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SWALLOWED BY THE SOUND S A LT H O L M ØRESUND DENMARK


SWALLOWED BY THE SOUND


Saltholm Swallowed by the Sound Master thesis in Landscape Architecture Department of geoscience and nature resource management Faculty of Science University of Copenhagen Authors: Calum Thomas Morrison Mitchell - htx197, Ludvig Bratt - nwx295 supervisor : Peter Lunsgaard Hansen dates: 6th February - 6th August 2018


Acknowledgement We would like to thank Peter for his input, design conversations a n d d e d i c a t i o n t o h e l p i n g u s c r e a t e t h e p r o j e c t w e h a v e t o d a y. Firstly we would like to thank our parents for their support. We would also like to thank all of the people who contributed t o o u r ‘ o t h e r v o i c e s ’ c h a p t e r, y o u r r e s p o n s e s h e l p e d u s r e f l e c t on our own design and process. We would also like to include special mentions to Dan Stockmann for his ‘inside’ knowledge about Saltholm and to Bobby from Kastrup for sailing us there a n d l a s t l y, t o a l l o f o u r f e l l o w s t u d e n t s f o r m a k i n g t h e l a s t s i x months so enjoyable and full of fun! Calum and Ludvig

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why the sun and the moon live in the sky Many years ago, the sun and water were great friends, and t h e y b o t h l i v e d o n t h e e a r t h t o g t h e r. T h e s u n v e r y o f t e n u s e d t o v i s i t t h e w a t e r, b u t t h e w a t e r n e v e r r e t u r n e d t h e v i s i t s . At last the sun asked the water why he never visited. The water replied that the sun's house was not big enough, and that if he came with all his people, he would drive the sun out of his home. The water then said, "If you want me to visit you, you will have to build a very large house. But I warn you that it will have to be very large, as my people are numerous and take up a lot of room". The sun promised to build a very large house, and soon afterwards, he returned home to his wife, the moon, who greeted him with a broad smile. T h e s u n t o l d t h e m o o n w h a t h e h a d p r o m i s e d t h e w a t e r, a n d t h e n e x t d a y, t h e y b e g a n b u i l d i n g a l a r g e h o u s e t o e n t e r t a i n the water and all his people. When it was completed, the sun asked the water to come and visit him. When the water arrived, one of his people called out to the sun, and asked h i m w h e t h e r i t w o u l d b e s a f e f o r t h e w a t e r t o e n t e r, a n d t h e s u n a n s w e r e d , " Ye s , t e l l m y f r i e n d t o c o m e i n . " t h e w a t e r began to flow in, followed by the fish and all the other water a n i m a l s . Ve r y s o o n , t h e w a t e r w a s k n e e - d e e p i n t h e h o u s e , s o he asked the sun if it was still safe, and the sun again said, " Ye s , " s o m o r e o f t h e m c a m e i n . W h e n t h e w a t e r w a s a t t h e level of a man's head, the water said to the sun, "Do you want more of my people to come?" N o t k n o w i n g a n y b e t t e r, t h e s u n a n d t h e m o o n b o t h s a i d , " Ye s , " . M o r e a n d m o r e o f t h e w a t e r ' s p e o p l e c a m e i n , u n t i l the sun and the moon had to sit on top of the roof. The water once again asked the sun if it was still okay to keep coming in. The sun and moon answered yes, so more and more of the water's people came in. The water soon overflowed the top of the roof, and the sun and the moon were forced to go up into t h e s k y.

...and they have been there ever since. (Dayrell and Lent, n.d.)

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CONTENTS

PA R T 1 1

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OUR JOURNEY

THE MAKINGS OF YOU

S A LT H O M S E E N T H R O U G H OUR EYES 11

THE ISLAND IS ALIVE. THERE IS SOMETHING MOVING HERE 37

3 P E O P L E O N S A LT H O L M I N S I C K N E S S A N D I N H E A LT H , T I L L D E AT H D O U S A PA R T 51

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PA R T 2 4

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AS THEY CAME UPON THE SHORE

T H E G AT E S O F T H E BASECAMP

A R R V I N G AT T H E H A R B O U R T H E Y W E R E STRANGERS ON THE SHORE 71

STEPING INTO THE HEART O F S A LT O L M 77

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TIME FOR EXPEDITION

INTERVENTIONS

L E AV I N G T H E B A S E C A M P T O EXPERIENCE THE ISLAND 11 5

EXPLORING THE TRACES OF S A LT H O L M 123

PA R T 3 8

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HELLO, GOODBYE S A LT H O L M

THE JOURNEY ENDS HERE

AN ISLAND DISAPPEARING - A LANDSCAPE LOST 169

GONE BUT NOT FORGOTTEN 199

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1.

OUR JOURNEY S A LT H O M S E E N T H R O U G H O U R E Y E S

In the Sound, between Denmark and Sweden, east of the Atlantic Ocean, west of the Baltic lake lies a small island called Saltholm. A cold October morning when we were taking the train across the Øresund bridge a girl of 5 sat with her father in the seat in front of us. She was pointing out the window and mumbling something to herself. It was foggy and dark outside but you could still see something in the ocean. We w e r e a n t i c i p a t i n g w h a t s h e w o u l d s a y, a n d a f t e r a w h i l e s h e s t o o d u p a n d s h o u t e d “ f a t h e r, t h e r e i s a p a n c a k e o n t h e o c e a n , l o o k ! ” Little did we know of Saltholm back then, but the girl was right, the island is flat as a pancake. So flat that within a hundred years it will be under w a t e r. A t t h i s p o i n t o f t i m e t h i s p r o j e c t h a d a l r e a d y s t a r t e d i n o u r h e a d s . The journey had begun.

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Tr e a s u r e i s l a n d , A t l a n t i s , C r u i s e s “ I s l a n d o f D e s p a i r â€? , O d y s s e u s i s l a n d s , t h e i s l a n d i n T h e Te m p e s t , S w i f t s L a p u t a , i s o l a t e d i s l a n d s , hidden islands. What makes us so interested in islands? This story constitutes of a main character; Saltholm. The plot works in the s a m e w a y a s a n o b i t u a r y, a b i o g r a p h y o f a s u b j e c t s l i f e , t h e s u b j e c t is Saltholm. What really happened, what is happening and what will h a p p e n t o S a l t h o l m ? W h o c a r v e d a n d d u g i n i t , w h o c r e a t e d i t s b o d y, who grazed the island and who laid their eggs here? The plot starts with the south and north poles, the ice melting the water levels increasing. The rising oceans will affect Saltholm and its relation to t h e S k y a n d t h e W a t e r. I t w i l l c h a n g e t h e d ĂŠ c o r f r o m o v e r t h e w a t e r to the seabed, from the horizon of the sky to the horizon of the ocean. This is where our story begins, 100 years before Saltholm transforms from being a land animal to a water creature. 100 years b e f o r e t h e c l i m a x o f o u r s t o r y. S a l t h o l m s w a l l o w e d b y t h e S o u n d .

Plot list S a l t h o l m , t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r. Water, helps the plot reach the climax Sky, constant companion to Saltholm , a friendship that will soon come to an end Human, a constant gardener on the island, carved, digged, collected.

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OUR PROJECT The project is an investigation into the little known island of Saltholm. Saltholm is the 21st largest island in Denmark – the kingdom of islands. Despite being one of the largest islands it is also the least populated island with only two permanent residents. Saltholm has a unique formation a n d h i s t o r y, i t l i e s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y f l a t , b u t t e d b e t w e e n t h e s e a a n d t h e sky and lying between two large European cities but still undiscovered. S a l t h o l m h a s h i s t o r i c a l l y b e e n u s e d a s a l a n d s c a p e o f n e c e s s i t y, a p l a c e only used when society has needed it the most, as a quarantine station, a f o r t r e s s , a q u a r r y, a r e s e r v a t i o n a n d s o o n ( S a l t h o l m . d k , n . d ) . I n o u r project we want to work with simple interventions that highlight this unique b a c k s t o r y, h i g h l i g h t i t s v u l n e r a b i l i t y, a n d i t s s t r e n g t h , t y i n g t o g e t h e r t h e p a s t , p r e s e n t a n d t h e f u t u r e . Ti m e a n d m e m o r y a r e t w o c o n c e p t s w e w i l l integrate into the design process. Didn’t you know that islands have their own memory? FOR WHO This is a project for the curious, for those who appreciate the landscape of isolation. For those interested in history and nature. Saltholm gives a u n i q u e o u t w a r d v i e w t o s o c i e t y, a p l a c e r a p i d l y d e v e l o p i n g s e e n f r o m a place stood still in time. From Saltholm you see the Øresund landscape, the cities, the bridge, and the airplanes from a different perspective, as if you are outside looking in. The past looking into the present. HOW Proposals, installations, drawings, photographs, montages and models are all threads of the same fabric of investigation. It is seeing as a way o f k n o w i n g , a s a w a y o f t h i n k i n g ( H ø y e r, 2 0 0 6 ) . M u c h o f o u r i n s p i r a t i o n has come from Steen Høyer ’s method. He listens, looks at the details, patterns, lines, colours and textures of the island. All of which build a beautiful narrative. He believes in keeping an open mind when viewing and exchanging with the landscape. We also draw inspiration from Hiroshi Sambuichi’s investigations i n t o m o v i n g m a t e r i a l s , t h e s u n , t h e m o o n , t h e w a t e r, t h e w i n d a n d l i g h t , and what power nature gives the island (Sambuichi and Hummel Lee, 2016). We study the Anthropocene, the development of place and how all of these elements have shaped the islands and how to work with these in o u r d e s i g n t o d a y. ACCESSIBILITY To d a y i t i s i n c r e d i b l y d i f f i c u l t t o a c c e s s t h e i s l a n d , t h i s i s i n s o m e w a y quite poetic and a testament to the legacy of isolation and the harshness of the place yet it is also interesting that it is located only 40 metres from Scandinavia’s most important infrastructure project and two of its biggest c i t i e s . I n a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s s o m e t h i n g w e r a r e l y s e e i n o u r l a n d s c a p e s t o d a y, i t i s a l m o s t i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . H o w e v e r, i t i s s o m e t h i n g w e n e e d t o t h i n k more of in our hectic societies where instant gratification has become a

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sort of religion. We believe that in creating a design on Saltholm it would attract more people, yet there is a danger in compressing the islands story if it were to become a touristic attraction. LANDSCAPE Saltholm is interesting in many ways. The nature and the history are tightly knit. Saltholm sits on a large limestone rock called “Saltholm flak” making the visible landscape rise from the sea; this also means that t h e w a t e r s u r r o u n d i n g S a l t h o l m i s s o s h a l l o w. T h e i s l a n d r o s e f r o m t h e seabed around 4000 years ago (Øresundsvandsamarbejdet, 2009). The future and the rising sea level give great threat to the island. Within 100 years the island may disappear again. Bird migration is the main function of Saltholm nowadays, throughout the year the island is shut to allow migrating birds to mate. Hundreds of different bird species including rare birds can be found on the island hence why Saltholm has become a nature reserve (ibid, 2009). Around the southern tip seals can also be found. Saltholm’s cultural history as a landscape of necessity is still apparent, around the island lies the r e m n a n t s o f t h e q u a r r y i n g i n d u s t r y, f l o o d e d q u a r r i e s , o l d t r a i n t r a c k s a n d bridges all left behind in time. A picture frozen in time. After 1931 the quarrying stopped due to over quarrying the landscape and the main quarry was left flooded. After the limestone crash everything went quiet, overnight. The landscape played an important role during the Second World W a r. T h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e i s l a n d s m u g g l e d p e o p l e f r o m D e n m a r k t o neutral Sweden. They tied the countries together with their bravery and s a v e d t h o u s a n d s o f l i v e s . I n l e s s r e c e n t h i s t o r y, d u r i n g t h e p l a g u e ( p e s t e n ) i n 1 7 1 0 t h e i s l a n d w a s u s e d a s a q u a r a n t i n e s t a t i o n a n d c e m e t e r y. F o r those wishing to land in the port of Copenhagen they first had to endure 40 days isolation on the island (Frandsen, 2004).

H T T P S :// S A LT H O L M D K . T U M B L R . COM/

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TIMELINE

Lim es t one quar r y pr oduc t ion begins on t he is land

K i n g v aldemars j ord b og - gif ts sa ltho lm to t h e bishop o f Ro s k i lde

T h e S a l th o l m q u a r r y i s i m p o r ta n t a fte r t h e gr e a t fi r e i n C o p en h a g e n . T h e li m e sto n e i s u se d f o r r e b u i l d i n g th e d e s t r o ye d ci ty.

Used as a plague quarantine station durng the 18th century

The Dut c h' s f i r s t pr iv ilege at A m a g e r, is s ued by C h r. d . I I giv es t hem " t h e f r eedom t o u s e , build and r e t a i n t h e is land of Sa l t h o l m , wit h all it s f r e e d o m , inc luding lim e s t o n e br ic k s , but t h e y s hould s ell l i m e s t o n e t o t he c it iz e n s o f Copenhagen "

the guardian of Saltholm was murdered / dies of mysterious circumstances

T h e c e m e te r y a t S a l t h ol m i s e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l y o pe n e d b y p r i e s t s f r o m K a str u p c h u r ch .

Th e h a r b o u r i s b e i n g t h o r o u g h l y r eno v a t e d a f t e r 2 0 1 3 s s t o r m b o d i l and t h e f a r m i s t a k e n o v e r b y t h e ejerlauget. Ejerlauget has now got on the is la n d , a n d c a t t l e c o m e f r o m t h e rest of Denmark for grazing

The c ons t r uc t io n s t a r t s

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3, 3 k m r a i l w a y w a s created to ship lim e s t o n e + A d a n i s h s ub m a r i n e s a v e s 15 e n g l i s h s o l i d e r s af te r a g e r m a n a t t a c k (south of Saltholm)

Se veral bir itsh s o ilders wa s b urie d s o m w here on the is l a nd during th e wa rs i n the 19th ce ntu ry

A “ har ehill” ( har e höjd) is dev eloped in or der t o c r eat e a s af eplac e f or anim als dur ing f loodings

Pl a n s to b u i l d an airport on th e i sl a n d

The school is shut down due to lack of students

The Kro on Holmegård closes, this marks the end of the famous seagull omlete

Salt holm has it s own m us eum . I t is s et in St enladen, whic h is op pos it e Bar ak k egår den. The init iat or and m u s eum dir ec t or is Hans Zim ling

S o u t h of Sa l th o l m , th e s o u t h e a s t e r n w a te r s a r e l a i d o u t f o r s e a l sh e l te r s. Th a t s a m e y e a r, t h e w h o l e i sl a n d w i l l b e p r o te cte d . Th e n e w a i r p o r t a p p e a r s to h a ve to be abandoned.

i n one hundr ed y ear s t he wat e r le ve ls ar e r epor t ed t o r is e up t o al mo s t t wo m et r es leav ing Salt holm f looded

Oprindelig tidstavle skrevet af lokalarkivar Svend Jans. Supplerende oplysninger Inger Kjær Jansen og Erik Fischer Olsen.

Original timeline written by local archiver Svend Jans. Additional information Inger Kjær Jansen and Erik Fischer Olsen.

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copenhagen city center

amager strandpark kastrup

cph airport1

southern border peberholm

access forbidden

øresundsbridge

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nordhavn refshaleøen

flakfortet

saltholm harbour

northern border

access 16 july - 31 march

malmø

svanklapperne

montage of Krestenhillerup Foto 19


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These dynamic experiences opened up new ways to connect with landscapes, mixing continuous sensations o f e a r t h , a i r a n d w a t e r . A n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e i s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e l i g h t - ( M c c o w a n 2 0 11 )


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RECOMMENDED LISTENING Another green world – Brian Eno, The makings of you - Curtis Mayfield Cristo Redentor – Donald Byrd, Motherless Child - The Harmonizing four Sombre Reptiles - Brian Eno L i k e a s h i p – P a s t o r T. L . B a r r e t t a n d t h e y o u t h f o r C h r i s t c h o i r , E n g h a v e Ly s – H e n r i k L i n d s t r a n d , B o y s a n d t h e S e a - P a r t O n e - Ta r i v e r d i e v Nobody knows the trouble I’ve seen – Charlie Haden, Range Life – Pavement, Forenet – Bremer McCoy, H o u s e W h e r e N o b o d y L i v e s - To m Wa i t s D a y s - Te l e v i s i o n Peri banu Vid Sjön – Dungen, T h e B i g C o u n t r y – Ta l k i n g H e a d s , Roygbiv – Boards of Canada, Knee Play 5 (from “Einstein on the Beach”) - Philip Glass The ship song – Nick Cave & The Bad Seeds, T h e S i n k i n g o f t h e Ti t a n i c - G a v i n B r y a r s W h o K n o w s W h e r e T h e Ti m e G o e s - S a n d y D e n n y We Are Floating In Space – Spiritualized. Seven Days of Falling - Esbjorn Svensson trio Dont Let Me Down - Dillard & Clark T h i s B i t t e r E a r t h / O n t h e N a t u r e o f D a y l i g h t - C l y d e O t i s , M a x R i c h t e r, D i n a h W a s h i n g t o n I Shall Be Released - Bob Dylan Mellon Collie and the Infinite Sadness – The Smashing Pumpkins

scan this code with Spotify App - go to search and press the camer icon on the top right

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Salthom approach, viewed from the boat

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T H E W AY W E W O R K Narrative T h i s p r o j e c t h a s a n a r r a t i v e . S a l t h o l m i t s e l f i s a s t o r y, m a y b e n o t a love story but a rich story of happiness and sadness. We use the art of the narrative ourselves to understand Salholm, its beginnings, middles and endings. We looked at Saltholms life as a human’s life cycle, with the upcoming flooding as the ending or the beginnings of s o m e t h i n g n e w. W h e n a p e r s o n ’ s l i f e c y c l e h a s c o m e t o a n e n d , a n obituary is sometimes written, a biography and a celebration of that person’s life. This is what we want to achieve with this project; to c e l e b r a t e a n d t o l e a r n f r o m S a l t h o l m b e f o r e i t g o e s a w a y. A narrative comes in many shapes and forms. Our story is inspired by an orchestral movement and the classic dramaturgy with a n e x p o s i t i o n a s a b a c k g r o u n d s t o r y, r i s i n g a c t i o n a s a n e x h i b i t i o n , climax as the flooding, dénouement as the quietness and rebirth after the flooding. It should have coherent plot lines; with a strong f o c u s o n t e m p o r a l i t y, t h a t i n c l u d e s r e t e n t i o n o f t h e p a s t , a t t e n t i o n t o present action and protection/future anticipation. Anthropologists tell us that storytelling is central to human existence. We use stories to make sense of our world and to share that understanding with others. They are the signal within the noise (Rose, 2018) Memory When inhabitation comes to an end on Saltholm, it also means that the memories disappear with them. That is why we undertook us this project, to lift up the past and memories of Saltholm before it is flooded. Each intervention we create is connected to Saltholm’s i n n e r s e l f : i t s g e o l o g y, n a t u r e , p l a g u e , w a r s , q u a r r y i n g ; t o m a k e t h e memories visible to the eye but also as a sensory experience for the visitors to experience by themselves. We have been greatly inspired by the artist Shona Illingworth and her project Lesions in the Landscape (Illingworth, 2016) where she studies an abandoned island from a memory perspective: “Memory is really important for locating us within space and time ...Where you have a sense of the past receding and the future manifesting, and a s e n s e t h a t y o u h a v e g o n e f r o m o n e p l a c e t o a n o t h e r, t h a t a n e p i s o d e has finished, you now move to another episode.” P r o f e s s o r K e n Ta y l o r f r o m T h e A u s t r a l i a n N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y has a theory that the memory of landscape is not always associated with pleasure. It can be associated sometimes with loss, with pain, with social fracture and sense of belonging gone, although t h e m e m o r y r e m a i n s , a l b e i t p o i g n a n t l y ( Ta y l o r, 2 0 0 8 ) . T h i s i s t h e r e a s o n w e a l s o h a v e l o o k e d a t t h e p h e n o m e n o n p l a c e o f n e c e s s i t y, the Anthropocene and how it affected Saltholm. Since Saltholm always has been used by the mainland for different reasons such as quarantine station, fort, quarrying this makes it a big part of its past. 28


Working method We have been influenced by the biologist and natural scientist, Herman D e Vr i e s a n d h i s b e l i e f s t h a t “ n a t u r e ’s p r o c e s s e s a n d p h e n o m e n a c a n n o t be translated and explained in merely rational terms: all of his work moves towards a suspended, poetic transposition of the meaning of life, focusing on the complex relationships between nature and culture, and how these two components of our lives influence each other (Pola, 2017).” This has influenced our way of working with Saltholm; to incorporate poetry and meaning into the design. We have been following Peter Lundsgaard Hansen Landscape Studios working method of having design conversations. During these conversations we have been sharing ideas with our fellow students, using a vertical projector as a tool. This tool makes it easy to project plans and visualisation on a table and then sketch by hand over these, designing while drawing and talking. O n o u r t u m b l r p a g e h t t p s : / / s a l t h o l m d k . t u m b l r. c o m / y o u c a n f o l l o w the process of our project, it shows the different media we have used in our project including: working models, montages, videos, drawings, photographs, music, montages and installation. Inspiration We have tried to have a broad spectrum of inspiration, since Saltholm itself is so multifaceted. By looking at the human life cycle, time has been important for us, and how you use time as a tool. We have been looking for inspiration that includes storytelling; literature, music, art and photographs. Other islands have inspired us. We went for a study trip to Gotland to study its landscape and especially how they have reprogrammed their q u a r r i e s . F u r i l l e n , B u n g e n ä s , B l å L a g u n e n i n A r, H o b u r g e n a r e a f e w places we visited on the trip

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our process, from tumblr

calum peter ludvig

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Carl Linnaeus

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Obituary/ /əˈbɪtʃ.ʊə.ri/

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1.a notice of the death of a person, often with a biographical sketch, a s i n a n e w s p a p e r. 1.2 of, relating to, or recording a death or deaths: (Oxford Dictionaries | English, 2018)

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The city does not consist of this, but of relationships between the measurements of its space and the events of its past; As this wave from memories flows in, the city soaks it up like a sponge and expands. A description of Zaira as it is today should contain all Zair a ’ s p a s t . T h e c i t y, h o w e v e r, d o e s n o t t e l l i t s p a s t , b u t c o n t a i n s i t like the lines of a hand, written in the corners of the streets, the gratings of the windows, banisters of the steps, the antannae of the ligtning rods, the poles of the flags, every segment marked in turn with scratches, indentations, scrolls. Italo Calvino ( C a l v i n o a n d W e a v e r, 2 0 0 6 )

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M a r r, R ( 2 0 1 7 ) Ø y f e s t i v a l .


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2.

THE MAKINGS OF YOU THE ISLAND IS ALIVE. THERE IS SOMETHING MOVING HERE.

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LANDSCAPE “Any landscape is a condition of the spirit” Henri Frédéric Amiel If you look above Saltholm, the Sound, and the surrounding l a n d s c a p e s y o u s e e t h e s k y. T h e s k y i s v e r y e v i d e n t o n S a l t h o l m . It directs the mood and the light. Since the water flows around and on the island the sky’s reflection become part of the ground. The Danish impressionistic painter Theodor Phillipson is famous for his landscape paintings picturing Saltholm. What is so special about these paintings and how they could describe Saltholm in such a good w a y i s t h e u s e o f t h e s k y, a s a p a r t o f S a l t h o l m . I n t h e v i s u a l i s a t i o n in this book, the sky is as important as the objects in the picture, together they make Saltholm.

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Theodor Philipsen, 1898

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F L O R A / FA U N A Saltholm’s vegetation is dominated primarily by grasses, with its landscape consisting mainly of flat chalk meadowlands and coastal m e a d o w. T h e r e a r e f e w t r e e s o n S a l t h o l m . T h e y a r e c l u s t e r e d m a i n l y in two places in the north and south-west of the island in Nordskov a n d A m a g e r S k o v. T h e i s l a n d h a s a r i c h v a r i e t y o f f l o r a , n o t a b l y motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), blue iris (Iris spuria) and chickweed (Egmont, 2008). The southern part of the island, an extensive salt marsh, is protected under the Ramsar Convention (Eisma, 2006) and the island as a whole, and the surrounding area of sea are a designated a nature reserve under the European Union. Mussel beds, eel grass, snails, and fish that lie in the shallow waters around the island provide an important food source for water birds. Fixed vegetation occurs in the Sound mostly down to a depth of approx. 10 metres where the light is sufficient for photosynthesis. The vegetation changes in character depending upon depth, because of the light conditions (Øresundsvand, n.d). Because of this nature reserve access to Saltholm and the surrounding waters is controlled. Access to the island is via a small harbour at Barakkebro to the north. The east coast has a straight edge which is due to the constant waves from the ocean. The west coast has a shape that man cannot recreate a mosaic of twists and turns, coves and islets. The island is heavily characterised by water holes that are often dry between floods creating craters in the ground. The salinity of the water around Saltholm is lower than in other parts of the sound this is because the island sits on a shelf of sorts, this reflects in the vegetation. Saltholm is also the host of two rare plant species, the Blue Iris and t h e Ø r e s u n d s - H ø n s e t a r m ( C o p e n h a g e n U n i v e r s i t y, 2 0 0 8 ) . T h e b l u e Iris is distinctive in its form and colour and the other is a light green plant covered in flowers, found only in Denmark it is quite special.

40


41


BIRDS

Swans Grey geese Ducks Common eider

Spring

42

Summer

fall

Winter

ary Febru

ry janua

mber Dece

mber Nove

ber Octo

mber Septe

Augu

July

June

May

April

Marc

h

st

The island is Denmark’s largest grazing area for geese, some 7,000 o f w h i c h v i s i t d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r. A r o u n d 3 , 5 0 0 j u v e n i l e s w a n s a l s o l i v e o n t h e i s l a n d i n t h e s u m m e r, w i t h s o m e 2 , 0 0 0 w i n t e r i n g t h e r e . 10,000–12,000 ducks breed and graze on Saltholm during autumn and late winter/spring. Saltholm is also home to Europe’s largest breeding colony of eiders; 15,000 live on the island during the spring and some 7,000–8,000 are hatched on the island each year (Skov og Naturstyrelsen, 2006) Saltholm’s salt marshes have been - and still remain - used f o r g r a z i n g f o r t h e f a r m e r s i n A m a g e r. E v e r y s p r i n g , h o r s e s , c a t t l e , s h e e p a n d g e e s e s a i l t o t h e i s l a n d w h e r e t h e y s p e n d t h e s u m m e r. H o w e v e r, t h e n o r t h e r n m o s t p a r t o f t h e i s l a n d i s f e n c e f r o m . The bird life at Saltholm is rich. The beaches and the surrounding shallow waters with lush underwater vegetation of sea grass and eelgrass are a significant breeding and birth area for aquatic birds in thousands. Other distinctive animals are gray seal and spotted seal as well as the rare green-brown tuddy (Grønbrogede tudse). It travels every spring from its winter hut on the rising parts of the island to the shabby waterholes to breed (Skov og Naturstyrelsen, 2006).


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the geologic field itself, and strategically selected samples of it, become archival documents

geology

44


GEOLOGY Saltholm is not as small as it seems. It is only the tip of a bigger landmass that goes by the name of “Saltholm Flak”. Saltholm Flak reaches from south of the Øresundbridge up to the “flakfortet” north of Saltholm. The Saltholm Flak consist foremost of ‘Bryozokalk’ which is white, pouruse limestone built up by skeletons of bryzos (moss animals), and limestone sludge. Moss animals are colonializing animals that built a common skeleton with many small holes. In every hole there has been one of these moss animals. These skeletons may be branchy or flat. It can easily be seen if the limestone has been exposed to wind and heavy weather for a long time. The limestone sludge dissolves quicker than Bryozokalk and therefore appears on the surface. Bryozokalk is often just called limsten in Danish. It was deposited into the ocean in the first part o f t h e Te r t i a r y e r a , k n o w n a s D a n i c a , b e t w e e n 6 3 - 6 5 m i l l i o n y e a r s a g o . Saltholms Bryozokalk has the depth of 66 meter and above the Bryozokalk there is a layer of 4-5 meter of ‘kalksten’ and ‘kalkstensand’ and -sludge. This used to be called Københavns kalk or just Danske kalk. During the ice age, large parts of Denmark were exceeded by the ice sheet several times. This process of crossing and scrubbing the land m a d e t h e s u r f a c e f l a t . W h e n t h e i c e l a t e r w i t h d r e w, S a l t h o l m f o r m e d a f l a t hill with rivers running on each side of it. During the Stone Age when the water levels had risen to its normal state, Saltholm was underneath the water making it a part of the seabed. Ever since the Stone Age the land has been rising and Saltholms appearance changed into its present form ( Wa n e c k , 2 0 1 8 ) .

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Isolation/ aɪ.səlˈeɪ.ʃən

46


1.1 the fact that something is separate and not connected to other things 1.2 the condition of being alone, especially when this makes you feel unhappy:

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48


3.

PEOPLE ON S A LT H O L M I N S I C K N E S S A N D I N H E A LT H , T I L L D E AT H D O U S A PA R T

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THE AGE OF THE HUMANS

THE ANTHROPOCENE

People are changing Earth so much, warming and polluting it, that many scientists are turning to a new way to describe the time we live in. They are calling it the Anthropocene, the age of humans (Borenstein, 2014). This current epoch that we live in has seen man make his mark on the world, John Kress (2014) notes that “never in its 4.6 billion year old history has the Earth been so affected by one species as it is being affected now by humans”. Saltholm is one place that has been used by man whenever h e / s h e n e e d e d i t . W e t e r m t h i s a l a n d s c a p e o f n e c e s s i t y, a p l a c e only used when society has needed it the most, as a quarantine s t a t i o n d u r i n g t h e p l a g u e y e a r s , a f o r t r e s s i n w o r l d w a r s , a q u a r r y, and now a nature reservation (Saltholm.dk, n.d). There were also p l a n s t o b u i l d C o p e n h a g e n A i r p o r t o n t h e i s l a n d i n 1 9 6 9 . H o w e v e r, due to financial crisis these plans were abandoned in 1983. All of these practices have shaped the Saltholm we see today for better and for worse. Saltholm has seen its population peak at around 200 people to 2 people in 2017. The resources people needed ended and the people retreated. It is said that over quarrying the island led to a desertion almost overnight. Architecture can be understood as a synecdoche for the Anthropocene. It is a contributing facet to human intervention on the g e o l o g i c , b u t a l s o r e f e r s , m o r e g e n e r a l l y, t o t h e w a y t h a t h u m a n s have become architects of the earth systems. It could be said that particularly landscape architects have known for a long time the degree to which their practice physically shapes the ground, what it means to relocate granite and stack it to great heights. In a sense we have brought Saltholm to its demise perhaps not on purpose but in a way not easily reversible. It is this justification we use to ‘use’ Saltholm one last time. A gentle hand of celebration before Mother Nature takes her course.

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T å r n b y s t a d s - o g L o k a l a r k i v, b 1 4 5 4

T å r n b y s t a d s - o g L o k a l a r k i v, b 1 6 4 1

T å r n b y s t a d s - o g L o k a l a r k i v, b 5 4 0 2 51


THE PLAGUE King Frederik IV observed the outbreak of the plague around Europe with great interest. So when the plague broke out in Poland in 1709, he immediately took action and established a quarantine station on Saltholm. Ships should anchor and crew as well as goods will spend 40 days on Saltholm before they would be granted entry to Copenhagen. I n 1 7 11 S a l t h o l m s c o m m u n i t y b e g a n t o b u i l d a c e m e t e r y which was rediscovered at the beginning of the 19th century where i n s c r i p t i o n s c a n s t i l l b e m a d e o u t t o d a y. In 1715 Saltholms ‘supervisor’ was killed in mysterious circumstances and several members of his family were also found dead, there is no record of them in the church documents from the time, leading to the belief they are also buried somewhere on Saltholm (Hjorth, 2002). In total 23,000 people died from the epidemic in Copenhagen (Frandsen, 2010).

52


Frandsen, K (2004)

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THE WARS

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T å r n b y s t a d s - o g L o k a l a r k i v, 7 2 0 0 55


F O R T I F I C AT I O N The first war that affected Saltholm was the Napoleonic Wars and the Battle of Copenhagen. After heavy battles on the sea, several British bodies war found by the shore and were later buried on the island, the location is today unknown (Saltholm.dk, n.d.). Saltholm was a part of Copenhagen’s fortification in the early 1900s. In February 1904, the Russo-Japanese war broke out. The Danish government put safety measures in place with redoubts at Saltholm. It was the only defence force being built in Europe because o f t h e w a r. T h e i s l a n d ’ s p o s i t i o n i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e Ø r e s u n d g a v e i t s o m e m i l i t a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e d u r i n g t h e t w o Wo r l d Wa r s . I n 1 9 1 2 , t h e Danish government constructed the Flakfortet (sand-shoal fort) on the Salthom Flak sands just north of Saltholm. Flakfortet is today a popular tourist destination (Saltholm.dk, n.d.). D u r i n g t h e F i r s t Wo r l d Wa r t w o c a n n o n b a t t e r i e s , S a l t h o l m Battery and Barack Battery were installed on the island. They s t a t i o n e d a t o t a l o f 2 0 0 s o l d i e r s d u r i n g t h e t w o Wo r l d Wa r s , m a k i n g these times as population peaks with the quarry still being open and soldiers on the island. In 1915 a one-way railway track was built which connected the cannons to the harbour (ibid). This track was later used by the kids of Saltholm in completely different purposes (see picture). In 1915, Saltholm was the site of an incident resulting in the loss of the British submarine HMS E13, which ran aground on the i s l a n d o n 1 7 t h o f A u g u s t d u e t o a d a m a g e d c o m p a s s . Tw o d a y s l a t e r, two German destroyers attacked the submarine while it was still stranded on the shoreline. Fifteen of the submariners were killed before Danish torpedo ships intervened to prevent the attackers. ( N e w Yo r k T i m e s , 1 9 1 5 ) . T h e s u r v i v i n g c r e w w e r e i n t e r n e d i n Denmark until the end of the war in November 1918, and the wrecked submarine was scrapped (Gardiner et al, 1985).

T å r n b y s t a d s - o g L o k a l a r k i v, b 3 5 8 9 56


a song made by a solider during WW1

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R E S I S TA N C E MOVEMENT RINGEN D u r i n g t h e S e c o n d Wo r l d Wa r r e s i d e n t s o f S a l t h o l m h e l p e d s m u g g l e refugees and allied soldiers from Denmark to Sweden. This took a lot of courage and meant a big risk for the smugglers since German soldiers were stationed on the island and their aircrafts constantly flew over the island (Hjarnø Knudsen and Hjarnø Mathiassen, 2016). The Knudsen family and the Zimling family who were living on Saltholm were both active in sailing across the Sound with refugees from Denmark to Sweden. Stella Flyvia Knudsen was born in 1928 at Saltholm. Stella and her mother were both arrested by the Gestapo for smuggling refugees in 1944 and so were her two brothers. They were later realised from jail (Hjarnø Knudsen and Hjarnø Mathiassen, 2016). When picking up refugees and allies from the shores of the mainland the smugglers had a code word that they shouted out “Høns” (a code word they used for Jews). This code word was effective until one day when two women from the Gestapo pretended to be refugees. After arriving to Malmø they took the next boat back to Copenhagen to report the smugglers and they were jailed. In this r e g a r d , S a l t h o l m p l a y e d a h u g e r o l e i n t h e S e c o n d Wo r l d Wa r a n d the people living there saved a lot of innocent lives whilst risking their own (Hjarnø Knudsen and Hjarnø Mathiassen, 2016).

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T å r n b y s t a d s - o g L o k a l a r k i v, B 4 1 6 3

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The limestone c

everything go qu

60


rash made

uiet, overnight.

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A B AT T L E O F M A N A N D W AT E R

QUARRYING

Saltholm is made up of a limestone basis and has since medieval times been the subject of excavation. During the ‘Copenhagen Fires’ of 1728 the limestone was intensively quarried to help with the rebuilding of the city in a more fireproof material, today Copenhagens Marmor Kirken still stands built with some of the Stone from Saltholm. Saltholms surface lies between 0.5 and 2 metres above sea level but during the winter time and after storms a majority of the island is flooded. Excavating limestone on Saltholm has always been t r i c k y, t h e l i m e s t o n e i t s e l f i s n o t t h e p r o b l e m i t ’ s t h e w a t e r l e v e l s t h a t m a k e i t t r i c k y. It has since the beginning of the quarry in 1230 been a constant b a t t l e b e t w e e n m a n a n d w a t e r. I n o r d e r t o d i g d e e p , w a t e r p u m p s have been used, it helped the people working there to dig as deep as 10 metres below sea-level. After about 800 years of excavating limestone on Saltholm it all stopped overnight in 1934. The water levels had been difficult to stabilise for some time and the water pumps went around the clock. One night after a day’s work when they had dug to deep the quarry w a s f i l l e d w i t h w a t e r. B y t h e m o r n i n g t h e 8 - 1 0 m d e e p q u a r r y w a s filled with water and only the top of the cranes could be seen. That day Saltholm no longer had an industry; it travelled 800 years back in time. After that it was only cattle and small holdings left on the island, and thus depopulation began.

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R

Quarry

The locomotive that transported the limestone

Old pumping station

Kronborg built by saltholm kalk

Hjarnø Knudsen, Hjarnø Mathiassen (2016)

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SWALLOWED BY THE SOUND

64 T å r n b y s t a d s - o g L o k a l a r k i v, b 1 4 7 0


PA R T T W O

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EXISTING MAP The existing map plots the placement of existing structures on the island. This includes the inhabited some of the old houses, that to this day still exist on the island as well as other abandoned sites such as the Saltholm Museum.

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barakkebroen / Harbour

nordskov

the old school house saltholm musuem

Nordbakken

barakkegården østergård

tippen quarry

gammelgårds brønd kirkegården

holemegård

adm

inis

lusebro

trat

iona

l bo

rde

r

zimlings vænge

gammelværk saltholms batteri

amagerskov

a

t

tra

nis

i dm

r

de

or

lb

a ion

telefonhus

1:30,000

peberholm 67


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4.

AS THEY CAME UPON THE SHORE A R R V I N G AT T H E H A R B O U R T H E Y W E R E S T R A N G E R S

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A R R I VA L

harbour basecamp

quarry hill

70


forest surrounding houses east side

pump station

holmegaard

quarry tip

quarry

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PROJECT AREA The northern part of Saltholm is chosen as the project area. This is to do primarily with the existing footprint as well as the site where the concentration of cultural history lies. It is also the only part of the island that visitors are allowed all year around.

harbour arrival

basecamp the tip

quarry scape

72


Grenade landscape

nordskov

the cemetery

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5 . T H E G AT E S O F T H E BASECAMP S T E P I N G I N T O T H E H E A R T O F S A LT O L M

75


76


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S A LT H O L M B A S E C A M P The basecamp works as a ‘portal’ of sorts: coming from the harbor you are led by the existing road into this walled ‘camp’ where you can learn about the islands past and present and inevitable future. The basecamp was placed here because the anthropogenic footprint was already present. All buildings except two (the exhibition hall and shelter) already exists. This part of the project is the functional, rational: and it’s designed to show people how the island and its rich nature (natural) and the people who used to live there (cultural). This part of the project has its base in the exposition - the background s t o r y, w h e r e w e c o l l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i s l a n d t h a t w o r k s a s a foundation of facts that the visitor can bring with them as they walk out of the basecamp into the landscape beyond. The basecamp is a place for professionals and tourist to learn about the island. There are facilities for researchers, and students t o c o m e h e r e a n d a l s o s t a y o v e r. T h e o n l y w a y t o c o m e t o S a l t h o l m is by your own boat or a chartered boat. The island is divided into three time zones when you are allowed to be there (see map on page 18). The southern tip is closed all year around, the middle part 6 months of the year whilst the northern part where the basecamp and most of the other interventions are situated is open all year around.

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constructed surrounding wall

gate

parking space

exhibiton house

sheep

outdoor exhibiton

camping

wild flower meadow

mowed grass

shelter

old school house greenhouses

recycling / binning area

v

agricultural area agricultural area

under canopy seating

ath gp

tin

r se

seating area

is ex

amphi theater

k

ios

k ice

bird tower

+1,5m sign

+3m

d ne ur

yt

wa

storage building

musuem

to

+0,5m

small opening

e av

gr l

+1m

path

turning circle

ha ha wall, seating area

gate

sign

helipad

gateway

+3m Wall lower cows

+0,5m

1:800 79


CASTRA DESIGN The Castra design was invented by the Roman Empire in order to quickly be able to build camps for protection and comfort during t i m e s o f w a r a n d e x p l o r a t i o n ( M e r r i a m - w e b s t e r. c o m , 2 0 1 8 ) . T h e Castra design is based on a simple and geometrical layout, divided into sections with different functions. In the middle of the camp there is a main road, principalis running from north to south. The camp was used as a temporary home when exploring the unknown s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s c a p e s , a s a f e - p l a c e f o r r e f l e c t i o n ( R a m s e y, 1 8 7 5 ) . S A LT H O L M B A S E C A M P The Castra Design is used as an inspiration in the Saltholm Basecamp. The basecamp is divided into four sections, each one having its own function: a. education, b. exhibition, c. landscape and d. research. A principalis is used as the main road of the camp, the road itself exists but the wall around the basecamp makes it even more central a n d s i g n i f i c a n t . To h a v e a m a i n r o a d i s i m p o r t a n t , i t f u n c t i o n a s a portal from one place to another; from inside the basecamp to the outside, from factual knowledge to a sensory experience. fig 1 & 2. is our interpretation of the Castra applied to the basecamp in Saltholm.

fig 1.

b. a.

d. c.

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fig 2.

a.Education

b.Exhibition

-

- indoor exhbition - outdoor exhbition - shelter

the old schoolhouse amphitheater educational forest small lake

c.Landscape

d.Research

- museum - viewpoint - a low ha ha wall for seating overlooking the quarry

-

research center laboratory greenhouses birdtower

81


WALLS We do not attempt to build a seawall around Saltholm to protect it from its inevitable demise, instead we build temporary walls around the island this is a constant reminder of the power of Mother Nature, an ominous aspersion of humans disregard. The wall surrounding the basecamp stands three metres high at its highest and half a metre at its lowest it also varies in appearance. The reason for this is to make it dynamic and fulfil the purpose of each area. The highest points are in the North and the South where the gates can be found. In the North east side there is a cut out in the wall that frames the landscape making it a part of the exhibition. In the South west corner the wall is divided into three ha-ha walls that offers seating and opens up the landscape for viewing of the Quarry and the tip. In the south-eastern corner there is a small opening in the wall. This is to represent the vulnerability of this basecamp and the island due to the flooding. The wall itself will not protect the basecamp from the flooding but rather frame the inevitable; to make it more obvious, a tension point. Like a constant reminder of what the future will bring. The silence swallowed by the sound.

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wall experiences

arrival

meeting

outlook

opening

ha-ha wall

83


school house

the gateway 3,5m 3m

0,5 m 1m

84


exhibition

flower meadow cut in wall

foundation piles 1:200

85


EXHIBITION Cline (2012) notes that: “The art exhibition has had a long and c o m p l e x h i s t o r y, e v o l v i n g w i t h t h e e v e r - c h a n g i n g d e m a n d s o f s o c i e t y while at the same time challenging those very demands. Exhibitions act as the catalyst of art and…they represent a way of displaying and contextualizing art that makes it relevant. The art exhibition… h o l d s a m i r r o r u p t o s o c i e t y, r e f l e c t i n g i t s i n t e r e s t s a n d c o n c e r n s while at the same time challenging its ideologies”. We hope to contextualize the story of Saltholm through displaying its art, artifacts and stories in one central place on the island. It is a society’s archive in the form of art. This building immerses you in this story before you leave to explore the island on your own and interpreting these stories for yourself. The exhibition reflects in a sense the concerns of society today through the theme of loss, memory and climate change. We aim to touch people on a personal and human level through the curation of the room.

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sliding door

outdoor exhibition

indoor exhibition + 1,5 wild flower meadow

path

grass

sliding door

limestone patio

gravel path greenhouses

1:100

under canopy seating 87


front of the exhibition

88


example of elements in outdoor exhibition

89


sliding wall/door

toilets reception hall

exhibition hall

glass walls

cafe

limestone pattio

90

sliding wall/door

low wall


patio from the inside, canopy behind

91


RESEARCH T h e S a l t h o l m l a b w i l l b e p a r t o f C o p e n h a g e n U n i v e r s i t y. T h e l a b o r a t o r y encompasses six research groups, Ecology and conservation, b i o l o g y, g e o l o g y, w i l d l i f e s t u d i e s , c l i m a t e c h a n g e a n d l a n d s c a p e architecture. The idea is to let the science department of Copenhagen to use the Lab in what way that fits them, a sort of temporary Lab that is used by different research groups over the years to come. The Saltholm Lab seeks to understand how contemporary ecosystems function and how they may be affected by direct human pressures and global atmospheric change. Changes are happening q u i c k l y i n t h e h u m a n c u l t u r e a n d s o c i e t y, a n d w e b e l i e v e t h a t t h e negative impacts of these changes could be minimized with the application of science and research. The rich wild life of Saltholm will also be taken into account in the research. Investigating wild life responses to human impacts of environment, mainly flooding’s (rising sea levels) but also wind mill development, oil spill, infrastructure projects and a more dramatic climate. This research could hopefully help other places that face similar challenges to cope in the future. T h e l o c a t i o n o f S a l t h o l m L a b i s q u i t e u n i q u e . To h a v e a l a b o n a n island with such a rich wild life and nature so close to the main university and the city is quite unique. The relationship between urban / rural areas and used / untouched land are very evident here, and makes the island also a subject of investigation by human ecologist and anthropologists. The main building already exists and it is called Brakkegården. It has two floors and is today mainly used for dining when bigger groups of tourist visit the island. The building will remain but with a new programing; the first floor will have to laboratories and a meeting space. The second floor will have more informal rooms such as bedrooms and dining areas, to be used for the people working in the lab. By the staircase there is an elevator that will take you down to a cellar 5 meters down in the ground, carved out of the limestone. In the cellar a geology lab will be developed as well for storage. When going down with the elevator you will go through different layers of limestone formed during different times; a journey through time. The lab also constitutes of also greenhouses and agriculture land where test planting can be made, in different conditions. This gives us a chance to explore how to plant in a more vulnerable climate, a type of climate that will become more common due to an increase in flooding’s. Godfrey Baldacchino from the University of Prince Edward Island says that “many innovative forms of environmental management and epidemiological research tend to involve, or be based on, islands.” Baldacchino continues saying that “major advances in e v o l u t i o n a r y b i o l o g y, e c o l o g y a n d b i o - g e o g r a p h y h a v e o c c u r r e d o n the basis of pioneering island field research: insularity is pronounced as the flywheel of evolution, with copious island-based examples of endemism, as well as extinction.” Baldacchino claims that island, mostly because of its isolation from main land, can be studied from an anthropological view point “Anthropology cut its teeth with the study of island societies in allegedly pristine and quasi-laboratory settings.” (Baldacchino, 2006)


wild flower meadow + 0,5

bird tower

agricultural research

small opening

Saltholm Lab +1

+ 1,5

path

back garden N 1:100


94


laboratory

stair case to 1st

water pump toilets

ruin

reception area

research lab air vents write up room

back garden

95


potential look of the celler m o n t a g e o f P i o n e n D a t a C e n t e r, S t o c k h o l m

96


97


E D U C AT I O N The idea with Saltholm Basecamp is to draw as much knowledge as possible out of the island. Research is important, and the Saltholm Lab fulfils that purpose, but in order to make it complete education also need to be a part of it. School classes in varying ages will use this part of the basecamp in their education. The north west part has an experimental forest, a small lake and an old school house. The old school house will be used for lectures but also gives an insight of how life used to be on the island. The experimental forest will be planted by the students and make them take decisions on site, instead of doing it inside a classroom. By using your own hands and planting plants by yourself you learn more about space, and how different it is taking decisions on a plan rather than in real life. The experimental forests mission is to create a space that expands understanding of the dynamics and interaction between plants. It should be seen as an arena where students in different subjects and ages together can create something and learn by doing it. The amphi theatre located where the small forest meets the lake symbolises this arena, where lectures and exchange of knowledge and ideas can take place. Hopefully the forest and its development will be interesting throughout the growing period, seeing the small plants taking shape and then after a while develop (with management) into a small forest. Different sorts of trees and shrubs will be tested i n r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r a b i l i t y t o e n d u r e h a r s h w a t e r, and salty winds. Inspired by the Forest Lab in Alnarp, the Swedish agriculture scool, the experimental forests purpose is to learn the younger generation the risk of climate change and that we will have to adapt to it in the future. The experimental forest will include native spices as well as more exotic ones. They all need to be tolerant to salt, wind, and s h i f t i n g w e a t h e r. T h e u s e o f n a t i v e p l a n t s i s t o g e t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a s m a l l f o r e s t a n d u s e m o r e e x o t i c p l a n t s t o f i l l t h e g a p s . To t r y new types of trees that are unfamiliar to us right now is important in order get more knowledge and a broader range of trees to use in the future.

98


area for tents flagpole

old school

aquatic plants

experimental forest

boardwalk

amphi theatre

forest lab

wall lowered

1:200

99


100


101


FOREST LAB WOODLAND DENSITY & DEVELOPMENT

Density A a rich plantation, 200 trees per 100 m2

102


Density B

Density C

mixed woodland 100 trees per 100 m2

grown woodland 25 trees per 100 m2

103


LANDSCAPE In this quiet and open landscape it is the surroundings that are the m a i n f a c t o r. T h i s a r e a h a s b e e n i n s p i r e d b y t h e J a p a n e s e g a r d e n principle shakkei, borrowed scenery (Mother Nature Network, 2017); to be inside the basecamp looking out and taking in the landscape. A ‘ha-ha’ wall is used to get an uninterrupted view of the tip and the q u a r r y. I t a l s o k e e p s t h e c a t t l e o u t o f t h e b a s e c a m p b u t m a k e s t h e m be a part of the landscape. The nature is the same as the one outside the wall making this area an important transition zone from outside to in. This is a place to get a glimpse of the landscape that you soon w i l l g o o u t a n d d i s c o v e r. The topography has been used in order to design seating areas for people who want to sit down and take in the landscape. North of the seating areas is the old museum that was built in a ruin of an old Flintstone house in 1998 by Hans Christian Zimling , who was born on Saltholm, and has a number of historical objects with connection to Saltholm e.g. farming tools, photos and memorabilia.

example ha-ha wall

104


old museum

existing trees

turning point

new trees

+ 1,5 +1

ha/ha wall 0.5m wall

1:200

seatings along following topography

105


S H E LT E R Shelter by definition means ‘a place giving temporary protection f r o m b a d w e a t h e r o r d a n g e r ( O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y, 2 0 1 8 ) . T h e s h e l t e r, s i t s n e s t l e d i n a w i l d f l o w e r m e a d o w, f a c i n g a c u t i n the wall allowing for a view to the landscape beyond. Our shelter p r o v i d e s r e f u g e , a p l a c e t o g a t h e r, a p l a c e t o w a t c h t h e c h a n g e s i n the landscape beyond. The placement of the shelter within in the camp allows for extra protection afforded by such a thing. Within the s h e l t e r t i m e p a s s e s s l o w e r, t h e r e i s n o i m m e d i a t e f u n c t i o n o r t a s k happening within this room, instead a place to discuss and reflect. E a c h m o m e n t m o v e s f l u i d l y, s o u n d l e s s l y a n d p e a c e f u l l y. T h e s h e l t e r embodies humanities dreams of the ideal world and the perception o f i s l a n d s ( Tu a n , 1 9 9 0 ) .

4.5m

t h e s h e t l e r, a h o u s e t o s e e k warmth, a place to sit and/or make coffee

9m

5m

106


wild flower meadow

shelter

path

107

1:100


wild flower meadow and shelter

108


109


basecamp

agriculture 110


view from west side

exhibition 111


112


6.

TIME FOR EXPEDITION L E AV I N G T H E B A S E C A M P T O E X P E R I E N C E T H E I S L A N D

113


PAT H S Y S T E M S A N D THEIR LOGIC Through walking and exploring the human body gives life to a place, making it no longer a mute territory frozen in time but an animated landscape (Karamanea, 2015). The path systems on Saltholm designed to guide you around the island are a narrative tool put into a hierarchical system which w e u s e t o u n r a v e l t h e s t o r y o f t h e i s l a n d a s y o u w a n d e r. T h e s y s t e m o f p r i m a r y, s e c o n d a r y a n d t e r t i a r y r o u t e s i l l u m i n a t e s t h e s i t e a n d i t s i n t r i n s i c q u a l i t i e s i n a n e w w a y. A n a l m o s t s o m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e designed to keep memory in continuous recall. The horizontality of the terrain is something that startles us a view from coast to coast, thus why vertical elements have been used in the interventions you w i l l e n c o u n t e r. The primary routes are the routes already ‘ploughed’ by man, this is the existing road.The secondary paths are the trodden paths that run west to east. The ‘tertiary’ style system does not rest in the pre-existing, it becomes adaptable with cairns and styles to guide you and let the ground live freely as it always has. The tertiary style encourages you to explore the island any way you wish but gently guides you around the more permanently flooded patches. Much of the inspiration for the pathways has come from Richard Long an artist who uses walking as his media. He notes that the landscape w a l k e r, t h e w a l k i n g p o e t , a n d t h e p i l g r i m h a v e b e e n c h a r a c t e r s w e have seen throughout time (O’Hagan, 2009) but with walking it is always possible to walk in new ways and this is what we hope to achieve with our system. Frederik Nietzsche (cited in O’Hagan, 2009) notes that “all truly great thoughts are conceived by walking”. We believe that the past will reach into the present through looking, walking, listening, touching and smelling, activating this space and bringing it to life again.

114


115


A

B

C

1 garden of exile

harbour R4

2

R5

Nordskov

basecamp 443m R1

R2

R3

the tip quarry

cemetery

3

4km garden of exile

Saltholm visitor guide The path systems seen here are only ‘recommended’ due to changing weather patterns and partial flooding, keep this in mind when using the guide. 116

Tr i p s t o t h e g a r d e n o f e x i l e ( top left) are by appointment o n l y. t h e g a r d e n i s s i t u a t e d under the administrational border meaning the garden is only available to visit in the winter months. The garden

lies 4km to the south and will take 20 minutes driving time depending on weather conditions.


D

route suggestion, may be flooded main ‘road’ grenade landscape

‘exploration area’

N 1:10000

Route times and distances 443m route R3 917m route R5 1.3km route R2 + main road 1.77 km round trip basecamp quarry walk 1.3km round trip basecamp to tip end approx 600m to grenade landscape from nordskov 117


W H AT Y O U W I L L M E E T O N Y O U R W AY Geology

quarry B3

the tip A3

basecamp A3

cemetary C3

nordskov C2

grenade C/D 1,2

amagerskov

118

wildlife

human

settlement

landmark

vegetation

viewpoint


119


120


7.

INTERVENTIONS E X P L O R I N G T H E T R A C E S O F S A LT H O L M

121


INTERVENTIONS C U R AT I O N When stepping out of the basecamp area, you enter the intervention area. Here walking is used as a narrative practice curated by a system of paths that makes you as a visitor decide your own route. This is about experiencing the island, how it makes us feel and how we perform in it. Along the way gentle interventions concerning the Anthropocene and the islands nature will be visible in order to understand how this island has been shaped over the years, by both natural processes and man-made processes. WA L K I N G As aforementioned, walking becomes a narrative device that illuminates the site and its qualities in a different way than how you experience it in the basecamp. The itinerary acts as an initiation to space, provokes emotions, presents different perspectives and views and leads the visitor through various spatial qualities. By engaging with the site through the sensory abilities of the human b o d y, t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v i s i t o r a n d t h e l a n d s c a p e b e c o m e s a somatic experience. Panita Karamanea touches upon the act of walking in her paper ‘Landscape, memory and contemporary design’, (2015). She notes that through walking and exploring, the human body gives life to a place, making it no longer a mute territory frozen in time but an animated landsc ape which we believe to be a valuable asset to the Island of Saltholm. MEMORY AS A MIND PROCESS The rationale for presenting the particular projects is that each one explores the relationship between identities, memory and landscape design. We want to activate latent characteristics of this landscape that refer to past stories. We use contemporary landscape design to rethink the past and reveal the subtle traces and characteristics of each intervention. Each intervention has a text explaining how w e d e s i g n t h e p l a c e t o a c t i v a t e t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M e m o r y, a s a mind process has influenced each intervention and the way we attempt to reveal the story of the site.

122


interventions

123


QUARRY SCAPE

harbour

basecamp

the tip

quarry path

wooden traces

view point

metallic traces

mechanical traces

124

1: 2500


wayfinder

wayfinder

main road

wayfinder

old pumping station quarry path

the old quarry - now a lake

the hill

A

holmegaard B

125


Q U A R R Y PAT H Tr a c e s i n t h e l a n d s c a p e s t i m u l a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s t o t h e p a s t a n d a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e s i t e . Wa l k i n g t h e q u a r r y p a t h i s l i k e w a l k i n g n e x t to a sleeping giant. From a distance the quarry just looks like a lake, but as you get closer and study it, you can find clues about the past industry that existed here. In its time the quarry had hundreds of men working to extract the limestone blocks to build Marmorkirken, Kronborg and other castles. The colour of the water is a varying tone that has a clear gradient from light to dark which reveals the depth of the lake. The traces that can be found on the path are a reminder of the islands history but also a trigger for the imagination of what could have been here, see following spread. The sensory experience here is important; to move around in the landscape in order to understand it. North of the quarry is a small hill which is formed by limestone leftovers from the past. This elevation gives a sense of scale to the size of the flooded quarry and the depth hiding below its now murky w a t e r.

the hill traces

footpath 10 m

A

quarry lake

traces

footpath

traces

B 1:500

126


road from the basecamp

new path towards the tip

flooded area small bridge

A

wayfinder

the hill lake

road towards cemetery existing path B

Holmegaard

1: 2500

1: 500 127


128


129


traces of the quarry

dead swan

eggs, a common sight

faeces

the water of the quarry

130


bones

n

mussels washed up

limestone bottle

traces

car tire

131


THE TIP The intervention is an interpretation of a geological basis and provides a basic understanding of the materials Saltholm is composed of. We will expose the inside of this 300m long rising sliop we call ‘the tip’ to show the limestone as a clearer edge below the existing grass coverage. The limestone will come out grey and then be bleached to white by the sun. The limestone will be visible for the viewer to examine it, touch it and see some of the fossils and holes within it. The straight cut exaggerates the height of the hill and therefore creates an ‘intense’ viewpoint standing on the edge overviewing the ever-changing skyline of Copenhagen; observing the constant changing of an urban landscape from an island lay dormant awaiting its demise.

132


133


A

4,5 4,0

viewpoint the tip 3,5

B

fishing huts

3,0

fishing hut existing trees

1: 1000 134

2,5


towards basecamp

main road

old railway tracks

2,0 the tip

1,5

1,0

0,5

sand

135


the top layer of the tip is scraped away and the grass removed

the sun begins to bleach the limestone to a shining white

the limestone and its characteristic holes are revealed for exploration

A

B 1:500

A

136

B


137


CEMETERY Cemeteries on islands have tended to be quietly invisible places, reserved for the bodies of those who, in life, occupied the margins of human society: the deviants, the forgotten, the diseased and the insane. These places have a powerful presence; a haunting quality (Sheppard Simms, 2016). An island is a fundamental particle – an act of God, not a construct of man, or of man’s wars or of man’s politics” (Baglole, 2003 c i t e d i n H a y, 2 0 0 6 ) . T h i s q u o t e i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y b u t i m p o r t a n t t o t h e cemetery on Saltholm, the graves both marked and unmarked on the cemetery are the product of physically and psychologically violent events. Many islands that were used as prisons, quarantine stations, asylums and other insitutions were violent places. Culturally this violence means many places like this have a lack of grave markers. This is the case on Saltholm. Ta r l o w ( 2 0 0 0 ) n o t e s t h e r e w a s a c h a n g e i n t h e w a y w e t h i n k of cemeteries, the consideration to give architectural and material expressions to a cemetery reflected a new secular preoccupation w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y a n d p e r m a n e n c e o f m e m o r y. T h e cemetery on Saltholm lies currently with no expression. Our cemetery is one site where there are graves from 1807, at times when the weather did not allow the bodies to be transported to Tårnby kirkegård. The cemetery will also be used as the proper cemetery for the graves of the British soldiers who died during the N a p o l e o n i c Wa r s w a r i n t h e B a t t l e o f C o p e n h a g e n i n t h e e a r l y 1 9 t h century and were buried in an unknown location on the island. It will also be used as a place to mark the unknown graves from the time as a quarantine station. In giving some architectural expression to our cemetery we hope to provide a peaceful place, a place for contemplation, and a marker for those buried here marked or unmarked. The poles give a sense of direction and scale, a curation for those passing through to slow down and experience the circular room. As the wind blows the voices of the past will pass through the poles as a whistle carried on the wind. Ashes to ashes dust to dust.

138


139

concept model


nordskov

140


Grenade landscape

141


direction to nordskov

poles

footpath

existing gravestone

A

B

furniture/ space divider

1: 500

142


circular room a circular ‘room’ is added around the existing path and grave marker to give a sense of scale as well as a place to sit.

existing pathway

grave marker

metal

poles

are

added

to

give

direction and add a vertical element to an otherwise flat landscape

together this space works as a quiet space binding time, earth and spirit t o g e t h e r. t h e p o l e s o n t o p o f t h e circle slow you down allowing for more time to contemplate the space

the poles are laid down into the bedrock

7m

35m

A

B 1:500

143


NORD SKOV Nordskov was an experimental plantation trialled by the friluftsrĂĽdet (outdoor council) in 1949/1950 carried out by forester Lorents Krarup to test how trees could cope with the islands soil and wind conditions. This was also in part of future plans to develop the island h o w e v e r, a s a f o r e m e n t i o n e d t h e s e p l a n s w e r e s c r a p p e d a n d t h e trees flourished. A pathway is placed cutting through the forest and metal poles are placed in vegetation gaps. As Nordskov is currently a home for birds these poles will stand for years after the flooding of the island still providing sanctuary for the birds and a testament to the natural vertical elements that stood in its place before. The pathway is following the direction of the man-made stream north of the forest, leading water from the forest to the ocean. It also follows the direction of the poles in the cemetery intervention.

144


145


small lake

existing man made stream

walk to grenade landscape

A

11 5 m

Poles are placed within the forest

stile existing path

path

B

way to cemetery

1: 1500


a pathway is laid through the forest

the poles are left and the birds thrive

the poles are inserted

the waters rise, trees begin to fall

poles laid in the ground chains for birds to sit

pathway A

B 1:750


148


149


GRENADE LANDSCAPE There are a lot of explanations and myths about the naming of “granithuller” which roughly translates to grenade landscape. One reason for the name is that they did test shootings of grenades from the ‘Saltholm Batteri’ in the south to the northern part of the i s l a n d . A n o t h e r, i s t h a t t h e G e r m a n s t h a t o c c u p i e d S a l t h o l m d u r i n g the second war tested their grenades there. This is why there is a fortification placed here (see picture). The mix of possible ‘man made holes’ and the naturally occuring holes make this flat landscape dynamic. These ditches fill up with water during winter time and after storms making a landscape of flux, a place of constant change. In the middle of the flat field, in the f a r n o r t h l i e s a b u n k e r. T h i s b u n k e r i s t h e o n l y v e r t i c a l o b j e c t i n t h e landscape drawing you towards it, therefore no roads are needed. In this area the bird-life is rich, many species of birds have made their nests in and around these ditches presumably for protection f r o m t h e e l e m e n t s . Wa l k i n g t h r o u g h t h i s l a n d s c a p e i s a n a v i g a t i o n a l challenge as you are faced with hundreds of birds flying overhead whilst navigating your way through this rugged terrain yet provides a special standing as the coast of Denmark lies to the west and the coast of Sweden to the east. In the grenade landscape we are inspired by the words of Karamanea (2015) that landscape design in areas such as this should b e d e s i g n e d c a r e f u l l y, a s t h e y p r o v i d e a n a n c h o r b e t w e e n u s a n d the world whilst keeping memory in continuous recall. Without this connection to the landscape, individuals can feel rootless, almost lost. We have interpretated her words by solely giving this landscape a name ‘Grenade Landscape’. There is no physical design here but this untouched landscape and the story it carries with it, we believe does not need it, instead we name it and place it on our map as an intervention allowing the visitor to connect with a place untouched. This leaves room for i n d i v i d u a l a n d c o l l e c t i v e m e m o r y t o w o r k i n h a r m o n y.

150


151


the ‘leftover’ bunker -0.5

A

152

-0.5

-0.25

-0.5 B 1:500


0.5 0.5

‘grenade holes’

A

leftover building flooded parts

B

‘grenade holes’

waymarker

waymarker

waymarker

1

‘grenade holes’

153 Grenade Landscape 1:1500


Grenade landscape

154


155


GARDEN OF EXILE The garden of exile lies below the nature protection border meaning that it is only possible to venture to the garden in the winter months. The garden of exile was created upon the same basis as Nordskoven as an experimental plantation, yet its unique shape led us to design a ‘Hortus Conclusus’, a walled garden. We keep the existing dense and mature planting inside yet adding a grid of trees in an opening in the planting structure. This structure will eventually break free from its rigid shape but will still be recognisable as an anthropogenic addition in its planting structure yet able to grow as it wishes. The walls are raised around the plantation allowing for some protection from the awaiting floods.

156


157


door

new grid of trees

B

EDIT THIS

section

A

walled garden

stream

135m

sand

1:1000


hortus conclusus with existing vegetation

sy sl

T

sy

ASK poppel krat krat

to rækker

new grid krat tjørn slåen

N

sy

enkelte tjærn & poppel

sy

sl

sn

sy

sn

sn

sl

SL: Blackthorn (Prunus Spinosa) SN: Honeysuckle (Symporicarpus albus) S Y: c o m m o n l i l a c ( S y r i n g a V u l g a r i s ) T: c o m m o n h a w t h o r n ( C r a t a e g u s M o n o g y n a )

existing vegetation

grid of trees

wall

B

drainage holes

A

1:750


160


161


M E TA M O R P H O S I S / mɛtəmɔːˈfəʊsɪs

162


1.1 A change of the form or nature of a thing or person into a completely different one

163


“ IMAGINE ” A LANDSCAPE LOST

An island disappearing - living with the

0,2

© Geodatastyrelsen, © Styrelsen for Dataforsyning og Effektivisering Ortofoto fra COWI

COWI har den fulde ophavsret til Sommer ortofotos (DDO®land). Det er kun tilladt at tage kopier eller udprinte ortofotos (DDO®land) til dit eget private brug indenfor husstanden, eller hvis din instutuion har købt brugsrettigheder hos COWI. Øvrig kommerciel anvendelse er ikke tilladt og vil kunne retsforfølges.

164

© Geodatastyrelsen, © Styrelsen for Dataforsyning og Effektivisering Ortofoto fra COWI

COWI har den fulde ophavsret til Sommer ortofotos (DDO®land). Det er kun tilladt at tage kopier eller udprinte ortofotos (DDO®land) til dit eget private brug indenfor husstanden, eller hvis din instutuion har købt brugsrettigheder hos COWI. Øvrig kommerciel anvendelse er ikke tilladt og vil kunne retsforfølges.

0,5

© Geodatastyrelsen, © Styrelsen for Datafors Ortofoto fra COWI

COWI har den fulde ophavsret til Sommer ortofotos (DDO®land). D eller udprinte ortofotos (DDO®land) til dit eget private brug indenfo instutuion har købt brugsrettigheder hos COWI. Øvrig kommerciel a kunne retsforfølges.


PA R T T H R E E

e sea

0,7

syning og Effektivisering

Det er kun tilladt at tage kopier or husstanden, eller hvis din anvendelse er ikke tilladt og vil

1,0

© Geodatastyrelsen, © Styrelsen for Dataforsyning og Effektivisering Ortofoto fra COWI

COWI har den fulde ophavsret til Sommer ortofotos (DDO®land). Det er kun tilladt at tage kopier eller udprinte ortofotos (DDO®land) til dit eget private brug indenfor husstanden, eller hvis din instutuion har købt brugsrettigheder hos COWI. Øvrig kommerciel anvendelse er ikke tilladt og vil kunne retsforfølges.

1,2

© Geodatastyrelsen, © Styrelsen for Dataforsyning og Effektivisering Ortofoto fra COWI

COWI har den fulde ophavsret til Sommer ortofotos (DDO®land). Det er kun tilladt at tage kopier eller udprinte ortofotos (DDO®land) til dit eget private brug indenfor husstanden, eller hvis din instutuion har købt brugsrettigheder hos COWI. Øvrig kommerciel anvendelse er ikke tilladt og vil kunne retsforfølges.

165


166


8.

HELLO, GOODBYE S A LT H O L M AN ISLAND DISAPPEARING - A LANDSCAPE LOST

167


REBIRTH ‘The ruin is never the final state of architecture but an intermediate of a larger cycle’. The skin of the body is commonly compared to the façade of a building. Is the surface of an island the same as a façade: When you can no longer see it, does that mean it no longer exists? W h a t h a p p e n s t o a n i s l a n d w h e n i t g o e s u n d e r w a t e r, p h y s i c a l l y and how it is perceived? This phase is theoretical and divided into two investigations; natural processes and the human perception. The European Environment Agency (2017) note that global s e a r i s e w i l l b e a r o u n d 2 - 3 m m p e r y e a r, a n d E u r o p e a n c o a s t l i n e s a r e following this trend. Natural processes gives thought to how plants adapt to new settings, what survives and what dies? N AT U R A L P R O C E S S E S P l a n t s h a v e t h e a b i l i t y, w i t h t h e a i d o f s u n s h i n e , t o c o n v e r t c a r b o n dioxide into energy-rich plant material, so the presence of plants can be decisive for the condition of other sea life. In the sound there are both flowering plants that are fixed with a root and algae which m o v e s f r e e l y. I n t h e s o u t h o f t h e S o u n d n e a r S a l t h o l m t h e r e i s a h i g h presence of flowering plants which we believe will increase with the new ‘reef’. Around Saltholm both Sea Grass and Pondweed would f l o u r i s h b e c a u s e o f t h e l e s s s a l t y w a t e r. I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e a m o u n t of Eelgrass in the sound has also been decreasing apart from on the west side of Saltholm where it has been increasing (Øresundsvandet, n.d). According to these findings we believe that plant life would f l o u r i s h o n t h e r e e f , t h u s m e a n i n g t h e a n i m a l s w o u l d f o l l o w. Saltholm is already a permanent site for seals. During the construction o f t h e Ø r e s u n d b r i d g e c o m m o n s e a l s w e r e s i g h t e d r e g u l a r l y, n o r m a l l y between 10 and 20 seals were spotted but sometimes up to 40. It is also possible to see ‘grey’ seals here. Seals eat a selection of fish species and are also skilled at adapting to new species. This is good news for Saltholm ‘reef’. The waters around Saltholm are important foraging areas for water fowl, snails, mussels, snakes, crustaceans and fish in huge numbers meaning there is already a healthy submarine life which is only set to improve with a larger reef. On the other hand there could be a problem with contamination in the sound due to the level of bird faeces on the island and the ‘pollution’ i n t h e q u a r r y. T h e c u r r e n t k n o w l e d g e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y h a z a r d o u s substances in the sound is limited (Øresundsvandet, no date). HUMAN PERCEPTION When an object change its shape its location something happens to it physically but also how we as people perceive it. In this part we have ‘interviewed’ different people with different occupations and different connections to the place such as: the landscape architect, t h e b u i l d i n g a r c h i t e c t , t h e p h i l o s o p h e r, t h e w r i t e r a n d t h e ‘ r e s i d e n t ’ . and ask them: what happens to a place rich in cultural heritage and unique in nature when it is faced with the threat of disappearance? Yo u c a n f i n d t h e a n s w e r s o n t h e n e x t p a g e s . 168


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The cemetery sunken

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copenhagen city center

Amager strandpark kastrup

cph airport1

peberholm

øresundsbridge

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nordhavn refshaleøen

flakfortet

saltholm harbour

pillars in nordskov cemetary

malmø

svanklapperne

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OTHER VOICES

an invitation to others to comment upon the phenomena of diss a p e a r a n c e a n d m e m o r y, t h e q u e s t i o n o n t h e n e x t p a g e w a s t h e question proposed and the replies lie on the following pages 174


Imagine a place, a place wi th a rich cultural heritage and unique nature, somewhat forgotten. Within 100 years this place will be swallowed by the sea, going from being land to sea bed. What would you do with a place like this, save it, let it disappear or celebrate it? *

*

Answer in a media and style that fits you

the answer did not have to refer to Saltholm

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001

Thorbjörn Andersson

Prof. Landscape Architect

Sweco Arkitekter Stockholm

“ To b e g i n w i t h , I w o u l d q u e s t i o n m y o w n p o i n t o f d e p a r ture. Islands and coastlines that are lowlands disappear at many places, maybe it is part of a natural process for which we should show acceptance. Examples are the loederup coast in south west Scania, on a global level the Maldives, and in mythology of course Atlantis. If I, after having made this reflection, still felt that t h e i s l a n d n e e d e d t o b e m e m o r i z e d i n s o m e w a y, I w o u l d p r o b a b l y t r y t o m a k e i t i m m o r t a l i n s o m e w a y. M a y b e try to have someone make a film. Or write a book. Or compose a song. Or arrange a festival. Or all four of them”

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002

Neil Gillespie

Architect

Reiach & Hall Architects Edinburgh

Saltholm [an idea after herman de vries]

Tw o c o n c e n t r i c w a l l s o f c a s t c o n c r e t e a r e b u i l t i n t h e c e n tre of Saltholm The outer wall is 1000 metres in diameter and 3 metres high The inner wall is 500 metres in diameter and 8 metres high

In 100 years the waters of Oresund lap the base of the first wall Saltholm disappears below the waves After 250 years the waters of Oresund spill over the first wall, all perish on the other side After 500 years the waters of Oresund spill over the second wall, only the birds remain But who is there to even care

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003

Beth Gilles

Geographer

Copenhagen University Copenhagen

S e a l e v e l r i s e w i l l a f f e c t m a n y. T h e a r e a m u s t b e p u t i n t o context when determining whether it should be saved or swallowed. ‘Imagine a place, a place with a rich cultural heritage and unique nature, somewhat forgotten’. Small island states within the Pacific Ocean can be seen to fit this criteria. Many of these states seek help and money from developed nations as they attempt to mitigate the effects of rising sea level. These first world nations will mitigate the effects of climate change on their own land before helping others, even though these small nation states will experience the effects of sea level rise and c l i m a t e c h a n g e m o r e i m m i n e n t l y. I t c a n b e s a i d t h a t t o some extent these nations have been forgotten as they are those most in need. These countries must be ‘saved’ as the livelihood of many is at risk. Saltholm can also be termed ‘forgotten’, also experiencing the effects of climate change through sea level rise and it is a grave shame to let this area ‘ d i s a p p e a r ’ . H o w e v e r, i n a n e r a o f i n t e n s e c l i m a t e mitigation, priorities must be made. In my opinion, the coastlines of Denmark must first be adapted to mitigate sea level rise before implementing coastal defence on the almost inhabited island. If the cultural heritage of this island is so significant, letting it disappear does not mean it should be forgotten. In terms of sea level rise, the livelihood and risk of populations must first be addressed before determining if an area of cultural significance can also be saved.

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004

Alf Hornborg

H u m a n E c o l o g y Te a c h e r & A u t h o r o f ‘ G l o b a l M a g i c ’

Lund University Lund

I would enjoy it and document it as much as possible while there is still time - and I would use it as an example of how o u r m o d e r n l i f e s t y l e , p r o p e l l e d b y g e n e r a l - p u r p o s e m o n e y, i s destroying the living world around us.

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005

Mårten Claesson

Architect

Claesson Koivisto Rune Stockholm

Det väcker såklart oro när något ska försvinna. Men om man bortser från den känslan så kan det öppna nya p e r s p e k t i v p å f ö r h å l l n i n g s s ä t t e t t i l l a r k i t e k t u r, a t t p l a t s e n inte skulle finnas kvar om ett sekel. Som arkitekt vill man g ä r n a s ä g a a t t e n s v e r k ä r f ö r m i n s t 1 0 0 å r. ( I t y s t h e t kanske man hoppas på ännu mycket längre!) Men en byggnad som bara ska stå för en kortare tid kan ju tillåtas v a r a m e r e x p e r i m e n t e l l , m e r s p e k t a k u l ä r.

O b v i o u s l y, t h e r e a r e c o n c e r n s w h e n s o m e t h i n g i s g o i n g t o d i s a p p e a r. B u t i f y o u i g n o r e t h a t f e e l i n g , i t c a n o p e n new perspectives on the approach to architecture, that t h e p l a c e w i l l n o t b e l e f t i n a c e n t u r y. A s a n a r c h i t e c t , you would like to say that one's work is for at least 100 years. (In silence you may hope for much more!) But a building that only stands for a shorter period of time may b e a l l o w e d t o b e m o r e e x p e r i m e n t a l , m o r e s p e c t a c u l a r.

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006

Sara Myrdal

Head of EU and International Affairs

Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) Stockholm

D I S A S T E R R I S K R E D U C T I O N I N T H E FA C E O F C L I M AT E CHANGE Climate change is having serious impacts on human development and vital ecosystems around the world. One of the dominant manifestations of climate change is sea-level r i s e , a n o t h e r i s e x t r e m e w e a t h e r. I s l a n d s a r e d e f i n e d b y t h e w a t e r s t h a t s u r r o u n d t h e m . Wa t e r h a s a l w a y s b r o u g h t m a n y benefits, enabling trade and agriculture while supporting h e a l t h a n d g r o w t h . Ye t w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n w a t e r t h r e a t e n s life? Over the coming decades many small islands - like the small Danish island of Saltholm - will suffer from rising sealevels and unprecedented storms and flooding, while others will endure increasing drought and depleted aquifers. What can be done to mitigate the effects of this development how can we build resilience in the face of these challenges? The future of a small, vulnerable, island like Saltholm depends to a large extent on actions taken at the global level. In September 2015 the United Nations General Assembly adopted Agenda 2030, a global plan of action for sustainable development. It consists of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) slated for accomplishment during the 15-year period, 2015–2030. Agenda 2030 recognizes that ecosystem services and biodiversity are crucial for both people and our planet and it sets measurable targets that may be broken and applied at the level of regions, nations and communities. In order to mitigate the impact of climate change on Saltholm the wide range of responsible stakeholders across the region should be engaged in developing a longterm policy for sustainable coastal zone management. This would include a careful mapping of the habitat at Saltholm, including its wet-bodies which may provide important natural protection and possibilities for adaptation for diverse species. Rather than “fighting the water” as sea levels continue to rise, a better strategy may be to let the island “live with the water”. The inherent strength of a unique place like Saltholm, which has managed to resist initiatives for human development for many decades, should be exploited. It may well be that the possibilities of reducing the risks for future disasters and preserving the unique nature of Saltholm would suffer as a result of overly intrusive human measures attempting to fence off water or build up land areas. A more successful approach could be to reinforce natural protection mechanisms, allowing the island to change shape and move around in response to shifting sediments, rather than aiming to reverse the impact of a rising sea level. U l t i m a t e l y, o u r a b i l i t y t o d e s i g n t r u l y s u s t a i n a b l e p r o t e c t i o n strategies for islands like Saltholm will provide a concrete illustration of how successful we can hope to be at healing and securing our planet. 181


007

Lorna Searl

Graphic Designer

Central Saint Martins London

My instant response is believing we interfere with Mother Nature too much and we’re constantly trying to prevent her natural path, which in turn is destroying the our planet. So if this land is swallowed, we’re not losing our rich heritage, rather our rich heritage is turning into another f o r m , a f o r m i n w h i c h s e a l i f e c a n n o w e n j o y.

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008

Dr Kate Smith

Lecturer in Social and Political Science

Edinburgh University

In this current era of neoliberalism, places with a unique nature normally are pressured to homogenise or assimilate, often becoming city museums in the process ( f o r e x a m p l e , c o n s i d e r Ve n i c e ) . M a n y p l a c e s , o n c e d i s t i n c t , a r e n o w s o s i m i l a r, w i t h S t a r b u c k s a n d U r b a n O u t f i t t e r s o n e v e r y c o r n e r. W i t h t h e a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t o f a r i c h cultural heritage then being overlooked can sometimes be a saving grace: the distinctiveness and uniqueness being preserved from consumption and standardisation. However being overlooked to the point of obsolescence poses another problem, one of erosion and erasure. Erosion either from the elements, or from not having enough economic development to e n a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s a n d c o m m u n i t i e s t o p r o s p e r, a n d t h e resultant erasure of the culture and unique ways of life. An example of this would be the Highland Clearances in t h e 1 9 t h C e n t u r y, w h e r e t e n a n t f a r m e r ( c r o f t e r s ) w e r e cleared from their smallholdings and left to subsist on the unowned beaches, neutral churchyards or bogland. Any kind of zoning of pastoralists like this means that they lead a ‘bare life’ (Agamben), where the economic and biological pressures of life dominate and are given priority over the ability to choose how to live or sustaining a culture. History shows us so many examples of rich unique indigenous cultures being either assimilated or destroyed in these ways mentioned above, particularly in t h e a g e o f e m p i r e s . Ve r y o f t e n t h i s e r a s u r e h a p p e n e d i n the name of ‘progress’. So over time there has been an arc of civilisations being eroded and destroyed, with their uniqueness lost to future generations. Like the library of Atlantis, languages are lost; crafts and skills forgotten, ancient knowledges disappear without a trace. This is all the more true when civilisations are considered peripheral to a ‘centre’. Climate-change related catastrophes will considerably increase in the next 100 years, so the idea that islands and their communities will be overtaken by t h e s e a i s n o w a r e a l i t y. M o d e l l i n g h e l p s w i t h p r e d i c t i n g which of these places will be subsumed by the sea, so now is an important moment to consider and plan how these communities and spaces can be preserved. F i r s t l y, t h e r e i s a d i g i t a l s o l u t i o n t o t h i s . T h e l a n d and the environment to consider which can be captured using virtual reality cameras and modelling. There is t h e o r a l h i s t o r y, w h i c h c a n b e r e c o r d e d a n d d o c u m e n t e d . The sounds and smells of a unique area can also be documented; artefacts can be saved and preserved; and the genealogical trajectory of the people can also be recorded. So an interdisciplinary approach of anthropologists, oral and folk historians, musicologists, 184


planners, architectural historians, botanists, zoologists, geographers and software engineers can capture as much of the cultural and natural heritage as possible. But this is a commemoration or facsimile, a poor copy of the original. A preferable alternative then is a physical solution - to try to save the sinking island. This can be done by reclaiming the island from the sea. There are many examples of cities where this has been done and plans are being made already f o r Ve n i c e . B u t a n y s o l u t i o n l i k e t h i s w i l l b e d o g g e d b y t h e socio-cultural-political factors mentioned above. That of being peripheral; of being sparsely populated; of holding little ‘value’ in the prevalent neoliberal ideological mind-set a n d p o l i t i c a l e c o n o m y. I t p o s e s a n i m p o r t a n t a n d r e c u r r i n g question for our immediate future. Are we going to save disappearing cultures or leave them to Darwinian ‘survival of the fittest’ extinction? This is a question that has two parts: h o w a n d w h y. T h e ‘ h o w ’ i s d o w n t o t h e p h y s i c a l l o g i s t i c s of saving an island from being submerged. The ‘why’ is a political question, which may be the more difficult of the two to remedy and this answer now focuses on this element. The politics of saving anything from the sea is afflicted by the idea of individual and collective responsibility of such a liminal space as the sea. That small refugee children from Syria cannot be saved from the Mediterranean because the responsibility for the refugees is passed around nationstates like hot coals does not bode well for saving an entire island. Of course there is a territoriality dimension to an island that there is not for non-citizened displaced people but this may not always help the issue, particularly if the question of whose territory it is, is not well established. The ownership of some islands, for example the Kuril archipelago, is vehemently disputed between Russia and Japan. This dispute may militarise and securitise once the current oil e x p l o r a t i o n s s t r i k e l u c k y. Once the complexities of climate-change denial (as s e e n i n t h e c u r r e n t Tr u m p a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) a r e a d d e d i n t o t h e political mix then it is clear that the saving of islands from rising sea levels is probably best decided by the setting up a governance unit, such as a World Council, sitting within t h e U N a s a u n i t o r a g e n c y. This can be both a centre of expertise and a force sitting above the nation-state level of politicking. A plan and programme of works to rescue islands and communities from the rising sea levels can be developed, with funding from the members of the UN. This governance solution resolves any need for repeatedly making the case for ‘why’ on an individual island basis. It would also build up the expertise, assets and capabilities to progress the knowledge of ‘how’ to save the islands. Although this sounds unlikely this new policy and governance space would attract ‘buy-in’ from many experts, regional communities and

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nation-states. One only needs to look at the success of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for an example of how global issues can be progressed at an intergovernmental level. By addressing the anticipated political and economic issues with the creation of the UN governance unit as outlined above, the saving of our island from the rising sea levels can now be planned and progressed. The digital capture of the rich cultural heritage would also be sought and saved, alongside the rich natural heritage of the island itself, saved from the tide with sea barriers and land infill.

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009

Josep Cayuelas-Mateu

Architect

WERK Arkitekter Copenhagen

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010

Simon Baastrup Sørensen

Student in Journalism

Berlingske Copenhagen

I f I o n e d a y b e c o m e e i t h e r a j o u r n a l i s t o r a w r i t e r, I g u e s s the best thing I can do, is to use my words and speak up. W o r d s a r e p o w e r. I m i g h t n o t b e a b l e t o d o a l o t g i v e n that I have no qualifications regarding the subject. But I have my words, and words make people listen. Landscapes has always been part of literature, d e s e r v e d l y. W h e n y o u o p e n a b o o k , y o u ’ r e s o m e h o w a b l e t o s e e a p l a c e , q u i t e v i v i d l y, e v e n t h o u g h y o u ’ v e n e v e r been there. When you read about a person, a protagonist, the book somehow creates a bridge that allows you to understand that person and therefor feel empathy and see yourself in the reflection of this person. To d a y m a n y D a n i s h w r i t e r s a n d p o e t s u s e t h e i r words to emphasize the necessity of a reorganization o f o u r w a y o f l i v i n g , a s a s o c i e t y. T h e y w r i t e a b o u t t h e ecological crisis, climate changes etc. This is their way to contribute to a better way of living; not just for this generation, but also for all of them to come. I f I ’ m a b l e t o d o t h a t o n e d a y, I ’ d b e r e a l l y p r o u d a n d pleased. As a journalist it’s very important to write about t h e r e a l i t i e s . Ye t , t h e r e ’ s a t e n d e n c y i n t h e w a y m o s t reports create somewhat of a dystopian picture of how the world of today is. Many bad things are happening, o b v i o u s l y, b u t t h e r e ’ s a l s o t o n s o f m a g n i f i c e n t s t u f f g o i n g on out there. Those stories also need to be written and read, so that people don’t think that it’s late. Maybe, a n d h o p e f u l l y, t h a t ’ l l b r i n g b a c k s o m e o f t h a t h o p e t h a t sometimes seems lost.

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011

A n d r e a F u j a r c z u k M B A

Project Distiller

Thames Distillers L o n d o n / To r o n t o

Diverse and culturally rich ecosystems are precious and unique. They should be protected as much as possible so many generations to come can experience the richness it has t o o f f e r. T h e s p e c i a l t h i n g a b o u t t h e s e e c o s y s t e m s i s t h a t i f t h e y d i s a p p e a r, t h e y c a n n e v e r b e e x a c t l y r e c r e a t e d a n d w i l l b e g o n e f o r e v e r. In some ways it's like Grandmas secret family recipe. When you're a kid and your grandmother makes your favourite food the whole experience is unique: the smell of the house, the cutlery and serving bowls, your favourite chair next to grandma. All these factors create an incredible atmosphere, but the thing to remember about this is that only grandma can c r e a t e t h i s s p e c i a l m o m e n t . Yo u c a n u s e t h e s a m e r e c i p e , use grandmas bowls, sit in the same chair and maybe even cook in the same house, but for some reason you can never recreate it the exact same way grandma does. Because its something only Grandma can do. Diverse and culturally rich ecosystems are in a similar situation to that of Grandmas home-cooking. It can be recreated, but its only the exact same if its the original. Scientists can replant the flora and fauna and the cultural artifacts can be imposed in a new area but they will never t h r i v e t h e s a m e w a y. O n c e p l a c e s l i k e t h e s e d i s a p p e a r, f u t u r e generations will lose the opportunity to learn from it, observe i t , a n d e n j o y i t s b e a u t y. A n d i f o r o n e t h i n k i f w e c a n a v o i d losing incredible places like this, we should.

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012

Phemie Gillespie

Te x t i l e D e s i g n e r

PEM clothing Edinburgh

In today’s society we are surrounded by social media. The younger generations have never lived without it. They have grown up with capturing and sharing their lives. People use for it for communication and telling the e v e r y d a y, t o m a j o r l i f e e v e n t s . C r e a t i n g a s t o r y o f t h e i r life, a timeline displayed on social media. Were you really in Sketch London if you didn't take a picture beside the pod shaped toilets? Perfectly position your shots so it look like you are touching the top of the L o u v r e ? Ta k e a p i c t u r e r u b b i n g G r e y f r i a r s B o b b y ’ s n o s e f o r g o o d l u c k ? To u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s b r i n g h o a r d s o f p e o p l e t o v i s i t t h e m e v e r y d a y. P e o p l e t a k e p h o t o s c a p t u r i n g a key moment of their lives to show that they were there. These images are often shared on social media, creating a buzz making others want to visit. Recently an image of a seahorse clutching a cotton bud flooded social media news feeds. This brought to world’s attention to plastic pollution in the sea. Raising the question of how we can reduce our plastic waste and what governments are doing to reduce plastic pollution. My answer to the question would be to create a destination on the island where people would want to t r a v e l t o b e f o r e i t d i s a p p e a r s . To c a p t u r e a m o m e n t i n time that in 100 years will no longer be there. Instead of building more manmade structures on a delicate ecosystem. I would add to the man made structures already situated on the island by covering them in pattern using imagery from the island itself. I have always loved graffiti and urban wall art. By creating a destination where people will take photos and post on social media will in turn attract more people, therefore exploiting social media as a tool to educate people. Educating them on how we can save places in the future and changing our behaviour to cause less damage to the environment, as well as teaching the island rich cultural heritage. As time passes there will only be the photos left of the island with it’s houses covered in pattern and the people who have visited capturing themselves in a slice of history before it disappears.

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Phemie Gillespie (2018)

Phemie Gillespie (2018) 191


013

N a t a s h a To d d

Artist

Edinburgh

I would love to interact with Saltholm before it disappeared. To h i g h l i g h t i t ’ s s u b t l e g l o r y b e f o r e i t b e c o m e s u b m e r g e d by the sea. I would spend some time on the island, gathering information and indications of the islands from the natural to man made structures, colour palette, smells and feeling. Once I had captured the essence of Saltholm I would create a painting inspired by the island. As the landscape on Saltholm consists of meadowlands I would reflect my painting in the landscape by mowing my geometric patterns into the grass. My interpretation of Saltholm would be imposed onto the island but importantly the island would continue uninhabited and free of human interaction, a nod to its strength and previous uses “when people needed it the most.” Skønneste områder is my scandivian inspired series. Nyhavn [Dusk] was directly inspired by the Nyhavn district in Copenghan. I visited Copenhagen in December when the area was cold and had a mysterious air about it. I was struck by the structural strength of the boat masts that cast vertical and diagonal lines against the narrow residential architecture. The symmetry in Nyhavn [Dusk] is a direct influence of this juxtaposition. The eye and hand drawn symmetry in the piece illustrates this. Nørreport is influenced by the Nørreport station in Copenhagen. This piece is influenced more by the people as they gather and move through the area as opposed to the architecture. I wanted to create two pieces that c o n v e y e d m y j o u r n e y a s I w a n d e r e d t h r o u g h t h e c i t y. N a t a s h a To d d - A r t i s t

Nyhavn [Dusk] - Natasha Todd 192

Nørreport - Natasha Todd


014

Emma Åstrand

W o r k s a s a t r a n s l a t o r, l e c t u r e r a n d e d i t o r

M a s t e r o f T h e o r e t i c a l P h i l o s o p h y, S t o c k h o l m u n i v e r s i t y Stockholm

T h i s s e e m s t o a c t u a l l y b e a n o n t o l o g i c a l q u e r y. W h a t exists, and what does not? When does something exist, and when does it cease to? (And to elaborate: how do w e e v e n k n o w i t e x i s t s i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e ? ) Yo u d e s c r i b e the place as “somewhat forgotten”. Does that mean that people no longer visit it? All physical objects exist in the aspect that they are tied to a spatial and temporal point – that is, they belong to a time and a place. Hence we can talk about existence on several levels: something c a n e x i s t n o w, i t m a y h a v e e x i s t e d , o r i t m a y c o m e t o b e . This place will cease to exist in the way it now exists within a hundred years, but does that necessarily mean that it ceases to exist all together? Does it not continue to be, albeit under water? If that is the case: should we consider the place gobbled up, or has it changed its qualities all together? The coordinates for the place still e x i s t , s o I v o t e f o r t h e s e c o n d o p t i o n . Yo u t a l k a b o u t qualities such as “rich cultural heritage” and “unique nature”. The latter will of course have changed within hundred years, considering it will turn into a sea bed, but the first will still be the case since it is a quality we have chosen to ascribe to the place. This bring us to a second query: to what extent does the place exist today? If it is somewhat forgotten and nobody visit, can we then claim its existence? That is: if no one perceives it – does it then exist? Does it e x i s t f u n d a m e n t a l l y, o n i t s o w n a c c o r d ? I d o u b t i t . W e have already stated that since the place we are talking about is a physical object, it has to be connected to a spatiotemporal moment. That then means that we are not talking about a logical concept – such as for example a n u m b e r, s a y 1 3 5 , w h i c h e x i s t s i n i t s l o g i c a l s i m p l i c i t y ( a s a n e c e s s i t y, o n e m i g h t a r g u e ) n o m a t t e r i f w e p e r c e i v e it or not, and no matter it is lacking a spatiotemporal moment. In conclusion: your question merely makes up for further questions. Questions that are bigger than this specific place. Queries concerning what is and what is not and whether we allow change and redefinitions within these framing of existence or if we then would have to d e a l w i t h a n e w e n t i t y a l l t o g e t h e r. H e n c e : s h o u l d w e define existence as a matter of qualities, or are the qualities only an addition to the (fundamental) existence in itself?

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015

Gareth Doherty DDes, ASLA

Harvard University Design School Director of the Master in Landscape Architecture Program

Boston

I have encountered similar issues with a research project I've been working on in The Bahamas, and specifically the Exuma archipelago. There, over 30% of the islands' land mass is predicted to be under sea-level in thirty years. My personal view is that there are some low-cost and highimpact strategies that can be employed in the short term to mitigate the impacts of sea-level rise and climate change, such as planting along the coastlines, etc. In the end, given limitations on the resources required to fight the sea, it will become necessary to see the sea as a friend. A change in attitude will be essential, welcoming new ways of living, farming and working with the sea. We need to welcome the sea's presence and imagine new ways of living. We must accept that culture keeps changing and, as such, welcome new beginnings rather than holding on to past imaginaries that become harder and harder to hold on to.

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016

Dan Stockmann

F r e q u e n t V i s i t o r To S a l t h o l m

Copenhagen

Med hensyn til jeres betragtning om øen vil blive opslugt a f h a v e t , h a r j e g i n g e n b e t æ n k e l i g h e d e r. N e t o p S a l t h o l m rummer så megen historie, at mindet om den, aldrig vil forsvinde. Minder som fra tid til anden vil dukke frem. Dette vil også ske, når øen om føje år bliver oversvømmet. Den vil aldrig forsvinde. Se bare Klaus Mønsted Pedersen bog om Philpsens Saltholm. Philipsen døde for godt 100 år siden, men hans billeder lever stadig videre! Da jeg var ung knægt, og gik rundt på øen, forestillede jeg mig, at hvis jeg vadede ud i vandet på Svaneklapperne - og fortsatte på havbunden mod syd - ville jeg først komme op i det daværende Østtyskland. Jeg ville kortvarigt blive s t o p p e t a f Ø r e s u n d s b r o e n p y l o n e r, s o m m i t b l i k b l i v e r d e t , når jeg ser mod syd. Men det vil ikke bremse. Jeg kunne gå uden om, og fortsætte ! Sådan vil minderne om Saltholm altid bestå ! Måske blive bremset, men aldrig stoppet ! Venlig hilsen DAN

With regard to your consideration if the island will be absorbed by the sea, I have no concerns. Saltholm holds so m u c h h i s t o r y t h a t t h e m e m o r y o f i t w i l l n e v e r d i s a p p e a r. L e s s t h a t f r o m t i m e t o t i m e w i l l a p p e a r. T h i s w i l l a l s o h a p p e n w h e n t h e i s l a n d i s f l o o d e d . I t w i l l n e v e r d i s a p p e a r. J u s t l o o k a t Klaus Mønsted Pedersen's book about Philpsen's Saltholm. Philipsen dieWd just over 100 years ago, but his pictures are still alive! When I was young boy and walked around the island, I imagined that if I waded into the water on the ‘Svaneklapperne’ - and continued on the seabed to the south - I would first come up t o E a s t G e r m a n y. I w o u l d s o o n b e s t o p p e d b y t h e Ø r e s u n d Bridge pylons, as my eyes become when I look south. But it will not slow down. I could go over and continue! Such will the memories of Saltholm always pass! Maybe get slowed, but never stopped!

Sincerely

DAN 195


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9.

THE JOURNEY ENDS HERE GONE BUT NOT FORGOTTEN

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epilogue When the water arrives let Mother Nature put her arms around you. We are 100 years in the future and our story has reached its climax. The sound is here to claim you. This low lying island is slowly being swallowed by the sound. The waters lap around the vertical elements, t h e t r e e s b e g i n t o f a l l a n d t h e b u i l d i n g s d e c a y. In not saving Saltholm we allow dialectic about the phenomena o f c l i m a t e c h a n g e a n d l o s s o f c u l t u r a l m e m o r y, a c o n s e q u e n c e o f human actions. This story has been a poetic transposition of the meaning of ‘life’ and the relationship between man and nature and nature and culture. The sleeping giant groans and Mother Nature takes her in. Once the island is swallowed by the sound it begins a new life, a life c l e a n o f t h e ‘ a g e o f h u m a n s ’ , n a t u r e t a k e s o v e r. T h e r e e f l i f e t h r i v e s . T h e w a t e r b e g i n s t o f l o w, f o l l o w e d b y t h e fish and all the other water animals, the water flows in. H e r p a s t l i v e s o n i n a r t a n d m e m o r y, b u t i t i s n o t s t a t i c : i t shifts and changes, as the present throws its shadow backwards. T h e l a n d s c a p e c h a n g e s , s l o w l y b u t s u r e l y, i t i s a l i v i n g l i n k b e t w e e n what we were and what we have become. The greatest stories ever told function as a reflection on the world we live in, of both the goodness and evil and this story does not differ This story is not only about the island of Saltholm but a testament to a phenomenon, to societal actions, to political agendas, to art, to science, to nature told through the eyes of landscape architects. A blend of architecture, music, nature and culture, till death do us part.

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Hello goodbye Saltholm


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Profile for Swallowed by the sound

Saltholm - Swallowed by the Sound - Ludvig Bratt + Calum Mitchell  

The project is an investigation into the little known island of Saltholm. Saltholm is the 21st largest island in Denmark – the kingdom of is...

Saltholm - Swallowed by the Sound - Ludvig Bratt + Calum Mitchell  

The project is an investigation into the little known island of Saltholm. Saltholm is the 21st largest island in Denmark – the kingdom of is...

Profile for calumtmm
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