kwi‡Z g„Zz¨Äq c_ cvBj bv| mvc aivi gš¿ Ges wnmve wkLvBqv w`j Ges Ke&wR‡Z Ilya m‡gZ gv`ywj euvwaqv w`qv `¯‘ig‡Zv mvcy‡o evbvBqv Zzwjj| gš¿Uv wK Rv‡bb? Zvi †klUv Avgvi g‡b Av‡Q-I‡i †KD‡U ZzB gbmvi evnbgbmv †`ex Avgvi gvIjUcvjU cvZvj-†duvo†Xuvovi wel ZzB †b, †Zvi wel †Xvov‡i †`- `yaivR, gwYivR| Kvi AvÁv-welnwii AvÁv Bnvi gv‡b †h Kx Zvnv Avwg Rvwb bv| KviY, whwb GB g‡š¿i `ªóv Fwl wQ‡jb- wbðq †Kn bv †Kn wQ‡jbZuvi mv¶vr KLbI cvB bvB| Ae‡k‡l GKw`b GB g‡š¿i mZ¨ wg_¨vi Pig gxgvsmv nBqv †Mj e‡U, wKš‘ hZw`b bv nBj ZZw`b mvc aivi Rb¨ PZzw`©‡K cÖwm× nBqv †Mjvg| mevB ejvewj Kwi‡Z jvwMj, nu¨v, b¨vov GKRb ¸Yx †jvK e‡U| mbœ¨vmx Ae¯’vq KvgvL¨vq wMqv wm× nBqv Avwmqv‡Q| GZUzKz eq‡mi g‡a¨ GZ eo I¯—v` nBqv AnsKv‡i Avgvi Avi gvwU‡Z cv c‡o bv, Ggwb †hv nBj| wek¦vm Kwij bv ïay `yB Rb| Avgvi ¸i“ †h, †m †Zv fv‡jv g›` †Kv‡bv K_vB ewjZ bv| wKš‘ wejvmx gv‡S gv‡S gyL wUwcqv ewjZ, VvKzi, Gme fqsKi Rv‡bvqvi, GKUz mveav‡b bvovPvov †Kv‡iv| e¯‘Z wel`uvZ fvOv, mv‡ci gyL nB‡Z wel evwni Kiv cÖf„wZ KvR¸‡jv Ggwb Ae‡njvi mwnZ Kwi‡Z ïi“ KwiqvwQjvg †h, †mme g‡b cwo‡j Avgvi AvRI Mv Kuv‡c| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Avm‡j K_v nB‡Z‡Q GB †h, mvc aivI KwVb bq Ges aiv mvc `yB Pviw`b nuvwo‡Z cywiqv ivLvi c‡i Zvnvi wel`uvZ fvOvB †nvK Avi bvB †nvK, wKQz‡ZB KvgovB‡Z Pv‡n bv| Pµ Zzwjqv KvgovBevi fvb K‡i, fq †`Lvq, wKš‘ Kvgovq bv| gv‡S gv‡S Avgv‡`i ¸i“wk‡l¨i mwnZ wejvmx ZK© KwiZ| mvcy‡o‡`i me‡P‡q jv‡fi e¨emv wkKo wewµ Kiv, hv †`LvBevgvÎ mvc cvjvB‡Z c_ cvq bv| wKš‘ Zvi c~‡e© mvgvb¨ GKUz KvR Kwi‡Z nBZ| †h mvcUv wkKo †`wLqv cvjvB‡e, Zvnvi gy‡L GKUv †jvnvi wkK cyovBqv evi K‡qK Qu¨vKv w`‡Z nq| Zvici Zvnv‡K wkKoB †`Lvb †nvK ev GKUv KvwVB †`Lvb †nvK, †m †Kv_vq cvjvB‡e Zv fvweqv cvq bv| GB KvRUvi wei“‡× wejvmx fqvbK AvcwË Kwiqv g„Zz¨Äq‡K ewjZ Ò†`L, Ggb K‡i gvbyl VKv‡qv bv|Ó g„Zz¨Äq KwnZ, ÒmevB K‡i- G‡Z †`vl Kx?Ó wejvmx ewjZ, ÒKi“K †M mevB| Avgv‡`i †Zv Lvevi fvebv †bB, Avgiv †Kb wgQvwgwQ †jvK VKv‡Z hvB|Ó Avi GKUv wRwbm Avwg evievi j¶ KwiqvwQ| mvcaivi evqbv Avwm‡jB wejvmx bvbvcÖKvi evav w`evi †Póv KwiZ−AvR kwbevi, AvR g½jevi, Ggwb KZ wK? g„Z¨z Äq Dcw¯’Z bv _vwK‡j †m †Zv GKev‡iB fvMvBqv w`Z, wKš‘ Dcw¯’Z _vwK‡j g„Zz¨Äq bM` UvKvi †jvf mvgjvB‡Z cvwiZ bv| Avi Avgvi †Zv GKiKg †bkvi g‡Zv nBqv `uvovBqvwQj| bvbvcÖKv‡i Zvnv‡K D‡ËwRZ Kwi‡Z †Póvi ΓwU KwiZvg bv| e¯‘Z Bnvi g‡a¨ gRv Qvov fq †h †Kv_vq wQj, G Avgv‡`i g‡bB ¯’vb cvBZ bv| wKš‘ GB mv‡ci `Ê Avgv‡K GKw`b fv‡jv KwiqvB w`‡Z nBj| †mw`b †µvk-†`‡oK `~‡i GK †Mvqvjvi evwo‡Z mvc awi‡Z wMqvwQ| wejvmx eiveiB m‡½ hvBZ, AvRI m‡½ wQj| †g‡U N‡ii †g‡S LvwbKUv Luywo‡ZB GKUv M‡Z©i wPý cvIqv †Mj| Avgiv †KnB j¶ Kwi bvB, wKš‘ wejvmx mvcy‡oi †g‡q-†m †nuU nBqv K‡qK UzKiv KvMR Zzwjqv jBqv Avgv‡K ewjj, ÒVvKzi, GKUz mveav‡b Luy‡ov| mvc GKUv bq GK‡Rvov †Zv Av‡Q e‡UB nq‡Zv ev †ewk _vwK‡Z cv‡i|Ó g„Zz¨Äq ewjj, ÒGiv †h e‡j GKUvB G‡m Xy‡K‡Q| GKUvB †`L‡Z cvIqv †M‡Q| wejvmx KvMR †`LvBqv Kwnj, Ò†`LQ bv evmv K‡iwQj?Ó g„Zz¨Äq Kwnj, ÒKvMR †Zv Bu`y‡iI Avb‡Z cv‡i|Ó wejvmx Kwnj, Ò`y-B n‡Z cv‡i| wKš‘ `y‡Uv Av‡Q Avwg ejwQ|Ó ev¯—weK wejvmxi K_vB dwjj Ges gg©vwš—Kfv‡eB †mw`b dwjj| wgwbU-`‡k‡Ki g‡a¨ GKUv cÖKvÊ Lwik †MvLiv awiqv †dwjqv g„Zz¨Äq Avgvi nv‡Z w`j| wKš‘ †mUv‡K Suvwci g‡a¨ cywiqv wdwi‡Z bv wdwi‡ZB g„Zz¨Äq ÔDtÕ Kwiqv wbk¦vm †dwjqv evwn‡i Avwmqv `uvovBj| Zvnvi nv‡Zi Dj&Uv wcV w`‡q SiSi Kwiqv i³ cwo‡ZwQj| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb wejvmxi AvZ¥nZ¨vi e¨vciUv A‡b‡Ki Kv‡Q cwinv‡mi welq nBj| Avwg cÖvq fvwe, G Aciva nq‡Zv Bnviv Df‡qB KwiqvwQj, wKš‘ g„Z¨z Äq †Zv cj−xMÖv‡giB †Q‡j, cvovMuv‡qi †Z‡j-R‡jB †Zv gvbyl| Zey AZ eo `ytmvn‡mi Kv‡R cÖe„Ë KwiqvwQj Zvnv‡Z †h e¯‘Uv †mUv †Kn GKevi †PvL †gwjqv †`wL‡Z cvBj bv? Avgvi g‡b nq, †h †`‡ki bibvixi g‡a¨ ci¯ú‡ii ü`q Rq Kwiqv weevn ixwZ bvB, ei Zvnv wb›`vi mvgMÖx, †h †`‡k bibvix Avkv Kwievi †mŠfvM¨, AvKv•¶v Kwievi fq¼i Avb›` nB‡Z wPiw`‡bi Rb¨ ewÂZ, hvnv‡`i R‡qi Me©, civR‡qi e¨_v †Kv‡bvUvB Rxe‡b GwUeviI enb Kwi‡Z nq bv, hvnv‡`i fyj Kwievi `ytL, Avi fyj bv Kwievi AvZ¥cÖmv`, wKQziB evjvB bvB, hvnv‡`i cÖvPxb Ges eû`k©x weÁ mgvR me© cÖKv‡ii nv½vgv nB‡Z AZ¨š— mveav‡b †`‡ki †jvK‡K Zdvr Kwiqv AvRxeb †Kej fv‡jvwU nBqv _vwKevi e¨e¯’v Kwiqv w`qv‡Qb, ZvB weevn e¨vciUv hvnv‡`i ïay wbQK Contract Zv †m hZB †Kbbv ˆew`K gš¿ w`qv document cvKv Kiv †nvK, †m †`‡ki †jv‡Ki mva¨B bvB g„Zz¨Ä‡qi Abœcv‡ci KviY †ev‡S| wejvmx‡K huvnviv cwinvm KwiqvwQ‡jb, Zuvnviv mvay M„n¯’ Ges mvaŸx M„wnYx A¶q mZx‡jvK Zuvnviv mevB cvB‡eb, ZvI Avwg Rvwb wKš‘ †mB mvcy‡oi †g‡qwU hLb GKwU cxwoZ kh¨vMZ †jvK‡K wZj wZj Kwiqv Rq Kwi‡ZwQj, Zvnvi ZLbKvi †mB †MŠi‡ei KjvgvÎ nq‡Zv AvwRI Bnv‡`i †Kn †Pv‡L †`‡Lb bvB| g„Zz¨Äq nq‡Zv wbZvš—B GKUv Zz”Q gvbyl wQj, wKš‘ Zvnvi ü`q Rq Kwiqv `Lj Kivi Avb›`UvI Zz”Q bq, †m m¤ú`I AwKwÂrKi b‡n| GB e¯‘UvB G †`‡ki †jv‡Ki c‡¶ eywSqv DVv KwVb| Avwg f~‡`eeveyi cvwievwiK cÖe‡ÜiI †`vl w`e bv Ges kv¯¿xq Z_v mvgvwRK wewa-e¨e¯’viI wb›`v Kwie bv| Kwi‡jI gy‡Li DciKov Reve w`qv huvnviv ewj‡eb, GB wn›`y mgvR Zvnvi wbf©yj wewae¨e¯’vi †Rv‡iB AZ kZvãxi AZ¸‡jv wec−‡ei g‡a¨ euvwPqv Av‡Q, Avwg Zuvnv‡`iB AwZkq fw³ Kwi, cÖZz¨Ë‡i Avwg KLbB ewje bv, wUwKqv _vKvB Pig ¯^v_©KZv bq, Ges AwZKvq n¯—x †jvc cvBqv‡Q wKš‘ †Zjv‡cvKv wUwKqv Av‡Q| Avwg ïay GB ewje †h, eo‡jv‡Ki b›`‡cvcvjwUi g‡Zv w`evivwÎ †Pv‡L †Pv‡L Ges †Kv‡j †Kv‡j ivwL‡j †h †m †ekKwU _vwK‡e, Zvnv‡Z †Kv‡bvB †m›`n bvB, wKš‘ G‡Kev‡i †Zjv‡cvKvwUi g‡Zv euvPvBqv ivLvi †P‡q GK-Avaevi †Kvj nB‡Z bvgvBqv AviI cuvPRb gby‡li g‡Zv `y-GK cv nuvwU‡Z w`‡jB cÖvqwðË Kivi g‡Zv cvc nq bv|

kãv_© I UxKv gv-mi¯^Zx K…Zwe`¨ eBwP i¤¢vi Kuvw` KvbvP evsjv msKjb

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evsjv msKjb

56


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb cj−xMÖv‡gi cyi“l‡`i myL¨vwZ‡Z

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gš¿wm×

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gbmv

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g‡š¿i `ªóv

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KvgvL¨v

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Pµ Zzwjqv Lwik †MvL‡iv welnwii †`vnvB evc-gv‡qi †`Iqv g„Zz¨Äq bvg

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k¦ï‡ii †`Iqv g‡š¿Šlwa g¨vwR‡÷ª‡Ui AvÁv evOvwji wel

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AcNvZ g„Zz¨ wcwÊ fywR¨ D”QzMy¨ AvZ¥cÖmv`

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evsjv msKjb

e¨½ K‡i myL¨vwZ ejv n‡q‡Q| e¯‘Z †jLK MÖv‡gi cyi“l‡`i mgv‡jvPbv I wb›`v K‡i‡Qb| g‡š¿i mvabvq wmw× AR©b K‡i‡Qb Ggb| hvi D”PvwiZ gš¿ Ae¨_©fv‡e Kvh©Ki| wn›`y ag©vbymv‡i mv‡ci †`ex| whwb cÖ_g gš¿ jvf K‡ib| gš¿ m¤ú‡K© mvaviY †jvKwek¦vm GB †h, gš¿ †KD ˆZwi K‡ib bv| Zv †Kv‡bv fvM¨evb ˆ`ee‡j †c‡q _v‡Kb| huvi Kv‡Q cÖ_g gš¿ Avwef©Z ~ nq wZwbB gš¿`ªóv| fvi‡Zi Avmvg iv‡R¨ Aew¯’Z cÖvPxb Zx_©¯’vb| Zvwš¿K mvaK I DcvmK‡`i Zš¿gš¿ mvabvi Rb¨ weL¨vZ| dYv Zzwjqv| Lye welv³ GK cÖRvwZi †MvL‡iv mvc| gš¿kw³| g„Zz¨Äq bv‡gi A_© whwb g„Zz¨‡K Rq K‡ib| welLÉ g‡nk¦‡ii Ab¨ bvg g„Zy¨Äq| KviY wel i~c g„Zz¨ Zvi †Kv‡bv ¶wZ Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| g„Zz¨Ä‡qi evev gv Zv‡`i cy‡Îi bvg g„Z¨z Äq ivL‡jI †m g„Z¨z ‡K Rq Ki‡Z cvij bv| Zvi bvg wg_¨v cÖwZcbœ nj| g„Zz¨Äq Zvi k¦ï‡ii KvQ †_‡K A‡gvN g‡š¿Šlwa †c‡qwQj e‡j RbkÖ“wZ wQj| - †Rjv g¨vwR‡÷ª‡Ui Av‡`k ev ûKzg hv cvjb Kiv eva¨Zvg~jK| g¨vwR‡÷ªU P‡j †M‡jI ûKzg envj _v‡K| evOvwji †µva we‡Øl BZ¨vw` gy‡Li ev‡K¨B mxgve× Ges ¶Y¯’vqx| Zv mv‡ci we‡li g‡Zv Ae¨_©fv‡e Kvh©Ki bq| A¯^vfvweK g„Zz¨| Acg„Zz¨| kªv× Abyôv‡b g„‡Zi D‡Ï‡k¨ †`q Pv‡ji †MvjvKvi †Wjv| g„‡Zi AvZ¥vi m`MwZ Kvgbv K‡i eªvþY‡K †h †fvR¨ DrmM© Kiv nq Zv| wb‡Ri g‡b Z…wß ev Avb›`jvf| 57


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb eû`kx© f~‡`eevey

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AwZKvq n¯—x

-

Ávbx, A‡bK †`‡L‡Qb Ggb| eû AwfÁZvm¤úbœ| f~‡`eP›`ª gy‡Lvcva¨vq (1825-1894 wLªt) Dwbk kZ‡Ki evsjvi beRvMi‡Yi Ab¨Zg cw_K…r| wZwb Awef³ evsjvi wk¶v wefv‡Mi cwiPvjK wQ‡jb| wn›`y mgv‡Ri bvbv Kzms¯‹v‡ii wei“‡× gZvgZ e¨³ K‡i AvaywbK gvbm MV‡bi j‡¶¨ wZwb A‡bK¸‡jv MÖš’ iPbv K‡ib| ÔcvwievwiK cÖeÜ ÔmvgvwRK cÖeÜÕ, ÔAvPvi cÖeÜÕ BZ¨vw` G wel‡q Zuvi weL¨vZ MÖš’| gvB‡Kj gaym`~ b `‡Ëi mncvVx| gnvMR, mammoth| nvwZi GB cÖRvwZ eZ©gvb Kv‡ji nvwZi †P‡q A‡bK eo wQj| GB cÖRvwZi nvwZ cÖvwYRMr †_‡K jyß n‡q‡Q cÖv‰MwZnvwmK hy‡M| Zv‡`i Aw¯—‡Z¡i wPý i‡q †M‡Q Zv‡`i K¼v‡j|

‰ evM&aviv, cÖev` I cÖePb

jv‡fi A‡¼ k~b¨ KuvUv †`Iqv eyK dvUv imvZ‡j hvIqv AKvjKz®§vÊ cÂgyL bv‡Qvoev›`v †`vnvB gvbv cv_i n‡q hvIqv gv_v †nU Kiv

-

djvdj G‡Kev‡iB jvfRbK bv nIqv| evav m„wó Kiv| n„`qwe`viK| Aacv‡Z hvIqv| AKg©Y¨, A‡K‡Rv| cwiev‡i AwbóKvix e¨w³| cÖksmvgyLi nIqv| D‡Ïk¨ nvwm‡ji Rb¨ gwiqv n‡q wcQz †j‡M _v‡K Ggb †jvK| bwRi †`Lv‡bv| ¯—× n‡q cov| j¾vq ev webq gv_v bZ Kiv|

Drm I cwiwPwZ kirP‡›`ªi ÔwejvmxÕ MíwU cÖ_g cÖKvwkZ nq ÔfviZxÕ cwÎKvi 1325 e½v‡ãi (1918 wLªt) ˆekvL msL¨vq| | ÔwejvmxÕ MíwU Ôb¨vovÕ bv‡gi GK hye‡Ki wb‡Ri Revwb‡Z wee„Z Mí| GB M‡íi b¨vov Pwi‡Î kirP‡›`ªi †Q‡j‡ejvi QvqvcvZ N‡U‡Q| ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í ewY©Z n‡q‡Q `yB e¨wZµgkxj gvbe-gvbexi Pwi‡Îi AmvaviY †cÖ‡gi gwngv hv Qvwc‡q D‡V‡Q RvwZMZ we‡f‡`i msKxY© mxgv‡K| M‡íi cÖavb PwiÎ Kg©wbcyY, eyw×gZx I †meveªZx wejvmx, kirmvwn‡Z¨i Ab¨vb¨ D¾¡j bvwqKv‡`i g‡ZvB GKRb| †h †cÖ‡gi R‡b¨ wbwØ©avq †e‡Q wb‡q‡Q †¯^”Qvg„Zz¨i c_ Avi Zuvi †cÖ‡gi gwngvgq Av‡jvq aiv c‡o‡Q Aby`viZv I i¶YkxjZv, mgvR Rxe‡bi wbôzi I Aïf †Pnviv| evsjv msKjb

58


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

Abykxjbg~jK KvR mvwnZ¨‡eva ‰ †QvUMí m¤ú‡K© †jLv †h †Kv‡bv †QvUMí m¤ú‡K© wjL‡Z n‡j †mwU evievi co‡Z nq| M‡íi cÖ_g cv‡V g~jZ imv¯^v`b n‡jI G‡¶‡Î c‡ii cvV¸‡jv n‡e †ek mZK© I we‡kl D‡Ïk¨g~jK-hv‡Z M‡íi KvVv‡gv, Kvwnbx, K_‡Ki PwiÎ, welqe¯‘ BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© aviYv Kiv hvq|

ˆ KvVv‡gv I Kvwnbx MíwU Kxfv‡e MwVZ n‡q‡Q j¶ Ki| M‡í G‡Ki ci GK †hme NUbv N‡U Zvi Ici wfwË K‡i M‡o I‡V M‡íi Kvwnbx ev c−U| wewfbœ Pwi‡Îi g‡a¨ msNv‡Zi gva¨‡gB Kvwnbx AMÖmi nq mvaviYZ M‡íi Kvwnbxi GKUv m~Pbv, ga¨vsk I mgvwß _v‡K Ges Ø›`-msNv‡Z Kvwnbxi MwZ mÂvwiZ, DrKÉv cÖLi nq Ges Zvici GKUv P~ovš— gyn~‡Z© Kvwnbx †kl nq| KL‡bv KL‡bv Kvwnbx †kl nq AvKw¯§K wech©q, †Kv‡bv Avb›`Nb NUbvqI Kvwnbx †kl n‡Z cv‡i|

ˆ K_K ev eY©bvKvixi Ae¯’vb †jLK †Kvb Ae¯’vb †_‡K Kvwnbx ej‡Qb, †mUv A‡bK mgq Kvwnbx eY©bvq ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| †jLK me©`k©x Ae¯’vb †_‡KI Kvwnbx eY©bv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| †m‡¶‡Î wZwb me¸‡jv PwiÎ I NUbv wbi‡c¶ Ae¯’vb †_‡K eY©bv K‡ib| †hgbwU †`Lv hv‡e K_vmvwnwZ¨K kv‡n` Avjxi ÔGB mgZ‡jÕ M‡í I gvwbK e‡›`¨vcva¨v‡qi ÔcÙb`xi gvwSÕ Dcb¨vm-As‡k| c¶vš—‡i MíwU DËg cyiy‡l ewY©Z n‡Z cv‡i| G‡¶‡Î M‡í Avwg, Avgv‡K BZ¨vw` me©bvg G‡m hvq| G iKg †¶‡Î †jLK wb‡RB Kvwnbxi GKUv Pwi‡Îi f~wgKv †bb| Avgiv †`‡LwQ Ô‰ngš—xÕ M‡í †jLK wb‡q‡Qb M‡íi K_K Acyi f~wgKv| G iKg ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í †jLK Kvwnbx eY©bv K‡i‡Qb Ôb¨vovÕi f~wgKv wb‡q| DËg cyi“‡l ewY©Z G iKg †¶‡Î cvVK ZZUzKz †`L‡Z I Rvb‡Z cv‡ib hZUv eY©bvKvix †`Lv‡Z I Rvbv‡Z cv‡ib| M‡íi DËg cyi“l eY©bvKixi f~wgKv cÖavbZ ch©‡e¶‡Ki| ZvB mvaviYZ †mwU Kvwnbxi g~j ev cÖavb PwiÎ nq bv| K_K ev eY©bvKvixi Ae¯’vbMZ f~wgKv †evSvi Rb¨ †f‡e †`L: Ôˆngš—xÕ MíwU hw` Acyi Revwb‡Z bv n‡q ˆngš—xi Revwb‡Z nq Ges ÔwejvmxÕ MíwU b¨vovi Revwb‡Z bv n‡q hw` wejvmxi Revwb‡Z ewY©Z nZ Z‡e Zv KZUv mv_©K n‡Zv? cÖm½Z ¯§iYxq, †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv M‡í eY©bvKvix DËg cyi“l Zvi wbR Rxe‡bi KvwnbxiB weeiY †`q|

ˆ cUf~wg ev cvwicvwk¦©KZv M‡íi †¶‡Î cUf~wg we‡ePbvI ¸i“Z¡c~Y©| †hgb Ôˆngš—xÕ MíwUi cUf~wg‡Z i‡q‡Q †Kej GKwU cvwievwiK cwigÊj| c¶vš—‡i ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi cUf~wg‡Z i‡q‡Q GB kZ‡Ki cÖ_g w`KKvi cj−xMÖv‡gi wn›`ymgvR| †QvUM‡íi cUf~wgi ¸i“Z¡ eyS‡Z n‡j Zzwg GKUz fve‡e; NUbv¸‡jv wK Ab¨ †Kv_vI NU‡Z cvi‡Zv? M‡í evsjv msKjb

59


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb ewY©Z ¯’vwbK I KvwjK cUf~wg MíwU‡Z Kx cÖfve †d‡j‡Q? ¯’vwbK I KvwjK cUf~wg wK MíwUi Acwinvh© Ask? bv wK Zv‡K ev` w`‡j M‡íi ¶wZ nq? M‡íi welqe¯‘ I Zvrch© †evSvi †¶‡Î ¯’vwbK I KvwjK cUf~wg wK G‡Kev‡iB ¸i“Z¡nxb?

ˆ PwiÎ Mí cv‡Vi mgq M‡íi PwiÎ †evSvi †¶‡Î Pwi‡Îi msjvc fv‡jvfv‡e †Lqvj Ki‡e| KviY PwiÎ m¤ú‡K© cÖv_wgK aviYv ˆZwi nq PwiÎ †h ai‡bi K_vevZ©v e‡j Zvi gva¨‡g| Gi c‡i †`L‡Z n‡e, H PwiÎ m¤ú‡K© M‡íi Ab¨vb¨ PwiÎ Kx e‡j? GQvov †Kvb PwiÎ †Kvb NUbvq †Kvb ai‡bi AvPiY K‡i Zvi gva¨‡gI PwiÎ m¤ú‡K© Avgv‡`i aviYv nq| GQvovI †jLK cÖ‡qvRbxq †¶‡Î Pwi‡Îi fvebvwPš—v Ges AZxZ AvPiY m¤ú‡K© aviYv w`‡q _v‡Kb| PwiÎ †evSvi †¶‡Î ZvI †ek mnvqK nq|

ˆ Mí †evSvi R‡b¨ mvaviY wKQz cÖkœ †Kv‡bv Mí m¤ú‡K© †jLvi Rb¨ wKQz AvZ¥wRÁvmvg~jK mvaviY cÖ‡kœi Reve †LuvRv A‡bK †¶‡Î mnvqK n‡Z cv‡i| †hgb1. cÖavb PwiÎ †KvbwU? Kvwnbx AMÖmi n‡j H Pwi‡Îi †Kv‡bv cwieZ©b j¶ Kiv hvq wK? †m †Kvb ai‡bi †jvK? Zvi R‡b¨ wK †Zvgvi mnvbyf~wZ Rv‡M? †Kb? 2. M‡íi Kvwnbx Kxfv‡e web¨¯— n‡q‡Q? 3. M‡í wK †Kv_vI PgK m„wó Kiv n‡q‡Q? †mwU Kx? Av‡M wK †m m¤ú‡K© †Kv‡bv Avfvm cvIqv hvq? 4. M‡íi KvwjK I ¯’vwbK cUf~wg Kx? M‡í G¸‡jv KZUv ¸i“Z¡c~Y©? Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Kv‡j ev mg‡q M‡íi Kvwnbx‡K wK web¨¯— Kiv P‡j? 5. M‡íi K_K ev eY©bvKvix †K? MíwU Dcjwä Kivi †¶‡Î Zvi f~wgKv KZUzKz? MíwU hw` Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Pwi‡Îi Revwb‡Z ejv nq Zv‡Z MíwU wK AviI mg„× n‡Zv bv AviI ¶wZMÖ¯— n‡e? 6. M‡íi bvgKiY mvgwMÖK wePv‡i KZUv m½wZc~Y© ev mv_©K? 7. GB M‡íi g~j welqe¯‘ Kx?

ˆ fvlv Abykxjb †bwZevPK evK¨‡K cÖkœevPK ev‡K¨ i~cvš—i : †bwZevPK evK¨‡K cÖkœevPK ev‡K¨ i~cvš—i Ki‡Z n‡jK) wK, Kx BZ¨vw` cÖkœ‡evaK me©bvg ev wµqv we‡klY †hvM Ki‡Z nq| L) †bwZevPK ev‡K¨i ÔbvÕ m~PK c`wU ev` w`‡Z nq| Ges M) ev‡K¨i †k‡l cÖkœwPý emv‡Z nq| †hgb: †bwZevPK : Zv‡`i MÖv‡g wdwiqv Avmv P‡j bv| evsjv msKjb

60


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb cÖkeœ vPK †bwZevPK cÖkeœ vPK †bwZevPK cÖkeœ vPK

: : : : :

Zv‡`i MÖv‡g wdwiqv Avmv P‡j wK? G Lei Avgiv †KnB RvwbZvg bv| G Lie Avgv‡`i †KnB wK RvwbZ? gvbylUv mg¯— ivZ †L‡Z cv‡e bv| gvbylUv mg¯— ivZ †L‡Z cv‡e wK?

cÖkœevPK evK¨‡K Aw¯—evPK ev‡K¨ i~cvš—i : G†¶‡Î cÖkœevPK evK¨ †_‡K (K) cÖkœevPK Ae¨q (L) cÖkœwPý ev` w`‡Z nq †mB m‡½ (M) ÔcÖkœ KiwQÕ ÔwRÁvmv KiwQÕ, ÔRvb‡Z PvBÕ,Ôg‡b n‡”QÕ, BZ¨vw` wµqvc` cÖ‡qvRb I myweavg‡Zv e¨envi Ki‡Z nq| (N) ¯^MZ cÖ‡kœ ÔRvwb bvÕ wµqvc` e¨envi Kiv P‡j| †hgbcÖkeœ vPK : †Zgb me f`ª‡jvKB ev Kx my‡L MÖvg Qvwoqv cjvqb K‡ib? Aw¯—evPK : †Zgb me f`ª‡jvKB ev Kx my‡L MÖvg Qvwoqv cjvqb K‡ib Rvwb bv| cÖkeœ vPK : Kvg¯‹vUKvi ivRavbxi bvg Kx? Aw¯—evPK : Kvm¯‹vUKvi ivRavbxi bvg Kx Zv Rvb‡Z PvB| cÖkeœ vPK : GKjv †h‡Z fq Ki‡e bv †Zv? Aw¯—evPK : GKjv †h‡Z fq Ki‡e wK bv Rvb‡Z PvB| cÖkœevPK evK¨‡K †bwZevPK ev‡K¨ i~cvš—i : G†¶‡Î mvaviYZ cÖkœevPK evK¨ †_‡K (K) cÖkœevPK Ae¨q ev wµqv we‡klY (wK, Kx BZ¨vw`) (L) cÖkœwPý ev` w`‡Z Ges †bwZevPK kã (bv, bq BZ¨vw`) I ev‡K¨i †k‡l (M) `uvwo emv‡Z nq †hgb: cÖkœevPK : cywj‡ki †jvK Rvwb‡e Kx Kwiqv? †bwZevPK : cywj‡ki †jvK Rvwb‡e bv| cÖkeœ vPK : Zvnviv wK cvlvY? †bwZevPK : Zvnviv cvlvY bq| cÖkeœ vPK : G‡Z †`vl Kx? †bwZevPK : G‡Z †`vl †bB|

ˆ eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1. ÔNb R½‡ji c_, GKUz †`‡L cv †d‡j †h‡qvÕ-Dw³wU Kvi? K. g„Zz¨Ä‡qi L. wejvmxi M. b¨vovi N. Lyovi 2. b¨vov‡K mvc aivi we`¨v †kLv‡Z wejvmxi AvcwË wQj, KviY KvRwUi. wejvmxi AcQ‡›`i ii. k³ I fxwZKi iii. cÖZviYvg~jK evsjv msKjb

61


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii 3. Lyov MÖvgevmx‡K wb‡q wejvmxi Ici nvgjv K‡iwQj †Kb? K. RvZ i¶v Ri“wi n‡q c‡owQ‡j L. wgwËi es‡ki gh©v`v i¶vi Rb¨ M. g„Zz¨Ä‡qi evMv‡bi cÖwZ Zvi †jvf wQ‡jv N. mvcy‡o wejvmx‡K N„Yv Ki‡Zv Aby‡”Q`wU co Ges 4 I 5 b¤^i cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| Kí`ªs Ri“wi Kv‡R kn‡i G‡m‡Q| mKvj †_‡K †NvivNywi K‡i ¶yavZ© n‡q Lvevi PvB‡j †nv‡Uj gvwjK ejj, ÔAvw`evmx‡`i Rb¨ `yb¤^i evmb Avgvi †nv‡U‡j ivwL bvÕ| 4. Kí`ªs Gi m‡½ ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi †Kvb Pwi‡Îi wgj i‡q‡Q? K. Lyov L. b¨vov M. wejvmx N. g„Zz¨Äq 5. Kí`ªs Gi cÖwZ †nv‡Uj gvwj‡Ki g‡bvfve ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi †h cÖm‡½i m‡½ m½wZc~Y© Zv nji. A¯ú„k¨Zv ii. AÁZv iii. eªvþY¨ev` wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i L. ii M. iii N. i I ii 6. wejvmx †jvK VKv‡bv AcQ›` KiZ, †Kbbvi. Zv‡`i N‡i ch©vß Lvevi wQj ii. G †ckvwU wQj fqsKi I SzuwKc~Y© iii. Zvi wQj mrfv‡e euvPvi Zxeª AvKvO¶v wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i L. ii M. i I iii N. ii I iii

ˆ m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1.

†mŠ`vwgbx gv‡jv ¯^vgxi g„Zz¨i ci DËivwaKvim~‡Î avbx Rwg, emZevwo, cyKzimn K‡qK GKi m¤úwËi gvwjK nq| GB m¤úwËi Ici bRi c‡o †mŠ`vwgbxi ÁvwZ †`Ii g‡bvićbi| †mŠ`vwgbxi m¤úwË `L‡ji Rb¨ †m bvbv †KŠkj Aej¤^b K‡i| GKevi †mŠ`vwgbx `ywf©‡¶i mgq avb †¶‡Zi cv‡k GKwU gvbewkï Lyu‡R cvq| Amnvq, Amy¯’ wkïwU‡K †m Zz‡j G‡b cig h‡Zœ Avcb mš—v‡bi g‡Zv jvjb cvjb K‡i| g‡bviÄb †mŠ`vwgbx‡K mgvRPz¨Z Ki‡Z cÖPvi K‡i †h, bgk~‡`ªi N‡i eªvþY mš—vb cvwjZ n‡”Q| G †h gnvcvc, wn›`y mgv‡Ri RvZ ag© †kl n‡q †Mj| K. ÔwejvmxÕ M‡íi eY©bvKvix †K? L. g„Zz¨Ä‡qi ÔRvZwemR©‡biÕ KviY eY©bv Ki| M. †mŠ`vwgbx Pwi‡Îi †Kvb ˆewkó¨wU wejvmxi Pwi‡Îi m‡½ wg‡j hvq? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Ôg‡bviÄb †hb wejvmx M‡íi LyoviB cÖwZ”QweÕ- welqwU g~j¨vqb Ki|

evsjv msKjb

62


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

2. myaxi ivq Kzjxb es‡ki †jvK| Zvi evMvb evwo‡Z †Kke bv‡gi GK gvwj KvR K‡i| bxPz es‡ki e‡j wZwb gvwj‡K Zz”QZvw”Q‡j¨i †Pv‡L †`‡Lb| GKw`b wZwb evMvb evwo‡Z Zvi emvi †Pqv‡i gvwj‡K em‡Z †`‡L ivMvwš^Z nb| wZwb Zvr¶YvZ †PqviwU †f‡O †d‡jb Ges Zvi iw¶‡K w`‡q gvwj‡K †e`g cÖnvi Kivb| Gi wKQzw`b ci G evMvb evwo‡Z wZwb nVvr AÁvb n‡q c‡ob| Zuv‡K `ª“Z wPwKrmv‡K‡›`ª wb‡q hvIqvi †Kv‡bv hvbevnb cvIqv †Mj bv| G Ae¯’vq †Kke Aw¯’i n‡q c‡o| †m mgq‡¶cY bv K‡i myaxi iv‡qi AÁvb †`nUv‡K wb‡Ri Kuv‡a Zz‡j wb‡q cÖvYc‡Y QzU‡Z _v‡K| `xN© c_ cvi n‡q Ae‡k‡l wPwKrmv‡K‡›`ª †cuŠQvq| wPwKrmv- †mev †c‡q wZwb my¯’ n‡q I‡Vb| K. wejvmxi cvwievwiK c`we Kx? L. †Kvb D‡Ïk¨ PwiZv_© Ki‡Z Lyov g„Zz¨Ä‡qi wei“‡× Kzrmv iUbv K‡i? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. myaxi iv‡qi AvPi‡Y mgv‡Ri †Kvb w`KwU cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q? ÔwejvmxÕ Mí Aej¤^‡b DËi `vI| N. †Kk‡ei PvwiwÎK ¸Yvewji Av‡jv‡K ÔwejvmxÕ M‡í K_vwkíx kirP›`ª P‡Ævcva¨vq bxPyZjvi gvbyl¸‡jv‡K †h gvbe-gwngv w`‡q wPwÎZ K‡i‡Qb Zv cÖgvY Ki|

evsjv msKjb

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72


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73


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74


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75


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76


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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb m‡gv”PvwiZ k‡ã evbvb cv_©K¨ Abœ - fvZ| Ab¨ - Aci| Avmv - AvMgb| Avkv - cÖZ¨vkv, fimv| †ewk - A‡bK| †ekx - †ekavix| (QÙ‡ekx) ke - g„Z‡`n me - mg¯—|

co-co ci ci evYx evwb wbP bxP mKj kKj

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coš—| G‡Ki ci GK| K_v, Dw³| Mqbv ˆZwii gRywi| wbgœ¯’vb, evwoi wbgœZj| nxb, wbK…ó| me, mg¯—| gv‡Qi Auvk|

‰ eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1. Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü †jLK Kx n‡q Zi“Y‡`i gnv`vb MÖnY Ki‡Z Pvb? K. ga¨gwY L. `jcwZ M. mnhvÎx N. c~Rvix 2. ÔAvwg Kwe, e‡bi cvwLi g‡Zv ¯^fve Avgvi Mvb KiviÕ- Dw³wU‡Z eywS‡q‡QbK. †hŠe‡bi D”Q¡jZv L. gvbe Kj¨v‡Y eªZ nIqv M. Zvi“‡Y¨i cÖwZ AKzÉ c¶cvZ N. Mv‡bi cvwLi mv‡_ KweZvi Zzjbv Aby‡”Q`wU co Ges 3 I 4 b¤^i cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| c~e©Kv‡j BD‡iv‡c AvBb Øviv Kzô‡ivMx‡`i wbe©vmb †`Iqv n‡Zv| gvbe‡cÖwgK `vwb‡qj †hŠe‡bi †fvMjvjmv Z¨vM K‡i gvjv‡Kv Øx‡c Kzô‡ivMx‡`i †mevq eªZx n‡jb, Ck¦i‡K ej‡jb cÖfy! AvR Avgvi †cÖg mKj c~Y©Zvq mdj I mv_©K n‡jv| 3. Aby‡”Q‡` †hŠe‡bi †Kvb ˆewk‡ó¨i me©vwaK cÖwZdjb N‡U‡Q? K. D`¨g L. J`vh© M. gvZ…iƒc N. mvabv 4. †Kvb ev‡K¨ Aby‡”Q‡`i ˆewk‡ó¨i cwiPq Av‡Q? K. Bnviv _v‡K kw³i wcQ‡b L. is QvovB‡Z QovB‡Z A¯— M. hLb `ye©‡ji cv‡k ej nBqv `uvovq N. Zvnvi nvwm‡Z Mvb, Zvnvi Kvbœvq Mvb Aby‡”Q`wU co Ges 5 I 6 b¤^i cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| Ôeva©K¨ wKQz Kvo‡Z cv‡i bv e‡j wKQz Qvov‡ZI cv‡i bv- `ywU Kv‡jv †Pv‡Li Rb¨I bq, wek †KvwU Kv‡jv †jv‡Ki Rb¨I bq| 5. GLv‡b Ô †hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Ü e„‡×i †h ˆewk‡ó¨i cwiPq cvIqv hvq, Zv nji. cðv`c`Zv ii. i¶YkxjZv iii. ¯’weiZv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii evsjv msKjb

83


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6. Aby‡”Q‡` ewY©Z eva©‡K¨i wecixZ fvlv †KvbwU? K. kw³i †cQ‡b i“wai avivi g‡Zv †Mvcb L. †m ivwÎi ci ivwÎ RvwMqv cwiPh©v K‡i M. Zi“Y Ai“‡Yi g‡ZvB †h Zvi“Y¨ wZwgi we`vix N. Abš— AvKv‡ki mxgv LyuwR‡Z wMqv cÖvY nvivq

‰ m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1. AemicÖvß dvi“K mv‡n‡ei KuvPv cvKv Pzj, gy‡L eq‡mi Qvc| Z‡e iv¯—vi `yB av‡i MvQ jvMv‡bv, iv¯—vi MZ© fivU Kiv BZ¨vw` Kv‡R Zvi †Kv‡bv K¬vwš— †bB| GQvovI cvovi †Q‡j‡`i wb‡q evj¨weevn †iva, †g‡q‡`i ¯‹z‡j cvVv‡bv, Amy¯’ †ivMx‡K nmwcUv‡j cvVv‡bv Gmg¯— Kv‡RI Zvi Drmv‡ni mxgv †bB| K. Mv‡bi cvwL‡K Zvov K‡i †K? L. ÔAvwg AvR Zvnv‡`i `‡j, hvnviv Kgx© bb- a¨vbxÕ-GLv‡b Ôa¨vbxÕ ej‡Z Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. dvi“K mv‡n‡ei PvwiwÎK ˆewk‡ó¨ †hŠe‡bi †Kvb w`KwU dz‡U D‡V‡Q-e¨vL¨v Ki| N. ÒAvgv‡`i c„w_ex Avgiv Avgv‡`i g‡bi gZ K‡i Mwoqv jBeÓ- Dw³wU dvi“K mv‡n‡ei Pwi‡Î KZUzKz cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q Zv Ô †hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖeÜ Abymv‡i Av‡jvPbv Ki| 2. hye‡Kiv cvMj, evi“‡`i g‡Zv mn‡RB hyeKcÖv‡Y Av¸b a‡i| Zievwi †`‡L, KvivMv‡i duvwm‡Z wKQz‡ZB Zvi `wc©Z cÖvY Kvey nq bv| G‡`i g‡a¨ w¯’iZv, exiZv, Mv¤¢xh©, ag©fq, webq Ávb ej‡Z wKQz †bB| Iiv mwZ¨B cvMj, ev®úxq BwÄb Ave× kw³ ejv hvq| K. e‡bi cvwLi g‡Zv Mvb Kiv Kvi ¯^fve? L. Kwe Zi“Y‡`i `jfy³ n‡Z †P‡q‡Qb †Kb? M. Aby‡”Q‡` Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi hye‡Ki †Kvb iƒcwUi cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Aby‡”Q‡` Ô†hŠe‡bi MvbÕ cÖe‡Üi AvswkK e³e¨ cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q-gš—‡e¨i †hŠw³K g~j¨vqb Ki|

evsjv msKjb

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KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb

†jLK-cwiwPwZ evsjv‡`‡ki AMÖMY¨ K_vmvwnwZ¨K Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏxb cÂvk eQ‡iiI †ewk Kvj a‡i mvwnZ¨ mvabvq eªZx wQ‡jb| Zuvi cwiPq †Kej MíKvi I Jcb¨vwmK wn‡m‡e bq| wZwb bvUK wj‡L‡Qb, Abyev` K‡i‡Qb| mvsevw`K wn‡m‡eI wZwb mycwiwPZ| wZwb evsjv‡`‡ki mvwnZ¨ A½‡b we‡kl cwiwPwZ I Av‡jvwPZ nb ÔfvIqvj M‡oi DcvL¨vbÕ wj‡L| Zuvi Ab¨vb¨ Dcb¨vm n‡”Q: ÔcÙv †gNbv hgybvÕ, ÔmsKi msKxZ©bÕ, ÔcÖcÂÕ, Ô†`qvjÕ| Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ MíMÖš’ n‡”Q: ÔAveyRvdi kvgmyÏx‡bi †kªô MíÕ, Ô†kl ivwÎi ZvivÕ, ÔGK †Rvov c¨v›U I Ab¨vb¨Õ, Ôiv‡Rb VvKz‡ii Zx_©hvÎvÕ BZ¨vw`| Zuvi ÔAvZ¥¯§„wZÕ Amvgvb¨ MÖš’| mvwnZ¨ I mvsevw`KZvq K…wZZ¡cY~ © Ae`v‡bi ¯^xK…wZ wn‡m‡e wZwb RxeÏkvq Ôevsjv GKv‡WgxÕ, Ôgy³avivÕ BZ¨vw` mvwnZ¨ cyi¯‹vi I ÔGKz‡k c`KÕ †c‡q‡Qb| Avey Rvdi kvgmyÏx‡bi Rb¥ XvKv †Rjvi KvwjM‡Ä 1919 wLª÷v‡ã Ges g„Z¨z 1988 wLª÷v‡ã| XvKv †Rjvi GKwU evrmwiK c−veb AÂj| kxZj¶¨v b`xi `yÕZxi a‡i gvBj `yÕgvBj wfZi ch©š— †Wv‡e bv| el©vi Av‡iv wfZ‡i cÖ‡ek Kiv gykwKj| `yÕgvBj †h‡Z cuvP gvBj Nyi‡Z nq| †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv MÖvg ixwZgZ Øxc n‡q hvq| XyK‡Z bvI-†Kv›`v jv‡M| †QvU cvwb cvivcvi nIqvi Rb¨ †Kv_vI euv‡ki muv‡Kv, †Kv_vI Kv‡Vi cyj Av‡Q| I¸‡jv cvivcvi n‡Z †Uªwbs Avek¨K| Abf¨‡¯—i Rb¨ cÖvq †¶‡Î I¸‡jv cyj‡mivZ| muv‡Kv‡Z DaŸ©c‡¶ `yÕ†Uv euvk cvkvcvwk cvZv, wb‡P †Rvovq †Rvovq AvovAvwo †cuvZv euv‡ki Luwy U| a‡i Pjvi Rb¨ cv‡k nvjKv euvk KLbI _v‡KI bv| ga¨c‡_ hvIqvi ci nq †Zv †`Lv †Mj cv‡qi wbP gvÎ GKwU euvk| Ab¨wU DavI n‡q †M‡Q| PovgvÎ muv‡Kv gvwSgvj−vnxb wWwO †bŠ‡Kvi gZv †emvgvj bo‡Z _v‡K| Kv‡Vi cy‡ji Ae¯’vI cÖvq IiKg| Mi“-QvMj cvivcvi nIqvi d‡j GK eQ‡ii g‡a¨B cy‡ji ev‡ivUv ev‡R| cv‡qi wb‡Pi Pvi Z³v †f‡O `yÕZ³v GgbwK GK Z³vI n‡q hvq| †Kv_vI Z³v A`„k¨ n‡q hvq, cvkvcvwk `yÕLÊ euvk ¯’vcb K‡i ms‡hvM ¯’vcb Kiv nq| `ye©j LuywUi Ici ¯’vwcZ Gme Kv‡Vi cy‡j PovgvÎ ey‡ov gvby‡li `uv‡Zi g‡Zv LULU b‡o| †gvUK_v kZKiv AvwkRb MÖvgevmxi Avw_©K w¯’wZI eo boe‡o| cy‡ji wb‡P A‰_ cvwbi †mªvZ| cv dm‡K co‡j wec`| muvZvi bv Rvb‡j Av‡iv †ewk wec`| KwjgwÏ GjvKvi `dv`vi| wek evBk eQi eq‡m BDwbqb †ev‡W©i `dv`vwi‡Z Xy‡KwQj| ZLb n‡Z †m KwjgwÏ `dv`vi bv‡g cwiwPZ| GLb eqm cÖvq lvU, Pzj `vwo‡Z cvK a‡i‡Q| eqmKv‡j †m jvwV †LjZ| GLb †m jvwV †L‡j bv, wKš‘ HwZn¨iƒ‡c evewi Pzj iv‡L| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb RvqMv Rwg †bB| Iiv ivZfi †XuwK‡Z wPov Kz‡U, w`‡b gywo fv‡R| wPov-gywo †e‡P Iiv w`b ¸Rivb K‡i| AfvMv †hLv‡b hvq mvMi ïwK‡q hvq, G iKg GKUv K_v Av‡Q| `yf©vM¨ I‡`i; m‡e fiv Kjmx Kuv‡L Av`&ª© e‡¯¿ b`xi fv½ybwZ †f‡O Ic‡i D‡V evwoi c_ a‡i‡Q wVK †m mgqUv‡ZB cuvPRb hg`~‡Zi †Pv‡L c‡o Iiv- gv †g‡q| e›`zK Kuv‡a cuvPRb Lvb †mbv moK c‡_ `w¶Y †_‡K G‡m Dcw¯’Z nq †PŠiv¯— vi ms‡hvM ¯’‡j| nwigwZ I mygwZ gvwUi Kjmx KuvL †_‡K †d‡j cwðg w`‡K †`Šo! †`Šo! QvqvNb AuvKveuvKv c‡_ Iiv RxebcY †`Š‡ov‡”Q †Zv †`Š‡ov‡”QB| AvZ¥i¶v Ki‡ZB n‡e| e›`yK Kuv‡a wb‡qB Lvb †mbviv I‡`i cðv×veb K‡i| nwigwZ I mygwZ GK bRi cðvwχK ZvwK‡q Av‡iv †e‡M †`Šovq| Avkcv‡ki †jvKRb H `„k¨ †`‡L evwoNi †Q‡o †Sv‡c-R½‡j AvZ¥‡Mvcb K‡i| †cvqvZx †g‡qiv µ›`biZ wkïi gyL †P‡c a‡i| Av`ª© e‡¯¿ gvBjLv‡bK †`Š‡ovevi ci gv †g‡q `yÕR‡bi GKRbI Avi †`Š‡ov‡Z cv‡i bv| iv¯—vi Wvb w`‡K cÖvBgvwi ¯‹zj| Avkª‡qi Avkvq Iiv ¯‹zj N‡i cÖ‡ek K‡i| ¯‹zj Ni RbcÖvYxk~b¨| †`qv‡j Uv½v‡bv e−¨vK‡ev‡W© Lwo gvwU‡Z Klv GKUv Aa©mgvß A¼ Qvov Avi wKQz †Pv‡L c‡o bv| GKUv Quy‡Pv Bu`yi I‡`i †`‡L cvwj‡q hvq| Pvi PviUv `iRv Ges me¸‡jv Rvbvjv †Lvjv| nwigwZ, mygwZ Xy‡K `g †bqvi Av‡MB Lvb †mbv‡`i ey‡Ui `vcU ïb‡Z cvq| IivI wKQz¶Y `g †bq| Pvwiw`‡K cÖvPxi| mk¯¿ wkKvix Ges wkKvi `yBUvB wfZ‡i| wKQz¶Y gv †g‡qi AvZ©bv` I‡V| c‡i wbtkã n‡q hvq ¯‹zj Ni| nwigwZ mygwZ‡K Iiv nZ¨v K‡i bv| i³v³ AÁvb Ae¯’vq †d‡j Lvb †mbviv ivB‡dj Kuv‡a ¯‹zj Ni Z¨vM K‡i| iv¯—vq c‡o K‡qK cv G‡Mv‡ZB ¸wji kã nq| †Kvb w`K †_‡K Avm‡Q Vvni Kivi Av‡MB GKR‡bi gv_vi Lywj D‡o hvq| Ôgyw³ Av wMqv, Bqv AvjxÕ wPrKvi K‡i †diZ evwK PviRb DaŸ©kv¦ ‡m †`Šovq| Av‡iv GKR‡bi Di“i gvsm wQu‡o ¸wj †ewi‡q hvq| wbnZ m½x‡K cðv‡Z †d‡j †i‡L evwK PviRb †Kvbµ‡g QvDwb‡Z wd‡i Av‡m| †mw`b †_‡K GjvKvq gyw³‡dŠR wbab KvR ïi“ nq| †ivR `j †eu‡a †e‡ivq Lvb †mbviv| evRv‡i wgwjUvwi †XvKvi ci †_‡KB KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii Ici †evW© Awdm †Lvjvi fvi c‡o‡Q| A‡c¶vK…Z Kgeq¯‹ †Pqvig¨vb, fvBm †Pqvig¨vb wgwjUvwii f‡q cviZc‡¶ Gw`‡K Av‡mb bv| †g¤^viMYI AvZ¥‡Mvcb K‡i‡Qb| wKš‘ †evW© Awdm wbqwgZ †Lvjv ivLvi ûKzg Rvwi Av‡Q| KwjgwÏ G KvR Kivi Rb¨ evRv‡i Av‡m| Lvb †mbviv I‡KB I‡`i Awfhv‡bi m½x K‡i †bq| †m miKvwi †jvK, wbqwgZ bvgvR c‡o Ges hv ûKzg nq Zv cvjb K‡i| myZivs mv‡›`‡ni KviY †bB| †mw`b †_‡K `dv`vi w`‡bi †ejv evwo †h‡Z cv‡i bv| evRv‡iB †L‡Z nq Zv‡K| LvIqvi Rb¨ †ivR wZb UvKv cvq †m| Lvb †mbviv wK ivRvKv‡i fwZ© K‡i wb‡q‡Q? gwjgwÏ Zvi wKQz Rv‡b bv| †m Zvi ¯^vfvweK nvwmgy‡L Lvb †mbv‡`i m½x n‡q †hw`K †h‡Z e‡j hvq| †m Avo-KvwV, Av‡M Av‡M c_ †`wL‡q wb‡q hvq wWDwU| evRv‡ii †jvKRb KLbI KLbI Zv‡K Aby‡hvM †`q, `dv`vi fvB Avc‡bI? evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb KwjgwÏ w¯§Z †n‡m mnR DËi †`q, Avwg fvB miKvwi †jvK, hLbKvi miKvi ZLbKvi ûKzg cvjbKwi| Gi †ewk GKwU K_vI Zvi gyL †_‡K †ei Kiv hvq bv| eyaevi| Avkcv‡k †KvLvI nvUevi †bB| mKvvj `kUvq KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii wWDwU c‡o| AvR BDwbqb †ev‡W©i KuvPv moK c‡_ cwðg w`‡K gyw³we‡ivax Awfhvb| AvU-`kRb mk¯¿ Lvb †mbv| KwjgwÏ Av‡M c_ †`wL‡q wb‡q hv‡”Q| j¶¨¯’vb..........MÖvg| †mLv‡b bvwK eû wn›`yi evm, Av‡iv wn›`y evB‡i †_‡K G‡m Avkªq wb‡q‡Q| gymjgvb¸‡jvI fviZxq Pi-Kv‡di‡`i m‡½ GK †RvU| AvR MÖvgUv kv‡q¯—v Ki‡Z n‡e| Av¸b †`qvi gvjgmjv, A¯¿I m‡½ Av‡Q| †ejv GMvi‡Uv| gv‡Vi Ici w`‡q Akªk¯— †g‡U moK| gvd †cwi‡q GKwU MÖvg| Zvic‡iB j¶¨¯’j| PKP‡K †iv`| mo‡Ki Dˇi ivB‡dj †i‡Äi g‡a¨ MvgQv civ GK wK‡kvi wZi Pvi‡U Mi“ †Lw`‡q wb‡q hv‡”Q| Zvi gv_vq Qvjv †evSvB Nvm| Kuv‡a jv½j-†Rvqvj| m¤¢eZ †m gvV †_‡K evwo wdi‡Q| gyw³! gyw³! GKRb ˆmwbK wPrKvi K‡i I‡V| Kuvnv? Kuvnv? Ac‡iiv cÖkœ K‡i| Wvnbv Zid †`‡Lv| KwjgwÏ `dv`vi mweb‡q ej‡Z Pvq, g„w³ †bwn K¨vwÞb mve, D‡qv ivLvj n¨vq, †giv †PbvRvbv n¨vq| Pzc ivI mv‡j Kv‡di Kv ev”Pv Kv‡di| gyw³, Avjer gyw³| e‡jB mK‡j GK m‡½ ¸wj †Quv‡o| GjvKv †Ku‡c I‡V| aŸwb-cÖwZaŸwb n‡q `~‡i Qwo‡q c‡o| KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii evj¨Kv‡ji cvZv‡bv †`v¯— mvBRwÏ Lwjdvi †lvj eQ‡ii †Q‡j GKevi gvÎ gv e‡j| aivkvqx †`nUv †_‡K Avi †Kv‡bv aŸwb Kv‡b Av‡m bv| GK gyw³ LZg| Avwf mvg‡b P‡jv `dv`vi| wR, ûRyi, e‡j †m ûKzg cvjb K‡i| B‡Zvg‡a¨ Lvb †mbv‡`i cwðggyLx Awfhv‡bi msev` gy‡L gy‡L Qwo‡q c‡o‡Q| †Mvjv¸wji kã †kvbvi ci Avkcv‡ki †jvKRb Nievwo †d‡j †h †hLv‡b cv‡i cvjv‡Z ïi“ K‡i| gvV cvwo †`qvi Av‡MB mvg‡bi MÖvg mvd n‡q hvq| c‡ii MÖv‡g †mw`‡bi g~j hyׇ¶Î| †m MÖv‡gi cwð‡g A‰_ R‡ji we¯—xY© gvV| cvwbi Ici evIqv av‡bi meyR kxl| MÖvg †_‡K MÖvgvš—‡i hvIqvi Rb¨ avb-†¶‡Zi Ici w`‡q bvI`uvov| MÖvgevmxiv DwVcwo bvI†Kv›`v †e‡q A‰_ cvwb‡Z fvmgvb D×Z av‡bi kx‡li Avov‡j AvZ¥‡Mvb K‡i| hviv bvI-†Kv›`v cvq bv Zviv we‡j bv‡g Ges gv_vi Ic‡i KzPwy icvbv Pvwc‡q bvK RvwM‡q Wy‡e _v‡K| gyw³ wbab Awfhvb GwM‡q P‡j| mvg‡b GKwU †jvKI c‡o bv| evwoNi Rbk~b¨, K‡jiv gvngvix‡Z weij RvqMvi g‡Zv g‡b nq cj−x| nuvm †gviM KzKzi-weovj †Mvjv¸wji kã ï‡b AvZ¥‡Mvcb K‡i‡Q| `wo‡Z euvav QvMj-Mi“ `yÕPviUv †`Lv hvq| B‡q eKwi eûZ LyemyiZ AvIi ZvRv, Iqvcm Rv‡b †K IhvKZ.....mg‡R....Lvb †mbv‡`i GKRb m½x‡`i e‡j| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb nuv, nuv, GK wd÷ û Rv‡qMv, A‡b¨iv †n‡m mg_©b Rvbvq| Iiv c‡_i `yÕav‡ii evwoN‡i DuwKSuywK Ges †Sv‡c R½‡j ¸wj Qz‡o nÏ nq| GKRb gyw³i mÜvbI cvIqv hvq bv| †ejv ZLb ev‡ivUv nVvr KgvÊvi wb‡`©k †`q, në! GK, †`v! mvg‡b Kv‡Vi cyj| `yÕw`K †_‡K wZwik wWwMÖ A¨v‡½‡j Lvov n‡q wKQz `~‡i IVvi ci gvSLv‡b mgZ‡j wb‡P c−vweZ Lvj Ges `yÕw`‡Ki evIqv av‡bi †LZ, D×Z av‡bi kxl cvwbi m‡½ Zvj †i‡L †e‡o Pj‡Q| cy‡ji DËi-`w¶‡Y hZ`~i `„wó hvq Lvj Ges c−vweZ avb‡¶Z Gu‡K‡eu‡K ¯’v‡b ¯’v‡b Ak¦Ly‡ii AvKv‡i wfZ‡i cÖ‡ek K‡i GwM‡q P‡j‡P| cy‡ji Ici w`‡q gvbyl Ges QvMj-Mi“-cvivcvi nq, wb‡P w`‡q P‡j bvI-†Kv›`v| Nb MvQcvjv †ewóZ `yÕcv‡ii MÖvg †ek DuPz‡Z| bevM‡Zi Kv‡Q cve©Z¨ AÂj g‡b n‡Z cv‡i| Avm‡j GUvB fvIqvj ciMYvi f~wgweb¨vm ˆewkó¨| ¯’vbxq †jvK‡`i Kv‡Q DuPz wUjv¸‡jv †UK bv‡g cwiwPZ| hyׯ’jiƒ‡c wbw`©ó mvg‡bi MÖv‡gi Ae¯’vcbœ Nievwo Gcv‡o `uvwo‡qI †`Lv hvq| †PŠPvjv wU‡bi N‡ii Uzqv my¯úó| cyjUv bv †cwi‡q I MÖv‡g cÖ‡ek Kivi †Kv‡bv Dcvq †bB| el©vKv‡j MÖvgUv Rj‡ewóZ Øxc| Pwj‡q ûRyi! KwjgwÏ `dv`vi e‡j| gMi! AvIi KzB iv¯—v †bwn `dv`vi? KgvÛvi wRÁvmv K‡i| †bwn ûRyi! †m‡id GKwn iv¯—v| evwK Pv‡iv Zid cvwb| `dv`vi Rvbvq| B‡q cyj Av”Qv n¨vq! wR, nu¨v, ûRyi, eûZ Av”Qv n¨vq| gvbyl Mi“ nv‡gkv cvi †nvZv n¨vq| gvjyg †nvZv cyj‡mivZ| wVK n¨vq; Zzg Av‡M P‡jv `dv`vi| eûZ Av”Qv ûRyi| KwjgwÏ `dv`vi cy‡ji Ici I‡V| `yÕwZb eQi Av‡M BDwbqb †ev‡W©i mvnv‡h¨, wKQz MÖvgevmxi Puv`vq ˆZwi wZb Z³vi cyj| cÖvq RvqMvq bvU-eëz wXjv n‡q †M‡Q| RvqMvq RvqMvq Mv‡qeI n‡q †M‡Q| a‡i Pjvi Rb¨ `yÕw`‡K euv‡ki aiwb †bB| Kv‡Vi Luwy Ui †Mvovq cPb aivq ¯’v‡b ¯’v‡b euv‡ki wVKv †`qv n‡q‡Q| Iici weQv‡bv Z³vI big, c‡PI †M‡Q `y-GK RvqMvq, wKš‘ MÖv‡gi †jv‡Ki Kv‡Q wec¾bK bq, Avi hw` KLbI Z³vmy× wb‡P c‡oB hvq †KD muvZvi †K‡U cv‡o DV‡e| †QvU †QvU †Q‡j‡g‡qiv cy‡ji Ici †_‡K jvwd‡q c‡o Lv‡ji R‡j Suvcywo †L‡j| Avm‡j cyjUv †Zgb GKUv boe‡o bq, gvbyl Mi“ Ic‡i DV‡j wKQz Kuv‡c-Kuvcv‡j Av‡iv †ewk Kuv‡c-Kuvcwb GKUv msµvgK e¨wa wKbv ZvB| KwjgwÏ GKcv `yÕcv K‡i AwZ mveav‡b GwM‡q hvq Ges wcQb w`‡K gyL wdwi‡q e‡j, AvB‡qb ûRyi| ûRy‡iiv Ic‡i I‡Vb bv, cy‡ji †Mvovq `uvwo‡q KwjgwÏi cv `y‡Uvi w`‡K g‡bv‡hvM †`q| KwjgwÏ `dv`vi hZ GwM‡q hvq, Zvi c`hyMj wbcyY Awf‡bZvi c`hyM‡ji g‡Zv VKVK Kuv‡c, cyj Kuv‡c wظY Zv‡j| DaŸ©v‡ivnY †k‡l Ic‡ii mgZj RvqMvUzKz| †mLvbKvi wZb Z³vi GKcv‡kiwU c‡P †M‡Q| Zvi GKwU bvU eëzI †bB| wb‡Pi eiMvwUi Kvbv RvqMvwUI †d‡U †M‡Q| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb KwjgwÏ `dv`vi wK †f‡e wb‡Pi w`‡K GK bRi ZvKvq−Lv‡ji Zxeª †mªvZ Qvov Avi †Kv‡bv Sv‡gjv †bB †mLv‡b| cigyn~‡Z© AvZ©bv‡`i g‡Zv Kɯ^‡i Ôgyw³ gyw³Õ ej‡Z ej‡Z cPv Z³vm‡gZ wb‡P c‡o hvq| Lv‡ji R‡j GKUv Szc kã nq| m‡½ m‡½ wecixZ w`K †_‡K ¸wj el©Y ïi“ nq| cwRkb wb‡q cvëv ¸wjel©‡Yi Av‡MB aivkvqx nq `yÕwZbRb| Zvic‡iI wKQz¶Y †Mvjv¸wj P‡j, wKš‘ hyׇ¶‡Î bq cjvqY c‡_i `yÕw`‡K G‡jvcvZvwo| †h KÕRb hy× Ki‡Z wM‡qwQj QvDwb‡Z †m KÕRb A¶Z †d‡i bv| KwjgwχK Avevi †`Lv hvq †lvjB wW‡m¤^i mܨvq evRv‡ii Pv ÷‡j| Zvi m½xiv mevB gyw³, †m-B ïay Zvi cyi‡bv miKvwi †cvkv‡K mK‡ji cwiwPZ KwjgwÏ `dv`vi| kãv_© I UxKv bvI †Kv›`v cyj‡mivZ `dv`vi evo evov ÔAv¸BbvÕ wPZv LZibvK MÜewYK evoyB Lvb †mbv fv½ybwZ gyw³ Av wMqv ivRvKvi `dv`vi ZvB Avc‡bI gyw³we‡ivax Awfhvb ivB‡dj †iÄ gyw³! gyw³! Kuvnv? Kuvnv? WvBbv Zid †`‡Lv †bwn D‡qv ivLvj n¨vq †giv †PbvRvbv n¨vq evsjv msKjb

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evsjv msKjb

91


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Drm I cwiwPwZ AveyRvdi kvgmyÏx‡bi ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ MíwU msKwjZ n‡q‡Q gyw³hy× welqK Mí-msKjb Ôgyw³hy‡×i MíÕ †_‡K| GB M‡í ewY©Z n‡q‡Q evsjv‡`‡ki MÖvgv‡j cvwK¯—vwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi wbôzi ee©iZvi Qwe| `Lj`vi evwnbxi wei“‡× mk¯¿ gyw³evwnbxi exiZ¡cY~ © msMÖv‡gi cÖZ¨¶ Qwe GB M‡í ewY©Z bv n‡jI Zv‡`i `yev© i cÖwZ‡iva-ZrciZv ¯úóZ:B Kvwnbx‡Z Abyfe Kiv hvq| 1971 Gi gnvb gyw³hy‡× MÖvg GjvKvi Avbmvi, †PŠwK`v‡iivI †h KL‡bv cÖZ¨¶ KL‡bv c‡iv¶ †KŠk‡j AZ¨š— †Mvc‡b cvwK¯—vwb `Lj`vi evwnbxi wei“‡× jovB‡q gyw³‡hv×v‡`i bvbvfv‡e mnvqZv K‡iwQj †mB ev¯—eZvB wkí-mZ¨ n‡q †`Lv w`‡q‡Q ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡í|

Abykxjbg~jK KvR mvwnZ¨‡eva ivR‰bwZK Mí †h me ivR‰bwZK S‡ov nvIqv RvZxq cvjve`j iPbv K‡i| wkíx mvwnwZ¨‡Kiv †m me NUbv †_‡K gyL wdwi‡q _v‡Kb bv| evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy×I Avgv‡`i RvZxq Rxe‡b GK gnvb HwZnvwmK I ivR‰bwZK Zvrch©gq NUbv| gyw³hy‡×i †MŠieMvav wb‡q †jLv n‡q‡Q †ek wKQz Dcb¨vm, eû †QvUMí I AmsL¨ KweZv| †jLK hLb ivR‰bwZK NUbv wb‡q m„Rbkxj mvwnZ¨ iPbv K‡ib, ZLb A‡bK mgq mvgwqK D‡ËRbvi †gvn Zuv‡K Av”Qbœ K‡i| Av‡e‡Mi AvwZkh¨ I fv‡ei D”Q¡v‡m wZwb A‡bK mgq mshg nvwi‡q †d‡jb| d‡j Zv mvgwqKfv‡e RbwcÖq n‡jI ¯’vwbK I KvwiK mxgv‡K AwZµg Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| wKš‘ mv_©K †jLK ivR‰bwZK welq wb‡q wjL‡jI Zvi j¶¨ _v‡K gvbe-ü`‡qi MfxiZg mËv‡K dzwU‡q †Zvjv AveyRvdi kvgmyÏx‡bi GB M‡í ivR‰bwZK msK‡Ui †h wPÎ Zv‡Z DËvj NbNUv †bB, Ø›Ø−msNv‡Zi AvwZkh¨, †`k‡cÖwg‡Ki fv‡ev”Q¡vm, wKsev exi‡Z¡i evnv`ywi| eis cvwK¯—vwb nvbv`vi evwnbxi AgvbweK Ab¨v‡qi gy‡L RbM‡Yi AmnvqZv, gyw³‡hv×v‡`i cÖwZ‡iva hy‡×i Bw½Zgq Dc¯’vcbv Ges KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii g‡bi Mfx‡i wbwnZ cÖKvknxb †`k‡cÖ‡gi Qwe Gu‡K †jLK ivR‰bwZK NUbvi †cÖ¶vc‡U gvbeRxe‡bi wPivqZ gwngv‡KB wkíi~c w`‡q‡Qb| ˆ fvlv Abykxjb Aw¯—evPK evK¨‡K †bwZevPK ev‡K¨ i~cvš—i: Aw¯— : †Kv_vI Z³v A`„k¨ n‡q hvq| †bwZ : †Kv_vI Z³v A`„k¨ bv n‡q hvq bv| evsjv msKjb

92


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Aw¯— †bwZ Aw¯— †bwZ

: : : :

Kv‡Vi cy‡ji Ae¯’vI IiKg| Kv‡Vi cy‡ji Ae¯’vI Ab¨iKg bq| avb Pv‡ji `vg evo‡j D‡cvm Ki‡Z nq| avb Pv‡ji avg evo‡j D‡cvm bv K‡i P‡j bv|

†bwZevPK evK¨‡K Aw¯—evPK Ôev‡K¨ i~cvš—i : †bwZ : GK cv `y cv K‡i bv GwM‡q cv‡i bv| Aw¯— : GK cv `y cv K‡i GwM‡q †h‡ZB nq| †bwZ : Z³vmy×B †m wb‡P bv c‡o cvij bv| Aw¯— : Z³vmy×B †m wb‡P c‡o †Mj| †bwZ : KwjgwÏ †m me Rv‡b bv| Aw¯— : KwjgwÏ-i †m me ARvbv| evbvb mZ©KZv ‰ P›`ªwe›`y| evsjvq A‡bK k‡ãi P›`ªwe›`y Avm‡j Zrmg k‡ãi AvbybvwmK aŸwbi (O, b, g, s) cwiewZ©Z i~c| †hgb: euvk < esk nuvm < nsm cuvP < c Kuvcb < K¤úb muv‡Kv < msµg euvab < eÜb `uvZ < `š— wb‡Pi k㸇jvi evbv‡b P›`ªwe›`y bv w`‡j fyj n‡e: Lyuwo, `uvwo, DuwP‡q, AuvKveuvKv, Gu‡K‡eu‡K, †XuwK, Kuva, Qzu‡Zv, Bu`yi, DuPz, muvZvi|

‰ eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1. ÔAv¸Bbv wPZv Kx? K. wnsmª cÖvYx we‡kl L. †flR Dw™¢` M. R¡jš— k¥kvb N. w¶cÖ †hv×v 2. KwjgwÏ `dv`v‡ii †evW© AwdmwU †Kv_vq? K. m`i iv¯—v msjMœ L. kxZj¶¨vi Zx‡i M. †ij‡÷k‡bi cv‡k N. nvB¯‹z‡ji cv‡k 3. KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Zvi KvR‡K gh©`vc~Y© g‡b Kivi KviYi. †g¤^viiv Avcwb e‡j m‡¤^vab Ki‡Zb ii. _vbvi `v‡ivMv m¤§vb Ki‡Zb iii. `dv`v‡ii KvRwU A‡bK m¤§v‡bi evsjv msKjb

93


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii

L. i I iii

M. ii I iii

N. i, ii I iii

4. Lvb‡mbviv LZibvK Ae¯’vi g‡a¨ coZ †Kb? K. G †`‡ki iv¯—vNvU m¤ú‡K© aviYvi Afve| L. gyw³‡mbvi G‡jvcv_vwo Avµg‡Yi Kvi‡Y| M. Zv‡`i muvZvi Rvbv wQ‡jv bv| N. Zv‡`i †Mwijv †Uªwbs wQ‡jv bv| wb‡Pi Aby‡”Q`wU co Ges 5 I 6 bs cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| Lv‡ji Icv‡i KvRjWv½v MÖvg| mKv‡j wM‡q †`Lv †Mj MÖvgwU jÊfÊ| Nievwo cywo‡q †`qv n‡q‡Q| wf‡U¸‡jv Luv Luv Ki‡Q| cv‡kB GKwU Lv‡ji cv‡o wKQz jvk c‡o Av‡Q| i‡³i aiv wM‡q wg‡k‡Q Lv‡ji cvwb‡Z| 5. ewY©Z wPÎKíwU ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi †h NUbvi cÖwZwbwaZ¡ K‡i Zv n‡jvi.

Lvb‡mbv‡`i bviKxq nZ¨vhÁ

ii. gyw³hy‡× kΓ evwnbxi AZ¨vPvi iii. Lvb‡mbv‡`i hy‡×i `¶Zv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii

L. i I iii

M. ii I iii

N. i, ii I iii

6. Dwj−wLZ NUbvi Kvwe¨K w`K wb‡Pi †Kvb KweZvs‡k cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q? K. ¯^vaxbZv Zzwg AÜKv‡i Luv Luv mxgv‡š— gyw³‡mbvi †Pv‡Li wSwjK L. Zzwg Avm‡e e‡j †n ¯^vaxbZv, QvÎvevm, ew¯— DRvo n‡jv, wiK‡qj&‡jm ivB‡dj Avi †gwkbMvb LB †dvUv‡jv hÎZÎ| M. ¯^vaxbZv nxbZvq †K euvwP‡Z Pvq ‡n †K euvwP‡Z Pvq N. ¯^vaxbZv Zzwg cZvKv †kvwfZ †k−vMvbgyLi SuvSv‡jv wgwQj evsjv msKjb

94


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

‰ m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1. ÒZzwg Avm‡e e‡j, †n ¯^vaxbZv, mvwKbv wewei Kcvj fvO‡jv, wmuw_i wmu`yi gy‡Q †Mj nwi`vmxi| Zzwg Avm‡e e‡j, †n ¯^vaxbZv, kn‡ii ey‡K RjcvB i‡Oi U¨v¼ G‡jv `vb‡ei g‡Zv wPrKvi Ki‡Z Ki‡Z Zzwg Avm‡e e‡j, †n ¯^vaxbZv QvÎvevm, ew¯— DRvo n‡jv| wiK‡qj‡jm ivB‡dj Avi †gwkbMvb LB †dvUv‡jv hÎZÎ|Ó K. `dv`vi c`wU Kx? L. Lvb‡mbviv KwjgwÏ `dv`vi‡K Zv‡`i Awfhv‡bi m½x wn‡m‡e †e‡Q †bq †Kb? M. KweZvskwUi 2q I 3q PiY ÔKwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ M‡íi †Kvb w`K‡K wb‡`©k K‡i? N. KweZvskwU †hb ÒKwjgwÏ `dv`vi M‡í Kve¨iƒcÓ-g~j¨vqb Ki| 2. evsjvi el©v| wf‡U¸‡jv Qvov mg¯— MÖvg cvwbi wb‡P| Kvjy gvwS †`kcÖxwZ‡Z wek¦¯—| Lvb‡mbv‡`i Acv‡ik‡b wb‡q hvq †m †bŠKv †e‡q| b`xi Icv‡i gyw³evwnbx Av¯—vbv †M‡o‡Q| †mUv ¸uwo‡q w`‡Z n‡e| Lvb‡mbviv cÖ¯‘Z| Acv‡ikb n‡e AvR iv‡ZB| Kvjy gvwSi WvK co‡jv| fiv †Rvqv‡ii b`x| gvS b`x‡Z †bŠKv| A¯¿ Avi Lvb‡mbv †evSvB †bŠKvwU nVvr `y‡j D‡V KvZ n‡q †Mj| AvZ©bv` K‡i b`x‡Z c‡o †Mj Lvb‡mbviv| muvZ‡i K~‡j DV‡jv Kvjy gvwS| K¬vš— gy‡L Zvi weRqxi nvwm| K. Pig `yw`©‡bI KwjgwÏ `dv`vi †Kgb gvbyl? L. Ô`dv`vi fvB Avc‡bI?Õ-K_vwU w`‡q Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. Kvjy gvwS Ges KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Gi †ckvMZ cv_©K¨ M‡íi Av‡jv‡K e¨vL¨v Ki| N. ÔKvjy gvwS KwjgwÏ `dv`vi Gi cÖwZ”QweÕ- KwjgwÏ `dv`viÕ Mí Aej¤^‡b gš—e¨wU we‡k−lY Ki|

evsjv msKjb

95


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

GKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Kvwnbx ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn&

†jLK-cwiwPwZ evsjv K_vmvwn‡Z¨i Ab¨Zg i~cKvi, mgvRm‡PZb mvwnZ¨wkíx ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn 1922 wLªóv‡ãi 15 AvM÷ PÆMÖv‡gi †lvj kn‡i Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| Zuvi wcZvi bvg ˆmq` Avn¤§` Dj−vn I gv‡qi bvg bvwmgv †eMg| ˆmq` IqvjxDj−vn 1939 mv‡j KzwoMÖvg nvB ¯‹zj †_‡K cÖ_g wefv‡M cÖ‡ewkKv cix¶vq DËxY© nb| Zvici 1943 mv‡j KjKvZv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K wWw÷skbmn mœvZK wWwMÖ AR©b K‡ib| Avbylw½K Kvi‡Y 1945 mv‡j GgG cix¶v`v‡b A¶gZv Ges GKB mv‡j mn-m¤úv`K wn‡m‡e KjKvZvi K`Y©UªYªeUf cwÎKvq †hvM`vb Ges Kg‡iW cvewjkvm© cÖwZôv K‡ib| Zuvi Kg©Rxeb ïi“ nq KjKvZvi GKwU weL¨vZ ˆ`wbK cwÎKvi mvsevw`K wn‡m‡e 1947 mv‡j| Gici KivwP I XvKv †eZvi †K‡›`ªi evZ©v wefv‡M PvKwi K‡i‡Qb| c‡i cvwK¯—vb miKv‡ii ˆe‡`wkK wefv‡M| Kg©m~‡Î bqvw`wj−, wmWwb, RvKvZ©v I jÛ‡b `vwqZ¡ cvjb †k‡l `xN©w`b c¨vwi‡m Kg©iZ wQ‡jb| †mLv‡b Ae¯’vbKv‡j 1971 mv‡j evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy‡× mwµq f~wgKv cvjb K‡ib| Zuvi D‡j−L‡hvM¨ mvwnZ¨K‡g©i g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q-weL¨vZ Dcb¨vm Ôjvj mvjyÕ (1948), ÔPuv‡`i Agvem¨vÕ (1964), ÔKuv‡`v b`x Kuv‡`vÕ (1968), ÔDcb¨vmÕ; (1951), Ô`yB ZxiÕ (1965), ÔewncxiÕ (1965), ÔZi½f½Õ (1966), ÔmeyRÕ (1964) MíMÖš’ Ges ÔewýcxiÕ I Ômyo½Õ bvUK| evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³hy× PjvKv‡j †eKvi Ae¯’vq 1971 mv‡ji 1 A‡±vei wZwb c¨vwi‡m g„Zz¨eiY K‡ib| aby‡Ki g‡Zv euvKv Kswµ‡Ui cyjwUi c‡iB evwoUv| †`vZjv, DuPz Ges cÖKvÊ evwo| Z‡e iv¯—v †_‡KB mivmwi `Êvqgvb| G‡`‡k dzUcvZ bvB e‡j evwoUviI GKUz Rwg Qvovi f`ªZvi evjvB †bB| Z‡e †mUv wKš‘ evB‡ii †Pnviv| KviY, †cQ‡b A‡bK RvqMv| cÖ_gZ cÖk¯— DVvb| Zvici cvqLvbv-†MvmjLvbv c‡i Avg-Rvg-KuvVvj Mv‡Q fiv R½‡ji g‡Zv RvqMv| †mLv‡b Kov m~h©v‡jv‡KI m~h©v‡¯—i ¤−vb AÜZKvi Ges AvMvQvq Ave„Z gvwU‡Z fvcmv MÜ| AZ RvqMv hLb ZLb mvg‡b wKQz †Q‡o GKUv evMvb Ki‡j Kx †`vl n‡Zv? †m K_vB Giv fv‡e| we‡kl K‡i gwZb| Zvi evMv‡bi eo kL, hw`I AvR Zv Kíbv‡ZB cyw®úZ n‡q‡Q| †m fv‡e, GKUz Rwg †c‡j †m wb‡RB evMv‡bi g‡Zv K‡i wb‡Zv| hZœ K‡i jvMv‡Zv †gŠmywg dzj, MÜivReKzj-nvmbv‡nbv, `y-Pvi‡U †Mvjvc| Zvici mܨvi ci Avwcm wd‡i †mLv‡b em‡Zv| GUz Avivg K‡i emevi R‡b¨ nvév †e‡Zi †Pqvi ev K¨vbfv‡mi †WK‡PqviB wK‡b wb‡Zv| Zvicie Mv †X‡j e‡m Mí¸Re Ki‡Zv| AvgRv‡`i ûKvi Af¨vm| evMv‡bi m¤§vb eRvq †i‡L †m bv nq GKUv gvbvbmB bjIqvjv my`„k¨ ¸o¸wo wK‡b wb‡Zv| Kv‡`i Mí-‡cÖwgK| dzidz‡i nvIqvq Zvi KÉ Kvwnbxgq n‡q DV‡Zv| wKsev cy®ú‡mŠi‡f gw`i †R¨vrmœviv‡Z Mí bv Ki‡jB ev Kx G‡m †h‡Zv? evsjv msKjb

96


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Ggwb‡Z †PvL ey‡R e‡mB bxi‡e mvܨKvjxb wmœ»Zv Dc‡fvM Ki‡Zv Zviv| Avwcm †_‡K kªvš— n‡q wd‡i cÖvq iv¯—v †_‡KB Po‡Z _vKv †`vZjvq hvevi wmuwo fvO‡Z fvO‡Z gwZ‡bi g‡b Rv‡M Gme K_v| evwoUv Zviv `Lj K‡i‡Q| Aek¨ jovB bv K‡iB; Zv‡`i mvgwiK kw³ Abygvb K‡i evwoi gvwjK †h c„ôcÖ`k©b K‡iwQj, Zv bq| †`kf‡½i ûRy‡M G kn‡i G‡m Zviv †hgb-†Zgb GKUv †Wivi mÜv‡b D`qv¯— Nyi‡Q, ZLb GKw`b †`L‡Z cvq evwoUv| m`i `iRvq g¯— Zvjv, wKš‘ mvgvb¨ ch©‡e¶‡Yi ci eyS‡Z cv‡i evwo‡Z Rbgvbe bvB Ges Zvi gvwjK †`kcjvZK| cwiZ¨³ evwo wPb‡Z †`wi nj bv| wKš‘ Ggb evwo cvIqv wbZvš— †mŠfv‡M¨i K_v| †mŠfv‡M¨i AvKw¯§K Avwef©v‡e cÖ_‡g Zv‡`i g‡b fqB Dcw¯’Z nq| †m fq KvU‡Z †`wi nq bv| †mw`b mܨvq Zviv m`je‡j G‡m `iRvi Zvjv †f‡O ˆi- ˆi AvIqvR Zz‡j evwoUvq cÖ‡ek K‡i| Zv‡`i g‡a¨ ZLb ˆekv‡Li Avg-Kzov‡bv w¶cÖ Db¥v`bv e‡j e¨vcviUv Zv‡`i Kv‡Q w`b-`ycy‡i WvKvwZi g‡Zv g‡b nq bv| †Kvb Aciv‡ai †PZbv hw` ev g‡b RvMvi cÖqvm cvq Zv weR‡qi Dj−v‡m wb‡g‡l Zz‡jvay‡bv n‡q D‡o hvq| ciw`b kn‡i LeiUv Qwo‡q co‡j AbvwkªZ‡`i AvMgb ïi“ nq| gv_vi Ici GKUv cvevi Avkvq Zviv `‡j-`‡j Av‡m| weR‡qi Dj−vmUv †X‡K Giv e‡j, Kx †`L‡Qb? RvqMv bvB †Kv_vI| me N‡iB weQvbv c‡o‡Q| GB †h †QvÆ NiwU, Zv‡ZI Pvi-Pvi‡U weQvbv c‡o‡Q| GLb †Zv ïay weQvbv gvÎ| c‡i Q-dzU evB AvovB dzU PviwU †PŠwK Ges `y-GKUv †Pqvi-†Uwej G‡j cv †djvi RvqMv _vK‡e bv| GKRb me‡e`bvi K‡É e‡j, Avcbv‡`i ZK&wjd Avgiv eywS bv? GKw`b Avgiv wK Kg Kó †c‡qwQ? Z‡e Avcbv‡`i Kcvj g›`| †mB n‡”Q Avmj K_v| hviv nZvk nq Zv‡`i gyL Kv‡jv n‡q I‡V mg‡e`bv fiv Dw³‡Z| H NiUv? wb‡Pi Zjvi iv¯—vi av‡i NiUv Aek¨ LvwjB g‡b nq| Lvwj †`Lv‡jI Lvwj bq| fvj K‡i †P‡q †`Lyb| †`qv‡ji cv‡k mZiwćZ euvav `y‡Uv †ewWs| †kl RvqMvUvI `y-NÈv nj A¨vKvD›Um Gi †gvUv e`i“wÏb wb‡q wb‡q‡Q| kvjvi KvQ †_‡K weQvbvcËi Avb‡Z †M‡Q| kvjvI Avevi Zvi GK †`v‡¯—i evwoi eviv›`vi Av¯—vbv †M‡o‡Q| cwievi bv _vK‡j mvjvwUI G‡m nvwRi nZ| †bnvZ Kv‡ji K_v| Avevi GKR‡bi KÉ mg‡e`bvq LjLj K‡i I‡V| hw` NÈv `y‡qK Av‡M Avm‡Zb Z‡e e`i“wÏb‡K Kjv †`Lv‡Z cvi‡Zb| NiUvq †Zgb Av‡jv †bB e‡U wKš‘ †`Lyb Rvbvjvi cv‡kB miKvwi Av‡jv| iv‡Z †Kvbw`b B‡jKwUªwmwU †dj Ki‡j †m-Av‡jv‡ZB w`we¨ P‡j hv‡e| ev wKàbZv hw` Ki‡Z PvqAek¨ G-me civn~Z evwo-mÜvbx‡`i Kv‡b weler g‡b nq| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb h_vmg‡q †eAvvBwb evwo `L‡ji e¨vcviUv Z`viK Kivevi Rb¨ cywjk Av‡m| †mUv ¯^vfvweK| †`‡kgq GKUv †Nvi cwieZ©‡bi Av‡jvob e‡U wKš‘ †Kv_vI †h ixwZgZ g‡Mi gyjyK c‡o‡Q Zv bq| cywjk †`‡L Zviv fv‡e, cjvZK M„nKZ©v wK evwo D×v‡ii Rb¨ miKv‡ii Kv‡Q Av‡e`b K‡i‡Q? Z‡e †m-K_v wek¦vm nq bv `y-w`‡bi g‡a¨ evwoUv Lvwj K‡i w`‡q †h †`k †_‡K DavI n‡q †M‡Q eZ©gv‡b Ab¨vb¨ Mfxi mgm¨vi K_v fveevi Av‡Q| m‡›`n _v‡K †h, cywjk‡K Lei w`‡q‡Q ZvivB hviv mgq g‡Zv GLv‡b bv G‡m kn‡ii Ab¨ †Kv‡bv cÖv‡š— wbõjfv‡e evwo `L‡ji wdwK‡i wQj| g›`fv‡M¨i K_v gvbv hvq wKš‘ mn¨ Kiv hvq bv| b¨vh¨ AwaKvi¯^Z¡ GK K_v, Ab¨v‡qi Ici fvM¨ jvf Ab¨ K_v| wnsmvUv b¨vqm½Z-†Zv g‡b nq-B, KZ©e¨ e‡jI g‡b nq| Giv i“‡L `uvovq| Avgiv `wi`ª †Kivwb gvbyl e‡U wKš‘ mevB f`ª N‡ii †Q‡j| evwo `Lj K‡iwQ e‡U wKš‘ Rvbvjv-`iRv fvwO bvB, BU-cv_i Lwm‡q †PvivevRv‡iI Pvjvb K‡i w`B bvB| AvgivI AvBb-Kvbyb eywS| †K bvwjk K‡i‡Q? evwoIqvjv bq| Z‡e bvwjkUvI h_vh_ bq| Kv‡`i †Kej KvZi ie †Zv‡i| hv‡ev †Kv_vq? kL K‡i wK GLv‡b G‡m D‡VwQ? m`je‡j mve Bb‡¯ú±i wd‡i wM‡q bv-nK bv †enK bv-fv‡jv bv-g›` †Mv‡Qi †Nvi-†Nviv‡jv wi‡cvU© †`q hvi gg©v_© D×v‡ii f‡qB nq‡Zv IciIqvjv Zv dvBj Pvcv †`qv †kªq g‡b K‡i| A_ev eyS‡Z cv‡i, GB ûRy‡Mi mgq Ab¨vqfv‡e evwo `L‡ji wel‡q miKvwi AvBbUv †hb †Zgb cwi®‹vi †evSv hv‡”Q bv| Kv‡`i †PvL wU‡c e‡j, mZ¨ K_v ej‡Z †`vl Kx? mve-Bb‡¯ú±‡ii wØZxq eD Avgvi GK iKg AvZ¥xqv| e‡jv bv KvD‡K wKš‘| K_vUv Aek¨ Kv‡iviB wek¦vm nq bv| Z‡e AmZ¨wUi †Mvovq †h †Kej GKUv wbg©j Avb‡›`i Dm&Kvwb, Zv ey‡S Kv‡`i‡K ¶gv Ki‡Z wØav nq bv| Drdzj− K‡É †KD cÖ¯—ve K‡i, Kx †n, Pv-wgwóUv n‡q hvK| ivZvivwZ miMig n‡q I‡V cÖKvÊ evwoUv| Av¯—vbv GKwU †c‡q‡Q Ges †m Av¯—vbwU †KD nvZ †_‡K †K‡o wb‡Z cvi‡e bv| -ïay G wek¦vmB Zvi KviY bq| †Lvjv-†gjv SiS‡i ZKZ‡K G evwo Zv‡`i g‡a¨ GKUv bZzb Rxeb-mÂvi K‡i‡Q †hb| G‡`i A‡b‡KB KjKvZvq e−Kg¨vb †jb-G Lvjvwm cwƇZ, ˆeVKLvbvq `dZwi‡`i cvovq, ˆmq` mv‡jn †jb-G ZvgvK e¨emvqx‡`i m‡½ ev Kgi“ Lvbmvgv †jb-G AK_¨ `yM©Ü †bvsivi g‡a¨ w`b KvwU‡q‡Qb| Zzjbvq G evwoi eo eo Kvgiv, bxjKzwV `vjv‡bi d¨vkv‡b g¯— g¯— Rvbvjv, †Lvjv‡gjv DVvb, Av‡iv †cQ‡b ebR½‡ji g‡Zv Avg-Rvg-KuvVv‡ji evMvb- Gme GKwU wfbœ `ywbqv †hb| Giv jvU‡ejv‡Ui g‡Zv GKLvbv Ni `Lj K‡i bvB mZ¨, Zey GZ Av‡jv evZvm KL‡bv Zviv Dc‡fvM K‡i bvB| Zv‡`i Rxe‡b meyR Z…Y MRv‡e, agbx‡Z mej m‡ZR i³ Avm‡e, nvRvi-`ynvRvi Iqvjv‡`i g‡Zv gy‡L ab-¯^v‡¯’¨i †RŠjym Avm‡e, †`nI g¨v‡jwiqv-KvjvR¡i-¶q-e¨vwagy³ n‡e| †ivMvcUKv BDbym BwZg‡a¨ Zvi ¯^v‡¯’¨i cwieZ©b †`L‡Z cvq| †m _vK‡Zv g¨vKwjIW w÷ª‡U| MwjUv †hb mKvj‡ejvi AveR©bv fiv Wv÷web| †m Mwj‡ZB boe‡o ai‡bi GKUv Kv‡Vi †`vZjv evwo‡Z ivbœvN‡ii evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb cv‡k mu¨vr†m‡Z GKwU Kvgivq K”Q‡`kxq Pvgov e¨Šemvq‡`i m‡½ Pvi eQi †m evm K‡i‡Q| cvovwU Pvgovi DrKU M‡Ü me©¶Y Ggb ficyi n‡q _vK‡Zv †h iv¯—vi †Wª‡bi cPv `yM©Ü bv‡K †cuŠQ‡Zv bv, N‡ii †Kv‡Y Bu`yi †eovj g‡i c‡P _vK‡jI Zvi Lei cvIqv `y®‹i wQj| BDby‡mi R¡iR¡vwi †j‡MB _vK‡Zv, †_‡K †_‡K †kliv‡Z Kvwki agK DV‡Zv| Zey cvovwU Qv‡owb GK Kvi‡Y| †K Zv‡K e‡jwQj, Pvgovi MÜ bvwK h²vi RxevYy aŸsm K‡i| `yMÜ © Uv ZvB †m A¤−vbe`‡b mn¨ †Zv Ki‡ZvB, mgq mgq Avwcm †_‡K wd‡i Rvbvjvi cv‡k `uvwo‡q cv‡ki evwoi wbwQ`ª †`qv‡ji w`‡K ZvwK‡q eyKfe‡i wbk¦vm wb‡Zv| Zv‡Z Aek¨ Zvi ¯^v‡¯’¨i †Kv‡bv DbœwZ †`Lv hvq bvB| Lvbv`vbv bv n‡j evwo miMig nq bv| ZvB GK mßvn a‡i gyNjvB Kvq`vq Zviv Lvbv`vbv K‡i| ivbœvi e¨vcv‡i mK‡jB ¸ß †KivgwZ cÖKvk cvq mnmv| bvwbi nv‡Z †kLv we‡kl wcVv ˆZwii †KŠkjwU †kl ch©š— ALv`¨ e¯‘‡Z cwiYZ n‡jI Zvwid cÖksmvq Zv gyL‡ivPK n‡q I‡V| Mv‡bi AvmiI e‡m †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv mܨvq| nvweeyj−vn †Kv‡Ì‡K GKUv †emy‡iv nvigwbqvg wb‡q G‡m Zvi mvnv‡h¨ wb‡Ri Mjvi ewjôZvi Ici fi K‡i wbkxZ ivZ ch©š— GKwU Ae³e¨ m½xZmgm¨v m„wó K‡i| G mg‡q GKw`b DVv‡bi cÖv‡š— ivbœvN‡ii †cQ‡b †PŠ‡KvYv Ava nvZ DuPz B‡Ui ˆZwi GKwU g‡Âi Ici Zzjmx MvQwU Zv‡`i `„wóMZ nq| ‡mw`b †iveevi mKvj| wb‡gi Wvj w`‡q †g‡QvqvK Ki‡Z Ki‡Z †gv`v‡eŸi DVv‡i cvqPvwi KiwQj, nVvr †m Zvi¯^‡i AvZ©bv` K‡i I‡V| †jvKwU Ggwb‡ZB ûRy‡M gvbyl| mvgvb¨ K_v‡ZB cÖvY-kxZj-Kiv ˆi-‰i AvIqvR †Zvjvi Af¨vm Zvi| Zey †m AvIqvR D‡c¶v Kiv mnR bq| kxNÖB †KD †KD Qz‡U Av‡m DVv‡b| Kx e¨vcvi? †PvL Ly‡j †`L! Kx? Kx †`L‡ev? mvc‡Lvc †`L‡e Avkv K‡iwQj e‡j cÖ_‡g Zzjmx MvQUv bR‡i c‡o bv Zv‡`i| †`L‡Zv bv? Ggb †eKvq`v Avmbvaxb Zzjmx MvQUv †`L‡Z cv‡”Q bv? Dc‡o †dj‡Z n‡e IUv| Avgiv hLb G evwo‡Z G‡m D‡VwQ ZLb GLv‡b †Kv‡bv wn›`yqvwbi wPý Avi mn¨ Kiv n‡e bv| GKUz nZvk n‡q Zviv Zzjmx MvQwUi w`‡K ZvKvq| MvQwU †Kgb †hb g‡i Av‡Q| Mvp i‡Oi cvZvq L‡qwi is a‡i‡Q| wb‡P AvMvQvI MwR‡q‡Q| nq‡Zv eûw`b Zv‡Z cvwbe c‡owb| Kx †`L‡Qv? †gv`v‡eŸi û¼vi w`‡q I‡V| ejwQ bv, Dc‡o †dj| Giv †Kgbe ¯—ä n‡q hvq| AvKw¯§K G Avwe®‹v‡i Zviv ���hb wKQzUv nZf¤^ n‡q c‡o‡Q| †h evwo GZ k~b¨ g‡b n‡qwQj, Qv‡` hvIqvi wmuwoi †`qv‡j KuvPv nv‡Z †jLv-Uv bvg m‡Ë¡I †h evwoUv Ggb †eIqvwik †V‡KwQj, †m evwoi †Pnviv †hb nVvr e`‡j †M‡Q| AvPgKv aiv c‡o wM‡q ﮋcÖvq g„ZcÖvq bMY¨ Zzjmx MvQwU nVvr †m evwoi A›`‡ii K_v cÖKvk K‡i‡Q †hb| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb G‡`i A‡nZzK ¯—äZv j¶ K‡i †gv`v‡eŸi Avevi û¼vi Qv‡o| fve‡Qv Kx GZ? Dc‡o †d‡jv ejwQ| †KD b‡o bv| wn›`y ixwZbxwZ G‡`i †Zgb fvj K‡i Rvbv bvB| ZeyI †Kv_vI ï‡b‡Q †h, wn›`yevwo‡Z cÖwZ w`bv‡š— M„nKΩx Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Z‡j mܨv cÖ`xc R¡vjvq, Mjvq AvuPj w`‡q cÖYvg K‡i| AvR †h Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Z‡j Nvm MwR‡q D‡V‡Q, †m cwiZ¨³ Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Z‡jI cÖwZmܨvq †KD cÖ`xc w`‡Zv| AvKv‡k hLb mܨvZviv ewjô GKvwK‡Z¡ D¾¡j n‡q DV‡Zv, ZLb Nbvqgvb Qvqvi g‡a¨ AvbZ wmu`y‡ii bxie i³v³ ¯ú‡k© GKUv kvš—-kxZj cÖ`xc R¡‡j DV‡Zv cÖwZw`b| N‡i `yw`©‡bi So G‡m‡Q, nq‡Zv Kv‡iv Rxeb cÖ`xc wb‡f †M‡Q, Avevi nvwm-Avb‡›`i †dvqvivI Qz‡U‡Q myL-mg‡q, wKš‘ G cÖ`xc †`Iqv Abyôvb GKw`‡bi Rb¨I eÜ _v‡K bvB| †h-M„nKΩx eQ‡ii ci eQi G Zzjmx Mv‡Qi Z‡j cÖ`xc w`‡q‡Q †m AvR †Kv_vq? gwZb GK mg‡q †ijI‡q‡Z KvR Ki‡Zv| AKvi‡Y Zvi †Pv‡Li mvg‡b wewfbœ †ijI‡q-cwÆi Qwe †f‡m I‡V| fv‡e, nq‡Zv Avmvb‡mvj, ˆe`¨evwU, wjjyqv ev nvIovq †ijI‡q-cwƇZ †m gwnjv †Kv‡bv AvZ¥x‡qi N‡i Avkªq wb‡q‡Q| wekvj Bqv‡W©i cv‡k †iv‡` ï‡Kv‡Z-_vKv jvj cv‡oi GKwU gm„Y Kv‡jv kvwo †m †hb †`L‡Z cvq| nq‡Zv †m kvwowU M„nKΩxiB| †Kgb welYœfv‡e †m kvwowU †`v‡j ¯^í nvIqvq| A_ev gwnjvwU †Kv‡bv PjwZ †Uª‡bi Rvbvjvi cv‡k †hb e‡m| Zvi `„wó evB‡ii w`‡K †m `„wó †Luv‡R wKQz `~‡i, w`M‡š—i Icv‡i| nq‡Zv Zvi hvÎv GL‡bv †kl nq bvB| wKš‘ †hLv‡bB †m _vKzK Ges Zvi hvÎv GL‡bv †kl n‡q‡Q wK nq bvB, AvKv‡k hLb w`bv‡š—i Qvqv Nwb‡q I‡V ZLb cÖwZw`b G Zzjmx Zjvi K_v g‡b nq e‡j Zvi †PvL nq‡Zv QjgjK‡i I‡V| MZKvj †_‡K BDby‡mi mw`© mw`© fve| †m e‡j, _vK bv IUv| Avgiv †Zv Zv c~Rv Ki‡Z hvw”Q bv| ei N‡i Zzjmx MvQ _vKv fvj| mw`©-K‡d Zvi cvZvi im eoB DcKvix| †gv`v‡eŸi Ab¨‡`i w`‡K ZvKvq| g‡b nq, meviB †hb ZvB gZ| MvQwU Dcov‡bvi R‡b¨ Kv‡iv nvZ GwM‡q Av‡m bv| I‡`i g‡a¨ Gbv‡qZ GKUz †gŠjfx ai‡bi gvbyl| gy‡L `vwo, cuvP Iqv³ bvgvRI Av‡Q, mKv‡j wbqwgZfv‡e KziAvb-†ZjvIqvZ K‡i| †m ch©š— Pzc| cÖwZ mܨvq M„nKΩxi mRj †Pv‡Li `„k¨wU Zvi g‡bI Rv‡M wK? A¶Z †`‡n Zzjmx MvQwU weivR Ki‡Z _v‡K| Z‡e G‡`i nvZ †_‡K †invB †c‡jI Giv †h Zvi m¤^‡Ü ci gyn~‡Z©B Am‡PZbvq wbgw¾Z nq bv bq| ei †Kgb GKUv `ye©jZvi fve, KZ©‡e¨i m¤§y‡L wcQ-cv n‡j †hgb GKUv A¯^”Q›`Zv Av‡m, †Zgb GKUv A¯^”Q›`Zv Zv‡`i g‡b †R‡M _v‡K| ZviB d‡j †mw`b mvܨ AvÇvq ZK© I‡V| Zviv evKweZÊvi †mªvZ †Zv g‡bi `ye©jZv A¯^”Q›`Zv fvwm‡q w`‡Z Pvq †hb| AvR Ab¨vb¨ w`‡bi g‡Zv ivóª‰bwZKA_©‰bwZK Av‡jvPbvi e`‡j mv¤cÖ`vwqKZvB Zv‡`i cÖavb welqe¯‘ n‡q I‡V| -IivB †Zv me wKQzi g~‡j, †gv`v‡eŸi e‡j| Dj½ evj¦-Gi Av‡jvq Zvi mh‡Zœ g‡QvqvK Kiv `uvZ SKSK K‡i| Zv‡`i bxPZv nxbZv †MuŠovwgi R‡b¨B †Zv †`kUv fvM n‡jv| evsjv msKjb

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Kg©aviq| lôx Zrcyi“l| ga¨c`‡jvcx Kg©aviq| wØZxqv Zrcyi“l| wØZxqv Zrcyi“l| Ø›Ø cÂgx Zrcyi“l| wØZxqv Zrcyi“l| eûeªxwn| Z…Zxqv Zrcyi“l| Kg©aviq| eûeªxwn| Z…Zxqv Zrcyi“l| lôx Zrcyi“l| Z…Zxqv Zrcyi“l| AjyK lôx Zrcyi“l| ga¨c`‡jvcx Kg©aviq| PZz_x© Zrcyi“l| bT_©K eûeªxwn| lôx Zrcyi“l| iƒcK Kg©aviq| lôx Zrcyi“l| lôx Zrcyi“l| Z…Zxqv Zrcyi“l| Ø›Ø| Ø›Ø| Dcgvb Kg©aviq| bT Zrcyi“l| bT Zrcyi“l| bT Zrcyi“l| bT Zrcyi“l| 105


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb ‰ evK¨vš——i : Aw¯— †_‡K †bwZ Aw¯— †bwZ Aw¯— †bwZ Aw¯— †bwZ Aw¯— †bwZ Aw¯— †bwZ †bwZ †_‡K Aw¯— †bwZ Aw¯— †bwZ Aw¯— †bwZ Aw¯— †bwZ Aw¯— †bwZ Aw¯—

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†m K_vB Giv fv‡e| †m K_vB Giv bv †f‡e cv‡i bv| evwoUv Zviv `Lj K‡i‡Q| evwoUv Zviv `Lj bv K‡i Qv‡o bv| K_vUvq Zvi wek¦vm nq| K_vUvq Zvi Awek¦vm nq bv| Z‡e bvwjkUv A‡hŠw³K| Z‡e bvwjkUv †hŠw³K bq| †m Zvi¯^‡i AvZ©bv` K‡i| †m Zvi¯^‡i AvZ©bv` bv K‡i cv‡i bv|

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Zviv hv‡e bv †Kv_vI| Zviv GLv‡bB _vK‡e| Kv‡iv gy‡L †Kvb K_v m‡i bv| cÖ‡Z¨‡KB bxie n‡q _v‡K| †mLv‡b †KD †bB| RvqMvUv wbR©b| K_vUv bv †g‡b Dcvq †bB| K_vUv gvb‡ZB nq| Zv‡`i fyjUv fvO‡Z †`wi nq bv| AwP‡iB Zv‡`i fyj fv‡O|

‰ eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1. Zzjmx MvQwU †Kv_vq? K. D‡Vv‡bi gvSLv‡b L. †`qv‡ji cv‡k M. ivbœvN‡ii ���cQ‡b N. dU‡Ki evB‡i 2. ÔnqZ Zvi hvÎv GL‡bv †kl nq bvBÕ-Kvi m¤ú‡K© ejv n‡q‡Q? K. †gv`v‡eŸi L. M„nKÎx© M. gKmy` N. Bb‡¯ú±i 3. ÔZzjmx MvQwU A¶Z †`‡nB _v‡KÕ KviYi. Zvi Zjvi AvMvQv A`„k¨ n‡q †M‡Q ii. cvZv¸wj †Kgb m‡ZR n‡q D‡V‡Q iii. Zvi †Mvovq †KD cvwb w`‡”Q evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii 4. ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ- M‡í Zzjmx MvQwU Kx‡mi cÖZxK? K. cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©v‡Mi L. A_©‰bwZK APjve¯’vi M. mvgvwRK Aw¯’iZvi N. ivR‰bwZK N~Y©ve‡Z©i 5. KjKvZv †_‡K wKQz †jvK G †`‡k P‡j G‡mwQj †Kb? K. PvKwii mÜv‡b L. †`kfv‡Mi Kvi‡Y M. †`k åg‡Yi j‡¶¨ N. †`k‡cÖ‡gi Uv‡b 6. cywjk AvwkªZ‡`i evwoQvov K‡i‡Q †Kb? K. evwoIqvjv Avevi wd‡i Avmvq L. evwowU †f‡O †djvi wm×vš— nIqvq M. miKvi evwo Qvovi ûKzg †`qvq N. evwoi gvwjKvbv nvZe`j nIqvq wb‡Pi Aby‡”Q`wU co Ges 7 I 8 b¤^i cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| ev‡bi cvwb‡Z Wye‡Z Wye‡Z iwgR GKwU Mv‡Qi ¸uwo AvuK‡o aij| wKš‘ †mªv‡Zi Zxeª Uv‡b ¸uwowU Zvi nvZQvov n‡q hvq| iwgR †f‡m hvq ev‡bi Uv‡b | 7. ¸uwowU iwg‡Ri nvZQvov nIqvi mv‡_ M‡í ewY©Z †Kvb NUbvi wgj cvIqv hvq? K. m`je‡j evwo Z¨vM Kivi L. Zzjmx MvQwU Dc‡o †djvi wb‡`©‡ki M. gwZ‡bi evMvb Ki‡Z bv cvivi N. M„nKÎx©i K_v KviI g‡b bv covi 8. Mv‡Qi ¸uwoi mv‡_ M‡íi †Kvb e¯‘wU Zzj¨? K. Zzjmx Mv‡Qi L. cwiZ¨³ evwoi M wb‡gi Wv‡ji N. Kwo Kv‡Vi

‰ m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1. cÙvi ey‡K Pi †R‡M‡Q| †mLv‡b b`xfvOv A‡bK gvbyl G‡m Avkªq wb‡q‡Q| Zviv Ni Zz‡j‡Q, MvQ jvwM‡q‡Q, Pvlvev` K‡i‡Q| wbt¯^ gvbyl¸‡jv †eu‡P _vKvi GKUv Aej¤^b Lyu‡R †c‡q‡Q| Afve`vwi‡`ª¨i gv‡SI Pi Rxe‡b GKUv cÖkvwš—i nvIqv eB‡Z ïi“ K‡i‡Q| wVK Ggwb mg‡q GKw`b gnvR‡bi jvwVqvjiv P‡i G‡m nvwRi nj| gnvR‡bi wb‡`©‡k Zviv wbixn Pievmx‡`i D‡”Q` Ki‡jv| gyLi Pi Avevi wb_i n‡q coj| K. Zzjmx MvQwU cÖ_g †K †`L‡Z cvq? evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb L. ÔfveQ Kx AZ? Dc‡o †d‡jv ejwQÕ| G K_v †Kb ejv n‡q‡Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. Aby‡”Q‡` ewY©Z b`xfvOv gvbyl¸‡jvi mv‡_ ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡íi Pwiθ‡jvi †h wgj cvIqv hvq Zv e¨vL¨v Ki| N. ÔgyLi Pi Avevi wb_i n‡q cojÕ Aby‡”Q‡` ewY©Z G NUbvwU ÔGKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ M‡í Kxfv‡e cÖwZ¯’vwcZ n‡q‡Q we‡k−lb Ki| 2. LvuPvq ew›` wUqv cvwLwUi gyg~ly© `kv| Kw`b a‡i `vbvcvwb †bB| G evwo‡Z hviv _vKZ, hy‡×i Wvgv‡Wv‡j Zviv evwo †Q‡o P‡j †M‡Q| GKw`b bZzb GK cwievi G‡m DVj †m evwo‡Z| Zv‡`i h‡Zœ wUqv cvwLwU cÖvY wd‡i †cj| wKš‘ wKQzw`b ci G cwieviwU‡KI evwo Qvo‡Z nj| Avevi AwbwðZ n‡q coj wUqv cvwLi Rxeb| K. evwo Qvovi †gqv` PweŸk NÈv †_‡K evwo‡q KZw`b n‡qwQj? L. Ôwn›`yqvwbi wPýÕ ej‡Z M‡í Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q? e¨vL¨v Ki| M. Aby‡”Q‡`i NUbv Abymi‡Y M‡íi AvwkªZ gvbyl‡`i evwo Qvovi KviY e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Ôgyg~ly© wUqv cvwL, weeY© Zzjmx MvQ Ges gvby‡li Aw¯’i Rxeb †hb GKB m~‡Î Muv_vÕ- gš—e¨wU GKwU Zzjmx Mv‡Qi KvwnbxÕ Gi Av‡jv‡K we‡k−lY Ki|

evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

GKz‡ki Mí Rwni ivqnvb †jLK cwiwPwZ RxebgyLx mgvRm‡PZb K_vmvwnwZ¨K Rwni ivqnvb 1933 wLªóv‡ã †dbx †Rjvi gRyciy MÖv‡g Rb¥MÖnY K‡ib| wZwb wQ‡jb K_vmvwnwZ¨K, mvsevw`K, ivR‰bwZK Kgx© I Pjw”PÎKvi| wZwb Rwni ivqnvb wn‡m‡e mycwiwPZ n‡jI Zuvi Avmj bvg †gvnv¤§` Rwni“j−vn| 1958 mv‡j XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq †_‡K wZwb weG (Abvm©) cvm K‡ib| GKRb †QvU MíKvi I Jcb¨vwmK wn‡m‡e ZLb †_‡KB wZwb cwiwPZ| cieZx©‡Z Pjw”PÎ cwiPvjbvi gva¨‡g mgv‡Ri Dci Zjvi gvbyl †_‡K ïi“ K‡i Muv‡qi †L‡U LvIqv gvby‡li Kv‡Q ch©š— e¨vcK cwiwPwZ jvf K‡ib| Dcb¨vm, ÔnvRvi eQi a‡iÕ, ÔAv‡iK dvêybÕ, Ôeid Mjv b`xÕ, ÔAvi KZ w`bÕ me©vwaK D‡j−L‡hvM¨| ÔRxeb †_‡K †bqvÕ, †÷c †R‡bvmvBWÕ, Ô †jU †`qvi we jvBUÕ BZ¨vw`| Gme ¯§iYxq Pjw”PÎ Avgv‡`i RvZxq †PZbv m„wó‡Z me©vwaK Aby‡cÖiYv hywM‡q‡Q| cÖL¨vZ mvsevwaK I Jcb¨vwmK knx`yj−vn Kvqmvi Zuvi AMÖR| G †`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv jv‡fi ci AcüZ knx`yj−vn Kvqmvi‡K LuyR‡Z wM‡q Rwni ivqnvb Avi N‡i †d‡ib| 1972 wLªóv‡ãi 30 Rvbyqvwi wZwb wb‡LuvR I knx` nb| Zcy‡K Avevi wd‡i cv‡ev, GK_v fy‡jI fvwe wb †Kvbw`b| Zey †m Avevi wd‡i G‡m‡Q Avgv‡`i gv‡S| fve‡Z AevK jv‡M, Pvi eQi Av‡M hv‡K nvB‡Kv‡U©i †gv‡o †klev‡ii g‡Zv †`‡LwQjvg, hv‡K Rxe‡b Avi †`L‡ev e‡j ¯^‡cœI Kíbv Kwiwb- †mB Zcy wd‡i G‡m‡Q| I wd‡i Avmvi ci †_‡K Avgiv mevB †hb †Kgb GKUz DwØMœ n‡q c‡owQ| iv‡Z fv‡jv Nyg nq bv| hw`I GKUz AvaUz Z›`ªv Av‡m, Zey AÜKv‡i nVvr Ii w`‡K †PvL co‡j Mv nvZ cv wkD‡i I‡V| f‡q Romo n‡q hvB| †j‡ci wb‡P †`nUv VK&VK& K‡i Kuv‡c| w`‡bi †ejv I‡K wN‡i Avgiv †QvULv‡Uv RUjv cvKvB| Lei †c‡q A‡b‡KB †`L‡Z Av‡m I‡K| AevK n‡q Ii w`‡K ZvwK‡q _v‡K Iiv| Avgiv †h AevK nB bv Zv bq| Avgv‡`i †Pv‡LI we¯§q Rv‡M| `yÕeQi I Avgv‡`i mv‡_ wQj| Ii k¦vmcÖkv¦ ‡mi LeiI Avgiv ivLZvg| mwZ¨ wK AevK KvÊ †`L †Zv, †K ej‡e †h G Zcy| I‡K †PbvB hvq bv| Ii gv‡K Wv‡Kv, Avwg njc K‡i ej‡Z cvwi, Ii gv-I wPb‡Z cvi‡e bv I‡K| wPb‡e Kx K‡i? RUjvi GKcvk †_‡K ivnvZ wb‡Ri gZ e‡j †Pbvi †Kv‡bv Dcvq _vK‡j †Zv wPb‡e| G Ae¯’vq †KD KvD‡K wPb‡Z cv‡i bv| e‡j †m GKUv `xN©k¦vm Qv‡o| AvgivI †Kgb †hb Abgbv n‡q cwo ¶‡Y‡Ki Rb¨| A‡bK K‡ó wVKvbv †RvMvo K‡i Kvj mKv‡j ivnvZ‡K cvwV‡qwQjvg, Zcyi gv Avi eD‡K Lei †`evi Rb¨| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb mvivw`b GLv‡b †mLv‡b cBcB K‡i Ny‡i we‡K‡j hLb ivnvZ wd‡i G‡m Lei w`‡jv, I‡`i KvD‡K cvIqv hvq wb ZLb ixwZg‡Zv fvebvq cojvg| GLb Kx Kiv hvq ej †Zv, I‡`i GK Rb‡KI cvIqv †Mj bv? Avwg †PvL Zz‡j ZvKvjvg ivnv‡Zi w`‡K| weQvbvi Ici acvm K‡i e‡m ivnvZ ej‡jv, Ii gv gviv †M‡Q| gvi †M‡Q? Avnv †mevi GLv‡b MovMwo w`‡q Kx KvbœvKvwUB bv Zcyi R‡b¨ †Ku‡`wQ‡jb wZwb| Iui Kvbœv †`‡L Avgvi wb‡Ri †Pv‡L cvwb G‡m wM‡qwQj| eDUvi Lei? Ii K_v e‡jv bv Avi| ivnvZ gyL euvKv‡jv| Ab¨ Avi GK RvqMvq we‡q K‡i‡Q| †mwK| Gi g‡a¨ we‡q K‡i †dj‡jv †g‡qUv? Zcy I‡K KZ fvjvem‡Zv| bvwRg weoweo K‡i e‡j DV‡jv Pvcv ¯^‡i| mvby ej‡jv, we‡q Ki‡e bv †Zv wK mviv Rxeb weaev n‡q _vK‡e bvwK †g‡qUv| e‡j Zcyi w`‡K ZvKv‡jv mvby| AvgivI `„wó wdwi‡q Avbjvg Ii Ici| mwZ¨, †K ej‡e G Pvi eQi Av‡MKvi †mB Zcy, hvi gy‡L GK SjK nvwm AvVvi g‡Zv †j‡M _vK‡Zv me mgq, Zvi w`‡K ZvKv‡Z f‡q Avgvi i³ wng n‡q Av‡m †Kb? `yÕeQi †m Avgv‡`i mv‡_ wQ‡jv| Avgiv wQjvg wZbRb| Avwg, Zcy Avi ivnvZ| Zcy wQ‡jv Avgv‡`i gv‡S mevi PvB‡Z eq‡m †QvU| wKš‘ eq‡m †QvU n‡j Kx n‡e, I-B wQ‡jv GKgvÎ weevwnZ| K‡j‡R fwZ© nevi eQiLv‡bK c‡i †iYy‡K we‡q K‡i Zcy| m¤ú‡K© †g‡qUv AvZ¥xqv n‡Zv Ii| †`vnviv Mob, wQcwQ‡c KwU, Av‡cj i‡Oi †g‡qUv| cÖvqB Ii mv‡_ †`Lv Ki‡Z Avm‡Zv GLv‡b| I G‡j Avgiv Puv`v Zz‡j Pv Avi wgwó G‡b †LZvg| Avi Mí¸R‡e †g‡Z DVZvg ixwZg‡Zv| Zcy wQj M‡íi ivRv| †hgb nvm‡Z cvi‡Zv †Q‡jUv, †Zgwb Mí Kivi e¨vcv‡iI wQj I¯—v`| hLb I Mí Ki‡Z ïi“ Ki‡Zv, ZLb KvD‡K K_v ejvi my‡hvM w`‡Zv bv| †mB †h †jvKUvi K_v †Zvgv‡`i e‡jwQjvg bv †mw`b| †mB †nuvrKv †gvUv †jvKUv, K¨vwcUv‡j hvi mv‡_ Avjvc n‡qwQj, IB †h, †jvKUv ejwQj †m evb©vWÕk n‡e, ciï iv‡Z gviv †M‡Q GKUv Q¨vKov Mvwoi Zjvq c‡o| ..... Avi †mB †g‡qUv, †h I‡K we‡q Ki‡e e‡j K_v w`‡qwQ‡jv ...I gviv hvevi c‡ii w`b GK we‡jwZ mv‡n‡ei mv‡_ cvwj‡q †M‡Q .... i“Yx †g‡qUvi Lei Rvb‡Zv| †m Kx, i“Yx‡K wPb‡Z cvi‡Qv bv? kn‡ii †miv bvwP‡q wQ‡jv, AvRKvj Aek¨ ivRbxwZ Ki‡Q| †mw`b †`Lv nj iv¯—vq| Av‡M †Zv cvUKvwV wQ‡jv| GLb †ek †gvUv‡mvUv n‡q‡Q| †`Lv n‡ZB †i‡¯—viuvq wb‡q LvIqv‡jv| we‡q K‡iwQ ï‡b wR‡Ám Ki‡jv, eD †`L‡Z †Kgb| n‡q‡Q, Gevi Zzwg G‡mv| Dt, K_v ej‡Z ïi“ Ki‡j †hb Avi dz‡iv‡Z Pvq bv| ivnvZ _vwg‡q w`‡Z †Póv Ki‡Zv I‡K| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Zvici Df‡q DaŸ©kv¦ ‡m †`Šo w`jvg Avgiv BDwbfvwm©wUi w`‡K| †m iv‡Z Zcyi gv G‡m MovMwo w`‡q †Ku‡`wQjvg GLv‡b| †iYyI G‡mwQ‡jv, cjKnxb †PvL‡Rvov w`‡q AkÖ“i †dvqviv †b‡gwQ‡jv Zvi| wKš‘ Avgv‡`i w`‡K GKeviI ZvKvq wb †m| GKUv K_vI Avgv‡`i mv‡_ e‡jwb †iYy| ivnvZ ïay Avgvi Kv‡b wdmwdm K‡i e‡jwQ‡jv, Zcy bv g‡i Avwg gi‡jB fv‡jv n‡Zv| Kx AevK KvÊ †`L †Zv, cvkvcvwk wQjvg Avgiv| A_P Avgv‡`i wKQz n‡jv bv, ¸wj jvM‡jv wKbv Zcyi Kcv‡j Kx AevK KvÊ †`L †Zv| Zvici Pvi‡U eQi †K‡U †M‡Q| Pvi eQi Zcy‡K wd‡i cv‡ev, GK_v fy‡jI fvwe wb †Kvbw`b| Zcy gviv hvevi ci †iYy G‡m GKw`b gvjcθ‡jv me wb‡q †M‡jv Ii| `y‡Uv my¨U‡Km, GKUv eB‡qi Uªv¼, Avi GKUv †ewWs| †mw`bI gyL fvi K‡i wQ‡jv †iYy| K_v e‡jwb Avgv‡`i mv‡_| ïay ivnv‡Zi w`‡K GKdjK ZvwK‡q wR‡Ám K‡iwQ‡jv, Ii GKUv Mig †KvU wQ‡jv bv, †KvUUv †Kv_vq? I, IUv Avgvi my¨U‡K‡m| ax‡i †KvUUv †ei K‡i w`‡qwQ‡jv ivnvZ| Gici w`b K‡qK Zcyi wmUUv Lvwj c‡o wQ‡jv| gv‡S gv‡S ivZ †kl n‡q G‡j Avgv‡`i g‡b n‡Zv, †K †hb Mv‡q nvZ w`‡q WvK‡Q Avgv‡`i| I‡Vv, Avi NywgI bv, I‡Vv| †PvL †g‡j KvD‡K †`L‡Z †cZvg bv, ïay Ii k~b¨ weQvbvi w`‡K ZvwK‡q gbUv e¨_vq f‡i DV‡Zv| Zvici GKw`b Zcyi wm‡U bZzb †Q‡j G‡jv GKUv| †m †Q‡jUv eQi wZ‡bK wQ‡jv| Zvici G‡jv Avi GKRb| Avgv‡`i bZzb i“g‡gU| †ek nvwmLywk fiv gyL| †mw`b mKv‡j weQvbvq e‡m, ÔGbvUwgÕi cvZv Dëvw”Q‡jv †m| Zvi †PŠwKi wb‡P GKUv Szwo‡Z ivLv Ô†¯‹wjU‡biÕ Ô¯‹vjÕUv †ei K‡i †`LwQ‡jv Avi eB‡qi mv‡_ wgwj‡q cowQ‡jv †m| Zvici GK mgq nVvr ivnv‡Zi w`‡K ZvwK‡q wR‡Ám Ki‡jv, ivnvZ mv‡ne, GKUz †`Lyb †Zv, Avgvi ¯‹v‡ji Kcv‡ji gvSLvbUvq GKUv MZ© †Kb? Kx ej‡j? Pg‡K D‡V Df‡qB ZvKvjvg Ii w`‡K| ivnvZ D‡V wM‡q ¯‹vjUv Zz‡j wb‡jv nv‡Z| Suy‡K c‡o †m †`L‡Z jvM‡jv AevK n‡q| nuv, Kcv‡ji gvSLvbUvq †Mvj GKUv dz‡Uv, ivnvZ ZvKv‡jv Avgvi w`‡K, Ii †Pv‡Li fvlv eyS‡Z fyj n‡jv bv Avgvi| weoweo K‡i ejjvg, euv cv‡qi nvoUv `yÕBw †QvU wQ‡jv Ii| K_vUv †kl bv n‡ZB Szwo †_‡K nvo¸‡jv Zz‡j wb‡jv ivnvZ| nvZ¸‡jv VK&VK& K‡i KuvcwQ‡jv Ii| GKUz c‡i D‡ËwRZ Mjvq wPrKvi K‡i ej‡jv, euv cv‡qi wUweqv †deyjvUv `yÕBw †QvU| †`‡Lv, †`‡Lv| D‡ËRbvq AvwgI KuvcwQjvg| ¶YKvj c‡i ¯‹vjUv `ynv‡Z Zz‡j a‡i ivnvZ ej‡jv, Zcy| ej‡Z wM‡q MjvUv a‡i G‡jv Ii| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb kãv_© I UxKv †`vnviv KwU evb©vW© k

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†gvUvI bq †ivMvI bq| †Kvgi| RR© evb©vW© k (1856-1950)| Bs‡iwR mvwn‡Z¨i weL¨vZ †jLK I bvU¨Kvi| 1925 wLªóv‡ã wZwb mvwn‡Z¨ †bv‡ej cyi®‹vi cvb| Ôg¨vb A¨vÛ mycvi g¨vbÕ, Ô†m›U †RvqvbÕ BZ¨vw` Zuvi weL¨vZ bvUK| wbK…ógv‡bi †Nvovi Mvwo| Q°o gvK©v Mvwo| avivevwnKZvwenxb| A‡bK Ic‡i ch©š— Av¸‡bi dzjwKi †dvqviv I‡V Ggb GK ai‡bi evwR| AbM©j K_v| Jl‡ai †`vKvb| DËvj RbZvi mgy`ª| cÖKv‡k¨ cÖ`k©‡bi Rb¨ cÖvPxi cÎ ev †cv÷vi| kixiwe`¨v, A½ e¨e‡”Q`we`¨v, Anatomy| K¼vj Skeleton | gv_vi Lywj Skull | R½vw¯’ I AbyR•Nvw¯’, Tibia-fibula|

Drm I cwiwPwZ Rwni ivqnv‡bi ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ msMÖn Kiv n‡q‡Q 1981 wLªóv‡ã cÖKvwkZ Rwni ivqnvb iPbvewji wØZxq LÊ †_‡K| 1952 mv‡ji fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi †cÖ¶vc‡U †jLv GB M‡í †jLK Gu‡K‡Qb †gwW‡Kj K‡j‡R Aa¨qbiZ GK cÖvYeš—, DÏvg, ü`qevb mncvVxi Qwe †h knx` nq fvlv Av‡›`vj‡b| jvk wQbZvB n‡q hvq wgwjUvwii nv‡Z| †gwW‡Kj K‡j‡Ri QvÎvev‡m bi-K¼v‡ji m‡½ wgwj‡q kixiwe`¨v covi mg‡q Avwe®K…Z nq G K¼vj †mB knx` mncvVxi| Abykxjbg~jK KvR mvwnZ¨‡eva ev¯—e mZ¨ I wkímZ¨ †jLK mwZ¨ ev HwZnvwmK NUbv wb‡q †h mvwnZ¨ ˆZwi K‡ib Zv‡K wKš‘ me mgq cy‡ivcywi BwZnvm ev mZ¨ NUbv ejv P‡j bv| KviY †jLK GLv‡b Kíbvi Avkªq wb‡q bZybfv‡e Kvwnbx, NUbv, PwiÎ BZ¨vw` m„wó K‡i _v‡Kb| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb †jLK mvwn‡Z¨i †h PwiÎ m„wó K‡ib Zvi ˆewkó¨, wµqvKjvc hZUv M‡íi Kvwnbxi m‡½ m½wZc~Y© n‡q _v‡K, ev¯—‡ei m‡½ ZZUv bq| Z‡e mvwn‡Z¨i mZ¨ ûeû mZ¨ bv n‡jI †jLK mvwn‡Z¨ GK ai‡bi mZ¨‡K Zz‡j a‡ib| Zv‡K ejv nq, wkí-mZ¨ ev Kve¨-mZ¨| me gnr mvwnZ¨ b¨vh¨ I MÖnY‡hvM¨ K‡i †Zvjvi †gŠwjK wfwË n‡”Q GB ai‡bi wkí-mZ¨| LyuwU‡h †`L‡j †h †Kv‡bv mv_©K mvwnZ¨K‡g© Avgiv `yÕai‡bi A‡_©i †`Lv cvB| GKwU n‡”Q Av¶wiK A_©, Ab¨wU cÖZxKx Zvrch©| Av¶wiK A_© Avgv‡`i Av¶wiK m‡Z¨i aviYv †`q Ges cÖZxKx Zvrch© †`q cÖZxKx m‡Z¨i gwngv, hv wkí- m‡Z¨iB bvgvš—i| †jLK Av¶wiK mZ¨‡K e¨envi K‡ib wkí-m‡Z¨i gwngv dzwU‡q Zzj‡Z| Av¶wiK mZ¨ ¯’vbxq, Kvwjg mxgvi g‡a¨ Ave× _v‡K| wKš‘ wkímZ¨ ¯’vb I Kv‡ji MwÊ †cwi‡q me©Rbxb n‡q hvq| ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕ ewY©Z Zcy PwiÎwU GB M‡í PwiÎ wn‡m‡e cÖZ¨¶fv‡e mwµq bq| Avi PwiÎ dz‡U D‡V‡Q eY©bvKvixi weei‡Yi gva¨‡g| wKš‘ †mB eY©bvi g‡a¨I H Pwi‡Îi GKUv Qwe ev fvegywZ© Avgv‡`i g‡bi g‡a¨ ˆZwi nq Avgv‡`i g‡bi Qwe‡Z Avgiv Zv‡K mwµq n‡Z †`wL ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b, wgwQ‡j, Av‡›`vj‡b| †`wL, ¸wj †L‡q Zv‡K ivRc‡_ jywU‡q co‡Z| †`wL cywj‡ki nv‡Z Zvi jvk wQbZvB n‡Z| GgbwK M‡íi †k‡l hLb †`Lv hvq, †gwW‡K‡ji Qv‡Îi nv‡Z gv_vi Lywji gvSLv‡b MZ© Ges cv‡qi nvo `yÕBw †QvU ZLbI Avgv‡`i g‡bi c`v©q †f‡m I‡V fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi wbnZ g„Z Zcyi Qwe| †jLK Avgv‡`i g‡bi c`©vq †h Zcyi Qwe K‡i †`b †m Zcy ev¯—‡ei †Kv‡bv Zcy bq, wKš‘ GB Zcyi g‡a¨ w`‡q fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi bvg bv-Rvbv knx‡`i cÖZxK fveg~wZ© M‡o I‡V| Gfv‡e cÖZxKx Zvrc‡h©i gva¨‡g †jLK Avgv‡`i mvg‡b wkí-mZ¨ Zz‡j a‡ib| wØZxqZ KwíZ GB PwiÎ fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi ¯’vwbK I KvwjK gwngv AwZµg K‡i hvq&‡B Mí †`‡k wKsev †`‡ki evB‡i †hLv‡bB wKsev hZw`b c‡iB cwVZ †nvK bv †Kb cvV‡Ki g‡bi c`v©q Zcy Rxeš— n‡q I‡V fvlvi R‡b¨ AvZ¥v`vb K‡i‡Q Ggb GKwU me©Rbxb Pwi‡Îi cÖZxK wn‡m‡e| ev¯—‡ei mZ¨ †_‡K wkí-mZ¨ †h Avjv`v †mUv AviI †evSv hvq Gfv‡e †`L‡j: fvlv Av‡›`vj‡bi BwZnv‡m NUbvi †h weeiY Avgiv cwo Zv ev¯—e mZ¨B wKš‘ Zv‡Z Zcyi g‡Zv †Kv‡bv PwiÎ Avgv‡`i g‡b dz‡U I‡V bv| wKš‘ M‡íi Zcy Avgv‡`i g‡bi c`©vq Rxeš— n‡q ev¯—e mZ¨‡KI Qvwo‡q hvq| fvlv Abykxjb ‰ AbymM© ev‡K¨i †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv kã c‡`i c‡i e‡m H c‡`i wefw³i KvR K‡i-G‡`i ejv nq AbymM©| G¸‡jv‡K wefw³ wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ c` ejv P‡j| †hgb: Zcyi Avevi wd‡i G‡m‡Q Avgv‡`i gv‡S| AevK n‡q Ii w`‡K ZvwK‡q _v‡K Iiv| nvwm w`‡q NiUv‡K fwi‡q ivL‡Zv †m| eQiLv‡bK c‡i †iYyy‡K we‡q K‡i Zcy| K¨vwcUv‡j Zvi m‡½ Avjvc n‡qwQj| †fvi n‡Z †Q‡jey‡ov G‡m Rgv‡qZ nj| evsjv msKjb

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‰ eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1. Zcyi wcÖq welq Kx wQj? K. eB cov L. Mí ejv M. K¼vj †`Lv N. wgwQj Kiv 2. ÔIi gvI wPb‡Z cvi‡e bv I‡K|Õ KviYK. Amy‡L Zcy K¼vjmvi n‡q †M‡Q| L. NUbvµ‡g Zcyi K¼vj wd‡i G‡m‡Q| M. AZ¨vPvi K‡i cywjk wdwi‡q w`‡q‡Q Zcy‡K| N. `xN© mgq Afy³ †_‡K wbi“‡Ïk Zcy wd‡i G‡m‡Q| 3. ÔivOv †Vuv‡Ui Dci †h g„`y nvwmUzKz gvLv‡bv wQj GLbKvi Abve„Z `š—mvi weKU nv‡m¨i m‡½ Zvi †Kv‡bv ZzjbvB nq bv; DׄwZi AskUzKz GKz‡ki M‡íi †Kvb Pwi‡Îi m‡½ m¤úwK©Z? K. ivnv‡Zi L. Zcyi M. †iYyi N. †jL‡Ki 4. †Kvb Rxe‡bi cÖwZ Zcyi Adziš— AvMÖn wQj? i. myk„•Lj mvgwiK Rxe‡bi cÖwZ ii. A_©-Hk¦‡h© †KZv`yi¯— Rxe‡bi cÖwZ iii. cÖvK…wZK †mŠ›`‡h© ficyi wbR©b Rxe‡bi cÖwZ wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii N. iii wb‡Pi Aby‡”Q`wU co Ges wb‡Pi 5 I 6 b¤^i cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| ˆ¯^ivPvi we‡ivax Av‡›`vj‡bi knx` b~i †nv‡m‡bi wcQ‡b †jLv : ˆ¯^ivPvi wbcvZ hvK MYZš¿ gyw³ cvK| 5. b~i †nv‡m‡bi m‡½ GKz‡ki M‡íi †Kvb Pwi‡Îi wgj j¶ Kiv hvq? K. †iYyi L. ivnv‡Zi M. †jL‡Ki N. Zcyi 6. b~i †nv‡m‡bi m‡½ Zcyi H‡K¨i welq †KvbwU? K. wcQ‡b ÔMYZš¿ gyw³ cvKÕ †jLv wb‡q cywj‡ki ¸wj‡Z AvZ¥ûwZ L. ÔRq evsjvÕ e‡j †k−vMvb w`‡Z w`‡Z wgwjUvwii ¸wj‡Z g„Z¨z eiY M. Ôivóª fvlv evsjv PvBÕ †jLv c−¨vKvW© wb‡q cywj‡ki ¸wj‡Z AvZ¥ûwZ N. ˆ¯^ivPvi we‡ivax wgwQ‡j wM‡q cywj‡ki ¸wj‡Z AvZ¥ûwZ| evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb ‰ m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1. Aby‡”Q`wU co Ges wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi †jL: gv‡qi GKgvÎ †Q‡j †mv‡ne| †gavq, ms¯‹…wZgb¯‹Zvq, ivRbxwZ m‡PZbZvq wZwb wQ‡jb Av‡jvwKZ gvbyl| XvKv wek¦we`¨vj‡q Aa¨qbKv‡j Zvi GB cÖwZfvi m‡e©v”P weKvk N‡U| weaev gv Avkvq eyK euv‡ab| wKš‘ 1971 mv‡ji ¯^vaxbZvhy‡× wZwb knx` nb| gv‡qi Avkv a~‡jvq jywÉZ nq| cyÎ nviv‡bvi †kv‡K gv me©¯^vš— †eva K‡ib| wKš‘ gv‡qi g‡bvRM‡Z ˆZwi nq nviv‡bv cy‡Îi GK KíwPÎ| hvwcZ Rxe‡bi mKj Kv‡R-K‡g©, fve-fvebvq wZwb Zvi cy·K †`L‡Z cvb| Avi GB weå‡gi g‡a¨B Zvi Rxeb-hvcb| K. Zcyi nv‡Zi c−¨vKv‡W© Kx †jLv wQj? L. ÔI‡K †PbvB hvq bvÕ- †Kb †Pbv hvq bv-e¨vL¨v Ki| M. Zcy‡K wd‡i †c‡q eÜz‡`i g‡a¨ †h Dcjwä ˆZwi nq Zvi m‡½ DÏxc‡Ki m¤úK© wbY©q Ki| N. Aby‡”Q‡`i m‡½ ÔGKz‡ki M‡íÕi Ask we‡k‡li †h ¯^vZš¿¨ j¶ Kiv hvq Zvi ¯^ic-cÖK…wZ we‡k−lY Ki| 2. Aby‡”Q`wU co Ges wb‡Pi cÖkœ¸‡jvi DËi †jL: wcÖq cvbœv, Avgv‡K Zzwg eviY K‡iwQ‡j| e‡jwQ‡j Ômš—v‡bi gy‡Li w`‡K †P‡q Avgvi K_v †kvb-‡h‡qv bv|Õ Avwg †`Ljvg, †Zvgvi KvQ †_‡K we`vq wb‡q Avmv mwZ¨ Am¤¢e| ZvB cvwj‡q Avm‡Z nj| ¯^vaxbZvi WvK Avgvi cÖv‡Yi g‡a¨ evRwQj| †mB Wv‡K mvov bv-w`‡q Avwg hw` †Zvgv‡K wb‡q, weby‡K wb‡q mgq KvUvZvg Zv n‡j kvwš— †cZvg bv; mviv¶Y Acivax n‡q _vKZvg| †Zvgvi AgvbweK Kó Avi jvÃbvi K_v Avwg Rvwb| Avwg †Zvgv‡`i i¶v Ki‡Z cvijvg bv| Avgv‡K ¶gv K‡iv| BwZ †Zvgvi wkwki K. Zcyi ¯¿xi bvg Kx? L. Abš—Kvj a‡i Zcy †Kgb c‡_ Pj‡Z †P‡qwQj-e¨vL¨v Ki? M. Zcyi ¯¿x Zcy‡K wgwQ‡j †h‡Z wb‡la K‡iwQj| Aby‡”Q‡`i m‡½ †mB wb‡l‡ai m¤úK©-e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Aby‡”Q‡`i m‡½ ÔGKz‡ki MíÕ kxl©K M‡íi Ask we‡k‡li e³e¨MZ †h mv`„k¨-ˆemv`„k¨ j¶ Kiv hvq Zvi ¯^iƒc-cÖK…wZ we‡k−lY Ki|

evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb 4| mwµq `yb©xwZ `gb Kwgkb `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡ai Rb¨ `jwbi‡c¶, ¯^vaxb I mwµq `yb©xwZ `gb Kwgkb cÖ‡qvRb| `yb©xwZ `gb Kwgk‡bi †h †Kv‡bv e¨w³ ev cÖwZôv‡bi wei“‡× Awf‡hvM Z`š— K‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v †bIqvi ¶gZv _vK‡Z n‡e| ¯^vaxb I wbi‡c¶ f~wgKv eRvq †i‡L `ybx© wZ †iv‡a Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb KivB Kwgk‡bi Ab¨Zg KvR| miKvi GB Kwgkb‡K wbtkZ©fv‡e Avw_©K, KvwiMwi I cÖkvmwbK mnvqZv †`‡e| `yb©xwZwe‡ivax nUjvBb ivRavbx †_‡K _vbv ch©vq cÖwZôv, evsjv‡`k e¨vsK, RvZxq ivR¯^ †evW© Ges Kwgk‡bi gv‡S mivmwi †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v cÖwZôv, `ª“Z we‡kl wU‡gi mgš^‡q mKj miKvwi ms¯’vi Avq-e¨‡qi cy‡iv Z`š— m¤úv`b, Z`š— Kvh©µ‡g wb‡qvwRZ Kg©KZ©v‡`i `¶Zv Dbœq‡b ch©vß †Uªwbs-Gi e¨e¯’v I Kg©x‡`i Revw`wnZv Ges fv‡jv Kv‡Ri Rb¨ cyi®‹v‡ii weavb ivL‡Z n‡e| 5| mylg †eZb KvVv‡gv I ch©vß cvwikªwgK wba©viY: miKvwi Kg©KZ©v I Kg©Pvix‡`i Rb¨ evRvi g~‡j¨i mv‡_ mgš^q K‡i mylg †eZb KvVv‡gv Ges cÖ‡hvR¨ †¶‡Î ch©vß cvwikªwgK wba©viY Ki‡Z n‡e| wRwbmc‡Îi g~j¨ e„w×i mv‡_ mv‡_ †eZb I Ab¨vb¨ myweavw`i mgš^q mvab Ki‡Z n‡e| 6| `yb©xwZwe‡ivax mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb m„wó Kiv: mgv‡Ri mKj †kªYxi gvbyl †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bvfv‡e `yb©xwZi d‡j ¶wZi wkKvi nq| `yb©xwZi wei“× Rbm‡PZbZv m„wó‡Z bvMwiK mgvR ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| ¯’vbxq ch©v‡qi bvMwiK msMVb¸‡jv hw` `yb©xwZi wei“‡× GKwU mvgvwRK Av‡›`vjb M‡o Zzj‡Z nq Zvn‡j `ybx© wZ †iva I mykvmb cÖwZôv mnR n‡e| 7| MYgva¨‡gi Kvh©Ki f~wgKv `yb©xwZ †iva, ¯^”QZv I Revew`wnZv cÖwZôvi gva¨‡g mykvmb wbwðZ Kivi †¶‡Î ¯^vaxb MYgva¨g me‡P‡q ¸i“Z¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| mgv‡R `yb©xwZ I Awbq‡gi Z_¨ AbymÜvb Ges Zv Rbmg‡¶ cÖKvk K‡i MYgva¨g `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iva Kvh©Ki f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| `yb©xwZwe‡ivax D‡`¨vM `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iv‡a wewfbœ mg‡q D‡`¨vM †bIqv n‡q‡Q| 1947 mv‡j `ybx© wZ cÖwZ‡iva AvBb cÖYqb Kiv nq| miKvwi Kg©KZ©v-Kg©Pvixiv hv‡Z Nyl I `ybx© wZ‡Z RwoZ n‡Z bv cv‡i Zv wbwðZ Kivi j‡¶¨ G AvBbwU Kiv nq| 1957 mv‡j `yb©xwZ cÖwZ‡iva AvB‡bi gva¨‡g †Kv‡bv e¨w³i Avq I e¨‡qi Am½wZ‡K kvw¯—‡hvM¨ Aciva wn‡m‡e wPwýZ Kiv nq| 2003 mv‡ji M„nxZ `yb©xwZ AvB‡bi Ici wfwË K‡i 2004 mv‡ji `yb©xwZ `gb Kwgkb (`y`K) cÖwZwôZ nq| 2007 mv‡j `yb©xwZ `gb Kwgkb mymsMVb I wewagvjv cÖYqbmn e¨vcK ms¯‹v‡ii d‡j Kwgk‡bi j‡¶¨ m¤¢vebv m„wó nq| `ybx© wZi Avš—Rv© wZK cÖfve Dcjwä K‡i RvwZmsN mvaviY cwil` 1966 mv‡j Avš—R©vwZK evwY‡R¨i †jb‡`b Nyl I `yb©xwZwe‡ivax RvwZmsN †NvlYv MÖnY K‡i| cieZ©x‡Z wek¦e¨vcx `yb©xwZi we¯—vi †iv‡ai j‡¶¨ 2003 mv‡ji 31 †k A‡±vei RvwZmsN mvaviY cwil` `yb©xwZwe‡ivax mb` cÖYqb K‡i, hv 2003 mv‡ji 9B wW‡m¤^i †gw·‡Kvi †gwiWv‡Z ¯^v¶‡ii Rb¨ Db¥y³ Kiv nq| G Kvi‡Y 9B wW‡m¤^i‡K ÔAvš— evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Ae‡i‡Y¨

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb Kv‡j gvZ…fvlv i~c-Lwb c~Y© gwYRv‡j -

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb wb`ªv / Awb`ªv Avnvi / Abvnvi e‡iY¨ / Ae‡iY¨ Ávb / AÁvb

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154


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158


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‰ eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1.

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162


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163


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164


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165


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167


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168


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170


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172


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

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173


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176


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179


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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb cÖK…wZi ARmª i~cgqZv, e¨w³MZ Abyfe, †kKomÜvbx †PZbv-me wgwj‡q wkímdj G KweZvwU wbg©vY Kiv n‡q‡Q gvÎ GKwU ev‡K¨i Avav‡i| wbtm‡›`‡n GwU Kwei AvaywbK wkí‡eva I wkí‰PZ‡b¨i GK Hk¦h©gq dmj| Q›` ÔAvgvi c~e© evsjvÕ KweZvwU M`¨Q‡›` iwPZ| M`¨Q‡›` †Kv‡bv mywbw`©ó ce© ev gvÎvmvg¨ iw¶Z nq bv| wKš‘ Kwe GKwU AbwZwbi~wcZ aŸwb m„wó K‡ib| Abykxjbg~jK KvR fvlv Abykxjb … m¤^Ü c` †Kv‡bv wKQz eY©bv ev fvevbyf~wZ cÖKv‡ki †¶‡Î Avgiv A‡bK mgq m¤^Ü c‡`i e¨envi K‡i _vwK| e¨vKi‡Y m¤^Ü c` ej‡Z †Kv‡bv wKQzi m‡½ Ab¨ wKQzi m¤úK©‡K †evSvq| mvaviYZ hvi m‡½ k‡ãi †k‡l ÔiÕ ev ÔGiÕ wefw³ †hvM K‡i m¤^Ü cÖKvk Kiv n‡q _v‡K| ÔAvgvi c~e© evsjvÕ KweZvq m¤^Ü c‡`i e¨vcK I ˆewPΨgq e¨envi †`Lv hvq| †hgb: AÜKv‡ii Zgvj| A‡bK cvZvi NwbôZv Kv‡jv †Kk †g‡Ni mÂq wegy» †e`bvi kvwš— AvKvk †`Lvi gynZ ~ © K`¤^ Ziyi GKwU kvLv ARmª dz‡ji eb¨v| †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv m¤^Üc` Dcgv e¨env‡i mnvqK n‡q‡Q : K) mܨvi D‡b¥‡li g‡Zv m‡ive‡ii AZ‡ji g‡Zv Kv‡jv-†Kk †g‡Ni m‡qi g‡Zv wegy» †e`bvi kvwš— L) Ny‡gi AjmZvq †PvL eyu‡R Avmvi g‡Zv kvwš— M) Kv‡Ki †Pv‡Li g‡Zv Kv‡jvPzj Gwj‡q evbvb mZK©Zv mܨv, bxjv¤^ix, Keix, gynyZ©, m~h©, weiwnYx, cÖMvp, ί—, m”QjZv| evsjv msKjb

193


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb DcmM© A- †hv‡M MwVZ kã AZj, A‡kl, Adziš—, AjmZv| KweZvi AjsKvi ‰ wPÎKí wPÎKí ej‡Z Ggb me k�� ev k㸇”Qi e¨envi †evSvq, hvi mvnv‡h¨ g‡bi c`©vq ewY©Z e¯‘ ev fv‡ei GKUv Qwe I‡V| ÔAvgvi c~e© evsjvÕ KweZvi kyiy †_‡K †kl ch©š— cy‡ivUvB M‡o D‡V‡Q bvbv wPÎK‡íi mgvnv‡i| †hgb KweZvwUi kyi‡y ZB Av‡Q: Avgvi c~e© evsjv GK¸”Q wmœ» AÜKv‡ii Zgvj| GLv‡b ÔGKMy”Q wmœ» AÜKv‡ii ZgvjÕ K_vUv mn‡RB Avgv‡`i g‡bi c`©vq GKwU Qwei Avfvm †`q| KweZvwU g‡bv‡hvMmnKv‡i co Ges wPÎKí¸‡jv Lyu‡R †ei Ki| ‰ eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1. ÔAvgvi c~e©evsjvÕ KweZvwU Kwei D¾¡j Dc¯’vcb ZuviÑ K. †mŠ›`h© I ¯^‡`k †PZbvq L. cÖK…wZ I gvbe‡cÖ‡g M. gyw³hy× I GKz‡ki †PZbvq N. †`k‡cÖg I gvbeZvq 2. ÔAvgvi c~ee© vsjvÕ KweZvwU †Kvb Q‡›` iwPZ? K. A¶ie„Ë L. gvÎve„Ë M. M`¨ N. ¯^ie„Ë 3. M`¨Q‡›`i †¶‡Î cÖ‡hvR¨i. wba©vwiZ ce©msL¨v i¶v Kiv hvq bv ii. mywbw`©ó Zvj wefvRb _v‡K bv iii. †Kvb Q›` ixwZ †g‡b P‡j bv wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii wb‡Pi KweZvskwU co Ges 4 I 5 b¤^i cÖ‡kœi DËi `vI| G mwL, nvgvwi `yt‡Li bvwn Ii G fiv fv`i, gvn fv`i k~b¨ gw›`i †gvi| 4. KweZvskwUi fv‡ei wgj i‡q‡Q wb‡Pi †KvbwU‡Z? K. Ni Avi we‡`k AvwObv AvKzjZvi GKvKvi L. KZ `kv weiwnYxi-GK `yB wZb `kwU M. GLv‡b ί— AvKzjZvq wPiKvj Awfmvi N. Ny‡gi AjmZvi †PvL eyu‡R Avmvi g‡Zv kvwš—

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194


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb 5.

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‰ m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1.

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195


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb

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196


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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb G eqm Rv‡b i³`v‡bi cyY¨

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199


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cÖ_g ¯—eK msjvcag©x Ges K‡_vcK_‡b cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q Z_¨| wØZxq ¯—e‡K AvZ¥wRÁvmvi m~‡Î wcZ…n„`‡qi nvnvKvi aŸwbZ n‡q‡Q| wcZv hw`I Abyfe Ki‡Qb †kvK ¶xqgvb Ges AvcvZZ G †kvK fy‡j _vKv hvq e‡j g‡b nq, wKš‘ cÖK…Zc‡¶ G †kvK †fvjv hvq bv| †kl ¯—e‡K †d«‡g euvav cy‡Îi Qwei wbwe©KviZ¡ wbôzi I KwVb ev¯—e‡K AveviI ¯§iY Kwi‡q w`‡”Q mRxe cÖvYeš— cyÎ †h wQj †m Avi †bB| wKš‘ G ev¯—eZvi KvwV‡b¨i wecix‡Z Kwei Aš—‡ii nvnvKvi †hb AviI i³v³ n‡q D‡V‡Q|

Dcgv 1. cv_‡ii UKz‡ivi gZb Wy‡e †M‡Q evsjv msKjb

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D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb wPÎKí 1.

cv_‡ii UzK‡ivi gZb Wy‡e †M‡Q Avgv‡`i MÖv‡gi cyKz‡i|

2.

KZ EY©vRvj ey‡b †K‡U‡Q|

3.

GiB g‡a¨ evRLuvB †KD †hb Avgvi †kv‡Ki b`xwU‡K KZ `ªZ y iy¶ Pi K‡i w`‡jv|

4.

†d«‡gi †fZi †_‡K Avgvi mš—vb †P‡q _v‡K wb®újK,

fvlv Abykxjb we‡klYevPK-ÔKxÕ Kx-kãwUi GKwU j¶Yxq w`K n‡”Q we‡klY wn‡m‡e Gi e¨envi| †hgb: ÔGwU d‡UvMÖvdÕ KweZvq: 1.

GB †h Avmyb, Zvici Kx Lei?

2.

wb‡RB Pg‡K DwV, Kx wb¯ú„n, †Kgb kxZj| ÔKxÕ we‡kl‡Yi we‡klY wKsev wµqvwe‡kl‡Yi we‡klY wn‡m‡eI e¨en„Z n‡q _v‡K| †hgb, GKB KweZvq : Kx mn‡R n‡q †Mj ejv|

we‡klY kã : m‡d` †`qvj kvš— d‡UªvMÖvd wRÁvmy AwZw_ †QvU †Q‡j wb¯ú„n Kɯ^i wZbwU eQi iy¶ Pi cÖkœvKzj †PvL ¶xqgvY †kvK evsjv msKjb

206


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb we‡klY m¤^Ü : cv_‡ii UzK‡iv Avgv‡`i MÖv‡gi cyKiz MÖx‡®§i `ycyi †kv‡Ki b`x Avgvi mš—vb wµqv we‡klY : mn‡R n‡q †Mj ejv|

‰ eûwbe©vPwb cÖkœ 1. d‡UvMÖvdwU m¤ú‡K© †K Rvb‡Z †P‡qwQ‡jv?

K. cÖwZ‡ewk L. AwZw_ M. AvZ¥xq N. evwoIqvjv 2. DY©vRvj ej‡Z KweZvq Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q? K. cyÄxf~Z ¯§„wZ L. Doš— Rvj M. gvKomvi Rvj N. `ytL-KvZiZv 3. ÔGKwU d‡UvMÖvdÕ KweZvi cÖ_g ¯—eKwUi. eY©bvag©x ii. msjvcag©x iii. wPÎagx© wb‡Pi †KvbwU mwVK? K. i I ii L. i I iii M. ii I iii N. i, ii I iii KweZvskwU co Ges 4 I 5 b¤^i cÖ‡k¦i DËi `vI| ÒG †hb mfvq e‡m i¶tKzjcwZ, evK¨nxb cyÎ †kv‡K! Si Si S‡i Aweij AkÖ“aviv-wZwZiv em‡b, h_v Zi“, Zx¶è ki mim kix‡i evwR‡j Kuv‡` bxi‡e|Ó 4. i¶ : KzjcwZ GKwU d‡UvMÖvd KweZvi †Kvb Pwi‡Îi cÖwZwbwa? K. AwZw_ L. g„ZcyÎ M. wcZv N. evR Luv 5. ÔcyÎ †kv‡K evK¨nxbÕ Ges Ô¶xqgvY †kvKÕ-cyÎnviv `yB wcZvi wfbœ Ae¯’vi KviY Kx? K. eq‡mi cv_©K¨ L. mg‡qi e¨eavb M. †ckvMZ wfbœZv N. †fŠ‡MvwjK `~iZ¡

evsjv msKjb

207


D”P gva¨wgK evsjv msKjb ‰ m„Rbkxj cÖkœ 1.

2.

wPwVUv Zvi c‡K‡U wQ‡jv †Quov Avi i‡³ †fRv| ************** gv c‡o Avi nv‡m, Ò†Zvi Ici ivM Ki‡Z cvwi|Ó bvi‡K‡ji wP‡o †Kv‡U, DowK av‡bi gyowK fv‡R GUv-‡mUv Av‡iv KZ Kx| Zvi †LvKv †h evwo wdi‡e| K¬vš— †LvKv| K. ÔGKwU d‡UvMÖvdÕ KweZvwU Kvi †jLv? L. KweZvq ÔevRLuvBÕ ej‡Z Kx †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q? M. Aby‡”Q‡`i wPwV Ges ÔGKwU d‡UvMÖvdÕ KweZvi d‡UvMÖv‡di mvhyR¨ e¨vL¨v Ki| N. cÖZx¶viZ gv Ges cyÎnviv wcZvi Abyf~wZi Zzjbv Ki| GKwU `wjj LyuR‡Z wM‡q AvRg mv‡n‡ei †Pv‡L c‡o RxY©-gwjb mvwU©wd‡KUwU| ZuviB †Q‡j gyKz‡ji GmGmwm cv‡ki mb`; †h gviv †M‡Q moK `yN©Ubvq eQi cuv‡PK Av‡M| ZLb mevB †f‡ewQ‡jv GZ Av`‡ii cyÎ nvivevi †kvK mn¨ Ki‡Z cvi‡eb bv AvRg mv‡ne| wKš‘ mg‡qi nvZ a‡i ¯§„wZi Rvbvjv †_‡K `~‡i m‡i †M‡Q gyKz‡ji gyL| g„Z cy‡Îi mvwU©wd‡KUwU A‡K‡Rv we‡ePbvq gyP‡o †d‡j †`b AvRg mv‡ne| K. ÔGKwU d‡UvMÖvdÕ KweZvwU †Kvb Q‡›` †jLv? L. ÔGKwU d‡UvMÖvdÕ KweZvq cy‡Îi g„Zz¨i †cÖ¶vcUwU eY©bv Ki| M. AvRg mv‡ne Ges GKwU d‡UvMÖvd KweZvq cyÎnviv wcZvi gv‡S Kx ˆecixZ¨ j¶ Kiv hvq? e¨vL¨v Ki| N. Ômg‡qi nvZ a‡i ¯§„wZi Rvbvjv †_‡K `~‡i m‡i †M‡Q gyKz‡ji gyLÕ AvRg mv‡n‡ei GB Abyf~wZi Av‡jv‡K KweZvwUi fvee¯‘ we‡k−lY Ki|

evsjv msKjb

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